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Sample records for enhanced social memory

  1. Social Relevance Enhances Memory for Impressions in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Brittany S.; Gutchess, Angela H.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that older adults have difficulty retrieving contextual material over items alone. Recent research suggests this deficit can be reduced by adding emotional context, allowing for the possibility that memory for social impressions may show less age-related decline than memory for other types of contextual information. Two studies investigated how orienting to social or self-relevant aspects of information contributed to the learning and retrieval of impressions in young and older adults. Participants encoded impressions of others in conditions varying in the use of self-reference (Experiment 1) and interpersonal meaningfulness (Experiment 2), and completed memory tasks requiring the retrieval of specific traits. For both experiments, age groups remembered similar numbers of impressions. In Experiment 1, using more self-relevant encoding contexts increased memory for impressions over orienting to stimuli in a non-social way, regardless of age. In Experiment 2, older adults had enhanced memory for impressions presented in an interpersonally meaningful relative to a personally irrelevant way, whereas young adults were unaffected by this manipulation. The results provide evidence that increasing social relevance ameliorates age differences in memory for impressions, and enhances older adults’ ability to successfully retrieve contextual information. PMID:22364168

  2. Targeted activation of the hippocampal CA2 area strongly enhances social memory.

    PubMed

    Smith, A S; Williams Avram, S K; Cymerblit-Sabba, A; Song, J; Young, W S

    2016-08-01

    Social cognition enables individuals to understand others' intentions. Social memory is a necessary component of this process, for without it, subsequent encounters are devoid of any historical information. The CA2 area of the hippocampus, particularly the vasopressin 1b receptor (Avpr1b) expressed there, is necessary for memory formation. We used optogenetics to excite vasopressin terminals, originating from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, in the CA2 of mice. This markedly enhanced their social memory if the stimulation occurred during memory acquisition, but not retrieval. This effect was blocked by an Avpr1b antagonist. Finally, this enhanced memory is resistant to the social distraction of an introduced second mouse, important for socially navigating populations of individuals. Our results indicate the CA2 can increase the salience of social signals. Targeted pharmacotherapy with Avpr1b agonists or deep brain stimulation of the CA2 are potential avenues of treatment for those with declining social memory as in various dementias. PMID:26728562

  3. Targeted activation of the hippocampal CA2 area strongly enhances social memory

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Adam S.; Williams Avram, Sarah K.; Cymerblit-Sabba, Adi; Song, June; Young, W. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Social cognition enables individuals to understand others’ intentions. Social memory is a necessary component of this process, for without it, subsequent encounters are devoid of any historical information. The CA2 area of the hippocampus, particularly the vasopressin 1b receptor (Avpr1b) expressed there, is necessary for memory formation. We used optogenetics to excite vasopressin terminals, originating from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, in the CA2 of mice. This markedly enhanced their social memory if the stimulation occurred during memory acquisition, but not retrieval. This effect was blocked by a Avpr1b antagonist. Finally, this enhanced memory is resistant to the social distraction of an introduced second mouse, important for socially navigating populations of individuals. Our results indicate the CA2 can increase the salience of social signals. Targeted pharmacotherapy with Avpr1b agonists or deep brain stimulation of the CA2 are potential avenues of treatment for those with declining social memory as in various dementias. PMID:26728562

  4. Importance of the GluN2B Carboxy-Terminal Domain for Enhancement of Social Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Stephanie; Wei, Wei; Wang, Deheng; Tsien, Joe Z.

    2015-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is known to be necessary for many forms of learning and memory, including social recognition memory. Additionally, the GluN2 subunits are known to modulate multiple forms of memory, with a high GluN2A:GluN2B ratio leading to impairments in long-term memory, while a low GluN2A:GluN2B ratio enhances some…

  5. Modulation of glycine sites enhances social memory in rats using PQQ combined with d-serine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xingqin; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Rongjun; Peng, Ying; Qin, Xiaofeng; Mao, Shishi

    2016-07-15

    The aim of study was to investigate the effects of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) combined with d-serine on the modulation of glycine sites in the brain of rats using social recognition test. Rats were divided into seven groups (n=10) and given repeated intraperitoneal (ip) injections of saline, MK-801 (0.5mg/kg), clozapine (1mg/kg), haloperidol (0.1mg/kg), d-serine (0.8g/kg), PQQ (2.0μg/kg), or d-serine (0.4g/kg) combined with PQQ (1.0μg/kg) for seven days. A social recognition test, including assessment of time-dependent memory impairment, was performed. A non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, significantly impaired social memory, and this impairment was significantly repaired with an atypical antipsychotic (clozapine) but not with a typical antipsychotic (haloperidol). Likewise, d-serine combined with PQQ significantly improved MK-801-disrupted cognition in naïve rats, whereas haloperidol was ineffective. The present results show that the co-agonist NMDA receptor treated with PQQ and d-serine enhances social memory and may be an effective approach for treating the cognitive dysfunction observed in schizophrenic patients. PQQ stimulates glycine modulatory sites by which it may antagonize indirectly by removing glycine from the synaptic cleft or by binding the unsaturated site with d-serine in the brain, providing the insights into future research of central nervous system and drug discovery. PMID:27109337

  6. Enhanced Old-New Recognition and Source Memory for Faces of Cooperators and Defectors in a Social-Dilemma Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel; Musch, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    A popular assumption in evolutionary psychology is that the human mind comprises specialized cognitive modules for social exchange, including a module that serves to enhance memory for faces of cheaters. In the present study, participants played a trust game with computerized opponents, who either defected or cooperated. In a control condition, no…

  7. Working memory capacity in generalized social phobia.

    PubMed

    Amir, Nader; Bomyea, Jessica

    2011-05-01

    Research suggests that understanding complex social cues depends on the availability of cognitive resources (e.g., Phillips, Channon, Tunstall, Hedenstrom, & Lyons, 2008). In spite of evidence suggesting that executive control functioning may impact anxiety (e.g., Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), relatively few studies have examined working memory in individuals with generalized social phobia. Moreover, few studies have examined the role of threat-relevant content in working memory performance in clinically anxious populations. To this end, the present study assessed working memory capacity (WMC) in individuals with generalized social phobia and nonanxious controls using an operation span task with threat-relevant and neutral stimuli. Results revealed that nonanxious individuals demonstrated better WMC than individuals with generalized social phobia for neutral words but not for social threat words. Individuals with generalized social phobia demonstrated better WMC performance for threat words relative to neutral words. These results suggest that individuals with generalized social phobia may have relatively enhanced working memory performance for salient, socially relevant information. This enhanced working memory capacity for threat-relevant information may be the result of practice with this information in generalized social phobia. PMID:21381805

  8. Dynorphins regulate the strength of social memory.

    PubMed

    Bilkei-Gorzo, A; Mauer, D; Michel, K; Zimmer, A

    2014-02-01

    Emotionally arousing events like encounter with an unfamiliar con-species produce strong and vivid memories, whereby the hippocampus and amygdala play a crucial role. It is less understood, however, which neurotransmitter systems regulate the strength of social memories, which have a strong emotional component. It was shown previously that dynorphin signalling is involved in the formation and extinction of fear memories, therefore we asked if it influences social memories as well. Mice with a genetic deletion of the prodynorphin gene Pdyn (Pdyn(-/-)) showed a superior partner recognition ability, whereas their performance in the object recognition test was identical as in wild-type mice. Pharmacological blockade of kappa opioid receptors (KORs) led to an enhanced social memory in wild-type animals, whereas activation of KORs reduced the recognition ability of Pdyn(-/-) mice. Partner recognition test situation induced higher elevation in dynorphin A levels in the central and basolateral amygdala as well as in the hippocampus, and also higher dynorphin B levels in the hippocampus than the object recognition test situation. Our result suggests that dynorphin system activity is increased in emotionally arousing situation and it decreases the formation of social memories. Thus, dynorphin signalling is involved in the formation of social memories by diminishing the emotional component of the experience. PMID:24184385

  9. Working memory capacity in Generalized Social Phobia

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Nader; Bomyea, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that understanding complex social cues depends on the availability of cognitive resources (e.g., Phillips, Channon, Tunstall, Hedenstrom, & Lyons, 2008). In spite of evidence suggesting that executive control functioning may impact anxiety (e.g., Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), relatively few studies have examined working memory in individuals with Generalized Social Phobia (GSP). Moreover, few studies have examined the role of threat-relevant content in working memory performance in clinically anxious populations. To this end, the present study assessed working memory capacity (WMC) in individuals with Generalized Social Phobia and non-anxious controls using an Operation Span task using threat relevant and neutral stimuli. Results revealed that non-anxious individuals demonstrated better WMC than individuals with GSP for neutral words, but not for social threat words. Individuals with GSP demonstrated better WMC performance for threat words relative to neutral words. These results suggest that individuals with GSP may have relatively enhanced working memory performance for salient, socially-relevant information. This enhanced working memory capacity for threat relevant information may be the result of practice with this information in GSP. PMID:21381805

  10. Sleep Enhances Explicit Recollection in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drosopoulos, Spyridon; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Recognition memory is considered to be supported by two different memory processes, i.e., the explicit recollection of information about a previous event and an implicit process of recognition based on a contextual sense of familiarity. Both types of memory supposedly rely on distinct memory systems. Sleep is known to enhance the consolidation of…

  11. Autobiographical memory bias in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Krans, Julie; de Bree, June; Bryant, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    In social anxiety the psychological self is closely related to the feared stimulus. Socially anxious individuals are, by definition, concerned about how the self is perceived and evaluated by others. As autobiographical memory is strongly related to views of the self it follows that biases in autobiographical memory play an important role in social anxiety. In the present study high (n = 19) and low (n = 29) socially anxious individuals were compared on autobiographical memory bias, current goals, and self-discrepancy. Individuals high in social anxiety showed a bias towards recalling more negative and more social anxiety-related autobiographical memories, reported more current goals related to overcoming social anxiety, and showed larger self-discrepancies. The pattern of results is largely in line with earlier research in individuals with PTSD and complicated grief. This suggests that the relation between autobiographical memory bias and the self is a potentially valuable trans-diagnostic factor. PMID:24111655

  12. Stochastic memory: Memory enhancement due to noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotland, Alexander; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    There are certain classes of resistors, capacitors, and inductors that, when subject to a periodic input of appropriate frequency, develop hysteresis loops in their characteristic response. Here we show that the hysteresis of such memory elements can also be induced by white noise of appropriate intensity even at very low frequencies of the external driving field. We illustrate this phenomenon using a physical model of memory resistor realized by TiO2 thin films sandwiched between metallic electrodes and discuss under which conditions this effect can be observed experimentally. We also discuss its implications on existing memory systems described in the literature and the role of colored noise.

  13. CB1 receptor signaling regulates social anxiety and memory.

    PubMed

    Litvin, Y; Phan, A; Hill, M N; Pfaff, D W; McEwen, B S

    2013-07-01

    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system regulates emotion, stress, memory and cognition through the cannabinoid type 1 (CB1 ) receptor. To test the role of CB1 signaling in social anxiety and memory, we utilized a genetic knockout (KO) and a pharmacological approach. Specifically, we assessed the effects of a constitutive KO of CB1 receptors (CB1 KOs) and systemic administration of a CB1 antagonist (AM251; 5 mg/kg) on social anxiety in a social investigation paradigm and social memory in a social discrimination test. Results showed that when compared with wild-type (WT) and vehicle-treated animals, CB1 KOs and WT animals that received an acute dose of AM251 displayed anxiety-like behaviors toward a novel male conspecific. When compared with WT animals, KOs showed both active and passive defensive coping behaviors, i.e. elevated avoidance, freezing and risk-assessment behaviors, all consistent with an anxiety-like profile. Animals that received acute doses of AM251 also showed an anxiety-like profile when compared with vehicle-treated animals, yet did not show an active coping strategy, i.e. changes in risk-assessment behaviors. In the social discrimination test, CB1 KOs and animals that received the CB1 antagonist showed enhanced levels of social memory relative to their respective controls. These results clearly implicate CB1 receptors in the regulation of social anxiety, memory and arousal. The elevated arousal/anxiety resulting from either total CB1 deletion or an acute CB1 blockade may promote enhanced social discrimination/memory. These findings may emphasize the role of the eCB system in anxiety and memory to affect social behavior. PMID:23647582

  14. Anomalous diffusion induced by enhancement of memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo

    2014-07-01

    We introduced simple microscopic non-Markovian walk models which describe the underlying mechanism of anomalous diffusions. In the models, we considered the competitions between randomness and memory effects of previous history by introducing the probability parameters. The memory effects were considered in two aspects: one is the perfect memory of whole history and the other is the latest memory enhanced with time. In the perfect memory model superdiffusion was induced with the relation of the Hurst exponent H to the controlling parameter p as H =p for p >1/2, while in the latest memory enhancement models, anomalous diffusions involving both superdiffusion and subdiffusion were induced with the relations H =(1+α)/2 and H =(1-α)/2 for 0≤α≤1, where α is the parameter controlling the degree of the latest memory enhancement. Also we found that, although the latest memory was only considered, the memory improved with time results in the long-range correlations between steps and the correlations increase as time goes on. Thus we suggest the memory enhancement as a key origin describing anomalous diffusions.

  15. Arousal-Enhanced Location Memory for Pictures

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Mara; Nesmith, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments revealed arousal-enhanced location memory for pictures. After an incidental encoding task, participants were more likely to remember the locations of positive and negative arousing pictures than the locations of non-arousing pictures, indicating better binding of location to picture. This arousal-enhanced binding effect did not have a cost for the binding of nearby pictures to their locations. Thus, arousal can enhance binding of an arousing picture’s content to its location without interfering with picture-location binding for nearby pictures. In addition, arousal-enhanced picture-location memory binding is not just a side effect of enhanced memory for the picture itself, as it occurs both when recognition memory is good and when it is poor. PMID:19190722

  16. The lasting memory enhancements of retrospective attention.

    PubMed

    Reaves, Sarah; Strunk, Jonathan; Phillips, Shekinah; Verhaeghen, Paul; Duarte, Audrey

    2016-07-01

    Behavioral research has shown that spatial cues that orient attention toward task relevant items being maintained in visual short-term memory (VSTM) enhance item memory accuracy. However, it is unknown if these retrospective attentional cues ("retro-cues") enhance memory beyond typical short-term memory delays. It is also unknown whether retro-cues affect the spatial information associated with VSTM representations. Emerging evidence suggests that processes that affect short-term memory maintenance may also affect long-term memory (LTM) but little work has investigated the role of attention in LTM. In the current event-related potential (ERP) study, we investigated the duration of retrospective attention effects and the impact of retrospective attention manipulations on VSTM representations. Results revealed that retro-cueing improved both VSTM and LTM memory accuracy and that posterior maximal ERPs observed during VSTM maintenance predicted subsequent LTM performance. N2pc ERPs associated with attentional selection were attenuated by retro-cueing suggesting that retrospective attention may disrupt maintenance of spatial configural information in VSTM. Collectively, these findings suggest that retrospective attention can alter the structure of memory representations, which impacts memory performance beyond short-term memory delays. PMID:27038756

  17. Accounting for Immediate Emotional Memory Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talmi, Deborah; McGarry, Lucy M.

    2012-01-01

    Memory for emotional events is usually very good even when tested shortly after study, before it is altered by the influence of emotional arousal on consolidation. Immediate emotion-enhanced memory may stem from the influence of emotion on cognitive processes at encoding and retrieval. Our goal was to test which cognitive factors are necessary and…

  18. Does stress enhance or impair memory consolidation?

    PubMed

    Trammell, Janet P; Clore, Gerald L

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments examined the hypothesis that stress-induced arousal enhances long-term memory for experiences associated with arousing events. Contrary to expectations, in each experiment exposure to a stressor (arm immersion in ice water) interfered with, rather than enhanced, long-term memory for associated material. Despite varying the stimuli (words, pictures), their emotional value (positive, negative, neutral), the time between learning and stress inductions (0 to 1 minute), and opportunities for post-learning rehearsal, each experiment produced a significant reversal of the hypothesised effect. That is, in each experiment, exposure to a stressor interfered with, rather than enhanced, long-term memory for associated material. We conclude that the relationship between stress and memory consolidation is more bounded than previously believed. PMID:23895111

  19. Does Stress Enhance or Impair Memory Consolidation?

    PubMed Central

    Trammell, Janet P.; Clore, Gerald L.

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments examined the hypothesis that stress-induced arousal enhances long term memory for experiences associated with an arousing events. Contrary to expectations, in each experiment exposure to a stressor (arm immersion in ice water) interfered with, rather than enhanced, long term memory for associated material. Despite varying the stimuli (words, pictures), their emotional value (positive, negative, neutral), the time between learning and stress inductions (0 to 1 minute), and opportunities for post-learning rehearsal, each experiment produced a significant reversal of the hypothesized effect. That is, in each experiment, exposure to a stressor interfered with, rather than enhanced, long term memory for associated material. We conclude that the relationship between stress and memory consolidation is more bounded than previously believed. PMID:23895111

  20. Arousal-Enhanced Location Memory for Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Mara; Nesmith, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments revealed arousal-enhanced location memory for pictures. After an incidental encoding task, participants were more likely to remember the locations of positive and negative arousing pictures than the locations of non-arousing pictures, indicating better binding of location to picture. This arousal-enhanced binding effect did not…

  1. Social Memory of Preschool Girls and Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etaugh, Claire; Whittler, Tommy E.

    1982-01-01

    Compared recognition and recall tests of retention in two studies of social memory in preschoolers (N=80). Children were asked to identify pictures of classmates or point to a picture as the experimenter said a child's name. In both experiments, no sex differences were found in the number of correct identifications. (Author/JAC)

  2. Dynamics of social contagions with memory of nonredundant information.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Tang, Ming; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-07-01

    A key ingredient in social contagion dynamics is reinforcement, as adopting a certain social behavior requires verification of its credibility and legitimacy. Memory of nonredundant information plays an important role in reinforcement, which so far has eluded theoretical analysis. We first propose a general social contagion model with reinforcement derived from nonredundant information memory. Then, we develop a unified edge-based compartmental theory to analyze this model, and a remarkable agreement with numerics is obtained on some specific models. We use a spreading threshold model as a specific example to understand the memory effect, in which each individual adopts a social behavior only when the cumulative pieces of information that the individual received from his or her neighbors exceeds an adoption threshold. Through analysis and numerical simulations, we find that the memory characteristic markedly affects the dynamics as quantified by the final adoption size. Strikingly, we uncover a transition phenomenon in which the dependence of the final adoption size on some key parameters, such as the transmission probability, can change from being discontinuous to being continuous. The transition can be triggered by proper parameters and structural perturbations to the system, such as decreasing individuals' adoption threshold, increasing initial seed size, or enhancing the network heterogeneity. PMID:26274238

  3. Dynamics of social contagions with memory of nonredundant information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Tang, Ming; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-07-01

    A key ingredient in social contagion dynamics is reinforcement, as adopting a certain social behavior requires verification of its credibility and legitimacy. Memory of nonredundant information plays an important role in reinforcement, which so far has eluded theoretical analysis. We first propose a general social contagion model with reinforcement derived from nonredundant information memory. Then, we develop a unified edge-based compartmental theory to analyze this model, and a remarkable agreement with numerics is obtained on some specific models. We use a spreading threshold model as a specific example to understand the memory effect, in which each individual adopts a social behavior only when the cumulative pieces of information that the individual received from his or her neighbors exceeds an adoption threshold. Through analysis and numerical simulations, we find that the memory characteristic markedly affects the dynamics as quantified by the final adoption size. Strikingly, we uncover a transition phenomenon in which the dependence of the final adoption size on some key parameters, such as the transmission probability, can change from being discontinuous to being continuous. The transition can be triggered by proper parameters and structural perturbations to the system, such as decreasing individuals' adoption threshold, increasing initial seed size, or enhancing the network heterogeneity.

  4. Stress enhances reconsolidation of declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Bos, Marieke G N; Schuijer, Jantien; Lodestijn, Fleur; Beckers, Tom; Kindt, Merel

    2014-08-01

    Retrieval of negative emotional memories is often accompanied by the experience of stress. Upon retrieval, a memory trace can temporarily return into a labile state, where it is vulnerable to change. An unresolved question is whether post-retrieval stress may affect the strength of declarative memory in humans by modulating the reconsolidation process. Here, we tested in two experiments whether post-reactivation stress may affect the strength of declarative memory in humans. In both experiments, participants were instructed to learn neutral, positive and negative words. Approximately 24h later, participants received a reminder of the word list followed by exposure to the social evaluative cold pressor task (reactivation/stress group, nexp1=20; nexp2=18) or control task (reactivation/no-stress group, nexp1=23; nexp2=18). An additional control group was solely exposed to the stress task, without memory reactivation (no-reactivation/stress group, nexp1=23; nexp2=21). The next day, memory performance was tested using a free recall and a recognition task. In the first experiment we showed that participants in the reactivation/stress group recalled more words than participants in the reactivation/no-stress and no-reactivation/stress group, irrespective of valence of the word stimuli. Furthermore, participants in the reactivation/stress group made more false recognition errors. In the second experiment we replicated our observations on the free recall task for a new set of word stimuli, but we did not find any differences in false recognition. The current findings indicate that post-reactivation stress can improve declarative memory performance by modulating the process of reconsolidation. This finding contributes to our understanding why some memories are more persistent than others. PMID:24882163

  5. Distributed Learning Enhances Relational Memory Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litman, Leib; Davachi, Lila

    2008-01-01

    It has long been known that distributed learning (DL) provides a mnemonic advantage over massed learning (ML). However, the underlying mechanisms that drive this robust mnemonic effect remain largely unknown. In two experiments, we show that DL across a 24 hr interval does not enhance immediate memory performance but instead slows the rate of…

  6. Adaptive memory: enhanced location memory after survival processing.

    PubMed

    Nairne, James S; Vanarsdall, Joshua E; Pandeirada, Josefa N S; Blunt, Janell R

    2012-03-01

    Two experiments investigated whether survival processing enhances memory for location. From an adaptive perspective, remembering that food has been located in a particular area, or that potential predators are likely to be found in a given territory, should increase the chances of subsequent survival. Participants were shown pictures of food or animals located at various positions on a computer screen. The task was to rate the ease of collecting the food or capturing the animals relative to a central fixation point. Surprise retention tests revealed that people remembered the locations of the items better when the collection or capturing task was described as relevant to survival. These data extend the generality of survival processing advantages to a new domain (location memory) by means of a task that does not involve rating the relevance of words to a scenario. PMID:22004268

  7. Memory for Pro-Social Intentions: When Competing Motives Collide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandimonte, Maria A.; Ferrante, Donatella; Bianco, Carmela; Villani, Maria Grazia

    2010-01-01

    Memory for future actions, or "prospective memory" (PM), often involves remembering to do things "for others". The present article explores the motivational mechanisms underlying memory for pro-social intentions through the manipulation of the social relevance of goals and presence of material rewards during an activity-based PM task. Results…

  8. Enhancing Multiphoton Rates with Quantum Memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, J.; Langford, N. K.; Kolthammer, W. S.; Champion, T. F. M.; Sprague, M. R.; Michelberger, P. S.; Jin, X.-M.; England, D. G.; Walmsley, I. A.

    2013-03-01

    Single photons are a vital resource for optical quantum information processing. Efficient and deterministic single photon sources do not yet exist, however. To date, experimental demonstrations of quantum processing primitives have been implemented using nondeterministic sources combined with heralding and/or postselection. Unfortunately, even for eight photons, the data rates are already so low as to make most experiments impracticable. It is well known that quantum memories, capable of storing photons until they are needed, are a potential solution to this “scaling catastrophe.” Here, we analyze in detail the benefits of quantum memories for producing multiphoton states, showing how the production rates can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude. We identify the quantity ηB as the most important figure of merit in this connection, where η and B are the efficiency and time-bandwidth product of the memories, respectively.

  9. Sleep enhances memory consolidation in children.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Anna; Hill, Catherine M; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dimitriou, Dagmara

    2014-06-01

    Sleep is an active state that plays an important role in the consolidation of memory. It has been found to enhance explicit memories in both adults and children. However, in contrast to adults, children do not always show a sleep-related improvement in implicit learning. The majority of research on sleep-dependent memory consolidation focuses on adults; hence, the current study examined sleep-related effects on two tasks in children. Thirty-three typically developing children aged 6-12 years took part in the study. Actigraphy was used to monitor sleep. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation was assessed using a novel non-word learning task and the Tower of Hanoi cognitive puzzle, which involves discovering an underlying rule to aid completion. Children were trained on the two tasks and retested following approximately equal retention intervals of both wake and sleep. After sleep, children showed significant improvements in performance of 14% on the non-word learning task and 25% on the Tower of Hanoi task, but no significant change in score following the wake retention interval. Improved performance on the Tower of Hanoi may have been due to children consolidating explicit aspects of the task, for example rule-learning or memory of previous sequences; thus, we propose that sleep is necessary for consolidation of explicit memory in children. Sleep quality and duration were not related to children's task performance. If such experimental sleep-related learning enhancement is generalizable to everyday life, then it is clear that sleep plays a vital role in children's educational attainment. PMID:24329882

  10. Mood, memory, and social judgments in children.

    PubMed

    Forgas, J P; Burnham, D K; Trimboli, C

    1988-04-01

    The influence of positive and negative moods on children's recall and recognition memory and impression-formation judgments was investigated in a two-list experimental design. A total of 161 schoolchildren, 8 to 10 years old, were presented with audiovisual information containing positive and negative details about 2 target children. Each presentation was preceded by happy or sad mood manipulations. One day later, the children were again placed in a happy or sad mood, and their recall and recognition memory and impression-formation judgments were assessed. Results showed that memory was better when (a) the children felt happy during encoding, retrieval, or both; (b) the material was incongruent with learning mood; (c) the 2 target characters were encountered in contrasting rather than in matching mood states; and (d) recall mood matched encoding mood. A happy mood increased the extremity of both positive and negative impression-formation judgments. Results are contrasted with experimental data obtained with normal or depressed adults, and implications are considered for contemporary theories of mood effects on cognition and for social-developmental research. PMID:3367286

  11. Emotional Arousal Does Not Enhance Association-Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan, Christopher R.; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Lau, Christine S. M.; Fujiwara, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Emotionally arousing information is remembered better than neutral information. This enhancement effect has been shown for memory for items. In contrast, studies of association-memory have found both impairments and enhancements of association-memory by arousal. We aimed to resolve these conflicting results by using a cued-recall paradigm combined…

  12. Imagery Rescripting of Early Traumatic Memories in Social Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Jennifer; Clark, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Negative self-images appear to play a role in the maintenance of social phobia and research suggests they are often linked to earlier memories of socially traumatic events. Imagery rescripting is a clinical intervention that aims to update such unpleasant or traumatic memories, and is increasingly being incorporated in cognitive behavioral therapy…

  13. Autobiographical memory and social problem-solving in Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Lorna; Howlin, Patricia; Dritschel, Barbara; Patel, Trishna

    2007-02-01

    Difficulties in social interaction are a central feature of Asperger syndrome. Effective social interaction involves the ability to solve interpersonal problems as and when they occur. Here we examined social problem-solving in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome and control group matched for age, gender and IQ. We also assessed autobiographical memory, on a cueing task and during social problem-solving, and examined the relationship between access to specific past experiences and social problem-solving ability. Results demonstrated a social problem-solving impairment in the Asperger group. Their solutions were less detailed, less effective and less extended in time. Autobiographical memory performance was also impaired with significantly longer latencies to retrieve specific memories and fewer specific memories retrieved in comparison to controls. PMID:16874561

  14. Modifying Memory: Selectively Enhancing and Updating Personal Memories for a Museum Tour by Reactivating Them

    PubMed Central

    St. Jacques, Peggy L.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Memory can be modified when reactivated, but little is known about how the properties and extent of reactivation can selectively affect subsequent memory. We developed a novel museum paradigm to directly investigate reactivation-induced plasticity for personal memories. Participants reactivated memories triggered by photos taken from a camera they wore during a museum tour and made relatedness judgments on novel photos taken from a different tour of the same museum. Subsequent recognition memory for events at the museum was better for memories that were highly reactivated (i.e., the retrieval cues during reactivation matched the encoding experience) than for memories that were reactivated at a lower level (i.e., the retrieval cues during reactivation mismatched the encoding experience), but reactivation also increased false recognition of photographs depicting stops that were not experienced during the museum tour. Reactivation thus enables memories to be selectively enhanced and distorted via updating, thereby supporting the dynamic and flexible nature of memory. PMID:23406611

  15. Sex, cheating, and disgust: enhanced source memory for trait information that violates gender stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Kroneisen, Meike; Bell, Raoul

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines memory for social-exchange-relevant information. In Experiment 1 male and female faces were shown together with behaviour descriptions of cheating, altruistic, and neutral behaviour. Previous results have led to the hypothesis that people preferentially remember schema-atypical information. Given the common gender stereotype that women are kinder and less egoistic than men, this atypicality account would predict that source memory (that is, memory for the type of context to which a face was associated) should be enhanced for female cheaters in comparison to male cheaters. The results of Experiment 1 confirmed this hypothesis. Experiment 2 reveals that source memory for female faces associated with disgusting behaviours is enhanced in comparison to male faces associated with disgusting behaviours. Thus the atypicality effect generalises beyond social-exchange-relevant information, a result which is inconsistent with the assumption that the findings can be ascribed to a highly specific cheater detection module. PMID:22928947

  16. Arousal Enhanced Memory Retention Is Eliminated Following Temporal Lobe Resection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahs, Fredrik; Kumlien, Eva; Fredrikson, Mats

    2010-01-01

    The amygdala, situated in the anterior medial temporal lobe (MTL), is involved in the emotional enhancement of memory. The present study evaluated whether anterior MTL-resections attenuated arousal induced memory enhancement for pictures. Also, the effect of MTL-resections on response latencies at retrieval was assessed. Thirty-one patients with…

  17. Self and social functions: individual autobiographical memory and collective narrative.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Katherine

    2003-03-01

    The personal functions of autobiographical memory build on the basic biological functions of memory common to most mammals that, however, do not have the kind of episodic memories that compose human autobiographical memory according to present theory. The thesis here is that personal autobiographical memory is functionally and structurally related to the use of cultural myths and social narratives, and that the relative emphasis put on the self in different cultural and social contexts influences the form and function of autobiographical memory and the need for developing a uniquely personal life narrative in those contexts. Historical and cross-cultural trends revealed in psychological and literary research are invoked to support this thesis. PMID:12820826

  18. Children Show Heightened Memory for Threatening Social Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltazar, Nicole C.; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether a negativity bias in social perception extends to preschool-aged children's memory for the details of others' social actions and experiences. After learning about individuals who committed nice or mean social actions, children in Experiment 1 were more accurate at remembering who was mean compared with who…

  19. Decades-long social memory in bottlenose dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Jason N.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term social memory is important, because it is an ecologically relevant test of cognitive capacity, it helps us understand which social relationships are remembered and it relates two seemingly disparate disciplines: cognition and sociality. For dolphins, long-term memory for conspecifics could help assess social threats as well as potential social or hunting alliances in a very fluid and complex fission–fusion social system, yet we have no idea how long dolphins can remember each other. Through a playback study conducted within a multi-institution dolphin breeding consortium (where animals are moved between different facilities), recognition of unfamiliar versus familiar signature whistles of former tank mates was assessed. This research shows that dolphins have the potential for lifelong memory for each other regardless of relatedness, sex or duration of association. This is, to my knowledge, the first study to show that social recognition can last for at least 20 years in a non-human species and the first large-scale study to address long-term memory in a cetacean. These results, paired with evidence from elephants and humans, provide suggestive evidence that sociality and cognition could be related, as a good memory is necessary in a fluid social system. PMID:23926160

  20. Dynamic Search and Working Memory in Social Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Thomas T.; Pachur, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    What are the mechanisms underlying search in social memory (e.g., remembering the people one knows)? Do the search mechanisms involve dynamic local-to-global transitions similar to semantic search, and are these transitions governed by the general control of attention, associated with working memory span? To find out, we asked participants to…

  1. Repetition enhancement and memory effects for duration.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Martin; Thompson, James C

    2015-06-01

    A remarkable aspect of conscious perception is that moments carryover from one to the next, also known as temporal continuity. This ability is thus crucial for detecting regularities, such as in speech and music, and may rely on an accurate perception of time. Investigations of human time perception have detailed two electroencephalographic (EEG) components associated with timing, the contingent negative variation (CNV) and late positive component of timing (LPCt); however, the precise roles of these components in timing remain elusive. Recently, we demonstrated that the perception of duration is influenced by durations presented on prior trials, which we explained by the creation of an implicit memory standard that adapts to local changes in sequence presentation. Here, we turn to the neural basis of this effect. Human participants performed a temporal bisection task in which they were required to classify the duration of auditory stimuli into short and long duration categories; crucially, the presentation order was first-order counterbalanced, allowing us to measure the effect of each presented duration on the next. EEG recordings revealed that the CNV and LPCt signals both covaried with the duration presented on the current trial, with CNV predicting reaction time and LPCt predicting choice. Additionally, both signals covaried with the duration presented in the prior trial but in different ways, with the CNV amplitude reflecting the change in the memory standard and the LPCt reflecting decision uncertainty. Furthermore, we observed a repetition enhancement effect of duration only for the CNV, suggesting that this signal additionally indexes the similarity of successive durations. These findings demonstrate dissociable roles for the CNV and LPCt, and demonstrate that both signals are continuously updated on a trial-by-trial basis that reflects shifts in temporal decisions. PMID:25818689

  2. Enhance, delete, incept: manipulating hippocampus-dependent memories.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Hugo J; Bendor, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Here we provide a brief overview of recent research on memory manipulation. We focus primarily on memories for which the hippocampus is thought to be required due to its central importance in the study of memory. The repertoire of methods employed is expanding and includes optogenetics, transcranial stimulation, deep brain stimulation, cued reactivation during sleep and the use of pharmacological agents. In addition, the possible mechanisms underlying these memory changes have been investigated using techniques such as single unit recording and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Memory enhancement'. PMID:24397964

  3. Epicatechin, a component of dark chocolate, enhances memory formation if applied during the memory consolidation period

    PubMed Central

    Fernell, Maria; Swinton, Cayley; Lukowiak, Ken

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epicatechin (Epi), a flavanol found in foods such as dark chocolate has previously been shown to enhance memory formation in our model system, operant conditioning of aerial respiration in Lymnaea. In those experiments snails were trained in Epi. Here we ask whether snails exposed to Epi before training, during the consolidation period immediately following training, or 1 h after training would enhance memory formation. We report here that Epi is only able to enhance memory if snails are placed in Epi-containing pond water immediately after training. That is, Epi enhances memory formation if it is applied during the memory consolidation period as well as if snails are trained in Epi-containing pond water. PMID:27574544

  4. Epicatechin, a component of dark chocolate, enhances memory formation if applied during the memory consolidation period.

    PubMed

    Fernell, Maria; Swinton, Cayley; Lukowiak, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Epicatechin (Epi), a flavanol found in foods such as dark chocolate has previously been shown to enhance memory formation in our model system, operant conditioning of aerial respiration in Lymnaea. In those experiments snails were trained in Epi. Here we ask whether snails exposed to Epi before training, during the consolidation period immediately following training, or 1 h after training would enhance memory formation. We report here that Epi is only able to enhance memory if snails are placed in Epi-containing pond water immediately after training. That is, Epi enhances memory formation if it is applied during the memory consolidation period as well as if snails are trained in Epi-containing pond water. PMID:27574544

  5. Optogenetic Stimulation of Prefrontal Glutamatergic Neurons Enhances Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Gareth R. I.; Stuart, Sarah A.; Roloff, Eva v. L.; Teschemacher, Anja G.; Warburton, E. Clea

    2016-01-01

    Finding effective cognitive enhancers is a major health challenge; however, modulating glutamatergic neurotransmission has the potential to enhance performance in recognition memory tasks. Previous studies using glutamate receptor antagonists have revealed that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a central role in associative recognition memory. The present study investigates short-term recognition memory using optogenetics to target glutamatergic neurons within the rodent mPFC specifically. Selective stimulation of glutamatergic neurons during the online maintenance of information enhanced associative recognition memory in normal animals. This cognitive enhancing effect was replicated by local infusions of the AMPAkine CX516, but not CX546, which differ in their effects on EPSPs. This suggests that enhancing the amplitude, but not the duration, of excitatory synaptic currents improves memory performance. Increasing glutamate release through infusions of the mGluR7 presynaptic receptor antagonist MMPIP had no effect on performance. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT These results provide new mechanistic information that could guide the targeting of future cognitive enhancers. Our work suggests that improved associative-recognition memory can be achieved by enhancing endogenous glutamatergic neuronal activity selectively using an optogenetic approach. We build on these observations to recapitulate this effect using drug treatments that enhance the amplitude of EPSPs; however, drugs that alter the duration of the EPSP or increase glutamate release lack efficacy. This suggests that both neural and temporal specificity are needed to achieve cognitive enhancement. PMID:27147648

  6. Exploring the use of memory colors for image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Su; Tan, Minghui; McNamara, Ann; Dorsey, Julie; Rushmeier, Holly

    2014-02-01

    Memory colors refer to those colors recalled in association with familiar objects. While some previous work introduces this concept to assist digital image enhancement, their basis, i.e., on-screen memory colors, are not appropriately investigated. In addition, the resulting adjustment methods developed are not evaluated from a perceptual view of point. In this paper, we first perform a context-free perceptual experiment to establish the overall distributions of screen memory colors for three pervasive objects. Then, we use a context-based experiment to locate the most representative memory colors; at the same time, we investigate the interactions of memory colors between different objects. Finally, we show a simple yet effective application using representative memory colors to enhance digital images. A user study is performed to evaluate the performance of our technique.

  7. Money enhances memory consolidation--but only for boring material.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Kou; Kuhbandner, Christof

    2011-04-01

    Money's ability to enhance memory has received increased attention in recent research. However, previous studies have not directly addressed the time-dependent nature of monetary effects on memory, which are suggested to exist by research in cognitive neuroscience, and the possible detrimental effects of monetary rewards on learning interesting material, as indicated by studies in motivational psychology. By utilizing a trivia question paradigm, the current study incorporated these perspectives and examined the effect of monetary rewards on immediate and delayed memory performance for answers to uninteresting and interesting questions. Results showed that monetary rewards promote memory performance only after a delay. In addition, the memory enhancement effect of monetary rewards was only observed for uninteresting questions. These results are consistent with both the hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation model of reward learning and previous findings documenting the ineffectiveness of monetary rewards on tasks that have intrinsic value. PMID:21292249

  8. How eyewitnesses resist misinformation: social postwarnings and the monitoring of memory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Echterhoff, Gerald; Hirst, William; Hussy, Walter

    2005-07-01

    Previous findings have been equivocal as to whether the postevent misinformation effect on eyewitness memory is reduced by warnings presented after the misinformation (postwarnings). In the present research, social postwarnings, which characterize the postevent source as a low-credibility individual, diminished the misinformation effect in both cued recall and recognition tests. Discrediting the source as being either untrustworthy or incompetent was effective (Experiment 1). Also, postwarned participants rated reality characteristics of their memories more accurately than did participants receiving no or high-credibility information about the postevent source (Experiment 2). A social postwarning yielded the same results as an explicit source-monitoring appeal and led to longer response times for postevent items, relative to a no-warning condition (Experiments 3 and 4). The findings suggest that the reduced misinformation effect was due to more thorough monitoring of memory characteristics by postwarned participants, rather than to a stricter response criterion or to enhanced event memory. PMID:16383166

  9. Diagnosing criterion-level effects on memory: what aspects of memory are enhanced by repeated retrieval?

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Kalif E; Rawson, Katherine A

    2011-09-01

    Previous research has shown that increasing the criterion level (i.e., the number of times an item must be correctly retrieved during practice) improves subsequent memory, but which specific components of memory does increased criterion level enhance? In two experiments, we examined the extent to which the criterion level affects associative memory, target memory, and cue memory. Participants studied Lithuanian-English word pairs via cued recall with restudy until items were correctly recalled one to five times. In Experiment 1, participants took one of four recall tests and one of three recognition tests after a 2-day delay. In Experiment 2, participants took only recognition tests after a 1-week delay. In both experiments, increasing the criterion level enhanced associative memory, as indicated by enhanced performance on forward and backward cued-recall tests and on tests of associative recognition. An increased criterion level also improved target memory, as indicated by enhanced free recall and recognition of targets, and improved cue memory, as indicated by enhanced free recall and recognition of cues. PMID:21813798

  10. Acute social stress before the planning phase improves memory performance in a complex real life-related prospective memory task.

    PubMed

    Glienke, Katharina; Piefke, Martina

    2016-09-01

    Successful execution of intentions, but also the failure to recall are common phenomena in everyday life. The planning, retention, and realization of intentions are often framed as the scientific concept of prospective memory. The current study aimed to examine the influence of acute stress on key dimensions of complex "real life" prospective memory. To this end, we applied a prospective memory task that involved the planning, retention, and performance of intentions during a fictional holiday week. Forty healthy males participated in the study. Half of the subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions, and the other half of the participants underwent a control procedure at the same time. Salivary cortisol was used to measure the effectiveness of the SECPT stress induction. Stressed participants did not differ from controls in planning accuracy. However, when we compared stressed participants with controls during prospective memory retrieval, we found statistically significant differences in PM across the performance phase. Participants treated with the SECPT procedure before the planning phase showed improved prospective memory retrieval over time, while performance of controls declined. Particularly, there was a significant difference between the stress and control group for the last two days of the holiday week. Interestingly, control participants showed significantly better performance for early than later learned items, which could be an indicator of a primacy effect. This differential effect of stress on performance was also found in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that acute stress induced before the planning phase may improve prospective memory over the time course of the performance phase in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our data thus indicate that prospective memory can be enhanced by acute stress. PMID:27370532

  11. Working Memory Deficits and Social Problems in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kofler, Michael J.; Rapport, Mark D.; Bolden, Jennifer; Sarver, Dustin E.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Alderson, R. Matt

    2011-01-01

    Social problems are a prevalent feature of ADHD and reflect a major source of functional impairment for these children. The current study examined the impact of working memory deficits on parent- and teacher-reported social problems in a sample of children with ADHD and typically developing boys (N = 39). Bootstrapped, bias-corrected mediation…

  12. Mental Time Travel, Memory and the Social Learning Strategies Tournament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, L.; Rendell, L.; Laland, K. N.

    2012-01-01

    The social learning strategies tournament was an open computer-based tournament investigating the best way to learn in a changing environment. Here we present an analysis of the impact of memory on the ability of strategies entered into the social learning strategies tournament (Rendell, Boyd, et al., 2010) to modify their own behavior to suit a…

  13. Money Enhances Memory Consolidation--But Only for Boring Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murayama, Kou; Kuhbandner, Christof

    2011-01-01

    Money's ability to enhance memory has received increased attention in recent research. However, previous studies have not directly addressed the time-dependent nature of monetary effects on memory, which are suggested to exist by research in cognitive neuroscience, and the possible detrimental effects of monetary rewards on learning interesting…

  14. How To Create and Conduct a Memory Enhancement Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Genevieve R.; Ober-Reynolds, Sharman

    This report describes Memory Enhancement Group workshops which have been conducted at the Senior Health and Peer Counseling Center in Santa Monica, California and gives basic data regarding outcomes of the workshops. It provides a model of memory as a three-step process of registration or becoming aware, consolidation, and retrieval. It presents…

  15. Repetitive peptide boosting progressively enhances functional memory CTLs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induction of functional memory CTLs holds promise for fighting critical infectious diseases through vaccination, but so far, no effective regime has been identified. We show here that memory CTLs can be enhanced progressively to high levels by repetitive intravenous boosting with peptide and adjuvan...

  16. Brief, pre-learning stress reduces false memory production and enhances true memory selectively in females.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Peters, David M; Kalchik, Andrea E; Hoffman, Mackenzie M; Aufdenkampe, Rachael L; Woelke, Sarah A; Wolters, Nicholas E; Talbot, Jeffery N

    2014-04-10

    Some of the previous research on stress-memory interactions has suggested that stress increases the production of false memories. However, as accumulating work has shown that the effects of stress on learning and memory depend critically on the timing of the stressor, we hypothesized that brief stress administered immediately before learning would reduce, rather than increase, false memory production. In the present study, participants submerged their dominant hand in a bath of ice cold water (stress) or sat quietly (no stress) for 3 min. Then, participants completed a short-term memory task, the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, in which they were presented with 10 different lists of semantically related words (e.g., candy, sour, sugar) and, after each list, were tested for their memory of presented words (e.g., candy), non-presented unrelated "distractor" words (e.g., hat), and non-presented semantically related "critical lure" words (e.g., sweet). Stress, overall, significantly reduced the number of critical lures recalled (i.e., false memory) by participants. In addition, stress enhanced memory for the presented words (i.e., true memory) in female, but not male, participants. These findings reveal that stress does not unequivocally enhance false memory production and that the timing of the stressor is an important variable that could mediate such effects. Such results could have important implications for understanding the dependability of eyewitness accounts of events that are observed following stress. PMID:24560841

  17. Consistency of Handedness, Regardless of Direction, Predicts Baseline Memory Accuracy and Potential for Memory Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyle, Keith B.; Hanaver-Torrez, Shelley D.; Hacklander, Ryan P.; Edlin, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that consistently right-handed individuals have poorer memory than do inconsistently right- or left-handed individuals under baseline conditions but more reliably exhibit enhanced memory retrieval after making a series of saccadic eye movements. From this it could be that consistent versus inconsistent handedness, regardless of…

  18. Enhancing quantum sensing sensitivity by a quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaiser, Sebastian; Rendler, Torsten; Jakobi, Ingmar; Wolf, Thomas; Lee, Sang-Yun; Wagner, Samuel; Bergholm, Ville; Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Neumann, Philipp; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    In quantum sensing, precision is typically limited by the maximum time interval over which phase can be accumulated. Memories have been used to enhance this time interval beyond the coherence lifetime and thus gain precision. Here, we demonstrate that by using a quantum memory an increased sensitivity can also be achieved. To this end, we use entanglement in a hybrid spin system comprising a sensing and a memory qubit associated with a single nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond. With the memory we retain the full quantum state even after coherence decay of the sensor, which enables coherent interaction with distinct weakly coupled nuclear spin qubits. We benchmark the performance of our hybrid quantum system against use of the sensing qubit alone by gradually increasing the entanglement of sensor and memory. We further apply this quantum sensor-memory pair for high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of single 13C nuclear spins.

  19. Enhancing quantum sensing sensitivity by a quantum memory

    PubMed Central

    Zaiser, Sebastian; Rendler, Torsten; Jakobi, Ingmar; Wolf, Thomas; Lee, Sang-Yun; Wagner, Samuel; Bergholm, Ville; Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Neumann, Philipp; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    In quantum sensing, precision is typically limited by the maximum time interval over which phase can be accumulated. Memories have been used to enhance this time interval beyond the coherence lifetime and thus gain precision. Here, we demonstrate that by using a quantum memory an increased sensitivity can also be achieved. To this end, we use entanglement in a hybrid spin system comprising a sensing and a memory qubit associated with a single nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond. With the memory we retain the full quantum state even after coherence decay of the sensor, which enables coherent interaction with distinct weakly coupled nuclear spin qubits. We benchmark the performance of our hybrid quantum system against use of the sensing qubit alone by gradually increasing the entanglement of sensor and memory. We further apply this quantum sensor-memory pair for high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of single 13C nuclear spins. PMID:27506596

  20. Enhancing quantum sensing sensitivity by a quantum memory.

    PubMed

    Zaiser, Sebastian; Rendler, Torsten; Jakobi, Ingmar; Wolf, Thomas; Lee, Sang-Yun; Wagner, Samuel; Bergholm, Ville; Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Neumann, Philipp; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    In quantum sensing, precision is typically limited by the maximum time interval over which phase can be accumulated. Memories have been used to enhance this time interval beyond the coherence lifetime and thus gain precision. Here, we demonstrate that by using a quantum memory an increased sensitivity can also be achieved. To this end, we use entanglement in a hybrid spin system comprising a sensing and a memory qubit associated with a single nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond. With the memory we retain the full quantum state even after coherence decay of the sensor, which enables coherent interaction with distinct weakly coupled nuclear spin qubits. We benchmark the performance of our hybrid quantum system against use of the sensing qubit alone by gradually increasing the entanglement of sensor and memory. We further apply this quantum sensor-memory pair for high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of single (13)C nuclear spins. PMID:27506596

  1. Upregulation of CREB-mediated transcription enhances both short- and long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Akinobu; Fukushima, Hotaka; Mukawa, Takuya; Toyoda, Hiroki; Wu, Long-Jun; Zhao, Ming-Gao; Xu, Hui; Shang, Yuze; Endoh, Kengo; Iwamoto, Taku; Mamiya, Nori; Okano, Emiko; Hasegawa, Shunsuke; Mercaldo, Valentina; Zhang, Yue; Maeda, Ryouta; Ohta, Miho; Josselyn, Sheena A; Zhuo, Min; Kida, Satoshi

    2011-06-15

    Unraveling the mechanisms by which the molecular manipulation of genes of interest enhances cognitive function is important to establish genetic therapies for cognitive disorders. Although CREB is thought to positively regulate formation of long-term memory (LTM), gain-of-function effects of CREB remain poorly understood, especially at the behavioral level. To address this, we generated four lines of transgenic mice expressing dominant active CREB mutants (CREB-Y134F or CREB-DIEDML) in the forebrain that exhibited moderate upregulation of CREB activity. These transgenic lines improved not only LTM but also long-lasting long-term potentiation in the CA1 area in the hippocampus. However, we also observed enhanced short-term memory (STM) in contextual fear-conditioning and social recognition tasks. Enhanced LTM and STM could be dissociated behaviorally in these four lines of transgenic mice, suggesting that the underlying mechanism for enhanced STM and LTM are distinct. LTM enhancement seems to be attributable to the improvement of memory consolidation by the upregulation of CREB transcriptional activity, whereas higher basal levels of BDNF, a CREB target gene, predicted enhanced shorter-term memory. The importance of BDNF in STM was verified by microinfusing BDNF or BDNF inhibitors into the hippocampus of wild-type or transgenic mice. Additionally, increasing BDNF further enhanced LTM in one of the lines of transgenic mice that displayed a normal BDNF level but enhanced LTM, suggesting that upregulation of BDNF and CREB activity cooperatively enhances LTM formation. Our findings suggest that CREB positively regulates memory consolidation and affects memory performance by regulating BDNF expression. PMID:21677163

  2. Adaptive Memory: Survival Processing Enhances Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nairne, James S.; Thompson, Sarah R.; Pandeirada, Josefa N. S.

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the idea that memory systems might have evolved to help us remember fitness-relevant information--specifically, information relevant to survival. In 4 incidental learning experiments, people were asked to rate common nouns for their survival relevance (e.g., in securing food, water, or protection from predators); in…

  3. Cavity-Enhanced Room-Temperature Broadband Raman Memory.

    PubMed

    Saunders, D J; Munns, J H D; Champion, T F M; Qiu, C; Kaczmarek, K T; Poem, E; Ledingham, P M; Walmsley, I A; Nunn, J

    2016-03-01

    Broadband quantum memories hold great promise as multiplexing elements in future photonic quantum information protocols. Alkali-vapor Raman memories combine high-bandwidth storage, on-demand readout, and operation at room temperature without collisional fluorescence noise. However, previous implementations have required large control pulse energies and have suffered from four-wave-mixing noise. Here, we present a Raman memory where the storage interaction is enhanced by a low-finesse birefringent cavity tuned into simultaneous resonance with the signal and control fields, dramatically reducing the energy required to drive the memory. By engineering antiresonance for the anti-Stokes field, we also suppress the four-wave-mixing noise and report the lowest unconditional noise floor yet achieved in a Raman-type warm vapor memory, (15±2)×10^{-3} photons per pulse, with a total efficiency of (9.5±0.5)%. PMID:26991164

  4. Cavity-Enhanced Room-Temperature Broadband Raman Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, D. J.; Munns, J. H. D.; Champion, T. F. M.; Qiu, C.; Kaczmarek, K. T.; Poem, E.; Ledingham, P. M.; Walmsley, I. A.; Nunn, J.

    2016-03-01

    Broadband quantum memories hold great promise as multiplexing elements in future photonic quantum information protocols. Alkali-vapor Raman memories combine high-bandwidth storage, on-demand readout, and operation at room temperature without collisional fluorescence noise. However, previous implementations have required large control pulse energies and have suffered from four-wave-mixing noise. Here, we present a Raman memory where the storage interaction is enhanced by a low-finesse birefringent cavity tuned into simultaneous resonance with the signal and control fields, dramatically reducing the energy required to drive the memory. By engineering antiresonance for the anti-Stokes field, we also suppress the four-wave-mixing noise and report the lowest unconditional noise floor yet achieved in a Raman-type warm vapor memory, (15 ±2 )×10-3 photons per pulse, with a total efficiency of (9.5 ±0.5 )%.

  5. Physiological Reactivity, Social Support, and Memory in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Quas, Jodi A.; Bauer, Amy; Boyce, W. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The interactive effects of physiological reactivity and social support on children's memory were examined. Four- to 6-year-olds completed a laboratory protocol during which autonomic responses and salivary cortisol were measured. Memory was assessed shortly afterward and 2 weeks later. During the second interview, children were questioned by a supportive or nonsupportive interviewer. Few significant relations emerged between reactivity and children's short-term memory. Following a 2-week delay, cortisol reactivity was associated with poorer memory and autonomic reactivity was associated with increased accuracy among children questioned in a supportive manner but decreased accuracy among children questioned in a nonsupportive manner. Results question traditional conceptualizations of reactivity as a risk factor and instead suggest that reactivity may only confer risk in certain environmental contexts. PMID:15144487

  6. Neurometabolic mechanisms for memory enhancement and neuroprotection of methylene blue

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Julio C.; Bruchey, Aleksandra K.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides the first review of the memory-enhancing and neuroprotective metabolic mechanisms of action of methylene blue in vivo. These mechanisms have important implications as a new neurobiological approach to improve normal memory and to treat memory impairment and neurodegeneration associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Methylene blue’s action is unique because its neurobiological effects are not determined by regular drug-receptor interactions or drug-response paradigms. Methylene blue shows a hormetic dose-response, with opposite effects at low and high doses. At low doses, methylene blue is an electron cycler in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, with unparalleled antioxidant and cell respiration-enhancing properties that affect the function of the nervous system in a versatile manner. A major role of the respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase on the memory-enhancing effects of methylene blue is supported by available data. The memory-enhancing effects have been associated with improvement of memory consolidation in a network-specific and use-dependent fashion. In addition, low doses of methylene blue have also been used for neuroprotection against mitochondrial dysfunction in humans and experimental models of disease. The unique auto-oxidizing property of methylene blue and its pleiotropic effects on a number of tissue oxidases explain its potent neuroprotective effects at low doses. The evidence reviewed supports a mechanistic role of low-dose methylene blue as a promising and safe intervention for improving memory and for the treatment of acute and chronic conditions characterized by increased oxidative stress, neurodegeneration and memory impairment. PMID:22067440

  7. Emotional Memories Are Not All Created Equal: Evidence for Selective Memory Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Adam K.; Grabski, Wojtek; Lacka, Dominika; Yamaguchi, Yuki

    2006-01-01

    Human brain imaging studies have shown that greater amygdala activation to emotional relative to neutral events leads to enhanced episodic memory. Other studies have shown that fearful faces also elicit greater amygdala activation relative to neutral faces. To the extent that amygdala recruitment is sufficient to enhance recollection, these…

  8. A social identity approach to person memory: group membership, collective identification, and social role shape attention and memory.

    PubMed

    Van Bavel, Jay J; Cunningham, William A

    2012-12-01

    Evidence indicates that superior memory for own-group versus other-group faces (termed own-group bias) occurs because of social categorization: People are more likely to encode own-group members as individuals. The authors show that aspects of the perceiver's social identity shape social attention and memory over and above mere categorization. In three experiments, participants were assigned to a mixed-race minimal group and showed own-group bias toward this minimal group, regardless of race. Own-group bias was mediated by attention toward own-group faces during encoding (Experiment 1). Furthermore, participants who were highly identified with their minimal group had the largest own-group bias (Experiment 2). However, social affordances attenuated own-group bias-Memory for other-group faces was heightened among participants who were assigned to a role (i.e., spy) that required attention toward other-group members (Experiment 3). This research suggests that social identity may provide novel insights into person memory. PMID:22914991

  9. Mindfulness Enhances Episodic Memory Performance: Evidence from a Multimethod Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Robert J.; Ryan, Richard M.; Anālayo, Bhikkhu

    2016-01-01

    Training in mindfulness, classically described as a receptive attentiveness to present events and experiences, has been shown to improve attention and working memory. Both are key to long-term memory formation, and the present three-study series used multiple methods to examine whether mindfulness would enhance episodic memory, a key form of long-term memory. In Study 1 (N = 143), a self-reported state of mindful attention predicted better recognition performance in the Remember-Know (R-K) paradigm. In Study 2 (N = 93), very brief training in a focused attention form of mindfulness also produced better recognition memory performance on the R-K task relative to a randomized, well-matched active control condition. Study 3 (N = 57) extended these findings by showing that relative to randomized active and inactive control conditions the effect of very brief mindfulness training generalized to free-recall memory performance. This study also found evidence for mediation of the mindfulness training—episodic memory relation by intrinsic motivation. These findings indicate that mindful attention can beneficially impact motivation and episodic memory, with potential implications for educational and occupational performance. PMID:27115491

  10. Mindfulness Enhances Episodic Memory Performance: Evidence from a Multimethod Investigation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kirk Warren; Goodman, Robert J; Ryan, Richard M; Anālayo, Bhikkhu

    2016-01-01

    Training in mindfulness, classically described as a receptive attentiveness to present events and experiences, has been shown to improve attention and working memory. Both are key to long-term memory formation, and the present three-study series used multiple methods to examine whether mindfulness would enhance episodic memory, a key form of long-term memory. In Study 1 (N = 143), a self-reported state of mindful attention predicted better recognition performance in the Remember-Know (R-K) paradigm. In Study 2 (N = 93), very brief training in a focused attention form of mindfulness also produced better recognition memory performance on the R-K task relative to a randomized, well-matched active control condition. Study 3 (N = 57) extended these findings by showing that relative to randomized active and inactive control conditions the effect of very brief mindfulness training generalized to free-recall memory performance. This study also found evidence for mediation of the mindfulness training-episodic memory relation by intrinsic motivation. These findings indicate that mindful attention can beneficially impact motivation and episodic memory, with potential implications for educational and occupational performance. PMID:27115491

  11. Gender Identification Moderates Social Identity Threat Effects on Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Cheryl R.; Hagiwara, Nao

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined whether gender identification moderates women's working memory following exposure to situations that threaten the integrity of their gender group. Young adults read sentences that either threatened women's gender identity (in the social identity threat condition) or did not threaten this identity (in the control…

  12. Early deprivation reduced anxiety and enhanced memory in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuliang; Wang, Bo; Jin, Jing; An, Shuming; Zeng, Qingwen; Duan, Yanhong; Yang, Liguo; Ma, Jing; Cao, Xiaohua

    2014-09-01

    The effects of early deprivation (ED, which involves both dam and littermate deprivation) on anxiety and memory are less investigated in comparison with maternal separation (MS), and it is not yet clear how ED affects long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal Schaffer collateral pathway. By using a series of behavioral tests, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and field potential recording, we explored the effect of pre-weaning daily 3-h ED on anxiety, memory and potential mechanisms in adult male rats. Compared with control, ED rats spent longer time in open arms of elevated plus maze and in light compartment of light-dark transition box. Consistently, stress-induced blood plasma corticosterone level was also lower in ED rats. Moreover, ED rats showed better performance in social recognition and Morris water maze test. In accordance with results in memory tests, the threshold of LTP induction in hippocampal CA3-CA1 pathway of ED rats was also reduced. Our results indicate ED reduced anxiety, but enhanced social recognition and spatial reference memory. We suggest the diminished hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response and facilitated hippocampal LTP may contribute to the anxiety-reducing and memory-enhancing effects of ED, respectively. PMID:25157962

  13. Enhancing Students' Socialization: Key Elements. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Jere

    Coping with students who display social adjustment problems can be frustrating. However, teachers can take actions toward minimizing classroom conflicts by socializing students into a classroom environment conducive to learning. Modeling prosocial behavior is the most basic element for enhancing student socialization. In situations in which…

  14. Knowledge of Normal and Pathological Memory Aging in College Students, Social Workers, and Health Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Allen, Priscilla D.; Jackson, Erin M.; Hawley, Karri S.; Brigman, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) measures laypersons' knowledge of normal memory changes and pathological memory deficits in adulthood. In Experiment 1, undergraduate and graduate social work students and social work practitioners completed the KMAQ. Social workers and graduate students were more accurate on the pathological than…

  15. Memory for time and place contributes to enhanced confidence in memories for emotional events.

    PubMed

    Rimmele, Ulrike; Davachi, Lila; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2012-08-01

    Emotion strengthens the subjective sense of remembering. However, these confidently remembered emotional memories have not been found be more accurate for some types of contextual details. We investigated whether the subjective sense of recollecting negative stimuli is coupled with enhanced memory accuracy for three specific types of central contextual details using the remember/know paradigm and confidence ratings. Our results indicate that the subjective sense of remembering is indeed coupled with better recollection of spatial location and temporal context, but not higher memory accuracy for colored dots placed in the conceptual center of negative and neutral scenes. These findings show that the enhanced subjective recollective experience for negative stimuli reliably indicates objective recollection for spatial location and temporal context, but not for other types of details, whereas for neutral stimuli, the subjective sense of remembering is coupled with all the types of details assessed. Translating this finding to flashbulb memories, we found that, over time, more participants correctly remembered the location where they learned about the terrorist attacks on 9/11 than any other canonical feature. Likewise, participants' confidence was higher in their memory for location versus other canonical features. These findings indicate that the strong recollective experience of a negative event corresponds to an accurate memory for some kinds of contextual details but not for other kinds. This discrepancy provides further evidence that the subjective sense of remembering negative events is driven by a different mechanism than the subjective sense of remembering neutral events. PMID:22642353

  16. Categorizing Others and the Self: How Social Memory Structures Guide Social Perception and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Kimberly A.; Rosenthal, Harriet E. S.

