These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

New model for analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI data distinguishes metastatic from nonmetastatic transplanted rodent prostate tumors.  

PubMed

Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCEMRI) data were acquired from metastatic and nonmetastatic tumors in rodents to follow the uptake and washout of a low-molecular-weight contrast agent (Gd-DTPA) and a contrast agent with higher molecular weight (P792). The concentration vs. time curves calculated for the tumor rims and centers were analyzed using the two-compartment model (TCM) and a newly developed empirical mathematical model (EMM). The EMM provided improved fits to the experimental data compared to the TCM. Parameters derived from the empirical model showed that the contrast agent washout rate was significantly slower in metastatic tumors than in nonmetastatic tumors for both Gd-DTPA (P < 0.03) and P792 (P < 0.04). The effects of the tumor on blood flow in "normal" tissue immediately adjacent to the tumors were evident: Gd-DTPA uptake and washout rates were much lower in muscle near the tumor (P < 0.05) than normal muscle farther from the tumor. The results suggest that accurate fits of DCEMRI data provide kinetic parameters that distinguish between metastatic and relatively benign cancers. In addition, a comparison of the dynamics of Gd-DTPA and P792 provides information regarding the microenvironment of tumors. PMID:15004789

Fan, Xiaobing; Medved, Milica; River, Jonathan N; Zamora, Marta; Corot, Claire; Robert, Philippe; Bourrinet, Philippe; Lipton, Martin; Culp, Rita M; Karczmar, Gregory S

2004-03-01

2

Distinguishing prostate cancer from benign confounders via a cascaded classifier on multi-parametric MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Learning how to separate benign confounders from prostate cancer is important because the imaging characteristics of these confounders are poorly understood. Furthermore, the typical representations of the MRI parameters might not be enough to allow discrimination. The diagnostic uncertainty this causes leads to a lower diagnostic accuracy. In this paper a new cascaded classifier is introduced to separate prostate cancer and benign confounders on MRI in conjunction with specific computer-extracted features to distinguish each of the benign classes (benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), inflammation, atrophy or prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PIN). In this study we tried to (1) calculate different mathematical representations of the MRI parameters which more clearly express subtle differences between different classes, (2) learn which of the MRI image features will allow to distinguish specific benign confounders from prostate cancer, and (2) find the combination of computer-extracted MRI features to best discriminate cancer from the confounding classes using a cascaded classifier. One of the most important requirements for identifying MRI signatures for adenocarcinoma, BPH, atrophy, inflammation, and PIN is accurate mapping of the location and spatial extent of the confounder and cancer categories from ex vivo histopathology to MRI. Towards this end we employed an annotated prostatectomy data set of 31 patients, all of whom underwent a multi-parametric 3 Tesla MRI prior to radical prostatectomy. The prostatectomy slides were carefully co-registered to the corresponding MRI slices using an elastic registration technique. We extracted texture features from the T2-weighted imaging, pharmacokinetic features from the dynamic contrast enhanced imaging and diffusion features from the diffusion-weighted imaging for each of the confounder classes and prostate cancer. These features were selected because they form the mainstay of clinical diagnosis. Relevant features for each of the classes were selected using maximum relevance minimum redundancy feature selection, allowing us to perform classifier independent feature selection. The selected features were then incorporated in a cascading classifier, which can focus on easier sub-tasks at each stage, leaving the more difficult classification tasks for later stages. Results show that distinct features are relevant for each of the benign classes, for example the fraction of extra-vascular, extra-cellular space in a voxel is a clear discriminator for inflammation. Furthermore, the cascaded classifier outperforms both multi-class and one-shot classifiers in overall accuracy for discriminating confounders from cancer: 0.76 versus 0.71 and 0.62.

Litjens, G. J. S.; Elliott, R.; Shih, N.; Feldman, M.; Barentsz, J. O.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C. A.; Kovacs, I.; Huisman, H. J.; Madabhushi, A.

2014-03-01

3

Multi-slice DCE-MRI data using P760 distinguishes between metastatic and non-metastatic rodent prostate tumors.  

PubMed

An intermediate molecular weight contrast agent P760 was used to investigate the ability of multi-slice dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) to distinguish metastatic from non-metastatic rodent prostate tumors. Non-metastatic AT2.1 and metastatic AT3.1 prostate tumors originally derived from the Dunning prostate cancer model were implanted on the hind leg of Copenhagen rats. Multi-sliced DCE-MRI data were acquired on a SIGNA 1.5 T scanner and analyzed using a recently developed empirical mathematical model. The P760 multi-slice DCE-MRI data in combination with the empirical mathematical model successfully distinguished between metastatic and non-metastatic rodent prostate tumors. Specifically, fitting the data with the empirical model showed that metastatic tumors had significantly faster contrast media uptake (p<0.001) and slower washout rates (p<0.01) than non-metastatic tumors. PMID:16416323

Fan, Xiaobing; Medved, Milica; Foxley, Sean; River, Jonathan N; Zamora, Marta; Karczmar, Gregory S; Corot, Claire; Robert, Philippe; Bourrinet, Philippe

2006-02-01

4

Distinguishing Grammatical Constructions with fMRI Pattern Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All linguistic and psycholinguistic theories aim to provide psychologically valid analyses of particular grammatical patterns and the relationships that hold among them. Until recently, no tools were available to distinguish neural correlates of particular grammatical constructions that shared the same content words, propositional meaning, and…

Allen, Kachina; Pereira, Francisco; Botvinick, Matthew; Goldberg, Adele E.

2012-01-01

5

Development of sensors distinguished by enhanced reliability  

SciTech Connect

Modern technological processes (for example in the nuclear power industry) require industrial sensors with enhanced metrological reliability. In other words, they are expected to provide many years of operation without maintenance while ensuring a high level of confidence in their measurement data. The key scientific-and-technical problems of developing sensors having these features are considered in the paper. (authors)

Sapozhnikova, K.; Taymanov, R. [State Research Center of the Russian Federation D.I.Mendeleyev Inst. for Metrology VNIIM, 19 Moskovsky pr., St. Petersburg, 190005 (Russian Federation)

2006-07-01

6

Distinguishing Dark Matter Annihilation Enhancement Scenarios via Halo Shapes  

E-print Network

Sommerfeld enhancement and Breit-Wigner enhancement of the dark matter annihilation have been proposed to explain the "boost factor" which is suggested by observed cosmic ray excesses. Although these two scenarios can provide almost indistinguishable effects on the cosmic ray fluxes, the cross sections of the self-interaction in those enhancement mechanisms are drastically different. As a result, we show that they can be distinguished by examining the effects of the self-interaction on the halo shapes. In Sommerfeld enhancement models with m_phidark matter is effectively collisionless in Breit-Wigner models.

Masahiro Ibe; Hai-bo Yu

2009-12-30

7

Texture Descriptors to distinguish Radiation Necrosis from Recurrent Brain Tumors on multi-parametric MRI  

PubMed Central

Differentiating radiation necrosis (a radiation induced treatment effect) from recurrent brain tumors (rBT) is currently one of the most clinically challenging problems in care and management of brain tumor (BT) patients. Both radiation necrosis (RN), and rBT exhibit similar morphological appearance on standard MRI making non-invasive diagnosis extremely challenging for clinicians, with surgical intervention being the only course for obtaining definitive “ground truth”. Recent studies have reported that the underlying biological pathways defining RN and rBT are fundamentally different. This strongly suggests that there might be phenotypic differences and hence cues on multi-parametric MRI, that can distinguish between the two pathologies. One challenge is that these differences, if they exist, might be too subtle to distinguish by the human observer. In this work, we explore the utility of computer extracted texture descriptors on multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI) to provide alternate representations of MRI that may be capable of accentuating subtle micro-architectural differences between RN and rBT for primary and metastatic (MET) BT patients. We further explore the utility of texture descriptors in identifying the MRI protocol (from amongst T1-w, T2-w and FLAIR) that best distinguishes RN and rBT across two independent cohorts of primary and MET patients. A set of 119 texture descriptors (co-occurrence matrix homogeneity, neighboring gray-level dependence matrix, multi-scale Gaussian derivatives, Law features, and histogram of gradient orientations (HoG)) for modeling different macro and micro-scale morphologic changes within the treated lesion area for each MRI protocol were extracted. Principal component analysis based variable importance projection (PCA-VIP), a feature selection method previously developed in our group, was employed to identify the importance of every texture descriptor in distinguishing RN and rBT on MP-MRI. PCA-VIP employs regression analysis to provide an importance score to each feature based on their ability to distinguish the two classes (RN/rBT). The top performing features identified via PCA-VIP were employed within a random-forest classifier to differentiate RN from rBT across two cohorts of 20 primary and 22 MET patients. Our results revealed that, (a) HoG features at different orientations were the most important image features for both cohorts, suggesting inherent orientation differences between RN, and rBT, (b) inverse difference moment (capturing local intensity homogeneity), and Laws features (capturing local edges and gradients) were identified as important for both cohorts, and (c) Gd-C T1-w MRI was identified, across the two cohorts, as the best MRI protocol in distinguishing RN/rBT. PMID:24910722

Pallavi, Tiwari; Prateek, Prasanna; Lisa, Rogers; Leo, Wolansky; Chaitra, Badve; Andrew, Sloan; Mark, Cohen; Anant, Madabhushi

2014-01-01

8

Texture descriptors to distinguish radiation necrosis from recurrent brain tumors on multi-parametric MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Di erentiating radiation necrosis (a radiation induced treatment e ect) from recurrent brain tumors (rBT) is currently one of the most clinically challenging problems in care and management of brain tumor (BT) patients. Both radiation necrosis (RN), and rBT exhibit similar morphological appearance on standard MRI making non-invasive diagnosis extremely challenging for clinicians, with surgical intervention being the only course for obtaining de nitive ground truth". Recent studies have reported that the underlying biological pathways de n- ing RN and rBT are fundamentally di erent. This strongly suggests that there might be phenotypic di erences and hence cues on multi-parametric MRI, that can distinguish between the two pathologies. One challenge is that these di erences, if they exist, might be too subtle to distinguish by the human observer. In this work, we explore the utility of computer extracted texture descriptors on multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI) to provide alternate representations of MRI that may be capable of accentuating subtle micro-architectural di erences between RN and rBT for primary and metastatic (MET) BT patients. We further explore the utility of texture descriptors in identifying the MRI protocol (from amongst T1-w, T2-w and FLAIR) that best distinguishes RN and rBT across two independent cohorts of primary and MET patients. A set of 119 texture descriptors (co-occurrence matrix homogeneity, neighboring gray-level dependence matrix, multi-scale Gaussian derivatives, Law features, and histogram of gradient orientations (HoG)) for modeling di erent macro and micro-scale morphologic changes within the treated lesion area for each MRI protocol were extracted. Principal component analysis based variable importance projection (PCA-VIP), a feature selection method previously developed in our group, was employed to identify the importance of every texture descriptor in distinguishing RN and rBT on MP-MRI. PCA-VIP employs regression analysis to provide an importance score to each feature based on their ability to distinguish the two classes (RN/rBT). The top performing features identi ed via PCA-VIP were employed within a random- forest classi er to di erentiate RN from rBT across two cohorts of 20 primary and 22 MET patients. Our results revealed that, (a) HoG features at di erent orientations were the most important image features for both cohorts, suggesting inherent orientation di erences between RN, and rBT, (b) inverse di erence moment (capturing local intensity homogeneity), and Laws features (capturing local edges and gradients) were identi ed as important for both cohorts, and (c) Gd-C T1-w MRI was identi ed, across the two cohorts, as the best MRI protocol in distinguishing RN/rBT.

Tiwari, Pallavi; Prasanna, Prateek; Rogers, Lisa; Wolansky, Leo; Badve, Chaitra; Sloan, Andrew; Cohen, Mark; Madabhushi, Anant

2014-03-01

9

Distinguishing benign confounding treatment changes from residual prostate cancer on MRI following laser ablation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) is a relatively new focal therapy technique for the ablation of localized prostate cancer. However, very little is known about the specific effects of LITT within the ablation zone and the surrounding normal tissue regions. For instance, it is important to be able to assess the extent of residual cancer within the prostate following LITT, which may be masked by thermally induced benign necrotic changes. Fortunately LITT is MRI compatible and hence this allows for quantitatively assessing LITT induced changes via multi-parametric MRI. Of course definite validation of any LITT induced changes on MRI requires confirmation via histopathology. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess and distinguish the imaging characteristics of prostate cancer and benign confounding treatment changes following LITTon 3 Tesla multi-parametric MRI by carefully mapping the treatment related changes from the ex vivo surgically resected histopathologic specimens onto the pre-operative in vivo imaging. A better understanding of the imaging characteristics of residual disease and successfully ablated tissue might lead to improved treatment monitoring and as such patient prognosis. A unique clinical trial at the Radboud University Medical Center, in which 3 patients underwent a prostatectomy after LITT treatment, yielded ex-vivo histopathologic specimens along with pre- and post-LITT MRI. Using this data we (1) identified the computer extracted MRI signatures associated with treatment effects including benign necrotic changes and residual disease and (2) subsequently evaluated the computer extracted MRI features previously identified in distinguishing LITT induced changes in the ablated area relative to the residual disease. Towards this end first a pathologist annotated the ablated area and the residual disease on the ex-vivo histology and then we transferred the annotations to the post-LITT MRI using semi-automatic elastic registration. The pre- and post-LITT MRI were subsequently registered and computer-derived multi-parametric MRI features extracted to determine differences in feature values between residual disease and successfully ablated tissue to assess treatment response. A scoring metric allowed us to identify those specific computer-extracted MRI features that maximally and differentially expressed between the ablated regions and the residual cancer, on a voxel- by­ voxel basis. Finally, we used a Fuzzy C-Means algorithm to assess the discriminatory power of these selected features. Our results show that specific computer-extracted features from multi-parametric MRI differentially express within the ablated and residual cancer regions, as evidenced by our ability to, on a voxel-by-voxel basis, classify tissue as residual disease. Additionally, we show that change of feature values between pre- and post­-LITT MRI may be useful as a quantitative marker for treatment response (T2-weighted texture and DCE MRI features showed largest differences between residual disease and successfully ablated tissue). Finally, a clustering approach to separate treatment effects and residual disease incorporating both (1) and (2) yielded a maximum area under the ROC curve of 0.97 on a voxel basis across 3 studies.

Litjens, G.; Huisman, H.; Elliott, R.; Shih, N.; Feldman, M.; Viswanath, S.; Fütterer, J.; Bomers, J.; Madabhushi, A.

2014-03-01

10

Using fMRI to distinguish components of the multiple object tracking task  

PubMed Central

Multiple object tracking (MOT) has proven to be a powerful technique for studying sustained selective attention. However, surprisingly little is known about its underlying neural mechanisms. Previous fMRI investigations have identified several brain areas thought to be involved in MOT, but there were disagreements between the studies, none distinguished between the act of tracking targets and the act of attending targets, and none attempted to determine which of these brain areas interact with each other. Here we address these three issues. First, using more observers and a random effects analysis, we show that some of the previously identified areas may not play a specific role in MOT. Second, we show that the frontal eye fields (FEF), the anterior intraparietal sulcus (AIPS), the superior parietal lobule (SPL), the posterior intraparietal sulcus (PIPS) and the human motion area (MT+) are differentially activated by the act of tracking, as distinguished from the act of attention. Finally, by using an algorithm modified from the computer science literature, we were able to map the interactions between these brain areas. PMID:19757919

Howe, Piers D.; Horowitz, Todd S.; Morocz, Istvan Akos; Wolfe, Jeremy; Livingstone, Margaret S.

2010-01-01

11

Enhanced MRI and MRI-Guided Interventional Procedures in Women with Asymptomatic Silicone-Injected Breasts  

PubMed Central

Asymptomatic women who have received silicone injection for breast augmentation have a risk of underestimating breast cancer by palpation, mammography, or breast sonography. Enhanced breast MRI is sensitive to display certain nonspecific enhanced lesions or suspicious lesions. Such nonspecific MRI-detected lesions could be managed by American College Radiology BI-RADS lexicon and selectively with MRI-guided techniques biopsy to prevent unnecessary surgery. PMID:22536144

Cheung, Yun-Chung; Chen, Shin-Chih; Lo, Yung-Feng

2012-01-01

12

Simultaneous Segmentation and Registration of Contrast-Enhanced Breast MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Breast Contrast-Enhanced MRI (ce-MRI) requires a series of images to be acquired before, and repeatedly after, intravenous\\u000a injection of a contrast agent. Breast MRI segmentation based on the differential enhancement of image intensities can assist\\u000a the clinician detect suspicious regions. Image registration between the temporal data sets is necessary to compensate for\\u000a patient motion, which is quite often substantial. Although

Chen Xiaohua; Michael Brady; Jonathan Lok-chuen Lo; Niall Moore

2005-01-01

13

Disk Edema and Cranial MRI Optic Nerve Enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 43-year-old woman presented with painful visual loss and optic disk edema in the right eye (OD) diagnosed as optic neuritis. Initial non–gadolinium-enhanced fat suppressed cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was normal. Three months later, the disk edema persisted and a gadolinium-enhanced MRI scan of the brain and orbits with fat suppression showed enhancement of the optic nerve OD, most

Michael S Vaphiades

2001-01-01

14

Study on Cine View of Relative Enhancement Ratio Map in O2-enhanced MRI.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables the evaluation of organ structure and function. Oxygen-enhanced MRI (O2-enhanced MRI) is a method for evaluating the pulmonary ventilation function using oxygen as a contrast agent. We created the Cine View of Relative Enhancement Ratio Map (Cine RER map) in O2-enhanced MRI to easily observe the contrast effect for clinical use. Relative enhancement ratio (RER) was determined as the pixel values of the Cine RER map. Moreover, six healthy volunteers underwent O2-enhanced MRI to determine the appropriate scale width of the Cine RER map. We calculated each RER and set 0 to 1.27 as the scale width of the Cine RER map based on the results. The Cine RER map made it possible to observe the contrast effect over time and thus is a convenient tool for evaluating the pulmonary ventilation function in O2-enhanced MRI. PMID:25410336

Fujii, Keita; Watanabe, Yasushi; Hanaoka, Shouhei; Motoyoshi, Kouichi; Goto, Masami; Amemiya, Shiori; Ino, Kenji; Akahane, Masaaki; Yano, Keiichi; Ohtomo, Kuni

2014-11-01

15

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI--Meeting Report  

Cancer.gov

A. Rationale for the Workshop In the last several years contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) has become a commonly used, commercially available method. In parallel with this, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) has emerged as a promising method for diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. However, widespread use of DCE-MRI is limited by the need for further technical improvements.

16

Original Research Manganese-Enhanced MRI Reveals Multiple  

E-print Network

Original Research Manganese-Enhanced MRI Reveals Multiple Cellular and Vascular Layers in Normal,6* Purpose: To use manganese-enhanced magnetic reso- nance imaging (MEMRI) at 25 Ã? 25 Ã? 800 mm3 to image different retinal and vascular layers in the rat retinas. Materials and Methods: Manganese

Duong, Timothy Q.

17

Dynamic contrast-enhanced-MRI of tumor hypoxia.  

PubMed

Patients with highly hypoxic primary tumors show increased frequency of locoregional treatment failure and poor survival rates and may benefit from particularly aggressive treatment. The potential of gadolinium diethylene-triamine penta-acetic acid-based dynamic contrast-enhanced-MRI in assessing tumor hypoxia was investigated in this preclinical study. Xenografted tumors of eight human melanoma lines were subjected to dynamic contrast-enhanced-MRI and measurement of the fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells and the fraction of pimonidazole-positive hypoxic cells. Tumor images of K(trans) (the volume transfer constant of gadolinium diethylene-triamine penta-acetic acid) and v(e) (the fractional distribution volume of gadolinium diethylene-triamine penta-acetic acid) were produced by pharmacokinetic analysis of the dynamic contrast-enhanced-MRI data, and K(trans) and v(e) frequency distributions of the non-necrotic tumor tissue were established and related to the extent of hypoxia. Tumors showing high K(trans) values and high v(e) values had low fractions of hypoxic cells, whereas tumors showing both low K(trans) values and low v(e) values had high hypoxic fractions. K(trans) differentiated better between tumors with low and high hypoxic fractions than did v(e). This study supports the current attempts to establish dynamic contrast-enhanced-MRI as a method for assessing the extent of hypoxia in human tumors, and it provides guidelines for the clinical development of valid assays. PMID:21661044

Egeland, Tormod A M; Gulliksrud, Kristine; Gaustad, Jon-Vidar; Mathiesen, Berit; Rofstad, Einar K

2012-02-01

18

Surface plasmon-enhanced terahertz spectroscopic distinguishing between isomers in powder form.  

PubMed

The effect of a dielectric overlayer on terahertz transmission through a freestanding metallic array of subwavelength holes is experimentally presented. There is a remarkable resonance redshift from 0.600 to 0.498 THz at the surface plasmon (SP) metal-dielectric resonance mode with increasing film thickness. When the overlayer film is thicker than a critical thickness, the resonance frequency becomes steady at the final resonance frequency ?(f). On the basis of the dispersion relation of SPs, two kinds of glutamic acid enantiomers are distinguished by use of SP-enhanced terahertz spectra of metallic array of subwavelength holes according to the result of ?(f). The terahertz plasmonic hole array with the sensitive nature provides an approach to distinguish trace amount of powder substances, which has a promising application prospect in the fields of public security and biomedical science, such as distinguishing between isomers and identifying expensive medicines and drugs. PMID:23385924

He, Mingxia; Li, Jingyan; Liu, Guanlin; Han, Jiaguang; Tian, Zhen; Gu, Jianqiang; Chen, Tao; Qin, Rui

2013-02-01

19

[MRI with dynamic contrast enhancement in brain tumors].  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the leading method of radiation diagnosis of brain tumors. In conditions of the artificial contrast enhancement there are more clearly differentiated the boundaries of the tumor node on the back of peritumorous edema and identified structural features of the tumor. The purpose of this study was to examine indicators of the dynamics of accumulation and removal of contrast agents by brain tumors in MRI technique with dynamic contrast and identify opportunities of this method in the differential diagnosis of various types of tumors. PMID:23814831

Panfilenko, A F; Iakovlev, S A; Pozdniakov, A V; Tiumin, L A; Shcherbuk, A Iu

2013-01-01

20

Layer-Specific Manganese-Enhanced MRI of the Retina in Light and Dark Adaptation  

E-print Network

Retina Layer-Specific Manganese-Enhanced MRI of the Retina in Light and Dark Adaptation Bryan H. De manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) to image layer-specific changes in calcium-dependent activities in the rat retina have also been demonstrated. Functional manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI)20,21 has also been used

Duong, Timothy Q.

21

Inflammatory hepatocellular adenomas can mimic focal nodular hyperplasia on gadoxetic Acid-enhanced MRI.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. Inflammatory hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is a recently categorized entity of hepatocellular neoplasms. We investigated whether gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI can distinguish inflammatory HCA from focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). MATERIALS AND METHODS. From January 1, 2009, through January 1, 2013, gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI examinations from two institutions were reviewed for HCA, with specific histologic features of inflammatory HCA. Biopsy and resection slides were reviewed, and immunohistochemistry for glutamine synthetase was performed in a subset to confirm the initial diagnosis. RESULTS. A total of 10 possible cases of inflammatory HCA were identified in the pathology database. On the basis of glutamine synthetase staining performed for this study, three cases were rediagnosed as FNH and thus were excluded from the study. Therefore, a total of seven patients with inflammatory HCA were identified. On gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI, four of these patients had classic features of FNH (group A, FNH mimics), and three had imaging features suggestive of HCA (group B, typical inflammatory HCA). Imaging features that were considered diagnostic of FNH included isointense or minimal T2 hyperintensity, arterial enhancement, and diffuse hyperintensity on hepatobiliary phase. Three of the four patients with FNH mimics had slides available for pathologic rereview, and the diagnosis of inflammatory HCA was supported by glutamine synthetase immunohistochemistry findings. The pathology reports of the remaining four cases were rereviewed and were also found to have features consistent with inflammatory HCA. CONCLUSION. Inflammatory HCA can mimic FNH on MRI, including hepatobiliary phase hyperintensity. Moreover, conventional pathology using histopathology alone may lead to misclassification of inflammatory HCA. PMID:25055198

Agarwal, Sheela; Fuentes-Orrego, Jorge M; Arnason, Thomas; Misdraji, Joseph; Jhaveri, Kartik S; Harisinghani, Mukesh; Hahn, Peter F

2014-10-01

22

Dynamic oxygen-enhanced MRI of cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed

Oxygen causes an increase in the longitudinal relaxation rate of tissues through its T1-shortening effect owing to its paramagnetic properties. Due to such effects, MRI has been used to study oxygen-related signal intensity changes in various body parts including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space. Oxygen enhancement of CSF has been mainly studied using MRI sequences with relatively longer time resolution such as FLAIR, and T1 value calculation. In this study, fifteen healthy volunteers were scanned using fast advanced spin echo MRI sequence with and without inversion recovery pulse in order to dynamically track oxygen enhancement of CSF. We also focused on the differences of oxygen enhancement at sulcal and ventricular CSF. Our results revealed that CSF signal after administration of oxygen shows rapid signal increase in both sulcal CSF and ventricular CSF on both sequences, with statistically significant predominant increase in sulcal CSF compared with ventricular CSF. CSF is traditionally thought to mainly form from the choroid plexus in the ventricles and is absorbed at the arachnoid villi, however, it is also believed that cerebral arterioles contribute to the production and absorption of CSF, and controversy remains in terms of the precise mechanism. Our results demonstrated rapid oxygen enhancement in sulcal CSF, which may suggest inhaled oxygen may diffuse into sulcal CSF space rapidly probably due to the abundance of pial arterioles on the brain sulci. PMID:24956198

Mehemed, Taha M; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Okada, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Akira; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Kido, Aki; Fujimoto, Koji; Sakashita, Naotaka; Togashi, Kaori

2014-01-01

23

High-resolution conjunctival contrast-enhanced MRI dacryocystography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed high-resolution MRI of the lacrimal system with conjunctival contrast enhancement in patients with suspected\\u000a stenosis. We studied 18 patients with epiphora affecting 22 eyes, using a surface coil, before and after conjunctival and\\u000a intravenous Gd-DTPA. Stenosis or obstruction of the ducts was found in 18 of 22 cases: at canalicular level in 3 cases, at\\u000a the sac in

K. T. Hoffmann; N. Hosten; N. Anders; C. Stroszczynski; T. Liebig; C. Hartmann; R. Felix

1999-01-01

24

Consensus Recommendation for Acquisition of Dynamic Contrasted-Enhanced MRI Data in Oncology  

Cancer.gov

Establish minimum requirements for standardized data acquisition for oncologic applications of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) to allow integration of data from different institutions and comparison of various approaches for data analysis.

25

Gadofluorine M-enhanced MRI shows involvement of circumventricular organs in neuroinflammation  

PubMed Central

Background Circumventricular organs (CVO) are cerebral areas with incomplete endothelial blood-brain barrier (BBB) and therefore regarded as "gates to the brain". During inflammation, they may exert an active role in determining immune cell recruitment into the brain. Methods In a longitudinal study we investigated in vivo alterations of CVO during neuroinflammation, applying Gadofluorine M- (Gf) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. SJL/J mice were monitored by Gadopentate dimeglumine- (Gd-DTPA) and Gf-enhanced MRI after adoptive transfer of proteolipid-protein-specific T cells. Mean Gf intensity ratios were calculated individually for different CVO and correlated to the clinical disease course. Subsequently, the tissue distribution of fluorescence-labeled Gf as well as the extent of cellular inflammation was assessed in corresponding histological slices. Results We could show that the Gf signal intensity of the choroid plexus, the subfornicular organ and the area postrema increased significantly during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, correlating with (1) disease severity and (2) the delay of disease onset after immunization. For the choroid plexus, the extent of Gf enhancement served as a diagnostic criterion to distinguish between diseased and healthy control mice with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 80%. Furthermore, Gf improved the detection of lesions, being particularly sensitive to optic neuritis. In correlated histological slices, Gf initially accumulated in the extracellular matrix surrounding inflammatory foci and was subsequently incorporated by macrophages/microglia. Conclusion Gf-enhanced MRI provides a novel highly sensitive technique to study cerebral BBB alterations. We demonstrate for the first time in vivo the involvement of CVO during the development of neuroinflammation. PMID:20955604

2010-01-01

26

A Rim-Enhanced Mass with Central Cystic Changes on MR Imaging: How to Distinguish Breast Cancer from Inflammatory Breast Diseases?  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the capacity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to distinguish breast cancer from inflammatory breast diseases manifesting as a rim-enhanced mass with central cystic changes. Materials and Methods Forty cases of breast cancer and 52 of inflammatory breast diseases showing a rim-enhanced mass with central cystic changes were retrospectively reviewed. All cases underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and 31 of them underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Morphological features, dynamic parameters and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were comparatively analyzed using univariate analysis and binary logistic regression analysis. Results Breast cancer had a significantly thicker wall than the inflammatory breast diseases (P<0.001) while internal enhancing septa were more common in inflammatory breast diseases (P?=?0.003). On DWI, 86.7% of breast cancers demonstrate a peripheral hyperintensity whereas 93.8% of inflammatory breast diseases had a central hyperintensity (P<0.001). Compared to the inflammatory breast diseases, breast cancers had a lower ADC value for the wall (1.09×10?3 mm2/s vs 1.42×10?3 mm2/s, P<0.001) and a higher ADC value for the central part (1.94×10?3 mm2/s vs 1.05×10?3 mm2/s, P<0.001). Conclusions Both breast cancer and inflammatory breast diseases could present as a rim-enhanced mass with central cystic changes on MRI. Integrated analysis of the MR findings can allow for an accurate differential diagnosis. PMID:24598845

Wang, Lijun; Wang, Dengbin; Fei, Xiaochun; Ruan, Mei; Chai, Weimin; Xu, Lin; Li, Xiaoxiao

2014-01-01

27

Tumor Microenvironment Identification In Vivo using Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI  

Cancer.gov

The microenvironment in solid tumors is characterized by inadequate and heterogeneous perfusion, hyper-permeable vasculature, hypoxia, acidic extracellular pH, and nutrient deprivation. Hypoxic tumors, often associated with a more aggressive tumor phenotype, are more resistant to chemo- or radiation therapy than well-vascularized, well-oxygenated tumors. We present an approach to identify areas of tumor hypoxia using the signal-versus-time curves of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) data as a surrogate marker of hypoxia.

28

2009 Spring : Distinguished Honors Distinguished  

E-print Network

-Grillon Leila Julie Distinguished Amin Puja J Distinguished Amundson Ian Vincent Distinguished Anderson Felicia Distinguished Anderson Lawren E Distinguished Andrew James Benjamin Distinguished Antonoplos Patricia Marie Todd Distinguished Bolton Eric W Distinguished Bonnoitt Courtney Saunders Distinguished Booros Martha

Kasman, Alex

29

2009 Fall : Distinguished Honors Distinguished  

E-print Network

Merve Distinguished Albia Nathaniel J Distinguished Allen Daniel Patterson Distinguished Allen Emily M Antonovich Devin D Distinguished Arnold Dana M Distinguished Arp Emily Anne Distinguished Atkins Katherine Elizabeth Distinguished Boggs Emily Christine Distinguished Bond Logan Willis Distinguished Borgeson Chelsea

Kasman, Alex

30

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI Evaluation of Cerebral Cavernous Malformations  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the behavior of CNS cavernous malformations (CCMs) using a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCEMRI) technique sensitive for slow transfer rates of gadolinium. The prospective study was approved by the institutional review board and was HIPPA compliant. Written informed consent was obtained from 14 subjects with familial CCMs (4 men and 10 women, ages 22–76 years, mean 48.1 years). Following routine anatomic MRI of the brain, DCEMRI was performed for six slices, using T1 mapping with partial inversion recovery (TAPIR) to calculate T1 values, following administration of 0.025 mmol/kg gadolinium DTPA. The transfer rate (Ki) was calculated using the Patlak model, and Ki within CCMs was compared to normal-appearing white matter as well as to 17 normal control subjects previously studied. All subjects had typical MRI appearance of CCMs. Thirty-nine CCMs were studied using DCEMRI. Ki was low or normal in 12 lesions and elevated from 1.4 to 12 times higher than background in the remaining 27 lesions. Ki ranged from 2.1E–6 to 9.63E–4 min?1, mean 3.55E–4. Normal-appearing white matter in the CCM patients had a mean Ki of 1.57E–4, not statistically different from mean WM Ki of 1.47E–4 in controls. TAPIR-based DCEMRI technique permits quantifiable assessment of CCMs in vivo and reveals considerable differences not seen with conventional MRI. Potential applications include correlation with biologic behavior such as lesion growth or hemorrage, and measurement of drug effects. PMID:24323376

Hart, B. L.; Taheri, S.; Rosenberg, G. A.; Morrison, L. A.

2013-01-01

31

Gadolinium-DOTA enhanced MRI of painful osseous crises in children with sickle cell anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the role of gadolinium-DOTA enhanced MRI in the management of painful osseous crises in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA), nine children with SCA underwent MRI, bone scans and ultrasonographic studies during 11 osseous crises. Imaging findings were compared with the final diagnosis: three acute osteomyelitis (AO) and 16 acute infarcts (AI). MRI could not differentiate

V. Bonnerot; G. Sebag; M. de Montalembert; M. Wioland; C. Glorion; R. Girot; D. Lallemand

1994-01-01

32

2014 Spring : Distinguished Honors Distinguished  

E-print Network

Distinguished Adams Martha Ann Distinguished Ades-Lawlor Olivia Pearl Distinguished Adington Holly Lynn Shane Distinguished Amireh Maisa Distinguished Anderson Leah Ellen Distinguished Anderson William

Kasman, Alex

33

2010 Spring : Distinguished Honors Distinguished  

E-print Network

Ingelsby Distinguished Calhoun Stacy Michelle Distinguished Campbell Brian Joseph Distinguished Campbell Distinguished Brichler Laura E Distinguished Brinkley Joseph Lee Distinguished Brock James Mitchell

Kasman, Alex

34

2011 Fall : Distinguished Honors Distinguished  

E-print Network

Christopher Distinguished Berger Matthew Gregory Distinguished Bergvist Luke Alan Distinguished Bertsche Haley Distinguished Calder Allison Jeanette Distinguished Callaham Chloe Elizabeth Distinguished Cameron Allie Louise

Kasman, Alex

35

Differentiation of solid pancreatic tumors by using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distinguishing among different solid pancreatic tumor types, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), and solid pseudopapillary tumors (SPTs) is important, as the treatment options are vastly different. This study compared characteristics of solid pancreatic tumors by using dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fifty patients underwent MR imaging of pancreatic masses with a histopathology that was later confirmed as an adenocarcinoma (n = 27), a NET (n = 16), and a SPT (n = 7). For qualitative analysis, two reviewers evaluated the morphologic features of the tumors: locations, margins, shapes, contained products, pancreatic ductal dilatation, and grade of signal intensity (SI). For the quantitative analysis, all phases of the MR images were co-registered using proprietary image registration software; thus, a region of interest (ROI) defined on one phase could be re-applied in other phases. The following four ratios were considered: tumor-to-uninvolved pancreas SI ratio, percent SI change, tumor-touninvolved pancreas enhancement index, and arterial-to-delayed washout rate. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were assessed for the four ratios. Adenocarcinomas had ill-defined margins, irregular shapes, and ductal dilatation compared with NETs and SPTs (P < 0.001). The tumor-to-uninvolved pancreas ratio on all dynamic phases was significantly higher for NETs than for both adenocarcinomas and SPTs (P < 0.05). Percentage SI changes of pancreatic tumors on the pancreatic and the portal venous phases were significantly higher for NETs than for both adenocarcinomas and SPTs (P < 0.05). A significant difference between NETs and adenocarcinomas was also found with respect to the tumor-to-uninvolved pancreas enhancement index and arterial-to-delayed washout rate. The percentage SI changes in the pancreatic phase and the arterial-to-delayed washout rate best distinguished between adenocarcinomas and NETs with the area under the ROC curve being 0.87. The percentage SI changes in the pancreatic and the portal venous phases best distinguished between NETs and SPTs with area under the ROC curve 0.87. In summary, contrast-enhanced MRI can be useful in differentiating solid pancreatic tumors in qualitative and quantitative analyses.

Choi, Seung Joon; Kim, Hyung Sik; Park, Hyunjin

2014-01-01

36

2010 Fall : Distinguished Honors Distinguished  

E-print Network

Virginia Distinguished Adams April Lynn Distinguished Adams Bobbi Susanne Distinguished Adams Hannah Distinguished Bowen Meredith Ann Distinguished Bowers Elizabeth Campbell Distinguished Bramblett Kate Lauren_NAME MIDDLE_NAME HONORS Brittan Taylor Distinguished Bromley Jordan Aaron Distinguished Brooks James Thomason

Kasman, Alex

37

2012 Spring : Distinguished Honors Distinguished  

E-print Network

Bailey Margaret Mackinnon Distinguished Baker Katherine Brennan Distinguished Baker Sarah Adrian Distinguished Baker-Whitcomb Annalise Frances Distinguished Bannister Shayna Rachel Distinguished Barber Zachary Distinguished Carrig Emily Anne Distinguished Carroll Kathryn Josephine Distinguished Carron Stephen Christopher

Kasman, Alex

38

Mammographic density, MRI background parenchymal enhancement and breast cancer risk.  

PubMed

Mammographic density (MD), representing connective and epithelial tissue (fibroglandular tissue, FGT) is a major risk factor for breast cancer. In an analysis of an autopsy series (Bartow SA, Pathak DR, Mettler FA. Radiographic microcalcification and parenchymal patterns as indicators of histologic "high-risk" benign breast disease. Cancer 1990; 66: 1721-1725, Bartow SA, Pathak DR, Mettler FA et al. Breast mammographic pattern: a concatenation of confounding and breast cancer risk factors. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 142: 813-819), MD was found to be strongly correlated with the collagen and epithelial content of the breast (Li T, Sun L, Miller N et al. The association of measured breast tissue characteristics with MD and other risk factors for breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14: 343-349), and another report showed that breast epithelium was highly concentrated in the areas of collagen concentration (Hawes D, Downey S, Pearce CL et al. Dense breast stromal tissue shows greatly increased concentration of breast epithelium but no increase in its proliferative activity. Breast Cancer Res 2006; 8: R24). Collagen comprises the overwhelming majority of the FGT, occupying an area on the slides obtained from the autopsy series some 15 times the area of glandular tissue. The relationship of MD with breast cancer risk appears likely to be due to a major extent to increasing epithelial cell numbers with increasing MD. FGT is also seen in breast magnetic resonance imaging (breast MRI) and, as expected, it has been shown that this measure of FGT (MRI-FGT) is highly correlated with MD. A contrast-enhanced breast MRI shows that normal FGT 'enhances' (background parenchymal enhancement, BPE) after contrast agent is administered(Morris EA. Diagnostic breast MR imaging: current status and future directions. Radiol Clin North Am 2007; 45: 863-880, vii., Kuhl C. The current status of breast MR imaging. Part I. Choice of technique, image interpretation, diagnostic accuracy, and transfer to clinical practice. Radiology 2007; 244: 356-378), and a recent study suggests that BPE is also a major breast cancer risk factor, possibly as important as, and independent of MD (King V, Brooks JD, Bernstein JL et al. BPE at breast MR imaging and breast cancer risk. Radiology 2011; 260: 50-60). BPE is much more sensitive to the effects of menopause and tamoxifen than is FGT (King V, Gu Y, Kaplan JB et al. Impact of menopausal status on BPE and fibroglandular tissue on breast MRI. Eur Radiol 2012; 22: 2641-2647, King V, Kaplan J, Pike MC et al. Impact of tamoxifen on amount of fibroglandular tissue, BPE, and cysts on breast MRI. Breast J 2012; 18: 527-534). Changes in MD and BPE may be most useful in predicting response to chemopreventive agents aimed at blocking breast cell proliferation. More study of the biological basis of the effects of MD and BPE is needed if we are to fully exploit these factors in developing chemopreventive approaches to breast cancer. PMID:24131968

Pike, M C; Pearce, C L

2013-11-01

39

Mammographic density, MRI background parenchymal enhancement and breast cancer risk  

PubMed Central

Mammographic density (MD), representing connective and epithelial tissue (fibroglandular tissue, FGT) is a major risk factor for breast cancer. In an analysis of an autopsy series (Bartow SA, Pathak DR, Mettler FA. Radiographic microcalcification and parenchymal patterns as indicators of histologic “high-risk” benign breast disease. Cancer 1990; 66: 1721–1725, Bartow SA, Pathak DR, Mettler FA et al. Breast mammographic pattern: a concatenation of confounding and breast cancer risk factors. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 142: 813–819), MD was found to be strongly correlated with the collagen and epithelial content of the breast (Li T, Sun L, Miller N et al. The association of measured breast tissue characteristics with MD and other risk factors for breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14: 343–349), and another report showed that breast epithelium was highly concentrated in the areas of collagen concentration (Hawes D, Downey S, Pearce CL et al. Dense breast stromal tissue shows greatly increased concentration of breast epithelium but no increase in its proliferative activity. Breast Cancer Res 2006; 8: R24). Collagen comprises the overwhelming majority of the FGT, occupying an area on the slides obtained from the autopsy series some 15 times the area of glandular tissue. The relationship of MD with breast cancer risk appears likely to be due to a major extent to increasing epithelial cell numbers with increasing MD. FGT is also seen in breast magnetic resonance imaging (breast MRI) and, as expected, it has been shown that this measure of FGT (MRI-FGT) is highly correlated with MD. A contrast-enhanced breast MRI shows that normal FGT ‘enhances’ (background parenchymal enhancement, BPE) after contrast agent is administered(Morris EA. Diagnostic breast MR imaging: current status and future directions. Radiol Clin North Am 2007; 45: 863–880, vii., Kuhl C. The current status of breast MR imaging. Part I. Choice of technique, image interpretation, diagnostic accuracy, and transfer to clinical practice. Radiology 2007; 244: 356–378), and a recent study suggests that BPE is also a major breast cancer risk factor, possibly as important as, and independent of MD (King V, Brooks JD, Bernstein JL et al. BPE at breast MR imaging and breast cancer risk. Radiology 2011; 260: 50–60). BPE is much more sensitive to the effects of menopause and tamoxifen than is FGT (King V, Gu Y, Kaplan JB et al. Impact of menopausal status on BPE and fibroglandular tissue on breast MRI. Eur Radiol 2012; 22: 2641–2647, King V, Kaplan J, Pike MC et al. Impact of tamoxifen on amount of fibroglandular tissue, BPE, and cysts on breast MRI. Breast J 2012; 18: 527–534). Changes in MD and BPE may be most useful in predicting response to chemopreventive agents aimed at blocking breast cell proliferation. More study of the biological basis of the effects of MD and BPE is needed if we are to fully exploit these factors in developing chemopreventive approaches to breast cancer. PMID:24131968

Pike, M. C.; Pearce, C. L.

2013-01-01

40

Original Research Manganese-Enhanced MRI in a Rat Model of  

E-print Network

Original Research Manganese-Enhanced MRI in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease Galit Pelled, PhD,1-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) Parkinson dis- ease rat model in order to test the BG interhemispheric connectivity, in line with clinical symptoms. Key Words: manganese-enhanced MRI; Parkinson's dis- ease; 6

Friedman, Nir

41

Contrast-enhanced MRI in acute optic neuritis: relationship to visual performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The location and extent of an abnormal signal on MRI of the optic nerve affected by optic neuritis are said to correlate with the severity of initial visual loss and recovery. We used gadolinium-enhanced fat-suppressed MRI to show abnormal enhancement of the optic nerve to determine the sensitivity of this modality in acute optic neuritis and whether the abnormal

Mark J. Kupersmith; Therese Alban; Barbara Zeiffer; Daniel Lefton

2002-01-01

42

Use of iron colloid-enhanced MRI for study of acute radiation-induced hepatic injury  

SciTech Connect

We present a case with acute radiation-induced hepatic injury using chondroitin sulfate iron colloid (CSIC)-enhanced MRI. Uptake of CSIC was decreased in the irradiated portion of the liver. CSIC-enhanced MRI is useful for obtaining information on the function of the reticuloendothelial system and demarcates between irradiated and nonirradiated zones. 18 refs., 3 figs

Suto, Yuji; Ametani, Masaki; Kato, Takashi; Hashimoto, Masayuki; Kamba, Masayuki; Sugihara, Syuji; Ohta, Yoshio [Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)] [Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)

1996-03-01

43

Differentiation of Breast Cancer from Fibroadenoma with Dual-Echo Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI) of the breast is a routinely used imaging method which is highly sensitive for detecting breast malignancy. Specificity, though, remains suboptimal. Dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC MRI), an alternative dynamic contrast imaging technique, evaluates perfusion-related parameters unique from DCE MRI. Previous work has shown that the combination of DSC MRI with DCE MRI can improve diagnostic specificity, though an additional administration of intravenous contrast is required. Dual-echo MRI can measure both T1W DCE MRI and T2*W DSC MRI parameters with a single contrast bolus, but has not been previously implemented in breast imaging. We have developed a dual-echo gradient-echo sequence to perform such simultaneous measurements in the breast, and use it to calculate the semi-quantitative T1W and T2*W related parameters such as peak enhancement ratio, time of maximal enhancement, regional blood flow, and regional blood volume in 20 malignant lesions and 10 benign fibroadenomas in 38 patients. Imaging parameters were compared to surgical or biopsy obtained tissue samples. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under the ROC curves were calculated for each parameter and combination of parameters. The time of maximal enhancement derived from DCE MRI had a 90% sensitivity and 69% specificity for predicting malignancy. When combined with DSC MRI derived regional blood flow and volume parameters, sensitivity remained unchanged at 90% but specificity increased to 80%. In conclusion, we show that dual-echo MRI with a single administration of contrast agent can simultaneously measure both T1W and T2*W related perfusion and kinetic parameters in the breast and the combination of DCE MRI and DSC MRI parameters improves the diagnostic performance of breast MRI to differentiate breast cancer from benign fibroadenomas. PMID:23844077

Wang, Shiwei; DelProposto, Zachary; Wang, Haoyu; Ding, Xuewei; Ji, Conghua; Wang, Bei; Xu, Maosheng

2013-01-01

44

2008 Fall : Distinguished Honors Distinguished  

E-print Network

Rose Distinguished Arne Brian Alexander Distinguished Ashe Hannah A Distinguished Atkinson Caroline Legare Distinguished Atkinson Hope Elizabeth Distinguished Attard Nathan James Distinguished Bacon Carr Madison Alexandra Distinguished Carriere Michael

Kasman, Alex

45

78 FR 12329 - Distinguishing Medical Device Recalls From Product Enhancements; Reporting Requirements; Draft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...FDA-2013-D-0114] Distinguishing Medical Device Recalls From Product...Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration...SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration...entitled ``Distinguishing Medical Device Recalls From...

2013-02-22

46

ERK'2007, Portoroz, B:191-194 191 Motion correction of contrast-enhanced MRI time series of kidney  

E-print Network

ERK'2007, Portoroz, B:191-194 191 Motion correction of contrast-enhanced MRI time series of kidney In this paper we focus on motion correction of contrast enhanced kidney MRI time series, which is an important: motion correction, image registration, contrast-enhanced MRI. 1 Introduction The kidneys maintain normal

Kovacic, Stanislav

47

Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement  

E-print Network

Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement Vasilis agents MRI coregistration Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) in the near-infrared (NIR) is an emerging 19104-6089 Contributed by Britton Chance, December 23, 1999 We present quantitative optical images

Yodh, Arjun G.

48

Bilateral lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts: Gd-enhanced MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of bilateral synovial cysts at L4–L5 level, examined by myelography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). On myelography, the lesions appeared as extradural masses. On CT, the lesions were cystic, with calcifiedd walls and were in close proximity to the facet joints. On MRI, the cystic nature of the lesions was confirmed. The wall

G. Wilms; L. Hufkens; J. Morlion; P. Demaerel; F. Van Calenbergh; F. Weyns; J. Goffin

1993-01-01

49

Ultrafast 3D spin-echo acquisition improves Gadolinium-enhanced MRI signal contrast enhancement  

PubMed Central

Long scan times of 3D volumetric MR acquisitions usually necessitate ultrafast in vivo gradient-echo acquisitions, which are intrinsically susceptible to magnetic field inhomogeneities. This is especially problematic for contrast-enhanced (CE)-MRI applications, where non-negligible T2* effect of contrast agent deteriorates the positive signal contrast and limits the available range of MR acquisition parameters and injection doses. To overcome these shortcomings without degrading temporal resolution, ultrafast spin-echo acquisitions were implemented. Specifically, a multiplicative acceleration factor from multiple spin echoes (×32) and compressed sensing (CS) sampling (×8) allowed highly-accelerated 3D Multiple-Modulation-Multiple-Echo (MMME) acquisition. At the same time, the CE-MRI of kidney with Gd-DOTA showed significantly improved signal enhancement for CS-MMME acquisitions (×7) over that of corresponding FLASH acquisitions (×2). Increased positive contrast enhancement and highly accelerated acquisition of extended volume with reduced RF irradiations will be beneficial for oncological and nephrological applications, in which the accurate in vivo 3D quantification of contrast agent concentration is necessary with high temporal resolution. PMID:24863102

Han, S. H.; Cho, F. H.; Song, Y. K.; Paulsen, J.; Song, Y. Q.; Kim, Y. R.; Kim, J. K.; Cho, G.; Cho, H.

2014-01-01

50

Ultrafast 3D spin-echo acquisition improves Gadolinium-enhanced MRI signal contrast enhancement.  

PubMed

Long scan times of 3D volumetric MR acquisitions usually necessitate ultrafast in vivo gradient-echo acquisitions, which are intrinsically susceptible to magnetic field inhomogeneities. This is especially problematic for contrast-enhanced (CE)-MRI applications, where non-negligible T2* effect of contrast agent deteriorates the positive signal contrast and limits the available range of MR acquisition parameters and injection doses. To overcome these shortcomings without degrading temporal resolution, ultrafast spin-echo acquisitions were implemented. Specifically, a multiplicative acceleration factor from multiple spin echoes (×32) and compressed sensing (CS) sampling (×8) allowed highly-accelerated 3D Multiple-Modulation-Multiple-Echo (MMME) acquisition. At the same time, the CE-MRI of kidney with Gd-DOTA showed significantly improved signal enhancement for CS-MMME acquisitions (×7) over that of corresponding FLASH acquisitions (×2). Increased positive contrast enhancement and highly accelerated acquisition of extended volume with reduced RF irradiations will be beneficial for oncological and nephrological applications, in which the accurate in vivo 3D quantification of contrast agent concentration is necessary with high temporal resolution. PMID:24863102

Han, S H; Cho, F H; Song, Y K; Paulsen, J; Song, Y Q; Kim, Y R; Kim, J K; Cho, G; Cho, H

2014-01-01

51

Emerging role of contrast-enhanced MRI in diagnosing vascular malformations.  

PubMed

Vascular malformations comprise a diverse and rare group of lesions which generally pose a formidable treatment challenge. Requisite for optimal surgical planning are imaging modalities capable of delineating involved anatomy and malformation flow characteristics. In this regard, we and others have purported the advantages of contrast-enhanced MRI. Here, we review the current body of literature regarding the emerging of role of contrast enhanced MRI for the management of vascular malformations. PMID:25301311

Turley, Ryan S; Lidsky, Michael E; Markovic, Jovan N; Shortell, Cynthia K

2014-07-01

52

Gadolinium-enhanced preoperative MRI scans as a prognostic parameter in scaphoid nonunion.  

PubMed

The purpose of this prospective study was to correlate preoperative gadolinium-enhanced MRI scans with intraoperative bleeding of the proximal fragment and postoperative union in a series of consecutive patients with established scaphoid nonunions. In 60 patients (6 females, 54 males) with a mean age of 29 years, scaphoid perfusion was judged preoperatively as normal, impaired or absent using a gadolinium-enhanced MRI scan. Scaphoid reconstruction was performed using a nonvascularized bone graft and screw fixation. Perfusion of the proximal fragment was assessed intraoperatively in 49 of 60 patients; compromised or absent vascularity was predicted with a specificity of 90% by contrast-enhanced MRI. However, there was no significant correlation between preoperative MRI assessment of vascularity and subsequent union of the scaphoid. PMID:20621936

Megerle, K; Worg, H; Christopoulos, G; Schmitt, R; Krimmer, H

2011-01-01

53

In vivo visuotopic brain mapping with manganese-enhanced MRI and resting-state functional connectivity MRI.  

