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1

Distinguishing prostate cancer from benign confounders via a cascaded classifier on multi-parametric MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Learning how to separate benign confounders from prostate cancer is important because the imaging characteristics of these confounders are poorly understood. Furthermore, the typical representations of the MRI parameters might not be enough to allow discrimination. The diagnostic uncertainty this causes leads to a lower diagnostic accuracy. In this paper a new cascaded classifier is introduced to separate prostate cancer and benign confounders on MRI in conjunction with specific computer-extracted features to distinguish each of the benign classes (benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), inflammation, atrophy or prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PIN). In this study we tried to (1) calculate different mathematical representations of the MRI parameters which more clearly express subtle differences between different classes, (2) learn which of the MRI image features will allow to distinguish specific benign confounders from prostate cancer, and (2) find the combination of computer-extracted MRI features to best discriminate cancer from the confounding classes using a cascaded classifier. One of the most important requirements for identifying MRI signatures for adenocarcinoma, BPH, atrophy, inflammation, and PIN is accurate mapping of the location and spatial extent of the confounder and cancer categories from ex vivo histopathology to MRI. Towards this end we employed an annotated prostatectomy data set of 31 patients, all of whom underwent a multi-parametric 3 Tesla MRI prior to radical prostatectomy. The prostatectomy slides were carefully co-registered to the corresponding MRI slices using an elastic registration technique. We extracted texture features from the T2-weighted imaging, pharmacokinetic features from the dynamic contrast enhanced imaging and diffusion features from the diffusion-weighted imaging for each of the confounder classes and prostate cancer. These features were selected because they form the mainstay of clinical diagnosis. Relevant features for each of the classes were selected using maximum relevance minimum redundancy feature selection, allowing us to perform classifier independent feature selection. The selected features were then incorporated in a cascading classifier, which can focus on easier sub-tasks at each stage, leaving the more difficult classification tasks for later stages. Results show that distinct features are relevant for each of the benign classes, for example the fraction of extra-vascular, extra-cellular space in a voxel is a clear discriminator for inflammation. Furthermore, the cascaded classifier outperforms both multi-class and one-shot classifiers in overall accuracy for discriminating confounders from cancer: 0.76 versus 0.71 and 0.62.

Litjens, G. J. S.; Elliott, R.; Shih, N.; Feldman, M.; Barentsz, J. O.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C. A.; Kovacs, I.; Huisman, H. J.; Madabhushi, A.

2014-03-01

2

Distinguishing Grammatical Constructions with fMRI Pattern Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All linguistic and psycholinguistic theories aim to provide psychologically valid analyses of particular grammatical patterns and the relationships that hold among them. Until recently, no tools were available to distinguish neural correlates of particular grammatical constructions that shared the same content words, propositional meaning, and…

Allen, Kachina; Pereira, Francisco; Botvinick, Matthew; Goldberg, Adele E.

2012-01-01

3

Texture descriptors to distinguish radiation necrosis from recurrent brain tumors on multi-parametric MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Di erentiating radiation necrosis (a radiation induced treatment e ect) from recurrent brain tumors (rBT) is currently one of the most clinically challenging problems in care and management of brain tumor (BT) patients. Both radiation necrosis (RN), and rBT exhibit similar morphological appearance on standard MRI making non-invasive diagnosis extremely challenging for clinicians, with surgical intervention being the only course for obtaining de nitive ground truth". Recent studies have reported that the underlying biological pathways de n- ing RN and rBT are fundamentally di erent. This strongly suggests that there might be phenotypic di erences and hence cues on multi-parametric MRI, that can distinguish between the two pathologies. One challenge is that these di erences, if they exist, might be too subtle to distinguish by the human observer. In this work, we explore the utility of computer extracted texture descriptors on multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI) to provide alternate representations of MRI that may be capable of accentuating subtle micro-architectural di erences between RN and rBT for primary and metastatic (MET) BT patients. We further explore the utility of texture descriptors in identifying the MRI protocol (from amongst T1-w, T2-w and FLAIR) that best distinguishes RN and rBT across two independent cohorts of primary and MET patients. A set of 119 texture descriptors (co-occurrence matrix homogeneity, neighboring gray-level dependence matrix, multi-scale Gaussian derivatives, Law features, and histogram of gradient orientations (HoG)) for modeling di erent macro and micro-scale morphologic changes within the treated lesion area for each MRI protocol were extracted. Principal component analysis based variable importance projection (PCA-VIP), a feature selection method previously developed in our group, was employed to identify the importance of every texture descriptor in distinguishing RN and rBT on MP-MRI. PCA-VIP employs regression analysis to provide an importance score to each feature based on their ability to distinguish the two classes (RN/rBT). The top performing features identi ed via PCA-VIP were employed within a random- forest classi er to di erentiate RN from rBT across two cohorts of 20 primary and 22 MET patients. Our results revealed that, (a) HoG features at di erent orientations were the most important image features for both cohorts, suggesting inherent orientation di erences between RN, and rBT, (b) inverse di erence moment (capturing local intensity homogeneity), and Laws features (capturing local edges and gradients) were identi ed as important for both cohorts, and (c) Gd-C T1-w MRI was identi ed, across the two cohorts, as the best MRI protocol in distinguishing RN/rBT.

Tiwari, Pallavi; Prasanna, Prateek; Rogers, Lisa; Wolansky, Leo; Badve, Chaitra; Sloan, Andrew; Cohen, Mark; Madabhushi, Anant

