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1

Molecular MRI of Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis with Simultaneous Delayed Enhancement MRI Distinguishes Apoptotic and Necrotic Myocytes In Vivo: Potential for Midmyocardial Salvage in Acute Ischemia  

PubMed Central

Background A novel dual contrast molecular MRI technique to image both cardiomyocyte (CM) apoptosis and necrosis in-vivo within 4-6 hours of ischemia is presented. The technique utilizes the annexin-based nanoparticle AnxCLIO-Cy5.5 (apoptosis) and simultaneous delayed enhancement (DE) imaging with a novel gadolinium chelate, Gd-DTPA-NBD (necrosis). Methods and Results Mice with transient coronary ligation were injected intravenously at the onset of reperfusion with AnxCLIO-Cy5.5 (n=7) or the control probe Inact_CLIO-Cy5.5 (n=6). T2* weighted MR images (9.4 Tesla) were acquired within 4-6 hours of reperfusion. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between injured and uninjured myocardium was measured. The mice were then injected with Gd-DTPA-NBD and DE imaging was performed within 10-30 minutes. Uptake of AnxCLIO-Cy5.5 was most prominent in the midmyocardium and was significantly greater than that of Inact_CLIO-Cy5.5 (CNR 8.82 +/? 1.5 versus 3.78 +/? 1.1, p < 0.05). Only 21 +/? 3% of the myocardium with accumulation of AnxCLIO-Cy5.5 showed DE of Gd-DTPA-NBD. Wall thickening was significantly reduced in segments with DE and/or transmural accumulation of AnxCLIO-Cy5.5 (p < 0.001). Fluorescence microscopy of AnxCLIO-Cy5.5 and immunohistochemistry of Gd-DTPA-NBD confirmed the presence of large numbers of apoptotic but potentially viable CMs (AnxCLIO-Cy5.5 positive, Gd-DTPA-NBD negative) in the midmyocardium. Conclusions A novel technique to image CM apoptosis and necrosis in-vivo within 4-6 hours of injury is presented, and reveals large areas of apoptotic but viable myocardium in the midmyocardium. Strategies to salvage the numerous apoptotic but potentially viable CMs in the midmyocardium in acute ischemia should be investigated.

Sosnovik, David E.; Garanger, Elisabeth; Aikawa, Elena; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Figuiredo, Jose-Luiz; Dai, Guangping; Reynolds, Fred; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Weissleder, Ralph; Josephson, Lee

2009-01-01

2

Distinguishing prostate cancer from benign confounders via a cascaded classifier on multi-parametric MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Learning how to separate benign confounders from prostate cancer is important because the imaging characteristics of these confounders are poorly understood. Furthermore, the typical representations of the MRI parameters might not be enough to allow discrimination. The diagnostic uncertainty this causes leads to a lower diagnostic accuracy. In this paper a new cascaded classifier is introduced to separate prostate cancer and benign confounders on MRI in conjunction with specific computer-extracted features to distinguish each of the benign classes (benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), inflammation, atrophy or prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PIN). In this study we tried to (1) calculate different mathematical representations of the MRI parameters which more clearly express subtle differences between different classes, (2) learn which of the MRI image features will allow to distinguish specific benign confounders from prostate cancer, and (2) find the combination of computer-extracted MRI features to best discriminate cancer from the confounding classes using a cascaded classifier. One of the most important requirements for identifying MRI signatures for adenocarcinoma, BPH, atrophy, inflammation, and PIN is accurate mapping of the location and spatial extent of the confounder and cancer categories from ex vivo histopathology to MRI. Towards this end we employed an annotated prostatectomy data set of 31 patients, all of whom underwent a multi-parametric 3 Tesla MRI prior to radical prostatectomy. The prostatectomy slides were carefully co-registered to the corresponding MRI slices using an elastic registration technique. We extracted texture features from the T2-weighted imaging, pharmacokinetic features from the dynamic contrast enhanced imaging and diffusion features from the diffusion-weighted imaging for each of the confounder classes and prostate cancer. These features were selected because they form the mainstay of clinical diagnosis. Relevant features for each of the classes were selected using maximum relevance minimum redundancy feature selection, allowing us to perform classifier independent feature selection. The selected features were then incorporated in a cascading classifier, which can focus on easier sub-tasks at each stage, leaving the more difficult classification tasks for later stages. Results show that distinct features are relevant for each of the benign classes, for example the fraction of extra-vascular, extra-cellular space in a voxel is a clear discriminator for inflammation. Furthermore, the cascaded classifier outperforms both multi-class and one-shot classifiers in overall accuracy for discriminating confounders from cancer: 0.76 versus 0.71 and 0.62.

Litjens, G. J. S.; Elliott, R.; Shih, N.; Feldman, M.; Barentsz, J. O.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C. A.; Kovacs, I.; Huisman, H. J.; Madabhushi, A.

2014-03-01

3

Distinguishing Grammatical Constructions with fMRI Pattern Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All linguistic and psycholinguistic theories aim to provide psychologically valid analyses of particular grammatical patterns and the relationships that hold among them. Until recently, no tools were available to distinguish neural correlates of particular grammatical constructions that shared the same content words, propositional meaning, and…

Allen, Kachina; Pereira, Francisco; Botvinick, Matthew; Goldberg, Adele E.

2012-01-01

4

Texture Descriptors to distinguish Radiation Necrosis from Recurrent Brain Tumors on multi-parametric MRI  

PubMed Central

Differentiating radiation necrosis (a radiation induced treatment effect) from recurrent brain tumors (rBT) is currently one of the most clinically challenging problems in care and management of brain tumor (BT) patients. Both radiation necrosis (RN), and rBT exhibit similar morphological appearance on standard MRI making non-invasive diagnosis extremely challenging for clinicians, with surgical intervention being the only course for obtaining definitive “ground truth”. Recent studies have reported that the underlying biological pathways defining RN and rBT are fundamentally different. This strongly suggests that there might be phenotypic differences and hence cues on multi-parametric MRI, that can distinguish between the two pathologies. One challenge is that these differences, if they exist, might be too subtle to distinguish by the human observer. In this work, we explore the utility of computer extracted texture descriptors on multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI) to provide alternate representations of MRI that may be capable of accentuating subtle micro-architectural differences between RN and rBT for primary and metastatic (MET) BT patients. We further explore the utility of texture descriptors in identifying the MRI protocol (from amongst T1-w, T2-w and FLAIR) that best distinguishes RN and rBT across two independent cohorts of primary and MET patients. A set of 119 texture descriptors (co-occurrence matrix homogeneity, neighboring gray-level dependence matrix, multi-scale Gaussian derivatives, Law features, and histogram of gradient orientations (HoG)) for modeling different macro and micro-scale morphologic changes within the treated lesion area for each MRI protocol were extracted. Principal component analysis based variable importance projection (PCA-VIP), a feature selection method previously developed in our group, was employed to identify the importance of every texture descriptor in distinguishing RN and rBT on MP-MRI. PCA-VIP employs regression analysis to provide an importance score to each feature based on their ability to distinguish the two classes (RN/rBT). The top performing features identified via PCA-VIP were employed within a random-forest classifier to differentiate RN from rBT across two cohorts of 20 primary and 22 MET patients. Our results revealed that, (a) HoG features at different orientations were the most important image features for both cohorts, suggesting inherent orientation differences between RN, and rBT, (b) inverse difference moment (capturing local intensity homogeneity), and Laws features (capturing local edges and gradients) were identified as important for both cohorts, and (c) Gd-C T1-w MRI was identified, across the two cohorts, as the best MRI protocol in distinguishing RN/rBT.

Pallavi, Tiwari; Prateek, Prasanna; Lisa, Rogers; Leo, Wolansky; Chaitra, Badve; Andrew, Sloan; Mark, Cohen; Anant, Madabhushi

2014-01-01

5

Texture descriptors to distinguish radiation necrosis from recurrent brain tumors on multi-parametric MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Di erentiating radiation necrosis (a radiation induced treatment e ect) from recurrent brain tumors (rBT) is currently one of the most clinically challenging problems in care and management of brain tumor (BT) patients. Both radiation necrosis (RN), and rBT exhibit similar morphological appearance on standard MRI making non-invasive diagnosis extremely challenging for clinicians, with surgical intervention being the only course for obtaining de nitive ground truth". Recent studies have reported that the underlying biological pathways de n- ing RN and rBT are fundamentally di erent. This strongly suggests that there might be phenotypic di erences and hence cues on multi-parametric MRI, that can distinguish between the two pathologies. One challenge is that these di erences, if they exist, might be too subtle to distinguish by the human observer. In this work, we explore the utility of computer extracted texture descriptors on multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI) to provide alternate representations of MRI that may be capable of accentuating subtle micro-architectural di erences between RN and rBT for primary and metastatic (MET) BT patients. We further explore the utility of texture descriptors in identifying the MRI protocol (from amongst T1-w, T2-w and FLAIR) that best distinguishes RN and rBT across two independent cohorts of primary and MET patients. A set of 119 texture descriptors (co-occurrence matrix homogeneity, neighboring gray-level dependence matrix, multi-scale Gaussian derivatives, Law features, and histogram of gradient orientations (HoG)) for modeling di erent macro and micro-scale morphologic changes within the treated lesion area for each MRI protocol were extracted. Principal component analysis based variable importance projection (PCA-VIP), a feature selection method previously developed in our group, was employed to identify the importance of every texture descriptor in distinguishing RN and rBT on MP-MRI. PCA-VIP employs regression analysis to provide an importance score to each feature based on their ability to distinguish the two classes (RN/rBT). The top performing features identi ed via PCA-VIP were employed within a random- forest classi er to di erentiate RN from rBT across two cohorts of 20 primary and 22 MET patients. Our results revealed that, (a) HoG features at di erent orientations were the most important image features for both cohorts, suggesting inherent orientation di erences between RN, and rBT, (b) inverse di erence moment (capturing local intensity homogeneity), and Laws features (capturing local edges and gradients) were identi ed as important for both cohorts, and (c) Gd-C T1-w MRI was identi ed, across the two cohorts, as the best MRI protocol in distinguishing RN/rBT.

Tiwari, Pallavi; Prasanna, Prateek; Rogers, Lisa; Wolansky, Leo; Badve, Chaitra; Sloan, Andrew; Cohen, Mark; Madabhushi, Anant

2014-03-01

6

Distinguishing benign confounding treatment changes from residual prostate cancer on MRI following laser ablation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) is a relatively new focal therapy technique for the ablation of localized prostate cancer. However, very little is known about the specific effects of LITT within the ablation zone and the surrounding normal tissue regions. For instance, it is important to be able to assess the extent of residual cancer within the prostate following LITT, which may be masked by thermally induced benign necrotic changes. Fortunately LITT is MRI compatible and hence this allows for quantitatively assessing LITT induced changes via multi-parametric MRI. Of course definite validation of any LITT induced changes on MRI requires confirmation via histopathology. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess and distinguish the imaging characteristics of prostate cancer and benign confounding treatment changes following LITTon 3 Tesla multi-parametric MRI by carefully mapping the treatment related changes from the ex vivo surgically resected histopathologic specimens onto the pre-operative in vivo imaging. A better understanding of the imaging characteristics of residual disease and successfully ablated tissue might lead to improved treatment monitoring and as such patient prognosis. A unique clinical trial at the Radboud University Medical Center, in which 3 patients underwent a prostatectomy after LITT treatment, yielded ex-vivo histopathologic specimens along with pre- and post-LITT MRI. Using this data we (1) identified the computer extracted MRI signatures associated with treatment effects including benign necrotic changes and residual disease and (2) subsequently evaluated the computer extracted MRI features previously identified in distinguishing LITT induced changes in the ablated area relative to the residual disease. Towards this end first a pathologist annotated the ablated area and the residual disease on the ex-vivo histology and then we transferred the annotations to the post-LITT MRI using semi-automatic elastic registration. The pre- and post-LITT MRI were subsequently registered and computer-derived multi-parametric MRI features extracted to determine differences in feature values between residual disease and successfully ablated tissue to assess treatment response. A scoring metric allowed us to identify those specific computer-extracted MRI features that maximally and differentially expressed between the ablated regions and the residual cancer, on a voxel- by­ voxel basis. Finally, we used a Fuzzy C-Means algorithm to assess the discriminatory power of these selected features. Our results show that specific computer-extracted features from multi-parametric MRI differentially express within the ablated and residual cancer regions, as evidenced by our ability to, on a voxel-by-voxel basis, classify tissue as residual disease. Additionally, we show that change of feature values between pre- and post­-LITT MRI may be useful as a quantitative marker for treatment response (T2-weighted texture and DCE MRI features showed largest differences between residual disease and successfully ablated tissue). Finally, a clustering approach to separate treatment effects and residual disease incorporating both (1) and (2) yielded a maximum area under the ROC curve of 0.97 on a voxel basis across 3 studies.

Litjens, G.; Huisman, H.; Elliott, R.; Shih, N.; Feldman, M.; Viswanath, S.; Fütterer, J.; Bomers, J.; Madabhushi, A.

2014-03-01

7

Can Asperger syndrome be distinguished from autism? An anatomic likelihood meta-analysis of MRI studies  

PubMed Central

Background The question of whether Asperger syndrome can be distinguished from autism has attracted much debate and may even incur delay in diagnosis and intervention. Accordingly, there has been a proposal for Asperger syndrome to be subsumed under autism in the forthcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, in 2013. One approach to resolve this question has been to adopt the criterion of absence of clinically significant language or cognitive delay — essentially, the “absence of language delay.” To our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of people with autism to compare absence with presence of language delay. It capitalizes on the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approach to systematically explore the whole brain for anatomic correlates of delay and no delay in language acquisition in people with autism spectrum disorders. Methods We conducted a systematic search for VBM MRI studies of grey matter volume in people with autism. Studies with a majority (at least 70%) of participants with autism diagnoses and a history of language delay were assigned to the autism group (n = 151, control n = 190). Those with a majority (at least 70%) of individuals with autism diagnoses and no language delay were assigned to the Asperger syndrome group (n = 149, control n = 214). We entered study coordinates into anatomic likelihood estimation meta-analysis software with sampling size weighting to compare grey matter summary maps driven by Asperger syndrome or autism. Results The summary autism grey matter map showed lower volumes in the cerebellum, right uncus, dorsal hippocampus and middle temporal gyrus compared with controls; grey matter volumes were greater in the bilateral caudate, prefrontal lobe and ventral temporal lobe. The summary Asperger syndrome map indicated lower grey matter volumes in the bilateral amygdala/hippocampal gyrus and prefrontal lobe, left occipital gyrus, right cerebellum, putamen and precuneus compared with controls; grey matter volumes were greater in more limited regions, including the bilateral inferior parietal lobule and the left fusiform gyrus. Both Asperger syndrome and autism studies reported volume increase in clusters in the ventral temporal lobe of the left hemisphere. Limitations We assigned studies to autism and Asperger syndrome groups for separate analyses of the data and did not carry out a direct statistical group comparison. In addition, studies available for analysis did not capture the entire spectrum, therefore we cannot be certain that our findings apply to a wider population than that sampled. Conclusion Whereas grey matter differences in people with Asperger syndrome compared with controls are sparser than those reported in studies of people with autism, the distribution and direction of differences in each category are distinctive.

Yu, Kevin K.; Cheung, Charlton; Chua, Siew E.; McAlonan, Grainne M.

2011-01-01

8

Model-based reconstruction for undersampled dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a method for estimating, from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI raw k-space data of the breast, parameter maps that model tissue properties associated with a compartmental model of contrast exchange. The contrast agent kinetics, as represented by these parameter maps, are important in distinguishing benign and malignant tumors. The proposed model-based reconstruction algorithm estimates tissue parameter maps directly from MRI k-space data, thereby allowing a new and improved set of spatiotemporal resolution and noise tradeoffs. Realistic noise levels and an undersampling factor of R=4 appeared to provide reasonable accuracy for the kinetic parameters of interest.

Felsted, Ben K.; Whitaker, Ross T.; Schabel, Matthias; Dibella, Edward V. R.

2009-02-01

9

Distinguishing Alzheimer's disease from normal pressure hydrocephalus: a search for MRI biomarkers.  

PubMed

Currently, no clinical or neuroradiological techniques have been validated to distinguish Alzheimer's disease (AD) from idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). Both share anatomical and clinical similarities: AD is a form of irreversible degenerative dementia, whereas the dementia manifested in iNPH is potentially "reversible" through various neurosurgical procedures. Hence, it is important to find specific imaging biomarkers that distinguish the two conditions. In addition, the ability to predict the response to neurosurgery in iNPH is something that has yet to be accomplished. In this systematic review, we describe and critically analyze the merits and drawbacks of the MR imaging parameters currently used to distinguish AD from iNPH and assess ways to predict the response after treatment of iNPH. We conclude that the combination of different neuroimaging sequences as well as quantitative and qualitative parameters could provide new insight for better diagnosis and treatment of these two different diseases. PMID:23963288

Di Ieva, Antonio; Valli, Mikaeel; Cusimano, Michael D

2014-01-01

10

Textural kinetics: a novel dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI feature for breast lesion classification.  

PubMed

Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast has emerged as an adjunct imaging tool to conventional X-ray mammography due to its high detection sensitivity. Despite the increasing use of breast DCE-MRI, specificity in distinguishing malignant from benign breast lesions is low, and interobserver variability in lesion classification is high. The novel contribution of this paper is in the definition of a new DCE-MRI descriptor that we call textural kinetics, which attempts to capture spatiotemporal changes in breast lesion texture in order to distinguish malignant from benign lesions. We qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrated on 41 breast DCE-MRI studies that textural kinetic features outperform signal intensity kinetics and lesion morphology features in distinguishing benign from malignant lesions. A probabilistic boosting tree (PBT) classifier in conjunction with textural kinetic descriptors yielded an accuracy of 90%, sensitivity of 95%, specificity of 82%, and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.92. Graph embedding, used for qualitative visualization of a low-dimensional representation of the data, showed the best separation between benign and malignant lesions when using textural kinetic features. The PBT classifier results and trends were also corroborated via a support vector machine classifier which showed that textural kinetic features outperformed the morphological, static texture, and signal intensity kinetics descriptors. When textural kinetic attributes were combined with morphologic descriptors, the resulting PBT classifier yielded 89% accuracy, 99% sensitivity, 76% specificity, and an AUC of 0.91. PMID:20508965

Agner, Shannon C; Soman, Salil; Libfeld, Edward; McDonald, Margie; Thomas, Kathleen; Englander, Sarah; Rosen, Mark A; Chin, Deanna; Nosher, John; Madabhushi, Anant

2011-06-01

11

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI--Meeting Report  

Cancer.gov

A. Rationale for the Workshop In the last several years contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) has become a commonly used, commercially available method. In parallel with this, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) has emerged as a promising method for diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. However, widespread use of DCE-MRI is limited by the need for further technical improvements.

12

In vivo chromium-enhanced MRI of the retina.  

PubMed

Chromium (Cr) has been used histologically to stabilize lipid fractions in the retina and is suggested to enhance oxidizable lipids in brain MRI. This study explored the feasibility, sensitivity, and specificity of in vivo chromium-enhanced MRI of retinal lipids by determining its spatiotemporal profiles and toxic effect after intravitreal Cr(VI) injection to normal adult rats. One day after 3 ?L Cr(VI) administration at 1-100 mM, the retina exhibited a dose-dependent increase in T1-weighted hyperintensity until 50 mM. Time-dependently, significant T1-weighted hyperintensity persisted up to 2 weeks after 10 mM Cr(VI) administration. Three-dimensional chromium-enhanced MRI of ex vivo normal eyes at isotropic 50-?m resolution showed at least five alternating bands across retinal layers, with the outermost layer being the brightest. This agreed with histology indicating alternating lipid contents with the highest level in the photoreceptor layer of the outer retina. Although Cr(VI) reduction may induce oxidative stress and depolymerize microtubules, manganese-enhanced MRI after chromium-enhanced MRI showed a dose-dependent effect of Cr toxicity on manganese uptake and axonal transport along the visual pathway. These results potentiated future longitudinal chromium-enhanced MRI studies on retinal lipid metabolism upon further optimization of Cr doses with visual cell viability. PMID:22213133

Chan, Kevin C; Fan, Shu-Juan; Zhou, Iris Y; Wu, Ed X

2012-10-01

13

Differentiation of Reactive and Tumor Metastatic Lymph Nodes with Diffusion-weighted and SPIO Enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Objectives Determination of lymphatic metastasis is of great importance for both treatment planning and patient prognosis. We aim to distinguish tumor metastatic lymph nodes (TLNs) and reactive lymph nodes (RLNs) with diffusion-weighted and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods Ipsilateral popliteal lymph node metastasis or lymphadenitis model was established by hock injection of either luciferase-expressing 4T1 murine breast cancer cells or Complete Freund Adjuvant (CFA) in male Balb/C mice. At different time points after inoculation, bioluminescence imaging, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted and SPIO enhanced MRI were performed. Imaging findings were confirmed by histopathological staining. Results Size enlargement was observed in both TLNs and RLNs. At day 28, TLNs showed strong bioluminescence signal and bigger size than RLNs (p < 0.01). At early stages up to day 21, both TLNs and RLNs appeared homogeneous on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). At day 28, TLNs showed heterogeneous apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map with significantly higher average ADC value of 0.41 ± 0.03 × 10?3 mm2/s than that of RLNs (0.34 ± 0.02 10?3 mm2/s, p < 0.05). On SPIO enhanced MRI, both TLNs and RLNs showed distinct T2 signal reduction at day 21 after inoculation. At day 28, TLNs demonstrated partial uptake of the iron oxide particles, which was confirmed by Prussian blue staining. Conclusions Both diffusion-weighted and SPIO enhanced MRI can distinguish tumor metastatic lymph nodes from reactive lymph nodes. However, neither method is able to detect tumor metastasis to the draining lymph nodes at early stages.

Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Lei; Huang, Xinglu; Niu, Gang; Chen, Siouan

2012-01-01

14

Targeted biodegradable dendritic MRI contrast agent for enhanced tumor imaging.  

PubMed

Highly sensitive and safe contrast agents (CAs) are essential for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to achieve accurate tumor detection and imaging. Dendrimer-based macromolecular MRI contrast agents are advantageous owing to their tumor-targeting ability, enhanced imaging contrast and enlarged imaging window. However, most of them have drawbacks of non-degradability and thereby long-term retention in body and toxicity. Herein, a tumor-targeting biodegradable dendritic CA (DCA) (FA-PEG-G2-DTPA-Gd) was prepared from a polyester dendrimer conjugated with gadolinium (Gd) chelates and PEG chains with distal folic acid. The DCA had a high longitudinal relaxivity up to 17.1mM(-1)s(-1), 4 times higher than the clinically used CA Magnevist. The MRI contrasted by FA-PEG-G2-DTPA-Gd outlined the inoculated tumor more clearly, and had much higher contrast enhancement for a much longer time than Magnevist. More importantly, the biodegradable FA-PEG-G2-DTPA-Gd gave much less Gd retentions in all the organs or tissues than non-degradable DCAs. Thus, the high efficiency in MRI contrast enhancement and low Gd retention merit it a promising CA for contrast enhanced tumor MRI. PMID:23403397

Ye, Mingzhou; Qian, Yue; Tang, Jianbin; Hu, Hongjie; Sui, Meihua; Shen, Youqing

2013-08-10

15

Surface plasmon-enhanced terahertz spectroscopic distinguishing between isomers in powder form.  

PubMed

The effect of a dielectric overlayer on terahertz transmission through a freestanding metallic array of subwavelength holes is experimentally presented. There is a remarkable resonance redshift from 0.600 to 0.498 THz at the surface plasmon (SP) metal-dielectric resonance mode with increasing film thickness. When the overlayer film is thicker than a critical thickness, the resonance frequency becomes steady at the final resonance frequency ?(f). On the basis of the dispersion relation of SPs, two kinds of glutamic acid enantiomers are distinguished by use of SP-enhanced terahertz spectra of metallic array of subwavelength holes according to the result of ?(f). The terahertz plasmonic hole array with the sensitive nature provides an approach to distinguish trace amount of powder substances, which has a promising application prospect in the fields of public security and biomedical science, such as distinguishing between isomers and identifying expensive medicines and drugs. PMID:23385924

He, Mingxia; Li, Jingyan; Liu, Guanlin; Han, Jiaguang; Tian, Zhen; Gu, Jianqiang; Chen, Tao; Qin, Rui

2013-02-01

16

Ultrashort Echo Time for Improved Positive-Contrast Manganese-Enhanced MRI of Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective Manganese (Mn) is a positive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent that has been used to obtain physiological, biochemical, and molecular biological information. There is great interest to broaden its applications, but a major challenge is to increase detection sensitivity. Another challenge is distinguishing regions of Mn-related signal enhancement from background tissue with inherently similar contrast. To overcome these limitations, this study investigates the use of ultrashort echo time (UTE) and subtraction UTE (SubUTE) imaging for more sensitive and specific determination of Mn accumulation. Materials and Methods Simulations were performed to investigate the feasibility of UTE and SubUTE for Mn-enhanced MRI and to optimize imaging parameters. Phantoms containing aqueous Mn solutions were imaged on a MRI scanner to validate simulations predictions. Breast cancer cells that are very aggressive (MDA-MB-231 and a more aggressive variant LM2) and a less aggressive cell line (MCF7) were labeled with Mn and imaged on MRI. All imaging was performed on a 3 Tesla scanner and compared UTE and SubUTE against conventional T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) imaging. Results Simulations and phantom imaging demonstrated that UTE and SubUTE provided sustained and linearly increasing positive contrast over a wide range of Mn concentrations, whereas conventional SPGR displayed signal plateau and eventual decrease. Higher flip angles are optimal for imaging higher Mn concentrations. Breast cancer cell imaging demonstrated that UTE and SubUTE provided high sensitivity, with SubUTE providing background suppression for improved specificity and eliminating the need for a pre-contrast baseline image. The SubUTE sequence allowed the best distinction of aggressive breast cancer cells. Conclusions UTE and SubUTE allow more sensitive and specific positive-contrast detection of Mn enhancement. This imaging capability can potentially open many new doors for Mn-enhanced MRI in vascular, cellular, and molecular imaging.

Nofiele, Joris Tchouala; Cheng, Hai-Ling Margaret

2013-01-01

17

Gadoxetic Acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-Enhanced MRI versus Gadobenate Dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA)-Enhanced MRI for Preoperatively Detecting Hepatocellular Carcinoma: an Initial Experience  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was designed to compare the diagnostic performance of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI for preoperatively detecting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and Methods Eighteen consecutive patients (17 men and one woman, age range: 31-73 years) with 22 HCCs underwent examinations with gadoxetic acid enhanced MRI and gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI on a 3.0-Tesla unit. The diagnosis of HCC was established after surgical resection and pathological conformation. Three observers independently reviewed each MR image in a random order on a tumor-by-tumor basis. The diagnostic accuracy of these techniques for the detection of HCC was assessed by performing an alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The sensitivity and positive predictive values were evaluated. Results The average value of the area under the ROC curve (Az) for gadoxetic acid enhanced MRI (0.887) was not significantly different from the Az (0.899) for gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI (p > 0.05). The overall sensitivities of gadoxetic acid enhanced MRI and gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI were 80% and 83%, respectively, with no significant difference (p > 0.05). The differences of the positive predictive values for the two contrast agents for each observer were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion The diagnostic performance of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI for preoperatively detecting HCC is quite similar.

Park, Yulri; Kim, Seung Hoon; Jeon, Yong Hwan; Lee, Jongmee; Kim, Min Ju; Choi, Dongil; Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Heejung; Koo, Ji Hyun; Lim, Hyo Keun

2010-01-01

18

Dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging techniques: CT and MRI  

PubMed Central

Over the last few decades there has been considerable research into quantifying the cerebral microvasculature with imaging, for use in studies of the human brain and various pathologies including cerebral tumours. This review highlights key issues in dynamic contrast-enhanced CT, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and arterial spin labelling, the various applications of which are considered elsewhere in this special issue of the British Journal of Radiology.

O'Connor, J P B; Tofts, P S; Miles, K A; Parkes, L M; Thompson, G; Jackson, A

2011-01-01

19

Dynamic Oxygen-Enhanced MRI of Cerebrospinal Fluid  

PubMed Central

Oxygen causes an increase in the longitudinal relaxation rate of tissues through its T1-shortening effect owing to its paramagnetic properties. Due to such effects, MRI has been used to study oxygen-related signal intensity changes in various body parts including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space. Oxygen enhancement of CSF has been mainly studied using MRI sequences with relatively longer time resolution such as FLAIR, and T1 value calculation. In this study, fifteen healthy volunteers were scanned using fast advanced spin echo MRI sequence with and without inversion recovery pulse in order to dynamically track oxygen enhancement of CSF. We also focused on the differences of oxygen enhancement at sulcal and ventricular CSF. Our results revealed that CSF signal after administration of oxygen shows rapid signal increase in both sulcal CSF and ventricular CSF on both sequences, with statistically significant predominant increase in sulcal CSF compared with ventricular CSF. CSF is traditionally thought to mainly form from the choroid plexus in the ventricles and is absorbed at the arachnoid villi, however, it is also believed that cerebral arterioles contribute to the production and absorption of CSF, and controversy remains in terms of the precise mechanism. Our results demonstrated rapid oxygen enhancement in sulcal CSF, which may suggest inhaled oxygen may diffuse into sulcal CSF space rapidly probably due to the abundance of pial arterioles on the brain sulci.

Mehemed, Taha M.; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Okada, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Akira; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Kido, Aki; Fujimoto, Koji; Sakashita, Naotaka; Togashi, Kaori

2014-01-01

20

Dynamic oxygen-enhanced MRI of cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed

Oxygen causes an increase in the longitudinal relaxation rate of tissues through its T1-shortening effect owing to its paramagnetic properties. Due to such effects, MRI has been used to study oxygen-related signal intensity changes in various body parts including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space. Oxygen enhancement of CSF has been mainly studied using MRI sequences with relatively longer time resolution such as FLAIR, and T1 value calculation. In this study, fifteen healthy volunteers were scanned using fast advanced spin echo MRI sequence with and without inversion recovery pulse in order to dynamically track oxygen enhancement of CSF. We also focused on the differences of oxygen enhancement at sulcal and ventricular CSF. Our results revealed that CSF signal after administration of oxygen shows rapid signal increase in both sulcal CSF and ventricular CSF on both sequences, with statistically significant predominant increase in sulcal CSF compared with ventricular CSF. CSF is traditionally thought to mainly form from the choroid plexus in the ventricles and is absorbed at the arachnoid villi, however, it is also believed that cerebral arterioles contribute to the production and absorption of CSF, and controversy remains in terms of the precise mechanism. Our results demonstrated rapid oxygen enhancement in sulcal CSF, which may suggest inhaled oxygen may diffuse into sulcal CSF space rapidly probably due to the abundance of pial arterioles on the brain sulci. PMID:24956198

Mehemed, Taha M; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Okada, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Akira; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Kido, Aki; Fujimoto, Koji; Sakashita, Naotaka; Togashi, Kaori

2014-01-01

21

Contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast: accuracy, value, controversies, solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast has been one of the most controversial areas of MRI. Even though most investigators have, in selected indications, been able to improve accuracy by the additional use of contrast-enhanced MRI, its abuse has been feared not only because of increased costs for imaging, but also because of increased biopsy rates caused by false positive

S. H. Heywang-Köbrunner; P. Viehweg; A. Heinig; Ch. Küchler

1997-01-01

22

Combining diffusion-weighted MRI with Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI improves the detection of colorectal liver metastases  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare the diagnostic accuracy of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) and a combination of both techniques for the detection of colorectal hepatic metastases. Methods 72 patients with suspected colorectal liver metastases underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA MRI and DW-MRI. Images were retrospectively reviewed with unenhanced T1 and T2 weighted images as Gd-EOB-DTPA image set, DW-MRI image set and combined image set by two independent radiologists. Each lesion detected was scored for size, location and likelihood of metastasis, and compared with surgery and follow-up imaging. Diagnostic accuracy was compared using receiver operating characteristics and interobserver agreement by kappa statistics. Results 417 lesions (310 metastases, 107 benign) were found in 72 patients. For both readers, diagnostic accuracy using the combined image set was higher [area under the curve (Az) = 0.96, 0.97] than Gd-EOB-DTPA image set (Az = 0.86, 0.89) or DW-MRI image set (Az = 0.93, 0.92). Using combined image set improved identification of liver metastases compared with Gd-EOB-DTPA image set (p<0.001) or DW-MRI image set (p<0.001). There was very good interobserver agreement for lesion classification (? = 0.81–0.88). Conclusions Combining DW-MRI with Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced T1 weighted MRI significantly improved the detection of colorectal liver metastases.

Koh, D-M; Collins, D J; Wallace, T; Chau, I; Riddell, A M

2012-01-01

23

Consensus Recommendation for Acquisition of Dynamic Contrasted-Enhanced MRI Data in Oncology  

Cancer.gov

Establish minimum requirements for standardized data acquisition for oncologic applications of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) to allow integration of data from different institutions and comparison of various approaches for data analysis.

24

Tumor Microenvironment Identification In Vivo using Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI  

Cancer.gov

The microenvironment in solid tumors is characterized by inadequate and heterogeneous perfusion, hyper-permeable vasculature, hypoxia, acidic extracellular pH, and nutrient deprivation. Hypoxic tumors, often associated with a more aggressive tumor phenotype, are more resistant to chemo- or radiation therapy than well-vascularized, well-oxygenated tumors. We present an approach to identify areas of tumor hypoxia using the signal-versus-time curves of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) data as a surrogate marker of hypoxia.

25

A Simulation Tool for Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

The quantification of bolus-tracking MRI techniques remains challenging. The acquisition usually relies on one contrast and the analysis on a simplified model of the various phenomena that arise within a voxel, leading to inaccurate perfusion estimates. To evaluate how simplifications in the interstitial model impact perfusion estimates, we propose a numerical tool to simulate the MR signal provided by a dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI experiment. Our model encompasses the intrinsic and relaxations, the magnetic field perturbations induced by susceptibility interfaces (vessels and cells), the diffusion of the water protons, the blood flow, the permeability of the vessel wall to the the contrast agent (CA) and the constrained diffusion of the CA within the voxel. The blood compartment is modeled as a uniform compartment. The different blocks of the simulation are validated and compared to classical models. The impact of the CA diffusivity on the permeability and blood volume estimates is evaluated. Simulations demonstrate that the CA diffusivity slightly impacts the permeability estimates ( for classical blood flow and CA diffusion). The effect of long echo times is investigated. Simulations show that DCE-MRI performed with an echo time may already lead to significant underestimation of the blood volume (up to 30% lower for brain tumor permeability values). The potential and the versatility of the proposed implementation are evaluated by running the simulation with realistic vascular geometry obtained from two photons microscopy and with impermeable cells in the extravascular environment. In conclusion, the proposed simulation tool describes DCE-MRI experiments and may be used to evaluate and optimize acquisition and processing strategies.

Mauconduit, Franck; Christen, Thomas; Barbier, Emmanuel Luc

2013-01-01

26

Subdural enhancement on postoperative spinal MRI after resection of posterior cranial fossa tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

In malignant brain tumours which may disseminate staging, usually by cranial and spinal MRI is necessary. If MRI is performed in the postoperative period pitfalls should be considered. Nonspecific subdural contrast enhancement on spinal staging MRI is rarely reported after resection of posterior fossa tumours, which may be mistaken for dissemination of malignancy. We investigated the frequency of spinal subdural

M. Warmuth-Metz; J. Krauss; L. Solymosi

2004-01-01

27

The intravertebral cleft in benign vertebral compression fracture: the diagnostic performance of non-enhanced MRI and fat-suppressed contrast-enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

We compared the diagnostic performance of non-enhanced MRI and fat-suppressed contrast-enhanced MRI (CEMRI) in diagnosing intravertebral clefts in benign vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). We retrospectively reviewed 99 consecutive patients who had undergone percutaneous vertebroplasty for VCFs. A cleft was defined as a signal void or hyperintense area on non-enhanced MRI (T1 and T2 weighted imaging) or as a hypointense area within a diffusely enhanced vertebra on CEMRI. A cleft was confirmed as a solid opacification on post-procedural radiographs. The interobserver reliability and MRI diagnostic performance were evaluated. The interobserver reliability of non-enhanced MRI was substantial (k _ 0.698) and the interobserver reliability of CEMRI was almost perfect (k _ 0.836). Post-procedural radiographs showed solid cleft opacification in 32 out of the 99 cases. The sensitivity and specificity of non-enhanced MRI were 0.72 and 0.82 (observer 1) and 0.63 and 0.87 (observer 2), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of CEMRI were 0.94 and 0.63 (observer 1) and 0.85 and 0.60 (observer 2), respectively. The sensitivity of CEMRI was significantly higher than that of non-enhanced MRI, and the specificity of non-enhanced MRI was higher than that of CEMRI. CEMRI was highly reliable and sensitive, and non-enhanced MRI was specific for intravertebral clefts. Therefore, spine MRIs, including CEMRI, could provide useful information about intravertebral clefts before percutaneous vertebroplasty.

Ryu, C-W; Han, H; Lee, Y-M; Lim, M-K

2009-01-01

28

Assessing heterogeneity of lesion enhancement kinetics in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for breast cancer diagnosis  

PubMed Central

The current study investigates the feasibility of using texture analysis to quantify the heterogeneity of lesion enhancement kinetics in order to discriminate malignant from benign breast lesions. A total of 82 biopsy-proven breast lesions (51 malignant, 31 benign), originating from 74 women subjected to dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) were analysed. Pixel-wise analysis of DCE-MRI lesion data was performed to generate initial enhancement, post-initial enhancement and signal enhancement ratio (SER) parametric maps; these maps were subsequently subjected to co-occurrence matrix texture analysis. The discriminating ability of texture features extracted from each parametric map was investigated using a least-squares minimum distance classifier and further compared with the discriminating ability of the same texture features extracted from the first post-contrast frame. Selected texture features extracted from the SER map achieved an area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.922 ± 0.029, a performance similar to post-initial enhancement map features (0.906 ± 0.032) and statistically significantly higher than for initial enhancement map (0.767 ± 0.053) and first post-contrast frame (0.756 ± 0.060) features. Quantifying the heterogeneity of parametric maps that reflect lesion washout properties could contribute to the computer-aided diagnosis of breast lesions in DCE-MRI.

Karahaliou, A; Vassiou, K; Arikidis, N S; Skiadopoulos, S; Kanavou, T; Costaridou, L

2010-01-01

29

Quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for the assessment of mandibular invasion by squamous cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) for the preoperative assessment of mandibular invasion in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), adjacent or fixed to the mandible. DCE-MRI was performed with gadolinium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). Data were obtained from 25 patients. From pharmacokinetic analysis of the tissue uptake of Gd-DTPA, the DCE-MRI

Ellen M. Van Cann; Mark Rijpkema; Arend Heerschap; Andries van der Bilt; Ron Koole; Paul J. W. Stoelinga

2008-01-01

30

Distinguishing specific sexual and general emotional effects in fMRI—Subcortical and cortical arousal during erotic picture viewing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual activity involves excitement with high arousal and pleasure as typical features of emotions. Brain activations specifically related to erotic feelings and those related to general emotional processing are therefore hard to disentangle. Using fMRI in 21 healthy subjects (11 males and 10 females), we investigated regions that show activations specifically related to the viewing of sexually intense pictures while

Martin Walter; Felix Bermpohl; Harold Mouras; Kolja Schiltz; Claus Tempelmann; Michael Rotte; Hans Jochen Heinze; Bernhard Bogerts; Georg Northoff

2008-01-01

31

Small colorectal liver metastases: detection with SPIO-enhanced MRI in comparison with gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI and CT imaging.  

PubMed

The aim of this prospective study was to compare the diagnostic role of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) versus gadobenate dimeglumine (GbD)-enhanced MRI and computed tomography (CT) investigations for detection of small (less than 1cm) colorectal liver metastases (LMs) of colorectal cancer. Seventy-eight LMs in 16 patients were evaluated with dynamic CT imaging, GbD-enhanced dynamic MR imaging and SPIO-enhanced MR imaging. Two radiologists were reviewed the LMs separately. Agreement between the readers and three algorithms was analyzed. Differences between the lesion detection ratios of the methods were analyzed by two proportion z test. Sensitivity values of each modality were also calculated. Interobserver agreement values with kappa analysis were found to be the best for three modalities and kappa values were 0.866, 0.843, and 1.0 respectively. For all 78 LMs, SPIO-enhanced MRI detected all lesions (100% sensitivity). This sensitivity value was higher than GbD-enhanced MRI, and there was a significant difference (p < 0.05). GbD-enhanced MRI depicted 71 lesions and this modality could not detected 7 lesions (91% sensitivity). This modality had moderate sensitivity, and this value is greater than CT imaging, so there was a significant difference also (p < 0.05). Dynamic triphasic CT imaging detected 64 (R1) and 65 (R2) LMs. This modality had the lowest sensitivity (R1: 0.82, R2: 0.83 respectively). Only SPIO-enhanced MRI was able to detect all LMs less than 1cm. LMs were the best detected with SPIO-enhanced MRI. We recommend SPIO-enhanced MRI to be the primary alternative modality especially for diagnosis of small colorectal LMs. PMID:19781882

Hekimoglu, Koray; Ustundag, Yucel; Dusak, Abdurrahim; Kalaycioglu, Bora; Besir, Halit; Engin, Huseyin; Erdem, Oktay

2011-03-01

32

Mammographic density, MRI background parenchymal enhancement and breast cancer risk.  

PubMed

Mammographic density (MD), representing connective and epithelial tissue (fibroglandular tissue, FGT) is a major risk factor for breast cancer. In an analysis of an autopsy series (Bartow SA, Pathak DR, Mettler FA. Radiographic microcalcification and parenchymal patterns as indicators of histologic "high-risk" benign breast disease. Cancer 1990; 66: 1721-1725, Bartow SA, Pathak DR, Mettler FA et al. Breast mammographic pattern: a concatenation of confounding and breast cancer risk factors. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 142: 813-819), MD was found to be strongly correlated with the collagen and epithelial content of the breast (Li T, Sun L, Miller N et al. The association of measured breast tissue characteristics with MD and other risk factors for breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14: 343-349), and another report showed that breast epithelium was highly concentrated in the areas of collagen concentration (Hawes D, Downey S, Pearce CL et al. Dense breast stromal tissue shows greatly increased concentration of breast epithelium but no increase in its proliferative activity. Breast Cancer Res 2006; 8: R24). Collagen comprises the overwhelming majority of the FGT, occupying an area on the slides obtained from the autopsy series some 15 times the area of glandular tissue. The relationship of MD with breast cancer risk appears likely to be due to a major extent to increasing epithelial cell numbers with increasing MD. FGT is also seen in breast magnetic resonance imaging (breast MRI) and, as expected, it has been shown that this measure of FGT (MRI-FGT) is highly correlated with MD. A contrast-enhanced breast MRI shows that normal FGT 'enhances' (background parenchymal enhancement, BPE) after contrast agent is administered(Morris EA. Diagnostic breast MR imaging: current status and future directions. Radiol Clin North Am 2007; 45: 863-880, vii., Kuhl C. The current status of breast MR imaging. Part I. Choice of technique, image interpretation, diagnostic accuracy, and transfer to clinical practice. Radiology 2007; 244: 356-378), and a recent study suggests that BPE is also a major breast cancer risk factor, possibly as important as, and independent of MD (King V, Brooks JD, Bernstein JL et al. BPE at breast MR imaging and breast cancer risk. Radiology 2011; 260: 50-60). BPE is much more sensitive to the effects of menopause and tamoxifen than is FGT (King V, Gu Y, Kaplan JB et al. Impact of menopausal status on BPE and fibroglandular tissue on breast MRI. Eur Radiol 2012; 22: 2641-2647, King V, Kaplan J, Pike MC et al. Impact of tamoxifen on amount of fibroglandular tissue, BPE, and cysts on breast MRI. Breast J 2012; 18: 527-534). Changes in MD and BPE may be most useful in predicting response to chemopreventive agents aimed at blocking breast cell proliferation. More study of the biological basis of the effects of MD and BPE is needed if we are to fully exploit these factors in developing chemopreventive approaches to breast cancer. PMID:24131968

Pike, M C; Pearce, C L

2013-11-01

33

Synthesis and characterization of magnetoliposomes for MRI contrast enhancement.  

PubMed

This work assesses the characteristics of magnetoliposomes of soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC):cholesterol (Chol) loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) stabilized with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAOH) and their capacity to enhance magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast. Magnetoliposomes of SPC were used for comparative studies. IONPs and magnetoliposomes were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, SQUID magnetometry, FTIR and MRI. The saturation magnetization at 10K was ~0.06 Am(2)/kg for SPC:Chol magnetoliposomes with 7 g iron oxide/mol of lipid and ~0.05 Am(2)/kg for SPC magnetoliposomes with 21 g iron oxide/mol of lipid. As these values are associated with the number of incorporated magnetic IONPs, the saturation magnetization is 1.2 times higher for magnetoliposomes of SPC:Chol as compared with magnetoliposomes of SPC alone. The behavior of temperature dependence in both cases is typical of superparamagnetic particles. FTIR spectra evidence the increase of magnetoliposome membrane ordering with the presence of Chol. Principal component analysis (PCA) applied to FTIR spectra evidenced a clear distinction between scores for SPC:Chol, and SPC magnetoliposomes and for SPC empty liposomes. PCA applied to FTIR data differentiate magnetoliposomes from empty liposomes. MR images of aqueous phantoms obtained with and without magnetoliposomes, clearly evidence their effect on T2 image weighting. PMID:23422275

Faria, M R; Cruz, M M; Gonçalves, M C; Carvalho, A; Feio, G; Martins, M B F

2013-03-25

34

A new denoising method for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new algorithm for denoising dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR images. The algorithm is called Dynamic Non-Local Means and is a novel variation on the Non-Local Means (NL-Means) algorithm. It exploits the redundancy of information in the DCE-MRI sequence of images. An evaluation of the performance of the algorithm relative to six other denoising algorithms-Gaussian filtering, the original NL-Means algorithm, bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion filtering, the wavelets adaptive multiscale products threshold method, and the traditional wavelet thresholding method-is also presented. The evaluation was performed by two groups of expert observers-18 signal/image processing experts, and 9 clinicians (8 radiographers and 1 radiologist)-using real DCE-MRI data. The results of the evaluation provide evidence, at the alpha=0.05 level of significance, that both groups of observers deem the DNLM algorithm to perform visually better than all of the other algorithms. PMID:19162789

Gal, Yaniv; Mehnert, Andrew; Bradley, Andrew; McMahon, Kerry; Kennedy, Dominic; Crozier, Stuart

2008-01-01

35

Impact of contrast enhanced MRI on lymphocyte DNA damage and serum visfatin level  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesNephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a novel clinical entity encountered in subjects undergoing contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impact of contrast enhanced MRI exposure on lymphocyte DNA damage and serum levels of visfatin.

Sema Yildiz; Hasan Cece; Ihsan Kaya; Hakim Celik; Abdullah Taskin; Nurten Aksoy; Abdurrahim Kocyigit; Mehmet A. Eren

2011-01-01

36

Differentiation of Breast Cancer from Fibroadenoma with Dual-Echo Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI) of the breast is a routinely used imaging method which is highly sensitive for detecting breast malignancy. Specificity, though, remains suboptimal. Dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC MRI), an alternative dynamic contrast imaging technique, evaluates perfusion-related parameters unique from DCE MRI. Previous work has shown that the combination of DSC MRI with DCE MRI can improve diagnostic specificity, though an additional administration of intravenous contrast is required. Dual-echo MRI can measure both T1W DCE MRI and T2*W DSC MRI parameters with a single contrast bolus, but has not been previously implemented in breast imaging. We have developed a dual-echo gradient-echo sequence to perform such simultaneous measurements in the breast, and use it to calculate the semi-quantitative T1W and T2*W related parameters such as peak enhancement ratio, time of maximal enhancement, regional blood flow, and regional blood volume in 20 malignant lesions and 10 benign fibroadenomas in 38 patients. Imaging parameters were compared to surgical or biopsy obtained tissue samples. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under the ROC curves were calculated for each parameter and combination of parameters. The time of maximal enhancement derived from DCE MRI had a 90% sensitivity and 69% specificity for predicting malignancy. When combined with DSC MRI derived regional blood flow and volume parameters, sensitivity remained unchanged at 90% but specificity increased to 80%. In conclusion, we show that dual-echo MRI with a single administration of contrast agent can simultaneously measure both T1W and T2*W related perfusion and kinetic parameters in the breast and the combination of DCE MRI and DSC MRI parameters improves the diagnostic performance of breast MRI to differentiate breast cancer from benign fibroadenomas.

Wang, Shiwei; DelProposto, Zachary; Wang, Haoyu; Ding, Xuewei; Ji, Conghua; Wang, Bei; Xu, Maosheng

2013-01-01

37

78 FR 12329 - Distinguishing Medical Device Recalls From Product Enhancements; Reporting Requirements; Draft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Distinguishing Medical Device Recalls From...Center for Devices and Radiological...Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305...Center for Devices and Radiological...failures of marketed medical devices can pose serious risks to public...

2013-02-22

38

Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The value of the dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in differentiating benign and malignant soft tissue tumors was investigated.Materials and methods: Turbo FLASH DCE-MRI was performed on 22 subjects (2–74 years) with soft tissue tumors. Enhancement in the first min (Emax\\/1), second min (Emax\\/2) and maximum peak enhancement (Emax), and steepest slope were calculated. Discriminant analyses were performed

Nermin Tuncbilek; Hakki Muammer Karakas; Ozerk Omur Okten

2005-01-01

39

Combined chemical shift imaging with early dynamic serial gadolinium-enhanced MRI in the characterization of adrenal lesions.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate early dynamic serial gadolinium-enhanced and chemical-shift imaging (CSI) MRI to distinguish benign from malignant adrenal tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Between July 2007 and December 2011, 205 patients with 239 adrenal lesions (177 adenomas, 54 metastases, 5 pheochromocytomas, and 3 adrenal cortical carcinomas) underwent early dynamic serial gadolinium-enhanced MRI and CSI. CSI was assessed qualitatively and by calculating the adrenal index, and enhancement patterns were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. Statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS. Most adenomas exhibited either an arterial blush or homogeneous enhancement, whereas most metastases showed early peripheral or heterogeneous enhancement. Visualization of higher enhancement on arterial and venous phases enabled differentiation of adenomas from metastases in most cases. Moderate to high signal intensity drop on CSI was seen in 95.4% of adenomas and 14.8% of metastases. In lesions with this level of signal intensity drop, 87 of 88 lesions with a capillary blush were adenomas. Early dynamic serial imaging alone was a significant (p < 0.0001) indicator of nonadenoma (area under the curve [AUC], 0.912) with optimal sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 93% for differentiating adenomas from nonadenomas. Combined analysis (CSI and early dynamic serial imaging) was also significant (p < 0.0001 and p=0.0014, respectively) for diagnosing nonadenomas (AUC, 0.983) with optimal sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION. Early dynamic serial gadolinium-enhanced MRI aids in characterization of adrenal tumors, especially lesions that are categorized as indeterminate on the basis of CSI. PMID:24951201

Rodacki, Karina; Ramalho, Miguel; Dale, Brian M; Battisti, Sofia; de Campos, Rafael O P; Giardino, Antonello; Semelka, Richard C

2014-07-01

40

Distinguishing specific sexual and general emotional effects in fMRI-subcortical and cortical arousal during erotic picture viewing.  

PubMed

Sexual activity involves excitement with high arousal and pleasure as typical features of emotions. Brain activations specifically related to erotic feelings and those related to general emotional processing are therefore hard to disentangle. Using fMRI in 21 healthy subjects (11 males and 10 females), we investigated regions that show activations specifically related to the viewing of sexually intense pictures while controlling for general emotional arousal (GEA) or pleasure. Activations in the ventral striatum and hypothalamus were found to be modulated by the stimulus' specific sexual intensity (SSI) while activations in the anterior cingulate cortex were associated with an interaction between sexual intensity and emotional valence. In contrast, activation in other regions like the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, the mediodorsal thalamus and the amygdala was associated only with a general emotional component during sexual arousal. No differences were found in these effects when comparing females and males. Our findings demonstrate for the first time neural differentiation between emotional and sexual components in the neural network underlying sexual arousal. PMID:18329905

Walter, Martin; Bermpohl, Felix; Mouras, Harold; Schiltz, Kolja; Tempelmann, Claus; Rotte, Michael; Heinze, Hans Jochen; Bogerts, Bernhard; Northoff, Georg

2008-05-01

41

Dynamic breast MRI: Image registration and its impact on enhancement curve estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel algorithm for performing registration of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI data of the breast is presented. It is based on an algorithm known as iterated dynamic programming originally devised to solve the stereo matching problem. Using artificially distorted DCE-MRI breast images it is shown that the proposed algorithm is able to correct for movement and distortions over a larger

Andrew Hill; Andrew Mehnert; Stuart Crozier; Carlos Leung; Stephen Wilson; Kerry McMahon; Dominic Kennedy

2006-01-01

42

Detection of Cortical Laminar Architecture Using Manganese-Enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Changes in Manganese-Enhanced MRI (MEMRI) contrast across the rodent somatosensory cortex were compared to the cortical laminae as identified by tissue histology and administration of an anatomical tracer to cortex and thalamus. Across the cortical thickness, MEMRI signal intensity was low in layer I, increased in layer II, decreased in layer III until mid-layer IV, and increased again, peaking in layer V, before decreasing through layer VI. The reeler mouse mutant was used to confirm that the cortical alternation in MEMRI contrast was related to laminar architecture. Unlike in wild-type mice, the reeler cortex showed no appreciable changes in MEMRI signal, consistent[ACS1] with absence of cortical laminae in histological slides. The tract-tracing ability of MEMRI was used to further confirm assignments and demonstrate laminar specificity. Twelve to sixteen hours after stereotaxic injections of MnCl2 to the ventroposterior thalamic nuclei, an overall increase in signal intensity was detected in primary somatosensory cortex compared to other brain regions. Maximum intensity projection images revealed a distinctly bright stripe located 600 ? 700 ?m below the pial surface, in layer IV. The data show that both systemic and tract-tracing forms of MEMRI are useful for studying laminar architecture in the brain.

Silva, Afonso C.; Lee, Junghee; Wu, Carolyn W.-H.; Tucciarone, Jason; Pelled, Galit; Aoki, Ichio; Koretsky, Alan P.

2008-01-01

43

Ultrafast 3D spin-echo acquisition improves Gadolinium-enhanced MRI signal contrast enhancement  

PubMed Central

Long scan times of 3D volumetric MR acquisitions usually necessitate ultrafast in vivo gradient-echo acquisitions, which are intrinsically susceptible to magnetic field inhomogeneities. This is especially problematic for contrast-enhanced (CE)-MRI applications, where non-negligible T2* effect of contrast agent deteriorates the positive signal contrast and limits the available range of MR acquisition parameters and injection doses. To overcome these shortcomings without degrading temporal resolution, ultrafast spin-echo acquisitions were implemented. Specifically, a multiplicative acceleration factor from multiple spin echoes (×32) and compressed sensing (CS) sampling (×8) allowed highly-accelerated 3D Multiple-Modulation-Multiple-Echo (MMME) acquisition. At the same time, the CE-MRI of kidney with Gd-DOTA showed significantly improved signal enhancement for CS-MMME acquisitions (×7) over that of corresponding FLASH acquisitions (×2). Increased positive contrast enhancement and highly accelerated acquisition of extended volume with reduced RF irradiations will be beneficial for oncological and nephrological applications, in which the accurate in vivo 3D quantification of contrast agent concentration is necessary with high temporal resolution.

Han, S. H.; Cho, F. H.; Song, Y. K.; Paulsen, J.; Song, Y. Q.; Kim, Y. R.; Kim, J. K.; Cho, G.; Cho, H.