PubMed

The rodents are an increasingly important model for understanding the mechanisms of development, plasticity, functional specialization and disease in the visual system. However, limited tools have been available for assessing the structural and functional connectivity of the visual brain network globally, in vivo and longitudinally. There are also ongoing debates on whether functional brain connectivity directly reflects structural brain connectivity. In this study, we explored the feasibility of manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) via 3 different routes of Mn(2+) administration for visuotopic brain mapping and understanding of physiological transport in normal and visually deprived adult rats. In addition, resting-state functional connectivity MRI (RSfcMRI) was performed to evaluate the intrinsic functional network and structural-functional relationships in the corresponding anatomical visual brain connections traced by MEMRI. Upon intravitreal, subcortical, and intracortical Mn(2+) injection, different topographic and layer-specific Mn enhancement patterns could be revealed in the visual cortex and subcortical visual nuclei along retinal, callosal, cortico-subcortical, transsynaptic and intracortical horizontal connections. Loss of visual input upon monocular enucleation to adult rats appeared to reduce interhemispheric polysynaptic Mn(2+) transfer but not intra- or inter-hemispheric monosynaptic Mn(2+) transport after Mn(2+) injection into visual cortex. In normal adults, both structural and functional connectivity by MEMRI and RSfcMRI was stronger interhemispherically between bilateral primary/secondary visual cortex (V1/V2) transition zones (TZ) than between V1/V2 TZ and other cortical nuclei. Intrahemispherically, structural and functional connectivity was stronger between visual cortex and subcortical visual nuclei than between visual cortex and other subcortical nuclei. The current results demonstrated the sensitivity of MEMRI and RSfcMRI for assessing the neuroarchitecture, neurophysiology and structural-functional relationships of the visual brains in vivo. These may possess great potentials for effective monitoring and understanding of the basic anatomical and functional connections in the visual system during development, plasticity, disease, pharmacological interventions and genetic modifications in future studies. PMID:24394694

Chan, Kevin C; Fan, Shu-Juan; Chan, Russell W; Cheng, Joe S; Zhou, Iris Y; Wu, Ed X

2014-04-15

54

Major mouse placental compartments revealed by diffusion-weighted MRI, contrast-enhanced MRI, and fluorescence imaging.  

PubMed

Mammalian models, and mouse studies in particular, play a central role in our understanding of placental development. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be a valuable tool to further these studies, providing both structural and functional information. As fluid dynamics throughout the placenta are driven by a variety of flow and diffusion processes, diffusion-weighted MRI could enhance our understanding of the exchange properties of maternal and fetal blood pools--and thereby of placental function. These studies, however, have so far been hindered by the small sizes, the unavoidable motions, and the challenging air/water/fat heterogeneities, associated with mouse placental environments. The present study demonstrates that emerging methods based on the spatiotemporal encoding (SPEN) of the MRI information can robustly overcome these obstacles. Using SPEN MRI in combination with albumin-based contrast agents, we analyzed the diffusion behavior of developing placentas in a cohort of mice. These studies successfully discriminated the maternal from the fetal blood flows; the two orders of magnitude differences measured in these fluids' apparent diffusion coefficients suggest a nearly free diffusion behavior for the former and a strong flow-based component for the latter. An intermediate behavior was observed by these methods for a third compartment that, based on maternal albumin endocytosis, was associated with trophoblastic cells in the interphase labyrinth. Structural features associated with these dynamic measurements were consistent with independent intravital and ex vivo fluorescence microscopy studies and are discussed within the context of the anatomy of developing mouse placentas. PMID:24969421

Solomon, Eddy; Avni, Reut; Hadas, Ron; Raz, Tal; Garbow, Joel Richard; Bendel, Peter; Frydman, Lucio; Neeman, Michal

2014-07-15

55

Glucose Administration Enhances fMRI Brain Activation and Connectivity Related to Episodic Memory Encoding for Neutral and Emotional Stimuli  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Glucose enhances memory in a variety of species. In humans, glucose administration enhances episodic memory encoding, although little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying these effects. Here we examined whether elevating blood glucose would enhance functional MRI (fMRI) activation and connectivity in brain regions associated with…

Parent, Marise B.; Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Ryan, John P.; Wilson, Jennifer S.; Harenski, Carla; Hamann, Stephan

2011-01-01

56

Mathematical models of visual category learning enhance fMRI data analysis Emi M Nomura (e-nomura@northwestern.edu)  

E-print Network

Mathematical models of visual category learning enhance fMRI data analysis Emi M Nomura (e can begin to make the connection between behavior and neural activity. Here we collected fMRI data enabled us to better organize the fMRI data according to the actual strategy employed. Keywords

Maddox, W. Todd

57

Enhanced basal and disorderly growth hormone secretion distinguish acromegalic from normal pulsatile growth hormone release.  

PubMed Central

Pulses of growth hormone (GH) release in acromegaly may arise from hypothalamic regulation or from random events intrinsic to adenomatous tissue. To distinguish between these possibilities, serum GH concentrations were measured at 5-min intervals for 24 h in acromegalic men and women with active (n = 19) and inactive (n = 9) disease and in normal young adults in the fed (n = 20) and fasted (n = 16) states. Daily GH secretion rates, calculated by deconvolution analysis, were greater in patients with active acromegaly than in fed (P < 0.05) but not fasted normal subjects. Significant basal (nonpulsatile) GH secretion was present in virtually all active acromegalics but not those in remission or in fed and fasted normal subjects. A recently introduced scale- and model-independent statistic, approximate entropy (ApEn), was used to test for regularity (orderliness) in the GH data. All but one acromegalic had ApEn values greater than the absolute range in normal subjects, indicating reduced orderliness of GH release; ApEn distinguished acromegalic from normal GH secretion (fed, P < 10(-12); fasted, P < 10(-7)) with high sensitivity (95%) and specificity (100%). Acromegalics in remission had ApEn scores larger than those of normal subjects (P < 0.0001) but smaller than those of active acromegalics (P < 0.001). The coefficient of variation of successive incremental changes in GH concentrations was significantly lower in acromegalics than in normal subjects (P < 0.001). Fourier analysis in acromegalics revealed reduced fractional amplitudes compared to normal subjects (P < 0.05). We conclude that GH secretion in acromegaly is highly irregular with disorderly release accompanying significant basal secretion. Images PMID:8083369

Hartman, M L; Pincus, S M; Johnson, M L; Matthews, D H; Faunt, L M; Vance, M L; Thorner, M O; Veldhuis, J D

1994-01-01

58

Association between rim enhancement of breast cancer on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and patient outcome: impact of subtype.  

PubMed

The heterogeneous nature of breast cancer is represented by three breast cancer subtypes associated with different patient outcome. However, within subtypes, variations still exist. Additional stratification is necessary for more individualized therapy. Functional tumor characteristics on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI may play a role. Rim enhancement of breast cancers has been associated with unfavorable pathology characteristics in the context of outcome. However, existence of a direct link is unknown. The purpose was to retrospectively determine the association between rim enhancement on DCE-MRI and long-term patient outcome, and whether it has complementary value to subtype. Preoperative DCE-MRI was performed in 556 consecutive female patients who were eligible for breast-conserving therapy. Presence of rim enhancement was assessed. Tumor characteristics were derived from resection specimens. Patients were stratified according to subtype. Association was assessed between rim enhancement and patient, pathology and treatment characteristics, recurrence-free interval and invasive disease-free survival. Median follow-up was 84 months. Patients were stratified into ER-positive/HER2-negative (N = 416), HER2-positive (N = 75), or triple-negative (N = 65) subtypes. Rim enhancement was seen in 29.0 % (N = 161/556) of tumors and was associated with higher histologic grade, negative ER-status, and triple-negative subtype. Only within triple-negative tumors, an association was seen with outcome. Recurrence was lower in non-rim-enhancing tumors (N = 1/36; 2.8 %) compared to rim-enhancing tumors (N = 9/28; 32.1 %) (p = 0.001). Survival was higher in non-rim-enhancing tumors (N = 34/36; 94.4 %) compared to rim-enhancing tumors (N = 18/28; 64.3 %) (p = 0.001). Rim enhancement on DCE-MRI is associated with long-term outcome of patients with triple-negative breast cancer and may potentially serve as a prognostic biomarker in these patients. PMID:25376743

Schmitz, Alexander M Th; Loo, Claudette E; Wesseling, Jelle; Pijnappel, Ruud M; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G A

2014-12-01

59

MRI  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... body. To get the clearest picture, you should lie very still. Because an MRI uses a large magnet instead of x-rays, it is safer than other technologies for looking inside the body. However, because of the magnet, people who have metal of any kind implanted in ...

60

Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI-based biomarkers of therapeutic response in triple-negative breast cancer  

E-print Network

that targets the triple-negative subtype. Although neoadju- vant chemotherapy (NAC) improves rates of breastDynamic contrast-enhanced MRI-based biomarkers of therapeutic response in triple-negative breast patients to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using features derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI

Rubin, Daniel L.

61

[Two cases of testicular infarction: the usefulness of enhanced MRI for preoperative diagnosis].  

PubMed

The differential diagnosis in acute scrotum, particularly torsion of spermatic cord and epididymitis, is sometimes difficult. An erroneous diagnosis may result in unnecessary and improper treatment. We report two cases of testicular infarction including torsion of spermatic cord, preoperatively diagnosed by enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Case 1: A 16-year-old boy presented with a 3-day history of left scrotal swelling and left lower abdominal pain. He had fever and leukocytosis. Antibiotics for 2 days failed to relieve the symptoms. Enhanced MRI showed absence of blood flow in the left testis. Scrotal exploration revealed hemorrhage and necrosis in the left testis. Left orchiectomy and right orchiopexy were performed. Case 2: A 12-year-old boy visited with scrotal swelling and fever 30 hours after an acute onset of left scrotal pain. Enhanced MRI showed absence of blood flow in the left testis. Exploration revealed left necrotic testis with torsion of spermatic cord. Left orchiectomy and right orchiopexy were performed. Our two cases suggested that enhanced MRI, by which the intratesticular blood flow can be evaluated, may be useful for the diagnosis of testicular infarction. PMID:10331176

Ishizu, K; Shiraishi, K; Kawamura, H; Naito, K; Joko, K

1999-03-01

62

Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present quantitative optical images of human breast in vivo. The images were obtained by using near-infrared diffuse optical tomog- raphy (DOT) after the administration of indocyanine green (ICG) for contrast enhancement. The optical examination was performed con- currently with a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exam on patients scheduled for excisional biopsy or surgery so that accurate image coregistration and

Vasilis Ntziachristos; A. G. Yodh; Mitchell Schnall; Britton Chance

2000-01-01

63

2014 Spring : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished  

E-print Network

Distinguished Barth Lara Katharina Highly Distinguished Bartholomew Zak Henry Highly Distinguished Bartley Dylan Distinguished Berdusco Ann Marie Highly Distinguished Bergmann Isabel Lide Highly Distinguished Berman Logan

Kasman, Alex

64

Optic nerve MRI enhancement in posterior ischaemic optic neuropathy due to internal carotid artery dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posterior ischaemic neuropathy (PION) is characterized by infarction in the retrobulbar optic nerve. A 73-year-old man suddenly experienced blurred vision in his left eye and intermittent weakness in his right hand. He had visual defects of superior lateral quarter and inferior medial quarter areas in the left eye. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed segmental enhancement in the left optic

Kiyokazu Kawabe; Teturo Nagaoka; Hiroaki Iguchi; Ken Ikeda; Yasuo Iwasaki

2010-01-01

65

2008 Fall : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished  

E-print Network

Distinguished Altman Matthew Lee Highly Distinguished Ameli-Grillon Leila Julie Highly Distinguished Anderson Caroleanne Highly Distinguished Anderson Kathryn Paige Highly Distinguished Anderson Kimberly Susan Highly Distinguished Boone Hunter Boatwright Highly Distinguished Booros Martha Highly Distinguished Bowen Jonathan

Kasman, Alex

66

2009 Fall : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished  

E-print Network

Highly Distinguished Branch Paul G Highly Distinguished Bresler Rebecca Danielle Highly Distinguished Distinguished Amweg Kimber Marie Highly Distinguished Anderson Ashley L Highly Distinguished Anderson Kathryn Paige Highly Distinguished Anderson Kimberly Susan Highly Distinguished Anderson Laura Emily Highly

Kasman, Alex

67

2011 Fall : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished  

E-print Network

Daniel Patterson Highly Distinguished Allen Emily Elizabeth Highly Distinguished Allen Luke Montgomery Brittany Highly Distinguished Arp Emily Anne Highly Distinguished Ashe Katherine Lee Highly Distinguished Distinguished Bagwell Earlene Creedence Highly Distinguished Bagwell Emily Amanda Highly Distinguished Baier

Kasman, Alex

68

Neural Correlates of Feigned Memory Impairment are Distinguishable from Answering Randomly and Answering Incorrectly: An fMRI and Behavioral Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified activation in the prefrontal-parietal-sub-cortical circuit during feigned memory impairment when comparing with truthful telling. Here, we used fMRI to determine whether neural activity can differentiate between answering correctly, answering randomly, answering…

Liang, Chun-Yu; Xu, Zhi-Yuan; Mei, Wei; Wang, Li-Li; Xue, Li; Lu, De Jian; Zhao, Hu

2012-01-01

69

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) in Preclinical Studies of Antivascular Treatments  

PubMed Central

Antivascular treatments can either be antiangiogenic or targeting established tumour vasculature. These treatments affect the tumour microvasculature and microenvironment but may not change clinical measures like tumour volume and growth. In research on antivascular treatments, information on the tumour vasculature is therefore essential. Preclinical research is often used for optimization of antivascular drugs alone or in combined treatments. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is an in vivo imaging method providing vascular information, which has become an important tool in both preclinical and clinical research. This review discusses common DCE-MRI imaging protocols and analysis methods and provides an overview of preclinical research on antivascular treatments utilizing DCE-MRI. PMID:24300371

Nielsen, Thomas; Wittenborn, Thomas; Horsman, Michael R.

2012-01-01

70

Applications of optically detected MRI for enhanced contrast and penetration in metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report quantitative measurements using optically detected magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for enhanced pH contrast and flow inside porous metals. Using a gadolinium chelate as the pH contrast agent, we show the response is 0.6 s-1 mM-1 per pH unit at the ambient magnetic field for the pH range 6-8.5. A stopped flow scheme was used to directly measure T1 relaxation time to determine the relaxivity. Flow profiles and images were obtained for a series of porous metals with different average pore sizes. The signal amplitudes and spatial distributions were compared. A clogged region in one of the samples was revealed using optically detected MRI but not optical imaging or scanning electron microscopy. These applications will significantly broaden the impact of optically detected MRI in chemical imaging and materials research.

Ruangchaithaweesuk, Songtham; Yu, Dindi S.; Garcia, Nissa C.; Yao, Li; Xu, Shoujun

2012-10-01

71

Immobilized Contrast Enhanced (ICE) MRI: Gadolinium-based long-term MR Contrast Enhancement of the Vein Graft Vessel Wall*  

PubMed Central

An implantable MR contrast agent that can be covalently immobilized on tissue during surgery has been developed. The rationale is that a durable increase in tissue contrast using an implantable contrast agent can enhance post-surgical tissue differentiation using MRI. For small vessel (e.g., vein graft) MRI, the direct benefit of such permanent “labeling” of the vessel wall by modification of its relaxation properties is to achieve more efficient imaging. This efficiency can be realized as either increased contrast leading to more accurate delineation of vessel wall and lesion tissue boundaries, or, faster imaging without penalizing contrast-to-noise ratio, or a combination thereof. We demonstrate, for the first time, stable long-term MRI enhancement using such an exogenous contrast mechanism based on immobilizing a modified Gd-DTPA complex on a human vein using a covalent amide bond. Signal enhancement due to the covalently immobilized contrast agent is demonstrated for excised human vein specimens imaged at 3T, and its long-term stability is demonstrated during a 4-month incubation period. PMID:20859994

Mitsouras, Dimitris; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Yu, Peng; Tao, Ming; Nguyen, Binh T.; Campagna, Christina M.; Karp, Jeffrey M.; Mulkern, Robert V.; Ozaki, C. Keith; Rybicki, Frank J.

2010-01-01

72

Quantitative Evaluation of Enhancement Patterns in Focal Solid Liver Lesions with Gd-EOB-DTPA-Enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Purpose The objective was to investigate the dynamic enhancement patterns in focal solid liver lesions after the administration of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) by means of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including hepatobiliary phase (HP) images 20 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. Materials and Methods Non-enhanced T1/T2-weighted as well as dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) images during the arterial phase (AP), the portal venous phase (PVP), the late phase (LP), and the HP (20 min) were obtained from 83 patients (54 male, 29 female, mean age 62.01 years) with focal solid liver lesions. MRI was conducted by means of a 1.5-T system for 63 patients with malignant liver lesions (HCCs: n?=?34, metastases: n?=?29) and for 20 patients with benign liver lesions (FNH lesions: n?=?14, hemangiomas: n?=?3, adenomas: n?=?3). For quantitative analysis, signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), contrast enhancement ratios (CER), lesion-to-liver contrast ratios (LLC), and signal intensity (SI) ratios were measured. Results The SNR of liver parenchyma significantly increased in each dynamic phase after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration compared to the SNR of non-enhanced images (p<0.001). The CER of HCCs and metastases significantly decreased between LP and HP images (p?=?0.0011, p<0.0001). However, FNH lesions did not show any significant difference, whereas an increased CER was found in hemangiomas. The mean LLCs of FNH lesions were significantly higher than those of HCCs and metastases. The LLC values of hemangiomas remained negative during the entire time course, whereas the LLC of adenomas indicated hyperintensity from the AP to the LP. Furthermore, adenomas showed hypointensity in HP images. Conclusion Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI may help diagnose focal solid liver lesions by evaluating their enhancement patterns. PMID:24950259

Haimerl, Michael; Wächtler, Max; Zeman, Florian; Verloh, Niklas; Platzek, Ivan; Schreyer, Andreas Georg; Stroszczynski, Christian; Wiggermann, Philipp

2014-01-01

73

Assessment of blood-brain barrier disruption using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. A systematic review  

PubMed Central

There is increasing recognition of the importance of blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption in aging, dementia, stroke and multiple sclerosis in addition to more commonly-studied pathologies such as tumors. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is a method for studying BBB disruption in vivo. We review pathologies studied, scanning protocols and data analysis procedures to determine the range of available methods and their suitability to different pathologies. We systematically review the existing literature up to February 2014, seeking studies that assessed BBB integrity using T1-weighted DCE-MRI techniques in animals and humans in normal or abnormal brain tissues. The literature search provided 70 studies that were eligible for inclusion, involving 417 animals and 1564 human subjects in total. The pathologies most studied are intracranial neoplasms and acute ischemic strokes. There are large variations in the type of DCE-MRI sequence, the imaging protocols and the contrast agents used. Moreover, studies use a variety of different methods for data analysis, mainly based on model-free measurements and on the Patlak and Tofts models. Consequently, estimated KTrans values varied widely. In conclusion, DCE-MRI is shown to provide valuable information in a large variety of applications, ranging from common applications, such as grading of primary brain tumors, to more recent applications, such as assessment of subtle BBB dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. Further research is required in order to establish consensus-based recommendations for data acquisition and analysis and, hence, improve inter-study comparability and promote wider use of DCE-MRI. PMID:25379439

Heye, Anna K.; Culling, Ross D.; Valdes Hernandez, Maria del C.; Thrippleton, Michael J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

2014-01-01

74

Multifunctional nanoparticle platforms for in vivo MRI enhancement and photodynamic therapy of a rat brain cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A paradigm for brain cancer detection, treatment, and monitoring is established. Multifunctional biomedical nanoparticles (30–60nm) containing photosensitizer externally deliver reactive oxygen species (ROS) to cancer cells while simultaneously enhancing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast providing real-time tumor kill measurement. Plasma residence time control and specific cell targeting are achieved. A 5min treatment in rats halted and even reversed in vivo

Raoul Kopelman; Yong-Eun Lee Koo; Martin Philbert; Bradford A. Moffat; G. Ramachandra Reddy; Patrick McConville; Daniel E. Hall; Thomas L. Chenevert; Mahaveer Swaroop Bhojani; Sarah M. Buck; Alnawaz Rehemtulla; Brian D. Ross

2005-01-01

75

Targeted Multifunctional Nanoparticles cure and image Brain Tumors: Selective MRI Contrast Enhancement and Photodynamic Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aimed at targeted therapy and imaging of brain tumors, our approach uses targeted, multi-functional nano-particles (NP). A typical nano-particle contains a biologically inert, non-toxic matrix, biodegradable and bio-eliminable over a long time period. It also contains active components, such as fluorescent chemical indicators, photo-sensitizers, MRI contrast enhancement agents and optical imaging dyes. In addition, its surface contains molecular targeting units,

Raoul Kopelman

2008-01-01

76

Automatic Detection of Regional Heart Rejection in USPIO-Enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful to study the infiltration of cells in vivo. This research adopts ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles as contrast agents. USPIO particles administered intravenously can be endocytosed by circulating immune cells, in particular, macrophages. Hence, macrophages are labeled with USPIO particles. When a transplanted heart undergoes rejection, immune cells will infiltrate the allograft. Imaged by T2?- weighted MRI, USPIO-labeled macrophages display dark pixel intensities. Detecting these labeled cells in the image facilitates the identification of acute heart rejection. This paper develops a classifier to detect the presence of USPIO-labeled macrophages in the myocardium in the framework of spectral graph theory. First, we describe a USPIO-enhanced heart image with a graph. Classification becomes equivalent to partitioning the graph into two disjoint subgraphs. We use the Cheeger constant of the graph as an objective functional to derive the classifier. We represent the classifier as a linear combination of basis functions given from the spectral analysis of the graph Laplacian. Minimization of the Cheeger constant based functional leads to the optimal classifier. Experimental results and comparisons with other methods suggest the feasibility of our approach to study the rejection of hearts imaged by USPIO-enhanced MRI. PMID:18672427

Chang, Hsun-Hsien; Moura, Jose M. F.; Wu, Yijen L.; Ho, Chien

2008-01-01

77

Advanced MRI Techniques to Assess Sleep Deprivation Vulnerability among Soldiers and Potentially Enhance Performance with Real-Time Biofeedback.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NATO needs better methods of measuring and predicting human performance, as well as novel methods of training soldiers that might enhance performance. New breakthroughs with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) show promise in both areas. Rationale: Our group...

H. Downs, J. Caldwell, J. Carney, K. A. Johnson, M. S. George

2009-01-01

78

Value of gadolinium-enhanced MRI in detection of acute appendicitis in children and adolescents.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to determine both the value of gadolinium-enhanced MRI in children with suspected acute appendicitis and the best sequences for detecting acute appendicitis, to thereby decrease imaging time. MATERIALS AND METHODS. This was a retrospective review of pediatric patients with suspected appendicitis who had undergone MRI at our institution between 2010 and 2011 after an indeterminate ultrasound examination. MRI examinations included T1-weighted unenhanced and contrast-enhanced, T2-weighted, and balanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) sequences in axial and coronal planes. Sequences were reviewed together and individually by five radiologists who were blinded to the final diagnosis. Radiologists were asked to score their confidence of appendicitis diagnosis using a 5-point scale. The diagnostic performance of each MR sequence was obtained by comparing the mean area under the curve (AUC) using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. RESULTS. A total of 49 patients with clinically suspected appendicitis were included, of whom 16 received a diagnosis of appendicitis. The mean AUCs for reviewing all sequences together, contrast-enhanced sequences alone, T2-weighted sequences alone, and balanced SSFP alone were 0.984, 0.979, 0.944, and 0.910, respectively. No significant difference was observed between reviewing all sequences together versus contrast-enhanced sequences alone (p = 0.90) and T2-weighted sequences alone (p = 0.23). A significant difference was observed between contrast-enhanced sequences and balanced SSFP (p < 0.03). CONCLUSION. Gadolinium-enhanced images and T2-weighted images are most helpful in the assessment of acute appendicitis in the pediatric population. These findings have led to protocol modifications that have reduced imaging time. PMID:25341169

Rosines, Lucila A; Chow, Daniel S; Lampl, Brooke S; Chen, Susie; Gordon, Samantha; Mui, Leonora W; Aspelund, Gudrun; Ruzal-Shapiro, Carrie B

2014-11-01

79

Evaluation of tumor proliferation using dynamic contrast enhanced-MRI of oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relationship between the enhanced patterns acquired by dynamic MRI and the tumor cell proliferation estimated by immunostaining proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Thirty patients with primary oral SCC underwent dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI using a three-dimensional fast imaging with steady-state precession sequence. Tumor cell proliferation of all surgical specimens was evaluated

Hironobu Konouchi; Jun-ichi Asaumi; Yoshinobu Yanagi; Hiroshi Shigehara; Miki Hisatomi; Hidenobu Matsuzaki; Kanji Kishi

2003-01-01

80

Semi-Automated Volumetric Quantification of Tumor Necrosis in Soft Tissue Sarcoma Using Contrast Enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Background Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) defined measurements are limited when evaluating soft tissue sarcoma (STS) response to therapy. Histopathologic assessment of STS response requires a determination of necrosis following resection. A novel semiautomated technique for volumetric measurement of tumor necrosis, using enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI), is described. Patients and Methods Eighteen patients with STS were treated with neoadjuvant therapy and then resected. CE-MRI, obtained prior to resection, were evaluated by two observers using semi-automated segmentation. Tumor volume and percent necrosis was compared with histology and RECIST measurements. Results The median percent necrosis, determined histologically and from CE-MRI, was 71.9% and 67.8%, respectively. Accuracy of these semiautomated measurements was confirmed, being statistically similar to those obtained at histopathologic assessment of the resected tumor. High Intra-class correlation coefficients suggest good inter-observer reproducibility. Tumor necrosis did not correlate with RECIST measurements. Conclusion Semi-automated determination of tumor volume and necrosis, using CE-MRI, is suggested to be accurate and reproducible. PMID:23155265

MONSKY, WAYNE L.; JIN, BEDRO; MOLLOY, CHRIS; CANTER, ROBERT J.; LI, CHIN SHANG; LIN, TC; BORYS, DANIEL; MACK, WALTER; KIM, ISAAC; BUONOCORE, MICHAEL H.; CHAUDHARI, ABHIJIT J.

2014-01-01

81

Efficiency of Ferritin as an MRI Reporter Gene in NPC Cells Is Enhanced by Iron Supplementation  

PubMed Central

Background. An emerging MRI reporter, ferritin heavy chain (FTH1), is recently applied to enhance the contrast and increase the sensitivity of MRI in the monitoring of solid tumors. However, FTH1-overexpression-related cytotoxicity is required to be explored. Methods. By using the Tet-Off system, FTH1 overexpression was semi-quantitativiely and dynamicly regulated by doxycycline in a NPC cell line. Effects of FTH1 overexpression on the proliferation, cytotoxicity, apoptosis and migration of NPC cells were investigated in vitro, and MR relaxation rate was measured in vitro and in vivo. Results. In vitro and in vivo overexpression of FTH1 significantly increased the transverse relaxivity (R2), which could be enhanced by iron supplementation. In vitro, overexpression of FTH1 reduced cell growth and migration, which were not reduced by iron supplementation. Furthermore, cells were subcutaneously inoculated into the nude mice. Results showed FTH1 overexpression decreased tumor growth in the absence of iron supplementation but not in the presence of iron supplementation. Conclusion. To maximize R2 and minimize the potential adverse effects, supplementation of iron at appropriate dose is recommended during the application of FTH1 as a reporter gene in the monitoring of NPC by MRI. PMID:22536021

Feng, Yupeng; Liu, Qicai; Zhu, Junfeng; Xie, Fukang; Li, Li

2012-01-01

82

2010 Spring : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished  

E-print Network

A Highly Distinguished Atkinson Elizabeth Joan Highly Distinguished August Shelby Elizabeth Highly Tammy J Highly Distinguished Blackshaw Aaron Michael Highly Distinguished Blackwell Leslie Moore Highly Bostrom Seth Michael Highly Distinguished Bowes Meghan Elizabeth Highly Distinguished 2 #12;2010 Spring

Kasman, Alex

83

Combined prostate Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI at 3T - quantitative correlation with biopsy  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this work was to compare diagnostic accuracy of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI (DCE MRI), and their combination in diagnosing prostate cancer. Twenty five patients with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer underwent MRI, prior to transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsies. MRI data were correlated to biopsy results. Logistic regression models were constructed for the DTI parameters, DCE MRI parameters, and their combination. The areas under the Receiver Operator Characteristic curves (AUC) were compared between the models. The nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for statistical analysis. The sensitivity and specificity values were respectively 81% (74% – 87%) and 85% (79% – 90%) for DTI and 63% (55% – 70%) and 90% (85% – 94%) for DCE. The combination “DTI or DCE MRI” had 100% (97% – 100%) sensitivity and 77% (69% – 83%) specificity, while “DTI and DCE MRI” had 44% (37% – 52%) sensitivity and 98% (94% – 100%) specificity. The AUC for DTI + DCE parameters was significantly higher than that for either DTI (0.96 vs. 0.92, p = 0.0143) or DCE MRI parameters (0.96 vs. 0.87, p = 0.00187) alone. In conclusion, the combination of DTI and DCE MRI has significantly better accuracy in prostate cancer diagnosis than either technique alone. PMID:20392586

Kozlowski, Piotr; Chang, Silvia D.; Meng, Ran; Madler, Burkhard; Bell, Robert; Jones, Edward C.; Goldenberg, S. Larry

2010-01-01

84

The dynamic of FUS-induced BBB Opening in Mouse Brain assessed by contrast enhanced MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Focused ultrasound (FUS) in combination with the administration of gas-filled microbubbles, can induce a localized and reversible opening of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been demonstrated as a precise tool to monitor such a local BBB disruption. However, the opening/closing mechanisms of the BBB with FUS are still largely unknown. In this ongoing project, we study the BBB opening dynamics in mouse brain comparing an interstitial and an intravascular MR contrast agent (CA). FUS in mouse brain was performed with an MRI compatible treatment setup (1.7 MHz fix-focus US transducer, f' = 68 mm, NA = 0.44; focus: 8.1 mm length; O/ = 1.1 mm) in a 1.5 T whole body MRI system. For BBB opening, forty 10 ms-long FUS-pulses were applied at a repetition rate of 1 Hz at 1 MPa. The i.v. administration of the micro bubbles (50 ?l SonoVue®) was started simultaneously with FUS exposure. To analyze the BBB opening process, short-term and long-term MRI signal dynamics of the interstitial MR contrast agent Magnevist® and the intravascular CA Vasovist® (Bayer-Schering) were studied. To assess short-term signal dynamics, T1-weighted inversion recovery turbo FLASH images (1s) were repeatedly acquired. Repeated 3D FLASH acquisitions (90 s) were used to assess long-term MRI signal dynamics. The short-term MRI signal enhancements showed comparable time constants for both types of MR contrast agents: 1.1 s (interstitial) vs. 0.8 s (intravascular). This time constant may serve as a time constant of the BBB opening process with the given FUS exposure parameters. For the long-term signal dynamics the intravascular CA (62±10 min) showed a fife times greater time constant as the interstitial contrast agent (12±10 min). This might be explained by the high molecular weight (˜60 kDa) of the intravascular Vasovist due to its reversible binding to blood serum albumin resulting in a prolonged half-life in the blood stream compared to the interstitial CA. As the intravascular CA offers a much longer time window for therapy assessment, FUS-BBB therapy control with an intravascular CA might be favorable.

Jenne, Jürgen W.; Krafft, Axel J.; Maier, Florian; Krause, Marie N.; Kleber, Susanne; Huber, Peter E.; Martin-Villalba, Ana; Bock, Michael

2010-03-01

85

2013 Fall : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished  

E-print Network

Barry Canyon Shane Highly Distinguished Barth Lara Katharina Highly Distinguished Baxley Jami Reid Logan Elle Highly Distinguished Bermudez Shaina Danielle Highly Distinguished Berry Brianne Elizabeth

Kasman, Alex

86

Quantification of fibrosis in infarcted swine hearts by ex vivo late gadolinium-enhancement and diffusion-weighted MRI methods.  

PubMed

Many have speculated that MRI signal characteristics can be used to identify regions of heterogeneous infarct associated with an arrhythmogenic substrate; however, direct evidence of this relationship is limited. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the remodelling characteristics of fibrosis by means of histology and high-resolution MR imaging. For this purpose, we performed whole-mount histology in heart samples (n = 9) collected from five swine at six weeks post-infarction and compared the extent of fibrosis in the infarcted areas delineated in these histological images with that obtained ex vivo by MRI using late gadolinium-enhancement (LGE) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) methods. All MR images were obtained at a submillimetre resolution (i.e., voxel size of 0.6×0.6×1.2 mm(3)). Specifically, in the histology images, we differentiated moderate fibrosis (consisting of a mixture of viable and non-viable myocytes, known as border zone, BZ) from severe fibrosis (i.e., the dense scar). Correspondingly, tissue heterogeneities in the MR images were categorized by a Gaussian mixture model into healthy, BZ and scar. Our results showed that (a) both MRI methods were capable of qualitatively distinguishing sharp edges between dense scar and healthy tissue from regions of heterogeneous BZ; (b) the BZ and dense scar areas had intermediate-to-high increased values of signal intensity in the LGE images and of apparent diffusion coefficient in the DWI, respectively. In addition, as demonstrated by the Picrosirius Red and immunohistochemistry stains, the viable bundles in the BZ were clearly separated by thin collagen strands and had reduced expression of Cx43, whereas the core scar was composed of dense fibrosis. A quantitative analysis demonstrated that the comparison between BZ/scar extent in LGE and DWI to the corresponding areas identified in histology yielded very good correlations (i.e., for the scar identified by LGE, R(2) was 0.96 compared to R(2) = 0.93 for the scar identified in ADC maps, whereas the BZ had R(2) = 0.95 for the correlation between LGE and histology compared to R(2) = 0.91 obtained for ADC). This novel study represents an intermediate step in translating such research to the in vivo stages, as well as in establishing the best and most accurate MR method to help identify arrhythmia substrate in patients with structural heart disease. PMID:23833042

Pop, Mihaela; Ghugre, Nilesh R; Ramanan, Venkat; Morikawa, Lily; Stanisz, Greg; Dick, Alexander J; Wright, Graham A

2013-08-01

87

Quantification of fibrosis in infarcted swine hearts by ex vivo late gadolinium-enhancement and diffusion-weighted MRI methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many have speculated that MRI signal characteristics can be used to identify regions of heterogeneous infarct associated with an arrhythmogenic substrate; however, direct evidence of this relationship is limited. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the remodelling characteristics of fibrosis by means of histology and high-resolution MR imaging. For this purpose, we performed whole-mount histology in heart samples (n = 9) collected from five swine at six weeks post-infarction and compared the extent of fibrosis in the infarcted areas delineated in these histological images with that obtained ex vivo by MRI using late gadolinium-enhancement (LGE) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) methods. All MR images were obtained at a submillimetre resolution (i.e., voxel size of 0.6×0.6×1.2 mm3). Specifically, in the histology images, we differentiated moderate fibrosis (consisting of a mixture of viable and non-viable myocytes, known as border zone, BZ) from severe fibrosis (i.e., the dense scar). Correspondingly, tissue heterogeneities in the MR images were categorized by a Gaussian mixture model into healthy, BZ and scar. Our results showed that (a) both MRI methods were capable of qualitatively distinguishing sharp edges between dense scar and healthy tissue from regions of heterogeneous BZ; (b) the BZ and dense scar areas had intermediate-to-high increased values of signal intensity in the LGE images and of apparent diffusion coefficient in the DWI, respectively. In addition, as demonstrated by the Picrosirius Red and immunohistochemistry stains, the viable bundles in the BZ were clearly separated by thin collagen strands and had reduced expression of Cx43, whereas the core scar was composed of dense fibrosis. A quantitative analysis demonstrated that the comparison between BZ/scar extent in LGE and DWI to the corresponding areas identified in histology yielded very good correlations (i.e., for the scar identified by LGE, R2 was 0.96 compared to R2 = 0.93 for the scar identified in ADC maps, whereas the BZ had R2 = 0.95 for the correlation between LGE and histology compared to R2 = 0.91 obtained for ADC). This novel study represents an intermediate step in translating such research to the in vivo stages, as well as in establishing the best and most accurate MR method to help identify arrhythmia substrate in patients with structural heart disease.

Pop, Mihaela; Ghugre, Nilesh R.; Ramanan, Venkat; Morikawa, Lily; Stanisz, Greg; Dick, Alexander J.; Wright, Graham A.

2013-08-01

88

Quantifying heterogeneity of lesion uptake in dynamic contrast enhanced MRI for breast cancer diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current study investigates whether texture features extracted from lesion kinetics feature maps can be used for breast cancer diagnosis. Fifty five women with 57 breast lesions (27 benign, 30 malignant) were subjected to dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) on 1.5T system. A linear-slope model was fitted pixel-wise to a representative lesion slice time series and fitted parameters were used to create three kinetic maps (wash out, time to peak enhancement and peak enhancement). 28 grey level co-occurrence matrices features were extracted from each lesion kinetic map. The ability of texture features per map in discriminating malignant from benign lesions was investigated using a Probabilistic Neural Network classifier. Additional classification was performed by combining classification outputs of most discriminating feature subsets from the three maps, via majority voting. The combined scheme outperformed classification based on individual maps achieving area under Receiver Operating Characteristics curve 0.960±0.029. Results suggest that heterogeneity of breast lesion kinetics, as quantified by texture analysis, may contribute to computer assisted tissue characterization in DCE-MRI.

Karahaliou, A.; Vassiou, K.; Skiadopoulos, S.; Kanavou, T.; Yiakoumelos, A.; Costaridou, L.

2009-07-01

89

Registration of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI using a progressive principal component registration (PPCR).  

PubMed

Registration of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images (DCE-MRI) of soft tissue is difficult. Conventional registration cost functions that depend on information content are compromised by the changing intensity profile, leading to misregistration. We present a new data-driven model of uptake patterns formed from a principal components analysis (PCA) of time-series data, avoiding the need for a physiological model. We term this process progressive principal component registration (PPCR). Registration is performed repeatedly to an artificial time series of target images generated using the principal components of the current best-registered time-series data. The aim is to produce a dataset that has had random motion artefacts removed but long-term contrast enhancement implicitly preserved. The procedure is tested on 22 DCE-MRI datasets of the liver. Preliminary assessment of the images is by expert observer comparison with registration to the first image in the sequence. The PPCR is preferred in all cases where a preference exists. The method requires neither segmentation nor a pharmacokinetic uptake model and can allow successful registration in the presence of contrast enhancement. PMID:17762077

Melbourne, A; Atkinson, D; White, M J; Collins, D; Leach, M; Hawkes, D

2007-09-01

90

Brain-wide pathway for waste clearance captured by contrast-enhanced MRI.  

PubMed

The glymphatic system is a recently defined brain-wide paravascular pathway for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange that facilitates efficient clearance of solutes and waste from the brain. CSF enters the brain along para-arterial channels to exchange with ISF, which is in turn cleared from the brain along para-venous pathways. Because soluble amyloid ? clearance depends on glymphatic pathway function, we proposed that failure of this clearance system contributes to amyloid plaque deposition and Alzheimer's disease progression. Here we provide proof of concept that glymphatic pathway function can be measured using a clinically relevant imaging technique. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was used to visualize CSF-ISF exchange across the rat brain following intrathecal paramagnetic contrast agent administration. Key features of glymphatic pathway function were confirmed, including visualization of para-arterial CSF influx and molecular size-dependent CSF-ISF exchange. Whole-brain imaging allowed the identification of two key influx nodes at the pituitary and pineal gland recesses, while dynamic MRI permitted the definition of simple kinetic parameters to characterize glymphatic CSF-ISF exchange and solute clearance from the brain. We propose that this MRI approach may provide the basis for a wholly new strategy to evaluate Alzheimer's disease susceptibility and progression in the live human brain. PMID:23434588

Iliff, Jeffrey J; Lee, Hedok; Yu, Mei; Feng, Tian; Logan, Jean; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene

2013-03-01

91

Semi-quantitative assessment of pulmonary perfusion in children using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the study of semi-quantitative assessment of pulmonary perfusion acquired from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in a study population mainly composed of children with pulmonary malformations. The automatic analysis approach proposed is based on the indicator-dilution theory introduced in 1954. First, a robust method is developed to segment the pulmonary artery and the lungs from anatomical MRI data, exploiting 2D and 3D mathematical morphology operators. Second, the time-dependent contrast signal of the lung regions is deconvolved by the arterial input function for the assessment of the local hemodynamic system parameters, ie. mean transit time, pulmonary blood volume and pulmonary blood flow. The discrete deconvolution method implements here a truncated singular value decomposition (tSVD) method. Parametric images for the entire lungs are generated as additional elements for diagnosis and quantitative follow-up. The preliminary results attest the feasibility of perfusion quantification in pulmonary DCE-MRI and open an interesting alternative to scintigraphy for this type of evaluation, to be considered at least as a preliminary decision in the diagnostic due to the large availability of the technique and to the non-invasive aspects.

Fetita, Catalin; Thong, William E.; Ou, Phalla

2013-03-01

92

DCE@urLAB: a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI pharmacokinetic analysis tool for preclinical data  

PubMed Central

Background DCE@urLAB is a software application for analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging data (DCE-MRI). The tool incorporates a friendly graphical user interface (GUI) to interactively select and analyze a region of interest (ROI) within the image set, taking into account the tissue concentration of the contrast agent (CA) and its effect on pixel intensity. Results Pixel-wise model-based quantitative parameters are estimated by fitting DCE-MRI data to several pharmacokinetic models using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA). DCE@urLAB also includes the semi-quantitative parametric and heuristic analysis approaches commonly used in practice. This software application has been programmed in the Interactive Data Language (IDL) and tested both with publicly available simulated data and preclinical studies from tumor-bearing mouse brains. Conclusions A user-friendly solution for applying pharmacokinetic and non-quantitative analysis DCE-MRI in preclinical studies has been implemented and tested. The proposed tool has been specially designed for easy selection of multi-pixel ROIs. A public release of DCE@urLAB, together with the open source code and sample datasets, is available at http://www.die.upm.es/im/archives/DCEurLAB/. PMID:24180558

2013-01-01

93

Dynamic-contrast-enhanced-MRI with extravasating contrast reagent: rat cerebral glioma blood volume determination.  

PubMed

The accurate mapping of the tumor blood volume (TBV) fraction (vb) is a highly desired imaging biometric goal. It is commonly thought that achieving this is difficult, if not impossible, when small molecule contrast reagents (CRs) are used for the T1-weighted (Dynamic-Contrast-Enhanced) DCE-MRI technique. This is because angiogenic malignant tumor vessels allow facile CR extravasation. Here, a three-site equilibrium water exchange model is applied to DCE-MRI data from the cerebrally-implanted rat brain U87 glioma, a tumor exhibiting rapid CR extravasation. Analyses of segments of the (and the entire) DCE data time-course with this "shutter-speed" pharmacokinetic model, which admits finite water exchange kinetics, allow TBV estimation from the first-pass segment. Pairwise parameter determinances were tested with grid searches of 2D parametric error surfaces. Tumor blood volume (vb), as well as ve (the extracellular, extravascular space volume fraction), and Ktrans (a CR extravasation rate measure) parametric maps are presented. The role of the Patlak Plot in DCE-MRI is also considered. PMID:20674422

Li, Xin; Rooney, William D; Várallyay, Csanád G; Gahramanov, Seymur; Muldoon, Leslie L; Goodman, James A; Tagge, Ian J; Selzer, Audrey H; Pike, Martin M; Neuwelt, Edward A; Springer, Charles S

2010-10-01

94

Water-dispersible ascorbic-acid-coated magnetite nanoparticles for contrast enhancement in MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles of size ~5 nm surface functionalized with ascorbic acid (vitamin C) form a stable dispersion in water with a hydrodynamic size of ~30 nm. The anti-oxidant property of ascorbic acid is retained after capping, as evidenced from the capability of converting methylene blue to its reduced leuco form. NMR relaxivity studies show that the ascorbic-acid-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide aqueous nanofluid is suitable as a contrast enhancement agent for MRI applications, coupled with the excellent biocompatibility and medicinal values of ascorbic acid.

Sreeja, V.; Jayaprabha, K. N.; Joy, P. A.

2014-07-01

95

Calculation of intravascular signal in dynamic contrast enhanced-MRI using adaptive complex independent component analysis.  

PubMed

Assessing tumor response to therapy is a crucial step in personalized treatments. Pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling provides quantitative information about tumor perfusion and vascular permeability that are associated with prognostic factors. A fundamental step in most PK analyses is calculating the signal that is generated in the tumor vasculature. This signal is usually inseparable from the extravascular extracellular signal. It was shown previously using in vivo and phantom experiments that independent component analysis (ICA) is capable of calculating the intravascular time-intensity curve in dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI. A novel adaptive complex independent component analysis (AC-ICA) technique is developed in this study to calculate the intravascular time-intensity curve and separate this signal from the DCE-MR images of tumors. The use of the complex-valued DCE-MRI images rather than the commonly used magnitude images satisfied the fundamental assumption of ICA, i.e., linear mixing of the sources. Using an adaptive cost function in ICA through estimating the probability distribution of the tumor vasculature at each iteration resulted in a more robust and accurate separation algorithm. The AC-ICA algorithm provided a better estimate for the intravascular time-intensity curve than the previous ICA-based method. A simulation study was also developed in this study to realistically simulate DCE-MRI data of a leaky tissue mimicking phantom. The passage of the MR contrast agent through the leaky phantom was modeled with finite element analysis using a diffusion model. Once the distribution of the contrast agent in the imaging field of view was calculated, DCE-MRI data was generated by solving the Bloch equation for each voxel at each time point. The intravascular time-intensity curve calculation results were compared to the previously proposed ICA-based intravascular time-intensity curve calculation method that applied ICA to the magnitude of the DCE-MRI data (Mag-ICA) using both simulated and experimental tissue mimicking phantoms. The AC-ICA demonstrated superior performance compared to the Mag-ICA method. AC-ICA provided more accurate estimate of intravascular time-intensity curve, having smaller error between the calculated and actual intravascular time-intensity curves compared to the Mag-ICA. Furthermore, it showed higher robustness in dealing with datasets with different resolution by providing smaller variation between the results of each datasets and having smaller difference between the intravascular time-intensity curves of various resolutions. Thus, AC-ICA has the potential to be used as the intravascular time-intensity curve calculation method in PK analysis and could lead to more accurate PK analysis for tumors. PMID:23247848

Mehrabian, Hatef; Chopra, Rajiv; Martel, Anne L

2013-04-01

96

Improved Diagnostic Accuracy of Breast MRI through Combined Apparent Diffusion Coefficients and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Kinetics  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the relationship between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measures and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) kinetics in breast lesions, and evaluated the relative diagnostic value of each quantitative parameter. Seventy-seven women with 100 breast lesions (27 malignant and 73 benign) underwent both DCE-MRI and diffusion weighted MRI (DWI). DCE-MRI kinetic parameters included peak initial enhancement, predominant delayed kinetic curve type (persistent, plateau or washout), and worst delayed kinetic curve type (washout>plateau>persistent). Associations between ADC and DCE-MRI kinetic parameters and predictions of malignancy were evaluated. Results showed that ADC was significantly associated with predominant curve type (ADC was higher for lesions exhibiting predominantly persistent enhancement compared to those exhibiting predominantly washout or plateau, p=0.006), but was not significantly associated with peak initial enhancement or worst curve type (p>0.05). Univariate analysis showed significant differences between benign and malignant lesions in both ADC (p<0.001) and worst curve (p =0.003). In multivariate analysis, worst curve type and ADC were significant independent predictors of benign versus malignant outcome and in combination produced the highest area under the ROC curve (AUC = 0.85, AUC=0.78 with 5-fold cross-validation). PMID:21254208

Partridge, SC; Rahbar, H; Murthy, R; Chai, X; Kurland, BF; DeMartini, WB; Lehman, CD

2011-01-01

97

Tumor angiogenesis of low-grade astrocytomas measured by dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI (DSC-MRI) is predictive of local tumor control after radiation therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To assess regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) as a surrogate marker of angiogenesis in patients with low-grade fibrillary astrocytoma before radiation therapy and to correlate measured values with clinical outcome after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT).Methods: Twenty-five patients with histologically proven fibrillary astrocytomas were examined using dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI before radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was delivered to mean and median total

Martin Fuss; Frederik Wenz; Marco Essig; Marc Muenter; Jürgen Debus; Terence S Herman; Michael Wannenmacher

2001-01-01

98

The Correlation of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and MRI Perfusion Quantitative Analysis in Rabbit VX2 Liver Cancer.  

PubMed

Our objective is to explore the value of liver cancer contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis in liver cancer and the correlation between these two analysis methods. Rabbit VX2 liver cancer model was established in this study. CEUS was applied. Sono Vue was applied in rabbits by ear vein to dynamically observe and record the blood perfusion and changes in the process of VX2 liver cancer and surrounding tissue. MRI perfusion quantitative analysis was used to analyze the mean enhancement time and change law of maximal slope increasing, which were further compared with the pathological examination results. Quantitative indicators of liver cancer CEUS and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis were compared, and the correlation between them was analyzed by correlation analysis. Rabbit VX2 liver cancer model was successfully established. CEUS showed that time-intensity curve of rabbit VX2 liver cancer showed "fast in, fast out" model while MRI perfusion quantitative analysis showed that quantitative parameter MTE of tumor tissue increased and MSI decreased: the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The diagnostic results of CEUS and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis were not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, the quantitative parameter of them were significantly positively correlated (P < 0.05). CEUS and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis can both dynamically monitor the liver cancer lesion and surrounding liver parenchyma, and the quantitative parameters of them are correlated. The combined application of both is of importance in early diagnosis of liver cancer. PMID:25123838

Xiang, Zhiming; Liang, Qianwen; Liang, Changhong; Zhong, Guimian

2014-12-01

99

Decreased Incidence of NSF in Patients on Dialysis After Changing Gadolinium Contrast-Enhanced MRI Protocols  

PubMed Central

Purpose To retrospectively determine the incidence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in patients on dialysis administered either a lower dose high-relaxivity linear gadolinium-chelate, gadobenate dimeglumine (Multi-Hance, MH), compared to a standard dose linear gadolinium chelate, gadodiamide (Omniscan, OM). Materials and Methods This study was Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant and Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved. As per institution standardized contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols, patients on dialysis were imaged using either MH, between 2/2007 to 9/2008, or OM between 10/2003 and 1/2007. Rates of NSF were compared using 95% score-based confidence intervals (CI). The Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to test similarity/difference between contrast doses given to each patient group. Results Overall, 312 patients on dialysis received OM and eight (2.6%) developed NSF (95% CI: 1.30%–4.98%). In all, 784 patients on dialysis received MH at a mean cumulative dose of 0.11 mmol/kg (0.05–0.75 mmol/kg) and no cases of NSF were identified (upper 95% confidence bound of 0.45%). The mean cumulative dose of OM was 0.16 mmol/kg (0.1–0.9 mmol/kg) for all patients and 0.28 mmol/kg (0.1–0.8 mmol/kg) for the patients with NSF. The median OM dose was greater in patients who developed NSF (P = 0.03), and was greater than the median MH dose (P < 0.005). Conclusion NSF incidence in at-risk patients receiving contrast-enhanced MRI can be reduced after changing contrast administration protocols that includes changing the type and dose of contrast agent. PMID:20099361

Martin, Diego R.; Krishnamoorthy, Saravanan K.; Kalb, Bobby; Salman, Khalil N.; Sharma, Puneet; Carew, John D.; Martin, Phillip A.; Chapman, Arlene B.; Ray, Gaye L.; Larsen, Christian P.; Pearson, Thomas C.

2013-01-01

100

Pyogenic hepatic abscesses: MRI findings on T1- and T2-weighted and serial gadolinium-enhanced gradient-echo images.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of pyogenic hepatic abscesses on T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and serial gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced T1-weighted spoiled gradient-echo (SGE) images including images acquired in the immediate, intermediate, and late phases of enhancement. The MRI studies of 20 patients with pyogenic liver abscesses were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were examined on 1.5 (n = 19) and 1.0 (n = 1) T MR scanners. MR studies included T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and serial Gd-enhanced SGE images. The following determinations were made: signal intensity of the abscess cavity and perilesional liver tissue, and the presence of internal septations, layering material, or air in the abscess cavity. The pattern of enhancement of the abscess wall, internal septae and peri-abscess liver were evaluated on serial Gd-enhanced SGE images. A total of 53 abscesses were observed in the 20 patients. Fortyeight abscesses were hypointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Internal septations were present in four abscesses. Lower signal intensity material was observed in a dependent location on T2-weighted images in one abscess. Signal void foci of air located on the nondependent surface was observed in two abscesses. Two other abscesses contained signal void air that occupied the entire abscess cavity, observed on all imaging sequences. On serial gadolinium-enhanced images, all abscesses revealed early enhancement of the wall, which persisted with negligible change in degree of enhancement or thickness on delayed images. Abscess walls ranged in thickness from 2 to 5 mm. Internal septations ranged in thickness from 2 to 3 mm. Abscess walls and septations were relatively uniform in thickness with no evidence of focal nodularity. Periabscess liver tissue was mildly hypointense on T1-weighted and mildly hyperintense on T2-weighted images in 20 lesions, which were either circumferential (n = 12) or wedge-shaped (n = 8). All these regions enhanced more than the remainder of the liver on immediate post-gadolinium images and remained relatively hyperintense on late phase images. Periabscess liver parenchyma was isointense on both T1- and T2-weighted images in 18 lesions, and in these lesions wedge-shaped subsegmental (n = 6) or segmental (n = 12) enhancement was observed on immediate gadolinium-enhanced images, which faded to isointensity on intermediate phase images. No perilesional signal changes and enhancement difference was observed in 15 lesions. Characteristic features of abscesses include: intense mural enhancement on early gadolinium-enhanced images, which persists with negligible change in thickness and intensity on later post-gadolinium images, and the presence of periabscess increased enhancement on immediate post-gadolinium images. These MRI features may help to distinguish abscesses from other focal liver lesions during differential diagnosis. PMID:10077026

Balci, N C; Semelka, R C; Noone, T C; Siegelman, E S; de Beeck, B O; Brown, J J; Lee, M G

1999-02-01

101

Raloxifene Treatment Enhances Brain Activation during Recognition of Familiar Items: a Pharmacological fMRI Study in Healthy Elderly Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that may delay the onset of mild cognitive impairment in elderly women. Effects of raloxifene treatment on mental performance in males remain to be investigated. In a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we showed that raloxifene treatment enhanced brain activation in elderly males during encoding of new information (faces) into memory.