2014-03-01

4

Distinguishing benign confounding treatment changes from residual prostate cancer on MRI following laser ablation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) is a relatively new focal therapy technique for the ablation of localized prostate cancer. However, very little is known about the specific effects of LITT within the ablation zone and the surrounding normal tissue regions. For instance, it is important to be able to assess the extent of residual cancer within the prostate following LITT, which may be masked by thermally induced benign necrotic changes. Fortunately LITT is MRI compatible and hence this allows for quantitatively assessing LITT induced changes via multi-parametric MRI. Of course definite validation of any LITT induced changes on MRI requires confirmation via histopathology. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess and distinguish the imaging characteristics of prostate cancer and benign confounding treatment changes following LITTon 3 Tesla multi-parametric MRI by carefully mapping the treatment related changes from the ex vivo surgically resected histopathologic specimens onto the pre-operative in vivo imaging. A better understanding of the imaging characteristics of residual disease and successfully ablated tissue might lead to improved treatment monitoring and as such patient prognosis. A unique clinical trial at the Radboud University Medical Center, in which 3 patients underwent a prostatectomy after LITT treatment, yielded ex-vivo histopathologic specimens along with pre- and post-LITT MRI. Using this data we (1) identified the computer extracted MRI signatures associated with treatment effects including benign necrotic changes and residual disease and (2) subsequently evaluated the computer extracted MRI features previously identified in distinguishing LITT induced changes in the ablated area relative to the residual disease. Towards this end first a pathologist annotated the ablated area and the residual disease on the ex-vivo histology and then we transferred the annotations to the post-LITT MRI using semi-automatic elastic registration. The pre- and post-LITT MRI were subsequently registered and computer-derived multi-parametric MRI features extracted to determine differences in feature values between residual disease and successfully ablated tissue to assess treatment response. A scoring metric allowed us to identify those specific computer-extracted MRI features that maximally and differentially expressed between the ablated regions and the residual cancer, on a voxel- by­ voxel basis. Finally, we used a Fuzzy C-Means algorithm to assess the discriminatory power of these selected features. Our results show that specific computer-extracted features from multi-parametric MRI differentially express within the ablated and residual cancer regions, as evidenced by our ability to, on a voxel-by-voxel basis, classify tissue as residual disease. Additionally, we show that change of feature values between pre- and post­-LITT MRI may be useful as a quantitative marker for treatment response (T2-weighted texture and DCE MRI features showed largest differences between residual disease and successfully ablated tissue). Finally, a clustering approach to separate treatment effects and residual disease incorporating both (1) and (2) yielded a maximum area under the ROC curve of 0.97 on a voxel basis across 3 studies.

Litjens, G.; Huisman, H.; Elliott, R.; Shih, N.; Feldman, M.; Viswanath, S.; Fütterer, J.; Bomers, J.; Madabhushi, A.

2014-03-01

5

Enhanced MRI and MRI-Guided Interventional Procedures in Women with Asymptomatic Silicone-Injected Breasts  

PubMed Central

Asymptomatic women who have received silicone injection for breast augmentation have a risk of underestimating breast cancer by palpation, mammography, or breast sonography. Enhanced breast MRI is sensitive to display certain nonspecific enhanced lesions or suspicious lesions. Such nonspecific MRI-detected lesions could be managed by American College Radiology BI-RADS lexicon and selectively with MRI-guided techniques biopsy to prevent unnecessary surgery. PMID:22536144

Cheung, Yun-Chung; Chen, Shin-Chih; Lo, Yung-Feng

2012-01-01

6

A Robust Classifier to Distinguish Noise from fMRI Independent Components  

PubMed Central

Analyzing Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) of resting brains to determine the spatial location and activity of intrinsic brain networks–a novel and burgeoning research field–is limited by the lack of ground truth and the tendency of analyses to overfit the data. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is commonly used to separate the data into signal and Gaussian noise components, and then map these components on to spatial networks. Identifying noise from this data, however, is a tedious process that has proven hard to automate, particularly when data from different institutions, subjects, and scanners is used. Here we present an automated method to delineate noisy independent components in ICA using a data-driven infrastructure that queries a database of 246 spatial and temporal features to discover a computational signature of different types of noise. We evaluated the performance of our method to detect noisy components from healthy control fMRI (sensitivity?=?0.91, specificity?=?0.82, cross validation accuracy (CVA)?=?0.87, area under the curve (AUC)?=?0.93), and demonstrate its generalizability by showing equivalent performance on (1) an age- and scanner-matched cohort of schizophrenia patients from the same institution (sensitivity?=?0.89, specificity?=?0.83, CVA?=?0.86), (2) an age-matched cohort on an equivalent scanner from a different institution (sensitivity?=?0.88, specificity?=?0.88, CVA?=?0.88), and (3) an age-matched cohort on a different scanner from a different institution (sensitivity?=?0.72, specificity?=?0.92, CVA?=?0.79). We additionally compare our approach with a recently published method [1]. Our results suggest that our method is robust to noise variations due to population as well as scanner differences, thereby making it well suited to the goal of automatically distinguishing noise from functional networks to enable investigation of human brain function. PMID:24748378

Sochat, Vanessa; Supekar, Kaustubh; Bustillo, Juan; Calhoun, Vince; Turner, Jessica A.; Rubin, Daniel L.

2014-01-01

7

In Vivo MRI Atherosclerotic Plaque Characterization Using Magnetic Susceptibility Distinguishes Symptom-Producing Plaques  

PubMed Central

Objectives We investigated iron's role in atherosclerosis and plaque instability with a novel approach to in vivo atherosclerotic plaque characterization using noninvasive, noncontrast magnetic resonance-based T2* measurement. We validated this approach using ex vivo plaque analyses to establish that T2* reflects intraplaque iron composition. Background Iron catalyzes free radical production, a key step for lipid peroxidation and atherosclerosis development. The parameter T2* measures tissue magnetic susceptibility, historically has been used to quantify hepatic and myocardial iron. To date, T2* measurement has not been previously developed for in vivo plaque characterization in patients with atherosclerosis. Methods Thirty-nine patients referred for carotid endarterectomy were prospectively enrolled to undergo preoperative carotid MRI and postoperative analysis of the explanted plaque. Clinical history of any symptoms attributable to each carotid lesion was recorded. Results MRI could not be completed in 4 subjects due to claustrophobia, and three patients scanned prior to the use of a neck stabilizer had motion artifact precluding quantification. In the remaining subjects, symptomatic compared to asymptomatic patients had significantly lower plaque T2* values (20.0±1.8 vs. 34.4±2.7 ms, respectively, p<0.001). Analytical methods demonstrated similar total iron (138.6±36.5 vs. 165.8±48.3 mg/kg, p=NS) but less low-molecular weight Fe(III) (7.3±3.8 vs. 17.7±4.0 nmol/mg, p<0.05) in the explanted plaques of symptomatic versus asymptomatic patients, respectively, consistent with a shift in iron from Fe(III) to higher amounts of T2*-shortening forms of iron. Mass spectroscopy also showed significantly lower calcium (37.5±10.8 vs. 123.6±19.3 g/kg, p<0.01) and higher copper (3.2±0.5 vs. 1.7±0.1 mg/kg, p<0.01) in plaques from symptomatic patients. Conclusions In vivo measurement of intraplaque T2* using MRI is feasible and reproducible, and distinguishes symptom-producing from non-symptom producing plaques in patients with carotid artery atherosclerosis. Symptom-producing plaques demonstrated characteristic changes in iron forms by ex vivo analysis, supporting the dynamic presence of iron in the microenvironment of atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:19356405

Raman, Subha V.; Winner, Marshall W.; Tran, Tam; Velayutham, Murugesan; Simonetti, Orlando P.; Baker, Peter B.; Olesik, John; McCarthy, Beth; Ferketich, Amy K.; Zweier, Jay L.