2014-01-01

44

Dynamic enhanced MRI of the subacromial bursa: correlation with arthroscopic and histological findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo assess dynamic MRI with Gd-DTPA enhancement for evaluating inflammatory changes in the subacromial bursa.Design and patientsWe detected the signal intensity changes in dynamic MRI of the subacromial bursa, and confirmed these macroscopically by arthroscopy and histologically. The signal intensity was measured using built-in software, and the enhancement ratio (E ratio) was calculated from dynamic MR images. In addition, as

Saeko Matsuzaki; Minoru Yoneda; Yasushi Kobayashi; Sunao Fukushima; Shigeyuki Wakitani

2003-01-01

45

USPIO-enhanced MRI for preoperative staging of gynecological pelvic tumors: preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess nodal enhancement with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during preoperative staging of gynecological pelvic tumors within the same imaging session for the primary tumor. Pelvic MRI was performed 18–28 h after intravenous infusion of USPIO (Combidex\\/Sinerem, 2.6 mg Fe\\/kg body weight) in 13 women (mean age 51 years) scheduled for

Thomas M. Keller; Sven C. A. Michel; Johannes Fröhlich; Daniel Fink; Rosmarie Caduff; Borut Marincek; Rahel A. Kubik-Huch

2004-01-01

46

A Non-rigid Registration Method for Dynamic Contrast Enhancement Breast MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During several minutes acquisition of dynamic contrast enhancement breast magnetic resonance images(DCE breast MRI), patient movement and respiration activity can lead to misunderstanding enhancing regions, causing longer reading times and less clear diagnoses. It is necessary for MRI to be spatially registered before diagnoses. The paper presents a non-rigid registration method for DCE breast MRI which employs improved demon algorithm. Polynomial and least square method is used to correct intensity change between pre and post contrast images before registration of demon method. The experiment results show that the presented approach works better than original demon algorithm and free form deformation (FFD) algorithm.

Wang, Yangping; Dang, Jianwu; Du, Xiaogang; Li, Sha

47

Major mouse placental compartments revealed by diffusion-weighted MRI, contrast-enhanced MRI, and fluorescence imaging  

PubMed Central

Mammalian models, and mouse studies in particular, play a central role in our understanding of placental development. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be a valuable tool to further these studies, providing both structural and functional information. As fluid dynamics throughout the placenta are driven by a variety of flow and diffusion processes, diffusion-weighted MRI could enhance our understanding of the exchange properties of maternal and fetal blood pools—and thereby of placental function. These studies, however, have so far been hindered by the small sizes, the unavoidable motions, and the challenging air/water/fat heterogeneities, associated with mouse placental environments. The present study demonstrates that emerging methods based on the spatiotemporal encoding (SPEN) of the MRI information can robustly overcome these obstacles. Using SPEN MRI in combination with albumin-based contrast agents, we analyzed the diffusion behavior of developing placentas in a cohort of mice. These studies successfully discriminated the maternal from the fetal blood flows; the two orders of magnitude differences measured in these fluids’ apparent diffusion coefficients suggest a nearly free diffusion behavior for the former and a strong flow-based component for the latter. An intermediate behavior was observed by these methods for a third compartment that, based on maternal albumin endocytosis, was associated with trophoblastic cells in the interphase labyrinth. Structural features associated with these dynamic measurements were consistent with independent intravital and ex vivo fluorescence microscopy studies and are discussed within the context of the anatomy of developing mouse placentas.

Solomon, Eddy; Avni, Reut; Hadas, Ron; Raz, Tal; Garbow, Joel Richard; Bendel, Peter; Frydman, Lucio; Neeman, Michal

2014-01-01

48

Major mouse placental compartments revealed by diffusion-weighted MRI, contrast-enhanced MRI, and fluorescence imaging.  

PubMed

Mammalian models, and mouse studies in particular, play a central role in our understanding of placental development. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be a valuable tool to further these studies, providing both structural and functional information. As fluid dynamics throughout the placenta are driven by a variety of flow and diffusion processes, diffusion-weighted MRI could enhance our understanding of the exchange properties of maternal and fetal blood pools-and thereby of placental function. These studies, however, have so far been hindered by the small sizes, the unavoidable motions, and the challenging air/water/fat heterogeneities, associated with mouse placental environments. The present study demonstrates that emerging methods based on the spatiotemporal encoding (SPEN) of the MRI information can robustly overcome these obstacles. Using SPEN MRI in combination with albumin-based contrast agents, we analyzed the diffusion behavior of developing placentas in a cohort of mice. These studies successfully discriminated the maternal from the fetal blood flows; the two orders of magnitude differences measured in these fluids' apparent diffusion coefficients suggest a nearly free diffusion behavior for the former and a strong flow-based component for the latter. An intermediate behavior was observed by these methods for a third compartment that, based on maternal albumin endocytosis, was associated with trophoblastic cells in the interphase labyrinth. Structural features associated with these dynamic measurements were consistent with independent intravital and ex vivo fluorescence microscopy studies and are discussed within the context of the anatomy of developing mouse placentas. PMID:24969421

Solomon, Eddy; Avni, Reut; Hadas, Ron; Raz, Tal; Garbow, Joel Richard; Bendel, Peter; Frydman, Lucio; Neeman, Michal

2014-07-15

49

"Ophthalmoplegic migraine" with reversible MRI enhancement of the cisternal sixth cranial nerve.  

PubMed

A 45-year-old woman reported multiple episodes of reversible left eye pain and diplopia stretching over 12 years. Ophthalmic examinations had repeatedly disclosed a left sixth cranial nerve palsy. Postcontrast brain MRI performed 3 weeks after clinical onset of the most recent episode demonstrated enhancement of the cisternal segment of the left sixth cranial nerve. Five months later, when symptoms and signs had largely abated, postcontrast brain MRI was normal. The clinical diagnosis satisfies the criteria for "ophthalmoplegic migraine." Although reversible cisternal enhancement of the third cranial nerve has been often described in this condition, this is the first report of cisternal enhancement of the sixth cranial nerve. PMID:19491643

Lavin, Patrick J M; Aulino, Joseph M; Uskavitch, David

2009-06-01

50

Polymeric PARACEST Agents for Enhancing MRI Contrast Sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Linear polymers of PARACEST agents were prepared by using classical free radical chain polymerization conditions. The Eu3+-polymers exhibited similar intermediate-to-slow water exchange and CEST characteristics as the Eu3+-monomers. This provided an avenue to lower the detection limit of these imaging agents substantially and makes them potentially useful as MRI sensors for molecular imaging.

Wu, Yunkou; Zhou, Youfu; Quari, Olivier; Woods, Mark; Zhao, Piyu; Soesbe, Todd C.; Kiefer, Garry E.; Sherry, A. Dean

2009-01-01

51

FRACTAL DIMENSION ANALYSIS OF KINETIC FEATURE MAPS IN BREAST DYNAMIC CONTRAST-ENHANCED MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information and correlation dimension methods were retrospectively applied to the task of binary lesion classification on a database of 181 breast lesions visible in breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Prior to this study, all 181 lesions were biopsied and classified as benign or malignant at histological examina- tion. Initially, the DCE-MRI data were used to obtain a kinetic

JEREMY BANCROFT BROWN

52

Exploratory data analysis of dynamic cerebral contrast-enhanced perfusion MRI time-series  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare experimentally four different unsupervised clustering techniques as a tool for the analysis of dynamic cerebral contrast-enhanced perfusion MRI time-series in patients with and without stroke. The goal of the paper is to determine the robustness and reliability of clustering methods in providing a self-organized segmentation of perfusion MRI data sharing common properties of signal dynamics. By using the

O. Lange; A. Meyer-Baese; A. Wismueller

2005-01-01

53

Glucose Administration Enhances fMRI Brain Activation and Connectivity Related to Episodic Memory Encoding for Neutral and Emotional Stimuli  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Glucose enhances memory in a variety of species. In humans, glucose administration enhances episodic memory encoding, although little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying these effects. Here we examined whether elevating blood glucose would enhance functional MRI (fMRI) activation and connectivity in brain regions associated with…

Parent, Marise B.; Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Ryan, John P.; Wilson, Jennifer S.; Harenski, Carla; Hamann, Stephan

2011-01-01

54

Edge-enhanced spatiotemporal constrained reconstruction of undersampled dynamic contrast-enhanced radial MRI  

PubMed Central

Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technique used to study and track contrast kinetics in an area of interest in the body over time. Reconstruction of images with high contrast and sharp edges from undersampled data is a challenge. While good results have been reported using a radial acquisition and a spatiotemporal constrained reconstruction (STCR) method, we propose improvements from using spatially adaptive weighting and an additional edge-based constraint. The new method uses intensity gradients from a sliding window reference image to improve the sharpness of edges in the reconstructed image. The method was tested on eight radial cardiac perfusion data sets with 24 rays and compared to the STCR method. The reconstructions showed that the new method, termed edge-enhanced spatiotemporal constrained reconstruction, was able to reconstruct images with sharper edges, and there were a 36%±13.7% increase in contrast-to-noise ratio and a 24%±11% increase in contrast near the edges when compared to STCR. The novelty of this paper is the combination of spatially adaptive weighting for spatial total variation (TV) constraint along with a gradient matching term to improve the sharpness of edges. The edge map from a reference image allows the reconstruction to trade-off between TV and edge enhancement, depending on the spatially varying weighting provided by the edge map.

Kamesh Iyer, Srikant; Tasdizen, Tolga; DiBella, Edward V.R.

2012-01-01

55

Preparation of Magnetite Nanoemulsion Stabilized by Tween 81 for MRI Contrast Enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetite nanoemulsions (NE) were synthesized via procedure of heterophase synthesis in a ternary system: Tween 81/pentadecane/water. Prepared NEs were studied by dynamic light scattering and NMR spectroscopy. Their size was of the order of 10 nm and they revealed superparamagnetic properties. MRI efficiency of the NEs was demonstrated by measuring magnetic spin-spin relaxation rates, which complied with the properties of negative contrast agents. MRI of agar phantom demonstrates high grade of contrast enhancement in vitro. Toxicity of the preparations was studied on murine model. Studies revealed no signs of acute or short-term (within 30 days) toxicity in mice. Synthesized magnetite NEs have potential for in vivo MRI contrast enhancement applications.

Nikolaev, Boris P.; Eliseev, Oleg V.; Marchenko, Yaroslav Yu.; Yakovleva, Liudmila Yu.; Zimina, Tatiana M.; Soloviev, Alexei V.; Luchinin, Victor V.

2010-12-01

56

Multi-sequence Registration of Cine, Tagged and Delay-Enhancement MRI with Shift Correction and Steerable Pyramid-Based Detagging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we present a registration framework for cardiac cine MRI (cMRI), tagged (tMRI) and delay-enhancement MRI (deMRI),\\u000a where the two main issues to find an accurate alignment between these images have been taking into account: the presence of\\u000a tags in tMRI and respiration artifacts in all sequences. A steerable pyramid image decomposition has been used for detagging\\u000a purposes

Oscar Camara; Estanislao Oubel; Gemma Piella; Simone Balocco; Mathieu De Craene; Alejandro F. Frangi

2009-01-01

57

Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in clinical trials of antivascular therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 100 early-phase clinical trials and investigator-led studies of targeted antivascular therapies—both anti-angiogenic and vascular-targeting agents—have reported data derived from T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI. However, the role of DCE-MRI for decision making during the drug-development process remains controversial. Despite well-documented guidelines on image acquisition and analysis, several key questions concerning the role of this technique in early-phase trial design remain

Alan Jackson; Geoff J. M. Parker; Caleb Roberts; Gordon C. Jayson; James P. B. O'Connor

2012-01-01

58

Synergistic enhancement of iron oxide nanoparticle and gadolinium for dual-contrast MRI  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MR contrast agents exert influence on T{sub 1} or T{sub 2} relaxation time of the surrounding tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined use of iron oxide and Gd-DTPA can improve the sensitivity/specificity of lesion detection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dual contrast MRI enhances the delineation of tumor borders and small lesions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of DC-MRI can come from the high paramagnetic susceptibility of Gd{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of DC-MRI can also come from the distinct pharmacokinetic distribution of SPIO and Gd-DTPA. -- Abstract: Purpose: The use of MR contrast agents allows accurate diagnosis by exerting an influence on the longitudinal (T{sub 1}) or transverse (T{sub 2}) relaxation time of the surrounding tissue. In this study, we combined the use of iron oxide (IO) particles and nonspecific extracellular gadolinium chelate (Gd) in order to further improve the sensitivity and specificity of lesion detection. Procedures: With a 7-Tesla scanner, pre-contrasted, IO-enhanced and dual contrast agent enhanced MRIs were performed in phantom, normal animals, and animal models of lymph node tumor metastases and orthotopic brain tumor. For the dual-contrast (DC) MRI, we focused on the evaluation of T{sub 2} weighted DC MRI with IO administered first, then followed by the injection of a bolus of gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). Results: Based on the C/N ratios and MRI relaxometry, the synergistic effect of coordinated administration of Gd-DTPA and IO was observed and confirmed in phantom, normal liver and tumor models. At 30 min after administration of Feridex, Gd-DTPA further decreased T{sub 2} relaxation in liver immediately after the injection. Additional administration of Gd-DTPA also immediately increased the signal contrast between tumor and brain parenchyma and maximized the C/N ratio to -4.12 {+-} 0.71. Dual contrast MRI also enhanced the delineation of tumor borders and small lesions. Conclusions: DC-MRI will be helpful to improve diagnostic accuracy and decrease the threshold size for lesion detection.

Zhang, Fan [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health - NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States) [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health - NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Center for Molecular Imaging and Translational Medicine, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Huang, Xinglu [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health - NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)] [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health - NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Qian, Chunqi [Laboratory of Functional and Molecular Imaging, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States) [Laboratory of Functional and Molecular Imaging, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Center for Molecular Imaging and Translational Medicine, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zhu, Lei [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health - NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States) [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health - NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Center for Molecular Imaging and Translational Medicine, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Hida, Naoki [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health - NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)] [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health - NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Niu, Gang, E-mail: niug@mail.nih.gov [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health - NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)] [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health - NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Chen, Xiaoyuan, E-mail: shawn.chen@nih.gov [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health - NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)] [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health - NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

2012-09-07

59

Tracer kinetic model-driven registration for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI time-series data.  

PubMed

Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) time series data are subject to unavoidable physiological motion during acquisition (e.g., due to breathing) and this motion causes significant errors when fitting tracer kinetic models to the data, particularly with voxel-by-voxel fitting approaches. Motion correction is problematic, as contrast enhancement introduces new features into postcontrast images and conventional registration similarity measures cannot fully account for the increased image information content. A methodology is presented for tracer kinetic model-driven registration that addresses these problems by explicitly including a model of contrast enhancement in the registration process. The iterative registration procedure is focused on a tumor volume of interest (VOI), employing a three-dimensional (3D) translational transformation that follows only tumor motion. The implementation accurately removes motion corruption in a DCE-MRI software phantom and it is able to reduce model fitting errors and improve localization in 3D parameter maps in patient data sets that were selected for significant motion problems. Sufficient improvement was observed in the modeling results to salvage clinical trial DCE-MRI data sets that would otherwise have to be rejected due to motion corruption. PMID:17969122

Buonaccorsi, Giovanni A; O'Connor, James P B; Caunce, Angela; Roberts, Caleb; Cheung, Sue; Watson, Yvonne; Davies, Karen; Hope, Lynn; Jackson, Alan; Jayson, Gordon C; Parker, Geoffrey J M

2007-11-01

60

Diagnostic efficacy of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for hepatocellular carcinoma and dysplastic nodule  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the relationship between the signal intensity of hepatobiliary phase images on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological grade. METHODS: Fifty-nine patients with 82 hepatocellular lesions were evaluated retrospectively. Hepatobiliary phase images on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI were classified into 3 groups: low, iso or high. Angiography-assisted computed tomography (CT) findings were also classified into 3 groups: CT during arterial portography, and CT hepatic arteriography: A: iso, iso or low; B: slightly low, iso or low; and C: low, high. We correlated angiography-assisted CT, hepatobiliary phase findings during gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and histological grades. Furthermore, correlations between MRI findings and histological grade for each hemodynamic pattern were performed. Correlations among radiological and pathological findings were statistically evaluated using the chi-square test and Fisher’ s exact test. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between histological grade and hemodynamic pattern (P < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between histological grade and signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase (P < 0.05) in group A lesions. There was no significant correlation between histological grade and signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase in group B or C lesions (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase correlated with histological grade in the lesions that maintained portal blood flow, but did not correlate in lesions that showed decreased or defective portal blood flow.

Saito, Kazuhiro; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Sugimoto, Katsutoshi; Nishio, Ryota; Saguchi, Toru; Nagao, Toshitaka; Taira, Junichi; Akata, Soichi; Tokuuye, Koichi

2011-01-01

61

Atherosclerotic plaque inflammation quantification using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI  

PubMed Central

Inflammation plays an important role in atherosclerosis. Given the increasing interest in using in-vivo imaging methods to study the physiology and treatment effects in atherosclerosis, noninvasive intraplaque inflammation quantitative method is needed. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed and validated to quantitatively characterize atherosclerotic plaque inflammation. Recent studies have optimized the imaging protocol, pharmacokinetic modeling techniques. All of these technical advances further promoted DCE-MRI to clinical investigations in plaque risk assessment and therapeutic response monitor. Although larger clinical studies are still needed, DCE-MRI has been proven to be a promising tool to reveal more about intraplaque inflammation by in vivo quantitative inflammation imaging.

Wu, Tingting; Kerwin, William S.; Yuan, Chun

2013-01-01

62

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) in Preclinical Studies of Antivascular Treatments  

PubMed Central

Antivascular treatments can either be antiangiogenic or targeting established tumour vasculature. These treatments affect the tumour microvasculature and microenvironment but may not change clinical measures like tumour volume and growth. In research on antivascular treatments, information on the tumour vasculature is therefore essential. Preclinical research is often used for optimization of antivascular drugs alone or in combined treatments. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is an in vivo imaging method providing vascular information, which has become an important tool in both preclinical and clinical research. This review discusses common DCE-MRI imaging protocols and analysis methods and provides an overview of preclinical research on antivascular treatments utilizing DCE-MRI.

Nielsen, Thomas; Wittenborn, Thomas; Horsman, Michael R.

2012-01-01

63

Contrast-enhanced MRI of the subdeltoid, subacromial bursa in painful and painless rotator cuff tears  

PubMed Central

Objective Although shoulder pain is often associated with rotator cuff tears, many tears are asymptomatic and are not the cause of the patient's pain. This may explain the persistence of symptoms in some patients despite technically successful rotator cuff repair. It has been proposed that rotator cuff tears cause pain through subdeltoid/subacromial bursal inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine whether bursal inflammation seen on MRI is associated with pain in patients with rotator cuff tears of the shoulder. Methods The shoulders of 255 patients were screened with ultrasound. 33 full-thickness rotator cuff tears (18 with shoulder pain and 15 without pain) were identified and subsequently studied using contrast-enhanced MRI of the shoulder. Enhancement of the subacromial bursa was scored independently by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Logistic regression was used to determine whether bursal enhancement was independently associated with pain. Results There was a significant association between pain and age, with greater likelihood of pain in younger patients. Bursal enhancement was common in both painful and painless tears. No statistically significant link between pain and bursal enhancement was seen, even after accounting for age. Conclusion Although enhancement of the subdeltoid/subacromial bursa was common, no evidence was found to support the hypothesis that bursal enhancement is associated with pain in rotator cuff tears. It is therefore unlikely to determine reliably which patients would benefit from rotator cuff repair. Advances in knowledge Bursal enhancement and thickening does not reliably correlate with symptoms or presence of rotator cuff tear.

Hodgson, R J; O'Connor, P J; Hensor, E M A; Barron, D; Robinson, P

2012-01-01

64

Cardiac Amyloidosis: Typical Imaging Findings and Diffuse Myocardial Damage Demonstrated by Delayed Contrast-Enhanced MRI  

SciTech Connect

Amyloidosis is a rare systemic disease. However, involvement of the heart is a common finding and is the most frequent cause of death in amyloidosis. We report the sonographic, scintigraphic, and MRI features of a pathologically proven case of cardiac amyloidosis. Delayed contrast-enhanced MR images, using an inversion recovery prepped gradient-echo sequence, revealed diffuse enhancement in the wall of both left and right ventricles. This enhancement suggested expansion of the extracellular space of the myocardium caused by diffuse myocardial necrosis secondary to deposition of amyloid.

Sueyoshi, Eijun, E-mail: EijunSueyoshi@aol.com; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Okimoto, Tomoaki; Hayashi, Kuniaki [Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Tanaka, Kyouei; Toda, Genji [Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology (Japan)

2006-08-15

65

Perceptual enhancement of arteriovenous malformation in MRI angiography displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of presenting medical images in an intuitive and usable manner during a procedure is essential. However, most medical visualization interfaces, particularly those designed for minimally-invasive surgery, suffer from a number of issues as a consequence of disregarding the human perceptual, cognitive, and motor system's limitations. This matter is even more prominent when human visual system is overlooked during the design cycle. One example is the visualization of the neuro-vascular structures in MR angiography (MRA) images. This study investigates perceptual performance in the usability of a display to visualize blood vessels in MRA volumes using a contour enhancement technique. Our results show that when contours are enhanced, our participants, in general, can perform faster with higher level of accuracy when judging the connectivity of different vessels. One clinical outcome of such perceptual enhancement is improvement of spatial reasoning needed for planning complex neuro-vascular operations such as treating Arteriovenous Malformations (AVMs). The success of an AVM intervention greatly depends on fully understanding the anatomy of vascular structures. However, poor visualization of pre-operative MRA images makes the planning of such a treatment quite challenging.

Abhari, Kamyar; Baxter, John S. H.; Eagleson, Roy; Peters, Terry; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine

2012-02-01

66

Standardization of Radiological Evaluation of Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI: Application in Breast Cancer Diagnosis.  

PubMed

Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI is applied as an adjuvant tool for breast cancer detection, diagnosis, and follow-up of therapy. Despite improvements through the years in achieving higher spatial and temporal resolution, it still suffers from lack of scanning and processing standardization, and consequently, high variability in the radiological evaluation, particularly differentiating malignant from benign lesions. We describe here a hybrid method for achieving standardization of the radiological evaluation of breast dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols, based on integrating the model based three time point (3TP) method with principal component analysis (PCA). The scanning and image processing procedures consisted of three main steps: 1. 3TP standardization of the MRI acquisition parameters according to a kinetic model, 2. Applying PCA to test cases and constructing an eigenvectors' base related to the contrast-enhancement kinetics and 3. Projecting all new cases on the eigenvectors' base and evaluating the clinical outcome. Datasets of overall 96 malignant and 26 benign breast lesions were recorded on 1.5T and 3T scanners, using three different MRI acquisition parameters optimized by the 3TP method. The final radiological evaluation showed similar detection and diagnostic ability for the three different MRI acquisition parameters. The area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic analysis yielded a value of 0.88 ± 0.034 for differentiating malignant from benign lesions. This 3TP+PCA hybrid method is fast and can be readily applied as a computer aided diagnostic tool of breast cancer. The underlying principles of this method can be extended to standardize the evaluation of malignancies in other organs. PMID:24000989

Furman-Haran, E; Feinberg, M S; Badikhi, D; Eyal, E; Zehavi, T; Degani, H

2014-10-01

67

Voluntary Enhancement of Neural Signatures of Affiliative Emotion Using fMRI Neurofeedback  

PubMed Central

In Ridley Scott’s film “Blade Runner”, empathy-detection devices are employed to measure affiliative emotions. Despite recent neurocomputational advances, it is unknown whether brain signatures of affiliative emotions, such as tenderness/affection, can be decoded and voluntarily modulated. Here, we employed multivariate voxel pattern analysis and real-time fMRI to address this question. We found that participants were able to use visual feedback based on decoded fMRI patterns as a neurofeedback signal to increase brain activation characteristic of tenderness/affection relative to pride, an equally complex control emotion. Such improvement was not observed in a control group performing the same fMRI task without neurofeedback. Furthermore, the neurofeedback-driven enhancement of tenderness/affection-related distributed patterns was associated with local fMRI responses in the septohypothalamic area and frontopolar cortex, regions previously implicated in affiliative emotion. This demonstrates that humans can voluntarily enhance brain signatures of tenderness/affection, unlocking new possibilities for promoting prosocial emotions and countering antisocial behavior.

Moll, Jorge; Weingartner, Julie H.; Bado, Patricia; Basilio, Rodrigo; Sato, Joao R.; Melo, Bruno R.; Bramati, Ivanei E.; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Zahn, Roland

2014-01-01

68

One-pot facile synthesis of PEGylated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for MRI contrast enhancement.  

PubMed

Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (PEG·SPIONs) were prepared by a facile one-pot approach. The synthesized PEG·SPIONs were found to be uniform in size with an average hydrodynamic diameter of 11.7nm. PEG·SPIONs exhibited excellent dispersibility in water, colloidal stability, and biocompatibility. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) properties of PEG·SPIONs were characterized both in vitro and in vivo. The dual contrast both in T1 and T2-weighted imaging was well enhanced with longitudinal and transverse relaxivity (r1, r2) of 35.92s(-1) per mM of Fe(3+) and 206.91s(-1) per mM of Fe(3+) respectively. In vivo T2-weighted MRI shows pronounced enhancement in the liver and spleen but not in T1-weighted MRI. Accumulations of nanoparticles were found primarily in the liver, spleen, and intestine, while much lower uptake in the kidney, heart, and lungs. A gradual excretion of PEG·SPIONs was observed via hepatobiliary (HB) processing over a period of 14days. The toxicity of PEG·SPIONs was also evaluated in vitro and in vivo. PEG·SPIONs were found to be biocompatible by investigating organ tissues after hematoxylin-eosin staining. The conclusion of the study indicates a high potential of PEG·SPIONs in medical MRI. PMID:24907749

Dai, Lingling; Liu, Yongkang; Wang, Zhongqiu; Guo, Fangfang; Shi, Donglu; Zhang, Bingbo

2014-08-01

69

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI of Cervical Cancers: Temporal Percentile Screening of Contrast Enhancement Identifies Parameters for Prediction of Chemoradioresistance  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To systematically screen the tumor contrast enhancement of locally advanced cervical cancers to assess the prognostic value of two descriptive parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Methods and Materials: This study included a prospectively collected cohort of 81 patients who underwent DCE-MRI with gadopentetate dimeglumine before chemoradiotherapy. The following descriptive DCE-MRI parameters were extracted voxel by voxel and presented as histograms for each time point in the dynamic series: normalized relative signal increase (nRSI) and normalized area under the curve (nAUC). The first to 100th percentiles of the histograms were included in a log-rank survival test, resulting in p value and relative risk maps of all percentile-time intervals for each DCE-MRI parameter. The maps were used to evaluate the robustness of the individual percentile-time pairs and to construct prognostic parameters. Clinical endpoints were locoregional control and progression-free survival. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Results: The p value maps of nRSI and nAUC showed a large continuous region of percentile-time pairs that were significantly associated with locoregional control (p < 0.05). These parameters had prognostic impact independent of tumor stage, volume, and lymph node status on multivariate analysis. Only a small percentile-time interval of nRSI was associated with progression-free survival. Conclusions: The percentile-time screening identified DCE-MRI parameters that predict long-term locoregional control after chemoradiotherapy of cervical cancer.

Andersen, Erlend K.F. [Department of Medical Physics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Hole, Knut Hakon; Lund, Kjersti V. [Department of Radiology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Sundfor, Kolbein [Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Kristensen, Gunnar B. [Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Institute for Medical Informatics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Lyng, Heidi [Department of Radiation Biology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Malinen, Eirik, E-mail: eirik.malinen@fys.uio.no [Department of Medical Physics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

2012-03-01

70

Functional neuroimaging using ultrasonic blood-brain barrier disruption and manganese-enhanced MRI.  

PubMed

Although mice are the dominant model system for studying the genetic and molecular underpinnings of neuroscience, functional neuroimaging in mice remains technically challenging. One approach, Activation-Induced Manganese-enhanced MRI (AIM MRI), has been used successfully to map neuronal activity in rodents. In AIM MRI, Mn(2+) acts a calcium analog and accumulates in depolarized neurons. Because Mn(2+) shortens the T1 tissue property, regions of elevated neuronal activity will enhance in MRI. Furthermore, Mn(2+) clears slowly from the activated regions; therefore, stimulation can be performed outside the magnet prior to imaging, enabling greater experimental flexibility. However, because Mn(2+) does not readily cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the need to open the BBB has limited the use of AIM MRI, especially in mice. One tool for opening the BBB is ultrasound. Though potentially damaging, if ultrasound is administered in combination with gas-filled microbubbles (i.e., ultrasound contrast agents), the acoustic pressure required for BBB opening is considerably lower. This combination of ultrasound and microbubbles can be used to reliably open the BBB without causing tissue damage. Here, a method is presented for performing AIM MRI by using microbubbles and ultrasound to open the BBB. After an intravenous injection of perflutren microbubbles, an unfocused pulsed ultrasound beam is applied to the shaved mouse head for 3 minutes. For simplicity, we refer to this technique of BBB Opening with Microbubbles and UltraSound as BOMUS. Using BOMUS to open the BBB throughout both cerebral hemispheres, manganese is administered to the whole mouse brain. After experimental stimulation of the lightly sedated mice, AIM MRI is used to map the neuronal response. To demonstrate this approach, herein BOMUS and AIM MRI are used to map unilateral mechanical stimulation of the vibrissae in lightly sedated mice. Because BOMUS can open the BBB throughout both hemispheres, the unstimulated side of the brain is used to control for nonspecific background stimulation. The resultant 3D activation map agrees well with published representations of the vibrissae regions of the barrel field cortex. The ultrasonic opening of the BBB is fast, noninvasive, and reversible; and thus this approach is suitable for high-throughput and/or longitudinal studies in awake mice. PMID:22825127

Howles, Gabriel P; Qi, Yi; Rosenzweig, Stephen J; Nightingale, Kathryn R; Johnson, G Allan

2012-01-01

71

Multiphasic contrast-enhanced CT and MRI findings of adult mesoblastic nephroma: A report of two cases  

PubMed Central

Mesoblastic nephroma (MN) presenting in an adult is extremely rare. The computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of this tumor in adulthood have not been widely reported. We present two additional cases of adult MN and describe the multiphasic contrast-enhanced CT and MRI findings.

Ding, Yuqin; He, Deming; Zhou, Jianjun; Zeng, Mengsu

2013-01-01

72

Mn-DPDP enhanced MRI in experimental bile duct obstruction.  

PubMed

To assess both the effect of Mn-DPDP as a hepatobiliary-specific contrast agent in bile duct obstruction and the relative role of liver and kidney in the elimination of this agent from the body, an animal experiment was set up. Twelve rats were used and divided into three groups. In group 1 the common bile duct was ligated, in group 2 bile duct ligation was limited to one lobe, and group 3 served as control. Magnetic resonance T1-weighted SE images were obtained before and after the injection of 25 mumol/kg of Mn-DPDP during the first 2 h and at day 1, 2, 3, 4, and, in some animals, up to 21 days. In normal rats the absolute enhancement signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) versus time plots obtained from the liver after Mn-DPDP injection returned to precontrast values within 24 h. In the group with common bile duct ligation, important liver enhancement persisted up to 21 days. In the group with selective obstruction, liver intensity normalized after 3 days. The S/N plots from spleen, renal cortex, and obstructed liver lobe showed similarities in time course. The present data indicate that Mn elimination is strongly impaired in the presence of bile duct obstruction. Renal glomerular filtration is ineffective in eliminating Mn from the body. The persisting splenic and renal cortical enhancement suggests that free Mn or some Mn-DPDP metabolite either is strongly bound to plasma proteins and acts as a blood pooling agent and/or is uptaken by the splenic or renal parenchyma. PMID:8454757

Marchal, G; Ni, Y; Zhang, X; Yu, J; Lodemann, K P; Baert, A L

1993-01-01

73

Quantitative Evaluation of Enhancement Patterns in Focal Solid Liver Lesions with Gd-EOB-DTPA-Enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Purpose The objective was to investigate the dynamic enhancement patterns in focal solid liver lesions after the administration of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) by means of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including hepatobiliary phase (HP) images 20 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. Materials and Methods Non-enhanced T1/T2-weighted as well as dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) images during the arterial phase (AP), the portal venous phase (PVP), the late phase (LP), and the HP (20 min) were obtained from 83 patients (54 male, 29 female, mean age 62.01 years) with focal solid liver lesions. MRI was conducted by means of a 1.5-T system for 63 patients with malignant liver lesions (HCCs: n?=?34, metastases: n?=?29) and for 20 patients with benign liver lesions (FNH lesions: n?=?14, hemangiomas: n?=?3, adenomas: n?=?3). For quantitative analysis, signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), contrast enhancement ratios (CER), lesion-to-liver contrast ratios (LLC), and signal intensity (SI) ratios were measured. Results The SNR of liver parenchyma significantly increased in each dynamic phase after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration compared to the SNR of non-enhanced images (p<0.001). The CER of HCCs and metastases significantly decreased between LP and HP images (p?=?0.0011, p<0.0001). However, FNH lesions did not show any significant difference, whereas an increased CER was found in hemangiomas. The mean LLCs of FNH lesions were significantly higher than those of HCCs and metastases. The LLC values of hemangiomas remained negative during the entire time course, whereas the LLC of adenomas indicated hyperintensity from the AP to the LP. Furthermore, adenomas showed hypointensity in HP images. Conclusion Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI may help diagnose focal solid liver lesions by evaluating their enhancement patterns.

Haimerl, Michael; Wachtler, Max; Zeman, Florian; Verloh, Niklas; Platzek, Ivan; Schreyer, Andreas Georg; Stroszczynski, Christian; Wiggermann, Philipp

2014-01-01

74

Precision analysis of kinetic modelling estimates in dynamic contrast enhanced MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object  Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI and pharmacokinetic modelling provide a powerful tool for tumour diagnosis and treatment evaluation.\\u000a However, several studies show low reproducibility of the technique and poor precision of the transendothelial transfer constant\\u000a K\\u000a trans. This work proposes a theoretical framework describing how finite signal-noise-ratio (SNR) in the MR images is propagated\\u000a throughout the measurement protocol to uncertainty on

Dieter De Naeyer; Yves De Deene; Wim P. Ceelen; Patrick Segers; Pascal Verdonck

2011-01-01

75

Tracer kinetic modelling of tumour angiogenesis based on dynamic contrast-enhanced CT and MRI measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Technical developments in both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) have helped to reduce scan times\\u000a and expedited the development of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging techniques. Since the temporal change of the image\\u000a signal following the administration of a diffusible, extracellular contrast agent (CA) is related to the local blood supply\\u000a and the extravasation of the CA into

Gunnar Brix; Jürgen Griebel; Fabian Kiessling; Frederik Wenz

2010-01-01

76

Lack of nephrotoxicity of gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced non-vascular MRI and MRI without contrast agent in patients at high-risk for acute kidney injury  

PubMed Central

Background Gadolinium chelates (GCs) have been traditionally considered as non-nephrotoxic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast materials. However, it has been suggested in some recent articles that GCs may have a nephrotoxic potential, but most of these reports are retrospective. However, the evaluated contrast agents, their doses, and the tests used to determine the kidney function were not consistent across studies. We aimed to investigate the effect of magnetic field and an MRI contrast agent, gadopentetate dimeglumine (GD), on renal functions in patients at high risk for acute kidney injury (AKI). Material/Methods We designed a prospective case-control study with 2 age- and sex-matched groups of patients at high-risk for AKI (n=72 for each group). Patients in Group 1 received a fixed dose of (0.2 mmol/kg) GD-enhanced non-vascular MRI and patients in Group 2 received MRI without GD. Before the MRI and at 6, 24, 72, and 168 hours after the MRI, biochemical tests, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albumin/creatinine ratio in spot urine, and early AKI biomarkers (cystatin C, N-Acetyl-Glucosaminidase [NAG], Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL]) were measured. Results Serum creatinine, albumin/creatinine ratio, and eGFR were not different between Group 1 and 2 (p>0.05). There were no significant changes in renal function tests and AKI biomarkers (?serum creatinine, ?albumin/creatinine ratio, ?GFR, ?cystatin C, ?NAG, and ?NGAL) for either groups 6, 24, 72, and 168 hours after the procedures (p>0.05). Conclusions MRI without contrast agent and non-vascular contrast-enhanced (GD, 0.2 mmol/kg) MRI are not nephrotoxic procedures for patients at high risk for AKI.

Oguz, Ebru Gok; Kiykim, Ahmet; Turgutalp, Kenan; Olmaz, Refik; Ozhan, Onur; Muslu, Necati; Horoz, Mehmet; Bardak, Simge; Sungur, Mehmet Ali

2013-01-01

77

Visualization of 3D geometric models of the breast created from contrast-enhanced MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrast enhanced breast MRI is currently used as an adjuvant modality to x-ray mammography because of its ability to resolve ambiguities and determine the extent of malignancy. This study described techniques to create and visualize 3D geometric models of abnormal breast tissue. MRIs were performed on a General Electric 1.5 Tesla scanner using dual phased array breast coils. Image processing tasks included: 1) correction of image inhomogeneity caused by the coils, 2) segmentation of normal and abnormal tissue, and 3) modeling and visualization of the segmented tissue. The models were visualized using object-based surface rendering which revealed characteristics critical to differentiating benign from malignant tissue. Surface rendering illustrated the enhancement distribution and enhancement patterns. The modeling process condensed the multi-slice MRI data information and standardized its interpretation. Visualizing the 3D models should improve the radiologist's and/or surgeon's impression of the 3D shape, extent, and accessibility of the malignancy compared to viewing breast MRI data slice by slice.

Leader, J. Ken; Wang, Xiao Hui; Chang, Yuan-Hsiang; Chapman, Brian E.

2002-05-01

78

Motion correction in periodically-rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) and turboprop MRI.  

PubMed

Periodically-rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) and Turboprop MRI are characterized by greatly reduced sensitivity to motion, compared to their predecessors, fast spin-echo (FSE) and gradient and spin-echo (GRASE), respectively. This is due to the inherent self-navigation and motion correction of PROPELLER-based techniques. However, it is unknown how various acquisition parameters that determine k-space sampling affect the accuracy of motion correction in PROPELLER and Turboprop MRI. The goal of this work was to evaluate the accuracy of motion correction in both techniques, to identify an optimal rotation correction approach, and determine acquisition strategies for optimal motion correction. It was demonstrated that blades with multiple lines allow more accurate estimation of motion than blades with fewer lines. Also, it was shown that Turboprop MRI is less sensitive to motion than PROPELLER. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the number of blades does not significantly affect motion correction. Finally, clinically appropriate acquisition strategies that optimize motion correction are discussed for PROPELLER and Turboprop MRI. PMID:19365858

Tamhane, Ashish A; Arfanakis, Konstantinos

2009-07-01

79

Distinguished Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the following lists of distinguished books: "Best Books of 1998"; "Best Young Adult Books"; "Notable Children's Videos"; "Best Children's Books"; "Notable Recordings for Children"; "Notable Software and Web Sites for Children"; "Quick Picks for Reluctant Young Adult Readers"; "Bestsellers of 1998"; and "Literary Prizes, 1998." (AEF)

Marles, Daisy; Ink, Gary

1999-01-01

80

Segmented spin-echo pulses to increase fMRI signal: repeated intrinsic diffusional enhancement.  

PubMed

Since its inception, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has seen rapid progress in the application to neuroscience. Common gradient-recalled acquisition methods are susceptible to static field inhomogeneities, resulting in signal loss at the medial temporal area important for memory function or at the basal ganglia area for motor control. In addition, they are susceptible to the contaminating signals of large vein origin, such as the signals from its surrounding cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leading to false-positive activation. Spin echoes overcome these drawbacks. However, they are less sensitive to blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) susceptibility changes because of their refocusing mechanism. A method is presented here to enhance the spin-echo fMRI signal by recruiting more spins to participate in the dynamic BOLD process. This method divided a conventional T(2) weighting period into several segments separated by blocks of extra free diffusion time. Before the extra diffusion time spins are restored to the longitudinal axis preventing rapid transverse relaxation. This process allows more spin access to the regions that experience the BOLD field gradient. Because of the increased spin population that is modulated by the capillary BOLD field gradient, the functional signal is increased. Spin-echo echo-planar imaging (EPI) with this enhancement may be a useful technique for fMRI studies at inhomogeneous areas such as the air/tissue interface. Magn Reson Med 42:631-635, 1999. PMID:10502750

Song, A W; Mao, H; Muthupillai, R; Haist, F; Dixon, W T

1999-10-01

81

Efficiency of Ferritin as an MRI Reporter Gene in NPC Cells Is Enhanced by Iron Supplementation  

PubMed Central

Background. An emerging MRI reporter, ferritin heavy chain (FTH1), is recently applied to enhance the contrast and increase the sensitivity of MRI in the monitoring of solid tumors. However, FTH1-overexpression-related cytotoxicity is required to be explored. Methods. By using the Tet-Off system, FTH1 overexpression was semi-quantitativiely and dynamicly regulated by doxycycline in a NPC cell line. Effects of FTH1 overexpression on the proliferation, cytotoxicity, apoptosis and migration of NPC cells were investigated in vitro, and MR relaxation rate was measured in vitro and in vivo. Results. In vitro and in vivo overexpression of FTH1 significantly increased the transverse relaxivity (R2), which could be enhanced by iron supplementation. In vitro, overexpression of FTH1 reduced cell growth and migration, which were not reduced by iron supplementation. Furthermore, cells were subcutaneously inoculated into the nude mice. Results showed FTH1 overexpression decreased tumor growth in the absence of iron supplementation but not in the presence of iron supplementation. Conclusion. To maximize R2 and minimize the potential adverse effects, supplementation of iron at appropriate dose is recommended during the application of FTH1 as a reporter gene in the monitoring of NPC by MRI.

Feng, Yupeng; Liu, Qicai; Zhu, Junfeng; Xie, Fukang; Li, Li

2012-01-01

82

Quantitative effects of using compressed sensing in dynamic contrast enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) involves the acquisition of images before, during, and after the injection of a contrast agent (CA). In order to perform quantitative modeling on the resulting signal intensity time course, data must be acquired rapidly, which compromises spatial resolution, signal-to-noise, and/or field of view. One approach that may allow for gains in temporal or spatial resolution or signal-to-noise of an individual image is to use compressed sensing (CS) MRI. In this study, we demonstrate the accuracy of extracted pharmacokinetic parameters from DCE-MRI data obtained as part of pre-clinical and clinical studies in which fully sampled acquisitions have been retrospectively undersampled by factors of 2, 3, and 4 in Fourier space and then reconstructed with CS. The mean voxel-level concordance correlation coefficient for Ktrans (i.e., the volume transfer constant) obtained from the 2× accelerated and the fully sampled data is 0.92 and 0.90 for mouse and human data, respectively; for 3× the results are 0.79 and 0.79, respectively; for 4×, the results are 0.64 and 0.70, respectively. The mean error in the tumor mean Ktrans for the mouse and human data at 2× acceleration is 1.8% and ?4.2%, respectively; at 3×, 3.6% and ?10%, respectively; at 4×, 7.8% and ?12%, respectively. These results suggest that CS combined with appropriate reduced acquisitions may be an effective approach to improving image quality in DCE-MRI.

Smith, David S.; Welch, E. Brian; Li, Xia; Arlinghaus, Lori R.; Loveless, Mary E.; Koyama, Tatsuki; Gore, John C.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.

2011-01-01

83

Combined prostate Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI at 3T - quantitative correlation with biopsy  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this work was to compare diagnostic accuracy of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI (DCE MRI), and their combination in diagnosing prostate cancer. Twenty five patients with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer underwent MRI, prior to transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsies. MRI data were correlated to biopsy results. Logistic regression models were constructed for the DTI parameters, DCE MRI parameters, and their combination. The areas under the Receiver Operator Characteristic curves (AUC) were compared between the models. The nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for statistical analysis. The sensitivity and specificity values were respectively 81% (74% – 87%) and 85% (79% – 90%) for DTI and 63% (55% – 70%) and 90% (85% – 94%) for DCE. The combination “DTI or DCE MRI” had 100% (97% – 100%) sensitivity and 77% (69% – 83%) specificity, while “DTI and DCE MRI” had 44% (37% – 52%) sensitivity and 98% (94% – 100%) specificity. The AUC for DTI + DCE parameters was significantly higher than that for either DTI (0.96 vs. 0.92, p = 0.0143) or DCE MRI parameters (0.96 vs. 0.87, p = 0.00187) alone. In conclusion, the combination of DTI and DCE MRI has significantly better accuracy in prostate cancer diagnosis than either technique alone.

Kozlowski, Piotr; Chang, Silvia D.; Meng, Ran; Madler, Burkhard; Bell, Robert; Jones, Edward C.; Goldenberg, S. Larry

2010-01-01

84

Radiopathological correlations: masses, non-masslike enhancements and MRI-guided biopsy.  

PubMed

MRI-guided biopsy is a recent interventional breast technique. Validating the procedure poses a new problem because the signal targeted is created by the injection of a paramagnetic contrast agent and is thus transitory. In the first instance, the procedure is validated by the radiologist, who checks that targeting is accurate and inserts a clip at the end of the procedure, and secondly by analysis of the histopathological results, which should be representative of the lesion. The pathologist needs to know the nature of the image, i.e. whether it is of mass or non-masslike enhancement, and its BI-RADS classification. The objective is that the image and the pathological result should concur. If the result is non-specific and benign, a follow-up MRI is required six months later. PMID:24456894

Chopier, J; Dratwa, C; Antoine, M; Gonin, J; Thomassin Naggara, I

2014-02-01

85

Assessment of MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in the differential diagnosis of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiographical differentiation of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) from dentigerous cysts, calcifying odontogenic cysts, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumors, odontogenic keratocysts and amelobastomas is sometimes difficult. We attempted to differentiate AOT from other lesions similar to AOT in radiographic findings using MRI. The MRI features of AOT in our three cases included homogeneous low SI in the cystic portion and homogeneous

Jun-ichi Asaumi; Yoshinobu Yanagi; Hironobu Konouchi; Miki Hisatomi; Hidenobu Matsuzaki; Hiroshi Shigehara; Kanji Kishi

2004-01-01

86

The dynamic of FUS-induced BBB Opening in Mouse Brain assessed by contrast enhanced MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Focused ultrasound (FUS) in combination with the administration of gas-filled microbubbles, can induce a localized and reversible opening of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been demonstrated as a precise tool to monitor such a local BBB disruption. However, the opening/closing mechanisms of the BBB with FUS are still largely unknown. In this ongoing project, we study the BBB opening dynamics in mouse brain comparing an interstitial and an intravascular MR contrast agent (CA). FUS in mouse brain was performed with an MRI compatible treatment setup (1.7 MHz fix-focus US transducer, f' = 68 mm, NA = 0.44 focus: 8.1 mm length; Ø = 1.1 mm) in a 1.5 T whole body MRI system. For BBB opening, forty 10 ms-long FUS-pulses were applied at a repetition rate of 1 Hz at 1 MPa. The i.v. administration of the micro bubbles (50 ?l SonoVue®) was started simultaneously with FUS exposure. To analyze the BBB opening process, short-term and long-term MRI signal dynamics of the interstitial MR contrast agent Magnevist® and the intravascular CA Vasovist® (Bayer-Schering) were studied. To assess short-term signal dynamics, T1-weighted inversion recovery turbo FLASH images (1s) were repeatedly acquired. Repeated 3D FLASH acquisitions (90 s) were used to assess long-term MRI signal dynamics. The short-term MRI signal enhancements showed comparable time constants for both types of MR contrast agents: 1.1 s (interstitial) vs. 0.8 s (intravascular). This time constant may serve as a time constant of the BBB opening process with the given FUS exposure parameters. For the long-term signal dynamics the intravascular CA (62+/-10 min) showed a fife times greater time constant as the interstitial contrast agent (12+/-10 min). This might be explained by the high molecular weight (~60 kDa) of the intravascular Vasovist due to its reversible binding to blood serum albumin resulting in a prolonged half-life in the blood stream compared to the interstitial CA. As the intravascular CA offers a much longer time window for therapy assessment, FUS-BBB therapy control with an intravascular CA might be favorable.

Jenne, Jürgen W.; Krafft, Axel J.; Maier, Florian; Krause, Marie N.; Kleber, Susanne; Huber, Peter E.; Martin-Villalba, Ana; Bock, Michael

2010-03-01

87

NOTE: Characterizing early contrast uptake of ductal carcinoma in situ with high temporal resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast: a pilot study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improvements in the reliable diagnosis of preinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) are needed. In this study, we present a new characterization of early contrast kinetics of DCIS using high temporal resolution (HiT) DCE-MRI and compare it with other breast lesions and normal parenchyma. Forty patients with mammographic calcifications suspicious for DCIS were selected for HiT imaging using T1-weighted DCE-MRI with ~7 s temporal resolution for 90 s post-contrast injection. Pixel-based and whole-lesion kinetic curves were fit to an empirical mathematical model (EMM) and several secondary kinetic parameters derived. Using the EMM parameterized and fitted concentration time curve for subsequent analysis allowed for calculation of kinetic parameters that were less susceptible to fluctuations due to noise. The parameters' initial area under the curve (iAUC) and contrast concentration at 1 min (C1 min) provided the highest diagnostic accuracy in the task of distinguishing pathologically proven DCIS from normal tissue. There was a trend for DCIS lesions with solid architectural pattern to exhibit a negative slope at 1 min (i.e. increased washout rate) compared to those with a cribriform pattern (p < 0.04). This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of quantitative analysis of early contrast kinetics at high temporal resolution and points to the potential for such an analysis to improve the characterization of DCIS.

Jansen, S. A.; Fan, X.; Medved, M.; Abe, H.; Shimauchi, A.; Yang, C.; Zamora, M.; Foxley, S.; Olopade, O. I.; Karczmar, G. S.; Newstead, G. M.

2010-10-01

88

Mapping Tumor Hypoxia In Vivo Using Pattern Recognition of Dynamic Contrast-enhanced MRI Data12  

PubMed Central

In solid tumors, hypoxia contributes significantly to radiation and chemotherapy resistance and to poor outcomes. The “gold standard” pO2 electrode measurements of hypoxia in vivo are unsatisfactory because they are invasive and have limited spatial coverage. Here, we present an approach to identify areas of tumor hypoxia using the signal versus time curves of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) data as a surrogate marker of hypoxia. We apply an unsupervised pattern recognition (PR) technique to determine the differential signal versus time curves associated with different tumor microenvironmental characteristics in DCE-MRI data of a preclinical cancer model. Well-perfused tumor areas are identified by rapid contrast uptake followed by rapid washout; hypoxic areas, which are regions of reduced vascularization, are identified by delayed contrast signal buildup and washout; and necrotic areas exhibit slow or no contrast uptake and no discernible washout over the experimental observation. The strength of the PR concept is that it captures the pixel-enhancing behavior in its entirety—during both contrast agent uptake and washout—and thus, subtleties in the temporal behavior of contrast enhancement related to features of the tumor microenvironment (driven by vascular changes) may be detected. The assignment of the tumor compartments/microenvironment to well vascularized, hypoxic, and necrotic is validated by comparison to data previously obtained using complementary imaging modalities. The proposed novel analysis approach has the advantage that it can be readily translated to the clinic, as DCE-MRI is used routinely for the identification of tumors in patients, is widely available, and easily implemented on any clinical magnet.

Stoyanova, Radka; Huang, Kris; Sandler, Kiri; Cho, HyungJoon; Carlin, Sean; Zanzonico, Pat B; Koutcher, Jason A; Ackerstaff, Ellen

2012-01-01

89

Enhanced MRI relaxivity of Gd(3+) -based contrast agents geometrically confined within porous nanoconstructs.  

PubMed

Gadolinium chelates, which are currently approved for clinical MRI use, provide relaxivities well below their theoretical limit, and they also lack tissue specificity. Recently, the geometrical confinement of Gd(3+) -based contrast agents (CAs) within porous structures has been proposed as a novel, alternative strategy to improve relaxivity without chemical modification of the CA. Here, we have characterized and optimized the performance of MRI nanoconstructs obtained by loading [Gd(DTPA)(H(2) O)](2-) (Magnevist®) into the pores of injectable mesoporous silicon particles. Nanoconstructs with three different pore sizes were studied, and at 60?MHz, they exhibited longitudinal relaxivities of ~24?m m(-1) ?s(-1) for 5-10?nm pores and ~10?m m(-1) ?s(-1) for 30 - 40?nm pores. No enhancement in relaxivity was observed for larger pores sizes. Using an outer-sphere compound, [GdTTHA](3-) , and mathematical modeling, it was demonstrated that the relaxivity enhancement is due to the increase in rotational correlation times (CA adsorbed on the pore walls) and diffusion correlation times (reduced mobility of the water molecules), as the pore sizes decreases. It was also observed that extensive CA adsorption on the outer surface of the silicon particles negates the advantages offered by nanoscale confinement. Upon incubation with HeLa cells, the nanoconstructs did not demonstrate significant cytotoxicity for up to 3?days post incubation, at different particle/cell ratios. In addition, the nanoconstructs showed complete degradation after 24?h of continuous agitation in phosphate-buffered saline. These data support and confirm the hypothesis that the geometrical confinement of Gd(3+) -chelate compounds into porous structures offers MRI nanoconstructs with enhanced relaxivity (up to 6 times for [Gd(DTPA)(H(2) O)](2-) , and 4 times for [GdTTHA](3-) ) and, potentially, improved stability, reduced toxicity and tissue specificity. PMID:22991316

Sethi, Richa; Ananta, Jeyarama S; Karmonik, Christof; Zhong, Meng; Fung, Steve H; Liu, Xuewu; Li, King; Ferrari, Mauro; Wilson, Lon J; Decuzzi, Paolo

2012-01-01

90

Registration of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI using a progressive principal component registration (PPCR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Registration of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images (DCE-MRI) of soft tissue is difficult. Conventional registration cost functions that depend on information content are compromised by the changing intensity profile, leading to misregistration. We present a new data-driven model of uptake patterns formed from a principal components analysis (PCA) of time-series data, avoiding the need for a physiological model. We term this process progressive principal component registration (PPCR). Registration is performed repeatedly to an artificial time series of target images generated using the principal components of the current best-registered time-series data. The aim is to produce a dataset that has had random motion artefacts removed but long-term contrast enhancement implicitly preserved. The procedure is tested on 22 DCE-MRI datasets of the liver. Preliminary assessment of the images is by expert observer comparison with registration to the first image in the sequence. The PPCR is preferred in all cases where a preference exists. The method requires neither segmentation nor a pharmacokinetic uptake model and can allow successful registration in the presence of contrast enhancement.

Melbourne, A.; Atkinson, D.; White, M. J.; Collins, D.; Leach, M.; Hawkes, D.

2007-09-01

91

The effect of motion correction on pharmacokinetic parameter estimation in dynamic-contrast-enhanced MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dynamic-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) dataset consists of many imaging frames, often acquired both before and after contrast injection. Due to the length of time spent acquiring images, patient motion is likely and image re-alignment or registration is required before further analysis such as pharmacokinetic model fitting. Non-rigid image registration procedures may be used to correct motion artefacts; however, a careful choice of registration strategy is required to reduce misregistration artefacts associated with enhancing features. This work investigates the effect of registration on the results of model-fitting algorithms for 52 DCE-MR mammography cases for 14 patients. Results are divided into two sections: a comparison of registration strategies in which a DCE-MRI-specific algorithm is preferred in 50% of cases, followed by an investigation of parameter changes with known applied deformations, inspecting the effect of magnitude and timing of motion artefacts. Increased motion magnitude correlates with increased model-fit residual and is seen to have a strong influence on the visibility of strongly enhancing features. Motion artefacts in images close to the contrast agent arrival have a disproportionate effect on discrepancies in parameter estimation. The choice of algorithm, magnitude of motion and timing of the motion are each shown to influence estimated pharmacokinetic parameters even when motion magnitude is small.

Melbourne, A.; Hipwell, J.; Modat, M.; Mertzanidou, T.; Huisman, H.; Ourselin, S.; Hawkes, D. J.