    2012-01-01

    In keeping with the special issue theme of "Remembering the Future," this article provides a selective review of research on how memory for social information (i.e., social category representation) influences future processing and behavior. Specifically, the authors focus on how categorization and stereotyping affect how we perceive others and…

  17. Social memory associated with estrogen receptor polymorphisms in women.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Sara; Henningsson, Susanne; Hovey, Daniel; Zettergren, Anna; Jonsson, Lina; Cortes, Diana S; Melke, Jonas; Laukka, Petri; Fischer, Håkan; Westberg, Lars

    2016-06-01

    The ability to recognize the identity of faces and voices is essential for social relationships. Although the heritability of social memory is high, knowledge about the contributing genes is sparse. Since sex differences and rodent studies support an influence of estrogens and androgens on social memory, polymorphisms in the estrogen and androgen receptor genes (ESR1, ESR2, AR) are candidates for this trait. Recognition of faces and vocal sounds, separately and combined, was investigated in 490 subjects, genotyped for 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ESR1, four in ESR2 and one in the AR Four of the associations survived correction for multiple testing: women carrying rare alleles of the three ESR2 SNPs, rs928554, rs1271572 and rs1256030, in linkage disequilibrium with each other, displayed superior face recognition compared with non-carriers. Furthermore, the uncommon genotype of the ESR1 SNP rs2504063 was associated with better recognition of identity through vocal sounds, also specifically in women. This study demonstrates evidence for associations in women between face recognition and variation in ESR2, and recognition of identity through vocal sounds and variation in ESR1. These results suggest that estrogen receptors may regulate social memory function in humans, in line with what has previously been established in mice. PMID:26955855

  18. Utility of Nutraceutical Products Marketed for Cognitive and Memory Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Graham J.; Austin-Wells, Vonnette; Zimmerman, Teena

    2008-01-01

    This article identifies a convenience sample of 14 memory-enhancing herbal products that were found to be available commercially, examines their active ingredients, states their claims, and evaluates the available evidence to determine their efficacy. The analyses identified four problematic areas. First, a majority of the products use cognitive terminology, which leads consumers to anticipate an intended cognitive benefit. Second, some ingredients are completely homeopathic and contain components not known outside of the homeopathic field. Third, the evidence of treatment efficacy is often contradictory, because products are recommended for purposes other than cognitive or memory loss. Finally, the manufacturers of the product have usually conducted the research on individual products. Until more research is available, it is suggested that holistic nursing professionals exercise caution in recommending nutraceuticals to their patients/clients for the use of cognitive improvement or memory enhancement. PMID:16251490

  19. Cognitive Control in Auditory Working Memory Is Enhanced in Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Brattico, Elvira; Bailey, Christopher J.; Korvenoja, Antti; Koivisto, Juha; Gjedde, Albert; Carlson, Synnöve

    2010-01-01

    Musical competence may confer cognitive advantages that extend beyond processing of familiar musical sounds. Behavioural evidence indicates a general enhancement of both working memory and attention in musicians. It is possible that musicians, due to their training, are better able to maintain focus on task-relevant stimuli, a skill which is crucial to working memory. We measured the blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) activation signal in musicians and non-musicians during working memory of musical sounds to determine the relation among performance, musical competence and generally enhanced cognition. All participants easily distinguished the stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that musicians nonetheless would perform better, and that differential brain activity would mainly be present in cortical areas involved in cognitive control such as the lateral prefrontal cortex. The musicians performed better as reflected in reaction times and error rates. Musicians also had larger BOLD responses than non-musicians in neuronal networks that sustain attention and cognitive control, including regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex, lateral parietal cortex, insula, and putamen in the right hemisphere, and bilaterally in the posterior dorsal prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus. The relationship between the task performance and the magnitude of the BOLD response was more positive in musicians than in non-musicians, particularly during the most difficult working memory task. The results confirm previous findings that neural activity increases during enhanced working memory performance. The results also suggest that superior working memory task performance in musicians rely on an enhanced ability to exert sustained cognitive control. This cognitive benefit in musicians may be a consequence of focused musical training. PMID:20559545

  20. Sleep in Children Enhances Preferentially Emotional Declarative But Not Procedural Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Goder, Robert; Chirobeja, Stefania; Bressman, Inka; Ferstl, Roman; Baving, Lioba

    2009-01-01

    Although the consolidation of several memory systems is enhanced by sleep in adults, recent studies suggest that sleep supports declarative memory but not procedural memory in children. In the current study, the influence of sleep on emotional declarative memory (recognition task) and procedural memory (mirror tracing task) in 20 healthy children…

  1. Enhancing Mobile Working Memory Training by Using Affective Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaff, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose a novel approach to enhance working memory (WM) training for mobile devices by using information about the arousal level of a person. By the example of an adaptive n-back task, we combine methodologies from different disciplines to tackle this challenge: mobile learning, affective computing and cognitive…

  2. When Does Generation Enhance Memory for Location?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Generation is thought to enhance both item-specific and relational processing of generated targets as compared with read words (M. A. McDaniel & P. J. Waddill, 1990). Generation facilitates encoding of the cue-target relation and sometimes boosts encoding of relations across list items. Of interest is whether generation can also increase the…

  3. The hippocampal CA2 region is essential for social memory

    PubMed Central

    Hitti, Frederick L.; Siegelbaum, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The hippocampus is critical for encoding declarative memory, our repository of knowledge of who, what, where, and when1. Mnemonic information is processed in the hippocampus through several parallel routes involving distinct subregions. In the classic trisynaptic pathway, information proceeds from entorhinal cortex (EC) to dentate gyrus (DG) to CA3 and then to CA1, the main hippocampal output2. Genetic lesions of EC3 and hippocampal DG4, CA35, and CA16 regions have revealed their distinct functions in learning and memory. In contrast, little is known about the role of CA2, a relatively small area interposed between CA3 and CA1 that forms the nexus of a powerful disynaptic circuit linking EC input with CA1 output7. Here, we report a novel transgenic mouse line that enabled us to selectively examine the synaptic connections and behavioral role of the CA2 region in adult mice. Genetically targeted inactivation of CA2 pyramidal neurons caused a pronounced loss of social memory, the ability of an animal to remember a conspecific, with no change in sociability or several other hippocampal-dependent behaviors, including spatial and contextual memory. These behavioral and anatomical results thus reveal CA2 as a critical hub of sociocognitive memory processing. PMID:24572357

  4. Can Survival Processing Enhance Story Memory? Testing the Generalizability of the Adaptive Memory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seamon, John G.; Bohn, Justin M.; Coddington, Inslee E.; Ebling, Maritza C.; Grund, Ethan M.; Haring, Catherine T.; Jang, Sue-Jung; Kim, Daniel; Liong, Christopher; Paley, Frances M.; Pang, Luke K.; Siddique, Ashik H.

    2012-01-01

    Research from the adaptive memory framework shows that thinking about words in terms of their survival value in an incidental learning task enhances their free recall relative to other semantic encoding strategies and intentional learning (Nairne, Pandeirada, & Thompson, 2008). We found similar results. When participants used incidental survival…

  5. Forget "drinking to forget": enhanced consolidation of emotionally charged memory by alcohol.

    PubMed

    Bruce, K R; Pihl, R O

    1997-08-01

    Social drinkers (42 men, 18-34 years old) participated in a study of the effects of alcohol consumption on incidental memory for emotionally salient verbal stimuli. Participants rated depressing, elating, and neutral statements while sober. Fifteen minutes later they consumed alcohol or active placebo (1.0 or 0.1 ml/kg) in an environment with minimal retrograde interference. In surprise memory testing 24 hr later, when participants were again sober, the alcohol group had increased recall across statement type. The alcohol group also had better recognition of depressing and elating statements, but recognition of neutral statements did not differ between groups. Findings suggest alcohol produced a nonspecific enhancement of incidental memory and that alcohol's motivational properties were not implicated. PMID:9260071

  6. Pharmacological Enhancement of Memory and Executive Functioning in Laboratory Animals

    PubMed Central

    Floresco, Stan B; Jentsch, James D

    2011-01-01

    Investigating how different pharmacological compounds may enhance learning, memory, and higher-order cognitive functions in laboratory animals is the first critical step toward the development of cognitive enhancers that may be used to ameliorate impairments in these functions in patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders. Rather than focus on one aspect of cognition, or class of drug, in this review we provide a broad overview of how distinct classes of pharmacological compounds may enhance different types of memory and executive functioning, particularly those mediated by the prefrontal cortex. These include recognition memory, attention, working memory, and different components of behavioral flexibility. A key emphasis is placed on comparing and contrasting the effects of certain drugs on different cognitive and mnemonic functions, highlighting methodological issues associated with this type of research, tasks used to investigate these functions, and avenues for future research. Viewed collectively, studies of the neuropharmacological basis of cognition in rodents and non-human primates have identified targets that will hopefully open new avenues for the treatment of cognitive disabilities in persons affected by mental disorders. PMID:20844477

  7. Juvenile obesity enhances emotional memory and amygdala plasticity through glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Boitard, Chloé; Maroun, Mouna; Tantot, Frédéric; Cavaroc, Amandine; Sauvant, Julie; Marchand, Alain; Layé, Sophie; Capuron, Lucile; Darnaudery, Muriel; Castanon, Nathalie; Coutureau, Etienne; Vouimba, Rose-Marie; Ferreira, Guillaume

    2015-03-01

    In addition to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, obesity is associated with adverse cognitive and emotional outcomes. Its growing prevalence during adolescence is particularly alarming since recent evidence indicates that obesity can affect hippocampal function during this developmental period. Adolescence is a decisive period for maturation of the amygdala and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis, both required for lifelong cognitive and emotional processing. However, little data are available on the impact of obesity during adolescence on amygdala function. Herein, we therefore evaluate in rats whether juvenile high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity alters amygdala-dependent emotional memory and whether it depends on HPA axis deregulation. Exposure to HFD from weaning to adulthood, i.e., covering adolescence, enhances long-term emotional memories as assessed by odor-malaise and tone-shock associations. Juvenile HFD also enhances emotion-induced neuronal activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), which correlates with protracted plasma corticosterone release. HFD exposure restricted to adulthood does not modify all these parameters, indicating adolescence is a vulnerable period to the effects of HFD-induced obesity. Finally, exaggerated emotional memory and BLA synaptic plasticity after juvenile HFD are alleviated by a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. Altogether, our results demonstrate that juvenile HFD alters HPA axis reactivity leading to an enhancement of amygdala-dependent synaptic and memory processes. Adolescence represents a period of increased susceptibility to the effects of diet-induced obesity on amygdala function. PMID:25740536

  8. Enhancing Research Capacity in Gerontological Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Chandra M.; Townsend, Aloen; Berkman, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    There is an untapped potential of social work faculty to conduct aging research aimed at enhancing the well-being of older adults. To better exploit this resource, we have designed, implemented, and evaluated a postgraduate training program in aging research. The goal of the program is to build and sustain a community of social work faculty…

  9. Estradiol enhances learning and memory in a spatial memory task and effects levels of monoaminergic neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Luine, V N; Richards, S T; Wu, V Y; Beck, K D

    1998-10-01

    The effects of chronic estrogen treatment on radial arm maze performance and on levels of central monoaminergic and amino acid neurotransmitters were examined in ovariectomized (Ovx) rats. In an eight arms baited paradigm, choice accuracy was enhanced following 12 days but not 3 days of treatment. In addition, performance during acquisition of the eight arms baited maze task was better in estrogen-treated Ovx rats than in Ovx rats. Performance of treated rats was also enhanced in win-shift trials conducted 12 days postestrogen treatment. Working, reference, and working-reference memory was examined when four of the eight arms were baited, and only working memory was improved by estrogen and only after long-term treatment. Activity of Ovx rats on an open field, crossings and rearings, was increased at 5 but not at 35 days following estrogen treatment. In medial prefrontal cortex, levels of NE, DA, and 5-HT were decreased but glutamate and GABA levels were not affected following chronic estrogen treatment. Basal forebrain nuclei also showed changes in monoamines following estrogen. Hippocampal subfields showed no effects of estrogen treatment on monoaminergic or amino acid transmitters. Levels of GABA were increased in the vertical diagonal bands following chronic estrogen. Results show that estrogen enhances learning/memory on a task utilizing spatial memory. Effects in Ovx rats appear to require the chronic (several days) presence of estrogen. Changes in activity of both monoaminergic and amino acid transmitters in the frontal cortex and basal forebrain may contribute to enhancing effects of estrogen on learning/memory. PMID:9799625

  10. Socially shared mourning: construction and consumption of collective memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harju, Anu

    2015-04-01

    Social media, such as YouTube, is increasingly a site of collective remembering where personal tributes to celebrity figures become sites of public mourning. YouTube, especially, is rife with celebrity commemorations. Examining fans' online mourning practices on YouTube, this paper examines video tributes dedicated to the late Steve Jobs, with a focus on collective remembering and collective construction of memory. Combining netnography with critical discourse analysis, the analysis focuses on the user comments where the past unfolds in interaction and meanings are negotiated and contested. The paper argues that celebrity death may, for avid fans, be a source of disenfranchised grief, a type of grief characterised by inadequate social support, usually arising from lack of empathy for the loss. The paper sheds light on the functions digital memorials have for mourning fans (and fandom) and argues that social media sites have come to function as spaces of negotiation, legitimisation and alleviation of disenfranchised grief. It is also suggested that when it comes to disenfranchised grief, and grief work generally, the concept of community be widened to include communities of weak ties, a typical form of communal belonging on social media.

  11. Memory as Social Glue: Close Interpersonal Relationships in Amnesic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Patrick S. R.; Drouin, Héloïse; Kwan, Donna; Moscovitch, Morris; Rosenbaum, R. Shayna

    2012-01-01

    Memory may be crucial for establishing and/or maintaining social bonds. Using the National Social life, Health, and Aging Project questionnaire, we examined close interpersonal relationships in three amnesic people: K.C. and D.A. (who are adult-onset cases) and H.C. (who has developmental amnesia). All three patients were less involved than demographically matched controls with neighbors and religious and community groups. A higher-than-normal percentage of the adult-onset (K.C. and D.A.) cases’ close relationships were with family members, and they had made few new close friends in the decades since the onset of their amnesia. On the other hand, the patient with developmental amnesia (H.C.) had forged a couple of close relationships, including one with her fiancé. Social networks appear to be winnowed, but not obliterated, by amnesia. The obvious explanation for the patients’ reduced social functioning stems from their memory impairment, but we discuss other potentially important factors for future study. PMID:23316176

  12. Failure of Working Memory Training to Enhance Cognition or Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Todd W.; Waskom, Michael L.; Garel, Keri-Lee A.; Cardenas-Iniguez, Carlos; Reynolds, Gretchen O.; Winter, Rebecca; Chang, Patricia; Pollard, Kiersten; Lala, Nupur; Alvarez, George A.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2013-01-01

    Fluid intelligence is important for successful functioning in the modern world, but much evidence suggests that fluid intelligence is largely immutable after childhood. Recently, however, researchers have reported gains in fluid intelligence after multiple sessions of adaptive working memory training in adults. The current study attempted to replicate and expand those results by administering a broad assessment of cognitive abilities and personality traits to young adults who underwent 20 sessions of an adaptive dual n-back working memory training program and comparing their post-training performance on those tests to a matched set of young adults who underwent 20 sessions of an adaptive attentional tracking program. Pre- and post-training measurements of fluid intelligence, standardized intelligence tests, speed of processing, reading skills, and other tests of working memory were assessed. Both training groups exhibited substantial and specific improvements on the trained tasks that persisted for at least 6 months post-training, but no transfer of improvement was observed to any of the non-trained measurements when compared to a third untrained group serving as a passive control. These findings fail to support the idea that adaptive working memory training in healthy young adults enhances working memory capacity in non-trained tasks, fluid intelligence, or other measures of cognitive abilities. PMID:23717453

  13. Adaptive memory: Animacy enhances free recall but impairs cued recall.

    PubMed

    Popp, Earl Y; Serra, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Recent research suggests that human memory systems evolved to remember animate things better than inanimate things. In the present experiments, we examined whether these effects occur for both free recall and cued recall. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the effect of animacy on free recall and cued recall. Participants studied lists of objects and lists of animals for free-recall tests, and studied sets of animal-animal pairs and object-object pairs for cued-recall tests. In Experiment 2, we compared participants' cued recall for English-English, Swahili-English, and English-Swahili word pairs involving either animal or object English words. In Experiment 3, we compared participants' cued recall for animal-animal, object-object, animal-object, and object-animal pairs. Although we were able to replicate past effects of animacy aiding free recall, animacy typically impaired cued recall in the present experiments. More importantly, given the interactions found in the present experiments, we conclude that some factor associated with animacy (e.g., attention capture or mental arousal) is responsible for the present patterns of results. This factor seems to moderate the relationship between animacy and memory, producing a memory advantage for animate stimuli in scenarios where the moderator leads to enhanced target retrievability but a memory disadvantage for animate stimuli in scenarios where the moderator leads to impaired association memory. PMID:26375781

  14. Dietary ketosis enhances memory in mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Krikorian, Robert; Shidler, Marcelle D; Dangelo, Krista; Couch, Sarah C; Benoit, Stephen C; Clegg, Deborah J

    2010-01-01

    We randomly assigned 23 older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment to either a high carbohydrate or very low carbohydrate diet. Following the six-week intervention period, we observed improved verbal memory performance for the low carbohydrate subjects (p = 0.01) as well as reductions in weight (p < 0.0001), waist circumference (p < 0.0001), fasting glucose (p = 0.009), and fasting insulin (p = 0.005). Level of depressive symptoms was not affected. Change in calorie intake, insulin level, and weight were not correlated with memory performance for the entire sample, although a trend toward a moderate relationship between insulin and memory was observed within the low carbohydrate group. Ketone levels were positively correlated with memory performance (p = 0.04). These findings indicate that very low carbohydrate consumption, even in the short-term, can improve memory function in older adults with increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease. While this effect may be attributable in part to correction of hyperinsulinemia, other mechanisms associated with ketosis such as reduced inflammation and enhanced energy metabolism also may have contributed to improved neurocognitive function. Further investigation of this intervention is warranted to evaluate its preventive potential and mechanisms of action in the context of early neurodegeneration. PMID:21130529

  15. How social interactions affect emotional memory accuracy: Evidence from collaborative retrieval and social contagion paradigms.

    PubMed

    Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Choi, Hae-Yoon; Murray, Brendan D; Rajaram, Suparna

    2016-07-01

    In daily life, emotional events are often discussed with others. The influence of these social interactions on the veracity of emotional memories has rarely been investigated. The authors (Choi, Kensinger, & Rajaram Memory and Cognition, 41, 403-415, 2013) previously demonstrated that when the categorical relatedness of information is controlled, emotional items are more accurately remembered than neutral items. The present study examined whether emotion would continue to improve the accuracy of memory when individuals discussed the emotional and neutral events with others. Two different paradigms involving social influences were used to investigate this question and compare evidence. In both paradigms, participants studied stimuli that were grouped into conceptual categories of positive (e.g., celebration), negative (e.g., funeral), or neutral (e.g., astronomy) valence. After a 48-hour delay, recognition memory was tested for studied items and categorically related lures. In the first paradigm, recognition accuracy was compared when memory was tested individually or in a collaborative triad. In the second paradigm, recognition accuracy was compared when a prior retrieval session had occurred individually or with a confederate who supplied categorically related lures. In both of these paradigms, emotional stimuli were remembered more accurately than were neutral stimuli, and this pattern was preserved when social interaction occurred. In fact, in the first paradigm, there was a trend for collaboration to increase the beneficial effect of emotion on memory accuracy, and in the second paradigm, emotional lures were significantly less susceptible to the "social contagion" effect. Together, these results demonstrate that emotional memories can be more accurate than nonemotional ones even when events are discussed with others (Experiment 1) and even when that discussion introduces misinformation (Experiment 2). PMID:26907480

  16. Divided attention can enhance memory encoding: the attentional boost effect in implicit memory.

    PubMed

    Spataro, Pietro; Mulligan, Neil W; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2013-07-01

    Distraction during encoding has long been known to disrupt later memory performance. Contrary to this long-standing result, we show that detecting an infrequent target in a dual-task paradigm actually improves memory encoding for a concurrently presented word, above and beyond the performance reached in the full-attention condition. This absolute facilitation was obtained in 2 perceptual implicit tasks (lexical decision and word fragment completion) but not in a conceptual implicit task (semantic classification). In the case of recognition memory, the facilitation was relative, bringing accuracy in the divided attention condition up to the level of accuracy in the full attention condition. The findings follow from the hypothesis that the attentional boost effect reflects enhanced visual encoding of the study stimulus consequent to the transient orienting response to the dual-task target. PMID:23356238

  17. Memory enhancement by Tamoxifen on amyloidosis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Deepika; Banerjee, Sugato; Basu, Mahua; Mishra, Nibha

    2016-03-01

    Tamoxifen (TMX) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) used in the treatment of breast cancer. Earlier studies show its neuroprotection via regulating apoptosis, microglial functions, and synaptic plasticity. TMX also showed memory enhancement in ovariectomized mice, and protection from amyloid induced damage in hippocampal cell line. These reports encouraged us to explore the role of TMX in relevance to Alzheimer's disease (AD). We report here, the effect of TMX treatment a) on memory, and b) levels of neurotransmitters (acetylcholine (ACh) and dopamine (DA)) in breeding-retired-female mice injected with beta amyloid1-42 (Aβ1-42). Mice were treated with TMX (10mg/kg, i.p.) for 15 days. In Morris water maze test, the TMX treated mice escape latency decreased during training trials. They also spent longer time in the platform quadrant on probe trial, compared to controls. In Passive avoidance test, TMX treated mice avoided stepping on the shock chamber. This suggests that TMX protects memory from Aβ induced toxicity. In frontal cortex, ACh was moderately increased, with TMX treatment. In striatum, dopamine was significantly increased, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) level and DOPAC/DA ratio was decreased post TMX treatment. Therefore, TMX enhances spatial and contextual memory by reducing dopamine metabolism and increasing ACh level in Aβ1-42 injected-breeding-retired-female mice. PMID:26435474

  18. Social networks: Evolving graphs with memory dependent edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindrod, Peter; Parsons, Mark

    2011-10-01

    The plethora of digital communication technologies, and their mass take up, has resulted in a wealth of interest in social network data collection and analysis in recent years. Within many such networks the interactions are transient: thus those networks evolve over time. In this paper we introduce a class of models for such networks using evolving graphs with memory dependent edges, which may appear and disappear according to their recent history. We consider time discrete and time continuous variants of the model. We consider the long term asymptotic behaviour as a function of parameters controlling the memory dependence. In particular we show that such networks may continue evolving forever, or else may quench and become static (containing immortal and/or extinct edges). This depends on the existence or otherwise of certain infinite products and series involving age dependent model parameters. We show how to differentiate between the alternatives based on a finite set of observations. To test these ideas we show how model parameters may be calibrated based on limited samples of time dependent data, and we apply these concepts to three real networks: summary data on mobile phone use from a developing region; online social-business network data from China; and disaggregated mobile phone communications data from a reality mining experiment in the US. In each case we show that there is evidence for memory dependent dynamics, such as that embodied within the class of models proposed here.

  19. Memory for time and place contributes to enhanced confidence in memories for emotional events

    PubMed Central

    Rimmele, Ulrike; Davachi, Lila; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Emotion strengthens the subjective sense of remembering. However, these confidently remembered emotional memories have not been found be more accurate for some types of contextual details. We investigated whether the subjective sense of recollecting negative stimuli is coupled with enhanced memory accuracy for three specific types of central contextual details using the remember/know paradigm and confidence ratings. Our results indicate that the subjective sense of remembering is indeed coupled with better recollection of spatial location and temporal context. In contrast, we found a double-dissociation between the subjective sense of remembering and memory accuracy for colored dots placed in the conceptual center of negative and neutral scenes. These findings show that the enhanced subjective recollective experience for negative stimuli reliably indicates objective recollection for spatial location and temporal context, but not for other types of details, whereas for neutral stimuli, the subjective sense of remembering is coupled with all the types of details assessed. Translating this finding to flashbulb memories, we found that, over time, more participants correctly remembered the location where they learned about the terrorist attacks on 9/11 than any other canonical feature. Likewise participants’ confidence was higher in their memory for location vs. other canonical features. These findings indicate that the strong recollective experience of a negative event corresponds to an accurate memory for some kinds of contextual details, but not other kinds. This discrepancy provides further evidence that the subjective sense of remembering negative events is driven by a different mechanism than the subjective sense of remembering neutral events. PMID:22642353

  20. Video Game Training Enhances Visuospatial Working Memory and Episodic Memory in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M; Mayas, Julia; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2016-01-01

    In this longitudinal intervention study with experimental and control groups, we investigated the effects of video game training on the visuospatial working memory (WM) and episodic memory of healthy older adults. Participants were 19 volunteer older adults, who received 15 1-h video game training sessions with a series of video games selected from a commercial package (Lumosity), and a control group of 20 healthy older adults. The results showed that the performance of the trainees improved significantly in all the practiced video games. Most importantly, we found significant enhancements after training in the trained group and no change in the control group in two computerized tasks designed to assess visuospatial WM, namely the Corsi blocks task and the Jigsaw puzzle task. The episodic memory and short-term memory of the trainees also improved. Gains in some WM and episodic memory tasks were maintained during a 3-month follow-up period. These results suggest that the aging brain still retains some degree of plasticity, and that video game training might be an effective intervention tool to improve WM and other cognitive functions in older adults. PMID:27199723

  1. Video Game Training Enhances Visuospatial Working Memory and Episodic Memory in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M.; Mayas, Julia; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2016-01-01

    In this longitudinal intervention study with experimental and control groups, we investigated the effects of video game training on the visuospatial working memory (WM) and episodic memory of healthy older adults. Participants were 19 volunteer older adults, who received 15 1-h video game training sessions with a series of video games selected from a commercial package (Lumosity), and a control group of 20 healthy older adults. The results showed that the performance of the trainees improved significantly in all the practiced video games. Most importantly, we found significant enhancements after training in the trained group and no change in the control group in two computerized tasks designed to assess visuospatial WM, namely the Corsi blocks task and the Jigsaw puzzle task. The episodic memory and short-term memory of the trainees also improved. Gains in some WM and episodic memory tasks were maintained during a 3-month follow-up period. These results suggest that the aging brain still retains some degree of plasticity, and that video game training might be an effective intervention tool to improve WM and other cognitive functions in older adults. PMID:27199723

  2. Pharmacological enhancement of memory or cognition in normal subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Gary; Cox, Conor D.; Gall, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of expanding memory or cognitive capabilities above the levels in high functioning individuals is a topic of intense discussion among scientists and in society at large. The majority of animal studies use behavioral endpoint measures; this has produced valuable information but limited predictability for human outcomes. Accordingly, several groups are pursuing a complementary strategy with treatments targeting synaptic events associated with memory encoding or forebrain network operations. Transcription and translation figure prominently in substrate work directed at enhancement. Notably, the question of why new proteins would be needed for a now-forming memory given that learning-driven synthesis presumably occurred throughout the immediate past has been largely ignored. Despite this conceptual problem, and some controversy, recent studies have reinvigorated the idea that selective gene manipulation is a plausible route to enhancement. Efforts to improve memory by facilitating synaptic encoding of information have also progressed, in part due of breakthroughs on mechanisms that stabilize learning-related, long-term potentiation (LTP). These advances point to a reductionistic hypothesis for a diversity of experimental results on enhancement, and identify under-explored possibilities. Cognitive enhancement remains an elusive goal, in part due to the difficulty of defining the target. The popular view of cognition as a collection of definable computations seems to miss the fluid, integrative process experienced by high functioning individuals. The neurobiological approach obviates these psychological issues to directly test the consequences of improving throughput in networks underlying higher order behaviors. The few relevant studies testing drugs that selectively promote excitatory transmission indicate that it is possible to expand cortical networks engaged by complex tasks and that this is accompanied by capabilities not found in normal animals

  3. Rescripting Early Memories Linked to Negative Images in Social Phobia: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Jennifer; Hackmann, Ann; Clark, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Negative self-images are a maintaining factor in social phobia. A retrospective study (Hackmann, A., Clark, D.M., McManus, F. (2000). Recurrent images and early memories in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 601-610) suggested that the images may be linked to early memories of unpleasant social experiences. This preliminary study…

  4. Oxytocin Enhances Social Persuasion during Hypnosis

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Richard A.; Hung, Lynette

    2013-01-01

    It has long been argued that hypnosis cannot promote behaviors that people will not otherwise engage in. Oxytocin can enhance trust in others, and may promote the extent to which a hypnotized person complies with the suggestion of a hypnotist. This double-blind placebo study administered oxytocin or placebo to high hypnotizable participants (N = 28), who were then administered hypnotic suggestions for socially unorthodox behaviors, including swearing during the experiment, singing out loud, and dancing in response to a posthypnotic cue. Participants who received oxytocin were significantly more likely to swear and dance than those who received the placebo. This finding may be interpreted in terms of oxytocin increasing social compliance in response as a function of (a) increased trust in the hypnotist, (b) reduced social anxiety, or (c) enhanced sensitivity to cues to respond to experimental expectations. These results point to the potential role of oxytocin in social persuasion. PMID:23577153

  5. Oxytocin enhances social persuasion during hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Richard A; Hung, Lynette

    2013-01-01

    It has long been argued that hypnosis cannot promote behaviors that people will not otherwise engage in. Oxytocin can enhance trust in others, and may promote the extent to which a hypnotized person complies with the suggestion of a hypnotist. This double-blind placebo study administered oxytocin or placebo to high hypnotizable participants (N = 28), who were then administered hypnotic suggestions for socially unorthodox behaviors, including swearing during the experiment, singing out loud, and dancing in response to a posthypnotic cue. Participants who received oxytocin were significantly more likely to swear and dance than those who received the placebo. This finding may be interpreted in terms of oxytocin increasing social compliance in response as a function of (a) increased trust in the hypnotist, (b) reduced social anxiety, or (c) enhanced sensitivity to cues to respond to experimental expectations. These results point to the potential role of oxytocin in social persuasion. PMID:23577153

  6. Joint Attention, Social-Cognition, and Recognition Memory in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwanguk; Mundy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The early emerging capacity for Joint Attention (JA), or socially coordinated visual attention, is thought to be integral to the development of social-cognition in childhood. Recent studies have also begun to suggest that JA affects adult cognition as well, but methodological limitations hamper research on this topic. To address this issue we developed a novel virtual reality paradigm that integrates eye-tracking and virtual avatar technology to measure two types of JA in adults, Initiating Joint Attention (IJA) and Responding to Joint Attention (RJA). Distinguishing these types of JA in research is important because they are thought to reflect unique, as well as common constellations of processes involved in human social-cognition and social learning. We tested the validity of the differentiation of IJA and RJA in our paradigm in two studies of picture recognition memory in undergraduate students. Study 1 indicated that young adults correctly identified more pictures they had previously viewed in an IJA condition (67%) than in a RJA (58%) condition, η2 = 0.57. Study 2 controlled for IJA and RJA stimulus viewing time differences, and replicated the findings of Study 1. The implications of these results for the validity of the paradigm and research on the affects of JA on adult social-cognition are discussed. PMID:22712011

  7. Stress enhances retrieval of drug-related memories in abstinent heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Yan; Shi, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Epstein, David H; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Yu; Kosten, Thomas R; Lu, Lin

    2010-02-01

    Stress is associated with relapse to drugs after abstinence, but the mechanisms for this association are unclear. One mechanism may be that stress enhances abstinent addicts' recall of memories of drugs as stress relievers. This study assessed the effects of stress on free recall and cued recall of 10 heroin-related and 10 neutral words learned 24 h earlier by 102 abstinent heroin addicts. These participants were randomly assigned to three experiments that also assessed attention and working memory. Experiment 1 used a psychosocial stressor (Trier social stress test (TSST)) before testing for recall of heroin-related words. Experiment 2 added administration of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol 1 h before the psychosocial stressor. Experiment 3 added administration of either cortisol with propranolol, cortisol alone, or propranolol alone 1 h before word recall to determine whether stress enhancement of heroin-related word recall required noradrenergic-glucocorticoid interactions. We found that free recall of heroin-related words in abstinent addicts was enhanced after stress or cortisol administration when compared with a non-stress condition or placebo, respectively, whereas these interventions had no effect on neutral word recall. beta-adrenergic blockade blocked the enhancing effect of stress or cortisol on free recall of heroin-related words. Neither stress nor cortisol affected cued recall, attention, or working memory. The potential of beta-adrenergic blockade to reduce or block stress-induced enhancement of drug-related memory retrieval may be relevant to preventing stress-induced relapse in abstinent heroin addicts. PMID:19890257

  8. Spatial working memory is enhanced in children by differential outcomes.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Laura; Vivas, Ana B; Fuentes, Luis J; Estévez, Angeles F

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is essential to academic achievement. Any enhancement of WM abilities may improve children's school performance. We tested the usefulness of the differential outcomes procedure (DOP) to enhance typically developing children's performance on a spatial WM task. The DOP involves a conditional discriminative learning task in which a correct choice response to a specific stimulus-stimulus association is reinforced with a particular reinforcer (outcome). We adapted a spatial memory task to be used with the DOP. Participants had to learn and retain in their WM four target locations of eight possible locations where a shape could be presented. Two groups of 5- and 7-year-old children performed the low-attentional version of the spatial task, and an additional group of 7-year-old children performed the high-attentional version. The results showed that compared with the standard non-differential outcomes procedure (NOP), the DOP produced better memory-based performance in 5-year-old children with the low-attentional task and in 7-year-old children with the high-attentional task. Additionally, delay intervals impaired performance in the NOP but not in the DOP. These findings suggest that the DOP may be a useful complement to other WM intervention programs targeted to improve children's academic performance at school. PMID:26596777

  9. Spatial working memory is enhanced in children by differential outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Esteban, Laura; Vivas, Ana B.; Fuentes, Luis J.; Estévez, Angeles F.

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is essential to academic achievement. Any enhancement of WM abilities may improve children’s school performance. We tested the usefulness of the differential outcomes procedure (DOP) to enhance typically developing children’s performance on a spatial WM task. The DOP involves a conditional discriminative learning task in which a correct choice response to a specific stimulus-stimulus association is reinforced with a particular reinforcer (outcome). We adapted a spatial memory task to be used with the DOP. Participants had to learn and retain in their WM four target locations of eight possible locations where a shape could be presented. Two groups of 5- and 7-year-old children performed the low-attentional version of the spatial task, and an additional group of 7-year-old children performed the high-attentional version. The results showed that compared with the standard non-differential outcomes procedure (NOP), the DOP produced better memory-based performance in 5-year-old children with the low-attentional task and in 7-year-old children with the high-attentional task. Additionally, delay intervals impaired performance in the NOP but not in the DOP. These findings suggest that the DOP may be a useful complement to other WM intervention programs targeted to improve children´s academic performance at school. PMID:26596777

  10. Can survival processing enhance story memory? Testing the generalizability of the adaptive memory framework.

    PubMed

    Seamon, John G; Bohn, Justin M; Coddington, Inslee E; Ebling, Maritza C; Grund, Ethan M; Haring, Catherine T; Jang, Sue-Jung; Kim, Daniel; Liong, Christopher; Paley, Frances M; Pang, Luke K; Siddique, Ashik H

    2012-07-01

    Research from the adaptive memory framework shows that thinking about words in terms of their survival value in an incidental learning task enhances their free recall relative to other semantic encoding strategies and intentional learning (Nairne, Pandeirada, & Thompson, 2008). We found similar results. When participants used incidental survival encoding for a list of words (e.g., "Will this object enhance my survival if I were stranded in the grasslands of a foreign land?"), they produced better free recall on a surprise test than did participants who intentionally tried to remember those words (Experiment 1). We also found this survival processing advantage when the words were presented within the context of a survival or neutral story (Experiment 2). However, this advantage did not extent to memory for a story's factual content, regardless of whether the participants were tested by cued recall (Experiment 3) or free recall (Experiments 4-5). Listening to a story for understanding under intentional or incidental learning conditions was just as good as survival processing for remembering story content. The functionalist approach to thinking about memory as an evolutionary adaptation designed to solve reproductive fitness problems provides a different theoretical framework for research, but it is not yet clear if survival processing has general applicability or is effective only for processing discrete stimuli in terms of fitness-relevant scenarios from our past. PMID:22288816

  11. Enhancing placebo effects: insights from social psychology.

    PubMed

    Sliwinski, Jim; Elkins, Gary R

    2013-01-01

    Placebo effects are widely recognized as having a potent impact upon treatment outcomes in both medical and psychological interventions, including hypnosis. In research utilizing randomized clinical trials, there is usually an effort to minimize or control placebo effects. However, in clinical practice there may be significant benefits in enhancing placebo effects. Prior research from the field of social psychology has identified three factors that may enhance placebo effects, namely: priming, client perceptions, and the theory of planned behavior. These factors are reviewed and illustrated via a case example. The consideration of social-psychological factors to enhance positive expectancies and beliefs has implications for clinical practice as well as future research into hypnotic interventions. PMID:23488251

  12. Enhancing Placebo Effects: Insights From Social Psychology

    PubMed Central

    SLIWINSKI, JIM; ELKINS, GARY R.

    2012-01-01

    Placebo effects are widely recognized as having a potent impact upon treatment outcomes in both medical and psychological interventions, including hypnosis. In research utilizing randomized clinical trials, there is usually an effort to minimize or control placebo effects. However, in clinical practice there may be significant benefits in enhancing placebo effects. Prior research from the field of social psychology has identified three factors that may enhance placebo effects, namely: priming, client perceptions, and the theory of planned behavior. These factors are reviewed and illustrated via a case example. The consideration of social-psychological factors to enhance positive expectancies and beliefs has implications for clinical practice as well as future research into hypnotic interventions. PMID:23488251

  13. Donor/recipient enhancement of memory in rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Deadwyler, Sam A.; Berger, Theodore W.; Sweatt, Andrew J.; Song, Dong; Chan, Rosa H. M.; Opris, Ioan; Gerhardt, Greg A.; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.; Hampson, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The critical role of the mammalian hippocampus in the formation, translation and retrieval of memory has been documented over many decades. There are many theories of how the hippocampus operates to encode events and a precise mechanism was recently identified in rats performing a short-term memory task which demonstrated that successful information encoding was promoted via specific patterns of activity generated within ensembles of hippocampal neurons. In the study presented here, these “representations” were extracted via a customized non-linear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) mathematical model which allowed prediction of successful performance on specific trials within the testing session. A unique feature of this characterization was demonstrated when successful information encoding patterns were derived online from well-trained “donor” animals during difficult long-delay trials and delivered via online electrical stimulation to synchronously tested naïve “recipient” animals never before exposed to the delay feature of the task. By transferring such model-derived trained (donor) animal hippocampal firing patterns via stimulation to coupled naïve recipient animals, their task performance was facilitated in a direct “donor-recipient” manner. This provides the basis for utilizing extracted appropriate neural information from one brain to induce, recover, or enhance memory related processing in the brain of another subject. PMID:24421759

  14. Salvia lavandulaefolia (Spanish sage) enhances memory in healthy young volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tildesley, N T J; Kennedy, D O; Perry, E K; Ballard, C G; Savelev, S; Wesnes, K A; Scholey, A B

    2003-06-01

    Sage (Salvia) has a longstanding reputation in British herbal encyclopaedias as an agent that enhances memory, although there is little evidence regarding the efficacy of sage from systematized trials. Based on known pharmacokinetic and binding properties, it was hypothesised that acute administration of sage would enhance memory in young adult volunteers. Two experiments utilised a placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced, crossover methodology. In Trial 1, 20 participants received 50, 100 and 150 microl of a standardised essential oil extract of Salvia lavandulaefolia and placebo. In Trial 2, 24 participants received 25 and 50 microl of a standardised essential oil extract of S. lavandulaefolia and placebo. Doses were separated by a 7-day washout period with treatment order determined by Latin squares. Assessment was undertaken using the Cognitive Drug Research computerised test battery prior to treatment and 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h thereafter. The primary outcome measures were immediate and delayed word recall. The 50 microl dose of Salvia essential oil significantly improved immediate word recall in both studies. These results represent the first systematic evidence that Salvia is capable of acute modulation of cognition in healthy young adults. PMID:12895685

  15. Graded Effects of Social Conformity on Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Axmacher, Nikolai; Gossen, Anna; Elger, Christian E.; Fell, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the opinion of confederates in a group influences recognition memory, but inconsistent results have been obtained concerning the question of whether recognition of items as old and new are affected similarly, possibly because only one or two confederates are present during the recognition phase. Here, we present data from a study where recognition of novel faces was tested in the presence of four confederates. In a long version of this experiment, recognition of items as old and new was similarly affected by group responses. However, in the short version, recognition of old items depended proportionally on the number of correct group responses, while rejection of new items only decreased significantly when all confederates gave an incorrect response. These findings indicate that differential effects of social conformity on recognition of items as old and new occur in situations with an intermediate level of group pressure. PMID:20174641

  16. Graded effects of social conformity on recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Axmacher, Nikolai; Gossen, Anna; Elger, Christian E; Fell, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the opinion of confederates in a group influences recognition memory, but inconsistent results have been obtained concerning the question of whether recognition of items as old and new are affected similarly, possibly because only one or two confederates are present during the recognition phase. Here, we present data from a study where recognition of novel faces was tested in the presence of four confederates. In a long version of this experiment, recognition of items as old and new was similarly affected by group responses. However, in the short version, recognition of old items depended proportionally on the number of correct group responses, while rejection of new items only decreased significantly when all confederates gave an incorrect response. These findings indicate that differential effects of social conformity on recognition of items as old and new occur in situations with an intermediate level of group pressure. PMID:20174641

  17. Narrative, memory and social representations: a conversation between history and social psychology.

    PubMed

    Jovchelovitch, Sandra

    2012-12-01

    This paper explores relations between narrative, memory and social representations by examining how social representations express the ways in which communities deal with the historical past. Drawing on a case study of social representations of the Brazilian public sphere, it shows how a specific narrative of origins re-invents history as a useful mythological resource for defending identity, building inter-group solidarity and maintaining social cohesion. Produced by a time-travelling dialogue between multiple sources, this historical narrative is functional both to transform, to stabilise and give resilience to specific social representations of public life. The Brazilian case shows that historical narratives, which tend to be considered as part of the stable core of representational fields, are neither homogenous nor consensual but open polyphasic platforms for the construction of alternative, often contradictory, representations. These representations do not go away because they are ever changing and situated, recruit multiple ways of thinking and fulfil functions of identity, inter-group solidarity and social cohesion. In the disjunction between historiography and the past as social representation are the challenges and opportunities for the dialogue between historians and social psychologists. PMID:23065375

  18. Are Autobiographical Memories Inherently Social? Evidence from an fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Wilbers, Linda; Deuker, Lorena; Fell, Juergen; Axmacher, Nikolai

    2012-01-01

    The story of our lifetime – our narrative self – is constructed from our autobiographical memories. A central claim of social psychology is that this narrative self is inherently social: When we construct our lives, we do so in a real or imagined interaction. This predicts that self-referential processes which are involved in recall of autobiographical memories overlap with processes involved in social interactions. Indeed, previous functional MRI studies indicate that regions in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are activated during autobiographical memory recall and virtual communication. However, no fMRI study has investigated recall of autobiographical memories in a real-life interaction. We developed a novel paradigm in which participants overtly reported self-related and other-related memories to an experimenter, whose non-verbal reactions were being filmed and online displayed to the participants in the scanner. We found that recall of autobiographical vs. non-autobiographical memories was associated with activation of the mPFC, as was recall in the social as compared to a non-social control condition; however, both contrasts involved different non-overlapping regions within the mPFC. These results indicate that self-referential processes involved in autobiographical memory recall are different from processes supporting social interactions, and argue against the hypothesis that autobiographical memories are inherently social. PMID:23028774

  19. Chronic minocycline treatment improves social recognition memory in adult male Fmr1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yau, Suk Yu; Chiu, Christine; Vetrici, Mariana; Christie, Brian R

    2016-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a mutation in the Fmr1 gene that leads to silencing of the gene and a loss of its gene product, Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Some of the key behavioral phenotypes for FXS include abnormal social anxiety and sociability. Here we show that Fmr1 knock-out (KO) mice exhibit impaired social recognition when presented with a novel mouse, and they display normal social interactions in other sociability tests. Administering minocycline to Fmr1 KO mice throughout critical stages of neural development improved social recognition memory in the novel mouse recognition task. To determine if synaptic changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) could have played a role in this improvement, we examined PSD-95, a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase family, and signaling molecules (ERK1/2, and Akt) linked to synaptic plasticity in the PFC. Our analyses indicated that while minocycline treatment can enhance behavioral performance, it does not enhance expression of PSD-95, ERK1/2 or Akt in the PFC. PMID:27291517

  20. Antidepressant drugs specifically inhibiting noradrenaline reuptake enhance recognition memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Feltmann, Kristin; Konradsson-Geuken, Åsa; De Bundel, Dimitri; Lindskog, Maria; Schilström, Björn

    2015-12-01

    Patients suffering from major depression often experience memory deficits even after the remission of mood symptoms, and many antidepressant drugs do not affect, or impair, memory in animals and humans. However, some antidepressant drugs, after a single dose, enhance cognition in humans (Harmer et al., 2009). To compare different classes of antidepressant drugs for their potential as memory enhancers, we used a version of the novel object recognition task in which rats spontaneously forget objects 24 hr after their presentation. Antidepressant drugs were injected systemically 30 min before or directly after the training phase (Session 1 [S1]). Post-S1 injections were used to test for specific memory-consolidation effects. The noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors reboxetine and atomoxetine, as well as the serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor duloxetine, injected prior to S1 significantly enhanced recognition memory. In contrast, the serotonin reuptake inhibitors citalopram and paroxetine and the cyclic antidepressant drugs desipramine and mianserin did not enhance recognition memory. Post-S1 injection of either reboxetine or citalopram significantly enhanced recognition memory, indicating an effect on memory consolidation. The fact that citalopram had an effect only when injected after S1 suggests that it may counteract its own consolidation-enhancing effect by interfering with memory acquisition. However, pretreatment with citalopram did not attenuate reboxetine's memory-enhancing effect. The D1/5-receptor antagonist SCH23390 blunted reboxetine's memory-enhancing effect, indicating a role of dopaminergic transmission in reboxetine-induced recognition memory enhancement. Our results suggest that antidepressant drugs specifically inhibiting noradrenaline reuptake enhance cognition and may be beneficial in the treatment of cognitive symptoms of depression. PMID:26501179

  1. A cortical neural prosthesis for restoring and enhancing memory

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Theodore W; Hampson, Robert E; Song, Dong; Goonawardena, Anushka; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z; Deadwyler, Sam A

    2011-01-01

    A primary objective in developing a neural prosthesis is to replace neural circuitry in the brain that no longer functions appropriately. Such a goal requires artificial reconstruction of neuron-to-neuron connections in a way that can be recognized by the remaining normal circuitry, and that promotes appropriate interaction. In this study, the application of a specially designed neural prosthesis using a multi-input/multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear model is demonstrated by using trains of electrical stimulation pulses to substitute for MIMO model derived ensemble firing patterns. Ensembles of CA3 and CA1 hippocampal neurons, recorded from rats performing a delayed-nonmatch-to-sample (DNMS) memory task, exhibited successful encoding of trial-specific sample lever information in the form of different spatiotemporal firing patterns. MIMO patterns, identified online and in real-time, were employed within a closed-loop behavioral paradigm. Results showed that the model was able to predict successful performance on the same trial. Also, MIMO model-derived patterns, delivered as electrical stimulation to the same electrodes, improved performance under normal testing conditions and, more importantly, were capable of recovering performance when delivered to animals with ensemble hippocampal activity compromised by pharmacologic blockade of synaptic transmission. These integrated experimental-modeling studies show for the first time that, with sufficient information about the neural coding of memories, a neural prosthesis capable of real-time diagnosis and manipulation of the encoding process can restore and even enhance cognitive, mnemonic processes. PMID:21677369

  2. Revisiting propranolol and PTSD: Memory erasure or extinction enhancement?

    PubMed

    Giustino, Thomas F; Fitzgerald, Paul J; Maren, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been described as the only neuropsychiatric disorder with a known cause, yet effective behavioral and pharmacotherapies remain elusive for many afflicted individuals. PTSD is characterized by heightened noradrenergic signaling, as well as a resistance to extinction learning. Research aimed at promoting more effective treatment of PTSD has focused on memory erasure (disrupting reconsolidation) and/or enhancing extinction retention through pharmacological manipulations. Propranolol, a β-adrenoceptor antagonist, has received considerable attention for its therapeutic potential in PTSD, although its impact on patients is not always effective. In this review, we briefly examine the consequences of β-noradrenergic manipulations on both reconsolidation and extinction learning in rodents and in humans. We suggest that propranolol is effective as a fear-reducing agent when paired with behavioral therapy soon after trauma when psychological stress is high, possibly preventing or dampening the later development of PTSD. In individuals who have already suffered from PTSD for a significant period of time, propranolol may be less effective at disrupting reconsolidation of strong fear memories. Also, when PTSD has already developed, chronic treatment with propranolol may be more effective than acute intervention, given that individuals with PTSD tend to experience long-term, elevated noradrenergic hyperarousal. PMID:26808441

  3. A cortical neural prosthesis for restoring and enhancing memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Theodore W.; Hampson, Robert E.; Song, Dong; Goonawardena, Anushka; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.; Deadwyler, Sam A.

    2011-08-01

    A primary objective in developing a neural prosthesis is to replace neural circuitry in the brain that no longer functions appropriately. Such a goal requires artificial reconstruction of neuron-to-neuron connections in a way that can be recognized by the remaining normal circuitry, and that promotes appropriate interaction. In this study, the application of a specially designed neural prosthesis using a multi-input/multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear model is demonstrated by using trains of electrical stimulation pulses to substitute for MIMO model derived ensemble firing patterns. Ensembles of CA3 and CA1 hippocampal neurons, recorded from rats performing a delayed-nonmatch-to-sample (DNMS) memory task, exhibited successful encoding of trial-specific sample lever information in the form of different spatiotemporal firing patterns. MIMO patterns, identified online and in real-time, were employed within a closed-loop behavioral paradigm. Results showed that the model was able to predict successful performance on the same trial. Also, MIMO model-derived patterns, delivered as electrical stimulation to the same electrodes, improved performance under normal testing conditions and, more importantly, were capable of recovering performance when delivered to animals with ensemble hippocampal activity compromised by pharmacologic blockade of synaptic transmission. These integrated experimental-modeling studies show for the first time that, with sufficient information about the neural coding of memories, a neural prosthesis capable of real-time diagnosis and manipulation of the encoding process can restore and even enhance cognitive, mnemonic processes.

  4. Enhanced memory performance thanks to neural network assortativity

    SciTech Connect

    Franciscis, S. de; Johnson, S.; Torres, J. J.

    2011-03-24

    The behaviour of many complex dynamical systems has been found to depend crucially on the structure of the underlying networks of interactions. An intriguing feature of empirical networks is their assortativity--i.e., the extent to which the degrees of neighbouring nodes are correlated. However, until very recently it was difficult to take this property into account analytically, most work being exclusively numerical. We get round this problem by considering ensembles of equally correlated graphs and apply this novel technique to the case of attractor neural networks. Assortativity turns out to be a key feature for memory performance in these systems - so much so that for sufficiently correlated topologies the critical temperature diverges. We predict that artificial and biological neural systems could significantly enhance their robustness to noise by developing positive correlations.

  5. Enhancing Working Memory Training with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Au, Jacky; Katz, Benjamin; Buschkuehl, Martin; Bunarjo, Kimberly; Senger, Thea; Zabel, Chelsea; Jaeggi, Susanne M; Jonides, John

    2016-09-01

    Working memory (WM) is a fundamental cognitive ability that supports complex thought but is limited in capacity. Thus, WM training interventions have become very popular as a means of potentially improving WM-related skills. Another promising intervention that has gained increasing traction in recent years is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a noninvasive form of brain stimulation that can modulate cortical excitability and temporarily increase brain plasticity. As such, it has the potential to boost learning and enhance performance on cognitive tasks. This study assessed the efficacy of tDCS to supplement WM training. Sixty-two participants were randomized to receive either right prefrontal, left prefrontal, or sham stimulation with concurrent visuospatial WM training over the course of seven training sessions. Results showed that tDCS enhanced training performance, which was strikingly preserved several months after training completion. Furthermore, we observed stronger effects when tDCS was spaced over a weekend break relative to consecutive daily training, and we also demonstrated selective transfer in the right prefrontal group to nontrained tasks of visual and spatial WM. These findings shed light on how tDCS may be leveraged as a tool to enhance performance on WM-intensive learning tasks. PMID:27167403

  6. Odor-enriched environment rescues long-term social memory, but does not improve olfaction in social isolated adult mice.

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Isabela D; Monteiro, Brisa M M; Cornélio, Guilherme O S; Fonseca, Cristina S; Moraes, Márcio F D; Pereira, Grace S

    2012-03-17

    Prolonged permanence of animals under social isolation (SI) arouses a variety of psychological symptoms like aggression, stress, anxiety and depression. However, short-term SI is commonly used to evaluate social memory. Interestingly, the social memory cannot be accessed with delays higher than 30min in SI mice. Our hypothesis is that SI with intermediate duration, like one week (1w), impairs the long-term storage of new social information (S-LTM), without affecting anxiety or other types of memories, because the SI compromises the olfactory function of the animal. Our results demonstrated that SI impaired S-LTM, without affecting other kinds of memory or anxiety. In addition, the SI increased the latency in the buried-food finding task, but did not affect the habituation or the discrimination of odors. Next, we postulated that if continuous input to the olfactory system is fundamental for the maintenance of the olfactory function and social memory persistence, isolated mice under odor-enriched environment (OEE) should behave like group-housed (GH) animals. In fact, the OEE prevented the S-LTM deficit imposed by the SI. However, OEE did not restore the SI mice olfaction to the GH mice level. Our results suggest that SI modulates olfaction and social memory persistence, probably, by independent mechanisms. We also showed for the first time that OEE rescued S-LTM in SI mice through a mechanism not necessarily involved with olfaction. PMID:22226622

  7. Evaluation and memory of social events in borderline personality disorder: Effects of valence and self-referential context.

    PubMed

    Winter, Dorina; Koplin, Katrin; Schmahl, Christian; Bohus, Martin; Lis, Stefanie

    2016-06-30

    People's memory of past social encounters influences current social interactions. Social rejection has been shown to increase people's memory for social events particularly when referring to others rather than themselves. Social rejection and neglect often characterize biographies of individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Using a social memory task, we investigated whether the evaluation and memory of social events is altered in BPD and whether this depends on reference to the self or others. 30 patients with BPD and 30 healthy controls evaluated the valence of positive, neutral, and negative standardized events, which were either social or nonsocial. Subsequently, participants had to recall these events. BPD patients evaluated social events of negative and neutral valence as more negative than healthy controls. Further, only BPD patients tended to preferentially recall self-referential social events. These findings suggest altered self-referential processing of social events that affects both the evaluation and the memory for social events. PMID:27078755

  8. Why are you telling me that? A conceptual model of the social function of autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Alea, Nicole; Bluck, Susan

    2003-03-01

    In an effort to stimulate and guide empirical work within a functional framework, this paper provides a conceptual model of the social functions of autobiographical memory (AM) across the lifespan. The model delineates the processes and variables involved when AMs are shared to serve social functions. Components of the model include: lifespan contextual influences, the qualitative characteristics of memory (emotionality and level of detail recalled), the speaker's characteristics (age, gender, and personality), the familiarity and similarity of the listener to the speaker, the level of responsiveness during the memory-sharing process, and the nature of the social relationship in which the memory sharing occurs (valence and length of the relationship). These components are shown to influence the type of social function served and/or, the extent to which social functions are served. Directions for future empirical work to substantiate the model and hypotheses derived from the model are provided. PMID:12820829

  9. The Emergence of Autobiographical Memory: A Social Cultural Developmental Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Katherine; Fivush, Robyn

    2004-01-01

    The authors present a multicomponent dynamic developmental theory of human autobiographical memory that emerges gradually across the preschool years. The components that contribute to the process of emergence include basic memory abilities, language and narrative, adult memory talk, temporal understanding, and understanding of self and others. The…

  10. Playing nice: a multi-methodological study on the effects of social conformity on memory

    PubMed Central

    Deuker, Lorena; Müller, Anna R.; Montag, Christian; Markett, Sebastian; Reuter, Martin; Fell, Juergen; Trautner, Peter; Axmacher, Nikolai

    2013-01-01

    Conformity is an important aspect of social behavior. Two main motives have been identified: people may adapt their behavior to “play nice” despite knowing better (normative conformity) or they may accept the others' opinion as a valid source of information (informative conformity). Neuroimaging studies can help to distinguish between these two possibilities. Here, we present a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study on memory conformity in a real group situation. We investigated the effects of group pressure on activity in hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) which likely support informative and normative memory conformity, respectively. Furthermore, we related the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4680 [called Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met] on the gene coding for COMT to both behavior and fMRI activation. Homozygous Met-allele carriers (Val−) behaved more conformist than carriers of at least one Val-allele (Val+). In the neuroimaging data, we compared trials in which subjects were confronted with a majority of incorrect group responses to trials in which they were confronted with a majority of correct group responses. We found increased hippocampal activity when the majority of the group was correct, possibly indicating retrieval processes. Moreover, we observed enhanced activity in the ACC when the majority of the group was incorrect, suggesting that conformity was mostly normative. Most interestingly, this latter effect was more pronounced for Val− as compared to Val+ participants. This offers a speculative explanation for the higher behavioral levels of social conformity in Val− allele carriers, because their subjectively perceived conflict in the presence of an incorrect group majority may have been higher. Overall, this study demonstrates how the mechanisms leading to complex social behavior such as conformity can be studied by combining genetic analyses and fMRI in social neuroscience paradigms. PMID

  11. Improving outcome for mental disorders by enhancing memory for treatment.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Allison G; Lee, Jason; Smith, Rita L; Gumport, Nicole B; Hollon, Steven D; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Hein, Kerrie; Dolsen, Michael R; Haman, Kirsten L; Kanady, Jennifer C; Thompson, Monique A; Abrons, Deidre

    2016-06-01

    Patients exhibit poor memory for treatment. A novel Memory Support Intervention, derived from basic science in cognitive psychology and education, is tested with the goal of improving patient memory for treatment and treatment outcome. Adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) were randomized to 14 sessions of cognitive therapy (CT)+Memory Support (n = 25) or CT-as-usual (n = 23). Outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-treatment and 6 months later. Memory support was greater in CT+Memory Support compared to the CT-as-usual. Compared to CT-as-usual, small to medium effect sizes were observed for recall of treatment points at post-treatment. There was no difference between the treatment arms on depression severity (primary outcome). However, the odds of meeting criteria for 'response' and 'remission' were higher in CT+Memory Support compared with CT-as-usual. CT+Memory Support also showed an advantage on functional impairment. While some decline was observed, the advantage of CT+Memory Support was evident through 6-month follow-up. Patients with less than 16 years of education experience greater benefits from memory support than those with 16 or more years of education. Memory support can be manipulated, may improve patient memory for treatment and may be associated with an improved outcome. PMID:27089159

  12. Training of Attentional Filtering, but Not of Memory Storage, Enhances Working Memory Efficiency by Strengthening the Neuronal Gatekeeper Network.