Rutger Goekoop; Frederik Barkhof; Erik J J Duschek; Coen Netelenbos; Dirk L Knol; Philip Scheltens; Serge ARB Rombouts

2006-01-01

102

Papilloedema and MRI enhancement of the prechiasmal optic nerve at the acute stage of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report a case of one patient from a family carrying the homoplasmic Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) G11778A mitochondrial DNA mutation with papilloedema 9 months prior to the acute stage of LHON and still present at the onset of visual loss. During the vision loss, the MRI demonstrated a T2 hyperintensity and an enhancement of the prechiasmal left

Cédric Lamirel; Julien Cassereau; Isabelle Cochereau; Catherine Vignal-Clermont; Olivier Pajot; Jean-Yves Tanguy; Xavier Zanlonghi; Pascal Reynier; Patrizia Amati-Bonneau; Frédéric Dubas; Dominique Bonneau; Christophe Verny

2010-01-01

103

Nanoparticle-Enhanced MRI to Evaluate Radiation Delivery to the Regional Lymphatics for Patients With Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: At present, radiation (RT) fields are based largely, and often solely, on bony anatomy. Recent efforts have been taken to better define lymphatic regions for RT planning. Lymphotrophic nanoparticle-enhanced MRI (LN-MRI) allows for accurate identification of malignant and benign lymph nodes. We sought to evaluate RT delivery to lymphatics for breast cancer using LN-MRI. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three patients with breast cancer underwent LN-MRI. MRIs were anatomically registered to a reference CT; benign and malignant lymph nodes were contoured. Standard RT fields were planned and dose calculated to prescribe 45-50 Gy. Lymphatic regions were contoured on CT. Coverage of LN-MRI lymph nodes by RT fields and contoured lymphatics were assessed. Results: Eighty-one percent of all lymph nodes defined by LN-MRI were covered by the 45-Gy isodose line; 82% of malignant and 79% of benign. The 50-Gy isodose line only encompassed 60% of LN-MRI defined lymph nodes-64% of malignant and 59% of benign. For nodal volumes contoured in the absence of a margin, 86% of actual lymph nodes were within contoured volumes. When a 5-mm expansion was added, 99% were included. Conclusions: LN-MRI is a useful tool to delineate the location of breast regional lymphatics. These results suggest less than desired coverage of lymph nodes using standard RT fields and that a margin may be advisable when defining nodal volumes by CT. The use of IMRT and RT in lieu of surgery makes accurate definition of the location of breast regional lymphatics of paramount importance.

MacDonald, Shannon M., E-mail: smacdonald@partners.or [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Harisinghani, Mukesh G.; Katkar, Amol; Napolitano, Brian; Wolfgang, John; Taghian, Alphonse G. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

2010-07-15

104

Iron Oxide Particle-Enhanced MRI Suggests Variability of Brain Inflammation at Early Stages After Ischemic Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Inflammation contributes to brain damage caused by ischemic stroke. Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO)-enhanced MRI allows noninvasive monitoring of macrophage recruitment into ischemic brain lesions. In this study, we determined the extent of USPIO enhancement during early stages of ischemic stroke. Methods—Twelve consecutive patients with typical clinical signs of stroke underwent multimodal stroke imaging at 1.5-T within 24

Andreas Saleh; Michael Schroeter; Adrian Ringelstein; Hans-Peter Hartung; Mario Siebler; Ulrich Modder; Sebastian Jander

2010-01-01

105

Statistical mapping of sound-evoked activity in the mouse auditory midbrain using Mn-enhanced MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) has been developed to image brain activity in small animals, including normal and genetically modified mice. Here, we report the use of a MEMRI-based statistical parametric mapping method to analyze sound-evoked activity in the mouse auditory midbrain, the inferior colliculus (IC). Acoustic stimuli with defined frequency and amplitude components were shown to activate and enhance neuronal ensembles

Xin Yu; Jing Zou; James S. Babb; Glyn Johnson; Dan H. Sanes; Daniel H. Turnbull

2008-01-01

106

Lung ventilation- and perfusion-weighted Fourier decomposition magnetic resonance imaging: in vivo validation with hyperpolarized 3He and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to validate ventilation-weighted (VW) and perfusion-weighted (QW) Fourier decomposition (FD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with hyperpolarized (3)He MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion (DCE) MRI in a controlled animal experiment. Three healthy pigs were studied on 1.5-T MR scanner. For FD MRI, the VW and QW images were obtained by postprocessing of time-resolved lung image sets. DCE acquisitions were performed immediately after contrast agent injection. (3)He MRI data were acquired following the administration of hyperpolarized helium and nitrogen mixture. After baseline MR scans, pulmonary embolism was artificially produced. FD MRI and DCE MRI perfusion measurements were repeated. Subsequently, atelectasis and air trapping were induced, which followed with FD MRI and (3)He MRI ventilation measurements. Distributions of signal intensities in healthy and pathologic lung tissue were compared by statistical analysis. Images acquired using FD, (3)He, and DCE MRI in all animals before the interventional procedure showed homogeneous ventilation and perfusion. Functional defects were detected by all MRI techniques at identical anatomical locations. Signal intensity in VW and QW images was significantly lower in pathological than in healthy lung parenchyma. The study has shown usefulness of FD MRI as an alternative, noninvasive, and easily implementable technique for the assessment of acute changes in lung function. PMID:22392633

Bauman, Grzegorz; Scholz, Alexander; Rivoire, Julien; Terekhov, Maxim; Friedrich, Janet; de Oliveira, Andre; Semmler, Wolfhard; Schreiber, Laura Maria; Puderbach, Michael

2013-01-01

107

Can contrast-enhanced ultrasound distinguish malignant from reactive lymph nodes in patients with head and neck cancers?  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in differentiating benign from malignant cervical lymph nodes in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. A consecutive series of 17 patients with known head and neck malignancy scheduled for neck surgery and lymph node clearance were recruited for contrast-enhanced ultrasound evaluation. Sonographic signal intensity as a function of time, comparing features of time to peak, time to arrival and time to wash-out, was quantified. The selected node was removed surgically and submitted for histology. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound examination had 100% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity for lymph node involvement. Functional analysis revealed contrast peaks significantly earlier in the malignant nodes (mean ± standard deviation) of 24.14 ± 2.7 s compared with 29.33 ± 3.4 s (p = 0.0128). Contrast-enhanced ultrasound holds promise in the detection and characterization of metastatic nodes that would not be diagnosed as abnormal on the basis of conventional ultrasound criteria. PMID:24462154

Dudau, Cristina; Hameed, Shema; Gibson, Daren; Muthu, Senthil; Sandison, Ann; Eckersley, Rob J; Clarke, Peter; Cosgrove, David O; Lim, Adrian K

2014-04-01

108

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI Kinetics of Invasive Breast Cancer: A Potential Prognostic Marker for Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Our goal was to determine the correlations between dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) kinetics of breast cancers and axillary nodal status (ANS) which may have prognostic value in designing radiation therapy recommendations. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review identified 167 consecutive patients treated with external beam radiotherapy for invasive breast cancer from Jan 1, 2006 to Nov 1, 2007. Patients with DCE-MRI kinetic data from our institution who underwent axillary surgical staging prior to chemotherapy were included. ANS was assessed as positive or negative by pathology record review. For each primary cancer, maximum tumor diameter and kinetic values for initial peak enhancement (PE), percent initial rapid enhancement (RE), and percent delayed washout enhancement (WE) were measured with a computer-aided evaluation program. Univariate, multivariate, and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed according to the ANS. Results: Forty-six patients met study criteria, with 32 (70%) node-negative and 14 (30%) node-positive patients. Median PE was significantly greater in node-positive patients (209%) than in node-negative patients (138%, p = 0.0027). Similarly, median RE was significantly greater in node-positive patients (57%) than in node-negative patients (27%, p = 0.0436). WE was not different between groups (p = 0.9524). Median maximum tumor diameter was greater in node-positive patients (26 mm) than in node-negative patients (15 mm, p = 0.015). Multivariate analysis showed that only PE trended toward significance (p = 0.18). Conclusions: DCE-MRI kinetics of primary breast cancers correlate with ANS. Multivariate analysis demonstrates the correlation is not due simply to underlying lesion size. If validated prospectively, DCE-MRI kinetics may aid as a tool in selecting patients or designing fields for radiation therapy.

Loiselle, Christopher R., E-mail: Loiselle@u.washington.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Eby, Peter R.; DeMartini, Wendy B.; Peacock, Sue M.S. [Department of Radiology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, 825 Eastlake Ave. E, Seattle, Washington 98109 (United States); Bittner, Nathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Lehman, Constance D. [Department of Radiology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, 825 Eastlake Ave. E, Seattle, Washington 98109 (United States); Kim, Janice N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, 825 Eastlake Ave. E, Seattle, Washington 98109 (United States)

2010-04-15

109

Investigating the Influence of Flip Angle and k-Space Sampling on Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI Breast Examinations  

PubMed Central

Rationale and Objectives To retrospectively investigate the effect of flip angle (FA) and k-space sampling on the performance of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) breast sequences. Materials and Methods Five DCE-MRI breast sequences were evaluated (10°, 14°, and 18° FAs; radial or linear k-space sampling), with 7–10 patients in each group (n = 45). All sequences were compliant with current technical breast screening guidelines. Contrast agent (CA) uptake curves were constructed from the right mammary artery for each examination. Maximum relative enhancement, Emax, and time-to-peak enhancement, Tmax, were measured and compared between protocols (analysis of variance and Mann–Whitney). For each sequence, calculated values of maximum relative enhancement, Ecalc, were derived from the Bloch equations and compared to Emax. Fat suppression performance (residual bright fat and chemical shift artifact) was rated for each examination and compared between sequences (Fisher exact tests). Results Significant differences were identified between DCE-MRI sequences. Emax increased significantly at higher FAs and with linear k-space sampling (P < .0001; P = .001). Radial protocols exhibited greater Tmax than linear protocols at FAs of both 14° (P = .025) and 18° (P < .0001), suggesting artificially flattened uptake curves. Good correlation was observed between Ecalc and Emax (r = 0.86). Fat suppression failure was more pronounced at an FA of 18° (P = .008). Conclusions This retrospective approach is validated as a tool to compare and optimize breast DCE-MRI sequences. Alterations in FA and k-space sampling result in significant differences in CA uptake curve shape which could potentially affect diagnostic interpretation. These results emphasize the need for careful parameter selection and greater standardization of breast DCE-MRI sequences. PMID:25179563

Ledger, Araminta E.W.; Borri, Marco; Pope, Romney J.E.; Scurr, Erica D.; Wallace, Toni; Richardson, Cheryl; Usher, Marianne; Allen, Steven; Wilson, Robin M.; Thomas, Karen; deSouza, Nandita M.; Leach, Martin O.; Schmidt, Maria A.

2014-01-01

110

Practical Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI in Small Animal Models of Cancer: Data Acquisition, Data Analysis, and Interpretation  

PubMed Central

Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) consists of the continuous acquisition of images before, during, and after the injection of a contrast agent. DCE-MRI allows for noninvasive evaluation of tumor parameters related to vascular perfusion and permeability and tissue volume fractions, and is frequently employed in both preclinical and clinical investigations. However, the experimental and analytical subtleties of the technique are not frequently discussed in the literature, nor are its relationships to other commonly used quantitative imaging techniques. This review aims to provide practical information on the development, implementation, and validation of a DCE-MRI study in the context of a preclinical study (though we do frequently refer to clinical studies that are related to these topics). PMID:23105959

Barnes, Stephanie L.; Whisenant, Jennifer G.; Loveless, Mary E.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.

2012-01-01

111

Correlation of histological findings from a large ciliochoroidal melanoma with CT perfusion and 3T MRI dynamic enhancement studies  

PubMed Central

Background The initial use of a 64-slice computed tomography (CT) scanner for obtaining quantitative perfusion data from a large ciliochoroidal melanoma, and correlation with 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dynamic enhancement and tumor histology. Methods The CT perfusion scan was performed using 80 kVp, 250 mA and 1-sec rotation time for 40 sec. The analysis was performed using commercial perfusion analysis software with a prototype 3-dimensional motion correction tool. Dynamic contrast-enhanced 3-Tesla MRI measured the kinetics of enhancement to estimate the vascular permeability. The time-dependent enhancement patterns were obtained using the average signal intensity using Functool analysis software. The involved globe was enucleated and microscopic evaluation of the tumor was performed. Results The perfusion parameters blood flow, blood volume and permeability surface area product in the affected eye determined by CT perfusion analysis were 118 ml/100 ml/min, 11.3 ml/100 ml and 48 ml/100 ml/min. Dynamic MRI enhancement showed maximal intensity increase of 111%. The neoplasm was a ciliochoroidal spindle cell melanoma which was mitotically active (13 mitoses/40 hpf). Vascular loops and arcades were present throughout the tumor. The patient developed metastases within 9 months of presentation. Conclusion Quantitative CT perfusion analysis of ocular tumors is feasible with motion correction software. PMID:19668716

Pulido, Jose S; Campeau, Norbert G; Klotz, Ernst; Primak, Andrew N; Saba, Osama; Gunduz, Kaan; Cantrill, Herbert; Salomão, Diva; McCollough, Cynthia H

2008-01-01

112

Characterizing Prostiva RF treatments of the prostate for BPH with gadolinium-enhanced MRI.  

PubMed

Transurethral needle ablation (TUNA) is an accepted and effective therapy for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Prostiva (Medtronic, Shoreview, MN) is the newest-generation device, which includes a new needle design and radio frequency (RF) generator. This device creates temperatures of 120 degrees C and necrotic lesions in less than 2.5 min. Using previously described techniques, we analyzed dynamic, gadolinium-enhanced MRIs to characterize the ablative properties of the new Prostiva RF device. Ten men with LUTS due to BPH were treated with the standard Prostiva manufacturer-recommended protocol. The bladder neck and lateral lobes received treatment based on prostate volume and prostatic urethral length. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI sequences were obtained prior to and 1 week post-treatment. Analyze software (Mayo Clinic Biomedical Imaging Resource, Rochester, MN) was used to evaluate MRIs. New gadolinium defects were seen in all patients following Prostiva treatments. All lesions coalesced within the prostate. No defects were seen beyond the prostate, and the urethra was spared in all patients. The mean volume of necrosis was 7.56 cc, representing a mean of 11.28% of total prostate volume. Dynamic, gadolinium-enhanced MRIs demonstrate new vascular defects representing necrosis caused by Prostiva RF therapy of the prostate. The standard Prostiva RF protocol produces lesions that coalesce to create larger lesions in the bladder neck and lateral lobes. Compared to the TUNA Precision Plus device, the ablative lesions appear comparable while produced with a shorter burn time. PMID:19151893

Huidobro, Christian; Larson, Benjamin; Mynderse, Samuel; Myers, James J; Busel, David; Acevedo, Cristian; Larson, Thayne R; Mynderse, Lance A

2009-01-01

113

Is 3-Tesla Gd-EOB-DTPA-Enhanced MRI with Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Superior to 64-Slice Contrast-Enhanced CT for the Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma?  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare 64-slice contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) with 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using Gd-EOB-DTPA for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and evaluate the utility of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in this setting. Methods 3-phase-liver-CT was performed in fifty patients (42 male, 8 female) with suspected or proven HCC. The patients were subjected to a 3-Tesla-MRI-examination with Gd-EOB-DTPA and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) at b-values of 0, 50 and 400 s/mm2. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)-value was determined for each lesion detected in DWI. The histopathological report after resection or biopsy of a lesion served as the gold standard, and a surrogate of follow-up or complementary imaging techniques in combination with clinical and paraclinical parameters was used in unresected lesions. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were evaluated for each technique. Results MRI detected slightly more lesions that were considered suspicious for HCC per patient compared to CT (2.7 versus 2.3, respectively). ADC-measurements in HCC showed notably heterogeneous values with a median of 1.2±0.5×10?3 mm2/s (range from 0.07±0.1 to 3.0±0.1×10?3 mm2/s). MRI showed similar diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and positive and negative predictive values compared to CT (AUC 0.837, sensitivity 92%, PPV 80% and NPV 90% for MRI vs. AUC 0.798, sensitivity 85%, PPV 79% and NPV 82% for CT; not significant). Specificity was 75% for both techniques. Conclusions Our study did not show a statistically significant difference in detection in detection of HCC between MRI and CT. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI tended to detect more lesions per patient compared to contrast-enhanced CT; therefore, we would recommend this modality as the first-choice imaging method for the detection of HCC and therapeutic decisions. However, contrast-enhanced CT was not inferior in our study, so that it can be a useful image modality for follow-up examinations. PMID:25375778

Maiwald, Bettina; Lobsien, Donald; Kahn, Thomas; Stumpp, Patrick

2014-01-01

114

Enhanced cardio vascular image analysis by combined representation of results from dynamic MRI and anatomic CTA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diagnosis support in the field of coronary artery disease (CAD) is very complex due to the numerous symptoms and performed studies leading to the final diagnosis. CTA and MRI are on their way to replace invasive catheter angiography. Thus, there is a need for sophisticated software tools that present the different analysis results, and correlate the anatomical and dynamic image information. We introduce a new software assistant for the combined result visualization of CTA and MR images, in which a dedicated concept for the structured presentation of original data, segmentation results, and individual findings is realized. Therefore, we define a comprehensive class hierarchy and assign suitable interaction functions. User guidance is coupled as closely as possible with available data, supporting a straightforward workflow design. The analysis results are extracted from two previously developed software assistants, providing coronary artery analysis and measurements, function analysis as well as late enhancement data investigation. As an extension we introduce a finding concept directly relating suspicious positions to the underlying data. An affine registration of CT and MR data in combination with the AHA 17-segment model enables the coupling of local findings to positions in all data sets. Furthermore, sophisticated visualization in 2D and 3D and interactive bull's eye plots facilitate a correlation of coronary stenoses and physiology. The software has been evaluated on 20 patient data sets.

Kuehnel, C.; Hennemuth, A.; Oeltze, S.; Boskamp, T.; Peitgen, H.-O.

2008-03-01

115

Delayed Contrast-Enhanced MRI of the Coronary Artery Wall in Takayasu Arteritis  

PubMed Central

Background Takayasu arteritis (TA) is a rare form of chronic inflammatory granulomatous arteritis of the aorta and its major branches. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has demonstrated its value for the detection of vessel wall alterations in TA. The aim of this study was to assess LGE of the coronary artery wall in patients with TA compared to patients with stable CAD. Methods We enrolled 9 patients (8 female, average age 46±13 years) with proven TA. In the CAD group 9 patients participated (8 male, average age 65±10 years). Studies were performed on a commercial 3T whole-body MR imaging system (Achieva; Philips, Best, The Netherlands) using a 3D inversion prepared navigator gated spoiled gradient-echo sequence, which was repeated 34–45 minutes after low-dose gadolinium administration. Results No coronary vessel wall enhancement was observed prior to contrast in either group. Post contrast, coronary LGE on IR scans was detected in 28 of 50 segments (56%) seen on T2-Prep scans in TA and in 25 of 57 segments (44%) in CAD patients. LGE quantitative assessment of coronary artery vessel wall CNR post contrast revealed no significant differences between the two groups (CNR in TA: 6.0±2.4 and 7.3±2.5 in CAD; p?=?0.474). Conclusion Our findings suggest that LGE of the coronary artery wall seems to be common in patients with TA and similarly pronounced as in CAD patients. The observed coronary LGE seems to be rather unspecific, and differentiation between coronary vessel wall fibrosis and inflammation still remains unclear. PMID:23236382

Schneeweis, Christopher; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Stuber, Matthias; Berger, Alexander; Schneider, Udo; Yu, Jing; Gebker, Rolf; Weiss, Robert G.; Fleck, Eckart; Kelle, Sebastian

2012-01-01

116

Inflow-weighted pulmonary perfusion: comparison between dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI versus perfusion scintigraphy in complex pulmonary circulation  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the different properties of the contrast agents, the lung perfusion maps as measured by 99mTc-labeled macroaggregated albumin perfusion scintigraphy (PS) are not uncommonly discrepant from those measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) using indicator-dilution analysis in complex pulmonary circulation. Since PS offers the pre-capillary perfusion of the first-pass transit, we hypothesized that an inflow-weighted perfusion model of DCE-MRI could simulate the result by PS. Methods 22 patients underwent DCE-MRI at 1.5T and also PS. Relative perfusion contributed by the left lung was calculated by PS (PSL%), by DCE-MRI using conventional indicator dilution theory for pulmonary blood volume (PBVL%) and pulmonary blood flow (PBFL%) and using our proposed inflow-weighted pulmonary blood volume (PBViwL%). For PBViwL%, the optimal upper bound of the inflow-weighted integration range was determined by correlation coefficient analysis. Results The time-to-peak of the normal lung parenchyma was the optimal upper bound in the inflow-weighted perfusion model. Using PSL% as a reference, PBVL% showed error of 49.24% to ?40.37% (intraclass correlation coefficient RI?=?0.55) and PBFL% had error of 34.87% to ?27.76% (RI?=?0.80). With the inflow-weighted model, PBViwL% had much less error of 12.28% to ?11.20% (RI?=?0.98) from PSL%. Conclusions The inflow-weighted DCE-MRI provides relative perfusion maps similar to that by PS. The discrepancy between conventional indicator-dilution and inflow-weighted analysis represents a mixed-flow component in which pathological flow such as shunting or collaterals might have participated. PMID:23448679

2013-01-01

117

Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI of Prostate Cancer: Correlation with Morphology and Tumour Stage, Histological Grade and PSA  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To quantify MRI enhancement characteristics of normal and abnormal prostatic tissues and to correlate these with tumour stage, histological grade and tumour markers.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quantitative gradient recalled echo MR images were obtained following bolus injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine in 48 patients with prostate cancer. Turbo spin-echo T2-weighted images at the same anatomical position were reviewed for the presence

ANWAR R. PADHANI; CONNIE J. GAPINSKI; DAVID A. MACVICAR; GEOFFREY J. PARKER; JOHN SUCKLING; PATRICK B. REVELL; MARTIN O. LEACH; DAVID P. DEARNALEY; JANET E. HUSBAND

2000-01-01

118

Manganese-impregnated mesoporous silica nanoparticles for signal enhancement in MRI cell labelling studies.  

PubMed

Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are used in drug delivery and cell tracking applications. As Mn(2+) is already implemented as a "positive" cell contrast agent in preclinical imaging procedures (in the form of MnCl2 for neurological studies), the introduction of Mn in the porous network of MSNs would allow labelling cells and tracking them using MRI. These particles are in general internalized in endosomes, an acidic environment with high saline concentration. In addition, the available MSN porosity could also serve as a carrier to deliver medical/therapeutic substances through the labelled cells. In the present study, manganese oxide was introduced in the porous network of MCM-48 silica nanoparticles (Mn-M48SNs). The particles exhibit a narrow size distribution (~140 nm diam.) and high porosity (~60% vol.), which was validated after insertion of Mn. The resulting Mn-M48SNs were characterized by TEM, N2 physisorption, and XRD. Evidence was found with H2-TPR, and XPS characterization, that Mn(II) is the main oxidation state of the paramagnetic species after suspension in water, most probably in the form of Mn-OOH. The colloidal stability as a function of time was confirmed by DLS in water, acetate buffer and cell culture medium. In NMR data, no significant evidence of Mn(2+) leaching was found in Mn-M48SNs in acidic water (pH 6), up to 96 hours after suspension. High longitudinal relaxivity values of r1 = 8.4 mM(-1) s(-1) were measured at 60 MHz and 37 °C, with the lowest relaxometric ratios (r2/r1 = 2) reported to date for a Mn-MSN system. Leukaemia cells (P388) were labelled with Mn-M48SNs and nanoparticle cell internalization was confirmed by TEM. Finally, MRI contrast enhancement provided by cell labelling with escalated incubation concentrations of Mn-M48SNs was quantified at 1 T. This study confirmed the possibility of efficiently confining Mn into M48SNs using incipient wetness, while maintaining an open porosity and relatively high pore volume. Because these Mn-labelled M48SNs express strong "positive" contrast media properties at low concentrations, they are potentially applicable for cell tracking and drug delivery methodologies. PMID:24178890

Guillet-Nicolas, Rémy; Laprise-Pelletier, Myriam; Nair, Mahesh M; Chevallier, Pascale; Lagueux, Jean; Gossuin, Yves; Laurent, Sophie; Kleitz, Freddy; Fortin, Marc-André

2013-12-01

119

ACTIVE DELIVERY CABLE TUNED TO DEVICE DEPLOYMENT STATE: ENHANCED VISIBILITY OF NITINOL OCCLUDERS DURING PRE-CLINICAL INTERVENTIONAL MRI  

PubMed Central

Purpose To develop an active delivery system that enhances visualization of nitinol cardiac occluder devices during deployment under real-time MRI. Materials and Methods We constructed an active delivery cable incorporating a loopless antenna and a custom titanium microscrew to secure the occluder devices. The delivery cable was tuned and matched to 50? at 64 MHz with the occluder device attached. We used real-time balanced SSFP in a wide-bore 1.5T scanner. Device-related images were reconstructed separately and combined with surface-coil images. The delivery cable was tested in vitro in a phantom and in vivo in swine using a variety of nitinol cardiac occluder devices. Results In vitro, the active delivery cable provided little signal when the occluder device was detached and maximal signal with the device attached. In vivo, signal from the active delivery cable enabled clear visualization of occluder device during positioning and deployment. Device release resulted in decreased signal from the active cable. Post-mortem examination confirmed proper device placement. Conclusions The active delivery cable enhanced the MRI depiction of nitinol cardiac occluder devices during positioning and deployment, both in conventional and novel applications. We expect enhanced visibility to contribute to effectiveness and safety of new and emerging MRI-guided treatments. PMID:22707441

Bell, Jamie A.; Saikus, Christina E.; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Barbash, Israel M.; Faranesh, Anthony Z.; Franson, Dominique N.; Sonmez, Merdim; Slack, Michael C.; Lederman, Robert J.; Kocaturk, Ozgur

2012-01-01

120

Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in ovarian cancer: Initial experience at 3 tesla in primary and metastatic disease.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop and demonstrate a methodology for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI at 3 T in patients with advanced ovarian cancer and to report the results from pharmacokinetic modeling of the data. Nineteen patients with suspected advanced ovarian carcinoma (FIGO stage 3 or higher) were enrolled in this prospective study. Up to three marker lesions were identified: primary ovarian mass, omental ''cake'', and peritoneal deposits. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was performed using a three-dimensional T(1)-weighted gradient-echo acquisition with a temporal resolution of 1.6 sec, following intravenous administration of 0.1 mmol/kg gadobutrol. Precontrast T(1) mapping, using an inversion-recovery fast gradient-echo sequence, was also performed. Imaging was completed in 18/19 patients, although two were subsequently excluded based on pathology results. Pharmacokinetic modeling of the data was performed according to the extended Kety model, using an arterial input function formed by concatenation of the Fritz-Hansen and Weinmann curves. No statistically significant differences were found between the results for the three marker lesions. In the future, this work will allow kinetic modeling results from ovarian dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI to be correlated with response to treatment. The high temporal resolution allows good characterization of the rapid contrast agent uptake in these vascular tumors. PMID:20373405

Priest, Andrew N; Gill, Andrew B; Kataoka, Masako; McLean, Mary A; Joubert, Ilse; Graves, Martin J; Griffiths, John R; Crawford, Robin A F; Earl, Helena; Brenton, James D; Lomas, David J; Sala, Evis

2010-04-01

121

Automated segmentation of reference tissue for prostate cancer localization in dynamic contrast enhanced MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis of Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE) MRI the arterial input function needs to be estimated. Previously, we demonstrated that PK parameters have a significant better discriminative performance when per patient reference tissue was used, but required manual annotation of reference tissue. In this study we propose a fully automated reference tissue segmentation method that tackles this limitation. The method was tested with our Computer Aided Diagnosis (CADx) system to study the effect on the discriminating performance for differentiating prostate cancer from benign areas in the peripheral zone (PZ). The proposed method automatically segments normal PZ tissue from DCE derived data. First, the bladder is segmented in the start-to-enhance map using the Otsu histogram threshold selection method. Second, the prostate is detected by applying a multi-scale Hessian filter to the relative enhancement map. Third, normal PZ tissue was segmented by threshold and morphological operators. The resulting segmentation was used as reference tissue to estimate the PK parameters. In 39 consecutive patients carcinoma, benign and normal tissue were annotated on MR images by a radiologist and a researcher using whole mount step-section histopathology as reference. PK parameters were computed for each ROI. Features were extracted from the set of ROIs using percentiles to train a support vector machine that was used as classifier. Prospective performance was estimated by means of leave-one-patient-out cross validation. A bootstrap resampling approach with 10,000 iterations was used for estimating the bootstrap mean AUCs and 95% confidence intervals. In total 42 malignant, 29 benign and 37 normal regions were annotated. For all patients, normal PZ was successfully segmented. The diagnostic accuracy obtained for differentiating malignant from benign lesions using a conventional general patient plasma profile showed an accuracy of 0.64 (0.53-0.74). Using the automated per-patient calibration method the diagnostic performance improved significantly to 0.76 (0.67-0.86, p=0.017) , whereas the manual per-patient calibration showed a diagnostic performance of 0.79 (0.70-0.89, p=0.01). In conclusion, the results show that an automated per-patient reference tissue PK model is feasible. A significantly better discriminating performance compared to the conventional general calibration was obtained and the diagnostic accuracy is similar to using manual per-patient calibration.

Vos, Pieter C.; Hambrock, Thomas; Barentsz, Jelle O.; Huisman, Henkjan J.

2010-03-01

122

Manganese-impregnated mesoporous silica nanoparticles for signal enhancement in MRI cell labelling studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are used in drug delivery and cell tracking applications. As Mn2+ is already implemented as a ``positive'' cell contrast agent in preclinical imaging procedures (in the form of MnCl2 for neurological studies), the introduction of Mn in the porous network of MSNs would allow labelling cells and tracking them using MRI. These particles are in general internalized in endosomes, an acidic environment with high saline concentration. In addition, the available MSN porosity could also serve as a carrier to deliver medical/therapeutic substances through the labelled cells. In the present study, manganese oxide was introduced in the porous network of MCM-48 silica nanoparticles (Mn-M48SNs). The particles exhibit a narrow size distribution (~140 nm diam.) and high porosity (~60% vol.), which was validated after insertion of Mn. The resulting Mn-M48SNs were characterized by TEM, N2 physisorption, and XRD. Evidence was found with H2-TPR, and XPS characterization, that Mn(ii) is the main oxidation state of the paramagnetic species after suspension in water, most probably in the form of Mn-OOH. The colloidal stability as a function of time was confirmed by DLS in water, acetate buffer and cell culture medium. In NMR data, no significant evidence of Mn2+ leaching was found in Mn-M48SNs in acidic water (pH 6), up to 96 hours after suspension. High longitudinal relaxivity values of r1 = 8.4 mM-1 s-1 were measured at 60 MHz and 37 °C, with the lowest relaxometric ratios (r2/r1 = 2) reported to date for a Mn-MSN system. Leukaemia cells (P388) were labelled with Mn-M48SNs and nanoparticle cell internalization was confirmed by TEM. Finally, MRI contrast enhancement provided by cell labelling with escalated incubation concentrations of Mn-M48SNs was quantified at 1 T. This study confirmed the possibility of efficiently confining Mn into M48SNs using incipient wetness, while maintaining an open porosity and relatively high pore volume. Because these Mn-labelled M48SNs express strong ``positive'' contrast media properties at low concentrations, they are potentially applicable for cell tracking and drug delivery methodologies.Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are used in drug delivery and cell tracking applications. As Mn2+ is already implemented as a ``positive'' cell contrast agent in preclinical imaging procedures (in the form of MnCl2 for neurological studies), the introduction of Mn in the porous network of MSNs would allow labelling cells and tracking them using MRI. These particles are in general internalized in endosomes, an acidic environment with high saline concentration. In addition, the available MSN porosity could also serve as a carrier to deliver medical/therapeutic substances through the labelled cells. In the present study, manganese oxide was introduced in the porous network of MCM-48 silica nanoparticles (Mn-M48SNs). The particles exhibit a narrow size distribution (~140 nm diam.) and high porosity (~60% vol.), which was validated after insertion of Mn. The resulting Mn-M48SNs were characterized by TEM, N2 physisorption, and XRD. Evidence was found with H2-TPR, and XPS characterization, that Mn(ii) is the main oxidation state of the paramagnetic species after suspension in water, most probably in the form of Mn-OOH. The colloidal stability as a function of time was confirmed by DLS in water, acetate buffer and cell culture medium. In NMR data, no significant evidence of Mn2+ leaching was found in Mn-M48SNs in acidic water (pH 6), up to 96 hours after suspension. High longitudinal relaxivity values of r1 = 8.4 mM-1 s-1 were measured at 60 MHz and 37 °C, with the lowest relaxometric ratios (r2/r1 = 2) reported to date for a Mn-MSN system. Leukaemia cells (P388) were labelled with Mn-M48SNs and nanoparticle cell internalization was confirmed by TEM. Finally, MRI contrast enhancement provided by cell labelling with escalated incubation concentrations of Mn-M48SNs was quantified at 1 T. This study confirmed the possibility of efficiently confining Mn into M48SNs using incipient wetness

Guillet-Nicolas, Rémy; Laprise-Pelletier, Myriam; Nair, Mahesh M.; Chevallier, Pascale; Lagueux, Jean; Gossuin, Yves; Laurent, Sophie; Kleitz, Freddy; Fortin, Marc-André

2013-11-01

123

A Suspicious Breast Lesion Detected by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI and Pathologically Confirmed as Capillary Hemangioma: a Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Breast capillary hemangioma is a type of benign vascular tumor which is rarely seen. Little is known about its presentation on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Here, we describe a case of suspicious breast lesion detected by DCE-MRI and pathologically confirmed as capillary hemangioma. Our case indicates that a small mass with a superficial location, clear boundary, and homogeneous enhancement on DCE-MRI indicates the possible diagnosis of hemangioma, whereby even the lesion presents a washout type curve. PMID:24265560

Yang, Lian-He; Ma, Shuang; Li, Qing-Chang; Xu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Xin

2013-01-01

124

Improved parameter extraction and classification for dynamic contrast enhanced MRI of prostate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) imaging, has shown great potential in prostate cancer diagnosis and prognosis. The time course of the DCE images provides measures of the contrast agent uptake kinetics. Also, using pharmacokinetic modelling, one can extract parameters from the DCE-MR images that characterize the tumor vascularization and can be used to detect cancer. A requirement for calculating the pharmacokinetic DCE parameters is estimating the Arterial Input Function (AIF). One needs an accurate segmentation of the cross section of the external femoral artery to obtain the AIF. In this work we report a semi-automatic method for segmentation of the cross section of the femoral artery, using circular Hough transform, in the sequence of DCE images. We also report a machine-learning framework to combine pharmacokinetic parameters with the model-free contrast agent uptake kinetic parameters extracted from the DCE time course into a nine-dimensional feature vector. This combination of features is used with random forest and with support vector machine classi cation for cancer detection. The MR data is obtained from patients prior to radical prostatectomy. After the surgery, wholemount histopathology analysis is performed and registered to the DCE-MR images as the diagnostic reference. We show that the use of a combination of pharmacokinetic parameters and the model-free empirical parameters extracted from the time course of DCE results in improved cancer detection compared to the use of each group of features separately. We also validate the proposed method for calculation of AIF based on comparison with the manual method.

Haq, Nandinee Fariah; Kozlowski, Piotr; Jones, Edward C.; Chang, Silvia D.; Goldenberg, S. Larry; Moradi, Mehdi

2014-03-01

125

ECG characteristics according to the presence of late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac MRI in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiac MRI (CMR) has been described as an independent predictive factor of cardiovascular events among patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). LGE and Q waves are considered as myocardial scar markers but their relation in the context of HCM is poorly established and has to be more supported. The objective of the study was to compare ECG findings in the presence or absence of LGE. Methods 42 patients with HCM confirmed by CMR were included in the study. ECG abnormalities including abnormal Q waves and five ECG scores of left ventricular hypertrophy were assessed and compared according to LGE presence and its extension. Some CMR features, such as septal to posterior wall thickness ratio, were also studied according to the presence of LGE and the presence of abnormal Q waves. Results Abnormal Q waves were more prevalent in the LGE (+) group (60% vs 12%; p=0.002), but there was no correlation between location of Q waves on ECG and territory of LGE on CMR. Among patients with LGE, quantitative analysis of LGE was not different in the presence or absence of Q waves. In contrast to the LGE mass, septal to posterior wall thickness was higher in patients with abnormal Q waves (2.3±0.7 vs 1.6±0.5; p=0.012). Conclusions Although abnormal Q waves were more prevalent in the presence of LGE, no correlation was found with the LGE location and extent. These data suggest that abnormal electrical activation of the hypertrophied ventricular septum represented by a high septal to posterior wall thickness ratio seems to be an important mechanism of abnormal Q waves in HCM.

Grall, Sylvain; Biere, Loic; Clerfond, Guillaume; Mateus, Victor; Prunier, Fabrice; Furber, Alain

2014-01-01

126

Assessment of Clinical Signs of Liver Cirrhosis Using T1 Mapping on Gd-EOB-DTPA-Enhanced 3T MRI  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the differences between normal and cirrhotic livers by means of T1 mapping of liver parenchyma on gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced 3 Tesla (3T) MR imaging (MRI). Methods 162 patients with normal (n = 96) and cirrhotic livers (n = 66; Child-Pugh class A, n = 30; B, n = 28; C, n = 8) underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced 3T MRI. To obtain T1 maps, two TurboFLASH sequences (TI = 400 ms and 1000 ms) before and 20 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration were acquired. T1 relaxation times of the liver and the reduction rate between pre- and post-contrast enhancement images were measured. Results The T1 relaxation times for Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI showed significant differences between patients with normal liver function and patients with Child-Pugh class A, B, and C (p < 0.001). The T1 relaxation times showed a constant significant increase from Child-Pugh class A up to class C (Child-Pugh class A, 335 ms ± 80 ms; B, 431 ms ± 75 ms; C, 557 ms ± 99 ms; Child-Pugh A to B, p < 0.001; Child-Pugh A to C, p < 0.001; Child-Pugh B to C, p < 0.001) and a constant decrease of the reduction rate of T1 relaxation times (Child-Pugh class A, 57.1% ± 8.8%; B, 44.3% ± 10.2%, C, 29.9% ± 6.9%; Child-Pugh A to B, p < 0.001; Child-Pugh A to C,p < 0.001; Child-Pugh B to C, p < 0.001). Conclusion Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced T1 mapping of the liver parenchyma may present a useful method for determining severity of liver cirrhosis. PMID:24392025

Haimerl, Michael; Verloh, Niklas; Zeman, Florian; Fellner, Claudia; Muller-Wille, Rene; Schreyer, Andreas G.; Stroszczynski, Christian; Wiggermann, Philipp

2013-01-01

127

Metal-substituted protein MRI contrast agents engineered for enhanced relaxivity and ligand sensitivity  

E-print Network

Engineered metalloproteins constitute a flexible new class of analyte-sensitive molecular imaging agents detectable by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but their contrast effects are generally weaker than synthetic agents. ...

Lelyveld, Victor S.

128

MRI of Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The purpose of this article is to present current clinical and research issues in MRI evaluation of nonischemic cardiomyopathy, a diverse set of diseases, many of which have a genetic basis. CONCLUSION Cardiac cine MRI along with delayed myocardial enhancement MRI and other MRI techniques can provide information beyond echocardiography for tissue characterization. MRI is increasingly being used for evaluation of genetically positive, phenotypically negative patients as well as for risk stratification. PMID:20858821

Bluemke, David A.

2010-01-01

129

Enhanced resting-state brain activities in ADHD patients: A fMRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) could be an advantageous choice for clinical applications by virtue of its clinical convenience and non-invasiveness. Without explicit stimulus, resting-state brain activity patterns cannot be obtained using any model-driven method. In this study, we advanced a measure named resting-state activity index (RSAI) to evaluate the resting-state brain activities. Using RSAI, we first investigated the resting-state brain

Lixia Tian; Tianzi Jiang; Meng Liang; Yufeng Zang; Yong He; Manqiu Sui; Yufeng Wang

2008-01-01

130

Perfluorocarbons enhance a T2*-based MRI technique for identifying the penumbra in a rat model of acute ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

Accurate imaging of ischemic penumbra is crucial for improving the management of acute stroke patients. T2* magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with a T2*oxygen challenge (T2*OC) is being developed to detect penumbra based on changes in blood deoxyhemoglobin. Using 100% O2, T2*OC-defined penumbra exhibits ongoing glucose metabolism and tissue recovery on reperfusion. However, potential limitations in translating this technique include a sinus artefact in human scans with delivery of 100% OC and relatively small signal changes. Here we investigate whether an oxygen-carrying perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsion can enhance the sensitivity of the technique, enabling penumbra detection with lower levels of inspired oxygen. Stroke was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=17) with ischemic injury and perfusion deficit determined by diffusion and perfusion MRI, respectively. T2* signal change was measured in regions of interest (ROIs) located within ischemic core, T2*OC-defined penumbra and equivalent contralateral areas during 40% O2±prior PFC injection. Region of interest analyses between groups showed that PFC significantly enhanced the T2* response to 40% O2 in T2*-defined penumbra (mean increase of 10.6±2.3% compared to 5.6±1.5% with 40% O2, P<0.001). This enhancement was specific to the penumbra ROI. Perfluorocarbon emulsions therefore enhances the translational potential of the T2*OC technique for identifying penumbra in acute stroke patients. PMID:23801243

Deuchar, Graeme A; Brennan, David; Griffiths, Hugh; Macrae, I Mhairi; Santosh, Celestine

2013-09-01

131

Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI-based early detection of acute renal transplant rejection.  

PubMed

A novel framework for the classification of acute rejection versus nonrejection status of renal transplants from 2-D dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is proposed. The framework consists of four steps. First, kidney objects are segmented from adjacent structures with a level set deformable boundary guided by a stochastic speed function that accounts for a fourth-order Markov-Gibbs random field model of the kidney/background shape and appearance. Second, a Laplace-based nonrigid registration approach is used to account for local deformations caused by physiological effects. Namely, the target kidney object is deformed over closed, equispaced contours (iso-contours) to closely match the reference object. Next, the cortex is segmented as it is the functional kidney unit that is most affected by rejection. To characterize rejection, perfusion is estimated from contrast agent kinetics using empirical indexes, namely, the transient phase indexes (peak signal intensity, time-to-peak, and initial up-slope), and a steady-phase index defined as the average signal change during the slowly varying tissue phase of agent transit. We used a kn-nearest neighbor classifier to distinguish between acute rejection and nonrejection. Performance of our method was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristics (ROC). Experimental results in 50 subjects, using a combinatoric kn-classifier, correctly classified 92% of training subjects, 100% of the test subjects, and yielded an area under the ROC curve that approached the ideal value. Our proposed framework thus holds promise as a reliable noninvasive diagnostic tool. PMID:23797240

Khalifa, Fahmi; Beache, Garth M; El-Ghar, Mohamed Abou; El-Diasty, Tarek; Gimel'farb, Georgy; Kong, Maiying; El-Baz, Ayman

2013-10-01

132

Design, manufacture, and analysis of customized phantoms for enhanced quality control in small animal MRI systems  

PubMed Central

Purpose Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used in human brain research to evaluate the effects of healthy aging and development, as well as neurological disorders. Although standardized methods for quality assurance of human MRI instruments have been established, such approaches have typically not been translated to small animal imaging. We present a method for the generation and analysis of customized phantoms for small animal MRI systems that allows rapid and accurate system stability monitoring. Methods Computer-aided design software was used to produce a customized phantom using a rapid prototyping printer. Automated registration algorithms were used on three dimensional images of the phantom to allow system stability to be easily monitored over time. Results The design of the custom phantom allowed reliable placement relative to the imaging g coil. Automated registration showed superior ability to detect gradient changes reflected in the images than with manual measurements. Registering images acquired over time allowed monitoring of gradient drifts of less than one percent. Conclusion A low cost, MRI compatible phantom was successfully designed using computer-aided design software and a 3D printer. Registering phantom images acquired over time allows monitoring of gradient stability of the MRI system. PMID:23440883

Yoshimaru, Eriko; Totenhagen, John; Alexander, Gene E.; Trouard, Theodore P.

2013-01-01

133

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)  

Cancer.gov

Different tissues (including tumors) emit a more or less intense signal based on their chemical makeup, so a picture of the body organs can be displayed on a computer screen. Much like CT scans, MRI can produce three-dimensional images of sections of the body, but MRI is sometimes more sensitive than CT scans for distinguishing soft tissues.

134

Detection of local recurrent prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy in terms of salvage radiotherapy using dynamic contrast enhanced-MRI without endorectal coil  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the value of dynamic contrast enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) without endorectal coil (EC) in the detection of local recurrent prostate cancer (PC) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Material and methods Thirty-three patients with recurrent PC underwent DCE-MRI without EC before salvage radiotherapy (RT). At median 15 (mean 16±4.9, range 12–27) months after completion of RT all patients showed complete biochemical response. Additional follow up post RT DCE-MRI scans were available. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels at the time of imaging were correlated to the imaging findings. Results In 22/33 patients (67%) early contrast enhancing nodules were detected in the post-prostatectomy fossa on pre-RT DCE-MRI images. The average pre-RT PSA level of the 22 patients with positive pre-RT DCE-MRI findings was significantly higher (mean, 0.74±0.64 ng/mL) compared to the pre-RT PSA level of the 11 patients with negative pre-RT DCE-MRI (mean, 0.24±0.13 ng/mL) (p<0.001). All post-RT DCE-MRI images showed complete resolution of initial suspicious lesions. A pre-RT PSA cut-off value of ?0.54 ng/ml readily predicted a positive DCE-MRI finding. Conclusions This is the first study that shows that DCE-MRI without EC can detect local recurrent PC with an estimated accuracy of 83% at low PSA levels. All false negative DCE-MRI scans were detected using a PSA cut-off of ?0.54 ng/mL. PMID:23114282

2012-01-01

135

A dimensionless dynamic contrast enhanced MRI parameter for intra-prostatic tumour target volume delineation: initial comparison with histology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: T2 weighted and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) show promise in isolating prostate tumours. Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI has also been employed as a component in multi-parametric tumour detection schemes. Model-based parameters such as Ktrans are conventionally used to characterize DCE images and require arterial contrast agent (CR) concentration. A robust parameter map that does not depend on arterial input may be more useful for target volume delineation. We present a dimensionless parameter (Wio) that characterizes CR wash-in and washout rates without requiring arterial CR concentration. Wio is compared to Ktrans in terms of ability to discriminate cancer in the prostate, as demonstrated via comparison with histology. Methods: Three subjects underwent DCE-MRI using gadolinium contrast and 7 s imaging temporal resolution. A pathologist identified cancer on whole-mount histology specimens, and slides were deformably registered to MR images. The ability of Wio maps to discriminate cancer was determined through receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. Results: There is a trend that Wio shows greater area under the ROC curve (AUC) than Ktrans with median AUC values of 0.74 and 0.69 respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant based on a Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p = 0.13). Conclusions: Preliminary results indicate that Wio shows potential as a tool for Ktrans QA, showing similar ability to discriminate cancer in the prostate as Ktrans without requiring arterial CR concentration.

Hrinivich, W. Thomas; Gibson, Eli; Gaed, Mena; Gomez, Jose A.; Moussa, Madeleine; McKenzie, Charles A.; Bauman, Glenn S.; Ward, Aaron D.; Fenster, Aaron; Wong, Eugene

2014-03-01

136

The Value of Arterial Spin-Labeled Perfusion Imaging in Acute Ischemic Stroke - Comparison with Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose To evaluate the potential clinical value of arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) through comparison with dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) enhanced perfusion MRI. Methods Pseudo-continuous ASL with 3D background suppressed GRASE (Gradient and Spin Echo) readout was applied with DSC perfusion MRI on 26 AIS patients. ASL CBF and multi-parametric DSC perfusion maps were rated for image quality and lesion severity/conspicuity. Mean ASL CBF and DSC perfusion values were obtained in main vascular territories. Kendall’s coefficient of concordance was calculated to evaluate the reliability of ratings. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated to compare ratings and quantitative perfusion values between ASL and DSC perfusion maps. Results ASL CBF and DSC perfusion maps provided largely consistent results in delineating hypoperfused brain regions in AIS. Hyperemic lesions, which also appeared frequently in the AIS cases studied, were more conspicuous on ASL CBF than on DSC CBF, Mean Transit Time (MTT) and Time to the maximum of the tissue residual function (Tmax) maps. Conclusions As a rapid, noninvasive and quantitative technique, ASL has clinical utility in detecting blood flow abnormalities in AIS patients. PMID:22328551

Wang, Danny JJ; Alger, Jeffry R; Qiao, Joe X; Hao, Qing; Hou, Samuel; Fiaz, Rana; Gunther, Matthias; Pope, Whitney B; Saver, Jeffrey L; Salamon, Noriko; Liebeskind, David S

2012-01-01

137

Permeability assessment of the focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Focused ultrasound (FUS) in conjunction with microbubbles has been shown to successfully open the blood–brain barrier (BBB) in the mouse brain. In this study, we compute the BBB permeability after opening in vivo. The spatial permeability of the BBB-opened region was assessed using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). The DCE-MR images were post-processed using the general kinetic model (GKM) and the reference region model (RRM). Permeability maps were generated and the Ktrans values were calculated for a predefined volume of interest in the sonicated and the control area for each mouse. The results demonstrated that Ktrans in the BBB-opened region (0.02 ± 0.0123 for GKM and 0.03 ± 0.0167 min?1 for RRM) was at least two orders of magnitude higher when compared to the contra-lateral (control) side (0 and 8.5 × 10?4 ± 12 × 10?4 min?1, respectively). The permeability values obtained with the two models showed statistically significant agreement and excellent correlation (R2 = 0.97). At histological examination, it was concluded that no macroscopic damage was induced. This study thus constitutes the first permeability assessment of FUS-induced BBB opening using DCE-MRI, supporting the fact that the aforementioned technique may constitute a safe, non-invasive and efficacious drug delivery method. PMID:20736501

Vlachos, F; Tung, Y-S; Konofagou, E E

2014-01-01

138

Retrieval of Brain Tumors with Region-Specific Bag-of-Visual-Words Representations in Contrast-Enhanced MRI Images  

PubMed Central

A content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system is proposed for the retrieval of T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) images of brain tumors. In this CBIR system, spatial information in the bag-of-visual-words model and domain knowledge on the brain tumor images are considered for the representation of brain tumor images. A similarity metric is learned through a distance metric learning algorithm to reduce the gap between the visual features and the semantic concepts in an image. The learned similarity metric is then used to measure the similarity between two images and then retrieve the most similar images in the dataset when a query image is submitted to the CBIR system. The retrieval performance of the proposed method is evaluated on a brain CE-MRI dataset with three types of brain tumors (i.e., meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumor). The experimental results demonstrate that the mean average precision values of the proposed method range from 90.4% to 91.5% for different views (transverse, coronal, and sagittal) with an average value of 91.0%. PMID:23243462

Huang, Meiyan; Yang, Wei; Yu, Mei; Lu, Zhentai; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan

2012-01-01

139

Pharmacokinetic Changes Induced by Focused Ultrasound in Glioma-Bearing Rats as Measured by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Focused ultrasound (FUS) combined with microbubbles has been shown to be a noninvasive and targeted drug delivery technique for brain tumor treatment. The purpose of this study was to measure the kinetics of Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) in glioma-bearing rats in the presence of FUS-induced blood-brain barrier disruption (BBB-D) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A total of ten glioma-bearing rats (9–12 weeks, 290–340 g) were used in this study. Using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI, the spatial permeability of FUS-induced BBB-D was evaluated and the kinetic parameters were calculated by a general kinetic model (GKM). The results demonstrate that the mean Ktrans of the sonicated tumor (0.128±0.019 at 20 min and 0.103±0.023 at 24 h after sonication, respectively) was significantly higher than (2.46-fold at 20 min and 1.78-fold at 24 h) that of the contralateral (non-sonicated) tumor (0.052±0.019 at 20 min and 0.058±0.012 at 24 h after sonication, respectively). In addition, the transfer constant Ktrans in the sonicated tumor correlated strongly with tissue EB extravasation (R?=?0.95), which suggests that DCE-MRI may reflect drug accumulation in the brain. Histological observations showed no macroscopic damage except for a few small erythrocyte extravasations. The current study demonstrates that DCE-MRI can monitor the dynamics of the FUS-induced BBB-D process and constitutes a useful tool for quantifying BBB permeability in tumors. PMID:24670992

Yang, Feng-Yi; Ko, Chia-En; Huang, Sheng-Yao; Chung, I-Fang; Chen, Gin-Shin

2014-01-01

140

Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI-based biomarkers of therapeutic response in triple-negative breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective To predict the response of breast cancer patients to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using features derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI. Materials and methods 60 patients with triple-negative early-stage breast cancer receiving NAC were evaluated. Features assessed included clinical data, patterns of tumor response to treatment determined by DCE–MRI, MRI breast imaging-reporting and data system descriptors, and quantitative lesion kinetic texture derived from the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). All features except for patterns of response were derived before chemotherapy; GLCM features were determined before and after chemotherapy. Treatment response was defined by the presence of residual invasive tumor and/or positive lymph nodes after chemotherapy. Statistical modeling was performed using Lasso logistic regression. Results Pre-chemotherapy imaging features predicted all measures of response except for residual tumor. Feature sets varied in effectiveness at predicting different definitions of treatment response, but in general, pre-chemotherapy imaging features were able to predict pathological complete response with area under the curve (AUC)=0.68, residual lymph node metastases with AUC=0.84 and residual tumor with lymph node metastases with AUC=0.83. Imaging features assessed after chemotherapy yielded significantly improved model performance over those assessed before chemotherapy for predicting residual tumor, but no other outcomes. Conclusions DCE–MRI features can be used to predict whether triple-negative breast cancer patients will respond to NAC. Models such as the ones presented could help to identify patients not likely to respond to treatment and to direct them towards alternative therapies. PMID:23785100

Golden, Daniel I; Lipson, Jafi A; Telli, Melinda L; Ford, James M; Rubin, Daniel L

2013-01-01

141

Multimodal visualization of 3D enhanced MRI and CT of acoustic schwannoma and related structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the necessity of supporting vestibular schwannoma surgery, there is a demand to develop a convenient method of medical data visualization. The process of making choice of optimal operating access way has been uncomfortable for a surgeon so far, because there has been a necessity of analyzing two independent 3D images series (CT -bone tissues visible, MRI - soft tissues visible) in the region of ponto-cerebellar angle tumors. The authors propose a solution that will improve this process. The system used is equipped with stereoscopic helmet mounted display. It allows merged CT and MRI data representing tissues in the region of of ponto-cerebellar angle to be visualized in stereoscopic way. The process of data preparation for visualization includes: -automated segmentation algorithms, -different types of 3D images (CT, MRI) fusion. The authors focused on the development of novel algorithms for segmentation of vestibular schwannoma. It is important and difficult task due to different types of tumors and their inhomogeneous character dependent on growth models. The authors propose algorithms based on histogram spectrum and multimodal character of MRI imaging (T1 and T2 modes). However due to a variety of objects the library of algorithms with specific modifications matching to selected types of images is proposed. The applicability and functionality of the algorithms and library was proved on the series of data delivered by Warsaw Central Medical University Hospital.