2011-12-01

92

Visualization of thermal ablation lesions using cumulative dynamic contrast enhancement MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel robust and user friendly method for post-processing dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI data is presented, which provides reliable real-time delineation of the borders of thermal ablation lesions on low SNR images shortly after contrast agent injection without any model-based curve fitting. Some simple descriptors of the DCE process are calculated in a time efficient recursive manner and combined into a single image reflecting both current and previous enhancement states of each pixel, which allows robust discrimination between tissue areas with different perfusion properties. The resulting cumulative DCE (CDCE) images are shown to exhibit a strong correlation with histopathology and late gadolinium enhancement representations of the thermal damage in soft tissue. It is shown that the outer border of the non-perfused ablation lesion core on CDCE MRI corresponds to the histopathological lesion border. The described method has a potential not only to facilitate thermal ablation outcome assessment, but also to improve detection of infiltrative tumours and reduce the administered contrast agent dose in any DCE scans.

Shmatukha, Andriy; Sethi, Benu; Shurrab, Mohammed; Ghate, Sudip; Qi, Xiuling; Barry, Jennifer; Wright, Graham; Crystal, Eugene

2013-05-01

93

Semi-quantitative assessment of pulmonary perfusion in children using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the study of semi-quantitative assessment of pulmonary perfusion acquired from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in a study population mainly composed of children with pulmonary malformations. The automatic analysis approach proposed is based on the indicator-dilution theory introduced in 1954. First, a robust method is developed to segment the pulmonary artery and the lungs from anatomical MRI data, exploiting 2D and 3D mathematical morphology operators. Second, the time-dependent contrast signal of the lung regions is deconvolved by the arterial input function for the assessment of the local hemodynamic system parameters, ie. mean transit time, pulmonary blood volume and pulmonary blood flow. The discrete deconvolution method implements here a truncated singular value decomposition (tSVD) method. Parametric images for the entire lungs are generated as additional elements for diagnosis and quantitative follow-up. The preliminary results attest the feasibility of perfusion quantification in pulmonary DCE-MRI and open an interesting alternative to scintigraphy for this type of evaluation, to be considered at least as a preliminary decision in the diagnostic due to the large availability of the technique and to the non-invasive aspects.

Fetita, Catalin; Thong, William E.; Ou, Phalla

2013-03-01

94

Novel Stochastic Framework for Accurate Segmentation of Prostate in Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prostate segmentation is an essential step in developing any non-invasive Computer-Assisted Diagnostic (CAD) system for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer using Dynamic Contrast Enhancement Magnetic Resonance Images (DCE-MRI). In this paper we propose a novel approach for segmenting the prostate region from DCE-MRI based on using a graph cut framework to optimize a new energy function consists of three descriptors: (i) 1 st -order visual appearance descriptors of the DCE-MRI; (ii) a spatially invariant 2 nd -order homogeneity descriptor, and (iii) a prostate shape descriptor. The shape prior is learned from a subset of co-aligned training images. The visual appearances are described with marginal gray level distributions obtained by separating their mixture over the image. The spatial interactions between the prostate pixels are modeled by a 2 nd -order translation and rotation invariant Markov-Gibbs random field of object / background labels with analytically estimated potentials. Experiments with prostate DCE-MR images confirm robustness and accuracy of the proposed approach.

Firjany, Ahmad; Elnakib, Ahmed; El-Baz, Ayman; Gimel'Farb, Georgy; El-Ghar, Mohamed Abo; Elmagharby, Adel

95

Quantitative effects of using compressed sensing in dynamic contrast enhanced MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) involves the acquisition of images before, during and after the injection of a contrast agent. In order to perform quantitative modeling on the resulting signal intensity time course, data must be acquired rapidly, which compromises spatial resolution, signal to noise and/or field of view. One approach that may allow for gains in temporal or spatial resolution or signal to noise of an individual image is to use compressed sensing (CS) MRI. In this study, we demonstrate the accuracy of extracted pharmacokinetic parameters from DCE-MRI data obtained as part of pre-clinical and clinical studies in which fully sampled acquisitions have been retrospectively undersampled by factors of 2, 3 and 4 in Fourier space and then reconstructed with CS. The mean voxel-level concordance correlation coefficient for Ktrans (i.e. the volume transfer constant) obtained from the 2× accelerated and the fully sampled data is 0.92 and 0.90 for mouse and human data, respectively; for 3×, the results are 0.79 and 0.79, respectively; for 4×, the results are 0.64 and 0.70, respectively. The mean error in the tumor mean Ktrans for the mouse and human data at 2× acceleration is 1.8% and -4.2%, respectively; at 3×, 3.6% and -10%, respectively; at 4×, 7.8% and -12%, respectively. These results suggest that CS combined with appropriate reduced acquisitions may be an effective approach to improving image quality in DCE-MRI.

Smith, David S.; Welch, E. Brian; Li, Xia; Arlinghaus, Lori R.; Loveless, Mary E.; Koyama, Tatsuki; Gore, John C.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.

2011-08-01

96

MRI of small bowel Crohn’s disease: determining the reproducibility of bowel wall gadolinium enhancement measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to determine inter- and intra-observer variation in MRI measurements of relative bowel wall signal intensity\\u000a (SI) in Crohn’s disease. Twenty-one small bowel MRI examinations (11 male, mean age 40), including T1-weighted acquisitions\\u000a acquired 30 to 120s post-gadolinium, were analysed. Maximal bowel wall SI (most avid, conspicuous contrast enhancement) in\\u000a designated diseased segments was measured by two radiologists

A. Sharman; I. A. Zealley; R. Greenhalgh; P. Bassett; S. A. Taylor

2009-01-01

97

Combination of model-free and model-based analysis of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI for breast cancer diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) is the leading technique in magnetic resonance imaging for cancer detection and diagnosis. However, there are large variations in the reported sensitivity and specificity of this method that result from the wide range of contrast-enhanced MRI sequences and protocols, image processing methods, and interpretation criteria. Analysis methods can be divided to physiological based models that take

E. Eyal; E. Furman-Haran; D. Badikhi; F. Kelcz; H. Degani

2008-01-01

98

The Effect of Fat Pad Modification during Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation: Late Gadolinium Enhancement MRI Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can visualize locations of both the ablation scar on the left atrium (LA) after atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation and epicardial fat pads (FPs) containing ganglionated plexi (GP). Methods We investigated 60 patients who underwent pulmonary vein antrum (PVA) isolation along with LA posterior wall and septal debulking for AF. FPs around the LA surface in well-known GP areas (which were considered as the substitution of GP areas around the LA) were segmented from the dark-blood MRI. Then the FP and the ablation scar image visualized by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE)-MRI on the LA were merged together. Overlapping areas of FP and the ablation scar image were considered as the ablated FP areas containing GP. Patients underwent 24-hour Holter monitoring after ablation for the analysis of heart rate variability. Results Ablated FP area was significantly wider in patients without AF recurrence than those in patients with recurrence (5.6 ± 3.1 cm2 vs 4.2 ± 2.7 cm2, P = 0.03). The mean values of both percentage of differences greater than 50 ms in the RR intervals (pRR > 50) and standard deviation of RR intervals over the entire analyzed period (SDNN), which were obtained from 24-hour Holter monitoring 1-day post-AF ablation, were significantly lower in patients without recurrence than those in patients with recurrence (5.8 ± 6.0% vs 14.0 ± 10.1%; P = 0.0005, 78.7 ± 32.4 ms vs 109.2 ± 43.5 ms; P = 0.005). There was a significant negative correlation between SDNN and the percentage of ablated FP area (Y = ?1.3168X + 118.96, R2 = 0.1576, P = 0.003). Conclusion Extensively ablating LA covering GP areas along with PVA isolation enhanced the denervation of autonomic nerve system and seemed to improve procedural outcome in patients with AF.

HIGUCHI, KOJI; AKKAYA, MEHMET; KOOPMANN, MATTHIAS; BLAUER, JOSHUA J.E.; BURGON, NATHAN S.; DAMAL, KAVITHA; RANJAN, RAVI; KHOLMOVSKI, EUGENE; MACLEOD, ROB S.; MARROUCHE, NASSIR F.

2013-01-01

99

Distinguishable neurofunctional effects of task practice and item practice in picture naming: a BOLD fMRI study in healthy subjects.  

PubMed

Practice of language tasks results in improved performance and BOLD signal changes. We distinguish changes correlated with repeated exposure to a picture naming task, from changes associated with naming specific items trained during practice. Task practice affected trained and untrained items, yielding left-sided BOLD deactivations in extrastriate, prefrontal and superior temporal areas (consistent with their putative role in perceptual priming, articulatory planning and phonological lexical retrieval, respectively). Item practice effects were restricted to trained words. There was deactivation in left posterior fusiform (supporting its role in accessing structural object representations), anterior cingulate and left insular/inferior frontal cortices (consistent with their role in processing low-frequency words). Central precuneus and posterior cingulate were hyperactivated (consistent with their putative role in episodic memory for trained items, probably due to functional connections with language areas). In healthy subjects, naming practice modifies stored linguistic representations, but mostly affects ease of access to trained words. PMID:23933470

Basso, Gianpaolo; Magon, Stefano; Reggiani, Francesca; Capasso, Rita; Monittola, Gianpiero; Yang, Fu-Ju; Miceli, Gabriele

2013-09-01

100

Manganese Enhanced MRI Reveals Functional Circuitry in Response to Odorant Stimuli  

PubMed Central

To investigate the circuitry involved in detecting odorants in the rodent brain, we developed a method using manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) to map the flow of neural information from the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) to the central layers of the olfactory bulb. Studies have shown that Mn2+ enters active neurons and is transported anterogradely to axon terminals where it can cross synapses to functionally trace neural networks. Thus, by delivering MnCl2 directly into the nasal cavity of mice and then exposing them to defined odorants, Mn2+ is preferentially taken up by activated OSNs. Using the time course of the MRI signal, we generated maps of Mn2+ accumulation in the olfactory bulb for both glomerular and mitral cell layers. Results demonstrated that overlapping yet distinct enhancement patterns were produced by exposure to either octanal, acetophenone, or carvone. Notably, areas of Mn2+ accumulation in the mitral cell layer were similar to those in the glomerular layer consistent with neural information that passes from specific OSNs to specific mitral cells. Finally, by correlating specific Mn2+ signal peaks to genetically labeled glomeruli that are known to be activated by the odorant octanal, we show that MEMRI maps can be resolved at the level of individual glomeruli.

Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Lee, Jung Hee; Silva, Afonso C.; Belluscio, Leonardo; Koretsky, Alan P.

2008-01-01

101

Brucellar spondylitis: MRI findings.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to identify the distinguishing features of brucellosis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI examinations were performed in 14 patients with spinal brucellosis. A 1-T Magnetom (Erlangen, Siemens) was used to obtain T1-weighted (TR/TE 500/30) and T2-weighted (TR/TE 2000/80/20) spin echo sequences, in both sagittal and axial planes. Thirty-three percent of the vertebrae and 18 levels of disc were involved in the 14 brucellar spondylitis cases. Eleven patients (79.8%) with discitis revealed anterior superior vertebral body involvement. Fourteen (77.7%) of the levels with discitis displayed soft tissue swelling without presence of abscess formation. Seven facet joints of five patients with discitis displayed signal increase after contrast enhancement. Vertebral body signal changes without morphologic changes marked signal increase in the intervertebral disc on T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced sequences, and soft tissue involvement without abscess formation can be accepted as specific MRI features of brucellar spondylitis. The facet joint signal changes following contrast enhancement is another MRI sign of spinal brucellosis, which has not been mentioned so far. PMID:11806395

Ozaksoy, D; Yücesoy, K; Yücesoy, M; Kovanlikaya, I; Yüce, A; Naderi, S

2001-12-01

102

Interpretation and applicability of empirical tissue enhancement metrics in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI based on a multiple pathway model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer simulations based on a physiologically realistic tracer kinetic model with multiple pathways was used to provide insights on the applicability and interpretation of tissue enhancement metrics such as the maximum slope, peak enhancement and area under curve, commonly used in dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI. Results show that physiological conditions of the tissue that could affect the accuracy of the maximal slope method include a high blood flow, increased variability of flow within the vasculature or a low vascular volume. Interestingly, changes in permeability and interstitial volume might not affect the accuracy of the maximal slope method. Time-to-peak and peak value of the tissue enhancement curve are not strictly properties of the tissue alone, and they cannot be linearly related to intrinsic tissue parameters such as blood flow, blood volume, capillary permeability, interstitial volume and mean transit time. Similar to the normalized initial area under tissue concentration curve, an alternative estimate of the total tracer distribution volume can be simply given by the ratio of tracer concentration in the tissue and artery sampled at the final DCE scan.

Koh, T. S.; Shi, W.; Thng, C. H.; Kwek, J. W.; Bisdas, S.; Khoo, J. B. K.

2012-08-01

103

An evaluation of the contributions of diffusion and exchange in relaxation enhancement by MRI contrast agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic compounds are known to enhance water proton relaxation, either by diffusion or by proton exchange. An experimental procedure to distinguish both mechanisms is proposed and validated by relaxation measurements made in water-methanol solutions of Dy 3+, Ni 2+, Gd 3+, Tempo, and AMI-25. The test discriminates according to the character of the transverse relaxation in water-methanol solutions: a mono-exponential decay corresponds to diffusion, while a bi-exponential decay indicates the contribution of a proton exchange. The study of ferritin and akaganeite particle solutions confirms the occurrence of a proton exchange between protons belonging to hydroxyl groups of the particle surface and free water protons.

Gossuin, Yves; Roch, Alain; Muller, Robert N.; Gillis, Pierre

2002-09-01

104

Interactive lesion segmentation on dynamic contrast enhanced breast MRI using a Markov model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to develop a method for segmenting lesions on Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced (DCE) breast MRI. DCE breast MRI, in which the breast is imaged before, during, and after the administration of a contrast agent, enables a truly 3D examination of breast tissues. This functional angiogenic imaging technique provides noninvasive assessment of microcirculatory characteristics of tissues in addition to traditional anatomical structure information. Since morphological features and kinetic curves from segmented lesions are to be used for diagnosis and treatment decisions, lesion segmentation is a key pre-processing step for classification. In our study, the ROI is defined by a bounding box containing the enhancement region in the subtraction image, which is generated by subtracting the pre-contrast image from 1st post-contrast image. A maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate of the class membership (lesion vs. non-lesion) for each voxel is obtained using the Iterative Conditional Mode (ICM) method. The prior distribution of the class membership is modeled as a multi-level logistic model, a Markov Random Field model in which the class membership of each voxel is assumed to depend upon its nearest neighbors only. The likelihood distribution is assumed to be Gaussian. The parameters of each Gaussian distribution are estimated from a dozen voxels manually selected as representative of the class. The experimental segmentation results demonstrate anatomically plausible breast tissue segmentation and the predicted class membership of voxels from the interactive segmentation algorithm agrees with the manual classifications made by inspection of the kinetic enhancement curves. The proposed method is advantageous in that it is efficient, flexible, and robust.

Wu, Qiu; Salganicoff, Marcos; Krishnan, Arun; Fussell, Donald S.; Markey, Mia K.

2006-03-01

105

Mn-citrate and Mn-HIDA: intermediate-affinity chelates for manganese-enhanced MRI.  

PubMed

In this study we investigated two manganese chelates in order to improve the image enhancement of manganese-enhanced MRI and decrease the toxicity of free manganese ions. Since both MnCl? and a low-affinity chelate were associated with a slow continuous decrease of cardiac functions, we investigated intermediate-affinity chelates: manganese N-(2-hydroxyethyl)iminodiacetic acid (Mn-HIDA) and Mn-citrate. The T? relaxivity values for Mn-citrate (4.4 m m?¹ s?¹) and Mn-HIDA (3.3 m m?¹ s?¹) in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were almost constant in a concentration range from 0.5 to 5 m m at 37 °C and 4.7 T. In human plasma, the relaxivity values increased when the concentrations of these Mn chelates were decreased, suggesting the presence of free Mn²? bound with serum albumin. Mn-HIDA and Mn-citrate demonstrated a tendency for better contractility when employed with an isolated perfused frog heart, compared with MnCl?. Only minimal changes were demonstrated after a venous infusion of 100 m m Mn-citrate or Mn-HIDA (8.3 µmol kg?¹ min?¹) in rats and a constant heart rate, arterial pressure and sympathetic nerve activity were maintained, even after breaking the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Mn-citrate and Mn-HIDA could not cross the intact BBB and appeared in the CSF, and then diffused into the brain parenchyma through the ependymal layer. The responses in the supraoptic nucleus induced by the hypertonic stimulation were detectable. Therefore, Mn-citrate and Mn-HIDA appear to be better choices for maintaining the vital conditions of experimental animals, and they may improve the reproducibility of manganese-enhanced MRI of the small nuclei in the hypothalamus and thalamus. PMID:23281286

Seo, Yoshiteru; Satoh, Keitaro; Morita, Hironobu; Takamata, Akira; Watanabe, Kazuto; Ogino, Takashi; Hasebe, Tooru; Murakami, Masataka

2013-01-01

106

Layer-Specific Manganese-Enhanced MRI of the Retina in Light and Dark Adaptation  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To employ functional manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) to image layer-specific changes in calcium-dependent activities in the rat retina during light versus dark adaptation. Methods. Functional MEMRI at 20 × 20 × 700 ?m was used to study light and dark adaptation in the same animals (N = 10) in which one eye was covered and the fellow eye was not. The activity encoding of the light and dark adaptation was achieved in awake conditions and imaged under anesthesia. T1-weighted MRI at 11.7 tesla (T) was performed using two identical radiofrequency transceiver coils to allow interleaved MRI acquisitions of the two eyes. An intravascular contrast agent was also used to verify layer assignments. Results. MEMRI detected contrasts among the inner retina, outer retina, and choroid. Independent confirmation of the vascular layers and boundaries between layers was documented with an intravascular contrast agent. The retinal layer thicknesses agreed with published data. The outer retina had lower MEMRI activity in light compared with dark adaption (P < 0.001), consistent with the increased metabolic demand associated with the “dark current.” The inner retina had higher MEMRI activity in light compared with dark adaption (P < 0.05). The choroid MEMRI activity was not statistically different between light and dark adaptation (P > 0.05). Conclusions. This study demonstrated a high-resolution MEMRI protocol to image functional activities among different layers of the retinas in awake animals during light and dark adaptation. This approach could have potential applications in animal models of retinal dysfunction.

De La Garza, Bryan H.; Li, Guang; Shih, Yen-Yu I.; Duong, Timothy Q.

2012-01-01

107

Glioma Grading Capability: Comparisons among Parameters from Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI and ADC Value on DWI  

PubMed Central

Objective Permeability parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can be quantitative physiologic metrics for gliomas. The transfer constant (Ktrans) has shown efficacy in grading gliomas. Volume fraction of extravascular extracellular space (ve) has been underutilized to grade gliomas. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ve in its ability to grade gliomas and to assess the correlation with other permeability parameters and ADC values. Materials and Methods A total of 33 patients diagnosed with pathologically-confirmed gliomas were examined by 3 T MRI including DCE-MRI and ADC map. A region of interest analyses for permeability parameters from DCE-MRI and ADC were performed on the enhancing solid portion of the tumors. Permeability parameters form DCE-MRI and ADC between low- and high-grade gliomas; the diagnostic performances of presumptive metrics and correlation among those metrics were statistically analyzed. Results High-grade gliomas showed higher Ktrans (0.050 vs. 0.010 in median value, p = 0.002) and higher ve (0.170 vs. 0.015 in median value, p = 0.001) than low-grade gliomas. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed significance in both Ktrans and ve for glioma grading. However, there was no significant difference in diagnostic performance between Ktrans and ve. ADC value did not correlate with any of the permeability parameters from DCE-MRI. Conclusion Extravascular extracellular space (ve) appears to be comparable with transfer constant (Ktrans) in differentiating high-grade gliomas from low-grade gliomas. ADC value does not show correlation with any permeability parameters from DCE-MRI.

Choi, Hyun Seok; Kim, Ah Hyun; Ahn, Sung Soo; Shin, Na-young; Kim, Jinna

2013-01-01

108

Ferumoxytol enhanced resting state fMRI and relative cerebral blood volume mapping in normal human brain.  

PubMed

The brain demonstrates spontaneous low-frequency (<0.1 Hz) cerebral blood flow (CBF) fluctuations, measurable by resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). Ultra small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles have been shown to enhance task-based fMRI signals (cerebral blood volume fMRI or CBV-fMRI), compared to the BOLD effect, by a factor of ?2.5 at 3 T in primates and humans. We evaluated the use of ferumoxytol for steady state, resting state FMRI (CBV-rs-fMRI) and relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) mapping, at 3T, in healthy volunteers. All standard resting state networks (RSNs) were identified in all subjects. On average the RSN Z statistics (MELODIC independent components) and volumes of the visual and default mode (DMN) networks were comparable. rCBV values were averaged for the visual (Vis) and DMN networks and correlated with the corresponding DMN and visual network Z statistics. There was a negative correlation between the rCBV and the Z statistics for the DMN, for both BOLD and CBV-rs-fMRI contrast (R2=0.63, 0.76). A similar correlation was not found for the visual network. Short repetition time rs-fMRI data were Fourier transformed to evaluate the effect of ferumoxytol on cardiac and respiratory fluctuations in the brain rs-BOLD, CBV signals. Cardiac and respiratory fluctuations decreased to baseline within large vessels post ferumoxytol. Robust rs-fMRI and CBV mapping is possible in normal human brain. PMID:23831413

D'Arceuil, Helen; Coimbra, Alexandre; Triano, Pamela; Dougherty, Margaret; Mello, Julie; Moseley, Michael; Glover, Gary; Lansberg, Maarten; Blankenberg, Francis

2013-12-01

109

Enhancing creativity by means of cognitive stimulation: evidence from an fMRI study.  

PubMed

Cognitive stimulation via the exposure to ideas of other people is an effective tool in stimulating creativity in group-based creativity techniques. In this fMRI study, we investigate whether creative cognition can be enhanced through idea sharing and how performance improvements are reflected in brain activity. Thirty-one participants had to generate alternative uses of everyday objects during fMRI recording. Additionally, participants performed this task after a time period in which they had to reflect on their ideas or in which they were confronted with stimulus-related ideas of others. Cognitive stimulation was effective in improving originality, and this performance improvement was associated with activation increases in a neural network including right-hemispheric temporo-parietal, medial frontal, and posterior cingulate cortices, bilaterally. Given the involvement of these brain areas in semantic integration, memory retrieval, and attentional processes, cognitive stimulation could have resulted in a modulation of bottom-up attention enabling participants to produce more original ideas. PMID:20561898

Fink, Andreas; Grabner, Roland H; Gebauer, Daniela; Reishofer, Gernot; Koschutnig, Karl; Ebner, Franz

2010-10-01

110

Enhanced phase regression with savitzky-golay filtering for high-resolution BOLD fMRI.  

PubMed

Phase regression exploits the temporal evolution of phase in individual voxels to suppress blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations caused by larger vessels and draining veins while preserving signal changes from microvascular effects. However, this process does not perform well when phase time series have low signal-to-noise ratios because of high levels of physiological noise. We demonstrate that Savitzky-Golay filters may be used to recover the underlying change in phase and completely restore the efficacy of phase regression. We do not make a priori assumptions regarding phase evolution and perform a data-driven exploration of parameter space to select the Savitzky-Golay filter parameters that minimize temporal variance in each voxel after phase regression. This approach is shown to work well on data acquired with single-shot and multi-shot pulse sequences, and should therefore be useful for both human and animal gradient-echo fMRI at high spatial resolutions at high fields. The ability to improve the spatial specificity of BOLD activation may be especially advantageous for clinical applications of fMRI that rely upon the accuracy of individual subject's activation maps to assist with presurgical planning and clinical decision-making. Enhanced phase regression with Savitzky-Golay filtering may also find other uses in analyses of resting state functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 35:3832-3840, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24443117

Barry, Robert L; Gore, John C

2014-08-01

111

In Vivo Detection of Macrophages in Human Carotid Atheroma Temporal Dependence of Ultrasmall Superparamagnetic Particles of Iron Oxide-Enhanced MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—It has been suggested that inflammatory cells within vulnerable plaques may be visualized by superpara- magnetic iron oxide particle- enhanced MRI. The purpose of this study was to determine the time course for macrophage visualization with in vivo contrast- enhanced MRI using an ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) agent in symptomatic human carotid disease. Methods—Eight patients scheduled for carotid endarterectomy

Rikin A. Trivedi; Jean-Marie U-King-Im; Martin J. Graves; Justin J. Cross; Jo Horsley; Martin J. Goddard; Jeremy N. Skepper; George Quartey; Elizabeth Warburton; Ilse Joubert; Liqun Wang; Peter J. Kirkpatrick; John Brown; Jonathan H. Gillard

112

Resolution enhancement in MRI of laser polarized 3He by control of diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion of atoms or molecules in presence of magnetic field gradients not only attenuates the NMR signal but also leads to distortions close to restricting boundaries. This phenomenon is most evident in imaging with laser polarized (LP) noble gases. Diffusion of gases can be manipulated, however, by admixing inert gases of different molecular weight. In this work we analyze the effect of mixing LP- 3He with SF 6 on the image quality of a phantom consisting of an arrangement of capillaries with different diameters. Admixing buffer gases of higher molecular weight changes the contrast and offers a means to record images with high spatial and time resolution. Additionally we demonstrate how distortions due to edge enhancement can be reduced even for long timed MRI-sequences.

Agulles-Pedrós, L.; Acosta, R. H.; Blümler, P.; Spiess, H. W.

2009-03-01

113

Enhanced emotional reactivity after selective REM sleep deprivation in humans: an fMRI study  

PubMed Central

Converging evidence from animal and human studies suggest that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep modulates emotional processing. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of selective REM sleep deprivation (REM-D) on emotional responses to threatening visual stimuli and their brain correlates using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: selective REM-D, by awakening them at each REM sleep onset, or non-rapid eye movement sleep interruptions (NREM-I) as control for potential non-specific effects of awakenings and lack of sleep. In a within-subject design, a visual emotional reactivity task was performed in the scanner before and 24 h after sleep manipulation. Behaviorally, emotional reactivity was enhanced relative to baseline (BL) in the REM deprived group only. In terms of fMRI signal, there was, as expected, an overall decrease in activity in the NREM-I group when subjects performed the task the second time, particularly in regions involved in emotional processing, such as occipital and temporal areas, as well as in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, involved in top-down emotion regulation. In contrast, activity in these areas remained the same level or even increased in the REM-D group, compared to their BL level. Taken together, these results suggest that lack of REM sleep in humans is associated with enhanced emotional reactivity, both at behavioral and neural levels, and thus highlight the specific role of REM sleep in regulating the neural substrates for emotional responsiveness.

Rosales-Lagarde, Alejandra; Armony, Jorge L.; del Rio-Portilla, Yolanda; Trejo-Martinez, David; Conde, Ruben; Corsi-Cabrera, Maria

2012-01-01

114

MRI resolution enhancement: how useful are shifted images obtained by changing the demodulation frequency?  

PubMed

Super-resolution reconstruction is a process by which a set of different low resolution images of the same object are used to create an enhanced, higher resolution image of that object. Recently there has been debate amongst researchers whether it is possible to obtain in-plane image enhancement using a set of low resolution magnetic resonance images, acquired by making small, independent changes to the demodulation frequency. We show that shifted low-resolution images contain different information that can be used to obtain denser sampling, leading to image enhancement. We conclude this from specific phantom experiments, applying signal processing sampling theory and taking into consideration the relative sampling of the point spread function with respect to the location of signal sources. Furthermore, the maximum achievable resolution for Fourier encoded MRI data at a boundary or object feature is governed by the effective width of the point spread function or the Fourier pixel size determined by the extent of k-space; this is verified experimentally. PMID:20928827

Tieng, Quang M; Cowin, Gary J; Reutens, David C; Galloway, Graham J; Vegh, Viktor

2011-03-01

115

Prognostic implication of late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac MRI in light chain (AL) amyloidosis on long term follow up  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Light chain amyloidosis (AL) is a rare plasma cell dyscrasia associated with poor survival especially in the setting of heart failure. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiac MRI was recently found to correlate with myocardial amyloid deposition but the prognostic role is not established. The aim is to determine the prognostic significance of LGE in AL by comparing long

Raymond Q Migrino; Richard Christenson; Aniko Szabo; Megan Bright; Seth Truran; Parameswaran Hari

2009-01-01

116

Moving propagation of suspicious myocardial infarction from delayed enhanced cardiac imaging to CINE MRI using hybrid image registration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging has proved its effectiveness to determine the patient-specific myocardial motion\\/functional information via the cine imaging and to detect myocardial infarction in the delayed enhanced MRI (DEMRI). Standard cardiac MR protocols usually acquire these two sets of images across multiple acquisitions with varying imaging slice geometry, pixel spacing and different breathholdings, which could make the joint inspection

Yixun Liu; Hui Xue; Christoph Guetter; Marie-Pierre Jolly; Nikos Chrisochoides; Jens Guehring

2011-01-01

117

Nanoparticle-Enhanced MRI to Evaluate Radiation Delivery to the Regional Lymphatics for Patients With Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: At present, radiation (RT) fields are based largely, and often solely, on bony anatomy. Recent efforts have been taken to better define lymphatic regions for RT planning. Lymphotrophic nanoparticle-enhanced MRI (LN-MRI) allows for accurate identification of malignant and benign lymph nodes. We sought to evaluate RT delivery to lymphatics for breast cancer using LN-MRI. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three patients with breast cancer underwent LN-MRI. MRIs were anatomically registered to a reference CT; benign and malignant lymph nodes were contoured. Standard RT fields were planned and dose calculated to prescribe 45-50 Gy. Lymphatic regions were contoured on CT. Coverage of LN-MRI lymph nodes by RT fields and contoured lymphatics were assessed. Results: Eighty-one percent of all lymph nodes defined by LN-MRI were covered by the 45-Gy isodose line; 82% of malignant and 79% of benign. The 50-Gy isodose line only encompassed 60% of LN-MRI defined lymph nodes-64% of malignant and 59% of benign. For nodal volumes contoured in the absence of a margin, 86% of actual lymph nodes were within contoured volumes. When a 5-mm expansion was added, 99% were included. Conclusions: LN-MRI is a useful tool to delineate the location of breast regional lymphatics. These results suggest less than desired coverage of lymph nodes using standard RT fields and that a margin may be advisable when defining nodal volumes by CT. The use of IMRT and RT in lieu of surgery makes accurate definition of the location of breast regional lymphatics of paramount importance.

MacDonald, Shannon M., E-mail: smacdonald@partners.or [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Harisinghani, Mukesh G.; Katkar, Amol; Napolitano, Brian; Wolfgang, John; Taghian, Alphonse G. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

2010-07-15

118

NOTE: A method for pharmacokinetic modelling of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI studies of rapidly enhancing lesions acquired in a clinical setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abnormal microcirculation is a feature of many neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. Physiological variables that characterize tissue microcirculation (capillary permeability and the volume of the extravascular extracellular fluid) are altered in pathological states. Pharmacokinetic analysis of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) has found a widespread use in the assessment of abnormal microcirculation due to the direct link between the contrast agent kinetics and underlying microcirculatory properties. A representation of temporal variation of contrast agent concentration in blood plasma (Cp(t)) is central to this analysis. In clinical applications of DCE-MRI, signal intensity curves derived from rapidly enhancing lesions often display a sigmoid shape during the initial phase of contrast uptake and rapid arrival at the equilibrium phase. In this work, the features of two principal methods for pharmacokinetic analysis of DCE-MRI which allow for theoretical representation of Cp(t) are examined and combined to improve analysis of this particular class of DCE-MRI curves. The proposed method allows the representation of the initial sigmoid part of the enhancement profiles whilst retaining a realistic representation of Cp(t) based on previously published measurements obtained in healthy volunteers. The results of the computer simulations indicate that in rapidly enhancing lesions, with the transfer constant Ktrans greater than 0.1 min-1, the DCE-MRI acquisition can be restricted to 5 min post-injection and a mono-exponential representation of Cp(t) decay is sufficient. Furthermore, non-ideal bolus delivery can be represented as a short constant rate infusion when the tissue under investigation exhibits a sigmoid pattern of contrast uptake.

Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Ridgway, John P.; Smith, Michael A.

2006-05-01

119

Lung ventilation- and perfusion-weighted Fourier decomposition magnetic resonance imaging: in vivo validation with hyperpolarized 3He and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to validate ventilation-weighted (VW) and perfusion-weighted (QW) Fourier decomposition (FD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with hyperpolarized (3)He MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion (DCE) MRI in a controlled animal experiment. Three healthy pigs were studied on 1.5-T MR scanner. For FD MRI, the VW and QW images were obtained by postprocessing of time-resolved lung image sets. DCE acquisitions were performed immediately after contrast agent injection. (3)He MRI data were acquired following the administration of hyperpolarized helium and nitrogen mixture. After baseline MR scans, pulmonary embolism was artificially produced. FD MRI and DCE MRI perfusion measurements were repeated. Subsequently, atelectasis and air trapping were induced, which followed with FD MRI and (3)He MRI ventilation measurements. Distributions of signal intensities in healthy and pathologic lung tissue were compared by statistical analysis. Images acquired using FD, (3)He, and DCE MRI in all animals before the interventional procedure showed homogeneous ventilation and perfusion. Functional defects were detected by all MRI techniques at identical anatomical locations. Signal intensity in VW and QW images was significantly lower in pathological than in healthy lung parenchyma. The study has shown usefulness of FD MRI as an alternative, noninvasive, and easily implementable technique for the assessment of acute changes in lung function. PMID:22392633

Bauman, Grzegorz; Scholz, Alexander; Rivoire, Julien; Terekhov, Maxim; Friedrich, Janet; de Oliveira, Andre; Semmler, Wolfhard; Schreiber, Laura Maria; Puderbach, Michael

2013-01-01

120

An evaluation of the contributions of diffusion and exchange in relaxation enhancement by MRI contrast agents.  

PubMed

Magnetic compounds are known to enhance water proton relaxation, either by diffusion or by proton exchange. An experimental procedure to distinguish both mechanisms is proposed and validated by relaxation measurements made in water-methanol solutions of Dy(3+), Ni(2+), Gd(3+), Tempo, and AMI-25. The test discriminates according to the character of the transverse relaxation in water-methanol solutions: a mono-exponential decay corresponds to diffusion, while a bi-exponential decay indicates the contribution of a proton exchange. The study of ferritin and akaganeite particle solutions confirms the occurrence of a proton exchange between protons belonging to hydroxyl groups of the particle surface and free water protons. PMID:12419669

Gossuin, Yves; Roch, Alain; Muller, Robert N; Gillis, Pierre

2002-01-01

121

Contrast enhancement and tissues classification of breast MRI using Kalman filter-based linear mixing method.  

PubMed

Much attention is currently focused on one of the newest breast examination techniques, breast MRI. Contrast-enhanced breast MRIs acquired by contrast injection have been shown to be very sensitive in the detection of breast cancer, but are also time-consuming and cause waste of medical resources. This paper therefore proposes the use of spectral signature detection technology, the Kalman filter-based linear mixing method (KFLM), which can successfully present the results as high-contrast images and classify breast MRIs into major tissues from four bands of breast MRIs. A series of experiments using phantom and real MRIs was conducted and the results compared with those of the commonly used c-means (CM) method and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) breast MRIs for performance evaluation. After comparison with the CM algorithm and DCE breast MRIs, the experimental results showed that the high-contrast images generated by the spectral signature detection technology, the KFLM, were of superior quality. PMID:19135862

Yang, Sheng-Chih; Wang, Chuin-Mu; Hsu, Hsian-He; Chung, Pau-Choo; Hsu, Giu-Cheng; Juan, Chun-Jung; Lo, Chien-Shun

2009-04-01

122

Adaptive k-space sampling design for edge-enhanced DCE-MRI using compressed sensing.  

PubMed

The critical challenge in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is the trade-off between spatial and temporal resolution due to the limited availability of acquisition time. To address this, it is imperative to under-sample k-space and to develop specific reconstruction techniques. Our proposed method reconstructs high-quality images from under-sampled dynamic k-space data by proposing two main improvements; i) design of an adaptive k-space sampling lattice and ii) edge-enhanced reconstruction technique. A high-resolution data set obtained before the start of the dynamic phase is utilized. The sampling pattern is designed to adapt to the nature of k-space energy distribution obtained from the static high-resolution data. For image reconstruction, the well-known compressed sensing-based total variation (TV) minimization constrained reconstruction scheme is utilized by incorporating the gradient information obtained from the static high-resolution data. The proposed method is tested on seven real dynamic time series consisting of 2 breast data sets and 5 abdomen data sets spanning 1196 images in all. For data availability of only 10%, performance improvement is seen across various quality metrics. Average improvements in Universal Image Quality Index and Structural Similarity Index Metric of up to 28% and 24% on breast data and about 17% and 9% on abdomen data, respectively, are obtained for the proposed method as against the baseline TV reconstruction with variable density random sampling pattern. PMID:24848294

Raja, Rajikha; Sinha, Neelam

2014-09-01

123

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI Kinetics of Invasive Breast Cancer: A Potential Prognostic Marker for Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Our goal was to determine the correlations between dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) kinetics of breast cancers and axillary nodal status (ANS) which may have prognostic value in designing radiation therapy recommendations. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review identified 167 consecutive patients treated with external beam radiotherapy for invasive breast cancer from Jan 1, 2006 to Nov 1, 2007. Patients with DCE-MRI kinetic data from our institution who underwent axillary surgical staging prior to chemotherapy were included. ANS was assessed as positive or negative by pathology record review. For each primary cancer, maximum tumor diameter and kinetic values for initial peak enhancement (PE), percent initial rapid enhancement (RE), and percent delayed washout enhancement (WE) were measured with a computer-aided evaluation program. Univariate, multivariate, and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed according to the ANS. Results: Forty-six patients met study criteria, with 32 (70%) node-negative and 14 (30%) node-positive patients. Median PE was significantly greater in node-positive patients (209%) than in node-negative patients (138%, p = 0.0027). Similarly, median RE was significantly greater in node-positive patients (57%) than in node-negative patients (27%, p = 0.0436). WE was not different between groups (p = 0.9524). Median maximum tumor diameter was greater in node-positive patients (26 mm) than in node-negative patients (15 mm, p = 0.015). Multivariate analysis showed that only PE trended toward significance (p = 0.18). Conclusions: DCE-MRI kinetics of primary breast cancers correlate with ANS. Multivariate analysis demonstrates the correlation is not due simply to underlying lesion size. If validated prospectively, DCE-MRI kinetics may aid as a tool in selecting patients or designing fields for radiation therapy.

Loiselle, Christopher R., E-mail: Loiselle@u.washington.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Eby, Peter R.; DeMartini, Wendy B.; Peacock, Sue M.S. [Department of Radiology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, 825 Eastlake Ave. E, Seattle, Washington 98109 (United States); Bittner, Nathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Lehman, Constance D. [Department of Radiology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, 825 Eastlake Ave. E, Seattle, Washington 98109 (United States); Kim, Janice N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, 825 Eastlake Ave. E, Seattle, Washington 98109 (United States)

2010-04-15

124

Practical Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI in Small Animal Models of Cancer: Data Acquisition, Data Analysis, and Interpretation  

PubMed Central

Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) consists of the continuous acquisition of images before, during, and after the injection of a contrast agent. DCE-MRI allows for noninvasive evaluation of tumor parameters related to vascular perfusion and permeability and tissue volume fractions, and is frequently employed in both preclinical and clinical investigations. However, the experimental and analytical subtleties of the technique are not frequently discussed in the literature, nor are its relationships to other commonly used quantitative imaging techniques. This review aims to provide practical information on the development, implementation, and validation of a DCE-MRI study in the context of a preclinical study (though we do frequently refer to clinical studies that are related to these topics).

Barnes, Stephanie L.; Whisenant, Jennifer G.; Loveless, Mary E.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.

2012-01-01

125

Interferon ? treatment for multiple sclerosis has a graduated effect on MRI enhancing lesions according to their size and pathology  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—The ability of recombinant human interferon ?-1a (rh-IFN ?-1a) to suppress multiple sclerosis activity, evaluated from MRI, was assessed across a range of lesions enhancing at different gadolinium-DTPA (Gd) doses and with different sizes.?METHODS—Every 4 weeks, standard dose (Sd; 0.1 mmol/kg Gd) and triple dose (Td; 0.3 mmol/kgGd) MRI were obtained from 18 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis for 3 months before and 4 months after starting treatment with 44 µg rh-IFN ?-1a subcutaneously, once a week.?RESULTS—The total numbers of enhancing lesions were 145 and 126 on Sd scans and 278 and 192 on the Td scans obtained before and after treatment. The introduction of treatment decreased, on average, the rate of appearance of new enhancing lesions seen on Sd and Td scans by 37% (p<0.001). Treatment effects on new enhancing lesions seen on Td scans was, on average, 28% higher than on those seen on Sd scans. The distribution of lesion sizes on Td scans changed significantly during the treatment period (p=0.05), due to a marked decrease in the number of small lesions.?CONCLUSIONS— The effect of 44 µg rh-IFN ?-1a in reducing multiple sclerosis disease activity, as monitored by Gd enhanced MRI, is not homogeneous, but graduated according to the pathological characteristics and size of the lesions.??

Filippi, M; Rovaris, M; Capra, R; Gasperini, C; Prandini, F; Martinelli, V; Horsfield, M; Bastianello, S; Sormani, M; Pozzilli, C; Comi, G

1999-01-01

126

Correlation of histological findings from a large ciliochoroidal melanoma with CT perfusion and 3T MRI dynamic enhancement studies  

PubMed Central

Background The initial use of a 64-slice computed tomography (CT) scanner for obtaining quantitative perfusion data from a large ciliochoroidal melanoma, and correlation with 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dynamic enhancement and tumor histology. Methods The CT perfusion scan was performed using 80 kVp, 250 mA and 1-sec rotation time for 40 sec. The analysis was performed using commercial perfusion analysis software with a prototype 3-dimensional motion correction tool. Dynamic contrast-enhanced 3-Tesla MRI measured the kinetics of enhancement to estimate the vascular permeability. The time-dependent enhancement patterns were obtained using the average signal intensity using Functool analysis software. The involved globe was enucleated and microscopic evaluation of the tumor was performed. Results The perfusion parameters blood flow, blood volume and permeability surface area product in the affected eye determined by CT perfusion analysis were 118 ml/100 ml/min, 11.3 ml/100 ml and 48 ml/100 ml/min. Dynamic MRI enhancement showed maximal intensity increase of 111%. The neoplasm was a ciliochoroidal spindle cell melanoma which was mitotically active (13 mitoses/40 hpf). Vascular loops and arcades were present throughout the tumor. The patient developed metastases within 9 months of presentation. Conclusion Quantitative CT perfusion analysis of ocular tumors is feasible with motion correction software.

Pulido, Jose S; Campeau, Norbert G; Klotz, Ernst; Primak, Andrew N; Saba, Osama; Gunduz, Kaan; Cantrill, Herbert; Salomao, Diva; McCollough, Cynthia H

2008-01-01

127

Quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for mouse models using automatic detection of the arterial input function.  

PubMed

Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is widely accepted for the evaluation of cancer. DCE-MRI, a noninvasive measurement of microvessel permeability, blood volume and blood flow, is extremely useful for understanding disease mechanisms and monitoring therapeutic responses in preclinical research. For the accurate quantification of pharmacokinetic parameters using DCE-MRI, determination of the arterial input function (AIF) from a large arterial vessel near the tumor is required. However, a manual determination of AIF in mouse MR images is often difficult because of the small spatial dimensions or the location of the tumor. In this study, we propose an algorithm for the automatic detection of AIF from mouse DCE-MR images using Kendall's coefficient of concordance. The proposed method was tested with computer simulations and then applied to tumor-bearing mice (n = 8). Results from computer simulations showed that the proposed algorithm is capable of categorizing simulated AIF signals according to their noise levels. We found that the resulting pharmacokinetic parameters computed from our method were comparable with those from the manual determination of AIF, with acceptable differences in K(trans) (5.14 ± 3.60%), v(e) (6.02 ± 3.22%), v(p) (5.10 ± 7.05%) and k(ep) (5.38 ± 4.72%). The results of the current study suggest the usefulness of an automatically defined AIF using Kendall's coefficient of concordance for quantitative DCE-MRI in mouse models for cancer evaluation. PMID:21954069

Kim, Jae-Hun; Im, Geun Ho; Yang, Jehoon; Choi, Dongil; Lee, Won Jae; Lee, Jung Hee

2012-04-01

128

Detection of Neovessels in Atherosclerotic Plaques of Rabbits using Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI and 18F-FDG PET  

PubMed Central

Introduction The association of inflammatory cells and neovessels in atherosclerosis is considered a histological hallmark of high-risk active lesions. Therefore, the development and validation of noninvasive imaging techniques that allow for the detection of inflammation and neoangiogenesis in atherosclerosis would be of major clinical interest. Objective Our aim was to test two techniques, black blood dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and 18-fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET, to quantify inflammation expressed as plaque neovessels content in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis. Methods and Results Atherosclerotic plaques were induced in the aorta of ten rabbits by a combination of two endothelial abrasions and four months hyperlipidemic diet. Six rabbits underwent MRI during the injection of Gd-DTPA, while four rabbits were imaged after injection of 18F-FDG with PET. We found a positive correlation between neovessels count in atherosclerotic plaques and 1) Gd-DTPA uptake parameters evaluated by DCE-MRI (r = 0.89, p = 0.016) and 2) 18F-FDG uptake evaluated by PET (r = 0.5, p =0.103 after clustered robust, Huber-White, standard errors analysis). Conclusion DCE-MRI and 18F-FDG PET may allow for the evaluation of inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques of rabbits. These non-invasive imaging modalities could be proposed as clinical tools in the evaluation of lesion prognosis and monitoring of anti–angiogenic therapies.

Calcagno, Claudia; Cornily, Jean-Christophe; Hyafil, Fabien; Rudd, James H. F.; Briley-Saebo, Karen C.; Mani, Venkatesh; Goldschlager, Gregg; Machac, Josef; Fuster, Valentin; Fayad, Zahi A.

2011-01-01

129

Contrast-enhanced cardiac MRI before coronary artery bypass surgery: impact of myocardial scar extent on bypass flow.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to relate the extent of myocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in cardiac MRI to intraoperative graft flow in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Thirty-three CAD patients underwent LGE MRI before surgery using an inversion-recovery GRE sequence (turboFLASH). Intraoperative graft flow in Doppler ultrasonography was compared with the scar extent in each coronary vessel territory. One hundred and fourteen grafts were established supplying 86 of the 99 vessel territories. A significant negative correlation was found between scar extent and graft flow (r = -0.4, p < 0.0001). Flow in grafts to territories with no or small subendocardial scar was significantly higher than in grafts to territories with broad nontransmural or transmural scar (75 +/- 39 vs. 38 +/- 26 cc min(-1); p < 0.0001). In summary, the extent of myocardial scar as defined by contrast-enhanced MRI predicts coronary bypass graft flow. Beyond the probability of functional recovery, preoperative MRI might add value to surgery planning by predicting midterm bypass graft patency. PMID:18581115

Hunold, Peter; Massoudy, Parwis; Boehm, Claudia; Schlosser, Thomas; Nassenstein, Kai; Knipp, Stephan; Eggebrecht, Holger; Thielmann, Matthias; Erbel, Raimund; Jakob, Heinz; Barkhausen, Jörg

2008-12-01

130

Blind estimation of the arterial input function in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI using purity maximization.  

PubMed

Uncertainty in arterial input function (AIF) estimation is one of the major errors in the quantification of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. A blind source separation algorithm was proposed to determine the AIF by selecting the voxel time course with maximum purity, which represents a minimal contamination from partial volume effects. Simulations were performed to assess the partial volume effect on the purity of AIF, the estimation accuracy of the AIF, and the influence of purity on the derived kinetic parameters. In vivo data were acquired from six patients with hypopharyngeal cancer and eight rats with brain tumor. Results showed that in simulation the AIF with the highest purity is closest to the true AIF. In patients, the manually selection had reduced purity, which could lead to underestimations of K(trans) and V(e) and an overestimation of V(p) when compared with those obtained by the proposed blind source separation algorithm. The derived kinetic parameters in the tumor were more susceptible to the changes in purity when compared with those in the muscle. The animal experiment demonstrated good reproducibility in blind source separation-AIF derived parameters. In conclusion, the blind source separation method is feasible and reproducible to identify the voxel with the tracer concentration time course closest to the true AIF. PMID:22383386

Lin, Yu-Chun; Chan, Tsung-Han; Chi, Chong-Yung; Ng, Shu-Hang; Liu, Hao-Li; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Wai, Yau-Yau; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Wang, Jiun-Jie

2012-11-01

131

Effect of protocol parameters on contrast agent washout curve separability in breast dynamic contrast enhanced MRI: a simulation study.  

PubMed

Variability in diagnostic performance of breast dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI has highlighted the need for improved standardization. While guidance exists on some aspects of the technique, currently, there is no standardized method for selecting repetition time and flip angle, which are important determinants of image contrast. This study develops a theoretical framework for quantitative optimization of temporal aspects of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI based on area under the receiver operating curve. Optimizations in simulation demonstrate the potential for increases in area under the receiver operating characteristic curve by up to 0.20 and specificity at a sensitivity of 90% by up to 19%, depending on the protocol. These results suggest that careful selection of repetition time and flip angle can improve diagnostic performance and identify these quantities as potentially important parameters for future standardization. PMID:22144368

Freed, Melanie

2012-08-01

132

Angiogenic response of locally advanced breast cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy evaluated with parametric histogram from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate angiogenic compositions and tumour response in the course of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI. Thirteen patients with LABC underwent serial DCE MRI during the course of chemotherapy. DCE MRI was quantified using a two-compartment model on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Analysis of parametric histograms of amplitude, exchange rate kout and peak enhancement over the whole tumour was performed. The distribution patterns of histograms were correlated with the tumour response. Initial kurtosis and standard deviation of amplitude before chemotherapy correlated with tumour response, r = 0.63 and r = 0.61, respectively. Comparing the initial values with the values after the first course of chemotherapy, tumour response was associated with a decrease in standard deviation of amplitude (r = 0.79), and an increase in kurtosis and a decrease in standard deviation of kout (r = 0.57 and 0.57, respectively). Comparing the initial values with the values after completing the chemotherapy, tumours with better response were associated with an increase in kurtosis (r = 0.62), a decrease in mean (r = 0.84) and standard deviation (r = 0.77) of amplitude, and a decrease in mean of peak enhancement (r = 0.71). Our results suggested that tumours with better response tended to alter their internal compositions from heterogeneous to homogeneous distributions and a decrease in peak enhancement after chemotherapy. Serial analyses of parametric histograms of DCE MRI-derived angiogenic parameters are potentially useful to monitor the response of angiogenic compositions of a tumour throughout the course of chemotherapy, and might predict tumour response early in the course.

Chang, Yeun-Chung; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Liu, Yi-Jui; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Lu, Yen-Shen; Tseng, Wen-Yih I.

2004-08-01

133

Cerebral vascular mean transit time in healthy humans: a comparative study with PET and dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral vascular mean transit time (MTT), defined as the ratio of cerebral blood volume to cerebral blood flow (CBV\\/CBF), is a valuable indicator of the cerebral circulation. Positron emission tomography (PET) and dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) are useful for the quantitative determination of MTT in the clinical setting. The aim of this study was to establish a

Masanobu Ibaraki; Hiroshi Ito; Eku Shimosegawa; Hideto Toyoshima; Keiichi Ishigame; Kazuhiro Takahashi; Iwao Kanno; Shuichi Miura

2007-01-01

134

Diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for monitoring anticancer therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing awareness that anatomical approaches based on measurements of tumor size have significant limitations\\u000a for assessing therapy response. Functional imaging techniques are increasing being used to monitor response to therapies with\\u000a novel mechanisms of action, often predicting the success of therapy before conventional measurements have changed. Dynamic\\u000a contrast-enhanced and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the most

Anwar R. Padhani; Aftab Alam Khan

2010-01-01

135

Utility of delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI (dGEMRIC) for qualitative evaluation of articular cartilage of patellofemoral joint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) was used for the measurement of relative proteoglycan depletion of articular cartilage in the patellofemoral (PF) joint following a proprietary protocol, which was compared with the X-ray images, proton density weighted MR images (PDWI) and arthroscopic findings. The study examined 30 knees. The ages ranged from 16 to 74 (average 40.3) years. The Gd-DTPA2–containing

Takehiro Nojiri; Nobuyoshi Watanabe; Takehiko Namura; Wataru Narita; Kazuya Ikoma; Takehiko Suginoshita; Hisatake Takamiya; Hiroto Komiyama; Hirotoshi Ito; Tsunehiko Nishimura; Toshikazu Kubo

2006-01-01

136

Manganese-impregnated mesoporous silica nanoparticles for signal enhancement in MRI cell labelling studies.  

PubMed

Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are used in drug delivery and cell tracking applications. As Mn(2+) is already implemented as a "positive" cell contrast agent in preclinical imaging procedures (in the form of MnCl2 for neurological studies), the introduction of Mn in the porous network of MSNs would allow labelling cells and tracking them using MRI. These particles are in general internalized in endosomes, an acidic environment with high saline concentration. In addition, the available MSN porosity could also serve as a carrier to deliver medical/therapeutic substances through the labelled cells. In the present study, manganese oxide was introduced in the porous network of MCM-48 silica nanoparticles (Mn-M48SNs). The particles exhibit a narrow size distribution (~140 nm diam.) and high porosity (~60% vol.), which was validated after insertion of Mn. The resulting Mn-M48SNs were characterized by TEM, N2 physisorption, and XRD. Evidence was found with H2-TPR, and XPS characterization, that Mn(II) is the main oxidation state of the paramagnetic species after suspension in water, most probably in the form of Mn-OOH. The colloidal stability as a function of time was confirmed by DLS in water, acetate buffer and cell culture medium. In NMR data, no significant evidence of Mn(2+) leaching was found in Mn-M48SNs in acidic water (pH 6), up to 96 hours after suspension. High longitudinal relaxivity values of r1 = 8.4 mM(-1) s(-1) were measured at 60 MHz and 37 °C, with the lowest relaxometric ratios (r2/r1 = 2) reported to date for a Mn-MSN system. Leukaemia cells (P388) were labelled with Mn-M48SNs and nanoparticle cell internalization was confirmed by TEM. Finally, MRI contrast enhancement provided by cell labelling with escalated incubation concentrations of Mn-M48SNs was quantified at 1 T. This study confirmed the possibility of efficiently confining Mn into M48SNs using incipient wetness, while maintaining an open porosity and relatively high pore volume. Because these Mn-labelled M48SNs express strong "positive" contrast media properties at low concentrations, they are potentially applicable for cell tracking and drug delivery methodologies. PMID:24178890

Guillet-Nicolas, Rémy; Laprise-Pelletier, Myriam; Nair, Mahesh M; Chevallier, Pascale; Lagueux, Jean; Gossuin, Yves; Laurent, Sophie; Kleitz, Freddy; Fortin, Marc-André

2013-12-01

137

Optimal gadolinium dose level for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement of U87-derived tumors in athymic nude rats for the assessment of photodynamic therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to determine the effect of varying gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) dose on Dynamic Contrast Enhanced-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) tracking of brain tumor photodynamic therapy (PDT) outcome. Methods: We injected 2.5 x 105 U87 cells (derived from human malignant glioma) into the brains of six athymic nude rats. After 9, 12, and 13 days DCE-MRI images were acquired on a 9.4 T micro-MRI scanner before and after administration of 100, 150, or 200 ?L of Gd-DTPA. Results: Tumor region normalized DCE-MRI scan enhancement at peak was: 1.217 over baseline (0.018 Standard Error [SE]) at the 100 ?L dose, 1.339 (0.013 SE) at the 150 ?L dose, and 1.287 (0.014 SE) at the 200 ?L dose. DCE-MRI peak tumor enhancement at the 150 ?L dose was significantly greater than both the 100 ?L dose (p < 3.323E-08) and 200 ?L dose (p < 0.0007396). Discussion: In this preliminary study, the 150 ?L Gd-DTPA dose provided the greatest T1 weighted contrast enhancement, while minimizing negative T2* effects, in DCE-MRI scans of U87-derived tumors. Maximizing Gd-DTPA enhancement in DCE-MRI scans may assist development of a clinically robust (i.e., unambiguous) technique for PDT outcome assessment.