    PubMed

    Schmicker, Marlen; Schwefel, Melanie; Vellage, Anne-Katrin; Müller, Notger G

    2016-04-01

    Memory training (MT) in older adults with memory deficits often leads to frustration and, therefore, is usually not recommended. Here, we pursued an alternative approach and looked for transfer effects of 1-week attentional filter training (FT) on working memory performance and its neuronal correlates in young healthy humans. The FT effects were compared with pure MT, which lacked the necessity to filter out irrelevant information. Before and after training, all participants performed an fMRI experiment that included a combined task in which stimuli had to be both filtered based on color and stored in memory. We found that training induced processing changes by biasing either filtering or storage. FT induced larger transfer effects on the untrained cognitive function than MT. FT increased neuronal activity in frontal parts of the neuronal gatekeeper network, which is proposed to hinder irrelevant information from being unnecessarily stored in memory. MT decreased neuronal activity in the BG part of the gatekeeper network but enhanced activity in the parietal storage node. We take these findings as evidence that FT renders working memory more efficient by strengthening the BG-prefrontal gatekeeper network. MT, on the other hand, simply stimulates storage of any kind of information. These findings illustrate a tight connection between working memory and attention, and they may open up new avenues for ameliorating memory deficits in patients with cognitive impairments. PMID:26765946

  13. The memory enhancement effect of emotion is absent in conceptual implicit memory.

    PubMed

    Ramponi, Cristina; Handelsman, Gemma; Barnard, Philip J

    2010-04-01

    Memory for emotional stimuli is superior to memory for neutral stimuli. This study investigated whether this memory advantage is present in implicit memory. Memory was tested with a test of explicit memory (associate cued recall) and a test of conceptual implicit memory (free association) identical in all respects apart from the retrieval instructions. After studying emotional and neutral paired associates, participants saw the first member of the pair, the cue; in the test of explicit memory participants were instructed to recall the associate; in the test of implicit memory participants were instructed to generate the first word coming to mind associated to the word. Depth of study processing dissociated performance in the tests, confirming that the free-association test was not contaminated by an intentional retrieval strategy. Emotional pairs were better recalled than neutral pairs in the test of explicit memory but not in the equivalent test of implicit memory. The absence of an emotion effect in implicit memory implies that emotional material does not have a privileged global mnemonic status; intentional retrieval is necessary for observing the emotion-related memory advantage. PMID:20364908

  14. Remembering the snake in the grass: Threat enhances recognition but not source memory.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Miriam Magdalena; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2015-12-01

    Research on the influence of emotion on source memory has yielded inconsistent findings. The object-based framework (Mather, 2007) predicts that negatively arousing stimuli attract attention, resulting in enhanced within-object binding, and, thereby, enhanced source memory for intrinsic context features of emotional stimuli. To test this prediction, we presented pictures of threatening and harmless animals, the color of which had been experimentally manipulated. In a memory test, old-new recognition for the animals and source memory for their color was assessed. In all 3 experiments, old-new recognition was better for the more threatening material, which supports previous reports of an emotional memory enhancement. This recognition advantage was due to the emotional properties of the stimulus material, and not specific for snake stimuli. However, inconsistent with the prediction of the object-based framework, intrinsic source memory was not affected by emotion. PMID:25915001

  15. Changing Behavior by Memory Aids: A Social Psychological Model of Prospective Memory and Habit Development Tested with Dynamic Field Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a social psychological model of prospective memory and habit development. The model is based on relevant research literature, and its dynamics were investigated by computer simulations. Time-series data from a behavior-change campaign in Cuba were used for calibration and validation of the model. The model scored well in…

  16. MicroRNA loss enhances learning and memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Konopka, Witold; Kiryk, Anna; Novak, Martin; Herwerth, Marina; Parkitna, Jan Rodriguez; Wawrzyniak, Marcin; Kowarsch, Andreas; Michaluk, Piotr; Dzwonek, Joanna; Arnsperger, Tabea; Wilczynski, Grzegorz; Merkenschlager, Matthias; Theis, Fabian J; Köhr, Georg; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Schütz, Günther

    2010-11-01

    Dicer-dependent noncoding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), play an important role in a modulation of translation of mRNA transcripts necessary for differentiation in many cell types. In vivo experiments using cell type-specific Dicer1 gene inactivation in neurons showed its essential role for neuronal development and survival. However, little is known about the consequences of a loss of miRNAs in adult, fully differentiated neurons. To address this question, we used an inducible variant of the Cre recombinase (tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2) under control of Camk2a gene regulatory elements. After induction of Dicer1 gene deletion in adult mouse forebrain, we observed a progressive loss of a whole set of brain-specific miRNAs. Animals were tested in a battery of both aversively and appetitively motivated cognitive tasks, such as Morris water maze, IntelliCage system, or trace fear conditioning. Compatible with rather long half-life of miRNAs in hippocampal neurons, we observed an enhancement of memory strength of mutant mice 12 weeks after the Dicer1 gene mutation, before the onset of neurodegenerative process. In acute brain slices, immediately after high-frequency stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals, the efficacy at CA3-to-CA1 synapses was higher in mutant than in control mice, whereas long-term potentiation was comparable between genotypes. This phenotype was reflected at the subcellular and molecular level by the elongated filopodia-like shaped dendritic spines and an increased translation of synaptic plasticity-related proteins, such as BDNF and MMP-9 in mutant animals. The presented work shows miRNAs as key players in the learning and memory process of mammals. PMID:21048142

  17. Social Recognition Memory Requires Two Stages of Protein Synthesis in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Gerald; Engelmann, Mario; Richter, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Olfactory recognition memory was tested in adult male mice using a social discrimination task. The testing was conducted to begin to characterize the role of protein synthesis and the specific brain regions associated with activity in this task. Long-term olfactory recognition memory was blocked when the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin was…

  18. Memory, Reality, and Ethnography in a Colombian War Zone: Towards a Social Phenomenology of Collective Remembrance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haymes, Stephen Nathan

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers phenomenology as a philosophical framework from which to understand the moral experience of collective memory. As a philosophical approach to human reality, phenomenology contributes insight into the connection between the experiential grounding of collective memory and the reality of the social world. The inspiration for…

  19. The Quality of Self, Social, and Directive Memories: Are There Adult Age Group Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alea, Nicole; Arneaud, Mary Jane; Ali, Sideeka

    2013-01-01

    The quality of functional autobiographical memories was examined in young, middle-aged, and older adult Trinidadians ("N" = 245). Participants wrote about an event that served a self, social, and directive function, and reported on the memory's quality (e.g., significance, vividness, valence, etc.). Across age groups, directive…

  20. Distractor-relevance determines whether task-switching enhances or impairs distractor memory.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yu-Chin; Egner, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Richter and Yeung (2012) recently documented a novel task-switching effect, a switch-induced reduction in "memory selectivity," characterized by relatively enhanced memory for distractor stimuli and impaired memory for target stimuli encountered on switch trials compared with repeat trials. One interpretation of this finding argues that task-switching involves opening a "gate" to working memory, which promotes updating of the task-set, but at the same time allows for increased distraction from task-irrelevant information. However, in that study, the distractor category on a switch trial also represented the task-relevant target category from the previous trial. Thus, distractors were only intermittently task-irrelevant, such that switch-enhanced distractor memory could alternatively be because of remnant attention to the previously relevant stimuli, or "task-set inertia." Here we adjudicated between the open-gate and the task-set inertia accounts of switch-enhanced distractor memory by assessing incidental memory for distractors that were either intermittently or always task-irrelevant. While we replicated switch-enhanced distractor memory in the intermittently irrelevant distractor condition, this effect was reversed in the always-irrelevant distractor condition. These results speak against the open-gate account, and instead indicate that switch-enhanced distractor memory arises from task-set inertia, and will not be observed for truly task-irrelevant stimuli presented during switching. PMID:26594883

  1. Memory activation enhances EEG abnormality in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    van der Hiele, K; Vein, A A; Kramer, C G S; Reijntjes, R H A M; van Buchem, M A; Westendorp, R G J; Bollen, E L E M; van Dijk, J G; Middelkoop, H A M

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated EEG power changes during memory activation in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Twelve MCI patients and 16 age-matched controls underwent EEG registration during two conventional EEG conditions ('eyes closed' and 'eyes open') and three memory conditions ('word memory', 'picture memory' and 'animal fluency'). For all conditions, EEG power in the theta (4-8 Hz), lower alpha (8-10.5 Hz) and upper alpha (10.5-13 Hz) bands were expressed as percentile changes compared to 'eyes closed'. MCI patients showed significantly less decrease in the lower alpha band than controls (p=0.04) during picture memory activation. The word memory task showed a trend towards a similar effect (p=0.09). This study suggests that memory activation reveals EEG differences between MCI patients and controls while conventional EEG conditions do not. PMID:16406153

  2. Impaired Social Processing in Autism and Its Reflections in Memory: A Deeper View of Encoding and Retrieval Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brezis, Rachel S.; Galili, Tal; Wong, Tiffany; Piggot, Judith I.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of memory in autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have consistently shown that persons with ASC have reduced memories for social information, relative to a spared memory for non-social facts. The current study aims to reproduce these findings, while examining the possible causes leading to this difference. Participants' memory…

  3. Adult-Onset Hypothyroidism Enhances Fear Memory and Upregulates Mineralocorticoid and Glucocorticoid Receptors in the Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Montero-Pedrazuela, Ana; Fernández-Lamo, Iván; Alieva, María; Pereda-Pérez, Inmaculada; Venero, César; Guadaño-Ferraz, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is the most common hormonal disease in adults, which is frequently accompanied by learning and memory impairments and emotional disorders. However, the deleterious effects of thyroid hormones deficiency on emotional memory are poorly understood and often underestimated. To evaluate the consequences of hypothyroidism on emotional learning and memory, we have performed a classical Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm in euthyroid and adult-thyroidectomized Wistar rats. In this experimental model, learning acquisition was not impaired, fear memory was enhanced, memory extinction was delayed and spontaneous recovery of fear memory was exacerbated in hypothyroid rats. The potentiation of emotional memory under hypothyroidism was associated with an increase of corticosterone release after fear conditioning and with higher expression of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors in the lateral and basolateral nuclei of the amygdala, nuclei that are critically involved in the circuitry of fear memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time that adult-onset hypothyroidism potentiates fear memory and also increases vulnerability to develop emotional memories. Furthermore, our findings suggest that enhanced corticosterone signaling in the amygdala is involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of fear memory potentiation. Therefore, we recommend evaluating whether inappropriate regulation of fear in patients with post-traumatic stress and other mental disorders is associated with abnormal levels of thyroid hormones, especially those patients refractory to treatment. PMID:22039511

  4. CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Knockout in Mice Impairs Contextual Long-Term Memory and Enhances Spatial Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Kim, Jimok

    2016-01-01

    Neurocognitive effects of cannabinoids have been extensively studied with a focus on CB1 cannabinoid receptors because CB1 receptors have been considered the major cannabinoid receptor in the nervous system. However, recent discoveries of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the brain demand accurate determination of whether and how CB2 receptors are involved in the cognitive effects of cannabinoids. CB2 cannabinoid receptors are primarily involved in immune functions, but also implicated in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. Here, we examined the effects of CB2 receptor knockout in mice on memory to determine the roles of CB2 receptors in modulating cognitive function. Behavioral assays revealed that hippocampus-dependent, long-term contextual fear memory was impaired whereas hippocampus-independent, cued fear memory was normal in CB2 receptor knockout mice. These mice also displayed enhanced spatial working memory when tested in a Y-maze. Motor activity and anxiety of CB2 receptor knockout mice were intact when assessed in an open field arena and an elevated zero maze. In contrast to the knockout of CB2 receptors, acute blockade of CB2 receptors by AM603 in C57BL/6J mice had no effect on memory, motor activity, or anxiety. Our results suggest that CB2 cannabinoid receptors play diverse roles in regulating memory depending on memory types and/or brain areas. PMID:26819779

  5. Both young and older adults discount suggestions from older adults on a social memory test.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sara D; Meade, Michelle L

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we examined the impacts of participant age and confederate age on social memory processes. During a collaborative recall phase, young and older adult participants were exposed to the erroneous memory reports of a young or an older adult confederate. On a subsequent individual recall test, young and older adult participants were equally likely to incorporate the confederates' erroneous suggestions into their memory reports, suggesting that participant age had a minimal effect on social memory processes. However, confederate age did have a marked effect: Young adult participants were less likely to incorporate misleading suggestions from older adult confederates and less likely to report "remembering" items suggested by older adult confederates. Critically, older adult participants were also less likely to incorporate misleading information from fellow older adult confederates. Both young and older adult participants discounted older adult confederates' contributions to a memory test. PMID:23397236

  6. Working memory-driven attention improves spatial resolution: Support for perceptual enhancement.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yi; Luo, Qianying; Cheng, Min

    2016-08-01

    Previous research has indicated that attention can be biased toward those stimuli matching the contents of working memory and thereby facilitates visual processing at the location of the memory-matching stimuli. However, whether this working memory-driven attentional modulation takes place on early perceptual processes remains unclear. Our present results showed that working memory-driven attention improved identification of a brief Landolt target presented alone in the visual field. Because the suprathreshold target appeared without any external noise added (i.e., no distractors or masks), the results suggest that working memory-driven attention enhances the target signal at early perceptual stages of visual processing. Furthermore, given that performance in the Landolt target identification task indexes spatial resolution, this attentional facilitation indicates that working memory-driven attention can boost early perceptual processing via enhancement of spatial resolution at the attended location. PMID:27192995

  7. Age differences in children's memory of information about aggressive, socially withdrawn, and prosociable boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, W M

    1990-10-01

    Age differences in children's memory for information about aggression, prosociability, and social withdrawal were examined in 2 studies, one using a recall task, the other a recognition task. In both studies, second- and sixth-grade subjects heard descriptions of hypothetical boys and girls described as (a) aggressive, (b) socially withdrawn, or (c) prosociable, and their memory of the items in the descriptions was assessed. With the recall task, age-related increases were observed for the descriptions of the girl peers and for the withdrawn boy peer. With the recognition task, age differences were observed in memory for information about social withdrawal and prosociability but not aggression, and memory for information about aggression was better for the boy peer than girl peer, whereas the opposite pattern was observed for information about withdrawal. These results indicate that school-age and early adolescent children's recall of information about a peer is affected by the peer's gender. PMID:2245727

  8. Consequences of temporary inhibition of the medial amygdala on social recognition memory performance in mice.

    PubMed

    Noack, Julia; Murau, Rita; Engelmann, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Different lines of investigation suggest that the medial amygdala is causally involved in the processing of information linked to social behavior in rodents. Here we investigated the consequences of temporary inhibition of the medial amygdala by bilateral injections of lidocaine on long-term social recognition memory as tested in the social discrimination task. Lidocaine or control NaCl solution was infused immediately before learning or before retrieval. Our data show that lidocaine infusion immediately before learning did not affect long-term memory retrieval. However, intra-amygdalar lidocaine infusions immediately before choice interfered with correct memory retrieval. Analysis of the aggressive behavior measured simultaneously during all sessions in the social recognition memory task support the impression that the lidocaine dosage used here was effective as it-at least partially-reduced the aggressive behavior shown by the experimental subjects toward the juveniles. Surprisingly, also infusions of NaCl solution blocked recognition memory at both injection time points. The results are interpreted in the context of the importance of the medial amygdala for the processing of non-volatile odors as a major contributor to the olfactory signature for social recognition memory. PMID:25972782

  9. Improving Outcome of Psychosocial Treatments by Enhancing Memory and Learning

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Allison G.; Lee, Jason; Williams, Joseph; Hollon, Steven D.; Walker, Matthew P.; Thompson, Monique A.; Smith, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Mental disorders are prevalent and lead to significant impairment. Progress toward establishing treatments has been good. However, effect sizes are small to moderate, gains may not persist, and many patients derive no benefit. Our goal is to highlight the potential for empirically-supported psychosocial treatments to be improved by incorporating insights from cognitive psychology and research on education. Our central question is: If it were possible to improve memory for content of sessions of psychosocial treatments, would outcome substantially improve? This question arises from five lines of evidence: (a) mental illness is often characterized by memory impairment, (b) memory impairment is modifiable, (c) psychosocial treatments often involve the activation of emotion, (d) emotion can bias memory and (e) memory for psychosocial treatment sessions is poor. Insights from scientific knowledge on learning and memory are leveraged to derive strategies for a transdiagnostic and transtreatment cognitive support intervention. These strategies can be applied within and between sessions and to interventions delivered via computer, the internet and text message. Additional novel pathways to improving memory include improving sleep, engaging in exercise and imagery. Given that memory processes change across the lifespan, services to children and older adults may benefit from cognitive support. PMID:25544856

  10. Revisiting the Novelty Effect: When Familiarity, Not Novelty, Enhances Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poppenk, J.; Kohler, S.; Moscovitch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reports of superior memory for novel relative to familiar material have figured prominently in recent theories of memory. However, such "novelty effects" are incongruous with long-standing observations that familiar items are remembered better. In 2 experiments, we explored whether this discrepancy was explained by differences in the type of…

  11. Enhanced recognition memory in grapheme-color synaesthesia for different categories of visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jamie; Hovard, Peter; Jones, Alicia; Rothen, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Memory has been shown to be enhanced in grapheme-color synaesthesia, and this enhancement extends to certain visual stimuli (that don't induce synaesthesia) as well as stimuli comprised of graphemes (which do). Previous studies have used a variety of testing procedures to assess memory in synaesthesia (e.g., free recall, recognition, associative learning) making it hard to know the extent to which memory benefits are attributable to the stimulus properties themselves, the testing method, participant strategies, or some combination of these factors. In the first experiment, we use the same testing procedure (recognition memory) for a variety of stimuli (written words, non-words, scenes, and fractals) and also check which memorization strategies were used. We demonstrate that grapheme-color synaesthetes show enhanced memory across all these stimuli, but this is not found for a non-visual type of synaesthesia (lexical-gustatory). In the second experiment, the memory advantage for scenes is explored further by manipulating the properties of the old and new images (changing color, orientation, or object presence). Again, grapheme-color synaesthetes show a memory advantage for scenes across all manipulations. Although recognition memory is generally enhanced in this study, the largest effects were found for abstract visual images (fractals) and scenes for which color can be used to discriminate old/new status. PMID:24187542

  12. Memory-enhancing effects of Cuscuta japonica Choisy via enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Moon, Minho; Jeong, Hyun Uk; Choi, Jin Gyu; Jeon, Seong Gak; Song, Eun Ji; Hong, Seon-Pyo; Oh, Myung Sook

    2016-09-15

    It is generally accepted that functional and structural changes within the hippocampus are involved in learning and memory and that adult neurogenesis in this region may modulate cognition. The extract of Cuscuta japonica Choisy (CJ) is a well-known traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used since ancient times as a rejuvenation remedy. The systemic effects of this herb are widely known and can be applied for the treatment of a number of physiological diseases, but there is a lack of evidence describing its effects on brain function. Thus, the present study investigated whether CJ would enhance memory function and/or increase hippocampal neurogenesis using mice orally administered with CJ water extract or vehicle for 21days. Performance on the novel object recognition and passive avoidance tests revealed that treatment with CJ dose-dependently improved the cognitive function of mice. Additionally, CJ increased the Ki-67-positive proliferating cells and the number of doublecortin-stained neuroblasts in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, and double labeling with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine and neuronal specific nuclear protein showed that CJ increased the number of mature neurons in the DG. Finally, CJ resulted in the upregulated expression of neurogenic differentiation factor, which is essential for the maturation and differentiation of granule cells in the hippocampus. Taken together, the present findings indicate that CJ stimulated neuronal cell proliferation, differentiation, and maturation, which are all processes associated with neurogenesis. Additionally, these findings suggest that CJ may improve learning and memory via the enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:27185736

  13. Performance-based empathy mediates the influence of working memory on social competence in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew J; Horan, William P; Cobia, Derin J; Karpouzian, Tatiana M; Fox, Jaclyn M; Reilly, James L; Breiter, Hans C

    2014-07-01

    Empathic deficits have been linked to poor functioning in schizophrenia, but this work is mostly limited to self-report data. This study examined whether performance-based empathy measures account for incremental variance in social competence and social attainment above and beyond self-reported empathy, neurocognition, and clinical symptoms. Given the importance of working memory in theoretical models of empathy and in the prediction of functioning in schizophrenia, we also examined whether empathy mediates the relationship between working memory and functioning. Sixty outpatients and 45 healthy controls were compared on performance-based measures of 3 key components of empathic responding, including facial affect perception, emotional empathy (affective responsiveness), and cognitive empathy (emotional perspective-taking). Participants also completed measures of self-reported empathy, neurocognition, clinical symptoms, and social competence and attainment. Patients demonstrated lower accuracy than controls across the 3 performance-based empathy measures. Among patients, these measures showed minimal relations to self-reported empathy but significantly correlated with working memory and other neurocognitive functions as well as symptom levels. Furthermore, cognitive empathy explained significant incremental variance in social competence (∆R (2) = .07, P < .05) and was found to mediate the relation between working memory and social competence. Performance-based measures of empathy were sensitive to functionally relevant disturbances in schizophrenia. Working memory deficits appear to have an important effect on these disruptions in empathy. Empathy is emerging as a promising new area for social cognitive research and for novel recovery-oriented treatment development. PMID:23770935

  14. Social Processes Affecting the Mnemonic Consequences of Rumors on Children's Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principe, Gabrielle F.; Daley, Lauren; Kauth, Kyli

    2010-01-01

    This research examined whether the impact of overheard rumors on children's memory for their experiences varies as a function of social processes. The results of two experiments revealed that the very same errant rumor had different consequences for children's recollections depending on the degree and type of social interactions they had with…

  15. Divided Attention Can Enhance Memory Encoding: The Attentional Boost Effect in Implicit Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spataro, Pietro; Mulligan, Neil W.; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2013-01-01

    Distraction during encoding has long been known to disrupt later memory performance. Contrary to this long-standing result, we show that detecting an infrequent target in a dual-task paradigm actually improves memory encoding for a concurrently presented word, above and beyond the performance reached in the full-attention condition. This absolute…

  16. Oxytocin selectively facilitates learning with social feedback and increases activity and functional connectivity in emotional memory and reward processing regions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiehui; Qi, Song; Becker, Benjamin; Luo, Lizhu; Gao, Shan; Gong, Qiyong; Hurlemann, René; Kendrick, Keith M

    2015-06-01

    In male Caucasian subjects, learning is facilitated by receipt of social compared with non-social feedback, and the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) facilitates this effect. In this study, we have first shown a cultural difference in that male Chinese subjects actually perform significantly worse in the same reinforcement associated learning task with social (emotional faces) compared with non-social feedback. Nevertheless, in two independent double-blind placebo (PLC) controlled between-subject design experiments we found OXT still selectively facilitated learning with social feedback. Similar to Caucasian subjects this OXT effect was strongest with feedback using female rather than male faces. One experiment performed in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging showed that during the response, but not feedback phase of the task, OXT selectively increased activity in the amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and putamen during the social feedback condition, and functional connectivity between the amygdala and insula and caudate. Therefore, OXT may be increasing the salience and reward value of anticipated social feedback. In the PLC group, response times and state anxiety scores during social feedback were associated with signal changes in these same regions but not in the OXT group. OXT may therefore have also facilitated learning by reducing anxiety in the social feedback condition. Overall our results provide the first evidence for cultural differences in social facilitation of learning per se, but a similar selective enhancement of learning with social feedback under OXT. This effect of OXT may be associated with enhanced responses and functional connectivity in emotional memory and reward processing regions. PMID:25664702

  17. Memory enhancement induced by hypothalamic/fornix deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hamani, Clement; McAndrews, Mary Pat; Cohn, Melanie; Oh, Michael; Zumsteg, Dominik; Shapiro, Colin M; Wennberg, Richard A; Lozano, Andres M

    2008-01-01

    Bilateral hypothalamic deep brain stimulation was performed to treat a patient with morbid obesity. We observed, quite unexpectedly, that stimulation evoked detailed autobiographical memories. Associative memory tasks conducted in a double-blinded "on" versus "off" manner demonstrated that stimulation increased recollection but not familiarity-based recognition, indicating a functional engagement of the hippocampus. Electroencephalographic source localization showed that hypothalamic deep brain stimulation drove activity in mesial temporal lobe structures. This shows that hypothalamic stimulation in this patient modulates limbic activity and improves certain memory functions. PMID:18232017

  18. Representing rebellion: memory and social conflict in sixteenth-century England.

    PubMed

    Sandall, Simon

    2012-12-01

    This paper takes key insights from social psychologists and interrogates them as methodological tools for historians, applying these theories to a large-scale uprising that occurred in southern England in 1549. In a social order based on notions of paternalism and deference, a diverse band of rebels were able to forge an alliance strong enough to pose a serious threat to local authorities in Norwich. Social psychological approaches to collective memory and evolving social representations are deployed to highlight contested memories of rebellion as central to Tudor state formation, and to understand how a rebel group with many competing interests was able to sustain their alliance. I argue that the imperative to understand individual behaviour in a collective context illuminates the way that this group could form a vision of the world which contradicted deferential social ideals without ranging themselves against central government. The article also suggests ways in which historical approaches can inform social psychological concepts. PMID:23135800

  19. Post-Event Processing and Memory Bias for Performance Feedback in Social Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Cody, Meghan W.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite predictions following from cognitive theories of anxiety, evidence for memory biases in social anxiety has been mixed. This study extends previous research by using stimuli relevant to participants’ concerns and allowing time for post-event processing. Participants high (n = 42) or low (n = 39) in social anxiety symptoms gave speeches and received standardized feedback on their and a confederate’s performance. Participants then took recognition and recall tests for the feedback immediately after it was given and after a two-day delay. Results showed no recall biases. However, the hypothesized recognition biases were found: the high social anxiety group remembered the confederate’s feedback more positively than their own, remembered their negative feedback as worse than the low group, and diminished positive feedback over time. Moreover, post-event processing mediated the relationship between social anxiety and memory for negative feedback. Results suggest that biased recognition of social feedback is linked to social anxiety. PMID:20399601

  20. Memory-Enhancing Effects of the Crude Extract of Polygala tenuifolia on Aged Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Zongyang; Liu, Yamin; Wang, Liwei; Liu, Xinmin; Chang, Qi; Guo, Zhi; Liao, Yonghong; Pan, Ruile; Fan, Tai-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Learning and memory disorders arise from distinct age-associated processes, and aging animals are often used as a model of memory impairment. The root of Polygala tenuifolia has been commonly used in some Asian countries as memory enhancer and its memory improvement has been reported in various animal models. However, there is less research to verify its effect on memory functions in aged animals. Herein, the memory-enhancing effects of the crude extract of Polygala tenuifolia (EPT) on normal aged mice were assessed by Morris water maze (MWM) and step-down passive avoidance tests. In MWM tests, the impaired spatial memory of the aged mice was partly reversed by EPT (100 and 200 mg/kg; P < 0.05) as compared with the aged control mice. In step-down tests, the nonspatial memory of the aged mice was improved by EPT (100 and 200 mg/kg; P < 0.05). Additionally, EPT could increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAO) and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activities, and decrease the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the brain tissue of the aged mice. The results showed that EPT improved memory functions of the aged mice probably via its antioxidant properties and via decreasing the activities of MAO and AChE. PMID:24744810

  1. Memory-Enhancing Effects of the Crude Extract of Polygala tenuifolia on Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zongyang; Liu, Yamin; Wang, Liwei; Liu, Xinmin; Chang, Qi; Guo, Zhi; Liao, Yonghong; Pan, Ruile; Fan, Tai-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Learning and memory disorders arise from distinct age-associated processes, and aging animals are often used as a model of memory impairment. The root of Polygala tenuifolia has been commonly used in some Asian countries as memory enhancer and its memory improvement has been reported in various animal models. However, there is less research to verify its effect on memory functions in aged animals. Herein, the memory-enhancing effects of the crude extract of Polygala tenuifolia (EPT) on normal aged mice were assessed by Morris water maze (MWM) and step-down passive avoidance tests. In MWM tests, the impaired spatial memory of the aged mice was partly reversed by EPT (100 and 200 mg/kg; P < 0.05) as compared with the aged control mice. In step-down tests, the nonspatial memory of the aged mice was improved by EPT (100 and 200 mg/kg; P < 0.05). Additionally, EPT could increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAO) and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activities, and decrease the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the brain tissue of the aged mice. The results showed that EPT improved memory functions of the aged mice probably via its antioxidant properties and via decreasing the activities of MAO and AChE. PMID:24744810

  2. Glucose enhancement of memory is modulated by trait anxiety in healthy adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael A; Hii, Hilary L; Foster, Jonathan K; van Eekelen, J A M

    2011-01-01

    Glucose administration is associated with memory enhancement in healthy young individuals under conditions of divided attention at encoding. While the specific neurocognitive mechanisms underlying this 'glucose memory facilitation effect' are currently uncertain, it is thought that individual differences in glucoregulatory efficiency may alter an individual's sensitivity to the glucose memory facilitation effect. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function (itself a modulator of glucoregulatory efficiency), baseline self-reported stress and trait anxiety influence the glucose memory facilitation effect. Adolescent males (age range = 14-17 years) were administered glucose and placebo prior to completing a verbal episodic memory task on two separate testing days in a counter-balanced, within-subjects design. Glucose ingestion improved verbal episodic memory performance when memory recall was tested (i) within an hour of glucose ingestion and encoding, and (ii) one week subsequent to glucose ingestion and encoding. Basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function did not appear to influence the glucose memory facilitation effect; however, glucose ingestion only improved memory in participants reporting relatively higher trait anxiety. These findings suggest that the glucose memory facilitation effect may be mediated by biological mechanisms associated with trait anxiety. PMID:19939878

  3. Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  4. Autobiographical Memory and Social Problem-Solving in Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Lorna; Howlin, Patricia; Dritschel, Barbara; Patel, Trishna

    2007-01-01

    Difficulties in social interaction are a central feature of Asperger syndrome. Effective social interaction involves the ability to solve interpersonal problems as and when they occur. Here we examined social problem-solving in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome and control group matched for age, gender and IQ. We also assessed…

  5. Social Support and Social Anxiety in Use and Perceptions of Online Mental Health Resources: Exploring Social Compensation and Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ruppel, Erin K; McKinley, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    This study used the frameworks of social compensation and social enhancement to examine how social anxiety and social support were related to college students' (N=443) use and perceptions of online mental health resources (Web sites and online support groups). Potential interactions between social support and social anxiety were also examined. Consistent with the social compensation hypothesis, perceived usefulness of Web sites was positively associated with social support. Perceived usefulness of online support groups was positively associated with social support when participants reported average or high, but not low, social anxiety. In contrast, previous use of Web sites was consistent with the social compensation hypothesis. Participants who reported less social support were more likely to have used a Web site for a mental or emotional problem. These findings suggest that college students' use and perceptions of online mental health resources vary as a function of social support and social anxiety, and that patterns suggestive of social compensation and social enhancement depend on whether perceptions or actual use of resources are examined. Combined with the significant interaction between social support and social anxiety on perceived usefulness of online support groups, these findings highlight the potential complexity of social compensation and enhancement phenomena. PMID:26252931

  6. Enhancing Social Competence in the Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooding, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Strong social skills are vital for successful functioning in life. Social skills can affect academic success, peer relationships, family relationships, employment, and extracurricular and leisure activities. Children and adolescents who display academic, social, and behavioral deficits are at risk for both short-term and long-term negative social…

  7. Pharmacological enhancement of mGluR5 facilitates contextual fear memory extinction

    PubMed Central

    Sethna, Ferzin

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral exposure therapy, which involves extinction of the previously acquired fear, has been used to treat anxiety-related symptoms such as post-traumatic stress disorder. It has been hypothesized that proextinction pharmacotherapeutics may enhance the efficacy of exposure therapy. Systemic administration of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-positive allosteric modulator 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide (CDPPB) facilitated the extinction of contextual fear memory. Notably, CDPPB also enhanced the initial fear memory formation, and had no effect on memory retrieval. Our data suggest that positive regulation of mGluR5 may offer a new method to enhance exposure therapy through facilitating extinction without adversely affecting other aspects of memory process. PMID:25403451

  8. Forgetting the unforgettable through conversation: socially shared retrieval-induced forgetting of September 11 memories.

    PubMed

    Coman, Alin; Manier, David; Hirst, William

    2009-05-01

    A speaker's selective recounting of memories shared with a listener will induce both the speaker and the listener to forget unmentioned, related material more than unmentioned, unrelated material. We extended this finding of within-individual and socially shared retrieval-induced forgetting to well-rehearsed, emotionally intense memories that are similar for the speaker and listener, but differ in specifics. A questionnaire probed participants' memory of the September 11 terrorist attacks. Questions and responses were grouped into category-exemplar structures. Then, participants selectively rehearsed their answers (using a structured interview in Experiment 1 and a joint recounting between pairs in Experiment 2). In subsequent recognition tests, response times yielded evidence of within-individual retrieval-induced forgetting and socially shared retrieval-induced forgetting. This result indicates that conversations can alter memories of speakers and listeners in similar ways, even when the memories differ. We discuss socially shared retrieval-induced forgetting as a mechanism for the formation of collective memories. PMID:19476592

  9. Mechanisms underlying the social enhancement of vocal learning in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yining; Matheson, Laura E; Sakata, Jon T

    2016-06-14

    Social processes profoundly influence speech and language acquisition. Despite the importance of social influences, little is known about how social interactions modulate vocal learning. Like humans, songbirds learn their vocalizations during development, and they provide an excellent opportunity to reveal mechanisms of social influences on vocal learning. Using yoked experimental designs, we demonstrate that social interactions with adult tutors for as little as 1 d significantly enhanced vocal learning. Social influences on attention to song seemed central to the social enhancement of learning because socially tutored birds were more attentive to the tutor's songs than passively tutored birds, and because variation in attentiveness and in the social modulation of attention significantly predicted variation in vocal learning. Attention to song was influenced by both the nature and amount of tutor song: Pupils paid more attention to songs that tutors directed at them and to tutors that produced fewer songs. Tutors altered their song structure when directing songs at pupils in a manner that resembled how humans alter their vocalizations when speaking to infants, that was distinct from how tutors changed their songs when singing to females, and that could influence attention and learning. Furthermore, social interactions that rapidly enhanced learning increased the activity of noradrenergic and dopaminergic midbrain neurons. These data highlight striking parallels between humans and songbirds in the social modulation of vocal learning and suggest that social influences on attention and midbrain circuitry could represent shared mechanisms underlying the social modulation of vocal learning. PMID:27247385

  10. Stereotype threat can both enhance and impair older adults' memory.

    PubMed

    Barber, Sarah J; Mather, Mara

    2013-12-01

    Negative stereotypes about aging can impair older adults' memory via stereotype threat; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear. In two experiments, we tested competing predictions derived from two theoretical accounts of stereotype threat: executive-control interference and regulatory fit. Older adults completed a working memory test either under stereotype threat about age-related memory declines or not under such threat. Monetary incentives were manipulated such that recall led to gains or forgetting led to losses. The executive-control-interference account predicts that stereotype threat decreases the availability of executive-control resources and hence should impair working memory performance. The regulatory-fit account predicts that threat induces a prevention focus, which should impair performance when gains are emphasized but improve performance when losses are emphasized. Results were consistent only with the regulatory-fit account. Although stereotype threat significantly impaired older adults' working memory performance when remembering led to gains, it significantly improved performance when forgetting led to losses. PMID:24150969

  11. Factor structure of overall autobiographical memory usage: the directive, self and social functions revisited.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Anne S; Habermas, Tilmann

    2011-08-01

    According to theory, autobiographical memory serves three broad functions of overall usage: directive, self, and social. However, there is evidence to suggest that the tripartite model may be better conceptualised in terms of a four-factor model with two social functions. In the present study we examined the two models in Danish and German samples, using the Thinking About Life Experiences Questionnaire (TALE; Bluck, Alea, Habermas, & Rubin, 2005), which measures the overall usage of the three functions generalised across concrete memories. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the four-factor model and rejected the theoretical three-factor model in both samples. The results are discussed in relation to cultural differences in overall autobiographical memory usage as well as sharing versus non-sharing aspects of social remembering. PMID:21919587

  12. Four-Month-Old Infants’ Long-Term Memory for a Stressful Social Event

    PubMed Central

    Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Ciceri, Francesca; Borgatti, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants’ memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm) after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to social stress two times (experimental condition); the first time when they were 4 months of age and second exposure after a 2 week interval. Infants in the control condition (N = 37) were exposed to social stress just one time, at the age corresponding to the second exposure for infants in the experimental condition (4 months plus 2 weeks). Given individual differences in infants’ reactivity to social stress events, we categorized infants as increasers or decreasers based on their cortisol reactivity after their initial exposure to the stress of the maternal still-face. Infants in the experimental condition, both increasers and decreasers, showed a significant change in cortisol response after the second exposure to the maternal still-face, though change was different for each reactivity group. In contrast, age-matched infants with no prior exposure to the maternal still-face showed similar post-stress cortisol reactivity to the reactivity of the experimental infants at their first exposure. There were no behavioral differences between increasers and decreasers during the Still-Face paradigm and exposures to the social stress. Thus differences between the experimental and control groups’ post-stress cortisol reactivity was associated with the experimental group having previous experience with the social stress. These findings indicate long-term memory for social stress in infants as young as 4 months of age. PMID:24349244

  13. c-Fos expression predicts long-term social memory retrieval in mice.

    PubMed

    Lüscher Dias, Thomaz; Fernandes Golino, Hudson; Moura de Oliveira, Vinícius Elias; Dutra Moraes, Márcio Flávio; Schenatto Pereira, Grace

    2016-10-15

    The way the rodent brain generally processes socially relevant information is rather well understood. How social information is stored into long-term social memory, however, is still under debate. Here, brain c-Fos expression was measured after adult mice were exposed to familiar or novel juveniles and expression was compared in several memory and socially relevant brain areas. Machine Learning algorithm Random Forest was then used to predict the social interaction category of adult mice based on c-Fos expression in these areas. Interaction with a familiar co-specific altered brain activation in the olfactory bulb, amygdala, hippocampus, lateral septum and medial prefrontal cortex. Remarkably, Random Forest was able to predict interaction with a familiar juvenile with 100% accuracy. Activity in the olfactory bulb, amygdala, hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex were crucial to this prediction. From our results, we suggest long-term social memory depends on initial social olfactory processing in the medial amygdala and its output connections synergistically with non-social contextual integration by the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex top-down modulation of primary olfactory structures. PMID:27449201

  14. A single bout of resistance exercise can enhance episodic memory performance

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Lisa; Hasni, Anita; Shinohara, Minoru; Duarte, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    Acute aerobic exercise can be beneficial to episodic memory. This benefit may occur because exercise produces a similar physiological response as physical stressors. When administered during consolidation, acute stress, both physical and psychological, consistently enhances episodic memory, particularly memory for emotional materials. Here we investigated whether a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can produce episodic memory benefits 48 hours later. We used a one-leg knee extension/flexion task for the resistance exercise. To assess the physiological response to the exercise, we measured salivary alpha amylase (a biomarker of central norepinephrine), heart rate, and blood pressure. To test emotional episodic memory, we used a remember-know recognition memory paradigm with equal numbers of positive, negative, and neutral IAPS images as stimuli. The group that performed the exercise, the active group, had higher overall recognition accuracy than the group that did not exercise, the passive group. We found a robust effect of valence across groups, with better performance on emotional items as compared to neutral items and no difference between positive and negative items. This effect changed based on the physiological response to the exercise. Within the active group, participants with a high physiological response to the exercise were impaired for neutral items as compared to participants with a low physiological response to the exercise. Our results demonstrate that a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can enhance episodic memory and that the effect of valence on memory depends on the physiological response to the exercise. PMID:25262058

  15. Facial expression influences recognition memory for faces: robust enhancement effect of fearful expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo

    2013-04-01

    Memory for faces is important for social interactions. However, it is unclear whether negative or positive expression affects recollection and familiarity for faces and whether the effect can be modulated by retention interval. Two experiments examined the effect of emotional expression on recognition for faces at two delay conditions. In Experiment 1 participants viewed neutral, positive, and negative (including fearful, sad, angry etc.) faces and made gender discrimination for each face. In Experiment 2 they viewed and made gender discrimination for neutral, positive, and fearful faces. Following the incidental learning they were randomly assigned into the immediate and 24-hour (24-h) delay conditions. Findings from the two experiments are as follows: (1) In the immediate and 24-h delay conditions overall recognition and recollection for negative faces (fearful faces in Experiment 2) were better than for neutral faces and positive faces. (2) In the immediate and 24-h delay conditions recollection and familiarity for positive faces was equivalent to recollection for neutral faces. (3) The enhancement effect of fearful expression on recognition and recollection was not due to greater discriminability between the old and new faces in the fearful category. The results indicate that recognition and recollection for faces and the enhancement effect of fearful expression is robust within 24 hours. PMID:23016604

  16. Estradiol enhances retention but not organization of hippocampus-dependent memory in intact male mice.

    PubMed

    Al Abed, Alice Shaam; Sellami, Azza; Brayda-Bruno, Laurent; Lamothe, Valérie; Noguès, Xavier; Potier, Mylène; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine; Marighetto, Aline

    2016-07-01

    Because estrogens have mostly been studied in gonadectomized females, effects of chronic exposure to environmental estrogens in the general population are underestimated. Estrogens can enhance hippocampus-dependent memory through the modulation of information storage. However, declarative memory, the hippocampus-dependent memory of facts and events, demands more than abilities to retain information. Specifically, memory of repetitive events of everyday life such as "where I parked" requires abilities to organize/update memories to prevent proactive interference from similar memories of previous "parking events". Whether such organizational processes are estrogen-sensitive is unknown. We here studied, in intact young and aged adult mice, drinking-water (1μM) estradiol effects on both retention and organizational components of hippocampus-dependent memory, using a radial-maze task of everyday-like memory. Demand on retention vs organization was manipulated by varying the time-interval separating repetitions of similar events. Estradiol increased performance in young and aged mice under minimized organizational demand, but failed to improve the age-associated memory impairment and diminished performance in young mice under high organizational demand. In fact, estradiol prolonged mnemonic retention of successive events without improving organization abilities, hence resulted in more proactive interference from irrelevant memories. c-Fos imaging of testing-induced brain activations showed that the deterioration of young memory was associated with dentate gyrus dysconnectivity, reminiscent of that seen in aged mice. Our findings support the view that estradiol is promnesic but also reveal that such property can paradoxically impair memory. These findings have important outcomes regarding health issues relative to the impact of environmental estrogens in the general population. PMID:27038677

  17. Working Memory Enhances Visual Perception: Evidence from Signal Detection Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, David; Wriglesworth, Alice; Bahrami-Balani, Alex; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2010-01-01

    We show that perceptual sensitivity to visual stimuli can be modulated by matches between the contents of working memory (WM) and stimuli in the visual field. Observers were presented with an object cue (to hold in WM or to merely attend) and subsequently had to identify a brief target presented within a colored shape. The cue could be…

  18. Adaptive Memory: Animacy Enhances Free Recall but Impairs Cued Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Earl Y.; Serra, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that human memory systems evolved to remember animate things better than inanimate things. In the present experiments, we examined whether these effects occur for both free recall and cued recall. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the effect of animacy on free recall and cued recall. Participants studied lists of…

  19. Intersensory Redundancy Enhances Memory in Bobwhite Quail Embryos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lickliter, Robert; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Honeycutt, Hunter

    2004-01-01

    Information presented concurrently and redundantly to 2 or more senses (intersensory redundancy) has been shown to recruit attention and promote perceptual learning of amodal stimulus properties in animal embryos and human infants. This study examined whether the facilitative effect of intersensory redundancy also extends to the domain of memory.…

  20. Improving Outcome of Psychosocial Treatments by Enhancing Memory and Learning.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Allison G; Lee, Jason; Williams, Joseph; Hollon, Steven D; Walker, Matthew P; Thompson, Monique A; Smith, Rita

    2014-03-01

    Mental disorders are prevalent and can lead to significant impairment. Some progress has been made toward establishing treatments; however, effect sizes are small to moderate, gains may not persist, and many patients derive no benefit. Our goal is to highlight the potential for empirically supported psychosocial treatments to be improved by incorporating insights from cognitive psychology and research on education. Our central question is: If it were possible to improve memory for the content of sessions of psychosocial treatments, would outcome substantially improve? We leverage insights from scientific knowledge on learning and memory to derive strategies for transdiagnostic and transtreatment cognitive support interventions. These strategies can be applied within and between sessions and to interventions delivered via computer, the Internet, and text message. Additional novel pathways to improving memory include improving sleep, engaging in exercise, and using imagery. Given that memory processes change across the lifespan, services to children and older adults may benefit from different types and amounts of cognitive support. PMID:25544856

  1. Training Working Memory in Childhood Enhances Coupling between Frontoparietal Control Network and Task-Related Regions

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Jessica J.; Nobre, Anna Christina; Woolrich, Mark W.; Baker, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is a capacity upon which many everyday tasks depend and which constrains a child's educational progress. We show that a child's working memory can be significantly enhanced by intensive computer-based training, relative to a placebo control intervention, in terms of both standardized assessments of working memory and performance on a working memory task performed in a magnetoencephalography scanner. Neurophysiologically, we identified significantly increased cross-frequency phase amplitude coupling in children who completed training. Following training, the coupling between the upper alpha rhythm (at 16 Hz), recorded in superior frontal and parietal cortex, became significantly coupled with high gamma activity (at ∼90 Hz) in inferior temporal cortex. This altered neural network activity associated with cognitive skill enhancement is consistent with a framework in which slower cortical rhythms enable the dynamic regulation of higher-frequency oscillatory activity related to task-related cognitive processes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Whether we can enhance cognitive abilities through intensive training is one of the most controversial topics of cognitive psychology in recent years. This is particularly controversial in childhood, where aspects of cognition, such as working memory, are closely related to school success and are implicated in numerous developmental disorders. We provide the first neurophysiological account of how working memory training may enhance ability in childhood, using a brain recording technique called magnetoencephalography. We borrowed an analysis approach previously used with intracranial recordings in adults, or more typically in other animal models, called “phase amplitude coupling.” PMID:27559180

  2. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex stimulation enhances memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in the middle-aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Albert; Jain, Neeraj; Vyas, Ajai; Lim, Lee Wei

    2015-01-01

    Memory dysfunction is a key symptom of age-related dementia. Although recent studies have suggested positive effects of electrical stimulation for memory enhancement, its potential targets remain largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that spatially targeted deep brain stimulation of ventromedial prefrontal cortex enhanced memory functions in a middle-aged rat model. Our results show that acute stimulation enhanced the short-, but not the long-term memory in the novel-object recognition task. Interestingly, after chronic high-frequency stimulation, both the short- and long-term memories were robustly improved in the novel-object recognition test and Morris water-maze spatial task compared to sham. Our results also demonstrated that chronic ventromedial prefrontal cortex high-frequency stimulation upregulated neurogenesis-associated genes along with enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation. Importantly, these memory behaviors were strongly correlated with the hippocampal neurogenesis. Overall, these findings suggest that chronic ventromedial prefrontal cortex high-frequency stimulation may serve as a novel effective therapeutic target for dementia-related disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04803.001 PMID:25768425

  3. Role of Acid Sphingomyelinase in the Regulation of Social Behavior and Memory.

    PubMed

    Zoicas, Iulia; Reichel, Martin; Gulbins, Erich; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is often associated with deficits in social and cognitive functioning. Mice transgenic for acid sphingomyelinase (t-ASM) were previously shown to have a depressive-like phenotype, which could be normalized by antidepressant treatment. Here, we investigated whether t-ASM mice show deficits in social behavior and memory performance, and whether these possible deficits might be normalized by amitriptyline treatment. Our results revealed that ASM overexpression altered the behavior of mice in a sex-dependent manner. As such, t-ASM female, but not male, mice showed an impaired social preference and a depressive- and anxiogenic-like phenotype, which could be normalized by amitriptyline treatment. Both male and female t-ASM mice showed unaltered preference for social novelty, novel object recognition, and social and object discrimination abilities. Amitriptyline treatment impaired novel object recognition and object discrimination abilities in female, but not in male, wild-type mice, while female t-ASM mice showed unaltered novel object recognition and object discrimination abilities. This study suggests that female t-ASM mice represent a model of depression with comorbid anxiety and social deficits, without memory impairments. It further suggests that ASM overexpression has a protective role against the detrimental effects of amitriptyline on female, but not on male, non-social (object) memory. PMID:27598773

  4. Enhancing Classroom Effectiveness through Social Networking Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurthakoti, Raghu; Boostrom, Robert E., Jr.; Summey, John H.; Campbell, David A.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of social networking Web sites such as Ning.com as a communication tool in marketing courses, a study was designed with special concern for social network use in comparison to Blackboard. Students from multiple marketing courses were surveyed. Assessments of Ning.com and Blackboard were performed both to understand how…

  5. Enhancing Student Comprehension of Social Studies Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, M. Priscilla; Savage, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Social studies is an information-laden subject, with much of the required information in textbooks. Although text-books are only one medium for learning social studies content, it is the dominant resource in most classrooms. Years ago, Goodlad (1984) found that textbook reading assignments were one of the most common instructional approaches used…

  6. Positive modulation of a neutral declarative memory by a threatening social event.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Rodrigo S; Bavassi, Luz; Campos, Jorge; Allegri, Ricardo F; Molina, Victor A; Forcato, Cecilia; Pedreira, María E

    2015-12-01

    Memories can be altered by negative or arousing experiences due to the activation of the stress-responsive sympatho-adrenal-medullary axis (SYM). Here, we used a neutral declarative memory that was acquired during multi-trial training to determine the effect of a threatening event on memory without emotional valence. To this end, participants received a new threatening social protocol before learning pairs of meaningless syllables and were tested either 15 min, 2 days or 8 days after acquisition. We first demonstrated that this threatening social situation activates not only the SYM axis (Experiment 1) and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA; Experiment 2), but also, it improves the acquisition or early consolidation of the syllable pairs (Experiment 3). This improvement is not a transient effect; it can be observed after the memory is consolidated. Furthermore, this modulation increases the persistence of memory (Experiment 4). Thus, it is possible to affect memories with specific events that contain unrelated content and a different valence. PMID:26555632

  7. Enhanced associative memory for colour (but not shape or location) in synaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Jamie; Rothen, Nicolas; Coolbear, Daniel; Ward, Jamie

    2013-05-01

    People with grapheme-colour synaesthesia have been shown to have enhanced memory on a range of tasks using both stimuli that induce synaesthesia (e.g. words) and, more surprisingly, stimuli that do not (e.g. certain abstract visual stimuli). This study examines the latter by using multi-featured stimuli consisting of shape, colour and location conjunctions (e.g. shape A+colour A+location A; shape B+colour B+location B) presented in a recognition memory paradigm. This enables distractor items to be created in which one of these features is 'unbound' with respect to the others (e.g. shape A+colour B+location A; shape A+colour A+location C). Synaesthetes had higher recognition rates suggesting an enhanced ability to bind certain visual features together into memory. Importantly, synaesthetes' false alarm rates were lower only when colour was the unbound feature, not shape or location. We suggest that synaesthetes are "colour experts" and that enhanced perception can lead to enhanced memory in very specific ways; but, not for instance, an enhanced ability to form associations per se. The results support contemporary models that propose a continuum between perception and memory. PMID:23454796

  8. Glucose Administration Enhances fMRI Brain Activation and Connectivity Related to Episodic Memory Encoding for Neutral and Emotional Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Marise B.; Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Ryan, John P.; Wilson, Jennifer S.; Harenski, Carla; Hamann, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Glucose enhances memory in a variety of species. In humans, glucose administration enhances episodic memory encoding, although little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying these effects. Here we examined whether elevating blood glucose would enhance functional MRI (fMRI) activation and connectivity in brain regions associated with…

  9. Three-Dimensional Cellular Structures Enhanced By Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, Michael V.; Krause, David L.; Wilmoth, Nathan G.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Baker, Eric H.

    2014-01-01

    This research effort explored lightweight structural concepts married with advanced smart materials to achieve a wide variety of benefits in airframe and engine components. Lattice block structures were cast from an aerospace structural titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V and a NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA), and preliminary properties have been measured. A finite element-based modeling approach that can rapidly and accurately capture the deformation response of lattice architectures was developed. The Ti-6-4 and SMA material behavior was calibrated via experimental tests of ligaments machined from the lattice. Benchmark testing of complete lattice structures verified the main aspects of the model as well as demonstrated the advantages of the lattice structure. Shape memory behavior of a sample machined from a lattice block was also demonstrated.

  10. Recent memory for socially transmitted food preferences in rats does not depend on the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Rajat; Sparks, Fraser T; Hanif, Wahab; Gulbrandsen, Tine; Sutherland, Robert J

    2014-10-01

    The standard model of systems consolidation holds that the hippocampus (HPC) is involved only in the initial storage and retrieval of a memory. With time hippocampal-neocortical interactions slowly strengthen the neocortical memory, ultimately enabling retrieval of the memory without the HPC. Key support for this idea comes from experiments measuring memory recall in the socially-transmitted food preference (STFP) task in rats. HPC damage within a day or two of STFP learning can abolish recall, but similar damage five or more days after learning has no effect. We hypothesize that disruption of cellular consolidation outside the HPC could contribute to the amnesia with recent memories, perhaps playing a more important role than the loss of HPC. This view predicts that intraHPC infusion of Tetrodotoxin (TTX), which can block conduction of action potentials from the lesion sites, will block the retrograde amnesia in the STFP task. Here we confirm the previously reported retrograde amnesia with neurotoxic HPC damage within the first day after learning, but show that co-administration of TTX with the neurotoxin blocks the retrograde amnesia despite very extensive HPC damage. These results indicate that HPC damage disrupts cellular consolidation of the recent memory elsewhere; STFP memory may not ever depend on the HPC. PMID:24862355

  11. Retrieval practice enhances the accessibility but not the quality of memory.

    PubMed

    Sutterer, David W; Awh, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that retrieval from long-term memory (LTM) can enhance subsequent memory performance, a phenomenon labeled the retrieval practice effect. However, the almost exclusive reliance on categorical stimuli in this literature leaves open a basic question about the nature of this improvement in memory performance. It has not yet been determined whether retrieval practice improves the probability of successful memory retrieval or the quality of the retrieved representation. To answer this question, we conducted three experiments using a mixture modeling approach (Zhang & Luck, 2008) that provides a measure of both the probability of recall and the quality of the recalled memories. Subjects attempted to memorize the color of 400 unique shapes. After every 10 images were presented, subjects either recalled the last 10 colors (the retrieval practice condition) by clicking on a color wheel with each shape as a retrieval cue or they participated in a control condition that involved no further presentations (Experiment 1) or restudy of the 10 shape/color associations (Experiments 2 and 3). Performance in a subsequent delayed recall test revealed a robust retrieval practice effect. Subjects recalled a significantly higher proportion of items that they had previously retrieved relative to items that were untested or that they had restudied. Interestingly, retrieval practice did not elicit any improvement in the precision of the retrieved memories. The same empirical pattern also was observed following delays of greater than 24 hours. Thus, retrieval practice increases the probability of successful memory retrieval but does not improve memory quality. PMID:26404635

  12. Prior perceptual processing enhances the effect of emotional arousal on the neural correlates of memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Dew, Ilana T Z; Ritchey, Maureen; LaBar, Kevin S; Cabeza, Roberto

    2014-07-01

    A fundamental idea in memory research is that items are more likely to be remembered if encoded with a semantic, rather than perceptual, processing strategy. Interestingly, this effect has been shown to reverse for emotionally arousing materials, such that perceptual processing enhances memory for emotional information or events. The current fMRI study investigated the neural mechanisms of this effect by testing how neural activations during emotional memory retrieval are influenced by the prior encoding strategy. Participants incidentally encoded emotional and neutral pictures under instructions to attend to either semantic or perceptual properties of each picture. Recognition memory was tested 2 days later. fMRI analyses yielded three main findings. First, right amygdalar activity associated with emotional memory strength was enhanced by prior perceptual processing. Second, prior perceptual processing of emotional pictures produced a stronger effect on recollection- than familiarity-related activations in the right amygdala and left hippocampus. Finally, prior perceptual processing enhanced amygdalar connectivity with regions strongly associated with retrieval success, including hippocampal/parahippocampal regions, visual cortex, and ventral parietal cortex. Taken together, the results specify how encoding orientations yield alterations in brain systems that retrieve emotional memories. PMID:24380867

  13. Short theta burst stimulation to left frontal cortex prior to encoding enhances subsequent recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Demeter, Elise; Mirdamadi, Jasmine L; Meehan, Sean K; Taylor, Stephan F

    2016-08-01

    Deep semantic encoding of verbal stimuli can aid in later successful retrieval of those stimuli from long-term episodic memory. Evidence from numerous neuropsychological and neuroimaging experiments demonstrate regions in left prefrontal cortex, including left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), are important for processes related to encoding. Here, we investigated the relationship between left DLPFC activity during encoding and successful subsequent memory with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In a pair of experiments using a 2-session within-subjects design, we stimulated either left DLPFC or a control region (Vertex) with a single 2-s train of short theta burst stimulation (sTBS) during a semantic encoding task and then gave participants a recognition memory test. We found that subsequent memory was enhanced on the day left DLPFC was stimulated, relative to the day Vertex was stimulated, and that DLPFC stimulation also increased participants' confidence in their decisions during the recognition task. We also explored the time course of how long the effects of sTBS persisted. Our data suggest 2 s of sTBS to left DLPFC is capable of enhancing subsequent memory for items encoded up to 15 s following stimulation. Collectively, these data demonstrate sTBS is capable of enhancing long-term memory and provide evidence that TBS protocols are a potentially powerful tool for modulating cognitive function. PMID:27098772

  14. Spatial, object, and affective working memory in social anhedonia: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Diane C; Tallent, Kathleen A

    2003-10-01

    The domain-specificity of working memory was examined in psychosis-prone individuals with elevated social anhedonia scores. A group of individuals with deviant scores on the revised Social Anhedonia Scale (n=43) were compared with a normal control group (n=39) on delayed match-to-sample tasks involving spatial, identity, and affective information. The social anhedonia group performed less well on the spatial and emotion delayed match-to-sample tasks relative to the normally hedonic group. The two groups did not differ in terms of their performance on the identity delayed match-to-sample task. Although the social anhedonia group reported less positive affect, greater negative affect, and more alexithymic tendencies relative to the control group, there were no significant associations between these personality traits and working memory performance. In summary, the findings suggest that poorer working memory performance is not domain-specific in socially anhedonic individuals. The authors conclude that the socially anhedonic group's relatively poor performance on the emotion delayed match-to-sample task reflects difficulty and/or inefficiency in handling cognitively taxing tasks. PMID:12957704

  15. Self-Referenced Memory, Social Cognition, and Symptom Presentation in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Heather A.; Zahka, Nicole E.; Kojkowski, Nicole M.; Inge, Anne P.; Schwartz, Caley B.; Hileman, Camilla M.; Coman, Drew C.; Mundy, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: We examined performance on a self-referenced memory (SRM) task for higher-functioning children with autism (HFA) and a matched comparison group. SRM performance was examined in relation to symptom severity and social cognitive tests of mentalizing. Method: Sixty-two children (31 HFA, 31 comparison; 8-16 years) completed a SRM task in…

  16. Age Differences in Children's Memory of Information about Aggressive, Socially Withdrawn, and Prosociable Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, William M.

    1990-01-01

    In two studies, second and sixth graders heard descriptions of hypothetical boys and girls who were either aggressive, socially withdrawn, or prosociable. Subjects' memories of items in the descriptions were assessed. Results indicated that school-age and early adolescent children's recall of information about a peer is affected by the peer's…

  17. Post-learning stress enhances long-term memory and differentially influences memory in females depending on menstrual stage.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Peters, David M; Cadle, Chelsea E; Kalchik, Andrea E; Aufdenkampe, Rachael L; Dailey, Alison M; Brown, Callie M; Scharf, Amanda R; Earley, McKenna B; Knippen, Courtney L; Rorabaugh, Boyd R

    2015-09-01

    Most work has shown that post-learning stress enhances long-term memory; however, there have been recent inconsistencies in this literature. The purpose of the present study was to examine further the effects of post-learning stress on long-term memory and to explore any sex differences that may exist. Male and female participants learned a list of 42 words that varied in emotional valence and arousal level. Following encoding, participants completed a free recall assessment and then submerged their hand into a bath of ice cold (stress) or lukewarm (no stress) water for 3 min. The next day, participants were given free recall and recognition tests. Stressed participants recalled more words than non-stressed participants 24h after learning. Stress also enhanced female participants' recall of arousing words when they were in the follicular, but not luteal, phase. These findings replicate previous work examining post-learning stress effects on memory and implicate the involvement of sex-related hormones in such effects. PMID:26233730

  18. Deletion of Glutamate Delta-1 Receptor in Mouse Leads to Enhanced Working Memory and Deficit in Fear Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Roopali; Hillman, Brandon G.; Gupta, Subhash C.; Suryavanshi, Pratyush; Bhatt, Jay M.; Pavuluri, Ratnamala; Stairs, Dustin J.; Dravid, Shashank M.

    2013-01-01

    Glutamate delta-1 (GluD1) receptors are expressed throughout the forebrain during development with high levels in the hippocampus during adulthood. We have recently shown that deletion of GluD1 receptor results in aberrant emotional and social behaviors such as hyperaggression and depression-like behaviors and social interaction deficits. Additionally, abnormal expression of synaptic proteins was observed in amygdala and prefrontal cortex of GluD1 knockout mice (GluD1 KO). However the role of GluD1 in learning and memory paradigms remains unknown. In the present study we evaluated GluD1 KO in learning and memory tests. In the eight-arm radial maze GluD1 KO mice committed fewer working memory errors compared to wildtype mice but had normal reference memory. Enhanced working memory in GluD1 KO was also evident by greater percent alternation in the spontaneous Y-maze test. No difference was observed in object recognition memory in the GluD1 KO mice. In the Morris water maze test GluD1 KO mice showed no difference in acquisition but had longer latency to find the platform in the reversal learning task. GluD1 KO mice showed a deficit in contextual and cue fear conditioning but had normal latent inhibition. The deficit in contextual fear conditioning was reversed by D-Cycloserine (DCS) treatment. GluD1 KO mice were also found to be more sensitive to foot-shock compared to wildtype. We further studied molecular changes in the hippocampus, where we found lower levels of GluA1, GluA2 and GluK2 subunits while a contrasting higher level of GluN2B in GluD1 KO. Additionally, we found higher postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) and lower glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) expression in GluD1 KO. We propose that GluD1 is crucial for normal functioning of synapses and absence of GluD1 leads to specific abnormalities in learning and memory. These findings provide novel insights into the role of GluD1 receptors in the central nervous system. PMID:23560106

  19. Enhancing Formal E-Learning with Edutainment on Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labus, A.; Despotovic-Zrakic, M.; Radenkovic, B.; Bogdanovic, Z.; Radenkovic, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the investigation of the possibilities of enhancing the formal e-learning process by harnessing the potential of informal game-based learning on social networks. The goal of the research is to improve the outcomes of the formal learning process through the design and implementation of an educational game on a social network…

  20. Post-Training Intrahippocampal Inhibition of Class I Histone Deacetylases Enhances Long-Term Object-Location Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Joshua D.; Florian, Cedrick; Abel, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Long-term memory formation involves covalent modification of the histone proteins that package DNA. Reducing histone acetylation by mutating histone acetyltransferases impairs long-term memory, and enhancing histone acetylation by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) improves long-term memory. Previous studies using HDAC inhibitors to enhance…

  1. On the flexibility of social source memory: a test of the emotional incongruity hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel; Kroneisen, Meike; Giang, Trang

    2012-11-01

    A popular hypothesis in evolutionary psychology posits that reciprocal altruism is supported by a cognitive module that helps cooperative individuals to detect and remember cheaters. Consistent with this hypothesis, a source memory advantage for faces of cheaters (better memory for the cheating context in which these faces were encountered) was observed in previous studies. Here, we examined whether positive or negative expectancies would influence source memory for cheaters and cooperators. A cooperation task with virtual opponents was used in Experiments 1 and 2. Source memory for the emotionally incongruent information was enhanced relative to the congruent information: In Experiment 1, source memory was best for cheaters with likable faces and for cooperators with unlikable faces; in Experiment 2, source memory was better for smiling cheater faces than for smiling cooperator faces, and descriptively better for angry cooperator faces than for angry cheater faces. Experiments 3 and 4 showed that the emotional incongruity effect generalizes to 3rd-party reputational information (descriptions of cheating and trustworthy behavior). The results are inconsistent with the assumption of a highly specific cheater detection module. Focusing on expectancy-incongruent information may represent a more efficient, general, and hence more adaptive memory strategy for remembering exchange-relevant information than focusing only on cheaters. PMID:22545603

  2. Animal model of methylphenidate's long-term memory-enhancing effects

    PubMed Central

    Carmack, Stephanie A.; Howell, Kristin K.; Rasaei, Kleou; Reas, Emilie T.; Anagnostaras, Stephan G.