2009-01-01

8

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI--Meeting Report  

Cancer.gov

A. Rationale for the Workshop In the last several years contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) has become a commonly used, commercially available method. In parallel with this, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) has emerged as a promising method for diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. However, widespread use of DCE-MRI is limited by the need for further technical improvements.

9

Original Research Manganese-Enhanced MRI Reveals Multiple  

E-print Network

Original Research Manganese-Enhanced MRI Reveals Multiple Cellular and Vascular Layers in Normal,6* Purpose: To use manganese-enhanced magnetic reso- nance imaging (MEMRI) at 25 Ã? 25 Ã? 800 mm3 to image different retinal and vascular layers in the rat retinas. Materials and Methods: Manganese

Duong, Timothy Q.

10

Using Sentence Enhancements to Distinguish between Deterrence and Incapacitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differentiating empirically between deterrence and incapacitation is difficult since both are a function of expected punishment. In this article we demonstrate that the introduction of sentence enhancements provides a direct means of measuring deterrence. Because the criminal would have been sentenced to prison even without the law change, there is no additional incapacitation effect from the sentence enhancement in the

Daniel P. Kessler; Steven D. Levitt

1999-01-01

11

Differentiation of Reactive and Tumor Metastatic Lymph Nodes with Diffusion-weighted and SPIO Enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Objectives Determination of lymphatic metastasis is of great importance for both treatment planning and patient prognosis. We aim to distinguish tumor metastatic lymph nodes (TLNs) and reactive lymph nodes (RLNs) with diffusion-weighted and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods Ipsilateral popliteal lymph node metastasis or lymphadenitis model was established by hock injection of either luciferase-expressing 4T1 murine breast cancer cells or Complete Freund Adjuvant (CFA) in male Balb/C mice. At different time points after inoculation, bioluminescence imaging, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted and SPIO enhanced MRI were performed. Imaging findings were confirmed by histopathological staining. Results Size enlargement was observed in both TLNs and RLNs. At day 28, TLNs showed strong bioluminescence signal and bigger size than RLNs (p < 0.01). At early stages up to day 21, both TLNs and RLNs appeared homogeneous on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). At day 28, TLNs showed heterogeneous apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map with significantly higher average ADC value of 0.41 ± 0.03 × 10?3 mm2/s than that of RLNs (0.34 ± 0.02 10?3 mm2/s, p < 0.05). On SPIO enhanced MRI, both TLNs and RLNs showed distinct T2 signal reduction at day 21 after inoculation. At day 28, TLNs demonstrated partial uptake of the iron oxide particles, which was confirmed by Prussian blue staining. Conclusions Both diffusion-weighted and SPIO enhanced MRI can distinguish tumor metastatic lymph nodes from reactive lymph nodes. However, neither method is able to detect tumor metastasis to the draining lymph nodes at early stages. PMID:22588595

Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Lei; Huang, Xinglu; Niu, Gang; Chen, Siouan

2012-01-01

12

Clustered breast microcalcifications: Evaluation by dynamic contrast-enhanced subtraction MRI  

SciTech Connect

Our goal was to evaluate dynamic contrast-enhanced subtraction MRI in the diagnosis of isolated clustered calcifications of the breast. One hundred seventy-two patients underwent surgical biopsy for isolated clustered breast calcifications. Their mammograms showed round (n = 88) or linear/irregular (n = 84) microcalcifications. All patients had a preoperative Gd-DOTA-enhanced subtraction dynamic study. Any early contrast enhancement in the breast parenchyma concomitant with early enhancement of normal vessels was considered positive. Fifty-eight in situ carcinomas, 22 invasive carcinomas, and 92 benign lesions were found at histological analysis. Dynamic MR sequences showed early contrast enhancement in 76 of 80 malignant lesions (sensitivity 95%) and in 45 of 92 benign lesions (specificity 51%). Two invasive and two intraductal carcinomas did not show early contrast enhancement. Three independent observers agreed in rating early contrast enhancement in 143 of 172 lesions. Poor specificity limits the diagnostic accuracy of dynamic contrast-enhanced subtraction MRI in distinguishing benign from malignant microcalcifications on mammography. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Gilles, R.; Tardivon, A.A.; Vanel, D.; Guinebretiere, J.M.; Arriagada, R. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France)] [and others] [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); and others

1996-01-01

13

Focal nodular hyperplasia: characterisation at gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the enhancement patterns of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI. Methods: This retrospective study had institutional review board approval. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced and DW MR images were evaluated in 23 patients with 30 FNHs (26 histologically proven and 4 radiologically diagnosed). The lesion enhancement patterns of the hepatobiliary phase images were classified as heterogeneous or homogeneous signal intensity (SI), and as dominantly high/iso or low SI compared with those of adjacent liver parenchyma. Heterogeneous (any) SI lesions and homogeneous low SI lesions were categorised into the fibrosis group, whereas homogeneous high/iso SI lesions were categorised into the non-fibrosis group. Additionally, lesion SI on T2 weighted images, DW images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were compared between the two groups. Results: The lesions showed heterogeneous high/iso SI (n=16), heterogeneous low SI (n=5), homogeneous high/iso SI (n=7) or homogeneous low SI (n=2) at the hepatobiliary phase MR images. The fibrosis group lesions were more likely to show high SI on DW images and T2 weighted images compared with those in the non-fibrosis group (p<0.05). ADC values tended to be lower in the fibrosis group than those in the non-fibrosis group without significance. Conclusion: FNH showed variable enhancement patterns on hepatobiliary phase images during gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. SI on DW and T2 weighted images differed according to the fibrosis component contained in the lesion. Advances in knowledge: FNH shows a wide spectrum of imaging findings on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and DW MRI. PMID:23873903

An, H S; Kim, Y J; Jung, S I; Jeon, H J

2013-01-01

14

Distinguishing Alzheimer's disease from normal pressure hydrocephalus: a search for MRI biomarkers.  