Cross, Nathan; Varghai, Davood; Flask, Chris A.; Feyes, Denise K.; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Dean, David

2009-02-01

138

Differentiation of Malignant and Benign Breast Lesions Using Magnetization Transfer Imaging and Dynamic Contrast-enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate feasibility of using magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) in conjunction with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions at 3 Tesla. Materials and Methods This prospective study was IRB and HIPAA compliant. DCE-MRI scans followed by MT imaging were performed on 41 patients. Region of interests (ROI’s) were drawn on co-registered MTR and DCE post-contrast images for breast structures, including benign lesions (BL) and malignant lesions (ML). Initial enhancement ratio (IER) and delayed enhancement ratio (DER) were calculated, as were normalized MTR, DER and IER (NMTR, NDER, NIER) values. Diagnostic accuracy analysis was performed. Results Mean MTR in ML was lower than in BL (p <0.05); mean DER and mean IER in ML were significantly higher than in BL (p<0.01, p<0.001). NMTR, NDER, and NIER were significantly lower in ML versus BL (p<0.007, p<0.001, p<0.001). IER had highest diagnostic accuracy (77.6%), sensitivity (86.2%), and area under the ROC curve (.879). MTR specificity was 100%. Logistic regression modeling with NMTR and NIER yielded best results for BL versus ML (sensitivity 93.1%, specificity 80%, AUC 0.884, accuracy 83.7%). Conclusion Isolated quantitative DCE analysis may increase specificity of breast MR for differentiating BL and ML. DCE-MRI with NMTR may produce a robust means of evaluating breast lesions.

Heller, Samantha L.; Moy, Linda; Lavianlivi, Sherlin; Moccaldi, Melanie; Kim, Sungheon

2013-01-01

139

ACTIVE DELIVERY CABLE TUNED TO DEVICE DEPLOYMENT STATE: ENHANCED VISIBILITY OF NITINOL OCCLUDERS DURING PRE-CLINICAL INTERVENTIONAL MRI  

PubMed Central

Purpose To develop an active delivery system that enhances visualization of nitinol cardiac occluder devices during deployment under real-time MRI. Materials and Methods We constructed an active delivery cable incorporating a loopless antenna and a custom titanium microscrew to secure the occluder devices. The delivery cable was tuned and matched to 50? at 64 MHz with the occluder device attached. We used real-time balanced SSFP in a wide-bore 1.5T scanner. Device-related images were reconstructed separately and combined with surface-coil images. The delivery cable was tested in vitro in a phantom and in vivo in swine using a variety of nitinol cardiac occluder devices. Results In vitro, the active delivery cable provided little signal when the occluder device was detached and maximal signal with the device attached. In vivo, signal from the active delivery cable enabled clear visualization of occluder device during positioning and deployment. Device release resulted in decreased signal from the active cable. Post-mortem examination confirmed proper device placement. Conclusions The active delivery cable enhanced the MRI depiction of nitinol cardiac occluder devices during positioning and deployment, both in conventional and novel applications. We expect enhanced visibility to contribute to effectiveness and safety of new and emerging MRI-guided treatments.

Bell, Jamie A.; Saikus, Christina E.; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Barbash, Israel M.; Faranesh, Anthony Z.; Franson, Dominique N.; Sonmez, Merdim; Slack, Michael C.; Lederman, Robert J.; Kocaturk, Ozgur

2012-01-01

140

Non-invasive visualization of in vivo drug delivery of poly(L-glutamic acid) using contrast enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Biomedical imaging is valuable for non-invasive investigation of in vivo drug delivery with polymer conjugates. It can provide real-time information on pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and drug delivery efficiency of the conjugates. Non-invasive visualization of in vivo drug delivery of polymer conjugates with contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was studied with paramagnetically labeled poly(L-glutamic acid) in an animal tumor model. Poly(L-glutamic acid) is a biocompatible and biodegradable drug carrier for diagnostics and therapeutics. Poly(L-glutamic acid)-1,6-hexanediamine-(Gd-DO3A) conjugates with molecular weights of 87, 50 and 28 KDa and narrow molecular weight distributions were prepared and studied in mice bearing MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts. Contrast enhanced MRI resulted in real-time and three-dimensional visualization of blood circulation, pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and tumor accumulation of the conjugates, and the size effect on these pharmaceutics properties. The conjugate of 28 KDa rapidly cleared from the circulation and had a relatively lower tumor accumulation. The conjugates with higher molecular weights exhibited a more prolonged blood circulation and higher tumor accumulation. The difference between the conjugates of 87 and 50 KDa was not significant. Contrast enhanced MRI is effective for non-invasive real-time visualization of in vivo drug delivery of paramagnetically labeled polymer conjugates.

Ye, Furong; Ke, Tianyi; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Wang, Xuli; Sun, Yongen; Johnson, Melody; Lu, Zheng-Rong

2008-01-01

141

Development and characterization of a dynamic lesion phantom for the quantitative evaluation of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To develop a dynamic lesion phantom that is capable of producing physiological kinetic curves representative of those seen in human dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data. The objective of this phantom is to provide a platform for the quantitative comparison of DCE-MRI protocols to aid in the standardization and optimization of breast DCE-MRI. Methods: The dynamic lesion consists of a hollow, plastic mold with inlet and outlet tubes to allow flow of a contrast agent solution through the lesion over time. Border shape of the lesion can be controlled using the lesion mold production method. The configuration of the inlet and outlet tubes was determined using fluid transfer simulations. The total fluid flow rate was determined using x-ray images of the lesion for four different flow rates (0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ml?s) to evaluate the resultant kinetic curve shape and homogeneity of the contrast agent distribution in the dynamic lesion. High spatial and temporal resolution x-ray measurements were used to estimate the true kinetic curve behavior in the dynamic lesion for benign and malignant example curves. DCE-MRI example data were acquired of the dynamic phantom using a clinical protocol. Results: The optimal inlet and outlet tube configuration for the lesion molds was two inlet molds separated by 30° and a single outlet tube directly between the two inlet tubes. X-ray measurements indicated that 1.0 ml?s was an appropriate total fluid flow rate and provided truth for comparison with MRI data of kinetic curves representative of benign and malignant lesions. DCE-MRI data demonstrated the ability of the phantom to produce realistic kinetic curves. Conclusions: The authors have constructed a dynamic lesion phantom, demonstrated its ability to produce physiological kinetic curves, and provided estimations of its true kinetic curve behavior. This lesion phantom provides a tool for the quantitative evaluation of DCE-MRI protocols, which may lead to improved discrimination of breast cancer lesions.

Freed, Melanie; de Zwart, Jacco A.; Hariharan, Prasanna; R. Myers, Matthew; Badano, Aldo

2011-01-01

142

Automated segmentation of reference tissue for prostate cancer localization in dynamic contrast enhanced MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis of Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE) MRI the arterial input function needs to be estimated. Previously, we demonstrated that PK parameters have a significant better discriminative performance when per patient reference tissue was used, but required manual annotation of reference tissue. In this study we propose a fully automated reference tissue segmentation method that tackles this limitation. The method was tested with our Computer Aided Diagnosis (CADx) system to study the effect on the discriminating performance for differentiating prostate cancer from benign areas in the peripheral zone (PZ). The proposed method automatically segments normal PZ tissue from DCE derived data. First, the bladder is segmented in the start-to-enhance map using the Otsu histogram threshold selection method. Second, the prostate is detected by applying a multi-scale Hessian filter to the relative enhancement map. Third, normal PZ tissue was segmented by threshold and morphological operators. The resulting segmentation was used as reference tissue to estimate the PK parameters. In 39 consecutive patients carcinoma, benign and normal tissue were annotated on MR images by a radiologist and a researcher using whole mount step-section histopathology as reference. PK parameters were computed for each ROI. Features were extracted from the set of ROIs using percentiles to train a support vector machine that was used as classifier. Prospective performance was estimated by means of leave-one-patient-out cross validation. A bootstrap resampling approach with 10,000 iterations was used for estimating the bootstrap mean AUCs and 95% confidence intervals. In total 42 malignant, 29 benign and 37 normal regions were annotated. For all patients, normal PZ was successfully segmented. The diagnostic accuracy obtained for differentiating malignant from benign lesions using a conventional general patient plasma profile showed an accuracy of 0.64 (0.53-0.74). Using the automated per-patient calibration method the diagnostic performance improved significantly to 0.76 (0.67-0.86, p=0.017) , whereas the manual per-patient calibration showed a diagnostic performance of 0.79 (0.70-0.89, p=0.01). In conclusion, the results show that an automated per-patient reference tissue PK model is feasible. A significantly better discriminating performance compared to the conventional general calibration was obtained and the diagnostic accuracy is similar to using manual per-patient calibration.

Vos, Pieter C.; Hambrock, Thomas; Barentsz, Jelle O.; Huisman, Henkjan J.

2010-03-01

143

Prediction of Prostate Cancer Extracapsular Extension with High Spatial Resolution Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced 3 Tesla MRI  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the value of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) combined with T2-weighted (T2W) endorectal coil (ERC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 T (3T) for determining extracapsular extension (ECE) of prostate cancer. Methods In this IRB-approved study, ERC 3T MRI of the prostate was performed in 108 patients prior to radical prostatectomy. T2W fast spin-echo and DCE 3D gradient echo images were acquired. The interpretations of readers with varied experience were analyzed. MRI-based staging results were compared with radical prostatectomy histology. Descriptive statistics were generated for prediction of ECE and staging accuracies were determined by the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve. Results The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for ECE were 75%, 92%, 79% and 91%, respectively. Diagnostic accuracy for staging was 86%, 80% and 91% for all readers, experienced and less experienced readers, respectively. Conclusions ERC 3T MRI of the prostate combining DCE and T2W imaging is an accurate pretheurapeutic staging tool for assessment of ECE in clinical practice across varying levels of reader experience.

Bloch, B. Nicolas; Genega, Elizabeth M.; Costa, Daniel N.; Pedrosa, Ivan; Smith, Martin P.; Kressel, Herbert Y.; Ngo, Long; Sanda, Martin G.; DeWolf, William C.; Rofsky, Neil M.

2013-01-01

144

Manganese-impregnated mesoporous silica nanoparticles for signal enhancement in MRI cell labelling studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are used in drug delivery and cell tracking applications. As Mn2+ is already implemented as a ``positive'' cell contrast agent in preclinical imaging procedures (in the form of MnCl2 for neurological studies), the introduction of Mn in the porous network of MSNs would allow labelling cells and tracking them using MRI. These particles are in general internalized in endosomes, an acidic environment with high saline concentration. In addition, the available MSN porosity could also serve as a carrier to deliver medical/therapeutic substances through the labelled cells. In the present study, manganese oxide was introduced in the porous network of MCM-48 silica nanoparticles (Mn-M48SNs). The particles exhibit a narrow size distribution (~140 nm diam.) and high porosity (~60% vol.), which was validated after insertion of Mn. The resulting Mn-M48SNs were characterized by TEM, N2 physisorption, and XRD. Evidence was found with H2-TPR, and XPS characterization, that Mn(ii) is the main oxidation state of the paramagnetic species after suspension in water, most probably in the form of Mn-OOH. The colloidal stability as a function of time was confirmed by DLS in water, acetate buffer and cell culture medium. In NMR data, no significant evidence of Mn2+ leaching was found in Mn-M48SNs in acidic water (pH 6), up to 96 hours after suspension. High longitudinal relaxivity values of r1 = 8.4 mM-1 s-1 were measured at 60 MHz and 37 °C, with the lowest relaxometric ratios (r2/r1 = 2) reported to date for a Mn-MSN system. Leukaemia cells (P388) were labelled with Mn-M48SNs and nanoparticle cell internalization was confirmed by TEM. Finally, MRI contrast enhancement provided by cell labelling with escalated incubation concentrations of Mn-M48SNs was quantified at 1 T. This study confirmed the possibility of efficiently confining Mn into M48SNs using incipient wetness, while maintaining an open porosity and relatively high pore volume. Because these Mn-labelled M48SNs express strong ``positive'' contrast media properties at low concentrations, they are potentially applicable for cell tracking and drug delivery methodologies.Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are used in drug delivery and cell tracking applications. As Mn2+ is already implemented as a ``positive'' cell contrast agent in preclinical imaging procedures (in the form of MnCl2 for neurological studies), the introduction of Mn in the porous network of MSNs would allow labelling cells and tracking them using MRI. These particles are in general internalized in endosomes, an acidic environment with high saline concentration. In addition, the available MSN porosity could also serve as a carrier to deliver medical/therapeutic substances through the labelled cells. In the present study, manganese oxide was introduced in the porous network of MCM-48 silica nanoparticles (Mn-M48SNs). The particles exhibit a narrow size distribution (~140 nm diam.) and high porosity (~60% vol.), which was validated after insertion of Mn. The resulting Mn-M48SNs were characterized by TEM, N2 physisorption, and XRD. Evidence was found with H2-TPR, and XPS characterization, that Mn(ii) is the main oxidation state of the paramagnetic species after suspension in water, most probably in the form of Mn-OOH. The colloidal stability as a function of time was confirmed by DLS in water, acetate buffer and cell culture medium. In NMR data, no significant evidence of Mn2+ leaching was found in Mn-M48SNs in acidic water (pH 6), up to 96 hours after suspension. High longitudinal relaxivity values of r1 = 8.4 mM-1 s-1 were measured at 60 MHz and 37 °C, with the lowest relaxometric ratios (r2/r1 = 2) reported to date for a Mn-MSN system. Leukaemia cells (P388) were labelled with Mn-M48SNs and nanoparticle cell internalization was confirmed by TEM. Finally, MRI contrast enhancement provided by cell labelling with escalated incubation concentrations of Mn-M48SNs was quantified at 1 T. This study confirmed the possibility of efficiently confining Mn into M48SNs using incipient wetness

Guillet-Nicolas, Rémy; Laprise-Pelletier, Myriam; Nair, Mahesh M.; Chevallier, Pascale; Lagueux, Jean; Gossuin, Yves; Laurent, Sophie; Kleitz, Freddy; Fortin, Marc-André

2013-11-01

145

Non-rigid alignment of preoperative MRI, fMRI, and DT-MRI with intra-operative MRI for enhanced visualization and navigation in image-guided neurosurgery  

PubMed Central

Objective The usefulness of neurosurgical navigation with current visualizations is seriously compromised by brain shift, which inevitably occurs during the course of the operation, significantly degrading the precise alignment between the preoperative MR data and the intra-operative shape of the brain. Our objectives were (i) to evaluate the feasibility of non-rigid registration that compensates for the brain deformations within the time constraints imposed by neurosurgery, and (ii) create augmented reality visualizations of critical structural and functional brain regions during neurosurgery using pre-operatively acquired fMRI and DT-MRI. Materials and Methods Eleven consecutive patients with supratentorial gliomas were included in our study. All underwent surgery at our intra-operative MR imaging–guided therapy facility and have tumors in eloquent brain areas (e.g. precentral gyrus and cortico-spinal tract). Functional MRI and DT-MRI, together with MPRAGE and T2w structural MRI were acquired at 3T prior to surgery. SPGR and T2w images were acquired with a 0.5T magnet during each procedure. Quantitative assessment of the alignment accuracy was carried out and compared with current state-of the-art systems based only on rigid-registration. Results Alignment between preoperative and intra-operative datasets was successfully carried out during surgery for all patients. Overall, the mean residual displacement remaining after non-rigid registration was 1.82 mm. There is a statistically significant improvement in alignment accuracy utilizing our non-rigid registration in comparison to the currently used technology (p<0.001). Conclusions We were able to achieve intra-operative rigid and non-rigid registration of (1) pre-operative structural MRI with intra-operative T1w MRI; (2) pre-operative FMRI with intra-operative T1w MRI, and (3) pre-operative DT-MRI with intra-operative T1w MRI. The registration algorithms as implemented were sufficiently robust and rapid to meet the hard real-time constraints of intra-operative surgical decision making. The validation experiments demonstrate that we can accurately compensate for the deformation of the brain and thus can construct an augmented reality visualization to aid the surgeon.

Archip, Neculai; Clatz, Olivier; Whalen, Stephen; Kacher, Dan; Fedorov, Andriy; Kot, Andriy; Chrisochoides, Nikos; Jolesz, Ferenc; Golby, Alexandra; Black, Peter M.; Warfield, Simon K.

2012-01-01

146

Assessment of ablative margin by MRI with ferucarbotran in radiofrequency ablation for liver cancer: comparison with enhanced CT  

PubMed Central

Objectives Our aim was to determine whether ablated liver parenchyma surrounding a tumour can be assessed by MRI with ferucarbotran administered prior to radiofrequency ablation (RFA) compared with enhanced CT. Methods 55 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) in 42 patients and 5 metastatic liver cancers in 3 patients were treated by RFA after ferucarbotran administration. We then performed T2* weighted MRI after 1 week and enhanced CT after 1 month. T2* weighted MRI demonstrated the ablated parenchyma as a low-intensity rim around the high intensity of the ablated tumour in these cases. The assessment was allocated to one of three grades: margin (+), high-intensity area with continuous low-intensity rim; margin zero, high-intensity area with discontinuous low-intensity rim; and margin (?), high-intensity area extending beyond the low-intensity rim. Results Margin (+), margin zero and margin (?) were found in 17, 35 and 5 nodules, respectively. All 17 nodules with margin (+) and 13 of those with margin zero were assessed as having sufficient abalative margins on CT. The remaining 22 nodules with margin zero had insufficient margins on CT. The overall agreement between MRI and CT for the diagnosis of the ablative margin was moderate (?=0.507, p<0.001). No local recurrence was found in 15 HCC nodules with margin (+), whereas local recurrence was found in 4 (11.8%) out of 34 HCC nodules with margin zero. Conclusion Administration of ferucarbotran before RFA enables the ablative margin to be visualised as a low-intensity rim, and also enables the evaluation of the ablative margin to be made earlier and more easily than with enhanced CT.

Tokunaga, S; Koda, M; Matono, T; Sugihara, T; Nagahara, T; Ueki, M; Murawaki, Y; Kakite, S; Yamashita, E

2012-01-01

147

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI Assessment of Hyperemic Fractional Microvascular Blood Plasma Volume in Peripheral Arterial Disease: Initial Findings  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of the current study was to describe a method that assesses the hyperemic microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. The reversibly albumin binding contrast agent gadofosveset was used in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI) to assess the microvascular status in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and healthy controls. In addition, the reproducibility of this method in healthy controls was determined. Materials and Methods Ten PAD patients with intermittent claudication and 10 healthy control subjects were included. Patients underwent contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the peripheral arteries, followed by one DCE MRI examination of the musculature of the calf. Healthy control subjects were examined twice on different days to determine normative values and the interreader and interscan reproducibility of the technique. The MRI protocol comprised dynamic imaging of contrast agent wash-in under reactive hyperemia conditions of the calf musculature. Using pharmacokinetic modeling the hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume (Vp, unit: %) of the anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles was calculated. Results Vp was significantly lower for all muscle groups in PAD patients (4.3±1.6%, 5.0±3.3% and 6.1±3.6% for anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, respectively) compared to healthy control subjects (9.1±2.0%, 8.9±1.9% and 9.3±2.1%). Differences in Vp between muscle groups were not significant. The coefficient of variation of Vp varied from 10–14% and 11–16% at interscan and interreader level, respectively. Conclusions Using DCE MRI after contrast-enhanced MR angiography with gadofosveset enables reproducible assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. Vp was lower in PAD patients than in healthy controls, which reflects a promising functional (hemodynamic) biomarker for the microvascular impairment of macrovascular lesions.

Versluis, Bas; Dremmen, Marjolein H. G.; Nelemans, Patty J.; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Schurink, Geert-Willem; Leiner, Tim; Backes, Walter H.

2012-01-01

148

A Suspicious Breast Lesion Detected by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI and Pathologically Confirmed as Capillary Hemangioma: a Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Breast capillary hemangioma is a type of benign vascular tumor which is rarely seen. Little is known about its presentation on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Here, we describe a case of suspicious breast lesion detected by DCE-MRI and pathologically confirmed as capillary hemangioma. Our case indicates that a small mass with a superficial location, clear boundary, and homogeneous enhancement on DCE-MRI indicates the possible diagnosis of hemangioma, whereby even the lesion presents a washout type curve.

Yang, Lian-He; Ma, Shuang; Li, Qing-Chang; Xu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Xin

2013-01-01

149

Improved parameter extraction and classification for dynamic contrast enhanced MRI of prostate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) imaging, has shown great potential in prostate cancer diagnosis and prognosis. The time course of the DCE images provides measures of the contrast agent uptake kinetics. Also, using pharmacokinetic modelling, one can extract parameters from the DCE-MR images that characterize the tumor vascularization and can be used to detect cancer. A requirement for calculating the pharmacokinetic DCE parameters is estimating the Arterial Input Function (AIF). One needs an accurate segmentation of the cross section of the external femoral artery to obtain the AIF. In this work we report a semi-automatic method for segmentation of the cross section of the femoral artery, using circular Hough transform, in the sequence of DCE images. We also report a machine-learning framework to combine pharmacokinetic parameters with the model-free contrast agent uptake kinetic parameters extracted from the DCE time course into a nine-dimensional feature vector. This combination of features is used with random forest and with support vector machine classi cation for cancer detection. The MR data is obtained from patients prior to radical prostatectomy. After the surgery, wholemount histopathology analysis is performed and registered to the DCE-MR images as the diagnostic reference. We show that the use of a combination of pharmacokinetic parameters and the model-free empirical parameters extracted from the time course of DCE results in improved cancer detection compared to the use of each group of features separately. We also validate the proposed method for calculation of AIF based on comparison with the manual method.

Haq, Nandinee Fariah; Kozlowski, Piotr; Jones, Edward C.; Chang, Silvia D.; Goldenberg, S. Larry; Moradi, Mehdi

2014-03-01

150

Gadolinium-DTPA enhanced MRI in myocardial infarction. An experimental and clinical study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis focuses on one aspect of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for noninvasive screening of ischemic heart disease: the identification and quantification of acutely infarcted myocardium using gadolineum-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid ...

P. R. M. Dijkman

1991-01-01

151

Assessment of Clinical Signs of Liver Cirrhosis Using T1 Mapping on Gd-EOB-DTPA-Enhanced 3T MRI  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the differences between normal and cirrhotic livers by means of T1 mapping of liver parenchyma on gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced 3 Tesla (3T) MR imaging (MRI). Methods 162 patients with normal (n = 96) and cirrhotic livers (n = 66; Child-Pugh class A, n = 30; B, n = 28; C, n = 8) underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced 3T MRI. To obtain T1 maps, two TurboFLASH sequences (TI = 400 ms and 1000 ms) before and 20 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration were acquired. T1 relaxation times of the liver and the reduction rate between pre- and post-contrast enhancement images were measured. Results The T1 relaxation times for Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI showed significant differences between patients with normal liver function and patients with Child-Pugh class A, B, and C (p < 0.001). The T1 relaxation times showed a constant significant increase from Child-Pugh class A up to class C (Child-Pugh class A, 335 ms ± 80 ms; B, 431 ms ± 75 ms; C, 557 ms ± 99 ms; Child-Pugh A to B, p < 0.001; Child-Pugh A to C, p < 0.001; Child-Pugh B to C, p < 0.001) and a constant decrease of the reduction rate of T1 relaxation times (Child-Pugh class A, 57.1% ± 8.8%; B, 44.3% ± 10.2%, C, 29.9% ± 6.9%; Child-Pugh A to B, p < 0.001; Child-Pugh A to C,p < 0.001; Child-Pugh B to C, p < 0.001). Conclusion Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced T1 mapping of the liver parenchyma may present a useful method for determining severity of liver cirrhosis.

Haimerl, Michael; Verloh, Niklas; Zeman, Florian; Fellner, Claudia; Muller-Wille, Rene; Schreyer, Andreas G.; Stroszczynski, Christian; Wiggermann, Philipp

2013-01-01

152

Polyethylene glycol and contrast-enhanced MRI of Crohn's disease in children: preliminary experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To assess the ability of MRI to detect bowel abnormalities in children affected by Crohn's disease (CD).Materials and methods. We studied 22 children (age range 8–18 years) referred to us with a known history of CD. MRI was carried out using a 1.5-T unit with a maximum gradient field strength of 16 mT and a phased-array body coil. The

Gianmichele Magnano; Claudio Granata; Arrigo Barabino; Francesca Magnaguagno; Umberto Rossi; Maria Grazia Calevo; Paolo Toma

2003-01-01

153

METABOLIC AND VASCULAR FEATURES OF DYNAMIC CONTRAST ENHANCED BREAST MRI AND 15O-WATER PET BLOOD FLOW IN BREAST CANCER  

PubMed Central

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES To (1) describe associations between measures of tumor perfusion by dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI (DCE-MRI), blood flow by 15O-water PET and metabolism by 18F-FDG PET and (2) improve our understanding of tumor enhancement on MRI through independent measures of tumor metabolism and blood flow. MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed a retrospective analysis of the existing PET and MRI databases from the departments of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology. We identified patients with locally advanced breast cancer who underwent 15O-water/18F-FDG PET within 1 month of clinical DCE-MRI between February 2004 and August 2006. The 15O-water PET blood flow and 18F-FDG metabolic rate (MR) and tissue transport constant (K1) in the primary malignancy were calculated. DCE-MRI peak percent enhancement (PE) and peak signal enhancement ratio (SER) were measured for each tumor. Correlations and regression analysis of these variables were performed. RESULTS Fifteen patients with complete PET and DCE-MRI data were included in the analysis cohort. Peak SER correlated significantly with blood flow (r=0.73, p=0.002) and K1 (r=0.76, p=0.001). However, peak SER did not correlate significantly with FDG MR (r=0.44, p=0.101). There were no significant correlations between peak PE and any of the PET parameters. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that tumor perfusion, represented by 15O-water PET blood flow, is an important factor in the MRI enhancement of LABC. A lack of correlation of FDG MR with blood flow and DCE-MRI kinetics suggests that 18F-FDG PET provides complementary metabolic information independent of vascular factors.

Eby, Peter R.; Partridge, Savannah C.; White, Steven W.; Doot, Robert K.; Dunnwald, Lisa K.; Schubert, Erin K.; Kurland, Brenda F.; Lehman, Constance D.; Mankoff, David A.

2008-01-01

154

Detection of renal ischemic lesions using Gd-DTPA enhanced turbo FLASH MRI: Experimental and clinical results  

SciTech Connect

Our goal was to investigate the role of Gd-DTPA-enhanced dynamic MRI in the evaluation of renal ischemic lesions. With a turbo FLASH sequence before and after injection of Gd-DTPA, nine foxhound dogs after 60-120 min of renal ischemia underwent MR examination. In addition, five patients with a tumor in a solitary kidney were examined before and after nephron-sparing renal surgery to evaluate renal perfusion and function. The experimental and clinical findings were correlated with conventional measurements of kidney function and with histological findings. Complete renal ischemia leads to a poor corticomedullary differentiation in Gd-DTPA-enhanced turbo FLASH MRI. The signal-intensity-versus-time plots of kidneys with significant postischemic changes show a less steep increase of signal intensity in the cortex and a steeper increase of signal intensity in the medulla than those of normal kidneys. Dynamic MRI demonstrate renal morphology and reflect the functional status of the renal vasculature. 21 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Vosshenrich, R.; Fischer, U.; Funke, M.; Kopka, L.; Grabbe, E. [Univ. of Goettingen (Germany)] [and others] [Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); and others

1996-03-01

155

Contrast-enhanced multiphasic CT and MRI of primary hepatic pregnancy: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Primary hepatic pregnancy is extremely rare and difficult to diagnose radiologically. We present a 32-year-old woman with primary hepatic pregnancy diagnosed by using multi-modality imaging techniques, including ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which highlights diagnostic challenges. These techniques can define tissue planes in detail and identify embryo implantation into the hepatic parenchyma, thereby allowing accurate preoperative diagnosis and preoperative planning by the surgical team. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first in the English literature to report a case of primary hepatic pregnancy, in which diffusion-weighted and contrast-enhanced multiphasic MRI were utilized for diagnosis and evaluation. PMID:24531351

Hu, Shudong; Song, Qi; Chen, Kemin; Chen, Yerong

2014-08-01

156

T1 and t2 dual-mode MRI contrast agent for enhancing accuracy by engineered nanomaterials.  

PubMed

One of the holy grails in biomedical imaging technology is to achieve accurate imaging of biological targets. The development of sophisticated instrumentation and the use of contrast agents have improved the accuracy of biomedical imaging. However, the issue of false imaging remains a problem. Here, we developed a dual-mode artifact filtering nanoparticle imaging agent (AFIA) that comprises a combination of paramagnetic and superparamagnetic nanomaterials. This AFIA has the ability to perform "AND logic gate" algorithm to eliminate false errors (artifacts) from the raw images to enhance accuracy of the MRI. We confirm the artifact filtering capability of AFIA in MRI phantoms and further demonstrate that artifact-free imaging of stem cell migration is possible in vivo. PMID:24673493

Shin, Tae-Hyun; Choi, Jin-Sil; Yun, Seokhwan; Kim, Il-Sun; Song, Ho-Taek; Kim, Youngmee; Park, Kook In; Cheon, Jinwoo

2014-04-22

157

Suitability of Pharmacokinetic Models for Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Vessel Wall: A Comparison  

PubMed Central

Purpose Increased microvascularization of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) vessel wall has been related to AAA progression and rupture. The aim of this study was to compare the suitability of three pharmacokinetic models to describe AAA vessel wall enhancement using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Materials and Methods Patients with AAA underwent DCE-MRI at 1.5 Tesla. The volume transfer constant (Ktrans), which reflects microvascular flow, permeability and surface area, was calculated by fitting the blood and aneurysm vessel wall gadolinium concentration curves. The relative fit errors, parameter uncertainties and parameter reproducibilities for the Patlak, Tofts and Extended Tofts model were compared to find the most suitable model. Scan-rescan reproducibility was assessed using the interclass correlation coefficient and coefficient of variation (CV). Further, the relationship between Ktrans and AAA size was investigated. Results DCE-MRI examinations from thirty-nine patients (mean age±SD: 72±6 years; M/F: 35/4) with an mean AAA maximal diameter of 49±6 mm could be included for pharmacokinetic analysis. Relative fit uncertainties for Ktrans based on the Patlak model (17%) were significantly lower compared to the Tofts (37%) and Extended Tofts model (42%) (p<0.001). Ktrans scan-rescan reproducibility for the Patlak model (ICC?=?0.61 and CV?=?22%) was comparable with the Tofts (ICC?=?0.61, CV?=?23%) and Extended Tofts model (ICC?=?0.76, CV?=?22%). Ktrans was positively correlated with maximal AAA diameter (Spearman’s ??=?0.38, p?=?0.02) using the Patlak model. Conclusion Using the presented imaging protocol, the Patlak model is most suited to describe DCE-MRI data of the AAA vessel wall with good Ktrans scan-rescan reproducibility.

Nguyen, V. Lai; Kooi, M. Eline; Backes, Walter H.; van Hoof, Raf H. M.; Saris, Anne E. C. M.; Wishaupt, Mirthe C. J.; Hellenthal, Femke A. M. V. I.; van der Geest, Rob J.; Kessels, Alfons G. H.; Schurink, Geert Willem H.; Leiner, Tim

2013-01-01

158

Evaluating regional blood spinal cord barrier dysfunction following spinal cord injury using longitudinal dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Background In vivo preclinical imaging of spinal cord injury (SCI) in rodent models provides clinically relevant information in translational research. This paper uses multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate neurovascular pathology and changes in blood spinal cord barrier (BSCB) permeability following SCI in a mouse model of SCI. Methods C57BL/6 female mice (n = 5) were subjected to contusive injury at the thoracic T11 level and scanned on post injury days 1 and 3 using anatomical, dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The injured cords were evaluated postmortem with histopathological stains specific to neurovascular changes. A computational model was implemented to map local changes in barrier function from the contrast enhancement. The area and volume of spinal cord tissue with dysfunctional barrier were determined using semi-automatic segmentation. Results Quantitative maps derived from the acquired DCE-MRI data depicted the degree of BSCB permeability variations in injured spinal cords. At the injury sites, the damaged barriers occupied about 70% of the total cross section and 48% of the total volume on day 1, but the corresponding measurements were reduced to 55% and 25%, respectively on day 3. These changes implied spatio-temporal remodeling of microvasculature and its architecture in injured SC. Diffusion computations included longitudinal and transverse diffusivities and fractional anisotropy index. Comparison of permeability and diffusion measurements indicated regions of injured cords with dysfunctional barriers had structural changes in the form of greater axonal loss and demyelination, as supported by histopathologic assessments. Conclusion The results from this study collectively demonstrated the feasibility of quantitatively mapping regional BSCB dysfunction in injured cord in mouse and obtaining complementary information about its structural integrity using in vivo DCE-MRI and DTI protocols. This capability is expected to play an important role in characterizing the neurovascular changes and reorganization following SCI in longitudinal preclinical experiments, but with potential clinical implications.

2009-01-01

159

Perfluorocarbons enhance a T2*-based MRI technique for identifying the penumbra in a rat model of acute ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

Accurate imaging of ischemic penumbra is crucial for improving the management of acute stroke patients. T2* magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with a T2*oxygen challenge (T2*OC) is being developed to detect penumbra based on changes in blood deoxyhemoglobin. Using 100% O2, T2*OC-defined penumbra exhibits ongoing glucose metabolism and tissue recovery on reperfusion. However, potential limitations in translating this technique include a sinus artefact in human scans with delivery of 100% OC and relatively small signal changes. Here we investigate whether an oxygen-carrying perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsion can enhance the sensitivity of the technique, enabling penumbra detection with lower levels of inspired oxygen. Stroke was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=17) with ischemic injury and perfusion deficit determined by diffusion and perfusion MRI, respectively. T2* signal change was measured in regions of interest (ROIs) located within ischemic core, T2*OC-defined penumbra and equivalent contralateral areas during 40% O2±prior PFC injection. Region of interest analyses between groups showed that PFC significantly enhanced the T2* response to 40% O2 in T2*-defined penumbra (mean increase of 10.6±2.3% compared to 5.6±1.5% with 40% O2, P<0.001). This enhancement was specific to the penumbra ROI. Perfluorocarbon emulsions therefore enhances the translational potential of the T2*OC technique for identifying penumbra in acute stroke patients. PMID:23801243

Deuchar, Graeme A; Brennan, David; Griffiths, Hugh; Macrae, I Mhairi; Santosh, Celestine

2013-09-01

160

Possible Usefulness of Gadolinium-Enhanced Brain MRI for Evaluating Risk of Perioperative Hemorrhage: A Case of Infective Endocarditis  

PubMed Central

A 59-year-old woman visited a local hospital for fever and was diagnosed as having infective endocarditis (IE) on the basis of blood cultures and transthoracic echocardiography. Based on clinical episodes of subarachnoid hemorrhage after admission, it was judged that she was not a good candidate for urgent open heart surgery, and it was decided to treat her with conservative medical therapy for the acute phase. We explored the optimum timing for surgery by employing gadolinium (Gd) contrast medium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2* weighted image (black dots) due to her high risk of perioperative cerebral hemorrhage. After the disappearance of the contrast media enhancement effect around the black dots, open heart surgery was performed successfully on the 103rd hospitalization day. The patient was discharged 22 days after the surgery with no clinical complications. This case suggests that disappearance of the contrast media enhancement effect around the black dots may be a useful marker for optimal timing of surgery to minimize the risk of perioperative cerebral hemorrhage in patients with IE. Learning Objective. The MRI T2* weighted images including those with Gd contrast medium enhancement effect may be useful for evaluating the risk of perioperative intracranial hemorrhage in IE.

Koeda, Chikahiko; Tashiro, Atsushi; Takahashi, Tomohiro; Niiyama, Masanobu; Sakamoto, Ryohei; Kimura, Takumi; Morino, Yoshihiro; Terui, Katsutoshi; Tanaka, Ryoichi; Yoshioka, Kunihiro; Kin, Hajime; Okabayashi, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Motoyuki

2014-01-01

161

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)  

Cancer.gov

Different tissues (including tumors) emit a more or less intense signal based on their chemical makeup, so a picture of the body organs can be displayed on a computer screen. Much like CT scans, MRI can produce three-dimensional images of sections of the body, but MRI is sometimes more sensitive than CT scans for distinguishing soft tissues.

162

Detection of local recurrent prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy in terms of salvage radiotherapy using dynamic contrast enhanced-MRI without endorectal coil  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the value of dynamic contrast enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) without endorectal coil (EC) in the detection of local recurrent prostate cancer (PC) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Material and methods Thirty-three patients with recurrent PC underwent DCE-MRI without EC before salvage radiotherapy (RT). At median 15 (mean 16±4.9, range 12–27) months after completion of RT all patients showed complete biochemical response. Additional follow up post RT DCE-MRI scans were available. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels at the time of imaging were correlated to the imaging findings. Results In 22/33 patients (67%) early contrast enhancing nodules were detected in the post-prostatectomy fossa on pre-RT DCE-MRI images. The average pre-RT PSA level of the 22 patients with positive pre-RT DCE-MRI findings was significantly higher (mean, 0.74±0.64 ng/mL) compared to the pre-RT PSA level of the 11 patients with negative pre-RT DCE-MRI (mean, 0.24±0.13 ng/mL) (p<0.001). All post-RT DCE-MRI images showed complete resolution of initial suspicious lesions. A pre-RT PSA cut-off value of ?0.54 ng/ml readily predicted a positive DCE-MRI finding. Conclusions This is the first study that shows that DCE-MRI without EC can detect local recurrent PC with an estimated accuracy of 83% at low PSA levels. All false negative DCE-MRI scans were detected using a PSA cut-off of ?0.54 ng/mL.

2012-01-01

163

Permeability assessment of the focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Focused ultrasound (FUS) in conjunction with microbubbles has been shown to successfully open the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the mouse brain. In this study, we compute the BBB permeability after opening in vivo. The spatial permeability of the BBB-opened region was assessed using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). The DCE-MR images were post-processed using the general kinetic model (GKM) and the reference region model (RRM). Permeability maps were generated and the Ktrans values were calculated for a predefined volume of interest in the sonicated and the control area for each mouse. The results demonstrated that Ktrans in the BBB-opened region (0.02 ± 0.0123 for GKM and 0.03 ± 0.0167 min-1 for RRM) was at least two orders of magnitude higher when compared to the contra-lateral (control) side (0 and 8.5 × 10-4 ± 12 × 10-4 min-1, respectively). The permeability values obtained with the two models showed statistically significant agreement and excellent correlation (R2 = 0.97). At histological examination, it was concluded that no macroscopic damage was induced. This study thus constitutes the first permeability assessment of FUS-induced BBB opening using DCE-MRI, supporting the fact that the aforementioned technique may constitute a safe, non-invasive and efficacious drug delivery method.

Vlachos, F.; Tung, Y.-S.; Konofagou, E. E.

2010-09-01

164

Retrieval of Brain Tumors with Region-Specific Bag-of-Visual-Words Representations in Contrast-Enhanced MRI Images  

PubMed Central

A content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system is proposed for the retrieval of T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) images of brain tumors. In this CBIR system, spatial information in the bag-of-visual-words model and domain knowledge on the brain tumor images are considered for the representation of brain tumor images. A similarity metric is learned through a distance metric learning algorithm to reduce the gap between the visual features and the semantic concepts in an image. The learned similarity metric is then used to measure the similarity between two images and then retrieve the most similar images in the dataset when a query image is submitted to the CBIR system. The retrieval performance of the proposed method is evaluated on a brain CE-MRI dataset with three types of brain tumors (i.e., meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumor). The experimental results demonstrate that the mean average precision values of the proposed method range from 90.4% to 91.5% for different views (transverse, coronal, and sagittal) with an average value of 91.0%.

Huang, Meiyan; Yang, Wei; Yu, Mei; Lu, Zhentai; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan

2012-01-01

165

Quantification of Massive Allograft Healing with Dynamic Contrast Enhanced-MRI and Cone Beam-CT: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Although massive allografts are widely used for reconstruction of critical defects in long bones caused by tumor or trauma, many will have inadequate long-term outcomes. Toward a tissue engineering solution to this problem, we developed experimental stem cell and gene therapy adjuvants that induce angiogenesis, osteogenesis, and remodeling of the structural allografts. We present data from pilot studies to show the utility of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) to quantify vascularity after femoral osteotomy in a canine femur model and cone beam CT (CB-CT) to quantify bone volume in a patient after composite prosthetic-allograft reconstructive surgery. The results demonstrate our ability to suppress the artifacts generated by the metal implants required to secure massive allografts such that precise quantification of cortical bone revascularization (>10-fold increase at 3 weeks postoperatively) and new bone formation (accurate to about 193 ?m3) around the graft can be performed longitudinally via DCE-MRI and CB-CT, respectively.

Ehrhart, Nicole; Kraft, Susan; Conover, David; Rosier, Randy N.

2008-01-01

166

A dimensionless dynamic contrast enhanced MRI parameter for intra-prostatic tumour target volume delineation: initial comparison with histology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: T2 weighted and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) show promise in isolating prostate tumours. Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI has also been employed as a component in multi-parametric tumour detection schemes. Model-based parameters such as Ktrans are conventionally used to characterize DCE images and require arterial contrast agent (CR) concentration. A robust parameter map that does not depend on arterial input may be more useful for target volume delineation. We present a dimensionless parameter (Wio) that characterizes CR wash-in and washout rates without requiring arterial CR concentration. Wio is compared to Ktrans in terms of ability to discriminate cancer in the prostate, as demonstrated via comparison with histology. Methods: Three subjects underwent DCE-MRI using gadolinium contrast and 7 s imaging temporal resolution. A pathologist identified cancer on whole-mount histology specimens, and slides were deformably registered to MR images. The ability of Wio maps to discriminate cancer was determined through receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. Results: There is a trend that Wio shows greater area under the ROC curve (AUC) than Ktrans with median AUC values of 0.74 and 0.69 respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant based on a Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p = 0.13). Conclusions: Preliminary results indicate that Wio shows potential as a tool for Ktrans QA, showing similar ability to discriminate cancer in the prostate as Ktrans without requiring arterial CR concentration.

Hrinivich, W. Thomas; Gibson, Eli; Gaed, Mena; Gomez, Jose A.; Moussa, Madeleine; McKenzie, Charles A.; Bauman, Glenn S.; Ward, Aaron D.; Fenster, Aaron; Wong, Eugene

2014-03-01

167

Association Between Serial Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI and Dynamic 18F-FDG PET Measures in Patients undergoing Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the relationship between changes in vascularity and metabolic activity measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and dynamic 18F-FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) in breast tumors undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Materials and Methods PET and MRI examinations were performed in 14 patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) before and after chemotherapy. Dynamic 18F-FDG PET measures included 18F-FDG transport rate constant from blood to tissue (K1) and metabolism flux constant (Ki). DCE-MRI measures included initial peak enhancement (PE), signal enhancement ratio (SER), and tumor volume. Spearman rank-order correlations were assessed between changes in PET and MRI parameters, and measures were compared between patients with and without pathologic complete response (pCR) by Mann-Whitney U test. Results Changes in glucose delivery (PET K1) were closely correlated with changes in tumor vascularity as reflected by DCE-MRI SER (?=0.83, p<0.001). Metabolic changes in PET Ki showed moderate correlations with vascularity changes as reflected by SER (?=0.71) and PE (?=0.76), and correlated closely with MRI tumor volume (?=0.79, p<0.001). Decreases in K1, Ki, SER, and PE were greater for patients with pCR compared to those with residual disease (p<0.05). Conclusion Dynamic 18F-FDG PET and DCE-MRI tumor measures of tumor metabolism, vascularity, and volume were well correlated for assessing LABC response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and significantly discriminated pathologic complete responders. Further work is necessary to assess the value of combined PET and MRI for evaluating tumor pharmacodynamics in response to novel therapy.

Partridge, Savannah C.; Vanantwerp, Risa K.; Doot, Robert K.; Chai, Xiaoyu; Kurland, Brenda F.; Eby, Peter R.; Specht, Jennifer M.; Dunnwald, Lisa K.; Schubert, Erin K.; Lehman, Constance D.; Mankoff, David A.

2010-01-01

168

Background parenchymal enhancement in the contralateral normal breast of patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy measured by DCE-MRI.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) in the contralateral normal breast of cancer patients during the course of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Forty-five subjects were analyzed. Each patient had three MRIs, one baseline (B/L) and two follow-up (F/U) studies. The fibroglandular tissue in the contralateral normal breast was segmented using a computer-assisted algorithm. Based on the segmented fibroglandular tissue, BPE was calculated. BPE measured in baseline (B/L) and follow-up (F/U) MR studies were compared. The baseline BPE was also correlated with age and compared between pre/peri-menopausal (<55 years old) and post-menopausal women (?55 years old). The pre-treatment BPE measured in B/L MRI was significantly higher in women <55 years old than in women ?55 years old (20.1%±7.4% vs. 12.1%±5.1%, p?0.01). A trend of negative correlation between BPE and age was noted (r=-0.29). In women <55years old, BPE at F/U-1 (18.8%±6.9%) was decreased compared to B/L, and was further decreased in F/U-2 (13.3%±5.7%) which was significant compared to B/L and F/U-1. In women ?55 years old, no significant difference was noted in any paired comparison among B/L, F/U-1 and F/U-2 MRI. A higher baseline BPE was associated with a greater reduction of BPE in F/U-2 MRI (r=0.73). Our study showed that younger women tended to have higher BPE than older women. BPE was significantly decreased in F/U-2 MRI after NAC in women <55 years old. The reduction in BPE was most likely due to the ovarian ablation induced by chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:23992630

Chen, Jeon-Hor; Yu, Hon; Lin, Muqing; Mehta, Rita S; Su, Min-Ying

2013-11-01

169

Early Detection of Lewis Lung Carcinoma Tumor Control by Irradiation Using Diffusion-Weighted and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the correlation between diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) derived parameters and radioresponsiveness of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumor. Materials and Methods LLC tumor growth in C57BL/6 mouse limb was used for the experiment. The tumors were irradiated with 10 Gy×5, or 30 Gy×2 vs. sham irradiation. Fourteen tumors were subjected to DW-MRI and DCE-MRI pre-radiotherapy and weekly imaging after radiotherapy. The temporal changes in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and DCE-MRI derived parameters (Ktrans, kep, ve, and vp) were correlated with tumor size, and were histologically compared with CD31 staining of resected tumors. Results The 10 Gy×5 dose inhibited tumor growth for a week, while 30 Gy×2 controlled tumor growth for a 3-week observation period. One week after radiotherapy (week 2), irradiated tumors showed significantly higher values of ADC than untreated ones (10 Gy×5, p?=?0.004; 30 Gy×2, p?=?0.01). Significantly higher values of ve were shown earlier by 30 Gy×2 vs. sham (p?=?0.01) and 10 Gy×5 vs. sham irradiation (p?=?0.05). Sustained higher ve from 10 Gy×5 compared to sham irradiated tumors was evident at week 3 (p?=?0.016) and week 4 (p?=?0.046). A 13.8% early increase in ADC for 30 Gy×2 tumor group (p?=?0.002) and a 16.5% increase for 10 Gy×5 group were noted (p?=?0.01) vs. sham irradiation (which showed a 2.2% decrease). No differences were found for Ktrans, kep, or vp. Both radiotherapy groups demonstrated significant reduction in microvessel counts. Conclusion Early increase in ADC and ve correlated with tumor control by irradiation.

Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien; Yuan, Ang; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Lu, Yi-Chien; Cho, Kuan-Hung; Wu, Jian-Kuen; Wu, Chien-Jang; Chang, Yeun-Chung; Yang, Pan-Chyr

2013-01-01

170

Pharmacokinetic changes induced by focused ultrasound in glioma-bearing rats as measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.  

PubMed

Focused ultrasound (FUS) combined with microbubbles has been shown to be a noninvasive and targeted drug delivery technique for brain tumor treatment. The purpose of this study was to measure the kinetics of Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) in glioma-bearing rats in the presence of FUS-induced blood-brain barrier disruption (BBB-D) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A total of ten glioma-bearing rats (9-12 weeks, 290-340 g) were used in this study. Using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI, the spatial permeability of FUS-induced BBB-D was evaluated and the kinetic parameters were calculated by a general kinetic model (GKM). The results demonstrate that the mean Ktrans of the sonicated tumor (0.128±0.019 at 20 min and 0.103±0.023 at 24 h after sonication, respectively) was significantly higher than (2.46-fold at 20 min and 1.78-fold at 24 h) that of the contralateral (non-sonicated) tumor (0.052±0.019 at 20 min and 0.058±0.012 at 24 h after sonication, respectively). In addition, the transfer constant Ktrans in the sonicated tumor correlated strongly with tissue EB extravasation (R?=?0.95), which suggests that DCE-MRI may reflect drug accumulation in the brain. Histological observations showed no macroscopic damage except for a few small erythrocyte extravasations. The current study demonstrates that DCE-MRI can monitor the dynamics of the FUS-induced BBB-D process and constitutes a useful tool for quantifying BBB permeability in tumors. PMID:24670992

Yang, Feng-Yi; Ko, Chia-En; Huang, Sheng-Yao; Chung, I-Fang; Chen, Gin-Shin

2014-01-01

171

Segmented spin-echo pulses to increase fMRI signal: Repeated intrinsic diffusional enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its inception, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has seen rapid progress in the application to neurosci- ence. Common gradient-recalled acquisition methods are sus- ceptible to static field inhomogeneities, resulting in signal loss at the medial temporal area important for memory function or at the basal ganglia area for motor control. In addition, they are susceptible to the contaminating signals

Allen W. Song; Hui Mao; Raja Muthupillai; Frank Haist; W. Thomas Dixon

1999-01-01

172

Longitudinal Evaluation of Cartilage Composition of Matrix-Associated Autologous Chondrocyte Transplants with 3-T Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced MRI of Cartilage  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. The purposes of this study were to use delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) to evaluate the zonal distribution of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in normal cartilage and repair tissue and to use 3-T MRI to monitor the GAG content in matrix- associated autologous chondrocyte transplants. SuBJECTS AND METHODS. Fifteen patients who underwent matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation in the knee joint

Katja Pinker; Pavol Szomolanyi; Goetz C. Welsch; Tallal C. Mamisch; Stefan Marlovits; Andreas Stadlbauer; Siegfried Trattnig

173

Gd-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the follow-up of laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT): trial to determine a useful examination schedule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: To evaluate gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced MRI for follow-up monitoring of laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) and to determine of a useful examination schedule. Materials and Methods: LITT Of the liver was performed in 55 rabbits using a Nd:YAG laser (4 w power output, 840 s exposure time). Gd-DTPA MRI and histological examinations were performed at different times (0 - 168 days). Results: Laser- induced lesions underwent regeneration and volume size reduction (69% after 168 days). The correlation coefficient (MR vs macroscopic analysis) for the mean lesion diameter was r equals 0.96. Histology of lesions comprised the four zones that correlated best with MRI findings. Coagulation necroses immediately after LITT were seen as an area of no enhancement on Gd-DTPA MRI. Circular enhancement was first seen 72 - 96 hours after LITT, which was due to early mesenchymal proliferation. Conclusions: Gd-DTPA MRI is a good monitoring procedure for LITT. MRI should be performed 24 and 96 hours after LITT.

Germer, Christoph-Thomas; Isbert, Christoph M.; Albrecht, Dirk; Ritz, Joerg P.; Schilling, Andreas; Roggan, Andre; Wolf, Karl J.; Mueller, Gerhard J.; Buhr, Heinz-Johannes

1998-01-01

174

SPIO-conjugated, doxorubicin-loaded microbubbles for concurrent MRI and focused-ultrasound enhanced brain-tumor drug delivery.  

PubMed

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) can be temporarily and locally opened by focused ultrasound (FUS) in the presence of circulating microbubbles (MBs). Currently, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) is used to monitor contrast agent leakage to verify BBB-opening and infer drug deposition. However, despite being administered concurrently, MBs, therapeutic agent, and contrast agent have distinct pharmacodynamic behaviors, thus complicating the quantification and optimization of BBB-opening and drug delivery. Here we propose multifunctional MBs loaded with therapeutic agent (doxorubicin; DOX) and conjugated with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles. These DOX-SPIO-MBs were designed to concurrently open the BBB and perform drug delivery upon FUS exposure, act as dual MRI and ultrasound contrast agent, and allow magnetic targeting (MT) to achieve enhanced drug delivery. We performed burst-tone FUS after injection of DOX-SPIO-MBs, followed by MT with an external magnet attached to the scalp in a rat glioma model. Animals were monitored by T2-weighted MRI and susceptibility weighted imaging and the concentration of SPIO particles was determined by spin-spin relaxivity. We found that DOX-SPIO-MBs were stable and provided significant superparamagnetic/acoustic properties for imaging. BBB-opening and drug delivery were achieved concurrently during the FUS exposure. In addition, MT increased local SPIO deposition in tumor regions by 22.4%. Our findings suggest that DOX-SPIO-MBs with FUS could be an excellent theranostic tool for future image-guided drug delivery to brain tumors. PMID:23433776

Fan, Ching-Hsiang; Ting, Chien-Yu; Lin, Han-Jung; Wang, Chung-Hsin; Liu, Hao-Li; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

2013-05-01

175

In vivo MRI of fresh stored osteochondral allograft transplantation with delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage: protocol considerations and recommendations.  

PubMed

The protocol for delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) was adapted for the evaluation of transplanted osteochondral allograft cartilage. Eight patients with focal grade 4 cartilage defects of the femoral condyle were treated with single cylindrical osteochondral allografts. At 1 and 2 years, dGEMRIC image sequences were acquired and regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn in repair and native control cartilage. Mean T1 values of region of interest were used to calculate established dGEMRIC metrics. The correlation was measured between the ?R1 and R1 -Post metrics for repair and native cartilage. T1 times were measured in deep and superficial zones of cartilage. A strong correlation was identified between full-thickness, deep, and superficial ?R1 and R1 -Post values for native cartilage and repair cartilage for all years (range: 0.893-1.0). The mean T1 times and ?R1 rate between deep and superficial regions of articular cartilage were statistically different for all regions of the distal femora analyzed at 1 year and 2 years after osteochondral allograft transplantation (P<0.05). The dGEMRIC pre-Gadolinium scan is unnecessary when evaluating transplanted osteochondral allograft cartilage. The observation of stratified T1 and ?R1 values indicates a need to re-evaluate the methodology behind the placement of region of interest in dGEMRIC. PMID:22829500

Durkan, Michael G; Szumowski, Jerzy; Brown, Dawson S; Foss, Erik W; Crawford, Dennis C

2013-06-01

176

Added value of hepatobiliary phase gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma in high-risk patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the added value of hepatobiliary phase (HBP) gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluating hepatic nodules in high-risk patients. METHODS: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived the requirement for informed consent. This study included 100 patients at high risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 105 hepatic nodules that were larger than 1 cm. A blind review of two MR image sets was performed in a random order: set 1, unenhanced (T1- and T2-weighted) and dynamic images; and set 2, unenhanced, dynamic 20-min and HBP images. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were compared for the two image sets. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on the MR characteristics utilized to diagnose HCC. RESULTS: A total of 105 hepatic nodules were identified in 100 patients. Fifty-nine nodules were confirmed to be HCC. The diameter of the 59 HCCs ranged from 1 to 12 cm (mean: 1.9 cm). The remaining 46 nodules were benign (28 were of hepatocyte origin, nine were hepatic cysts, seven were hemangiomas, one was chronic inflammation, and one was focal fat infiltration). The diagnostic accuracy significantly increased with the addition of HBP images, from 88.7% in set 1 to 95.5% in set 2 (P = 0.002). In set 1 vs set 2, the sensitivity and NPV increased from 79.7% to 93.2% and from 78.9% to 91.8%, respectively, whereas the specificity and PPV were not significantly different. The hypointensity on the HBP images was the most sensitive (93.2%), and typical arterial enhancement followed by washout was the most specific (97.8%). The multivariate analysis revealed that typical arterial enhancement followed by washout, hyperintensity on T2-weighted images, and hypointensity on HBP images were statistically significant MRI findings that could diagnose HCC (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The addition of HBP gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI statistically improved the diagnostic accuracy in HCCs larger than 1 cm. Typical arterial enhancement followed by washout and hypointensity on HBP images are useful for diagnosing HCC.