Kucharski, Tomasz; Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Niemczyk, Kazimierz; Marchel, Andrzej

2005-09-01

142

Parameter estimation and change-point detection from Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI data using stochastic  

E-print Network

-varying parameters, measurement errors in the input function, etc). Adding Brownian compo- nents to the ODEs leads Imaging (DCE-imaging) techniques. These techniques are increasingly used in the medical imaging of brain (DCE-CT, DCE-MRI or DCE-US) [5, 1]. Recent experimental and clinical studies have shown that DCE

Samson, Adeline

143

Critical enhancements of MRI contrast and hyperthermic effects by dopant-controlled magnetic nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Doped up: The incorporation of Zn(2+) dopants in tetrahedral sites leads to the successful magnetism tuning of spinel metal ferrite nanoparticles (see picture). (Zn(0.4)Mn(0.6))Fe(2)O(4) nanoparticles exhibit the highest magnetization value among the metal ferrite nanoparticles. Such high magnetism results in the largest MRI contrast effects (r2=860 mm(-1) s(-1)) reported to date and also huge hyperthermic effects. PMID:19137514

Jang, Jung-tak; Nah, Hyunsoo; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Moon, Seung Ho; Kim, Min Gyu; Cheon, Jinwoo

2009-01-01

144

Inflammatory Response After Ischemic Stroke A USPIO-Enhanced MRI Study in Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—The intensity of the inflammatory response may be related to the volume of acute infarction. Ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) may enable assessment of neuroinflammation. We aimed to assess whether the intensity of the inflammatory response might be related to the subacute ischemic lesion volume. Methods—We enrolled patients who presented with acute anterior circulation stroke. MRI

Norbert Nighoghossian; Marlene Wiart; Serkan Cakmak; Yves Berthezene; Laurent Derex; Tae-Hee Cho; Chantal Nemoz; Francois Chapuis; Guy-Louis Tisserand; Jean-Baptiste Pialat; Paul Trouillas; Jean-Claude Froment; Marc Hermier

145

High-resolution contrast-enhanced MRI of atherosclerosis with digital cardiac and respiratory gating in mice.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis initially develops predominantly at the aortic root and carotid origin, where effective visualization in mice requires efficient cardiac and respiratory gating. The present study sought to first compare the high-resolution MRI gating performance of two digital gating strategies using: 1) separate cardiac and respiratory signals (double-sensor); and 2) a single-sensor cardiorespiratory signal (ECG demodulation), and second, to apply an optimized processing technique to dynamic contrast-enhanced (CE) carotid origin vessel-wall imaging in mice. High-resolution MR mouse heart and aortic arch images were acquired by ECG signal detection, digital signal processing, and gating signal generation modeled using Simulink (MathWorks, USA). Double-sensor gating used a respiratory sensor while single-sensor gating used breathing-modulated ECG to generate a demodulated respiratory signal. Pre- and postcontrast T(1)-weighted images were acquired to evaluate vessel-wall enhancement with a gadolinium blood-pool agent (P792; Guerbet, France) at the carotid origin in vivo in ApoE(-/-) and C57BL/6 mice, using the optimized cardiorespiratory gating processing technique. Both strategies provided images with improved spatial resolution, less artifacts, and 100% correct transistor-to-transistor logic (TTL) signals. Image quality allowed vessel-wall enhancement measurement in all the ApoE(-/-) mice, with maximal (32%) enhancement 27 min postinjection. The study demonstrated the efficiency of both cardiorespiratory gating strategies for dynamic contrast-enhanced vessel-wall imaging. PMID:17969010

Alsaid, Hasan; Sabbah, Maher; Bendahmane, Zakaria; Fokapu, Odette; Felblinger, Jacques; Desbleds-Mansard, Catherine; Corot, Claire; Briguet, André; Crémillieux, Yannick; Canet-Soulas, Emmanuelle

2007-12-01

146

MRI-based estimation of liver function: Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced T1 relaxometry of 3T vs. the MELD score  

PubMed Central

Gd-EOB-DTPA is a hepatocyte-specific MRI contrast agent. Due to its hepatocyte-specific uptake and paramagnetic properties, functioning areas of the liver exhibit shortening of the T1 relaxation time. We report the potential use of T1 relaxometry of the liver with Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for estimating the liver function as expressed by the MELD score. 3 T MRI relaxometry was performed before and 20?min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. A strong correlation between changes in the T1 relaxometry and the extent of liver disease, expressed by the MELD score, was documented. Reduced liver function correlates with decreased Gd-EOB-DTPA accumulation in the hepatocytes during the hepatobiliary phase. MRI-based T1 relaxometry with Gd-EOB-DTPA may be a useful method for assessing overall and segmental liver function. PMID:25001391

Haimerl, Michael; Verloh, Niklas; Fellner, Claudia; Zeman, Florian; Teufel, Andreas; Feigl, Stefan Fichtner-; Schreyer, Andreas G.; Stroszczynski, Christian; Wiggermann, Philipp

2014-01-01

147

Academic Senate Distinguished Teaching  

E-print Network

1 UCLA Academic Senate 2011-2012 Distinguished Teaching Award Program #12;2 TABLE OF CONTENTS About the Distinguished Teaching Award Program 3 Eligibility 4 Criteria 4 Entry Instructions 5 Teaching Award Recipients 7 #12;3 ABOUT THE DISTINGUISHED TEACHING AWARD PROGRAM Purpose The goal of the UCLA Academic Senate

Grether, Gregory

148

Comparison of Dynamic and Liver-Specific Gadoxetic Acid Contrast-Enhanced MRI versus Apparent Diffusion Coefficients  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatic lesions often present diagnostic connundrums with conventional MR techniques. Hepatobiliary phase contrast-enhanced imaging with gadoxetic acid can aid in the characterization of such lesions. However, quantitative measures describing late-phase enhancement must be assessed relative to their accuracy of hepatic lesion classification. Purpose: To compare quantitative parameters in gadoxetic acid contrast-enhanced dynamic and hepatobiliary phase imaging versus apparent diffusion coefficients in hepatic lesion characterization. Material and Methods 57 patients with focal hepatic lesions on gadoxetic acid MR were included. Lesion enhancement at standard post-contrast time points and in the hepatobiliary phase (HB; 15 and 25 minutes post-contrast) was assessed via calculation of contrast (CR) and enhancement ratios (ER). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were also obtained. Values for these parameters were compared among lesions and ROC analyses performed. Results: HB enhancement was greatest with FNH and adenomas. HB ER parameters but not HB CR could distinguish HCC from benign entities (0.9 ER ROC AUC versus 0.5 CR ROC AUC). There was no statistically significant difference found between the 15 and 25 minutes HB time points in detection of any lesion (p>0.4). ADC values were statistically significantly higher with hemangiomas (p<0.05) without greater accuracy in lesion detection relative to HB phase parameters. Conclusion Hepatobiliary phase gadoxetic acid contrast-enhanced MR characterizes focal hepatic lesions more accurately than ADC and conventional dynamic post-contrast time point enhancement parameters. ER values are generally superior to CR. No discernible benefit of 25 minute versus 15 minute delayed imaging is demonstrated. PMID:23805174

Morelli, John N.; Michaely, Henrik J.; Meyer, Mathias M.; Rustemeyer, Thassilo; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Attenberger, Ulrike I.

2013-01-01

149

MRI active guidewire with an embedded temperature probe and providing a distinct tip signal to enhance clinical safety  

PubMed Central

Background The field of interventional cardiovascular MRI is hampered by the unavailability of active guidewires that are both safe and conspicuous. Heating of conductive guidewires is difficult to predict in vivo and disruptive to measure using external probes. We describe a clinical-grade 0.035” (0.89?mm) guidewire for MRI right and left heart catheterization at 1.5?T that has an internal probe to monitor temperature in real-time, and that has both tip and shaft visibility as well as suitable flexibility. Methods The design has an internal fiberoptic temperature probe, as well as a distal solenoid to enhance tip visibility on a loopless antenna. We tested different tip-solenoid configurations to balance heating and signal profiles. We tested mechanical performance in vitro and in vivo in comparison with a popular clinical nitinol guidewire. Results The solenoid displaced the point of maximal heating (“hot spot”) from the tip to a more proximal location where it can be measured without impairing guidewire flexion. Probe pullback allowed creation of lengthwise guidewire temperature maps that allowed rapid evaluation of design prototypes. Distal-only solenoid attachment offered the best compromise between tip visibility and heating among design candidates. When fixed at the hot spot, the internal probe consistently reflected the maximum temperature compared external probes. Real-time temperature monitoring was performed during porcine left heart catheterization. Heating was negligible using normal operating parameters (flip angle, 45°; SAR, 1.01?W/kg); the temperature increased by 4.2°C only during high RF power mode (flip angle, 90°; SAR, 3.96?W/kg) and only when the guidewire was isolated from blood cooling effects by an introducer sheath. The tip flexibility and in vivo performance of the final guidewire design were similar to a popular commercial guidewire. Conclusions We integrated a fiberoptic temperature probe inside a 0.035” MRI guidewire. Real-time monitoring helps detect deleterious heating during use, without impairing mechanical guidewire operation, and without impairing MRI visibility. We therefore need not rely on prediction to ensure safe clinical operation. Future implementations may modulate specific absorption rate (SAR) based on temperature feedback. PMID:22720758

2012-01-01

150

Automated scoring of regional lung perfusion in children from contrast enhanced 3D MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MRI perfusion images give information about regional lung function and can be used to detect pulmonary pathologies in cystic fibrosis (CF) children. However, manual assessment of the percentage of pathologic tissue in defined lung subvolumes features large inter- and intra-observer variation, making it difficult to determine disease progression consistently. We present an automated method to calculate a regional score for this purpose. First, lungs are located based on thresholding and morphological operations. Second, statistical shape models of left and right children's lungs are initialized at the determined locations and used to precisely segment morphological images. Segmentation results are transferred to perfusion maps and employed as masks to calculate perfusion statistics. An automated threshold to determine pathologic tissue is calculated and used to determine accurate regional scores. We evaluated the method on 10 MRI images and achieved an average surface distance of less than 1.5 mm compared to manual reference segmentations. Pathologic tissue was detected correctly in 9 cases. The approach seems suitable for detecting early signs of CF and monitoring response to therapy.

Heimann, Tobias; Eichinger, Monika; Bauman, Grzegorz; Bischoff, Arved; Puderbach, Michael; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

2012-03-01

151

Multifunctional 1D Magnetic and Fluorescent Nanoparticle Chains for Enhanced MRI, fluorescent Cell Imaging, And Combined Photothermal/Chemotherapy.  

PubMed

While the assembled 1D magnetic nanoparticle (NP) chains have demonstrated synergistic magnetic effects from the individual NPs, it is essential to prepare new 1D NP chains that can combine the magnetism with other important material properties for multifunctional applications. This paper reports the fabrication and multifunctional investigation of a new type of 1D NP chains that combine the magnetic properties with fluorescent properties, photothermal conversion ability, and drug carrier function. The building block NPs are composed of magnetic Fe3O4 nanocrystals clustered in the core and fluorescent carbon dots embedded in the mesoporous carbon shell with hydroxyl/carboxyl groups anchored on their surface. These NPs can assemble under the induction of external magnetic field and form stable 1D NP chains of diameter ?90 nm and length ?3 ?m via the hydrogen bonding and ?-? stacking linkage of the carbon shell. The resulted 1D hybrid NP chains not only demonstrate much higher magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrasting ability than the dispersed building block NPs, but also enter into intracellular region and light up the B16F10 cells under a laser excitation with strong and stable fluorescence. While the mesoporous carbon shell provides high drug loading capacity, the embedded fluorescent carbon dots convert near-infrared (NIR) light to heat, and hence kill the tumor cells efficiently and enhance the drug release rate to further improve the therapeutic efficacy under NIR irradiation. Such designed 1D magnetic-fluorescent hybrid NP chains with enhanced MRI contrast, fluorescent imaging ability, and combined chemo-/photothermal therapeutic ability have great potential for various biomedical applications. PMID:25127411

Wang, Hui; Mararenko, Anton; Cao, Guixin; Gai, Zheng; Hong, Kunlun; Banerjee, Probal; Zhou, Shuiqin

2014-09-10

152

A review of technical aspects of T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in human brain tumors.  

PubMed

In the last few years, several imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography, have been used to investigate the degree of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in patients with neurological diseases including multiple sclerosis, ischemic stroke, and brain tumors. One promising MRI method for assessing the BBB permeability of patients with neurological diseases in vivo is T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI. Here we review the technical issues involved in DCE-MRI in the study of human brain tumors. In the first part of this paper, theoretical models for the DCE-MRI analysis will be described, including the Toft-Kety models, the adiabatic approximation to the tissue homogeneity model and the two-compartment exchange model. These models can be used to estimate important kinetic parameters related to BBB permeability. In the second part of this paper, details of the data acquisition, issues related to the arterial input function, and procedures for DCE-MRI image analysis are illustrated. PMID:24793824

Bergamino, M; Bonzano, L; Levrero, F; Mancardi, G L; Roccatagliata, L

2014-09-01

153

Response of the Primary Auditory and Non-Auditory Cortices to Acoustic Stimulation: A Manganese-Enhanced MRI Study  

PubMed Central

Structural and functional features of various cerebral cortices have been extensively explored in neuroscience research. We used manganese-enhanced MRI, a non-invasive method for examining stimulus-dependent activity in the whole brain, to investigate the activity in the layers of primary cortices and sensory, such as auditory and olfactory, pathways under acoustic stimulation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, either with or without exposure to auditory stimulation, were scanned before and 24–29 hour after systemic MnCl2 injection. Cortex linearization and layer-dependent signal extraction were subsequently performed for detecting layer-specific cortical activity. We found stimulus-dependent activity in the deep layers of the primary auditory cortex and the auditory pathways. The primary sensory and visual cortices also showed the enhanced activity, whereas the olfactory pathways did not. Further, we performed correlation analysis of the signal intensity ratios among different layers of each cortex, and compared the strength of correlations between with and without the auditory stimulation. In the primary auditory cortex, the correlation strength between left and right hemisphere showed a slight but not significant increase with the acoustic simulation, whereas, in the primary sensory and visual cortex, the correlation coefficients were significantly smaller. These results suggest the possibility that even though the primary auditory, sensory, and visual cortices showed enhanced activity to the auditory stimulation, these cortices had different associations for auditory processing in the brain network. PMID:24618696

Kim, Young R.; Song, Youngkyu; Chun, Song-I; Suh, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Jeong Kon; Ryu, Yeon-Hee; Choi, Sun-Mi; Cho, Hyungjoon; Cho, Gyunggoo

2014-01-01

154

Enhanced brain connectivity in math-gifted adolescents: An fMRI study using mental rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical giftedness is a form of intelligence related to enhanced mathematical reasoning that can be tested using a variety of numerical and spatial tasks. A number of neurobiological mechanisms related to exceptional mathematical reasoning ability have been postulated, including enhanced brain connectivity. We aimed to further investigate this possibility by comparing a group of mathematically gifted adolescents with an average

James Prescott; Maria Gavrilescu; Ross Cunnington; Michael W. OBoyle; Gary F. Egan

2010-01-01

155

Monitoring Pc 4-mediated photodynamic therapy of U87 tumors with dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in the athymic nude rat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-operative verification of the specificity and sensitivity of photodynamic therapy (PDT) is most pressing for deeply placed lesions such as brain tumors. We wish to determine whether Dynamic Contrast Enhanced-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) can provide a non-invasive and unambiguous quantitative measure of the specificity and sensitivity of brain tumor PDT. Methods: 2.5 x 10 5 U87 cells were injected into the brains of six athymic nude rats. After 5-6 days, the animals received 0.5 mg/kg b.w. of the phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 via tail-vein injection. On day 7 peri-tumor DCE-MRI images were acquired on a 7T microMRI scanner before and after tail-vein administration of 100 ?L gadolinium and 400 ?L saline. After this scan the animals received a 30 J/cm2 dose of 672-nm light from a diode laser (i.e., PDT). The DCE-MRI scan protocol was repeated on day 13. Next, the animals were euthanized and their brains were explanted for Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) histology. Results: No tumor was found in one animal. The DCE-MRI images of the other five animals demonstrated significant tumor enhancement increase (p < 0.053 two-sided t-test and p < 0.026 one-sided t-test) following PDT. H&E histology presented moderate to severe tumor necrosis. Discussion: The change in signal detected by DCE-MRI appears to be due to PDT-induced tumor necrosis. This DCE-MRI signal appears to provide a quantitative, non-invasive measure of the outcome of PDT in this animal model and may be useful for determining the safety and effectiveness of PDT in deeply placed tumors (e.g., glioma).

Varghai, Davood; Covey, Kelly; Sharma, Rahul; Cross, Nathan; Feyes, Denise K.; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Flask, Chris A.; Dean, David

2008-02-01

156

Estimating kinetic parameter maps from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI using spatial prior knowledge  

E-print Network

Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MR) imaging can be used to study microvascular structure in vivo by monitoring the abundance of an injected diffusible contrast agent over time. The resulting spatially ...

Menze, Bjoern Holger

157

Variable Delay Multi-Pulse Train for Fast Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer and Relayed-Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement MRI  

PubMed Central

Purpose Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging is a new MRI technology allowing the detection of low concentration endogenous cellular proteins and metabolites indirectly through their exchangeable protons. A new technique, variable delay multi-pulse CEST (VDMP-CEST), is proposed to eliminate the need for recording full Z-spectra and performing asymmetry analysis to obtain CEST contrast. Methods The VDMP-CEST scheme involves acquiring images with two (or more) delays between radiofrequency saturation pulses in pulsed CEST, producing a series of CEST images sensitive to the speed of saturation transfer. Subtracting two images or fitting a time series produces CEST and relayed-nuclear Overhauser enhancement CEST maps without effects of direct water saturation and, when using low radiofrequency power, minimal magnetization transfer contrast interference. Results When applied to several model systems (bovine serum albumin, crosslinked bovine serum albumin, l-glutamic acid) and in vivo on healthy rat brain, VDMP-CEST showed sensitivity to slow to intermediate range magnetization transfer processes (rate < 100–150 Hz), such as amide proton transfer and relayed nuclear Overhauser enhancement-CEST. Images for these contrasts could be acquired in short scan times by using a single radiofrequency frequency. Conclusions VDMP-CEST provides an approach to detect CEST effect by sensitizing saturation experiments to slower exchange processes without interference of direct water saturation and without need to acquire Z-spectra and perform asymmetry analysis. PMID:23813483

Xu, Jiadi; Yadav, Nirbhay N.; Bar-Shir, Amnon; Jones, Craig K.; Chan, Kannie W. Y.; Zhang, Jiangyang; Walczak, P.; McMahon, Michael T.; van Zijl, Peter C. M.

2013-01-01

158

Novel Platform for MRI-Guided Convection-Enhanced Delivery of Therapeutics: Preclinical Validation in Nonhuman Primate Brain  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims A skull-mounted aiming device and integrated software platform has been developed for MRI-guided neurological interventions. In anticipation of upcoming gene therapy clinical trials, we adapted this device for real-time convection-enhanced delivery of therapeutics via a custom-designed infusion cannula. The targeting accuracy of this delivery system and the performance of the infusion cannula were validated in nonhuman primates. Methods Infusions of gadoteridol were delivered to multiple brain targets and the targeting error was determined for each cannula placement. Cannula performance was assessed by analyzing gadoteridol distributions and by histological analysis of tissue damage. Results The average targeting error for all targets (n = 11) was 0.8 mm (95% CI = 0.14). For clinically relevant volumes, the distribution volume of gadoteridol increased as a linear function (R2 = 0.97) of the infusion volume (average slope = 3.30, 95% CI = 0.2). No infusions in any target produced occlusion, cannula reflux or leakage from adjacent tracts, and no signs of unexpected tissue damage were observed. Conclusions This integrated delivery platform allows real-time convection-enhanced delivery to be performed with a high level of precision, predictability and safety. This approach may improve the success rate for clinical trials involving intracerebral drug delivery by direct infusion. PMID:21494065

Richardson, R. Mark; Kells, Adrian P.; Martin, Alastair J.; Larson, Paul S.; Starr, Philip A.; Piferi, Peter G.; Bates, Geoffrey; Tansey, Lisa; Rosenbluth, Kathryn H.; Bringas, John R.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Bankiewicz, Krystof S.

2011-01-01

159

Computerized breast mass detection using multi-scale hessian-based analysis for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate a computer-aided system for detecting breast masses using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for clinical use. Detection performance of the system was analyzed on 61 biopsy-confirmed lesions (21 benign and 40 malignant lesions) in 34 women. The breast region was determined using the demons deformable algorithm. After the suspicious tissues were identified by kinetic feature (area under the curve) and the fuzzy c-means clustering method, all breast masses were detected based on the rotation-invariant and multi-scale blob characteristics. Subsequently, the masses were further distinguished from other detected non-tumor regions (false positives). Free-response operating characteristics (FROC) curve and detection rate were used to evaluate the detection performance. Using the combined features, including blob, enhancement, morphologic, and texture features with 10-fold cross validation, the mass detection rate was 100 % (61/61) with 15.15 false positives per case and 91.80 % (56/61) with 4.56 false positives per case. In conclusion, the proposed computer-aided detection system can help radiologists reduce inter-observer variability and the cost associated with detection of suspicious lesions from a large number of images. Our results illustrated that breast masses can be efficiently detected and that enhancement and morphologic characteristics were useful for reducing non-tumor regions. PMID:24687641

Huang, Yan-Hao; Chang, Yeun-Chung; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Chang, Ruey-Feng

2014-10-01

160

Tracer delay correction of cerebral blood flow with dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and vascular mean transit time (MTT) can be determined by dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and deconvolution with an arterial input function. However, deconvolution by a singular value decomposition (SVD) method is sensitive to the tracer delay that often occurs in patients with cerebrovascular disease. We investigated the effect of tracer delay on CBF determined

Masanobu Ibaraki; Eku Shimosegawa; Hideto Toyoshima; Kazuhiro Takahashi; Shuichi Miura; Iwao Kanno

2005-01-01

161

Focal liver lesions detection and characterization: The advantages of gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI  

PubMed Central

Since its clinical introduction, several studies in literature have investigated gadolinium ethoxybenzhyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid or gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) properties. Following contrast injection, it provides dynamic vascular phases (arterial, portal and equilibrium phases) and hepatobiliary phase, the latter due to its uptake by functional hepatocytes. The main advantages of Gd-EOB-DTPA of focal liver lesion detection and characterization are discussed in this paper. Namely, we focus on the possibility of distinguishing focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) from hepatic adenoma (HA), the identification of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the pre-operative assessment of metastasis in liver parenchyma. Regarding the differentiation between FNH and HA, adenoma typically appears hypointense in hepatobiliary phase, whereas FNH is isointense or hyperintense to the surrounding hepatic parenchyma. As for the identification of early HCCs, many papers recently published in literature have emphasized the contribution of hepatobiliary phase in the characterization of nodules without a typical hallmark of HCC. Atypical nodules (no hypervascularizaton observed on arterial phase and/or no hypovascular appearance on portal phase) with low signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase, have a high probability of malignancy. Finally, regarding the evaluation of focal hepatic metastases, magnetic resonance pre-operative assessment using gadoxetic acid allows for more accurate diagnosis. PMID:25067999

Palmucci, Stefano

2014-01-01

162

Molecular imaging of tumors and metastases using chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI.  

PubMed

The two glucose analogs 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) and 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) are preferentially taken up by cancer cells, undergo phosphorylation and accumulate in the cells. Owing to their exchangeable protons on their hydroxyl residues they exhibit significant chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) effect in MRI. Here we report CEST-MRI on mice bearing orthotopic mammary tumors injected with 2-DG or FDG. The tumor exhibited an enhanced CEST effect of up to 30% that persisted for over one hour. Thus 2-DG/FDG CEST MRI can replace PET/CT or PET/MRI for cancer research in laboratory animals, but also has the potential to be used in the clinic for the detection of tumors and metastases, distinguishing between malignant and benign tumors and monitoring tumor response to therapy as well as tumors metabolism noninvasively by using MRI, without the need for radio-labeled isotopes. PMID:24157711

Rivlin, Michal; Horev, Judith; Tsarfaty, Ilan; Navon, Gil

2013-01-01

163

Molecular imaging of tumors and metastases using chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two glucose analogs 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) and 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) are preferentially taken up by cancer cells, undergo phosphorylation and accumulate in the cells. Owing to their exchangeable protons on their hydroxyl residues they exhibit significant chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) effect in MRI. Here we report CEST-MRI on mice bearing orthotopic mammary tumors injected with 2-DG or FDG. The tumor exhibited an enhanced CEST effect of up to 30% that persisted for over one hour. Thus 2-DG/FDG CEST MRI can replace PET/CT or PET/MRI for cancer research in laboratory animals, but also has the potential to be used in the clinic for the detection of tumors and metastases, distinguishing between malignant and benign tumors and monitoring tumor response to therapy as well as tumors metabolism noninvasively by using MRI, without the need for radio-labeled isotopes.

Rivlin, Michal; Horev, Judith; Tsarfaty, Ilan; Navon, Gil

2013-10-01

164

Spatio-temporal feature extraction for differentiation of non-mass-enhancing lesions in breast MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatio-temporal feature extraction represents a challenge however critical step for the differential diagnosis of non-mass-enhancing lesions. The atypical dynamical behavior of these lesions paired with non well-defined tumor borders requires novel approaches to obtain representative features for a subsequent automated diagnosis. We evaluate the performance of mappings of pixelwise kinetic features within a tumor, morphological descriptors based on Minkowski functionals and a novel technique, the Zernike velocity moments, to capture the joint spatio- temporal behavior within an image sequence. The highest sensitivity is achieved by the Zernike velocity moments proving thus that dynamical and morphological behavior can not be separately analyzed based on features extracted only for a distinct behavior or as a feature combination of these two but has to be a simultaneous measure of these. The present paper provides the most detailed automated diagnosis of non-mass-enhancing lesions so far in the literature.

Ngo, Dat; Zavala, Olmo; Shutler, Jamie; Lobbes, Mark; Lockwood, Maribel; Meyer-Bäse, Anke

2012-06-01

165

Simultaneous Measurement of Kidney Function by Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI and FITC-Sinistrin Clearance in Rats at 3 Tesla: Initial Results  

PubMed Central

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is an essential parameter of kidney function which can be measured by dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-GFR) and transcutaneous approaches based on fluorescent tracer molecules (optical-GFR). In an initial study comparing both techniques in separate measurements on the same animal, the correlation of the obtained GFR was poor. The goal of this study was to investigate if a simultaneous measurement was feasible and if thereby, the discrepancies in MRI-GFR and optical-GFR could be reduced. For the experiments healthy and unilateral nephrectomised (UNX) Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were used. The miniaturized fluorescent sensor was fixed on the depilated back of an anesthetized rat. A bolus of 5 mg/100 g b.w. of FITC-sinistrin was intravenously injected. For dynamic contrast enhanced perfusion imaging (DCE-MRI) a 3D time-resolved angiography with stochastic trajectories (TWIST) sequence was used. By means of a one compartment model the excretion half-life (t1/2) of FITC-sinistrin was calculated and converted into GFR. GFR from DCE-MRI was calculated by fitting pixel-wise a two compartment renal filtration model. Mean cortical GFR and GFR by FITC-sinistrin were compared by Bland-Altman plots and pair-wise t-test. Results show that a simultaneous GFR measurement using both techniques is feasible. Mean optical-GFR was 4.34±2.22 ml/min (healthy SD rats) and 2.34±0.90 ml/min (UNX rats) whereas MRI-GFR was 2.10±0.64 ml/min (SD rats) and 1.17±0.38 ml/min (UNX rats). Differences between healthy and UNX rats were significant (p<0.05) and almost equal percentage difference (46.1% and 44.3%) in mean GFR were assessed with both techniques. Overall mean optical-GFR values were approximately twice as high compared to MRI-GFR values. However, compared to a previous study, our results showed a higher agreement. In conclusion, the possibility to use the transcutaneous method in MRI may have a huge impact in improving and validating MRI methods for GFR assessment in animal models. PMID:24260332

Backer, Sandra; Neudecker, Sabine; Gretz, Norbert; Schad, Lothar R.

2013-01-01

166

Parameter estimation and change-point detection from Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI data using stochastic differential equations.  

PubMed

Dynamic Contrast Enhanced imaging (DCE-imaging) following a contrast agent bolus allows the extraction of information on tissue micro-vascularization. The dynamic signals obtained from DCE-imaging are modeled by pharmacokinetic compartmental models which integrate the Arterial Input Function. These models use ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to describe the exchanges between the arterial and capillary plasma and the extravascular-extracellular space. Their least squares fitting takes into account measurement noises but fails to deal with unpredictable fluctuations due to external/internal sources of variations (patients' anxiety, time-varying parameters, measurement errors in the input function, etc.). Adding Brownian components to the ODEs leads to stochastic differential equations (SDEs). In DCE-imaging, SDEs are discretely observed with an additional measurement noise. We propose to estimate the parameters of these noisy SDEs by maximum likelihood, using the Kalman filter. In DCE-imaging, the contrast agent injected in vein arrives in plasma with an unknown time delay. The delay parameter induces a change-point in the drift of the SDE and ODE models, which is estimated also. Estimations based on the SDE and ODE pharmacokinetic models are compared to real DCE-MRI data. They show that the use of SDE provides robustness in the estimation results. A simulation study confirms these results. PMID:21741391

Cuenod, Charles-André; Favetto, Benjamin; Genon-Catalot, Valentine; Rozenholc, Yves; Samson, Adeline

2011-09-01

167

Hepatic schwannoma: Imaging findings on CT, MRI and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography  

PubMed Central

A primary benign schwannoma of the liver is extremely rare and is difficult to preoperatively discriminate from a malignant tumor. We compared the imaging and pathological findings, and examined the possibility of preoperatively diagnosing a benign liver schwannoma. A 72-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of a 4.6-cm mass in the liver. A malignant tumor was suspected, and a right hepatectomy was performed. After this, the diagnosis of a primary benign schwannoma of the liver was made through pathological examination. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with Sonazoid showed minute blood flows into the septum and solid areas of the tumor in the vascular phase; most likely due to increased arterial flow associated with infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells. In the postvascular phase, CEUS showed contrast defect of cystic areas and delayed enhancement of solid areas; most likely due to aggregation of siderophores. Because discriminating between a benign and malignant schwannoma of the liver is difficult, surgery is generally recommended. However, the two key findings from CEUS may be useful in discriminating ancient schwannoma by recognizing the hemorrhage involved in the secondary degeneration and aggregation of siderophores. PMID:23002371

Ota, Yu; Aso, Kazunobu; Watanabe, Kenji; Einama, Takahiro; Imai, Koji; Karasaki, Hidenori; Sudo, Ryuji; Tamaki, Yosui; Okada, Mituyoshi; Tokusashi, Yosihiko; Kono, Toru; Miyokawa, Naoyuki; Haneda, Masakazu; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Furukawa, Hiroyuki

2012-01-01

168

Hepatic schwannoma: imaging findings on CT, MRI and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography.  

PubMed

A primary benign schwannoma of the liver is extremely rare and is difficult to preoperatively discriminate from a malignant tumor. We compared the imaging and pathological findings, and examined the possibility of preoperatively diagnosing a benign liver schwannoma. A 72-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of a 4.6-cm mass in the liver. A malignant tumor was suspected, and a right hepatectomy was performed. After this, the diagnosis of a primary benign schwannoma of the liver was made through pathological examination. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with Sonazoid showed minute blood flows into the septum and solid areas of the tumor in the vascular phase; most likely due to increased arterial flow associated with infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells. In the postvascular phase, CEUS showed contrast defect of cystic areas and delayed enhancement of solid areas; most likely due to aggregation of siderophores. Because discriminating between a benign and malignant schwannoma of the liver is difficult, surgery is generally recommended. However, the two key findings from CEUS may be useful in discriminating ancient schwannoma by recognizing the hemorrhage involved in the secondary degeneration and aggregation of siderophores. PMID:23002371

Ota, Yu; Aso, Kazunobu; Watanabe, Kenji; Einama, Takahiro; Imai, Koji; Karasaki, Hidenori; Sudo, Ryuji; Tamaki, Yosui; Okada, Mituyoshi; Tokusashi, Yosihiko; Kono, Toru; Miyokawa, Naoyuki; Haneda, Masakazu; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Furukawa, Hiroyuki

2012-09-21

169

Monitoring Pc 4-mediated photodynamic therapy of U87 tumors with dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in the athymic nude rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-operative verification of the specificity and sensitivity of photodynamic therapy (PDT) is most pressing for deeply placed lesions such as brain tumors. We wish to determine whether Dynamic Contrast Enhanced-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) can provide a non-invasive and unambiguous quantitative measure of the specificity and sensitivity of brain tumor PDT. Methods: 2.5 x 105 U87 cells were injected into the

Davood Varghai; Kelly Covey; Rahul Sharma; Nathan Cross; Denise K. Feyes; Nancy L. Oleinick; Chris A. Flask; David Dean

2008-01-01

170

Manganese-enhanced MRI detected the gray matter lesions in the late phase of mild hypoxic-ischemic injury in neonatal rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to use manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) to investigate the progression and permanence of the gray matter injuries in a neonatal rat model by mild hypoxic-ischemia (H-I) insult. Histological analyses were performed using staining for Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and glutamine synthetase (GS), which are Mn-binding enzymes against oxidative stress and glutamate excitotoxicity in neurodegeneration, and the standard hematoxylin

Jian Yang; Ed X. Wu

2007-01-01

171

Manganese-enhanced MRI of rat brain based on slow cerebral delivery of manganese(II) with silica-encapsulated Mn x Fe(1-x) O nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In this work, we report a monodisperse bifunctional nanoparticle system, MIO@SiO2 -RITC, as an MRI contrast agent [core, manganese iron oxide (MIO); shell, amorphous silica conjugated with rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC)]. It was prepared by thermal decomposition and modified microemulsion methods. The nanoparticles with varying iron to manganese ratios displayed different saturated magnetizations and relaxivities. In vivo MRI of rats injected intravenously with MIO@SiO2-RITC nanoparticles exhibited enhancement of the T1 contrast in brain tissue, in particular a time-delayed enhancement in the hippocampus, pituitary gland, striatum and cerebellum. This is attributable to the gradual degradation of MIO@SiO2-RITC nanoparticles in the liver, resulting in the slow release of manganese(II) [Mn(II)] into the blood pool and, subsequently, accumulation in the brain tissue. Thus, T1-weighted contrast enhancement was clearly detected in the anatomic structure of the brain as time progressed. In addition, T2*-weighted images of the liver showed a gradual darkening effect. Here, we demonstrate the concept of the slow release of Mn(II) for neuroimaging. This new nanoparticle-based manganese contrast agent allows one simple intravenous injection (rather than multiple infusions) of Mn(II) precursor, and results in delineation of the detailed anatomic neuroarchitecture in MRI; hence, this provides the advantage of the long-term study of neural function. PMID:23526743

Chen, Wei; Lu, Fang; Chen, Chiao-Chi V; Mo, Kuan-Chi; Hung, Yann; Guo, Zhi-Xuan; Lin, Chia-Hui; Lin, Ming-Huang; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Chen; Mou, Chung-Yuan

2013-09-01

172

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI of Gd-albumin Delivery to the Rat Hippocampus In Vivo by Convection-Enhanced Delivery  

PubMed Central

Convection enhanced delivery (CED) shows promise in treating neurological diseases due to its ability to circumvent the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and deliver therapeutics directly to the parenchyma of the central nervous system (CNS). Such a drug delivery method may be useful in treating CNS disorders involving the hippocampus such temporal lobe epilepsy and gliomas; however, the influence of anatomical structures on infusate distribution is not fully understood. As a surrogate for therapeutic agents, we used gadolinium-labeled-albumin (Gd-albumin) tagged with Evans blue dye to observe the time dependence of CED infusate distributions into the rat dorsal and ventral hippocampus in vivo with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). For finer anatomical detail, final distribution volumes (Vd) of the infusate were observed with high-resolution T1-weighted MR imaging and light microscopy of fixed brain sections. Dynamic images demonstrated that Gd-albumin preferentially distributed within the hippocampus along neuroanatomical structures with less fluid resistance and less penetration was observed in dense cell layers. Furthermore, significant leakage into adjacent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces such as the hippocampal fissure, velum interpositum and midbrain cistern occurred toward the end of infusion. Vd increased linearly with infusion volume (Vi) at a mean Vd/Vi ratio of 5.51 ± 0.55 for the dorsal hippocampus infusion and 5.30 ± 0.83 for the ventral hippocampus infusion. This study demonstrated the significant effects of tissue structure and CSF space boundaries on infusate distribution during CED. PMID:22687936

Kim, Jung Hwan; Astary, Garrett W.; Nobrega, Tatiana L.; Kantorovich, Svetlana; Carney, Paul R.; Mareci, Thomas H.; Sarntinoranont, Malisa

2013-01-01

173

Live nephron imaging by MRI.  

PubMed

The local sensitivity of MRI can be improved with small MR detectors placed close to regions of interest. However, to maintain such sensitivity advantage, local detectors normally need to communicate with the external amplifier through cable connections, which prevent the use of local detectors as implantable devices. Recently, an integrated wireless amplifier was developed that can efficiently amplify and broadcast locally detected signals, so that the local sensitivity was enhanced without the need for cable connections. This integrated detector enabled the live imaging of individual glomeruli using negative contrast introduced by cationized ferritin, and the live imaging of renal tubules using positive contrast introduced by gadopentetate dimeglumine. Here, we utilized the high blood flow to image individual glomeruli as hyperintense regions without any contrast agent. These hyperintense regions were identified for pixels with signal intensities higher than the local average. Addition of Mn(2+) allowed the simultaneous detection of both glomeruli and renal tubules: Mn(2+) was primarily reabsorbed by renal tubules, which would be distinguished from glomeruli due to higher enhancement in T1-weighted MRI. Dynamic studies of Mn(2+) absorption confirmed the differential absorption affinity of glomeruli and renal tubules, potentially enabling the in vivo observation of nephron function. PMID:25186296

Qian, Chunqi; Yu, Xin; Pothayee, Nikorn; Dodd, Stephen; Bouraoud, Nadia; Star, Robert; Bennett, Kevin; Koretsky, Alan

2014-11-15

174

Structural effect on degradability and in vivo contrast enhancement of polydisulfide Gd(III) complexes as biodegradable macromolecular MRI contrast agents.  

PubMed

The structural effect of biodegradable macromolecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, polydisulfide gadolinium (Gd)(III) chelates, on their in vitro degradability, and cardiovascular and tumor imaging were evaluated in mice. Polydisulfide Gd(III) chelates, Gd-DTPA cystamine copolymers (GDCC), Gd-DTPA l-cystine copolymers (GDCP), Gd-DTPA d-cystine copolymers (dGDCP) and Gd-DTPA glutathione (oxidized) copolymers (GDGP), with different sizes and narrow molecular weight distribution were prepared and evaluated both in vitro and in vivo in mice bearing MDA-MB-231 tumor xenografts. GDGP with large steric hindrance around the disulfide bonds had greater T(1) and T(2) relaxivities than GDCC, GDCP and dGDCP. The degradability of the polydisulfide by the endogenous thiols decreased with increasing steric effects around the disulfide bonds in the order of GDCC>GDCP, dGDCP>GDGP. The size and degradability of the contrast agents had a significant impact on vascular contrast enhancement kinetics. The agents with a large size and low degradability resulted in more prolonged vascular enhancement than the agents with a small size and high degradability. It seems that the size and degradability of the agents did not significantly affect tumor enhancement. All agents resulted in significant contrast enhancement in tumor tissue. This study has demonstrated that the vascular enhancement kinetics of the polydisulfide MRI contrast agents can be controlled by their sizes and structures. The polydisulfide Gd(III) chelates are promising biodegradable macromolecular MRI contrast agents for magnetic resonance angiography and cancer imaging. PMID:18814987

Zong, Yuda; Wang, Xuli; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Parker, Dennis L; Lu, Zheng-Rong

2009-05-01

175

Automated analysis of non-mass-enhancing lesions in breast MRI based on morphological, kinetic, and spatio-temporal moments and joint segmentation-motion compensation technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) represents an established method for the detection and diagnosis of breast lesions. While mass-like enhancing lesions can be easily categorized according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) MRI lexicon, a majority of diagnostically challenging lesions, the so called non-mass-like enhancing lesions, remain both qualitatively as well as quantitatively difficult to analyze. Thus, the evaluation of kinetic and/or morphological characteristics of non-masses represents a challenging task for an automated analysis and is of crucial importance for advancing current computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems. Compared to the well-characterized mass-enhancing lesions, non-masses have no well-defined and blurred tumor borders and a kinetic behavior that is not easily generalizable and thus discriminative for malignant and benign non-masses. To overcome these difficulties and pave the way for novel CAD systems for non-masses, we will evaluate several kinetic and morphological descriptors separately and a novel technique, the Zernike velocity moments, to capture the joint spatio-temporal behavior of these lesions, and additionally consider the impact of non-rigid motion compensation on a correct diagnosis.

Hoffmann, Sebastian; Shutler, Jamie D.; Lobbes, Marc; Burgeth, Bernhard; Meyer-Bäse, Anke

2013-12-01

176

Effects of AZD2171 and vandetanib (ZD6474, Zactima) on haemodynamic variables in an SW620 human colon tumour model: an investigation using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and the rapid clearance blood pool contrast agent, P792 (gadomelitol).  

PubMed

The effect of two novel therapeutic agents on tumour haemodynamics was investigated using a fast dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI protocol (0.5 s/image) sensitive to signal changes in both the vascular input function and tumour during the administration of the macromolecular rapid clearance blood pool agent (MM-RCBPA), gadomelitol (P792, Vistarem). This enabled simultaneous measurement of the tumour blood flow per unit volume of tissue (F/V(T), mL/s/mL), the fractional plasma volume (V(p), %), and the permeability surface area product per unit volume of tissue (PSrho, s(-1)) in subcutaneous SW620 human colorectal tumour xenografts grown in nude rats before and after (at 0 and 22 h; imaging at 24 h) acute treatment with AZD2171 (3 mg/kg) and vandetanib (ZD6474, Zactima; 50 mg/kg), which have inhibitory activity against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) tyrosine kinase. MRI was performed at 4.7 T using a single-slice, modified, T(1)-weighted, spoiled gradient-echo technique. Both compounds reduced gadomelitol uptake into the tumour. AZD2171 and vandetanib, respectively, (a) greatly reduced PSrho to 19.7 +/- 9.5% and 28.9 +/- 14.1% of baseline (P = 0.007 and P = 0.02), (b) markedly reduced V(p) to 31.2 +/- 19.1% and 54.8 +/- 21.2% of baseline (P = 0.015 and P = 0.09), and (c) had no significant effect on F/V(T). There was no significant difference between groups treated with AZD2171 and vandetanib when each variable was compared. The reductions in PSrho and V(p) are consistent with inhibition of VEGF signalling. AZD2171 (3 mg/kg) and vandetanib (50 mg/kg) were also found to produce a comparable chronic inhibition of SW620 tumour growth (89% for both). This study shows that DCE-MRI using an MM-RCPBA can be used to distinguish tumour vascular flow, volume, and permeability surface area product in a tumour model, and enables the acute effects of VEGF signalling inhibition to be examined in detail. PMID:17458919

Bradley, D P; Tessier, J L; Checkley, D; Kuribayashi, H; Waterton, J C; Kendrew, J; Wedge, S R

2008-01-01

177

Visualization and quantification of whole rat heart laminar structure using high-spatial resolution contrast-enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

It has been shown by histology that cardiac myocytes are organized into laminae and this structure is important in function, both influencing the spread of electrical activation and enabling myocardial thickening in systole by laminar sliding. We have carried out high-spatial resolution three-dimensional MRI of the ventricular myolaminae of the entire volume of the isolated rat heart after contrast perfusion [dimeglumine gadopentate (Gd-DTPA)]. Four ex vivo rat hearts were perfused with Gd-DTPA and fixative and high-spatial resolution MRI was performed on a 9.4T MRI system. After MRI, cryosectioning followed by histology was performed. Images from MRI and histology were aligned, described, and quantitatively compared. In the three-dimensional MR images we directly show the presence of laminae and demonstrate that these are highly branching and are absent from much of the subepicardium. We visualized these MRI volumes to demonstrate laminar architecture and quantitatively demonstrated that the structural features observed are similar to those imaged in histology. We showed qualitatively and quantitatively that laminar architecture is similar in the four hearts. MRI can be used to image the laminar architecture of ex vivo hearts in three dimensions, and the images produced are qualitatively and quantitatively comparable with histology. We have demonstrated in the rat that: 1) laminar architecture is consistent between hearts; 2) myolaminae are absent from much of the subepicardium; and 3) although localized orthotropy is present throughout the myocardium, tracked myolaminae are branching structures and do not have a discrete identity. PMID:22021329

Benoist, David; Benson, Alan P.; White, Ed; Tanner, Steven F.; Holden, Arun V.; Dobrzynski, Halina; Bernus, Olivier; Radjenovic, Aleksandra

2012-01-01

178

Quantitative dynamic contrast enhanced MRI of experimental synovitis in the rabbit knee: comparison of macromolecular blood pool agents vs. Gadolinium-DOTA.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess 2 Gd-based macromolecular intravascular contrast agents (P792, rapid clearance blood pool agent (rBPA) and P717, slow clearance blood pool agent (sBPA)) compared to Gd-DOTA (representative extracellular non specific agent) in MR imaging of knee rabbit experimental synovitis. Quantitative dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (qDCE-MRI) after intravascular injection of a low molecular weight contrast agent of 0.56 kDa (Gd-DOTA) and 2 high-molecular-weight contrast agents of 6.47 kDa (P792) and 52 kDa (P717) was performed in rabbits with carrageenan-induced synovitis of the right knee. P792 and P717 provided a progressive and persistent enhancement of arthritic synovial tissue while Gd-DOTA provided an early and rapidly declining enhancement with a concomitant diffusion in synovial fluid, thus limitating delineation of synovial pannus. P792 allowed acquisition of high-quality MR arthrograms, due to both a better diffusion in synovial pannus (vs. P717) and a concomitant restricted diffusion into the synovial fluid (vs. Gd-DOTA). In fact, experimental rabbit synovitis represent a specific entity that favors the T1 effect of high-molecular-weight agents, and especially rBPA P792, entrapped in synovial pannus, without diffusion in the synovial fluid. Due to this lack of arthrographic effect, P792 accumulation could be specifically sequentially analyzed by qDCE-MRI for detecting, characterizing and monitoring synovial vascular permeability changes during mono- or polysynovitis. PMID:19065032

Watrin-Pinzano, Astrid; Loeuille, Damien; Goebel, Jean-Christophe; Lapicque, Françoise; Walter, Fredéric; Robert, Philippe; Netter, Patrick; Corot, Claire; Gillet, Pierre; Blum, Alain

2008-01-01

179

Reference region-based pharmacokinetic modeling in quantitative dynamic contract-enhanced MRI allows robust treatment monitoring in a rat liver tumor model despite cardiovascular changes.  

PubMed

In this work, two pharmacokinetic modeling techniques, population arterial input function model, and reference region model, were applied to dynamic contract-enhanced MRI data, to test the influence of a change in heart rate on modeling parameters. A rat population arterial input function was generated by dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography measurements using the MR contrast agent gadolinium diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid. Then, dynamic contract-enhanced MRI was used for treatment monitoring in two groups of hepatocellular carcinoma bearing rats. Whereas group 1 had the same heart rate as animals analyzed for the population arterial input function (263 ± 20 bpm), group 2 had a higher heart rate (369 ± 11 bpm) due to a different anesthesia protocol. The pharmacokinetic modeling parameters volume transfer constant K(trans) and relative extravascular extracellular space v(e) were calculated with both models and statistically compared. For group 1, good correlation and agreement was found between the models showing no difference in K(trans) and v(e) (?K(trans): 4 ± 19% and ?v(e): 4 ± 12%, P = 0.2). In contrast, for group 2, a bias in parameter values for the population arterial input function model was detected (?K(trans): -45 ± 7% and ?v(e): -31 ± 7%, P ? 0.001). The presented work underlines the value of the reference region model in longitudinal treatment monitoring and provides a straightforward approach for the generation of a rat population arterial input function. PMID:20872863

Steingoetter, Andreas; Svensson, Jonas; Kosanke, Yvonne; Botnar, Rene M; Schwaiger, Markus; Rummeny, Ernst; Braren, Rickmer

2011-01-01

180

An investigation into the effects of temporal resolution on hepatic dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in volunteers and in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the effect of temporal resolution on the dual-input pharmacokinetic (PK) modelling of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data from normal volunteer livers and from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Eleven volunteers and five patients were examined at 3 T. Two sections, one optimized for the vascular input functions (VIF) and one for the tissue, were imaged within a single heart-beat (HB) using a saturation-recovery fast gradient echo sequence. The data was analysed using a dual-input single-compartment PK model. The VIFs and/or uptake curves were then temporally sub-sampled (at interval ?t = [2-20] s) before being subject to the same PK analysis. Statistical comparisons of tumour and normal tissue PK parameter values using a 5% significance level gave rise to the same study results when temporally sub-sampling the VIFs to HB < ?t <4 s. However, sub-sampling to ?t > 4 s did adversely affect the statistical comparisons. Temporal sub-sampling of just the liver/tumour tissue uptake curves at ?t ? 20 s, whilst using high temporal resolution VIFs, did not substantially affect PK parameter statistical comparisons. In conclusion, there is no practical advantage to be gained from acquiring very high temporal resolution hepatic DCE-MRI data. Instead the high temporal resolution could be usefully traded for increased spatial resolution or SNR.

Gill, Andrew B.; Black, Richard T.; Bowden, David J.; Priest, Andrew N.; Graves, Martin J.; Lomas, David J.

2014-06-01

181

Optimized and combined T1 and B1 mapping technique for fast and accurate T1 quantification in contrast-enhanced abdominal MRI.  