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH), introduced more than 60 years ago, accounts for two-thirds of current prescriptions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although many studies have modeled MPH's effect on executive function, almost none have directly modeled its effect on long-term memory (LTM), even though improvement in LTM is a critical target of therapeutic intervention in ADHD. We examined the effects of a wide range of doses of MPH (0.01–10 mg/kg, i.p.) on Pavlovian fear learning, a leading model of memory. MPH's effects were then compared to those of atomoxetine (0.1–10 mg/kg, i.p.), bupropion (0.5–20 mg/kg, i.p.), and citalopram (0.01–10 mg/kg, i.p.). At low, clinically relevant doses, MPH enhanced fear memory; at high doses it impaired memory. MPH's memory-enhancing effects were not confounded by its effects on locomotion or anxiety. Further, MPH-induced memory enhancement seemed to require both dopamine and norepinephrine transporter inhibition. Finally, the addictive potential of MPH (1 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg) was compared to those of two other psychostimulants, amphetamine (0.005 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg) and cocaine (0.15 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg), using a conditioned place preference and behavioral sensitization paradigm. We found that memory-enhancing effects of psychostimulants observed at low doses are readily dissociable from their reinforcing and locomotor activating effects at high doses. Together, our data suggest that fear conditioning will be an especially fruitful platform for modeling the effects of psychostimulants on LTM in drug development. PMID:24434869

  3. Social cognition and prefrontal hemodynamic responses during a working memory task in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pu, Shenghong; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Takeshi; Itakura, Masashi; Yamanashi, Takehiko; Yamada, Sayaka; Masai, Mieko; Miura, Akihiko; Yamauchi, Takahira; Satake, Takahiro; Iwata, Masaaki; Nagata, Izumi; Roberts, David L; Kaneko, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Social cognition is an important determinant of functional impairment in schizophrenia, but its relationship with the prefrontal functional abnormalities associated with the condition is still unclear. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between social cognition and prefrontal function in patients with schizophrenia using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia and 26 age-, gender-, and intelligence quotient-matched healthy controls (HCs) participated in the study. Hemodynamic responses in the prefrontal and superior temporal cortical regions were assessed during a working memory task using NIRS. Social cognition was assessed using the Social Cognition Screening Questionnaire (SCSQ). The observed hemodynamic responses were significantly reduced in the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), the frontopolar cortex, and temporal regions in subjects with schizophrenia compared to HCs. Additionally, lateral PFC hemodynamic responses assessed during the working memory task demonstrated a strong positive correlation with the SCSQ theory of mind (ToM) subscale score even after controlling for working memory performance. These results suggest that ToM integrity is closely related to lateral PFC functional abnormalities found in patients with schizophrenia. In addition, this study provides evidence to suggest that NIRS could be used to identify biomarkers of social cognition function in subjects with schizophrenia. PMID:26928254

  4. Social cognition and prefrontal hemodynamic responses during a working memory task in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Shenghong; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Takeshi; Itakura, Masashi; Yamanashi, Takehiko; Yamada, Sayaka; Masai, Mieko; Miura, Akihiko; Yamauchi, Takahira; Satake, Takahiro; Iwata, Masaaki; Nagata, Izumi; Roberts, David L.; Kaneko, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Social cognition is an important determinant of functional impairment in schizophrenia, but its relationship with the prefrontal functional abnormalities associated with the condition is still unclear. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between social cognition and prefrontal function in patients with schizophrenia using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia and 26 age-, gender-, and intelligence quotient-matched healthy controls (HCs) participated in the study. Hemodynamic responses in the prefrontal and superior temporal cortical regions were assessed during a working memory task using NIRS. Social cognition was assessed using the Social Cognition Screening Questionnaire (SCSQ). The observed hemodynamic responses were significantly reduced in the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), the frontopolar cortex, and temporal regions in subjects with schizophrenia compared to HCs. Additionally, lateral PFC hemodynamic responses assessed during the working memory task demonstrated a strong positive correlation with the SCSQ theory of mind (ToM) subscale score even after controlling for working memory performance. These results suggest that ToM integrity is closely related to lateral PFC functional abnormalities found in patients with schizophrenia. In addition, this study provides evidence to suggest that NIRS could be used to identify biomarkers of social cognition function in subjects with schizophrenia. PMID:26928254

  5. Lack of DREAM protein enhances learning and memory and slows brain aging.

    PubMed

    Fontán-Lozano, Angela; Romero-Granados, Rocío; del-Pozo-Martín, Yaiza; Suárez-Pereira, Irene; Delgado-García, José María; Penninger, Josef M; Carrión, Angel Manuel

    2009-01-13

    Memory deficits in aging affect millions of people and are often disturbing to those concerned. Dissection of the molecular control of learning and memory is paramount to understand and possibly enhance cognitive functions. Old-age memory loss also has been recently linked to altered Ca(2+) homeostasis. We have previously identified DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonistic modulator), a member of the neuronal Ca(2+) sensor superfamily of EF-hand proteins, with specific roles in different cell compartments. In the nucleus, DREAM is a Ca(2+)-dependent transcriptional repressor, binding to specific DNA signatures, or interacting with nucleoproteins regulating their transcriptional properties. Also, we and others have shown that dream mutant (dream(-/-)) mice exhibit marked analgesia. Here we report that dream(-/-) mice exhibit markedly enhanced learning and synaptic plasticity related to improved cognition. Mechanistically, DREAM functions as a negative regulator of the key memory factor CREB in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, and loss of DREAM facilitates CREB-dependent transcription during learning. Intriguingly, 18-month-old dream(-/-) mice display learning and memory capacities similar to young mice. Moreover, loss of DREAM protects from brain degeneration in aging. These data identify the Ca(2+)-regulated "pain gene" DREAM as a novel key regulator of memory and brain aging. PMID:19110430

  6. Enhancing Social Studies Instruction through Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, William D.

    The document contains theoretical and practical information to aid social studies classroom teachers as they develop and implement consumer education programs. The monograph is presented in three major sections. Section I illustrates the kinds of theoretical content the author believes are appropriate for a school consumer education program.…

  7. Role of Glia in Stress-Induced Enhancement and Impairment of Memory

    PubMed Central

    Pearson-Leary, Jiah; Osborne, Danielle Maria; McNay, Ewan C.

    2016-01-01

    Both acute and chronic stress profoundly affect hippocampally-dependent learning and memory: moderate stress generally enhances, while chronic or extreme stress can impair, neural and cognitive processes. Within the brain, stress elevates both norepinephrine and glucocorticoids, and both affect several genomic and signaling cascades responsible for modulating memory strength. Memories formed at times of stress can be extremely strong, yet stress can also impair memory to the point of amnesia. Often overlooked in consideration of the impact of stress on cognitive processes, and specifically memory, is the important contribution of glia as a target for stress-induced changes. Astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes all have unique contributions to learning and memory. Furthermore, these three types of glia express receptors for both norepinephrine and glucocorticoids and are hence immediate targets of stress hormone actions. It is becoming increasingly clear that inflammatory cytokines and immunomodulatory molecules released by glia during stress may promote many of the behavioral effects of acute and chronic stress. In this review, the role of traditional genomic and rapid hormonal mechanisms working in concert with glia to affect stress-induced learning and memory will be emphasized. PMID:26793072

  8. Enhanced memory effect with embedded graphene nanoplatelets in ZnO charge trapping layer

    SciTech Connect

    El-Atab, Nazek; Nayfeh, Ammar; Cimen, Furkan; Alkis, Sabri; Okyay, Ali K.

    2014-07-21

    A charge trapping memory with graphene nanoplatelets embedded in atomic layer deposited ZnO (GNIZ) is demonstrated. The memory shows a large threshold voltage V{sub t} shift (4 V) at low operating voltage (6/−6 V), good retention (>10 yr), and good endurance characteristic (>10{sup 4} cycles). This memory performance is compared to control devices with graphene nanoplatelets (or ZnO) and a thicker tunnel oxide. These structures showed a reduced V{sub t} shift and retention characteristic. The GNIZ structure allows for scaling down the tunnel oxide thickness along with improving the memory window and retention of data. The larger V{sub t} shift indicates that the ZnO adds available trap states and enhances the emission and retention of charges. The charge emission mechanism in the memory structures with graphene nanoplatelets at an electric field E ≥ 5.57 MV/cm is found to be based on Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. The fabrication of this memory device is compatible with current semiconductor processing, therefore, has great potential in low-cost nano-memory applications.

  9. Communism and the meaning of social memory: towards a critical-interpretive approach.

    PubMed

    Tileagă, Cristian

    2012-12-01

    Using a case study of representations of communism in Romania, the paper offers a sketch of a critical-interpretive approach for exploring and engaging with the social memory of communism. When one considers the various contemporary appraisals, responses to and positions towards the communist period one identifies and one is obliged to deal with a series of personal and collective moral/political quandaries. In their attempt to bring about historical justice, political elites create a world that conforms more to their needs and desires than to the diversity of meanings of communism, experiences and dilemmas of lay people. This paper argues that one needs to study formal aspects of social memory as well as "lived", often conflicting, attitudinal and mnemonic stances and interpretive frameworks. One needs to strive to find the meaning of the social memory of communism in the sometimes contradictory, paradoxical attitudes and meanings that members of society communicate, endorse and debate. Many of the ethical quandaries and dilemmas of collective memory and recent history can be better understood by describing the discursive and sociocultural processes of meaning-making and meaning-interpretation carried out by members of a polity. PMID:22718124

  10. Review: Modulating the unfolded protein response to prevent neurodegeneration and enhance memory.

    PubMed

    Halliday, Mark; Mallucci, Giovanna R

    2015-06-01

    Recent evidence has placed the unfolded protein response (UPR) at the centre of pathological processes leading to neurodegenerative disease. The translational repression caused by UPR activation starves neurons of the essential proteins they need to function and survive. Restoration of protein synthesis, via genetic or pharmacological means, is neuroprotective in animal models, prolonging survival. This is of great interest due to the observation of UPR activation in the post mortem brains of patients with Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, tauopathies and prion diseases. Protein synthesis is also an essential step in the formation of new memories. Restoring translation in disease or increasing protein synthesis from basal levels has been shown to improve memory in numerous models. As neurodegenerative diseases often present with memory impairments, targeting the UPR to both provide neuroprotection and enhance memory provides an extremely exciting novel therapeutic target. PMID:25556298

  11. Enhanced recognition memory after incidental encoding in children with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Hedenius, Martina; Ullman, Michael T; Alm, Per; Jennische, Margareta; Persson, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia (DD) has previously been associated with a number of cognitive deficits. Little attention has been directed to cognitive functions that remain intact in the disorder, though the investigation and identification of such strengths might be useful for developing new, and improving current, therapeutical interventions. In this study, an old/new recognition memory paradigm was used to examine previously untested aspects of declarative memory in children with DD and typically developing control children. The DD group was not only not impaired at the task, but actually showed superior recognition memory, as compared to the control children. These findings complement previous reports of enhanced cognition in other domains (e.g., visuo-spatial processing) in DD. Possible underlying mechanisms for the observed DD advantage in declarative memory, and the possibility of compensation by this system for reading deficits in dyslexia, are discussed. PMID:23717524

  12. Memory functioning in social drinkers: a study of event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Fox, A M; Michie, P T; Coltheart, M; Solowij, N

    1995-05-01

    Verbal memory functioning was assessed in light and heavy social drinkers by recording event-related potentials in subjects instructed to memorize lists of words using either repetition or elaborative learning strategies. Although overall performance did not differ significantly between light and heavy drinkers, heavy drinkers showed reduced within-list organization compared with light drinkers. There were statistically significant differences in the event-related potential indices of memory functioning elicited during complex elaborative processing which were consistent with decreased within-list organization in heavy drinkers. PMID:7545984

  13. Integrin-linked Kinase is Essential for Environmental Enrichment Enhanced Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xu-Feng; Li, Ting; Wang, Dong-Dong; Chen, Bing; Wang, Yue; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Environment enrichment (EE) has a variety of effects on brain structure and function. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for EE-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and memory enhancement. However, the intracellular pathway downstream of BDNF to modulate EE effects is poorly understood. Here we show that integrin-linked kinase (ILK) levels are elevated upon EE stimuli in a BDNF-dependent manner. Using ILK-shRNA (siILK) lentivirus, we demonstrate that knockdown of ILK impairs EE-promoted hippocampal neurogenesis and memory by increasing glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) activity. Finally, overexpressing ILK in the hippocampus could rescue the neurogenesis and memory deficits in BDNF+/− mice. These results indicate that ILK is indispensable for BDNF-mediated hippocampal neurogenesis and memory enhancement upon EE stimuli via regulating GSK3β activity. This is a new insight of the precise mechanism in EE-enhanced memory processes and ILK is a potentially important therapeutic target that merits further study. PMID:26095336

  14. Motor Skills Enhance Procedural Memory Formation and Protect against Age-Related Decline.

    PubMed

    Müller, Nils C J; Genzel, Lisa; Konrad, Boris N; Pawlowski, Marcel; Neville, David; Fernández, Guillén; Steiger, Axel; Dresler, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The ability to consolidate procedural memories declines with increasing age. Prior knowledge enhances learning and memory consolidation of novel but related information in various domains. Here, we present evidence that prior motor experience-in our case piano skills-increases procedural learning and has a protective effect against age-related decline for the consolidation of novel but related manual movements. In our main experiment, we tested 128 participants with a sequential finger-tapping motor task during two sessions 24 hours apart. We observed enhanced online learning speed and offline memory consolidation for piano players. Enhanced memory consolidation was driven by a strong effect in older participants, whereas younger participants did not benefit significantly from prior piano experience. In a follow up independent control experiment, this compensatory effect of piano experience was not visible after a brief offline period of 30 minutes, hence requiring an extended consolidation window potentially involving sleep. Through a further control experiment, we rejected the possibility that the decreased effect in younger participants was caused by training saturation. We discuss our results in the context of the neurobiological schema approach and suggest that prior experience has the potential to rescue memory consolidation from age-related cognitive decline. PMID:27333186

  15. The memory-enhancing effect of erucic acid on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunji; Ko, Hae Ju; Jeon, Se Jin; Lee, Sunhee; Lee, Hyung Eun; Kim, Ha Neul; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2016-03-01

    Erucic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid isolated from the seed of Raphanus sativus L. that is known to normalize the accumulation of very long chain fatty acids in the brains of patients suffering from X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Here, we investigated whether erucic acid enhanced cognitive function or ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment using the passive avoidance, Y-maze and Morris water maze tasks. Erucic acid (3mg/kg, p.o.) enhanced memory performance in normal naïve mice. In addition, erucic acid (3mg/kg, p.o.) ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment, as assessed via the behavioral tasks. We then investigated the underlying mechanism of the memory-enhancing effect of erucic acid. The administration of erucic acid increased the phosphorylation levels of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and additional protein kinase B (Akt) in the hippocampus. These results suggest that erucic acid has an ameliorative effect in mice with scopolamine-induced memory deficits and that the effect of erucic acid is partially due to the activation of PI3K-PKCζ-ERK-CREB signaling as well as an increase in phosphorylated Akt in the hippocampus. Therefore, erucic acid may be a novel therapeutic agent for diseases associated with cognitive deficits, such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26780350

  16. Motor Skills Enhance Procedural Memory Formation and Protect against Age-Related Decline

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Nils C. J.; Genzel, Lisa; Konrad, Boris N.; Pawlowski, Marcel; Neville, David; Fernández, Guillén; Steiger, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The ability to consolidate procedural memories declines with increasing age. Prior knowledge enhances learning and memory consolidation of novel but related information in various domains. Here, we present evidence that prior motor experience–in our case piano skills–increases procedural learning and has a protective effect against age-related decline for the consolidation of novel but related manual movements. In our main experiment, we tested 128 participants with a sequential finger-tapping motor task during two sessions 24 hours apart. We observed enhanced online learning speed and offline memory consolidation for piano players. Enhanced memory consolidation was driven by a strong effect in older participants, whereas younger participants did not benefit significantly from prior piano experience. In a follow up independent control experiment, this compensatory effect of piano experience was not visible after a brief offline period of 30 minutes, hence requiring an extended consolidation window potentially involving sleep. Through a further control experiment, we rejected the possibility that the decreased effect in younger participants was caused by training saturation. We discuss our results in the context of the neurobiological schema approach and suggest that prior experience has the potential to rescue memory consolidation from age-related cognitive decline. PMID:27333186

  17. Differences in short-term memory span of social sciences, science and engineering, and business majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Naeem Ullah

    This study investigated the difference in the short-term memory span of students of three major groups, namely Social Sciences, Science and Engineering, and Business. This study was designed to answer the following two questions: (1) Is there a difference between short-term memory span, measured by digit span, among the students in or intended for Social Sciences, Science and Engineering, and Business majors? (2) Is there a difference of short-term memory span, measured by word span, among students in or intended for Social Sciences, Science and Engineering, and Business majors? For answering these two questions, inferential and descriptive statistics were used. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the means of the scores of digit span and word span among the three major groups. The means of digit span and word span among the three groups were compared to find out if a statistically significant difference existed among them or not. The observations were recorded at the level of significance at alpha = .05, and highly significant at alpha = .01. The answer to the first question is yes. The results of this study showed a statistically significant difference in the means of the digit span of the three major groups of students in or intended for Social Sciences, Science and Engineering, and Business. The mean scaled score for digit span was 12.88 for Social Sciences, 14.27 for Science and Engineering, and 15.33 for Business majors, respectively. The means of the free recalls word span of the three groups was 7.23 for Social Sciences, 7.89 for Science and Engineering, and 7.12 for Business majors, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the means of the word span of the three groups. In general observations, it is noted that students want to stay in the subjects or majors in which they can perform well or feel comfortable. In addition to this, students are screened in the school system due to levels of performance or selection pressure

  18. Don't Break the Memory Line: Social Memory, Digital Storytelling and Local Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, Paolo; Mangiatordi, Andrea; Pozzali, Andrea

    In this paper we present and analyze some of the main results obtained by the empirical research carried out within the scope of the Socrates Grundtvig Project "Memory Line", that aimed at developing instruments and methodologies in order to help overcoming the intergenerational divide. The project aimed at training groups of elderly and young citizens, resident in the project partner countries, to collect records (stories, songs, poems, experiences, etc.) and to save them in a digital form, mainly by using the methodology of digital storytelling. Focus groups and interviews with people involved in the intergenerational ateliers have been carried out in order to gather a series of first hand evidences directly from the voices of people who were actively involved in the project, and to enable an ongoing monitoring and self evaluation of the project itself.

  19. Music-based memory enhancement in Alzheimer's disease: promise and limitations.

    PubMed

    Simmons-Stern, Nicholas R; Deason, Rebecca G; Brandler, Brian J; Frustace, Bruno S; O'Connor, Maureen K; Ally, Brandon A; Budson, Andrew E

    2012-12-01

    In a previous study (Simmons-Stern, Budson & Ally, 2010), we found that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) better recognized visually presented lyrics when the lyrics were also sung rather than spoken at encoding. The present study sought to further investigate the effects of music on memory in patients with AD by making the content of the song lyrics relevant for the daily life of an older adult and by examining how musical encoding alters several different aspects of episodic memory. Patients with AD and healthy older adults studied visually presented novel song lyrics related to instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) that were accompanied by either a sung or a spoken recording. Overall, participants performed better on a memory test of general lyric content for lyrics that were studied sung as compared to spoken. However, on a memory test of specific lyric content, participants performed equally well for sung and spoken lyrics. We interpret these results in terms of a dual-process model of recognition memory such that the general content questions represent a familiarity-based representation that is preferentially sensitive to enhancement via music, while the specific content questions represent a recollection-based representation unaided by musical encoding. Additionally, in a test of basic recognition memory for the audio stimuli, patients with AD demonstrated equal discrimination for sung and spoken stimuli. We propose that the perceptual distinctiveness of musical stimuli enhanced metamemorial awareness in AD patients via a non-selective distinctiveness heuristic, thereby reducing false recognition while at the same time reducing true recognition and eliminating the mnemonic benefit of music. These results are discussed in the context of potential music-based memory enhancement interventions for the care of patients with AD. PMID:23000133

  20. Music-Based Memory Enhancement in Alzheimer’s Disease: Promise and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Simmons-Stern, Nicholas R.; Deason, Rebecca G.; Brandler, Brian J.; Frustace, Bruno S.; O’Connor, Maureen K.; Ally, Brandon A.; Budson, Andrew E.

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study (Simmons-Stern, Budson, & Ally 2010), we found that patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) better recognized visually presented lyrics when the lyrics were also sung rather than spoken at encoding. The present study sought to further investigate the effects of music on memory in patients with AD by making the content of the song lyrics relevant for the daily life of an older adult and by examining how musical encoding alters several different aspects of episodic memory. Patients with AD and healthy older adults studied visually presented novel song lyrics related to instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) that were accompanied by either a sung or a spoken recording. Overall, participants performed better on a memory test of general lyric content for lyrics that were studied sung as compared to spoken. However, on a memory test of specific lyric content, participants performed equally well for sung and spoken lyrics. We interpret these results in terms of a dual-process model of recognition memory such that the general content questions represent a familiarity-based representation that is preferentially sensitive to enhancement via music, while the specific content questions represent a recollection-based representation unaided by musical encoding. Additionally, in a test of basic recognition memory for the audio stimuli, patients with AD demonstrated equal discrimination for sung and spoken stimuli. We propose that the perceptual distinctiveness of musical stimuli enhanced metamemorial awareness in AD patients via a non-selective distinctiveness heuristic, thereby reducing false recognition while at the same time reducing true recognition and eliminating the mnemonic benefit of music. These results are discussed in the context of potential music-based memory enhancement interventions for the care of patients with AD. PMID:23000133

  1. Effects of Interfacial Fluorination on Performance Enhancement of High-k-Based Charge Trap Flash Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenjie; Huo, Zongliang; Liu, Ziyu; Liu, Yu; Cui, Yanxiang; Wang, Yumei; Li, Fanghua; Liu, Ming

    2013-07-01

    The effects of interfacial fluorination on the metal/Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2/Si (MAHOS) memory structure have been investigated. By comparing MAHOS memories with and without interfacial fluorination, it was identified that the deterioration of the performance and reliability of MAHOS memories is mainly due to the formation of an interfacial layer that generates excess oxygen vacancies at the interface. Interfacial fluorination suppresses the growth of the interfacial layer, which is confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profile analysis, increases enhanced program/erase efficiency, and improves data retention characteristics. Moreover, it was observed that fluorination at the SiO-HfO interface achieves a more effective performance enhancement than that at the HfO-AlO interface.

  2. The wick in the candle of learning: epistemic curiosity activates reward circuitry and enhances memory.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Jeong; Hsu, Ming; Krajbich, Ian M; Loewenstein, George; McClure, Samuel M; Wang, Joseph Tao-yi; Camerer, Colin F

    2009-08-01

    Curiosity has been described as a desire for learning and knowledge, but its underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We scanned subjects with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they read trivia questions. The level of curiosity when reading questions was correlated with activity in caudate regions previously suggested to be involved in anticipated reward. This finding led to a behavioral study, which showed that subjects spent more scarce resources (either limited tokens or waiting time) to find out answers when they were more curious. The functional imaging also showed that curiosity increased activity in memory areas when subjects guessed incorrectly, which suggests that curiosity may enhance memory for surprising new information. This prediction about memory enhancement was confirmed in a behavioral study: Higher curiosity in an initial session was correlated with better recall of surprising answers 1 to 2 weeks later. PMID:19619181

  3. Neural Correlates of Enhanced Visual Short-Term Memory for Angry Faces: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Margaret C.; Wolf, Claudia; Johnston, Stephen J.; Raymond, Jane E.; Linden, David E. J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Fluid and effective social communication requires that both face identity and emotional expression information are encoded and maintained in visual short-term memory (VSTM) to enable a coherent, ongoing picture of the world and its players. This appears to be of particular evolutionary importance when confronted with potentially threatening displays of emotion - previous research has shown better VSTM for angry versus happy or neutral face identities. Methodology/Principal Findings Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, here we investigated the neural correlates of this angry face benefit in VSTM. Participants were shown between one and four to-be-remembered angry, happy, or neutral faces, and after a short retention delay they stated whether a single probe face had been present or not in the previous display. All faces in any one display expressed the same emotion, and the task required memory for face identity. We find enhanced VSTM for angry face identities and describe the right hemisphere brain network underpinning this effect, which involves the globus pallidus, superior temporal sulcus, and frontal lobe. Increased activity in the globus pallidus was significantly correlated with the angry benefit in VSTM. Areas modulated by emotion were distinct from those modulated by memory load. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide evidence for a key role of the basal ganglia as an interface between emotion and cognition, supported by a frontal, temporal, and occipital network. PMID:18958158

  4. Association between polymorphisms in NOS3 and KCNH2 and social memory

    PubMed Central

    Henningsson, Susanne; Zettergren, Anna; Hovey, Daniel; Jonsson, Lina; Svärd, Joakim; Cortes, Diana S.; Melke, Jonas; Ebner, Natalie C.; Laukka, Petri; Fischer, Håkan; Westberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Social memory, including the ability to recognize faces and voices, is essential for social relationships. It has a large heritable component, but the knowledge about the contributing genes is sparse. The genetic variation underlying inter-individual differences in social memory was investigated in an exploratory sample (n = 55), genotyped with a chip comprising approximately 200,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and in a validation sample (n = 582), where 30 SNPs were targeted. In the exploratory study face identity recognition was measured. The validation study also measured vocal sound recognition, as well as recognition of faces and vocal sounds combined (multimodal condition). In the exploratory study, the 30 SNPs that were associated with face recognition at puncorrected < 0.001 and located in genes, were chosen for further study. In the validation study two of these SNPs showed significant associations with recognition of faces, vocal sounds, and multimodal stimuli: rs1800779 in the gene encoding nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) and rs3807370 in the gene encoding the voltage-gated channel, subfamily H, member 2 (KCNH2), in strong linkage disequilibrium with each other. The uncommon alleles were associated with superior performance, and the effects were present for men only (p < 0.0002). The exploratory study also showed a weaker but significant association with (non-emotional) word recognition, an effect that was independent of the effect on face recognition. This study demonstrates evidence for an association between NOS3 and KCNH2 SNPs and social memory. PMID:26539080

  5. GABAA Receptor Blockade Enhances Memory Consolidation by Increasing Hippocampal BDNF Levels

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jong Min; Park, Se Jin; Cai, Mudan; Liu, Xiaotong; Lee, Seungheon; Shin, Chan Young; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Memory consolidation is the process by which acquired information is converted to something concrete to be retrieved later. Here we examined a potential role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mediating the enhanced memory consolidation induced by the GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline methiodide. With the administration of an acquisition trial in naïve mice using a passive avoidance task, mature BDNF (mBDNF) levels were temporally changed in the hippocampal CA1 region, and the lowest levels were observed 9 h after the acquisition trial. In the passive avoidance task, bicuculline methiodide administration within 1 h of training but not after 3 h significantly increased latency time in the retention trial 24 h after the acquisition trial. Concomitantly, 1 h post-training administration of bicuculline methiodide, which enhanced memory consolidation, significantly increased mBDNF levels 9 h after training compared to those of the vehicle-treated control group. In addition, exogenous human recombinant BDNF (hrBDNF) administration 9 h after training into the hippocampal CA1 region facilitated memory consolidation confirming that the increase in mBDNF at around 9 h after training plays a key role in the enhancement of memory consolidation. Moreover, the increases in latency time and immediate early gene expressions by bicuculline methiodide or hrBDNF were significantly blocked by anisomycin, a protein synthesis inhibitor, K252a, a tyrosine receptor kinase (Trk) inhibitor, or anti-TrkB IgG. These findings suggest that the increase in the level of mBDNF and its function during a restricted time window after training are required for the enhancement of memory consolidation by GABAA receptor blockade. PMID:21900885

  6. A Review of the Literature on Memory Enhancement: The Potential and Relevance of Mnemotechnics for Military Training. Technical Report 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Douglas

    An analysis based on an extensive review of the scientific and popular literature indicates that memory enhancement techniques (mnemotechnics) can be used to increase the effectiveness of military training. An overview of the most common memory enhancement techniques provides background for an assessment of the general utility of such techniques…

  7. The Dark Side of Testing Memory: Repeated Retrieval Can Enhance Eyewitness Suggestibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jason C. K.; LaPaglia, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    Eyewitnesses typically recount their experiences many times before trial. Such repeated retrieval can enhance memory retention of the witnessed event. However, recent studies (e.g., Chan, Thomas, & Bulevich, 2009) have found that initial retrieval can exacerbate eyewitness suggestibility to later misleading information--a finding termed…

  8. Test-Enhanced Learning of Natural Concepts: Effects on Recognition Memory, Classification, and Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Larry L.; Wahlheim, Christopher N.; Coane, Jennifer H.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined testing effects on learning of natural concepts and metacognitive assessments of such learning. Results revealed that testing enhanced recognition memory and classification accuracy for studied and novel exemplars of bird families on immediate and delayed tests. These effects depended on the balance of study and test…

  9. Enhanced Associative Memory for Colour (but Not Shape or Location) in Synaesthesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Jamie; Rothen, Nicolas; Coolbear, Daniel; Ward, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    People with grapheme-colour synaesthesia have been shown to have enhanced memory on a range of tasks using both stimuli that induce synaesthesia (e.g. words) and, more surprisingly, stimuli that do not (e.g. certain abstract visual stimuli). This study examines the latter by using multi-featured stimuli consisting of shape, colour and location…

  10. Emotional Enhancement Effect of Memory: Removing the Influence of Cognitive Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Tobias; Glascher, Jan; Moritz, Steffen; Buchel, Christian

    2008-01-01

    According to the modulation hypothesis, arousal is the crucial factor in the emotional enhancement of memory (EEM). However, the multifactor theory of the EEM recently proposed that cognitive characteristics of emotional stimuli, e.g., relatedness and distinctiveness, also play an important role. The current study aimed to investigate the…

  11. Repeated social defeat stress enhances glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the VTA and cocaine place conditioning.

    PubMed

    Stelly, Claire E; Pomrenze, Matthew B; Cook, Jason B; Morikawa, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Enduring memories of sensory cues associated with drug intake drive addiction. It is well known that stressful experiences increase addiction vulnerability. However, it is not clear how repeated stress promotes learning of cue-drug associations, as repeated stress generally impairs learning and memory processes unrelated to stressful experiences. Here, we show that repeated social defeat stress in rats causes persistent enhancement of long-term potentiation (LTP) of NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Protein kinase A-dependent increase in the potency of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate-induced Ca(2+) signaling underlies LTP facilitation. Notably, defeated rats display enhanced learning of contextual cues paired with cocaine experience assessed using a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Enhancement of LTP in the VTA and cocaine CPP in behaving rats both require glucocorticoid receptor activation during defeat episodes. These findings suggest that enhanced glutamatergic plasticity in the VTA may contribute, at least partially, to increased addiction vulnerability following repeated stressful experiences. PMID:27374604

  12. Repeated social defeat stress enhances glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the VTA and cocaine place conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Stelly, Claire E; Pomrenze, Matthew B; Cook, Jason B; Morikawa, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Enduring memories of sensory cues associated with drug intake drive addiction. It is well known that stressful experiences increase addiction vulnerability. However, it is not clear how repeated stress promotes learning of cue-drug associations, as repeated stress generally impairs learning and memory processes unrelated to stressful experiences. Here, we show that repeated social defeat stress in rats causes persistent enhancement of long-term potentiation (LTP) of NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Protein kinase A-dependent increase in the potency of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate-induced Ca2+ signaling underlies LTP facilitation. Notably, defeated rats display enhanced learning of contextual cues paired with cocaine experience assessed using a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Enhancement of LTP in the VTA and cocaine CPP in behaving rats both require glucocorticoid receptor activation during defeat episodes. These findings suggest that enhanced glutamatergic plasticity in the VTA may contribute, at least partially, to increased addiction vulnerability following repeated stressful experiences. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15448.001 PMID:27374604

  13. Using Background Music To Enhance Memory and Improve Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Scheree; Henke, Jeanette; McLaughlin, Maureen; Ripp, Mary; Tuffs, Patricia

    This report describes a program to enhance spelling word retention through the use of background music. The targeted population consisted of elementary students in three middle class communities located in the southwestern suburbs of Chicago. The problems for poor spelling retention were documented through data revealing the number of students…

  14. Extinction Memory Improvement by the Metabolic Enhancer Methylene Blue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Lima, F.; Bruchey, Aleksandra K.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether postextinction administration of methylene blue (MB) could enhance retention of an extinguished conditioned response. MB is a redox compound that at low doses elevates cytochrome oxidase activity, thereby improving brain energy production. Saline or MB (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were administered to rats for 5 d following…

  15. Music Enhances Autobiographical Memory in Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Haj, Mohamad; Postal, Virginie; Allain, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that the "Four Seasons" music may enhance the autobiographical performance of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We used a repeated measures design in which autobiographical recall of 12 mild AD patients was assessed using a free narrative method under three conditions: (a) in "Silence," (b) after being exposed to the opus "Four…

  16. Music as a memory enhancer in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Simmons-Stern, Nicholas R; Budson, Andrew E; Ally, Brandon A

    2010-08-01

    Musical mnemonics have a long and diverse history of popular use. In addition, music processing in general is often considered spared by the neurodegenerative effects of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Research examining these two phenomena is limited, and no work to our knowledge has explored the effectiveness of musical mnemonics in AD. The present study sought to investigate the effect of music at encoding on the subsequent recognition of associated verbal information. Lyrics of unfamiliar children's songs were presented bimodally at encoding, and visual stimuli were accompanied by either a sung or a spoken recording. Patients with AD demonstrated better recognition accuracy for the sung lyrics than the spoken lyrics, while healthy older adults showed no significant difference between the two conditions. We propose two possible explanations for these findings: first, that the brain areas subserving music processing may be preferentially spared by AD, allowing a more holistic encoding that facilitates recognition, and second, that music heightens arousal in patients with AD, allowing better attention and improved memory. PMID:20452365

  17. Getting more from visual working memory: Retro-cues enhance retrieval and protect from visual interference.

    PubMed

    Souza, Alessandra S; Rerko, Laura; Oberauer, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) has a limited capacity. This limitation can be mitigated by the use of focused attention: if attention is drawn to the relevant working memory content before test, performance improves (the so-called retro-cue benefit). This study tests 2 explanations of the retro-cue benefit: (a) Focused attention protects memory representations from interference by visual input at test, and (b) focusing attention enhances retrieval. Across 6 experiments using color recognition and color reproduction tasks, we varied the amount of color interference at test, and the delay between a retrieval cue (i.e., the retro-cue) and the memory test. Retro-cue benefits were larger when the memory test introduced interfering visual stimuli, showing that the retro-cue effect is in part because of protection from visual interference. However, when visual interference was held constant, retro-cue benefits were still obtained whenever the retro-cue enabled retrieval of an object from VWM but delayed response selection. Our results show that accessible information in VWM might be lost in the processes of testing memory because of visual interference and incomplete retrieval. This is not an inevitable state of affairs, though: Focused attention can be used to get the most out of VWM. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26752731

  18. (16)Oxygen irradiation enhances cued fear memory in B6D2F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Raber, Jacob; Marzulla, Tessa; Kronenberg, Amy; Turker, Mitchell S

    2015-11-01

    The space radiation environment includes energetic charged particles that may impact cognitive performance. We assessed the effects of (16)O ion irradiation on cognitive performance of C57BL/6J × DBA/2J F1 (B6D2F1) mice at OHSU (Portland, OR) one month following irradiation at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL, Upton, NY). Hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory and hippocampus-independent cued fear memory of B6D2F1 mice were tested. (16)O ion exposure enhanced cued fear memory. This effect showed a bell-shaped dose response curve. Cued fear memory was significantly stronger in mice irradiated with (16)O ions at a dose of 0.4 or 0.8 Gy than in sham-irradiated mice or following irradiation at 1.6 Gy. In contrast to cued fear memory, contextual fear memory was not affected following (16)O ion irradiation at the doses used in this study. These data indicate that the amygdala might be particularly susceptible to effects of (16)O ion exposure. PMID:26553639

  19. 2-Phenylethynyl-butyltellurium enhances learning and memory impaired by scopolamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana Cristina G; Bruning, César A; Acker, Carmine I; Neto, José S S; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2013-08-01

    Taking into account the memory-enhancing properties of 2-phenylethynyl-butyltellurium (PEBT) and the constant search for drugs that improve cognitive performance, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of PEBT on cognitive impairment induced by scopolamine in mice. PEBT (10 mg/kg, gavage) was administered to mice 1 h before the probe trial in the Morris water maze task. Memory impairment was induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) 30 min before the probe trial. PEBT significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced impairment of long-term memory, as indicated by a decrease in escape latency and an increase in the number of crossings of the platform location when compared with the amnesic mice. To evaluate the effect of PEBT on different phases of memory (acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval) impaired by scopolamine, the step-down inhibitory avoidance task was used. Scopolamine was administered 30 min before training (acquisition), test (retrieval), or immediately after training (consolidation). PEBT, administered 30 min before scopolamine, increased step-down latency in memory-impaired mice, improving the consolidation and retrieval stages, but not acquisition. No significant alterations in locomotor or exploratory behaviors were found in animals treated with PEBT and/or scopolamine. PEBT improved memory deficits during consolidation and retrieval induced by scopolamine. PMID:23751517

  20. Inhibiting glycolytic metabolism enhances CD8+ T cell memory and antitumor function

    PubMed Central

    Sukumar, Madhusudhanan; Liu, Jie; Ji, Yun; Subramanian, Murugan; Crompton, Joseph G.; Yu, Zhiya; Roychoudhuri, Rahul; Palmer, Douglas C.; Muranski, Pawel; Karoly, Edward D.; Mohney, Robert P.; Klebanoff, Christopher A.; Lal, Ashish; Finkel, Toren; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Gattinoni, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Naive CD8+ T cells rely upon oxidation of fatty acids as a primary source of energy. After antigen encounter, T cells shift to a glycolytic metabolism to sustain effector function. It is unclear, however, whether changes in glucose metabolism ultimately influence the ability of activated T cells to become long-lived memory cells. We used a fluorescent glucose analog, 2-NBDG, to quantify glucose uptake in activated CD8+ T cells. We found that cells exhibiting limited glucose incorporation had a molecular profile characteristic of memory precursor cells and an increased capacity to enter the memory pool compared with cells taking up high amounts of glucose. Accordingly, enforcing glycolytic metabolism by overexpressing the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglycerate mutase-1 severely impaired the ability of CD8+ T cells to form long-term memory. Conversely, activation of CD8+ T cells in the presence of an inhibitor of glycolysis, 2-deoxyglucose, enhanced the generation of memory cells and antitumor functionality. Our data indicate that augmenting glycolytic flux drives CD8+ T cells toward a terminally differentiated state, while its inhibition preserves the formation of long-lived memory CD8+ T cells. These results have important implications for improving the efficacy of T cell–based therapies against chronic infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:24091329

  1. 16Oxygen irradiation enhances cued fear memory in B6D2F1 mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raber, Jacob; Marzulla, Tessa; Kronenberg, Amy; Turker, Mitchell S.

    2015-11-01

    The space radiation environment includes energetic charged particles that may impact cognitive performance. We assessed the effects of 16O ion irradiation on cognitive performance of C57BL/6J × DBA/2J F1 (B6D2F1) mice at OHSU (Portland, OR) one month following irradiation at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL, Upton, NY). Hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory and hippocampus-independent cued fear memory of B6D2F1 mice were tested. 16O ion exposure enhanced cued fear memory. This effect showed a bell-shaped dose response curve. Cued fear memory was significantly stronger in mice irradiated with 16O ions at a dose of 0.4 or 0.8 Gy than in sham-irradiated mice or following irradiation at 1.6 Gy. In contrast to cued fear memory, contextual fear memory was not affected following 16O ion irradiation at the doses used in this study. These data indicate that the amygdala might be particularly susceptible to effects of 16O ion exposure.

  2. Enhanced Odor Discrimination and Impaired Olfactory Memory by Spatially Controlled Switch of AMPA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Genetic perturbations of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptors (AMPARs) are widely used to dissect molecular mechanisms of sensory coding, learning, and memory. In this study, we investigated the role of Ca2+-permeable AMPARs in olfactory behavior. AMPAR modification was obtained by depletion of the GluR-B subunit or expression of unedited GluR-B(Q), both leading to increased Ca2+ permeability of AMPARs. Mice with this functional AMPAR switch, specifically in forebrain, showed enhanced olfactory discrimination and more rapid learning in a go/no-go operant conditioning task. Olfactory memory, however, was dramatically impaired. GluR-B depletion in forebrain was ectopically variable (“mosaic”) among individuals and strongly correlated with decreased olfactory memory in hippocampus and cortex. Accordingly, memory was rescued by transgenic GluR-B expression restricted to piriform cortex and hippocampus, while enhanced odor discrimination was independent of both GluR-B variability and transgenic GluR-B expression. Thus, correlated differences in behavior and levels of GluR-B expression allowed a mechanistic and spatial dissection of olfactory learning, discrimination, and memory capabilities. PMID:16216087

  3. Effects of experimentally necessary changes in husbandry on olfactory memory: Chronic food restriction and social isolation.

    PubMed

    Manella, Laura; Woldeyohannes, Leuk; McMahon, Devon; Linster, Christiane

    2016-03-01

    Changes to typical procedures in animal husbandry are often necessary to accommodate the needs of behavioral experiments. Two common changes in husbandry for rodents are light chronic food restriction (to motivate animals in reward-association tasks) and social isolation (to accommodate individual feeding schedules or need to reduce interactions because of implants for example). Each of these intervention individually has been shown to modulate behavioral state and with it performance in behavioral tasks. We here systematically test how social isolation and light chronic food restriction modulate olfactory memory in rats. Our results show a strong modulation of olfactory memory after both types of husbandry interventions. These results suggest that common changes in animal husbandry promote distinct and relevant changes in animal behavior. PMID:26655783

  4. Social Processes Affecting the Mnemonic Consequences of Rumors on Children’s Memory

    PubMed Central

    Principe, Gabrielle F.; Daley, Lauren; Kauth, Kyli

    2010-01-01

    This research examined whether the impact of overheard rumors on children‘s memory for their experiences varies as a function of social processes. The results of two experiments revealed that the very same errant rumor had different consequences for children‘s recollections depending on the degree and type of social interactions they had with peers after exposure to the rumor. In both experiments, 3- to 5-year-olds overheard a false rumor about a recently-experienced event and then were interviewed one week later about the event. In Experiment 1, children were more likely to report experiencing rumored-but-nonoccurring information if they were allowed to interact naturally with peers following exposure to the rumor than if they were prevented from peer exchange. In Experiment 2, exposure to the rumor induced greater memory contamination if it was planted among familiar peers than if it was encountered among strangers. PMID:20659735

  5. Developmental Links Between Children's Working Memory and their Social Relations with Teachers and Peers in the Early School Years.

    PubMed

    de Wilde, Amber; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol A C

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the developmental links between children's working memory development and their relations with teachers and peers across 2 years of kindergarten and early elementary school. Kindergarten and first grade children, N = 1109, 50% boys, were followed across 2 school-years. Children were assessed across 3 waves, in the fall and spring of the first school-year (within school-year), and finally in the spring of the second school-year. Working memory was assessed using a visuo-spatial working memory task. The developmental links between working memory and child-reported teacher-child relationship quality (warmth and conflict) and peer-nominated likeability and friendedness were assessed using autoregressive cross-lagged models. Lower working memory scores were related to increases in teacher-child conflict and decreases in teacher-child warmth one school-year later, in addition to decreases in likeability by peers within the same school-year. Conversely, teacher-child conflict was negatively associated with the development of working memory across the studied period. Path estimates between working memory and social relational factors were similar for boys and girls. Findings show developmental links between working memory and social-relational factors and vice versa. These results suggest that children's working memory development can be fostered through pro-social relations with teachers in early elementary school children. PMID:26219261

  6. A Familiar Pattern? Semantic Memory Contributes to the Enhancement of Visuo-Spatial Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Leigh M.; Orme, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In this study we quantify for the first time electrophysiological components associated with incorporating long-term semantic knowledge with visuo-spatial information using two variants of a traditional matrix patterns task. Results indicated that the matrix task with greater semantic content was associated with enhanced accuracy and RTs in a…

  7. Method for training honeybees to respond to olfactory stimuli and enhancement of memory retention therein

    SciTech Connect

    McCade, Kirsten J.; Wingo, Robert M.; Haarmann, Timothy K.; Sutherland, Andrew; Gubler, Walter D.

    2015-12-15

    A specialized conditioning protocol for honeybees that is designed for use within a complex agricultural ecosystem. This method ensures that the conditioned bees will be less likely to exhibit a conditioned response to uninfected plants, a false positive response that would render such a biological sensor unreliable for agricultural decision support. Also described is a superboosting training regime that allows training without the aid of expensive equipment and protocols for training in out in the field. Also described is a memory enhancing cocktail that aids in long term memory retention of a vapor signature. This allows the bees to be used in the field for longer durations and with fewer bees trained overall.

  8. Gonadal Hormones Rapidly Enhance Spatial Memory and Increase Hippocampal Spine Density in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Jacome, Luis F; Barateli, Ketti; Buitrago, Dina; Lema, Franklin; Frankfurt, Maya; Luine, Victoria N

    2016-04-01

    17β-estradiol (E2) rapidly, within minutes, activates behaviors and cognition by binding to membrane estrogen receptors, activating cell signaling cascades and increasing dendritic spines. In female rodents, E2 enhances spatial memory within 2-4 hours, and spine density is increased in the CA1 area of the hippocampus within 30-60 minutes. Although chronic gonadal hormone treatments in male rats alter cognition and spines/spine synapses and acute hormone effects occur in hippocampal slices, effects of acute, in vivo hormone administration in males are unknown. Therefore, we assessed rapid effects of E2 (20 μg/kg) and testosterone (T) (750 μg/kg) on spatial memory using the object placement task and on hippocampal spine density using Golgi impregnation. Orchidectomized rats received hormones immediately after the training trial and were tested for retention 2 hours later. Vehicle-injected orchidectomized males spent equal time exploring objects in the old and new locations, but E2- or T-treated subjects spent more time exploring objects at the new location, suggesting enhanced memory. Both hormones also increased spine density in CA1, but not the dentate gyrus, by 20%-40% at 30 minutes and 2 hours after injections. This report is the first, to our knowledge, to show E2 and T enhancements of memory and spine density within such a short time frame in male rats. PMID:26844375

  9. Selective memory retrieval in social groups: When silence is golden and when it is not.

    PubMed

    Abel, Magdalena; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2015-07-01

    Previous research has shown that the selective remembering of a speaker and the resulting silences can cause forgetting of related, but unmentioned information by a listener (Cuc, Koppel, & Hirst, 2007). Guided by more recent work that demonstrated both detrimental and beneficial effects of selective memory retrieval in individuals, the present research explored the effects of selective remembering in social groups when access to the encoding context at retrieval was maintained or impaired. In each of three experiments, selective retrieval by the speaker impaired recall of the listener when access to the encoding context was maintained, but it improved recall of the listener when context access was impaired. The results suggest the existence of two faces of selective memory retrieval in social groups, with a detrimental face when the encoding context is still active at retrieval and a beneficial face when it is not. The role of silence in social recall thus seems to be more complex than was indicated in prior work, and mnemonic silences on the part of a speaker can be "golden" for the memories of a listener under some circumstances, but not be "golden" under others. PMID:25867998

  10. Effects of Network Structure, Competition and Memory Time on Social Spreading Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleeson, James P.; O'Sullivan, Kevin P.; Baños, Raquel A.; Moreno, Yamir

    2016-04-01

    Online social media has greatly affected the way in which we communicate with each other. However, little is known about what fundamental mechanisms drive dynamical information flow in online social systems. Here, we introduce a generative model for online sharing behavior that is analytically tractable and that can reproduce several characteristics of empirical micro-blogging data on hashtag usage, such as (time-dependent) heavy-tailed distributions of meme popularity. The presented framework constitutes a null model for social spreading phenomena that, in contrast to purely empirical studies or simulation-based models, clearly distinguishes the roles of two distinct factors affecting meme popularity: the memory time of users and the connectivity structure of the social network.

  11. Frontal and temporal lobe contributions to emotional enhancement of memory in behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kumfor, Fiona; Irish, Muireann; Hodges, John R; Piguet, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Emotional events gain special priority in how they are remembered, with emotionally arousing events typically recalled more vividly and with greater confidence than non-emotional events. In dementia, memory and emotion processing are affected to varying degrees, however, whether emotional enhancement of memory for complex ecologically-valid events is differentially affected across dementia syndromes remains unclear, with previous studies examining effects of emotion on simple visual recognition only. Here, we examined memory for an emotionally arousing short story and a closely matched, emotionally neutral story in behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) (n = 13) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 14), and contrasted their performance with healthy controls (n = 12). Multiple-choice recognition memory for specific details of the story was assessed after a 1-h delay. While AD and control groups showed enhanced memory for the emotional story, the bvFTD group recalled a similar number of details from the emotional and neutral stories. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed emotional enhancement of memory correlated with distinct brain regions in each patient group. In AD, emotional enhancement was associated with integrity of the bilateral hippocampus, parahippocampal gyri, temporal fusiform gyrus and frontal pole, regions typically implicated in memory processes. In contrast in bvFTD, integrity of emotion processing regions, including the orbitofrontal cortex, right amygdala and right insula, correlated with the extent emotion enhanced memory. Our results reveal that integrity of frontal and temporal regions determine the quality and nature of emotional memories. While emotional enhancement of memory is present in mild AD, in bvFTD emotion does not facilitate memory retrieval for complex realistic events. This attenuation of emotional enhancement is due to degradation of emotion processing regions, which may be important for modulating levels of arousal

  12. Role of the hippocampus and orbitofrontal cortex during the disambiguation of social cues in working memory.

    PubMed

    Ross, Robert S; LoPresti, Matthew L; Schon, Karin; Stern, Chantal E

    2013-12-01

    Human social interactions are complex behaviors requiring the concerted effort of multiple neural systems to track and monitor the individuals around us. Cognitively, adjusting our behavior on the basis of changing social cues such as facial expressions relies on working memory and the ability to disambiguate, or separate, the representations of overlapping stimuli resulting from viewing the same individual with different facial expressions. We conducted an fMRI experiment examining the brain regions contributing to the encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of overlapping identity information during working memory using a delayed match-to-sample task. In the overlapping condition, two faces from the same individual with different facial expressions were presented at sample. In the nonoverlapping condition, the two sample faces were from two different individuals with different expressions. fMRI activity was assessed by contrasting the overlapping and nonoverlapping conditions at sample, delay, and test. The lateral orbitofrontal cortex showed increased fMRI signal in the overlapping condition in all three phases of the delayed match-to-sample task and increased functional connectivity with the hippocampus when encoding overlapping stimuli. The hippocampus showed increased fMRI signal at test. These data suggest that lateral orbitofrontal cortex helps encode and maintain representations of overlapping stimuli in working memory, whereas the orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus contribute to the successful retrieval of overlapping stimuli. We suggest that the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus play a role in encoding, maintaining, and retrieving social cues, especially when multiple interactions with an individual need to be disambiguated in a rapidly changing social context in order to make appropriate social responses. PMID:23640112

  13. NAAG peptidase inhibitors and deletion of NAAG peptidase gene enhance memory in novel object recognition test.

    PubMed

    Janczura, Karolina J; Olszewski, Rafal T; Bzdega, Tomasz; Bacich, Dean J; Heston, Warren D; Neale, Joseph H

    2013-02-15

    The peptide neurotransmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) is inactivated by the extracellular enzyme glutamate carboxypeptidase II. Inhibitors of this enzyme reverse dizocilpine (MK-801)-induced impairment of short-term memory in the novel object recognition test. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that NAAG peptidase inhibition enhances long-term (24h delay) memory of C57BL mice. These mice and mice in which glutamate carboxypeptidase II had been knocked out were presented with two identical objects to explore for 10min on day 1 and tested with one of these familiar objects and one novel object on day 2. Memory was assessed as the degree to which the mice recalled the familiar object and explored the novel object to a greater extent on day 2. Uninjected mice or mice injected with saline prior to the acquisition session on day 1 demonstrated a lack of memory of the acquisition experience by exploring the familiar and novel objects to the same extent on day 2. Mice treated with glutamate carboxypeptidase II inhibitors ZJ43 or 2-PMPA prior to the acquisition trial explored the novel object significantly more time than the familiar object on day 2. Consistent with these results, mice in which glutamate carboxypeptidase II had been knocked out distinguished the novel from the familiar object on day 2 while their heterozygous colony mates did not. Inhibition of glutamate carboxypeptidase II enhances recognition memory, a therapeutic action that might be useful in treatment of memory deficits related to age and neurological disorders. PMID:23200894

  14. Rapid-Eye-Movement-Sleep (REM) Associated Enhancement of Working Memory Performance after a Daytime Nap

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Kristy Nga Ting; Hui, Florence Wai Ying; Tseng, Chia-huei

    2015-01-01

    The main objective was to study the impact of a daytime sleep opportunity on working memory and the mechanism behind such impact. This study adopted an experimental design in a sleep research laboratory. Eighty healthy college students (Age:17-23, 36 males) were randomized to either have a polysomnography-monitored daytime sleep opportunity (Nap-group, n=40) or stay awake (Wake-group, n=40) between the two assessment sessions. All participants completed a sleep diary and wore an actigraph-watch for 5 days before and one day after the assessment sessions. They completed the state-measurement of sleepiness and affect, in addition to a psychomotor vigilance test and a working memory task before and after the nap/wake sessions. The two groups did not differ in their sleep characteristics prior to and after the lab visit. The Nap-group had higher accuracy on the working memory task, fewer lapses on the psychomotor vigilance test and lower state-sleepiness than the Wake-group. Within the Nap-group, working memory accuracy was positively correlated with duration of rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and total sleep time during the nap. Our findings suggested that “sleep gain” during a daytime sleep opportunity had significant positive impact on working memory performance, without affecting subsequent nighttime sleep in young adult, and such impact was associated with the duration of REM. While REM abnormality has long been noted in pathological conditions (e.g. depression), which are also presented with cognitive dysfunctions (e.g. working memory deficits), this was the first evidence showing working memory enhancement associated with REM in daytime napping in college students, who likely had habitual short sleep duration but were otherwise generally healthy. PMID:25970511

  15. Neurofeedback training of EEG alpha rhythm enhances episodic and working memory.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Jen-Jui; Chen, Tzu-Shan; Chen, Jia-Jin; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2016-07-01

    Neurofeedback training (NFT) of the alpha rhythm has been used for several decades but is still controversial in regards to its trainability and effects on working memory. Alpha rhythm of the frontoparietal region are associated with either the intelligence or memory of healthy subjects and are also related to pathological states. In this study, alpha NFT effects on memory performances were explored. Fifty healthy participants were recruited and randomly assigned into a group receiving a 8-12-Hz amplitude (Alpha) or a group receiving a random 4-Hz amplitude from the range of 7 to 20 Hz (Ctrl). Three NFT sessions per week were conducted for 4 weeks. Working memory was assessed by both a backward digit span task and an operation span task, and episodic memory was assessed using a word pair task. Four questionnaires were used to assess anxiety, depression, insomnia, and cognitive function. The Ctrl group had no change in alpha amplitude and duration. In contrast, the Alpha group showed a progressive significant increase in the alpha amplitude and total alpha duration of the frontoparietal region. Accuracies of both working and episodic memories were significantly improved in a large proportion of participants of the Alpha group, particularly for those with remarkable alpha-amplitude increases. Scores of four questionnaires fell in a normal range before and after NFT. The current study provided supporting evidence for alpha trainability within a small session number compared with that of therapy. The findings suggested the enhancement of working and episodic memory through alpha NFT. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2662-2675, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27038114

  16. Rapid-Eye-Movement-Sleep (REM) Associated Enhancement of Working Memory Performance after a Daytime Nap.

    PubMed

    Lau, Esther Yuet Ying; Wong, Mark Lawrence; Lau, Kristy Nga Ting; Hui, Florence Wai Ying; Tseng, Chia-huei

    2015-01-01

    The main objective was to study the impact of a daytime sleep opportunity on working memory and the mechanism behind such impact. This study adopted an experimental design in a sleep research laboratory. Eighty healthy college students (Age:17-23, 36 males) were randomized to either have a polysomnography-monitored daytime sleep opportunity (Nap-group, n=40) or stay awake (Wake-group, n=40) between the two assessment sessions. All participants completed a sleep diary and wore an actigraph-watch for 5 days before and one day after the assessment sessions. They completed the state-measurement of sleepiness and affect, in addition to a psychomotor vigilance test and a working memory task before and after the nap/wake sessions. The two groups did not differ in their sleep characteristics prior to and after the lab visit. The Nap-group had higher accuracy on the working memory task, fewer lapses on the psychomotor vigilance test and lower state-sleepiness than the Wake-group. Within the Nap-group, working memory accuracy was positively correlated with duration of rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and total sleep time during the nap. Our findings suggested that "sleep gain" during a daytime sleep opportunity had significant positive impact on working memory performance, without affecting subsequent nighttime sleep in young adult, and such impact was associated with the duration of REM. While REM abnormality has long been noted in pathological conditions (e.g. depression), which are also presented with cognitive dysfunctions (e.g. working memory deficits), this was the first evidence showing working memory enhancement associated with REM in daytime napping in college students, who likely had habitual short sleep duration but were otherwise generally healthy. PMID:25970511

  17. A current overview of cannabinoids and glucocorticoids in facilitating extinction of aversive memories: potential extinction enhancers.

    PubMed

    de Bitencourt, Rafael Mariano; Pamplona, Fabrício Alano; Takahashi, Reinaldo Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Emotional learning is extremely important for the survival of an individual. However, once acquired, emotional associations are not always expressed. The regulation of emotional responses under different environmental conditions is essential for mental health. Indeed, pathologic feelings of fear and anxiety are defining features of many serious psychiatric illness, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and specific phobias. The simplest form of regulation of emotional responses is extinction, in which the conditioned response to a stimulus decreases when reinforcement (stimulus) is omitted. In addition to modulating basal anxiety states, recent studies suggest an important role for the endocannabinoid (eCB) and glucocorticoid systems in the modulation of emotional states and extinction of aversive memories in animals. The purpose of this review is to briefly outline the animal models of fear extinction and to describe how these have been used to examine the potential of extinction enhancing agents which specifically alter the eCB and glucocorticoid systems. Pharmacological manipulations of these systems by agents such as cannabinoid or glucocorticoid agonists can enhance the extinction process and avoid the retention of memories which have the potential to trigger trauma. A better understanding of these findings through animal models highlights the possibilities of using combined extinction enhancing agents in exposure-based psychotherapies for anxiety disorders related to inappropriate retention of aversive memories. This article is part of a special issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. PMID:22687521

  18. Cotinine enhances the extinction of contextual fear memory and reduces anxiety after fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Ross; Patel, Sagar; Solomon, Rosalynn; Tran, John; Weeber, Edwin J; Echeverria, Valentina

    2012-03-17

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder triggered by traumatic events. Symptoms include anxiety, depression and deficits in fear memory extinction (FE). PTSD patients show a higher prevalence of cigarette smoking than the general population. The present study investigated the effects of cotinine, a tobacco-derived compound, over anxiety and contextual fear memory after fear conditioning (FC) in mice, a model for inducing PTSD-like symptoms. Two-month-old C57BL/6J mice were separated into three experimental groups. These groups were used to investigate the effect of pretreatment with cotinine on contextual fear memory and posttreatment on extinction and stability or retrievability of the fear memory. Also, changes induced by cotinine on the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 were assessed after extinction in the hippocampus. An increase in anxiety and corticosterone levels were found after fear conditioning. Cotinine did not affect corticosterone levels but enhanced the extinction of contextual fear, decreased anxiety and the stability and/or retrievability of contextual fear memory. Cotinine-treated mice showed higher levels of the active forms of ERK1/2 than vehicle-treated mice after FC. This evidence suggests that cotinine is a potential new pharmacological treatment to reduce symptoms in individuals with PTSD. PMID:22137886

  19. Enhancing Academic Achievement through Direct Instruction of Social Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendt, Lori; Nunan, Jan

    This paper examines the impact of the explicit teaching of social skills to enhance academic achievement. The targeted population comprised kindergarten and second grade students in a middle-class community located in central Illinois. The problem of inappropriate behaviors and difficulties interacting with peers and how this may affect academic…

  20. Manipulating Memory CD8 T Cell Numbers by Timed Enhancement of IL-2 Signals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Marie T; Kurup, Samarchith P; Starbeck-Miller, Gabriel R; Harty, John T

    2016-09-01

    As a result of the growing burden of tumors and chronic infections, manipulating CD8 T cell responses for clinical use has become an important goal for immunologists. In this article, we show that dendritic cell (DC) immunization coupled with relatively early (days 1-3) or late (days 4-6) administration of enhanced IL-2 signals increase peak effector CD8 T cell numbers, but only early IL-2 signals enhance memory numbers. IL-2 signals delivered at relatively late time points drive terminal differentiation and marked Bim-mediated contraction and do not increase memory T cell numbers. In contrast, early IL-2 signals induce effector cell metabolic profiles that are more conducive to memory formation. Of note, downregulation of CD80 and CD86 was observed on DCs in vivo following early IL-2 treatment. Mechanistically, early IL-2 treatment enhanced CTLA-4 expression on regulatory T cells, and CTLA-4 blockade alongside IL-2 treatment in vivo prevented the decrease in CD80 and CD86, supporting a cell-extrinsic role for CTLA-4 in downregulating B7 ligand expression on DCs. Finally, DC immunization followed by early IL-2 treatment and anti-CTLA-4 blockade resulted in lower memory CD8 T cell numbers compared with the DC+early IL-2 treatment group. These data suggest that curtailed signaling through the B7-CD28 costimulatory axis during CD8 T cell activation limits terminal differentiation and preserves memory CD8 T cell formation; thus, it should be considered in future T cell-vaccination strategies. PMID:27439516

  1. Designer receptors enhance memory in a mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fortress, Ashley M; Hamlett, Eric D; Vazey, Elena M; Aston-Jones, Gary; Cass, Wayne A; Boger, Heather A; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte E

    2015-01-28

    Designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) are novel and powerful tools to investigate discrete neuronal populations in the brain. We have used DREADDs to stimulate degenerating neurons in a Down syndrome (DS) model, Ts65Dn mice. Individuals with DS develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology and have elevated risk for dementia starting in their 30s and 40s. Individuals with DS often exhibit working memory deficits coupled with degeneration of the locus coeruleus (LC) norepinephrine (NE) neurons. It is thought that LC degeneration precedes other AD-related neuronal loss, and LC noradrenergic integrity is important for executive function, working memory, and attention. Previous studies have shown that LC-enhancing drugs can slow the progression of AD pathology, including amyloid aggregation, oxidative stress, and inflammation. We have shown that LC degeneration in Ts65Dn mice leads to exaggerated memory loss and neuronal degeneration. We used a DREADD, hM3Dq, administered via adeno-associated virus into the LC under a synthetic promoter, PRSx8, to selectively stimulate LC neurons by exogenous administration of the inert DREADD ligand clozapine-N-oxide. DREADD stimulation of LC-NE enhanced performance in a novel object recognition task and reduced hyperactivity in Ts65Dn mice, without significant behavioral effects in controls. To confirm that the noradrenergic transmitter system was responsible for the enhanced memory function, the NE prodrug l-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine was administered in Ts65Dn and normosomic littermate control mice, and produced similar behavioral results. Thus, NE stimulation may prevent memory loss in Ts65Dn mice, and may hold promise for treatment in individuals with DS and dementia. PMID:25632113

  2. Memory-enhancing treatments reverse the impairment of inhibitory avoidance retention in sepsis-surviving rats

    PubMed Central

    Tuon, Lisiane; Comim, Clarissa M; Petronilho, Fabrícia; Barichello, Tatiana; Izquierdo, Ivan; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Survivors from sepsis have presented with long-term cognitive impairment, including alterations in memory, attention, concentration, and global loss of cognitive function. Thus, we evaluated the effects of memory enhancers in sepsis-surviving rats. Methods The rats underwent cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) (sepsis group) with 'basic support' (saline at 50 mL/kg immediately and 12 hours after CLP plus ceftriaxone at 30 mg/kg and clindamycin at 25 mg/kg 6, 12, and 18 hours after CLP) or sham-operated (control group). After 10 or 30 days, rats were submitted to an inhibitory avoidance task. After task training, animals received injections of saline, epinephrine, naloxone, dexamethasone, or glucose. Twenty-four hours afterwards, animals were submitted to the inhibitory avoidance test. Results We demonstrated that memory enhancers reversed impairment in the sepsis group 10 and 30 days after sepsis induction. This effect was of lower magnitude when compared with sham animals 10 days, but not 30 days, after sepsis. Conclusions Using different pharmacologic approaches, we conclude that the adrenergic memory formation pathways are responsive in sepsis-surviving animals. PMID:18957125

  3. A Novel Conditional Genetic System Reveals That Increasing Neuronal cAMP Enhances Memory and Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Isiegas, Carolina; McDonough, Conor; Huang, Ted; Havekes, Robbert; Fabian, Sara; Wu, Long-Jun; Xu, Hui; Zhao, Ming-Gao; Kim, Jae-Ick; Lee, Yong-Seok; Lee, Hye-Ryeon; Ko, Hyoung-Gon; Lee, Nuribalhae; Choi, Sun-Lim; Lee, Jeong-Sik; Son, Hyeon; Zhuo, Min; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Abel, Ted

    2010-01-01

    Consistent evidence from pharmacological and genetic studies shows that cAMP is a critical modulator of synaptic plasticity and memory formation. However, the potential of the cAMP signaling pathway as a target for memory enhancement remains unclear because of contradictory findings from pharmacological and genetic approaches. To address these issues, we have developed a novel conditional genetic system in mice based on the heterologous expression of an Aplysia octopamine receptor, a G-protein-coupled receptor whose activation by its natural ligand octopamine leads to rapid and transient increases in cAMP. We find that activation of this receptor transgenically expressed in mouse forebrain neurons induces a rapid elevation of hippocampal cAMP levels, facilitates hippocampus synaptic plasticity, and enhances the consolidation and retrieval of fear memory. Our findings clearly demonstrate that acute increases in cAMP levels selectively in neurons facilitate synaptic plasticity and memory, and illustrate the potential of this heterologous system to study cAMP-mediated processes in mammalian systems. PMID:18550764

  4. Influences of appearance-behaviour congruity on memory and social judgements.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Brittany S; Gutchess, Angela H

    2015-01-01

    Prior work shows that appearance-behaviour congruity impacts memory and evaluations. Building upon prior work, we assessed influences of appearance-behaviour congruity on source memory and judgement strength to illustrate ways congruity effects permeate social cognition. We paired faces varying on trustworthiness with valenced behaviours to create congruent and incongruent face-behaviour pairs. Young and older adults remembered congruent pairs better than incongruent, but both were remembered better than pairs with faces rated average in appearance. This suggests that multiple, even conflicting, valenced cues improve memory over receiving fewer cues. Consistent with our manipulation of facial trustworthiness, congruity effects were present in the strength of trustworthiness-related but not dominance judgements. Subtle age differences emerged in congruity effects when learning about others, with older adults showing effects for approach judgements given both high and low arousal behaviours. Young adults had congruity effects for approach, prosociality and trustworthiness judgements, given high arousal behaviours only. These findings deepen our understanding of how appearance-behaviour congruity impacts memory for and evaluations of others. PMID:25180615

  5. Curvilinear relationship between phonological working memory load and social-emotional modulation.

    PubMed

    Mano, Quintino R; Brown, Gregory G; Bolden, Khalima; Aupperle, Robin; Sullivan, Sarah; Paulus, Martin P; Stein, Murray B

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that working memory load is an important factor for the interplay between cognitive and facial-affective processing. However, it is unclear how distraction caused by perception of faces interacts with load-related performance. We developed a modified version of the delayed match-to-sample task wherein task-irrelevant facial distracters were presented early in the rehearsal of pseudoword memoranda that varied incrementally in load size (1-syllable, 2-syllables, or 3-syllables). Facial distracters displayed happy, sad, or neutral expressions in Experiment 1 (N=60) and happy, fearful, or neutral expressions in Experiment 2 (N=29). Facial distracters significantly disrupted task performance in the intermediate load condition (2-syllable) but not in the low or high load conditions (1- and 3-syllables, respectively), an interaction replicated and generalised in Experiment 2. All facial distracters disrupted working memory in the intermediate load condition irrespective of valence, suggesting a primary and general effect of distraction caused by faces. However, sad and fearful faces tended to be less disruptive than happy faces, suggesting a secondary and specific valence effect. Working memory appears to be most vulnerable to social-emotional information at intermediate loads. At low loads, spare capacity is capable of accommodating the combinatorial load (1-syllable plus facial distracter), whereas high loads maximised capacity and deprived facial stimuli from occupying working memory slots to cause disruption. PMID:22928750

  6. Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  7. Enhancing topology adaptation in information-sharing social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimini, Giulio; Chen, Duanbing; Medo, Matúš; Lü, Linyuan; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Tao

    2012-04-01

    The advent of the Internet and World Wide Web has led to unprecedent growth of the information available. People usually face the information overload by following a limited number of sources which best fit their interests. It has thus become important to address issues like who gets followed and how to allow people to discover new and better information sources. In this paper we conduct an empirical analysis of different online social networking sites and draw inspiration from its results to present different source selection strategies in an adaptive model for social recommendation. We show that local search rules which enhance the typical topological features of real social communities give rise to network configurations that are globally optimal. These rules create networks which are effective in information diffusion and resemble structures resulting from real social systems.