PubMed

Currently, no clinical or neuroradiological techniques have been validated to distinguish Alzheimer's disease (AD) from idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). Both share anatomical and clinical similarities: AD is a form of irreversible degenerative dementia, whereas the dementia manifested in iNPH is potentially "reversible" through various neurosurgical procedures. Hence, it is important to find specific imaging biomarkers that distinguish the two conditions. In addition, the ability to predict the response to neurosurgery in iNPH is something that has yet to be accomplished. In this systematic review, we describe and critically analyze the merits and drawbacks of the MR imaging parameters currently used to distinguish AD from iNPH and assess ways to predict the response after treatment of iNPH. We conclude that the combination of different neuroimaging sequences as well as quantitative and qualitative parameters could provide new insight for better diagnosis and treatment of these two different diseases. PMID:23963288

Di Ieva, Antonio; Valli, Mikaeel; Cusimano, Michael D

2014-01-01

15

Engineering Gd-loaded nanoparticles to enhance MRI sensitivity via T1 shortening  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive imaging technique capable of obtaining high-resolution anatomical images of the body. Major drawbacks of MRI are the low contrast agent sensitivity and inability to distinguish healthy tissue from diseased tissue, making early detection challenging. To address this technological hurdle, paramagnetic contrast agents have been developed to increase the longitudinal relaxivity (R1), leading to an increased signal-to-noise ratio. This review focuses on methods and principles that enabled the design and engineering of nanoparticles to deliver contrast agents with enhanced ionic relaxivities. Different engineering strategies and nanoparticle platforms will be compared in terms of their manufacturability, biocompatibility properties, and their overall potential to make an impact in clinical MR imaging. PMID:24158750

Bruckman, Michael A.; Yu, Xin; Steinmetz, Nicole F.

2013-01-01

16

Layer-Specific Manganese-Enhanced MRI of the Retina in Light and Dark Adaptation  

E-print Network

Retina Layer-Specific Manganese-Enhanced MRI of the Retina in Light and Dark Adaptation Bryan H. De manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) to image layer-specific changes in calcium-dependent activities in the rat retina have also been demonstrated. Functional manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI)20,21 has also been used

Duong, Timothy Q.

17

Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of ocular melanoma.  

PubMed

Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is used for the assessment of microvasculature in several tumours. We aimed to assess the contrast signal enhancement characteristics of ocular melanoma. Forty patients with ocular melanoma were prospectively investigated with ocular MRI including dynamic contrast-enhanced sequences over a 13-month period. A region-of-interest analysis of the images was carried out to calculate signal enhancement characteristics after a contrast injection. Clinical follow-up data such as extraocular spread and development of liver metastasis were compared with the signal enhancement characteristics of the ocular melanoma. In 39 patients (98%), the ocular melanomas showed an early strong signal enhancement after contrast injection, resulting in a mean time of maximum enhancement of 49?s. Clinical follow-up was available in 28 patients (70%) and indicated that the peak signal intensity was significantly increased (P=0.039) in patients who developed extraocular spread or liver metastasis at a later stage. Ocular melanoma shows signal enhancement characteristics of hypervascular neoplasms. This study provides baseline curve pattern data that may be useful for assessing changes in vascularity, for example during therapy response. Furthermore, the study showed that a strong signal enhancement of the ocular melanoma might be linked to a less favourable prognosis. PMID:25714038

Jiang, Xuyuan; Asbach, Patrick; Willerding, Gregor; Dulce, Miriam; Xu, Ke; Taupitz, Matthias; Hamm, Bernd; Erb-Eigner, Katharina

2015-04-01

18

Endogenous contrast MRI of cardiac fibrosis: Beyond late gadolinium enhancement.  

PubMed

The aim of this review is to provide an overview of detection of cardiac fibrosis with MRI using current standards and novel endogenous MRI techniques. Assessment of cardiac fibrosis is important for diagnosis, prediction of prognosis and follow-up after therapy. During the past years, progress has been made in fibrosis detection using MRI. Cardiac infarct size can be assessed noninvasively with late gadolinium enhancement. Several methods for fibrosis detection using endogenous contrast have been developed, such as native T1 -mapping, T1? -mapping, Magnetization transfer imaging, and T2 *-mapping. Each of these methods will be described, providing the basic methodology, showing potential applications from applied studies, and discussing the potential and challenges or pitfalls. We will also identify future steps and developments that are needed for bringing these methods to the clinical practice. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2015;41:1181-1189. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25091144

van Oorschot, Joep W M; Gho, Johannes M I H; van Hout, Gerardus P J; Froeling, Martijn; Jansen Of Lorkeers, Sanne J; Hoefer, Imo E; Doevendans, Pieter A; Luijten, Peter R; Chamuleau, Steven A J; Zwanenburg, Jaco J M

2015-05-01

19

Contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast: accuracy, value, controversies, solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast has been one of the most controversial areas of MRI. Even though most investigators have, in selected indications, been able to improve accuracy by the additional use of contrast-enhanced MRI, its abuse has been feared not only because of increased costs for imaging, but also because of increased biopsy rates caused by false positive

S. H. Heywang-Köbrunner; P. Viehweg; A. Heinig; Ch. Küchler

1997-01-01

20

Differences in perfusion parameters between upper and lower lumbar vertebral segments with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE MRI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the influence of age, sex and spinal level on perfusion parameters of normal lumbar bone marrow with dynamic\\u000a contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE MRI). Sixty-seven subjects referred for evaluation of low back pain or sciatica underwent DCE MRI\\u000a of the lumbar spine. After subtraction of dynamic images, a region of interest (ROI) was placed on each lumbar vertebral body\\u000a of

Vasiliki Savvopoulou; Thomas G. Maris; Lampros Vlahos; Lia Angela Moulopoulos

2008-01-01

21

Combining diffusion-weighted MRI with Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI improves the detection of colorectal liver metastases  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare the diagnostic accuracy of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) and a combination of both techniques for the detection of colorectal hepatic metastases. Methods 72 patients with suspected colorectal liver metastases underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA MRI and DW-MRI. Images were retrospectively reviewed with unenhanced T1 and T2 weighted images as Gd-EOB-DTPA image set, DW-MRI image set and combined image set by two independent radiologists. Each lesion detected was scored for size, location and likelihood of metastasis, and compared with surgery and follow-up imaging. Diagnostic accuracy was compared using receiver operating characteristics and interobserver agreement by kappa statistics. Results 417 lesions (310 metastases, 107 benign) were found in 72 patients. For both readers, diagnostic accuracy using the combined image set was higher [area under the curve (Az) = 0.96, 0.97] than Gd-EOB-DTPA image set (Az = 0.86, 0.89) or DW-MRI image set (Az = 0.93, 0.92). Using combined image set improved identification of liver metastases compared with Gd-EOB-DTPA image set (p<0.001) or DW-MRI image set (p<0.001). There was very good interobserver agreement for lesion classification (? = 0.81–0.88). Conclusions Combining DW-MRI with Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced T1 weighted MRI significantly improved the detection of colorectal liver metastases. PMID:22167501

Koh, D-M; Collins, D J; Wallace, T; Chau, I; Riddell, A M

2012-01-01

22

Consensus Recommendation for Acquisition of Dynamic Contrasted-Enhanced MRI Data in Oncology  

Cancer.gov

Establish minimum requirements for standardized data acquisition for oncologic applications of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) to allow integration of data from different institutions and comparison of various approaches for data analysis.