PubMed

Fast T(1) mapping techniques are a valuable means of quantitatively assessing the distribution and dynamics of intravenously or orally applied paramagnetic contrast agents (CAs) by noninvasive imaging. In this study a fast T(1) mapping technique based on the variable flip angle (VFA) approach was optimized for accurate T(1) quantification in abdominal contrast-enhanced (CE) MRI. Optimization methods were developed to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and ensure effective RF and gradient spoiling, as well as a steady state, for a defined T(1) range of 100-800 ms and a limited acquisition time. We corrected B(1) field inhomogeneities by performing an additional measurement using an optimized fast B(1) mapping technique. High-precision in vitro and abdominal in vivo T(1) maps were successfully generated at a voxel size of 2.8 x 2.8 x 15 mm(3) and a temporal resolution of 2.3 s per T(1) map on 1.5T and 3T MRI systems. The application of the proposed fast T(1) mapping technique in abdominal CE-MRI enables noninvasive quantification of abdominal tissue perfusion and vascular permeability, and offers the possibility of quantitatively assessing dilution, distribution, and mixing processes of labeled solutions or drugs in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:17326175

Treier, Reto; Steingoetter, Andreas; Fried, Michael; Schwizer, Werner; Boesiger, Peter

2007-03-01

182

Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI as a predictor of vascular-targeted photodynamic focal ablation therapy outcome in prostate cancer post-failed external beam radiation therapy  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be employed as a focal therapy for prostate cancer. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can potentially help identify tumour recurrence after failed external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT). The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of DCE-MRI to predict early response to PDT salvage treatment. Methods: Patients with post-EBRT prostate cancer recurrence were prospectively enrolled into a Phase I/II trial of PDT using WST09. A 15-patient subgroup of this cohort undergoing 1.5T DCE-MRI at baseline and 1-week post-PDT was retrospectively analyzed. The reference standard was prostate biopsy obtained 6 months post-PDT. Analysis was performed on a patient-by-patient basis, by prostate gland halves, and by prostate sextants. Results: Biopsy 6 months post-PDT identified cancer in 10/15 patients (66.7%), and in 24/90 sextants (26.7%). Residual cancer was identified in 22/37 sextants (59.5%) identified as being involved at baseline. DCE-MRI at 1 week correctly predicted recurrent disease with a sensitivity of 100% (10/10), specificity of 60% (3/5), positive predictive value of 83.3% (10/12), negative predictive value of 100% (3/3), and an overall accuracy of 86.7%, (13/15). When analysis was performed on prostate halves, the sensitivity and negative predictive value remained at 100%, with an improvement in specificity to 88.2% (15/17). The overall accuracy of DCE-MRI was similar regardless of analysis method: 86.7% on a patient-by-patient basis, 86.7% by prostate half and 83.3% by sextant. Changes in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) did not correlate to response. Conclusion: DCE-MRI shows promise as a tool to predict successful outcome when performed 1 week post-PDT and could potentially be used to inform the need for re-treatment at an early time-point. PMID:25408811

Barrett, Tristan; Davidson, Sean R.H.; Wilson, Brian C.; Weersink, Robert A.; Trachtenberg, John; Haider, Masoom A.

2014-01-01

183

In vivo monitoring of sorafenib therapy effects on experimental prostate carcinomas using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and macromolecular contrast media  

PubMed Central

Abstract Purpose: To investigate dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with macromolecular contrast media (MMCM) to monitor the effects of the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib on subcutaneous prostate carcinomas in rats with immunohistochemical validation. Materials and methods: Copenhagen rats, implanted with prostate carcinoma allografts, were randomized to the treatment group (n?=?8) or the control group (n?=?8). DCE-MRI with albumin-(Gd-DTPA)35 was performed at baseline and after 1 week using a clinical 3-Tesla system. The treatment group received sorafenib, 10?mg/kg body weight daily. Kinetic analysis yielded quantitative parameters of tumor endothelial permeability–surface area product (PS; ml/100?ml/min) and fractional blood volume (Vb, %). Tumors were harvested on day 7 for immunohistochemical analysis. Results: In sorafenib-treated tumors, PS (0.62?±?0.20 vs 0.08?±?0.09?ml/100?ml/min; P?MRI-assayed fractional blood volume Vb showed a highly significant correlation with tumor vascularity (RECA-1; r?=?0.87, P?MRI with MMCM demonstrated good, significant correlations with the immunohistochemically assessed antiangiogenic, antiproliferative, and proapoptotic effects of a 1-week, daily treatment course of sorafenib on experimental prostate carcinoma allografts. PMID:24380871

Schwarz, Bettina; Paprottka, Philipp M.; Sourbron, Steven; von Einem, Jobst C.; Dietrich, Olaf; Hinkel, Rabea; Clevert, Dirk A.; Bruns, Christiane J.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Wintersperger, Bernd J.

2013-01-01

184

Alertness in Young Healthy Subjects: An fMRI Study of Brain Region Interactivity Enhanced by a Warning Signal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An effective connectivity study was carried out on 16 young, healthy subjects performing an alertness task. The objective of this study was to develop and to evaluate a putative network model of alertness by adapting structural equation modeling to fMRI data. This study was designed to evaluate the directed interactivity of an attentional network…

Perin, B.; Godefroy, O.; Fall, S.; de Marco, G.

2010-01-01

185

Distinguishing stress fractures from pathologic fractures: a multimodality approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas stress fractures occur in normal or metabolically weakened bones, pathologic fractures occur at the site of a bone tumor. Unfortunately, stress fractures may share imaging features with pathologic fractures on plain radiography, and therefore other modalities are commonly utilized to distinguish these entities. Additional cross-sectional imaging with CT or MRI as well as scintigraphy and PET scanning is often

Laura M. Fayad; Ihab R. Kamel; Satomi Kawamoto; David A. Bluemke; Frank J. Frassica; Elliot K. Fishman

2005-01-01

186

Segmentation and Classification of Triple Negative Breast Cancers Using DCE-MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triple-negative (TN) breast cancer has gained much interest recently due to its lack of response to receptor-targeted therapies and its ag- gressive clinical nature. In this study, we evaluate the ability of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to not only distinguish benign from malignant lesions on dynamic contrast-enhanced mag- netic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), but also to quantitatively dis- tinguish triple

Shannon C. Agner; Jun Xu; Hussain Fatakdawala; Shridar Ganesan; Anant Madabhushi; Sarah Englander; Mark Rosen; Kathleen Thomas; Mitchell D. Schnall; Michael D. Feldman; John Tomaszewski

2009-01-01

187

Accurate High-Resolution Measurements of 3-D Tissue Dynamics With Registration-Enhanced Displacement Encoded MRI  

PubMed Central

Displacement fields are important to analyze deformation, which is associated with functional and material tissue properties often used as indicators of health. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques like DENSE and image registration methods like Hyperelastic Warping have been used to produce pixel-level deformation fields that are desirable in high-resolution analysis. However, DENSE can be complicated by challenges associated with image phase unwrapping, in particular offset determination. On the other hand, Hyperelastic Warping can be hampered by low local image contrast. The current work proposes a novel approach for measuring tissue displacement with both DENSE and Hyperelastic Warping, incorporating physically accurate displacements obtained by the latter to improve phase characterization in DENSE. The validity of the proposed technique is demonstrated using numerical and physical phantoms, and in vivo small animal cardiac MRI. PMID:24771572

Merchant, Samer S.; Hsu, Edward W.

2014-01-01

188

Ultra-high-field imaging distinguishes MS lesions from asymptomatic white matter lesions  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate whether multiple sclerosis (MS) and non-MS white matter brain lesions can be distinguished by their appearance on 7 T T2*-weighted MRI. Methods: This was an observational study of 28 patients with MS and 17 patients with cerebral white matter lesions who did not have MS. Subjects were imaged using 7 T T2*-weighted imaging. White matter lesions were identified and analyzed for volume, location, and perivenous appearance. Results: Out of 901 lesions identified in patients with MS, 80% were perivenous. In comparison, 19% of 428 lesions identified in patients without MS had a perivenous appearance. Seven-Tesla T2*-weighted MRI reliably distinguished all patients with clinically definite MS (>40% lesions appeared perivenous) from those without clinical MS (<40% lesions appeared perivenous). Perivenous lesion appearance was more predictive of MS (odds ratio [OR] 14, p < 0.001) than subcortical or periventricular lesion location (OR 4.5, p < 0.001, and OR 2.4, p = 0.009). Perivenous lesion appearance was observed with a similar frequency in patients with clinically isolated syndrome of demyelination and in early (gadolinium-enhancing) MS lesions. Conclusion: Perivenous lesion location on 7 T T2*-weighted imaging is predictive of the presence of demyelination. Optimization of this imaging technique at lower magnetic resonance field strengths would offer benefit for the diagnosis of MS. PMID:21300968

Tallantyre, E.C.; Dixon, J.E.; Donaldson, I.; Owens, T.; Morgan, P.S.; Morris, P.G.

2011-01-01

189

Enhanced multi-protocol analysis via intelligent supervised embedding (EMPrAvISE): detecting prostate cancer on multi-parametric MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, there is significant interest in developing methods for quantitative integration of multi-parametric (structural, functional) imaging data with the objective of building automated meta-classifiers to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and prognosis. Such techniques are required to address the differences in dimensionalities and scales of individual protocols, while deriving an integrated multi-parametric data representation which best captures all disease-pertinent information available. In this paper, we present a scheme called Enhanced Multi-Protocol Analysis via Intelligent Supervised Embedding (EMPrAvISE); a powerful, generalizable framework applicable to a variety of domains for multi-parametric data representation and fusion. Our scheme utilizes an ensemble of embeddings (via dimensionality reduction, DR); thereby exploiting the variance amongst multiple uncorrelated embeddings in a manner similar to ensemble classifier schemes (e.g. Bagging, Boosting). We apply this framework to the problem of prostate cancer (CaP) detection on 12 3 Tesla pre-operative in vivo multi-parametric (T2-weighted, Dynamic Contrast Enhanced, and Diffusion-weighted) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, in turn comprising a total of 39 2D planar MR images. We first align the different imaging protocols via automated image registration, followed by quantification of image attributes from individual protocols. Multiple embeddings are generated from the resultant high-dimensional feature space which are then combined intelligently to yield a single stable solution. Our scheme is employed in conjunction with graph embedding (for DR) and probabilistic boosting trees (PBTs) to detect CaP on multi-parametric MRI. Finally, a probabilistic pairwise Markov Random Field algorithm is used to apply spatial constraints to the result of the PBT classifier, yielding a per-voxel classification of CaP presence. Per-voxel evaluation of detection results against ground truth for CaP extent on MRI (obtained by spatially registering pre-operative MRI with available whole-mount histological specimens) reveals that EMPrAvISE yields a statistically significant improvement (AUC=0.77) over classifiers constructed from individual protocols (AUC=0.62, 0.62, 0.65, for T2w, DCE, DWI respectively) as well as one trained using multi-parametric feature concatenation (AUC=0.67).

Viswanath, Satish; Bloch, B. Nicholas; Chappelow, Jonathan; Patel, Pratik; Rofsky, Neil; Lenkinski, Robert; Genega, Elizabeth; Madabhushi, Anant

2011-03-01

190

Enhanced Multi-Protocol Analysis via Intelligent Supervised Embedding (EMPrAvISE): Detecting Prostate Cancer on Multi-Parametric MRI  

PubMed Central

Currently, there is significant interest in developing methods for quantitative integration of multi-parametric (structural, functional) imaging data with the objective of building automated meta-classifiers to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and prognosis. Such techniques are required to address the differences in dimensionalities and scales of individual protocols, while deriving an integrated multi-parametric data representation which best captures all disease-pertinent information available. In this paper, we present a scheme called Enhanced Multi-Protocol Analysis via Intelligent Supervised Embedding (EMPrAvISE); a powerful, generalizable framework applicable to a variety of domains for multi-parametric data representation and fusion. Our scheme utilizes an ensemble of embeddings (via dimensionality reduction, DR); thereby exploiting the variance amongst multiple uncorrelated embeddings in a manner similar to ensemble classifier schemes (e.g. Bagging, Boosting). We apply this framework to the problem of prostate cancer (CaP) detection on 12 3 Tesla pre-operative in vivo multi-parametric (T2-weighted, Dynamic Contrast Enhanced, and Diffusion-weighted) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, in turn comprising a total of 39 2D planar MR images. We first align the different imaging protocols via automated image registration, followed by quantification of image attributes from individual protocols. Multiple embeddings are generated from the resultant high-dimensional feature space which are then combined intelligently to yield a single stable solution. Our scheme is employed in conjunction with graph embedding (for DR) and probabilistic boosting trees (PBTs) to detect CaP on multi-parametric MRI. Finally, a probabilistic pairwise Markov Random Field algorithm is used to apply spatial constraints to the result of the PBT classifier, yielding a per-voxel classification of CaP presence. Per-voxel evaluation of detection results against ground truth for CaP extent on MRI (obtained by spatially registering pre-operative MRI with available whole-mount histological specimens) reveals that EMPrAvISE yields a statistically significant improvement (AUC=0.77) over classifiers constructed from individual protocols (AUC=0.62, 0.62, 0.65, for T2w, DCE, DWI respectively) as well as one trained using multi-parametric feature concatenation (AUC=0.67). PMID:25301991

Viswanath, Satish; Bloch, B. Nicolas; Chappelow, Jonathan; Patel, Pratik; Rofsky, Neil; Lenkinski, Robert; Genega, Elisabeth; Madabhushi, Anant

2014-01-01

191

Comparison of single- and dual-tracer pharmacokinetic modeling of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI data using low, medium, and high molecular weight contrast agents.  

PubMed

Pharmacokinetic parameters corresponding to perfused microvascular volume determined from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI data were compared to immunohistochemical measures of microvascular density (MVD) and perfused microvascular density. DCE MRI data from human mammary tumors (MDA-MB-435) implanted in nude mice using low (Gd-DTPA, MW approximately equal 0.6 kDa), medium (Gadomer-17, MW(eff) approximately equal 35 kDa), and high (PG-Gd-DTPA, MW approximately equal 220 kDa) molecular weight contrast agents were analyzed with single- and dual-tracer pharmacokinetic models. MVD values were determined by two manual counting methods, "hot spot" and summed region of interest (SROI). Pharmacokinetic parameters determined using the single-tracer model (Gd-DTPA [n = 15] and Gadomer-17 [n = 13]) did not correlate with MVD measures using either manual counting method. For dual-tracer studies (Gadomer-17/Gd-DTPA [n = 15] and PG-Gd-DTPA/Gd-DTPA [n = 13]), pharmacokinetic parameters demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with MVD determined by the SROI method, but not the "hot spot" method. Ten mice successfully underwent intravital FITC-labeled lectin perfusion with the hemisphere of highest lectin labeling correlating with pharmacokinetic parameter values in 9 of 10 tumors (single-tracer Gd-DTPA [n = 2], single-tracer Gadomer-17 [n = 3], and dual-tracer Gadomer-17/Gd-DTPA [n = 5]). This study demonstrates that dual-tracer DCE MRI studies yield pharmacokinetic parameters that correlate with immunohistochemical measures of MVD. PMID:17899608

Orth, Robert C; Bankson, James; Price, Roger; Jackson, Edward F

2007-10-01

192

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Diffusion MRI Show Rapid and Dramatic Changes in Tumor Microenvironment in Response to Inhibition of HIF-1? Using PX-4781  

PubMed Central

Abstract PX-478 is a new agent known to inhibit the hypoxia-responsive transcription factor, HIF-1?, in experimental tumors. The current study was undertaken in preparation for clinical trials to determine which noninvasive imaging endpoint(s) is sensitive to this drug's actions. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to monitor acute effects on tumor hemodynamics and cellularity, respectively. Mice bearing human xenografts were treated either with PX-478 or vehicle, and imaged over time. DW imaging was performed at three b values to generate apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADCw) maps. For DCE-MRI, a macromolecular contrast reagent, BSA-Gd-DTPA, was used to determine vascular permeability and vascular volume fractions. PX-478 induced a dramatic reduction in tumor blood vessel permeability within 2 hours after treatment, which returned to baseline by 48 hours. The anti-VEGF antibody, Avastin, reduced both the permeability and vascular volume. PX-478 had no effect on the perfusion behavior of a drug-resistant tumor system, A-549. Tumor cellularity, estimated from ADCw, was significantly decreased 24 and 36 hours after treatment. This is the earliest significant response of ADC to therapy yet reported. Based on these preclinical findings, both of these imaging endpoints will be included in the clinical trial of PX-478. PMID:15967100

Jordan, Benedicte F; Runquist, Matthew; Raghunand, Natarajan; Baker, Amanda; Williams, Ryan; Kirkpatrick, Lynn; Powis, Garth; Gillies, Robert J

2005-01-01

193

Dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion MRI show rapid and dramatic changes in tumor microenvironment in response to inhibition of HIF-1alpha using PX-478.  

PubMed

PX-478 is a new agent known to inhibit the hypoxia-responsive transcription factor, HIF-1alpha, in experimental tumors. The current study was undertaken in preparation for clinical trials to determine which noninvasive imaging endpoint(s) is sensitive to this drug's actions. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to monitor acute effects on tumor hemodynamics and cellularity, respectively. Mice bearing human xenografts were treated either with PX-478 or vehicle, and imaged over time. DW imaging was performed at three b values to generate apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADCw) maps. For DCE-MRI, a macromolecular contrast reagent, BSA-Gd-DTPA, was used to determine vascular permeability and vascular volume fractions. PX-478 induced a dramatic reduction in tumor blood vessel permeability within 2 hours after treatment, which returned to baseline by 48 hours. The anti-VEGF antibody, Avastin, reduced both the permeability and vascular volume. PX-478 had no effect on the perfusion behavior of a drug-resistant tumor system, A-549. Tumor cellularity, estimated from ADCw, was significantly decreased 24 and 36 hours after treatment. This is the earliest significant response of ADC to therapy yet reported. Based on these preclinical findings, both of these imaging endpoints will be included in the clinical trial of PX-478. PMID:15967100

Jordan, Bénédicte F; Runquist, Matthew; Raghunand, Natarajan; Baker, Amanda; Williams, Ryan; Kirkpatrick, Lynn; Powis, Garth; Gillies, Robert J

2005-05-01

194

Quasi-cubic magnetite/silica core-shell nanoparticles as enhanced MRI contrast agents for cancer imaging.  

PubMed

Development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents that can be readily applied for imaging of biological tissues under clinical settings is a challenging task. This is predominantly due to the expectation of an ideal MR agent being able to be synthesized in large quantities, possessing longer shelf life, reasonable biocompatibility, tolerance against its aggregation in biological fluids, and high relaxivity, resulting in better contrast during biological imaging. Although a repertoire of reports address various aforementioned issues, the previously reported results are far from optimal, which necessitates further efforts in this area. In this study, we demonstrate facile large-scale synthesis of sub-100 nm quasi-cubic magnetite and magnetite/silica core-shell (Mag@SiO2) nanoparticles and their applicability as a biocompatible T2 contrast agent for MRI of biological tissues. Our study suggests that silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles reported in this study can potentially act as improved MR contrast agents by addressing a number of aforementioned issues, including longer shelf life and stability in biological fluids. Additionally, our in vitro and in vivo studies clearly demonstrate the importance of silica coating towards improved applicability of T2 contrast agents for cancer imaging. PMID:21747962

Campbell, Jos L; Arora, Jyoti; Cowell, Simon F; Garg, Ashish; Eu, Peter; Bhargava, Suresh K; Bansal, Vipul

2011-01-01

195

Quasi-Cubic Magnetite/Silica Core-Shell Nanoparticles as Enhanced MRI Contrast Agents for Cancer Imaging  

PubMed Central

Development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents that can be readily applied for imaging of biological tissues under clinical settings is a challenging task. This is predominantly due to the expectation of an ideal MR agent being able to be synthesized in large quantities, possessing longer shelf life, reasonable biocompatibility, tolerance against its aggregation in biological fluids, and high relaxivity, resulting in better contrast during biological imaging. Although a repertoire of reports address various aforementioned issues, the previously reported results are far from optimal, which necessitates further efforts in this area. In this study, we demonstrate facile large-scale synthesis of sub-100 nm quasi-cubic magnetite and magnetite/silica core-shell (Mag@SiO2) nanoparticles and their applicability as a biocompatible T2 contrast agent for MRI of biological tissues. Our study suggests that silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles reported in this study can potentially act as improved MR contrast agents by addressing a number of aforementioned issues, including longer shelf life and stability in biological fluids. Additionally, our in vitro and in vivo studies clearly demonstrate the importance of silica coating towards improved applicability of T2 contrast agents for cancer imaging. PMID:21747962

Cowell, Simon F.; Garg, Ashish; Eu, Peter; Bhargava, Suresh K.; Bansal, Vipul

2011-01-01

196

Changes in rat cerebral blood volume due to modulation of the 5-HT(1A) receptor measured with susceptibility enhanced contrast MRI.  

PubMed

Brain blood volume changes in the rat in response to 5-HT(1A) agonist and antagonist administration were measured using susceptibility contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Administration of the 5-HT(1A) agonist 8-OH-DPAT resulted in decreases in fractional brain blood volumes. Administration of the 5-HT(1A) antagonist WAY-100635 following a dose of 8-OH-DPAT resulted in increases in fractional blood volumes greatest in hippocampus and cortex and smallest in thalamus and caudate-putamen. The magnitude of the regional increases in blood volumes paralleled the distribution of 5-HT(1A) receptors in the rat brain. Administration of WAY-100635 alone resulted in decreases in cortical blood volume and increases in cerebellar blood volume. PMID:11549378

Scanley, B E; Kennan, R P; Gore, J C

2001-09-21

197

Effects of 780 nm diode laser irradiation on blood microcirculation: preliminary findings on time-dependent T1-weighted contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).  

PubMed

Laser therapy by low light doses shows promising results in the modulation of some cell functions. Various clinical studies indicate that laser therapy is a valuable method for pain treatment and the acceleration of wound healing. However, the mechanism behind it is still not completely understood. To explore the effect of a low-power diode laser (lambda = 780 nm) on normal skin tissue, time-dependent contrast enhancement has been determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the examinations, six healthy volunteers (four male and two female) have been irradiated on their right planta pedis (sole of foot) with 5 J/cm2 at a fluence rate of 100 mW/cm2. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is used to quantify the time-dependent local accumulation of Gadolinium-DPTA, its actual content in the local current blood volume as well as its distribution to the extracellular space. Images are obtained before and after the application of laser light. When laser light is applied the signal to noise ratio increases by more than 0.35 +/- 0.15 (range 0.23-0.63) after irradiation according to contrast-enhanced MRI. It can be observed that, after biomodulation with light of low energy and low power, wound healing improves and pain is reduced. This effect might be explained by an increased blood flow in this area. Therefore, the use of this kind of laser treatment might improve the outcome of other therapeutic modalities such as tumour ionizing radiation therapy and local chemotherapy. PMID:10739143

Schaffer, M; Bonel, H; Sroka, R; Schaffer, P M; Busch, M; Reiser, M; Dühmke, E

2000-01-01

198

SElf-gated Non-Contrast-Enhanced FUnctional Lung imaging (SENCEFUL) using a quasi-random fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence and proton MRI.  

PubMed

Obtaining functional information on the human lung is of tremendous interest in the characterization of lung defects and pathologies. However, pulmonary ventilation and perfusion maps usually require contrast agents and the application of electrocardiogram (ECG) triggering and breath holds to generate datasets free of motion artifacts. This work demonstrates the possibility of obtaining highly resolved perfusion-weighted and ventilation-weighted images of the human lung using proton MRI and the SElf-gated Non-Contrast-Enhanced FUnctional Lung imaging (SENCEFUL) technique. The SENCEFUL technique utilizes a two-dimensional fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence with quasi-random sampling of phase-encoding (PE) steps for data acquisition. After every readout, a short additional acquisition of the non-phase-encoded direct current (DC) signal necessary for self-gating was added. By sorting the quasi-randomly acquired data according to respiratory and cardiac phase derived from the DC signal, datasets of representative respiratory and cardiac cycles could be accurately reconstructed. By application of the Fourier transform along the temporal dimension, functional maps (perfusion and ventilation) were obtained. These maps were compared with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE, perfusion) as well as standard Fourier decomposition (FD, ventilation) reference datasets. All datasets were additionally scored by two experienced radiologists to quantify image quality. In addition, one initial patient examination using SENCEFUL was performed. Functional images of healthy volunteers and a patient diagnosed with hypoplasia of the left pulmonary artery and left-sided pulmonary fibrosis were successfully obtained. Perfusion-weighted images corresponded well to DCE-MRI data; ventilation-weighted images offered a significantly better depiction of the lung periphery compared with standard FD. Furthermore, the SENCEFUL technique hints at a potential clinical relevance by successfully detecting a perfusion defect in the patient scan. It can be concluded that SENCEFUL enables highly resolved ventilation- and perfusion-weighted maps of the human lung to be obtained using proton MRI, and might be interesting for further clinical evaluation. PMID:24820869

Fischer, André; Weick, Stefan; Ritter, Christian O; Beer, Meinrad; Wirth, Clemens; Hebestreit, Helge; Jakob, Peter M; Hahn, Dietbert; Bley, Thorsten; Köstler, Herbert

2014-08-01

199

Prognostic significance of parameters derived from co-registered 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET and contrast-enhanced MRI in patients with high-grade glioma  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic significance of the volume and intensity of abnormal 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) accumulation within areas of contrast enhancement on post-therapeutic volumetric MRI. Methods A total of 10 patients with Grade III or IV glioma were treated with resection followed by intracavitary radiation therapy with 131I-labelled antitenascin monoclonal antibody. Patients underwent serial FDG-PET and 1.5 T MR imaging. For each patient, MR and FDG-PET image volumes at each time point were aligned using a rigid-body normalised mutual information algorithm. Contrast-enhancing regions of interest (ROIs) were defined using a semi-automated k-means clustering technique. Activity within the ROI on the co-registered PET scan was calculated as a ratio (mean activity ratio; MAR) to activity in contralateral normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). The PET lesion was defined as the portion of the ROI associated with activity greater than two standard deviations above the mean in NAWM. Survival was assessed using the logrank test. Results Larger contrast-enhancing ROIs were strongly associated with an increased MAR (r = 0.51; p<0.002). Enhancing lesions with an MAR >1.2 were associated with decreased survival (p<0.016). In nine patients who died, the MAR on PET correlated inversely with survival duration (r = ?0.43; p<0.01), whereas PET lesion volume did not. Conclusion Following intracavitary radiation therapy, the development of contrast-enhancing lesions that are associated with high mean FDG-PET accumulation suggests poor prognosis. PMID:20959370

Paldino, M J; Wong, T Z; Reardon, D A; Friedman, H S; Barboriak, D P

2011-01-01

200

Intracystic gadolinium-enhanced MRI in the evaluation of residual giant-cystic craniopharyngiomas in children: report of four cases.  

PubMed

Residual giant-cystic craniopharyngiomas are amenable to intracavitary bleomycin treatment. Radiologic identification of potential cyst leaks is of paramount for treatment decisions. This report describes our experience in the use of intracystic Gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced MR imaging to determine potential communications between the tumoral cysts and other intra-axial spaces in 4 pediatric patients with residual giant-cystic craniopharyngiomas in whom intracavitary bleomycin treatment was planned after the injection of .1-.2 mL of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA). In three cases no leaks were found. In one case, whose previous water-soluble iodinated contrast-enhanced CT cystography was negative for leaks, intracystic Gd-enhanced MR showed intraventricular Gd enhancement. We conclude that MR imaging after intracystic administration of Gd-based contrast paramagnetic agents is useful in the detection of potential leaks in cases of giant residual craniopharyngiomas. PMID:23157657

Muñoz, Alberto; Martínez-León, María; Vázquez, Élida; Pérez da Rosa, Sandra; Crespo, José

2014-01-01

201

Characterization of fast and slow diffusion from diffusion-weighted MRI of pediatric Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose To characterize fast and slow diffusion components in Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) of pediatric Crohn’s disease (CD). Overall diffusivity reduction as measured by the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in patients with CD has been previously demonstrated. However, the ADC reduction may be due to changes in either fast or slow diffusion components. In this study we distinguished between the fast and slow diffusion components in the DW-MRI signal decay of pediatric CD. Materials and Methods We acquired MRI from 24 patients, including MR enterography (MRE) and DW-MRI with 8 b-values [0–800 s/mm2]. We characterized fast and slow diffusivity by intra-voxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model parameters (f, D*, D), and overall diffusivity by ADC values. We determined which model best described the DW-MRI signal decay. We assessed the influence of the IVIM model parameters on the ADC. We evaluated differences in model parameter values between the enhancing and non-enhancing groups. Results The IVIM model described the observed data significantly better than the ADC model (p=0.0088). The ADC was correlated with f (r=0.67, p=0.0003), but not with D (r=0.39, p=0.062) and D* (r=?0.39, p=0.057). f values were significantly lower (p<0.003) and D* values were significantly higher (p=0.03) in the enhancing segments, while D values were not significantly different between the groups (p=0.14). Conclusion For this study population, the IVIM model provides a better description of the DW-MRI signal decay than the ADC model. The reduced ADC is related to changes in the fast diffusion rather than to changes in the slow diffusion. PMID:22927342

Freiman, Moti; Perez-Rossello, Jeannette M.; Callahan, Michael J.; Bittman, Mark; Mulkern, Robert V.; Bousvaros, Athos; Warfield, Simon K.

2012-01-01

202

Simplified MRI  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Is it a tumor? Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can tell. Your head is full of tiny radio transmitters (the nuclear spins of the hydrogen nuclei of your water molecules). In an MRI unit, these little radios can be made to broadcast their positions, giving a detailed picture of the inside of your head.

Simulations, Phet I.; Dubson, Michael; Lemaster, Ron; Mckagan, Sam; Perkins, Kathy; Wieman, Carl

2006-07-01

203

Distinguishing features of ?-proteobacterial genomes  

PubMed Central

We analyzed several features of five currently available ?-proteobacterial genomes, including two aerobic bacteria exhibiting predatory behavior and three anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria. The ? genomes are distinguished from other bacteria by several properties: (i) The ? genomes contain two “giant” S1 ribosomal protein genes in contrast to all other bacterial types, which encode a single or no S1; (ii) in most ?-proteobacterial genomes the major ribosomal protein (RP) gene cluster is near the replication terminus whereas most bacterial genomes place the major RP cluster near the origin of replication; (iii) the ? genomes possess the rare combination of discriminating asparaginyl and glutaminyl tRNA synthetase (AARS) together with the amido-transferase complex (Gat CAB) genes that modify Asp-tRNAAsn into Asn-tRNAAsn and Glu-tRNAGln into Gln-tRNAGln; (iv) the TonB receptors and ferric siderophore receptors that facilitate uptake and removal of complex metals are common among ? genomes; (v) the anaerobic ? genomes encode multiple copies of the anaerobic detoxification protein rubrerythrin that can neutralize hydrogen peroxide; and (vi) ?54 activators play a more important role in the ? genomes than in other bacteria. ? genomes have a plethora of enhancer binding proteins that respond to environmental and intracellular cues, often as part of two-component systems; (vii) ? genomes encode multiple copies of metallo-?-lactamase enzymes; (viii) a host of secretion proteins emphasizing SecA, SecB, and SecY may be especially useful in the predatory activities of Myxococcus xanthus; (ix) ? proteobacteria drive many multiprotein machines in their periplasms and outer membrane, including chaperone-feeding machines, jets for slime secretion, and type IV pili. Bdellovibrio replicates in the periplasm of prey cells. The sulfate-reducing ? proteobacteria metabolize hydrogen and generate a proton gradient by electron transport. The predicted highly expressed genes from ? genomes reflect their different ecologies, metabolic strategies, and adaptations. PMID:16844781

Karlin, Samuel; Brocchieri, Luciano; Mrazek, Jan; Kaiser, Dale

2006-01-01

204

Abstract 45432 Automatic evaluation of the peri-infarct area of myocardial infarction from delayed enhancement MRI  

E-print Network

Abstract 45432 Automatic evaluation of the peri-infarct area of myocardial infarction from delayed viability after myocardial infarction (MI). Around the infarcted areas that appear with hyper- enhanced signal, there is a peri-infarct border zone that may be an important arrhythmogenic substrate. The extent

Boyer, Edmond

205

Distinguished Lecture Series EECS COLLOQUIUM  

E-print Network

Distinguished Lecture Series EECS COLLOQUIUM 306 Soda Hall Hewlett-Packard Auditorium Spring 2014.S. patents. For more information please see: http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Colloquium/ Refreshments served

California at Irvine, University of

206

Distinguished Lecture Series EECS COLLOQUIUM  

E-print Network

Distinguished Lecture Series EECS COLLOQUIUM 306 Soda Hall Hewlett-Packard Auditorium Spring 2014 at the London Museum of Science and has received numerous recognitions and awards including NSF Career Award

California at Irvine, University of

207

Entanglement of distinguishable quantum memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-resolved photon detection can be used to generate entanglement between distinguishable photons. This technique can be extended to entangle quantum memories that emit photons with different frequencies and identical temporal profiles without the loss of entanglement rate or fidelity. We experimentally realize this process using remotely trapped 171Yb+ ions where heralded entanglement is generated by interfering distinguishable photons. This technique may be necessary for future modular quantum systems and networks that are composed of heterogeneous qubits.

Vittorini, G.; Hucul, D.; Inlek, I. V.; Crocker, C.; Monroe, C.

2014-10-01

208

When The Brain Is Prepared to Learn: Enhancing Human Learning Using Real-time fMRI  

PubMed Central

The rate of learning or memory formation varies over time for any individual, partly due to moment-to-moment fluctuation of brain state. Functional neuroimaging has revealed the neural correlates of learning and memory, but here we asked if neuroimaging can causally enhance human learning by detection of brain states that reveal when a person is prepared or not prepared to learn. The parahippocampal cortex (PHC) is essential for memory formation for scenes. Here, activation in PHC was monitored in real-time, and scene presentations were triggered when participants entered “good” or “bad” brain states for learning of novel scenes. Subsequent recognition memory was more accurate for scenes presented in “good” than “bad” brain states. These findings show that neuroimaging can identify in real-time brain states that enhance or depress learning and memory formation, and knowledge about such brain states may be useful for accelerating education and training. Further, the use of functional neuroimaging as a causal, rather than correlative, tool to study the human brain may open new insights into the neural basis of human cognition. PMID:21821136

Hinds, Oliver; Ofen, Noa; Thompson, Todd W.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Triantafyllou, Christina; Gabrieli, John D. E.

2013-01-01

209

Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI Detects Early Response to Adoptive NK Cellular Immunotherapy Targeting the NG2 Proteoglycan in a Rat Model of Glioblastoma  

PubMed Central

There are currently no established radiological parameters that predict response to immunotherapy. We hypothesised that multiparametric, longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of physiological parameters and pharmacokinetic models might detect early biological responses to immunotherapy for glioblastoma targeting NG2/CSPG4 with mAb9.2.27 combined with natural killer (NK) cells. Contrast enhanced conventional T1-weighted MRI at 7±1 and 17±2 days post-treatment failed to detect differences in tumour size between the treatment groups, whereas, follow-up scans at 3 months demonstrated diminished signal intensity and tumour volume in the surviving NK+mAb9.2.27 treated animals. Notably, interstitial volume fraction (ve), was significantly increased in the NK+mAb9.2.27 combination therapy group compared mAb9.2.27 and NK cell monotherapy groups (p?=?0.002 and p?=?0.017 respectively) in cohort 1 animals treated with 1 million NK cells. ve was reproducibly increased in the combination NK+mAb9.2.27 compared to NK cell monotherapy in cohort 2 treated with increased dose of 2 million NK cells (p<0.0001), indicating greater cell death induced by NK+mAb9.2.27 treatment. The interstitial volume fraction in the NK monotherapy group was significantly reduced compared to mAb9.2.27 monotherapy (p<0.0001) and untreated controls (p?=?0.014) in the cohort 2 animals. NK cells in monotherapy were unable to kill the U87MG cells that highly expressed class I human leucocyte antigens, and diminished stress ligands for activating receptors. A significant association between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water and ve in combination NK+mAb9.2.27 and NK monotherapy treated tumours was evident, where increased ADC corresponded to reduced ve in both cases. Collectively, these data support histological measures at end-stage demonstrating diminished tumour cell proliferation and pronounced apoptosis in the NK+mAb9.2.27 treated tumours compared to the other groups. In conclusion, ve was the most reliable radiological parameter for detecting response to intralesional NK cellular therapy. PMID:25268630

Thuen, Marte; Gras Navarro, Andrea; Huuse, Else Marie; Thorsen, Frits; Poli, Aurelie; Zimmer, Jacques; Haraldseth, Olav; Lie, Stein Atle; Enger, Per ?yvind; Chekenya, Martha

2014-01-01

210

Fast 3D contrast enhanced MRI of the liver using temporal resolution acceleration with constrained evolution reconstruction.  

PubMed

Time-resolved imaging is crucial for the accurate diagnosis of liver lesions. Current contrast enhanced liver magnetic resonance imaging acquires a few phases in sequential breath-holds. The image quality is susceptible to bolus timing errors, which could result in missing the critical arterial phase. This impairs the detection of malignant tumors that are supplied primarily by the hepatic artery. In addition, the temporal resolution may be too low to reliably separate the arterial phase from the portal venous phase. In this study, a method called temporal resolution acceleration with constrained evolution reconstruction was developed with three-dimensional volume coverage and high-temporal frame rate. Data is acquired using a stack of spirals sampling trajectory combined with a golden ratio view order using an eight-channel coil array. Temporal frames are reconstructed from vastly undersampled data sets using a nonlinear inverse algorithm assuming that the temporal changes are small at short time intervals. Numerical and phantom experimental validation is presented. Preliminary in vivo results demonstrated high spatial resolution dynamic three-dimensional images of the whole liver with high frame rates, from which numerous subarterial phases could be easily identified retrospectively. PMID:22442108

Xu, Bo; Spincemaille, Pascal; Chen, Gang; Agrawal, Mukta; Nguyen, Thanh D; Prince, Martin R; Wang, Yi

2013-02-01

211

Myocardial scar identification based on analysis of Look-Locker and 3D late gadolinium enhanced MRI.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to introduce and evaluate an approach for objective and reproducible scar identification from late gadolinium enhanced (LGE) MR by analysis of LGE data with post-contrast T(1) mapping from a routinely acquired T(1) scout Look-Locker (LL) sequence. In 90 post-infarction patients, a LL sequence was acquired prior to a three-dimensional LGE sequence covering the entire left ventricle. In 60/90 patients (training set), the T(1) relaxation rates of remote myocardium and dense myocardial scar were linearly regressed to that of blood. The learned linear relationship was applied to 30/90 patients (validation set) to identify the remote myocardium and dense scar, and to normalize the LGE signal intensity to a range from 0 to 100 %. A 50 % threshold was applied to identify myocardial scar. In the validation set, two observers independently performed manual scar identification, annotated reference regions for the full-width-half-maxima (FWHM) and standard deviation (SD) method, and analyzed the LL sequence for the proposed method. Compared with the manual, FWHM, and SD methods, the proposed method demonstrated the highest inter-class correlation coefficient (0.997) and Dice overlap index (98.7 ± 1.3 %) between the two observers. The proposed method also showed excellent agreement with the gold-standard manual scar identification, with a Dice index of 89.8 ± 7.5 and 90.2 ± 6.6 % for the two observers, respectively. Combined analysis of LL and LGE sequences leads to objective and reproducible myocardial scar identification in post-infarction patients. PMID:24643328

Tao, Qian; Lamb, Hildo J; Zeppenfeld, Katja; van der Geest, Rob J

2014-06-01

212

Morphological and functional midbrain phenotypes in Fibroblast Growth Factor 17 mutant mice detected by Mn-enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

With increasing efforts to develop and utilize mouse models of a variety of neuro-developmental diseases, there is an urgent need for sensitive neuroimaging methods that enable in vivo analysis of subtle alterations in brain anatomy and function in mice. Previous studies have shown that the brains of Fibroblast Growth Factor 17 null mutants (Fgf17?/?) have anatomical abnormalities in the inferior colliculus (IC)–the auditory midbrain–and minor foliation defects in the cerebellum. In addition, changes in the expression domains of several cortical patterning genes were detected, without overt changes in forebrain morphology. Recently, it has also been reported that Fgf17?/? mutants have abnormal vocalization and social behaviors, phenotypes that could reflect molecular changes in the cortex and/or altered auditory processing / perception in these mice. We used manganese (Mn)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to analyze the anatomical phenotype of Fgf17?/? mutants in more detail than achieved previously, detecting changes in IC, cerebellum, olfactory bulb, hypothalamus and frontal cortex. We also used MEMRI to characterize sound-evoked activity patterns, demonstrating a significant reduction of the active IC volume in Fgf17?/? mice. Furthermore, tone-specific (16- and 40-kHz) activity patterns in the IC of Fgf17?/? mice were observed to be largely overlapping, in contrast to the normal pattern, separated along the dorsal-ventral axis. These results demonstrate that Fgf17 plays important roles in both the anatomical and functional development of the auditory midbrain, and show the utility of MEMRI for in vivo analyses of mutant mice with subtle brain defects. PMID:21356319

Yu, Xin; Nieman, Brian J.; Sudarov, Anamaria; Szulc, Kamila U.; Abdollahian, Davood J.; Bhatia, Nitin; Lalwani, Anil K.; Joyner, Alexandra L.; Turnbull, Daniel H.

2011-01-01

213

Distinguished Lecture Series EECS COLLOQUIUM  

E-print Network

Distinguished Lecture Series EECS COLLOQUIUM 306 Soda Hall Hewlett-Packard Auditorium Spring 2014 and Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and the Information School, and leads UW's Ethnography and Evaluation her B.S. in mathematics from the California Institute of Technology. For more information please see

California at Irvine, University of

214

Distinguished Lecture Series EECS COLLOQUIUM  

E-print Network

Distinguished Lecture Series EECS COLLOQUIUM 306 Soda Hall Hewlett-Packard Auditorium Spring 2013 in itself does not carry enough information to disambiguate the world that it is depicting. Yet, humans have no problems understanding a photograph, seamlessly inferring a plethora of information about the physical

Hellerstein, Joseph M.

215

Research Report Gamma Oscillations Distinguish  

E-print Network

--To test whether distinct patterns of electro- physiological activity prior to a response can distinguish that self-cued memory retrieval begins in the hippocampus and then spreads to the cortex. Thus, retrieval recordings, widely used in animal studies, can measure the electrical activity within small brain regions

Sederberg, Per B.

216

Distinguished Global Water Policy: Institutional  

E-print Network

Distinguished 2006-07 Series Global Water Policy: Institutional Trends and Infrastructure Wednesday Delli Priscoli is a senior national and international water policy advisor for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and editor of the international journal, Water Policy. Over the past 30 years, he has directed

Aydilek, Ahmet

217

Portable MRI  

SciTech Connect

This project proposes to: (1) provide the power of MRI to situations where it presently isn't available; (2) perform the engineering required to move from lab to a functional prototype; and (3) leverage significant existing infrastructure and capability in ultra-low field MRI. The reasons for doing this: (1) MRI is the most powerful tool for imaging soft-tissue (e.g. brain); (2) Billions don't have access due to cost or safety issues; (3) metal will heat/move in high magnetic fields; (4) Millions of cases of traumatic brain injury in US alone; (5) even more of non-traumatic brain injury; (6) (e.g. stroke, infection, chemical exposure); (7) Need for early diagnostic; (8) 'Signature' wound of recent conflicts; (9) 22% of injuries; (10) Implications for post-traumatic stress disorder; and (11) chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

Espy, Michelle A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-29

218

Bipolar radiofrequency ablation for liver tumors: comparison of contrast-enhanced ultrasound with contrast-enhanced MRI/CT in the posttreatment imaging evaluation  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in treatment response evaluation after percutaneous bipolar radiofrequency ablation (BRFA) for liver tumors. Methods: From May 2012 to May 2014, 39 patients with 73 tumors were treated by BRFA. One month after the treatment, CEUS and CEMRI/CECT were conducted to evaluate the treatment response. The results of CEUS were compared with CEMRI/CECT. Results: Of the 73 tumors ablated, eight (11.0%) were found to have residual viable tumor tissue and 65 (89.0%) were successfully ablated based on CEMRI/CECT within 1-month after ablation. CEUS detected seven of the eight residual tumors and 63 of 65 completely ablated tumors. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of CEUS were 87.5% (7/8), 96.9% (63/65), 77.8% (7/9), 98.4% (63/64) and 95.9% (70/73), respectively. The complete ablation (CR) rates for the tumors ?3.0 cm, 3.1-5.0 cm, and >5.0 cm were 96.6% (58/60), 63.6% (7/11), and 0% (0/2), respectively (P<0.001). CR rates were 94.7% (36/38) for primary liver tumors and 82.9% (29/35) for metastatic liver tumors (P=0.212), and were 97.4% (38/39) for the tumors with curative treatment intention and 79.4% (27/34) for those with palliative treatment intention (P=0.037). Major complication was not encountered in this series. Conclusions: BRFA is an effective technique of percutaneous ablation for liver tumors and CEUS can be used to assess its therapeutic effect accurately. PMID:25337258

Bo, Xiao-Wan; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Sun, Li-Ping; Zheng, Shu-Guang; Guo, Le-Hang; Lu, Feng; Wu, Jian; Xu, Xiao-Hong

2014-01-01

219

Classification of small lesions in dynamic breast MRI: Eliminating the need for precise lesion segmentation through spatio-temporal analysis of contrast enhancement over time  

PubMed Central

Characterizing the dignity of breast lesions as benign or malignant is specifically difficult for small lesions; they don’t exhibit typical characteristics of malignancy and are harder to segment since margins are harder to visualize. Previous attempts at using dynamic or morphologic criteria to classify small lesions (mean lesion diameter of about 1 cm) have not yielded satisfactory results. The goal of this work was to improve the classification performance in such small diagnostically challenging lesions while concurrently eliminating the need for precise lesion segmentation. To this end, we introduce a method for topological characterization of lesion enhancement patterns over time. Three Minkowski Functionals were extracted from all five post-contrast images of sixty annotated lesions on dynamic breast MRI exams. For each Minkowski Functional, topological features extracted from each post-contrast image of the lesions were combined into a high-dimensional texture feature vector. These feature vectors were classified in a machine learning task with support vector regression. For comparison, conventional Haralick texture features derived from gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) were also used. A new method for extracting thresholded GLCM features was also introduced and investigated here. The best classification performance was observed with Minkowski Functionals area and perimeter, thresholded GLCM features f8 and f9, and conventional GLCM features f4 and f6. However, both Minkowski Functionals and thresholded GLCM achieved such results without lesion segmentation while the performance of GLCM features significantly deteriorated when lesions were not segmented (p < 0.05). This suggests that such advanced spatio-temporal characterization can improve the classification performance achieved in such small lesions, while simultaneously eliminating the need for precise segmentation. PMID:24244074

Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Huber, Markus B.; Schlossbauer, Thomas; Leinsinger, Gerda; Krol, Andrzej; Wismuller, Axel

2013-01-01

220

Multi-delay multi-parametric arterial spin-labeled perfusion MRI in acute ischemic stroke - Comparison with dynamic susceptibility contrast enhanced perfusion imaging.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to present a multi-delay multi-parametric pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) protocol with background suppressed 3D GRASE (gradient and spin echo) readout for perfusion imaging in acute ischemic stroke. PCASL data at 4 post-labeling delay times (PLD = 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 s) were acquired within 4.5 min in 24 patients (mean age 79.7 ± 11.4 years; 11 men) with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke who also underwent dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) enhanced perfusion imaging. Arterial transit times (ATT) were estimated through the calculation of weighted delays across the 4 PLDs, which were included in the calculation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial cerebral blood volume (CBV). Mean perfusion parameters derived using pCASL and DSC were measured within MCA territories and infarct regions identified on diffusion weighted MRI. The results showed highly significant correlations between pCASL and DSC CBF measurements (r > = 0.70, p < = 0.0001) and moderately significant correlations between pCASL and DSC CBV measurements (r > = 0.45, p < = 0.027) in both MCA territories and infarct regions. ASL ATT showed correlations with DSC time to the maximum of tissue residual function (Tmax)(r = 0.66, p = 0.0005) and mean transit time (MTT)(r = 0.59, p = 0.0023) in leptomeningeal MCA territories. The present study demonstrated the feasibility for noninvasive multi-parametric perfusion imaging using ASL for acute stroke imaging. PMID:24159561

Wang, Danny J J; Alger, Jeffry R; Qiao, Joe X; Gunther, Matthias; Pope, Whitney B; Saver, Jeffrey L; Salamon, Noriko; Liebeskind, David S

2013-01-01

221

Diagnosis of Pathologically Early HCC with EOB-MRI: Experiences and Current Consensus  

PubMed Central

Objective After much debate, the International Consensus Group for Hepatocellular Neoplasia (ICGHN) has recently arrived at a conclusion regarding the pathological criteria for early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). They have stated that stromal invasion should be recognized as the most important pathological finding for precisely diagnosing and differentiating early HCC from dysplastic nodules (DN). Methods We conducted a review of the imaging findings from multi-imaging modalities of early HCC cases diagnosed according to the pathological criteria of the ICGHN. The multi-imaging modalities included gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), abbreviated as EOB-MRI, contrast-enhanced CT (CE-CT), CT during arterioportography (CTAP), and CT during hepatic arteriography (CTHA). It has been shown that EOB-MRI is the only imaging modality that has sufficient resolution for the detection and classification of early HCC. Results The most significant imaging feature for diagnosing early HCC was hypointensity on hepatobiliary-phase (HP) images of EOB-MRI; all of the cases of early HCC that were detected on HP images of EOB-MRI showed hypointensity, while all of the images of DN showed isointensity or hyperintensity compared with the liver parenchyma. The results of the diagnostic performance analysis showed that EOB-MRI had excellent sensitivity (97%) for detecting early HCC and outstanding specificity (100%) for distinguishing early HCC from DN. Conclusions Considering the results from imaging-pathologic correlations and follow-up studies indicating that many early-stage hepatocellular nodules showing hypointensity on HP images of EOB-MRI tend to develop hypervascularization during a relatively short follow-up period, it is beginning to be accepted that such nodules may be treated as early HCC. However, hepatologists and radiologists should also recognize that some cases of early HCC may show isointensity or hyperintensity on HP images of EOB-MRI, making it impossible to differentiate early HCC from DN, although the low prevalence of such nodules may be unlikely to affect the generally accepted follow-up protocols for cirrhotic patients. Our results and other recent reports have indicated that signal-intensity patterns on HP images of EOB-MRI for DN and early HCC directly correlate with the degree of expression of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B3 in the nodules. Thus, the diagnostic performance of pathological analyses for early HCC cases may be dramatically improved, nearly up to that of EOB-MRI, by incorporating an OATP1B3 staining method. PMID:24945000

Ichikawa, Tomoaki; Sano, Katsuhiro; Morisaka, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

222

Communication: The distinguishable cluster approximation.  

PubMed

We present a method that accurately describes strongly correlated states and captures dynamical correlation. It is derived as a modification of coupled-cluster theory with single and double excitations (CCSD) through consideration of particle distinguishability between dissociated fragments, whilst retaining the key desirable properties of particle-hole symmetry, size extensivity, invariance to rotations within the occupied and virtual spaces, and exactness for two-electron subsystems. The resulting method, called the distinguishable cluster approximation, smoothly dissociates difficult cases such as the nitrogen molecule, with the modest N(6) computational cost of CCSD. Even for molecules near their equilibrium geometries, the new model outperforms CCSD. It also accurately describes the massively correlated states encountered when dissociating hydrogen lattices, a proxy for the metal-insulator transition, and the fully dissociated system is treated exactly. PMID:23862916

Kats, Daniel; Manby, Frederick R

2013-07-14

223

Correct diagnosis of Warthin tumor in the parotid gland with dynamic MRI.  

PubMed

Warthin tumor (WT) is a benign tumor of the salivary gland primarily affecting middle-aged men. WT is almost exclusively located in the parotid gland and tend to grow slowly without symptoms. Although fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) often correctly diagnoses these tumors, they are occasionally misdiagnosed as malignant. Our study sought to distinguish between WT and non-WT using dynamic MRI. In dynamic MRI, a series of images are taken over time measuring the intensity of gadolinium uptake by the parotid. We examined two patients for this study. The first was a 53-year old male, heavy smoker, experiencing manic-depressive episodes. He received a brain MRI at which time his parotid tumor was discovered. Parotid FNAC indicated a squamous cell carcinoma. The second patient was a 76-year old male, moderate smoker and drinker, who had been complaining about swelling in the neck. FNAC of the parotid indicated acinic cell carcinoma and gadolinium-enhanced MRI suggested the tumor was malignant. Prior to surgically extracting of these masses, we performed dynamic MRI on each patient. Both tumors exhibited a pattern consisting of rapid enhancement and rapid attenuation, the pattern of which is characteristic of WT. The surgical specimens confirmed that both were WTs without malignant transformation. Our findings indicate that dynamic MRI is a useful tool for preoperative diagnosis of WT, where other examinations indicate malignancy. Early and correct diagnosis of WT can minimize the use of invasive procedures, and eliminate the stress placed on the patient from a diagnosis of cancer. PMID:22576704

Ogawa, Takenori; Suzuki, Takahiro; Sakamoto, Maya; Watanabe, Mika; Tateda, Yutaka; Oshima, Takeshi; Kato, Kengo; Sagai, Shun; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Shiga, Kiyoto

2012-01-01

224

A comparison of radial keyhole strategies for high spatial and temporal resolution 4D contrast-enhanced MRI in small animal tumor models  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI has been widely used as a quantitative imaging method for monitoring tumor response to therapy. The simultaneous challenges of increasing temporal and spatial resolution in a setting where the signal from the much smaller voxel is weaker have made this MR technique difficult to implement in small-animal imaging. Existing protocols employed in preclinical DCE-MRI acquire a limited number of slices resulting in potentially lost information in the third dimension. This study describes and compares a family of four-dimensional (3D spatial + time), projection acquisition, radial keyhole-sampling strategies that support high spatial and temporal resolution. Methods: The 4D method is based on a RF-spoiled, steady-state, gradient-recalled sequence with minimal echo time. An interleaved 3D radial trajectory with a quasi-uniform distribution of points in k-space was used for sampling temporally resolved datasets. These volumes were reconstructed with three different k-space filters encompassing a range of possible radial keyhole strategies. The effect of k-space filtering on spatial and temporal resolution was studied in a 5 mM CuSO4 phantom consisting of a meshgrid with 350-?m spacing and in 12 tumors from three cell lines (HT-29, LoVo, MX-1) and a primary mouse sarcoma model (three tumors/group). The time-to-peak signal intensity was used to assess the effect of the reconstruction filters on temporal resolution. As a measure of heterogeneity in the third dimension, the authors analyzed the spatial distribution of the rate of transport (Ktrans) of the contrast agent across the endothelium barrier for several different types of tumors. Results: Four-dimensional radial keyhole imaging does not degrade the system spatial resolution. Phantom studies indicate there is a maximum 40% decrease in signal-to-noise ratio as compared to a fully sampled dataset. T1 measurements obtained with the interleaved radial technique do not differ significantly from those made with a conventional Cartesian spin-echo sequence. A bin-by-bin comparison of the distribution of the time-to-peak parameter shows that 4D radial keyhole reconstruction does not cause significant temporal blurring when a temporal resolution of 9.9 s is used for the subsamples of the keyhole data. In vivo studies reveal substantial tumor heterogeneity in the third spatial dimension that may be missed with lower resolution imaging protocols. Conclusions: Volumetric keyhole imaging with projection acquisition provides a means to increase spatiotemporal resolution and coverage over that provided by existing 2D Cartesian protocols. Furthermore, there is no difference in temporal resolution between the higher spatial resolution keyhole reconstruction and the undersampled projection data. The technique allows one to measure complex heterogeneity of kinetic parameters with isotropic, microscopic spatial resolution. PMID:23387766

Subashi, Ergys; Moding, Everett J.; Cofer, Gary P.; MacFall, James R.; Kirsch, David G.; Qi, Yi; Allan Johnson, G.