Phongkitkarun, Sith; Limsamutpetch, Kuruwin; Tannaphai, Penampai; Jatchavala, Janjira

2013-01-01

177

Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Gd-DTPA Enhancement in dynamic three-dimensional MRI of breast lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that dynamic MRI covering both breasts can provide sensitivity for tumor detection as well as specificity and sensitivity for differentiation of tumor malignancy. Three-dimensional gradient echo scans were used covering both breasts. Before Gd-DTPA bolus injection, two scans were obtained with different flip angles, and after injection, a dynamic series followed. Thirty-two

Boer den Jacques A; Ruud K. K. M. Hoenderop; Jouke Smink; Gerard Dornseiffen; Paul W. A. A. Koch; Jan H. Mulder; Cornelis H. Slump; Edo D. P. Volker; Vos de Rob A. I

1997-01-01

178

Ultrasonic disruption of the blood-brain barrier enables in vivo functional mapping of the mouse barrel field cortex with manganese-enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Though mice are the dominant model system for studying the genetic and molecular underpinnings of neuroscience, functional neuroimaging in mice remains technically challenging. One approach—Activation-Induced Manganese-enhanced MRI (AIM MRI) —has been used successfully to map neuronal activity in rodents. In AIM MRI, manganese2+ acts a calcium analog and accumulates in depolarized neurons. Because manganese2+ shortens T1, regions of elevated neuronal activity enhance in MRI. However, because manganese does not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the need to osmotically disrupt the BBB has limited the use of AIM MRI, particularly in mice. In this work, the BBB was opened in mice using unfocused, transcranial ultrasound in combination with gas-filled microbubbles. Using this non-invasive technique to open the BBB bilaterally, manganese could be quickly administered to the whole mouse brain. With this approach, AIM MRI was used to map the neuronal response to unilateral mechanical stimulation of the vibrissae in lightly sedated mice. The resultant 3D activation map agreed well with published representations of the vibrissae regions of the barrel field cortex. The anterior portions of the barrel field cortex corresponding to the more rostral vibrissae showed greater activation, consistent with previous literature. Because the ultrasonic opening of the BBB is simple, fast, and non-invasive, this approach is suitable for high-throughput and longitudinal studies in awake mice. This approach enables a new way to map neuronal activity in mice with manganese.

Howles, Gabriel P.; Qi, Yi; Johnson, G. Allan

2010-01-01

179

MRI-based estimation of liver function: Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced T1 relaxometry of 3T vs. the MELD score  

PubMed Central

Gd-EOB-DTPA is a hepatocyte-specific MRI contrast agent. Due to its hepatocyte-specific uptake and paramagnetic properties, functioning areas of the liver exhibit shortening of the T1 relaxation time. We report the potential use of T1 relaxometry of the liver with Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for estimating the liver function as expressed by the MELD score. 3 T MRI relaxometry was performed before and 20?min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. A strong correlation between changes in the T1 relaxometry and the extent of liver disease, expressed by the MELD score, was documented. Reduced liver function correlates with decreased Gd-EOB-DTPA accumulation in the hepatocytes during the hepatobiliary phase. MRI-based T1 relaxometry with Gd-EOB-DTPA may be a useful method for assessing overall and segmental liver function.

Haimerl, Michael; Verloh, Niklas; Fellner, Claudia; Zeman, Florian; Teufel, Andreas; Feigl, Stefan Fichtner-; Schreyer, Andreas G.; Stroszczynski, Christian; Wiggermann, Philipp

2014-01-01

180

Head MRI  

MedlinePLUS

... the head; MRI - cranial; NMR - cranial; Cranial MRI; Brain MRI; MRI - brain; MRI - head ... tell your health care provider if you have: Brain aneurysm clips Certain types of artificial heart valves ...

181

Flip angle optimization for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI-studies with spoiled gradient echo pulse sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spoiled gradient echo pulse (SPGRE) sequences are commonly used in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) studies to measure the contrast agent concentration in a tissue of interest over time. However, due to improper tuning of the SPGRE parameters, concentration uncertainty can be very high, even at high signal-to-noise ratio in the MR measurement. In this work, an optimization procedure is proposed for selecting the optimal value of the SPGRE-flip angle FAopt, given the expected concentration range. The optimization condition ensures that every concentration in the assumed range has the lowest possible uncertainty. By decoupling the R1- and R*2-effects caused by the presence of the contrast agent, a contour plot has been generated from which FAopt can be read off for any study design. Investigation of ten recent DCE-MRI studies showed that improper flip angle selection unnecessarily increases the concentration uncertainty, up to 742% and 72% on average for the typical physiological concentration ranges of 0-2 mM in tumour tissue and 0-10 mM in blood, respectively. Simulations show that the reduced noise levels on the concentration curves, observed at the optimal flip angle, effectively increase the precision of the kinetic parameters estimates (up to 82% for Ktrans, 82% for ?e and 92% for ?p in the case of an individually measured arterial input function (AIF), up to 53% for Ktrans, 59% for ?e and 67% for ?p in the case of a standard AIF). In vivo experiments confirm the potential of flip angle optimization to increase the reproducibility of the kinetic parameter estimates.

De Naeyer, D.; Verhulst, J.; Ceelen, W.; Segers, P.; De Deene, Y.; Verdonck, P.

2011-08-01

182

Follow-up of breast lesions detected by MRI not biopsied due to absent enhancement of contrast medium.  

PubMed

Our objective was to follow-up patients in whom scheduled MR-guided vacuum biopsies for suspicious lesions were aborted due to absent enhancement of contrast medium. Thirty-seven of 291 scheduled MR-guided vacuum biopsies were aborted. Six cases were lost to follow-up. Two could be unequivocally identified and were nevertheless biopsied. In 25 of 29 patients absent enhancement was confirmed on subsequent studies without compression. Varying hormonal or inflammatory changes between initial MRI and MR-guided vacuum biopsy most probably explain the findings. Enhancement re-appeared on short-term follow-up <6 months without compression in 4 of the 29 patients. Too strong compression during MR-guided vacuum biopsy explains the absence of enhancement in these patients. Of note, on histology, three of these cases proved malignant. We conclude that short-term follow-up without compression is necessary and recommended for all lesions not visible during scheduled MR-guided vacuum biopsy. PMID:12599000

Hefler, L; Casselman, J; Amaya, B; Heinig, A; Alberich, T; Koelbl, H; Heywang-Köbrunner, S H

2003-02-01

183

The effect of paraformaldehyde fixation on the delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) measurement.  

PubMed

The delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage (dGEMRIC) method allows for both qualitative and quantitative measurement of the spatial distribution of glycosaminoglycan [GAG] in excised cartilage. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of paraformaldehyde fixation on dGEMRIC measurements. Five bovine and seven human cartilage pieces were punched into 5-mm plugs, fixed for 18 h in 4% paraformaldehyde solution, and washed. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameter T1 was measured prior and post fixation in cartilage without (T1(0)) and with (T1(Gd)), the ionically charged MRI contrast agent Gd(DTPA)(2-). Images of tissue before and after fixation were qualitatively very similar. The ratios of T1(0), T1(Gd), and calculated [GAG] after fixation, relative to before fixation, were near or slightly higher than 1 for both bovine cartilage (1.01 +/- 0.01, 1.04 +/- 0.02, 1.05 +/- 0.03, respectively) and for human cartilage (0.96 +/- 0.11, 1.03 +/- 0.05, 1.09 +/- 0.13). Thus, these data suggest that dGEMRIC can be used on previously fixed samples to assess the three dimensional spatial distribution of GAG. PMID:18973237

Dugar, Arushi; Farley, Michelle L; Wang, Angeline L; Goldring, Mary B; Goldring, Steven R; Swaim, Bryan H; Bierbaum, Benjamin E; Burstein, Deborah; Gray, Martha L

2009-04-01

184

Ferritin Enhances SPIO Tracking of C6 Rat Glioma Cells by MRI  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the effect of ferritin protein overexpression on superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particle labeling of C6 rat glioma cells, and track the labeled cells in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods A plasmid of H-chain of murine ferritin gene was constructed and transfected into C6 cells. The parental and the transfected C6 cells labeled with SPIO were bilaterally inoculated subcutaneously into nude mice. The mice were imaged by multiple T2-weighted MR scans after C6 cell inoculation. The mice were killed 2 weeks later, and the concentration of iron in the tumor tissue was measured by inductively coupled plasma. Results The iron concentration in xenografts derived from SPIO-labeled C6 cells that were transfected with ferritin plasmid was significantly higher than that in xenografts from parental C6 cells that were labeled with SPIO but not transfected (p=0.034, N=5). Ferritin-transfected C6 cells showed an improved T2 contrast in vivo compared with parental cells labeled with SPIO but not transfected. Conclusion Coordinating ferritin with SPIO can lead to a longer MRI cellular tracking period.

Wang, Jiandong; Xie, Jin; Zhou, Xiaojun; Cheng, Zhen; Gu, Ning; Teng, Gaojun; Hu, Qiujue; Zhu, Feipeng; Chang, Shuanghui; Zhang, Fan; Lu, Guangming; Chen, Xiaoyuan

2010-01-01

185

MRI active guidewire with an embedded temperature probe and providing a distinct tip signal to enhance clinical safety  

PubMed Central

Background The field of interventional cardiovascular MRI is hampered by the unavailability of active guidewires that are both safe and conspicuous. Heating of conductive guidewires is difficult to predict in vivo and disruptive to measure using external probes. We describe a clinical-grade 0.035” (0.89?mm) guidewire for MRI right and left heart catheterization at 1.5?T that has an internal probe to monitor temperature in real-time, and that has both tip and shaft visibility as well as suitable flexibility. Methods The design has an internal fiberoptic temperature probe, as well as a distal solenoid to enhance tip visibility on a loopless antenna. We tested different tip-solenoid configurations to balance heating and signal profiles. We tested mechanical performance in vitro and in vivo in comparison with a popular clinical nitinol guidewire. Results The solenoid displaced the point of maximal heating (“hot spot”) from the tip to a more proximal location where it can be measured without impairing guidewire flexion. Probe pullback allowed creation of lengthwise guidewire temperature maps that allowed rapid evaluation of design prototypes. Distal-only solenoid attachment offered the best compromise between tip visibility and heating among design candidates. When fixed at the hot spot, the internal probe consistently reflected the maximum temperature compared external probes. Real-time temperature monitoring was performed during porcine left heart catheterization. Heating was negligible using normal operating parameters (flip angle, 45°; SAR, 1.01?W/kg); the temperature increased by 4.2°C only during high RF power mode (flip angle, 90°; SAR, 3.96?W/kg) and only when the guidewire was isolated from blood cooling effects by an introducer sheath. The tip flexibility and in vivo performance of the final guidewire design were similar to a popular commercial guidewire. Conclusions We integrated a fiberoptic temperature probe inside a 0.035” MRI guidewire. Real-time monitoring helps detect deleterious heating during use, without impairing mechanical guidewire operation, and without impairing MRI visibility. We therefore need not rely on prediction to ensure safe clinical operation. Future implementations may modulate specific absorption rate (SAR) based on temperature feedback.

2012-01-01

186

Dual Manganese-Enhanced and Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced MRI Detects Myocardial Border Zone Injury in a Pig Ischemia-Reperfusion Model  

PubMed Central

Background Delayed gadolinium (Gd) enhancement MRI (DEMRI) identifies non-viable myocardium, but is non-specific and may overestimate nonviable territory. Manganese (Mn2+)-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) denotes specific Mn2+ uptake into viable cardiomyocytes. We performed a dual-contrast myocardial assessment in a porcine ischemia-reperfusion (IR) model to test the hypothesis that combined DEMRI and MEMRI will identify viable infarct border zone (BZ) myocardium in vivo. Methods and Results Sixty-minute LAD ischemia-reperfusion injury (IR) was induced in 13 adult swine. Twenty-one days post-IR, 3T cardiac MRI was performed. MEMRI was obtained after injection (0.7 cc/kg) of Mn2+ contrast agent (EVP1001-1, Eagle Vision Pharmaceutical Corp.). DEMRI was then acquired after 0.2mmol/kg Gd injection. Left ventricular (LV) mass, infarct, and function were analyzed. Subtraction of MEMRI defect from DEMRI signal identified injured border zone myocardium. Explanted hearts were analyzed by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) stain and tissue electron microscopy (TEM) to compare infarct, BZ, and remote myocardium. Average LV ejection fraction was reduced (30±7%). MEMRI and DEMRI infarct volumes correlated with TTC (MEMRI: r=0.78; DEMRI: r=0.75; p<0.004). MEMRI infarct volume percentage was significantly lower than DEMRI (14±4%* vs. 23±4%; *p<0.05). BZ MEMRI SNR was intermediate to remote and core infarct SNR (7.5±2.8* vs. 13.2±3.4 and 2.9±1.6; *p<0.0001), and DEMRI BZ SNR tended to be intermediate to remote and core infarct (8.4±5.4 vs. 3.3±0.6 and 14.3±6.6; p>0.05). TEM analysis exhibited preserved cell structure in BZ cardiomyocytes despite transmural DEMRI enhancement. Conclusions Dual-contrast MEMRI-DEMRI detects BZ viability within DEMRI infarct zones. This approach may identify injured, at-risk myocardium in ischemic cardiomyopathy.

Dash, Rajesh; Chung, Jaehoon; Ikeno, Fumiaki; Hahn-Windgassen, Annett; Matsuura, Yuka; Bennett, Mihoko V.; Lyons, Jennifer K.; Teramoto, Tomohiko; Robbins, Robert C.; McConnell, Michael V.; Yeung, Alan C.; Brinton, Todd J.; Harnish, Phillip P.; Yang, Phillip C.

2011-01-01

187

Issues of discontinuity in the impulse residue function for deconvolution analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI data.  

PubMed

Recent dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI studies using the adiabatic tissue homogeneity model have highlighted potential issues of difficulty in convergence during data-fitting and reduced parameter precision, due to discontinuities in the adiabatic tissue homogeneity model. This study presents two solutions (an analytic approach and a discrete correction method) to such convergence problems and show that these problems can be attributed to an inaccurate approximation of the convolution integral based on the standard trapezoidal quadrature. It is further explained that such issues of discontinuity in the impulse residue function do not pertain only to the adiabatic tissue homogeneity model, but are generic to all tracer kinetic models, if the difference in bolus arrival time between the arterial input and tissue voxels were to be accounted for simultaneously during model-fitting. PMID:21465544

Koh, T S; Cheong, D L H; Hou, Z

2011-09-01

188

Gd-EOB-DTPA-Enhanced MRI for Detection of Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancer: A Surgeon's Perspective!  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer affects over one million people worldwide annually, with the liver being the most common site of metastatic spread. Adequate resection of hepatic metastases is the only chance for a cure in a subset of patients, and five-year survival increases to 35% with complete resection. Traditionally, computed tomographic imaging (CT) was utilized for staging and to evaluate metastases in the liver. Recently, the introduction of hepatobiliary contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agents including gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Eovist in the United States, Primovist in Europe, or Gd-EOB-DTPA) has proved to be a sensitive method for detection of hepatic metastases. Accurate detection of liver metastases is critical for staging of colorectal cancer as well as preoperative planning.

Lafaro, Kelly J.; Roumanis, Panayota; Demirjian, Aram N.; Lall, Chandana; Imagawa, David K.

2013-01-01

189

Testing the calcium hypothesis of aging in the rat hippocampus in vivo using manganese-enhanced MRI.  

PubMed

In this study, we noninvasively tested the hypothesis that Mn(2+)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) is sensitive to age-related changes in Ca(2+) influx occurring in the hippocampal region CA1. Uptake of Mn(2+), an MRI contrast agent and Ca(2+) surrogate with low cellular efflux rates (days to weeks), was measured in longitudinal MEMRI studies involving 2 separate groups of male Long-Evans rats: one group was studied at 2.5 and 7 months of age, whereas the other was studied at 7 and 19 months of age. Separate or combined analysis revealed that the extent of Mn(2+) accumulation in CA1 significantly increased with age (p < 0.05). These results provide first-time in vivo confirmation of the calcium hypothesis of aging and justify future longitudinal studies combining MEMRI with behavioral testing to investigate mechanisms of age-related cognitive decline. PMID:24439958

Bissig, David; Berkowitz, Bruce A

2014-06-01

190

Joint estimation of shape and deformation for the detection of lesions in dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI.  

PubMed

We propose a mathematical framework for simultaneously delineating the boundary of object and estimating its temporal motion in the application of lesion detection in a dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) breast MRI sequence where both the appearance and the shape of region of interest is assumed to change in time. A unified energy functional for a joint segmentation and registration is proposed based on the assumption that the statistical properties of dynamic intensity curves within a region of interest are homogeneous. Our algorithm is designed to provide the morphological properties of the enhanced region and its dynamic intensity profiles, called kinetic signatures, in the analysis of DCE imagery since these features are considered as significant cues in understanding images. The proposed energy comprises a combination of a segmentation energy and a registration energy. The segmentation energy is developed based on a convex formulation being insensitive to the initialization. The registration energy is designed to compensate motion artifacts that are usually involved in the temporal imaging procedure. The major objective of this work is to provide a mathematical framework for a joint segmentation and registration on a dynamic sequence of images, and we demonstrate the mutual benefit of the estimation of temporal deformations for the registration step and the localization of regions of interest for the segmentation step. The effectiveness of the developed algorithm has been demonstrated on a number of clinical DCE breast MRI data in the application of breast lesion detection and the results show its potential to improve the accuracy and the efficiency in the diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:24140912

Hong, Byung-Woo

2013-11-01

191

Simultaneous mapping of blood volume and endothelial permeability surface area product in gliomas using iterative analysis of first-pass dynamic contrast enhanced MRI data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a novel method for the calculation of endothelial permeability surface area product from dynamic contrast enhanced MRI. The technique uses iterative estimation to automatically decompose tissue residue function into intravascular and extravascular components, which are subsequently used to generate tumour blood volume, which is equal to relative cerebral blood volume calculated from T1 weighted images and corrected for

K L Li; X P ZHU; D R CHECKLEY; J J L TESSIER; V F HILLIER; J C WATERTON; A JACKSON

2003-01-01

192

Core/shell structured iron/iron-oxide nanoparticles as excellent MRI contrast enhancement agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the use of metallic iron-based nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications. Core/shell structured iron-based nanoparticles prepared by thermally decomposing organo-metallic compounds of iron at high temperature in the presence of hydrophobic surfactants were coated and stabilized in the aqueous solvent using the newly developed polysiloxane PEO-b-P?MPS (poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly (? methacryloxypropyl trimethyl oxysilane)) diblock copolymers. Particles are well suspended in water and retain their core-shell morphology after coating with the copolymer. In comparison to the conventionally used iron-oxide nanoparticles, core/shell structured iron/iron-oxide nanoparticles offer a much stronger T2 shortening effect than that of iron-oxide with the same core size due to their better magnetic properties.

Khurshid, Hafsa; Hadjipanayis, Costas G.; Chen, Hongwei; Li, Wanfeng; Mao, Hui; Machaidze, Revaz; Tzitzios, Vasilis; Hadjipanayis, George C.

2013-04-01

193

Enhanced brain connectivity in math-gifted adolescents: An fMRI study using mental rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical giftedness is a form of intelligence related to enhanced mathematical reasoning that can be tested using a variety of numerical and spatial tasks. A number of neurobiological mechanisms related to exceptional mathematical reasoning ability have been postulated, including enhanced brain connectivity. We aimed to further investigate this possibility by comparing a group of mathematically gifted adolescents with an average

James Prescott; Maria Gavrilescu; Ross Cunnington; Michael W. OBoyle; Gary F. Egan

2010-01-01

194

Brucellar spondylitis: MRI findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to identify the distinguishing features of brucellosis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI examinations were performed in 14 patients with spinal brucellosis. A 1-T Magnetom (Erlangen, Siemens) was used to obtain T1-weighted (TR\\/TE 500\\/30) and T2-weighted (TR\\/TE 2000\\/80\\/20) spin echo sequences, in both sagittal and axial planes. Thirty-three percent of the vertebrae and 18 levels

D. Özaksoy; K. Yücesoy; M. Yücesoy; ?. Kovanl?kaya; A. Yüce; S. Naderi

2001-01-01

195

Ophthalmoplegic migraine with reversible enhancement of intraparenchymal abducens nerve on MRI.  

PubMed

We describe a patient with ophthalmoplegic migraine and right abducens nerve palsy, in whom serial magnetic resonance imaging showed a transient, gadolinium-enhancing lesion in the right lower pons, during both headache and the headache-free period. The enhancing linear lesion was felt to represent intraparenchymal fibers of the affected abducens nerve. The possible pathophysiology of this unique finding is discussed. PMID:12005290

Lee, Te Gyu; Choi, Woo-Suk; Chung, Kyung-Cheon

2002-02-01

196

Spin-echo echo-planar perfusion MR imaging in the differential diagnosis of solitary enhancing brain lesions: distinguishing solitary metastases from primary glioma.  

PubMed

Unlike the more widely reported gradient-echo echo-planar perfusion-weighted imaging (EPI-PWI) technique, spin-echo (SE) EPI relative cerebral blood volume maps select for blood volume in microvessels <8 microm in diameter. This first report of SE-EPI PWI for distinguishing brain metastasis from high-grade glioma demonstrated 88% sensitivity and 72% specificity in 83 patients. We discuss differences in microvessel architecture between high-grade glioma and brain metastasis that may explain the surprising success of SE-EPI in this application and may deserve further investigation. PMID:19095787

Young, G S; Setayesh, K

2009-03-01

197

Combination of model-free and model-based analysis of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI for breast cancer diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) is the leading technique in magnetic resonance imaging for cancer detection and diagnosis. However, there are large variations in the reported sensitivity and specificity of this method that result from the wide range of contrast-enhanced MRI sequences and protocols, image processing methods, and interpretation criteria. Analysis methods can be divided to physiological based models that take into account the vascular and tissue specific features that influence tracer perfusion, and to model free algorithms that decompose enhancement patterns in order to segment and classify different tissue types. Inhere we present a general hybrid method for analyzing dynamic contrast enhanced images integrating a mathematical, model-free technique with a model derived approach that characterizes tissue microvasculature function. We demonstrate the application of the method for breast cancer diagnosis. A brief description of this approach was recently presented for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. The model free method employed principal component analysis and yielded eigen-vectors of which two were relevant for characterizing breast malignancy. The physiological relevance of the two eigen-vectors was revealed by a quantitative correlation with the model based three time point technique. Projection maps of the eigen-vector that specifically related to the wash-out rate of the contrast agent depicted with high accuracy breast cancer. Overall, this hybrid method is fast, standardized, and yields parametric images characterizing tissue microvascular function. It can improve breast cancer detection and be potentially extended as a computer-aided tool for the detection and diagnosis of other cancers.

Eyal, E.; Furman-Haran, E.; Badikhi, D.; Kelcz, F.; Degani, H.

2008-04-01

198

Evaluation of femoral head vascularization in slipped capital femoral epiphysis before and after cannulated screw fixation with use of contrast-enhanced MRI: initial results.  

PubMed

In this study we used contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate the vascularization of the femoral head in children with slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) before and after cannulated screw fixation. Eleven consecutive children with SCFE, seven boys and four girls, aged 10-15 years were included in the study. There were no preslips; four children had acute, three acute-on-chronic, and four chronic SCFE. The MRI examinations were performed in a 1.5 Tesla MR scanner with use of a coronal STIR sequence, a coronal contrast-enhanced T1-weighted spin-echo sequence, and a sagittal three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence. Morphology, signal intensities, and contrast-enhancement of the femoral head were assessed by two radiologists in consensus. Morphologic distortion of the physis, bone marrow edema within the metaphysis and epiphysis, and joint effusion were the preoperative MRI findings of SCFE in each child. In nine children, the vascularization of the femoral head before and after surgery was normal. In one child, a preoperative avascular zone in the superolateral aspect of the epiphysis revascularized completely after surgery. One child with severe SCFE developed avascular necrosis of the femoral head after open reduction of the slip. We conclude that MRI allows for accurate evaluation of the femoral head vascularization before and after surgery in children with SCFE. PMID:16625344

Staatz, G; Honnef, D; Kochs, A; Hohl, C; Schmidt, T; Röhrig, H; Günther, R W

2007-01-01

199

Novel Platform for MRI-Guided Convection-Enhanced Delivery of Therapeutics: Preclinical Validation in Nonhuman Primate Brain  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims A skull-mounted aiming device and integrated software platform has been developed for MRI-guided neurological interventions. In anticipation of upcoming gene therapy clinical trials, we adapted this device for real-time convection-enhanced delivery of therapeutics via a custom-designed infusion cannula. The targeting accuracy of this delivery system and the performance of the infusion cannula were validated in nonhuman primates. Methods Infusions of gadoteridol were delivered to multiple brain targets and the targeting error was determined for each cannula placement. Cannula performance was assessed by analyzing gadoteridol distributions and by histological analysis of tissue damage. Results The average targeting error for all targets (n = 11) was 0.8 mm (95% CI = 0.14). For clinically relevant volumes, the distribution volume of gadoteridol increased as a linear function (R2 = 0.97) of the infusion volume (average slope = 3.30, 95% CI = 0.2). No infusions in any target produced occlusion, cannula reflux or leakage from adjacent tracts, and no signs of unexpected tissue damage were observed. Conclusions This integrated delivery platform allows real-time convection-enhanced delivery to be performed with a high level of precision, predictability and safety. This approach may improve the success rate for clinical trials involving intracerebral drug delivery by direct infusion.

Richardson, R. Mark; Kells, Adrian P.; Martin, Alastair J.; Larson, Paul S.; Starr, Philip A.; Piferi, Peter G.; Bates, Geoffrey; Tansey, Lisa; Rosenbluth, Kathryn H.; Bringas, John R.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Bankiewicz, Krystof S.

2011-01-01

200

Variable Delay Multi-Pulse Train for Fast Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer and Relayed-Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement MRI  

PubMed Central

Purpose Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging is a new MRI technology allowing the detection of low concentration endogenous cellular proteins and metabolites indirectly through their exchangeable protons. A new technique, variable delay multi-pulse CEST (VDMP-CEST), is proposed to eliminate the need for recording full Z-spectra and performing asymmetry analysis to obtain CEST contrast. Methods The VDMP-CEST scheme involves acquiring images with two (or more) delays between radiofrequency saturation pulses in pulsed CEST, producing a series of CEST images sensitive to the speed of saturation transfer. Subtracting two images or fitting a time series produces CEST and relayed-nuclear Overhauser enhancement CEST maps without effects of direct water saturation and, when using low radiofrequency power, minimal magnetization transfer contrast interference. Results When applied to several model systems (bovine serum albumin, crosslinked bovine serum albumin, l-glutamic acid) and in vivo on healthy rat brain, VDMP-CEST showed sensitivity to slow to intermediate range magnetization transfer processes (rate < 100–150 Hz), such as amide proton transfer and relayed nuclear Overhauser enhancement-CEST. Images for these contrasts could be acquired in short scan times by using a single radiofrequency frequency. Conclusions VDMP-CEST provides an approach to detect CEST effect by sensitizing saturation experiments to slower exchange processes without interference of direct water saturation and without need to acquire Z-spectra and perform asymmetry analysis.

Xu, Jiadi; Yadav, Nirbhay N.; Bar-Shir, Amnon; Jones, Craig K.; Chan, Kannie W. Y.; Zhang, Jiangyang; Walczak, P.; McMahon, Michael T.; van Zijl, Peter C. M.

2013-01-01

201

A novel method for viability assessment by cinematographic and late contrast enhanced MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, a combination of late contrast enhanced MR (ceMR) and cinematographic (CINE) images, a myocardial viability score can be derived. At present this score is produced by visual evaluation of wall motion abnormalities in combination with presence or absence of late hyper enhancement (LE) on ceMR. We set out to develop and validate image processing techniques derived from stereo vision capable of reducing the observer dependence and improving accuracy in the diagnosis of viable myocardium.

Gao, Gang; Cockshott, Paul W.; Martin, Thomas N.; Foster, John E.; Elliott, Alex; Dargie, Henry; Groenning, Bjoern A.

2004-04-01

202

MRI, Enhanced CT, and FDG PET/CT in Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Prostate.  

PubMed

Primary basal cell carcinoma of the prostate is a very rare neoplasm with a good prognosis. A 55-year-old man presented with urinary frequency for 2 months. Serum prostate-specific antigen level was normal. T2-weighted MR images showed an inhomogeneously hyperintense tumor in the prostate. Enhanced CT showed heterogeneous enhancement of the tumor. FDG PET/CT showed strong FDG uptake of the tumor with SUVmax of 14.1. Prostate biopsy findings revealed basal cell carcinoma with high proliferation index. PMID:24152659

Dong, Aisheng; Zuo, Changjing; Lu, Jianping; Wang, Yang

2014-08-01

203

Pretreatment Diffusion-Weighted and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI for Prediction of Local Treatment Response in Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Head and Neck  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The objective of our study was to predict response to chemoradiation therapy in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) by combined use of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and high-spatial-resolution, high-temporal-resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) parameters from primary tumors and metastatic nodes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Thirty-two patients underwent pretreatment DWI and DCE-MRI using a modified radial imaging sequence. Postprocessing of data included motion-correction algorithms to reduce motion artifacts. The median apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), volume transfer constant (Ktrans), extracellular extravascular volume fraction (ve), and plasma volume fraction (vp) were computed from primary tumors and nodal masses. The quality of the DCE-MRI maps was estimated using a threshold median chi-square value of 0.10 or less. Multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine the best model to discriminate responders from nonresponders. RESULTS Acceptable ?2 values were observed from 84% of primary tumors and 100% of nodal masses. Five patients with unsatisfactory DCE-MRI data were excluded and DCEMRI data for three patients who died of unrelated causes were censored from analysis. The median follow-up for the remaining patients (n = 24) was 23.72 months. When ADC and DCE-MRI parameters (Ktrans, ve, vp) from both primary tumors and nodal masses were incorporated into multivariate logistic regression analyses, a considerably higher discriminative accuracy (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.85) with a sensitivity of 81.3% and specificity of 75% was observed in differentiating responders (n = 16) from nonresponders (n = 8). CONCLUSION The combined use of DWI and DCE-MRI parameters from both primary tumors and nodal masses may aid in prediction of response to chemoradiation therapy in patients with HNSCC.

Chawla, Sanjeev; Kim, Sungheon; Dougherty, Lawrence; Wang, Sumei; Loevner, Laurie A.; Quon, Harry; Poptani, Harish

2013-01-01

204

Tracer delay correction of cerebral blood flow with dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and vascular mean transit time (MTT) can be determined by dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and deconvolution with an arterial input function. However, deconvolution by a singular value decomposition (SVD) method is sensitive to the tracer delay that often occurs in patients with cerebrovascular disease. We investigated the effect of tracer delay on CBF determined

Masanobu Ibaraki; Eku Shimosegawa; Hideto Toyoshima; Kazuhiro Takahashi; Shuichi Miura; Iwao Kanno

2005-01-01

205

Focal liver lesions detection and characterization: The advantages of gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI  

PubMed Central

Since its clinical introduction, several studies in literature have investigated gadolinium ethoxybenzhyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid or gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) properties. Following contrast injection, it provides dynamic vascular phases (arterial, portal and equilibrium phases) and hepatobiliary phase, the latter due to its uptake by functional hepatocytes. The main advantages of Gd-EOB-DTPA of focal liver lesion detection and characterization are discussed in this paper. Namely, we focus on the possibility of distinguishing focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) from hepatic adenoma (HA), the identification of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the pre-operative assessment of metastasis in liver parenchyma. Regarding the differentiation between FNH and HA, adenoma typically appears hypointense in hepatobiliary phase, whereas FNH is isointense or hyperintense to the surrounding hepatic parenchyma. As for the identification of early HCCs, many papers recently published in literature have emphasized the contribution of hepatobiliary phase in the characterization of nodules without a typical hallmark of HCC. Atypical nodules (no hypervascularizaton observed on arterial phase and/or no hypovascular appearance on portal phase) with low signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase, have a high probability of malignancy. Finally, regarding the evaluation of focal hepatic metastases, magnetic resonance pre-operative assessment using gadoxetic acid allows for more accurate diagnosis.

Palmucci, Stefano

2014-01-01

206

[Three cases of hepatocellular carcinoma with nodules showing different signal intensities in the hepatobiliary phase of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI].  

PubMed

We report three cases of resected hepatocellular carcinomas with nodules showing different signal intensities in the hepatobiliary phase of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced MRI (EOB-MRI). One case involved a nodule-in-nodule type hepatocellular carcinoma that showed high signal intensity for the outer tumor and low intensity for the inner tumor in the hepatobiliary phase of EOB-MRI. The inner tumor was more dedifferentiated than the outer. The other two cases involved similar nodules, which showed different signal intensities in the hepatobiliary phase of EOB-MRI. In all three cases, the expression of OATP8 showed good correlation with high signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase of EOB-MRI, whereas MRP2, MRP3, or both were also highly expressed. However, in the two nodules showing low intensities, the expression of one excreting transporter was independently high even though that of OATP8 was not high. The expression of excreting transporters is usually characterized by passive correspondence to OATP8 expression levels; nevertheless, it sometimes shows expression independent of OATP8. PMID:24806238

Kita, Ryuichi; Sakamoto, Azusa; Iguchi, Eriko; Takeda, Haruhiko; Oohara, Yoshiaki; Nishijima, Norihiro; Saito, Sumio; Nasu, Akihiro; Nishikawa, Hiroki; Kimura, Toru; Osaki, Yukio; Wakasa, Tomoko; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Matsui, Osamu

2014-05-01

207

Molecular imaging of tumors and metastases using chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI.  

PubMed

The two glucose analogs 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) and 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) are preferentially taken up by cancer cells, undergo phosphorylation and accumulate in the cells. Owing to their exchangeable protons on their hydroxyl residues they exhibit significant chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) effect in MRI. Here we report CEST-MRI on mice bearing orthotopic mammary tumors injected with 2-DG or FDG. The tumor exhibited an enhanced CEST effect of up to 30% that persisted for over one hour. Thus 2-DG/FDG CEST MRI can replace PET/CT or PET/MRI for cancer research in laboratory animals, but also has the potential to be used in the clinic for the detection of tumors and metastases, distinguishing between malignant and benign tumors and monitoring tumor response to therapy as well as tumors metabolism noninvasively by using MRI, without the need for radio-labeled isotopes. PMID:24157711

Rivlin, Michal; Horev, Judith; Tsarfaty, Ilan; Navon, Gil

2013-01-01

208

A comparison of Gd-BOPTA and Gd-DOTA for contrast-enhanced MRI of intracranial tumours.  

PubMed

A two-centre intra-individual crossover study was performed in 23 patients with suspected high-grade glioma or metastases to assess and compare the safety and enhancement characteristics of two different MRI contrast media (gadobenate dimeglumine, Gd-BOPTA and gadoterate meglumine, Gd-DOTA) at equivalent doses of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight. T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) and T2-weighted fast SE images were obtained before and T1-weighted images 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 15 min after injection. T1-weighted images with magnetisation transfer contrast were acquired 12 min after injection. Qualitative assessment by blinded, off-site readers (reader 1:19 patients; reader 2:21) and on-site investigators (23) revealed significant (P< or =0.005) overall preference for Gd-BOPTA over Gd-DOTA for contrast enhancement (Gd-BOPTA preferred in 18, 15 and 18 cases; Gd-DOTA in 0, 1 and 1 and no preference in 1, 5 and 4; off-site readers 1 and 2, and on-site investigators, respectively). A similar significant preference for Gd-BOPTA was expressed by off-site readers and on-site investigators for lesion-to-brain contrast, lesion delineation, internal lesion structure, and overall image preference. Quantitative assessment by off-site readers revealed significantly (p<0.05) greater lesion enhancement with Gd-BOPTA than with Gd-DOTA at all times from 2 min after injection. PMID:15205859

Colosimo, C; Knopp, M V; Barreau, X; Gérardin, E; Kirchin, M A; Guézénoc, F; Lodemann, K P

2004-08-01

209

On the Dark Rim Artifact in Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI Myocardial Perfusion Studies  

PubMed Central

A dark band or rim along parts of the subendocardial border of the left ventricle (LV) and the myocardium has been noticed in some dynamic contrast-enhanced MR perfusion studies. The artifact is thought to be due to susceptibility effects from the gadolinium bolus, motion, or resolution, or a combination of these. Here motionless ex vivo hearts in which the cavity was filled with gadolinium are used to show that dark rim artifacts can be consistent with resolution effects alone.

Di Bella, E.V.R.; Parker, D.L.; Sinusas, A.J.

2008-01-01

210

Estimating Kinetic Parameter Maps from Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI using Spatial Prior Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MR) imaging can be used to study microvascular struc- ture in vivo by monitoring the abundance of an injected dif- fusible contrast agent over time. The resulting spatially resolved intensity-time curves are usually interpreted in terms of kinetic parameters obtained by fitting a pharmacokinetic model to th e observed data. Least squares estimates of the highly

Bernd Michael Kelm; Bjoern H. Menze; Oliver Nix; Christian M. Zechmann; Fred A. Hamprecht

2009-01-01

211

Power Doppler sonography with and without echo-enhancing contrast agent and contrast-enhanced MRI for the evaluation of rheumatoid arthritis of the shoulder joint: differentiation between synovitis and joint effusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To evaluate patients with clinically active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the shoulder for joint effusion and synovitis using conventional sonography, power Doppler (PD) sonography with and without echo-enhancing contrast agent, and contrast-enhanced MRI.Design and patients. Twenty-four patients (mean age 64 years) with known RA had one symptomatic shoulder evaluated by conventional gray-scale sonography and PD sonography before and after intravenous

G. Wamser; K. Bohndorf; K. Vollert; W. Bücklein; J. Schalm

2003-01-01

212

Therapeutic response assessment of RFA for HCC: Contrast-enhanced US, CT and MRI  

PubMed Central

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is commonly applied for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) because of the facile procedure, and the safety and effectiveness for the treatment of this type of tumor. On the other hand, it is believed that HCC cells should spread predominantly through the blood flow of the portal vein, which could lead to the formation of intrahepatic micrometastases. Therefore, monitoring tumor response after the treatment is quite important and accurate assessment of treatment response is critical to obtain the most favorable outcome after the RFA. Indeed, several reports suggested that even small HCCs of ? 3 cm in diameter might carry intrahepatic micrometastases and/or microvascular invasion. From this point of view, for preventing local recurrences, RFA should be performed ablating a main tumor as well as its surrounding non-tumorous liver tissue where micrometastases and microvascular invasion might exist. Recent advancement of imaging modalities such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonic, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging are playing an important role on assessing the therapeutic effects of RFA. The local recurrence rate tends to be low in HCC patients who were proven to have adequate ablation margin after RFA; namely, not only disappearance of vascular enhancement of main tumor, but also an adequate ablation margin. Therefore, contrast enhancement gives important findings for the diagnosis of recurrent HCCs on each imaging. However, hyperemia of non-tumorous liver surrounding the ablated lesion, which could be attributed to an inflammation after RFA, may well obscure the findings of local recurrence of HCCs after RFA. Therefore, we need to carefully address to these imaging findings given the fact that diagnostic difficulties of local recurrence of HCC. Here, we give an overview of the current status of the imaging assessment of HCC response to RFA.

Minami, Yasunori; Nishida, Naoshi; Kudo, Masatoshi

2014-01-01

213

Therapeutic response assessment of RFA for HCC: contrast-enhanced US, CT and MRI.  

PubMed

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is commonly applied for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) because of the facile procedure, and the safety and effectiveness for the treatment of this type of tumor. On the other hand, it is believed that HCC cells should spread predominantly through the blood flow of the portal vein, which could lead to the formation of intrahepatic micrometastases. Therefore, monitoring tumor response after the treatment is quite important and accurate assessment of treatment response is critical to obtain the most favorable outcome after the RFA. Indeed, several reports suggested that even small HCCs of ? 3 cm in diameter might carry intrahepatic micrometastases and/or microvascular invasion. From this point of view, for preventing local recurrences, RFA should be performed ablating a main tumor as well as its surrounding non-tumorous liver tissue where micrometastases and microvascular invasion might exist. Recent advancement of imaging modalities such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonic, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging are playing an important role on assessing the therapeutic effects of RFA. The local recurrence rate tends to be low in HCC patients who were proven to have adequate ablation margin after RFA; namely, not only disappearance of vascular enhancement of main tumor, but also an adequate ablation margin. Therefore, contrast enhancement gives important findings for the diagnosis of recurrent HCCs on each imaging. However, hyperemia of non-tumorous liver surrounding the ablated lesion, which could be attributed to an inflammation after RFA, may well obscure the findings of local recurrence of HCCs after RFA. Therefore, we need to carefully address to these imaging findings given the fact that diagnostic difficulties of local recurrence of HCC. Here, we give an overview of the current status of the imaging assessment of HCC response to RFA. PMID:24764654

Minami, Yasunori; Nishida, Naoshi; Kudo, Masatoshi

2014-04-21

214

Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI for the assessment of liver function and volume in liver cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aims of this study were to use dynamic hepatocyte-specific contrast-enhanced MRI to evaluate liver volume and function in liver cirrhosis, correlate the results with standard scoring models and explore the inhomogeneous distribution of liver function in cirrhotic livers. Methods: 10 patients with liver cirrhosis and 20 healthy volunteers, serving as controls, were included. Hepatic extraction fraction (HEF), input relative blood flow and mean transit time were calculated on a voxel-by-voxel basis using deconvolutional analysis. Segmental and total liver volumes as well as segmental and total hepatic extraction capacity, expressed in HEFml, were calculated. An incongruence score (IS) was constructed to reflect the uneven distribution of liver function. The Mann–Whitney U-test was used for group comparison of the quantitative liver function parameters, liver volumes and ISs. Correlations between liver function parameters and clinical scores were assessed using Spearman rank correlation. Results: Patients had larger parenchymal liver volume, lower hepatocyte function and more inhomogeneous distribution of function compared with healthy controls. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the non-homogeneous nature of liver cirrhosis and underlines the necessity of a liver function test able to compensate for the heterogeneous distribution of liver function in patients with diseased liver parenchyma. Advances in knowledge: The study describes a new way to quantitatively assess the hepatic uptake of gadoxetate or gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid in the liver as a whole as well as on a segmental level.

Blomqvist, L; Douglas, L; Nordell, A; Janczewska, I; Naslund, E; Jonas, E

2013-01-01

215

Longitudinal evaluation of cartilage after osteochondral autogenous transfer with delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of the cartilage (dGEMRIC).  

PubMed

The aim was to use repeat delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) to estimate glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in reparative cartilage after osteochondral autogenous transfer (OAT). The study group comprised 7 knees of 7 patients that were examined three times by dGEMRIC, at 3, 6, and 12 months using a 1.5 Tesla MRI system in both OAT operated and nonoperated condyles at 90 min after the injection. The gadolinium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA)(2-) containing contrast medium (0.2 mmols/kg) was injected intravenously. The mean T1 values of the plug cartilage at 3, 6, and 12 months after OAT was 230?±?40, 213?±?31, and 230?±?23 ms (mean?±?SD), respectively. There were differences between the plug and control cartilage at 3 (p?

Shirai, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Arai, Ryuzo; Nishitani, Kohei; Satake, Tsuyoshi; Dahlberg, Leif E; Kuroki, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Okada, Tomohisa; Togashi, Kaori; Nakamura, Takashi

2012-02-01

216

Hepatic schwannoma: Imaging findings on CT, MRI and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography  

PubMed Central

A primary benign schwannoma of the liver is extremely rare and is difficult to preoperatively discriminate from a malignant tumor. We compared the imaging and pathological findings, and examined the possibility of preoperatively diagnosing a benign liver schwannoma. A 72-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of a 4.6-cm mass in the liver. A malignant tumor was suspected, and a right hepatectomy was performed. After this, the diagnosis of a primary benign schwannoma of the liver was made through pathological examination. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with Sonazoid showed minute blood flows into the septum and solid areas of the tumor in the vascular phase; most likely due to increased arterial flow associated with infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells. In the postvascular phase, CEUS showed contrast defect of cystic areas and delayed enhancement of solid areas; most likely due to aggregation of siderophores. Because discriminating between a benign and malignant schwannoma of the liver is difficult, surgery is generally recommended. However, the two key findings from CEUS may be useful in discriminating ancient schwannoma by recognizing the hemorrhage involved in the secondary degeneration and aggregation of siderophores.

Ota, Yu; Aso, Kazunobu; Watanabe, Kenji; Einama, Takahiro; Imai, Koji; Karasaki, Hidenori; Sudo, Ryuji; Tamaki, Yosui; Okada, Mituyoshi; Tokusashi, Yosihiko; Kono, Toru; Miyokawa, Naoyuki; Haneda, Masakazu; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Furukawa, Hiroyuki

2012-01-01

217

[A case of acute autonomic, sensory and motor neuropathy with swelling and gadolinium enhancement of bilateral trigeminal nerve on MRI and dissociation between superficial and deep sensation disturbance].  

PubMed

We report a case of a 46-year old man with acute autonomic, sensory and motor neuropathy (AASMN). He developed severe orthostatic hypotension, anuria,anhydrosis, tonic pupil with dysarthria, dysphagia, jaw claudication, and dysesthesia and sharp pain several days after symptom of upper respiratory infection. Neurological examination revealed severely decreased superficial sensation with normal deep sensation. Brain MRI findings showed bilateral trigeminal nerve swelling with gadolinium (Gd) enhancement. His motor and sensory symptoms and MRI abnormality were improved after the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin and intravenous methylprednisolone therapy; however his autonomic symptoms scarcely reacted to these immunotherapies. As long as we investigated in AASMN cases, bilateral trigeminal nerve swelling with Gd enhancement and dissociation between superficial and deep sensation disturbance have not reported, suggesting that the present case mainly disrupted C nerve fibers distributing postganglionic autonomic and temperature-pain sensory nerves. PMID:23470893

Naito, Hiroyuki; Doi, Hikaru; Inamizu, Saeko; Ito, Hijiri; Araki, Takehisa

2013-01-01

218

MRI of orbital schwannomas.  

PubMed

The literature on MRI of orbital schwannomas is limited. The appearances in three patients with an orbital schwannoma were reviewed. A superior orbitotomy through a subfrontal craniotomy revealed a schwannoma in all cases. MRI characteristics of very low signal on T1-weighted images and homogeneous postcontrast enhancement may be helpful for differentiating schwannomas from other intraconal masses. PMID:10929312

Abe, T; Kawamura, N; Homma, H; Sasaki, K; Izumiyama, H; Matsumoto, K

2000-06-01

219

Comparison of diffusion-weighted imaging and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging on a single baseline MRI for demonstrating dissemination in time in multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background The 2010 Revisions to the McDonald Criteria have established that dissemination in time (DIT) of multiple sclerosis (MS) can be demonstrated by simultaneous presence of asymptomatic gadolinium-enhancing and nonenhancing lesions on a single magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have contraindications. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can detect diffusion alterations in active inflammatory lesions. The purpose of this study was to investigate if DWI can be an alternative to contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging (CE T1WI) for demonstrating DIT in MS. Methods We selected patients with clinically definite MS and evaluated their baseline brain MRI. Asymptomatic lesions were identified as either hyperintense or nonhyperintense on DWI and enhancing or nonenhancing on CE T1WI. Fisher’s exact test was performed to determine whether the hyperintensity on DWI was related to the enhancement on CE T1WI (P?enhancement were calculated. Results Twenty-two patients with 384 demyelinating lesions that were hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging and more than 3 mm in size were recruited. The diffusion hyperintensity and lesion enhancement were significantly correlated (P <0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy were 100%, 67.9%, 32.3%, 100% and 72.1%, respectively. Conclusions A hyperintense DWI finding does not necessarily overlap with contrast enhancement. There are many false positives, possibly representing other stages of lesion development. Although DWI may not replace CE T1WI imaging to demonstrate DIT due to the low PPV, it may serve as a screening MRI sequence where the use of GBCAs is a concern.

2014-01-01

220

Identifying Terminal Distinguishable Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss new efficient learning algorithms for certain subclasses of regular and even linear languages based on the notion of terminal distinguishability introduced by Radhakrishnan and Nagaraja. The learning model we use is identification in the limit from positive samples as proposed by Gold and further studied by Angluin and many others. All classes we introduce in this paper are

Henning Fernau

2004-01-01

221

Joint fluid enhancement at MRI of the glenohumeral joint with intravenous injection of gadodiamide in standard and triple dose: a prospective comparative study of stable and unstable shoulders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To investigate the joint fluid enhancement at MRI of unstable and stable glenohumeral joints after intravenous administration\\u000a of different doses of gadodiamide. Design and patients. Fourteen patients with unilateral anterior shoulder instability and six healthy controls had both shoulders examined on\\u000a two occasions using either a standard dose (0.1 mmol\\/kg) or a triple dose (0.3 mmol\\/kg) of gadodiamide in

G. Wintzell; Yvonne Haglund-Åkerlind; Hans Larsson; Karol Zyto; Sune Larsson

1998-01-01

222

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Diffusion MRI Show Rapid and Dramatic Changes in Tumor Microenvironment in Response to Inhibition of HIF-1? Using PX478  

Microsoft Academic Search

PX-478 is a new agent known to inhibit the hypoxia- responsivetranscriptionfactor,HIF-1A,inexperimental tumors. The current study was undertaken in prepa- ration for clinical trials to determine which noninvasive imaging endpoint(s) is sensitive to this drug's actions. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and diffusion- weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to monitor acute effects on tumor hemo- dynamics and cellularity, respectively. Mice

Bénédicte F. Jordan; Matthew Runquist; Natarajan Raghunand; Amanda Baker; Ryan Williams; Lynn Kirkpatrickb; Garth Powis; Robert J. Gillies

2005-01-01

223

Visualization and quantification of whole rat heart laminar structure using high-spatial resolution contrast-enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

It has been shown by histology that cardiac myocytes are organized into laminae and this structure is important in function, both influencing the spread of electrical activation and enabling myocardial thickening in systole by laminar sliding. We have carried out high-spatial resolution three-dimensional MRI of the ventricular myolaminae of the entire volume of the isolated rat heart after contrast perfusion [dimeglumine gadopentate (Gd-DTPA)]. Four ex vivo rat hearts were perfused with Gd-DTPA and fixative and high-spatial resolution MRI was performed on a 9.4T MRI system. After MRI, cryosectioning followed by histology was performed. Images from MRI and histology were aligned, described, and quantitatively compared. In the three-dimensional MR images we directly show the presence of laminae and demonstrate that these are highly branching and are absent from much of the subepicardium. We visualized these MRI volumes to demonstrate laminar architecture and quantitatively demonstrated that the structural features observed are similar to those imaged in histology. We showed qualitatively and quantitatively that laminar architecture is similar in the four hearts. MRI can be used to image the laminar architecture of ex vivo hearts in three dimensions, and the images produced are qualitatively and quantitatively comparable with histology. We have demonstrated in the rat that: 1) laminar architecture is consistent between hearts; 2) myolaminae are absent from much of the subepicardium; and 3) although localized orthotropy is present throughout the myocardium, tracked myolaminae are branching structures and do not have a discrete identity.

Benoist, David; Benson, Alan P.; White, Ed; Tanner, Steven F.; Holden, Arun V.; Dobrzynski, Halina; Bernus, Olivier; Radjenovic, Aleksandra

2012-01-01

224

Diagnosis value of focal liver lesions with SonoVue ® -enhanced ultrasound compared with contrast-enhanced computed tomography and contrast-enhanced MRI: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purposes  This study is aimed at evaluating diagnostic value of focal liver lesions (FLLs) with SonoVue®-enhanced ultrasound compared with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging\\u000a (CEMRI).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register were searched for English language articles published from January 2000\\u000a to May 2011. Histopathologic analysis and\\/or close clinical and imaging follow-up (except CECT or CEMRI)

Yang GuangLiMei; LiMei Xie; Hailong Ding; AiLu Cai; Ying Huang

225

Manganese-Enhanced MRI of the DBA/2J Mouse Model of Hereditary Glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To test the hypothesis that manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) is a sensitive approach for measuring of age-related ocular changes in experimental pigmentary glaucoma. Methods Four groups of light-adapted mice were studied using MEMRI: young (2–3 months), C57BL/6 (negative controls), and DBA/2J mice and aged (10–11 months) C57BL/6 and DBA/2J mice. In all mice, eye perimeter, optic nerve head width, iridocorneal angle, ciliary body area, and total and inner retinal thickness, and a surrogate of retinal ion regulation (intraretinal uptake of manganese) were assessed from MEMRI data and compared. Axon counts were obtained from optic nerves harvested from MEMRI-assessed eyes. Results As the C57BL/6 and DBA/2J mice aged, differential and significant changes in ocular perimeter, retinal thickness, iridocorneal angle, ciliary body area, and optic nerve head width were readily measured from MEMRI data (P < 0.05). In C57BL/6 mice, only inner retinal thickness and perimeter were correlated. In DBA/2J mice, ocular perimeter was correlated with total and inner retinal thickness, ciliary body area, optic nerve head width, and iridocorneal angle. Comparison of young and aged mice revealed a subnormal intraretinal manganese uptake (P < 0.05) in aged DBA/2J mice, but not in aged C57BL/6 mice. Manganese uptake did not correlate with the ocular perimeter. Axon density in the optic nerve correlated with MEMRI-measured optic nerve head width (P < 0.05). Conclusions These studies provide a baseline of noninvasive MEMRI-detectable changes associated with age in a common animal model of hereditary glaucoma that may be useful in the longitudinal evaluation of therapeutic success.

Calkins, David J.; Horner, Philip J.; Roberts, Robin; Gradianu, Marius; Berkowitz, Bruce A.

2008-01-01

226

Chest MRI  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Chest MRI? Chest MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is a safe, noninvasive test. "Noninvasive" means that ... your chest wall, heart, and blood vessels. Chest MRI uses radio waves, magnets, and a computer to ...

227

Cardiac MRI  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Cardiac MRI? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a safe, noninvasive test that creates detailed ... and no instruments are inserted into your body. MRI uses radio waves, magnets, and a computer to ...

228

DW-MRI of the urogenital tract: applications in oncology  

PubMed Central

Abstract Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) appears to hold promise as a non-invasive imaging modality in the detection of early microstructural and functional changes of different organs. DW-MRI is an imaging technique with a high sensitivity for the detection of a large variety of diseases in the urogenital tract. In kidneys, DW-MRI has shown promise for the characterization of solid lesions. Also in focal T1 hyperintense lesions DW-MRI was able to differentiate hemorrhagic cysts from tumours according to the lower apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values reported for renal cell carcinomas. Promising results were also published for the detection of prostate cancer. DW-MRI applied in addition to conventional T2-weighted imaging has been found to improve tumour detection. On a 3 T magnetic resonance unit ADC values were reported to be lower for tumours compared with the normal-appearing peripheral zone. The combined approach of T2-weighted imaging and DW-MRI also showed promising results for the detection of recurrent tumour in patients after radiation therapy. DW-MRI may improve the performance of conventional T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced MRI in the preoperative work-up of bladder cancer, as it may help in distinguishing superficial from muscle invasive bladder cancer, which is critical for patient management. Another challenging application of DW-MRI in the urogenital tract is the detection of pelvic lymph node metastases. As the ADC is generally reduced in malignant tumours and increased under inflammatory conditions, reduced ADC values were expected in patients with lymph node metastases.

Petralia, G.

2010-01-01

229

Study of relapsing remitting experimental allergic encephalomyelitis SJL mouse model using MION-46L enhanced in vivo MRI: early histopathological correlation.  