23

Mangafodipir-DPDP enhanced MRI visualization of a pancreatic adenocarcinoma previously undetected by extracellular contrast enhanced CT and MRI.  

PubMed

We report a case of adenocarcinoma of the head of the pancreas, occult at extracellular contrast enhanced MDCT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which was detected by MRI only with the use of a tissue-specific contrast agent (Mangafodipir trisodium Mn- DPDP). The histological examination after duodenopancreatectomy confirmed the diagnosis. Contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) is currently considered to be the reference method for diagnosing and staging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Endoscopic Ultrasounds (EUS) with fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an accurate but invasive procedure. The technological evolution of magnetic resonance imaging and the development of organ-specific contrast media for liver and pancreas have led to a progressively more extensive use of this method for the investigation of suspected lesions. Moreover, this technique is particularly useful when MDCT gives unclear or debatable diagnostic responses. PMID:18330084

De Filippo, Massimo; Bocchi, Carlo; Quartieri, Leonardo; Corradi, Domenico; Zompatori, Maurizio

2007-12-01

24

Tumor Microenvironment Identification In Vivo using Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI  

Cancer.gov

The microenvironment in solid tumors is characterized by inadequate and heterogeneous perfusion, hyper-permeable vasculature, hypoxia, acidic extracellular pH, and nutrient deprivation. Hypoxic tumors, often associated with a more aggressive tumor phenotype, are more resistant to chemo- or radiation therapy than well-vascularized, well-oxygenated tumors. We present an approach to identify areas of tumor hypoxia using the signal-versus-time curves of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) data as a surrogate marker of hypoxia.

25

Gadolinium-DOTA enhanced MRI of painful osseous crises in children with sickle cell anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the role of gadolinium-DOTA enhanced MRI in the management of painful osseous crises in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA), nine children with SCA underwent MRI, bone scans and ultrasonographic studies during 11 osseous crises. Imaging findings were compared with the final diagnosis: three acute osteomyelitis (AO) and 16 acute infarcts (AI). MRI could not differentiate

V. Bonnerot; G. Sebag; M. de Montalembert; M. Wioland; C. Glorion; R. Girot; D. Lallemand

1994-01-01

26

Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI evaluation of cerebral cavernous malformations.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the behavior of CNS cavernous malformations (CCMs) using a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCEMRI) technique sensitive for slow transfer rates of gadolinium. The prospective study was approved by the institutional review board and was HIPPA compliant. Written informed consent was obtained from 14 subjects with familial CCMs (4 men and 10 women, ages 22-76 years, mean 48.1 years). Following routine anatomic MRI of the brain, DCEMRI was performed for six slices, using T1 mapping with partial inversion recovery (TAPIR) to calculate T1 values, following administration of 0.025 mmol/kg gadolinium DTPA. The transfer rate (Ki) was calculated using the Patlak model, and Ki within CCMs was compared to normal-appearing white matter as well as to 17 normal control subjects previously studied. All subjects had typical MRI appearance of CCMs. Thirty-nine CCMs were studied using DCEMRI. Ki was low or normal in 12 lesions and elevated from 1.4 to 12 times higher than background in the remaining 27 lesions. Ki ranged from 2.1E-6 to 9.63E-4 min(-1), mean 3.55E-4. Normal-appearing white matter in the CCM patients had a mean Ki of 1.57E-4, not statistically different from mean WM Ki of 1.47E-4 in controls. TAPIR-based DCEMRI technique permits quantifiable assessment of CCMs in vivo and reveals considerable differences not seen with conventional MRI. Potential applications include correlation with biologic behavior such as lesion growth or hemorrage, and measurement of drug effects. PMID:24323376

Hart, Blaine L; Taheri, Saeid; Rosenberg, Gary A; Morrison, Leslie A

2013-10-01

27

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI Evaluation of Cerebral Cavernous Malformations  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the behavior of CNS cavernous malformations (CCMs) using a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCEMRI) technique sensitive for slow transfer rates of gadolinium. The prospective study was approved by the institutional review board and was HIPPA compliant. Written informed consent was obtained from 14 subjects with familial CCMs (4 men and 10 women, ages 22–76 years, mean 48.1 years). Following routine anatomic MRI of the brain, DCEMRI was performed for six slices, using T1 mapping with partial inversion recovery (TAPIR) to calculate T1 values, following administration of 0.025 mmol/kg gadolinium DTPA. The transfer rate (Ki) was calculated using the Patlak model, and Ki within CCMs was compared to normal-appearing white matter as well as to 17 normal control subjects previously studied. All subjects had typical MRI appearance of CCMs. Thirty-nine CCMs were studied using DCEMRI. Ki was low or normal in 12 lesions and elevated from 1.4 to 12 times higher than background in the remaining 27 lesions. Ki ranged from 2.1E–6 to 9.63E–4 min?1, mean 3.55E–4. Normal-appearing white matter in the CCM patients had a mean Ki of 1.57E–4, not statistically different from mean WM Ki of 1.47E–4 in controls. TAPIR-based DCEMRI technique permits quantifiable assessment of CCMs in vivo and reveals considerable differences not seen with conventional MRI. Potential applications include correlation with biologic behavior such as lesion growth or hemorrage, and measurement of drug effects. PMID:24323376

Hart, B. L.; Taheri, S.; Rosenberg, G. A.; Morrison, L. A.

2013-01-01

28

Small colorectal liver metastases: detection with SPIO-enhanced MRI in comparison with gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI and CT imaging.  

PubMed

The aim of this prospective study was to compare the diagnostic role of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) versus gadobenate dimeglumine (GbD)-enhanced MRI and computed tomography (CT) investigations for detection of small (less than 1cm) colorectal liver metastases (LMs) of colorectal cancer. Seventy-eight LMs in 16 patients were evaluated with dynamic CT imaging, GbD-enhanced dynamic MR imaging and SPIO-enhanced MR imaging. Two radiologists were reviewed the LMs separately. Agreement between the readers and three algorithms was analyzed. Differences between the lesion detection ratios of the methods were analyzed by two proportion z test. Sensitivity values of each modality were also calculated. Interobserver agreement values with kappa analysis were found to be the best for three modalities and kappa values were 0.866, 0.843, and 1.0 respectively. For all 78 LMs, SPIO-enhanced MRI detected all lesions (100% sensitivity). This sensitivity value was higher than GbD-enhanced MRI, and there was a significant difference (p < 0.05). GbD-enhanced MRI depicted 71 lesions and this modality could not detected 7 lesions (91% sensitivity). This modality had moderate sensitivity, and this value is greater than CT imaging, so there was a significant difference also (p < 0.05). Dynamic triphasic CT imaging detected 64 (R1) and 65 (R2) LMs. This modality had the lowest sensitivity (R1: 0.82, R2: 0.83 respectively). Only SPIO-enhanced MRI was able to detect all LMs less than 1cm. LMs were the best detected with SPIO-enhanced MRI. We recommend SPIO-enhanced MRI to be the primary alternative modality especially for diagnosis of small colorectal LMs. PMID:19781882