2013-01-01

225

Are cerebral cavernomas truly nonenhancing lesions and thereby distinguishable from arteriovenous malformations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe aim of this study was to determine whether cerebral cavernomas are truly nonenhancing lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), whether they can be distinguished from arteriovenous malformations (AVM) on that basis and to evaluate the incidence of their association with developmental venous anomalies (DVA).

Katja Pinker; Ioannis Stavrou; Engelbert Knosp; Siegfried Trattnig

2006-01-01

226

Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced MRI of Cartilage (dGEMRIC) Shows No Change in Cartilage Structural Composition after Viscosupplementation in Patients with Early-Stage Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Viscosupplementation with hyaluronic acid (HA) of osteoarthritic (OA) knee joints has a well-established positive effect on clinical symptoms. This effect, however, is only temporary and the working mechanism of HA injections is not clear. It was suggested that HA might have disease modifying properties because of its beneficial effect on cartilage sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) is a highly reproducible, non-invasive surrogate measure for sGAG content and hence composition of cartilage. The aim of this study was to assess whether improvement in cartilage structural composition is detected using dGEMRIC 14 weeks after 3 weekly injections with HA in patients with early-stage knee OA. Methods In 20 early-stage knee OA patients (KLG I-II), 3D dGEMRIC at 3T was acquired before and 14 weeks after 3 weekly injections with HA. To evaluate patient symptoms, the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) and a numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain were recorded. To evaluate cartilage composition, six cartilage regions in the knee were analyzed on dGEMRIC. Outcomes of dGEMRIC, KOOS and NRS before and after HA were compared using paired t-testing. Since we performed multiple t-tests, we applied a Bonferroni-Holm correction to determine statistical significance for these analyses. Results All KOOS subscales (‘pain’, ‘symptoms’, ‘daily activities’, ‘sports’ and ’quality of life’) and the NRS pain improved significantly 14 weeks after Viscosupplementation with HA. Outcomes of dGEMRIC did not change significantly after HA compared to baseline in any of the cartilage regions analyzed in the knee. Conclusions Our results confirm previous findings reported in the literature, showing persisting improvement in symptomatic outcome measures in early-stage knee OA patients 14 weeks after Viscosupplementation. Outcomes of dGEMRIC, however, did not change after Viscosupplementation, indicating no change in cartilage structural composition as an explanation for the improvement of clinical symptoms. PMID:24223194

van Tiel, Jasper; Reijman, Max; Bos, Pieter K.; Hermans, Job; van Buul, Gerben M.; Bron, Esther E.; Klein, Stefan; Verhaar, Jan A. N.; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M. A.; Weinans, Harrie; Kotek, Gyula; Oei, Edwin H. G.

2013-01-01

227

In vivo transport of Gd-DTPA2- into human meniscus and cartilage assessed with delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC)  

PubMed Central

Background Impaired stability is a risk factor in knee osteoarthritis (OA), where the whole joint and not only the joint cartilage is affected. The meniscus provides joint stability and is involved in the early pathological progress of OA. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) has been used to identify pre-radiographic changes in the cartilage in OA, but has been used less commonly to examine the meniscus, and then using only a double dose of the contrast agent. The purpose of this study was to enable improved early OA diagnosis by investigate the temporal contrast agent distribution in the meniscus and femoral cartilage simultaneously, in healthy volunteers, using 3D dGEMRIC at two different doses of the contrast agent Gd-DTPA2-. Methods The right knee in 12 asymptomatic volunteers was examined using a 3D Look-Locker sequence on two occasions after an intravenous injection of a double or triple dose of Gd-DTPA2- (0.2 or 0.3 mmol/kg body weight). The relaxation time (T1) and relaxation rate (R1?=?1/T1) were measured in the meniscus and femoral cartilage before, and 60, 90, 120 and 180 minutes after injection, and the change in relaxation rate (?R1) was calculated. Paired t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used for statistical evaluation. Results The triple dose yielded higher concentrations of Gd-DTPA2- in the meniscus and cartilage than the double dose, but provided no additional information. The observed patterns of ?R1 were similar for double and triple doses of the contrast agent. ?R1 was higher in the meniscus than in femoral cartilage in the corresponding compartments at all time points after injection. ?R1 increased until 90-180 minutes in both the cartilage and the meniscus (p?

2014-01-01

228

Assessment of Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Glycosaminoglycan Content by Gadolinium-Enhanced MRI before and after 21-Days of Head-Down-Tilt Bedrest  

PubMed Central

During spaceflight, it has been shown that intervertebral discs (IVDs) increase in height, causing elongation of the spine up to several centimeters. Astronauts frequently report dull lower back pain that is most likely of discogenic origin and may result from IVD expansion. It is unknown whether disc volume solely increases by water influx, or if the content of glycosaminoglycans also changes in microgravity. Aim of this pilot study was to investigate effects of the spaceflight analog of bedrest on the glycosaminoglycan content of human lumbar IVDs. Five healthy, non-smoking, male human subjects of European descent were immobilized in 6° head-down-tilt bedrest for 21 days. Subjects remained in bed 24 h a day with at least one shoulder on the mattress. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans were taken according to the delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (dGEMRIC) protocol before and after bedrest. The outcome measures were T1 and ?T1. Scans were performed before and after administration of the contrast agent Gd-DOTA, and differences between T1-values of both scans (?T1) were computed. ?T1 is the longitudinal relaxation time in the tissue and inversely related to the glycosaminoglycan-content. For data analysis, IVDs L1/2 to L4/5 were semi-automatically segmented. Zones were defined and analyzed separately. Results show a highly significant decrease in ?T1 (p<0.001) after bedrest in all IVDs, and in all areas of the IVDs. The ?T1-decrease was most prominent in the nucleus pulposus and in L4/5, and was expressed slightly more in the posterior than anterior IVD. Unexpected negative ?T1-values were found in Pfirrmann-grade 2-discs after bedrest. Significantly lower T1 before contrast agent application was found after bedrest compared to before bedrest. According to the dGEMRIC-literature, the decrease in ?T1 may be interpreted as an increase in glycosaminoglycans in healthy IVDs during bedrest. This interpretation seems contradictory to previous findings in IVD unloading. PMID:25380233

Koy, Timmo; Zange, Jochen; Rittweger, Jörn; Pohle-Fröhlich, Regina; Hackenbroch, Matthias; Eysel, Peer; Ganse, Bergita

2014-01-01

229

Tumor Metabolism and Perfusion in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Pretreatment Multimodality Imaging With {sup 1}H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI, and [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To correlate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS), dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), and {sup 18}F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([{sup 18}F]FDG PET) of nodal metastases in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) for assessment of tumor biology. Additionally, pretreatment multimodality imaging was evaluated for its efficacy in predicting short-term response to treatment. Methods and Materials: Metastatic neck nodes were imaged with {sup 1}H-MRS, DCE-MRI, and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET in 16 patients with newly diagnosed HNSCC, before treatment. Short-term patient radiological response was evaluated at 3 to 4 months. Correlations among {sup 1}H-MRS (choline concentration relative to water [Cho/W]), DCE-MRI (volume transfer constant [K{sup trans}]; volume fraction of the extravascular extracellular space [v{sub e}]; and redistribution rate constant [k{sub ep}]), and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET (standard uptake value [SUV] and total lesion glycolysis [TLG]) were calculated using nonparametric Spearman rank correlation. To predict short-term responses, logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: A significant positive correlation was found between Cho/W and TLG ({rho} = 0.599; p = 0.031). Cho/W correlated negatively with heterogeneity measures of standard deviation std(v{sub e}) ({rho} = -0.691; p = 0.004) and std(k{sub ep}) ({rho} = -0.704; p = 0.003). Maximum SUV (SUVmax) values correlated strongly with MRI tumor volume ({rho} = 0.643; p = 0.007). Logistic regression indicated that std(K{sup trans}) and SUVmean were significant predictors of short-term response (p < 0.07). Conclusion: Pretreatment multimodality imaging using {sup 1}H-MRS, DCE-MRI, and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET is feasible in HNSCC patients with nodal metastases. Additionally, combined DCE-MRI and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET parameters were predictive of short-term response to treatment.

Jansen, Jacobus F.A. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Radiology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Schoeder, Heiko [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Lee, Nancy Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Stambuk, Hilda E. [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wang Ya [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Fury, Matthew G. [Department of Medical Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Patel, Senehal G. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Pfister, David G. [Department of Medical Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Shah, Jatin P. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Koutcher, Jason A. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Medical Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Shukla-Dave, Amita, E-mail: davea@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

2012-01-01

230

Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in mouse tumors at 11.7?T: comparison of three contrast agents with different molecular weights to assess the early effects of combretastatin A4.  

PubMed

Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI is useful to assess the early effects of drugs acting on tumor vasculature, namely anti-angiogenic and vascular disrupting agents. Ultra-high-field MRI allows higher-resolution scanning for DCE-MRI while maintaining an adequate signal-to-noise ratio. However, increases in susceptibility effects, combined with decreases in longitudinal relaxivity of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GdCAs), make DCE-MRI more challenging at high field. The aim of this work was to explore the feasibility of using DCE-MRI at 11.7?T to assess the tumor hemodynamics of mice. Three GdCAs possessing different molecular weights (gadoterate: 560?Da, 0.29?mmol Gd/kg; p846: 3.5?kDa, 0.10?mmol Gd/kg; and p792: 6.47?kDa, 0.15?mmol Gd/kg) were compared to see the influence of the molecular weight in the highlight of the biologic effects induced by combretastatin A4 (CA4). Mice bearing transplantable liver tumor (TLT) hepatocarcinoma were divided into two groups (n?=?5-6 per group and per GdCA): a treated group receiving 100?mg/kg CA4, and a control group receiving vehicle. The mice were imaged at 11.7?T with a T1 -weighted FLASH sequence 2?h after the treatment. Individual arterial input functions (AIFs) were computed using phase imaging. These AIFs were used in the Extended Tofts Model to determine K(trans) and vp values. A separate immunohistochemistry study was performed to assess the vascular perfusion and the vascular density. Phase imaging was used successfully to measure the AIF for the three GdCAs. In control groups, an inverse relationship between the molecular weight of the GdCA and K(trans) and vp values was observed. K(trans) was significantly decreased in the treated group compared with the control group for each GdCA. DCE-MRI at 11.7?T is feasible to assess tumor hemodynamics in mice. With K(trans) , the three GdCAs were able to track the early vascular effects induced by CA4 treatment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25323069

Fruytier, A-C; Magat, J; Neveu, M-A; Karroum, O; Bouzin, C; Feron, O; Jordan, B; Cron, G O; Gallez, B

2014-11-01

231

Retrieval Success is Accompanied by Enhanced Activation in Anterior Prefrontal Cortex During Recognition Memory: An Event-Related fMRI Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural regions associated with retrieval success were identified using event-related fMRI procedures and randomly ordered trials on a recognition memory test. Differences between hits and correct rejections (CRs) occurred in multiple regions, including bilateral anterior and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, bilateral inferior parietal cortex, and right superior parietal cortex (all hits > CRs), and right occipital cortex (CRs > hits).

Kathleen B. McDermott; Todd C. Jones; Steven E. Petersen; Sarah K. Lageman; Henry L. Roediger

2000-01-01

232

Distinguishing Ichthyoses by Protein Profiling  

PubMed Central

To explore the usefulness of protein profiling for characterization of ichthyoses, we here determined the profile of human epidermal stratum corneum by shotgun proteomics. Samples were analyzed after collection on tape circles from six anatomic sites (forearm, palm, lower leg, forehead, abdomen, upper back), demonstrating site-specific differences in profiles. Additional samples were collected from the forearms of subjects with ichthyosis vulgaris (filaggrin (FLG) deficiency), recessive X-linked ichthyosis (steroid sulfatase (STS) deficiency) and autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis type lamellar ichthyosis (transglutaminase 1 (TGM1) deficiency). The ichthyosis protein expression patterns were readily distinguishable from each other and from phenotypically normal epidermis. In general, the degree of departure from normal was lower from ichthyosis vulgaris than from lamellar ichthyosis, parallel to the severity of the phenotype. Analysis of samples from families with ichthyosis vulgaris and concomitant modifying gene mutations (STS deficiency, GJB2 deficiency) permitted correlation of alterations in protein profile with more complex genetic constellations. PMID:24130705

Rice, Robert H.; Bradshaw, Katie M.; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P.; Rocke, David M.; Eigenheer, Richard A.; Phinney, Brett S.; Schmuth, Matthias; Gruber, Robert

2013-01-01

233

Fulbright Flinders University Distinguished Chair in American  

E-print Network

Fulbright Flinders University Distinguished Chair in American Political Science 2013 Inv at flinders 6 research Interests 7 washington Internship program 8 american studies at flinders 10, Flinders University welcomes the opportunity to host the Fulbright Distinguished Chair in American

234

MR Diagnosis of a Pulmonary Embolism: Comparison of P792 and Gd-DOTA for First-Pass Perfusion MRI and Contrast-Enhanced 3D MRA in a Rabbit Model  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare P792 (gadomelitol, a rapid clearance blood pool MR contrast agent) with gadolinium-tetraazacyclododecanetetraacetic acid (Gd-DOTA), a standard extracellular agent, for their suitability to diagnose a pulmonary embolism (PE) during a first-pass perfusion MRI and 3D contrast-enhanced (CE) MR angiography (MRA). Materials and Methods A perfusion MRI or CE-MRA was performed in a rabbit PE model following the intravenous injection of a single dose of contrast agent. The time course of the pulmonary vascular and parenchymal enhancement was assessed by measuring the signal in the aorta, pulmonary artery, and lung parenchyma as a function of time to determine whether there is a significant difference between the techniques. CE-MRA studies were evaluated by their ability to depict the pulmonary vasculature and following defects between 3 seconds and 15 minutes after a triple dose intravenous injection of the contrast agents. Results The P792 and Gd-DOTA were equivalent in their ability to demonstrate PE as perfusion defects on first pass imaging. The signal from P792 was significantly higher in vasculature than that from Gd-DOTA between the first and the tenth minutes after injection. The results suggest that a CE-MRA PE could be reliably diagnosed up to 15 minutes after injection. Conclusion P792 is superior to Gd-DOTA for the MR diagnosis of PE. PMID:19721829

Keilholz, Shella D.; Bozlar, Ugur; Fujiwara, Naomi; Mata, Jaime F.; Berr, Stuart S.; Corot, Claire

2009-01-01

235

Competitive advantage of PET/MRI.  

PubMed

Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved. PMID:23791129

Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M

2014-01-01

236

Accurate determination of blood-brain barrier permeability using dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI: a simulation and in vivo study on healthy subjects and multiple sclerosis patients.  

PubMed

Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is increasingly used to estimate permeability in situations with subtle blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage. However, the method's ability to differentiate such low values from zero is unknown, and no consensus exists on optimal selection of total measurement duration, temporal resolution, and modeling approach under varying physiologic circumstances. To estimate accuracy and precision of the DCE-MRI method we generated simulated data using a two-compartment model and progressively down-sampled and truncated the data to mimic low temporal resolution and short total measurement duration. Model fit was performed with the Patlak, the extended Tofts, and the Tikhonov two-compartment (Tik-2CM) models. Overall, 17 healthy controls were scanned to obtain in vivo data. Long total measurement duration (15 minutes) and high temporal resolution (1.25 seconds) greatly improved accuracy and precision for all three models, enabling us to differentiate values of permeability as low as 0.1?ml/100?g/min from zero. The Patlak model yielded highest accuracy and precision for permeability values <0.3?ml/100?g/min, but for higher values the Tik-2CM performed best. Our results emphasize the importance of optimal parameter setup and model selection when characterizing low BBB permeability. PMID:25074746

Cramer, Stig P; Larsson, Henrik B W

2014-10-01

237

Association between bilateral asymmetry of kinetic features computed from the DCE-MRI images and breast cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) of breast yields high sensitivity but relatively lower specificity. To improve diagnostic accuracy of DCE-MRI, we investigated the association between bilateral asymmetry of kinetic features computed from the left and right breasts and breast cancer detection with the hypothesis that due to the growth of angiogenesis associated with malignant lesions, the average dynamic contrast enhancement computed from the breasts depicting malignant lesions should be higher than negative or benign breasts. To test this hypothesis, we assembled a database involving 130 DCE-MRI examinations including 81 malignant and 49 benign cases. We developed a computerized scheme that automatically segments breast areas depicted on MR images and computes kinetic features related to the bilateral asymmetry of contrast enhancement ratio between two breasts. An artificial neural network (ANN) was then used to classify between malignant and benign cases. To identify the optimal approach to compute the bilateral kinetic feature asymmetry, we tested 4 different thresholds to select the enhanced pixels (voxels) from DCE-MRI images and compute the kinetic features. Using the optimal threshold, the ANN had a classification performance measured by the area under the ROC curve of AUC=0.79+/-0.04. The positive and negative predictive values were 0.75 and 0.67, respectively. The study suggested that the bilateral asymmetry of kinetic features or contrast enhancement of breast background tissue could provide valuable supplementary information to distinguish between the malignant and benign cases, which can be fused into existing computer-aided detection schemes to improve classification performance.

Yang, Qian; Li, Lihua; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Chengjie; Zheng, Bin

2013-03-01

238

Abell Endowment Distinguished Lecture in Computer Engineering,  

E-print Network

Abell Endowment Distinguished Lecture in Computer Engineering, in conjunction with the Electrical and Computer Engineering Seminar Series and the Computer Science Department Seminar Series "Real-time, High

239

Intra voxel analysis in MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new application of Compressive Sensing (CS) in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) field is presented. In particular, first results of the Intra Voxel Analysis (IVA) technique are reported. The idea is to exploit CS peculiarities in order to distinguish different contributions inside the same resolution cell, instead of reconstructing images from not fully sampled k-space acquisition. Applied to MRI field, this means the possibility of estimating the presence of different tissues inside the same voxel, i.e. in one pixel of the obtained image. In other words, the method is the first attempt, as far as we know, of achieving Spectroscopy-like results starting from each pixel of MR images. In particular, tissues are distinguished each others by evaluating their spin-spin relaxation times. Within this manuscript, first results on clinical dataset, in particular a phantom made by aqueous solution and oil and an occipital brain lesion corresponding to a metastatic breast cancer nodule, are reported. Considering the phantom dataset, in particular focusing on the slice where the separation between water and oil occurs, the methodology is able to distinguish the two components with different spin-spin relaxation times. With respect to clinical dataset,focusing on a voxel of the lesion area, the approach is able to detect the presence of two tissues, namely the healthy and the cancer related ones, while in other location outside the lesion only the healthy tissue is detected. Of course, these are the first results of the proposed methodology, further studies on different types of clinical datasets are required in order to widely validate the approach. Although few datasets have been considered, results seem both interesting and promising.

Ambrosanio, Michele; Baselice, Fabio; Ferraioli, Giampaolo; Pascazio, Vito

2014-03-01

240

Characteristics of Distinguished Programs of Agricultural Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic program rankings are highly anticipated by many university administrators, faculty, and alumni. This study analyzed the perceptions of agricultural education departmental contact persons to identify esteemed post-secondary agricultural education programs and the distinguishing characteristics of each program. The ten most distinguished

Birkenholz, Robert J.; Simonsen, Jon C.

2011-01-01

241

Simon K. Lewis 2013 Distinguished Research Award  

E-print Network

reviews articles for scholarly journals, notably Research in African Literatures and the Journal of Commonwealth and Postcolonial Studies, and he contributes reviews of new books not only to scholarly journalsSimon K. Lewis English 2013 Distinguished Research Award 2007 Distinguished Teacher-Scholar Award

Kasman, Alex

242

Enhance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It doesn't take a Photoshop expert to create attractive graphics for the Web. To prove this, the folks at MicroFrontier have released three graphic creation/editing packages for the Macintosh, each aimed at a different user level. All three applications support Photoshop 3.0 compatible plug-ins and basic features such as scanner support, image and resolution scaling, and basic image enhancement. Enhance, aimed at the graphics professionals, adds even more features, including multiple layers, opacity control, sixteen levels of undo, convolution filter effects, and CYMK support. A save-disabled demo version of each application is available at the MicroFrontier Website. The price for Enhance is $100 .

1998-01-01

243

Retroperitoneal Bronchogenic Cyst: MRI Findings  

PubMed Central

The authors describe a case of a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst in a 36-year-old female. She presented with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. An MRI scan revealed an 8?cm cystic lesion in the left upper retroperitoneum, with intermediate signal on T2-weighted images, high signal on T1 weighted images, and lack of internal enhancement after gadolinium. After laparoscopic excision, the histology findings were compatible with a bronchogenic cyst, which is extremely uncommon in the retroperitoneum. PMID:24381777

Castro, R.; Oliveira, M. I.; Fernandes, T.; Madureira, A. J.

2013-01-01

244

Distinguishing quantum operations having few Kraus operators  

E-print Network

Entanglement is sometimes helpful in distinguishing between quantum operations, as differences between quantum operations can become magnified when their inputs are entangled with auxiliary systems. Bounds on the dimension of the auxiliary system needed to optimally distinguish quantum operations are known in several situations. For instance, the dimension of the auxiliary space never needs to exceed the dimension of the input space of the operations for optimal distinguishability, while no auxiliary system whatsoever is needed to optimally distinguish unitary operations. Another bound, which follows from work of R. Timoney, is that optimal distinguishability is always possible when the dimension of the auxiliary system is twice the number of operators needed to express the difference between the quantum operations in Kraus form. This paper provides an alternate proof of this fact that is based on concepts and tools that are familiar to quantum information theorists.

John Watrous

2007-10-03

245

The wealth of distinguished doctors: retrospective survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess changes in the wealth of distinguished doctors in the United Kingdom between 1860 and 2001. Design Retrospective survey. Setting The UK. Participants 980 doctors of sufficient distinction to be included in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography and who died between 1860 and 2001. Main outcome measures Wealth at death, based on probate records and adjusted relative to average earnings in 2002. Results The wealth of distinguished doctors declined substantially between 1860 and 2001, and paralleled a decline in the relative income of doctors in general. The wealth of distinguished doctors also declined relative to other groups of distinguished individuals. Conclusions In the 19th century, distinction in doctors was accompanied by substantial wealth, whereas by the end of the 20th century, the most distinguished doctors were less wealthy than their contemporaries who had achieved national distinction in other areas. PMID:16373738

McManus, I C

2005-01-01

246

High-Speed Real-Time Resting-State fMRI Using Multi-Slab Echo-Volumar Imaging  

PubMed Central

We recently demonstrated that ultra-high-speed real-time fMRI using multi-slab echo-volumar imaging (MEVI) significantly increases sensitivity for mapping task-related activation and resting-state networks (RSNs) compared to echo-planar imaging (Posse et al., 2012). In the present study we characterize the sensitivity of MEVI for mapping RSN connectivity dynamics, comparing independent component analysis (ICA) and a novel seed-based connectivity analysis (SBCA) that combines sliding-window correlation analysis with meta-statistics. This SBCA approach is shown to minimize the effects of confounds, such as movement, and CSF and white matter signal changes, and enables real-time monitoring of RSN dynamics at time scales of tens of seconds. We demonstrate highly sensitive mapping of eloquent cortex in the vicinity of brain tumors and arterio-venous malformations, and detection of abnormal resting-state connectivity in epilepsy. In patients with motor impairment, resting-state fMRI provided focal localization of sensorimotor cortex compared with more diffuse activation in task-based fMRI. The fast acquisition speed of MEVI enabled segregation of cardiac-related signal pulsation using ICA, which revealed distinct regional differences in pulsation amplitude and waveform, elevated signal pulsation in patients with arterio-venous malformations and a trend toward reduced pulsatility in gray matter of patients compared with healthy controls. Mapping cardiac pulsation in cortical gray matter may carry important functional information that distinguishes healthy from diseased tissue vasculature. This novel fMRI methodology is particularly promising for mapping eloquent cortex in patients with neurological disease, having variable degree of cooperation in task-based fMRI. In conclusion, ultra-high-real-time speed fMRI enhances the sensitivity of mapping the dynamics of resting-state connectivity and cerebro-vascular pulsatility for clinical and neuroscience research applications. PMID:23986677

Posse, Stefan; Ackley, Elena; Mutihac, Radu; Zhang, Tongsheng; Hummatov, Ruslan; Akhtari, Massoud; Chohan, Muhammad; Fisch, Bruce; Yonas, Howard

2013-01-01

247

Outcome Classification of Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Mri Brain Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To test the hypothesis that a combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain measures obtained during early childhood distinguish children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from typically developing children and is associated with functional outcome. Method: Quantitative MRI technology was used to measure gray and white matter…

Akshoomoff, Natacha; Lord, Catherine; Lincoln, Alan J.; Courchesne, Rachel Y.; Carper, Ruth A.; Townsend, Jeanne; Courchesne, Eric

2004-01-01

248

Structural MRI scan Functional MRI scan  

E-print Network

FUNCTIONAL IMAGING LABORATORY www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk MRI INFORMATION #12;MRI is short for Magnetic Resonance. For the same reason, people with certain metallic implants cannot be scanned. Such metal items include any of the following: Cardiac pacemakers, cochlear implants, metallic aneurysm clips, metallic fragments in the eye

Zeki, Semir

249

MRI mimics of multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) is based on the demonstration of dissemination of lesions in space (DIS) and in time (DIT), as well as on the exclusion of an alternative neurologic disorder. As a paraclinical tool brain and/or spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), showing typical lesion morphology, characteristic distribution of lesions, or involvement or specific anatomic structures, can support the diagnosis of MS. But from an imaging perspective a considerable amount of inherited and acquired disorders may manifest with radiologic evidence of DIT, DIS, or both. Hypoxic-ischemic vasculopathy, specially small-vessel disease, inflammatory disorders, vasculitis, and non-MS idiopathic inflammatory disorders, as well as some toxic, metabolic, and infectious disorders, may present mimicking MS on MR examinations and should be included in the differential diagnosis of MS-like lesions. Careful evaluation of associated findings on MRI, the so-called MRI red flags, such as the presence of infarcts, microbleeds, meningeal enhancement, and calcifications among others, are very helpful in suggesting a diagnosis other than MS. Complement MRI findings to patient's history, demographics, and serologic findings are crucial to achieve the correct diagnosis. We will review the most frequent radiologic appearance and differential features from the most frequent MS mimickers. PMID:24507523

Aliaga, Esther Sánchez; Barkhof, Frederik

2014-01-01

250

Tracer kinetic modelling in MRI: estimating perfusion and capillary permeability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tracer-kinetic models developed in the early 1990s for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) have since become a standard in numerous applications. At the same time, the development of MRI hardware has led to increases in image quality and temporal resolution that reveal the limitations of the early models. This in turn has stimulated an interest in the development and application

S P Sourbron; D L Buckley

2012-01-01

251

Micro-MRI methods to detect renal cysts in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro-MRI methods to detect renal cysts in mice.BackgroundMouse models of disease, especially using transgenic and knockout technologies, are powerful tools to analyze the molecular basis of disease. We recently reported that a new dynamic micro-MRI method with dendrimer-based contrast agents can visualize renal structure and function in normal living mice and mice with acute renal failure. While MRI contrast enhancement

HISATAKA KOBAYASHI; SATOMI KAWAMOTO; Martin W. Brechbiel; SANG-KYUNG JO; XUZHEN HU; TIANXIN YANG; Bhalchandra A. Diwan; Thomas A. Waldmann; JURGEN SCHNERMANN; Peter L. Choyke; Robert A. Star

2004-01-01

252

Numerical Study of the Magnetorotational Instability in Princeton MRI Experiment  

E-print Network

In preparation for an experimental study of magnetorotational instability (MRI) in liquid metal, we present non-ideal axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the nonlinear evolution of MRI in the experimental geometry. The simulations adopt fully insulating boundary conditions. No-slip conditions are imposed at the cylinders. A clear linear phase is observed with reduced linear growth rate. MRI results in an inflowing "jet" near the midplane and enhances the angular momentum transport at saturation.

Wei Liu

2008-04-01

253

Assessment of synovitis with contrast-enhanced MRI using a whole-joint semiquantitative scoring system in people with, or at high risk of, knee osteoarthritis: the MOST study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To introduce a comprehensive and reliable scoring system for the assessment of whole-knee joint synovitis based on contrast-enhanced (CE) MRI. Methods Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST) is a cohort study of people with, or at high risk of, knee osteoarthritis (OA). Subjects are an unselected subset of MOST who volunteered for CE-MRI. Synovitis was assessed at 11 sites of the joint. Synovial thickness was scored semiquantitatively: grade 0 (<2 mm), grade 1 (2–4 mm) and grade 2 (>4 mm) at each site. Two musculoskeletal radiologists performed the readings and inter- and intrareader reliability was evaluated. Whole-knee synovitis was assessed by summing the scores from all sites. The association of Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index pain score with this summed score and with the maximum synovitis grade for each site was assessed. Results 400 subjects were included (mean age 58.8±7.0 years, body mass index 29.5±4.9 kg/m2, 46% women). For individual sites, intrareader reliability (weighted ?) was 0.67–1.00 for reader 1 and 0.60–1.00 for reader 2. Inter-reader agreement (?) was 0.67–0.92. For the summed synovitis scores, intrareader reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)) was 0.98 and 0.96 for each reader and inter-reader agreement (ICC) was 0.94. Moderate to severe synovitis in the parapatellar subregion was associated with the higher maximum pain score (adjusted OR (95% CI), 2.8 (1.4 to 5.4) and 3.1 (1.2 to 7.9), respectively). Conclusions A comprehensive semiquantitative scoring system for the assessment of whole-knee synovitis is proposed. It is reliable and identifies knees with pain, and thus is a potentially powerful tool for synovitis assessment in epidemiological OA studies. PMID:21187293

Guermazi, Ali; Roemer, Frank W; Hayashi, Daichi; Crema, Michel D; Niu, Jingbo; Zhang, Yuqing; Marra, Monica D; Katur, Avinash; Lynch, John A; El-Khoury, George Y; Baker, Kristin; Hughes, Laura B; Nevitt, Michael C; Felson, David T

2014-01-01

254

Predictive Value of Imaging Markers at Multiple Sclerosis Disease Onset Based on Gadolinium- and USPIO-Enhanced MRI and Machine Learning  

PubMed Central

Objectives A novel characterization of Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) patients according to lesion patterns is proposed. More specifically, patients are classified according to the nature of inflammatory lesions patterns. It is expected that this characterization can infer new prospective figures from the earliest imaging signs of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), since it can provide a classification of different types of lesions across patients. Methods The method is based on a two-tiered classification. Initially, the spatio-temporal lesion patterns are classified. The discovered lesion patterns are then used to characterize groups of patients. The patient groups are validated using statistical measures and by correlations at 24-month follow-up with hypointense lesion loads. Results The methodology identified 3 statistically significantly different clusters of lesion patterns showing p-values smaller than 0.01. Moreover, these patterns defined at baseline correlated with chronic hypointense lesion volumes by follow-up with an score of . Conclusions The proposed methodology is capable of identifying three major different lesion patterns that are heterogeneously present in patients, allowing a patient classification using only two MRI scans. This finding may lead to more accurate prognosis and thus to more suitable treatments at early stage of MS. PMID:24691080

Crimi, Alessandro; Commowick, Olivier; Maarouf, Adil; Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Bannier, Elise; Tourbah, Ayman; Berry, Isabelle; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Edan, Gilles; Barillot, Christian

2014-01-01

255

RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS DISTINGUISH ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI  

EPA Science Inventory

Basidiomycetous fungi, two saprophytes and three mycorrhizal, were used to assess the specificity of DNA hybridization for distinguishing genera from one another. nterspecific comparisons were done with several isolates of mycorrhizal fungi, Laccaria bicolor and L. laccata, colle...

256

Image analysis characterizes signals of interest, distinguishes  

E-print Network

Purpose Image analysis characterizes signals of interest, distinguishes them from imaging artifacts Identifying features is a key aspect of interpreting image signals by associating particular image analysis and feature recognition by developing a portable, expandable, parallelized software

257

Breast MR with special focus on DW-MRI and DCE-MRI  

PubMed Central

Abstract The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of breast lesions was first described in the 1970s; however, its wide application in clinical routine is relatively recent. The basic principles for diagnosis of a breast lesion rely on the evaluation of signal intensity in T2-weighted sequences, on morphologic assessment and on the evaluation of contrast enhancement behaviour. The quantification of dynamic contrast behaviour by dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI and evaluation of the diffusivity of water molecules by means of diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) have shown promise in the work-up of breast lesions. Therefore, breast MRI has gained a role for all indications that could benefit from its high sensitivity, such as detection of multifocal lesions, detection of contralateral carcinoma and in patients with familial disposition. Breast MRI has been shown to have a role in monitoring of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, for the evaluation of therapeutic results during the course of therapy. Breast MRI can improve the determination of the remaining tumour size at the end of therapy in patients with a minor response. DCE-MRI and DW-MRI have shown potential for improving the early assessment of tumour response to therapy and the assessment of residual tumour after the end of therapy. Breast MRI is important in the postoperative work-up of breast cancers. High sensitivity and specificity have been reported for the diagnosis of recurrence; however, pitfalls such as liponecrosis and changes after radiation therapy have to be carefully considered. PMID:21771711

Bonello, L.; Priolo, F.; Summers, P.; Bellomi, M.

2011-01-01

258

MRI-Guided Vascular Access with an Active Visualization Needle  

PubMed Central

Purpose To develop an approach to vascular access under MRI, as a component of comprehensive MRI-guided cardiovascular catheterization and intervention. Materials and Methods We attempted jugular vein access in healthy pigs as a model of “difficult” vascular access. Procedures were performed under real-time MRI guidance using reduced field of view imaging. We developed an “active” MRI antenna-needle having an open-lumen, distinct tip appearance and indicators of depth and trajectory, in order to enhance MRI visibility during the procedure. We compared performance of the active needle against an unmodified commercial passively-visualized needle, measured by procedure success among operators with different levels of experience. Results MRI-guided central vein access was feasible using both the active needle and the unmodified passive needle. The active needle required less time (88 vs. 244 sec, p=0.022) and fewer needle passes (4.5 vs. 9.1, p=0.028), irrespective of operator experience. Conclusion MRI-guided access to central veins is feasible in our animal model. When image guidance is necessary for vascular access, performing this component under MRI will allow wholly MRI-guided catheterization procedures that do not require adjunctive imaging facilities such as X-ray or ultrasound. The active needle design showed enhanced visibility, as expected. These capabilities may permit more complex catheter-based cardiovascular interventional procedures enabled by enhanced image guidance. PMID:22006552

Saikus, Christina E.; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Barbash, Israel M.; Colyer, Jessica H.; Kocaturk, Ozgur; Faranesh, Anthony Z.; Lederman, Robert J.

2011-01-01

259

Radiofrequency ablation of liver malignancies: MRI for evaluation of response.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of response to radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and detect residual or recurrent tumor. After RFA, the target lesion shows a hyperintensive signal without increased T1-weighted, low on T2-weighted, non enhancing in gadolinium-enhanced MRI. In the long term follow-up the successfully treated lesions decrease in size. Signs of recurrence include new enhancement areas, the lesion's size increase, and development of T1-weighted hypointense and T2 weighted hyperintense areas. The MRI is a reliable method to evaluate the effectiveness of RFA and detect residual tumor. PMID:15675486

Aliberti, C; Soriani, M; Tilli, M; Benea, G; De Giorgi, U; Fiorentini, G

2004-11-01

260

Comparison of Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound and Contrast Enhanced CT or MRI in Monitoring Percutaneous Thermal Ablation Procedure in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A MultiCenter Study in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the ability of contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in monitoring percutaneous thermal ablation procedure in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in comparison with contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) and\\/or magnetic resonance imaging (CEMRI). A total of 151 patients were enrolled in the study. Before the radio-frequency (RF) or microwave ablation treatment, tumor vascularity was assessed in 139 patients with

Ming-de Lu; Xiao-ling Yu; An-hua Li; Tian-an Jiang; Min-hua Chen; Bao-zhen Zhao; Xiao-dong Zhou; Jin-rui Wang

2007-01-01

261

TEXTURE-BASED CHARACTERIZATION OF ARTERIALIZATION IN SIMULATED MRI OF HYPERVASCULARIZED LIVER TUMORS  

E-print Network

TEXTURE-BASED CHARACTERIZATION OF ARTERIALIZATION IN SIMULATED MRI OF HYPERVASCULARIZED LIVER this influence, we propose a multiscale model of liver dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, consisting of a model Terms-- Physiological modeling, multiscale model, MRI simulation, liver cancer, image analysis 1

262

CT and MRI findings of sarcomatoid cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Abstract Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings for a case of intrahepatic sarcomatoid cholangiocarcinoma is presented. A 48-year-old man with upper abdominal pain underwent contrast-enhanced CT and MRI. A 13?×?10?×?7?cm mass was seen in the left liver lobe, which had hypodense internal architecture on CT and mixed signal intensities on both T1- and T2-weighted images with an overwhelmingly hypointense signal on T1-weighted images and a hyperintense signal on T2-weighted images. The lesion had heterogeneous enhancement on both CT and MRI. A satellite nodule with the same imaging features was distinctive for the lesion. PMID:23092855

Toprak, Huseyin; Sennur Bilgin, S.; Kondakci, Mustafa; Balci, Cem

2012-01-01

263

Divalent Metal Transporter, DMT1: A Novel MRI Reporter Protein  

PubMed Central

Manganese (Mn)-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) has found a growing number of applications in anatomical and functional imaging in small animals, based on the cellular uptake of Mn ions in the brain, heart and other organs. Previous studies have relied on endogenous mechanisms of paramagnetic Mn ion uptake and enhancement. To genetically control MEMRI signals, we reverse engineered a major component of the molecular machinery involved in Mn uptake, the divalent metal transporter, DMT1. DMT1 provides positive cellular enhancement in a manner that is highly sensitive and dynamic, allowing greater spatial and temporal resolution for MRI compared to previously proposed MRI reporters such as ferritin. We characterized the MEMRI signal enhancement properties of DMT1-expressing cells, both in vitro and in vivo in mouse models of cancer and brain development. Our results show that DMT1 provides an effective genetic MRI reporter for a wide range of biological and pre-clinical imaging applications. PMID:23065715

Bartelle, Benjamin B.; Szulc, Kamila U.; Suero-Abreu, Giselle A.; Rodriguez, Joe J.; Turnbull, Daniel H.

2012-01-01

264

MRI of retinoblastoma  

PubMed Central

We review the role of MRI in retinoblastoma and simulating lesions. Retinoblastoma is the most common paediatric intra-ocular tumour. It may be endophytic, exophytic or a diffuse infiltrating tumour. MRI can detect intra-ocular, extra-ocular and intracranial extension of the tumour. MRI is essential for monitoring patients after treatment and detection of associated second malignancies. It helps to differentiating the tumour from simulating lesions with leukocoria. PMID:21849363

Razek, A A K A; Elkhamary, S

2011-01-01

265

MRI in Japanese encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We document the MRI features in seven patients with Japanese encephalitis. MRI was carried out on a 1.5 T system within 10–60\\u000a days of onset. In all the patients MRI revealed bilateral thalamic lesions, haemorrhagic in five. Signal changes were present\\u000a in the cerebrum in four patients, the midbrain and cerebellum in three each, the pons in two and the

S. Kumar; U. K. Misra; J. Kalita; V. Salwani; R. K. Gupta; R. Gujral

1997-01-01

266

Functional and molecular imaging with MRI: potential applications in paediatric radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

MRI is a very versatile tool for noninvasive imaging and it is particularly attractive as an imaging technique in paediatric\\u000a patients given the absence of ionizing radiation. Recent advances in the field of MRI have enabled tissue function to be probed\\u000a noninvasively, and increasingly MRI is being used to assess cellular and molecular processes. For example, dynamic contrast-enhanced\\u000a MRI has

Owen J. Arthurs; Ferdia A. Gallagher

2011-01-01

267

Soil Properties That Distinguish Ecological Sites  

E-print Network

Soil Properties That Distinguish Ecological Sites Mike Duniway USGS-Southwest Biological Science of vegetation? Why do sites differ in response to disturbance & management? #12;Ecological Sites & Soil Properties · Within a climatic zone (e.g. MLRA), differentiation of ecological sites based on soil

268

Evolutionarypsychologists need to distinguish between the evolutionary  

E-print Network

Evolutionarypsychologists need to distinguish between the evolutionary process, ancestral selection pressures, and psychological mechanisms John Tooby and LedaCosmides Although many of the experimentsreviewed(e.g., that"selfishness" and"se& interest" as phrases can sometimes be misleading as cham terizations of human

Cosmides, Leda

269

PURDUE EXTENSIONCommon and Southern Rusts Distinguishing Between  

E-print Network

1 PURDUE EXTENSIONCommon and Southern Rusts Distinguishing Between Rust Diseases Common and southern rust fungi produce fungal spores in structures called pustules, which are raised masses of colored or leaf sheaths. Rust spores can be rubbed off of the leaves and leave a brown or orange stain on fingers

Holland, Jeffrey

270

Four-Photon (In)Distinguishability Transition  

E-print Network

We demonstrate the conspiration of many-particle interferences of different degree to determine the transmission of four photons of tunable indistinguishability through a four-port beam splitter array. The probability of certain output events depends non-monotonically on the degree of distinguishability, due to distinct multi-particle interference contributions to the transmission signal.

Malte C. Tichy; Hyang-Tag Lim; Young-Sik Ra; Florian Mintert; Yoon-Ho Kim; Andreas Buchleitner

2010-09-25

271

Abell Endowment Distinguished Lecture in Computer Engineering,  

E-print Network

Abell Endowment Distinguished Lecture in Computer Engineering, in conjunction with the Electrical and Computer Engineering Seminar Series and the Computer Science Department Seminar Series "Parallex: An Innovative Execution Model for Exascale Computing" by Thomas Sterling, Ph.D Professor, School of Informatics

272

Repetitive sequence environment distinguishes housekeeping genes  

PubMed Central

Housekeeping genes are expressed across a wide variety of tissues. Since repetitive sequences have been reported to influence the expression of individual genes, we employed a novel approach to determine whether housekeeping genes can be distinguished from tissue-specific genes their repetitive sequence context. We show that Alu elements are more highly concentrated around housekeeping genes while various longer (>400-bp) repetitive sequences ("repeats"), including Long Interspersed Nuclear Element 1 (LINE-1) elements, are excluded from these regions. We further show that isochore membership does not distinguish housekeeping genes from tissue-specific genes and that repetitive sequence environment distinguishes housekeeping genes from tissue-specific genes in every isochore. The distinct repetitive sequence environment, in combination with other previously published sequence properties of housekeeping genes, were used to develop a method of predicting housekeeping genes on the basis of DNA sequence alone. Using expression across tissue types as a measure of success, we demonstrate that repetitive sequence environment is by far the most important sequence feature identified to date for distinguishing housekeeping genes. PMID:17141428

Eller, C. Daniel; Regelson, Moira; Merriman, Barry; Nelson, Stan; Horvath, Steve; Marahrens, York

2007-01-01

273

Founders Day DISTINGUISHED ALUMNUS/A AWARD  

E-print Network

. Ensign Virginia P. Kelson Robert C. Muir Roy W. Simmons Honorary ­ Thomas D. Dee II 1988 John Crawford Melich Obert C. Tanner Honorary ­ Maurice Abravanel 1970 Mary E. Caffey John G. Hall Gerald G. Probst John M. Wallace Honorary ­ Harold O. Molitor Special Distinguished Alumnus Award ­ David O. McKay 1971

Provancher, William

274

Distinguishing identical twins by face recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper measures the ability of face recognition algorithms to distinguish between identical twin siblings. The experimental dataset consists of images taken of 126 pairs of identical twins (252 people) collected on the same day and 24 pairs of identical twins (48 people) with images collected one year apart. In terms of both the number of paris of twins and

P. Jonathon Phillips; Patrick J. Flynn; Kevin W. Bowyer; Richard W. Vorder Bruegge; Patrick J. Grother; George W. Quinn; Matthew Pruitt

2011-01-01

275

Distinguishing Disability: Parents, Privilege, and Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in special education programs can have widely divergent experiences. For some, special education amounts to a dumping ground where schools unload their problem students, while for others, it provides access to services and accommodations that drastically improve chances of succeeding in school and beyond. "Distinguishing Disability"…

Ong-Dean, Colin

2009-01-01

276

"DISTINGUISHABILITY" OF SWITCHING SYSTEMS FOR DIAGNOSIS  

E-print Network

"DISTINGUISHABILITY" OF SWITCHING SYSTEMS FOR DIAGNOSIS E. A. Domlan, J. Ragot, D. Maquin Centre de.inpl-nancy.fr Abstract This article tackles the problem of the diagnosis of switching systems. These systems can be controlled or not. If the operating conditions are unknown, the diagnosis of such systems

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

277

Department of Criminal Justice Distinguished Alumni Presentation  

E-print Network

Department of Criminal Justice Distinguished Alumni Presentation Phone: 3135772705 Fax 48202 Sponsored by The Department of Criminal Justice and The Criminal Justice Club When: Monday of the criminal justice program. She has been involved in a number of famous events in Detroit's history. One

Baskaran, Mark

278

Distinguished Lecturer Series Understanding Climate Change  

E-print Network

Distinguished Lecturer Series Understanding Climate Change: Opportunities and Challenges for Data A Climate change is the defining environmental challenge facing our planet, yet there is considerable.Anew and transformative approach is required to understand the potential impact of climate change. Data driven approaches

California at Davis, University of

279

B Sriram Shastry Distinguished Professor of Physics  

E-print Network

of Physics A. General and Mathematical 1999 2005 Physical Review B. Condensed Matter Physics 1998 2003B Sriram Shastry Distinguished Professor of Physics Department of Physics University of California Santa Cruz, CA 95064 Positions Held: 2003 Professor of Physics, University of California Santa Cruz 2000

California at Santa Cruz, University of

280

Entropy of Mixing of Distinguishable Particles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The molar entropy of mixing yields values that depend only on the number of mixing components rather than on their chemical nature. To explain this phenomenon using the logic of chemistry, this article considers mixing of distinguishable particles, thus complementing the well-known approach developed for nondistinguishable particles, for example,…

Kozliak, Evguenii I.

2014-01-01

281

The Humanity of English. 1972 Distinguished Lectures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a collection of lectures by distinguished members of the English profession who were invited to lecture to schools located far from large urban and cultural centers. Included are papers by: John H. Fisher, "Truth Versus Beauty: An Inquiry into the Function of Language and Literature in an Articulate Society"; Walter Loban, "The Green…

National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL.

282

Cerebral Blood Volume Analysis in Glioblastomas Using Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast-Enhanced Perfusion MRI: A Comparison of Manual and Semiautomatic Segmentation Methods  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare the reproducibilities of manual and semiautomatic segmentation method for the measurement of normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV) using dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced (DSC) perfusion MR imaging in glioblastomas. Materials and Methods Twenty-two patients (11 male, 11 female; 27 tumors) with histologically confirmed glioblastoma (WHO grade IV) were examined with conventional MR imaging and DSC imaging at 3T before surgery or biopsy. Then nCBV (means and standard deviations) in each mass was measured using two DSC MR perfusion analysis methods including manual and semiautomatic segmentation method, in which contrast-enhanced (CE)-T1WI and T2WI were used as structural imaging. Intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility were assessed according to each perfusion analysis method or each structural imaging. Interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Bland-Altman plot, and coefficient of variation (CV) were used to evaluate reproducibility. Results Intraobserver reproducibilities on CE-T1WI and T2WI were ICC of 0.74–0.89 and CV of 20.39–36.83% in manual segmentation method, and ICC of 0.95–0.99 and CV of 8.53–16.19% in semiautomatic segmentation method, repectively. Interobserver reproducibilites on CE-T1WI and T2WI were ICC of 0.86–0.94 and CV of 19.67–35.15% in manual segmentation method, and ICC of 0.74–1.0 and CV of 5.48–49.38% in semiautomatic segmentation method, respectively. Bland-Altman plots showed a good correlation with ICC or CV in each method. The semiautomatic segmentation method showed higher intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities at CE-T1WI-based study than other methods. Conclusion The best reproducibility was found using the semiautomatic segmentation method based on CE-T1WI for structural imaging in the measurement of the nCBV of glioblastomas. PMID:23950891

Jung, Seung Chai; Choi, Seung Hong; Yeom, Jeong A.; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Ryoo, Inseon; Kim, Soo Chin; Shin, Hwaseon; Lee, A. Leum; Yun, Tae Jin; Park, Chul-Kee; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Park, Sung-Hye

2013-01-01

283

Frontoparietal Activation Distinguishes Face and Space from Artifact Concepts  

PubMed Central

Empirical and theoretical studies suggest that human knowledge is partly based on innate concepts that are experience-independent. We can, therefore, consider concepts underlying our knowledge as being broadly divided into inherited and acquired ones. Using fMRI, we studied the brain reaction in 20 subjects to violation of face, space (inherited), and artifact (acquired) concepts by presenting them with deformed faces, impossible figures (i.e., impossible chairs), and deformed planes, respectively, as well as their normal counterparts. Violation of the inherited concepts of face and space led to significant activation in frontoparietal cortex, whereas artifacts did not, thus distinguishing neurologically between the two categories. Participants were further exposed to these deformities daily for 1 month to test the supposition that inherited concepts are not modifiable, hence that prolonged exposure would not change the brain circuits that are engaged when viewing them. Consistent with this supposition, our results showed no significant change in activation for both categories, suggesting that such concepts are stable at the neural level at least within a time frame of 1 month. Finally, we investigated the regions of the brain that are critical for object representation. Our results show distinct and overlapping areas in the ventral visual cortex for all three categories, with faces activating the ventral visual cortex inferiorly, especially centered on right fusiform gyrus, and chairs and planes activating more diffuse regions, overlapping with the superior part of face region and mainly located in middle occipital cortex and parietal areas. PMID:21254806

Chen, Chi-Hua; Zeki, Semir

2012-01-01

284

Volume MRI and MRSI techniques for the quantitation of treatment response in brain tumors: presentation of a detailed case study.  

PubMed

Patients with primary brain tumors may be considered for several different treatments during the course of their disease. Assessments of disease progression and response to therapy are typically performed by visual interpretation of serial MRI examinations. Although such examinations provide useful morphologic information, they are unable to reliably distinguish active tumor from radiation necrosis. This poses a particular problem in the assessment of response to localized radiation therapies such as gamma knife radiosurgery. In this paper, we present methodology for evaluating changes in tissue morphology and metabolism based on serial volumetric MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) examinations. Registration and quantitative analysis of these data provide measurements of the temporal and spatial distributions of gadolinium enhancement and of N-acetylasparate, choline, creatine, and lactate/lipid. The key features of this approach and the potential clinical benefits are illustrated by a detailed analysis of six serial MRI/MRSI examinations and three serial 1-[F-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) studies on a patient with a recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma. PMID:9400861

Nelson, S J; Huhn, S; Vigneron, D B; Day, M R; Wald, L L; Prados, M; Chang, S; Gutin, P H; Sneed, P K; Verhey, L; Hawkins, R A; Dillon, W P

1997-01-01

285

Volume transfer constant (K(trans)) maps from dynamic contrast enhanced MRI as potential guidance for MR-guided high intensity focused ultrasound treatment of hypervascular uterine fibroids.  