PubMed

MION-46L, a superparamagnetic iron oxide contrast agent, was investigated for its ability to increase the sensitivity of in vivo 3D MRI in the detection of brain lesions in a chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (crEAE) mouse model. Lesion conspicuity on postcontrast 3D MRI was dramatically enhanced as compared to precontrast images corresponding to areas of inflammatory and demyelinating lesions. MION-46L could be detected on Prussian blue iron stain in the vascular endothelium, the perivascular space, and in macrophages within perivascular cuffs and areas of inflammation and demyelination. By taking advantage of the MION-46L induced macroscopic susceptibility effect, acute early lesions measuring only 100 microm in diameter could be detected. MION-46L enhanced MRI may be used to 1) provide a unique sensitivity in EAE lesion detection and correlate imaging to histopathology; 2) help to understand EAE lesion development and its underlying pathophysiology; and 3) eventually assist in preclinical screening of new experimental therapies directed at patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). PMID:9632311

Xu, S; Jordan, E K; Brocke, S; Bulte, J W; Quigley, L; Tresser, N; Ostuni, J L; Yang, Y; McFarland, H F; Frank, J A

1998-06-01

230

Quantitative assessment of regional cerebral blood flow by dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI, without the need for arterial blood signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI), an arterial input function (AIF) is usually obtained from a time-concentration curve (TCC) of the cerebral artery. This study was aimed at developing an alternative technique for reconstructing AIF from TCCs of multiple brain regions. AIF was formulated by a multi-exponential function using four parameters, and the parameters were determined so that the AIF curves convolved with a model of tissue response reproduced the measured TCCs for 20 regions. Systematic simulations were performed to evaluate the effects of possible error sources. DSC-MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) studies were performed on 14 patients with major cerebral artery occlusion. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) images were calculated from DSC-MRI data, using our novel method alongside conventional AIF estimations, and compared with those from 15O-PET. Simulations showed that the calculated CBF values were sensitive to variations in the assumptions regarding cerebral blood volume. Nevertheless, AIFs were reasonably reconstructed for all patients. The difference in CBF values between DSC-MRI and PET was -2.2 ± 7.4 ml/100 g/min (r = 0.55, p < 0.01) for our method, versus -0.2 ± 8.2 ml/100 g/min (r = 0.47, p = 0.01) for the conventional method. The difference in the ratio of affected to unaffected hemispheres between DSC-MRI and PET was 0.07 ± 0.09 (r = 0.82, p < 0.01) for our method, versus 0.07 ± 0.09 (r = 0.83, p < 0.01) for the conventional method. The contrasts in CBF images from our method were the same as those from the conventional method. These findings suggest the feasibility of assessing CBF without arterial blood signals.

Enmi, Jun-ichiro; Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Takuya; Yamamoto, Akihide; Iguchi, Satoshi; Moriguchi, Tetsuaki; Hori, Yuki; Koshino, Kazuhiro; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Shah, Nadim Jon; Yamada, Naoaki; Iida, Hidehiro

2012-12-01

231

Noninvasive monitoring of radiotherapy-induced microvascular changes using dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in a colorectal tumor model  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with a macromolecular contrast agent (P792) to visualize effects of radiotherapy (RT) on microvascular leakage in a colorectal cancer model. Methods and Materials: CC531 tumors were induced in WAG/Rij rats. DCE-MRI was performed before and 5 days after 5 x 5 Gy of RT and parametric maps generated of the endothelial transfer constant (K{sup trans} ) and the fractional interstitial space (V{sub e} ) according to the Tofts model. Tissue pO{sub 2} mapping was performed in each tumor core and rim before and after RT. Microvessel density (MVD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and pimonidazole hypoxia staining were compared with a control group of tumor-bearing rats. Results: Mean K{sup trans} and v{sub e} were significantly reduced after RT in all tumor regions. Mean pO{sub 2} was 6.8 mm Hg before RT vs. 7.7 mm Hg after RT (p < 0.001) in the tumor rim and 3.5 mm Hg before RT vs. 4.4 mm Hg after RT (p < 0.001) in the tumor core. Mean MVD in the tumor rim was 10.4 in the RT treated group vs. 16.9 in the control group (p = 0.061). VEGF expression was significantly higher in RT-treated rats. After RT, no correlation was found between DCE-MRI parameters and histologic parameters. A correlation was seen after RT between pO{sub 2} and K{sup trans} (r -0.57, p = 0.08) and between pO{sub 2} and v{sub e} (r = -0.65, p = 0.04). Conclusions: Dynamic contrast-enhanced-MRI with P792 allows quantification of microvascular changes in this colorectal model. RT significantly reduces neovascular leakage and enhances tissue oxygenation and VEGF expression. After RT, DCE-MRI parameters are related to tumor pO{sub 2}, but not to MVD or VEGF expression.

Ceelen, Wim [Department of Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)]. E-mail: Wim.ceelen@ugent.be; Smeets, Peter [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Backes, Walter [Department of Radiology, Maastricht University Hospital, Maastricht (Netherlands); Van Damme, Nancy [Department of Gastroenterology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Boterberg, Tom [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Demetter, Pieter [Department of Pathology, Erasmus University Hospital, Brussels (Belgium); Bouckenooghe, Isabel [Department of Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); De Visschere, Marieke [Department of Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Peeters, Marc [Department of Gastroenterology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Pattyn, Piet [Department of Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

2006-03-15

232

Distinguishing Noise from Chaos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chaotic systems share with stochastic processes several properties that make them almost undistinguishable. In this communication we introduce a representation space, to be called the complexity-entropy causality plane. Its horizontal and vertical axis are suitable functionals of the pertinent probability distribution, namely, the entropy of the system and an appropriate statistical complexity measure, respectively. These two functionals are evaluated using the Bandt-Pompe recipe to assign a probability distribution function to the time series generated by the system. Several well-known model-generated time series, usually regarded as being of either stochastic or chaotic nature, are analyzed so as to illustrate the approach. The main achievement of this communication is the possibility of clearly distinguishing between them in our representation space, something that is rather difficult otherwise.

Rosso, O. A.; Larrondo, H. A.; Martin, M. T.; Plastino, A.; Fuentes, M. A.

2007-10-01

233

Automatic classification of scar tissue in late gadolinium enhancement cardiac MRI for the assessment of left-atrial wall injury after radiofrequency ablation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiofrequency ablation is a promising procedure for treating atrial fibrillation (AF) that relies on accurate lesion delivery in the left atrial (LA) wall for success. Late Gadolinium Enhancement MRI (LGE MRI) at three months post-ablation has proven effective for noninvasive assessment of the location and extent of scar formation, which are important factors for predicting patient outcome and planning of redo ablation procedures. We have developed an algorithm for automatic classification in LGE MRI of scar tissue in the LA wall and have evaluated accuracy and consistency compared to manual scar classifications by expert observers. Our approach clusters voxels based on normalized intensity and was chosen through a systematic comparison of the performance of multivariate clustering on many combinations of image texture. Algorithm performance was determined by overlap with ground truth, using multiple overlap measures, and the accuracy of the estimation of the total amount of scar in the LA. Ground truth was determined using the STAPLE algorithm, which produces a probabilistic estimate of the true scar classification from multiple expert manual segmentations. Evaluation of the ground truth data set was based on both inter- and intra-observer agreement, with variation among expert classifiers indicating the difficulty of scar classification for a given a dataset. Our proposed automatic scar classification algorithm performs well for both scar localization and estimation of scar volume: for ground truth datasets considered easy, variability from the ground truth was low; for those considered difficult, variability from ground truth was on par with the variability across experts.

Perry, Daniel; Morris, Alan; Burgon, Nathan; McGann, Christopher; MacLeod, Robert; Cates, Joshua

2012-02-01

234

An investigation into the effects of temporal resolution on hepatic dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in volunteers and in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the effect of temporal resolution on the dual-input pharmacokinetic (PK) modelling of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data from normal volunteer livers and from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Eleven volunteers and five patients were examined at 3 T. Two sections, one optimized for the vascular input functions (VIF) and one for the tissue, were imaged within a single heart-beat (HB) using a saturation-recovery fast gradient echo sequence. The data was analysed using a dual-input single-compartment PK model. The VIFs and/or uptake curves were then temporally sub-sampled (at interval ?t = [2–20] s) before being subject to the same PK analysis. Statistical comparisons of tumour and normal tissue PK parameter values using a 5% significance level gave rise to the same study results when temporally sub-sampling the VIFs to HB < ?t <4 s. However, sub-sampling to ?t > 4 s did adversely affect the statistical comparisons. Temporal sub-sampling of just the liver/tumour tissue uptake curves at ?t ? 20 s, whilst using high temporal resolution VIFs, did not substantially affect PK parameter statistical comparisons. In conclusion, there is no practical advantage to be gained from acquiring very high temporal resolution hepatic DCE-MRI data. Instead the high temporal resolution could be usefully traded for increased spatial resolution or SNR.

Gill, Andrew B.; Black, Richard T.; Bowden, David J.; Priest, Andrew N.; Graves, Martin J.; Lomas, David J.

2014-06-01

235

An investigation into the effects of temporal resolution on hepatic dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in volunteers and in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of temporal resolution on the dual-input pharmacokinetic (PK) modelling of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data from normal volunteer livers and from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Eleven volunteers and five patients were examined at 3 T. Two sections, one optimized for the vascular input functions (VIF) and one for the tissue, were imaged within a single heart-beat (HB) using a saturation-recovery fast gradient echo sequence. The data was analysed using a dual-input single-compartment PK model. The VIFs and/or uptake curves were then temporally sub-sampled (at interval ?t = [2-20] s) before being subject to the same PK analysis. Statistical comparisons of tumour and normal tissue PK parameter values using a 5% significance level gave rise to the same study results when temporally sub-sampling the VIFs to HB < ?t <4 s. However, sub-sampling to ?t > 4 s did adversely affect the statistical comparisons. Temporal sub-sampling of just the liver/tumour tissue uptake curves at ?t ? 20 s, whilst using high temporal resolution VIFs, did not substantially affect PK parameter statistical comparisons. In conclusion, there is no practical advantage to be gained from acquiring very high temporal resolution hepatic DCE-MRI data. Instead the high temporal resolution could be usefully traded for increased spatial resolution or SNR. PMID:24862216

Gill, Andrew B; Black, Richard T; Bowden, David J; Priest, Andrew N; Graves, Martin J; Lomas, David J

2014-06-21

236

The Comparative Study of Ultrasonography, Contrast-Enhanced MRI, and 18F-FDG PET/CT for Detecting Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in T1 Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose A more noninvasive evaluation of axillary lymph node in breast cancer is one of the principal challenges of breast cancer treatment. To detect axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM) in T1 breast cancer, we have compared the axillary ultrasonography (AUS), contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI), and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to determine the most adequate test or a combination of tests. Methods Retrospectively, 349 T1 breast cancer patients who were preoperatively examined using AUS, cMRI, and PET/CT between 2008 and 2011 and whom underwent pathological evaluations of axillary lymph nodes were reviewed and analyzed. Results In total, 26.4% (92/349) of patients exhibited ALNM. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of AUS for determining ALNM were 44.6%, 88.7%, 58.6%, 81.7%, and 77.1%, respectively. cMRI was similar to AUS. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of PET/CT were 44.5%, 94.2%, 73.2%, 82.6%, and 81.1%, respectively. The combination including cMRI and PET/CT was the most accurate with sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy values of 39.1%, 98.8%, 92.3%, 81.9%, and 83.1%, respectively. The mean number (3.5±4.2) of ALNMs in the patients who were positive based on cMRI and PET/CT and also pathologically proven to exhibit ALNM was significantly larger than the number (2.16±2.26) in other patients who exhibited ALNM (p=0.035). Conclusion There are no definitive modalities for detecting ALNM in T1 breast cancers to replace sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). If ALNM is suspected based on cMRI and PET/CT, the axillary dissection without SLNB might be a better option because it is related to high possibilities of ALNM and large axillary metastatic volumes.

Hwang, Seung Ook; Lee, Sang-Woo; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, Wan Wook; Park, Ho Yong

2013-01-01

237

Alertness in Young Healthy Subjects: An fMRI Study of Brain Region Interactivity Enhanced by a Warning Signal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An effective connectivity study was carried out on 16 young, healthy subjects performing an alertness task. The objective of this study was to develop and to evaluate a putative network model of alertness by adapting structural equation modeling to fMRI data. This study was designed to evaluate the directed interactivity of an attentional network…

Perin, B.; Godefroy, O.; Fall, S.; de Marco, G.

2010-01-01

238

Enhanced Sympathetic Arousal in Response to fMRI Scanning Correlates with Task Induced Activations and Deactivations  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been repeatedly shown that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) triggers distress and neuroendocrine response systems. Prior studies have revealed that sympathetic arousal increases, particularly at the beginning of the examination. Against this background it appears likely that those stress reactions during the scanning procedure may influence task performance and neural correlates. However, the question how sympathetic arousal elicited

Markus Muehlhan; Ulrike Lueken; Jens Siegert; Hans-Ulrich Wittchen; Michael N. Smolka; Clemens Kirschbaum

2013-01-01

239

Indirect MR arthrography of anterior shoulder instability in the ABER and the apprehension test positions: a prospective comparative study of two different shoulder positions during MRI using intravenous gadodiamide contrast for enhancement of the joint fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The value of MRI for the evaluation of anterior shoulder instability can be enhanced by shoulder positions that stress the\\u000a stabilising structures. The ABER position is one that has been described in combination with intra-articular gadopentetate\\u000a dimeglumine arthrography. We believe that MRI in the Apprehension test position with 90° abduction and maximal tolerable external\\u000a rotation provides maximum tension on

G. Wintzell; H. Larsson; S. Larsson

1998-01-01

240

Segmentation and Classification of Triple Negative Breast Cancers Using DCE-MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triple-negative (TN) breast cancer has gained much interest recently due to its lack of response to receptor-targeted therapies and its ag- gressive clinical nature. In this study, we evaluate the ability of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to not only distinguish benign from malignant lesions on dynamic contrast-enhanced mag- netic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), but also to quantitatively dis- tinguish triple

Shannon C. Agner; Jun Xu; Hussain Fatakdawala; Shridar Ganesan; Anant Madabhushi; Sarah Englander; Mark Rosen; Kathleen Thomas; Mitchell D. Schnall; Michael D. Feldman; John Tomaszewski

2009-01-01

241

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI in Head-and-Neck Cancer: The Impact of Region of Interest Selection on the Intra- and Interpatient Variability of Pharmacokinetic Parameters  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI-extracted parameters measure tumor microvascular physiology and are usually calculated from an intratumor region of interest (ROI). Optimal ROI delineation is not established. The valid clinical use of DCE-MRI requires that the variation for any given parameter measured within a tumor be less than that observed between tumors in different patients. This work evaluates the impact of tumor ROI selection on the assessment of intra- and interpatient variability. Method and Materials: Head and neck cancer patients received initial targeted therapy (TT) treatment with erlotinib and/or bevacizumab, followed by radiotherapy and concurrent cisplatin with synchronous TT. DCE-MRI data from Baseline and the end of the TT regimen (Lead-In) were analyzed to generate the vascular transfer function (K{sup trans}), the extracellular volume fraction (v{sub e}), and the initial area under the concentration time curve (iAUC{sub 1min}). Four ROI sampling strategies were used: whole tumor or lymph node (Whole), the slice containing the most enhancing voxels (SliceMax), three slices centered in SliceMax (Partial), and the 5% most enhancing contiguous voxels within SliceMax (95Max). The average coefficient of variation (aCV) was calculated to establish intrapatient variability among ROI sets and interpatient variability for each ROI type. The average ratio between each intrapatient CV and the interpatient CV was calculated (aRCV). Results: Baseline primary/nodes aRCVs for different ROIs not including 95Max were, for all three MR parameters, in the range of 0.14-0.24, with Lead-In values between 0.09 and 0.2, meaning a low intrapatient vs. interpatient variation. For 95Max, intrapatient CVs approximated interpatient CVs, meaning similar data dispersion and higher aRCVs (0.6-1.27 for baseline) and 0.54-0.95 for Lead-In. Conclusion: Distinction between different patient's primary tumors and/or nodes cannot be made using 95Max ROIs. The other three strategies are viable and equivalent for using DCE-MRI to measure head and neck cancer physiology.

Craciunescu, Oana I., E-mail: oana.craciunescu@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Yoo, David S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Cleland, Esi [GECAD Ghana Ltd., Acra (Ghana); Muradyan, Naira [iCAD Inc., Nashua, NH (United States); Carroll, Madeline D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); MacFall, James R.; Barboriak, Daniel P. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Brizel, David M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

2012-03-01

242

The Principal of Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI, the Method of Pharmacokinetic Analysis, and Its Application in the Head and Neck Region  

PubMed Central

Many researchers have established the utility of the dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in the differential diagnosis in the head and neck region, especially in the salivary gland tumors. The subjective assessment of the pattern of the time-intensity curve (TIC) or the simple quantification of the TIC, such as the time to peak enhancement (Tpeak) and the wash-out ratio (WR), is commonly used. Although the semiquantitative evaluations described above have been widely applied, they do not provide information on the underlying pharmacokinetic analysis in tissue. The quantification of DCE-MRI is preferable; therefore, many compartment model analyses have been proposed. The Toft and Kermode (TK) model is one of the most popular compartment models, which provide information about the influx forward volume transfer constant from plasma into the extravascular-extracellular space (EES) and the fractional volume of EES per unit volume of tissue is used in many clinical studies. This paper will introduce the method of pharmacokinetic analysis and also describe the clinical application of this technique in the head and neck region.

Chikui, Toru; Obara, Makoto; Simonetti, Arjan W.; Ohga, Masahiro; Koga, Shoichi; Kawano, Shintaro; Matsuo, Yoshio; Kamintani, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Tomoko; Kitamoto, Erina; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Yoshiura, Kazunori

2012-01-01

243

Accurate high-resolution measurements of 3-D tissue dynamics with registration-enhanced displacement encoded MRI.  

PubMed

Displacement fields are important to analyze deformation, which is associated with functional and material tissue properties often used as indicators of health. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques like DENSE and image registration methods like Hyperelastic Warping have been used to produce pixel-level deformation fields that are desirable in high-resolution analysis. However, DENSE can be complicated by challenges associated with image phase unwrapping, in particular offset determination. On the other hand, Hyperelastic Warping can be hampered by low local image contrast. The current work proposes a novel approach for measuring tissue displacement with both DENSE and Hyperelastic Warping, incorporating physically accurate displacements obtained by the latter to improve phase characterization in DENSE. The validity of the proposed technique is demonstrated using numerical and physical phantoms, and in vivo small animal cardiac MRI. PMID:24771572

Gomez, Arnold D; Merchant, Samer S; Hsu, Edward W

2014-06-01

244

Iterative approach of dual regression with a sparse prior enhances the performance of independent component analysis for group functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data.  

PubMed

This study proposes an iterative dual-regression (DR) approach with sparse prior regularization to better estimate an individual's neuronal activation using the results of an independent component analysis (ICA) method applied to a temporally concatenated group of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data (i.e., Tc-GICA method). An ordinary DR approach estimates the spatial patterns (SPs) of neuronal activation and corresponding time courses (TCs) specific to each individual's fMRI data with two steps involving least-squares (LS) solutions. Our proposed approach employs iterative LS solutions to refine both the individual SPs and TCs with an additional a priori assumption of sparseness in the SPs (i.e., minimally overlapping SPs) based on L(1)-norm minimization. To quantitatively evaluate the performance of this approach, semi-artificial fMRI data were created from resting-state fMRI data with the following considerations: (1) an artificially designed spatial layout of neuronal activation patterns with varying overlap sizes across subjects and (2) a BOLD time series (TS) with variable parameters such as onset time, duration, and maximum BOLD levels. To systematically control the spatial layout variability of neuronal activation patterns across the "subjects" (n=12), the degree of spatial overlap across all subjects was varied from a minimum of 1 voxel (i.e., 0.5-voxel cubic radius) to a maximum of 81 voxels (i.e., 2.5-voxel radius) across the task-related SPs with a size of 100 voxels for both the block-based and event-related task paradigms. In addition, several levels of maximum percentage BOLD intensity (i.e., 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0%) were used for each degree of spatial overlap size. From the results, the estimated individual SPs of neuronal activation obtained from the proposed iterative DR approach with a sparse prior showed an enhanced true positive rate and reduced false positive rate compared to the ordinary DR approach. The estimated TCs of the task-related SPs from our proposed approach showed greater temporal correlation coefficients with a reference hemodynamic response function than those of the ordinary DR approach. Moreover, the efficacy of the proposed DR approach was also successfully demonstrated by the results of real fMRI data acquired from left-/right-hand clenching tasks in both block-based and event-related task paradigms. PMID:22939873

Kim, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Junghoe; Lee, Jong-Hwan

2012-12-01

245

Pioglitazone modulates vascular inflammation in atherosclerotic rabbits monitored non-invasively with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT and black blood dynamic contrast enhanced-MRI  

PubMed Central

Objectives We sought to determine the anti-atherosclerotic properties of pioglitazone using multi-modality non-invasive imaging techniques. Background Inflammation is an essential component of vulnerable or high risk atheromas. Pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-?)agonist possesses potent anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to non-invasively to quantify the anti-inflammatory effects of pioglitazone on atheroma using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG)-PET/CT and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). Methods Atherosclerotic plaques were induced in the aorta of fifteen New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits by a combination of hyperlipidemic diet and two balloon endothelial denudations. Nine rabbits continued the same diet whereas six received pioglitazone (10mg/kg orally) in addition to the diet. Twelve animals underwent 18F-FDG-PET/CT and fifteen animals underwent DCE-MRI at baseline, one and three months after treatment initiation. Concomitantly, serum metabolic parameters were monitored. After imaging was completed aortic histological analysis and correlation analysis was performed. Results 18F-FDG-PET/CT detected an increase in average standardized uptake value (SUV) in the control group (p<0.01), indicating progressive inflammation, while stable SUV values were observed in the treatment group, indicating no progression. DCE-MRI detected a significant decrease in area under the curve (AUC) for the pioglitazone group (p<0.01). Immunohistology of the aortas demonstrated a significant decrease in macrophage and oxidized phospholipid immunoreactivity in the pioglitazone group (p=0.04 and p=0.01, respectively) with respect to control animals, underlining the imaging results. Serum metabolic parameters showed no difference between groups. A strong positive correlation between SUV and macrophage density and AUC and neovessels was detected ( r2=0.86, p<0.0001 and r2=0.66, p=0.004, respectively). Conclusions 18F-FDG-PET/CT and DCE-MRI demonstrate non-invasively the anti-inflammatory effects of pioglitazone on atheroma. Both imaging modalities appear suited to monitor inflammation in atherosclerosis.

Vucic, Esad; Dickson, Stephen D.; Calcagno, Claudia; Rudd, James H.F.; Moshier, Erin; Hayashi, Katsumi; Mounessa, Jessica S.; Roytman, Michelle; Moon, Matthew J.; Lin, James; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Fisher, Edward A.; Nicolay, Klaas; Fuster, Valentin; Fayad, Zahi A.

2011-01-01

246

Enhanced cortical reperfusion protects coagulation factor XII-deficient mice from ischemic stroke as revealed by high-field MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intrinsic coagulation factor XII deficient (FXII?\\/?) mice are protected from ischemic stroke. To elucidate underlying mechanisms we investigated the early ischemic period in vivo by multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 17.6 Tesla.Cerebral ischemia was induced by either transient (60 min) or permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (t\\/pMCAO). 10 FXII?\\/? mice underwent t- , 10 FXII?\\/? mice p- and 10

M. Pham; C. Kleinschnitz; X. Helluy; A. J. Bartsch; M. Austinat; V. C. Behr; T. Renné; B. Nieswandt; G. Stoll; M. Bendszus

2010-01-01

247

MRI Scans  

MedlinePLUS

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from ...

248

Enhanced Sympathetic Arousal in Response to fMRI Scanning Correlates with Task Induced Activations and Deactivations  

PubMed Central

It has been repeatedly shown that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) triggers distress and neuroendocrine response systems. Prior studies have revealed that sympathetic arousal increases, particularly at the beginning of the examination. Against this background it appears likely that those stress reactions during the scanning procedure may influence task performance and neural correlates. However, the question how sympathetic arousal elicited by the scanning procedure itself may act as a potential confounder of fMRI data remains unresolved today. Thirty-seven scanner naive healthy subjects performed a simple cued target detection task. Levels of salivary alpha amylase (sAA), as a biomarker for sympathetic activity, were assessed in samples obtained at several time points during the lab visit. SAA increased two times, immediately prior to scanning and at the end of the scanning procedure. Neural activation related to motor preparation and timing as well as task performance was positively correlated with the first increase. Furthermore, the first sAA increase was associated with task induced deactivation (TID) in frontal and parietal regions. However, these effects were restricted to the first part of the experiment. Consequently, this bias of scanner related sympathetic activation should be considered in future fMRI investigations. It is of particular importance for pharmacological investigations studying adrenergic agents and the comparison of groups with different stress vulnerabilities like patients and controls or adolescents and adults.

Muehlhan, Markus; Lueken, Ulrike; Siegert, Jens; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Smolka, Michael N.; Kirschbaum, Clemens

2013-01-01

249

Enhancing insight in scientific problem solving by highlighting the functional features of prototypes: an fMRI study.  

PubMed

Insight can be the first step toward creating a groundbreaking product. As evident in anecdotes and major inventions in history, heuristic events (heuristic prototypes) prompted inventors to acquire insight when solving problems. Bionic imitation in scientific innovation is an example of this kind of problem solving. In particular, heuristic prototypes (e.g., the lotus effect; the very high water repellence exhibited by lotus leaves) help solve insight problems (e.g., non-stick surfaces). We speculated that the biological functional feature of prototypes is a critical factor in inducing insightful scientific problem solving. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we selected scientific innovation problems and utilized "learning prototypes-solving problems" two-phase paradigm to test the supposition. We also explored its neural mechanisms. Functional MRI data showed that the activation of the middle temporal gyrus (MTG, BA 37) and the middle occipital gyrus (MOG, BA 19) were associated with the highlighted functional feature condition. fMRI data also indicated that the MTG (BA 37) could be responsible for the semantic processing of functional features and for the formation of novel associations based on related functions. In addition, the MOG (BA 19) could be involved in the visual imagery of formation and application of function association between the heuristic prototype and problem. Our findings suggest that both semantic processing and visual imagery could be crucial components underlying scientific problem solving. PMID:23994216

Hao, Xin; Cui, Shuai; Li, Wenfu; Yang, Wenjing; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin

2013-10-01

250

Whole Body MRI at 3T with Quantitative Diffusion Weighted Imaging and Contrast-Enhanced Sequences for the Characterization of Peripheral Lesions in Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 2 and Schwannomatosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose. WB-MRI is mainly used for tumor detection and surveillance. The purpose of this study is to establish the feasibility of WB-MRI at 3T for lesion characterization, with DWI/ADC-mapping and contrast-enhanced sequences, in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF-2) and schwannomatosis. Materials and Methods. At 3T, WB-MRI was performed in 11 subjects (10 NF-2 and 1 schwannomatosis) with STIR, T1, contrast-enhanced T1, and DWI/ADC mapping (b = 50, 400, 800?s/mm2). Two readers reviewed imaging for the presence and character of peripheral lesions. Lesion size and features (signal intensity, heterogeneity, enhancement characteristics, and ADC values) were recorded. Descriptive statistics were reported. Results. Twenty-three lesions were identified, with average size of 4.6 ± 2.8?cm. Lesions were characterized as tumors (21/23) or cysts (2/23) by contrast-enhancement properties (enhancement in tumors, no enhancement in cysts). On T1, tumors were homogeneously isointense (5/21) or hypointense (16/21); on STIR, tumors were hyperintense and homogeneous (10/21) or heterogeneous (11/21); on postcontrast T1, tumors enhanced homogeneously (14/21) or heterogeneously (7/21); on DWI, tumor ADC values were variable (range 0.8–2.7), suggesting variability in intrinsic tumor properties. Conclusion. WB-MRI with quantitative DWI and contrast-enhanced sequences at 3T is feasible and advances the utility of WB-MRI not only to include detection, but also to provide additional metrics for lesion characterization.

Fayad, Laura M.; Blakeley, Jaishri; Plotkin, Scott; Widemann, Brigitte; Jacobs, Michael A.

2013-01-01

251

Simultaneous molecular imaging of redox reactions monitored by Overhauser-enhanced MRI with 14N- and 15N-labeled nitroxyl radicals.  

PubMed

MRI has provided significant clinical utility in the diagnosis of diseases and will become a powerful tool to assess phenotypic changes in genetically engineered animals. Overhauser enhanced MRI (OMRI), which is a double resonance technique, creates images of free radical distributions in small animals by enhancing the water proton signal intensity by means of the Overhauser effect. Several studies have demonstrated noninvasive assessment of reactive oxygen species generation in small animals by using low frequency electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy/imaging and nitroxyl radicals. In vivo ESR signal intensities of nitroxyl radicals decrease with time after injection; and the decreases are enhanced by reactive oxygen species, generated in oxidative disease models in a site-specific manner. In this study, we show images of nitroxyl radicals with different isotopes by changing the external magnetic field for ESR irradiation between (14)N and (15)N nuclei in field-cycled OMRI. OMRI simultaneously obtained dual images of two individual chemical processes. Oxidation and reduction were monitored in a rate-dependent manner at nanometer scale by labeling membrane-permeable and -impermeable nitroxyl radicals with (14)N and (15)N nuclei. Phantom objects containing ascorbic acid-encapsulated liposomes with membrane-permeable radicals but not membrane-impermeable ones show a time-dependent decrease of the OMRI image intensity. The pharmacokinetics in mice was assessed with OMRI after radical administration. This OMRI technique with dual probes should offer significant applicability to nanometer scale molecular imaging and simultaneous assessment of independent processes in gene-modified animals. Thus, it may become a powerful tool to clarify mechanisms of disease and to monitor pharmaceutical therapy. PMID:16432234

Utsumi, Hideo; Yamada, Ken-ichi; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Shingo; Nagai, Mika

2006-01-31

252

Glu227-->Lys substitution in the acidic loop of major histocompatibility complex class I alpha 3 domain distinguishes low avidity CD8 coreceptor and avidity-enhanced CD8 accessory functions  

PubMed Central

Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activation requires specific T cell receptor (TCR)-class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen complex interactions as well as the participation of coreceptor or accessory molecules on the surface of CTL. CD8 can serve as a coreceptor in that it binds to the same MHC class I molecules as the TCR to facilitate efficient TCR signaling. In addition, CD8 can be "activated" by TCR stimulation to bind to class I molecules with high avidity, including class I not recognized by the TCR as antigenic complexes (non-antigen [Ag] class I), to augment CTL responses and thus serve an accessory molecule function. A Glu/Asp227-->Lys substitution in the class I alpha 3 domain acidic loop abrogates lysis of target cells expressing these mutant molecules by alloreactive CD8-dependent CTL. Lack of response is attributed to the destruction of the CD8 binding site in the alpha 3 domain which is likely to disrupt CD8 coreceptor function. The relative importance of the class I alpha 3 domain acidic loop Glu227 in coreceptor as opposed to accessory functions of CD8 is unclear. To address this issue, we examined CTL adhesion and degranulation in response to immobilized class I-peptide complexes formed in vitro from antigenic peptides and purified class I molecules containing wild-type or Glu227-->Lys substituted alpha 3 domains. The alpha 3 domain mutant class I-peptide complexes were bound by CTL and triggered degranulation, however to much lower levels than wild-type class I-peptide complexes. In further experiments, it is directly demonstrated that the alpha 3 domain mutant class I molecules, which lack the Glu227 CD8 binding site, still serve as TCR-activated, avidity-enhanced CD8 accessory ligands. However, mutant class I peptide Ag complexes failed to effectively serve as CD8 coreceptor ligands to initiate TCR-dependent signals required to induce avidity-enhanced CD8 binding to coimmobilized non-Ag class I molecules. Thus the Glu227-- >Lys mutation effectively distinguishes CD8 coreceptor and avidity- enhanced CD8 accessory functions.

1996-01-01

253

Measurement of Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability with T1-Weighted Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI in Brain Tumors: A Comparative Study with Two Different Algorithms  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of measuring different permeability parameters with T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to investigate the blood brain-barrier permeability associated with different brain tumors. The Patlak algorithm and the extended Tofts-Kety model were used to this aim. Twenty-five adult patients with tumors of different histological grades were enrolled in this study. MRI examinations were performed at 1.5?T. Multiflip angle, fast low-angle shot, and axial 3D T1-weighted images were acquired to calculate T1 maps, followed by a DCE acquisition. A region of interest was placed within the tumor of each patient to calculate the mean value of different permeability parameters. Differences in permeability measurements were found between different tumor grades, with higher histological grades characterized by higher permeability values. A significant difference in transfer constant (Ktrans) values was found between the two methods on high-grade tumors; however, both techniques revealed a significant correlation between the histological grade of tumors and their Ktrans values. Our results suggest that DCE acquisition is feasible in patients with brain tumors and that Ktrans maps can be easily obtained by these two algorithms, even if the theoretical model adopted could affect the final results.

Saitta, Laura; Barletta, Laura; Bonzano, Laura; Mancardi, Giovanni Luigi; Castellan, Lucio; Ravetti, Jean Louis; Roccatagliata, Luca

2013-01-01

254

MRI of herpes simplex encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in eight patients with herpes simplex meningoencephalitis were reviewed: 14 examinations were analysed. The most striking finding was high signal intensity in the temporal lobe(s) with the typical configuration known from CT. Meningeal enhancement after Gd-DTPA administration was clearly seen in four patients. Haemorrhagic changes are much better seen on MRI than on CT.

Ph. Demaerel; G. Wilms; W. Robberecht; K. Johannik; P. Hecke; H. Carton; A. L. Baert

1992-01-01

255

Quasi-Cubic Magnetite/Silica Core-Shell Nanoparticles as Enhanced MRI Contrast Agents for Cancer Imaging  

PubMed Central

Development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents that can be readily applied for imaging of biological tissues under clinical settings is a challenging task. This is predominantly due to the expectation of an ideal MR agent being able to be synthesized in large quantities, possessing longer shelf life, reasonable biocompatibility, tolerance against its aggregation in biological fluids, and high relaxivity, resulting in better contrast during biological imaging. Although a repertoire of reports address various aforementioned issues, the previously reported results are far from optimal, which necessitates further efforts in this area. In this study, we demonstrate facile large-scale synthesis of sub-100 nm quasi-cubic magnetite and magnetite/silica core-shell (Mag@SiO2) nanoparticles and their applicability as a biocompatible T2 contrast agent for MRI of biological tissues. Our study suggests that silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles reported in this study can potentially act as improved MR contrast agents by addressing a number of aforementioned issues, including longer shelf life and stability in biological fluids. Additionally, our in vitro and in vivo studies clearly demonstrate the importance of silica coating towards improved applicability of T2 contrast agents for cancer imaging.

Cowell, Simon F.; Garg, Ashish; Eu, Peter; Bhargava, Suresh K.; Bansal, Vipul

2011-01-01

256

Evaluation of tumor microvascular response to brivanib by dynamic contrast-enhanced 7-T MRI in an orthotopic xenograft model of hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the antiangiogenic effects of brivanib using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) in an orthotopic mouse model of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS. With human HCC (HepG2 cell line) orthotopic nude mouse xenografts, brivanib was administered orally to the treatment group, and the vehicle was administered to the control group for 14 days. DCE-MRI was performed before the start of the therapy and 7 and 14 days after the start of therapy. Treatment-induced changes in tumor volume and microvessel density (MVD) assessed by CD31 immunohistochemistry were analyzed. Perfusion parameters, including volume transfer constant between blood plasma and extravascular extracellular space (K(trans)), fractional extravascular extracellular space per unit volume of tissue (ve), and rate constant between extravascular extracellular space and blood plasma (Kep), were calculated using the two-compartment model. RESULTS. Brivanib shows potent antitumor activity in tumor volume. The mean (± SD) MVD of the tumors was statistically significantly lower in the brivanib-treated group (40.8 ± 17.3 vessels/field) than in the control group (55.2 ± 9.05 vessels/field) (p < 0.05). In the control group, the K(trans) value increased statistically significantly between the baseline and 14 days after treatment (p = 0.048). In the brivanib-treated group, the K(trans) and ve values decreased statistically significantly between baseline and 7 days after treatment (p = 0.024 and p = 0.031, respectively) and between baseline and 14 days after treatment (p = 0.043 and p = 0.018, respectively). The difference between the K(trans) and ve values between baseline and 14 days after treatment showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.004 and p = 0.034, respectively). CONCLUSION. DCE-MRI is feasible in the orthotopic mouse model of human HCC, and it can noninvasively monitor brivanib-induced changes in tumor microvasculature. PMID:24848850

Song, Kyoung Doo; Choi, Dongil; Lee, Jung Hee; Im, Geun Ho; Yang, Jehoon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Won Jae

2014-06-01

257

SElf-gated Non-Contrast-Enhanced FUnctional Lung imaging (SENCEFUL) using a quasi-random fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence and proton MRI.  

PubMed

Obtaining functional information on the human lung is of tremendous interest in the characterization of lung defects and pathologies. However, pulmonary ventilation and perfusion maps usually require contrast agents and the application of electrocardiogram (ECG) triggering and breath holds to generate datasets free of motion artifacts. This work demonstrates the possibility of obtaining highly resolved perfusion-weighted and ventilation-weighted images of the human lung using proton MRI and the SElf-gated Non-Contrast-Enhanced FUnctional Lung imaging (SENCEFUL) technique. The SENCEFUL technique utilizes a two-dimensional fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence with quasi-random sampling of phase-encoding (PE) steps for data acquisition. After every readout, a short additional acquisition of the non-phase-encoded direct current (DC) signal necessary for self-gating was added. By sorting the quasi-randomly acquired data according to respiratory and cardiac phase derived from the DC signal, datasets of representative respiratory and cardiac cycles could be accurately reconstructed. By application of the Fourier transform along the temporal dimension, functional maps (perfusion and ventilation) were obtained. These maps were compared with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE, perfusion) as well as standard Fourier decomposition (FD, ventilation) reference datasets. All datasets were additionally scored by two experienced radiologists to quantify image quality. In addition, one initial patient examination using SENCEFUL was performed. Functional images of healthy volunteers and a patient diagnosed with hypoplasia of the left pulmonary artery and left-sided pulmonary fibrosis were successfully obtained. Perfusion-weighted images corresponded well to DCE-MRI data; ventilation-weighted images offered a significantly better depiction of the lung periphery compared with standard FD. Furthermore, the SENCEFUL technique hints at a potential clinical relevance by successfully detecting a perfusion defect in the patient scan. It can be concluded that SENCEFUL enables highly resolved ventilation- and perfusion-weighted maps of the human lung to be obtained using proton MRI, and might be interesting for further clinical evaluation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24820869

Fischer, André; Weick, Stefan; Ritter, Christian O; Beer, Meinrad; Wirth, Clemens; Hebestreit, Helge; Jakob, Peter M; Hahn, Dietbert; Bley, Thorsten; Köstler, Herbert

2014-08-01

258

Biventricular apical thrombi demonstrated by contrast-enhanced cardiac MRI following anteroapical STEMI and unsuccessful reperfusion therapy  

PubMed Central

Contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging can define the territory and extent of myocardial infarction from patterns of late gadolinium enhancement. Following failure to reperfuse with thrombolytic therapy, a case of myocardial infarction is described in which ongoing symptoms and an electrocardiogram change led to a diagnostic dilemma. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging confirmed an apical infarction, an aneurysm and acute pericarditis. In addition, late gadolinium enhancement unexpectedly revealed the presence of biventricular apical thrombi. The prevalence of cardiac thrombi and pulmonary emboli may be greater than generally appreciated.

Keeble, William; VonderMuhll, Isabelle; Paterson, Ian

2008-01-01

259

Intracystic gadolinium-enhanced MRI in the evaluation of residual giant-cystic craniopharyngiomas in children: report of four cases.  

PubMed

Residual giant-cystic craniopharyngiomas are amenable to intracavitary bleomycin treatment. Radiologic identification of potential cyst leaks is of paramount for treatment decisions. This report describes our experience in the use of intracystic Gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced MR imaging to determine potential communications between the tumoral cysts and other intra-axial spaces in 4 pediatric patients with residual giant-cystic craniopharyngiomas in whom intracavitary bleomycin treatment was planned after the injection of .1-.2 mL of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA). In three cases no leaks were found. In one case, whose previous water-soluble iodinated contrast-enhanced CT cystography was negative for leaks, intracystic Gd-enhanced MR showed intraventricular Gd enhancement. We conclude that MR imaging after intracystic administration of Gd-based contrast paramagnetic agents is useful in the detection of potential leaks in cases of giant residual craniopharyngiomas. PMID:23157657

Muñoz, Alberto; Martínez-León, María; Vázquez, Elida; Pérez da Rosa, Sandra; Crespo, José

2014-07-01

260

Dynamic nuclear polarization properties of nitroxyl radicals used in Overhauser-enhanced MRI for simultaneous molecular imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNP parameters relevant to Overhauser-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (OMRI) are reported for a few nitroxyl radicals and their corresponding 15N and 2H enriched analogues, used in simultaneous imaging by OMRI. DNP enhancement was measured at 14.529 mT, using a custom-built scanner operating in a field-cycled mode, for different concentrations, ESR irradiation times and RF power levels. DNP enhancements increased with agent concentration up to 2.5 mM and decreased above 3 mM, in tune with ESR line broadening measured at X-band as a function of the agent concentration. The proton spin-lattice relaxation times ( T1) measured at very low Zeeman field (14.529 mT) and the longitudinal relaxivity parameters were estimated. The relaxivity parameters were in good agreement with those independently computed from the linear region of the concentration dependent enhancement. The leakage factor showed an asymptotic increase with increasing agent concentration. The coupling parameters of 14N- and 15N-labeled carbamoyl-PROXYL showed the interaction between the electron and nuclear spins to be mainly dipolar in origin. Upon 2H labeling, about 70% and 40% increases in enhancement for 15N- and 14N-labeled nitroxyl agents were observed, respectively. It is envisaged that the results reported here may enable better understanding of the factors determining DNP enhancement to design suitable 'beacons' for simultaneous molecular imaging by OMRI.

Benial, A. Milton Franklin; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Murugesan, Ramachandran; Yamada, Ken-ichi; Utsumi, Hideo

2006-10-01

261

Response of HT29 colorectal xenograft model to cediranib assessed with 18 F-fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography, dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI.  

PubMed

Cediranib is a small-molecule pan-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor. The tumor response to short-term cediranib treatment was studied using dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI at 7 T, as well as (18) F-fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography and histological markers. Rats bearing subcutaneous HT29 human colorectal tumors were imaged at baseline; they then received three doses of cediranib (3 mg/kg per dose daily) or vehicle (dosed daily), with follow-up imaging performed 2 h after the final cediranib or vehicle dose. Tumors were excised and evaluated for the perfusion marker Hoechst 33342, the endothelial cell marker CD31, smooth muscle actin, intercapillary distance and tumor necrosis. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI-derived parameters decreased significantly in cediranib-treated tumors relative to pretreatment values [the muscle-normalized initial area under the gadolinium concentration curve decreased by 48% (p=0.002), the enhancing fraction by 43% (p=0.003) and K(trans) by 57% (p=0.003)], but remained unchanged in controls. No change between the pre- and post-treatment tumor apparent diffusion coefficients in either the cediranib- or vehicle-treated group was observed over the course of this study. The (18) F-fluoromisonidazole mean standardized uptake value decreased by 33% (p=0.008) in the cediranib group, but showed no significant change in the control group. Histological analysis showed that the number of CD31-positive vessels (59 per mm(2) ), the fraction of smooth muscle actin-positive vessels (80-87%) and the intercapillary distance (0.17 mm) were similar in cediranib- and vehicle-treated groups. The fraction of perfused blood vessels in cediranib-treated tumors (81 ± 7%) was lower than that in vehicle controls (91 ± 3%, p=0.02). The necrotic fraction was slightly higher in cediranib-treated rats (34 ± 12%) than in controls (26 ± 10%, p=0.23). These findings suggest that short-term treatment with cediranib causes a decrease in tumor perfusion/permeability across the tumor cross-section, but changes in vascular morphology, vessel density or tumor cellularity are not manifested at this early time point. PMID:22777834

Bokacheva, Louisa; Kotedia, Khushali; Reese, Megan; Ricketts, Sally-Ann; Halliday, Jane; Le, Carl H; Koutcher, Jason A; Carlin, Sean

2013-02-01

262

A model-constrained Monte Carlo method for blind arterial input function estimation in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI: I. Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread adoption of quantitative pharmacokinetic modeling methods in conjunction with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has led to increased recognition of the importance of obtaining accurate patient-specific arterial input function (AIF) measurements. Ideally, DCE-MRI studies use an AIF directly measured in an artery local to the tissue of interest, along with measured tissue concentration curves, to quantitatively determine pharmacokinetic parameters. However, the numerous technical and practical difficulties associated with AIF measurement have made the use of population-averaged AIF data a popular, if sub-optimal, alternative to AIF measurement. In this work, we present and characterize a new algorithm for determining the AIF solely from the measured tissue concentration curves. This Monte Carlo blind estimation (MCBE) algorithm estimates the AIF from the subsets of D concentration-time curves drawn from a larger pool of M candidate curves via nonlinear optimization, doing so for multiple (Q) subsets and statistically averaging these repeated estimates. The MCBE algorithm can be viewed as a generalization of previously published methods that employ clustering of concentration-time curves and only estimate the AIF once. Extensive computer simulations were performed over physiologically and experimentally realistic ranges of imaging and tissue parameters, and the impact of choosing different values of D and Q was investigated. We found the algorithm to be robust, computationally efficient and capable of accurately estimating the AIF even for relatively high noise levels, long sampling intervals and low diversity of tissue curves. With the incorporation of bootstrapping initialization, we further demonstrated the ability to blindly estimate AIFs that deviate substantially in shape from the population-averaged initial guess. Pharmacokinetic parameter estimates for Ktrans, kep, vp and ve all showed relative biases and uncertainties of less than 10% for measurements having a temporal sampling rate of 4 s and a concentration measurement noise level of ? = 0.04 mM. A companion paper discusses the application of the MCBE algorithm to DCE-MRI data acquired in eight patients with malignant brain tumors.

Schabel, Matthias C.; Fluckiger, Jacob U.; DiBella, Edward V. R.

2010-08-01

263

A Model-Constrained Monte Carlo Method for Blind Arterial Input Function Estimation in Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI: I) Simulations  

PubMed Central

Widespread adoption of quantitative pharmacokinetic modeling methods in conjunction with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has led to increased recognition of the importance of obtaining accurate patient-specific arterial input function (AIF) measurements. Ideally, DCE-MRI studies use an AIF directly measured in an artery local to the tissue of interest, along with measured tissue concentration curves, to quantitatively determine pharmacokinetic parameters. However, the numerous technical and practical difficulties associated with AIF measurement have made the use of population-averaged AIF data a popular, if suboptimal, alternative to AIF measurement. In this work, we present and characterize a new algorithm for determining the AIF solely from the measured tissue concentration curves. This Monte Carlo Blind Estimation (MCBE) algorithm estimates the AIF from subsets of D concentration-time curves drawn from a larger pool of M candidate curves via nonlinear optimization, doing so for multiple (Q) subsets and statistically averaging these repeated estimates. The MCBE algorithm can be viewed as a generalization of previously published methods that employ clustering of concentration-time curves and only estimate the AIF once. Extensive computer simulations were performed over physiologically- and experimentally-realistic ranges of imaging and tissue parameters, and the impact of choosing different values of D and Q was investigated. We found the algorithm to be robust, computationally-efficient, and capable of accurately estimating the AIF even for relatively high noise levels, long sampling intervals, and low diversity of tissue curves. With the incorporation of boostrapping initialization, we further demonstrated the ability to blindly estimate AIFs that deviate substantially in shape from the population-averaged initial guess. Pharmacokinetic parameter estimates for Ktrans, kep, vp, and ve all showed relative biases and uncertainties of less than 10% for measurements having a temporal sampling rate of 4 seconds and a concentration measurement noise level of ? = 0.04 mM. A companion paper discusses the application of the MCBE algorithm to DCE-MRI data acquired in eight patients with malignant brain tumors.

Schabel, Matthias C.; Fluckiger, Jacob U.; DiBella, Edward V. R.

2012-01-01

264

Effects of cortical activations on enhancement of handgrip force during teeth clenching: an fMRI study.  

PubMed

We assessed the effect of teeth clenching on handgrip force behaviorally, and investigated cortical activity during the occurrence of facilitatory effects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-three participants were assessed as to whether they had habitual teeth clenching during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) exertion, and 21 of them were identified to have such a habit. For those participants, behavioral testing showed that MVC with clenching was greater compared with without clenching (approximately 108% greater on average). Next, cortical activity was measured under gripping with clenching (GwC), gripping without clenching (GwoC), and teeth clenching (C) conditions. We found that the activity of the hand region in primary motor cortex (M1), cingulate motor area/supplementary motor area (CMA/SMA) and anterior cerebellum (AC) was greater in contrast of GwC vs. (GwoC+C). Furthermore, significant correlation was observed between the increasing ratio of the handgrip force and the % signal change in the hand region of M1 and AC, but not in CMA/SMA. These results suggest that the activation in the hand region of M1 and AC may facilitate the spinal motoneurons, and the activation in the hand region in M1 by clenching may be due to a signal from CMA/SMA. PMID:24326095

Kawakubo, Naomi; Miyamoto, Jun J; Katsuyama, Narumi; Ono, Takashi; Honda, Ei-Ichi; Kurabayashi, Tohru; Taira, Masato; Moriyama, Keiji

2014-02-01

265

Organic nitrate maintains bone marrow blood perfusion in ovariectomized female rats: a dynamic, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of nitrate on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone marrow perfusion in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats, and also the effects of nitrate on in vitro osteoblastic activity and osteoclastic differentiation of murine monocyte/ macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into OVX + nitrate group (isosorbide-5-mononitrate, ISM, 150 mg/kg/ day b.i.d), OVX + vehicle group, and control group. Lumbar spine CT bone densitometry and perfusion MRI were performed on the rats at baseline and week 8 post-OVX. The OVX rats' BMD decreased by 22.5% ± 5.7% at week 8 (p < 0.001); while the OVX + ISM rats' BMD decreased by 13.1% ± 2.7% (p < 0.001). The BMD loss difference between the two groups of rats was significant (p = 0.018). The OVX rats' lumbar vertebral perfusion MRI maximum enhancement (Emax) decreased by 10.3% ± 5.0% at week 8 (p < 0.005), while in OVX + ISM rats, the Emax increased by 5.5% ± 6.9% (p > 0.05). The proliferation of osteoblast-like UMR-106 cells increased significantly with ISM treatment at 0.78 µM to 50 ?M. Treatment of UMR-106 cells with ISM also stimulated the BrdU uptake. After the RAW 264.7 cells were co-treated with osteoclastogenesis inducer RANKL and 6.25 ?M ~ 100 ?M of ISM for 3 days, a trend of dose-dependent increase of osteoclast number was noted. PMID:24300395

Wang, Yi-Xiang J; Ko, Chun Hay; Griffith, James F; Deng, Min; Wong, Hing Lok; Gu, Tao; Huang, Yu

2012-01-01

266

Organic Nitrate Maintains Bone Marrow Blood Perfusion in Ovariectomized Female Rats: A Dynamic, Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Study  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effects of nitrate on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone marrow perfusion in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats, and also the effects of nitrate on in vitro osteoblastic activity and osteoclastic differentiation of murine monocyte/macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Female Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into OVX + nitrate group (isosorbide-5-mononitrate, ISM, 150 mg/kg/ day b.i.d), OVX + vehicle group, and control group. Lumbar spine CT bone densitometry and perfusion MRI were performed on the rats at baseline and week 8 post-OVX. The OVX rats’ BMD decreased by 22.5% ± 5.7% at week 8 (p < 0.001); while the OVX + ISM rats’ BMD decreased by 13.1% ± 2.7% (p < 0.001). The BMD loss difference between the two groups of rats was significant (p = 0.018). The OVX rats’ lumbar vertebral perfusion MRI maximum enhancement (Emax) decreased by 10.3% ± 5.0% at week 8 (p < 0.005), while in OVX + ISM rats, the Emax increased by 5.5% ± 6.9% (p > 0.05). The proliferation of osteoblast-like UMR-106 cells increased significantly with ISM treatment at 0.78 µM to 50 ?M. Treatment of UMR-106 cells with ISM also stimulated the BrdU uptake. After the RAW 264.7 cells were co-treated with osteoclastogenesis inducer RANKL and 6.25 ?M ~ 100 ?M of ISM for 3 days, a trend of dose-dependent increase of osteoclast number was noted.

Wang, Yi-Xiang J.; Ko, Chun Hay; Griffith, James F.; Deng, Min; Wong, Hing Lok; Gu, Tao; Huang, Yu

2012-01-01

267

Deficits in axonal transport in hippocampal-based circuitry and the visual pathway in APP knock-out animals witnessed by manganese enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Mounting evidence implicates axonal transport defects, typified by the presence of axonal varicosities with aberrant accumulations of cargo, as an early event in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. Work identifying amyloid precursor protein (APP) as a vesicular motor receptor for anterograde axonal transport further implicates axonal transport in AD. Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) detects axonal transport dynamics in preclinical studies. Here we pursue an understanding of the role of APP in axonal transport in the central nervous system by applying MEMRI to hippocampal circuitry and to the visual pathway in living mice homozygous for either wild type or a deletion in the APP gene (n = 12 for each genotype). Following intra-ocular or stereotaxic hippocampal injection, we performed time-lapse MRI to detect Mn2+ transport. Three dimensional whole brain datasets were compared on a voxel-wise basis using within-group pair-wise analysis. Quantification of transport to structures connected to injection sites via axonal fiber tracts was also performed. Histology confirmed consistent placement of hippocampal injections and no observable difference in glial-response to the injections. APP ?/? mice had significantly reduced transport from the hippocampus to the septal nuclei and amygdala after 7 hours and reduced transport to the contralateral hippocampus after 25 hours; axonal transport deficits in the APP ?/? animals were also identified in the visual pathway. These data support a system-wide role for APP in axonal transport within the central nervous system and demonstrate the power of MEMRI for assessing neuronal circuitry involved in memory and learning.

Gallagher, Joseph J.; Zhang, Xiaowei; Ziomek, Greg; Jacobs, Russell E.; Bearer, Elaine L.

2012-01-01

268

Differential microstructure and physiology of brain and bone metastases in a rat breast cancer model by diffusion and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI.  

PubMed

Pharmacological approaches to treat breast cancer metastases in the brain have been met with limited success. In part, the impermeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB) has hindered delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to metastatic tumors in the brain. BBB-permeable chemotherapeutic drugs are being developed, and noninvasively assessing the efficacy of these agents will be important in both preclinical and clinical settings. In this regard, dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to monitor tumor vascular permeability and cellularity, respectively. In a rat model of metastatic breast cancer, we demonstrate that brain and bone metastases develop with distinct physiological characteristics as measured with MRI. Specifically, brain metastases have limited permeability of the BBB as assessed with DCE and an increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measured with DWI compared to the surrounding brain. Microscopically, brain metastases were highly infiltrative, grew through vessel co-option, and caused extensive edema and injury to the surrounding neurons and their dendrites. By comparison, metastases situated in the leptomenengies or in the bone had high vascular permeability and significantly lower ADC values suggestive of hypercellularity. On histological examination, tumors in the bone and leptomenengies were solid masses with distinct tumor margins. The different characteristics of these tissue sites highlight the influence of the microenvironment on metastatic tumor growth. In light of these results, the suitability of DWI and DCE to evaluate the response of chemotherapeutic and anti-angiogenic agents used to treat co-opted brain metastases, respectively, remains a formidable challenge. PMID:22042553

Budde, Matthew D; Gold, Eric; Jordan, E Kay; Frank, Joseph A

2012-01-01

269

In contrast to BOLD: signal enhancement by extravascular water protons as an alternative mechanism of endogenous fMRI signal change.  