  8. You are that smiling guy I met at the party! Socially positive signals foster memory for identities and contexts.

    PubMed

    Righi, Stefania; Gronchi, Giorgio; Marzi, Tessa; Rebai, Mohamed; Viggiano, Maria Pia

    2015-07-01

    The emotional influence of facial expressions on memory is well-known whereas the influence of emotional contextual information on memory for emotional faces is yet to be extensively explored. This study investigated the interplay between facial expression and the emotional surrounding context in affecting both memory for identities (item memory) and memory for associative backgrounds (source memory). At the encoding fearful and happy faces were presented embedded in fear or happy scenes (i.e.: fearful faces in fear-scenes, happy faces in happy-scenes, fearful faces in happy-scenes and happy faces in fear-scenes) and participants were asked to judge the emotional congruency of the face-scene compounds (i.e. fearful faces in fear-scenes and happy faces in happy-scenes were congruent compounds). In the recognition phase, the old faces were intermixed with the new ones: all the faces were presented isolated with a neutral expression. Participants were requested to indicate whether each face had been previously presented (item memory). Then, for each old face the memory for the scene originally compounded with the face was tested by a three alternative forced choice recognition task (source memory). The results evidenced that face identity memory is differently modulated by the valence in congruent face-context compounds with better identity recognition (item memory) for happy faces encoded in happy-scenarios. Moreover, also the memory for the surrounding context (source memory) benefits from the association with a smiling face. Our findings highlight that socially positive signals conveyed by smiling faces may prompt memory for identity and context. PMID:26000956

  9. ADRA2B deletion variant selectively predicts stress-induced enhancement of long-term memory in females.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Kalchik, Andrea E; Hoffman, Mackenzie M; Aufdenkampe, Rachael L; Lyle, Sarah M; Peters, David M; Brown, Callie M; Cadle, Chelsea E; Scharf, Amanda R; Dailey, Alison M; Wolters, Nicholas E; Talbot, Jeffery N; Rorabaugh, Boyd R

    2014-10-01

    Clarifying the mechanisms that underlie stress-induced alterations of learning and memory may lend important insight into susceptibility factors governing the development of stress-related psychological disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous work has shown that carriers of the ADRA2B Glu(301)-Glu(303) deletion variant exhibit enhanced emotional memory, greater amygdala responses to emotional stimuli and greater intrusiveness of traumatic memories. We speculated that carriers of this deletion variant might also be more vulnerable to stress-induced enhancements of long-term memory, which would implicate the variant as a possible susceptibility factor for traumatic memory formation. One hundred and twenty participants (72 males, 48 females) submerged their hand in ice cold (stress) or warm (no stress) water for 3min. Immediately afterwards, they studied a list of 42 words varying in emotional valence and arousal and then completed an immediate free recall test. Twenty-four hours later, participants' memory for the word list was examined via free recall and recognition assessments. Stressed participants exhibiting greater heart rate responses to the stressor had enhanced recall on the 24-h assessment. Importantly, this enhancement was independent of the emotional nature of the learned information. In contrast to previous work, we did not observe a general enhancement of memory for emotional information in ADRA2B deletion carriers. However, stressed female ADRA2B deletion carriers, particularly those exhibiting greater heart rate responses to the stressor, did demonstrate greater recognition memory than all other groups. Collectively, these findings implicate autonomic mechanisms in the pre-learning stress-induced enhancement of long-term memory and suggest that the ADRA2B deletion variant may selectively predict stress effects on memory in females. Such findings lend important insight into the physiological mechanisms underlying stress

  10. Reconciling findings of emotion-induced memory enhancement and impairment of preceding items

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Marisa; Mather, Mara

    2009-01-01

    A large body of work reveals that people remember emotionally arousing information better than neutral information. However, previous research reveals contradictory effects of emotional events on memory for neutral events that precede or follow them: in some studies emotionally arousing items impair memory for immediately preceding or following items and in others arousing items enhance memory for preceding items. By demonstrating both emotion-induced enhancement and impairment, Experiments 1 and 2 clarified the conditions under which these effects are likely to occur. The results suggest that emotion-induced enhancement is most likely to occur for neutral items that: (1) precede (and so are poised to predict the onset of) emotionally arousing items, (2) have high attentional weights at encoding, and (3) are tested after a delay period of a week rather than within the same experiment session. In contrast, emotion-induced impairment is most likely to occur for neutral items near the onset of emotional arousal that are overshadowed by highly activated competing items during encoding. PMID:20001121

  11. Akt inhibition enhances expansion of potent tumor-specific lymphocytes with memory cell characteristics.

    PubMed

    Crompton, Joseph G; Sukumar, Madhusudhanan; Roychoudhuri, Rahul; Clever, David; Gros, Alena; Eil, Robert L; Tran, Eric; Hanada, Ken-Ichi; Yu, Zhiya; Palmer, Douglas C; Kerkar, Sid P; Michalek, Ryan D; Upham, Trevor; Leonardi, Anthony; Acquavella, Nicolas; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M; Gattinoni, Luca; Muranski, Pawel; Sundrud, Mark S; Klebanoff, Christopher A; Rosenberg, Steven A; Fearon, Douglas T; Restifo, Nicholas P

    2015-01-15

    Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) using autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) results in complete regression of advanced cancer in some patients, but the efficacy of this potentially curative therapy may be limited by poor persistence of TIL after adoptive transfer. Pharmacologic inhibition of the serine/threonine kinase Akt has recently been shown to promote immunologic memory in virus-specific murine models, but whether this approach enhances features of memory (e.g., long-term persistence) in TIL that are characteristically exhausted and senescent is not established. Here, we show that pharmacologic inhibition of Akt enables expansion of TIL with the transcriptional, metabolic, and functional properties characteristic of memory T cells. Consequently, Akt inhibition results in enhanced persistence of TIL after adoptive transfer into an immunodeficient animal model and augments antitumor immunity of CD8 T cells in a mouse model of cell-based immunotherapy. Pharmacologic inhibition of Akt represents a novel immunometabolomic approach to enhance the persistence of antitumor T cells and improve the efficacy of cell-based immunotherapy for metastatic cancer. PMID:25432172

  12. Acute stress blocks the caffeine-induced enhancement of contextual memory retrieval in mice.

    PubMed

    Pierard, Chistophe; Krazem, Ali; Henkous, Nadia; Decorte, Laurence; Béracochéa, Daniel

    2015-08-15

    This study investigated in mice the dose-effect of caffeine on memory retrieval in non-stress and stress conditions. C57 Bl/6 Jico mice learned two consecutive discriminations (D1 and D2) in a four-hole board which involved either distinct contextual (CSD) or similar contextual (SSD) cues. All mice received an i.p. injection of vehicle or caffeine (8, 16 or 32mg/kg) 30min before the test session. Results showed that in non-stress conditions, the 16mg/kg caffeine dose induced a significant enhancement of D1 performance in CSD but not in SSD. Hence, we studied the effect of an acute stress (electric footshocks) administered 15min before the test session on D1 performance in caffeine-treated mice. Results showed that stress significantly decreased D1 performance in vehicle-treated controls and the memory-enhancing effect induced by the 16mg/kg caffeine dose in non-stress condition is no longer observed. Interestingly, whereas caffeine-treated mice exhibited weaker concentrations of plasma corticosterone as compared to vehicles in non-stress condition, stress significantly increased plasma corticosterone concentrations in caffeine-treated mice which reached similar level to that of controls. Overall, the acute stress blocked both the endocrinological and memory retrieval enhancing effects of caffeine. PMID:25934571

  13. The Enhanced Rise and Delayed Fall of Memory in a Model of Synaptic Integration: Extension to Discrete State Synapses.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Terry

    2016-09-01

    Integrate-and-express models of synaptic plasticity propose that synapses may act as low-pass filters, integrating synaptic plasticity induction signals in order to discern trends before expressing synaptic plasticity. We have previously shown that synaptic filtering strongly controls destabilizing fluctuations in developmental models. When applied to palimpsest memory systems that learn new memories by forgetting old ones, we have also shown that with binary-strength synapses, integrative synapses lead to an initial memory signal rise before its fall back to equilibrium. Such an initial rise is in dramatic contrast to nonintegrative synapses, in which the memory signal falls monotonically. We now extend our earlier analysis of palimpsest memories with synaptic filters to consider the more general case of discrete state, multilevel synapses. We derive exact results for the memory signal dynamics and then consider various simplifying approximations. We show that multilevel synapses enhance the initial rise in the memory signal and then delay its subsequent fall by inducing a plateau-like region in the memory signal. Such dynamics significantly increase memory lifetimes, defined by a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We derive expressions for optimal choices of synaptic parameters (filter size, number of strength states, number of synapses) that maximize SNR memory lifetimes. However, we find that with memory lifetimes defined via mean-first-passage times, such optimality conditions do not exist, suggesting that optimality may be an artifact of SNRs. PMID:27391686

  14. Enhancing promotional strategies within social marketing programs: use of Web 2.0 social media.

    PubMed

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L; Hanson, Carl L; McKenzie, James F

    2008-10-01

    The second generation of Internet-based applications (i.e., Web 2.0), in which users control communication, holds promise to significantly enhance promotional efforts within social marketing campaigns. Web 2.0 applications can directly engage consumers in the creative process by both producing and distributing information through collaborative writing, content sharing, social networking, social bookmarking, and syndication. Web 2.0 can also enhance the power of viral marketing by increasing the speed at which consumers share experiences and opinions with progressively larger audiences. Because of the novelty and potential effectiveness of Web 2.0, social marketers may be enticed to prematurely incorporate related applications into promotional plans. However, as strategic issues such as priority audience preferences, selection of appropriate applications, tracking and evaluation, and related costs are carefully considered, Web 2.0 will expand to allow health promotion practitioners more direct access to consumers with less dependency on traditional communication channels. PMID:18936268

  15. Exploring the Role of Social Memory of Floods for Designing Flood Early Warning Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girons Lopez, Marc; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Grabs, Thomas; Halldin, Sven; Seibert, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Early warning systems are an important tool for natural disaster mitigation practices, especially for flooding events. Warnings rely on near-future forecasts to provide time to take preventive actions before a flood occurs, thus reducing potential losses. However, on top of the technical capacities, successful warnings require an efficient coordination and communication among a range of different actors and stakeholders. The complexity of integrating the technical and social spheres of warning systems has, however, resulted in system designs neglecting a number of important aspects such as social awareness of floods thus leading to suboptimal results. A better understanding of the interactions and feedbacks among the different elements of early warning systems is therefore needed to improve their efficiency and therefore social resilience. When designing an early warning system two important decisions need to be made regarding (i) the hazard magnitude at and from which a warning should be issued and (ii) the degree of confidence required for issuing a warning. The first decision is usually taken based on the social vulnerability and climatic variability while the second one is related to the performance (i.e. accuracy) of the forecasting tools. Consequently, by estimating the vulnerability and the accuracy of the forecasts, these two variables can be optimized to minimize the costs and losses. Important parameters with a strong influence on the efficiency of warning systems such as social awareness are however not considered in their design. In this study we present a theoretical exploration of the impact of social awareness on the design of early warning systems. For this purpose we use a definition of social memory of flood events as a proxy for flood risk awareness and test its effect on the optimization of the warning system design variables. Understanding the impact of social awareness on warning system design is important to make more robust warnings that can

  16. Topographical Organization of Attentional, Social, and Memory Processes in the Human Temporoparietal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Igelström, Kajsa M; Webb, Taylor W; Kelly, Yin T; Graziano, Michael S A

    2016-01-01

    The temporoparietal junction (TPJ) is activated in association with a large range of functions, including social cognition, episodic memory retrieval, and attentional reorienting. An ongoing debate is whether the TPJ performs an overarching, domain-general computation, or whether functions reside in domain-specific subdivisions. We scanned subjects with fMRI during five tasks known to activate the TPJ, probing social, attentional, and memory functions, and used data-driven parcellation (independent component analysis) to isolate task-related functional processes in the bilateral TPJ. We found that one dorsal component in the right TPJ, which was connected with the frontoparietal control network, was activated in all of the tasks. Other TPJ subregions were specific for attentional reorienting, oddball target detection, or social attribution of belief. The TPJ components that participated in attentional reorienting and oddball target detection appeared spatially separated, but both were connected with the ventral attention network. The TPJ component that participated in the theory-of-mind task was part of the default-mode network. Further, we found that the BOLD response in the domain-general dorsal component had a longer latency than responses in the domain-specific components, suggesting an involvement in distinct, perhaps postperceptual, computations. These findings suggest that the TPJ performs both domain-general and domain-specific computations that reside within spatially distinct functional components. PMID:27280153

  17. Topographical Organization of Attentional, Social, and Memory Processes in the Human Temporoparietal Cortex123

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Taylor W.; Kelly, Yin T.; Graziano, Michael S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The temporoparietal junction (TPJ) is activated in association with a large range of functions, including social cognition, episodic memory retrieval, and attentional reorienting. An ongoing debate is whether the TPJ performs an overarching, domain-general computation, or whether functions reside in domain-specific subdivisions. We scanned subjects with fMRI during five tasks known to activate the TPJ, probing social, attentional, and memory functions, and used data-driven parcellation (independent component analysis) to isolate task-related functional processes in the bilateral TPJ. We found that one dorsal component in the right TPJ, which was connected with the frontoparietal control network, was activated in all of the tasks. Other TPJ subregions were specific for attentional reorienting, oddball target detection, or social attribution of belief. The TPJ components that participated in attentional reorienting and oddball target detection appeared spatially separated, but both were connected with the ventral attention network. The TPJ component that participated in the theory-of-mind task was part of the default-mode network. Further, we found that the BOLD response in the domain-general dorsal component had a longer latency than responses in the domain-specific components, suggesting an involvement in distinct, perhaps postperceptual, computations. These findings suggest that the TPJ performs both domain-general and domain-specific computations that reside within spatially distinct functional components. PMID:27280153

  18. Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over posterior parietal cortex enhances distinct aspects of visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Heinen, Klaartje; Sagliano, Laura; Candini, Michela; Husain, Masud; Cappelletti, Marinella; Zokaei, Nahid

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of tDCS over the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) during a visual working memory (WM) task, which probes different sources of response error underlying the precision of WM recall. In two separate experiments, we demonstrated that tDCS enhanced WM precision when applied bilaterally over the PPC, independent of electrode configuration. In a third experiment, we demonstrated with unilateral electrode configuration over the right PPC, that only cathodal tDCS enhanced WM precision and only when baseline performance was low. Looking at the effects on underlying sources of error, we found that cathodal stimulation enhanced the probability of correct target response across all participants by reducing feature-misbinding. Only for low-baseline performers, cathodal stimulation also reduced variability of recall. We conclude that cathodal- but not anodal tDCS can improve WM precision by preventing feature-misbinding and hereby enhancing attentional selection. For low-baseline performers, cathodal tDCS also protects the memory trace. Furthermore, stimulation over bilateral PPC is more potent than unilateral cathodal tDCS in enhancing general WM precision. PMID:27143222

  19. DREADD in Parvalbumin Interneurons of the Dentate Gyrus Modulates Anxiety, Social Interaction and Memory Extinction

    PubMed Central

    Zou, D.; Chen, L.; Deng, D.; Jiang, D.; Dong, F.; McSweeney, C.; Zhou, Y.; Liu, L.; Chen, G.; Wu, Y.; Mao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons in the hippocampus play a critical role in animal memory, such as spatial working memory. However, how PV-positive interneurons in the subregions of the hippocampus affect animal behaviors remains poorly defined. Here, we achieved specific and reversible activation of PV-positive interneurons using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) technology. Inducible DREADD expression was demonstrated in vitro in cultured neurons, in which co-transfection of the hM3D-Gq-mCherry vector with a Cre plasmid resulted in a cellular response to hM3Dq ligand clozapine-N-oxide (CNO) stimulation. In addition, the dentate gyrus (DG) of PV-Cre mice received bilateral injection of control lentivirus or lentivirus expressing double floxed hM3D-Gq-mCherry. Selective activation of PV-positive interneurons in the DG did not affect locomotor activity or depression-related behavior in mice. Interestingly, stimulation of PV-positive interneurons induced an anxiolytic effect. Activation of PV-positive interneurons appears to impair social interaction to novelty, but has no effect on social motivation. However, this defect is likely due to the anxiolytic effect as the exploratory behavior of mice expressing hM3D-Gq is significantly increased. Mice expressing hM3D-Gq did not affect novel object recognition. Activation of PV-positive interneurons in the DG maintains intact cued and contextual fear memory but facilitates fear extinction. Collectively, our results demonstrated that proper control of PV interneurons activity in the DG is critical for regulation of the anxiety, social interaction and fear extinction. These results improve our fundamental understanding of the physiological role of PV-positive interneurons in the hippocampus.

  20. Protective Heterologous Antiviral Immunity and Enhanced Immunopathogenesis Mediated by Memory T Cell Populations

    PubMed Central

    Selin, Liisa K.; Varga, Steven M.; Wong, Iris C.; Welsh, Raymond M.

    1998-01-01

    A basic principle of immunology is that prior immunity results in complete protection against a homologous agent. In this study, we show that memory T cells specific to unrelated viruses may alter the host's primary immune response to a second virus. Studies with a panel of heterologous viruses, including lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCMV), Pichinde (PV), vaccinia (VV), and murine cytomegalo (MCMV) viruses showed that prior immunity with one of these viruses in many cases enhanced clearance of a second unrelated virus early in infection. Such protective immunity was common, but it depended on the virus sequence and was not necessarily reciprocal. Cell transfer studies showed that both CD4 and CD8 T cell populations from LCMV-immune mice were required to transfer protective immunity to naive hosts challenged with PV or VV. In the case of LCMV-immune versus naive mice challenged with VV, there was an enhanced early recruitment of memory phenotype interferon (IFN) γ–secreting CD4+ and CD8+ cells into the peritoneal cavity and increased IFN-γ levels in this initial site of virus replication. Studies with IFN-γ receptor knockout mice confirmed a role for IFN-γ in mediating the protective effect by LCMV-immune T cell populations when mice were challenged with VV but not PV. In some virus sequences memory cell populations, although clearing the challenge virus more rapidly, elicited enhanced IFN-γ–dependent immunopathogenesis in the form of acute fatty necrosis. These results indicate that how a host responds to an infectious agent is a function of its history of previous infections and their influence on the memory T cell pool. PMID:9802982

  1. Major memory for microblogs.

    PubMed

    Mickes, Laura; Darby, Ryan S; Hwe, Vivian; Bajic, Daniel; Warker, Jill A; Harris, Christine R; Christenfeld, Nicholas J S

    2013-05-01

    Online social networking is vastly popular and permits its members to post their thoughts as microblogs, an opportunity that people exploit, on Facebook alone, over 30 million times an hour. Such trivial ephemera, one might think, should vanish quickly from memory; conversely, they may comprise the sort of information that our memories are tuned to recognize, if that which we readily generate, we also readily store. In the first two experiments, participants' memory for Facebook posts was found to be strikingly stronger than their memory for human faces or sentences from books-a magnitude comparable to the difference in memory strength between amnesics and healthy controls. The second experiment suggested that this difference is not due to Facebook posts spontaneously generating social elaboration, because memory for posts is enhanced as much by adding social elaboration as is memory for book sentences. Our final experiment, using headlines, sentences, and reader comments from articles, suggested that the remarkable memory for microblogs is also not due to their completeness or simply their topic, but may be a more general phenomenon of their being the largely spontaneous and natural emanations of the human mind. PMID:23315488

  2. Social Rewards Enhance Offline Improvements in Motor Skill

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Sho K.; Tanaka, Satoshi; Okazaki, Shuntaro; Watanabe, Katsumi; Sadato, Norihiro

    2012-01-01

    Motor skill memory is first encoded online in a fragile form during practice and then converted into a stable form by offline consolidation, which is the behavioral stage critical for successful learning. Praise, a social reward, is thought to boost motor skill learning by increasing motivation, which leads to increased practice. However, the effect of praise on consolidation is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that praise following motor training directly facilitates skill consolidation. Forty-eight healthy participants were trained on a sequential finger-tapping task. Immediately after training, participants were divided into three groups according to whether they received praise for their own training performance, praise for another participant's performance, or no praise. Participants who received praise for their own performance showed a significantly higher rate of offline improvement relative to other participants when performing a surprise recall test of the learned sequence. On the other hand, the average performance of the novel sequence and randomly-ordered tapping did not differ between the three experimental groups. These results are the first to indicate that praise-related improvements in motor skill memory are not due to a feedback-incentive mechanism, but instead involve direct effects on the offline consolidation process. PMID:23144855

  3. Cognitive-Enhancing Effect of Aronia melanocarpa Extract against Memory Impairment Induced by Scopolamine in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeon Yong; Weon, Jin Bae; Jung, Youn Sik; Kim, Nam Young; Kim, Myong Ki; Ma, Choong Je

    2016-01-01

    Aronia melanocarpa (A. melanocarpa) berries are a fruit with a marked antioxidant effect. The objective of this study was to confirm the effect of A. melanocarpa berries extract against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice using the Morris water maze and passive avoidance test. Moreover, we determined a possible mechanism of the cognitive-enhancing effect involving AChE activity and BDNF and p-CREB expression in the hippocampus of mice. A. melanocarpa berries extract attenuated the learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine in the Morris water maze (79.3 ± 0.8 s of 200 mg/kg and 64.4 ± 10.7 s of 400 mg/kg on day 4) and passive avoidance tests (46.0 ± 41.1 s of 200 mg/kg and 25.6 ± 18.7 s of 400 mg/kg). A. melanocarpa berries extract reduced the acetylcholinesterase level in the hippocampus of scopolamine-injected mice and increased BDNF and p-CREB expression in the hippocampus. The major compound, cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, also reversed memory impairment. These results showed that A. melanocarpa berries extract improved memory impairment by inhibiting AChE and increasing BDNF and p-CREB expression, and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside may be responsible for the effect of A. melanocarpa berries extract. PMID:27239211

  4. Cognitive-Enhancing Effect of Aronia melanocarpa Extract against Memory Impairment Induced by Scopolamine in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeon Yong; Weon, Jin Bae; Jung, Youn Sik; Kim, Nam Young; Kim, Myong Ki; Ma, Choong Je

    2016-01-01

    Aronia melanocarpa (A. melanocarpa) berries are a fruit with a marked antioxidant effect. The objective of this study was to confirm the effect of A. melanocarpa berries extract against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice using the Morris water maze and passive avoidance test. Moreover, we determined a possible mechanism of the cognitive-enhancing effect involving AChE activity and BDNF and p-CREB expression in the hippocampus of mice. A. melanocarpa berries extract attenuated the learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine in the Morris water maze (79.3 ± 0.8 s of 200 mg/kg and 64.4 ± 10.7 s of 400 mg/kg on day 4) and passive avoidance tests (46.0 ± 41.1 s of 200 mg/kg and 25.6 ± 18.7 s of 400 mg/kg). A. melanocarpa berries extract reduced the acetylcholinesterase level in the hippocampus of scopolamine-injected mice and increased BDNF and p-CREB expression in the hippocampus. The major compound, cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, also reversed memory impairment. These results showed that A. melanocarpa berries extract improved memory impairment by inhibiting AChE and increasing BDNF and p-CREB expression, and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside may be responsible for the effect of A. melanocarpa berries extract. PMID:27239211

  5. Examination of mechanisms underlying enhanced memory performance in action video game players: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xianchun; Cheng, Xiaojun; Li, Jiaying; Pan, Yafeng; Hu, Yi; Ku, Yixuan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown enhanced memory performance resulting from extensive action video game playing. The mechanisms underlying the cognitive benefit were investigated in the current study. We presented two types of retro-cues, with variable intervals to memory array (Task 1) or test array (Task 2), during the retention interval in a change detection task. In Task 1, action video game players demonstrated steady performance while non-action video game players showed decreased performance as cues occurred later, indicating their performance difference increased as the cue-to-memory-array intervals became longer. In Task 2, both participant groups increased their performance at similar rates as cues presented later, implying the performance difference in two groups were irrespective of the test-array-to-cue intervals. These findings suggested that memory benefit from game plays is not attributable to the higher ability of overcoming interference from the test array, but to the interactions between the two processes of protection from decay and resistance from interference, or from alternative hypotheses. Implications for future studies were discussed. PMID:26136720

  6. Enhanced zinc consumption causes memory deficits and increased brain levels of zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flinn, J.M.; Hunter, D.; Linkous, D.H.; Lanzirotti, A.; Smith, L.N.; Brightwell, J.; Jones, B.F.

    2005-01-01

    Zinc deficiency has been shown to impair cognitive functioning, but little work has been done on the effects of elevated zinc. This research examined the effect on memory of raising Sprague-Dawley rats on enhanced levels of zinc (10 ppm ZnCO3; 0.153 mM) in the drinking water for periods of 3 or 9 months, both pre- and postnatally. Controls were raised on lab water. Memory was tested in a series of Morris Water Maze (MWM) experiments, and zinc-treated rats were found to have impairments in both reference and working memory. They were significantly slower to find a stationary platform and showed greater thigmotaxicity, a measure of anxiety. On a working memory task, where the platform was moved each day, zinc-treated animals had longer latencies over both trials and days, swam further from the platform, and showed greater thigmotaxicity. On trials using an Atlantis platform, which remained in one place but was lowered on probe trials, the zinc-treated animals had significantly fewer platform crossings, spent less time in the target quadrant, and did not swim as close to the platform position. They had significantly greater latency on nonprobe trials. Microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (??SXRF) confirmed that brain zinc levels were increased by adding ZnCO 3 to the drinking water. These data show that long-term dietary administration of zinc can lead to impairments in cognitive function. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Examination of mechanisms underlying enhanced memory performance in action video game players: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianchun; Cheng, Xiaojun; Li, Jiaying; Pan, Yafeng; Hu, Yi; Ku, Yixuan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown enhanced memory performance resulting from extensive action video game playing. The mechanisms underlying the cognitive benefit were investigated in the current study. We presented two types of retro-cues, with variable intervals to memory array (Task 1) or test array (Task 2), during the retention interval in a change detection task. In Task 1, action video game players demonstrated steady performance while non-action video game players showed decreased performance as cues occurred later, indicating their performance difference increased as the cue-to-memory-array intervals became longer. In Task 2, both participant groups increased their performance at similar rates as cues presented later, implying the performance difference in two groups were irrespective of the test-array-to-cue intervals. These findings suggested that memory benefit from game plays is not attributable to the higher ability of overcoming interference from the test array, but to the interactions between the two processes of protection from decay and resistance from interference, or from alternative hypotheses. Implications for future studies were discussed. PMID:26136720

  8. Effects of enhanced zinc and copper in drinking water on spatial memory and fear conditioning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chrosniak, L.D.; Smith, L.N.; McDonald, C.G.; Jones, B.F.; Flinn, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Ingestion of enhanced zinc can cause memory impairments and copper deficiencies. This study examined the effect of zinc supplementation, with and without copper, on two types of memory. Rats raised pre- and post-natally on 10 mg/kg ZnCO3 or ZnSO4 in the drinking water were tested in a fear-conditioning experiment at 11 months of age. Both zinc groups showed a maladaptive retention of fearful memories compared to controls raised on tap water. Rats raised on 10 mg/kg ZnCO3, 10 mg/kg ZnCO3 + 0.25 mg/kg CuCl2, or tap water, were tested for spatial memory ability at 3 months of age. Significant improvements in performance were found in the ZnCO3 + CuCl2 group compared to the ZnCO3 group, suggesting that some of the cognitive deficits associated with zinc supplementation may be remediated by addition of copper. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Repeated administration of almonds increases brain acetylcholine levels and enhances memory function in healthy rats while attenuates memory deficits in animal model of amnesia.

    PubMed

    Batool, Zehra; Sadir, Sadia; Liaquat, Laraib; Tabassum, Saiqa; Madiha, Syeda; Rafiq, Sahar; Tariq, Sumayya; Batool, Tuba Sharf; Saleem, Sadia; Naqvi, Fizza; Perveen, Tahira; Haider, Saida

    2016-01-01

    Dietary nutrients may play a vital role in protecting the brain from age-related memory dysfunction and neurodegenerative diseases. Tree nuts including almonds have shown potential to combat age-associated brain dysfunction. These nuts are an important source of essential nutrients, such as tocopherol, folate, mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenols. These components have shown promise as possible dietary supplements to prevent or delay the onset of age-associated cognitive dysfunction. This study investigated possible protective potential of almond against scopolamine induced amnesia in rats. The present study also investigated a role of acetylcholine in almond induced memory enhancement. Rats in test group were orally administrated with almond suspension (400 mg/kg/day) for four weeks. Both control and almond-treated rats were then divided into saline and scopolamine injected groups. Rats in the scopolamine group were injected with scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg) five minutes before the start of each memory test. Memory was assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM), Morris water maze (MWM) and novel object recognition (NOR) task. Cholinergic function was determined in terms of hippocampal and frontal cortical acetylcholine content and acetylcholinesterase activity. Results of the present study suggest that almond administration for 28 days significantly improved memory retention. This memory enhancing effect of almond was also observed in scopolamine induced amnesia model. Present study also suggests a role of acetylcholine in the attenuation of scopolamine induced amnesia by almond. PMID:26548495

  10. The construction, reconstruction, and deconstruction of memory in the light of social cognition.

    PubMed

    Tuch, R H

    1999-01-01

    Psychic trauma results when the ego is overwhelmed by intolerable affect. Some childhood experiences are directly traumatic, requiring no intervening interpretive process to render them traumatic. Troublesome affect that falls short of being truly traumatic, in the strict sense of the term, may nevertheless exert a psychopathogenic effect on the child's psychic development. Whether a child is troubled by an experience depends on what that experience meant to the child. Accordingly, the psychopathogenic effects of childhood experience are a function of the child's general level of cognitive sophistication and specific ability to appreciate the subtle nuances of social interactions. If a child's cognitive capabilities are not up to the task of providing the necessary explanations for a given social interaction, the child is left to fall back on fantasy to fill in the gaps. The field of "social cognition" proves particularly helpful in understanding what a child is capable of gleaning from an experience. Research in this area helps psychoanalysts understand how experience becomes constructed and reconstructed in the form of memories. Social cognition also helps psychoanalysts understand when and how a lived experience ends up being psychopathogenic or, alternatively, ceases any longer to exert an ongoing psychopathogenic effect on an individual's psyche. A review of social cognition research leads to a reconsideration of such psychoanalytic concepts as repression, dissociation, reconstruction, and resistance. It also directs attention to the concept of developmental (as opposed to psychoanalytic) reconstruction and deconstruction. PMID:10367275

  11. Long-term mild exercise training enhances hippocampus-dependent memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Hanaoka, Y; Nishijima, T; Okamoto, M; Chang, H; Saito, T; Soya, H

    2015-04-01

    Although exercise training improves hippocampus-related cognition, the optimum exercise intensity is still disputed. Based on the lactate threshold (LT, approximately 20 m/min on treadmill) of rats, we have shown that 2 weeks of training with stress-free mild exercise (ME, LT), comprising exercise stress, promotes adult hippocampal neurogenesis (Okamoto et al., PNAS, 2012), a potential substrate for memory improvement. These results led us to postulate that long-term ME, but not IE, training leads to improved hippocampal function as assessed with a Morris water maze (MWM) task. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the changes in physiological stress levels and MWM task performance in rats assigned to 6 weeks of sedentary control (CONT), ME-training or IE-training conditions. Results showed that, compared to the other conditions, only IE causes general adaptive syndrome (GAS), including adrenal hypertrophy, thymic atrophy and hypercorticosteronemia. In the MWM, ME led to enhanced memory, but not learning, compared with CONT, while IE produced no change in either capacity, probably due to GAS. These findings support the hypothesis that 6 weeks of continuous ME training leads to enhanced hippocampus-related memory, which may have implications for both healthy adults and subjects with low physical capacity. PMID:25429548

  12. Posttrial d-cycloserine enhances the emotional memory of an incentive downshift event.

    PubMed

    Norris, Jacob N; Ortega, Leonardo A; Papini, Mauricio R

    2011-10-01

    The present research was designed to determine whether an incentive downshift event induces an emotional memory that can be modulated by d-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist at the glycine site of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). DCS has been reported to have memory-enhancing properties in other training situations. Experiments 1 and 2 involved a consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) situation in which animals are exposed to an incentive downshift involving sucrose solutions of different concentrations. DCS administration (30 mg/kg, ip) immediately after the first 32-to-4% sucrose downshift trial (Experiment 1) retarded recovery of consummatory behavior, but immediately after the first 32-to-6% sucrose downshift trial (Experiment 2) did not affect recovery. There was no evidence that DCS affected consummatory behavior in the absence of an incentive downshift in a manner analogous to a conditioned taste aversion (Experiment 3). These results suggest that activation of NMDARs via the glycine modulatory site enhances the emotional memory triggered by exposure to an incentive downshift event. PMID:21596065

  13. Involvement of dopaminergic and cholinergic systems in social isolation-induced deficits in social affiliation and conditional fear memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Okada, R; Fujiwara, H; Mizuki, D; Araki, R; Yabe, T; Matsumoto, K

    2015-07-23

    Post-weaning social isolation rearing (SI) in rodents elicits various behavioral abnormalities including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behaviors. In order to obtain a better understanding of SI-induced behavioral abnormalities, we herein investigated the effects of SI on social affiliation and conditioned fear memory as well as the neuronal mechanism(s) underlying these effects. Four-week-old male mice were group-housed (GH) or socially isolated for 2-4 weeks before the experiments. The social affiliation test and fear memory conditioning were conducted at the age of 6 and 7 weeks, respectively. SI mice were systemically administered saline or test drugs 30 min before the social affiliation test and fear memory conditioning. Contextual and auditory fear memories were elucidated 1 and 4 days after fear conditioning. Social affiliation and contextual and auditory fear memories were weaker in SI mice than in GH mice. Methylphenidate (MPH), an inhibitor for dopamine transporters, ameliorated the SI-induced social affiliation deficit and the effect was attenuated by SCH23390, a D1 receptor antagonist, but not by sulpiride, a D2 receptor antagonist. On the other hand, tacrine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, had no effect on this deficit. In contrast, tacrine improved SI-induced deficits in fear memories in a manner that was reversed by the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine, while MPH had no effect on memory deficits. Neurochemical studies revealed that SI down-regulated the expression levels of the phosphorylated forms of neuro-signaling proteins, calmodulin-dependent kinase II (p-CaMKII), and cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (p-CREB), as well as early growth response protein-1 (Egr-1) in the hippocampus. The administration of MPH or tacrine before fear conditioning had no effect on the levels of the phosphorylated forms of the neuro-signaling proteins elucidated following completion of the auditory fear memory test; however

  14. Nuclear receptor TLX stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and enhances learning and memory in a transgenic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Murai, Kiyohito; Qu, Qiuhao; Sun, GuoQiang; Ye, Peng; Li, Wendong; Asuelime, Grace; Sun, Emily; Tsai, Guochuan E.; Shi, Yanhong

    2014-01-01

    The role of the nuclear receptor TLX in hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition has just begun to be explored. In this study, we generated a transgenic mouse model that expresses TLX under the control of the promoter of nestin, a neural precursor marker. Transgenic TLX expression led to mice with enlarged brains with an elongated hippocampal dentate gyrus and increased numbers of newborn neurons. Specific expression of TLX in adult hippocampal dentate gyrus via lentiviral transduction increased the numbers of BrdU+ cells and BrdU+NeuN+ neurons. Furthermore, the neural precursor-specific expression of the TLX transgene substantially rescued the neurogenic defects of TLX-null mice. Consistent with increased neurogenesis in the hippocampus, the TLX transgenic mice exhibited enhanced cognition with increased learning and memory. These results suggest a strong association between hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition, as well as significant contributions of TLX to hippocampal neurogenesis, learning, and memory. PMID:24927526

  15. In the white cube: museum context enhances the valuation and memory of art.

    PubMed

    Brieber, David; Nadal, Marcos; Leder, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Art museum attendance is rising steadily, unchallenged by online alternatives. However, the psychological value of the real museum experience remains unclear because the experience of art in the museum and other contexts has not been compared. Here we examined the appreciation and memory of an art exhibition when viewed in a museum or as a computer simulated version in the laboratory. In line with the postulates of situated cognition, we show that the experience of art relies on organizing resources present in the environment. Specifically, artworks were found more arousing, positive, interesting and liked more in the museum than in the laboratory. Moreover, participants who saw the exhibition in the museum later recalled more artworks and used spatial layout cues for retrieval. Thus, encountering real art in the museum enhances cognitive and affective processes involved in the appreciation of art and enriches information encoded in long-term memory. PMID:25481660

  16. Enhanced memory characteristics in organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors through thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Sugano, Ryo; Tashiro, Tomoya; Sekine, Tomohito; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Kumaki, Daisuke; Tokito, Shizuo

    2015-11-15

    We report on the memory characteristics of organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FeFETs) using spin-coated poly(vinylidene difluoride/trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF/TrFE)) as a gate insulating layer. By thermal annealing the P(VDF/TrFE) layer at temperatures above its melting point, we could significantly improve the on/off current ratio to over 10{sup 4}. Considerable changes in the surface morphology and x-ray diffraction patterns were also observed in the P(VDF/TrFE) layer as a result of the annealing process. The enhanced memory effect is attributed to large polarization effects caused by rearranged ferroelectric polymer chains and improved crystallinity in the organic semiconductor layer of the FeFET devices.

  17. Overexpression of motor protein KIF17 enhances spatial and working memory in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Wong, Richard Wing-Chuen; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Teng, Junlin; Takei, Yosuke; Hirokawa, Nobutaka

    2002-10-29

    The kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) play essential roles in receptor transportation along the microtubules. KIF17 transports the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor NR2B subunit in vitro, but its role in vivo is unknown. To clarify this role, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing KIF17 tagged with GFP. The KIF17 transgenic mice exhibited enhanced learning and memory in a series of behavioral tasks, up-regulated NR2B expression with the potential involvement of a transcriptional factor, the cAMP-dependent response element-binding protein, and increased phosphorylation of the cAMP-dependent response element-binding protein. Our results suggest that the motor protein KIF17 contributes to neuronal events required for learning and memory by trafficking fundamental N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptors. PMID:12391294

  18. Enhanced memory characteristics in organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors through thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugano, Ryo; Tashiro, Tomoya; Sekine, Tomohito; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Kumaki, Daisuke; Tokito, Shizuo

    2015-11-01

    We report on the memory characteristics of organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FeFETs) using spin-coated poly(vinylidene difluoride/trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF/TrFE)) as a gate insulating layer. By thermal annealing the P(VDF/TrFE) layer at temperatures above its melting point, we could significantly improve the on/off current ratio to over 104. Considerable changes in the surface morphology and x-ray diffraction patterns were also observed in the P(VDF/TrFE) layer as a result of the annealing process. The enhanced memory effect is attributed to large polarization effects caused by rearranged ferroelectric polymer chains and improved crystallinity in the organic semiconductor layer of the FeFET devices.

  19. Familiar environments enhance object and spatial memory in both younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Merriman, Niamh A; Ondřej, Jan; Roudaia, Eugenie; O'Sullivan, Carol; Newell, Fiona N

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests that familiarity with an environment may protect against spatial memory decline for familiar objects in older adults. We investigated whether a familiar context also reduces age-related decline in spatial memory for novel objects. Twenty-four younger and 23 older participants viewed a virtual rendering of a local environment along two different routes, each through a well-known (West) or lesser-known (East) area within the environment. Older and younger participants reported being more familiar with one (i.e. West) area than the other. In each trial, participants were presented with one route and were instructed to learn ten novel objects and their locations along the route. Following learning, participants immediately completed five test blocks: an object recognition task, an egocentric spatial processing (direction judgement) task, an allocentric spatial processing (proximity judgement) task and two pen-and-paper tests to measure cognitive mapping abilities. First we found an age effect with worse performance by older than younger adults in all spatial tasks, particularly in allocentric spatial processing. However, our results suggested better memory for objects and directions, but not proximity judgements, when the task was associated with more familiar than unfamiliar contexts, in both age groups. There was no benefit of context when a separate young adult group (N = 24) was tested, who reported being equally familiar with both areas. These results suggest an important facilitatory role of context familiarity on object recognition, and in particular egocentric spatial memory, and have implications for enhancing spatial memory in older adults. PMID:26821318

  20. Sex-Dependent Effects of Prenatal Stress on Social Memory in Rats: A Role for Differential Expression of Central Vasopressin-1a Receptors.

    PubMed

    Grundwald, N J; Benítez, D P; Brunton, P J

    2016-04-01

    Prenatal stress (PNS) affects a number of traits in the offspring, including stress axis regulation, emotionality and cognition; however, much less is known about the effects of PNS on social memory and the underlying central mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated social preference, social memory under basal and stress conditions and olfactory memory for social and nonsocial odours in the adult offspring of dams exposed to social stress during late pregnancy. Given the key roles that the central oxytocin and vasopressin systems play in facilitating social memory, we further investigated the effects of PNS on the central expression of mRNA for oxytocin (Oxtr) and vasopressin-1a (Avpr1a) receptors. PNS did not affect social preference in either sex; however, social memory was impaired under basal conditions in PNS females but not PNS males. Accordingly, Avpr1a mRNA expression in the lateral septum and bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) was unaltered in males but was significantly lower in PNS females compared to controls. No differences in Oxtr mRNA expression were detected between control and PNS offspring in either sex in any of the brain regions examined. Social memory deficits in PNS females persisted when social odours were used; however, this does not appear to be a result of impaired olfaction because memory for nonsocial odours was similar in control and PNS females. Under acute stress conditions, deficits in social memory were observed in both male and female control offspring; however, PNS males were unaffected. Moreover, acute stress facilitated social memory in PNS females and this was associated with an up-regulation of Avpr1a mRNA in the lateral septum and BNST. Our data support a role for altered signalling via central Avpr1a in PNS-induced sex-dependent changes in social memory and may have implications for understanding the aetiology of neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by social behaviour deficits in humans. PMID:26613552

  1. Different types of theta rhythmicity are induced by social and fearful stimuli in a network associated with social memory

    PubMed Central

    Tendler, Alex; Wagner, Shlomo

    2015-01-01

    Rhythmic activity in the theta range is thought to promote neuronal communication between brain regions. In this study, we performed chronic telemetric recordings in socially behaving rats to monitor electrophysiological activity in limbic brain regions linked to social behavior. Social encounters were associated with increased rhythmicity in the high theta range (7–10 Hz) that was proportional to the stimulus degree of novelty. This modulation of theta rhythmicity, which was specific for social stimuli, appeared to reflect a brain-state of social arousal. In contrast, the same network responded to a fearful stimulus by enhancement of rhythmicity in the low theta range (3–7 Hz). Moreover, theta rhythmicity showed different pattern of coherence between the distinct brain regions in response to social and fearful stimuli. We suggest that the two types of stimuli induce distinct arousal states that elicit different patterns of theta rhythmicity, which cause the same brain areas to communicate in different modes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03614.001 PMID:25686218

  2. Social, demographic, and environmental influences on perceptions and memories of weather, climate, and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malmberg, Julie Suzanne

    This research seeks to understand how people in the Denver metropolitan area perceive and remember weather, climate, and climate change and how social, demographic, and environmental factors might influence these perceptions and memories. To do this, an online survey was completed in 2006 and in-person interviews were conducted in 2010 and 2011. The online survey and the in-person interviews both asked questions about recent weather, seasonal climate for specific years, beliefs about climate change and human impact on climate change, and social and demographic information. During the 2010--2011 in-person interviews, ambient meteorological conditions were recorded. For climate recollections, overall accuracy was about 20%. In general, women who were politically liberal, majored in a science field, believed in climate change, and were in a good mood were the most accurate for past climates. However, this accuracy was still only about 30%. For recent weather memories, the accuracy was about 50%. Time was the biggest indicator of accuracy, with the most recent weather being remembered the most accurately. When asked to rate the weather from positive to negative for specific events, respondents reported the weather with a negative bias for extremely negative flashbulb memory events. For perceptions about climate change, over 80% of the respondents in the Denver metropolitan area believed global warming was occurring and that humans had an impact on global warming. Over 80% of respondents believed that global warming will impact the Denver metropolitan area, however not all of these people knew how climate change would impact them personally.

  3. Eleutheroside B or E enhances learning and memory in experimentally aged rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Debin; Hu, Zehua; Yu, Zhaofen

    2013-04-25

    Eleutheroside B or E, the main component of Acanthopanax, can relieve fatigue, enhance memory, and improve human cognition. Numerous studies have confirmed that high doses of acetylcholine significantly attenuate clinical symptoms and delay the progression of Alzheimer's disease. The present study replicated a rat model of aging induced by injecting quinolinic acid into the hippocampal CA1 region. These rats were intraperitoneally injected with low, medium and high doses of eleutheroside B or E (50, 100, 200 mg/kg), and rats injected with Huperzine A or PBS were used as controls. At 4 weeks after administration, behavioral tests showed that the escape latencies and errors in searching for the platform in a Morris water maze were dose-dependently reduced in rats treated with medium and high-dose eleutheroside B or E. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the number of surviving hippocampal neurons was greater and pathological injury was milder in three eleutheroside B or E groups compared with model group. Hippocampal homogenates showed enhanced cholinesterase activity, and dose-dependent increases in acetylcholine content and decreases in choline content following eleutheroside B or E treatment, similar to those seen in the Huperzine A group. These findings indicate that eleutheroside B or E improves learning and memory in aged rats. These effects of eleutheroside B or E may be mediated by activation of cholinesterase or enhanced reuse of choline to accelerate the synthesis of acetylcholine in hippocampal neurons. PMID:25206404

  4. DHEA Enhances Emotion Regulation Neurocircuits and Modulates Memory for Emotional Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Sripada, Rebecca K; Marx, Christine E; King, Anthony P; Rajaram, Nirmala; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Abelson, James L; Liberzon, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a neurosteroid with anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antiglucocorticoid properties. It is endogenously released in response to stress, and may reduce negative affect when administered exogenously. Although there have been multiple reports of DHEA's antidepressant and anxiolytic effects, no research to date has examined the neural pathways involved. In particular, brain imaging has not been used to link neurosteroid effects to emotion neurocircuitry. To investigate the brain basis of DHEA's impact on emotion modulation, patients were administered 400 mg of DHEA (N=14) or placebo (N=15) and underwent 3T fMRI while performing the shifted-attention emotion appraisal task (SEAT), a test of emotional processing and regulation. Compared with placebo, DHEA reduced activity in the amygdala and hippocampus, enhanced connectivity between the amygdala and hippocampus, and enhanced activity in the rACC. These activation changes were associated with reduced negative affect. DHEA reduced memory accuracy for emotional stimuli, and also reduced activity in regions associated with conjunctive memory encoding. These results demonstrate that DHEA reduces activity in regions associated with generation of negative emotion and enhances activity in regions linked to regulatory processes. Considering that activity in these regions is altered in mood and anxiety disorders, our results provide initial neuroimaging evidence that DHEA may be useful as a pharmacological intervention for these conditions and invite further investigation into the brain basis of neurosteroid emotion regulatory effects. PMID:23552182

  5. ESTRADIOL-INDUCED ENHANCEMENT OF OBJECT MEMORY CONSOLIDATION INVOLVES HIPPOCAMPAL ERK ACTIVATION AND MEMBRANE-BOUND ESTROGEN RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Stephanie M.; Lewis, Michael C.; Pechenino, Angela S.; Harburger, Lauren L.; Orr, Patrick T.; Gresack, Jodi E.; Schafe, Glenn E.; Frick, Karyn M.

    2009-01-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is critical for various forms of learning and memory, and is activated by the potent estrogen, 17β-estradiol (E2). Here, we asked whether E2 modulates memory via ERK activation and putative membrane-bound estrogen receptors (ERs). Using ovariectomized mice, we first demonstrate that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 0.2 mg/kg E2 significantly increases dorsal hippocampal levels of phosphorylated ERK protein 1 hour after injection. Second, we show that E2 administered i.p. (0.2 mg/kg) or via intrahippocampal infusion (5.0 μg/side) immediately after training in an object recognition task significantly enhances memory retention, and that the beneficial effect of i.p. E2 is blocked by dorsal hippocampal inhibition of ERK activation. Third, using bovine serum albumin-conjugated 17β-estradiol (BSA-E2), we demonstrate that E2 binding at membrane-bound ERs can increase dorsal hippocampal ERK activation and enhance object memory consolidation in an ERK-dependent manner. Fourth, we show that this effect is independent of nuclear ERs, but is dependent on the dorsal hippocampus. By demonstrating that E2 enhances memory consolidation via dorsal hippocampal ERK activation, this study is the first to identify a specific molecular pathway by which E2 modulates memory and to demonstrate a novel role for membrane-bound ERs in mediating E2-induced improvements in hippocampal memory consolidation. PMID:18753366

  6. Following the crowd: Brain Substrates of Long-Term Memory Conformity

    PubMed Central

    Edelson, Micah; Sharot, Tali; Dolan, Raymond J; Dudai, Yadin

    2012-01-01

    Human memory is strikingly susceptible to social influences, yet we know little about the underlying mechanisms. We examined how socially induced memory errors are generated in the brain by studying the memory of individuals exposed to recollections of others. Participants exhibited a strong tendency to conform to erroneous recollections of the group, producing both long-lasting and temporary errors, even when their initial memory was strong and accurate. Functional brain imaging revealed that social influence modified the neuronal representation of memory. Specifically, a particular brain signature of enhanced amygdala activity and enhanced amygdala-hippocampus connectivity predicted long-lasting, but not temporary memory alterations. Our findings reveal how social manipulation can alter memory and extend the known functions of the amygdala to encompass socially-mediated memory distortions. PMID:21719681

  7. Nitride coating enhances endothelialization on biomedical NiTi shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Ion, Raluca; Luculescu, Catalin; Cimpean, Anisoara; Marx, Philippe; Gordin, Doina-Margareta; Gloriant, Thierry

    2016-05-01

    Surface nitriding was demonstrated to be an effective process for improving the biocompatibility of implantable devices. In this study, we investigated the benefits of nitriding the NiTi shape memory alloy for vascular stent applications. Results from cell experiments indicated that, compared to untreated NiTi, a superficial gas nitriding treatment enhanced the adhesion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), cell spreading and proliferation. This investigation provides data to demonstrate the possibility of improving the rate of endothelialization on NiTi by means of nitride coating. PMID:26952473

  8. Remembering pride and shame: self-enhancement and the phenomenology of autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Van der Linden, Martial

    2008-01-01

    People's self-images are grounded in autobiographical memories and, in particular, in the phenomenological experience associated with remembering. The desire to increase or maintain the positivity of the self-image (i.e., the self-enhancement motive) might thus play an important role in shaping memory phenomenology. This study examined this hypothesis by asking participants to recall positive and negative events that involve self-evaluations (i.e., pride and shame) and positive and negative events that involve evaluations about others (i.e., admiration and contempt); various phenomenological characteristics (e.g., sensory details, feeling of re-experiencing) were assessed using rating scales. The results show a positivity bias (i.e., subjectively remembering positive events with more details than negative events) for events that involve self-evaluations but not for events that involve evaluations of others. In addition, this bias was stronger for people high in self-esteem. It is concluded that biases affecting the phenomenology of autobiographical memory are part of the arsenal of psychological mechanisms people use to maintain a positive self-image. PMID:18569682

  9. Hippocampal hyperexcitability underlies enhanced fear memories in TgNTRK3, a panic disorder mouse model.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mónica; D'Amico, Davide; Spadoni, Ornella; Amador-Arjona, Alejandro; Stork, Oliver; Dierssen, Mara

    2013-09-18

    Panic attacks are a hallmark in panic disorder (PAND). During the panic attack, a strong association with the surrounding context is established suggesting that the hippocampus may be critically involved in the pathophysiology of PAND, given its role in contextual processing. We previously showed that variation in the expression of the neurotrophin tyrosine kinase receptor type 3 (NTRK3) in both PAND patients and a transgenic mouse model (TgNTRK3) may have a role in PAND pathophysiology. Our study examines hippocampal function and activation of the brain fear network in TgNTRK3 mice. TgNTRK3 mice showed increased fear memories accompanied by impaired extinction, congruent with an altered activation pattern of the amygdala-hippocampus-medial prefrontal cortex fear circuit. Moreover, TgNTRK3 mice also showed an unbalanced excitation-to-inhibition ratio in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 3 (CA3)-CA1 subcircuit toward hyperexcitability. The resulting hippocampal hyperexcitability underlies the enhanced fear memories, as supported by the efficacy of tiagabine, a GABA reuptake inhibitor, to rescue fear response. The fearful phenotype appears to be the result of hippocampal hyperexcitability and aberrant fear circuit activation. We conclude that NTRK3 plays a role in PAND by regulating hippocampus-dependent fear memories. PMID:24048855

  10. PMC-12, a traditional herbal medicine, enhances learning memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Ra; Kim, Ju Yeon; Lee, Yujeong; Chun, Hye Jeong; Choi, Young Whan; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae; Kim, Cheol Min; Lee, Jaewon

    2016-03-23

    The beneficial effects of traditional Korean medicine are recognized during the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions, such as, Alzheimer's disease and neurocognitive dysfunction, and recently, hippocampal neurogenesis has been reported to be associated with memory function. In this study, the authors investigated the beneficial effects of polygonum multiflorum Thunberg complex composition-12 (PMC-12), which is a mixture of four medicinal herbs, that is, Polygonum multiflorum, Polygala tenuifolia, Rehmannia glutinosa, and Acorus gramineus, on hippocampal neurogenesis, learning, and memory in mice. PMC-12 was orally administered to male C57BL/6 mice (5 weeks old) at 100 or 500 mg/kg daily for 2 weeks. PMC-12 administration significantly was found to increase the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and the survival of newly-generated cells in the dentate gyrus. In the Morris water maze test, the latency times of PMC-12 treated mice (100 or 500 mg/kg) were shorter than those of vehicle-control mice. In addition, PMC-12 increased the levels of BDNF, p-CREB, and synaptophysin, which are known to be associated with neural plasticity and hippocampal neurogenesis. These findings suggest PMC-12 enhances hippocampal neurogenesis and neurocognitive function and imply that PMC-12 ameliorates memory impairment and cognitive deficits. PMID:26917101

  11. Electroacupuncture ameliorates memory impairments by enhancing oligodendrocyte regeneration in a mouse model of prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sung Min; Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Ha Neui; Shin, Yong-Il; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2016-01-01

    We modeled prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion in mice using bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) and electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation was applied at two acupoints, Baihui (GV20) and Dazhui (GV14). In behavioral tests of memory, BCAS produced impairments in spatial and short-term memory in mice that were attenuated by therapeutic EA stimulation. Therapeutic use of EA in BCAS also enhanced oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation from oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), in association with white matter improvements in the corpus callosum (CC). In PCR analyses of growth factor gene expression, significant positive changes in 3 genes were observed following EA stimulation in BCAS, and here we highlight alterations in neurotrophin-4/5 (NT4/5). We confirmed EA-mediated positive changes in the expression of NT4/5 and its receptor, tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB). Treatment of naïve and BCAS + EA animals with a selective TrkB antagonist, ANA-12, produced losses of myelin and cognitive function that were ameliorated by EA therapy. Moreover, following BCAS we observed an EA-dependent increase in phospho-activated CREB (a downstream mediator of NT4/5-TrkB signaling) in OPCs and OLs of the CC. Our results suggest that EA stimulation promotes the recovery of memory function following white matter injury via a mechanism that promotes oligodendrocyte regeneration and involves NT4/5-TrkB signaling. PMID:27350403

  12. Electroacupuncture ameliorates memory impairments by enhancing oligodendrocyte regeneration in a mouse model of prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sung Min; Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Ha Neui; Shin, Yong-Il; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2016-01-01

    We modeled prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion in mice using bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) and electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation was applied at two acupoints, Baihui (GV20) and Dazhui (GV14). In behavioral tests of memory, BCAS produced impairments in spatial and short-term memory in mice that were attenuated by therapeutic EA stimulation. Therapeutic use of EA in BCAS also enhanced oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation from oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), in association with white matter improvements in the corpus callosum (CC). In PCR analyses of growth factor gene expression, significant positive changes in 3 genes were observed following EA stimulation in BCAS, and here we highlight alterations in neurotrophin-4/5 (NT4/5). We confirmed EA-mediated positive changes in the expression of NT4/5 and its receptor, tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB). Treatment of naïve and BCAS + EA animals with a selective TrkB antagonist, ANA-12, produced losses of myelin and cognitive function that were ameliorated by EA therapy. Moreover, following BCAS we observed an EA-dependent increase in phospho-activated CREB (a downstream mediator of NT4/5-TrkB signaling) in OPCs and OLs of the CC. Our results suggest that EA stimulation promotes the recovery of memory function following white matter injury via a mechanism that promotes oligodendrocyte regeneration and involves NT4/5-TrkB signaling. PMID:27350403

  13. Enhancement of Short-Term Memory by Methyl-6-(Phenylethynyl)-Pyridine in the BTBR T+tf/J Mouse Model of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haijie; Huh, Sung-Oh

    2015-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) encompasses a range of disorders that are characterized by social and communication deficits and repetitive behaviors. This study evaluated the effect of methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP), an antagonist of the mGluR5 metabotropic glutamate receptor, on memory enhancement in the BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mouse strain, which has been recognized as a model of ASD. Methods The pharmacological effects of MPEP on memory and motor coordination were assessed using the Morris water maze and rotarod tests in BTBR and C57BL/6J (B6) mice. Furthermore, we performed morphological analyses of cerebellar foliation in BTBR and B6 mice using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results MPEP-treated BTBR mice exhibited improved learning and memory in the Morris water maze test. MPEP administration also improved motor coordination in the rotarod test. However, no significant difference was observed regarding the numbers of Purkinje cells in the cerebella of BTBR versus normal B6 mice. Conclusion This study suggests that the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP has the potential to ameliorate learning and memory dysfunction and impaired motor coordination in BTBR mice. These results further suggest that the BTBR mouse model may be useful in pharmacological studies investigating drugs that could potentially alleviate cognitive dysfunction in ASD. PMID:25559718

  14. Stress Effects on Working Memory, Explicit Memory, and Implicit Memory for Neutral and Emotional Stimuli in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Luethi, Mathias; Meier, Beat; Sandi, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Stress is a strong modulator of memory function. However, memory is not a unitary process and stress seems to exert different effects depending on the memory type under study. Here, we explored the impact of social stress on different aspects of human memory, including tests for explicit memory and working memory (for neutral materials), as well as implicit memory (perceptual priming, contextual priming and classical conditioning for emotional stimuli). A total of 35 young adult male students were randomly assigned to either the stress or the control group, with stress being induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Salivary cortisol levels were assessed repeatedly throughout the experiment to validate stress effects. The results support previous evidence indicating complex effects of stress on different types of memory: A pronounced working memory deficit was associated with exposure to stress. No performance differences between groups of stressed and unstressed subjects were observed in verbal explicit memory (but note that learning and recall took place within 1 h and immediately following stress) or in implicit memory for neutral stimuli. Stress enhanced classical conditioning for negative but not positive stimuli. In addition, stress improved spatial explicit memory. These results reinforce the view that acute stress can be highly disruptive for working memory processing. They provide new evidence for the facilitating effects of stress on implicit memory for negative emotional materials. Our findings are discussed with respect to their potential relevance for psychiatric disorders, such as post traumatic stress disorder. PMID:19169362

  15. Enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between core memory-task activation peaks is associated with memory impairment in MCI.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifei; Simon-Vermot, Lee; Araque Caballero, Miguel Á; Gesierich, Benno; Taylor, Alexander N W; Duering, Marco; Dichgans, Martin; Ewers, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Resting-state functional connectivity (FC) is altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but its predictive value for episodic memory impairment is debated. Here, we aimed to assess whether resting-state FC in core brain regions activated during memory-task functional magnetic resonance imaging is altered and predictive of memory performance in AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Twenty-three elderly cognitively healthy controls (HC), 76 aMCI subjects, and 19 AD dementia patients were included. We computed resting-state FC between 18 meta-analytically determined peak coordinates of brain activation during successful memory retrieval. Higher FC between the parahippocampus, parietal cortex, and the middle frontal gyrus was observed in both AD and mild cognitive impairment compared to HC (false-discovery rate-corrected p < 0.05). The increase in FC between the parahippocampus and middle frontal gyrus was associated with reduced episodic memory in aMCI, independent of amyloid-beta positron emission tomography binding and apolipoprotein E ε4-carrier status. In conclusion, increased parahippocampal-prefrontal FC is predictive of impaired episodic memory in aMCI and may reflect a dysfunctional change within the episodic memory-related neural network. PMID:27459924

  16. Novel junctionless silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon memory devices with field-enhanced poly-Si nanowire structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chia-Hsin; Chan, Wei-Sheng; Wu, Chun-Yu; Lee, I.-Che; Liao, Ta-Chuan; Wang, Chao-Lung; Wang, Kuang-Yu; Cheng, Huang-Chung

    2015-08-01

    In this work, a novel gate-all-around (GAA) low-temperature poly-Si (LTPS) junctionless (JL) silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon (SONOS) nonvolatile memory device with a field-enhanced nanowire (NW) structure has been proposed to improve the programing/erasing (P/E) performance. Each nanowire has three sharp corners fabricated by a sidewall spacer formation technique to obtain high local electrical fields. Owing to the higher carrier concentration in the channel and the high local electrical field from the three sharp corners, such a JL SONOS memory device exhibits a significantly enhanced P/E speed, a larger memory window, and better data retention properties than a conventional inversion mode NW-channel memory device.