PubMed

Higher perfusion of uterine fibroids at baseline is recognized as cause for poor efficacy of MR-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation, and higher acoustic power has been suggested for the treatment of high-perfused areas inside uterine fibroids. However, considering the heterogeneously vascular distribution inside the uterine fibroids especially with hyper vascularity, it is not easy to choose the correct therapy acoustic power for every part inside fibroids. In our study, we presented two cases of fibroids with hyper vascularity, to show the differences between them with different outcomes. Selecting higher therapy acoustic powers to ablate high-perfused areas efficiently inside fibroids might help achieving good ablation results. Volume transfer constant (K(trans)) maps from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging at baseline helps visualizing perfusion state inside the fibroids and locating areas with higher-perfusion. In addition, with the help of K(trans) maps, appropriate therapy acoustic power could be selected by the result of initial test and therapy sonications at different areas with significantly different perfusion state inside fibroids. PMID:25091628

Liu, Jing; Keserci, Bilgin; Yang, Xuedong; Wei, Juan; Rong, Rong; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Xiaoying

2014-11-01

286

Distinguishing Provenance Equivalence of Earth Science Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reproducibility of scientific research relies on accurate and precise citation of data and the provenance of that data. Earth science data are often the result of applying complex data transformation and analysis workflows to vast quantities of data. Provenance information of data processing is used for a variety of purposes, including understanding the process and auditing as well as reproducibility. Certain provenance information is essential for producing scientifically equivalent data. Capturing and representing that provenance information and assigning identifiers suitable for precisely distinguishing data granules and datasets is needed for accurate comparisons. This paper discusses scientific equivalence and essential provenance for scientific reproducibility. We use the example of an operational earth science data processing system to illustrate the application of the technique of cascading digital signatures or hash chains to precisely identify sets of granules and as provenance equivalence identifiers to distinguish data made in an an equivalent manner.

Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Ye; Halem, M.

2010-01-01

287

Quantum secret sharing based on local distinguishability  

E-print Network

In this paper we analyze the (im)possibility of the exact distinguishability of orthogonal multipartite entangled states under {\\em restricted local operation and classical communication}. Based on this local distinguishability analysis we propose a new scheme for quantum secret sharing (QSS). Our QSS scheme is quite general and cost efficient compared to other schemes. In our scheme no joint quantum operation is needed to reconstruct the secret. We also present an interesting $(2,n)$-threshold QSS scheme, where any two cooperating players, one from each of two disjoint groups of players, can always reconstruct the secret. This QSS scheme is quite uncommon, as most $(k,n)$-threshold schemes have the restriction $k\\geq\\lceil\\frac{n}{2}\\rceil$.

Ramij Rahaman; Matthew G. Parker

2014-03-05

288

Local Distinguishability of Multipartite Unitary Operations  

E-print Network

We show that any two different unitary operations acting on an arbitrary multipartite quantum system can be perfectly distinguishable by local operations and classical communication when a finite number of runs is allowed. We then directly extend this result into the case when the number of unitary operations to be discriminated is more than two. Intuitively, our result means that the lost identity of a nonlocal (entangled) unitary operation can be recovered locally, without any use of entanglement or joint quantum operations.

Runyao Duan; Yuan Feng; Mingsheng Ying

2007-05-10

289

Orthogonality And Distinguishability: Criterion For Local Distinguishability of Arbitrary Orthogonal States  

E-print Network

We consider deeply the relation between the orthogonality and the distinguishability of a set of arbitrary states (including multi-partite states). It is shown that if a set of arbitrary states can be distinguished by local operations and classical communication (LOCC), \\QTR{it}{\\}each of the states can be written as a linear combination of product vectors such that all product vectors of one of the states are orthogonal to the other states. With this result we then prove a simple necessary condition for LOCC distinguishability of a class of orthogonal states. These conclusions may be useful in discussing the distinguishability of orthogonal quantum states further, understanding the essence of nonlocality and discussing the distillation of entanglement.

Ping Xing Chen; Cheng Zu Li

2002-09-06

290

Benchmarking the ERG valve tip and MRI Interventions Smart Flow neurocatheter convection-enhanced delivery system's performance in a gel model of the brain: employing infusion protocols proposed for gene therapy for Parkinson's disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is an advanced infusion technique used to deliver therapeutic agents into the brain. CED has shown promise in recent clinical trials. Independent verification of published parameters is warranted with benchmark testing of published parameters in applicable models such as gel phantoms, ex vivo tissue and in vivo non-human animal models to effectively inform planned and future clinical therapies. In the current study, specific performance characteristics of two CED infusion catheter systems, such as backflow, infusion cloud morphology, volume of distribution (mm3) versus the infused volume (mm3) (Vd/Vi) ratios, rate of infusion (µl min-1) and pressure (mmHg), were examined to ensure published performance standards for the ERG valve-tip (VT) catheter. We tested the hypothesis that the ERG VT catheter with an infusion protocol of a steady 1 µl min-1 functionality is comparable to the newly FDA approved MRI Interventions Smart Flow (SF) catheter with the UCSF infusion protocol in an agarose gel model. In the gel phantom models, no significant difference was found in performance parameters between the VT and SF catheter. We report, for the first time, such benchmark characteristics in CED between these two otherwise similar single-end port VT with stylet and end-port non-stylet infusion systems. Results of the current study in agarose gel models suggest that the performance of the VT catheter is comparable to the SF catheter and warrants further investigation as a tool in the armamentarium of CED techniques for eventual clinical use and application.

Sillay, Karl; Schomberg, Dominic; Hinchman, Angelica; Kumbier, Lauren; Ross, Chris; Kubota, Ken; Brodsky, Ethan; Miranpuri, Gurwattan

2012-04-01

291

Can medial temporal lobe regions distinguish true from false? An event-related functional MRI study  

E-print Network

finding was a dissociation between two MTL regions: whereas the hippocampus was similarly acti- vated. The study also yielded a dissociation between two prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions: whereas bilateral, subjects listened to a series of words (e.g., water, ice, wet, dark, freeze, etc.), which were all strongly

Wagner, Anthony

292

3 Tesla intraoperative MRI for brain tumor surgery.  

PubMed

Implementation of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) has been shown to optimize the extent of resection and safety of brain tumor surgery. In addition, iMRI can help account for the phenomenon of brain shift and can help to detect complications earlier than routine postoperative imaging, which can potentially improve patient outcome. The higher signal-to-noise ratio offered by 3 Tesla (T) iMRI compared with lower field strength systems is particularly advantageous. The purpose of this article is to review the imaging protocols, imaging findings, and technical considerations related to 3T iMRI. To maximize efficiency, iMRI sequences can be tailored to particular types of tumors and procedures, including nonenhancing brain tumor surgery, enhancing brain tumor surgery, transsphenoidal pituitary tumor surgery, and laser ablation. Unique imaging findings on iMRI include the presence of surgically induced enhancement, which can be a potential confounder for residual enhancing tumor, and hyperacute hemorrhage, which tends to have intermediate signal on T1-weighted sequences and high signal on T2-weighted sequences due to the presence of oxyhemoglobin. MR compatibility and radiofrequency shielding pose particularly stringent technical constraints at 3T and influence the design and usage of the surgical suite with iMRI. PMID:24921066

Ginat, Daniel Thomas; Swearingen, Brooke; Curry, William; Cahill, Daniel; Madsen, Joseph; Schaefer, Pamela W

2014-06-01

293

Implantable medical devices MRI safe.  

PubMed

Pacemakers, ICDs, neurostimulators like deep brain stimulator electrodes, spiral cord stimulators, insulin pumps, cochlear implants, retinal implants, hearing aids, electro cardio gram (ECG) leads, or devices in interventional MRI such as vascular guide wires or catheters are affected by MRI magnetic and electromagnetic fields. Design of MRI Safe medical devices requires computer modeling, bench testing, phantom testing, and animal studies. Implanted medical devices can be MRI unsafe, MRI conditional or MRI safe (see glossary). In the following paragraphs we will investigate how to design implanted medical devices MRI safe. PMID:23739365

Dal Molin, Renzo; Hecker, Bertrand

2013-01-01

294

Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states  

E-print Network

A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature.

Dominique Spehner

2014-07-14

295

Terahertz surface plasmon sensor for distinguishing gasolines.  

PubMed

Gasolines of two different octane numbers are experimentally distinguished using a thin metal sheet perforated with a periodic hole array terahertz surface plasmon (SP) sensor. This sensor is proved to be very sensitive to the change in permittivities of analytes. The differences between the gasolines 93# and 97# in composition lead to various refractive indices, permittivities, and absorption coefficients, thus varying their interactions with surface waves on the sensor, which enables a distinction of 6 GHz between the two octane numbers in the transmission peaks. The freestanding SP sensor is effective and reliable and can be simply employed in analyte distinction, which has potential applications in the petroleum industry. PMID:23938420

Liu, Guanlin; He, Mingxia; Tian, Zhen; Li, Jingyan; Liu, Jiazheng

2013-08-10

296

The Perfect Distinguishability of Quantum Operations  

E-print Network

We provide a feasible necessary and sufficient condition for when an unknown quantum operation (quantum device) secretely selected from a set of known quantum operations can be identified perfectly within a finite number of queries, and thus complete the characterization of the perfect distinguishability of quantum operations. We further design an optimal protocol which can achieve the perfect discrimination between two quantum operations by a minimal number of queries. Interestingly, employing the techniques from the theory of $q$-numerical range we find that an optimal perfect discrimination between two isometries is always achievable without using auxiliary systems or entanglement.

Runyao Duan; Yuan Feng; Mingsheng Ying

2009-08-03

297

Reconstruction algorithms for MRI  

E-print Network

This dissertation presents image reconstruction algorithms for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) that aims to increase the imaging efficiency. Algorithms that reduce imaging time without sacrificing the image quality and ...

Bilgic?, Berkin

2013-01-01

298

Shoulder MRI scan  

MedlinePLUS

MRI - shoulder; Magnetic resonance imaging - shoulder ... Wilkinson ID, Paley MNJ. Magnetic resonance imaging: basic principles. In: Grainger RC, Allison D, Adam, Dixon AK, eds. Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 5th ed. ...

299

Fluorescent pigment distinguishes between sibling snail species.  

PubMed

Traditional taxonomy of shell-bearing molluscs does not generally use soft-body coloration. However, the land snails Bradybaena pellucida and B. similaris have been distinguished only on the basis of the color of the soft-body visible through the shell. Thus, the taxonomic status of the two species has traditionally been questionable. We found that dense spots of pigments embedded in the dorsal mantle are responsible for the yellow coloration of B. pellucida . Similar spots in B. similaris are white and less densely aggregated in whorls further from the apex, and the brown color of the hepatopancreas is visible through the shell. The yellow pigments of B. pellucida seep out with mucus from the body in natural and laboratory conditions. The two species became externally indistinguishable after 30 days of laboratory feeding, because the yellow spots disappeared in B. pellucida and the color of the hepatopancreas changed from dark brown to pale brown in both species. Irradiation with ultraviolet A demonstrated that the yellow pigment of B. pellucida fluoresces. Adult specimens of the two species were distinct in penial microsculpture, with F(1) hybrids intermediate in form. Populations of the two species differed significantly in allelic frequencies at four allozyme loci. Therefore, B. pellucida and B. similaris are morphologically and genetically distinct. The fluorescent yellow pigment distinguishes B. pellucida from B. similaris under natural conditions despite its environmental dependence. PMID:19267648

Seki, Keiichi; Wiwegweaw, Amporn; Asami, Takahiro

2008-12-01

300

Distinguishability of Quantum States by Separable Operations  

E-print Network

We study the distinguishability of multipartite quantum states by separable operations. We first present a necessary and sufficient condition for a finite set of orthogonal quantum states to be distinguishable by separable operations. An analytical version of this condition is derived for the case of $(D-1)$ pure states, where $D$ is the total dimension of the state space under consideration. A number of interesting consequences of this result are then carefully investigated. Remarkably, we show there exists a large class of $2\\otimes 2$ separable operations not being realizable by local operations and classical communication. Before our work only a class of $3\\otimes 3$ nonlocal separable operations was known [Bennett et al, Phys. Rev. A \\textbf{59}, 1070 (1999)]. We also show that any basis of the orthogonal complement of a multipartite pure state is indistinguishable by separable operations if and only if this state cannot be a superposition of 1 or 2 orthogonal product states, i.e., has an orthogonal Schmidt number not less than 3, thus generalize the recent work about indistinguishable bipartite subspaces [Watrous, Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{95}, 080505 (2005)]. Notably, we obtain an explicit construction of indistinguishable subspaces of dimension 7 (or 6) by considering a composite quantum system consisting of two qutrits (resp. three qubits), which is slightly better than the previously known indistinguishable bipartite subspace with dimension 8.

Runyao Duan; Yuan Feng; Yu Xin; Mingsheng Ying

2007-05-06

301

Acute Spinal-Cord Ischemia: Evolution of MRI Findings  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Magnetic resonance (MR) findings in acute spinal-cord ischemia can be summarized as focal cord enlargement and hyperintensities on T2-weighted images and gadolinium enhancement, especially of the central gray matter. However, in analogy with acute brain ischemia, it is to be expected that the findings of MR imaging (MRI) may be normal in the first hours after symptom onset. We evaluated the clinical and MRI findings in a series of patients with acute spinal-cord ischemia, and tested the hypothesis that the development and course of MR abnormalities are predictable. Methods Five patients with acute spinal-cord ischemia were admitted to our hospital over a 2-year period. Repeated MRI (1.5 T) was performed in all patients. Clinical data were retrieved from the patients' charts. Results Four women and one man with a median age of 52 years (range, 31-75 years) were admitted. Three patients had anterior spinal artery infarction and two patients had transverse infarctions. All patients underwent spinal MRI within 24 hours; the findings were normal in four of the five patients. After 1-2 days, T2-weighted MRI generally exhibited focal cord enlargement and hyperintensity in all patients, while spinal-cord enhancement appeared after 2-11 days. Conclusions Acute spinal-cord ischemia may have a typical course on MRI. MRI findings are usually normal in the acute phase, but spinal cord swelling and T2 abnormality are expected after several days, while gadolinium enhancement appears even later after symptom onset. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI can be increased by repeated MRI in patients suspected of acute spinal-cord ischemia. PMID:23091532

Bouvy, Willem H.; Lycklama a Nijeholt, Geert J.; Boiten, Jelis

2012-01-01

302

Differentiation of malignant from benign focal splenic lesions: added value of diffusion-weighted MRI.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. The objective of our study was to evaluate the added value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for distinguishing between malignant and benign focal splenic lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS. This study included 53 patients with 11 malignant and 42 benign splenic lesions who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and DWI. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted for splenic lesions. Two blinded observers evaluated the two image sets-that is, the conventional MR images alone versus the combined conventional MR and DW images-and scored their confidence for malignancy of splenic lesions. The Fisher exact test and Mann-Whitney U test were performed, and diagnostic performance values (ROC curve analysis) were evaluated. RESULTS. All malignant lesions showed a progressive hypovascular enhancement pattern, whereas the hypervascular enhancement patterns were shown in only benign lesions (n = 20, 47.6%) (p < 0.05). The mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the malignant lesions (0.73 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) was significantly lower than that of the benign lesions (1.21 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) (p < 0.001). The addition of DW images to conventional MR images showed a significant improvement for predicting malignant splenic lesions (area under ROC curve [Az] without DW images vs with DW images: 0.774 vs 0.983 for observer 1 and 0.742 vs 0.986 for observer 2) (p < 0.001). In addition, the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of combined conventional MR and DW images were higher than those of conventional MR images alone. CONCLUSION. The addition of DWI to conventional MRI improves differentiation of malignant from benign splenic lesions. PMID:25247945

Jang, Kyung Mi; Kim, Seong Hyun; Hwang, Jiyoung; Lee, Soon Jin; Kang, Tae Wook; Lee, Min Woo; Choi, Dongil

2014-10-01

303

Cognitive humor processing: Different logical mechanisms in nonverbal cartoons—an fMRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although recent fMRI studies on humor have begun to elucidate cognitive and affective neural correlates, they weren't able to distinguish between different logical mechanisms or steps of humor processing, i.e., the detection of an incongruity and its resolution. This fMRI study aimed to focus in more detail on cognitive humor processing. In order to investigate pure incongruity resolution without preprocessing

Andrea C. Samson; Stefan Zysset; Oswald Huber

2008-01-01

304

Tryptophan PET-defined gross tumor volume offers better coverage of initial progression than standard MRI-based planning in glioblastoma patients  

PubMed Central

Objective Glioblastoma is an infiltrative malignancy that tends to extend beyond the MRI-defined tumor volume. We utilized positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with the radiotracer alpha-[11C]methyl-L -tryptophan (AMT) to develop a reliable high-risk gross tumor volume (HR-GTV) method for delineation of glioblastoma. AMT can detect solid tumor mass and tumoral brain infiltration by increased tumoral tryptophan transport and metabolism via the immunosuppressive kynurenine pathway. Methods We reviewed all patients in our database with histologically proven glioblastoma who underwent preoperative AMT-PET scan prior to surgery and chemoradiation. Treated radiotherapy volumes were derived from the simulation CT with MRI fusion. High-GTV with contrast enhanced T1-weighted MRI alone (GTVMRI) was defined as the postoperative cavity plus any residual area of enhancement on postcontrast T1-weighted images. AMT-PET images were retrospectively fused to the simulation CT, and a high-risk GTVs generated by both AMT-PET alone (GTVAMT) was defined using a threshold previously established to distinguish tumor tissue from peritumoral edema. A composite volume of MRI and AMT tumor volume was also created (combination of MRI fused with AMT-PET data; GTVMRI+AMT). In patients with definitive radiographic progression, follow-up MRI demonstrating initial tumor progression was fused with the pretreatment images and a progression volume was contoured. The coverage of the progression volume by GTVMRI, GTVAMT, and GTVMRI+AMT was determined and compared using the Wilcoxon’s signed-rank test. Results Eleven patients completed presurgical AMT-PET scan, seven of whom had progressive disease after initial therapy. GTVMRI (mean, 50.2 cm3) and GTVAMT (mean, 48.9 cm3) were not significantly different. Mean concordance index of the volumes was 39±15 %. Coverage of the initial recurrence volume by HR-GTVMRI (mean, 52 %) was inferior to both GTVAMT (mean, 68 %; p =0.028) and GTVMRI+AMT (mean 73 %; p =0.018). The AMT-PET-exclusive coverage was up to 41 % of the recurrent volume. There was a tendency towards better recurrence coverage with GTVMRI+AMT than with GTVAMT alone (p =0.068). Addition of 5 mm concentric margin around GTVMRI, GTVAMT, and GTVMRI+AMT would have completely covered the initial progression volume in 14, 57, and 71 % of the patients, respectively. Conclusion We found that a GTV defined by AMT-PET produced similar volume, but superior recurrence coverage than the treated standard MRI-determined volume. A prospective study is necessary to fully determine the usefulness of AMT-PET for volume definition in glioblastoma radiotherapy planning.

Kamson, David Olayinka; Snyder, Michael; Kim, Harold; Robinette, Natasha L.; Mittal, Sandeep; Juhász, Csaba

2014-01-01

305

Atypical rabies with MRI findings: clue to the diagnosis.  

PubMed

Rabies is known for most as a fatal infectious disease, mainly transmitted to both humans and animals through bites by rabid animals. In its classical form, rabies is well recognised, but when it presents atypically in paralytic form, it may become difficult to distinguish from Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) or myelitis, particularly where history is not forthcoming or concealed. The authors report here an atypical case of paralytic rabies presenting with descending paralysis followed by furious form where clue to suspicion was MRI findings. Imaging in rabies is seldom done. MRI ?ndings of rabies encephalitis are well known, but in myelitis these need to be further characterised. The authors present MRI ?ndings in a con?rmed case of rabies myelitis. The differential diagnosis of the imaging ?ndings as well as the role and the relevance of imaging in the diagnosis of this disease are discussed. PMID:22693199

Vaish, Arvind Kumar; Jain, Nirdesh; Gupta, Lokesh Kumar; Verma, Sudhir Kumar

2011-01-01

306

Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Robert E. Ployhart  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Robert E. Ployhart, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology, is cited for innovative work in examining reactions to staffing practices and efforts to enhance the acceptability of recruitment and staffing practices; for exemplary use of applied statistical models in examining multilevel effects…

American Psychologist, 2009

2009-01-01

307

University of Massachusetts: Distinguished Visitors Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Massachusetts at Amherst Library has an elaborate mix of digital collections available through their UMarmot program, which is the online presence of their Special Collections & University Archives division. One of the more recent digitization projects they have completed is the Distinguished Visitors Program. The Program contains talks from a wide range of visitors who came to Amherst in the 1970s. The talks here include lively conversations with Isaac Asimov, Julian Bond, Angela Davis, David Halberstam, Tom Hayden, and Jane Fonda. Visitors will also find a short description of each individual's talk, along with information about what brought him or her to campus. The talks are engaging; one of the best is the talk by David Halberstam, which features a discussion of American politics and foreign policy in the wake of Watergate.

2012-04-06

308

Inequality indicators and distinguishability in economics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Money has a material counterpart, such as banknotes or coins, and an ideal expression, monetary units. In the latter case, it is boson-like: individual incomes have no a priori limit, and their units are not distinguishable from each other in economic processes. Individuals, on the other hand, usually occupy one job at a time which makes them akin to fermions. We apply to individual incomes down-to-earth statistical calculations, similar to those for quantum particles, and obtain expressions for the cumulative distribution function, probability density and Lorenz function resulting from the simultaneous use of both statistics. They provide extremely good fits to corresponding data on French income distributions. On this basis, we propose a new entropic inequality indicator.

Rosenblatt, J.; Martinás, K.

2008-03-01

309

Defining disruptive coloration and distinguishing its functions  

PubMed Central

Disruptive coloration breaks up the shape and destroys the outline of an object, hindering detection. The principle was first suggested approximately a century ago, but, although research has significantly increased, the field remains conceptually unstructured and no unambiguous definition exists. This has resulted in variable use of the term, making it difficult to formulate testable hypotheses that are comparable between studies, slowing down advancement in this field. Related to this, a range of studies do not effectively distinguish between disruption and other forms of camouflage. Here, we give a formal definition of disruptive coloration, reorganize a range of sub-principles involved in camouflage and argue that five in particular are specifically related to disruption: differential blending; maximum disruptive contrast; disruption of surface through false edges; disruptive marginal patterns; and coincident disruptive coloration. We discuss how disruptive coloration can be optimized, how it can relate to other forms of camouflage markings and where future work is particularly needed. PMID:18990673

Stevens, Martin; Merilaita, Sami

2008-01-01

310

Longitudinal MRI contrast enhanced monitoring of early tumour development with manganese chloride (MnCl2) and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) in a CT1258 based in vivo model of prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Cell lines represent a key tool in cancer research allowing the generation of neoplasias which resemble initial tumours in in-vivo animal models. The characterisation of early tumour development is of major interest in order to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic agents. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based in-vivo characterisation allows visualisation and characterisation of tumour development in early stages prior to manual palpation. Contrast agents for MRI such as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) and manganese chloride (MnCl2) represent powerful tools for the in-vivo characterisation of early stage tumours. In this experimental study, we labelled prostate cancer cells with MnCl2 or SPIOs in vitro and used 1?T MRI for tracing labelled cells in-vitro and 7?T MRI for tracking in an in-vivo animal model. Methods Labelling of prostate cancer cells CT1258 was established in-vitro with MnCl2 and SPIOs. In-vitro detection of labelled cells in an agar phantom was carried out through 1?T MRI while in-vivo detection was performed using 7?T MRI after subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of labelled cells into NOD-Scid mice (n?=?20). The animals were scanned in regular intervals until euthanization. The respective tumour volumes were analysed and corresponding tumour masses were subjected to histologic examination. Results MnCl2in-vitro labelling resulted in no significant metabolic effects on proliferation and cell vitality. In-vitro detection-limit accounted 105 cells for MnCl2 as well as for SPIOs labelling. In-vivo 7?T MRI scans allowed detection of 103 and 104 cells. In-vivo MnCl2 labelled cells were detectable from days 4–16 while SPIO labelling allowed detection until 4?days after s.c. injection. MnCl2 labelled cells were highly tumourigenic in NOD-Scid mice and the tumour volume development was characterised in a time dependent manner. The amount of injected cells correlated with tumour size development and disease progression. Histological analysis of the induced tumour masses demonstrated characteristic morphologies of prostate adenocarcinoma. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting direct in-vitro MnCl2 labelling and 7?T based in-vivo MRI tracing of cancer cells in a model of prostate cancer. MnCl2 labelling was found to be suitable for in-vivo tracing allowing long detection periods. The labelled cells kept their highly tumourigenic potential in-vivo. Tumour volume development was visualised prior to manual palpation allowing tumour characterisation in early stages of the disease. PMID:22784304

2012-01-01

311

Microtesla MRI with dynamic nuclear polarization  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance imaging at microtesla fields is a promising imaging method that combines the pre-polarization technique and broadband signal reception by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensors to enable in vivo MRI at microtesla-range magnetic fields similar in strength to the Earth magnetic field. Despite significant advances in recent years, the potential of microtesla MRI for biomedical imaging is limited by its insufficient signal-to-noise ratio due to a relatively low sample polarization. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a widely used approach that allows polarization enhancement by two-four orders of magnitude without an increase in the polarizing field strength. In this work, the first implementation of microtesla MRI with Overhauser DNP and SQUID signal detection is described. The first measurements of carbon-13 NMR spectra at microtesla fields are also reported. The experiments were performed at the measurement field of 96 microtesla, corresponding to Larmor frequency of 4 kHz for protons and 1 kHz for carbon-13. The Overhauser DNP was carried out at 3.5 –5.7 mT field using rf irradiation at 120 MHz. Objects for imaging included water phantoms and a cactus plant. Aqueous solutions of metabolically relevant sodium bicarbonate, pyruvate, alanine, and lactate, labeled with carbon-13, were used for NMR studies. All the samples were doped with TEMPO free radicals. The Overhauser DNP enabled nuclear polarization enhancement by factor as high as ?95 for protons and as high as ?200 for carbon-13, corresponding to thermal polarizations at 0.33 T and 1.1 T fields, respectively. These results demonstrate that SQUID-based microtesla MRI can be naturally combined with Overhauser DNP in one system, and that its signal-to-noise performance is greatly improved in this case. They also suggest that microtesla MRI can become an efficient tool for in vivo imaging of hyperpolarized carbon-13, produced by the low-temperature dissolution DNP. PMID:20843715

Zotev, Vadim S.; Owens, Tuba; Matlashov, Andrei N.; Savukov, Igor M.; Gomez, John J.; Espy, Michelle A.

2010-01-01

312

Computerderived Nuclear Features Distinguish Malignant from Benign Breast Cytology.  

E-print Network

1 Wolberg Computer­derived Nuclear Features Distinguish Malignant from Benign Breast Cytology cancer, image processing, cytology, diagnosis, inductive machine learning Corresponding author William H features. These features are then tested to distinguish between benign and malignant breast cytology

Street, Nick

313

EEG-informed fMRI analysis during a hand grip task: estimating the relationship between EEG rhythms and the BOLD signal  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, an increasing interest has arisen in investigating the relationship between the electrophysiological and hemodynamic measurements of brain activity, such as EEG and (BOLD) fMRI. In particular, changes in BOLD have been shown to be associated with changes in the spectral profile of neural activity, rather than with absolute power. Concurrently, recent findings showed that different EEG rhythms are independently related to changes in the BOLD signal: therefore, it would be also important to distinguish between the contributions of the different EEG rhythms to BOLD fluctuations when modeling the relationship between the two signals. Here we propose a method to perform EEG-informed fMRI analysis where the changes in the spectral profile are modeled, and, at the same time, the distinction between rhythms is preserved. We compared our model with two other frequency-dependent regressors modeling using simultaneous EEG-fMRI data from healthy subjects performing a motor task. Our results showed that the proposed method better captures the correlations between BOLD signal and EEG rhythms modulations, identifying task-related, well localized activated volumes. Furthermore, we showed that including among the regressors also EEG rhythms not primarily involved in the task enhances the performance of the analysis, even when only correlations with BOLD signal and specific EEG rhythms are explored. PMID:24744720

Sclocco, Roberta; Tana, Maria G.; Visani, Elisa; Gilioli, Isabella; Panzica, Ferruccio; Franceschetti, Silvana; Cerutti, Sergio; Bianchi, Anna M.

2014-01-01

314

California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects  

E-print Network

California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects by Richard J: _______________________________________ Date #12;California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects Richard J, 2006 #12;#12;ABSTRACT California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming

Kammen, Daniel M.

315

The Topography of Comet Tempel 1 as Distinguished From Images of the Deep Impact Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this poster, we present the first elevation measurements of surface features on comet Tempel 1. We report on a project that involves determining the topography of comet Tempel 1, which was impacted during the Deep Impact mission, to provide more detail regarding the comet's surface structure for further analysis of the evolutionary processes cometary bodies undergo. We estimate the topography using data returned from the Deep Impact spacecraft, including Impactor Targeting Sensor (ITS) and Medium Resolution Instrument (MRI) images. Stereo pair images are used as the main method of identifying the relief of the topographical features. There are two sources from which the elevation is derived. The first is the parallax resulting from the different trajectories of the ITS and MRI data; the second is the parallax attributed to the time difference between MRI images. The best resolution, limited by the combination of MRI and ITS data, is about 8 meters per pixel, which limits the range of elevations we can determine. As determining elevation relies on the position of the sun with respect to the comet, the study of the comet's topography also yields some understanding of the material of the comet, as it is necessary to sort those features with natural brightness variations due to composition from those casting shadows. Because data taken during the Deep Impact mission only distinguishably cover a portion of the comet's surface, not all surface features can be analyzed. In this work we determine, map, and then analyze those areas that have sufficient stereo coverage. The determination of the comet's morphology will lead to a better understanding of the stability of its varying structures and thus perhaps the material of which it is composed. This work is funded by NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) College Student Investigator (CSI) program.

Gaeman, Jodi; Farnham, T. L.; A'Hearn, M. F.

2007-10-01

316

Development of hyperpolarized noble gas MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic resonance imaging using the MR signal from hyperpolarized noble gases 129Xe and 3He may become an important new diagnostic technique. Alex Pines (adapting the hyperpolarization technique pioneered by William Happer) presented MR spectroscopy studies using hyperpolarized 129Xe. The current authors recognized that the enormous enhancement in the detectability of 129Xe, promised by hyperpolarization, would solve the daunting SNR problems impeding their attempts to use 129Xe as an in vivo MR probe, especially in order to study the action of general anesthetics. It was hoped that hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI would yield resolutions equivalent to that achievable with conventional 1H 2O MRI, and that xenon's solubility in lipids would facilitate investigations of lipid-rich tissues that had as yet been hard to image. The publication of hyperpolarized 129Xe images of excised mouse lungs heralded the emergence of hyperpolarized noble-gas MRI. Using hyperpolarized 3He, researchers have obtained images of the lung gas space of guinea pigs and of humans. Lung gas images from patients with pulmonary disease have recently been reported. 3He is easier to hyperpolarize than 129Xe, and it yields a stronger MR signal, but its extremely low solubility in blood precludes its use for the imaging of tissue. Xenon, however, readily dissolves in blood, and the T1 of dissolved 129Xe is long enough for sufficient polarization to be carried by the circulation to distal tissues. Hyperpolarized 129Xe dissolved-phase tissue spectra from the thorax and head of rodents and humans have been obtained, as have chemical shift 129Xe images from the head of rats. Lung gas 129Xe images of rodents, and more recently of humans, have been reported. Hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI (HypX-MRI) may elucidate the link between the structure of the lung and its function. The technique may also be useful in identifying ventilation-perfusion mismatch in patients with pulmonary embolism, in staging and tracking the success of therapeutic approaches in patients with chronic obstructive airway diseases, and in identifying candidates for lung transplantation or reduction surgery. The high lipophilicity of xenon may allow MR investigations of the integrity and function of excitable lipid membranes. Eventually, HypX-MRI may permit better imaging of the lipid-rich structures of the brain. Cortical brain function is one perfusion-dependent phenomena that may be explored with hyperpolarized 129Xe MR. This leads to the exciting possibility of conducting hyperpolarized 129Xe functional MRI (HypX-fMRI) studies.

Albert, M. S.; Balamore, D.

1998-02-01

317

Challenges for Molecular Neuroimaging with MRI  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance (MRI)-based molecular imaging methods are beginning to have impact in neuroscience. A growing number of molecular imaging agents have been synthesized and tested in vitro, but so far relatively few have been validated in the brains of live animals. Here, we discuss key challenges associated with expanding the repertoire of successful molecular neuroimaging approaches. The difficulty of delivering agents past the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a particular obstacle to molecular imaging in the central nervous system. We review established and emerging techniques for trans-BBB delivery, including intracranial infusion, BBB disruption, and transporter-related methods. Improving the sensitivity with which MRI-based molecular agents can be detected is a second major challenge. Better sensitivity would in turn reduce the requirements for delivery and alleviate potential side effects. We discuss recent efforts to enhance relaxivity of conventional longitudinal relaxation time (T1) and transverse relaxation time (T2) MRI contrast agents, as well as strategies that involve amplifying molecular signals or reducing endogenous background influences. With ongoing refinement of imaging approaches and brain delivery methods, MRI-based techniques for molecular-level neuroscientific investigation will fall increasingly within reach. PMID:20808721

Lelyveld, Victor S.; Atanasijevic, Tatjana; Jasanoff, Alan

2010-01-01

318

Distinguishing standard reionization from dark matter models  

SciTech Connect

The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) experiment has detected reionization at the 5.5{sigma} level and has reported a mean optical depth of 0.088{+-}0.015. A powerful probe of reionization is the large-angle EE polarization power spectrum, which is now (since the first five years of data from WMAP) cosmic variance limited for 2{<=}l{<=}6. Here we consider partial reionization caused by weakly interacting massive particle dark matter annihilation, and calculate the expected polarization power spectrum. We compare the dark matter models with a standard two-step reionization theory, and examine whether the models may be distinguished using current, and future cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations. We consider dark matter annihilation at intermediate redshifts (z<60) due to halos, as well as annihilation at higher redshifts due to free particles. In order to study the effect of high redshift dark matter annihilation on CMB power spectra, it is essential to include the contribution of residual electrons (left over from recombination) to the ionization history. Dark matter halos at redshifts z<60 influence the low multipoles l<20 in the EE power spectrum, while the annihilation of free particle dark matter at high redshifts z>100 mainly affects multipoles l>10.

Natarajan, Aravind; Schwarz, Dominik J. [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Physics, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, Universitaetsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany)

2010-06-15

319

Distinguishing Modified Gravity from Dark Energy  

E-print Network

The acceleration of the universe can be explained either through dark energy or through the modification of gravity on large scales. In this paper we investigate modified gravity models and compare their observable predictions with dark energy models. Modifications of general relativity are expected to be scale-independent on super-horizon scales and scale-dependent on sub-horizon scales. For scale-independent modifications, utilizing the conservation of the curvature scalar and a parameterized post-Newtonian formulation of cosmological perturbations, we derive results for large scale structure growth, weak gravitational lensing, and cosmic microwave background anisotropy. For scale-dependent modifications, inspired by recent $f(R)$ theories we introduce a parameterization for the gravitational coupling $G$ and the post-Newtonian parameter $\\gamma$. These parameterizations provide a convenient formalism for testing general relativity. However, we find that if dark energy is generalized to include both entropy and shear stress perturbations, and the dynamics of dark energy is unknown a priori, then modified gravity cannot in general be distinguished from dark energy using cosmological linear perturbations.

Edmund Bertschinger; Phillip Zukin

2008-01-16

320

Distinguishing modified gravity from dark energy  

SciTech Connect

The acceleration of the Universe can be explained either through dark energy or through the modification of gravity on large scales. In this paper we investigate modified gravity models and compare their observable predictions with dark energy models. Modifications of general relativity are expected to be scale independent on superhorizon scales and scale dependent on subhorizon scales. For scale-independent modifications, utilizing the conservation of the curvature scalar and a parametrized post-Newtonian formulation of cosmological perturbations, we derive results for large-scale structure growth, weak gravitational lensing, and cosmic microwave background anisotropy. For scale-dependent modifications, inspired by recent f(R) theories we introduce a parametrization for the gravitational coupling G and the post-Newtonian parameter {gamma}. These parametrizations provide a convenient formalism for testing general relativity. However, we find that if dark energy is generalized to include both entropy and shear stress perturbations, and the dynamics of dark energy is unknown a priori, then modified gravity cannot in general be distinguished from dark energy using cosmological linear perturbations.

Bertschinger, Edmund; Zukin, Phillip [Department of Physics, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2008-07-15

321

Inflammatory pseudotumors of the spleen: CT and MRI findings  

SciTech Connect

Our goal was to etucidate the CT and MRI findings of inflammatory pseudotumors of the spleen. The CT and MRI findings of three patients with inflammatory pseudotumors of the spleen were reviewed and compared with the pathologic findings. On the early phase of CT, the masses were hypodense to the normal spleen, and on the delayed phase, they demonstrated delayed enhancement. On T1-weighted MR images, the masses were isointense to the normal spleen, and on T2-weighted images, the masses had heterogeneous low signal intensities. After administration of Gd-DTPA, the masses showed delayed enhancement. Inflammatory pseudotumors of the spleen were characterized by low signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images and delayed enhancement after contrast material administration on CT and MRI. The fibrous stroma may contribute to these unusual findings. 23 refs., 3 figs.

Irie, Hiroyuki; Honda, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kuniyuki; Kuroiwa, Toshiro [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others] [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); and others

1996-03-01

322

Advances in pediatric body MRI.  

PubMed

MRI offers an alternative to CT, and thus is central to an ALARA strategy. However, long exam times, limited magnet availability, and motion artifacts are barriers to expanded use of MRI. This article reviews developments in pediatric body MRI that might reduce these barriers: high field systems, acceleration, navigation and newer contrast agents. PMID:21847737

Vasanawala, Shreyas S; Lustig, Michael

2011-09-01

323

Distinguishing dynamical dark matter at the LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamical dark matter (DDM) is a new framework for dark-matter physics in which the dark sector comprises an ensemble of individual component fields which collectively conspire to act in ways that transcend those normally associated with dark matter. Because of its nontrivial structure, this DDM ensemble—unlike most traditional dark-matter candidates—cannot be characterized in terms of a single mass, decay width, or set of scattering cross sections, but must instead be described by parameters which describe the collective behavior of its constituents. Likewise, the components of such an ensemble need not be stable so long as lifetimes are balanced against cosmological abundances across the ensemble as a whole. In this paper, we investigate the prospects for identifying a DDM ensemble at the LHC and for distinguishing such a dark-matter candidate from the candidates characteristic of traditional dark-matter models. In particular, we focus on DDM scenarios in which the component fields of the ensemble are produced at colliders alongside some number of standard-model particles via the decays of additional heavy fields. The invariant-mass distributions of these standard-model particles turn out to possess several unique features that cannot be replicated in most traditional dark-matter models. We demonstrate that in many situations it is possible to differentiate between a DDM ensemble and a traditional dark-matter candidate on the basis of such distributions. Moreover, many of our results also apply more generally to a variety of other extensions of the standard model which involve multiple stable or metastable neutral particles.

Dienes, Keith R.; Su, Shufang; Thomas, Brooks

2012-09-01

324

LDRD 149045 final report distinguishing documents.  

SciTech Connect

This LDRD 149045 final report describes work that Sandians Scott A. Mitchell, Randall Laviolette, Shawn Martin, Warren Davis, Cindy Philips and Danny Dunlavy performed in 2010. Prof. Afra Zomorodian provided insight. This was a small late-start LDRD. Several other ongoing efforts were leveraged, including the Networks Grand Challenge LDRD, and the Computational Topology CSRF project, and the some of the leveraged work is described here. We proposed a sentence mining technique that exploited both the distribution and the order of parts-of-speech (POS) in sentences in English language documents. The ultimate goal was to be able to discover 'call-to-action' framing documents hidden within a corpus of mostly expository documents, even if the documents were all on the same topic and used the same vocabulary. Using POS was novel. We also took a novel approach to analyzing POS. We used the hypothesis that English follows a dynamical system and the POS are trajectories from one state to another. We analyzed the sequences of POS using support vector machines and the cycles of POS using computational homology. We discovered that the POS were a very weak signal and did not support our hypothesis well. Our original goal appeared to be unobtainable with our original approach. We turned our attention to study an aspect of a more traditional approach to distinguishing documents. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) turns documents into bags-of-words then into mixture-model points. A distance function is used to cluster groups of points to discover relatedness between documents. We performed a geometric and algebraic analysis of the most popular distance functions and made some significant and surprising discoveries, described in a separate technical report.

Mitchell, Scott A.

2010-09-01

325

MRI driven magnetic microswimmers  

PubMed Central

Capsule endoscopy is a promising technique for diagnosing diseases in the digestive system. Here we design and characterize a miniature swimming mechanism that uses the magnetic fields of the MRI for both propulsion and wireless powering of the capsule. Our method uses both the static and the radio frequency (RF) magnetic fields inherently available in MRI to generate a propulsive force. Our study focuses on the evaluation of the propulsive force for different swimming tails and experimental estimation of the parameters that influence its magnitude. We have found that an approximately 20 mm long, 5 mm wide swimming tail is capable of producing 0.21 mN propulsive force in water when driven by a 20 Hz signal providing 0.85 mW power and the tail located within the homogeneous field of a 3 T MRI scanner. We also analyze the parallel operation of the swimming mechanism and the scanner imaging. We characterize the size of artifacts caused by the propulsion system. We show that while the magnetic micro swimmer is propelling the capsule endoscope, the operator can locate the capsule on the image of an interventional scene without being obscured by significant artifacts. Although this swimming method does not scale down favorably, the high magnetic field of the MRI allows self propulsion speed on the order of several millimeter per second and can propel an endoscopic capsule in the stomach. PMID:22037673

Jakab, Peter; Szekely, Gabor; Hata, Nobuhiko

2013-01-01

326

MRI driven magnetic microswimmers.  

PubMed

Capsule endoscopy is a promising technique for diagnosing diseases in the digestive system. Here we design and characterize a miniature swimming mechanism that uses the magnetic fields of the MRI for both propulsion and wireless powering of the capsule. Our method uses both the static and the radio frequency (RF) magnetic fields inherently available in MRI to generate a propulsive force. Our study focuses on the evaluation of the propulsive force for different swimming tails and experimental estimation of the parameters that influence its magnitude. We have found that an approximately 20 mm long, 5 mm wide swimming tail is capable of producing 0.21 mN propulsive force in water when driven by a 20 Hz signal providing 0.85 mW power and the tail located within the homogeneous field of a 3 T MRI scanner. We also analyze the parallel operation of the swimming mechanism and the scanner imaging. We characterize the size of artifacts caused by the propulsion system. We show that while the magnetic micro swimmer is propelling the capsule endoscope, the operator can locate the capsule on the image of an interventional scene without being obscured by significant artifacts. Although this swimming method does not scale down favorably, the high magnetic field of the MRI allows self propulsion speed on the order of several millimeter per second and can propel an endoscopic capsule in the stomach. PMID:22037673

Kósa, Gábor; Jakab, Péter; Székely, Gábor; Hata, Nobuhiko

2012-02-01

327

fMRI and EEG responses to periodic visual stimulation.  

PubMed

EEG/VEP and fMRI responses to periodic visual stimulation are reported. The purpose of these experiments was to look for similar patterns in the time series produced by each method to help understand the relationship between the two. The stimulation protocol was the same for both sets of experiments and consisted of five complete cycles of checkerboard pattern reversal at 1.87 Hz for 30 s followed by 30 s of a stationary checkerboard. The fMRI data was analyzed using standard methods, while the EEG was analyzed with a new measurement of activation-the VEPEG. Both VEPEG and fMRI time series contain the fundamental frequency of the stimulus and quasi harmonic components-an unexplained double frequency commonly found in fMRI data. These results have prompted a reappraisal of the methods for analyzing fMRI data and have suggested a connection between our findings and much older published invasive electrophysiological measurements of blood flow and the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Overall our new analysis suggests that fMRI signals are strongly dependant on hydraulic blood flow effects. We distinguish three categories of fMRI signal corresponding to: focal activated regions of brain tissue; diffuse nonspecific regions of steal; and major cerebral vessels of arterial supply or venous drainage. Each category of signal has its own finger print in frequency, amplitude, and phase. Finally, we put forward the hypothesis that modulations in blood flow are not only the consequence but are also the cause of modulations in functional activity. PMID:10417246

Guy, C N; ffytche, D H; Brovelli, A; Chumillas, J

1999-08-01

328

Pearls and pitfalls in breast MRI  

PubMed Central

At our academic institution, we have noticed repeated examples of both false-positive and false-negative MR diagnoses in breast cancer. The most common diagnostic errors in interpreting MRI of the breast are discussed in this review and experience-based advice is provided to avoid similar mistakes. The most common reasons for false-positive diagnoses are misinterpretation of artefacts, confusion between normal enhancing structures and tumours and, above all, insufficient use of the American College of Radiology breast imaging reporting and data system lexicon, whereas false-negative diagnoses are made as a result of missed tiny enhancement, a background-enhancing breast, or enhancement interpreted as benign rather than malignant. PMID:22128131

Millet, I; Pages, E; Hoa, D; Merigeaud, S; Curros Doyon, F; Prat, X; Taourel, P

2012-01-01

329

Functional MRI for radiotherapy dose painting.  

PubMed

Modern radiation therapy techniques are exceptionally flexible in the deposition of radiation dose in a target volume. Complex distributions of dose can be delivered reliably, so that the tumor is exposed to a high dose, whereas nearby healthy structures can be avoided. As a result, an increase in curative dose is no longer invariably associated with an increased level of toxicity. This modern technology can be exploited further by modulating the required dose in space so as to match the variation in radiation sensitivity in the tumor. This approach is called dose painting. For dose painting to be effective, functional imaging techniques are essential to identify regions in a tumor that require a higher dose. Several techniques are available in nuclear medicine and radiology. In recent years, there has been a considerable research effort concerning the integration of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into the external radiotherapy workflow motivated by the superior soft tissue contrast as compared to computed tomography. In MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI reflects the cell density of tissue and thus may indicate regions with a higher tumor load. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI reflects permeability of the microvasculature and blood flow, correlated to the oxygenation of the tumor. These properties have impact on its radiation sensitivity. New questions must be addressed when these techniques are applied in radiation therapy: scanning in treatment position requires alternative solutions to the standard patient setup in the choice of receive coils compared to a diagnostic department. This standard positioning also facilitates repeated imaging. The geometrical accuracy of MR images is critical for high-precision radiotherapy. In particular, when multiparametric functional data are used for dose painting, quantification of functional parameters at a high spatial resolution becomes important. In this review, we will address these issues and describe clinical developments in MRI-guided dose painting. PMID:22770686

van der Heide, Uulke A; Houweling, Antonetta C; Groenendaal, Greetje; Beets-Tan, Regina G H; Lambin, Philippe

2012-11-01

330

FUNCTIONAL SEMI-AUTOMATED SEGMENTATION OF RENAL DCE-MRI SEQUENCES Chevaillier B.(1)  

E-print Network

applied in the medical field but few to renal DCE-MRI [1]. Furthermore it remains difficult to distinguish temporal sequence. Thus a slight error in registration or any through-plane motion can lead to great segmentations will be performed too. 2. METHOD FOR FUNCTIONAL SEGMENTATION Let us suppose we have a DCE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

331

Automatic alignment of renal DCE-MRI image series for improvement of quantitative tracer kinetic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracer kinetic modeling with dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and the quantification of the kinetic parameters are active fields of research which have the potential to improve the measurement of renal function. However, the strong coronal motion of the kidney in the time series inhibits an accurate assessment of the kinetic parameters. Automatic motion correction is challenging due to the

Darko Zikic; Steven Sourbron; Xinxing Feng; Henrik J. Michaely; Ali Khamene; Nassir Navab

2008-01-01

332

Gamma oscillations distinguish mere exposure from other likability effects.  

PubMed

Repeated exposure to neutral stimuli enhances liking for those, which is called mere exposure effect (MEE) (Zajonc, 1968). Its behavioral effects have been extensively investigated. However, the mechanism by which it is generated remains unclear. To elucidate the neural mechanism of the MEE, we recorded electroencephalograms while subjects indicated their preferences for face stimuli with and without MEE induction. According to behavioral data, participants were divided into two groups, one with, and one without MEE tendency. In participants with an MEE tendency, gamma activity (40-60 [Hz]) in the parieto-occipital area was significantly weaker for exposed faces than unexposed ones, indicating a repetition-suppression effect. Gamma activity from sites exhibiting peak repetition-suppression effects was significantly weaker in theoretically genuine MEE trials than non-MEE trials, indicating that emotion processing might influence the MEE. These results suggest that existing theories regarding mechanisms underlying the MEE, namely, fluency misattribution and apprehensiveness reduction might not be mutually exclusive. Moreover, gamma activity might be a potential indicator to distinguish the MEE from other likability effects, at least in the case of human face stimuli. PMID:24389505

Kongthong, Nutchakan; Minami, Tetsuto; Nakauchi, Shigeki

2014-02-01

333

Words matter: distinguishing "personalized medicine" and "biologically personalized therapeutics".  

PubMed

"Personalized medicine" has become a generic term referring to techniques that evaluate either the host or the disease to enhance the likelihood of beneficial patient outcomes from treatment interventions. There is, however, much more to personalization of care than just identifying the biotherapeutic strategy with the highest likelihood of benefit. In its new meaning, "personalized medicine" could overshadow the individually tailored, whole-person care that is at the bedrock of what people need and want when they are ill. Since names and definitional terms set the scope of the discourse, they have the power to define what personalized medicine includes or does not include, thus influencing the scope of the professional purview regarding the delivery of personalized care. Taxonomic accuracy is important in understanding the differences between therapeutic interventions that are distinguishable in their aims, indications, scope, benefits, and risks. In order to restore the due emphasis to the patient and his or her needs, we assert that it is necessary, albeit belated, to deconflate the contemporary term "personalized medicine" by taxonomizing this therapeutic strategy more accurately as "biologically personalized therapeutics" (BPT). The scope of truly personalized medicine and its relationship to biologically personalized therapeutics is described, emphasizing that the best of care must give due recognition and emphasis to both BPT and truly personalized medicine. PMID:25293984

Cherny, Nathan I; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Emanuel, Linda; Fallowfield, Lesley; Francis, Prudence A; Gabizon, Alberto; Piccart, Martine J; Sidransky, David; Soussan-Gutman, Lior; Tziraki, Chariklia

2014-12-01

334

INGRID SPEAKER MEDAL FOR DISTINGUISHED RESEARCH, SCHOLARSHIP, OR PERFORMANCE ENDOWMENT  

E-print Network

INGRID SPEAKER MEDAL FOR DISTINGUISHED RESEARCH, SCHOLARSHIP, OR PERFORMANCE ENDOWMENT The Ingrid agreement with the University. Terms of Reference The Ingrid Speaker Medal Endowment is an endowment fund

Morris, Joy

335

MRI of the penis  

PubMed Central

MRI of the penis is an expensive test that is not always superior to clinical examination or ultrasound. However, it shows many of the important structures, and in particular the combination of tumescence from intracavernosal alprostadil, and high-resolution T2 sequences show the glans, corpora and the tunica albuginea well. In this paper we summarise the radiological anatomy and discuss the indications for MRI. For penile cancer, it may be useful in cases where the local stage is not apparent clinically. In priapism, it is an emerging technique for assessing corporal viability, and in fracture it can in most cases make the diagnosis and locate the injury. In some cases of penile fibrosis and Peyronie's disease, it may aid surgical planning, and in complex pelvic fracture may replace or augment conventional urethrography. It is an excellent investigation for the malfunctioning penile prosthesis. PMID:23118102

Kirkham, A

2012-01-01

336

Periodic changes in fMRI connectivity  

PubMed Central

The first two decades of brain research using fMRI have been dominated by studies that measure signal changes in response to a presented task. A rapidly increasing number of studies are showing that consistent activation maps appear by assessment of signal correlations during time periods in which the subjects were not directed to perform any specific task (i.e. “resting state correlations”). Even though neural interactions can happen on much shorter time scales, most “resting state” studies assess these temporal correlations over a period of about 5 to 10 minutes. Here we investigate how these temporal correlations change on a shorter time scale. We examine changes in brain correlations to the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) across a 10 minutes scan. We show: (1) fMRI correlations fluctuate over time, (2) these fluctuations can be periodic, and (3) correlations between the PCC and other brain regions fluctuate at distinct frequencies. While the precise frequencies of correlation fluctuations vary across subjects and runs, it is still possible to parse brain regions and combinations of brain regions based on fluctuation frequency differences. To evaluate the potential biological significance of these empirical observations, we then use synthetic time series data with identical amplitude spectra, but randomized phase to show that similar effects can still appear even if the timing relationships between voxels are randomized. This implies that observed correlation fluctuations could occur between regions with distinct amplitude spectra, whether or not there are dynamic changes in neural connectivity between such regions. As more studies of brain connectivity dynamics appear, particularly studies using correlation as a key metric, it is vital to better distinguish true neural connectivity dynamics from connectivity fluctuations that are inherently part of this method. Our results also highlight the rich information in the power spectra of fMRI data that can be used to parse brain regions. PMID:22796990

Handwerker, Daniel A.; Roopchansingh, Vinai; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier; Bandettini, Peter A.