PubMed

Despite the popularity and widespread application of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in recent years, the physiological bases of signal change are not yet fully understood. Blood oxygen level-dependant (BOLD) contrast - attributed to local changes in blood flow and oxygenation, and therefore magnetic susceptibility - has become the most prevalent means of functional neuroimaging. However, at short echo times, spin-echo sequences show considerable deviations from the BOLD model, implying a second, non-BOLD component of signal change. This has been dubbed "signal enhancement by extravascular water protons" (SEEP) and is proposed to result from proton-density changes associated with cellular swelling. Given that such changes are independent of magnetic susceptibility, SEEP may offer new and improved opportunities for carrying out fMRI in regions with close proximity to air-tissue and/or bone-tissue interfaces (e.g., the prefrontal cortex and spinal cord), as well as regions close to large blood vessels, which may not be ideally suited for BOLD imaging. However, because of the interdisciplinary nature of the literature, there has yet to be a thorough synthesis, tying together the various and sometimes disparate aspects of SEEP theory. As such, we aim to provide a concise yet comprehensive overview of SEEP, including recent and compelling evidence for its validity, its current applications and its future relevance to the rapidly expanding field of functional neuroimaging. Before presenting the evidence for a non-BOLD component of endogenous functional contrast, and to enable a more critical review for the nonexpert reader, we begin by reviewing the fundamental principles underlying BOLD theory. PMID:20299173

Figley, Chase R; Leitch, Jordan K; Stroman, Patrick W

2010-10-01

270

Gadofullerene MRI contrast agents.  

PubMed

A promising new class of MRI contrast-enhancing agents with high relaxivities is based on gadolinium-containing metallofullerenes, which are also termed gadofullerenes. Detailed study of the water-proton relaxivity properties and intermolecular nanoclustering behavior of gadofullerene derivatives has revealed valuable information about their relaxivity mechanisms and given a deeper understanding of this new class of paramagnetic contrast agent. Here, the latest findings on water-solubilized gadofullerene materials and how these findings relate to their future applications in MRI are reviewed and discussed. PMID:18373426

Bolskar, Robert D

2008-04-01

271

Gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate enhancement kinetics in the menisci of asymptomatic subjects: a first step towards a dedicated dGEMRIC (delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage)-like protocol for biochemical imaging of the menisci.  

PubMed

It was our aim to investigate the gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (Gd-DTPA(2-) ) enhancement kinetics in the menisci of the knee joint over a prolonged period of time. Six asymptomatic volunteers (four men and two women; mean age, 25?±?2.4 years) were enrolled. Sagittal, T(1) -weighted, spin-echo MR sequences of the right knee joint were obtained at 3 T. Imaging was performed before (baseline), 1 h after and in half-hour intervals up to 9 h after the intravenous administration of 0.2 mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA(2-) . To measure the rates of contrast enhancement relative to the baseline, regions of interest that covered the anterior and posterior horns of the medial and lateral meniscus were defined on each of two adjacent sections, and enhancement curves were constructed. An enhancement peak between 2.5 and 4.5 h after Gd-DTPA(2-) administration was observed, and analysis of variance also revealed no significant difference (p=0.94), in terms of enhancement, within this time interval. Pair-wise, post hoc testing also revealed no significant differences between 2.5 and 3, 3 and 3.5, 3.5 and 4, and 4 and 4.5 h post Gd-DTPA(2-) application. Our preliminary data therefore suggest that the time window suitable for a dGEMRIC (delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage)-like T(1) mapping of the menisci is relatively short, and lies between 2.5 and 4.5 h after Gd-DTPA(2-) injection. PMID:21438048

Mayerhoefer, Marius E; Mamisch, Tallal C; Riegler, Georg; Welsch, Goetz H; Dobrocky, Tomas; Weber, Michael; Apprich, Sebastian; Scheurecker, Georg; Szomolanyi, Pavol; Puchner, Stefan; Trattnig, Siegfried

2011-12-01

272

Enhanced cortical reperfusion protects coagulation factor XII-deficient mice from ischemic stroke as revealed by high-field MRI.  

PubMed

Intrinsic coagulation factor XII deficient (FXII(-/-)) mice are protected from ischemic stroke. To elucidate underlying mechanisms we investigated the early ischemic period in vivo by multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 17.6 Tesla. Cerebral ischemia was induced by either transient (60 min) or permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (t/pMCAO). 10 FXII(-/-) mice underwent t- , 10 FXII(-/-) mice p- and 10 Wildtype (Wt) mice tMCAO. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), diffusion-weighted-imaging (DWI) and T2-relaxometry were measured at 2 h and 24 h after MCAO. Outcome measures were evaluated after motion correction and normalization to atlas space. 2 h after tMCAO CBF reduction was similar in FXII(-/-) and Wt mice extending over cortical (CBF (ml/100 g/min) 33.6+/-6.9 vs. 35.3+/-4.6, p=0.42) and subcortical regions (25.7+/-4.5 vs. 31.6+/-4.0, p=0.17). At 24 h, recovery of cortical CBF by +36% was observed only in tMCAO FXII(-/-) mice contrasting a further decrease of -30% in Wt mice after tMCAO (p=0.02, F((1,18))=6.24). In FXII(-/-) mice in which patency of the MCA was not restored (pMCAO) a further decrease of -75% was observed. Cortical reperfusion in tMCAO FXII(-/-) mice was related to a lower risk of infarction of 59% vs. 93% in Wt mice (p=0.04). Subcortical CBF was similarly decreased in both tMCAO groups (Wt and FXII(-/-)) relating to a similar risk of infarction of 89% (Wt) vs. 99% (FXII(-/-), p=0.17). Deficiency of FXII allows neocortical reperfusion after tMCAO and rescues brain tissue by this mechanism. This study supports the concept of FXII as a promising new target for stroke prevention and therapy. PMID:19958838

Pham, M; Kleinschnitz, C; Helluy, X; Bartsch, A J; Austinat, M; Behr, V C; Renné, T; Nieswandt, B; Stoll, G; Bendszus, M

2010-02-15

273

Facing Contrast-Enhancing Gliomas: Perfusion MRI in Grade III and Grade IV Gliomas according to Tumor Area  

PubMed Central

Tumoral neoangiogenesis characterizes high grade gliomas. Relative Cerebral Blood Volume (rCBV), calculated with Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast (DSC) Perfusion-Weighted Imaging (PWI), allows for the estimation of vascular density over the tumor bed. The aim of the study was to characterize putative tumoral neoangiogenesis via the study of maximal rCBV with a Region of Interest (ROI) approach in three tumor areas—the contrast-enhancing area, the nonenhancing tumor, and the high perfusion area on CBV map—in patients affected by contrast-enhancing glioma (grades III and IV). Twenty-one patients were included: 15 were affected by grade IV and 6 by grade III glioma. Maximal rCBV values for each patient were averaged according to glioma grade. Although rCBV from contrast-enhancement and from nonenhancing tumor areas was higher in grade IV glioma than in grade III (5.58 and 2.68; 3.01 and 2.2, resp.), the differences were not significant. Instead, rCBV recorded in the high perfusion area on CBV map, independently of tumor compartment, was significantly higher in grade IV glioma than in grade III (7.51 versus 3.78, P = 0.036). In conclusion, neoangiogenesis encompasses different tumor compartments and CBV maps appear capable of best characterizing the degree of neovascularization. Facing contrast-enhancing brain tumors, areas of high perfusion on CBV maps should be considered as the reference areas to be targeted for glioma grading.

Di Stefano, Anna Luisa; Farina, Lisa; Rognone, Elisa; Gastaldi, Matteo; Frati, Alessandro; Tomasello, Francesco; Ceroni, Mauro; Marchioni, Enrico; Bastianello, Stefano

2014-01-01

274

Facing Contrast-Enhancing Gliomas: Perfusion MRI in Grade III and Grade IV Gliomas according to Tumor Area.  

PubMed

Tumoral neoangiogenesis characterizes high grade gliomas. Relative Cerebral Blood Volume (rCBV), calculated with Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast (DSC) Perfusion-Weighted Imaging (PWI), allows for the estimation of vascular density over the tumor bed. The aim of the study was to characterize putative tumoral neoangiogenesis via the study of maximal rCBV with a Region of Interest (ROI) approach in three tumor areas-the contrast-enhancing area, the nonenhancing tumor, and the high perfusion area on CBV map-in patients affected by contrast-enhancing glioma (grades III and IV). Twenty-one patients were included: 15 were affected by grade IV and 6 by grade III glioma. Maximal rCBV values for each patient were averaged according to glioma grade. Although rCBV from contrast-enhancement and from nonenhancing tumor areas was higher in grade IV glioma than in grade III (5.58 and 2.68; 3.01 and 2.2, resp.), the differences were not significant. Instead, rCBV recorded in the high perfusion area on CBV map, independently of tumor compartment, was significantly higher in grade IV glioma than in grade III (7.51 versus 3.78, P = 0.036). In conclusion, neoangiogenesis encompasses different tumor compartments and CBV maps appear capable of best characterizing the degree of neovascularization. Facing contrast-enhancing brain tumors, areas of high perfusion on CBV maps should be considered as the reference areas to be targeted for glioma grading. PMID:24800207

Di Stefano, Anna Luisa; Bergsland, Niels; Berzero, Giulia; Farina, Lisa; Rognone, Elisa; Gastaldi, Matteo; Aquino, Domenico; Frati, Alessandro; Tomasello, Francesco; Ceroni, Mauro; Marchioni, Enrico; Bastianello, Stefano

2014-01-01

275

Three-dimensional inversion recovery manganese-enhanced MRI of mouse brain using super-resolution reconstruction to visualize nuclei involved in higher brain function.  

PubMed

The visualization of activity in mouse brain using inversion recovery spin echo (IR-SE) manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) provides unique contrast, but suffers from poor resolution in the slice-encoding direction. Super-resolution reconstruction (SRR) is a resolution-enhancing post-processing technique in which multiple low-resolution slice stacks are combined into a single volume of high isotropic resolution using computational methods. In this study, we investigated, first, whether SRR can improve the three-dimensional resolution of IR-SE MEMRI in the slice selection direction, whilst maintaining or improving the contrast-to-noise ratio of the two-dimensional slice stacks. Second, the contrast-to-noise ratio of SRR IR-SE MEMRI was compared with a conventional three-dimensional gradient echo (GE) acquisition. Quantitative experiments were performed on a phantom containing compartments of various manganese concentrations. The results showed that, with comparable scan times, the signal-to-noise ratio of three-dimensional GE acquisition is higher than that of SRR IR-SE MEMRI. However, the contrast-to-noise ratio between different compartments can be superior with SRR IR-SE MEMRI, depending on the chosen inversion time. In vivo experiments were performed in mice receiving manganese using an implanted osmotic pump. The results showed that SRR works well as a resolution-enhancing technique in IR-SE MEMRI experiments. In addition, the SRR image also shows a number of brain structures that are more clearly discernible from the surrounding tissues than in three-dimensional GE acquisition, including a number of nuclei with specific higher brain functions, such as memory, stress, anxiety and reward behavior. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24817644

Poole, Dana S; Plenge, Esben; Poot, Dirk H J; Lakke, Egbert A J F; Niessen, Wiro J; Meijering, Erik; van der Weerd, Louise

2014-07-01

276

Response of HT29 Colorectal Xenograft Model to Cediranib Assessed with 18F-FMISO PET, Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Diffusion-Weighted MRI  

PubMed Central

Cediranib (AZD2171, AstraZeneca, UK) is a small-molecule pan-VEGFR inhibitor. The tumor response to short-term cediranib treatment was studied using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI at 7 T as well as 18F-fluoromisonidazle (18F-FMISO) PET and histological markers. Rats bearing subcutaneous HT29 human colorectal tumors were imaged at baseline, then received three doses of cediranib (3 mg/kg per dose daily) or vehicle (dosed daily), with follow up imaging performed 2 hours after the final cediranib or vehicle dose. Tumors were excised and evaluated for the perfusion marker Hoechst 33342, endothelial cell marker CD31, smooth muscle actin (SMA), intercapillary distance (ICD) and tumor necrosis. DCE-MRI-derived parameters decreased significantly in cediranib-treated tumors relative to pre-treatment values: the muscle-normalized initial area under the gadolinium concentration curve (nIAUC90) by 48% (p = 0.002), the enhancing fraction (EnF) by 43% (p = 0.003) and Ktrans by 57% (p = 0.003), but remained unchanged in controls. No change between pre- and post-treatment tumor apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in either cediranib- or vehicle-treated group was observed over the course of this study. 18F-FMISO SUVmean decreased by 33% (p = 0.008) in the cediranib group, but showed no significant change in the control group. Histological analysis showed that the number of CD31-positive vessels (59 per mm2), the fraction of SMA-positive vessels (80 to 87%) and ICD (0.17 mm) were similar in cediranib- and vehicle-treated groups. The fraction of perfused blood vessels in cediranib-treated tumors (81±7%) was lower than in vehicle controls (91±3%, p = 0.02). The necrotic fraction was slightly higher in cediranib-treated rats (34±12%) than in controls (26±10%, p = 0.23). These findings suggest that short-term treatment with cediranib causes a decrease of tumor perfusion/permeability across the tumor cross-section, but changes in vascular morphology, vessel density or tumor cellularity do not manifest at this early time point.

Bokacheva, Louisa; Kotedia, Khushali; Reese, Megan; Ricketts, Sally-Ann; Halliday, Jane; Le, Carl H.; Koutcher, Jason A.; Carlin, Sean

2012-01-01

277

Tumor volume or dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for prediction of clinical outcome of Ewing sarcoma family of tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The identification of risk factors that predict poor clinical outcome at the time of diagnosis could lead to intensified\\u000a early therapy and improved outcome for pediatric patients with Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT). Objective. To compare the effectiveness of static magnetic resonance (MR) imaging measurements of tumor volume with variables obtained\\u000a by dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DEMRI) in

Shannon L. Miller; F. A. Hoffer; Wilburn E. Reddick; Shengjie Wu; John O. Glass; Suzanne A. Gronemeyer; Mithat Haliloglu; Alexander Y. Nikanorov; Xiaoping Xiong; Alberto S. Pappo

2001-01-01

278

Sensitivity of contrast enhanced MRI in multiple sclerosis. Effects of gadolinium dose, magnetization transfer contrast and delayed imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Although clinical end points remain the definitive measure the full complement of studies. Seven patients suffered minor self-limiting adverse events possibly related to triple-dose of therapeutic efficacy in multiple sclerosis, more sensitive Gd-DTPA. Overall, triple-dose Gd-DTPA resulted in a markers of disease activity are required to screen potential 75% increase in the number of enhancing lesions detected disease-modifying agents.

N. C. Silver; C. D. Good; G. J. Barker; D. G. MacManus; A. J. Thompson; I. F. Moseley; W. I. McDonald; D. H. Miller

1997-01-01

279

CAD-system based on kinetic analysis for non-mass-enhancing lesions in DCE-MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-mass enhancing lesions represent one of the most challenging types of lesions for both the clinician as well as current computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems. Differently from the well-studied mass-enhancing tumors these lesions do not exhibit a typical kinetic behavior that can be further easily categorized into benign or malignant based on feature descriptors. Furthermore, the poorly defined tumor borders pose a difficulty to even the most sophisticated segmentation algorithms. To address these challenges in terms of segmentation and atypical contrast enhancement dynamics, we apply an ICA-based segmentation on these lesions and extract from the average signal intensity curve of the most representative independent component (IC). Subsequently the dynamics of this IC is modeled based on mathematical models such as the empirical mathematical model and the phenomenological universalities. An automated computer-aided diagnosis system evaluates the atypical behavior of these lesions, and additionally compares the benefit of ICA-segmentation versus active contour segmentation.

Goebl, Sebastian; Plant, Claudia; Lobbes, Marc; Meyer-Bäse, Anke

2013-05-01

280

Cardiac MRI  

MedlinePLUS

... hearing aids, all of which can be damaged pins, hairpins, metal zippers and similar metallic items, which can distort MRI images removable dental work pens, pocket knives and eyeglasses body piercings ...

281

Knee MRI  

MedlinePLUS

... hearing aids, all of which can be damaged pins, hairpins, metal zippers and similar metallic items, which can distort MRI images removable dental work pens, pocket knives and eyeglasses body piercings ...

282

Shoulder MRI  

MedlinePLUS

... hearing aids, all of which can be damaged pins, hairpins, metal zippers and similar metallic items, which can distort MRI images removable dental work pens, pocket knives and eyeglasses body piercings ...

283

Distinguishing psychogenic and essential tremor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to essential tremor (ET), psychogenic tremor (PT) is often manifested by shaking with variable amplitude and frequency, distractibility, suggestibility, and entrainment. The sensitivity and specificity of these findings in differentiating PT and ET have not been systematically examined. In order to determine clinical features that reliably distinguish PT from ET, we collected patient information regarding tremor onset, spontaneous

Christopher Kenney; Alan Diamond; Nicte Mejia; Anthony Davidson; Christine Hunter; Joseph Jankovic

2007-01-01

284

Error estimation for perfusion parameters obtained using the two-compartment exchange model in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI: a simulation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In theory, the application of the two-compartment exchange model (2CXM) to data from a dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI exam allows the estimation of the plasma flow, plasma volume, extraction flow and extravascular-extracellular volume. The aim of this paper was to explore whether simulations based on the 2CXM could provide useful information on the trustworthiness of the results. The deviations from the input values of the haemodynamic quantities were estimated for a 'reference tissue' with a clear bi-phasic response and four 'limit tissues' with more challenging 2CXM fitting properties. The impact of the instrumental factors sampling step (Ts), acquisition window (Tacq) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was investigated. Each factor was varied separately, while keeping the other ones at a value above concern. Measurement guidelines to ensure that all deviations fell within a predefined range (±20%) could not be derived, but simulations for fixed Ts and Tacq were found to provide a practical tool for studying the error behaviour to be expected from a given experimental set-up and for comparing measurement protocols. At the level of an individual DCE exam, a bootstrap version of the simulation approach was shown to lead to a useful estimate of the errors on the fitted parameters.

Luypaert, R.; Sourbron, S.; Makkat, S.; de Mey, J.

2010-11-01

285

Error estimation for perfusion parameters obtained using the two-compartment exchange model in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI: a simulation study.  

PubMed

In theory, the application of the two-compartment exchange model (2CXM) to data from a dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI exam allows the estimation of the plasma flow, plasma volume, extraction flow and extravascular-extracellular volume. The aim of this paper was to explore whether simulations based on the 2CXM could provide useful information on the trustworthiness of the results. The deviations from the input values of the haemodynamic quantities were estimated for a 'reference tissue' with a clear bi-phasic response and four 'limit tissues' with more challenging 2CXM fitting properties. The impact of the instrumental factors sampling step (T(s)), acquisition window (T(acq)) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was investigated. Each factor was varied separately, while keeping the other ones at a value above concern. Measurement guidelines to ensure that all deviations fell within a predefined range (±20%) could not be derived, but simulations for fixed T(s) and T(acq) were found to provide a practical tool for studying the error behaviour to be expected from a given experimental set-up and for comparing measurement protocols. At the level of an individual DCE exam, a bootstrap version of the simulation approach was shown to lead to a useful estimate of the errors on the fitted parameters. PMID:20952813

Luypaert, R; Sourbron, S; Makkat, S; de Mey, J

2010-11-01

286

Enhanced Antitumor Efficacy of a Vascular Disrupting Agent Combined with an Antiangiogenic in a Rat Liver Tumor Model Evaluated by Multiparametric MRI  

PubMed Central

A key problem in solid tumor therapy is tumor regrowth from a residual viable rim after treatment with a vascular disrupting agent (VDA). As a potential solution, we studied a combined treatment of a VDA and antiangiogenic. This study was approved by the institutional ethical committee for the use and care of laboratory animals. Rats with implanted liver tumors were randomized into four treatment groups: 1) Zd6126 (Zd); 2) Thalidomide (Tha); 3) Zd in combination with Tha (ZdTha); and 4) controls. Multiparametric MRIs were performed and quantified before and after treatment. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and plasma stromal cell-derived factor-1? (SDF-1?) were monitored. Tumor apoptosis, necrosis, and microvessels were verified by histopathology. A single use of Zd or Tha did not significantly delay tumor growth. The combined ZdTha showed enhanced antitumor efficacy due to synergistic effects; it induced a cumulative tumor apoptosis or necrosis, which resulted in significant delay in tumor growth and reduction in the viable tumor rim; it also reduced tumor vessel permeability; and it improved tumor hemodynamic indexes, most likely via a transient normalization of tumor vasculature induced by Tha. A stepwise linear regression analysis showed that the apparent diffusion coefficient was an independent predictor of tumor growth. We found no significant increases in Zd-induced circulating EPCs or plasma SDF-1?. ZdTha showed improved therapeutic efficacy in solid tumors compared to either agent alone. The therapeutic effects were successfully tracked in vivo with multiparametric MRI.

Chen, Feng; Feng, Yingmei; Zheng, Kaier; De Keyzer, Frederik; Li, Junjie; Feng, Yuanbo; Cona, Marlein Miranda; Wang, Huaijun; Jiang, Yansheng; Yu, Jie; Marchal, Guy; Verfaillie, Catherine; De Geest, Bart; Oyen, Raymond; Ni, Yicheng

2012-01-01

287

Role of MRI in prostate cancer detection.  

PubMed

The standard approach for the detection of prostate cancer--prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening followed by transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided biopsy--has low sensitivity and provides limited information about the true extent and aggressiveness of the cancer. Improved methods are needed to assess the extent and aggressiveness of the cancer and to identify patients who will benefit from therapy. In recent years, there has been tremendous development of acquisition and processing tools for physiological and metabolic MRI techniques which play a potential role in the detection, localization and characterization of prostate cancer, such as dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) and/or proton MR spectroscopic imaging ((1)H MRSI). The standard protocol for prostate MRI without the use of a contrast agent involves multi-planar T1 -weighted MRI, T2 -weighted MRI and DW-MRI. This review discusses the potential role of MRI in the detection of prostate cancer, specifically describing the status of MRI as a tool for guiding targeted prostate biopsies and for detecting cancer in the untreated and treated gland. In addition, future areas of MRI research are briefly discussed. Groups conducting clinical trials should consider the recommendations put forward by the European Consensus Meeting, which state that the minimum requirements for prostate MRI are T1 -weighted MRI, T2 -weighted MRI, DCE-MRI (which involves the use of a contrast agent) and DW-MRI with a pelvic phased-array coil and propose the use of transperineal template mapping biopsies as the optimal reference standard. PMID:23495081

Shukla-Dave, Amita; Hricak, Hedvig

2014-01-01

288

Quantitative Assessment of Macromolecular Concentration during Direct Infusion into an Agarose Hydrogel Phantom using Contrast-Enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Convection-enhanced delivery (CED), i.e., direct tissue infusion, has emerged as a promising local drug delivery method for treating diseases of the nervous system. Determination of the spatial distribution of therapeutic agents after infusion is important in evaluating the efficacy of treatment, optimizing infusion protocols, and improving the understanding of drug pharmacokinetics. In this study, we provide a methodology to determine the concentration distribution of Gd-labeled tracers during infusion using contrast-enhanced MR imaging. To the best of our knowledge, MR studies that quantify concentration profiles for CED have not been previously reported. The methodology utilizes intrinsic material properties (T1 and R1) and reduces the effect of instrumental factors (e.g., inhomogeneity of MR detection field). As a methodology investigation, this study used an agarose hydrogel phantom as a tissue substitute for infusion. An 11.1 T magnet system was used to image infusion of Gd-DTPA labeled albumin (Gd-albumin) into the hydrogel. By using data from preliminary scans, Gd-albumin distribution was determined from the signal intensity of the MR images. As a validation test, MR-derived concentration profiles were found comparable to both results measured directly using quantitative optical imaging and results from a computational transport model in porous media. In future studies, the developed methodology will be used to quantitatively monitor the distribution of Gd-tracer following infusion directly into tissues.

Chen, Xiaoming; Astary, Garrett W.; Sepulveda, Hector; Mareci, Thomas H.; Sarntinoranont, Malisa

2011-01-01

289

Assessment of brain perfusion using parametric and factor images extracted from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging offers a minimally invasive method of investigating brain blood flow. This paper describes two different methods of extracting quantitative and qualitative information from this data. The first approach is to generate parametric images showing blood flow, blood volume and time-to-peak activity on a pixel by pixel basis. The second approach uses factor analysis. Principal components are extracted from the data and these orthogonal factors are then rotated to give a set of oblique factors, which satisfy certain simple constraints. In most cases three factors can be identified: a background or non- enhancing factor, an early vascular factor which is strongly correlated to arterial flow, and a late vascular factor which is strongly correlated to venous flow. The parametric and factor images are complimentary in nature: the former provides quantitative information that is readily understood by the clinician, while the latter makes no a priori assumptions about the underlying physiology and also allows more subtle changes in cerebral blood flow to be assessed. The factor images may also be of great value in defining regions of interest over which to carry out a more detailed quantitative analysis. This dual approach can be readily adapted to assess perfusion in other organs such as the heart or kidneys.

Martel, Anne L.; Moody, Alan R.

1998-07-01

290

Distinguishing among electron injection types  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three types of electron injections taking place in the near-earth region of the magnetotail have been distinguished previously using SCATHA particle and field data. Defining characteristics are given here for each type of event, and the positions of the magnetosphere where they are expected to occur are discussed. These three event types can be difficult to distinguish in data sets that are more limited than the SCATHA set that carried instruments detecting magnetic fields and charged particles over an energy range from eVs to MeVs. It is suggested that determining the magnetospheric regions at which each of these event types occurs will considerably clarify the phenomenological description of substorms available for theoretical analysis.

Feynman, J.

1987-01-01

291

A model-constrained Monte Carlo method for blind arterial input function estimation in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI: II. In vivo results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate quantification of pharmacokinetic model parameters in tracer kinetic imaging experiments requires correspondingly accurate determination of the arterial input function (AIF). Despite significant effort expended on methods of directly measuring patient-specific AIFs in modalities as diverse as dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), dynamic positron emission tomography (PET), and perfusion computed tomography (CT), fundamental and technical difficulties have made consistent and reliable achievement of that goal elusive. Here, we validate a new algorithm for AIF determination, the Monte Carlo blind estimation (MCBE) method (which is described in detail and characterized by extensive simulations in a companion paper), by comparing AIFs measured in DCE-MRI studies of eight brain tumor patients with results of blind estimation. Blind AIFs calculated with the MCBE method using a pool of concentration-time curves from a region of normal brain tissue were found to be quite similar to the measured AIFs, with statistically significant decreases in fit residuals observed in six of eight patients. Biases between the blind and measured pharmacokinetic parameters were the dominant source of error. Averaged over all eight patients, the mean biases were +7% in K trans, 0% in kep, -11% in vp and +10% in ve. Corresponding uncertainties (median absolute deviation from the best fit line) were 0.0043?min-1 in K trans, 0.0491 min-1 in kep, 0.29% in vp and 0.45% in ve. The use of a published population-averaged AIF resulted in larger mean biases in three of the four parameters (-23% in K trans, -22% in kep, -63% in vp), with the bias in ve unchanged, and led to larger uncertainties in all four parameters (0.0083 min-1 in K trans, 0.1038 min-1 in kep, 0.31% in vp and 0.95% in ve). When blind AIFs were calculated from a region of tumor tissue, statistically significant decreases in fit residuals were observed in all eight patients despite larger deviations of these blind AIFs from the measured AIFs. The observed decrease in root-mean-square fit residuals between the normal brain and tumor tissue blind AIFs suggests that the local blood supply in tumors is measurably different from that in normal brain tissue and that the proposed method is able to discriminate between the two. We have shown the feasibility of applying the MCBE algorithm to DCE-MRI data acquired in brain, finding generally good agreement with measured AIFs and decreased biases and uncertainties relative to the use of a population-averaged AIF. These results demonstrate that the MCBE algorithm is a useful alternative to direct AIF measurement in cases where acquisition of high-quality arterial input function data is difficult or impossible.

Schabel, Matthias C.; DiBella, Edward V. R.; Jensen, Randy L.; Salzman, Karen L.

2010-08-01

292

An Active Two Channel 0.035" Guidewire for Interventional Cardiovascular MRI  

PubMed Central

Purpose To develop an “active” (receiver-coil) clinical grade guidewire with enhanced visibility for MRI and favorable mechanical characteristics for interventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures that require conspicuous intravascular instruments distinguishable from surrounding tissues. Materials and Methods We designed a 0.035-inch guidewire combining two antenna designs on separate channels. A loop antenna visualizes the tip, and a dipole antenna visualizes the whole shaft. We compared mechanical characteristics of this guidewire with X-ray alternatives, and tested MRI performance at 1.5T in vitro and in vivo in swine. Results Images reflected tip position within 0.97 ± 0.42 mm and afforded whole-shaft visibility under expected conditions without sacrificing device size or handling. We report tip stiffness, torquability and pushability comparable to commercial interventional guidewires. Conclusion Our clinical grade 0.035-inch active guidewire is conspicuous under MRI and has mechanical performance comparable to X-ray interventional guidewires. This may enable a range of interventional procedures using real-time MRI.

Kocaturk, Ozgur; Kim, Ann H.; Saikus, Christina E.; Guttman, Michael A.; Faranesh, Anthony Z.; Ozturk, Cengizhan; Lederman, Robert J.

2009-01-01

293

Enhanced Delivery of Gold Nanoparticles with Therapeutic Potential into the Brain using MRI-Guided Focused Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

The blood brain barrier (BBB) is a major impediment to the delivery of therapeutics into the central nervous system (CNS). Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been successfully employed in multiple potential therapeutic and diagnostic applications outside the CNS. However, AuNPs have very limited biodistribution within the CNS following intravenous administration. Magnetic resonance imaging guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is a novel technique that can transiently increase BBB permeability allowing delivery of therapeutics into the CNS. MRgFUS has not been previously employed for delivery of AuNPs into the CNS. This work represents the first demonstration of focal enhanced delivery of AuNPs into the CNS using MRgFUS in a rat model both safely and effectively. Histologic visualization and analytical quantification of AuNPs within the brain parenchyma suggest BBB transgression. These results suggest a role for MRgFUS in the delivery of AuNPs with therapeutic potential into the CNS for targeting neurological diseases.

Etame, Arnold B.; Diaz, Roberto J.; O'Reilly, Meaghan A.; Smith, Christian A.; Mainprize, Todd G.; Hynynen, Kullervo; Rutka, James T.

2014-01-01

294

Fast 3D contrast enhanced MRI of the liver using temporal resolution acceleration with constrained evolution reconstruction.  

PubMed

Time-resolved imaging is crucial for the accurate diagnosis of liver lesions. Current contrast enhanced liver magnetic resonance imaging acquires a few phases in sequential breath-holds. The image quality is susceptible to bolus timing errors, which could result in missing the critical arterial phase. This impairs the detection of malignant tumors that are supplied primarily by the hepatic artery. In addition, the temporal resolution may be too low to reliably separate the arterial phase from the portal venous phase. In this study, a method called temporal resolution acceleration with constrained evolution reconstruction was developed with three-dimensional volume coverage and high-temporal frame rate. Data is acquired using a stack of spirals sampling trajectory combined with a golden ratio view order using an eight-channel coil array. Temporal frames are reconstructed from vastly undersampled data sets using a nonlinear inverse algorithm assuming that the temporal changes are small at short time intervals. Numerical and phantom experimental validation is presented. Preliminary in vivo results demonstrated high spatial resolution dynamic three-dimensional images of the whole liver with high frame rates, from which numerous subarterial phases could be easily identified retrospectively. PMID:22442108

Xu, Bo; Spincemaille, Pascal; Chen, Gang; Agrawal, Mukta; Nguyen, Thanh D; Prince, Martin R; Wang, Yi

2013-02-01

295

In vivo evaluation of retinal and callosal projections in early postnatal development and plasticity using manganese-enhanced MRI and diffusion tensor imaging.  

PubMed

The rodents are an excellent model for understanding the development and plasticity of the visual system. In this study, we explored the feasibility of Mn-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 7 T for in vivo and longitudinal assessments of the retinal and callosal pathways in normal neonatal rodent brains and after early postnatal visual impairments. Along the retinal pathways, unilateral intravitreal Mn2+ injection resulted in Mn2+ uptake and transport in normal neonatal visual brains at postnatal days (P) 1, 5 and 10 with faster Mn2+ clearance than the adult brains at P60. The reorganization of retinocollicular projections was also detected by significant Mn2+ enhancement by 2%-10% in the ipsilateral superior colliculus (SC) of normal neonatal rats, normal adult mice and adult rats after neonatal monocular enucleation (ME) but not in normal adult rats or adult rats after monocular deprivation (MD). DTI showed a significantly higher fractional anisotropy (FA) by 21% in the optic nerve projected from the remaining eye of ME rats compared to normal rats at 6 weeks old, likely as a result of the retention of axons from the ipsilaterally uncrossed retinal ganglion cells, whereas the anterior and posterior retinal pathways projected from the enucleated or deprived eyes possessed lower FA after neonatal binocular enucleation (BE), ME and MD by 22%-56%, 18%-46% and 11%-15% respectively compared to normal rats, indicative of neurodegeneration or immaturity of white matter tracts. Along the visual callosal pathways, intracortical Mn2+ injection to the visual cortex of BE rats enhanced a larger projection volume by about 74% in the V1/V2 transition zone of the contralateral hemisphere compared to normal rats, without apparent DTI parametric changes in the splenium of corpus callosum. This suggested an adaptive change in interhemispheric connections and spatial specificity in the visual cortex upon early blindness. The results of this study may help determine the mechanisms of axonal uptake and transport, microstructural reorganization and functional activities in the living visual brains during development, diseases, plasticity and early interventions in a global and longitudinal setting. PMID:21985904

Chan, Kevin C; Cheng, Joe S; Fan, Shujuan; Zhou, Iris Y; Yang, Jian; Wu, Ed X

2012-02-01

296

Myocardial scar identification based on analysis of Look-Locker and 3D late gadolinium enhanced MRI.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to introduce and evaluate an approach for objective and reproducible scar identification from late gadolinium enhanced (LGE) MR by analysis of LGE data with post-contrast T1 mapping from a routinely acquired T1 scout Look-Locker (LL) sequence. In 90 post-infarction patients, a LL sequence was acquired prior to a three-dimensional LGE sequence covering the entire left ventricle. In 60/90 patients (training set), the T1 relaxation rates of remote myocardium and dense myocardial scar were linearly regressed to that of blood. The learned linear relationship was applied to 30/90 patients (validation set) to identify the remote myocardium and dense scar, and to normalize the LGE signal intensity to a range from 0 to 100 %. A 50 % threshold was applied to identify myocardial scar. In the validation set, two observers independently performed manual scar identification, annotated reference regions for the full-width-half-maxima (FWHM) and standard deviation (SD) method, and analyzed the LL sequence for the proposed method. Compared with the manual, FWHM, and SD methods, the proposed method demonstrated the highest inter-class correlation coefficient (0.997) and Dice overlap index (98.7 ± 1.3 %) between the two observers. The proposed method also showed excellent agreement with the gold-standard manual scar identification, with a Dice index of 89.8 ± 7.5 and 90.2 ± 6.6 % for the two observers, respectively. Combined analysis of LL and LGE sequences leads to objective and reproducible myocardial scar identification in post-infarction patients. PMID:24643328

Tao, Qian; Lamb, Hildo J; Zeppenfeld, Katja; van der Geest, Rob J

2014-06-01

297

Portable MRI  

SciTech Connect

This project proposes to: (1) provide the power of MRI to situations where it presently isn't available; (2) perform the engineering required to move from lab to a functional prototype; and (3) leverage significant existing infrastructure and capability in ultra-low field MRI. The reasons for doing this: (1) MRI is the most powerful tool for imaging soft-tissue (e.g. brain); (2) Billions don't have access due to cost or safety issues; (3) metal will heat/move in high magnetic fields; (4) Millions of cases of traumatic brain injury in US alone; (5) even more of non-traumatic brain injury; (6) (e.g. stroke, infection, chemical exposure); (7) Need for early diagnostic; (8) 'Signature' wound of recent conflicts; (9) 22% of injuries; (10) Implications for post-traumatic stress disorder; and (11) chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

Espy, Michelle A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-29

298

Diagnosis of Pathologically Early HCC with EOB-MRI: Experiences and Current Consensus  

PubMed Central

Objective After much debate, the International Consensus Group for Hepatocellular Neoplasia (ICGHN) has recently arrived at a conclusion regarding the pathological criteria for early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). They have stated that stromal invasion should be recognized as the most important pathological finding for precisely diagnosing and differentiating early HCC from dysplastic nodules (DN). Methods We conducted a review of the imaging findings from multi-imaging modalities of early HCC cases diagnosed according to the pathological criteria of the ICGHN. The multi-imaging modalities included gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), abbreviated as EOB-MRI, contrast-enhanced CT (CE-CT), CT during arterioportography (CTAP), and CT during hepatic arteriography (CTHA). It has been shown that EOB-MRI is the only imaging modality that has sufficient resolution for the detection and classification of early HCC. Results The most significant imaging feature for diagnosing early HCC was hypointensity on hepatobiliary-phase (HP) images of EOB-MRI; all of the cases of early HCC that were detected on HP images of EOB-MRI showed hypointensity, while all of the images of DN showed isointensity or hyperintensity compared with the liver parenchyma. The results of the diagnostic performance analysis showed that EOB-MRI had excellent sensitivity (97%) for detecting early HCC and outstanding specificity (100%) for distinguishing early HCC from DN. Conclusions Considering the results from imaging-pathologic correlations and follow-up studies indicating that many early-stage hepatocellular nodules showing hypointensity on HP images of EOB-MRI tend to develop hypervascularization during a relatively short follow-up period, it is beginning to be accepted that such nodules may be treated as early HCC. However, hepatologists and radiologists should also recognize that some cases of early HCC may show isointensity or hyperintensity on HP images of EOB-MRI, making it impossible to differentiate early HCC from DN, although the low prevalence of such nodules may be unlikely to affect the generally accepted follow-up protocols for cirrhotic patients. Our results and other recent reports have indicated that signal-intensity patterns on HP images of EOB-MRI for DN and early HCC directly correlate with the degree of expression of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B3 in the nodules. Thus, the diagnostic performance of pathological analyses for early HCC cases may be dramatically improved, nearly up to that of EOB-MRI, by incorporating an OATP1B3 staining method.

Ichikawa, Tomoaki; Sano, Katsuhiro; Morisaka, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

299

HO-1 gene overexpression enhances the beneficial effects of superparamagnetic iron oxide labeled bone marrow stromal cells transplantation in swine hearts underwent ischemia/reperfusion: an MRI study.  

PubMed

To determine the effect of intracoronary transfer of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) labeled heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) overexpressed bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in a porcine myocardial ischemia/reperfusion model. Cell apoptosis was assayed and supernatant cytokine concentrations were measured in BMSCs that underwent hypoxia/reoxygen in vitro. Female mini-swines that underwent 1 h LAD occlusion followed by 1 h reperfusion were randomly allocated to receive intracoronary saline (control), 1 x 10(7) SPIO-labeled BMSCs transfected with pcDNA3.1-Lacz plasmid (Lacz-BMSCs), pcDNA3.1-human HO-1 (HO-1-BMSCs), pcDNA3.1-hHO-1 pretreated with a HO inhibitor, tin protoporphyrin (SnPP, n = 10 each). MRI and postmortem histological analysis were made at 1 week or 3 months thereafter. Post hypoxia/reoxygen in vitro, apoptosis was significantly reduced, supernatant VEGF significantly increased while TNF-alpha and IL-6 significantly reduced in HO-1-BMSCs group compared with Lacz-BMSCs group (all p < 0.05). Myocardial expression of VEGF was significantly higher in HO-1-BMSCs than in Lacz-BMSCs group at 1 week post transplantation (all p < 0.05). Signal voids induced by the SPIO were detected in the peri-infarction region in all BMSC groups at 1 week but not at 3 months post transplantation and the extent of the hypointense signal was the highest in HO-1-BMSCs group, and histological analysis showed that signal voids represented cardiac macrophages that engulfed the SPIO-labeled BMSCs. Pretreatment with SnPP significantly attenuated the beneficial effects of HO-1-BMSCs. Transplantation of HO-1-overexpressed BMSCs significantly enhanced the beneficial effects of BMSCs on improving cardiac function in this model. PMID:20033189

Jiang, Yibo; Chen, Lijuan; Tang, Yaoliang; Ma, Genshan; Shen, Chengxing; Qi, Chunmei; Zhu, Qi; Yao, Yuyu; Liu, Naifeng

2010-05-01

300

Role of quantitative pharmacokinetic parameter (transfer constant: Ktrans) in the characterization of breast lesions on MRI  

PubMed Central

Background: The semi-quantitative analysis of the time–intensity curves in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has a limited specificity due to overlapping enhancement patterns after gadolinium administration. With the advances in technology and faster sequences, imaging of the entire breast can be done in a few seconds, which allows measuring the transit of contrast (transfer constant: Ktrans) through the vascular bed at capillary level that reflects quantitative measure of porosity/permeability of tumor vessels. Aim: Our study aims to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameter Ktrans for enhancing breast lesions and correlate it with histopathology, and assess accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of this parameter in discriminating benign and malignant breast lesions. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty-one women with 216 histologically proved enhancing breast lesions underwent high temporal resolution DCE-MRI for the early dynamic analysis for calculation of pharmacokinetic parameters (Ktrans) using standard two compartment model. The calculated values of Ktrans were correlated with histopathology to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Results: Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed a mean Ktrans value of 0.56, which reliably distinguished benign and malignant breast lesions with a sensitivity of 91.1% and specificity of 90.3% with an overall accuracy of 89.3%. The area under curve (AUC) was 0.907. Conclusion: Ktrans is a reliable quantitative parameter for characterizing benign and malignant lesions in routine DCE-MRI of breasts.

Amarnath, Jena; Sangeeta, Taneja; Mehta, Shashi Bhushan

2013-01-01

301

High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Colonography and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Murine Model of Colitis  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis, is characterized by persistent or recurrent inflammation and can progress to colon cancer. Colitis is difficult to detect and monitor noninvasively. The goal of this work was to develop a preclinical imaging method for evaluating colitis. Herein, we report improved MRI methods for detecting and characterizing colitis noninvasively in mice, using high-resolution in vivo MR images and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI studies, which were confirmed by histologic studies in a murine model of colitis. C57Bl6/J male mice were treated with 2.5% dextran sulfate sodium in their drinking water for 5 days to induce colitis. MR images were acquired using a 9.4-T Bruker scanner from 5–25 days following dextran sulfate sodium treatment. In dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI studies, Gd uptake (Ktrans) and its distribution (ve) were measured in muscle and normal and inflamed colons after administering Gd-diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). T2-weighted MR images distinguished normal colon from diffusely thickened colonic wall occurring in colitis (P < 0.0005) and correlated with histologic features. Values of Ktrans and ve obtained from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI were also significantly different in inflamed colons compared to normal colon (P < 0.0005). The results demonstrate that both T2-weighted anatomic imaging and quantitative analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI data can successfully distinguish colitis from normal colon in mice.

Mustafi, Devkumar; Fan, Xiaobing; Dougherty, Urszula; Bissonnette, Marc; Karczmar, Gregory S.; Oto, Aytekin; Hart, John; Markiewicz, Erica; Zamora, Marta

2011-01-01

302

Liver tumor assessment with DCE-MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic-contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is used in clinical practice to assess liver tumor malignancy. An algorithm to get information for automatic classification of tumors is presented. The Maximum value and WashIn and WashOut rates, obtained from the perfusion curves measured from the DCE-MRI images, are used in the classification process. The perfusion curves are described by a linear discrete pharmacokinetic

Liliana Caldeira; João Sanches

2008-01-01

303

A comparison of radial keyhole strategies for high spatial and temporal resolution 4D contrast-enhanced MRI in small animal tumor models  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI has been widely used as a quantitative imaging method for monitoring tumor response to therapy. The simultaneous challenges of increasing temporal and spatial resolution in a setting where the signal from the much smaller voxel is weaker have made this MR technique difficult to implement in small-animal imaging. Existing protocols employed in preclinical DCE-MRI acquire a limited number of slices resulting in potentially lost information in the third dimension. This study describes and compares a family of four-dimensional (3D spatial + time), projection acquisition, radial keyhole-sampling strategies that support high spatial and temporal resolution. Methods: The 4D method is based on a RF-spoiled, steady-state, gradient-recalled sequence with minimal echo time. An interleaved 3D radial trajectory with a quasi-uniform distribution of points in k-space was used for sampling temporally resolved datasets. These volumes were reconstructed with three different k-space filters encompassing a range of possible radial keyhole strategies. The effect of k-space filtering on spatial and temporal resolution was studied in a 5 mM CuSO4 phantom consisting of a meshgrid with 350-?m spacing and in 12 tumors from three cell lines (HT-29, LoVo, MX-1) and a primary mouse sarcoma model (three tumors/group). The time-to-peak signal intensity was used to assess the effect of the reconstruction filters on temporal resolution. As a measure of heterogeneity in the third dimension, the authors analyzed the spatial distribution of the rate of transport (Ktrans) of the contrast agent across the endothelium barrier for several different types of tumors. Results: Four-dimensional radial keyhole imaging does not degrade the system spatial resolution. Phantom studies indicate there is a maximum 40% decrease in signal-to-noise ratio as compared to a fully sampled dataset. T1 measurements obtained with the interleaved radial technique do not differ significantly from those made with a conventional Cartesian spin-echo sequence. A bin-by-bin comparison of the distribution of the time-to-peak parameter shows that 4D radial keyhole reconstruction does not cause significant temporal blurring when a temporal resolution of 9.9 s is used for the subsamples of the keyhole data. In vivo studies reveal substantial tumor heterogeneity in the third spatial dimension that may be missed with lower resolution imaging protocols. Conclusions: Volumetric keyhole imaging with projection acquisition provides a means to increase spatiotemporal resolution and coverage over that provided by existing 2D Cartesian protocols. Furthermore, there is no difference in temporal resolution between the higher spatial resolution keyhole reconstruction and the undersampled projection data. The technique allows one to measure complex heterogeneity of kinetic parameters with isotropic, microscopic spatial resolution.

Subashi, Ergys; Moding, Everett J.; Cofer, Gary P.; MacFall, James R.; Kirsch, David G.; Qi, Yi; Allan Johnson, G.

2013-01-01

304

Fermionization of two Distinguishable Fermions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, our group has demonstrated the ability to prepare few-fermion systems of in well-defined quantum states with near unity fidelity. These systems consist of 1-10 ultracold atoms confined in an optical microtrap [1]. Combined with the ability to control the interparticle interactions with Feshbach resonances this gives us a level of experimental control unavailable in any other mesoscopic quantum system. Here we report on our studies of two distinguishable fermions with resonant interactions confined in a 1-D harmonic oscillator potential. We find that for diverging coupling strength g1D->±? the system undergoes a process of fermionization, similar to a 1-D Bose gas in the Tonks-Girardeau regime. [4pt] [1] F. Serwane et. al., arXiv:1101.2124v1

Lompe, Thomas; Serwane, Friedhelm; Zuern, Gerhard; Wenz, Andre; Ries, Martin; Jochim, Selim

2011-06-01

305

First-pass dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI with extravasating contrast reagent: evidence for human myocardial capillary recruitment in adenosine-induced hyperemia.  

PubMed

Human myocardial (1)H(2)O T(1)-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI data were acquired during the brief first-pass period after injection of a very small gadolinium diethylenetriaminepenta-acetate (GdDTPA(2-)) dose. The shutter-speed pharmacokinetic effects of both transendothelial and transcytolemmal equilibrium water exchange processes were investigated. Our results indicate that even for such a short acquisition window and relatively large pseudo-first-order rate constant (K(trans)) for plasma/interstitium contrast reagent (CR) transfer the kinetics of these water exchange processes cannot be treated as infinitely fast or slow. However, neither the intracellular water molecule lifetime (tau(i)) nor its intravascular counterpart (tau(b)) are among the parameters most influential in analysis of the noisy data typically associated with the cardiac perfusion application. Thus, the actual values of water exchange kinetic rate constants are relatively indeterminate as this experiment is usually conducted. Combining the K(trans) evaluations with independently determined flow (F) values allows us to estimate CR permeability coefficient surface area product (P(CR)S) values. The fact that the P(CR)S magnitudes almost equal the K(trans) values confirms that GdDTPA(2-) extravasation in resting human myocardial muscle is indeed permeation-limited and supports the validity of the K(trans) and P(CR)S estimations. Nevertheless the model analysis is most consistent with the results if P(CR)S is not assumed to be constant with changing flow. The capillary blood volume fraction (v(b)) is a sensitive parameter in the analysis. We also compared resting and hyperemic cardiac conditions, the latter resulting from the volume flow increase induced by adenosine arteriolar vasodilation. We found that the P(CR)S value increases with flow probably mostly because of an S increase associated with capillary recruitment. The v(b) values also increased in hyperemia and showed a flow-dependence with a clearly identifiable component due to capillary recruitment. PMID:18727151

Li, Xin; Springer, Charles S; Jerosch-Herold, Michael

2009-02-01

306

Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced MRI of Cartilage (dGEMRIC) Shows No Change in Cartilage Structural Composition after Viscosupplementation in Patients with Early-Stage Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Viscosupplementation with hyaluronic acid (HA) of osteoarthritic (OA) knee joints has a well-established positive effect on clinical symptoms. This effect, however, is only temporary and the working mechanism of HA injections is not clear. It was suggested that HA might have disease modifying properties because of its beneficial effect on cartilage sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) is a highly reproducible, non-invasive surrogate measure for sGAG content and hence composition of cartilage. The aim of this study was to assess whether improvement in cartilage structural composition is detected using dGEMRIC 14 weeks after 3 weekly injections with HA in patients with early-stage knee OA. Methods In 20 early-stage knee OA patients (KLG I-II), 3D dGEMRIC at 3T was acquired before and 14 weeks after 3 weekly injections with HA. To evaluate patient symptoms, the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) and a numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain were recorded. To evaluate cartilage composition, six cartilage regions in the knee were analyzed on dGEMRIC. Outcomes of dGEMRIC, KOOS and NRS before and after HA were compared using paired t-testing. Since we performed multiple t-tests, we applied a Bonferroni-Holm correction to determine statistical significance for these analyses. Results All KOOS subscales (‘pain’, ‘symptoms’, ‘daily activities’, ‘sports’ and ’quality of life’) and the NRS pain improved significantly 14 weeks after Viscosupplementation with HA. Outcomes of dGEMRIC did not change significantly after HA compared to baseline in any of the cartilage regions analyzed in the knee. Conclusions Our results confirm previous findings reported in the literature, showing persisting improvement in symptomatic outcome measures in early-stage knee OA patients 14 weeks after Viscosupplementation. Outcomes of dGEMRIC, however, did not change after Viscosupplementation, indicating no change in cartilage structural composition as an explanation for the improvement of clinical symptoms.

van Tiel, Jasper; Reijman, Max; Bos, Pieter K.; Hermans, Job; van Buul, Gerben M.; Bron, Esther E.; Klein, Stefan; Verhaar, Jan A. N.; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M. A.; Weinans, Harrie; Kotek, Gyula; Oei, Edwin H. G.

2013-01-01

307

Distinguishing Ordinal and Disordinal Interactions  

PubMed Central

Re-parameterized regression models may enable tests of crucial theoretical predictions involving interactive effects of predictors that cannot be tested directly using standard approaches. First, we present a re-parameterized regression model for the linear X linear interaction of two quantitative predictors that yields point and interval estimates of one key parameter – the cross-over point of predicted values – and leaves certain other parameters unchanged. We explain how resulting parameter estimates provide direct evidence for distinguishing ordinal from disordinal interactions. We generalize the re-parameterized model to linear X qualitative interactions, where the qualitative variable may have two or three categories, and then describe how to modify the re-parameterized model to test moderating effects. To illustrate our new approach, we fit alternate models to social skills data on 438 participants in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. The re-parameterized regression model had point and interval estimates of the cross-over point that fell near the mean on the continuous environment measure. The disordinal form of the interaction supported one theoretical model – differential susceptibility – over a competing model that predicted an ordinal interaction.

Widaman, Keith F.; Helm, Jonathan L.; Castro-Schilo, Laura; Pluess, Michael; Stallings, Michael C.; Belsky, Jay

2012-01-01

308

Play the MRI Game  

MedlinePLUS

... Teachers' Questionnaire MRI Play MRI the Magnetic Miracle Game About the game In the MRI imaging technique, strong magnets and ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

309

MRI of Focal Liver Lesions  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance imaging, MRI has more advantages than ultrasound, computed tomography, CT, positron emission tomography, PET, or any other imaging modality in diagnosing focal hepatic masses. With a combination of basic T1 and T2 weighted sequences, diffusion weighted imaging, DWI, and hepatobiliary gadolinium contrast agents, that is gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) and gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB), most liver lesions can be adequately diagnosed. Benign lesions, as cyst, hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, FNH or adenoma, can be distinguished from malignant lesions. In a non-cirrhotic liver, the most common malignant lesions are metastases which may be hypovascular or hypervascular. In the cirrhotic liver hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC, is of considerable importance. Besides, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and other less common malignancies has to be assessed. In this review, the techniques and typical MRI features are presented as well as the new algorithm issued by American Association for the Study of the Liver Diseases (AASLD).

Albiin, Nils

2012-01-01

310

MR Diagnosis of a Pulmonary Embolism: Comparison of P792 and Gd-DOTA for First-Pass Perfusion MRI and Contrast-Enhanced 3D MRA in a Rabbit Model  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare P792 (gadomelitol, a rapid clearance blood pool MR contrast agent) with gadolinium-tetraazacyclododecanetetraacetic acid (Gd-DOTA), a standard extracellular agent, for their suitability to diagnose a pulmonary embolism (PE) during a first-pass perfusion MRI and 3D contrast-enhanced (CE) MR angiography (MRA). Materials and Methods A perfusion MRI or CE-MRA was performed in a rabbit PE model following the intravenous injection of a single dose of contrast agent. The time course of the pulmonary vascular and parenchymal enhancement was assessed by measuring the signal in the aorta, pulmonary artery, and lung parenchyma as a function of time to determine whether there is a significant difference between the techniques. CE-MRA studies were evaluated by their ability to depict the pulmonary vasculature and following defects between 3 seconds and 15 minutes after a triple dose intravenous injection of the contrast agents. Results The P792 and Gd-DOTA were equivalent in their ability to demonstrate PE as perfusion defects on first pass imaging. The signal from P792 was significantly higher in vasculature than that from Gd-DOTA between the first and the tenth minutes after injection. The results suggest that a CE-MRA PE could be reliably diagnosed up to 15 minutes after injection. Conclusion P792 is superior to Gd-DOTA for the MR diagnosis of PE.

Keilholz, Shella D.; Bozlar, Ugur; Fujiwara, Naomi; Mata, Jaime F.; Berr, Stuart S.; Corot, Claire

2009-01-01

311

A case report of pseudoprogression followed by complete remission after proton-beam irradiation for a low-grade glioma in a teenager: the value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

A fourteen years-old boy was treated post-operatively with proton therapy for a recurrent low-grade oligodendroglioma located in the tectal region. Six months after the end of irradiation (RT), a new enhancing lesion appeared within the radiation fields. To differentiate disease progression from radiation-induced changes, dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced (DSCE) MRI was used with a T2* sequence to study perfusion and permeability characteristics simultaneously. Typically, the lesion showed hypoperfusion and hyperpermeability compared to the controlateral normal brain. Without additional treatment but a short course of steroids, the image disappeared over a six months period allowing us to conclude for a pseudo-progression. The patient is alive in complete remission more than 2 years post-RT.

2010-01-01

312

MRI of pulmonary embolism using Gd-DTPA-polyethylene glycol polymer enhanced 3D fast gradient echo technique in a canine model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was to evaluate the accuracy of MR angiography (MRA) using a Gd-DTPA-polyethylene glycol polymer (Gd-DTPA-PEG) with a 3D fast gradient echo (3D fgre) technique in diagnosing pulmonary embolism in a canine model. Pulmonary emboli were created in six mongrel dogs (20–30 kg) by injecting tantalum oxide-doped autologous blood clots into the femoral veins via cutdowns. MRI was performed

King C. P. Li; Lorie R. Pelc; Sandy A. Napel; Michael L. Goris; David T. Lin; Curtis K. Song; Ann N. Leung; Geoffrey D. Rubin; Michael D. Hollett; Dale P. Harris

1997-01-01

313

Local and Global Distinguishability in Quantum Interferometry  

SciTech Connect

A statistical distinguishability based on relative entropy characterizes the fitness of quantum states for phase estimation. This criterion is employed in the context of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and used to interpolate between two regimes of local and global phase distinguishability. The scaling of distinguishability in these regimes with photon number is explored for various quantum states. It emerges that local distinguishability is dependent on a discrepancy between quantum and classical rotational energy. Our analysis demonstrates that the Heisenberg limit is the true upper limit for local phase sensitivity. Only the ''NOON'' states share this bound, but other states exhibit a better trade-off when comparing local and global phase regimes.