  17. D-cycloserine administered directly to infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex enhances extinction memory in sucrose-seeking animals.

    PubMed

    Peters, J; De Vries, T J

    2013-01-29

    d-Cycloserine (DCS), a co-agonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, has proven to be an effective adjunct to cognitive behavioral therapies that utilize extinction. This pharmacological-based enhancement of extinction memory has been primarily demonstrated in neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by pathological fear (e.g. posttraumatic stress disorder and various phobias). More recently, there has been an interest in applying such a strategy in the disorders of appetitive learning (e.g. substance abuse and other addictions), but these studies have generated mixed results. Here we first examined whether extinction memory encoding in a sucrose self-administration model is dependent on NMDA receptors. The NMDA antagonist (±)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid (5mg/kg, i.p.) administered 2h prior to the first extinction training session effectively inhibited extinction memory recall 24h later, without affecting the expression of the conditioned sucrose-seeking response while the drug was on board. This profile of effects suggests a specific effect on extinction memory consolidation. Next, we sought to enhance extinction memory using the co-agonist DCS (10 μg/side) by infusion directly into infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex, a brain site implicated in extinction memory recall in conditioned fear models. Indeed, infusion of DCS immediately after the first extinction training session effectively enhanced extinction memory recall 24h later. Collectively, these data suggest that the neurobiological mechanisms and the neurocircuitry mediating extinction memory are similar regardless of the valence (aversive or appetitive) of the conditioned behavior, and that similar pharmacological strategies for treatment may be applied to neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by a failure to inhibit pathological emotional memories. PMID:23159319

  18. Evaluating hypnotic memory enhancement (hypermnesia and reminiscence) using multitrial forced recall.

    PubMed

    Dinges, D F; Whitehouse, W G; Orne, E C; Powell, J W; Orne, M T; Erdelyi, M H

    1992-09-01

    Two experiments investigated whether hypnosis enhances memory retrieval per se or merely increases a person's willingness to report recollections. Both experiments assessed immediate and delayed (i.e., 1 week) recall for pictorial stimuli. In Experiment 1, following an initial waking baseline recall, subjects of high or low hypnotic ability completed a series of recall trials conducted either in hypnosis or in the walking condition. The classic hypermnesia effect was obtained, but with no supplemental contribution of hypnosis. In Experiment 2, hypnosis was introduced only after 6 waking-recall trials. Hypnosis again failed to enhance retrieval of new correct items, although it increased the production of new incorrect recall among hypnotizable individuals. The findings provide no evidence for alleged hypermnesic properties of hypnosis. PMID:1402714

  19. Competition between frontoparietal control and default networks supports social working memory and empathy.

    PubMed

    Xin, Fei; Lei, Xu

    2015-08-01

    An extensive body of literature has indicated that there is increased activity in the frontoparietal control network (FPC) and decreased activity in the default mode network (DMN) during working memory (WM) tasks. The FPC and DMN operate in a competitive relationship during tasks requiring externally directed attention. However, the association between this FPC-DMN competition and performance in social WM tasks has rarely been reported in previous studies. To investigate this question, we measured FPC-DMN connectivity during resting state and two emotional face recognition WM tasks using the 2-back paradigm. Thirty-four individuals were instructed to perform the tasks based on either the expression [emotion (EMO)] or the identity (ID) of the same set of face stimuli. Consistent with previous studies, an increased anti-correlation between the FPC and DMN was observed during both tasks relative to the resting state. Specifically, this anti-correlation during the EMO task was stronger than during the ID task, as the former has a higher social load. Intriguingly, individual differences in self-reported empathy were significantly correlated with the FPC-DMN anti-correlation in the EMO task. These results indicate that the top-down signals from the FPC suppress the DMN to support social WM and empathy. PMID:25556209

  20. The flavonoid baicalein promotes NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation and enhances memory

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Fang; Yang, Yuan-Jian; Hu, Zhuang-Li; Long, Li-Hong; Fu, Hui; Xie, Na; Chen, Jian-Guo

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE There is growing interest in the physiological functions of flavonoids, especially in their effects on cognitive function and on neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the role of the flavonoid baicalein in long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region and cognitive behavioural performance. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Effects of baicalein on LTP in rat hippocampal slices were investigated by electrophysiological methods. Phosphorylation of Akt (at Ser473), the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) (at Ser133) were analysed by Western blot. Fear conditioning was used to determine whether baicalein could improve learning and memory in rats. KEY RESULTS Baicalein enhanced the N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor-dependent LTP in a bell-shaped concentration-dependent manner. Addition of the lipoxygenase metabolites 12(S)-HETE and 12(S)-HPETE did not reverse these effects of baicalein. Baicalein treatment enhanced phosphorylation of Akt during induction of LTP with the same bell-shaped dose–response curve. LTP potentiation induced by baicalein was blocked by inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. CREB phosphorylation was also increased in the CA1 region of baicalein-treated slices. Baicalein-treated rats performed significantly better than controls in a hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning task. Furthermore, baicalein treatment selectively increased the phosphorylation of Akt and CREB in the CA1 region of hippocampus, but not in the prefrontal cortex, after fear conditioning training. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our results demonstrate that the flavonoid baicalein can facilitate memory, and therefore it might be useful in the treatment of patients with memory disorders. PMID:21133890

  1. The dark side of testing memory: repeated retrieval can enhance eyewitness suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jason C K; Lapaglia, Jessica A

    2011-12-01

    Eyewitnesses typically recount their experiences many times before trial. Such repeated retrieval can enhance memory retention of the witnessed event. However, recent studies (e.g., Chan, Thomas, & Bulevich, 2009) have found that initial retrieval can exacerbate eyewitness suggestibility to later misleading information--a finding termed retrieval-enhanced suggestibility (RES). Here we examined the influence of multiple retrieval attempts on eyewitness suggestibility to subsequent misinformation. In four experiments, we systematically varied the number of initial tests taken (between zero and six), the delay between initial testing and misinformation exposure (~30 min or 1 week), and whether initial testing was manipulated between- or within-subjects. University undergraduate students were used as participants. Overall, we found that eyewitness suggestibility increased as the number of initial tests increased, but this RES effect was qualified by the delay and by whether initial testing occurred in a within- or between-subjects manner. Specifically, the within-subjects RES effect was smaller than the between-subjects RES effect, possibly because of the influence of retrieval-induced forgetting/facilitation (Chan, 2009) when initial testing was manipulated within subjects. Moreover, consistent with the testing effect literature (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006), the benefits of repeated testing on later memory were stronger after a 1-week delay than after a 30-min delay, thus reducing the negative impact of RES in long-term situations. These findings suggest that conditions that are likely to occur in criminal investigations can either increase (repeated testing) or reduce (delay) the influence of RES, thus further demonstrating the complex relationship between eyewitness memory and repeated retrieval. PMID:21859229

  2. Grapheme-color synesthesia can enhance immediate memory without disrupting the encoding of relational cues.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Bradley S; Radvansky, Gabriel A; Johnson, Ann C; McNerney, M Windy

    2012-12-01

    Previous evidence has suggested that grapheme-color synesthesia can enhance memory for words, but little is known about how these photisms cue retrieval. Often, the encoding of specific features of individual words can disrupt the encoding of ordered relations between words, resulting in an overall decrease in recall accuracy. Here we show that the photisms arising from grapheme-color synesthesia do not function like these item-specific cues. The influences of high and low word frequency on the encoding of ordered relations and the accuracy of immediate free recall were compared across a group of 10 synesthetes and 48 nonsynesthetes. The main findings of Experiment 1 showed that the experience of synesthesia had no adverse effect on the encoding of ordered relations (as measured by input-output correspondence); furthermore, it enhanced recall accuracy in a strictly additive fashion across the two word frequency conditions. Experiment 2 corroborated these findings by showing that the synesthetes only outperformed the nonsynesthetes when the materials involved words and letters, not when they involved digits and spatial locations. Altogether, the present findings suggest that synesthesia can boost immediate memory performance without disrupting the encoding of ordered relations. PMID:22836925

  3. Exchange Protein Activated by cAMP Enhances Long-Term Memory Formation Independent of Protein Kinase A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Nan; Abel, Ted; Hernandez, Pepe J.

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that cAMP signaling within neurons plays a major role in the formation of long-term memories--signaling thought to proceed through protein kinase A (PKA). However, here we show that exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) is able to enhance the formation of long-term memory in the hippocampus and appears to do so…

  4. Better Working Memory for Non-Social Targets in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Julia S.; Reznick, J. Steven; Stone, Wendy L.; Walden, Tedra; Sheridan, Elisabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    We compared working memory (WM) for the location of social versus non-social targets in infant siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (sibs-ASD, n = 25) and of typically developing children (sibs-TD, n = 30) at 6.5 and 9 months of age. There was a significant interaction of risk group and target type on WM, in which the sibs-ASD had…

  5. The wisdom of elders: Inuvialuit social memories of continuity and change in the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    The Inuvialuit of the Canadian Western Arctic are no strangers to change. From the arrival of whalers ca. 1890, they underwent a century of monumental societal upheaval. Perhaps against the odds, they sustained many of their traditional socioeconomic activities and continued to follow a land-based lifestyle through much of the twentieth century. With a few notable exceptions, historical accounts of this period were written by cultural outsiders who conveyed their own perspectives on Inuvialuit culture. This paper focuses on the social memories of present-day Inuvialuit Elders who recount aspects of their lifeways throughout the twentieth century, including seasonal practices, traditional skills they maintained, and responses to the historical events that challenged their ways of living and spurred continuous change. These oral narratives form part of a larger history for succeeding generations, and a platform from which to construct contemporary identities and to negotiate a collective future. PMID:20648982

  6. Intergenerational transmission of historical memories and social-distance attitudes in post-war second-generation Croatians.

    PubMed

    Svob, Connie; Brown, Norman R; Takšić, Vladimir; Katulić, Katarina; Žauhar, Valnea

    2016-08-01

    Intergenerational transmission of memory is a process by which biographical knowledge contributes to the construction of collective memory (representation of a shared past). We investigated the intergenerational transmission of war-related memories and social-distance attitudes in second-generation post-war Croatians. We compared 2 groups of young adults from (1) Eastern Croatia (extensively affected by the war) and (2) Western Croatia (affected relatively less by the war). Participants were asked to (a) recall the 10 most important events that occurred in one of their parents' lives, (b) estimate the calendar years of each, and (c) provide scale ratings on them. Additionally, (d) all participants completed a modified Bogardus Social Distance scale, as well as an (e) War Events Checklist for their parents' lives. There were several findings. First, approximately two-thirds of Eastern Croatians and one-half of Western Croatians reported war-related events from their parents' lives. Second, war-related memories impacted the second-generation's identity to a greater extent than did non-war-related memories; this effect was significantly greater in Eastern Croatians than in Western Croatians. Third, war-related events displayed markedly different mnemonic characteristics than non-war-related events. Fourth, the temporal distribution of events surrounding the war produced an upheaval bump, suggesting major transitions (e.g., war) contribute to the way collective memory is formed. And, finally, outright social ostracism and aggression toward out-groups were rarely expressed, independent of region. Nonetheless, social-distance scores were notably higher in Eastern Croatia than in Western Croatia. PMID:27025375

  7. Dopamine in the nucleus accumbens modulates the memory of social defeat in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Gray, C L; Norvelle, A; Larkin, T; Huhman, K L

    2015-06-01

    Conditioned defeat (CD) is a behavioral response that occurs in Syrian hamsters after they experience social defeat. Subsequently, defeated hamsters no longer produce territorial aggression but instead exhibit heightened levels of avoidance and submission, even when confronted with a smaller, non-aggressive intruder. Dopamine in the nucleus accumbens is hypothesized to act as a signal of salience for both rewarding and aversive stimuli to promote memory formation and appropriate behavioral responses to significant events. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that dopamine in the nucleus accumbens modulates the acquisition and expression of behavioral responses to social defeat. In Experiment 1, bilateral infusion of the non-specific D1/D2 receptor antagonist cis(z)flupenthixol (3.75 μg/150 nl saline) into the nucleus accumbens 5 min prior to defeat training significantly reduced submissive and defensive behavior expressed 24h later in response to a non-aggressive intruder. In Experiment 2, infusion of 3.75 μg cis-(Z)-flupenthixol 5 min before conditioned defeat testing with a non-aggressive intruder significantly increased aggressive behavior in drug-infused subjects. In Experiment 3, we found that the effect of cis-(Z)-flupenthixol on aggression was specific to defeated animals as infusion of drug into the nucleus accumbens of non-defeated animals did not significantly alter their behavior in response to a non-aggressive intruder. These data demonstrate that dopamine in the nucleus accumbens modulates both acquisition and expression of social stress-induced behavioral changes and suggest that the nucleus accumbens plays an important role in the suppression of aggression that is observed after social defeat. PMID:25721736

  8. Dopamine in the nucleus accumbens modulates the memory of social defeat in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Gray, C.L.; Norvelle, A.; Larkin, T.; Huhman, K.L..

    2015-01-01

    Conditioned defeat (CD) is a behavioral response that occurs in Syrian hamsters after they experience social defeat. Subsequently, defeated hamsters no longer produce territorial aggression but instead exhibit heightened levels of avoidance and submission, even when confronted with a smaller, non-aggressive intruder. Dopamine in the nucleus accumbens is hypothesized to act as a signal of salience for both rewarding and aversive stimuli to promote memory formation and appropriate behavioral responses to significant events. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that dopamine in the nucleus accumbens modulates the acquisition and expression of behavioral responses to social defeat. In Exp. 1, bilateral infusion of the non-specific D1/D2 receptor antagonist cis(z)flupenthixol (3.75 μg/150 nl saline) into the nucleus accumbens 5 min prior to defeat training significantly reduced submissive and defensive behavior expressed 24 hr later in response to a non-aggressive intruder. In Exp. 2, infusion of 3.75 μg cis(z)flupenthixol 5 min before conditioned defeat testing with a non-aggressive intruder significantly increased aggressive behavior in drug-infused subjects. In Exp. 3, we found that the effect of cis(z)flupenthixol on aggression was specific to defeated animals as infusion of drug into the nucleus accumbens of non-defeated animals did not significantly alter their behavior in response to a non-aggressive intruder. These data demonstrate that dopamine in the nucleus accumbens modulates both acquisition and expression of social stress-induced behavioral changes and suggest that the nucleus accumbens plays an important role in the suppression of aggression that is observed after social defeat. PMID:25721736

  9. Motivated social categorization: fundamental motives enhance people's sensitivity to basic social categories.

    PubMed

    Maner, Jon K; Miller, Saul L; Moss, Justin H; Leo, Jennifer L; Plant, E Ashby

    2012-07-01

    This article presents an evolutionary framework for identifying the characteristics people use to categorize members of their social world. Findings suggest that fundamental social motives lead people to implicitly categorize social targets based on whether those targets display goal-relevant phenotypic traits. A mate-search prime caused participants to categorize opposite-sex targets (but not same-sex targets) based on their level of physical attractiveness (Experiment 1). A mate-guarding prime interacted with relationship investment, causing participants to categorize same-sex targets (but not opposite-sex targets) based on their physical attractiveness (Experiment 2). A self-protection prime interacted with chronic beliefs about danger, increasing participants' tendency to categorize targets based on their racial group membership (Black or White; Experiment 3). This work demonstrates that people categorize others based on whether they display goal-relevant characteristics reflecting high levels of perceived desirability or threat. Social categorization is guided by fundamental evolved motives designed to enhance adaptive social outcomes. PMID:22545747

  10. The role of attention in emotional memory enhancement in pathological and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Sava, Alina-Alexandra; Paquet, Claire; Dumurgier, Julien; Hugon, Jacques; Chainay, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    After short delays between encoding and retrieval, healthy young participants have better memory performance for emotional stimuli than for neutral stimuli. Divided-attention paradigms suggest that this emotional enhancement of memory (EEM) is due to different attention mechanisms involved during encoding: automatic processing for negative stimuli, and controlled processing for positive stimuli. As far as we know, no study on the influence of these factors on EEM in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, as compared to healthy young and older controls, has been conducted. Thus, the goal of our study was to ascertain whether the EEM in these populations depends on the attention resources available at encoding. Participants completed two encoding phases: full attention (FA) and divided attention (DA), followed by two retrieval phases (recognition tasks). There was no EEM on the discrimination accuracy, independently of group and encoding condition. Nevertheless, all participants used a more liberal response criterion for the negative and positive stimuli than for neutral ones. In AD patients, larger numbers of false recognitions for negative and positive stimuli than for neutral ones were observed after both encoding conditions. In MCI patients and in healthy older and younger controls this effect was observed only for negative stimuli, and it depended on the encoding condition. Thus, this effect was observed in young controls after both encoding conditions, in older controls after the DA encoding, and in MCI patients after the FA encoding. In conclusion, our results suggest that emotional valence does not always enhance discrimination accuracy. Nevertheless, in certain conditions related to the attention resources available at encoding, emotional valence, especially the negative one, enhances the subjective feeling of familiarity and, consequently, engenders changes in response bias. This effect seems to be sensitive to the age and

  11. Adaptive Training Leads to Sustained Enhancement of Poor Working Memory in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Joni; Gathercole, Susan E.; Dunning, Darren L.

    2009-01-01

    Working memory plays a crucial role in supporting learning, with poor progress in reading and mathematics characterizing children with low memory skills. This study investigated whether these problems can be overcome by a training program designed to boost working memory. Children with low working memory skills were assessed on measures of working…

  12. The effect of background music on episodic memory and autonomic responses: listening to emotionally touching music enhances facial memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Mado Proverbio, C A Alice; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Alessandra Arcari, Laura; De Benedetto, Francesco; Guardamagna, Matteo; Gazzola, Martina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how background auditory processing can affect other perceptual and cognitive processes as a function of stimulus content, style and emotional nature. Previous studies have offered contrasting evidence, and it has been recently shown that listening to music negatively affected concurrent mental processing in the elderly but not in young adults. To further investigate this matter, the effect of listening to music vs. listening to the sound of rain or silence was examined by administering an old/new face memory task (involving 448 unknown faces) to a group of 54 non-musician university students. Heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure were measured during an explicit face study session that was followed by a memory test. The results indicated that more efficient and faster recall of faces occurred under conditions of silence or when participants were listening to emotionally touching music. Whereas auditory background (e.g., rain or joyful music) interfered with memory encoding, listening to emotionally touching music improved memory and significantly increased heart rate. It is hypothesized that touching music is able to modify the visual perception of faces by binding facial properties with auditory and emotionally charged information (music), which may therefore result in deeper memory encoding. PMID:26469712

  13. The effect of background music on episodic memory and autonomic responses: listening to emotionally touching music enhances facial memory capacity

    PubMed Central

    Mado Proverbio, C.A. Alice; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Alessandra Arcari, Laura; De Benedetto, Francesco; Guardamagna, Matteo; Gazzola, Martina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how background auditory processing can affect other perceptual and cognitive processes as a function of stimulus content, style and emotional nature. Previous studies have offered contrasting evidence, and it has been recently shown that listening to music negatively affected concurrent mental processing in the elderly but not in young adults. To further investigate this matter, the effect of listening to music vs. listening to the sound of rain or silence was examined by administering an old/new face memory task (involving 448 unknown faces) to a group of 54 non-musician university students. Heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure were measured during an explicit face study session that was followed by a memory test. The results indicated that more efficient and faster recall of faces occurred under conditions of silence or when participants were listening to emotionally touching music. Whereas auditory background (e.g., rain or joyful music) interfered with memory encoding, listening to emotionally touching music improved memory and significantly increased heart rate. It is hypothesized that touching music is able to modify the visual perception of faces by binding facial properties with auditory and emotionally charged information (music), which may therefore result in deeper memory encoding. PMID:26469712

  14. Effects of the putative cognitive-enhancing ampakine, CX717, on attention and object recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yiwen; Balabhadrapatruni, Sangeeta; Masumura, Chisako; Darlington, Cynthia L; Smith, Paul F

    2011-12-01

    Ampakines are a class of putative nootropic drug designed to positively modulate the AMPA receptor and have been investigated as a potential treatment for cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease. Nonetheless, some ampakines such as CX717 have been incompletely characterized in behavioural pharmacological studies. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to further characterize the effects of the ampakine, CX717 (20 mg/kg s.c), on the performance of rats in a 5 choice serial reaction time (5CSRTT) and object recognition memory task, using rats with cognitive deficits caused by bilateral vestibular deafferentation (BVD) as a model. In the 5CSRTT, when the stimulus duration was varied from 5 to 2 sec, the number of incorrect responses was significantly greater for the BVD group compared to sham controls, but significantly less for the CX717 groups, with no significant interaction. With changes in inter-trial interval (ITI), there was a significant effect of surgery/drug and a significant effect of ITI on premature responses, and the BVD group treated with CX717 showed significantly fewer premature responses than the other groups. In the object recognition memory task, CX717 significantly reduced total exploration time and the exploration towards the novel object in both sham and BVD animals. These results suggest that CX717 can reduce the number of incorrect responses in both sham and BVD rats and enhance inhibitory control specifically in BVD rats, in the 5CSRTT. On the other hand, CX717 produced a detrimental effect in the object recognition memory task. PMID:22171951

  15. Enhancing Spatial Memory: Anxiolytic and Antidepressant Effects of Tapinanthus dodoneifolius (DC) Danser in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Harquin Simplice, Foyet; David Emery, Tsala; Hervé Hervé, Ngatanko Abaissou

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of the aqueous extract of the bark of Tapinanthus dodoneifolius (TAE) (Danser) (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg), using open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swimming tests. Effect of TAE was compared to standard drugs diazepam (2 mg/kg) and imipramine (10 mg/kg). Additionally, the same doses of TAE were evaluated on rat's memory using Y-maze task. Results showed a significant (P < 0.05; 100 mg/kg) increase in the percentage of open arm entry and the time spent in the open arms in the elevated plus maze, suggesting an anxiolytic activity of the extract. In a dose-dependant manner, TAE at 25 mg/kg significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the number of lines crossed and the rearing behavior in the open field test, suggesting its possible sedative activity. In the forced swimming test, the immobility time of the animal was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by TAE (100 mg/kg), compared to control, and this effect was quite comparable to that of imipramine. In the Y-maze paradigm, TAE at 50 mg/kg caused a significant increase in the spontaneous alternations but with a significant decrease in exploratory behavioral pattern. Taking these results together, TAE improved the spatial memory and showed anxiolytic, antidepressant, and sedative activities. The present results support the anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of TAE and, to our knowledge, for the first time, demonstrate its enhancing effect on memory. PMID:24649363

  16. Histamine infused into basolateral amygdala enhances memory consolidation of inhibitory avoidance.

    PubMed

    Benetti, Fernando; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2013-08-01

    The role of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in the consolidation of aversive memory is well established. Here we investigate the involvement of the histaminergic system in BLA on this variable. Rats were chronically implanted with bilateral cannulae in the BLA and after recovery were trained in a one-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance task. Immediately after training histaminergic compounds either alone or in combination were infused through the cannulae. Memory was assessed in test sessions carried out 24 h after the training session. Post-training histamine (1-10 nmol; 0.5 μl/side) enhanced consolidation and the histamine H₃ receptor antagonist thioperamide (50 nmol; 0.5 μl/side) impaired memory consolidation. The effect was shared by the histamine N-methyltransferase inhibitor SKF-91844 (50 nmol; 0.5 μl/side) as well as by the H₃ receptor agonist imetit (10 nmol; 0.5 μl/side). The promnesic action of histamine was unaffected by the H₁ receptor antagonist pyrilamine (50 nmol; 0.5 μl/side). The H1 receptor agonist pyridylethylamine (10 nmol; 0.5 μl/side), the H₂ agonist dimaprit (10 nmol; 0.5 μl/side) and the H₂ antagonist ranitidine (50 nmol; 0.5 μl/side) were ineffective. Histaminergic compounds infused into the BLA had no effect on open-field or elevated plus-maze behaviour. The data show that histamine induces a dose-dependent mnemonic effect in rats and indicate that this reflects a role of endogenous histamine in the BLA mediated by H₃ receptors. PMID:23308396

  17. Aging, Culture, and Memory for Socially Meaningful Item-Context Associations: An East-West Cross-Cultural Comparison Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lixia; Li, Juan; Spaniol, Julia; Hasher, Lynn; Wilkinson, Andrea J.; Yu, Jing; Niu, Yanan

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that people in Eastern interdependent cultures process information more holistically and attend more to contextual information than do people in Western independent cultures. The current study examined the effects of culture and age on memory for socially meaningful item-context associations in 71 Canadians of Western European descent (35 young and 36 older) and 72 native Chinese citizens (36 young and 36 older). All participants completed two blocks of context memory tasks. During encoding, participants rated pictures of familiar objects. In one block, objects were rated either for their meaningfulness in the independent living context or their typicality in daily life. In the other block, objects were rated for their meaningfulness in the context of fostering relationships with others or for their typicality in daily life. The encoding in each block was followed by a recognition test in which participants identified pictures and their associated contexts. The results showed that Chinese outperformed Canadians in context memory, though both culture groups showed similar age-related deficits in item and context memory. The results suggest that Chinese are at an advantage in memory for socially meaningful item-context associations, an advantage that continues from young adulthood into old age. PMID:23593288

  18. Pharmacological brake-release of mRNA translation enhances cognitive memory

    PubMed Central

    Sidrauski, Carmela; Acosta-Alvear, Diego; Khoutorsky, Arkady; Vedantham, Punitha; Hearn, Brian R; Li, Han; Gamache, Karine; Gallagher, Ciara M; Ang, Kenny K-H; Wilson, Chris; Okreglak, Voytek; Ashkenazi, Avi; Hann, Byron; Nader, Karim; Arkin, Michelle R; Renslo, Adam R; Sonenberg, Nahum; Walter, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the α-subunit of initiation factor 2 (eIF2) controls protein synthesis by a conserved mechanism. In metazoa, distinct stress conditions activate different eIF2α kinases (PERK, PKR, GCN2, and HRI) that converge on phosphorylating a unique serine in eIF2α. This collection of signaling pathways is termed the ‘integrated stress response’ (ISR). eIF2α phosphorylation diminishes protein synthesis, while allowing preferential translation of some mRNAs. Starting with a cell-based screen for inhibitors of PERK signaling, we identified a small molecule, named ISRIB, that potently (IC50 = 5 nM) reverses the effects of eIF2α phosphorylation. ISRIB reduces the viability of cells subjected to PERK-activation by chronic endoplasmic reticulum stress. eIF2α phosphorylation is implicated in memory consolidation. Remarkably, ISRIB-treated mice display significant enhancement in spatial and fear-associated learning. Thus, memory consolidation is inherently limited by the ISR, and ISRIB releases this brake. As such, ISRIB promises to contribute to our understanding and treatment of cognitive disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00498.001 PMID:23741617

  19. Pharmacological brake-release of mRNA translation enhances cognitive memory.

    PubMed

    Sidrauski, Carmela; Acosta-Alvear, Diego; Khoutorsky, Arkady; Vedantham, Punitha; Hearn, Brian R; Li, Han; Gamache, Karine; Gallagher, Ciara M; Ang, Kenny K-H; Wilson, Chris; Okreglak, Voytek; Ashkenazi, Avi; Hann, Byron; Nader, Karim; Arkin, Michelle R; Renslo, Adam R; Sonenberg, Nahum; Walter, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the α-subunit of initiation factor 2 (eIF2) controls protein synthesis by a conserved mechanism. In metazoa, distinct stress conditions activate different eIF2α kinases (PERK, PKR, GCN2, and HRI) that converge on phosphorylating a unique serine in eIF2α. This collection of signaling pathways is termed the 'integrated stress response' (ISR). eIF2α phosphorylation diminishes protein synthesis, while allowing preferential translation of some mRNAs. Starting with a cell-based screen for inhibitors of PERK signaling, we identified a small molecule, named ISRIB, that potently (IC50 = 5 nM) reverses the effects of eIF2α phosphorylation. ISRIB reduces the viability of cells subjected to PERK-activation by chronic endoplasmic reticulum stress. eIF2α phosphorylation is implicated in memory consolidation. Remarkably, ISRIB-treated mice display significant enhancement in spatial and fear-associated learning. Thus, memory consolidation is inherently limited by the ISR, and ISRIB releases this brake. As such, ISRIB promises to contribute to our understanding and treatment of cognitive disorders. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00498.001. PMID:23741617

  20. Tuning to the significant: neural and genetic processes underlying affective enhancement of visual perception and memory.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Jelena; Anderson, Adam K; Todd, Rebecca M

    2014-02-01

    Emotionally arousing events reach awareness more easily and evoke greater visual cortex activation than more mundane events. Recent studies have shown that they are also perceived more vividly and that emotionally enhanced perceptual vividness predicts memory vividness. We propose that affect-biased attention (ABA) - selective attention to emotionally salient events - is an endogenous attentional system tuned by an individual's history of reward and punishment. We present the Biased Attention via Norepinephrine (BANE) model, which unifies genetic, neuromodulatory, neural and behavioural evidence to account for ABA. We review evidence supporting BANE's proposal that a key mechanism of ABA is locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) activity, which interacts with activity in hubs of affective salience networks to modulate visual cortex activation and heighten the subjective vividness of emotionally salient stimuli. We further review literature on biased competition and look at initial evidence for its potential as a neural mechanism behind ABA. We also review evidence supporting the role of the LC-NE system as a driving force of ABA. Finally, we review individual differences in ABA and memory including differences in sensitivity to stimulus category and valence. We focus on differences arising from a variant of the ADRA2b gene, which codes for the alpha2b adrenoreceptor as a way of investigating influences of NE availability on ABA in humans. PMID:24269973

  1. Enhanced visual short-term memory in action video game players.

    PubMed

    Blacker, Kara J; Curby, Kim M

    2013-08-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is critical for acquiring visual knowledge and shows marked individual variability. Previous work has illustrated a VSTM advantage among action video game players (Boot et al. Acta Psychologica 129:387-398, 2008). A growing body of literature has suggested that action video game playing can bolster visual cognitive abilities in a domain-general manner, including abilities related to visual attention and the speed of processing, providing some potential bases for this VSTM advantage. In the present study, we investigated the VSTM advantage among video game players and assessed whether enhanced processing speed can account for this advantage. Experiment 1, using simple colored stimuli, revealed that action video game players demonstrate a similar VSTM advantage over nongamers, regardless of whether they are given limited or ample time to encode items into memory. Experiment 2, using complex shapes as the stimuli to increase the processing demands of the task, replicated this VSTM advantage, irrespective of encoding duration. These findings are inconsistent with a speed-of-processing account of this advantage. An alternative, attentional account, grounded in the existing literature on the visuo-cognitive consequences of video game play, is discussed. PMID:23709068

  2. Transcranial direct current stimulation for memory enhancement: from clinical research to animal models

    PubMed Central

    Bennabi, Djamila; Pedron, Solène; Haffen, Emmanuel; Monnin, Julie; Peterschmitt, Yvan; Van Waes, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing demand for new brain-enhancing technologies to improve mental performance, both for patients with cognitive disorders and for healthy individuals. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive, painless, and easy to use neuromodulatory technique that can improve performance on a variety of cognitive tasks in humans despite its exact mode of action remains unclear. We have conducted a mini-review of the literature to first briefly summarize the growing amount of data from clinical trials assessing the efficacy of tDCS, focusing exclusively on learning and memory performances in healthy human subjects and in patients with depression, schizophrenia, and other neurological disorders. We then discuss these findings in the context of the strikingly few studies resulting from animal research. Finally, we highlight future directions and limitations in this field and emphasize the need to develop translational studies to better understand how tDCS improves memory, a necessary condition before it can be used as a therapeutic tool. PMID:25237299

  3. Enhancing effects of lithium on memory are not by-products of learning or attentional deficits.

    PubMed

    Tsaltas, Eleftheria; Kyriazi, Theodora; Poulopoulou, Cornelia; Kontis, Dimitrios; Maillis, Antonios

    2007-06-18

    We recently reported that chronic lithium (LiCl), at therapeutic plasma levels, enhanced spatial working memory and retention of an aversive contingency. Here we examine the possibility that these effects be secondary to LiCl effects on the ability to ignore irrelevant stimuli or on fear conditioning. In Experiment 1, rats subjected to >30 daily intraperitoneal injections of LiCl (2mmol/kg) or saline underwent conditioned emotional response training (CER: 2 CS pairings with 1-s, 1-mA shock) after 40 pre-exposures either to the CS (latent inhibition-LiCl/latent inhibition-saline, n=8) or to another stimulus (control-LiCl/control-saline, n=8). In Experiment 2, eight LiCl and eight saline animals were trained in on-the-baseline (VI-60s) CER (1-s, 0.15-mA shock in CS-signalled periods) in the Skinner box. In Experiment 1, LiCl animals showed normal latent inhibition. In both experiments, their fear conditioning was unimpaired. Therefore, the previously reported memory improvement under chronic lithium cannot be attributed to changes in the ability to ignore irrelevant stimuli or in fear conditioning. PMID:17451819

  4. Twitter for Teaching: Can Social Media Be Used to Enhance the Process of Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Can social media be used to enhance the process of learning by students in higher education? Social media have become widely adopted by students in their personal lives. However, the application of social media to teaching and learning remains to be fully explored. In this study, the use of the social media tool Twitter for teaching was…

  5. OLDER ADULTS CATCH UP TO YOUNGER ADULTS ON A LEARNING AND MEMORY TASK THAT INVOLVES COLLABORATIVE SOCIAL INTERACTION

    PubMed Central

    Derksen, B.J.; Duff, M.C.; Weldon, K.; Zhang, J.; Zamba, G.; Tranel, D.; Denburg, N.L.

    2014-01-01

    Learning and memory abilities tend to decline as people age. The current study examines the question of whether a learning situation that emphasizes collaborative social interaction might help older persons overcome age-related learning and memory changes and thus perform similarly to younger persons. Younger and Older participants (n = 34 in each group) completed the Barrier Task, a game-like social interaction where partners work together to develop labels for a set of abstract tangrams. Participants were also administered standard clinical neuropsychological measures of memory, on which the Older group showed expected inferiority to the Younger group. On the Barrier Task, the Older group performed less well than the Younger group early on, but as the task progressed, the performance of the Older group caught up and became statistically indistinguishable from that of the Younger group. These results can be taken to suggest that a learning milieu characterized by collaborative social interaction can attenuate some of the typical memory disadvantages associated with being older. PMID:24841619

  6. Neural activity during self-referential working memory and the underlying role of the amygdala in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Jin Seong; Shin, Yu-Bin; Choi, Soo-Hee; Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2016-08-01

    Self-referential processing, theory of mind, and working memory are distorted in social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to investigate characteristics of altered self-referential working memory processing and resting-state functional connectivity in patients with SAD. Twenty patients and 20 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at resting-state and while performing a working memory task containing faces with self-referential positive or negative comments and three memory phases (encoding, maintenance, and retrieval). Task-related results were compared between groups and tested for correlations. Resting-state connectivity between amygdala subregions and regions showing a task-related difference was also compared between groups. Patients compared to controls showed augmented memory for the negative comments, hyperactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and temporo-parietal junction during encoding, and hypoactivation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and insula during retrieval. At resting-state, increased connectivity of amygdala subregions with multiple task-related regions was found in patients. These findings suggest that the encoding process in SAD is accompanied by altered involvement of self-referential processing and theory of mind, whereas the retrieval process reflects impaired cognitive control. These memory-related processing may be affected by predisposing resting-state hyperconnectivity with the amygdala, and may underlie a hypersensitivity to negative comments and post-event reflection in SAD. PMID:27260987

  7. The role of stress during memory reactivation on intrusive memories.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Jessica; Garber, Benjamin; Bryant, Richard A

    2015-09-01

    Intrusive memories are unwanted recollections that maintain distress in psychological disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that memories that are reactivated through retrieval become temporarily vulnerable to environmental or pharmacological manipulation, including changes in levels of circulating stress hormones. This study investigated the influence of stress during memory reactivation of an emotionally arousing trauma film on subsequent intrusive memories. Three groups of participants (N=63) viewed a trauma film depicting a serious car accident at baseline. Two days later (Time 2), one group received a reactivation induction following a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT; Stress/Reactivation condition), whilst the second group reactivated the memory after a control procedure (Reactivation condition). A third group underwent the SECPT but was not asked to reactivate memory of the trauma film (Stress condition). Two days later (Time 3), all participants received a surprise cued memory recall test and intrusions questionnaire which they completed online. Results showed that those in the Stress/Reactivation group had higher intrusions scores than the other two groups, suggesting that acute stress promotes intrusive memories only when the memory trace is reactivated shortly afterwards. Increased cortisol predicted enhanced intrusive experiences in the Stress/Reactivation condition but not in the other conditions. This pattern of results suggests that acute stress during the reactivation of emotional material impacts on involuntary emotional memories. These findings suggest a possible explanation for the mechanism underlying the maintenance of intrusive memories in clinical disorders. PMID:25911248

  8. Major neurotransmitter systems in dorsal hippocampus and basolateral amygdala control social recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Garrido Zinn, Carolina; Clairis, Nicolas; Silva Cavalcante, Lorena Evelyn; Furini, Cristiane Regina Guerino; de Carvalho Myskiw, Jociane; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2016-08-16

    Social recognition memory (SRM) is crucial for reproduction, forming social groups, and species survival. Despite its importance, SRM is still relatively little studied. Here we examine the participation of the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and that of dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and histaminergic systems in both structures in the consolidation of SRM. Male Wistar rats received intra-CA1 or intra-BLA infusions of different drugs immediately after the sample phase of a social discrimination task and 24-h later were subjected to a 5-min retention test. Animals treated with the protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin, into either the CA1 or BLA were unable to recognize the previously exposed juvenile (familiar) during the retention test. When infused into the CA1, the β-adrenoreceptor agonist, isoproterenol, the D1/D5 dopaminergic receptor antagonist, SCH23390, and the H2 histaminergic receptor antagonist, ranitidine, also hindered the recognition of the familiar juvenile 24-h later. The latter drug effects were more intense in the CA1 than in the BLA. When infused into the BLA, the β-adrenoreceptor antagonist, timolol, the D1/D5 dopamine receptor agonist, SKF38393, and the H2 histaminergic receptor agonist, ranitidine, also hindered recognition of the familiar juvenile 24-h later. In all cases, the impairment to recognize the familiar juvenile was abolished by the coinfusion of agonist plus antagonist. Clearly, both the CA1 and BLA, probably in that order, play major roles in the consolidation of SRM, but these roles are different in each structure vis-à-vis the involvement of the β-noradrenergic, D1/D5-dopaminergic, and H2-histaminergic receptors therein. PMID:27482097

  9. Mutations in a translation initiation factor identify target of a memory-enhancing compound

    PubMed Central

    Sekine, Yusuke; Zyryanova, Alisa; Crespillo-Casado, Ana; Fischer, Peter M.; Harding, Heather P.; Ron, David

    2015-01-01

    The integrated stress response (ISR) modulates mRNA translation to regulate the mammalian unfolded protein response (UPR), immunity and memory formation. A chemical ISR inhibitor, ISRIB, enhances cognitive function and modulates the UPR in vivo. To explore mechanisms involved in ISRIB action we screened cultured mammalian cells for somatic mutations that reversed its effect on the ISR. Clustered missense mutations were found at the N-terminal portion of the delta subunit of guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) eIF2B. When reintroduced by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing of wildtype cells, these mutations reversed both ISRIB-mediated inhibition of the ISR and its stimulatory effect on eIF2B GEF activity towards its substrate, eIF2, in vitro. Thus ISRIB targets an interaction between eIF2 and eIF2B that lies at the core of the ISR. PMID:25858979

  10. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex enhances working memory.

    PubMed

    Bagherzadeh, Yasaman; Khorrami, Anahita; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza; Shariat, Seyed Vahid; Pantazis, Dimitrios

    2016-07-01

    Neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have unequivocally identified the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) as a crucial structure for top-down control of working memory (WM) processes. By modulating the excitability of neurons in a targeted cortical area, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) offers a unique way to modulate DLPFC function, opening the possibility of WM facilitation. Even though TMS neuromodulation effects over the left DLPFC have successfully improved WM performance in patients with depression and schizophrenia in a multitude of studies, raising the potential of TMS as a safe efficacious treatment for WM deficits, TMS interventions in healthy individuals have produced mixed and inconclusive results. Here, we stimulated the left DLPFC of healthy individuals using a high-frequency repetitive TMS protocol and evaluated behavioral performance in a battery of cognitive tasks. We found that TMS treatment enhanced WM performance in a verbal digit span and a visuospatial 2-back task. PMID:26884132

  11. Identification of compounds that potentiate CREB signaling as possible enhancers of long-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Guo, Vicky; Southall, Noel; Cho, Ming-Hsuang; Inglese, James; Austin, Christopher P.; Nirenberg, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have implicated the cAMP Response Element Binding (CREB) protein signaling pathway in long-term memory. To identify small molecule enhancers of CREB activation of gene expression, we screened ≈73,000 compounds, each at 7–15 concentrations in a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) format, for activity in cells by assaying CREB mediated β-lactamase reporter gene expression. We identified 1,800 compounds that potentiated CREB mediated gene expression, with potencies as low as 16 nM, comprising 96 structural series. Mechanisms of action were systematically determined, and compounds that affect phosphodiesterase 4, protein kinase A, and cAMP production were identified, as well as compounds that affect CREB signaling via apparently unidentified mechanisms. qHTS folowed by interrogation of pathway targets is an efficient paradigm for lead generation for chemical genomics and drug development. PMID:19196967

  12. Clitoria ternatea (Linn) root extract treatment during growth spurt period enhances learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Rai, K S; Murthy, K D; Karanth, K S; Rao, M S

    2001-07-01

    Neonatal rat pups (7 days old) were intubated with either 50 mg/kg body weight or 100 mg/kg body weight of aqueous root extract of Clitoria ternatea (CTR) for 30 days. These rats were then subjected to open field, two compartment passive avoidance and spatial learning (T-Maze) tests (i) immediately after the treatment and (ii) 30 days after the treatment, along with age matched normal and saline control rats. Results showed no change in open field behaviour, but showed improved retention and spatial learning performance at both time points of behavioural tests, indicating the memory enhancing property of CTR which implicates a permanent change in the brain of CTR treated rats. PMID:11881569

  13. Something in the way she sings: enhanced memory for vocal melodies.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Michael W; Trehub, Sandra E; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2012-10-01

    Across species, there is considerable evidence of preferential processing for biologically significant signals such as conspecific vocalizations and the calls of individual conspecifics. Surprisingly, music cognition in human listeners is typically studied with stimuli that are relatively low in biological significance, such as instrumental sounds. The present study explored the possibility that melodies might be remembered better when presented vocally rather than instrumentally. Adults listened to unfamiliar folk melodies, with some presented in familiar timbres (voice and piano) and others in less familiar timbres (banjo and marimba). They were subsequently tested on recognition of previously heard melodies intermixed with novel melodies. Melodies presented vocally were remembered better than those presented instrumentally even though they were liked less. Factors underlying the advantage for vocal melodies remain to be determined. In line with its biological significance, vocal music may evoke increased vigilance or arousal, which in turn may result in greater depth of processing and enhanced memory for musical details. PMID:22894936

  14. Estradiol replacement enhances fear memory formation, impairs extinction and reduces COMT expression levels in the hippocampus of ovariectomized female mice.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Carmel M; Liu, Dan; Ade, Catherine; Schrader, Laura A

    2015-02-01

    Females experience depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety disorders at approximately twice the rate of males, but the mechanisms underlying this difference remain undefined. The effect of sex hormones on neural substrates presents a possible mechanism. We investigated the effect of ovariectomy at two ages, before puberty and in adulthood, and 17β-estradiol (E2) replacement administered chronically in drinking water on anxiety level, fear memory formation, and extinction. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that estradiol replacement would impair fear memory formation and enhance extinction rate. Females, age 4 weeks and 10 weeks, were divided randomly into 4 groups; sham surgery, OVX, OVX+low E2 (200nM), and OVX+high E2 (1000nM). Chronic treatment with high levels of E2 significantly increased anxiety levels measured in the elevated plus maze. In both age groups, high levels of E2 significantly increased contextual fear memory but had no effect on cued fear memory. In addition, high E2 decreased the rate of extinction in both ages. Finally, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is important for regulation of catecholamine levels, which play a role in fear memory formation and extinction. COMT expression in the hippocampus was significantly reduced by high E2 replacement, implying increased catecholamine levels in the hippocampus of high E2 mice. These results suggest that estradiol enhanced fear memory formation, and inhibited fear memory extinction, possibly stabilizing the fear memory in female mice. This study has implications for a neurobiological mechanism for PTSD and anxiety disorders. PMID:25555360

  15. Interleukin-27 inhibits vaccine-enhanced pulmonary disease following respiratory syncytial virus infection by regulating cellular memory responses.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ruihong; Zhang, Huixian; Hai, Yan; Cui, Yuxiu; Wei, Lin; Li, Na; Liu, Jianxun; Li, Caixia; Liu, Ying

    2012-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of lower respiratory tract disease in young children. In the 1960s, infants vaccinated with formalin-inactivated RSV developed a more severe disease characterized by excessive inflammatory immunopathology in lungs upon natural RSV infection. The fear of causing the vaccine-enhanced disease (VED) is an important obstacle for development of safe and effective RSV vaccines. The recombinant vaccine candidate G1F/M2 immunization also led to VED. It has been proved that cellular memory induced by RSV vaccines contributed to VED. Interleukin-27 (IL-27) and IL-23 regulate Th1, Th17, and/or Th2 cellular immune responses. In this study, mice coimmunized with pcDNA3-IL-27 and G1F/M2 were fully protected and, importantly, did not develop vaccine-enhanced inflammatory responses and immunopathology in lungs after RSV challenge, which was correlated with moderate Th1-, suppressed Th2-, and Th17-like memory responses activated by RSV. In contrast, G1F/M2- or pcDNA3-IL-23+G1F/M2-immunized mice, in which robust Th2- and Th17-like memory responses were induced, developed enhanced pulmonary inflammation and severe immunopathology. Mice coimmunized with G1F/M2 and the two cytokine plasmids exhibited mild inflammatory responses as well as remarkable Th1-, suppressed Th2-, and Th17-like memory responses. These results suggested that Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-like memory responses and, in particular, excessive Th2- and Th17-like memory responses were closely associated with VED; IL-27 may inhibit VED following respiratory syncytial virus infection by regulating cellular memory responses. PMID:22301139

  16. Enhancement of Declarative Memory Performance Following a Daytime Nap Is Contingent on Strength of Initial Task Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Matthew A.; Fishbein, William

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: In this study we examined the benefit of a daytime nap containing only NREM sleep on the performance of three declarative memory tasks: unrelated paired associates, maze learning, and the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure. Additionally, we explored the impact of factors related to task acquisition on sleep-related memory processing. To this end, we examined whether testing of paired associates during training leads to sleep-related enhancement of memory compared to simply learning the word pairs without test. We also examined whether strength of task acquisition modulates sleep-related processing for each of the three tasks. Subjects and Procedure: Subjects (11 male, 22 female) arrived at 11:30, were trained on each of the declarative memory tasks at 12:15, and at 13:00 either took a nap or remained awake in the sleep lab. After the nap period, all subjects remained in the lab until retest at 16:00. Results: Compared to subjects who stayed awake during the training-retest interval, subjects who took a NREM nap demonstrated enhanced performance for word pairs that were tested during training, but not for untested word pairs. For each of the three declarative memory tasks, we observed a sleep-dependent performance benefit only for subjects that most strongly acquired the tasks during the training session. Conclusions: NREM sleep obtained during a daytime nap benefits declarative memory performance, with these benefits being intimately tied to how well subjects acquire the tasks and the way in which the information is acquired. Citation: Tucker MA; Fishbein W. Enhancement of declarative memory performance following a daytime nap is contingent on strength of initial task acquisition. SLEEP 2008;31(2):197–203. PMID:18274266

  17. Social misdirection fails to enhance a magic illusion.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jie; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Macknik, Stephen L; King, Mac; Martinez-Conde, Susana

    2011-01-01

    Visual, multisensory and cognitive illusions in magic performances provide new windows into the psychological and neural principles of perception, attention, and cognition. We investigated a magic effect consisting of a coin "vanish" (i.e., the perceptual disappearance of a coin after a simulated toss from hand to hand). Previous research has shown that magicians can use joint attention cues such as their own gaze direction to strengthen the observers' perception of magic. Here we presented naïve observers with videos including real and simulated coin tosses to determine if joint attention might enhance the illusory perception of simulated coin tosses. The observers' eye positions were measured, and their perceptual responses simultaneously recorded via button press. To control for the magician's use of joint attention cues, we occluded his head in half of the trials. We found that subjects did not direct their gaze at the magician's face at the time of the coin toss, whether the face was visible or occluded, and that the presence of the magician's face did not enhance the illusion. Thus, our results show that joint attention is not necessary for the perception of this effect. We conclude that social misdirection is redundant and possibly detracting to this very robust sleight-of-hand illusion. We further determined that subjects required multiple trials to effectively distinguish real from simulated tosses; thus the illusion was resilient to repeated viewing. PMID:22046155

  18. Social Misdirection Fails to Enhance a Magic Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jie; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Macknik, Stephen L.; King, Mac; Martinez-Conde, Susana

    2011-01-01

    Visual, multisensory and cognitive illusions in magic performances provide new windows into the psychological and neural principles of perception, attention, and cognition. We investigated a magic effect consisting of a coin “vanish” (i.e., the perceptual disappearance of a coin after a simulated toss from hand to hand). Previous research has shown that magicians can use joint attention cues such as their own gaze direction to strengthen the observers’ perception of magic. Here we presented naïve observers with videos including real and simulated coin tosses to determine if joint attention might enhance the illusory perception of simulated coin tosses. The observers’ eye positions were measured, and their perceptual responses simultaneously recorded via button press. To control for the magician’s use of joint attention cues, we occluded his head in half of the trials. We found that subjects did not direct their gaze at the magician’s face at the time of the coin toss, whether the face was visible or occluded, and that the presence of the magician’s face did not enhance the illusion. Thus, our results show that joint attention is not necessary for the perception of this effect. We conclude that social misdirection is redundant and possibly detracting to this very robust sleight-of-hand illusion. We further determined that subjects required multiple trials to effectively distinguish real from simulated tosses; thus the illusion was resilient to repeated viewing. PMID:22046155

  19. Learning to Remember: Social-Communicative Exchanges and the Development of Children's Memory Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Peter A.; Haden, Catherine A.; Hedrick, Amy M.

    2004-01-01

    For more than three decades, the question ''What is memory development the development of?'' has guided research on children's memory. As theories and methodologies have evolved, so too has our knowledge of the mnemonic competencies of young children, and of age-related differences in memory performance. Unfortunately, however, current…

  20. Experiential avoidance in idiographic, autobiographical memories: Construct validity and links to social anxiety, depressive, and anger symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kashdan, Todd B.; Breen, William E.; Afram, Alex; Terhar, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Experiential avoidance, or attempts to alter or avoid undesirable thoughts and feelings, has been theorized to be relevant to the development of emotional disturbances, particularly anxiety problems. Prior work has relied on two methodologies: global self-report measures or laboratory manipulations. To better understand links between experiential avoidance and emotional disturbances, we measured experiential avoidance in the context of prominent anxious autobiographical events. Trained raters coded events for emotionality and reliance on experiential avoidance. Our interest was whether experiential avoidance could be measured as a memory characteristic and how it relates to social anxiety, depressive, and anger symptoms. As evidence of construct validity, experiential avoidance ratings were related to more intense negative emotions and coping difficulties during anxious events, memory vividness, and emotion suppression tendencies. Experiential avoidance was positively related to social anxiety and depressive symptoms and predicted an increase in social anxiety over a 3-month period; findings could not be attributed to the emotionality of memories. In contrast, no relations were found with inward or outward expressions of anger, or longitudinal change in depressive or anger symptoms. Results suggest that experiential avoidance is an important dimension of people’s life narratives and particularly relevant to social anxiety problems. PMID:20399602

  1. A calpain-2 selective inhibitor enhances learning & memory by prolonging ERK activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Wang, Yubin; Zhu, Guoqi; Sun, Jiandong; Bi, Xiaoning; Baudry, Michel

    2016-06-01

    While calpain-1 activation is required for LTP induction by theta burst stimulation (TBS), calpain-2 activation limits its magnitude during the consolidation period. A selective calpain-2 inhibitor applied either before or shortly after TBS enhanced the degree of potentiation. In the present study, we tested whether the selective calpain-2 inhibitor, Z-Leu-Abu-CONH-CH2-C6H3 (3, 5-(OMe)2 (C2I), could enhance learning and memory in wild-type (WT) and calpain-1 knock-out (C1KO) mice. We first showed that C2I could reestablish TBS-LTP in hippocampal slices from C1KO mice, and this effect was blocked by PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK. TBS resulted in PTEN degradation in hippocampal slices from both WT and C1KO mice, and C2I treatment blocked this effect in both mouse genotypes. Systemic injection of C2I 30 min before training in the fear-conditioning paradigm resulted in a biphasic dose-response curve, with low doses enhancing and high doses inhibiting freezing behavior. The difference between the doses needed to enhance and inhibit learning matches the difference in concentrations producing inhibition of calpain-2 and calpain-1. A low dose of C2I also restored normal learning in a novel object recognition task in C1KO mice. Levels of SCOP, a ERK phosphatase known to be cleaved by calpain-1, were decreased in dorsal hippocampus early but not late following training in WT mice; C2I treatment did not affect the early decrease in SCOP levels but prevented its recovery at the later time-point and prolonged ERK activation. The results indicate that calpain-2 activation limits the extent of learning, an effect possibly due to temporal limitation of ERK activation, as a result of SCOP synthesis induced by calpain-2-mediated PTEN degradation. PMID:26907807

  2. Neural mechanisms of reactivation-induced updating that enhance and distort memory

    PubMed Central

    St. Jacques, Peggy L.; Olm, Christopher; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    We remember a considerable number of personal experiences because we are frequently reminded of them, a process known as memory reactivation. Although memory reactivation helps to stabilize and update memories, reactivation may also introduce distortions if novel information becomes incorporated with memory. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural mechanisms mediating reactivation-induced updating in memory for events experienced during a museum tour. During scanning, participants were shown target photographs to reactivate memories from the museum tour followed by a novel lure photograph from an alternate tour. Later, participants were presented with target and lure photographs and asked to determine whether the photographs showed a stop they visited during the tour. We used a subsequent memory analysis to examine neural recruitment during reactivation that was associated with later true and false memories. We predicted that the quality of reactivation, as determined by online ratings of subjective recollection, would increase subsequent true memories but also facilitate incorporation of the lure photograph, thereby increasing subsequent false memories. The fMRI results revealed that the quality of reactivation modulated subsequent true and false memories via recruitment of left posterior parahippocampal, bilateral retrosplenial, and bilateral posterior inferior parietal cortices. However, the timing of neural recruitment and the way in which memories were reactivated contributed to differences in whether memory reactivation led to distortions or not. These data reveal the neural mechanisms recruited during memory reactivation that modify how memories will be subsequently retrieved, supporting the flexible and dynamic aspects of memory. PMID:24191059

  3. Technology To Enhance Special Education: Remediation of Problems in Logical Thinking and Memory. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalier, Al; And Others

    A federally sponsored project was designed to incorporate a memory-assessment task and a memory strategy into a computer-based instructional system for assessing and assisting in remediating basic memory-processing and metacognitive deficiencies. The project resulted in an instructional system for school-aged children and youth with mild to…

  4. Enhancement of long-term spatial memory in adult rats by the noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists, memantine and neramexane.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Campbell, Adam M; Park, Collin R; Schaefer, Daniela; Danysz, Wojciech; Diamond, David M

    2006-10-01

    Memantine and neramexane are noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists which have been investigated for their promising effects in aiding memory in people with dementia. Memantine is approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, and neramexane is currently under development for this indication. Therefore, the present study provided a comparative assessment of the effects of equimolar doses of memantine and neramexane on spatial (hippocampus-dependent) memory. Adult male rats were given only 3 training trials to learn the location of a hidden platform in a water maze. In control (vehicle-injected) rats, this minimal amount of training produced intact short-term (15 min), but poor long-term (24 h), memory. Pre-training administration of memantine or neramexane produced a dose-dependent enhancement of long-term memory. Pharmacokinetic experiments with equimolar doses of both agents indicated that lower plasma levels of neramexane were more effective than memantine at enhancing memory. The effective doses of both agents in the current study produced plasma levels (and extrapolated brain CSF levels) within a range of activity at NMDA receptors and plasma levels seen in patients with Alzheimer's disease. These findings provide support for the use of neramexane as a pharmacological intervention in the treatment of dementia. PMID:17045636

  5. Application of shape memory alloy (SMA) spars for aircraft maneuver enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Changho; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Kim, Youdan

    2002-07-01

    Modern combat aircraft are required to achieve aggressive maneuverability and high agility performance, while maintaining handling qualities over a wide range of flight conditions. Recently, a new adaptive-structural concept called variable stiffness spar is proposed in order to increase the maneuverability of the flexible aircraft. The variable stiffness spar controls wing torsional stiffness to enhance roll performance in the complete flight envelope. However, variable stiffness spar requires the mechanical actuation system in order to rotate the Variable stiffness spar during flight. The mechanical actuation system to rotate variable stiffness spar may cause an additional weight increase. In this paper, we will apply Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) spars for aeroelastic performance enhancement. In order to explore the potential of SMA spar design, roll performance of the composite smart wings will be investigated using ASTROS. Parametric study will be conducted to investigate the SMA spar effects by changing the spar locations and geometry. The results show that with activation of the SMA spar, the roll effectiveness can be increased up to 61% compared with the baseline model.

  6. Potential Role of Cortisol in Social and Memory Impairments in Individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Daniel; Bursch, Megan; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee

    2016-09-01

    22q11.2 Deletion syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by physiological and psychological symptoms. This study investigated the role of cortisol on the social and cognitive impairments in children with 22q11.2. A total of 11 children with 22q11.2 were assessed for baseline cortisol levels and received broad neuropsychological testing. Results were compared with 11 controls. Children with 22q11.2 had significantly higher cortisol levels. A significant negative correlation was observed between the general memory and attention/concentration indices of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, 2nd edition and cortisol concentrations in the control population. These data provide evidence of a possible causal mechanism that underlies social impairments in stress disorders. PMID:27617156

  7. On common ground: Social memory and the plaza at early Moundville

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jera Rollins

    The Moundville site of west-central Alabama featured one of the largest plazas in the Mississippian world. The construction of Moundville's plaza necessitated the destruction and burial of a prior landscape, obliterating symbols of a contested past at a time when emerging differences in rank and power threatened group cohesion. This dissertation employs landscape-scale geophysical data and targeted excavations to identify what remains of the former settlement and the community plan that replaced it. When the hundreds of previously undocumented buildings are sorted on the basis of architectural style and orientation into chronological categories, it is revealed that dramatic changes in the arrangement of architecture did indeed coincide with the construction of the plaza. Understood from a social memory perspective, this rapid shift is described as an effort to promote inclusivity by selectively reimagining and representing the past. Other conclusions pertain to the division of plaza space into habitation and activity zones and the spatial, historical, and ideological centrality of Moundville's Mound A.

  8. Creating and Perpetuating Social Memory across the Ancient Cost Rican Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheets, Payson; Sever, Tom

    2004-01-01

    For most of the time that Native Americans lived in ancient Costa Rica, their travel across the landscape was task-oriented and thus sufficiently randomized to leave no detectable trace. That changed about 500 BC in the Arenal area when people separated their cemeteries from their villages, and travel between them was ritually mediated by travel along the same path, in single file, in as straight a line as possible. The inadvertent erosion over centuries of use entrenched paths 2 or more meters deep, and we believe the cultural standard developed that the preferred way of entering a special place was by an entrenched path. People created and perpetuated social memory across their landscapes with generation after generation of use. The construction of meaning developed as the paths entrenched, ultimately embedding that meaning deep in people s belief systems as well as literally embedding it in the landscape. the Arenal area, a series of chiefdoms did develop east of the area at about AD 1000. To satisfy their need for monumentality, we suggest here that chiefs chose the proper entrenched entryway as exemplified in the Arenal area, for elaboration. On the rocky slopes of the volcanoes monumental entryways were built of stone, and on the fine alluvial plains they were of earthen construction. For instance, the radiating entrenched roads entering Cutris are about 4 km long and as wide as 50 meters, and many meters deep.