Hekimoglu, Koray; Ustundag, Yucel; Dusak, Abdurrahim; Kalaycioglu, Bora; Besir, Halit; Engin, Huseyin; Erdem, Oktay

2011-03-01

29

Differentiation of solid pancreatic tumors by using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distinguishing among different solid pancreatic tumor types, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), and solid pseudopapillary tumors (SPTs) is important, as the treatment options are vastly different. This study compared characteristics of solid pancreatic tumors by using dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fifty patients underwent MR imaging of pancreatic masses with a histopathology that was later confirmed as an adenocarcinoma (n = 27), a NET (n = 16), and a SPT (n = 7). For qualitative analysis, two reviewers evaluated the morphologic features of the tumors: locations, margins, shapes, contained products, pancreatic ductal dilatation, and grade of signal intensity (SI). For the quantitative analysis, all phases of the MR images were co-registered using proprietary image registration software; thus, a region of interest (ROI) defined on one phase could be re-applied in other phases. The following four ratios were considered: tumor-to-uninvolved pancreas SI ratio, percent SI change, tumor-touninvolved pancreas enhancement index, and arterial-to-delayed washout rate. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were assessed for the four ratios. Adenocarcinomas had ill-defined margins, irregular shapes, and ductal dilatation compared with NETs and SPTs (P < 0.001). The tumor-to-uninvolved pancreas ratio on all dynamic phases was significantly higher for NETs than for both adenocarcinomas and SPTs (P < 0.05). Percentage SI changes of pancreatic tumors on the pancreatic and the portal venous phases were significantly higher for NETs than for both adenocarcinomas and SPTs (P < 0.05). A significant difference between NETs and adenocarcinomas was also found with respect to the tumor-to-uninvolved pancreas enhancement index and arterial-to-delayed washout rate. The percentage SI changes in the pancreatic phase and the arterial-to-delayed washout rate best distinguished between adenocarcinomas and NETs with the area under the ROC curve being 0.87. The percentage SI changes in the pancreatic and the portal venous phases best distinguished between NETs and SPTs with area under the ROC curve 0.87. In summary, contrast-enhanced MRI can be useful in differentiating solid pancreatic tumors in qualitative and quantitative analyses.

Choi, Seung Joon; Kim, Hyung Sik; Park, Hyunjin

2014-01-01

30

A new denoising method for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new algorithm for denoising dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR images. The algorithm is called Dynamic Non-Local Means and is a novel variation on the Non-Local Means (NL-Means) algorithm. It exploits the redundancy of information in the DCE-MRI sequence of images. An evaluation of the performance of the algorithm relative to six other denoising algorithms-Gaussian filtering, the original NL-Means algorithm, bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion filtering, the wavelets adaptive multiscale products threshold method, and the traditional wavelet thresholding method-is also presented. The evaluation was performed by two groups of expert observers-18 signal/image processing experts, and 9 clinicians (8 radiographers and 1 radiologist)-using real DCE-MRI data. The results of the evaluation provide evidence, at the alpha=0.05 level of significance, that both groups of observers deem the DNLM algorithm to perform visually better than all of the other algorithms. PMID:19162789

Gal, Yaniv; Mehnert, Andrew; Bradley, Andrew; McMahon, Kerry; Kennedy, Dominic; Crozier, Stuart

2008-01-01

31

ERK'2007, Portoroz, B:191-194 191 Motion correction of contrast-enhanced MRI time series of kidney  

E-print Network

ERK'2007, Portoroz, B:191-194 191 Motion correction of contrast-enhanced MRI time series of kidney In this paper we focus on motion correction of contrast enhanced kidney MRI time series, which is an important: motion correction, image registration, contrast-enhanced MRI. 1 Introduction The kidneys maintain normal

Kovacic, Stanislav

32

Curvelet processing of MRI for local image enhancement.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging provides very good contrast between different soft tissues; however, in some cases, this technique is not so suitable to image calcified structures like bones. The quality of images is often degraded by blur edges or noises, which makes it difficult to accurately identify bone structures. In this paper, we proposed a new curvelet preprocessing method for local image enhancement to especially improve the quality of spinal MRI. Our objective is to both sharpen boundaries and smoothen the intensity variation of the vertebra. In the first phase, we extract features through curvelet coefficients and the gradient of the original image, then we utilize fuzzy cluster method to classify the whole image scope into the 'edge' region and the 'nonedge' region. In the second phase, we locally sharpen or smoothen the image by adaptive adjustment of curvelet coefficients and Gaussian smoothing method in different subregions. To evaluate the effect of the preprocessing method, we examine the gradient of the image and its segmentation results as the assessments. The experiment results show that the feature extraction method is effective for classification and the vertebra performs higher contrast on boundaries and less noises after the enhancement, which indeed helps increase the accuracy of further segmentation. PMID:25364844

Tsai, Kunyu; Ma, Jianwei; Ye, Datian; Wu, Jian

2012-01-01

33

THE VALUE OF DYNAMIC CONTRAST ENHANCED BREAST MRI IN MAMMOGRAPHICALLY DETECTED BI-RADS 5 MICROCALCIFICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To evaluate the role of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of BI-RADS-5 type of microcalcifi cations of the breast, to compare the size of the microcalcifi cation lesions using mammography (MG) and MRI, and to determine the value of MRI in surgery for microcalcifi cations. The study also determines the morphology of microcalcifi cation lesions,

Dana Houserkovaa; Sachin Prasad N; Ivan Svach; Ladislava Kucerova; Milada Duskova; Jiri Bucila; Ivan Sisolaa; Nora Zlamalova; Hana Svebisovad

34

Enhancement of resting-state fcMRI networks by prior sensory stimulation.  