Durkin, Gabriel A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Dowling, Jonathan P. [Hearne Institute for Theoretical Physics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

2007-08-17

314

Characteristics of Distinguished Programs of Agricultural Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic program rankings are highly anticipated by many university administrators, faculty, and alumni. This study analyzed the perceptions of agricultural education departmental contact persons to identify esteemed post-secondary agricultural education programs and the distinguishing characteristics of each program. The ten most distinguished

Birkenholz, Robert J.; Simonsen, Jon C.

2011-01-01

315

Displacement-encoded and manganese-enhanced cardiac MRI reveal that nNOS, not eNOS, plays a dominant role in modulating contraction and calcium influx in the mammalian heart  

PubMed Central

Within cardiomyocytes, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) are thought to modulate L-type calcium channel (LTCC) function and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium cycling, respectively. However, divergent results from mostly invasive prior studies suggest more complex roles. To elucidate the roles of nNOS and eNOS in vivo, we applied noninvasive cardiac MRI to study wild-type (WT), eNOS?/?, and nNOS?/? mice. An in vivo index of LTCC flux (LTCCI) was measured at baseline (Bsl), dobutamine (Dob), and dobutamine + carbacholamine (Dob + CCh) using manganese-enhanced MRI. Displacement-encoded MRI assessed contractile function by measuring circumferential strain (Ecc) and systolic (dEcc/dt) and diastolic (dEcc/dtdiastolic) strain rates at Bsl, Dob, and Dob + CCh. Bsl LTCCI was highest in nNOS?/? mice (P < 0.05 vs. WT and eNOS?/?) and increased only in WT and eNOS?/? mice with Dob (P < 0.05 vs. Bsl). LTCCI decreased significantly from Dob levels with Dob + CCh in all mice. Contractile function, as assessed by Ecc, was similar in all mice at Bsl. With Dob, Ecc increased significantly in WT and eNOS?/? but not nNOS?/? mice (P < 0.05 vs. WT and eNOS?/?). With Dob + CCh, Ecc returned to baseline levels in all mice. Systolic blood pressure, measured via tail plethysmography, was highest in eNOS?/? mice (P < 0.05 vs. WT and nNOS?/?). Mice deficient in nNOS demonstrate increased Bsl LTCC function and an attenuated contractile reserve to Dob, whereas eNOS?/? mice demonstrate normal LTCC and contractile function under all conditions. These results suggest that nNOS, not eNOS, plays the dominant role in modulating Ca2+ cycling in the heart.

Vandsburger, Moriel H.; French, Brent A.; Kramer, Christopher M.; Zhong, Xiaodong

2012-01-01

316

Displacement-encoded and manganese-enhanced cardiac MRI reveal that nNOS, not eNOS, plays a dominant role in modulating contraction and calcium influx in the mammalian heart.  

PubMed

Within cardiomyocytes, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) are thought to modulate L-type calcium channel (LTCC) function and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium cycling, respectively. However, divergent results from mostly invasive prior studies suggest more complex roles. To elucidate the roles of nNOS and eNOS in vivo, we applied noninvasive cardiac MRI to study wild-type (WT), eNOS(-/-), and nNOS(-/-) mice. An in vivo index of LTCC flux (LTCCI) was measured at baseline (Bsl), dobutamine (Dob), and dobutamine + carbacholamine (Dob + CCh) using manganese-enhanced MRI. Displacement-encoded MRI assessed contractile function by measuring circumferential strain (E(cc)) and systolic (dE(cc)/dt) and diastolic (dE(cc)/dt(diastolic)) strain rates at Bsl, Dob, and Dob + CCh. Bsl LTCCI was highest in nNOS(-/-) mice (P < 0.05 vs. WT and eNOS(-/-)) and increased only in WT and eNOS(-/-) mice with Dob (P < 0.05 vs. Bsl). LTCCI decreased significantly from Dob levels with Dob + CCh in all mice. Contractile function, as assessed by E(cc), was similar in all mice at Bsl. With Dob, E(cc) increased significantly in WT and eNOS(-/-) but not nNOS(-/-) mice (P < 0.05 vs. WT and eNOS(-/-)). With Dob + CCh, E(cc) returned to baseline levels in all mice. Systolic blood pressure, measured via tail plethysmography, was highest in eNOS(-/-) mice (P < 0.05 vs. WT and nNOS(-/-)). Mice deficient in nNOS demonstrate increased Bsl LTCC function and an attenuated contractile reserve to Dob, whereas eNOS(-/-) mice demonstrate normal LTCC and contractile function under all conditions. These results suggest that nNOS, not eNOS, plays the dominant role in modulating Ca(2+) cycling in the heart. PMID:22058155

Vandsburger, Moriel H; French, Brent A; Kramer, Christopher M; Zhong, Xiaodong; Epstein, Frederick H

2012-01-01

317

The wealth of distinguished doctors: retrospective survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess changes in the wealth of distinguished doctors in the United Kingdom between 1860 and 2001. Design Retrospective survey. Setting The UK. Participants 980 doctors of sufficient distinction to be included in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography and who died between 1860 and 2001. Main outcome measures Wealth at death, based on probate records and adjusted relative to average earnings in 2002. Results The wealth of distinguished doctors declined substantially between 1860 and 2001, and paralleled a decline in the relative income of doctors in general. The wealth of distinguished doctors also declined relative to other groups of distinguished individuals. Conclusions In the 19th century, distinction in doctors was accompanied by substantial wealth, whereas by the end of the 20th century, the most distinguished doctors were less wealthy than their contemporaries who had achieved national distinction in other areas.

McManus, I C

2005-01-01

318

Detection of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression with USPIO-enhanced molecular MRI in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia.  

PubMed

Vascular damage plays a critical role after stroke, leading notably to edema, hemorrhages and stroke recurrence. Tools to characterize the vascular lesion are thus a real medical need. In this context, the specific nanoparticular contrast agent P03011, an USPIO (ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide) conjugated to a peptide that targets VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), was developed to detect this major component of the vascular inflammatory response. This study aimed to make the proof of concept of the capacity of this targeted USPIO to detect VCAM-1 with MRI after cerebral ischemia in mouse. The time course of VCAM-1 expression was first examined by immunohistochemistry in our model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Secondly, P03011 or nontargeted USPIO P03007 were injected 5?h after ischemia (100?µmol iron kg?¹; i.v.) and in vivo and ex vivo MRI were performed 24?h after ischemia onset. Double labeling immunofluorescence was then performed on brain slices in order to detect both USPIO and VCAM-1. VCAM-1 expression was significantly up-regulated 24?h after ischemia in our model. In animals receiving P03011, both in vivo and ex vivo MRI performed 24?h after ischemia onset showed hypointense foci which could correspond to iron particles. Histological analysis showed a co-localization of the targeted USPIO and VCAM-1. This study demonstrates that VCAM-1 detection is possible with the USPIO P03011 in a model of cerebral ischemia. This kind of contrast agent could be an interesting clinical tool to characterize ischemic lesions in terms of vascular damage. PMID:23281288

Fréchou, M; Beray-Berthat, V; Raynaud, J-S; Mériaux, S; Gombert, F; Lancelot, E; Plotkine, M; Marchand-Leroux, C; Ballet, S; Robert, P; Louin, G; Margaill, I

2013-01-01

319

[The visual pathways, from anatomical MRI to physiological with (f)MRI and tractography with diffusion tensor MRI (DTMRI)].  

PubMed

Advances in MRI technology have led to a better knowledge of visual pathways (1984-2004), with a new descriptive anatomy and functional model. The authors first describe the technical development of MRI over the last thirty years, then describe and illustrate the new descriptive anatomy. Cephalic MRI reveals brain structures that were previously invisible, on different encephalic planes, in the optic pathways, horizontally from the cornea to the calcarin fissure (neuro-ocular plane (NOP), oblique trans-hemispheric neuro-ocular (OTNOP) and neuro-opto-tractal planes (NOTP)), in their orthogonal orientation upon the oculomotor pathways: head and axonal optic nerve pack (visual deutoneurons in their meninges), optic tracts, lateral geniculate bodies, optic radiations and the calcarian fissure. Comparative anatomy with the rhesus macaque is mentioned. Functional neuroanatomy (physiology) benefits from cine-MRI for ocular motricity (OD MRI), growth by the observation of myelinization in children, blood and CSF circulation by MR angiography, local blood volumes by perfusion imaging, neuronal quantification with inflammation or myelin regeneration by spectroscopy (MRS), brain mapping by functional MR ((f)MRI) measuring local CBF enhancement by paradigmatic stimulations. The recent functional imaging method, tractography (or diffusion tensor MRI (DTMRI)), using diffusion MRI techniques, natural vector calculations with diffusion tensor and software power for morphological and statistical directional results, represents the direction of projection, association and commissural white matter tracts. Normal examples are shown and some common clinical consequences are discussed. PMID:15787071

Cabanis, Emmanuel Alain; Iba-Zizen, Marie-Thérèse; Nguyen, Thien Huong; Bellinger, Luc; Stievenart, Jean-Louis; Yoshida, Masaki; Hamard, Henry

2004-01-01

320

Intra voxel analysis in MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new application of Compressive Sensing (CS) in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) field is presented. In particular, first results of the Intra Voxel Analysis (IVA) technique are reported. The idea is to exploit CS peculiarities in order to distinguish different contributions inside the same resolution cell, instead of reconstructing images from not fully sampled k-space acquisition. Applied to MRI field, this means the possibility of estimating the presence of different tissues inside the same voxel, i.e. in one pixel of the obtained image. In other words, the method is the first attempt, as far as we know, of achieving Spectroscopy-like results starting from each pixel of MR images. In particular, tissues are distinguished each others by evaluating their spin-spin relaxation times. Within this manuscript, first results on clinical dataset, in particular a phantom made by aqueous solution and oil and an occipital brain lesion corresponding to a metastatic breast cancer nodule, are reported. Considering the phantom dataset, in particular focusing on the slice where the separation between water and oil occurs, the methodology is able to distinguish the two components with different spin-spin relaxation times. With respect to clinical dataset,focusing on a voxel of the lesion area, the approach is able to detect the presence of two tissues, namely the healthy and the cancer related ones, while in other location outside the lesion only the healthy tissue is detected. Of course, these are the first results of the proposed methodology, further studies on different types of clinical datasets are required in order to widely validate the approach. Although few datasets have been considered, results seem both interesting and promising.

Ambrosanio, Michele; Baselice, Fabio; Ferraioli, Giampaolo; Pascazio, Vito

2014-03-01

321

Wootters' distance revisited: a new distinguishability criterium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The notion of distinguishability between quantum states has shown to be fundamental in the frame of quantum information theory. In this paper we present a new distinguishability criterium by using a information theoretic quantity: the Jensen-Shannon divergence (JSD). This quantity has several interesting properties, both from a conceptual and a formal point of view. Previous to define this distinguishability criterium, we review some of the most frequently used distances defined over quantum mechanics’ Hilbert space. In this point our main claim is that the JSD can be taken as a unifying distance between quantum states.

Majtey, A.; Lamberti, P. W.; Martin, M. T.; Plastino, A.

2005-03-01

322

Improving the Specificity of High Resolution Breast MRI by Optimizing Data Acquisition Techniques and Diagnostic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have the potential to greatly improve breast cancer detection, diagnosis, and treatment. Contrast- enhanced breast MRI has shown greater sensitivity than mammography in the detection of small breast lesions, and...

S. Partridge

1999-01-01

323

MRI and MRS of human brain tumors.  

PubMed

The purpose of this chapter is to provide an introduction to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of human brain tumors, including the primary applications and basic terminology involved. Readers who wish to know more about this broad subject should seek out the referenced books (1. Tofts (2003) Quantitative MRI of the brain. Measuring changes caused by disease. Wiley; Bradley and Stark (1999) 2. Magnetic resonance imaging, 3rd Edition. Mosby Inc; Brown and Semelka (2003) 3. MRI basic principles and applications, 3rd Edition. Wiley-Liss) or reviews (4. Top Magn Reson Imaging 17:127-36, 2006; 5. JMRI 24:709-724, 2006; 6. Am J Neuroradiol 27:1404-1411, 2006).MRI is the most popular means of diagnosing human brain tumors. The inherent difference in the magnetic resonance (MR) properties of water between normal tissues and tumors results in contrast differences on the image that provide the basis for distinguishing tumors from normal tissues. In contrast to MRI, which provides spatial maps or images using water signals of the tissues, proton MRS detects signals of tissue metabolites. MRS can complement MRI because the observed MRS peaks can be linked to inherent differences in biochemical profiles between normal tissues and tumors.The goal of MRI and MRS is to characterize brain tumors, including tumor core, edge, edema, volume, types, and grade. The commonly used brain tumor MRI protocol includes T2-weighted images and T1-weighted images taken both before and after the injection of a contrast agent (typically gadolinium: Gd). The commonly used MRS technique is either point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) or stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM). PMID:19381963

Hou, Bob L; Hu, Jiani

2009-01-01

324

MRI in craniofacial fibrous dysplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five patients with biopsy-proven craniofacial fibrous dysplasia underwent MRI with T1- and T2-weighted sequences and a gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted spin-echo sequence. Low to intermediate signal intensity was usually seen in the largest part of the lesion on both spin-echo sequences, but smaller regions of hyperintensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and intermediate signal intensity throughout a lesion on T1-weighted images were

J. W. Casselman; I. De Jonge; L. Neyt; C. De Clercq; G. D'Hont

1993-01-01

325

RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS DISTINGUISH ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI  

EPA Science Inventory

Basidiomycetous fungi, two saprophytes and three mycorrhizal, were used to assess the specificity of DNA hybridization for distinguishing genera from one another. nterspecific comparisons were done with several isolates of mycorrhizal fungi, Laccaria bicolor and L. laccata, colle...

326

Adjacent Vertex Distinguishing Edge-Colorings  

Microsoft Academic Search

ORI1;3, J. LEHEL1;4, AND R.H. SCHELP1 Abstract. An adjacent vertex distinguishing edge-coloring of a simple graph G is a proper edge-coloring of G such that no pair of adjacent vertices meets the same set of colors. The minimum number of colors ´0a(G) required to give G an adjacent vertex distinguishing coloring is studied for graphs with no isolated edge. We

Paul N. Balister; Ervin Györi; Jenö Lehel; Richard H. Schelp

2007-01-01

327

High-Speed Real-Time Resting-State fMRI Using Multi-Slab Echo-Volumar Imaging  

PubMed Central

We recently demonstrated that ultra-high-speed real-time fMRI using multi-slab echo-volumar imaging (MEVI) significantly increases sensitivity for mapping task-related activation and resting-state networks (RSNs) compared to echo-planar imaging (Posse et al., 2012). In the present study we characterize the sensitivity of MEVI for mapping RSN connectivity dynamics, comparing independent component analysis (ICA) and a novel seed-based connectivity analysis (SBCA) that combines sliding-window correlation analysis with meta-statistics. This SBCA approach is shown to minimize the effects of confounds, such as movement, and CSF and white matter signal changes, and enables real-time monitoring of RSN dynamics at time scales of tens of seconds. We demonstrate highly sensitive mapping of eloquent cortex in the vicinity of brain tumors and arterio-venous malformations, and detection of abnormal resting-state connectivity in epilepsy. In patients with motor impairment, resting-state fMRI provided focal localization of sensorimotor cortex compared with more diffuse activation in task-based fMRI. The fast acquisition speed of MEVI enabled segregation of cardiac-related signal pulsation using ICA, which revealed distinct regional differences in pulsation amplitude and waveform, elevated signal pulsation in patients with arterio-venous malformations and a trend toward reduced pulsatility in gray matter of patients compared with healthy controls. Mapping cardiac pulsation in cortical gray matter may carry important functional information that distinguishes healthy from diseased tissue vasculature. This novel fMRI methodology is particularly promising for mapping eloquent cortex in patients with neurological disease, having variable degree of cooperation in task-based fMRI. In conclusion, ultra-high-real-time speed fMRI enhances the sensitivity of mapping the dynamics of resting-state connectivity and cerebro-vascular pulsatility for clinical and neuroscience research applications.

Posse, Stefan; Ackley, Elena; Mutihac, Radu; Zhang, Tongsheng; Hummatov, Ruslan; Akhtari, Massoud; Chohan, Muhammad; Fisch, Bruce; Yonas, Howard

2013-01-01

328

MRI Acquisition ACRING-6677  

Cancer.gov

MRI Technical Acquisition (ACRIN-6677 Protocol) Required Hardware/Software: Most modern 1.5 Tesla or 3.0 Tesla MRI systems can adequately perform the required examinations. Under certain circumstances, older systems can also perform well, while on

329

Arm MRI scan  

MedlinePLUS

... arm MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses strong magnets to create pictures of the the upper and ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

330

Sinus MRI scan  

MedlinePLUS

... are turned into images. Different types of tissues send back different signals. Single MRI images are called ... Different types of tissues send back different MRI signals. For ... different signal than cancerous tissue. Abnormal results may ...

331

Stepwise heterogeneity analysis of breast tumors in perfusion DCE-MRI datasets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The signal curves in perfusion dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) of cancerous breast tissue reveal valuable information about tumor angiogenesis. Pathological studies have illustrated that breast tumors consist of different subregions, especially with more homogeneous properties during their growth. Differences should be identifiable in DCEMRI signal curves if the characteristics of these sub-regions are related to the perfusion and angiogenesis. We introduce a stepwise clustering method which in a first step uses a new similarity measure. The new similarity measure (PM) compares how parallel washout phases of two curves are. To distinguish the starting point of the washout phase, a linear regression method is partially fitted to the curves. In the next step, the minimum signal value of the washout phase is normalized to zero. Finally, PM is calculated according to maximal variation among the point wise differences during washout phases. In the second step of clustering the groups of signal curves with parallel washout are clustered using Euclidean distance. The introduced method is evaluated on 15 DCE-MRI breast datasets with different types of breast tumors. The use of our new heterogeneity analysis is feasible in single patient examination and improves breast MR diagnostics.

Mohajer, Mojgan; Schmid, Volker J.; Engels, Nina A.; Noel, Peter B.; Rummeny, Ernst; Englmeier, Karl-Hans

2012-02-01

332

Quantitative Multi-Parametric PROPELLER MRI of Diethylnitrosamine-Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis in Wister Rat model  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To develop a quantitative multi-parametric PROPELLER (periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction) MRI approach and its application in a diethylnitrosamine (DEN) chemically-induced rodent model of hepatocarcinogensis for lesion characterization. MATERIALS AND METHODS In nine rabbits with 33 cirrhosis-associated hepatic nodules including regenerative nodule (RN), dysplastic nodule (DN), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cyst, multi-parametric PROPELLER MRI (diffusion-weighted, T2/M0 (proton density) mapping and T1-weighted) were performed. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, T2 and M0 maps of each tumor were generated. We compared ADC, T2 and M0 measurements for each type of hepatic nodule, confirmed at histopathology. RESULTS PROPELLER images and resultant parametric maps were inherently co-registered without image distortion or motion artifacts. All types of hepatic nodules demonstrated complex imaging characteristics within conventional T1- and T2-weighted images. Quantitatively, cysts were distinguished from RN, DN and HCC with significantly higher ADC and T2; however, there was no significant difference of ADC and T2 between HCC, DN and RN. Mean tumor M0 values of HCC were significantly higher than those of DN, RN and cysts. CONCLUSION This study exploited quantitative PROPELLER MRI and multi-dimensional analysis approaches in an attempt to differentiate hepatic nodules in the DEN rodent model of hepatocarcinogensis. This method offers great potential for parallel parameterization during non-invasive interrogation of hepatic tissue properties.

Deng, Jie; Jin, Ning; Yin, Xiaoming; Yang, Guang-Yu; Zhang, Zhuoli; Omary, Reed A.; Larson, Andrew C.

2010-01-01

333

MRI of the shoulder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book reports on the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluating shoulder disorders. The book gives detailed information on MRI techniques and shoulder anatomy, describes and illustrates MRI findings for a wide range of shoulder disorders, and explains how abnormalities seen on MIR images relate to pathophysiology and clinical signs. Special attention is given to imaging of rotator

M. B. Zlatkin; J. P. Iannotti; M. D. Schnall

1991-01-01

334

Functional Imaging: CT and MRI  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Numerous imaging techniques permit evaluation of regional pulmonary function. Contrast-enhanced CT methods now allow assessment of vasculature and lung perfusion. Techniques using spirometric controlled MDCT allow for quantification of presence and distribution of parenchymal and airway pathology, Xenon gas can be employed to assess regional ventilation of the lungs and rapid bolus injections of iodinated contrast agent can provide quantitative measure of regional parenchymal perfusion. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lung include gadolinium-enhanced perfusion imaging and hyperpolarized helium imaging, which can allow imaging of pulmonary ventilation and .measurement of the size of emphysematous spaces.

van Beek, Edwin JR; Hoffman, Eric A

2008-01-01

335

[Ophthalmoplegic migraine: MRI findings. Case report].  

PubMed

Ophthalmoplegic migraine is a rare syndrome in which headache is associated with ophthalmoplegia and third, fourth or sixth cranial nerves palsy. It occurs most frequently in childhood and teenagers. At magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium (GD-DTPA) it may be observed a transitory enhancement of the affected nerve. We present the case of a male teenager, 16 years old, with typical medical history and enhanced signal at left oculomotor nerve in cisternal portion at MRI weighted in T1 with GD-DTPA. On the control exam, eighteen months later, there was no remarkable lesion. The enhancement of oculomotor nerve at MRI is always pathological and among the differential diagnosis we must include: neoplasia (lymphoma and leukemia), infections (AIDS, syphilis), inflammatory process (sarcoidose and Tolosa-Hunt syndrome) and vascular (posterior communicating artery aneurysm). PMID:15830088

Farage, Luciano; Castro, Mário Augusto Padula; Macedo, Túlio Augusto Alves; Borges, Paulo César Naves; Souza, Lincoln Pereira de; Freitas, Luiz Oliveira de

2005-03-01

336

The Basics of MRI  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Basics of MRI is a hypertextbook by Dr. Joseph Hornak of the Rochester Institute of Technology that focuses on the mathematics and physics of magnetic resonance imaging. "Exponential Functions," "Differentials and Integrals," and "Coordinate Transformation" are just a few of the mathematical topics discussed. The physics behind MRI is broken down into the following chapters: "Spin Physics," "NMR Spectroscopy," "Fourier Transforms," "Imaging Principles," and "Fourier Transform Imaging Principles." Hornak has also included a multitude of information on imaging techniques, presentation, and hardware. Those concerned with what occurs during a MRI exam, rather than the math and physics of MRI, will want to consult the chapter entitled "Your MRI Exam."

Hornak, Joseph P.

1996-01-01

337

MRI-Guided Vascular Access with an Active Visualization Needle  

PubMed Central

Purpose To develop an approach to vascular access under MRI, as a component of comprehensive MRI-guided cardiovascular catheterization and intervention. Materials and Methods We attempted jugular vein access in healthy pigs as a model of “difficult” vascular access. Procedures were performed under real-time MRI guidance using reduced field of view imaging. We developed an “active” MRI antenna-needle having an open-lumen, distinct tip appearance and indicators of depth and trajectory, in order to enhance MRI visibility during the procedure. We compared performance of the active needle against an unmodified commercial passively-visualized needle, measured by procedure success among operators with different levels of experience. Results MRI-guided central vein access was feasible using both the active needle and the unmodified passive needle. The active needle required less time (88 vs. 244 sec, p=0.022) and fewer needle passes (4.5 vs. 9.1, p=0.028), irrespective of operator experience. Conclusion MRI-guided access to central veins is feasible in our animal model. When image guidance is necessary for vascular access, performing this component under MRI will allow wholly MRI-guided catheterization procedures that do not require adjunctive imaging facilities such as X-ray or ultrasound. The active needle design showed enhanced visibility, as expected. These capabilities may permit more complex catheter-based cardiovascular interventional procedures enabled by enhanced image guidance.

Saikus, Christina E.; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Barbash, Israel M.; Colyer, Jessica H.; Kocaturk, Ozgur; Faranesh, Anthony Z.; Lederman, Robert J.

2011-01-01

338

Predictive Value of Imaging Markers at Multiple Sclerosis Disease Onset Based on Gadolinium- and USPIO-Enhanced MRI and Machine Learning  

PubMed Central

Objectives A novel characterization of Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) patients according to lesion patterns is proposed. More specifically, patients are classified according to the nature of inflammatory lesions patterns. It is expected that this characterization can infer new prospective figures from the earliest imaging signs of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), since it can provide a classification of different types of lesions across patients. Methods The method is based on a two-tiered classification. Initially, the spatio-temporal lesion patterns are classified. The discovered lesion patterns are then used to characterize groups of patients. The patient groups are validated using statistical measures and by correlations at 24-month follow-up with hypointense lesion loads. Results The methodology identified 3 statistically significantly different clusters of lesion patterns showing p-values smaller than 0.01. Moreover, these patterns defined at baseline correlated with chronic hypointense lesion volumes by follow-up with an score of . Conclusions The proposed methodology is capable of identifying three major different lesion patterns that are heterogeneously present in patients, allowing a patient classification using only two MRI scans. This finding may lead to more accurate prognosis and thus to more suitable treatments at early stage of MS.

Crimi, Alessandro; Commowick, Olivier; Maarouf, Adil; Ferre, Jean-Christophe; Bannier, Elise; Tourbah, Ayman; Berry, Isabelle; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Edan, Gilles; Barillot, Christian

2014-01-01

339

Development of MRI Microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been developing an ultra high spatial resolution MRI, “MRI Microscope”, especially for 3He physics at ultra low temperature. The ultimate goal of our MRI Microscope is to achieve 1 ?m×1 ?m two dimensional spatial resolution comparable to optical microscopes. We constructed the MRI Microscope using a magnetic field of 7.2 T, with tri-axial magnetic field gradients of 2.0 T/m. We visualized the pure liquid 3He in a 230 ?m diameter tube to study the effect of nonlinearity on the MRI Microscope at low temperature and in high magnetic fields. An MRI image was obtained at 0.22 MPa, 1 K with 1.8 ?m×1.8 ?m pixel size. At 65 mK, the MRI image became more blurred. We speculate that it was caused by large spin diffusion and nonlinearity.

Hachiya, Mahiro; Arimura, Kyohei; Ueno, Tomohiro; Matsubara, Akira

2010-02-01

340

Hornbills can distinguish between primate alarm calls.  

PubMed

Some mammals distinguish between and respond appropriately to the alarm calls of other mammal and bird species. However, the ability of birds to distinguish between mammal alarm calls has not been investigated. Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce different alarm calls to two predators: crowned eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) and leopards (Panthera pardus). Yellow-casqued hornbills (Ceratogymna elata) are vulnerable to predation by crowned eagles but are not preyed on by leopards and might therefore be expected to respond to the Diana monkey eagle alarm call but not to the leopard alarm call. We compared responses of hornbills to playback of eagle shrieks, leopard growls, Diana monkey eagle alarm calls and Diana monkey leopard alarm calls and found that they distinguished appropriately between the two predator vocalizations as well as between the two Diana monkey alarm calls. We discuss possible mechanisms leading to these responses. PMID:15209110

Rainey, Hugo J; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Slater, Peter J B

2004-04-01

341

Evaluation of chondral repair using quantitative MRI.  

PubMed

Various quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) biomarkers, including but not limited to parametric MRI mapping, semiquantitative evaluation, and morphological assessment, have been successfully applied to assess cartilage repair in both animal and human studies. Through the interaction between interstitial water and constituent macromolecules the compositional and structural properties of cartilage can be evaluated. In this review a comprehensive view of a variety of quantitative techniques, particularly those involving parametric mapping, and their relationship to the properties of cartilage repair is presented. Some techniques, such as T2 relaxation time mapping and delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC), are well established, while the full potential of more recently introduced techniques remain to be demonstrated. A combination of several MRI techniques is necessary for a comprehensive characterization of chondral repair. PMID:23165732

Nieminen, Miika T; Nissi, Mikko J; Mattila, Lauri; Kiviranta, Ilkka

2012-12-01

342

Diffusion-weighted MRI in head and neck cancer  

PubMed Central

Abstract Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an imaging technique showing molecular diffusion. Cell size, density and integrity influence the signal intensity seen on diffusion-weighted images. This technique is a helpful complementary tool to distinguish tumoral from non-tumoral tissue, and has several interesting applications in the evaluation of head and neck cancer.

Vandecaveye, Vincent

2007-01-01

343

[Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)].  

PubMed

TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS: Although cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now recognised as the imaging method of choice for the morphological study of the heart, recent technological progress have widened its indications to functional analysis of the heart rate, perfusion and contractility. FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT: The possibility of conducting pharmacological stress tests enhances the functional exploration of cardiac perfusion and contractility. The rapid sequences in apnea, tissue marking and injection of contrast products are all elements that help to refine the study of the locoregional consequences of an ischemia: does the myocardial tissue contract normally? Is it sufficiently perfused? Is it still viable? THE BENEFITS OF A NON-INVASIVE TECHNIQUE: The MRI offers clinicians a non-invasive and non-radiating imaging technique that is the perfect supplement to echocardiography. A reliable angio-coronary LRI technique would, for the first time, permit exploration of the coronary vascularisation, tissue perfusion and resulting contractility. PMID:15387389

Vignaux, Olivier

2004-07-31

344

The Humanity of English. 1972 Distinguished Lectures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a collection of lectures by distinguished members of the English profession who were invited to lecture to schools located far from large urban and cultural centers. Included are papers by: John H. Fisher, "Truth Versus Beauty: An Inquiry into the Function of Language and Literature in an Articulate Society"; Walter Loban, "The Green…

National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL.

345

Distinguishing Juvenile Homicide From Violent Juvenile Offending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile homicide is a social problem that has remained a central focus within juvenile justice research in recent years. The term juvenile murderer describes a legal category, but it is purported to have significant scientific meaning. Research has attempted to conceptualize adolescent murderers as a clinical category that can be reliably distinguished from their nonhomicidal counterparts. This study examined 33

Frank DiCataldo; Meghan Everett

2008-01-01

346

Distinguishing Causal Interactions in Neural Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a theoretical network analysis that can distinguish statistically causal interactions in population neural activity leading to a specific output. We introduce the concept of a causal core to refer to the set of neuronal interactions that are causally significant for the output, as assessed by Granger causality. Because our approach requires extensive knowledge of neuronal connectivity and dynamics,

Anil K. Seth; Gerald M. Edelman

2007-01-01

347

Distinguishing Word Senses in Untagged Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an experimental com- parison of three unsupervised learning al- gorithms that distinguish the sense of an ambiguous word in untagged text. The methods described in this paper, McQuitty's similarity analysis, Ward's minimum-variance method, and the EM algorithm, assign each instance of an am- biguous word to a known sense definition based solely on the values of automatically

Ted Pedersen; Rebecca F. Bruce

1997-01-01

348

Comparative Minicolumnar Morphometry of Three Distinguished Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been suggested that the cell minicolumn is the smallest module capable of information processing within the brain. In this case series, photomicrographs of six regions of interests (Brodmann areas 4, 9, 17, 21, 22, and 40) were analyzed by computerized image analysis for minicolumnar morphometry in the brains of three distinguished

Casanova, Manuel F.; Switala, Andrew E.; Trippe, Juan; Fitzgerald, Michael

2007-01-01

349

“Dropped-head” syndrome due to isolated myositis of neck extensor muscles: MRI findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

MRI findings of a patient with dropped-head syndrome due to focal myositis of the neck extensor muscles are presented. MRI\\u000a showed oedematous changes and marked enhancement of the neck extensor muscles. After therapy MRI demonstrated disappearance\\u000a of the abnormal findings.

Michele Gaeta; Silvio Mazziotti; Antonio Toscano; Carmelo Rodolico; Anna Mazzeo; Alfredo Blandino

2006-01-01

350

Dynamic gadolinium-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted MRI (chemical shift selective images) for remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 75-year-old man suddenly suffered from polyarthralgia and pitting edema in his distal extremities. Laboratory tests revealed inflammation, negative rheumatoid factor, and positive B7 human leukocyte antigen typing. Severe synovitis was observed in dynamic gadolinium-enhanced fat-suppressed (DGEFS) T1-weighted images of his right hand. Our diagnosis was remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE syndrome). He responded dramatically to low-dose

K. Makino; T. Fukushima; N. Matsubara; M. Yamazaki; T. Higuchi

2006-01-01

351

Accuracy of tumor size measurement in breast cancer using MRI is influenced by histological regression induced by neoadjuvant chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The aim of this study was to evaluate whether regressive changes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer affect\\u000a the accuracy of preoperative MRI measurements of tumor size. Thirty-one patients with breast cancer underwent MRI before and\\u000a after neoadjuvant treatment. Besides pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted MRI, dynamic MRI with high temporal resolution (turbo-FLASH)\\u000a was performed. Contrast enhancement in dynamic MRI

K. Wasser; H. Sinn; C. Fink; S. Klein; H. Junkermann; H. Lüdemann; I. Zuna; S. Delorme

2003-01-01

352

Multi-parametric MRI-pathologic correlation of prostate cancer using tracked biopsies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MRI is currently the most promising imaging modality for prostate cancer diagnosis due to its high resolution and multiparametric nature. However, currently there is no standard for integration of diagnostic information from different MRI sequences. We propose a method to increase the diagnostic accuracy of MRI by correlating biopsy specimens with four MRI sequences including T2 weighted MRI, Diffusion Weight Imaging, Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI and MRI spectroscopy. This method uses device tracking and image fusion to determine the specimen's position on MRI images. The proposed method is unbiased and cost effective. It does not substantially interfere with the standard biopsy workflow, allowing it to be easily accepted by physicians. A study of 41 patients was carried out to validate the approach. The performance of all four MRI sequences in various combinations is reported. Guidelines are given for multi-parametric imaging and tracked biopsy of prostate cancer.

Xu, Sheng; Turkbey, Baris; Kruecker, Jochen; Yan, Pingkun; Locklin, Julia; Pinto, Peter; Choyke, Peter; Wood, Bradford

2010-03-01

353

Divalent Metal Transporter, DMT1: A Novel MRI Reporter Protein  

PubMed Central

Manganese (Mn)-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) has found a growing number of applications in anatomical and functional imaging in small animals, based on the cellular uptake of Mn ions in the brain, heart and other organs. Previous studies have relied on endogenous mechanisms of paramagnetic Mn ion uptake and enhancement. To genetically control MEMRI signals, we reverse engineered a major component of the molecular machinery involved in Mn uptake, the divalent metal transporter, DMT1. DMT1 provides positive cellular enhancement in a manner that is highly sensitive and dynamic, allowing greater spatial and temporal resolution for MRI compared to previously proposed MRI reporters such as ferritin. We characterized the MEMRI signal enhancement properties of DMT1-expressing cells, both in vitro and in vivo in mouse models of cancer and brain development. Our results show that DMT1 provides an effective genetic MRI reporter for a wide range of biological and pre-clinical imaging applications.

Bartelle, Benjamin B.; Szulc, Kamila U.; Suero-Abreu, Giselle A.; Rodriguez, Joe J.; Turnbull, Daniel H.

2012-01-01

354

Distinguishing juvenile homicide from violent juvenile offending.  

PubMed

Juvenile homicide is a social problem that has remained a central focus within juvenile justice research in recent years. The term juvenile murderer describes a legal category, but it is purported to have significant scientific meaning. Research has attempted to conceptualize adolescent murderers as a clinical category that can be reliably distinguished from their nonhomicidal counterparts. This study examined 33 adolescents adjudicated delinquent or awaiting trial for murder and 38 adolescents who committed violent, nonhomicidal offenses to determine whether the two groups differed significantly on family history, early development, delinquency history, mental health, and weapon possession variables. The nonhomicide group proved more problematic on many of these measures. Two key factors did distinguish the homicide group: These adolescents endorsed the greater availability of guns and substance abuse at the time of their commitment offenses. The significance of this finding is discussed, and the implications for risk management and policy are reviewed. PMID:17671097

DiCataldo, Frank; Everett, Meghan

2008-04-01

355

Distinguishing Regulatory DNA From Neutral Sites  

PubMed Central

We explore several computational approaches to analyzing interspecies genomic sequence alignments, aiming to distinguish regulatory regions from neutrally evolving DNA. Human–mouse genomic alignments were collected for three sets of human regions: (1) experimentally defined gene regulatory regions, (2) well-characterized exons (coding sequences, as a positive control), and (3) interspersed repeats thought to have inserted before the human–mouse split (a good model for neutrally evolving DNA). Models that potentially could distinguish functional noncoding sequences from neutral DNA were evaluated on these three data sets, as well as bulk genome alignments. Our analyses show that discrimination based on frequencies of individual nucleotide pairs or gaps (i.e., of possible alignment columns) is only partially successful. In contrast, scoring procedures that include the alignment context, based on frequencies of short runs of alignment columns, dramatically improve separation between regulatory and neutral features. Such scoring functions should aid in the identification of putative regulatory regions throughout the human genome.

Elnitski, Laura; Hardison, Ross C.; Li, Jia; Yang, Shan; Kolbe, Diana; Eswara, Pallavi; O'Connor, Michael J.; Schwartz, Scott; Miller, Webb; Chiaromonte, Francesca

2003-01-01

356

SENSE: Sensitivity encoding for fast MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

New theoretical and practical concepts are presented for consid- erably enhancing the performance of magnetic resonance imag- ing (MRI) by means of arrays of multiple receiver coils. Sensitiv- ity encoding (SENSE) is based on the fact that receiver sensitivity generally has an encoding effect complementary to Fourier preparation by linear field gradients. Thus, by using multiple receiver coils in parallel

Klaas P. Pruessmann; Markus Weiger; Markus B. Scheidegger; Peter Boesiger

1999-01-01

357

Elemental imaging of MRI contrast agents: benchmarking of LA-ICP-MS to MRI.  

PubMed

Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been used to map the spatial distribution of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents (Gd-based) in histological sections in order to explore synergies with in vivo MRI. Images from respective techniques are presented for two separate studies namely (1) convection enhanced delivery of a Gd nanocomplex (developmental therapeutic) into rat brain and (2) convection enhanced delivery, with co-infusion of Magnevist (commercial Gd contrast agent) and Carboplatin (chemotherapy drug), into pig brain. The LA technique was shown to be a powerful compliment to MRI not only in offering improved sensitivity, spatial resolution and signal quantitation but also in giving added value regarding the fate of administered agents (Gd and Pt agents). Furthermore simultaneous measurement of Fe enabled assignment of an anomalous contrast enhancement region in rat brain to haemorrhage at the infusion site. PMID:22526651

Pugh, J A T; Cox, A G; McLeod, C W; Bunch, J; Writer, M J; Hart, S L; Bienemann, A; White, E; Bell, J

2012-06-01

358

Familial Identification: Population Structure and Relationship Distinguishability  

PubMed Central

With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States.

Rohlfs, Rori V.; Fullerton, Stephanie Malia; Weir, Bruce S.

2012-01-01

359

PROPELLER MRI visualizezs detailed pathology of hippocampal sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most common cause of refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. Histopathologically, HS is characterized by neuron loss and gliosis. HS can be identified on MRI by signal increase on T2-weighted images and volume loss on T1-weighted volume images. The Periodically Rotated Overlapping Parallel Lines with Enhanced Reconstruction (“PROPELLER”) sequence has excellent contrast between grey and white matter and compensates for subjects moving during the scan. The aim of the current report was to explore PROPELLER image quality of the hippocampus compared to routine sequences. Methods: Routine sequences (T1 volume, T2-weighted, PD and FLAIR images) and PROPELLER images were acquired in four presurgical patients with HS using a GE 3T Excite HD scanner (General Electric). Resected tissue was stained with LFB, and for GFAP, NeuN and dynorphin immunohistochemistry. Hippocampal sections were compared with PROPELLER images. Results: PROPELLER images were T2-weighted and had superior tissue contrast compared to routine sequences. PROPELLER images showed the internal hippocampal structures and tissue changes associated with HS. This corresponded to changes seen on histopathological sections confirming that the sequence could distinguish between different strata and subfields of the hippocampus. Discussion: The PROPELLER sequence shows promise for detailed in vivo imaging of the hippocampus in patients who did not move overtly, negating the inevitable subtle movements during scans. More detailed in vivo studies of the hippocampal formation, investigating subtle abnormalities such as end folium sclerosis, and the neocortex are now possible and may increase the diagnostic yield of MRI.

Eriksson, Sofia H; Thom, Maria; Bartlett, Philippa A; Symms, Mark R; McEvoy, Andrew W; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Duncan, John S

2008-01-01

360

Texture Based Segmentation of Breast DCE-MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) segmentation, based on the differential enhancement of image intensities, can\\u000a help the clinician detect suspicious regions. Motivated by the recent success of texture learning and segmentation, we propose\\u000a a novel segmentation method based on texture properties. The segmentation method consists of generating a library of texture\\u000a primitives ”textons”, and then classifying each voxel into

Yang Can Gong; Michael Brady

2008-01-01

361

Ex vivo MRI evaluation of breast tumors: a novel tool for verifying resection of nonpalpable only MRI detected lesions.  

PubMed

A fundamental question in surgery of only magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected breast lesions is to ensure their removal when they are not palpable by clinical examination and surgical exploration. This is especially relevant in the case of small tumors, carcinoma in situ or lobular carcinoma. Thirty-nine patients were enrolled in the study, 21 patients with breast lesions detected by both conventional imaging and breast MRI (bMRI) and 18 patients with bMRI findings only. Preoperative bMRI allowed staging the disease and localizing the lesion. In the operating theater, contrast medium was injected 1 minute before skin incision. After removal, surgical specimens were submitted to ex vivo MRI, performed using a dedicated surface coil and Spair inversion recovery sequences for suppression of fat signal intensity. All MRI enhancing lesions were completely included within the surgical specimen and visualized by ex vivo MRI. In the first 21 patients, bMRI was able to visualize branching margins or satellite nodules around the core lesion, and allowed for better staging of the surrounding in situ carcinoma; in the last 18 patients, eight of whom were breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA) mutation carriers, bMRI identified 12 malignant tumors, otherwise undetectable, that were all visualized by ex vivo MRI. This is the first description of a procedure that re-enhances breast lesions within a surgical specimen, demonstrating the surgical removal of nonpalpable breast lesions diagnosed only with bMRI. This new strategy reproduces the morphology and the entire extension of the primary lesion on the specimen, with potentially better local surgical control, reducing additional unplanned surgery. PMID:24102850

Agresti, Roberto; Trecate, Giovanna; Ferraris, Cristina; Valeri, Barbara; Maugeri, Ilaria; Pellitteri, Cristina; Martelli, Gabriele; Migliavacca, Silvana; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa; Bohm, Silvia; Maffioli, Lorenzo; Vergnaghi, Daniele; Panizza, Pietro

2013-01-01

362

MRI of shoulder instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most unstable joint in the body, the glenohumeral joint is subject to many insults including microinstability, subluxation and dislocation. During the last two decades, MRI has allowed for direct visualization of many of the lesions related to instability, aiding in diagnosis as well as therapeutic planning and follow-up. This article reviews the use of MRI for shoulder instability and

Lynne S. Steinbach

2008-01-01

363

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)  

MedlinePLUS

What is an MRI? MRI stands for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. It is an important tool used in many fields of medicine, and is capable of generating a detailed image of any part of the human body. As an analogy, think about a loaf of bread. You can’t see inside the loaf, so how would you go about finding ...

364

High field functional MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become the most widely used approach for studying brain functions in humans. The rapid and widespread diffusion of fMRI has been favoured by the properties this technique presents, and particularly by its sensitivity in analysing brain functional phenomena and by the lack of biological invasiveness, resulting in an unprecedented and unparalleled flexibility of use.

F. Di Salle; F. Esposito; A. Elefante; T. Scarabino; A. Volpicelli; S. Cirillo; R. Elefante; E. Seifritz

2003-01-01

365

Default-mode network activity distinguishes Alzheimer's disease from healthy aging: Evidence from functional MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent functional imaging studies have revealed coactivation in a distributed network of cortical regions that characterizes the resting state, or default mode, of the human brain. Among the brain regions implicated in this network, several, including the posterior cingulate cortex and inferior parietal lobes, have also shown decreased metabolism early in the course of Alzhei- mer's disease (AD). We reasoned

Michael D. Greicius; Gaurav Srivastava; Allan L. Reiss; Vinod Menon

2004-01-01

366

EEG-fMRI  

PubMed Central

Objective: In patients with nonlesional frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), the delineation of the epileptogenic zone is difficult. Therefore these patients are often not considered for surgery due to an unclear seizure focus. The aim of this study was to investigate whether EEG-fMRI can add useful information in the preoperative evaluation of these patients. Methods: Nine nonlesional FLE patients were studied with EEG-fMRI using a 3 T scanner. Spike-related blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal changes were compared to the topography of the spikes and to PET and SPECT results if available. The structural MRIs were reviewed for subtle abnormalities in areas that showed BOLD responses. For operated patients, postoperative resection and histology were compared to BOLD responses. Results: Concordance between spike localization and positive BOLD response was found in 8 patients. PET and SPECT investigations corresponded with BOLD signal changes in 6 of 7 investigations. In 2 cases, reviewing the structural MRI guided by EEG-fMRI data resulted in considering a suspicious deep sulcus. Two patients were operated. In 1, the resected cortex corresponded with the suspicious sulcus and fMRI results and histology showed cortical dysplasia. In another, histology revealed an extended microdysgenesis not visible on structural MRI. EEG-fMRI had shown activation just adjacent to the resected pathologic area. Conclusions: Our study provides different types of support (topography, concordance with PET and SPECT, structural peculiarities, postoperative histology) that EEG-fMRI may help to delineate the epileptic focus in patients with nonlesional frontal lobe epilepsy, a challenging group in the preoperative evaluation. GLOSSARY BOLD = blood oxygen level dependent; FLE = frontal lobe epilepsy; fMRI = functional MRI; HFR = hemodynamic response function; IED = interictal epileptiform discharges; TE = echo time; TR = repetition time.

Moeller, F; Tyvaert, L; Nguyen, D K.; LeVan, P; Bouthillier, A; Kobayashi, E; Tampieri, D; Dubeau, F; Gotman, J

2009-01-01

367

Preparation and in vitro evaluation of folate-receptor-targeted SPION-polymer micelle hybrids for MRI contrast enhancement in cancer imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer-SPION hybrids were investigated for receptor-mediated localization in tumour tissue. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) prepared by high-temperature decomposition of iron acetylacetonate were monodisperse (9.27 ± 3.37 nm), with high saturation magnetization of 76.8 emu g-1. Amphiphilic copolymers prepared from methyl methacrylate and PEG methacrylate by atom transfer radical polymerization were conjugated with folic acid (for folate-receptor specificity). The folate-conjugated polymer had a low critical micellar concentration (0.4 mg l-1), indicating stability of the micellar formulation. SPION-polymeric micelle clusters were prepared by desolvation of the SPION dispersion/polymer solution in water. Magnetic resonance imaging of the formulation revealed very good contrast enhancement, with transverse (T2) relaxivity of 260.4 mM-1 s-1. The biological evaluation of the SPION micelles included cellular viability assay (MTT) and uptake in HeLa cells. These studies demonstrated the potential use of these nanoplatforms for imaging and targeting.

Mahajan, Shveta; Koul, Veena; Choudhary, Veena; Shishodia, Gauri; Bharti, Alok C.

2013-01-01

368

Novel approaches to imaging epilepsy by MRI  

PubMed Central

As the concept of a network of injury has emerged in the treatment of epilepsy, the importance of evaluating that network noninvasively has also grown. Recently, studies utilizing magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging, manganese-enhanced MRI and functional (f)MRI measures of resting state connectivity have demonstrated their ability to detect injury and dysfunction in cerebral networks involved in the propagation of seizures. The ability to noninvasively detect neuronal injury and dysfunction throughout cerebral networks should improve surgical planning, provide guidance for placement of devices that target network propagation and provide insights into the mechanisms of recurrence following resective surgery.

Hetherington, Hoby

2009-01-01

369

Distinguished Hamiltonian theorem for homogeneous symplectic manifolds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A diffeomorphism of a finite-dimensional flat symplectic manifold which is canonoid with respect to all linear and quadratic Hamiltonians, preserves the symplectic structure up to a factor: so runs the ‘quadratic Hamiltonian theorem’. Here we show that the same conclusion holds for much smaller ‘sufficiency subsets’ of quadratic Hamiltonians, and the theorem may thus be extended to homogeneous infinite-dimensional symplectic manifolds. In this way, we identify the distinguished Hamiltonians for the Kähler manifold of equivalent quantizations of a Hilbertizable symplectic space.

Cariñena, José F.; Gracia-Bondía, José M.; Ibort, Luis A.; López, Carlos; Várilly, Joseph C.

1991-09-01

370

From state distinguishability to effective bulk locality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide quantitative evidence that the emergence of an effective notion of spacetime locality in black hole physics is due to restricting to the subset of observables that are unable to resolve black hole microstates from the maximally entangled state. We identify the subset of observables in the full quantum theory that can distinguish microstates, and argue that any measurement of such observables involves either long times or large energies, both signaling the breaking down of effective field theory where locality is manifest. We discuss some of the implications of our results for black hole complementarity and the existence of black hole interiors.

Lashkari, Nima; Simón, Joan

2014-06-01

371

Terahertz surface plasmon sensor for distinguishing gasolines.  

PubMed

Gasolines of two different octane numbers are experimentally distinguished using a thin metal sheet perforated with a periodic hole array terahertz surface plasmon (SP) sensor. This sensor is proved to be very sensitive to the change in permittivities of analytes. The differences between the gasolines 93# and 97# in composition lead to various refractive indices, permittivities, and absorption coefficients, thus varying their interactions with surface waves on the sensor, which enables a distinction of 6 GHz between the two octane numbers in the transmission peaks. The freestanding SP sensor is effective and reliable and can be simply employed in analyte distinction, which has potential applications in the petroleum industry. PMID:23938420

Liu, Guanlin; He, Mingxia; Tian, Zhen; Li, Jingyan; Liu, Jiazheng

2013-08-10

372

Distinguishing induced fit from conformational selection.  

PubMed

The interactions between proteins and ligands often involve a conformational change in the protein. This conformational change can occur before (conformational selection) or after (induced fit) the association with ligand. It is often very difficult to distinguish induced fit from conformational selection when hyperbolic binding kinetics are observed. In light of a recent paper in this journal (Vogt et al., Biophys. Chem., 186, 2014, 13-21) and the current interest in binding mechanisms emerging from observed sampling of distinct conformations in protein domains, as well as from the field of intrinsically disordered proteins, we here describe a kinetic method that, at least in some cases, unequivocally distinguishes induced fit from conformational selection. The method relies on measuring the observed rate constant ? for binding and varying both the protein and the ligand in separate experiments. Whereas induced fit always yields a hyperbolic dependence of increasing ? values, the conformational selection mechanism gives rise to distinct kinetics when the ligand and protein (displaying the conformational change) concentration is varied in separate experiments. We provide examples from the literature and discuss the limitations of the approach. PMID:24747333

Gianni, Stefano; Dogan, Jakob; Jemth, Per

2014-05-01

373

Clinical application of MRI in ophthalmology  

PubMed Central

MRI has long been applied to clinical medical and neurological cases for the structural assessment of tissues as well as their physiological and functional needs and processes. These uses are at a variety of developmental stages in ophthalmology, from common use of clinical structural assessment for neuro-ophthalmology and evaluation of space-occupying lesions to the beginning stages of experimentally measuring functional activation of specific layers within the retina and measurement of physiological oxygen responses. New MRI methodologies, such as the use of orbital coils and Gd-DTPA image enhancement, have been researched, developed, and validated in the eye, opening new possibilities for this technology to enter the clinic. This review aims to summarize the clinical ophthalmological uses of MRI, focusing on the current use of the technology and future applications.

Townsend, Kelly A.; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S.

2010-01-01

374

3 Tesla intraoperative MRI for brain tumor surgery.  

PubMed

Implementation of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) has been shown to optimize the extent of resection and safety of brain tumor surgery. In addition, iMRI can help account for the phenomenon of brain shift and can help to detect complications earlier than routine postoperative imaging, which can potentially improve patient outcome. The higher signal-to-noise ratio offered by 3 Tesla (T) iMRI compared with lower field strength systems is particularly advantageous. The purpose of this article is to review the imaging protocols, imaging findings, and technical considerations related to 3T iMRI. To maximize efficiency, iMRI sequences can be tailored to particular types of tumors and procedures, including nonenhancing brain tumor surgery, enhancing brain tumor surgery, transsphenoidal pituitary tumor surgery, and laser ablation. Unique imaging findings on iMRI include the presence of surgically induced enhancement, which can be a potential confounder for residual enhancing tumor, and hyperacute hemorrhage, which tends to have intermediate signal on T1-weighted sequences and high signal on T2-weighted sequences due to the presence of oxyhemoglobin. MR compatibility and radiofrequency shielding pose particularly stringent technical constraints at 3T and influence the design and usage of the surgical suite with iMRI. PMID:24921066

Ginat, Daniel Thomas; Swearingen, Brooke; Curry, William; Cahill, Daniel; Madsen, Joseph; Schaefer, Pamela W

2014-06-01

375

Diagnostic value of MRI for odontogenic tumours  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic value of MRI for odontogenic tumours. Materials and methods: 51 patients with odontogenic tumours were subjected to pre-operative MRI examinations. For tumours with liquid components, i.e. ameloblastomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs), the signal intensity (SI) uniformity of their cystic components (U?) was calculated and then their U? values were compared. For tumours with solid components that had been examined using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), their CImax (maximum contrast index), Tmax (the time when CImax occurred), CIpeak (CImax?×?0.90), Tpeak (the time when CIpeak occurred) and CI300 (i.e. the CI observed at 300?s after contrast medium injection) values were determined from CI curves. We then classified the odontogenic tumours according to their DCE-MRI parameters. Results: Significant differences between the U? values of the ameloblastomas and KCOT were observed on T1 weighted images, T2 weighted images and short TI inversion recovery images. Depending on their DCE-MRI parameters, we classified the odontogenic tumours into the following five types: Type A, CIpeak?>?2.0 and Tpeak??2.0 and Tmax??2.0 and Tmax?>?600?s; Type E, CI300??600?s. Conclusion: Cystic component SI uniformity was found to be useful for differentiating between ameloblastomas and KCOT. However, the DCE-MRI parameters of odontogenic tumours, except for odontogenic fibromas and odontogenic myxomas, contributed little to their differential diagnosis.

Fujita, M; Matsuzaki, H; Yanagi, Y; Hara, M; Katase, N; Hisatomi, M; Unetsubo, T; Konouchi, H; Nagatsuka, H; Asaumi, J-I

2013-01-01

376

Implantable medical devices MRI safe.  

PubMed

Pacemakers, ICDs, neurostimulators like deep brain stimulator electrodes, spiral cord stimulators, insulin pumps, cochlear implants, retinal implants, hearing aids, electro cardio gram (ECG) leads, or devices in interventional MRI such as vascular guide wires or catheters are affected by MRI magnetic and electromagnetic fields. Design of MRI Safe medical devices requires computer modeling, bench testing, phantom testing, and animal studies. Implanted medical devices can be MRI unsafe, MRI conditional or MRI safe (see glossary). In the following paragraphs we will investigate how to design implanted medical devices MRI safe. PMID:23739365

Dal Molin, Renzo; Hecker, Bertrand

2013-01-01

377

Defining disruptive coloration and distinguishing its functions  

PubMed Central

Disruptive coloration breaks up the shape and destroys the outline of an object, hindering detection. The principle was first suggested approximately a century ago, but, although research has significantly increased, the field remains conceptually unstructured and no unambiguous definition exists. This has resulted in variable use of the term, making it difficult to formulate testable hypotheses that are comparable between studies, slowing down advancement in this field. Related to this, a range of studies do not effectively distinguish between disruption and other forms of camouflage. Here, we give a formal definition of disruptive coloration, reorganize a range of sub-principles invo