2014-01-01

337

Interventional Cardiovascular MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (iCMR) is potentially revolutionary because of the exquisite tissue\\u000a and blood imaging afforded to guide therapeutic procedures. By making small compromises in spatial or temporal resolution,\\u000a and with little or no modifications to commercial high-performance magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, images can be\\u000a acquired and displayed almost instantaneously to operators. This may be useful simply

Robert J. Lederman

338

MRI anatomy of schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data have provided much evidence in support of our current view that schizophrenia is a brain disorder with altered brain structure, and consequently involving more than a simple disturbance in neurotransmission. This review surveys 118 peer–reviewed studies with control group from 1987 to May 1998.Most studies (81%) do not find abnormalities of whole brain\\/intracranial contents,

Robert W. McCarley; Cynthia G. Wible; Melissa Frumin; Yoshio Hirayasu; James J. Levitt; Iris A. Fischer; Martha E. Shenton

1999-01-01

339

Coils for MRI Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report our progress in the development of a low cost, liquid-helium-free MgB2 superconducting MRI magnet. Several technical issues related to the construction of such a magnet to operate in persistent current mode are discussed, namely, the performance consistency of long length MgB2 conductors, the fabrication of superconducting joints and persistent current switches. Quench detection and protection

Weijun Yao; J. Bascuan; Seungyong Hahn; Yukikazu Iwasa

2010-01-01

340

MRI Anatomy of Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data have provided much evidence in support of our current view that schizophrenia is a brain disorder with altered brain structure, and consequently involving more than a simple disturbance in neurotransmission. This review surveys 118 peer–reviewed studies with control group from 1987 to May 1998. Most studies (81%) do not find abnormalities of whole brain/intracranial contents, while lateral ventricle enlargement is reported in 77%, and third ventricle enlargement in 67%. The temporal lobe was the brain parenchymal region with the most consistently documented abnormalities. Volume decreases were found in 62% of 37 studies of whole temporal lobe, and in 81% of 16 studies of the superior temporal gyrus (and in 100% with gray matter separately evaluated). Fully 77% of the 30 studies of the medial temporal lobe reported volume reduction in one or more of its constituent structures (hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus). Despite evidence for frontal lobe functional abnormalities, structural MRI investigations less consistently found abnormalities, with 55% describing volume reduction. It may be that frontal lobe volume changes are small, and near the threshold for MRI detection. The parietal and occipital lobes were much less studied; about half of the studies showed positive findings. Most studies of cortical gray matter (86%) found volume reductions were not diffuse, but more pronounced in certain areas. About two thirds of the studies of subcortical structures of thalamus, corpus callosum and basal ganglia (which tend to increase volume with typical neuroleptics), show positive findings, as do almost all (91%) studies of cavum septi pellucidi (CSP). Most data were consistent with a developmental model, but growing evidence was compatible also with progressive, neurodegenerative features, suggesting a “two– hit” model of schizophrenia, for which a cellular hypothesis is discussed. The relationship of clinical symptoms to MRI findings is reviewed, as is the growing evidence suggesting structural abnormalities differ in affective (bipolar) psychosis and schizophrenia. PMID:10331102

McCarley, Robert W.; Wible, Cynthia G.; Frumin, Melissa; Hirayasu, Yoshio; Levitt, James J.; Fischer, Iris A.; Shenton, Martha E.

2010-01-01

341

Occupational exposure in MRI  

PubMed Central

This article reviews occupational exposure in clinical MRI; it specifically considers units of exposure, basic physical interactions, health effects, guideline limits, dosimetry, results of exposure surveys, calculation of induced fields and the status of the European Physical Agents Directive. Electromagnetic field exposure in MRI from the static field B0, imaging gradients and radiofrequency transmission fields induces electric fields and currents in tissue, which are responsible for various acute sensory effects. The underlying theory and its application to the formulation of incident and induced field limits are presented. The recent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers limits for incident field exposure are interpreted in a manner applicable to MRI. Field measurements show that exposure from movement within the B0 fringe field can exceed ICNIRP reference levels within 0.5 m of the bore entrance. Rate of change of field dB/dt from the imaging gradients is unlikely to exceed the new limits, although incident field limits can be exceeded for radiofrequency (RF) exposure within 0.2–0.5 m of the bore entrance. Dosimetric surveys of routine clinical practice show that staff are exposed to peak values of 42±24% of B0, with time-averaged exposures of 5.2±2.8 mT for magnets in the range 0.6–4 T. Exposure to time-varying fields arising from movement within the B0 fringe resulted in peak dB/dt of approximately 2 T s?1. Modelling of induced electric fields from the imaging gradients shows that ICNIRP-induced field limits are unlikely to be exceeded in most situations; however, movement through the static field may still present a problem. The likely application of the limits is discussed with respect to the reformulation of the European Union (EU) directive and its possible implications for MRI. PMID:22457400

Mcrobbie, D W

2012-01-01

342

MRI Findings in Neuroferritinopathy  

PubMed Central

Neuroferritinopathy is a neurodegenerative disease which demonstrates brain iron accumulation caused by the mutations in the ferritin light chain gene. On brain MRI in neuroferritinopathy, iron deposits are observed as low-intensity areas on T2WI and as signal loss on T2?WI. On T2WI, hyperintense abnormalities reflecting tissue edema and gliosis are also seen. Another characteristic finding is the presence of symmetrical cystic changes in the basal ganglia, which are seen in the advanced stages of this disorder. Atrophy is sometimes noted in the cerebellar and cerebral cortices. The variety in the MRI findings is specific to neuroferritinopathy. Based on observations of an excessive iron content in patients with chronic neurologic disorders, such as Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease, the presence of excess iron is therefore recognized as a major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. The future development of multimodal and advanced MRI techniques is thus expected to play an important role in accurately measuring the brain iron content and thereby further elucidating the neurodegenerative process. PMID:21808735

Ohta, Emiko; Takiyama, Yoshihisa

2012-01-01

343

Significance of Breast Lesion Descriptors in the ACR BI-RADS MRI Lexicon  

PubMed Central

In recent years, dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) has altered the clinical management for women with breast cancer. In March 2007, the American Cancer Society (ACS) issued a new guideline recommending annual MRI screening for high-risk women. This guideline is expected to substantially increase the number of women each year who receive breast MRI. The diagnosis of breast MRI involves the description of morphological and enhancement kinetics features. To standardize the communication language, the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) MRI lexicon was developed by the American College of Radiology (ACR). In this article, we will review various appearances of breast lesions on MRI using the standardized terms of ACR BI-RADS MRI lexicon. The purpose is to familiarize all medical professionals with the breast MRI lexicon, since the use of this imaging modality is rapidly growing in the field of breast disease. Using this common language, a comprehensive analysis of both morphological and kinetic features used in image interpretation will help radiologists and other clinicians to communicate more clearly and consistently. This may in turn help physicians and patients to jointly select an appropriate management protocol for each patient’s clinical situation. PMID:19197974

Agrawal, Garima; Su, Min-Ying; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Feig, Stephen A.; Chen, Jeon-Hor

2009-01-01

344

MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) : tour an MRI machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this resource, appropriate for students in high school and beyond, the user navigates through a five-page illustrated explanation of MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). Each page profiles a different step in the MRI process. The resource addresses the science behind how MRI works, revealing how a strong magnet and radio wave pulses affect the targeted area of the body and allow that area to be imaged. As part of a set of materials about brain scanning technologies, this resource focuses on brain MRI. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Productions, David G.; York, Thirteen/wnet N.

2001-01-01

345

Functional MRI of the kidneys  

PubMed Central

Renal function is characterized by different physiologic aspects, including perfusion, glomerular filtration, interstitial diffusion and tissue oxygenation. MRI shows great promise in assessing these renal tissue characteristics noninvasively. The last decade has witnessed a dramatic progress in MRI techniques for renal function assessment. This article briefly describes relevant renal anatomy and physiology, reviews the applications of functional MRI techniques for the diagnosis of renal diseases, and lists unresolved issues that will require future work. PMID:23355431

Zhang, Jeff L.; Rusinek, Henry; Chandarana, Hersh; Lee, Vivian S.

2012-01-01

346

Prostate cancer magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): multidisciplinary standpoint  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in men and a leading cause of death. Accurate assessment is a prerequisite for optimal clinical management and therapy selection of prostate cancer. There are several parameters and nomograms to differentiate between patients with clinically insignificant disease and patients in need of treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technique which provides more detailed anatomical images due to high spatial resolution, superior contrast resolution, and multiplanar capability. State-of-the-art MRI techniques, such as diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), improve interpretation of prostate cancer imaging. In this article, we review the major role of MRI in the advanced management of prostate cancer to noninvasively improve tumor staging, biologic potential, treatment planning, therapy response, local recurrence, and to guide target biopsy for clinical suspected cancer with previous negative biopsy. Finally, future challenges and opportunities in prostate cancer management in the area of functional MRI are discussed as well. PMID:23630657

Li, Liang; Feng, Zhaoyan; Hu, Zhiquan; Wang, Guoping; Yuan, Xianglin; Wang, He; Hu, Daoyu

2013-01-01

347

Distinguishing between Knowledge and Beliefs: Students' Epistemic Criteria for Differentiating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"I believe that he/she is telling the truth", "I know about the solar system": what epistemic criteria do students use to distinguish between knowledge and beliefs? If knowing and believing are conceptually distinguishable, do students of different grade levels use the same criteria to differentiate the two constructs? How do students understand…

Boldrin, Angela; Mason, Lucia

2009-01-01

348

John Glenn: Presented with NASA Distinguished Service Medal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

John Glenn tours with his family, meets JFK and is presented with the NASA distinguished Service Medal. From: The John Glenn Story: Summary of astronaut John Glenn's flying career, from naval aviation training to space flight. The Mercury project is featured as John Glenn flies the Friendship 7 spacecraft. President John F. Kennedy presents the NASA Distinguished service Medal to Astronaut John Glenn.

1963-01-01

349

Distinguished Scientific Award for the Applications of Psychology: 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Distinguished Scientific Award for the Applications of Psychology is presented to a person who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, has made the most distinguished or empirical advance(s) in understanding or ameliorating an important practical problem. In accordance with established custom, the award winner will present an address on some phase of his scientific work at

Gerald S. Lesser; Edward L. Palmer; Nathan H. Azrin; Fred S. Keller; Starke R. Hathaway; Alphonse Chapanis; Joseph Wolpe; Edwin A. Fleishman; Anne Anastasi; Robert M. Gagne

350

PSI CHI -UBC CHAPTER DISTINGUISHED UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH AWARD (DURA)  

E-print Network

PSI CHI - UBC CHAPTER DISTINGUISHED UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH AWARD (DURA) What is the Distinguished Undergraduate Research Award? The DURA is a competitive undergraduate award given by our chapter of Psi Chi. It is designed to honour one Psi Chi member per year who has the most impressive evidence of outstanding research

Handy, Todd C.

351

NOMINATION FORM 2010 Distinguished Texan in Agriculture Award  

E-print Network

NOMINATION FORM 2010 Distinguished Texan in Agriculture Award Texas A&M AgriLife The Texas A/her contributions on behalf of the Texas agricultural industry and community (information may be submitted:__________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ RETURN NOMINATIONS TO 2010 Distinguished Texan in Agriculture Selection Advisory Committee c/o Office

352

Local distinguishability of quantum states in infinite dimensional systems  

E-print Network

We investigate local distinguishability of quantum states by use of the convex analysis about joint numerical range of operators on a Hilbert space. We show that any two orthogonal pure states are distinguishable by local operations and classical communications, even for infinite dimensional systems. An estimate of the local discrimination probability is also given for some family of more than two pure states.

Yoshiko Ogata

2005-07-04

353

The Graduate School Distinguished Alumni Award Nominations Due  

E-print Network

The Graduate School Distinguished Alumni Award Nominations Due Friday, November 30, 2012 Description of the Award The Graduate School Distinguished Alumni Award is given annually to a graduate the Graduate School Hooding Ceremony. Eligibility Criteria Nominees must have received a Ph.D. from Duke

Ferrari, Silvia

354

MRI in mouse developmental biology  

PubMed Central

Mice are used in many studies to determine the role of genetic and molecular factors in mammalian development and human congenital diseases. MRI has emerged as a major method for analyzing mutant and transgenic phenotypes in developing mice, at both embryonic and neonatal stages. Progress in this area is reviewed, with emphasis on the use of MRI to analyze cardiovascular and neural development in mice. Comparisons are made with other imaging technologies, including optical and ultrasound imaging, discussing the potential strengths and weaknesses of MRI and identifying the future challenges for MRI in mouse developmental biology. PMID:17451170

Turnbull, Daniel H.; Mori, Susumu

2009-01-01

355

Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine: CT and MRI correlations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraspinal synovial cysts were diagnosed in six patients during a 5-year period and retrospectively studied. Plain films of the lumbar spine showed degenerative changes in all patients. Lumbar myelography showed a posterior and lateral defect caused by extradural compression. Using CT without constrast enhancement established the diagnosis in five of the six-patients. in four cases MRI was performed, three before

P. Reginster; J. Collignon; R. F. Dondelinger

1994-01-01

356

Intracranial tuberculosis in AIDS: CT and MRI findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

CT and MRI findings in 35 patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and proven intracranial tuberculosis (TB) are presented. Over 90% of the patients were intravenous drug abusers and in two-thrids TB was the first manifestation of AIDS. CT was normal in one quarter, the most frequent findings being hydrocephalus (51%) and meningeal enhancement (41%), commonly seen together

M. F. Villoria; J. Torre; F. Fortea; L. Munoz; T. Hernandez; J. J. Alarcón

1992-01-01

357

Undersampled free breathing cardiac perfusion MRI reconstruction without motion estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the key MRI methodologies to identify and characterize coronary artery disease is dynamic contrast enhanced myocardial perfusion imaging. Rapid acquisition of images can help in improved diagnosis by accurately measuring temporal dynamics of the injected contrast agent. Another competing requirement is complete coverage of the heart with high spatial resolution to better identify sub- endocardial infarcts and to

Ganesh Adluru; Liyong Chen; Edward V. R. DiBella

2011-01-01

358

Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training and Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training awards are given by the Board of Educational Affairs in recognition of the efforts of psychologists who have made distinguished contributions to education and training, who have produced imaginative innovations, or who have been involved in the developmental phases of programs in education…

American Psychologist, 2009

2009-01-01

359

Non-Infectious Ischiogluteal Bursitis: MRI Findings  

PubMed Central

Objective We wished to report on the MRI findings of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis. Materials and Methods The MRI findings of 17 confirmed cases of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis were analyzed: four out of the 17 cases were confirmed with surgery, and the remaining 13 cases were confirmed with MRI plus the clinical data. Results The enlarged bursae were located deep to the gluteus muscles and postero-inferior to the ischial tuberosity. The superior ends of the bursal sacs abutted to the infero-medial aspect of the ischial tuberosity. The signal intensity within the enlarged bursa on T1-weighted image (WI) was hypo-intense in three cases (3/17, 17.6%), iso-intense in 10 cases (10/17, 58.9%), and hyper-intense in four cases (4/17, 23.5%) in comparison to that of surrounding muscles. The bursal sac appeared homogeneous in 13 patients (13/17, 76.5%) and heterogeneous in the remaining four patients (4/17, 23.5%) on T1-WI. On T2-WI, the bursa was hyper-intense in all cases (17/17, 100%); it was heterogeneous in 10 cases and homogeneous in seven cases. The heterogeneity was variable depending on the degree of the blood-fluid levels and the septae within the bursae. With contrast enhancement, the inner wall of the bursae was smooth (5/17 cases), and irregular (12/17 cases) because of the synovial proliferation and septation. Conclusion Ischiogluteal bursitis can be diagnosed with MRI by its characteristic location and cystic appearance. PMID:15637479

Lee, Sung Moon; Lee, Young Hwan; Suh, Kyung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon; Shin, Myung Jin; Jang, Han Won

2004-01-01

360

Nanoformulations for molecular MRI  

PubMed Central

Nanoscale contrast agents have shown the ability to increase the detection sensitivity of MRI by several orders of magnitude, endowing this traditionally macroscopic modality with the ability to observe unique molecular signatures. Herein, we describe three types of nanoparticulate contrast agents: iron oxide nanoparticles, gadolinium-based nanoparticles, and bio-essential manganese, cobalt, nickel, and copper ion-containing nanoformulations. Some of these agents have been approved for clinical use, but more are still under development for medical imaging. The advantages and disadvantages of each nanoformulation, in terms of intrinsic magnetism, ease of synthesis, and biodistribution, etc. are discussed. PMID:22488901

Tu, Chuqiao; Louie, Angelique Y.

2012-01-01

361

MRI in Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Imaging studies play an important role in detection and management of prostate cancer and MRI especially with the use of endorectal coil because of high contrast resolution is recognized as the best imaging modality in evaluation of prostate cancer. Multiparametric MR study including T1 and T2 weighted images, diffusion weighted images, dynamic contrast study and MR spectroscopy is useful for detection and local staging of prostate cancer as well as posts treatment evaluation of patients either after surgery or radiation therapy for detection of local recurrence. PMID:24693403

Ghafoori, Mahyar; Alavi, Manijeh; Aliyari Ghasabeh, Mounes

2013-01-01

362

Distinguishing bias from sensitivity effects in multialternative detection tasks  

PubMed Central

Studies investigating the neural bases of cognitive phenomena increasingly employ multialternative detection tasks that seek to measure the ability to detect a target stimulus or changes in some target feature (e.g., orientation or direction of motion) that could occur at one of many locations. In such tasks, it is essential to distinguish the behavioral and neural correlates of enhanced perceptual sensitivity from those of increased bias for a particular location or choice (choice bias). However, making such a distinction is not possible with established approaches. We present a new signal detection model that decouples the behavioral effects of choice bias from those of perceptual sensitivity in multialternative (change) detection tasks. By formulating the perceptual decision in a multidimensional decision space, our model quantifies the respective contributions of bias and sensitivity to multialternative behavioral choices. With a combination of analytical and numerical approaches, we demonstrate an optimal, one-to-one mapping between model parameters and choice probabilities even for tasks involving arbitrarily large numbers of alternatives. We validated the model with published data from two ternary choice experiments: a target-detection experiment and a length-discrimination experiment. The results of this validation provided novel insights into perceptual processes (sensory noise and competitive interactions) that can accurately and parsimoniously account for observers' behavior in each task. The model will find important application in identifying and interpreting the effects of behavioral manipulations (e.g., cueing attention) or neural perturbations (e.g., stimulation or inactivation) in a variety of multialternative tasks of perception, attention, and decision-making. PMID:25146574

Sridharan, Devarajan; Steinmetz, Nicholas A.; Moore, Tirin; Knudsen, Eric I.

2014-01-01

363

TOPICAL REVIEW: Hyperpolarized xenon in NMR and MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperpolarized gases have found a steadily increasing range of applications in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and NMR imaging (MRI). They can be regarded as a new class of MR contrast agent or as a way of greatly enhancing the temporal resolution of the measurement of processes relevant to areas as diverse as materials science and biomedicine. We concentrate on the properties and applications of hyperpolarized xenon. This review discusses the physics of producing hyperpolarization, the NMR-relevant properties of 129Xe, specific MRI methods for hyperpolarized gases, applications of xenon to biology and medicine, polarization transfer to other nuclear species and low-field imaging.

Oros, Ana-Maria; Shah, N. Jon

2004-10-01

364

Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).  

PubMed

This article discusses the basic concepts of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with the intention to introduce the subject to uninitiated. The MRI technique is a powerful noninvasive probe of the body's internal anatomy. In MRI, the images are produced not by X-rays, but through the use of non-ionizing radiowaves that stimulate transitions between spin states of nuclei in a magnetic field when passed through the body. The time required for the nucleus to return to equilibrium gives information about the environment of that nucleus. In this way tissue abnormalities can be determined in vivo. This article covers the basis of MRI phenomena, the concept of magnetic moment of the sample, NMR exalation and emission and the equipment necessary to observe these NMR properties. The primary agents used to increase tissue contrast in MRI are also mentioned. Finally the importance and prospects of this technique in Pakistan have been discussed. PMID:1753410

Khurshid, S J; Hussain, A M

1991-10-01

365

MRI detection of tumor in mouse lung using partial liquid ventilation with a perfluorocarbon-in-water emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transverse relaxation time (T2)-weighted 1H-MRI of mouse lungs has been performed using partial liquid ventilation (PLV) with a perfluorocarbon (PFC)-in-water emulsion as a contrast modality for lung MRI. Significant sensitivity enhancement in MRI of mouse lungs has been demonstrated with the protocol. The results show that the T2 value in lung is approximately proportional to the infusion dose up to

Ming Qiang Huang; Per H Basse; Qin Yang; Joyce A Horner; T. Kevin Hichens; Chien Ho

2004-01-01

366

Significance of breast lesion descriptors in the ACR BI-RADS MRI lexicon.  

PubMed

In recent years, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has altered the clinical management for women with breast cancer. In March 2007, the American Cancer Society (ACS) issued a new guideline recommending annual MRI screening for high-risk women. This guideline is expected to substantially increase the number of women each year who receive breast MRI. The diagnosis of breast MRI involves the description of morphological and enhancement kinetics features. To standardize the communication language, the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) MRI lexicon was developed by the American College of Radiology (ACR). In this article, the authors will review various appearances of breast lesions on MRI by using the standardized terms of the ACR BI-RADS MRI lexicon. The purpose is to familiarize all medical professionals with the breast MRI lexicon because the use of this imaging modality is rapidly growing in the field of breast disease. By using this common language, a comprehensive analysis of both morphological and kinetic features used in image interpretation will help radiologists and other clinicians to communicate more clearly and consistently. This may, in turn, help physicians and patients to jointly select an appropriate management protocol for each patient's clinical situation. PMID:19197974

Agrawal, Garima; Su, Min-Ying; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Feig, Stephen A; Chen, Jeon-Hor

2009-04-01

367

Sensitivity to posed and genuine displays of happiness and sadness: a fMRI study.  

PubMed

The ability to distinguish posed from genuine facial displays of emotion and to act accordingly is a fundamental social skill. To investigate the neural correlates underpinning this sensitivity, we compared changes in brain activity associated with judging posed and genuine facial displays of happiness and sadness using fMRI. Photographs of displays were presented to 7 right-handed females who judged whether the person was feeling the target emotion and made yes/no responses. Results showed activity increases during the observation of genuine compared to posed happy displays in the left medial superior frontal gyrus (BA 9) and the middle cingulate cortex bilaterally (BAs 24 and 31). The same comparison for sad displays showed increased activity in the left medial superior frontal gyrus (BA 8), and in the right middle and triangular inferior frontal gyri (both BA 46). Participants who exhibited higher sensitivity to sad displays showed larger activity difference in the left medial superior frontal gyrus (BA 8). The present study provides evidence of differential neural activity when judging posed versus genuine facial displays of emotions. Further research is required to elucidate how this might impact social affective neuroscience and in what ways genuine facial displays can enhance our understanding of emotion perception. PMID:23123788

McLellan, T L; Wilcke, J C; Johnston, L; Watts, R; Miles, L K

2012-12-01

368

29 CFR 779.328 - Retail and wholesale distinguished.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retail and wholesale distinguished. 779.328...GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments ârecognizedâ As Retail âin the Particular Industryâ §...

2010-07-01

369

Distinguishing exotic states from scattering states in lattice QCD  

E-print Network

This work explores the problem of distinguishing potentially interesting new exotic states in QCD from conventional scattering states using lattice QCD, and addresses the specific case of the search for localized resonances ...

Sigaev, Dmitry

2008-01-01

370

Distinguishable patterns of competition, collusion, and parallel action  

E-print Network

Alternative market structures are distinguishable by the degree of parallel action exhibited by producers. We show that the correlation between output levels varies systematically with the degree of interdependence among ...

Smith, James L.

2003-01-01

371

Center for Quantum Science and Engineering (CQSE) Nobel Distinguished Lecture  

E-print Network

. This lecture will introduce in a simple way a few basic concepts of quantum physics. It will be shown also howCenter for Quantum Science and Engineering (CQSE) Nobel Distinguished Lecture : 2009.3.25( ) 9

Wu, Yih-Min

372

Automatic test generation using genetically-engineered distinguishing sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fault-oriented sequential circuit test generator isdescribed in which various types of distinguishing sequencesare derived, both statically and dynamically,to aid the test generation process. A two-phase algorithmis used during test generation. The first phaseactivates the target fault, and the second phase propagatesthe fault effects (FE's) from the flip-flops withassistance from the distinguishing sequences. Thisstrategy improves the propagation of FE's to

Michael S. Hsiao; Elizabeth M. Rudnick; Janak H. Patel

1996-01-01

373

MRI breast screening in high-risk women: cancer detection and survival analysis.  

PubMed

Women with a genetic predisposition to breast cancer tend to develop the disease at a younger age with denser breasts making mammography screening less effective. The introduction of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for familial breast cancer screening programs in recent years was intended to improve outcomes in these women. We aimed to assess whether introduction of MRI surveillance improves 5- and 10-year survival of high-risk women and determine the accuracy of MRI breast cancer detection compared with mammography-only or no enhanced surveillance and compare size and pathology of cancers detected in women screened with MRI + mammography and mammography only. We used data from two prospective studies where asymptomatic women with a very high breast cancer risk were screened by either mammography alone or with MRI also compared with BRCA1/2 carriers with no intensive surveillance. 63 cancers were detected in women receiving MRI + mammography and 76 in women receiving mammography only. Sensitivity of MRI + mammography was 93 % with 63 % specificity. Fewer cancers detected on MRI were lymph node positive compared to mammography/no additional screening. There were no differences in 10-year survival between the MRI + mammography and mammography-only groups, but survival was significantly higher in the MRI-screened group (95.3 %) compared to no intensive screening (73.7 %; p = 0.002). There were no deaths among the 21 BRCA2 carriers receiving MRI. There appears to be benefit from screening with MRI, particularly in BRCA2 carriers. Extended follow-up of larger numbers of high-risk women is required to assess long-term survival. PMID:24687378

Gareth, Evans D; Nisha, Kesavan; Yit, Lim; Soujanye, Gadde; Emma, Hurley; Massat, Nathalie J; Maxwell, Anthony J; Sarah, Ingham; Rosalind, Eeles; Leach, Martin O; Anthony, Howell; Stephen, Duffy

2014-06-01

374

Albert Einstein Distinguished Educators Fellowship Act of 1994. Report To Accompany S. 2104. 103D Congress, 2d Session, Senate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the text of the "Albert Einstein Distinguished Educators Fellowship Act of 1994" (S. 2104) along with related analysis. The bill establishes a Department of Energy (DOE) fellowship program for math and science teachers that provides them opportunities to work at DOE labs in order to enhance coordination and communication…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources.

375

Adrenal pseudomasses due to varices: angiographic-CT-MRI-pathologic correlations  

SciTech Connect

Periadrenal and adrenal portosystemic collaterals are a recently reported cause of adrenal pseudotumor on computed tomography (CT). Nine patients with this left adrenal pseudotumor illustrate its typical position and appearance on CT, angiography, CT-angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The anatomic basis for variceal adrenal pseudotumors is the left inferior phrenic vein, which passes immediately anterior to the left adrenal gland and which serves as a collateral pathway from splenic to left renal vein in portal hypertension. Thus, unlike previously described adrenal pseudotumors, these venous collaterals are not anatomically distinguishable from the adrenal gland on CT. Bolus dynamic CT is usually diagnostic, but in equivocal cases, MRI may prove useful.

Brady, T.M.; Gross, B.H.; Glazer, G.M. Williams, D.M.

1985-08-01

376

Biomedical imaging using hyperpolarized noble gas MRI: Pulse sequence considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperpolarized noble gas MRI is a new technique for imaging of gas spaces and tissues that have been hitherto difficult to image, making it a promising diagnostic tool. The unique properties of hyperpolarized species, particularly the non-renewability of the large non-equilibrium spin polarization, raises questions about the feasibility of hyperpolarized noble gas MRI methods. In this paper, the critical issue of T1 relaxation is discussed and it is shown that a substantial amount of polarization should reach the targets of interest for imaging. We analyse various pulse sequence designs, and point out that total scan times can be decreased so that they are comparable or shorter than tissue T1 values. Pulse sequences can be optimized to effectively utilize the non-renewable hyperpolarization, to enhance the SNR, and to eliminate image artifacts. Hyperpolarized noble gas MRI is concluded to be quite feasible.

Zhao, Lei; Albert, Mitchell S.

1998-02-01

377

Displaying perfusion MRI images as color intensity projections  

E-print Network

Dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced (DSC) MRI or perfusion-MRI plays an important role in the non-invasive assessment of tumor vascularity. However, the large number of images provided by the method makes display and interpretation of the results challenging. Current practice is to display the perfusion information as relative cerebral blood volume maps (rCBV). Color intensity projections (CIPs) provides a simple, intuitive display of the perfusion-MRI data so that regional perfusion characteristics are intrinsically integrated into the anatomy structure the T2 images. The ease of use and quick calculation time of CIPs should allow it to be easily integrated into current analysis and interpretation pipelines.

Friso Hoefnagels; Keith S Cover; Ester Sanchez; Frank J. Lagerwaard

2007-11-19

378

Diagnostic Value of 3D Fast Low-Angle Shot Dynamic MRI of Breast Papillomas  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the value of breast MRI in analysis of papillomas of the breast. Materials and Methods From 1996 to 2004, 94 patients underwent surgery due to papillomas of the breast. Among them, 21 patients underwent 3D fast low angle shot (FLASH) dynamic breast MRI. Eight masses were palpable and 11 of 21 patients had nipple discharge. Two radiologists indifferently analyzed the location, size of the lesions and shape, margin of the masses, multiplicity and ductal relation. The MRI findings were categorized according to breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon. The amount and pattern of enhancement and associated findings were also evaluated according to BI-RADS. We then compared the MRI findings with galactography, mammography and breast ultrasonography (US) and examined histopathologic correlation. Results On breast MRI, the lesion size was 0.4-1.59 cm, and 18 patients showed subareolar location. On 4.25 cm (mean 1.54) dynamic enhanced images, imaging findings showed mass (n = 10), intracystic mass (n = 3), focus (n = 5), ductal enhancement (n = 2), and segmental enhancement (n = 1). In cases of the masses, the shapes of the masses were round (n = 4), lobulated (n = 3), and irregular (n = 6), and margins were circumscribed (n = 6), microlobulated (n = 5), and indistinct (n = 2). The enhancement patterns were homogeneous enhancement (n = 7), heterogeneous (n = 3) or rim enhancement (n = 3). Conclusion The contrast enhanced dynamic breast MRI was highly sensitive for diagnosis of breast papillomas. MRI could play a key role in the pre-operative work-up for multiple papillomas and papillomatosis. PMID:20046427

Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Kwak, Jin Young; Jeong, Joon

2009-01-01

379

MRI in ocular drug delivery  

PubMed Central

Conventional pharmacokinetic methods for studying ocular drug delivery are invasive and cannot be conveniently applied to humans. The advancement of MRI technology has provided new opportunities in ocular drug-delivery research. MRI provides a means to non-invasively and continuously monitor ocular drug-delivery systems with a contrast agent or compound labeled with a contrast agent. It is a useful technique in pharmacokinetic studies, evaluation of drug-delivery methods, and drug-delivery device testing. Although the current status of the technology presents some major challenges to pharmaceutical research using MRI, it has a lot of potential. In the past decade, MRI has been used to examine ocular drug delivery via the subconjunctival route, intravitreal injection, intrascleral injection to the suprachoroidal space, episcleral and intravitreal implants, periocular injections, and ocular iontophoresis. In this review, the advantages and limitations of MRI in the study of ocular drug delivery are discussed. Different MR contrast agents and MRI techniques for ocular drug-delivery research are compared. Ocular drug-delivery studies using MRI are reviewed. PMID:18186077

Li, S. Kevin; Lizak, Martin J.; Jeong, Eun-Kee

2008-01-01

380

MRI of plants and foods.  

PubMed

The importance and prospects for MRI as applied to intact plants and to foods are presented in view of one of humanity's most pressing concerns, the sustainable and healthy feeding of a worldwide increasing population. Intact plants and foods have in common that their functionality is determined by complex multiple length scale architectures. Intact plants have an additional level of complexity since they are living systems which critically depend on transport and signalling processes between and within tissues and organs. The combination of recent cutting-edge technical advances and integration of MRI accessible parameters has the perspective to contribute to breakthroughs in understanding complex regulatory plant performance mechanisms. In food science and technology MRI allows for quantitative multi-length scale structural assessment of food systems, non-invasive monitoring of heat and mass transport during shelf-life and processing, and for a unique view on food properties under shear. These MRI applications are powerful enablers of rationally (re)designed food formulations and processes. Limitations and bottlenecks of the present plant and food MRI methods are mainly related to short T2 values and susceptibility artefacts originating from small air spaces in tissues/materials. We envisage cross-fertilisation of solutions to overcome these hurdles in MRI applications in plants and foods. For both application areas we witness a development where MRI is moving from highly specialised equipment to mobile and downscaled versions to be used by a broad user base in the field, greenhouse, food laboratory or factory. PMID:23369439

Van As, Henk; van Duynhoven, John

2013-04-01

381

Quantitative Serial MRI of the Treated Fibroid Uterus  

PubMed Central

Objective There are no long-term medical treatments for uterine fibroids, and non-invasive biomarkers are needed to evaluate novel therapeutic interventions. The aim of this study was to determine whether serial dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and magnetization transfer MRI (MT-MRI) are able to detect changes that accompany volume reduction in patients administered GnRH analogue drugs, a treatment which is known to reduce fibroid volume and perfusion. Our secondary aim was to determine whether rapid suppression of ovarian activity by combining GnRH agonist and antagonist therapies results in faster volume reduction. Methods Forty women were assessed for eligibility at gynaecology clinics in the region, of whom thirty premenopausal women scheduled for hysterectomy due to symptomatic fibroids were randomized to three groups, receiving (1) GnRH agonist (Goserelin), (2) GnRH agonist+GnRH antagonist (Goserelin and Cetrorelix) or (3) no treatment. Patients were monitored by serial structural, DCE-MRI and MT-MRI, as well as by ultrasound and serum oestradiol concentration measurements from enrolment to hysterectomy (approximately 3 months). Results A volumetric treatment effect assessed by structural MRI occurred by day 14 of treatment (9% median reduction versus 9% increase in untreated women; P?=?0.022) and persisted throughout. Reduced fibroid perfusion and permeability assessed by DCE-MRI occurred later and was demonstrable by 2–3 months (43% median reduction versus 20% increase respectively; P?=?0.0093). There was no apparent treatment effect by MT-MRI. Effective suppression of oestradiol was associated with early volume reduction at days 14 (P?=?0.041) and 28 (P?=?0.0061). Conclusion DCE-MRI is sensitive to the vascular changes thought to accompany successful GnRH analogue treatment of uterine fibroids and should be considered for use in future mechanism/efficacy studies of proposed fibroid drug therapies. GnRH antagonist administration does not appear to accelerate volume reduction, though our data do support the role of oestradiol suppression in GnRH analogue treatment of fibroids. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00746031 PMID:24608161

Williams, Alistair R. W.; McKillop, Graham; Walker, Jane; Horne, Andrew W.; Newby, David E.; Anderson, Richard A.; Semple, Scott I.; Marshall, Ian; Lewis, Steff C.; Millar, Robert P.; Bastin, Mark E.; Critchley, Hilary O. D.

2014-01-01

382

Agreement of Mammographic Measures of Volumetric Breast Density to MRI  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical scores of mammographic breast density are highly subjective. Automated technologies for mammography exist to quantify breast density objectively, but the technique that most accurately measures the quantity of breast fibroglandular tissue is not known. Purpose To compare the agreement of three automated mammographic techniques for measuring volumetric breast density with a quantitative volumetric MRI-based technique in a screening population. Materials and Methods Women were selected from the UCSF Medical Center screening population that had received both a screening MRI and digital mammogram within one year of each other, had Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) assessments of normal or benign finding, and no history of breast cancer or surgery. Agreement was assessed of three mammographic techniques (Single-energy X-ray Absorptiometry [SXA], Quantra, and Volpara) with MRI for percent fibroglandular tissue volume, absolute fibroglandular tissue volume, and total breast volume. Results Among 99 women, the automated mammographic density techniques were correlated with MRI measures with R2 values ranging from 0.40 (log fibroglandular volume) to 0.91 (total breast volume). Substantial agreement measured by kappa statistic was found between all percent fibroglandular tissue measures (0.72 to 0.63), but only moderate agreement for log fibroglandular volumes. The kappa statistics for all percent density measures were highest in the comparisons of the SXA and MRI results. The largest error source between MRI and the mammography techniques was found to be differences in measures of total breast volume. Conclusion Automated volumetric fibroglandular tissue measures from screening digital mammograms were in substantial agreement with MRI and if associated with breast cancer could be used in clinical practice to enhance risk assessment and prevention. PMID:24324712

Wang, Jeff; Azziz, Ania; Fan, Bo; Malkov, Serghei; Klifa, Catherine; Newitt, David; Yitta, Silaja; Hylton, Nola; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John A.

2013-01-01

383

Mouse MRI: Concepts and Applications in Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brief introduction to the rapidly expanding field of mouse magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including the basics of MRI theory, insight into the basic experiments that can be performed in mice by using MRI, and some factors to consider when planning a mouse MRI experiment.

PhD Robia G. Pautler (Baylor College of Medicine Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics)

2004-08-01

384

Is there texture information in standard brain MRI?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a texture feature extraction method for MRI utilizing the recently developed multiwavelet theory. Texture based features are used in Eigenimage Filtering to enhance analysis results of tumor patient MRI studies. The steps of the proposed method are as follows: (1) Each original image is convolved with a Gaussian filter. This step suppresses the image noise. (2) Each of the resulting images is convolved with eight multiwavelet coefficient matrices. (3) The output of each filter is stored in a separate image (feature plane). This step generates features (images) in which texture information is enhanced. (4) Local energy of each feature is calculated by squaring the feature values. This step converts variance disparities into mean value differences and transforms large values of local pass- band energy into large image gray levels. (5) Eigenimage filter is applied to different sets of MRI images and the results are compared. First, it is applied to the conventional MRI images (T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and proton density weighted). Then, it is applied to the set consisting of these images and the texture feature images generated in the previous step for them. Finally, it is applied to four original images (three conventional and a non-conventional). (6) The eigenimages obtained in the previous step are compared. This step illustrates presence and significance of the texture information present in MRI and role of the proposed method in extracting these features. Applications of the proposed method to MRI studies of brain tumor patients illustrate that the method successfully extracts texture features which are useful in tumor segmentation and characterization.

Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Nezafat, Reza; Windham, Joe P.

1999-05-01

385

High Field Atherosclerotic Plaque MRI  

PubMed Central

Manifestations of atherosclerotic plaque in different arterial beds range from perfusion deficits to overt ischemia such as stroke and myocardial infarction. Atherosclerotic plaque composition is known to be associated with its propensity to rupture and cause vascular events. MRI of atherosclerotic plaque using clinical 1.5T scanners can detect plaque composition. Plaque MRI at higher field strengths offers both opportunities and challenges to improving the high spatial-resolution and contrast required for this type of imaging. This article summarizes the technological requirements required for high field plaque MRI and its application in detecting plaque components. PMID:22548932

Yuan, Chun; Wang, Jinnan; Balu, Niranjan

2012-01-01

386

Pancreatic magnetic resonance imaging after manganese injection distinguishes type 2 diabetic and normoglycemic patients  

PubMed Central

A non-invasive method to image the mass and/or function of human pancreatic islets is needed to monitor the progression of diabetes, and the effect of therapeutic interventions. As yet, no method is available for this purpose, which could be applied to in situ human islets. Animal and in vitro studies have documented that manganese infusion could improve the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the endocrine pancreas. Here, we have tested whether a similar approach could discriminate diabetic and non-diabetic patients. In vitro, human isolated islets readily incorporated manganese. In vivo, 243 manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) examinations were reviewed, including 41 examinations which were run on 24 patients with type 2 diabetes and 202 examinations which were run on 119 normoglycemic patients. The results show that MEMRI discriminates type 2 diabetics from non-diabetic patients, based on the signal enhancement of pancreas. PMID:22722479

Botsikas, Diomidis; Terraz, Sylvain; Vinet, Laurent; Lamprianou, Smaragda; Becker, Christoph; Bosco, Domenico; Meda, Paolo; Montet, Xavier

2012-01-01

387

A method of coil localization for breast lesions seen only on MRI.  

PubMed

Breast lesions may be identified on MRI that are not shown on mammography or ultrasound owing to the high sensitivity and relatively poor specificity of contrast enhanced MRI. Techniques for diagnostic biopsy of such lesions are not widely available. A method is described that uses standard mammographic localization methods to place an MR compatible cerebral coil at the site of the suspect lesion. Confirmatory MRI can then be obtained before the lesion is surgically removed using a mammographic hook wire. This method is described and illustrated in detail for one case, and in summary for three further cases, to show the potential flexibility of application. The method is commended because it is simple and cheap, uses standard breast procedures and can be undertaken outside the MRI suite. The procedure will make full use of breast MRI possible to those who do not have dedicated localization equipment. PMID:11459734

Warren, R; Kessar, P

2001-06-01

388

Review of treatment assessment using DCE-MRI in breast cancer radiation therapy  

PubMed Central

As a noninvasive functional imaging technique, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is being used in oncology to measure properties of tumor microvascular structure and permeability. Studies have shown that parameters derived from certain pharmacokinetic models can be used as imaging biomarkers for tumor treatment response. The use of DCE-MRI for quantitative and objective assessment of radiation therapy has been explored in a variety of methods and tumor types. However, due to the complexity in imaging technology and divergent outcomes from different pharmacokinetic approaches, the method of using DCE-MRI in treatment assessment has yet to be standardized, especially for breast cancer. This article reviews the basic principles of breast DCE-MRI and recent studies using DCE-MRI in treatment assessment. Technical and clinical considerations are emphasized with specific attention to assessment of radiation treatment response. PMID:25332905

Wang, Chun-Hao; Yin, Fang-Fang; Horton, Janet; Chang, Zheng

2014-01-01

389

Clinical and technical considerations for high quality breast MRI at 3 Tesla.  

PubMed

The use of breast MRI at 3 tesla (T) has increased in use substantially in recent years. Potential benefits of moving to higher field strength MRI include improved morphologic and kinetic assessment of breast lesions through higher spatial and temporal resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced MR examinations. Furthermore, higher field strength holds promise for the development of superior advanced breast MRI techniques, such as diffusion weighted imaging and MR spectroscopy. To fully realize the benefits of moving to 3T, a thorough understanding of the technical and safety challenges of higher field strength imaging specific to breast MRI is paramount. Through the use of advanced coil technology, parallel imaging, dual-source parallel radiofrequency excitation, and image-based shimming techniques, many of these limiting technical factors can be overcome to achieve high quality breast MRI at 3T. PMID:23526757

Rahbar, Habib; Partridge, Savannah C; DeMartini, Wendy B; Thursten, Bonnie; Lehman, Constance D

2013-04-01

390

Potential Clinical Applications for Spinal Functional MRI  

PubMed Central

Functional MRI (fMRI) of the spinal cord is a noninvasive technique for obtaining information regarding spinal cord neuronal function. This article provides a brief overview of recent developments in spinal cord fMRI and outlines potential applications, as well as the limitations that must be overcome, for using spinal fMRI in the clinic. This technique is currently used for research purposes, but significant potential exists for spinal fMRI to become an important clinical tool. PMID:17504642

Kornelsen, Jennifer; Mackey, Sean

2010-01-01

391

The place of conventional MRI and newly emerging MRI techniques in monitoring different aspects of treatment outcome.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most important paraclinical measure for assessing and monitoring the pathologic changes implicated in the onset and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). Conventional MRI sequences, such as T1-weighted gadolinium (Gd) enhanced and spin-echo T2-weighted imaging, only provide an incomplete picture of the degree of inflammation and underlying neurodegenerative changes in this disease. Two- and three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and double inversion recovery sequences allow better identification of cortical, periventricular and infratentorial lesions. Ultra-high field strength MRI has the potential to detect subpial cortical and deep gray matter lesions. Unenhanced T1-weighted imaging can reveal hypointense black holes, a measure of chronic neurodegeneration. Magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) is increasingly used to characterize the evolution of MS lesions and normal-appearing brain tissue. Evidence suggests that the dynamics of magnetization transfer changes correlate with the extent of demyelination and remyelination. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which provides details on tissue biochemistry, metabolism, and function, also has the capacity to reveal neuroprotective mechanisms. By measuring the motion of water, diffusion imaging can provide information about the orientation, size, and geometry of tissue damage in white and gray matter. These advanced non-conventional MRI techniques relate better to clinical impairment, disease progression, accumulation of disability, and have the potential to detect neuroprotective effects of treatment. Although detecting the status of neuronal integrity using MRI techniques continues to improve, a "gold standard" model remains to be established. PMID:18317678

Zivadinov, Robert; Stosic, Milena; Cox, Jennifer L; Ramasamy, Deepa P; Dwyer, Michael G

2008-03-01

392

MRI in subacute combined degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a patient with clear lesions in the spinal cord on MRI due to subacute combined degeneration. T2-weighted images clearly showed abnormal high signals in the posterior columns, which disappeared on recovery from the disease.

S. Murata; H. Naritomi; T. Sawada

1994-01-01

393

Delta Relaxation Enhanced Magnetic Resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally speaking, targeted molecular imaging has always been difficult to perform with magnetic resonance. The difficulty does not arise with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique or equipment itself, but rather with the targeted contrast agents, which the method requires. Also referred to as activatable contrast agents, or MRI probes, targeted contrast agents are pharmaceuticals that will selectively bind to a particular biological (target) molecule. They are used to highlight a certain tissue or the difference between healthy and diseased tissue. Unfortunately, nearly all MRI probes are non-specific, causing localized increases in MR image intensity in both the unbound and target-bound states. Therefore, brightening in a conventional MRI image, following probe injection, does not positively indicate the presence of the target molecule. Herein, a novel method known as delta relaxation enhanced magnetic resonance (dreMR, pronounced "dreamer") is presented that utilizes variable magnetic field technology to produce image contrast related to the dependence of the sample's longitudinal relaxation rates upon the strength of the main magnetic field of the MRI scanner. Since only bound contrast agent shows significant magnetic field dependence, it is an indicator of the bound probe, which is in turn a marker for the target molecule. This work details the development of the dreMR method, focusing on the specialized hardware necessary to provide a clinical, static-field MRI the ability to modulate its main magnetic field throughout an MRI sequence. All modifications were performed in such a manner that the host MRI system was not degraded or permanently modified in any way. The three parts of this technology are: the insertable electromagnet, the power supply system and the control system. The insertable electromagnet modifies the magnetic field, the power system drives the electromagnet, and the control system generates the magnetic field waveform envelope and synchronizes this waveform with the rest of the MRI pulse sequence. On two separate dreMR systems, images were obtained having contrast which was directly proportional to the magnetic field dependence of the sample's relaxation rates. This contrast unambiguously indicated the presence of the bound probe, and its imaging therefore yields a map of the targeted biological molecule. Keywords Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Field-Cycled MRI; MR Probe; Targeted Contrast Agent; Gadolinium; Insert Coil; Power Supply; Relaxation Rate; Relaxivity; Actively Shielded; dreMR; Delta Relaxation Enhanced MRI; MRI Hardware; Gradient Echo; Spin Echo; Spoiled Gradient; Echo iv

Alford, Jamu K.

394

MRI of the gastrointestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   This article reviews the application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. A summary\\u000a of the current MRI techniques is included, emphasizing the choice of pulsing sequences, imaging plane, surface coils and intravenous\\u000a and oral contrast agents for each of the different segments of the GI tract. The multiple available oral contrast agents are\\u000a reviewed,

M. R. Paley; P. R. Ros

1997-01-01

395

Non-invasive functional imaging of Cerebral Blood Volume with Vascular-Space-Occupancy (VASO) MRI  

PubMed Central

Functional MRI (fMRI) based on changes in cerebral blood volume (CBV) can directly probe vasodilatation and vasoconstriction during brain activation or physiologic challenges, and can provide important insights into the mechanism of Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD) signal changes. At present, the most widely used CBV fMRI technique in humans is called Vascular-Space-Occupancy (VASO) MRI and this article provides a technical review of this method. VASO MRI utilizes T1 differences between blood and tissue to distinguish these two compartments within a voxel and uses blood-nulling inversion recovery sequence to yield an MR signal proportional to 1-CBV. As such, vasodilatation will result in a VASO signal decrease and vasoconstriction will have the reverse effect. The VASO technique can be performed dynamically with a temporal resolution comparable to several other fMRI methods such as BOLD or Arterial-Spin-Labeling (ASL), and is particularly powerful when conducted in conjunction with these complementary techniques. The pulse sequence and imaging parameters of VASO can be optimized such that the signal change is predominantly of CBV origin, but careful considerations should be taken to minimize other contributions, such as those from the BOLD effect, CBF, and CSF. Sensitivity of the VASO technique remains to be the primary disadvantage when compared to BOLD, but this technique is increasingly demonstrating utility in neuroscientific and clinical applications. PMID:23355392

Lu, Hanzhang; Hua, Jun; van Zijl, Peter C.M.

2013-01-01

396

Noninvasive functional imaging of cerebral blood volume with vascular-space-occupancy (VASO) MRI.  

PubMed

Functional MRI (fMRI) based on changes in cerebral blood volume (CBV) can probe directly vasodilatation and vasoconstriction during brain activation or physiologic challenges, and can provide important insights into the mechanism of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes. At present, the most widely used CBV fMRI technique in humans is called vascular-space-occupancy (VASO) MRI, and this article provides a technical review of this method. VASO MRI utilizes T1 differences between blood and tissue to distinguish between these two compartments within a voxel, and employs a blood-nulling inversion recovery sequence to yield an MR signal proportional to 1 - CBV. As such, vasodilatation will result in a VASO signal decrease and vasoconstriction will have the reverse effect. The VASO technique can be performed dynamically with a temporal resolution comparable with several other fMRI methods, such as BOLD or arterial spin labeling (ASL), and is particularly powerful when conducted in conjunction with these complementary techniques. The pulse sequence and imaging parameters of VASO can be optimized such that the signal change is predominantly of CBV origin, but careful considerations should be taken to minimize other contributions, such as those from the BOLD effect, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The sensitivity of the VASO technique is the primary disadvantage when compared with BOLD, but this technique is increasingly demonstrating its utility in neuroscientific and clinical applications. PMID:23355392

Lu, Hanzhang; Hua, Jun; van Zijl, Peter C M

2013-08-01

397

MRI-Guided Electrophysiology Intervention  

PubMed Central

Catheter ablation is a first-line treatment for many cardiac arrhythmias and is generally performed under X-ray fluoroscopy guidance. However, current techniques for ablating complex arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia are associated with sub-optimal success rates and prolonged radiation exposure. Pre-procedure 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has improved understanding of the anatomic basis of complex arrhythmias and is being used for planning and guidance of ablation procedures. A particular strength of MRI compared to other imaging modalities is the ability to visualize ablation lesions. Post-procedure MRI is now being applied to assess ablation lesion location and permanence with the goal of identifying factors leading to procedure success and failure. In the future, intra-procedure real-time MRI, together with the ability to image complex 3-D arrhythmogenic anatomy and target additional ablation to regions of incomplete lesion formation, may allow for more successful treatment of even complex arrhythmias without exposure to ionizing radiation. Development of clinical grade MRI-compatible electrophysiology devices is required to transition intra-procedure MRI from preclinical studies to more routine use in patients. PMID:23908787

Halperin, Henry R.; Kolandaivelu, Aravindan

2010-01-01

398

Local distinguishability of orthogonal 2\\otimes3 pure states  

E-print Network

We present a complete characterization for the local distinguishability of orthogonal $2\\otimes 3$ pure states except for some special cases of three states. Interestingly, we find there is a large class of four or three states that are indistinguishable by local projective measurements and classical communication (LPCC) can be perfectly distinguishable by LOCC. That indicates the ability of LOCC for discriminating $2\\otimes 3$ states is strictly more powerful than that of LPCC, which is strikingly different from the case of multi-qubit states. We also show that classical communication plays a crucial role for local distinguishability by constructing a class of $m\\otimes n$ states which require at least $2\\min\\{m,n\\}-2$ rounds of classical communication in order to achieve a perfect local discrimination.

Yu Xin; Runyao Duan

2007-09-11

399

Any $2\\otimes n$ subspace is locally distinguishable  

E-print Network

A subspace of a multipartite Hilbert space is called \\textit{locally indistinguishable} if any orthogonal basis of this subspace cannot be perfectly distinguished by local operations and classical communication. Previously it was shown that any $m\\otimes n$ bipartite system such that $m>2$ and $n>2$ has a locally indistinguishable subspace. However, it has been an open problem since 2005 whether there is a locally indistinguishable bipartite subspace with a qubit subsystem. We settle this problem by showing that any $2\\otimes n$ bipartite subspace is locally distinguishable in the sense it contains a basis perfectly distinguishable by LOCC. As an interesting application, we show that any quantum channel with two Kraus operations has optimal environment-assisted classical capacity.

Nengkun Yu; Runyao Duan; Mingsheng Ying

2010-10-13

400

Layer-Specific Intracortical Connectivity Revealed with Diffusion MRI  

PubMed Central

In this work, we show for the first time that the tangential diffusion component is orientationally coherent at the human cortical surface. Using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI), we have succeeded in tracking intracortical fiber pathways running tangentially within the cortex. In contrast with histological methods, which reveal little regarding 3-dimensional organization in the human brain, dMRI delivers additional understanding of the layer dependence of the fiber orientation. A postmortem brain block was measured at very high angular and spatial resolution. The dMRI data had adequate resolution to allow analysis of the fiber orientation within 4 notional cortical laminae. We distinguished a lamina at the cortical surface where diffusion was tangential along the surface, a lamina below the surface where diffusion was mainly radial, an internal lamina covering the Stria of Gennari, where both strong radial and tangential diffusion could be observed, and a deep lamina near the white matter, which also showed mainly radial diffusion with a few tangential compartments. The measurement of the organization of the tangential diffusion component revealed a strong orientational coherence at the cortical surface. PMID:23099298

Leuze, Christoph W.U.; Anwander, Alfred; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Dhital, Bibek; Stuber, Carsten; Reimann, Katja; Geyer, Stefan; Turner, Robert

2014-01-01