PubMed

It is important to consider the effect of a previous experimental condition when analyzing resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) data. In this work, a simple sensory stimulation functional MRI (fMRI) experiment was conducted between two resting-state fcMRI acquisitions in anesthetized rats using a high-field small-animal MR scanner. Previous human studies have reported fcMRI network alteration by prior task/stimulus utilizing similar experimental paradigms. An anesthetized rat preparation was used to test whether brain regions with higher level functions are involved in post-task/stimulus fcMRI network alteration. We demonstrate significant fcMRI enhancement poststimulation in the sensory cortical, limbic, and insular brain regions in rats. These brain regions have been previously implicated in vigilance and anesthetic arousal networks. We tested their experimental paradigm in several inbred strains of rats with known phenotypic differences in anesthetic susceptibility and cerebral vascular function. Brown Norway (BN), Dahl Salt-Sensitive (SS), and consomic SSBN13 strains were tested. We have previously shown significant differences in blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI activity and fcMRI networks across these strains. Here we report statistically significant interstrain differences in regional fcMRI poststimulation enhancement. In the SS strain, poststimulation enhancement occurred in posterior sensory and limbic cortical brain regions. In the BN strain, poststimulation enhancement appeared in anterior cingulate and subcortical limbic brain regions. These results imply that a prior condition has a significant impact on fcMRI networks that depend on intersubject difference in genetics and physiology. PMID:25387238

Li, Chenxuan; Li, Zhixin; Ward, B Douglas; Dwinell, Melinda R; Lombard, Julian H; Hudetz, Anthony G; Pawela, Christopher P

2014-11-01

35

2009 Fall : Distinguished Honors Distinguished  

E-print Network

Distinguished Brock Malia Allen Distinguished Broderson Torey Heart Distinguished Brokaw Samuel Arthur Andrea Rae Distinguished Butler Alissa M Distinguished Byers Colleen Johanna Distinguished Byrd Kathryn Elaine Distinguished Byrne Terence Charles Distinguished Calcote Frances Rae Adair Distinguished Calder

Kasman, Alex

36

2013 Fall : Distinguished Honors Distinguished  

E-print Network

Anderson Emily Clare Distinguished Anderson Leah Ellen Distinguished Andrews Sarah Jordan Distinguished Distinguished Baele Sylvie Gabrielle Distinguished Bagley Clara Mae Distinguished Bailey Brenna Kelli

Kasman, Alex

37

2010 Spring : Distinguished Honors Distinguished  

E-print Network

Cole Distinguished Amundson Ian Vincent Distinguished Anderson Rebecca Anne Distinguished Arber Noah Ingelsby Distinguished Calhoun Stacy Michelle Distinguished Campbell Brian Joseph Distinguished Campbell

Kasman, Alex

38

2009 Spring : Distinguished Honors Distinguished  

E-print Network

-Grillon Leila Julie Distinguished Amin Puja J Distinguished Amundson Ian Vincent Distinguished Anderson Felicia Louise Distinguished Campbell Christopher Warren Distinguished Campbell Samantha Lyn Distinguished

Kasman, Alex

39

2011 Fall : Distinguished Honors Distinguished  

E-print Network

Hannah Barrett Distinguished Albertson Alyssa Margaret Distinguished Alexander Jacob Joseph Distinguished Buren Distinguished Barrick Joshua David Distinguished Barron Emily A Distinguished Barry Madeline Regan

Kasman, Alex

40

Improving Bladder Cancer Imaging Using 3T Functional Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the capability of T2-weighted MRI (T2W-MRI) and the additional diagnostic value of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) using multi-transmit 3T in the localization of bladder cancer. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the local Institutional Review Board. Thirty–six patients were included in the study and provided informed consent. MRI scans were performed with T2W-MRI and DCE-MRI on a 3T multi-transmit system. Two observers (with 12 and 25 years of experience) independently interpreted T2W-MRI prior to DCE-MRI data (maps of pharmacokinetic parameters) to localize bladder tumors. The pathological examination of cystectomy bladder specimens was used as a reference gold standard. The McNemar test was performed to evaluate the differences in sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Kappa scores were calculated to assess interobserver agreement. Results The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the localization with T2W-MRI alone were 81% (29/36), 63% (5/8) and 77% (34/44) for observer 1, and 72% (26/36), 63% (5/8), and 70% (31/44) for observer 2. With additional DCE-MRI available, these values were 92% (33/36), 75% (6/8), and 89% (39/44) for observer 1, and 92% (33/36), 63% (5/8), and 86% (38/44) for observer 2. DCE-MRI significantly (P < 0.01) improved the sensitivity and accuracy for observer 2. For the twenty-three patients treated with chemotherapy, DCE-MRI also significantly (P < 0.02) improved the sensitivity and accuracy of bladder cancer localization with T2W-MRI alone for observer 2. Kappa scores were 0.63 for T2W-MRI alone, and 0.78 for additional DCE-MRI. Out of seven sub-centimeter malignant tumors, four (57%) were identified on T2W images and six (86%) on DCE maps. Out of eleven malignant tumors within the bladder wall thickening, six (55%) were found on T2W images and ten (91%) on DCE maps. Conclusions Compared to conventional T2W-MRI alone, the addition of DCE-MRI improved interobserver agreement as well as the localization of small malignant tumors and those within bladder wall thickening. PMID:24637583

Nguyen, Huyen T.; Pohar, Kamal S.; Jia, Guang; Shah, Zarine K.; Mortazavi, Amir; Zynger, Debra L.; Wei, Lai; Clark, Daniel; Yang, Xiangyu; Knopp, Michael V.

2015-01-01

41

2011 Spring : Distinguished Honors Distinguished  

E-print Network

Katherine Lee Distinguished Ashley Colette Doonia Distinguished Attafi Hanna Lynne Distinguished Austin Stewart Distinguished Barnick Carolyn Rosemary Distinguished Barone Tessa Marie Distinguished Bates Elaina Butcher Margaret Catherine Distinguished Call Laura Elizabeth Distinguished Callaway Katherine Joan

Kasman, Alex

42

2012 Spring : Distinguished Honors Distinguished  

E-print Network

Distinguished Butler Katherine Murphy Distinguished Butler Sierra Nicole Distinguished Byrnes Mary Kathryn Bailey Margaret Mackinnon Distinguished Baker Katherine Brennan Distinguished Baker Sarah Adrian Peter Distinguished Brown Stephen Michael Distinguished Bruce Elizabeth Katherine Distinguished Buckner

Kasman, Alex

43

In vivo visuotopic brain mapping with manganese-enhanced MRI and resting-state functional connectivity MRI.  