  9. What drives social in-group biases in face recognition memory? ERP evidence from the own-gender bias.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Nicole; Kemter, Kathleen; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Wiese, Holger

    2014-05-01

    It is well established that memory is more accurate for own-relative to other-race faces (own-race bias), which has been suggested to result from larger perceptual expertise for own-race faces. Previous studies also demonstrated better memory for own-relative to other-gender faces, which is less likely to result from differences in perceptual expertise, and rather may be related to social in-group vs out-group categorization. We examined neural correlates of the own-gender bias using event-related potentials (ERP). In a recognition memory experiment, both female and male participants remembered faces of their respective own gender more accurately compared with other-gender faces. ERPs during learning yielded significant differences between the subsequent memory effects (subsequently remembered - subsequently forgotten) for own-gender compared with other-gender faces in the occipito-temporal P2 and the central N200, whereas neither later subsequent memory effects nor ERP old/new effects at test reflected a neural correlate of the own-gender bias. We conclude that the own-gender bias is mainly related to study phase processes, which is in line with sociocognitive accounts. PMID:23474824

  10. Enhancement of Neurogenesis and Memory by a Neurotrophic Peptide in Mild to Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chohan, Muhammad Omar; Bragina, Olga; Kazim, Syed Faraz; Statom, Gloria; Baazaoui, Narjes; Bragin, Denis; Iqbal, Khalid; Nemoto, Edwin; Yonas, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Background Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD), a neurocognitive disorder with similar cellular abnormalities. We recently discovered a small molecule (Peptide 6) corresponding to an active region of human ciliary neurotrophic factor, with neurogenic and neurotrophic properties in mouse models of AD and Down syndrome. Objective To describe hippocampal abnormalities in a mouse model of mild to moderate TBI and their reversal by Peptide 6. Methods TBI was induced in adult C57Bl6 mice using controlled cortical impact (CCI) with 1.5 mm of cortical penetration. The animals were treated with 50 nmol/animal/day of Peptide 6 or saline for 30 days. Dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis, dendritic and synaptic density and AD biomarkers were quantitatively analyzed and behavioral tests were performed. Results Ipsilateral neuronal loss in CA1 and parietal cortex, and elevation of Alzheimer-type hyperphosphorylated tau and A-beta were seen in TBI-mice. When compared to saline, Peptide 6 treatment increased number of newborn neurons, but not uncommitted progenitors, in DG by 80%. Peptide 6 treatment also reversed TBI-induced dendritic and synaptic density loss while increasing activity in tri-synaptic hippocampal circuitry, ultimately leading to improvement in memory recall on behavioral testing. Conclusion Long-term treatment with Peptide 6 enhances the pool of newborn neurons in DG, prevents neuronal loss in CA1 and parietal cortex, preserves dendritic and synaptic architecture in the hippocampus, and improves performance on a hippocampus-dependent memory task in TBI mice. These findings necessitate further inquiry into therapeutic potential of small molecules based on neurotrophic factors. PMID:25255260

  11. Naps in school can enhance the duration of declarative memories learned by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Nathalia; Weissheimer, Janaina; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2014-01-01

    Sleep helps the consolidation of declarative memories in the laboratory, but the pro-mnemonic effect of daytime naps in schools is yet to be fully characterized. While a few studies indicate that sleep can indeed benefit school learning, it remains unclear how best to use it. Here we set out to evaluate the influence of daytime naps on the duration of declarative memories learned in school by students of 10-15 years old. A total of 584 students from 6th grade were investigated. Students within a regular classroom were exposed to a 15-min lecture on new declarative contents, absent from the standard curriculum for this age group. The students were then randomly sorted into nap and non-nap groups. Students in the nap group were conducted to a quiet room with mats, received sleep masks and were invited to sleep. At the same time, students in the non-nap group attended regular school classes given by their usual teacher (Experiment I), or English classes given by another experimenter (Experiment II). These 2 versions of the study differed in a number of ways. In Experiment I (n = 371), students were pre-tested on lecture-related contents before the lecture, were invited to nap for up to 2 h, and after 1, 2, or 5 days received surprise tests with similar content but different wording and question order. In Experiment II (n = 213), students were invited to nap for up to 50 min (duration of a regular class); surprise tests were applied immediately after the lecture, and repeated after 5, 30, or 110 days. Experiment I showed a significant ~10% gain in test scores for both nap and non-nap groups 1 day after learning, in comparison with pre-test scores. This gain was sustained in the nap group after 2 and 5 days, but in the non-nap group it decayed completely after 5 days. In Experiment II, the nap group showed significantly higher scores than the non-nap group at all times tested, thus precluding specific conclusions. The results suggest that sleep can be used to enhance

  12. Neural substrates of shared attention as social memory: A hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Koike, Takahiko; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Okazaki, Shuntaro; Nakagawa, Eri; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Shimada, Koji; Sugawara, Sho K; Takahashi, Haruka K; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Bosch-Bayard, Jorge; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-15

    During a dyadic social interaction, two individuals can share visual attention through gaze, directed to each other (mutual gaze) or to a third person or an object (joint attention). Shared attention is fundamental to dyadic face-to-face interaction, but how attention is shared, retained, and neutrally represented in a pair-specific manner has not been well studied. Here, we conducted a two-day hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging study in which pairs of participants performed a real-time mutual gaze task followed by a joint attention task on the first day, and mutual gaze tasks several days later. The joint attention task enhanced eye-blink synchronization, which is believed to be a behavioral index of shared attention. When the same participant pairs underwent mutual gaze without joint attention on the second day, enhanced eye-blink synchronization persisted, and this was positively correlated with inter-individual neural synchronization within the right inferior frontal gyrus. Neural synchronization was also positively correlated with enhanced eye-blink synchronization during the previous joint attention task session. Consistent with the Hebbian association hypothesis, the right inferior frontal gyrus had been activated both by initiating and responding to joint attention. These results indicate that shared attention is represented and retained by pair-specific neural synchronization that cannot be reduced to the individual level. PMID:26514295

  13. Why Teach Social Entrepreneurship: Enhance Learning and University-Community Relations through Service-Learning Outreach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessel, Stacy; Godshalk, Veronica M.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on providing a convincing argument for incorporating social entrepreneurship into the business professor's classroom. The outreach provided by social entrepreneurship enhances learning and promotes university-community relations. Service-learning engagement activities, in the form of social entrepreneurship, create a three-way…

  14. Tweeting the Night Away: Using Twitter to Enhance Social Presence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Joanna C.; Lowenthal, Patrick R.

    2009-01-01

    To be truly effective, online learning must facilitate the social process of learning. This involves providing space and opportunities for students and faculty to engage in social activities. Although learning management systems offer several tools that support social learning and student engagement, the scope, structure, and functionality of…

  15. Enhancing Social Work Research Education through Research Field Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, Jennifer A.; Walsh, Christine A.; Bradshaw, Cathryn

    2010-01-01

    The increased focus on the role of research in the social service sector, pressure for practitioners to engage in research and the demand for integration of research and practice challenges faculties about ways in which to engage social work students in research. This paper evaluates a research based practicum program within a social work faculty…

  16. The Use of Technology in Enhancing Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer-Califano, Autumn

    2008-01-01

    Social skills training programs are frequently used with students who are at risk for or who have emotional and behavioral disorders. These students often experience social skills deficiencies, antisocial behavior, and negative peer relationships. Because the media is an important factor in the socialization and interaction of students, there…

  17. AMPAKINE enhancement of social interaction in the BTBR mouse model of autism

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, JL; Oliver, CF; Karras, MN; Gastrell, PT; Crawley, JN

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which the first diagnostic symptom is unusual reciprocal social interactions. Approximately half of the children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder also have intellectual impairments. General cognitive abilities may be fundamental to many aspects of social cognition. Cognitive enhancers could conceivably be of significant benefit to children and adults with autism. AMPAKINE compounds are a novel class of pharmacological agents that act as positive modulators of AMPA receptors to enhance excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission. This class of compounds was reported to improve learning and memory in several rodent and non-human primate tasks, and to normalize respiratory abnormalities in a mouse model of Rett syndrome. Here we evaluate the actions of AMPA compounds in adult male and female BTBR mice, a well characterized mouse model of autism. Acute treatment with CX1837 and CX1739 reversed the deficit in sociability in BTBR mice on the most sensitive parameter, time spent sniffing a novel mouse as compared to time spent sniffing a novel object. The less sensitive parameter, time in the chamber containing the novel mouse versus time in the chamber containing the novel object, was not rescued by CX1837 or CX1739 treatment. Preliminary data with CX546, in which β-cyclodextrin was the vehicle, revealed behavioral effects of the acute intraperitoneal and oral administration of vehicle alone. To circumvent the artifacts introduced by the vehicle administration, we employed a novel treatment regimen using pellets of peanut butter for drug delivery. Absence of vehicle treatment effects when CX1837 and CX1739 were given in the peanut butter pellets, to multiple cohorts of BTBR and B6 control mice, confirmed that the pharmacologically-induced improvements in sociability in BTBR were not confounded by the administration procedures. The highest dose of CX1837 improved the cognitive deficit in novel object recognition in BTBR

  18. PTSD-Like Memory Generated Through Enhanced Noradrenergic Activity is Mitigated by a Dual Step Pharmacological Intervention Targeting its Reconsolidation

    PubMed Central

    Gazarini, Lucas; Stern, Cristina A. J.; Piornedo, Rene R.; Takahashi, Reinaldo N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traumatic memories have been resilient to therapeutic approaches targeting their permanent attenuation. One of the potentially promising pharmacological strategies under investigation is the search for safe reconsolidation blockers. However, preclinical studies focusing on this matter have scarcely addressed abnormal aversive memories and related outcomes. Methods: By mimicking the enhanced noradrenergic activity reported after traumatic events in humans, here we sought to generate a suitable condition to establish whether some clinically approved drugs able to disrupt the reconsolidation of conditioned fear memories in rodents would still be effective. Results: We report that the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine was able to induce an inability to restrict behavioral (fear) and cardiovascular (increased systolic blood pressure) responses to the paired context when administered immediately after acquisition, but not 6h later, indicating the formation of a generalized fear memory, which endured for over 29 days and was less susceptible to suppression by extinction. It was also resistant to reconsolidation disruption by the α2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine or cannabidiol, the major non-psychotomimetic component of Cannabis sativa. Since signaling at N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors is important for memory labilization and because a dysfunctional memory may be less labile than is necessary to trigger reconsolidation on its brief retrieval and reactivation, we then investigated and demonstrated that pre-retrieval administration of the partial NMDA agonist D-cycloserine allowed the disrupting effects of clonidine and cannabidiol on reconsolidation. Conclusions: These findings highlight the effectiveness of a dual-step pharmacological intervention to mitigate an aberrant and enduring aversive memory similar to that underlying the post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:25539509

  19. Nicotinic α7 and α4β2 agonists enhance the formation and retrieval of recognition memory: Potential mechanisms for cognitive performance enhancement in neurological and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    McLean, Samantha L; Grayson, Ben; Marsh, Samuel; Zarroug, Samah H O; Harte, Michael K; Neill, Jo C

    2016-04-01

    Cholinergic dysfunction has been shown to be central to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease and has also been postulated to contribute to cognitive dysfunction observed in various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Deficits are found across a number of cognitive domains and in spite of several attempts to develop new therapies, these remain an unmet clinical need. In the current study we investigated the efficacy of donepezil, risperidone and selective nicotinic α7 and α4β2 receptor agonists to reverse a delay-induced deficit in recognition memory. Adult female Hooded Lister rats received drug treatments and were tested in the novel object recognition (NOR) task following a 6h inter-trial interval (ITI). In all treatment groups, there was no preference for the left or right identical objects in the acquisition trial. Risperidone failed to enhance recognition memory in this paradigm whereas donepezil was effective such that rats discriminated between the novel and familiar object in the retention trial following a 6h ITI. Although a narrow dose range of PNU-282987 and RJR-2403 was tested, only one dose of each increased recognition memory, the highest dose of PNU-282987 (10mg/kg) and the lowest dose of RJR-2403 (0.1mg/kg), indicative of enhanced cognitive performance. Interestingly, these compounds were also efficacious when administered either before the acquisition or the retention trial of the task, suggesting an important role for nicotinic receptor subtypes in the formation and retrieval of recognition memory. PMID:26327238

  20. Enhanced Memory Behavior in Phase-Change Nonvolatile-Memory Devices Using Multilayered Structure of Compositionally Modified Ge-Sb-Te Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sung-Min; Lee, Seung-Yun; Jung, Soon-Won; Park, Young-Sam; Yu, Byoung-Gon

    2009-04-01

    A unique and novel phase-change memory device employing multilayered chalcogenide films was proposed and fabricated. In this structure, Ge18Sb39Te43, which corresponds to a 22 at. % Sb-excessive phase of typical stoichiometric Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST), was located in the middle and acted as the main operating region to exploit its superior properties, thus ensuring reliable memory operations. Thinner GST layers were inserted to above and below the middle layer. The introduction of a bottom GST layer promotes the temperature rise and the thermal insulation within the device operating volume owing to its lower thermal conductivity. The top GST layer effectively suppresses the undesirable interdiffusion between the top electrode of W and the Sb added to excess. Moreover, the upper and lower GST supplementary layers promote the initial crystallization stage during set operations owing to their higher crystallization rate compared with that of the Sb-rich phase of GST. As a result, the required current for reset, the required time for set, and the number of rewritable cycles of the proposed device with an active pore size of 0.5 ×0.5 µm2 were 6.1 mA, 80 ns, and 6.4 ×106, respectively, which are superior values compared with those for the device using a single layer of Ge18Sb39Te43. We can conclude that the proposed multilayered structure of compositionally modified GST films provides a very promising approach to enhancing all types of the memory behaviors required for the phase-change memory devices.

  1. A Distinct Lung-Interstitium-Resident Memory CD8(+) T Cell Subset Confers Enhanced Protection to Lower Respiratory Tract Infection.

    PubMed

    Gilchuk, Pavlo; Hill, Timothy M; Guy, Clifford; McMaster, Sean R; Boyd, Kelli L; Rabacal, Whitney A; Lu, Pengcheng; Shyr, Yu; Kohlmeier, Jacob E; Sebzda, Eric; Green, Douglas R; Joyce, Sebastian

    2016-08-16

    The nature and anatomic location of the protective memory CD8(+) T cell subset induced by intranasal vaccination remain poorly understood. We developed a vaccination model to assess the anatomic location of protective memory CD8(+) T cells and their role in lower airway infections. Memory CD8(+) T cells elicited by local intranasal, but not systemic, vaccination with an engineered non-replicative CD8(+) T cell-targeted antigen confer enhanced protection to a lethal respiratory viral challenge. This protection depends on a distinct CXCR3(LO) resident memory CD8(+) T (Trm) cell population that preferentially localizes to the pulmonary interstitium. Because they are positioned close to the mucosa, where infection occurs, interstitial Trm cells act before inflammation can recruit circulating memory CD8(+) T cells into the lung tissue. This results in a local protective immune response as early as 1 day post-infection. Hence, vaccine strategies that induce lung interstitial Trm cells may confer better protection against respiratory pathogens. PMID:27498869

  2. Carbon nanotube (CNT) fins for enhanced cooling of shape memory alloy wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Anupam; AuBuchon, Joseph; Brei, Diann; Shaw, John; Luntz, Jonathan; Jin, Sungho

    2008-03-01

    A commonly noted disadvantage of shape memory alloys is their frequency response which is limited by how fast the material can be cooled. This paper presents a feasibility study of using vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) as microscopic cooling fins to improve convective heat transfer. Using DC plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), aligned CNT's were successfully grown directly on ½ of the surface of a 0.38 mm diameter SMA wire, achieving desirable thermal contact. Cooling speeds were measured with a thermal imaging camera, and the effective convective coefficient was extracted from the temperature profiles using a basic cooling model of the wire. From this model, the effective convective coefficient was estimated to have increased by 24% (from 50 W/m2K for untreated SMA wire to 62 W/m2K for the nanotube treated wire), indicating that the deposition of CNT's indeed increased performance. By extrapolating these results to full wire coverage, up to a 46% improvement in frequency response with zero weight or volumetric penalties is predicted. Further improvements in cooling performance are likely to occur with higher CNT densities and longer nanotube lengths, allowing further developments of this technology to benefit many future applications utilizing high-speed miniature/micro-scale SMA actuators.

  3. When does testing enhance retention? A distribution-based interpretation of retrieval as a memory modifier.

    PubMed

    Halamish, Vered; Bjork, Robert A

    2011-07-01

    Tests, as learning events, can enhance subsequent recall more than do additional study opportunities, even without feedback. Such advantages of testing tend to appear, however, only at long retention intervals and/or when criterion tests stress recall, rather than recognition, processes. We propose that the interaction of the benefits of testing versus restudying with final-test delay and format reflects not only that successful retrievals are more powerful learning events than are re-presentations but also that the distribution of memory strengths across items is shifted differentially by testing and restudying. The benefits of initial testing over restudying, in this view, should increase as the delay or format of the final test makes that test more difficult. Final-test difficulty, not the similarity of initial-test and final-test conditions, should determine the benefits of testing. In Experiments 1 and 2 we indeed found that initial cued-recall testing enhanced subsequent recall more than did restudying when the final test was a difficult (free-recall) test but not when it was an easier (cued-recall) test that matched the initial test. The results of Experiment 3 supported a new prediction of the distribution framework: namely, that the final cued-recall test that did not show a benefit of testing in Experiment 1 should show such a benefit when that test was made more difficult by introducing retroactive interference. Overall, our results suggest that the differential consequences of initial testing versus restudying reflect, in part, differences in how items distributions are shifted by testing and studying. PMID:21480751

  4. Repetition suppression and repetition enhancement underlie auditory memory-trace formation in the human brain: an MEG study.

    PubMed

    Recasens, Marc; Leung, Sumie; Grimm, Sabine; Nowak, Rafal; Escera, Carles

    2015-03-01

    The formation of echoic memory traces has traditionally been inferred from the enhanced responses to its deviations. The mismatch negativity (MMN), an auditory event-related potential (ERP) elicited between 100 and 250ms after sound deviation is an indirect index of regularity encoding that reflects a memory-based comparison process. Recently, repetition positivity (RP) has been described as a candidate ERP correlate of direct memory trace formation. RP consists of repetition suppression and enhancement effects occurring in different auditory components between 50 and 250ms after sound onset. However, the neuronal generators engaged in the encoding of repeated stimulus features have received little interest. This study intends to investigate the neuronal sources underlying the formation and strengthening of new memory traces by employing a roving-standard paradigm, where trains of different frequencies and different lengths are presented randomly. Source generators of repetition enhanced (RE) and suppressed (RS) activity were modeled using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in healthy subjects. Our results show that, in line with RP findings, N1m (~95-150ms) activity is suppressed with stimulus repetition. In addition, we observed the emergence of a sustained field (~230-270ms) that showed RE. Source analysis revealed neuronal generators of RS and RE located in both auditory and non-auditory areas, like the medial parietal cortex and frontal areas. The different timing and location of neural generators involved in RS and RE points to the existence of functionally separated mechanisms devoted to acoustic memory-trace formation in different auditory processing stages of the human brain. PMID:25528656

  5. Network Sampling with Memory: A proposal for more efficient sampling from social networks.

    PubMed

    Mouw, Ted; Verdery, Ashton M

    2012-08-01

    Techniques for sampling from networks have grown into an important area of research across several fields. For sociologists, the possibility of sampling from a network is appealing for two reasons: (1) A network sample can yield substantively interesting data about network structures and social interactions, and (2) it is useful in situations where study populations are difficult or impossible to survey with traditional sampling approaches because of the lack of a sampling frame. Despite its appeal, methodological concerns about the precision and accuracy of network-based sampling methods remain. In particular, recent research has shown that sampling from a network using a random walk based approach such as Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) can result in high design effects (DE)-the ratio of the sampling variance to the sampling variance of simple random sampling (SRS). A high design effect means that more cases must be collected to achieve the same level of precision as SRS. In this paper we propose an alternative strategy, Network Sampling with Memory (NSM), which collects network data from respondents in order to reduce design effects and, correspondingly, the number of interviews needed to achieve a given level of statistical power. NSM combines a "List" mode, where all individuals on the revealed network list are sampled with the same cumulative probability, with a "Search" mode, which gives priority to bridge nodes connecting the current sample to unexplored parts of the network. We test the relative efficiency of NSM compared to RDS and SRS on 162 school and university networks from Add Health and Facebook that range in size from 110 to 16,278 nodes. The results show that the average design effect for NSM on these 162 networks is 1.16, which is very close to the efficiency of a simple random sample (DE=1), and 98.5% lower than the average DE we observed for RDS. PMID:24159246

  6. Network Sampling with Memory: A proposal for more efficient sampling from social networks

    PubMed Central

    Mouw, Ted; Verdery, Ashton M.

    2013-01-01

    Techniques for sampling from networks have grown into an important area of research across several fields. For sociologists, the possibility of sampling from a network is appealing for two reasons: (1) A network sample can yield substantively interesting data about network structures and social interactions, and (2) it is useful in situations where study populations are difficult or impossible to survey with traditional sampling approaches because of the lack of a sampling frame. Despite its appeal, methodological concerns about the precision and accuracy of network-based sampling methods remain. In particular, recent research has shown that sampling from a network using a random walk based approach such as Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) can result in high design effects (DE)—the ratio of the sampling variance to the sampling variance of simple random sampling (SRS). A high design effect means that more cases must be collected to achieve the same level of precision as SRS. In this paper we propose an alternative strategy, Network Sampling with Memory (NSM), which collects network data from respondents in order to reduce design effects and, correspondingly, the number of interviews needed to achieve a given level of statistical power. NSM combines a “List” mode, where all individuals on the revealed network list are sampled with the same cumulative probability, with a “Search” mode, which gives priority to bridge nodes connecting the current sample to unexplored parts of the network. We test the relative efficiency of NSM compared to RDS and SRS on 162 school and university networks from Add Health and Facebook that range in size from 110 to 16,278 nodes. The results show that the average design effect for NSM on these 162 networks is 1.16, which is very close to the efficiency of a simple random sample (DE=1), and 98.5% lower than the average DE we observed for RDS. PMID:24159246

  7. Memory for Emotional Experiences in the Context of Attachment and Social Interaction Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Kristen Weede; O'Hara, Karen Davis; Bortfeld, Heidi V.; Anderson, Summerlynn J.; Newton, Emily K.; Kraft, Rosemarie H.

    2010-01-01

    Important dimensions of emotional experiences include the level of arousal elicited and the source of that arousal, yet memory for events differing on these constructs is often compared within and across studies. One important factor for emotional memory is attachment security, which predicts how parents and children relate to each other and to…

  8. On the Flexibility of Social Source Memory: A Test of the Emotional Incongruity Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel; Kroneisen, Meike; Giang, Trang

    2012-01-01

    A popular hypothesis in evolutionary psychology posits that reciprocal altruism is supported by a cognitive module that helps cooperative individuals to detect and remember cheaters. Consistent with this hypothesis, a source memory advantage for faces of cheaters (better memory for the cheating context in which these faces were encountered) was…

  9. Social Recognition Memory: The Effect of Other People's Responses for Previously Seen and Unseen Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Daniel B.; Mathews, Sorcha A.; Skagerberg, Elin M.

    2005-01-01

    When people discuss their memories, what one person says can influence what another personal reports. In 3 studies, participants were shown sets of stimuli and then given recognition memory tests to measure the effect of one person's response on another's. The 1st study (n=24) used word recognition with participant-confederate pairs and found that…

  10. Post-training gamma irradiation-enhanced contextual fear memory associated with reduced neuronal activation of the infralimbic cortex.

    PubMed

    Kugelman, Tara; Zuloaga, Damian G; Weber, Sydney; Raber, Jacob

    2016-02-01

    The brain might be exposed to irradiation under a variety of situations, including clinical treatments, nuclear accidents, dirty bomb scenarios, and military and space missions. Correctly recalling tasks learned prior to irradiation is important but little is known about post-learning effects of irradiation. It is not clear whether exposure to X-ray irradiation during memory consolidation, a few hours following training, is associated with altered contextual fear conditioning 24h after irradiation and which brain region(s) might be involved in these effects. Brain immunoreactivity patterns of the immediately early gene c-Fos, a marker of cellular activity was used to determine which brain areas might be altered in post-training irradiation memory retention tasks. In this study, we show that post-training gamma irradiation exposure (1 Gy) enhanced contextual fear memory 24h later and is associated with reduced cellular activation in the infralimbic cortex. Reduced GABA-ergic neurotransmission in parvalbumin-positive cells in the infralimbic cortex might play a role in this post-training radiation-enhanced contextual fear memory. PMID:26522840

  11. In the working memory of the beholder: Art appreciation is enhanced when visual complexity is compatible with working memory.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Aleksandra; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2015-08-01

    What shapes art appreciation? Much research has focused on the importance of visual features themselves (e.g., symmetry, natural scene statistics) and of the viewer's experience and expertise with specific artworks. However, even after taking these factors into account, there are considerable individual differences in art preferences. Our new result suggests that art preference is also influenced by the compatibility between visual properties and the characteristics of the viewer's visual system. Specifically, we have demonstrated, using 120 artworks from diverse periods, cultures, genres, and styles, that art appreciation is increased when the level of visual complexity within an artwork is compatible with the viewer's visual working memory capacity. The result highlights the importance of the interaction between visual features and the beholder's general visual capacity in shaping art appreciation. PMID:25984587

  12. In the working memory of the beholder: Art appreciation is enhanced when visual complexity is compatible with working memory

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Aleksandra; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    What shapes art appreciation? Much research has focused on the importance of visual features themselves (e.g., symmetry, natural scene statistics) and of the viewer’s experience and expertise with specific artworks. However, even after taking these factors into account, there are considerable individual differences in art preferences. Our new result suggests that art preference is also influenced by the compatibility between visual properties and the characteristics of the viewer’s visual system. Specifically, we have demonstrated, using 120 artworks from diverse periods, cultures, genres and styles, that art appreciation is increased when the level of visual complexity within an artwork is compatible with the viewer’s visual working memory capacity. The result highlights the importance of the interaction between visual features and the beholder’s general visual capacity in shaping art appreciation. PMID:25984587

  13. Rapid and Reversible Impairments of Short- and Long-Term Social Recognition Memory Are Caused by Acute Isolation of Adult Rats via Distinct Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Shahar-Gold, Hadar; Gur, Rotem; Wagner, Shlomo

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian social organizations require the ability to recognize and remember individual conspecifics. This social recognition memory (SRM) can be examined in rodents using their innate tendency to investigate novel conspecifics more persistently than familiar ones. Here we used the SRM paradigm to examine the influence of housing conditions on the social memory of adult rats. We found that acute social isolation caused within few days a significant impairment in acquisition of short-term SRM of male and female rats. Moreover, SRM consolidation into long-term memory was blocked following only one day of social isolation. Both impairments were reversible, but with different time courses. Furthermore, only the impairment in SRM consolidation was reversed by systemic administration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP). In contrast to SRM, object recognition memory was not affected by social isolation. We conclude that acute social isolation rapidly induces reversible changes in the brain neuronal and molecular mechanisms underlying SRM, which hamper its acquisition and completely block its consolidation. These changes occur via distinct, AVP sensitive and insensitive mechanisms. Thus, acute social isolation of rats swiftly causes changes in their brain and interferes with their normal social behavior. PMID:23741464

  14. Dilemmas in providing resilience-enhancing social services to long-term social assistance clients. A qualitative study of Swedish social workers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Long-term recipients of social assistance face barriers to social and economic inclusion, and have poorer health and more limited opportunities for improving their health than many other groups in the population. During recent decades there have been changes in Swedish social policy, with cutbacks in public benefits and a re-emphasis on means-tested policies. In this context, it is important to investigate the necessary conditions for social workers to offer social assistance and services, as well as the mediating role of social workers between public policies and their clients. Swedish social services aim to promote social inclusion by strengthening the individual´s own resources. We investigated the issues that arise when providing social services to long-term social assistance clients within the framework of resilience, which focuses on the processes leading to positive functioning in adverse conditions. Methods Interviews were conducted with 23 social workers in Stockholm and analysed by qualitative content analysis. Results The main theme to emerge from the interviews concerned the constraints that the social workers faced in providing social services to social assistance clients. The first subtheme focused on dilemmas in the interaction between social workers and clients resulting from the dual role of exercising authority and supporting and building trust with clients. Working conditions of social workers also played a crucial role. The second subtheme addressed the impact of the societal context, such as labour market opportunities and coordination between authorities. Conclusions Overall, we found that social workers to a great extent tried to find individual solutions to structural problems. To provide resilience-enhancing social services to long-term social assistance clients with varying obstacles and needs requires a constructive working environment, supportive societal structures and inter-sectoral cooperation between different authorities

  15. Emotional enhancement of immediate memory: Positive pictorial stimuli are better recognized than neutral or negative pictorial stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Chainay, Hanna; Michael, George A.; Vert-pré, Mélissa; Landré, Lionel; Plasson, Amandine

    2012-01-01

    We examined emotional memory enhancement (EEM) for negative and positive pictures while manipulating encoding and retrieval conditions. Two groups of 40 participants took part in this study. Both groups performed immediate implicit (categorization task) and explicit (recognition task) retrieval, but for one group the tasks were preceded by incidental encoding and for the other group by intentional encoding. As indicated by the sensitivity index (dʹ), after incidental encoding positive stimuli were easier to recognize than negative and neutral stimuli. Participants’ response criterion was more liberal for negative stimuli than for both positive and neutral ones, independent of encoding condition. In the implicit retrieval task, participants were slower in categorizing positive than negative and neutral stimuli. However, the priming effect was larger for emotional than for neutral stimuli. These results are discussed in the context of the idea that the effect of emotion on immediate memory enhancement may depend on the intentionality to encode and retrieve information. PMID:22956991

  16. Enhanced magnetic hysteresis in Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal and its influence on magnetic shape memory effect

    SciTech Connect

    Heczko, O. Drahokoupil, J.; Straka, L.

    2015-05-07

    Enhanced magnetic hysteresis due to boron doping in combination with magnetic shape memory effect in Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal results in new interesting functionality of magnetic shape memory (MSM) alloys such as mechanical demagnetization. In Ni{sub 50.0}Mn{sub 28.5}Ga{sub 21.5} single crystal, the boron doping increased magnetic coercivity from few Oe to 270 Oe while not affecting the transformation behavior and 10 M martensite structure. However, the magnetic field needed for MSM effect also increased in doped sample. The magnetic behavior is compared to undoped single crystal of similar composition. The evidence from the X-ray diffraction, magnetic domain structure, magnetization loops, and temperature evolution of the magnetic coercivity points out that the enhanced hysteresis is caused by stress-induced anisotropy.

  17. Enhanced magnetic hysteresis in Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal and its influence on magnetic shape memory effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heczko, O.; Drahokoupil, J.; Straka, L.

    2015-05-01

    Enhanced magnetic hysteresis due to boron doping in combination with magnetic shape memory effect in Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal results in new interesting functionality of magnetic shape memory (MSM) alloys such as mechanical demagnetization. In Ni50.0Mn28.5Ga21.5 single crystal, the boron doping increased magnetic coercivity from few Oe to 270 Oe while not affecting the transformation behavior and 10 M martensite structure. However, the magnetic field needed for MSM effect also increased in doped sample. The magnetic behavior is compared to undoped single crystal of similar composition. The evidence from the X-ray diffraction, magnetic domain structure, magnetization loops, and temperature evolution of the magnetic coercivity points out that the enhanced hysteresis is caused by stress-induced anisotropy.

  18. Bilateral Saccadic Eye Movements and Tactile Stimulation, but Not Auditory Stimulation, Enhance Memory Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Ras, Priscilla H.; Berends, Floris; Duijs, Peter; Samara, Zoe; Slagter, Heleen A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown superior memory retrieval when participants make a series of horizontal saccadic eye movements between the memory encoding phase and the retrieval phase compared to participants who do not move their eyes or move their eyes vertically. It has been hypothesized that the rapidly alternating activation of the two hemispheres…

  19. Methylphenidate does not enhance visual working memory but benefits motivation in macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Oemisch, Mariann; Johnston, Kevin; Paré, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Working memory is a limited-capacity cognitive process that retains relevant information temporarily to guide thoughts and behavior. A large body of work has suggested that catecholamines exert a major modulatory influence on cognition, but there is only equivocal evidence of a direct influence on working memory ability, which would be reflected in a dependence on working memory load. Here we tested the contribution of catecholamines to working memory by administering a wide range of acute oral doses of the dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor methylphenidate (MPH, 0.1-9 mg/kg) to three female macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta), whose working memory ability was measured from their performance in a visual sequential comparison task. This task allows the systematic manipulation of working memory load, and we therefore tested the specific hypothesis that MPH modulates performance in a manner that depends on both dose and memory load. We found no evidence of a dose- or memory load-dependent effect of MPH on performance. In contrast, significant effects on measures of motivation were observed. These findings suggest that an acute increase in catecholamines does not seem to affect the retention of visual information per se. As such, these results help delimit the effects of MPH on cognition. PMID:27329555

  20. Enhancing social networks: a qualitative study of health and social care practice in UK mental health services.

    PubMed

    Webber, Martin; Reidy, Hannah; Ansari, David; Stevens, Martin; Morris, David

    2015-03-01

    People with severe mental health problems such as psychosis have access to less social capital, defined as resources within social networks, than members of the general population. However, a lack of theoretically and empirically informed models hampers the development of social interventions which seek to enhance an individual's social networks. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study, which used ethnographic field methods in six sites in England to investigate how workers helped people recovering from psychosis to enhance their social networks. This study drew upon practice wisdom and lived experience to provide data for intervention modelling. Data were collected from 73 practitioners and 51 people who used their services in two phases. Data were selected and coded using a grounded theory approach to depict the key themes that appeared to underpin the generation of social capital within networks. Findings are presented in four over-arching themes - worker skills, attitudes and roles; connecting people processes; role of the agency; and barriers to network development. The sub-themes which were identified included worker attitudes; person-centred approach; equality of worker-individual relationship; goal setting; creating new networks and relationships; engagement through activities; practical support; existing relationships; the individual taking responsibility; identifying and overcoming barriers; and moving on. Themes were consistent with recovery models used within mental health services and will provide the basis for the development of an intervention model to enhance individuals' access to social capital within networks. PMID:25441461

  1. Akt1 and -2 inhibition diminishes terminal differentiation and enhances central memory CD8+ T-cell proliferation and survival

    PubMed Central

    Abu Eid, Rasha; Friedman, Kevin M; Mkrtichyan, Mikayel; Walens, Andrea; King, William; Janik, John; Khleif, Samir N

    2015-01-01

    The CD8+ T-cell response comprises terminally differentiated effector cells and antigen-experienced memory T cells. The latter encompass central (TCM) and effector (TEM) memory cells. TCM cells are superior in their protection against viral and bacterial challenges and mediation of antitumor immunity due to their higher proliferative ability upon antigen re-encounter. Defining a mechanism to enhance TCM cells and delay terminal differentiation of CD8+ T cells is crucial for cancer immune therapy, as it can promote a better tumor immune response. The differentiation of CD8+ memory T cells is thought to be coordinated by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. We, therefore, investigated the role of Akt isoforms in the differentiation and proliferation of memory CD8+ T cells. We found that Akt1 and Akt2, but not Akt3, drive the terminal differentiation of CD8+ T cells, and their inhibition enhances the therapeutically superior TCM phenotype. Furthermore, the inhibition of Akt1 and Akt2, but not Akt 3, delays CD8+ T-cell exhaustion and preserves naïve and TCM CD8+ T cells, thus enhancing their proliferative ability and survival and prolonging their cytokine and Granzyme B production ability. Here, we define a mechanism in which proliferative potential, function, and survival of CD8+ T cells are enhanced by maintaining a reservoir of TCM and naïve cells using only Akt1 and Akt2 inhibition. Therefore, our findings strongly suggest the utility of using Akt1 and Akt2 inhibitors to modulate CD8+ T cells, both for adoptive cell transfer and vaccine-based cancer immune therapies. PMID:26155399

  2. The intrahippocampal infusion of crotamine from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom enhances memory persistence in rats.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Liane S; Lara, Marcus V S; Gonçalves, Rithiele; Mandredini, Vanusa; Ponce-Soto, Luis Alberto; Marangoni, Sergio; Dal Belo, Cháriston A; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B

    2014-07-01

    Previous research has shown that crotamine, a toxin isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus, induces the release of acetylcholine and dopamine in the central nervous system of rats. Particularly, these neurotransmitters are important modulators of memory processes. Therefore, in this study we investigated the effects of crotamine infusion on persistence of memory in rats. We verified that the intrahippocampal infusion of crotamine (1 μg/μl; 1 μl/side) improved the persistence of object recognition and aversive memory. By other side, the intrahippocampal infusion of the toxin did not alter locomotor and exploratory activities, anxiety or pain threshold. These results demonstrate a future prospect of using crotamine as potential pharmacological tool to treat diseases involving memory impairment, although it is still necessary more researches to better elucidate the crotamine effects on hippocampus and memory. PMID:24813333

  3. Mice Overexpressing Type 1 Adenylyl Cyclase Show Enhanced Spatial Memory Flexibility in the Absence of Intact Synaptic Long-Term Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Hongbing

    2013-01-01

    There is significant interest in understanding the contribution of intracellular signaling and synaptic substrates to memory flexibility, which involves new learning and suppression of obsolete memory. Here, we report that enhancement of Ca[superscript 2+]-stimulated cAMP signaling by overexpressing type 1 adenylyl cyclase (AC1) facilitated…

  4. Past-life identities, UFO abductions, and satanic ritual abuse: the social construction of memories.

    PubMed

    Spanos, N P; Burgess, C A; Burgess, M F

    1994-10-01

    People sometimes fantasize entire complex scenarios and later define these experiences as memories of actual events rather than as imaginings. This article examines research associated with three such phenomena: past-life experiences, UFO alien contact and abduction, and memory reports of childhood ritual satanic abuse. In each case, elicitation of the fantasy events is frequently associated with hypnotic procedures and structured interviews which provide strong and repeated demands for the requisite experiences, and which then legitimate the experiences as "real memories." Research associated with these phenomena supports the hypothesis that recall is reconstructive and organized in terms of current expectations and beliefs. PMID:7960296

  5. Enhancing the Cognitive Complexity in Social Studies Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stobaugh, Rebecca; Tassell, Janet Lynne; Day, Martha M.; Blankenship, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    Social studies teachers are charged with the task of developing students' understandings as students engage in critical examination of social studies issues and topics. Teachers often use test items from textbooks or instructional resources, or create their own classroom assessments with no specific pedagogical foundation. All too often, these…

  6. Using an Extracurricular Physical Activity Program to Enhance Social Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluechardt, Mary H.; Shephard, Roy J.

    1995-01-01

    An individualized physical activity program with a strong social skills component was implemented with 45 students (ages 8 to 10) with learning disabilities. Participants' gains in self-ratings of competence and teacher ratings of social behavior were no larger than gains of control students receiving comparable attention through individualized…

  7. Theoretical Foundations for Enhancing Social Connectedness in Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slagter van Tryon, Patricia J.; Bishop, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Group social structure provides a comfortable and predictable context for interaction in learning environments. Students in face-to-face learning environments process social information about others in order to assess traits, predict behaviors, and determine qualifications for assuming particular responsibilities within a group. In online learning…

  8. Community and Social Network Sites as Technology Enhanced Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryberg, Thomas; Christiansen, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the affordance of the Danish social networking site Mingler.dk for peer-to-peer learning and development. With inspiration from different theoretical frameworks, the authors argue how learning and development in such social online systems can be conceptualised and analysed. Theoretically the paper defines development in…

  9. Semantically Enhanced Topic Modeling and Its Applications in Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Lifan

    2013-01-01

    As we witness the prosperity of the social media in the past few years, and feel the explosion of "user-generated content" on the Internet, there is little question that we have entered an era of Big Data. Those social media sites, such as Facebook, LinkedIn, Quora and Twitter have been important sources for a wide spectrum of users.…

  10. Noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation enhances spatial memory in cognitive impairment-induced by intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin administration.

    PubMed

    Adel Ghahraman, Mansoureh; Zahmatkesh, Maryam; Pourbakht, Akram; Seifi, Behjat; Jalaie, Shohreh; Adeli, Soheila; Niknami, Zohreh

    2016-04-01

    There are several anatomical connections between vestibular system and brain areas construct spatial memory. Since subliminal noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) has been demonstrated to enhance some types of memory, we speculated that application of noisy GVS may improve spatial memory in a rat model of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-induced cognitive impairment. Moreover, we attempted to determine the effect of repeated exposure to GVS on spatial memory performance. The spatial memory was assessed using Morris water maze test. The groups received 1 (ICV-STZ/GVS-I) or 5 (ICV-STZ/GVS-II) sessions, each lasting 30 min, of low amplitude noisy GVS, or no GVS at all (Control, ICV-saline, ICV-STZ/noGVS). Hippocampal morphological changes investigated with cresyl violet staining and the immediate early gene product c-Fos, as a neuronal activity marker, was measured. Hippocampal c-Fos positive cells increased in both GVS stimulated groups. We observed significantly improved spatial performance only in ICV-STZ/GVS-II group. Histological evaluation showed normal density in ICV-STZ/GVS-II group whereas degeneration observed in ICV-STZ/GVS-I group similar to ICV-STZ/noGVS. The results showed the improvement of memory impairment after repeated exposure to GVS. This effect may be due in part to frequent activation of the vestibular neurons and the hippocampal regions connected to them. Our current study suggests the potential role of GVS as a practical method to combat cognitive decline induced by sporadic Alzheimer disease. PMID:26892259

  11. Sarcosine attenuates toluene-induced motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not brain stimulation reward enhancement in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Ming-Huan; Chung, Shiang-Sheng; Stoker, Astrid K.; Markou, Athina; Chen, Hwei-Hsien

    2012-12-01

    Toluene, a widely used and commonly abused organic solvent, produces various behavioral disturbances, including motor incoordination and cognitive impairment. Toluene alters the function of a large number of receptors and ion channels. Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been suggested to play a critical role in toluene-induced behavioral manifestations. The present study determined the effects of various toluene doses on motor coordination, recognition memory, body temperature, and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds in mice. Additionally, the effects of sarcosine on the behavioral and physiological effects induced by toluene were evaluated. Sarcosine may reverse toluene-induced behavioral manifestations by acting as an NMDA receptor co-agonist and by inhibiting the effects of the type I glycine transporter (GlyT1). Mice were treated with toluene alone or combined with sarcosine pretreatment and assessed for rotarod performance, object recognition memory, rectal temperature, and ICSS thresholds. Toluene dose-dependently induced motor incoordination, recognition memory impairment, and hypothermia and lowered ICSS thresholds. Sarcosine pretreatment reversed toluene-induced changes in rotarod performance, novel object recognition, and rectal temperature but not ICSS thresholds. These findings suggest that the sarcosine-induced potentiation of NMDA receptors may reverse motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not the enhancement of brain stimulation reward function associated with toluene exposure. Sarcosine may be a promising compound to prevent acute toluene intoxications by occupational or intentional exposure. -- Highlights: ► Toluene induces impairments in Rotarod test and novel object recognition test. ► Toluene lowers rectal temperature and ICSS thresholds in mice. ► Sarcosine reverses toluene-induced changes in motor, memory and body temperature. ► Sarcosine pretreatment does not affect toluene

  12. Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala enhances object recognition memory and induces chromatin remodeling in the insular cortex

    PubMed Central

    Beldjoud, Hassiba; Barsegyan, Areg; Roozendaal, Benno

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that arousal-induced memory enhancement requires noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) and modulatory influences on information storage processes in its many target regions. While this concept is well accepted, the molecular basis of such BLA effects on neural plasticity changes within other brain regions remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated whether noradrenergic activation of the BLA after object recognition training induces chromatin remodeling through histone post-translational modifications in the insular cortex (IC), a brain region that is importantly involved in object recognition memory. Male Sprague—Dawley rats were trained on an object recognition task, followed immediately by bilateral microinfusions of norepinephrine (1.0 μg) or saline administered into the BLA. Saline-treated control rats exhibited poor 24-h retention, whereas norepinephrine treatment induced robust 24-h object recognition memory. Most importantly, this memory-enhancing dose of norepinephrine induced a global reduction in the acetylation levels of histone H3 at lysine 14, H2B and H4 in the IC 1 h later, whereas it had no effect on the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 or tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 27. Norepinephrine administered into the BLA of non-trained control rats did not induce any changes in the histone marks investigated in this study. These findings indicate that noradrenergic activation of the BLA induces training-specific effects on chromatin remodeling mechanisms, and presumably gene transcription, in its target regions, which may contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of stress and emotional arousal effects on memory consolidation. PMID:25972794

  13. Cold-pressor stress after learning enhances familiarity-based recognition memory in men.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Andrew M; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2013-11-01

    Stress that is experienced after items have been encoded into memory can protect memories from the effects of forgetting. However, very little is known about how stress impacts recognition memory. The current study investigated how an aversive laboratory stressor (i.e., the cold-pressor test) that occurs after information has been encoded into memory affects subsequent recognition memory in an immediate and a delayed test (i.e., 2-h and 3-month retention interval). Recognition was assessed for negative and neutral photographs using a hybrid remember/know confidence procedure in order to characterize overall performance and to separate recollection- and familiarity-based responses. The results indicated that relative to a non-stress control condition, post-encoding stress significantly improved familiarity but not recollection-based recognition memory or free recall. The beneficial effects of stress were observed in males for negative and neutral materials at both immediate and long-term delays, but were not significant in females. The results indicate that aversive stress can have long-lasting beneficial effects on the memory strength of information encountered prior to the stressful event. PMID:23823181

  14. An evaluation of nonclinical dissociation utilizing a virtual environment shows enhanced working memory and attention.

    PubMed

    Saidel-Goley, Isaac N; Albiero, Erin E; Flannery, Kathleen A

    2012-02-01

    Dissociation is a mental process resulting in the disruption of memory, perception, and sometimes identity. At a nonclinical level, only mild dissociative experiences occur. The nature of nonclinical dissociation is disputed in the literature, with some asserting that it is a beneficial information processing style and others positing that it is a psychopathological phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to further the understanding of nonclinical dissociation with respect to memory and attention, by including a more ecologically valid virtual reality (VR) memory task along with standard neuropsychological tasks. Forty-five undergraduate students from a small liberal arts college in the northeast participated for course credit. The participants completed a battery of tasks including two standard memory tasks, a standard attention task, and an experimental VR memory task; the VR task included immersion in a virtual apartment, followed by incidental object-location recall for objects in the virtual apartment. Support for the theoretical model portraying nonclinical dissociation as a beneficial information processing style was found in this study. Dissociation scores were positively correlated with working memory scores and attentional processing scores on the standard neuropsychological tasks. In terms of the VR task, dissociation scores were positively correlated with more false positive memories that could be the result of a tendency of nonclinical highly dissociative individuals to create more elaborative schemas. This study also demonstrates that VR paradigms add to the prediction of cognitive functioning in testing protocols using standard neuropsychological tests, while simultaneously increasing ecological validity. PMID:22149026

  15. Cold-Pressor Stress After Learning Enhances Familiarity-Based Recognition Memory in Men

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Andrew M.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Stress that is experienced after items have been encoded into memory can protect memories from the effects of forgetting. However, very little is known about how stress impacts recognition memory. The current study investigated how an aversive laboratory stressor (i.e., the cold-pressor test) that occurs after information has been encoded into memory affects subsequent recognition memory in an immediate and a delayed test (i.e., 2-hour and 3-month retention interval). Recognition was assessed for negative and neutral photographs using a hybrid remember/know confidence procedure in order to characterize overall performance and to separate recollection- and familiarity-based responses. The results indicated that relative to a non-stress control condition, post-encoding stress significantly improved familiarity but not recollection-based recognition memory or free recall. The beneficial effects of stress were observed in males for negative and neutral materials at both immediate and long-term delays, but were not significant in females. The results indicate that aversive stress can have long-lasting beneficial effects on the memory strength of information encountered prior to the stressful event. PMID:23823181

  16. Clemastine Enhances Myelination in the Prefrontal Cortex and Rescues Behavioral Changes in Socially Isolated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dupree, Jeffrey L.; Gacias, Mar; Frawley, Rebecca; Sikder, Tamjeed; Naik, Payal; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Altered myelin structure and oligodendrocyte function have been shown to correlate with cognitive and motor dysfunction and deficits in social behavior. We and others have previously demonstrated that social isolation in mice induced behavioral, transcriptional, and ultrastructural changes in oligodendrocytes of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, whether enhancing myelination and oligodendrocyte differentiation could be beneficial in reversing such changes remains unexplored. To test this hypothesis, we orally administered clemastine, an antimuscarinic compound that has been shown to enhance oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination in vitro, for 2 weeks in adult mice following social isolation. Clemastine successfully reversed social avoidance behavior in mice undergoing prolonged social isolation. Impaired myelination was rescued by oral clemastine treatment, and was associated with enhanced oligodendrocyte progenitor differentiation and epigenetic changes. Clemastine induced higher levels of repressive histone methylation (H3K9me3), a marker for heterochromatin, in oligodendrocytes, but not neurons, of the PFC. This was consistent with the capability of clemastine in elevating H3K9 histone methyltransferases activity in cultured primary mouse oligodendrocytes, an effect that could be antagonized by cotreatment with muscarine. Our data suggest that promoting adult myelination is a potential strategy for reversing depressive-like social behavior. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Oligodendrocyte development and myelination are highly dynamic processes influenced by experience and neuronal activity. However, whether enhancing myelination and oligodendrocyte differentiation is beneficial to treat depressive-like behavior has been unexplored. Mice undergoing prolonged social isolation display impaired myelination in the prefrontal cortex. Clemastine, a Food and Drug Administration-approved antimuscarinic compound that has been shown to enhance myelination under

  17. Clemastine Enhances Myelination in the Prefrontal Cortex and Rescues Behavioral Changes in Socially Isolated Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Dupree, Jeffrey L; Gacias, Mar; Frawley, Rebecca; Sikder, Tamjeed; Naik, Payal; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2016-01-20

    Altered myelin structure and oligodendrocyte function have been shown to correlate with cognitive and motor dysfunction and deficits in social behavior. We and others have previously demonstrated that social isolation in mice induced behavioral, transcriptional, and ultrastructural changes in oligodendrocytes of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, whether enhancing myelination and oligodendrocyte differentiation could be beneficial in reversing such changes remains unexplored. To test this hypothesis, we orally administered clemastine, an antimuscarinic compound that has been shown to enhance oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination in vitro, for 2 weeks in adult mice following social isolation. Clemastine successfully reversed social avoidance behavior in mice undergoing prolonged social isolation. Impaired myelination was rescued by oral clemastine treatment, and was associated with enhanced oligodendrocyte progenitor differentiation and epigenetic changes. Clemastine induced higher levels of repressive histone methylation (H3K9me3), a marker for heterochromatin, in oligodendrocytes, but not neurons, of the PFC. This was consistent with the capability of clemastine in elevating H3K9 histone methyltransferases activity in cultured primary mouse oligodendrocytes, an effect that could be antagonized by cotreatment with muscarine. Our data suggest that promoting adult myelination is a potential strategy for reversing depressive-like social behavior. Significance statement: Oligodendrocyte development and myelination are highly dynamic processes influenced by experience and neuronal activity. However, whether enhancing myelination and oligodendrocyte differentiation is beneficial to treat depressive-like behavior has been unexplored. Mice undergoing prolonged social isolation display impaired myelination in the prefrontal cortex. Clemastine, a Food and Drug Administration-approved antimuscarinic compound that has been shown to enhance myelination under

  18. Photo-enhanced polymer memory device based on polyimide containing spiropyran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seok, Woong Chul; Son, Seok Ho; An, Tae Kyu; Kim, Se Hyun; Lee, Seung Woo

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of a new polyimide (PI) containing a spiropyran moiety in the side chain and its applications to the switchable polymer memory before and after UV exposure. UV exposure allows memory using spiropyran-based PI as an active layer with a higher current and lower switching-ON voltage compared to the unexposed device due to the structural changes in the spiropyran moiety after UV exposure. In addition, this study examined the effects of UV exposure on the performance of the memory containing spiropyran-based PI using the UV-Vis absorption spectra and space-charge limited conduction (SCLC) model. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Impairments in Episodic-Autobiographical Memory and Emotional and Social Information Processing in CADASIL during Mid-Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Staniloiu, Angelica; Woermann, Friedrich G; Markowitsch, Hans J

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) - is the most common genetic source of vascular dementia in adults, being caused by a mutation in NOTCH3 gene. Spontaneous de novo mutations may occur, but their frequency is largely unknown. Ischemic strokes and cognitive impairments are the most frequent manifestations, but seizures affect up to 10% of the patients. Herein, we describe a 47-year-old male scholar with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of CADASIL (Arg133Cys mutation in the NOTCH3 gene) and a seemingly negative family history of CADASIL illness, who was investigated with a comprehensive neuropsychological testing battery and neuroimaging methods. The patient demonstrated on one hand severe and accelerated deteriorations in multiple cognitive domains such as concentration, long-term memory (including the episodic-autobiographical memory domain), problem solving, cognitive flexibility and planning, affect recognition, discrimination and matching, and social cognition (theory of mind). Some of these impairments were even captured by abbreviated instruments for investigating suspicion of dementia. On the other hand the patient still possessed high crystallized (verbal) intelligence and a capacity to put forth a façade of well-preserved intellectual functioning. Although no definite conclusions can be drawn from a single case study, our findings point to the presence of additional cognitive changes in CADASIL in middle adulthood, in particular to impairments in the episodic-autobiographical memory domain and social information processing (e.g., social cognition). Whether these identified impairments are related to the patient's specific phenotype or to an ascertainment bias (e.g., a paucity of studies investigating these cognitive functions) requires elucidation by larger scale research. PMID:25009481

  20. Impairments in Episodic-Autobiographical Memory and Emotional and Social Information Processing in CADASIL during Mid-Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Staniloiu, Angelica; Woermann, Friedrich G.; Markowitsch, Hans J.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) – is the most common genetic source of vascular dementia in adults, being caused by a mutation in NOTCH3 gene. Spontaneous de novo mutations may occur, but their frequency is largely unknown. Ischemic strokes and cognitive impairments are the most frequent manifestations, but seizures affect up to 10% of the patients. Herein, we describe a 47-year-old male scholar with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of CADASIL (Arg133Cys mutation in the NOTCH3 gene) and a seemingly negative family history of CADASIL illness, who was investigated with a comprehensive neuropsychological testing battery and neuroimaging methods. The patient demonstrated on one hand severe and accelerated deteriorations in multiple cognitive domains such as concentration, long-term memory (including the episodic-autobiographical memory domain), problem solving, cognitive flexibility and planning, affect recognition, discrimination and matching, and social cognition (theory of mind). Some of these impairments were even captured by abbreviated instruments for investigating suspicion of dementia. On the other hand the patient still possessed high crystallized (verbal) intelligence and a capacity to put forth a façade of well-preserved intellectual functioning. Although no definite conclusions can be drawn from a single case study, our findings point to the presence of additional cognitive changes in CADASIL in middle adulthood, in particular to impairments in the episodic-autobiographical memory domain and social information processing (e.g., social cognition). Whether these identified impairments are related to the patient’s specific phenotype or to an ascertainment bias (e.g., a paucity of studies investigating these cognitive functions) requires elucidation by larger scale research. PMID:25009481

  1. Enhancement of CD8+ T-cell memory by removal of a vaccinia virus nuclear factor-κB inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hongwei; Ferguson, Brian J; de Motes, Carlos Maluquer; Sumner, Rebecca P; Harman, Laura E R; Smith, Geoffrey L

    2015-01-01

    Factors influencing T-cell responses are important for vaccine development but are incompletely understood. Here, vaccinia virus (VACV) protein N1 is shown to impair the development of both effector and memory CD8+ T cells and this correlates with its inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. Infection with VACVs that either have the N1L gene deleted (vΔN1) or contain a I6E mutation (vN1.I6E) that abrogates its inhibition of NF-κB resulted in increased central and memory CD8+ T-cell populations, increased CD8+ T-cell cytotoxicity and lower virus titres after challenge. Furthermore, CD8+ memory T-cell function was increased following infection with vN1.I6E, with more interferon-γ production and greater protection against VACV infection following passive transfer to naive mice, compared with CD8+ T cells from mice infected with wild-type virus (vN1.WT). This demonstrates the importance of NF-κB activation within infected cells for long-term CD8+ T-cell memory and vaccine efficacy. Further, it provides a rationale for deleting N1 from VACV vectors to enhance CD8+ T-cell immunogenicity, while simultaneously reducing virulence to improve vaccine safety. PMID:25382035

  2. Hierarchically built gold nanoparticle supercluster arrays as charge storage centers for enhancing the performance of flash memory devices.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Vignesh; Kusuma, Damar Yoga; Lee, Pooi See; Yap, Fung Ling; Srinivasan, M P; Krishnamoorthy, Sivashankar

    2015-01-14

    Flash memory devices with high-performance levels exhibiting high charge storage capacity, good charge retention, and high write/erase speeds with lower operating voltages are widely in demand. In this direction, we demonstrate hierarchical self-assembly of gold nanoparticles based on block copolymer templates as a promising route to engineer nanoparticle assemblies with high nanoparticle densities for application in nanocrystal flash memories. The hierarchical self-assembly process allows systematic multiplication of nanoparticle densities with minimal increase in footprint, thereby increasing the charge storage density without an increase in operating voltage. The protocol involves creation of a parent template composed of gold nanoclusters that guides the self-assembly of diblock copolymer reverse micelles which in turn directs electrostatic assembly of gold nanoparticles resulting in a three-level hierarchical system. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of the hierarchical nanopatterns with a metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor configuration reveal promising enhancement in memory window as compared to nonhierarchical nanoparticle controls. Capacitance-time (C-t) measurements show that over half the stored charges were retained when extrapolated to 10 years. The fabrication route can be readily extended to programmed density multiplication of features made of other potential charge storage materials such as platinum, palladium, or hybrid metal/metal oxides for next generation, solution-processable flash memory devices. PMID:25427075

  3. Cognitive-Enhancing Effect of Dianthus superbus var. Longicalycinus on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Weon, Jin Bae; Jung, Youn Sik; Ma, Choong Je

    2016-01-01

    Dianthus superbus (D. superbus) is a traditional crude drug used for the treatment of urethritis, carbuncles and carcinomas. The objective of this study was to confirm the cognitive enhancing effect of D. superbus in memory impairment induced mice and to elucidate the possible potential mechanism. Effect of D. superbus on scopolamine induced memory impairment on mice was evaluated using the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. We also investigated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) expression in scopolamine-induced mice. HPLC-DAD analysis was performed to identify active compounds in D. superbus. The results revealed that D. superbus attenuated the learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine. D. superbus also inhibited AChE levels in the hippocampi of the scopolamine-injected mice. Moreover, D. superbus increased BDNF expression in the hippocampus. Eight compounds were identified using HPLC-DAD analysis. The content of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid was higher than contents of other compounds. These results indicated that D. superbus improved memory functioning accompanied by inhibition of AChE and upregulation of BDNF, suggesting that D. superbus may be a useful therapeutic agent for the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:27133261

  4. Cognitive-Enhancing Effect of Dianthus superbus var. Longicalycinus on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice.

    PubMed

    Weon, Jin Bae; Jung, Youn Sik; Ma, Choong Je

    2016-05-01

    Dianthus superbus (D. superbus) is a traditional crude drug used for the treatment of urethritis, carbuncles and carcinomas. The objective of this study was to confirm the cognitive enhancing effect of D. superbus in memory impairment induced mice and to elucidate the possible potential mechanism. Effect of D. superbus on scopolamine induced memory impairment on mice was evaluated using the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. We also investigated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) expression in scopolamine-induced mice. HPLC-DAD analysis was performed to identify active compounds in D. superbus. The results revealed that D. superbus attenuated the learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine. D. superbus also inhibited AChE levels in the hippocampi of the scopolamine-injected mice. Moreover, D. superbus increased BDNF expression in the hippocampus. Eight compounds were identified using HPLC-DAD analysis. The content of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid was higher than contents of other compounds. These results indicated that D. superbus improved memory functioning accompanied by inhibition of AChE and upregulation of BDNF, suggesting that D. superbus may be a useful therapeutic agent for the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27133261

  5. Long-term moderate elevation of corticosterone facilitates avian food-caching behaviour and enhances spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Pravosudov, Vladimir V

    2003-12-22

    It is widely assumed that chronic stress and corresponding chronic elevations of glucocorticoid levels have deleterious effects on animals' brain functions such as learning and memory. Some animals, however, appear to maintain moderately elevated levels of glucocorticoids over long periods of time under natural energetically demanding conditions, and it is not clear whether such chronic but moderate elevations may be adaptive. I implanted wild-caught food-caching mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli), which rely at least in part on spatial memory to find their caches, with 90-day continuous time-release corticosterone pellets designed to approximately double the baseline corticosterone levels. Corticosterone-implanted birds cached and consumed significantly more food and showed more efficient cache recovery and superior spatial memory performance compared with placebo-implanted birds. Thus, contrary to prevailing assumptions, long-term moderate elevations of corticosterone appear to enhance spatial memory in food-caching mountain chickadees. These results suggest that moderate chronic elevation of corticosterone may serve as an adaptation to unpredictable environments by facilitating feeding and food-caching behaviour and by improving cache-retrieval efficiency in food-caching birds. PMID:14728783

  6. Abnormal social behavior, hyperactivity, impaired remote spatial memory, and increased D1-mediated dopaminergic signaling in neuronal nitric oxide synthase knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Tanda, Koichi; Nishi, Akinori; Matsuo, Naoki; Nakanishi, Kazuo; Yamasaki, Nobuyuki; Sugimoto, Tohru; Toyama, Keiko; Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Background Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is involved in the regulation of a diverse population of intracellular messenger systems in the brain. In humans, abnormal NOS/nitric oxide metabolism is suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of some neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Mice with targeted disruption of the nNOS gene exhibit abnormal behaviors. Here, we subjected nNOS knockout (KO) mice to a battery of behavioral tests to further investigate the role of nNOS in neuropsychiatric functions. We also examined the role of nNOS in dopamine/DARPP-32 signaling in striatal slices from nNOS KO mice and the effects of the administration of a dopamine D1 receptor agonist on behavior in nNOS KO mice. Results nNOS KO mice showed hyperlocomotor activity in a novel environment, increased social interaction in their home cage, decreased depression-related behavior, and impaired spatial memory retention. In striatal slices from nNOS KO mice, the effects of a dopamine D1 receptor agonist, SKF81297, on the phosphorylation of DARPP-32 and AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 at protein kinase A sites were enhanced. Consistent with the biochemical results, intraperitoneal injection of a low dose of SKF81297 significantly decreased prepulse inhibition in nNOS KO mice, but not in wild-type mice. Conclusion These findings indicate that nNOS KO upregulates dopamine D1 receptor signaling, and induces abnormal social behavior, hyperactivity and impaired remote spatial memory. nNOS KO mice may serve as a unique animal model of psychiatric disorders. PMID:19538708

  7. The effect of glucose administration on the emotional enhancement effect in recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Karen R; Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Qualtrough, Kirsty

    2006-08-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that glucose administration improves memory performance. However few studies have addressed the effects of glucose on emotional material that by nature already enjoys a memory advantage. The aim of the present research was therefore to investigate whether the memory facilitation effect associated with glucose would emerge for emotional words. Experiment 1 demonstrated that negative words were better recognized and remembered than positive and neutral words. Experiment 2 further explored these effects under conditions of glucose administration and an aspartame control. The results revealed that both the aspartame and glucose groups replicated the results from Experiment 1. The present research therefore demonstrated that the glucose facilitation effect did not emerge for material that already benefits from a memory advantage. These results also raise the question of whether the dose response relationship previously associated with glucose administration is applicable when the information being processed is of an emotional nature. PMID:16713059

  8. Declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Wim J; Blokland, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Declarative Memory consists of memory for events (episodic memory) and facts (semantic memory). Methods to test declarative memory are key in investigating effects of potential cognition-enhancing substances--medicinal drugs or nutrients. A number of cognitive performance tests assessing declarative episodic memory tapping verbal learning, logical memory, pattern recognition memory, and paired associates learning are described. These tests have been used as outcome variables in 34 studies in humans that have been described in the literature in the past 10 years. Also, the use of episodic tests in animal research is discussed also in relation to the drug effects in these tasks. The results show that nutritional supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been investigated most abundantly and, in a number of cases, but not all, show indications of positive effects on declarative memory, more so in elderly than in young subjects. Studies investigating effects of registered anti-Alzheimer drugs, cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment, show positive and negative effects on declarative memory. Studies mainly carried out in healthy volunteers investigating the effects of acute dopamine stimulation indicate enhanced memory consolidation as manifested specifically by better delayed recall, especially at time points long after learning and more so when drug is administered after learning and if word lists are longer. The animal studies reveal a different picture with respect to the effects of different drugs on memory performance. This suggests that at least for episodic memory tasks, the translational value is rather poor. For the human studies, detailed parameters of the compositions of word lists for declarative memory tests are discussed and it is concluded that tailored adaptations of tests to fit the hypothesis under study, rather than "off-the-shelf" use of existing tests, are recommended. PMID:25977084

  9. Social Mimicry Enhances Mu-Suppression During Action Observation.

    PubMed

    Hogeveen, Jeremy; Chartrand, Tanya L; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2015-08-01

    During social interactions, there is a tendency for people to mimic the gestures and mannerisms of others, which increases liking and rapport. Psychologists have extensively studied the antecedents and consequences of mimicry at the social level, but the neural basis of this behavior remains unclear. Many researchers have speculated that mimicry is related to activity in the human mirror system (HMS), a network of parietofrontal regions that are involved in both action execution and observation. However, activity of the HMS during reciprocal social interactions involving mimicry has not been demonstrated. Here, we took an electroencephalographic (EEG) index of mirror activity-mu-suppression during action observation-in a pretest/post-test design with 1 of 3 intervening treatments: 1) social interaction in which the participant was mimicked, 2) social interaction without mimicry, or 3) an innocuous computer task, not involving another human agent. The change in mu-suppression from pre- to post-test varied as a function of the intervening treatment, with participants who had been mimicked showing an increase in mu-suppression during the post-treatment action observation session. We propose that this specific modulation of HMS activity as a function of mimicry constitutes the first direct evidence for mirror system involvement in real social mimicry. PMID:24532320

  10. Training Mothers in Elaborative Reminiscing Enhances Children's Autobiographical Memory and Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Elaine; Newcombe, Rhiannon

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal intervention assessed children's memory at 2-1/2 years (short-term posttest; N = 115) and their memory and narrative at 3-1/2 years (long-term posttest; N = 100) as a function of maternal training in elaborative reminiscing when children were 1-1/2 to 2-1/2 years. At both posttests, trained mothers were more elaborative in their…

  11. Enhancing memory performance with rTMS in healthy subjects and individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment: the role of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Turriziani, Patrizia; Smirni, Daniela; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Mangano, Giuseppa R.; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A debated question in the literature is the degree of anatomical and functional lateralization of the executive control processes sub-served by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during recognition memory retrieval. We investigated if transient inhibition and excitation of the left and right DLPFC at retrieval by means of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) modulate recognition memory performance in 100 healthy controls (HCs) and in eight patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Recognition memory tasks of faces, buildings, and words were used in different experiments. rTMS-inhibition of the right DLPFC enhanced recognition memory in both HCs and MCIs. rTMS-excitation of the same region in HCs deteriorated memory performance. Inhibition of the right DLPFC could modulate the excitability of a network of brain regions, in the ipsilateral as well as in the contralateral hemisphere, enhancing function in HCs or restoring an adaptive equilibrium in MCI. PMID:22514525

  12. Enhancing long-term memory with stimulation tunes visual attention in one trial

    PubMed Central

    Reinhart, Robert M. G.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have long proposed that memory representations control the mechanisms of attention that focus processing on the task-relevant objects in our visual field. Modern theories specifically propose that we rely on working memory to store the object representations that provide top-down control over attentional selection. Here, we show that the tuning of perceptual attention can be sharply accelerated after 20 min of noninvasive brain stimulation over medial-frontal cortex. Contrary to prevailing theories of attention, these improvements did not appear to be caused by changes in the nature of the working memory representations of the search targets. Instead, improvements in attentional tuning were accompanied by changes in an electrophysiological signal hypothesized to index long-term memory. We found that this pattern of effects was reliably observed when we stimulated medial-frontal cortex, but when we stimulated posterior parietal cortex, we found that stimulation directly affected the perceptual processing of the search array elements, not the memory representations providing top-down control. Our findings appear to challenge dominant theories of attention by demonstrating that changes in the storage of target representations in long-term memory may underlie rapid changes in the efficiency with which humans can find targets in arrays of objects. PMID:25548192

  13. Enhancing long-term memory with stimulation tunes visual attention in one trial.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, Robert M G; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2015-01-13

    Scientists have long proposed that memory representations control the mechanisms of attention that focus processing on the task-relevant objects in our visual field. Modern theories specifically propose that we rely on working memory to store the object representations that provide top-down control over attentional selection. Here, we show that the tuning of perceptual attention can be sharply accelerated after 20 min of noninvasive brain stimulation over medial-frontal cortex. Contrary to prevailing theories of attention, these improvements did not appear to be caused by changes in the nature of the working memory representations of the search targets. Instead, improvements in attentional tuning were accompanied by changes in an electrophysiological signal hypothesized to index long-term memory. We found that this pattern of effects was reliably observed when we stimulated medial-frontal cortex, but when we stimulated posterior parietal cortex, we found that stimulation directly affected the perceptual processing of the search array elements, not the memory representations providing top-down control. Our findings appear to challenge dominant theories of attention by demonstrating that changes in the storage of target representations in long-term memory may underlie rapid changes in the efficiency with which humans can find targets in arrays of objects. PMID:25548192

  14. Enhanced Memory for both Threat and Neutral Information Under Conditions of Intergroup Threat

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong; Zhao, Yufang; Ybarra, Oscar; Stephan, Walter G.; Yang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of intergroup threat on cognitive outcomes such as memory. Different theoretical perspectives can inform how intergroup threat should affect memory for threat-relevant and neutral information, such as the mood-congruency approach, Yerkes–Dodson law, Easterbrook’s theory, and also evolutionary perspectives. To test among these, we conducted two experiments to examine how exposure to intergroup threats affected memory compared to control conditions. In study 1, we manipulated symbolic threat and examined participants’ memory for threat and neutral words. In study 2, memory performance was assessed following the induction of realistic threat. Across the studies, in the control condition participants showed better memory for threat-related than neutral information. However, participants under threat remembered neutral information as well as threat-related information. In addition, participants in the threat condition remembered threat-related information as well as participants in the control condition. The findings are discussed in terms of automatic vigilance processes but also the effects of threat on arousal and its effect on information processing. This latter perspective, suggests paradoxically, that under some circumstances involving an outgroup threat, non-threatening information about outgroups can be extensively processed. PMID:26635669

  15. Self-enhancing effect of social feedback on cognitive task performance.

    PubMed

    Waldie, K E; Mosley, J L

    1996-05-01

    The influence of feedback on the cognitive task performance of individuals with high and low self-esteem was assessed (Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Form A). A median split technique segregated each group (30 adults with mental retardation and 30 MA-matched controls) into high and low self-esteem individuals. All subjects performed two memory tasks (easy, difficult) but were randomly assigned to only one of three feedback conditions (social, computer, and no feedback). Findings indicated that social feedback can alter the normally positive relation between self-esteem and cognitive task performance. PMID:8735575

  16. Why Robots Should Be Social: Enhancing Machine Learning through Social Human-Robot Interaction

    PubMed Central

    de Greeff, Joachim; Belpaeme, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Social learning is a powerful method for cultural propagation of knowledge and skills relying on a complex interplay of learning strategies, social ecology and the human propensity for both learning and tutoring. Social learning has the potential to be an equally potent learning strategy for artificial systems and robots in specific. However, given the complexity and unstructured nature of social learning, implementing social machine learning proves to be a challenging problem. We study one particular aspect of social machine learning: that of offering social cues during the learning interaction. Specifically, we study whether people are sensitive to social cues offered by a learning robot, in a similar way to children’s social bids for tutoring. We use a child-like social robot and a task in which the robot has to learn the meaning of words. For this a simple turn-based interaction is used, based on language games. Two conditions are tested: one in which the robot uses social means to invite a human teacher to provide information based on what the robot requires to fill gaps in its knowledge (i.e. expression of a learning preference); the other in which the robot does not provide social cues to communicate a learning preference. We observe that conveying a learning preference through the use of social cues results in better and faster learning by the robot. People also seem to form a “mental model” of the robot, tailoring the tutoring to the robot’s performance as opposed to using simply random teaching. In addition, the social learning shows a clear gender effect with female participants being responsive to the robot’s bids, while male teachers appear to be less receptive. This work shows how additional social cues in social machine learning can result in people offering better quality learning input to artificial systems, resulting in improved learning performance. PMID:26422143

  17. Why Robots Should Be Social: Enhancing Machine Learning through Social Human-Robot Interaction.

    PubMed

    de Greeff, Joachim; Belpaeme, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Social learning is a powerful method for cultural propagation of knowledge and skills relying on a complex interplay of learning strategies, social ecology and the human propensity for both learning and tutoring. Social learning has the potential to be an equally potent learning strategy for artificial systems and robots in specific. However, given the complexity and unstructured nature of social learning, implementing social machine learning proves to be a challenging problem. We study one particular aspect of social machine learning: that of offering social cues during the learning interaction. Specifically, we study whether people are sensitive to social cues offered by a learning robot, in a similar way to children's social bids for tutoring. We use a child-like social robot and a task in which the robot has to learn the meaning of words. For this a simple turn-based interaction is used, based on language games. Two conditions are tested: one in which the robot uses social means to invite a human teacher to provide information based on what the robot requires to fill gaps in its knowledge (i.e. expression of a learning preference); the other in which the robot does not provide social cues to communicate a learning preference. We observe that conveying a learning preference through the use of social cues results in better and faster learning by the robot. People also seem to form a "mental model" of the robot, tailoring the tutoring to the robot's performance as opposed to using simply random teaching. In addition, the social learning shows a clear gender effect with female participants being responsive to the robot's bids, while male teachers appear to be less receptive. This work shows how additional social cues in social machine learning can result in people offering better quality learning input to artificial systems, resulting in improved learning performance. PMID:26422143

  18. Neuroprotective and memory enhancing effects of auraptene in a rat model of vascular dementia: Experimental study and histopathological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarabadi, Mustafa; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Amoueian, Sakineh; Mehri, Soghra; Motamedshariaty, Vahideh Sadat; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Vascular dementia and Alzheimer disease are most common type of dementia. These diseases have been associated with cognitive decline and affected personal behavioral activities. Moreover, the pattern of cerebral blood flow in mild cognitive disorder has appeared as a predictive indication for the development into Alzheimer's disease. Permanent, bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (2VO) is a standard animal model to study vascular dementia and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. In present study neuroprotective and memory enhancing effects of auraptene (AUR), a citrus coumarin, were studied in 2VO rats. Different doses (25, 8 & 4mg/kg) of AUR were administered orally. The spatial memory performance was tested with Morris water maze after 2VO induction. Biochemical experiments and histopathological evaluations were also applied to investigate the neuroprotective effect of AUR in brain tissue. In comparison with 2VO group, AUR could significantly decrease the scape latency time in treated rats. Also AUR increased the percentage of time spent and traveled pathway in target quadrant on final trial test day. All behavioral results were confirmed by biochemical and histopathological data. Biochemical data indicated that AUR could decrease malondialdehyde (MDA), as lipid peroxidation indicator, and increase glutathione (GSH) content in cortex and hippocampus tissues. Histopathological data showed that AUR could protect cerebrocortical and hippocampus neurons against ischemia. This study demonstrated the memory enhancing effect and neuroprotective activity of AUR after induction of brain ischemia in a rat model of vascular dementia. PMID:27130820

  19. Enhancing Student Engagement through Practice Experience in Social Work Education: The Social Work Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Alan

    2012-01-01

    It can sometimes be difficult to engage students in "real life experiences" within the classroom. In one Bachelor of Social Work program, the development of a Social Work Studio (the Studio) has provided students with opportunities to engage in simulated social work practice in a safe and supportive environment. This article reports on a small…

  20. Strategies to Enhance the Social Identities and Social Networks of Adolescent Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambo, Debby M.

    2010-01-01

    For youth with disabilities, it is good to belong to multiple groups and have multiple identities. Social groups are important to people because they are social creatures. Unless a child has a severe social disability, connecting with others is important, especially during adolescence. Adolescence is the time when young people define themselves by…

  1. Enhancing Generalization of Social Skills: Making Social Skills Curricula Effective after the Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh Kent; MacKay, Leslie D.

    2008-01-01

    Sometimes educators are puzzled by how students can demonstrate a social skill perfectly during a practice session in a social skills curriculum but fail to use the same skill in real-life situations. Students with a lack of social skills are more likely to experience teacher and peer rejection, and are more at risk for negative life outcomes,…

  2. Modifying Memory for a Museum Tour in Older Adults: Reactivation-Related Updating that Enhances and Distorts Memory is Reduced in Aging

    PubMed Central

    St Jacques, Peggy L.; Montgomery, Daniel; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Memory reactivation, the activation of a latent memory trace when we are reminded of a past experience, strengthens memory but can also contribute to distortions if new information present during reactivation is integrated with existing memory. In a previous study in young adults we found that the quality of memory reactivation, manipulated using the principle of encoding specificity and indexed by recollection ratings, modulated subsequent true and false memories for events experienced during a museum tour. Here, we examined age-related changes in the quality of memory reactivation on subsequent memory. Young and older adults reactivated memories for museum stops immediately followed by the presentation of a novel lure photo from an alternate tour version (i.e., reactivation plus new information). There was an increase in subsequent true memories for reactivated targets and for subsequent false memories for lures that followed reactivated targets, when compared to baseline target and lure photos. However, the influence of reactivation on subsequent memories was reduced in older adults. These data reveal that aging alters reactivation-related updating processes that allow memories to be strengthened and updated with new information-consequently reducing memory distortions in older compared to young adults. PMID:24993055

  3. Enhanced training protects memory against amnesia produced by concurrent inactivation of amygdala and striatum, amygdala and substantia nigra, or striatum and substantia nigra

    PubMed Central

    Salado-Castillo, Rigoberto; Sánchez-Alavéz, Manuel; Quirarte, Gina L.; Martínez García, María Isabel; Prado-Alcalá, Roberto A.

    2011-01-01

    Memory is markedly impaired when normal activity of any of a number of cerebral structures is disturbed after a learning experience. A growing body of evidence indicates, however, that such interference with neuronal function becomes negligible when the learning experience is significantly enhanced. We now report on the effects of enhanced training on retention after temporary inactivation of cerebral nuclei known to be involved in memory, namely the substantia nigra (SN), striatum (STR), and amygdala (AMY). When training was conducted with a relatively low intensity of footshock (1.0 mA), post-training infusion of lidocaine into the SN, STR, or AMY produced a marked memory deficit. Increasing the aversive stimulation to 2.0 mA protected memory from the amnesic effect of intranigral lidocaine, but there was still a deficit after its infusion into the STR and AMY. Administration of lidocaine into each of these nuclei, in the groups that had been trained with 3.0 mA, was completely ineffective in producing alterations in memory consolidation. Simultaneous infusion of lidocaine into STR + SN, AMY + SN, or AMY + STR was also ineffective in altering memory formation when the highest footshock intensity was used for training. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that an enhanced learning experience guards against memory deficits after simultaneous temporary interruption of neural activity of brain nuclei heretofore thought to be necessary for memory formation. These findings support the proposition that brain structures involved in memory processing are functionally connected in series during memory consolidation and that, after an enhanced learning experience, these structures become functionally connected in parallel. PMID:22203796

  4. Childhood Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Kathy Everts

    1989-01-01

    Provides numerous ideas for helping students write about special memories in the following categories: growing up--future dreams; authors and illustrators; family history; special places; and special memories. Describes how to write a "bio poem," and includes a bibliography of children's books that enhance and enrich student learning and writing.…

  5. Citalopram attenuates tau hyperphosphorylation and spatial memory deficit induced by social isolation rearing in middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qing-Guo; Gong, Wei-Gang; Wang, Yan-Juan; Zhou, Qi-Da; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2015-05-01

    Social isolation (SI) is considered as a chronic stress. Here, middle-aged rats (8 months) were group or isolation reared for 6 weeks. Following the initial two-week period of rearing, citalopram (10 mg/kg i.p.) was administered for 28 days. Changes in recognition memory, depression and anxiety-like behavior, and phosphorylated tau were investigated. We found that SI did not lead to obvious depression/anxiety-like behavior in middle-aged rats. Memory deficits and increased tau hyperphosphorylation at Tau-1, Ser396 episodes could be almost reversed by citalopram. The level of Ser9-phosphorylated GSK-3β (inactive form) was significantly decreased in the SI group which also could be almost reversed by citalopram, suggesting that the citalopram could prevent GSK-3β from SI-induced overactivation. The melatonin level was decreased in SI group compared with group housed (GH) group, and citalopram could partly restore the level of melatonin. We also found that citalopram could increase MT1 and MT2 in mRNA level. Our results demonstrate that citalopram increases the level of melatonin which negatively regulates GSK-3β and attenuates tau hyperphosphorylation and spatial memory deficit induced by SI in middle-aged rats. Suggesting that SI might constitute a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and citalopram may represent a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD. PMID:25476250

  6. Quantitative Understanding to Enhance Social Science Teaching. Project QUESST: Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Resources Center, Inc., Boulder, CO.

    This technical project report provides the National Science Foundation with information regarding the substantive achievements of the Social Science Education Consortium's project QUESST (Quantitative Understanding To Enhance Social Science Teaching). The report begins with a discussion of materials development and project publicity. Thirty-three…

  7. Using Current Events to Enhance Learning: A Social Work Curricular Case Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grise-Owens, Erlene; Cambron, Shannon; Valade, Rita

    2010-01-01

    Effective social work education that promotes social justice requires expanded curricular models and creative pedagogical approaches. This article presents a curricular case study demonstrating the use of current events to enhance both implicit and explicit curricula. How the cultural crisis of Hurricane Katrina was used to engender transformative…

  8. Developing Social Work Professional Judgment Skills: Enhancing Learning in Practice by Researching Learning in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawles, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this article are twofold: to discuss the value of practice-based research as a basis for enhancing learning and teaching in social work and, as an illustration of this, to present the findings of a preliminary qualitative research study into social work students' development of professional judgment skills. The research was conducted…

  9. The Effects of Assertiveness Training on Enhancing the Social Skills of Adolescents with Visual Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-il

    2003-01-01

    A study of the effects of assertiveness training to enhance the social/assertiveness skills of 36 adolescents with visual impairments found that parents, the students, teachers, and observers judged the adolescents' social skills differently. However, the training did have some specific effect on increasing assertiveness. (Contains references.)…

  10. Using a Cohort Model for School Counselor Preparation to Enhance Commitment to Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paisley, Pamela O.; Bailey, Deryl F.; Hayes, Richard L.; McMahon, H. George; Grimmett, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a cohort model of school counselor preparation designed to enhance graduate student commitment to social justice. Foundational principles of group work are used as the vehicle for understanding self in context and for integrating the tenets associated with social justice advocacy. Key components related to program mission,…

  11. Development of a Learning Model for Enhancing Social Skills on Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traisorn, Rattanaporn; Soonthornrojana, Wimonrat; Chano, Jiraporn

    2015-01-01

    The goals of this study were: 1) to study the situation, problems and needs for a learning model to enhance the social skills of sixth grade students; 2) to develop a learning model that would address those needs; 3) to study the effectiveness of that learning model; 4) to compare performance on pretests and posttests of social skills; and 5) to…

  12. A Review of Information and Communication Technology Enhanced Social Work Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Chitat; Holosko, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Information and communications technology (ICT) has impacted almost all human service disciplines and currently is evolving in social work. This study provides a systematic review of ICT-enhanced social work interventions, with particular reference to their intervention fidelity (IF), validity, and the role of ICT in the helping…

  13. The formation of novel social category conjunctions in working memory: A possible role for the episodic buffer?

    PubMed

    Hutter, Russell R C; Allen, Richard J; Wood, Chantelle

    2016-01-01

    Recent research (e.g., Hutter, Crisp, Humphreys, Waters, & Moffit; Siebler) has confirmed that combining novel social categories involves two stages (e.g., Hampton; Hastie, Schroeder, & Weber). Furthermore, it is also evident that following stage 1 (constituent additivity), the second stage in these models involves cognitively effortful complex reasoning. However, while current theory and research has addressed how category conjunctions are initially represented to some degree, it is not clear precisely where we first combine or bind existing social constituent categories. For example, how and where do we compose and temporarily store a coherent representation of an individual who shares membership of "female" and "blacksmith" categories? In this article, we consider how the revised multi-component model of working memory (Baddeley) can assist in resolving the representational limitations in the extant two-stage theoretical models. This is a new approach to understanding how novel conjunctions form new bound "composite" representations. PMID:25782096

  14. Emotional engagements predict and enhance social cognition in young chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Bard, Kim A; Bakeman, Roger; Boysen, Sarah T; Leavens, David A

    2014-01-01

    Social cognition in infancy is evident in coordinated triadic engagements, that is, infants attending jointly with social partners and objects. Current evolutionary theories of primate social cognition tend to highlight species differences in cognition based on human-unique cooperative motives. We consider a developmental model in which engagement experiences produce differential outcomes. We conducted a 10-year-long study in which two groups of laboratory-raised chimpanzee infants were given quantifiably different engagement experiences. Joint attention, cooperativeness, affect, and different levels of cognition were measured in 5- to 12-month-old chimpanzees, and compared to outcomes derived from a normative human database. We found that joint attention skills significantly improved across development for all infants, but by 12 months, the humans significantly surpassed the chimpanzees. We found that cooperativeness was stable in the humans, but by 12 months, the chimpanzee group given enriched engagement experiences significantly surpassed the humans. Past engagement experiences and concurrent affect were significant unique predictors of both joint attention and cooperativeness in 5- to 12-month-old chimpanzees. When engagement experiences and concurrent affect were statistically controlled, joint attention and cooperation were not associated. We explain differential social cognition outcomes in terms of the significant influences of previous engagement experiences and affect, in addition to cognition. Our study highlights developmental processes that underpin the emergence of social cognition in support of evolutionary continuity. PMID:24410843

  15. Short-term calorie restriction enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis and remote fear memory in a Ghsr-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Hornsby, Amanda K.E.; Redhead, Yushi T.; Rees, Daniel J.; Ratcliff, Michael S.G.; Reichenbach, Alex; Wells, Timothy; Francis, Lewis; Amstalden, Katia; Andrews, Zane B.; Davies, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR) have been described at both organismal and cellular levels in multiple organs. However, our understanding of the causal mediators of such hormesis is poorly understood, particularly in the context of higher brain function. Here, we show that the receptor for the orexigenic hormone acyl-ghrelin, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (Ghsr), is enriched in the neurogenic niche of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Acute elevation of acyl-ghrelin levels by injection or by overnight CR, increased DG levels of the neurogenic transcription factor, Egr-1. Two weeks of CR increased the subsequent number of mature newborn neurons in the DG of adult wild-type but not Ghsr−/− mice. CR wild-type mice also showed improved remote contextual fear memory. Our findings suggest that Ghsr mediates the beneficial effects of CR on enhancing adult hippocampal neurogenesis and memory. PMID:26460782

  16. Suggestibility, social support, and memory for a novel experience in young children.

    PubMed

    Quas, Jodi A; Wallin, Allison R; Papini, Silvia; Lench, Heather; Scullin, Matthew H

    2005-08-01

    This study examined 5- and 6-year-olds' suggestibility and interviewer demeanor as joint predictors of their memory for a novel experience. Session 1 consisted of children taking part in a novel laboratory event. Session 2 took place after approximately a 1-week delay and consisted of children completing both a memory test concerning what happened during the prior event and the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC). During the second session, the interviewer behaved either supportively or nonsupportively. Greater acquiescence on the VSSC was associated with fewer correct responses to misleading questions about the laboratory event in the supportive and nonsupportive conditions and with more errors in response to specific questions in the nonsupportive condition. Results indicate that individual differences in children's suggestibility are related to the accuracy of their memory for separate events, although some of these relations may vary depending on the context in which children are interviewed. PMID:15904929

  17. Suggestibility, social support, and memory for a novel experience in young children

    PubMed Central

    Quas, Jodi A.; Wallin, Allison R.; Papini, Silvia; Lench, Heather; Scullin, Matthew H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined 5- and 6-year-olds' suggestibility and interviewer demeanor as joint predictors of their memory for a novel experience. Session 1 consisted of children taking part in a novel laboratory event. Session 2 took place after approximately a 1-week delay and consisted of children completing both a memory test concerning what happened during the prior event and the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC). During the second session, the interviewer behaved either supportively or nonsupportively. Greater acquiescence on the VSSC was associated with fewer correct responses to misleading questions about the laboratory event in the supportive and nonsupportive conditions and with more errors in response to specific questions in the nonsupportive condition. Results indicate that individual differences in children's suggestibility are related to the accuracy of their memory for separate events, although some of these relations may vary depending on the context in which children are interviewed. PMID:15904929

  18. DL- and PO-phosphatidylcholines as a promising learning and memory enhancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the water maze test, oral administration with 1,2-dilynoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPhtCho)(5 mg/kg) alone or DLPhtCho (5 mg/kg) plus 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPhtCho)(5 mg/kg) significantly shortened the prolonged acquisition latency for rats intraperitoneally injected with scopolamine, with more efficient effect than (POPhtCho)(5 mg/kg) alone, arachidonic acid (AA)(5 mg/kg) alone, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)(5 mg/kg) alone, or 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleil-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine (PLPhtSer)(5 mg/kg) alone. POPhtCho (5 mg/kg) alone or DLPhtCho (5 mg/kg) plus POPhtCho (5 mg/kg) also significantly shortened the prolonged retention latency for rats intraperitoneally injected with scopolamine, but otherwise no significant effect was obtained with DLPhtCho (5 mg/kg) alone, AA (5 mg/kg) alone, DHA (5 mg/kg) alone, or PLPhtSer (5 mg/kg) alone. Oral co-administration with DLPhtCho (5 mg/kg) and POPhtCho (5 mg/kg) significantly shortened the acquisition latency for rats untreated with scopolamine as compared with the latency for administration with polyethylene glycol (PEG), DLPhtCho alone at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg, or POPhtCho alone at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg, while no efficient effect on the retention latency was obtained. To assess the effect of DLPhtCho and POPhtCho on cognitive functions for humans, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) test was performed in subjects with cognitive disorders (the average MMSE score, 15). Oral co-intake with DLPhtCho (50 mg) and POPhtCho (45 mg) once after breakfast everyday raised the score to over 20, corresponding to normal cognitive functions, throughout 5 months after intake, and the increase in the score was significantly greater than that for oral intake with DLPhtCho (100 mg/day) alone or POPhtCho (90 mg/kg) alone. Taken together, the results of the present study show that co-intake with DLPhtCho and POPhtCho could enhance learning and memory ability and improve cognitive disorders for both the

  19. Variable Maternal Stress in Rats Alters Locomotor Activity, Social Behavior, and Recognition Memory in the Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Christina A.; Terry, Alvin V.

    2013-01-01

    Rats repeatedly exposed to variable prenatal stress (PNS) exhibit behavioral signs that are similar to those manifested in several neuropsychiatric disorders such as deficits in attention and inhibitory control, and impairments in memory-related task performance. The purpose of the study described here was to conduct a comprehensive battery of tests to further characterize the behavioral phenotype of PNS rats as well as to evaluate the sensitivity of the model to therapeutic interventions (i.e., to compounds previously shown to have therapeutic potential in neuropsychiatric disorders). The results of this study indicated that PNS in rats is associated with: 1) increased locomotor activity and stereotypic behaviors, 2) elevated sensitivity to the psychostimulant amphetamine, 3) increased aggressive behaviors toward both adult and juvenile rats and 4) delay-dependent deficits in recognition memory. There was no evidence that PNS rats exhibited deficits in other areas of motor function/learning, sensorimotor gating, spatial learning and memory, social withdrawal, or anhedonia. In addition, the results revealed that the second generation antipsychotic risperidone attenuated amphetamine-related increases in locomotor activity in PNS rats; however, the effect was not sustained over time. Furthermore, deficits in recognition memory in PNS rats were attenuated by the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, atomoxetine, but not by the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, GTS-21. This study supports the supposition that important phenomenological similarities exist between rats exposed to PNS and patients afflicted with neuropsychiatric disorders thus further establishing the face validity of the model for evaluating potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:23287801

  20. Effects of X-Ray Radiation on Complex Visual Discrimination Learning and Social Recognition Memory in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Catherine M.; Roma, Peter G.; Armour, Elwood; Gooden, Virginia L.; Brady, Joseph V.; Weed, Michael R.; Hienz, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    The present report describes an animal model for examining the effects of radiation on a range of neurocognitive functions in rodents that are similar to a number of basic human cognitive functions. Fourteen male Long-Evans rats were trained to perform an automated intra-dimensional set shifting task that consisted of their learning a basic discrimination between two stimulus shapes followed by more complex discrimination stages (e.g., a discrimination reversal, a compound discrimination, a compound reversal, a new shape discrimination, and an intra-dimensional stimulus discrimination reversal). One group of rats was exposed to head-only X-ray radiation (2.3 Gy at a dose rate of 1.9 Gy/min), while a second group received a sham-radiation exposure using the same anesthesia protocol. The irradiated group responded less, had elevated numbers of omitted trials, increased errors, and greater response latencies compared to the sham-irradiated control group. Additionally, social odor recognition memory was tested after radiation exposure by assessing the degree to which rats explored wooden beads impregnated with either their own odors or with the odors of novel, unfamiliar rats; however, no significant effects of radiation on social odor recognition memory were observed. These data suggest that rodent tasks assessing higher-level human cognitive domains are useful in examining the effects of radiation on the CNS, and may be applicable in approximating CNS risks from radiation exposure in clinical populations receiving whole brain irradiation. PMID:25099152

  1. Enhanced Neuroactivation during Verbal Memory Processing in Postmenopausal Women Receiving Short Term Hormone Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Persad, Carol C.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Love, Tiffany; Wang, Heng; Tkaczyk, Anne; Smith, Yolanda R.

    2012-01-01

    Capsule Using a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design, we showed that short-term hormone replacement therapy increases brain activation in parietal and prefrontal areas during verbal memory tasks in postmenopausal women. Objective To study the effects of hormone therapy on brain activation patterns during verbal memory in postmenopausal women. Design A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study was performed. Setting A tertiary care university medical center. Participants Ten healthy postmenopausal women (age range 50-60 years) were recruited from the local community. Interventions Women were randomized to the order they received combined hormone therapy, 5 ug ethinyl estradiol and 1 mg norethindrone acetate, and placebo. Volunteers received hormone therapy or placebo for 4 weeks, followed by a one month washout period, and then received the other treatment for 4 weeks. An fMRI was performed at the end of each 4 week treatment utilizing a verbal memory task. Main Outcome Measure Brain activation patterns were compared between hormone therapy and placebo. Results Hormone therapy was associated with increased activation in left middle/superior frontal cortex (BA 6,9), medial frontal cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate (BA 24,32), posterior cingulate (BA 6), and left inferior parietal (BA 40) during memory encoding. All regions were significant at p ≤ 0.05 with correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusions Hormone therapy increased neural activation in frontal and parietal areas in postmenopausal women during a verbal memory task. PMID:18692790

  2. Amyloid β Enhances Typical Rodent Behavior While It Impairs Contextual Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Salgado-Puga, Karla; Prado-Alcalá, Roberto A.; Peña-Ortega, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with an early hippocampal dysfunction, which is likely induced by an increase in soluble amyloid beta peptide (Aβ). This hippocampal failure contributes to the initial memory deficits observed both in patients and in AD animal models and possibly to the deterioration in activities of daily living (ADL). One typical rodent behavior that has been proposed as a hippocampus-dependent assessment model of ADL in mice and rats is burrowing. Despite the fact that AD transgenic mice show some evidence of reduced burrowing, it has not been yet determined whether or not Aβ can affect this typical rodent behavior and whether this alteration correlates with the well-known Aβ-induced memory impairment. Thus, the purpose of this study was to test whether or not Aβ affects burrowing while inducing hippocampus-dependent memory impairment. Surprisingly, our results show that intrahippocampal application of Aβ increases burrowing while inducing memory impairment. We consider that this Aβ-induced increase in burrowing might be associated with a mild anxiety state, which was revealed by increased freezing behavior in the open field, and conclude that Aβ-induced hippocampal dysfunction is reflected in the impairment of ADL and memory, through mechanisms yet to be determined. PMID:26229236

  3. Social Memory Formation Rapidly and Differentially Affects the Motivation and Performance of Vocal Communication Signals in the Bengalese Finch (Lonchura striata var. domestica).

    PubMed

    Toccalino, Danielle C; Sun, Herie; Sakata, Jon T

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive processes like the formation of social memories can shape the nature of social interactions between conspecifics. Male songbirds use vocal signals during courtship interactions with females, but the degree to which social memory and familiarity influences the likelihood and structure of male courtship song remains largely unknown. Using a habituation-dishabituation paradigm, we found that a single, brief (<30 s) exposure to a female led to the formation of a short-term memory for that female: adult male Bengalese finches were significantly less likely to produce courtship song to an individual female when re-exposed to her 5 min later (i.e., habituation). Familiarity also rapidly decreased the duration of courtship songs but did not affect other measures of song performance (e.g., song tempo and the stereotypy of syllable structure and sequencing). Consistent with a contribution of social memory to the decrease in courtship song with repeated exposures to the same female, the likelihood that male Bengalese finches produced courtship song increased when they were exposed to a different female (i.e., dishabituation). Three consecutive exposures to individual females also led to the formation of a longer-term memory that persisted over days. Specifically, when courtship song production was assessed 2 days after initial exposures to females, males produced fewer and shorter courtship songs to familiar females than to unfamiliar females. Measures of song performance, however, were not different between courtship songs produced to familiar and unfamiliar females. The formation of a longer-term memory for individual females seemed to require at least three exposures because males did not differentially produce courtship song to unfamiliar females and females that they had been exposed to only once or twice. Taken together, these data indicate that brief exposures to individual females led to the rapid formation and persistence of social memories and support the

  4. Social Memory Formation Rapidly and Differentially Affects the Motivation and Performance of Vocal Communication Signals in the Bengalese Finch (Lonchura striata var. domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Toccalino, Danielle C.; Sun, Herie; Sakata, Jon T.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive processes like the formation of social memories can shape the nature of social interactions between conspecifics. Male songbirds use vocal signals during courtship interactions with females, but the degree to which social memory and familiarity influences the likelihood and structure of male courtship song remains largely unknown. Using a habituation-dishabituation paradigm, we found that a single, brief (<30 s) exposure to a female led to the formation of a short-term memory for that female: adult male Bengalese finches were significantly less likely to produce courtship song to an individual female when re-exposed to her 5 min later (i.e., habituation). Familiarity also rapidly decreased the duration of courtship songs but did not affect other measures of song performance (e.g., song tempo and the stereotypy of syllable structure and sequencing). Consistent with a contribution of social memory to the decrease in courtship song with repeated exposures to the same female, the likelihood that male Bengalese finches produced courtship song increased when they were exposed to a different female (i.e., dishabituation). Three consecutive exposures to individual females also led to the formation of a longer-term memory that persisted over days. Specifically, when courtship song production was assessed 2 days after initial exposures to females, males produced fewer and shorter courtship songs to familiar females than to unfamiliar females. Measures of song performance, however, were not different between courtship songs produced to familiar and unfamiliar females. The formation of a longer-term memory for individual females seemed to require at least three exposures because males did not differentially produce courtship song to unfamiliar females and females that they had been exposed to only once or twice. Taken together, these data indicate that brief exposures to individual females led to the rapid formation and persistence of social memories and support the

  5. Do Fraternities and Sororities Enhance Socially Responsible Leadership?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Georgianna L.; Hevel, Michael S.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the effects of fraternity and sorority membership on first-year college students' development of socially responsible leadership at 24 colleges and universities. The institutions varied in terms of public versus private, size, region, and student residential patterns. Results showed that fraternity members demonstrated…

  6. Enhancing Parent Leadership through Building Social and Intellectual Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolivar, Jose M.; Chrispeels, Janet H.

    2011-01-01

    Inequality of access to educational resources by different social classes has been widely documented, and schools have instituted parent programs to ameliorate this situation. However, lacking are theoretically based studies that explain how and why a program may be effective in bringing about change. The authors studied a 12-week parent…

  7. Enhancing Health and Social Care Placement Learning through Mobile Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, Susan; Callaghan, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Health and social care students spend up to 50% of their course in practice. Placements are distributed across a wide geographical area and have varying degrees of IT access and support. Consequently, students may feel isolated from peers, academic staff, and resources required for effective learning. Mobile technology has considerable potential…

  8. Conformity enhances network reciprocity in evolutionary social dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-01-01

    The pursuit of highest payoffs in evolutionary social dilemmas is risky and sometimes inferior to conformity. Choosing the most common strategy within the interaction range is safer because it ensures that the payoff of an individual will not be much lower than average. Herding instincts and crowd behaviour in humans and social animals also compel to conformity in their own right. Motivated by these facts, we here study the impact of conformity on the evolution of cooperation in social dilemmas. We show that an appropriate fraction of conformists within the population introduces an effective surface tension around cooperative clusters and ensures smooth interfaces between different strategy domains. Payoff-driven players brake the symmetry in favour of cooperation and enable an expansion of clusters past the boundaries imposed by traditional network reciprocity. This mechanism works even under the most testing conditions, and it is robust against variations of the interaction network as long as degree-normalized payoffs are applied. Conformity may thus be beneficial for the resolution of social dilemmas. PMID:25540242

  9. Developing Cognitive-Social-Emotional Competencies to Enhance Academic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linares, L. Oriana; Rosbruch, Nicole; Stern, Marcia B.; Edwards, Martha E.; Walker, Gillian; Abikoff, Howard B.; Alvir, Jose Ma. J.

    2005-01-01

    This preliminary study examined intervention effects of a universal prevention program offered by classroom teachers to public elementary school students. The Unique Minds School Program (M.B. Stern, 1999) is a teacher-led program designed to promote cognitive-social-emotional (CSE) skills, including student self-efficacy, problem solving,…

  10. Enhancing Social Work Education through Team-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Group learning strategies are used extensively in social work education, despite the challenges and negative outcomes regularly experienced by students and faculty. Building on principles of cooperative learning, team-based learning offers a more structured approach that maximizes the benefits of cooperative learning while also offering…

  11. Oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation treatment to enhance data retention of tungsten nanocrystal nonvolatile memory

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jer-Chyi Chang, Wei-Cheng; Lai, Chao-Sung; Chang, Li-Chun; Ai, Chi-Fong; Tsai, Wen-Fa

    2014-03-15

    Data retention characteristics of tungsten nanocrystal (W-NC) memory devices using an oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) treatment are investigated. With an increase of oxygen PIII bias voltage and treatment time, the capacitance–voltage hysteresis memory window is increased but the data retention characteristics become degraded. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images show that this poor data retention is a result of plasma damage on the tunneling oxide layer, which can be prevented by lowering the bias voltage to 7 kV. In addition, by using the elevated temperature retention measurement technique, the effective charge trapping level of the WO{sub 3} film surrounding the W-NCs can be extracted. This measurement reveals that a higher oxygen PIII bias voltage and treatment time induces more shallow traps within the WO{sub 3} film, degrading the retention behavior of the W-NC memory.

  12. Mothers' negative evaluations of their children's performances enhance boys' memories for crafts.

    PubMed

    Dunsmore, Julie C; Halberstadt, Amy G; Robinson, Megan L

    2004-12-01

    The authors predicted that mothers' evaluative comments would affect their preschool-aged children's learning during a craft-making activity. Each mother (N = 67) taught her child 6 crafts in a playroom in a university setting. Three weeks later, the child returned to the playroom to redo the crafts. Evaluators tested the children's memories of the procedures for completing the crafts. The authors used videotapes of the mothers' teaching to code for statements that positively evaluated their children's performances (praise) or that negatively evaluated their children's performances (criticism). Maternal praise did not affect children's memories. Maternal criticism did not affect their daughters' memories. However, sons were more likely to more accurately redo craft steps for which their mothers had made at least 1 comment criticizing their performances. The authors proposed that emotional arousal was a reason for girls' and boys' differential responses to maternal criticism. PMID:15636383

  13. Variations in prestimulus neural activity predict the emotion-enhanced memory effect.

    PubMed

    Yick, Yee Ying; Buratto, Luciano G; Schaefer, Alexandre

    2016-08-01

    Here, we report evidence that electrophysiological neural activity preceding the onset of emotional pictures can predict whether they will be remembered or forgotten 24 h later, whereas the same effect was not observed for neutral pictures. In contrast to previous research, we observed this effect using a paradigm in which participants could not predict the emotional or the neutral content of the pictures before their onset. These effects were obtained alongside significant behavioural effects of superior recognition memory for emotional compared with neutral items. These findings suggest that the preferential encoding of emotional events in memory is determined by fluctuations in the availability of processing resources just before event onset. This explanation argues in favour of mediational models of emotional memory, which contend that emotional information is preferentially encoded because it mobilizes a greater amount of processing resources than neutral information. PMID:27295027

  14. Does a Simple Intervention Enhance Memory and Adherence for Neuropsychological Recommendations?

    PubMed

    Meth, Molly; Calamia, Matthew; Tranel, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The variables that influence the extent to which patients and their families remember and follow neuropsychological recommendations after their appointments are unclear. There has been limited research on this topic. The current study was designed to address this knowledge gap. Patients (n = 79) and caregivers (n = 36) were randomized into 1 of 2 groups, letter or no-letter, to investigate whether providing a supplemental written reminder of the recommendations given (in addition to routine feedback procedures in our clinic) would improve memory for and adherence to recommendations. We found that recall of recommendations was better in the letter condition, although this effect was observed in the caregivers and not in the patients. Adherence to recommendations did not differ significantly between the letter and no-letter conditions. These findings show that a simple intervention can improve caregiver memory for recommendations. Future research could help determine how to translate improvements in memory into greater adherence. PMID:26111163

  15. Surface corrosion enhancement of passive films on NiTi shape memory alloy in different solutions.

    PubMed

    Jinlong, Lv; Tongxiang, Liang; Chen, Wang; Limin, Dong

    2016-06-01

    The corrosion behaviors of NiTi shape memory alloy in NaCl solution, H2SO4 solution and borate buffer solution were investigated. It was found that TiO2 in passive film improved the corrosion resistance of NiTi shape memory. However, low corrosion resistance of passive film was observed in low pH value acidic solution due to TiO2 dissolution. Moreover, the corrosion resistance of NiTi shape memory alloy decreased with the increasing of passivated potential in the three solutions. The donor density in passive film increased with the increasing of passivated potential. Different solutions affect the semiconductor characteristics of the passive film. The reducing in the corrosion resistance was attributed to the more donor concentrations in passive film and thinner thickness of the passive film. PMID:27040211

  16. Children's False Memories: A Test of the Dissociability of Cognitive and Social Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Brian

    1998-01-01

    Comments that fuzzy-trace theory is broadly comprehensive and contains compelling experimental manipulations; debates assumptions of the theory. Describes aspects of the historical and theoretical context of the theory and its usefulness in organizing false memory phenomena. Suggests some limitations concerning the representation of child…

  17. The Impact of Working Memory Training in Young People with Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roughan, Laura; Hadwin, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a working memory (WM) training programme on measures of WM, IQ, behavioural inhibition, self-report test and trait anxiety and teacher reported emotional and behavioural difficulties and attentional control before and after WM training and at a 3 month follow-up. The WM training group (N = 7) showed significantly…

  18. Minocycline enhances hippocampal memory, neuroplasticity and synapse-associated proteins in aged C57 BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Liu, Yingying; Zhu, Cansheng; Ma, Xiaomeng; Ma, Lili; Zhou, Linli; Huang, Qiling; Cen, Lei; Pi, Rongbiao; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have suggested that minocycline can attenuate cognitive deficits in animal models of conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and cerebral ischemia through inhibiting microglia associated anti-inflammatory actions. However the pathway that minocycline targets to enhance cognitive performance is not fully defined. Here we examined the effects of minocycline on learning and memory in aged (22-month-old) C57 BL/6 mice. We treated one group of mice with minocycline (30 mg/kg/day), and another group of mice with donepezil (2 mg/kg/day) as a positive control. The Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests were used to evaluate the effects of minocycline on learning and memory deficits. We also used high-frequency stimulation-induced long-term potentiation and Golgi-Cox staining to assess the effect of minocycline on synaptic plasticity and synaptogenesis. The effects of minocycline on synapse-associated signaling proteins were determined by western blot. We found that minocycline ameliorates cognitive deficits, enhances neuroplasticity, activates brain-derived neurotrophic factor- extracellular signal-regulated kinases signaling and increases expression of Arc, EGR1 and PSD-95 in the CA1 and dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus in aged mice. The effects of minocycline in aged mice were similar to those of donepezil. Our results suggest that minocycline could improve learning and memory through enhancing synaptic plasticity and synaptogenesis, modulating the expression of synapse-associated signaling proteins, which provide a rationale for exploring the viability of using minocycline treatment in cognitive deficits. PMID:25838119

  19. The influence of banner advertisements on attention and memory: human faces with averted gaze can enhance advertising effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Sajjacholapunt, Pitch; Ball, Linden J

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that banner advertisements used in online marketing are often overlooked, especially when positioned horizontally on webpages. Such inattention invariably gives rise to an inability to remember advertising brands and messages, undermining the effectiveness of this marketing method. Recent interest has focused on whether human faces within banner advertisements can increase attention to the information they contain, since the gaze cues conveyed by faces can influence where observers look. We report an experiment that investigated the efficacy of faces located in banner advertisements to enhance the attentional processing and memorability of banner contents. We tracked participants' eye movements when they examined webpages containing either bottom-right vertical banners or bottom-center horizontal banners. We also manipulated facial information such that banners either contained no face, a face with mutual gaze or a face with averted gaze. We additionally assessed people's memories for brands and advertising messages. Results indicated that relative to other conditions, the condition involving faces with averted gaze increased attention to the banner overall, as well as to the advertising text and product. Memorability of the brand and advertising message was also enhanced. Conversely, in the condition involving faces with mutual gaze, the focus of attention was localized more on the face region rather than on the text or product, weakening any memory benefits for the brand and advertising message. This detrimental impact of mutual gaze on attention to advertised products was especially marked for vertical banners. These results demonstrate that the inclusion of human faces with averted gaze in banner advertisements provides a promising means for marketers to increase the attention paid to such adverts, thereby enhancing memory for advertising information. PMID:24624104

  20. Oxytocin Enhances Social Recognition by Modulating Cortical Control of Early Olfactory Processing.

    PubMed

    Oettl, Lars-Lennart; Ravi, Namasivayam; Schneider, Miriam; Scheller, Max F; Schneider, Peggy; Mitre, Mariela; da Silva Gouveia, Miriam; Froemke, Robert C; Chao, Moses V; Young, W Scott; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Grinevich, Valery; Shusterman, Roman; Kelsch, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Oxytocin promotes social interactions and recognition of conspecifics that rely on olfaction in most species. The circuit mechanisms through which oxytocin modifies olfactory processing are incompletely understood. Here, we observed that optogenetically induced oxytocin release enhanced olfactory exploration and same-sex recognition of adult rats. Consistent with oxytocin's function in the anterior olfactory cortex, particularly in social cue processing, region-selective receptor deletion impaired social recognition but left odor discrimination and recognition intact outside a social context. Oxytocin transiently increased the drive of the anterior olfactory cortex projecting to olfactory bulb interneurons. Cortical top-down recruitment of interneurons dynamically enhanced the inhibitory input to olfactory bulb projection neurons and increased the signal-to-noise of their output. In summary, oxytocin generates states for optimized information extraction in an early cortical top-down network that is required for social interactions with potential implications for sensory processing deficits in autism spectrum disorders. PMID:27112498

  1. Gray-scale image fidelity and enhancement in photorefractive volume memory recorded with a pulsed signal beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guoqiang; Qian, Feng; Li, Jianlang; Liu, Liren

    1999-09-01

    We present, for the first time to our knowledge, a gray-level image recording method in photorefractive volume memory, in which the image to be recorded is illuminated periodically by a pulse while the reference beam interacts the medium continuously until the steady state is reached. By adjusting the duty cycle of the exposure of the image in recording, high fidelity can be maintained in image reconstruction for pixels of different gray-scale intensities. Furthermore, due to multiple beam coupling the weak input image can be greatly enhanced without the loss of fidelity.

  2. Enhancing interprofessional education: integrating public health and social work perspectives.

    PubMed

    Addy, Cheryl L; Browne, Teri; Blake, Elizabeth W; Bailey, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    National stakeholders in health system improvement and patient safety including accreditation bodies have requested health professional educational programs to include multiple interprofessional experiences through didactic and experiential opportunities. Clinical and population health faculty at the University of South Carolina redesigned and expanded an introductory interprofessional course to include more than 500 students from public health, social work, medicine, pharmacy, and nursing. Students participated in 3 live class meetings and completed required online coursework to explore concepts related to social determinants of health and health disparities, health system improvement, patient safety, cultural competency, and ethics to address interprofessional education core competencies. Course modifications and expanded student enrollment improved understanding of key health concepts and appreciation of interprofessional collaboration. PMID:25706002

  3. Primary prevention: educational approaches to enhance social and emotional learning.

    PubMed

    Elias, M J; Weissberg, R P

    2000-05-01

    The 1995 publication of Goleman's Emotional Intelligence triggered a revolution in mental health promotion. Goleman's examination of Gardner's work on multiple intelligences and current brain research, and review of successful programs that promoted emotional health, revealed a common objective among those working to prevent specific problem behaviors: producing knowledgeable, responsible, nonviolent, and caring individuals. Advances in research and field experiences confirm that school-based programs that promote social and emotional learning (SEL) in children can be powerful in accomplishing these goals. This article reviews the work of the Collaborative to Advance Social and Emotional Learning (CASEL), its guidelines for promoting mental health in children and youth based on SEL, key principles, and examples of exemplary programs. PMID:10900595

  4. Which Social Emotional Competencies Are Enhanced at a Social Emotional Learning Camp?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ee, Jessie; Ong, Chew Wei

    2014-01-01

    Research studies have shown that educational programmes such as camps and field trips can develop affective and social relationships through personal exposure to outdoor experiences among students. This study will illustrate the outcome of a social emotional learning camp organized for 93 Secondary Two students (mean age 14.1) in Singapore. Both…

  5. Perceiving social inequity: when subordinate-group positioning on one dimension of social hierarchy enhances privilege recognition on another.

    PubMed

    Rosette, Ashleigh Shelby; Tost, Leigh Plunkett

    2013-08-01

    Researchers have suggested that viewing social inequity as dominant-group privilege (rather than subordinate-group disadvantage) enhances dominant-group members' support for social policies aimed at lessening such inequity. However, because viewing inequity as dominant-group privilege can be damaging to dominant-group members' self-images, this perspective is frequently resisted. In the research reported here, we explored the circumstances that enhance the likelihood of dominant-group members' viewing inequity as privilege. Because social hierarchies have multiple vertical dimensions, individuals may have high status on one dimension but low status on another. We predicted that occupying a subordinate position on one dimension of social hierarchy could enhance perceptions of one's own privilege on a different dimension of hierarchy, but that this tendency would be diminished among individuals who felt they had achieved a particularly high level of success. Results from three studies that considered gender-based and race-based hierarchies in organizational settings supported our hypothesis. PMID:23740549

  6. Using a social entrepreneurial approach to enhance the financial and social value of health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sandra S; Lu, Jui-Fen Rachel; Guo, Kristina L

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a conceptual framework was developed to show that social entrepreneurial practices can be effectively translated to meet the social needs in health care. We used a theory-in-use case study approach that encompasses postulation of a working taxonomy from literature scanning and a deliberation of the taxonomy through triangulation of multilevel data of a case study conducted in a Taiwan-based hospital system. Specifically, we demonstrated that a nonprofit organization can adopt business principles that emphasize both financial and social value. We tested our model and found comprehensive accountability across departments throughout the case hospital system, and this led to sustainable and continual growth of the organization. Through social entrepreneurial practices, we established that both financial value creation and fulfilling the social mission for the case hospital system can be achieved. PMID:25223158

  7. Selective Memories: Infants' Encoding Is Enhanced in Selection via Suppression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markant, Julie; Amso, Dima

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the hypothesis that inhibitory visual selection mechanisms play a vital role in memory by limiting distractor interference during item encoding. In Experiment 1a we used a modified spatial cueing task in which 9-month-old infants encoded multiple category exemplars in the contexts of an attention orienting mechanism…

  8. Post-Training Reversible Inactivation of the Hippocampus Enhances Novel Object Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Hawk, Joshua D.; Abel, Ted; Havekes, Robbert

    2010-01-01

    Research on the role of the hippocampus in object recognition memory has produced conflicting results. Previous studies have used permanent hippocampal lesions to assess the requirement for the hippocampus in the object recognition task. However, permanent hippocampal lesions may impact performance through effects on processes besides memory…

  9. Glucocorticoids Enhance Taste Aversion Memory via Actions in the Insular Cortex and Basolateral Amygdala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Maria Isabel; Quirarte, Gina L.; Rodriguez-Garcia, Gabriela; McGaugh, James L.; Roozendaal, Benno

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that glucocorticoid hormones strengthen the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent spatial and contextual memory. The present experiments investigated glucocorticoid effects on the long-term formation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), an associative learning task that does not depend critically on hippocampal function.…

  10. Spaced Learning Enhances Subsequent Recognition Memory by Reducing Neural Repetition Suppression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xue, Gui; Mei, Leilei; Chen, Chuansheng; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Poldrack, Russell; Dong, Qi

    2011-01-01

    Spaced learning usually leads to better recognition memory as compared with massed learning, yet the underlying neural mechanisms remain elusive. One open question is whether the spacing effect is achieved by reducing neural repetition suppression. In this fMRI study, participants were scanned while intentionally memorizing 120 novel faces, half…

  11. The Lag Effect in Secondary School Classrooms: Enhancing Students' Memory for Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Küpper-Tetzel, Carolina E.; Erdfelder, Edgar; Dickhäuser, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Educators often face serious time constraints that impede multiple repetition lessons on the same material. Thus, it would be useful to know when to schedule a single repetition unit to maximize memory performance. Laboratory studies revealed that the length of the retention interval (i.e., the time between the last learning session and the final…

  12. Animal Model of Methylphenidate's Longterm Memory-Enhancing Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmack, Stephanie A.; Howell, Kristin K.; Rasaei, Kleou; Reas, Emilie T.; Anagnostaras, Stephan G.

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH), introduced more than 60 years ago, accounts for two-thirds of current prescriptions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although many studies have modeled MPH's effect on executive function, almost none have directly modeled its effect on long-term memory (LTM), even though improvement in LTM is a…

  13. Behavioral Specifications of Reward-Associated Long-Term Memory Enhancement in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittmann, Bianca C.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Duzel, Emrah

    2011-01-01

    Recent functional imaging studies link reward-related activation of the midbrain substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), the site of origin of ascending dopaminergic projections, with improved long-term episodic memory. Here, we investigated in two behavioral experiments how (1) the contingency between item properties and reward, (2) the…

  14. Home-School Collaboration: Enhancing Children's Academic and Social Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Sandra L., Ed.; Conoley, Jane Close, Ed.

    This book emphasizes the importance of collaboration between the school and the home/parents in enhancing the possibilities for students' success. Twenty-four individual chapters by 45 contributors include: (1) "Family Systems and the School" (William Doherty and Vida Peskay); (2) "Home-School Collaboration: Effects, Issues, and Opportunities"…

  15. Enhancing social media competitiveness of small businesses: insights from small pizzerias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wu; Wang, Feng-Kwei; Zha, Shenghua

    2014-07-01

    Social media provide an online platform for enterprises to engage existing customers and attract new customers. Although social media can be easily set up at no cost, however, due to limited human and financial resources, many small businesses find it challenging to compete against large enterprises in social media use. While more and more small businesses have jumped on the bandwagon of social media in recent years, few studies investigated the social media strategies that can help small businesses to survive and even thrive against large competitors in the social media arena. Therefore, we studied 32 small pizzerias in a mid-size U.S. city in terms of their social media use for business. Our study found that small pizzerias emphasizing social media use on community relations and social responsibility tend to be more successful in attracting and engaging local customers. This study also sheds light on both effective strategies and successful practices of social media use by small pizzerias. The insights and recommendations identified from this study can help small businesses to enhance their social media competitiveness against large enterprises.

  16. Bisphenol-A rapidly enhanced passive avoidance memory and phosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunits in hippocampus of young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Xiaohong Li Tao; Luo Qingqing; Hong Xing; Xie Lingdan; Tian Dong

    2011-09-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, is found to influence development of brain and behaviors in rodents. The previous study indicated that perinatal exposure to BPA impaired learning-memory and inhibited N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits expressions in hippocampus during the postnatal development in rats; and in cultured hippocampal neurons, BPA rapidly promotes dynamic changes in dendritic morphology through estrogen receptor-mediated pathway by concomitant phosphorylation of NMDAR subunit NR2B. In the present study, we examined the rapid effect of BPA on passive avoidance memory and NMDAR in the developing hippocampus of Sprague-Dawley rats at the age of postnatal day 18. The results showed that BPA or estradiol benzoate (EB) rapidly extended the latency to step down from the platform 1 h after footshock and increased the phosphorylation levels of NR1, NR2B, and mitogen-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in hippocampus within 1 h. While 24 h after BPA or EB treatment, the improved memory and the increased phosphorylation levels of NR1, NR2B, ERK disappeared. Furthermore, pre-treatment with an estrogen receptors (ERs) antagonist, ICI182,780, or an ERK-activating kinase inhibitor, U0126, significantly attenuated EB- or BPA-induced phosphorylations of NR1, NR2B, and ERK within 1 h. These data suggest that BPA rapidly enhanced short-term passive avoidance memory in the developing rats. A non-genomic effect via ERs may mediate the modulation of the phosphorylation of NMDAR subunits NR1 and NR2B through ERK signaling pathway. - Highlights: > BPA rapidly extended the latency to step down from platform 1 h after footshock. > BPA rapidly increased pNR1, pNR2B, and pERK in hippocampus within 1 h. > ERs antagonist or MEK inhibitor attenuated BPA-induced pNR1, pNR2B, and pERK.

  17. Enhancing self-efficacy improves episodic future thinking and social-decision making in combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Brown, Adam D; Kouri, Nicole A; Rahman, Nadia; Joscelyne, Amy; Bryant, Richard A; Marmar, Charles R

    2016-08-30

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is associated with maladaptive changes in self-identity, including impoverished perceived self-efficacy. This study examined if enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy in combat veterans with and without symptoms of PTSD promotes cognitive strategies associated with positive mental health outcomes. Prior to completing a future thinking and social problem-solving task, sixty-two OEF/OIF veterans with and without symptoms of PTSD were randomized to either a high self-efficacy (HSE) induction in which they were asked to recall three autobiographical memories demonstrating self-efficacy or a control condition in which they recalled any three autobiographical events. An interaction between HSE and PTSD revealed that individuals with symptoms of PTSD in the HSE condition generated future events with more self-efficacious statements than those with PTSD in the control condition, whereas those without PTSD did not differ in self-efficacy content across the conditions. In addition, individuals in the HSE condition exhibited better social problem solving than those in the control condition. Increasing perceptions of self-efficacy may promote future thinking and problem solving in ways that are relevant to overcoming trauma and adversity. PMID:27236589

  18. Maternal separation enhances object location memory and prevents exercise-induced MAPK/ERK signalling in adult Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Makena, Nokuthula; Bugarith, Kishor; Russell, Vivienne A

    2012-09-01

    Early life stress increases the risk of developing psychopathology accompanied by reduced cognitive function in later life. Maternal separation induces anxiety-like behaviours and is associated with impaired memory. On the other hand, exercise has been shown to diminish anxiety-like behaviours and improve cognitive function. The effects of maternal separation and exercise on anxiety, memory and hippocampal proteins were investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Maternal separation produced anxiety-like behaviours which were reversed by exercise. Maternal separation also enhanced object location memory which was not affected by exercise. Exercise did, however, increase synaptophysin and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) in the hippocampus of non-separated rats and this effect was not observed in maternally separated rats. These findings show that maternal separation selectively enhanced n memory and prevented activation of the MAPK/ERK signalling pathway in the adult rat hippocampus. PMID:22476924

  19. Enhanced emotional responses during social coordination with a virtual partner.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengsen; Dumas, Guillaume; Kelso, J A Scott; Tognoli, Emmanuelle

    2016-06-01

    Emotion and motion, though seldom studied in tandem, are complementary aspects of social experience. This study investigates variations in emotional responses during movement coordination between a human and a Virtual Partner (VP), an agent whose virtual finger movements are driven by the Haken-Kelso-Bunz (HKB) equations of Coordination Dynamics. Twenty-one subjects were instructed to coordinate finger movements with the VP in either inphase or antiphase patterns. By adjusting model parameters, we manipulated the 'intention' of VP as cooperative or competitive with the human's instructed goal. Skin potential responses (SPR) were recorded to quantify the intensity of emotional response. At the end of each trial, subjects rated the VP's intention and whether they thought their partner was another human being or a machine. We found greater emotional responses when subjects reported that their partner was human and when coordination was stable. That emotional responses are strongly influenced by dynamic features of the VP's behavior, has implications for mental health, brain disorders and the design of socially cooperative machines. PMID:27094374

  20. Working memory capacity and spontaneous emotion regulation: high capacity predicts self-enhancement in response to negative feedback.

    PubMed

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Demaree, Heath A

    2010-10-01

    Although previous evidence suggests that working memory capacity (WMC) is important for success at emotion regulation, that evidence may reveal simply that people with higher WMC follow instructions better than those with lower WMC. The present study tested the hypothesis that people with higher WMC more effectively engage in spontaneous emotion regulation following negative feedback, relative to those with lower WMC. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either no feedback or negative feedback about their emotional intelligence. They then completed a disguised measure of self-enhancement and a self-report measure of affect. Experimental condition and WMC interacted such that higher WMC predicted more self-enhancement and less negative affect following negative feedback. This research provides novel insight into the consequences of individual differences in WMC and illustrates that cognitive capacity may facilitate the spontaneous self-regulation of emotion. PMID:21038959