PubMed

The rodents are an increasingly important model for understanding the mechanisms of development, plasticity, functional specialization and disease in the visual system. However, limited tools have been available for assessing the structural and functional connectivity of the visual brain network globally, in vivo and longitudinally. There are also ongoing debates on whether functional brain connectivity directly reflects structural brain connectivity. In this study, we explored the feasibility of manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) via 3 different routes of Mn(2+) administration for visuotopic brain mapping and understanding of physiological transport in normal and visually deprived adult rats. In addition, resting-state functional connectivity MRI (RSfcMRI) was performed to evaluate the intrinsic functional network and structural-functional relationships in the corresponding anatomical visual brain connections traced by MEMRI. Upon intravitreal, subcortical, and intracortical Mn(2+) injection, different topographic and layer-specific Mn enhancement patterns could be revealed in the visual cortex and subcortical visual nuclei along retinal, callosal, cortico-subcortical, transsynaptic and intracortical horizontal connections. Loss of visual input upon monocular enucleation to adult rats appeared to reduce interhemispheric polysynaptic Mn(2+) transfer but not intra- or inter-hemispheric monosynaptic Mn(2+) transport after Mn(2+) injection into visual cortex. In normal adults, both structural and functional connectivity by MEMRI and RSfcMRI was stronger interhemispherically between bilateral primary/secondary visual cortex (V1/V2) transition zones (TZ) than between V1/V2 TZ and other cortical nuclei. Intrahemispherically, structural and functional connectivity was stronger between visual cortex and subcortical visual nuclei than between visual cortex and other subcortical nuclei. The current results demonstrated the sensitivity of MEMRI and RSfcMRI for assessing the neuroarchitecture, neurophysiology and structural-functional relationships of the visual brains in vivo. These may possess great potentials for effective monitoring and understanding of the basic anatomical and functional connections in the visual system during development, plasticity, disease, pharmacological interventions and genetic modifications in future studies. PMID:24394694

Chan, Kevin C; Fan, Shu-Juan; Chan, Russell W; Cheng, Joe S; Zhou, Iris Y; Wu, Ed X

2014-04-15

44

Differentiation of early hepatocellular carcinoma from benign hepatocellular nodules on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Objective To test new diagnostic criteria for the discrimination of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from benign hepatocellular nodules on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (Gd-EOB-MRI). Methods We retrospectively analysed 34 patients with 29 surgically diagnosed early HCCs and 31 surgically diagnosed benign hepatocellular nodules. Two radiologists reviewed Gd-EOB-MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and the signal intensity at each sequence, presence of arterial enhancement and washout were recorded. We composed new diagnostic criteria based on the lesion size and MRI findings, and then the diagnostic performance was compared with that of conventional imaging criteria with logistic regression and a generalised estimating equation method. Results A size cut-off value (?1.5 cm diameter) and MRI findings of T1 hypointensity, T2 hyperintensity, DWI hyperintensity on both low and high b-value images (b=50 and 800 s mm?2, respectively), arterial enhancement, late washout and hepatobiliary hypointensity were selected as the diagnostic criteria. When lesions were considered malignant if they satisfied three or more of the above criteria, the sensitivity was significantly higher than when making a diagnosis based on arterial enhancement and washout alone (58.6% vs 13.8%, respectively; p=0.0002), while the specificity was 100.0% for both criteria. Conclusion Our new diagnostic criteria on Gd-EOB-MRI may help to improve the discrimination of early HCC from benign hepatocellular nodules. PMID:22553295

Rhee, H; Kim, M-J; Park, M-S; Kim, K A

2012-01-01

45

Major mouse placental compartments revealed by diffusion-weighted MRI, contrast-enhanced MRI, and fluorescence imaging  

PubMed Central

Mammalian models, and mouse studies in particular, play a central role in our understanding of placental development. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be a valuable tool to further these studies, providing both structural and functional information. As fluid dynamics throughout the placenta are driven by a variety of flow and diffusion processes, diffusion-weighted MRI could enhance our understanding of the exchange properties of maternal and fetal blood pools—and thereby of placental function. These studies, however, have so far been hindered by the small sizes, the unavoidable motions, and the challenging air/water/fat heterogeneities, associated with mouse placental environments. The present study demonstrates that emerging methods based on the spatiotemporal encoding (SPEN) of the MRI information can robustly overcome these obstacles. Using SPEN MRI in combination with albumin-based contrast agents, we analyzed the diffusion behavior of developing placentas in a cohort of mice. These studies successfully discriminated the maternal from the fetal blood flows; the two orders of magnitude differences measured in these fluids’ apparent diffusion coefficients suggest a nearly free diffusion behavior for the former and a strong flow-based component for the latter. An intermediate behavior was observed by these methods for a third compartment that, based on maternal albumin endocytosis, was associated with trophoblastic cells in the interphase labyrinth. Structural features associated with these dynamic measurements were consistent with independent intravital and ex vivo fluorescence microscopy studies and are discussed within the context of the anatomy of developing mouse placentas. PMID:24969421

Solomon, Eddy; Avni, Reut; Hadas, Ron; Raz, Tal; Garbow, Joel Richard; Bendel, Peter; Frydman, Lucio; Neeman, Michal

2014-01-01

46

Major mouse placental compartments revealed by diffusion-weighted MRI, contrast-enhanced MRI, and fluorescence imaging.  

PubMed

Mammalian models, and mouse studies in particular, play a central role in our understanding of placental development. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be a valuable tool to further these studies, providing both structural and functional information. As fluid dynamics throughout the placenta are driven by a variety of flow and diffusion processes, diffusion-weighted MRI could enhance our understanding of the exchange properties of maternal and fetal blood pools--and thereby of placental function. These studies, however, have so far been hindered by the small sizes, the unavoidable motions, and the challenging air/water/fat heterogeneities, associated with mouse placental environments. The present study demonstrates that emerging methods based on the spatiotemporal encoding (SPEN) of the MRI information can robustly overcome these obstacles. Using SPEN MRI in combination with albumin-based contrast agents, we analyzed the diffusion behavior of developing placentas in a cohort of mice. These studies successfully discriminated the maternal from the fetal blood flows; the two orders of magnitude differences measured in these fluids' apparent diffusion coefficients suggest a nearly free diffusion behavior for the former and a strong flow-based component for the latter. An intermediate behavior was observed by these methods for a third compartment that, based on maternal albumin endocytosis, was associated with trophoblastic cells in the interphase labyrinth. Structural features associated with these dynamic measurements were consistent with independent intravital and ex vivo fluorescence microscopy studies and are discussed within the context of the anatomy of developing mouse placentas. PMID:24969421

Solomon, Eddy; Avni, Reut; Hadas, Ron; Raz, Tal; Garbow, Joel Richard; Bendel, Peter; Frydman, Lucio; Neeman, Michal

2014-07-15

47

2008 Fall : Distinguished Honors Distinguished  

E-print Network

Bestoso Rebecca Teresa Distinguished Biggerstaff Austin Brianne Distinguished Biggerstaff Jillian Danielle Laura E Distinguished Brown Kyle R Distinguished Brown Leland D Distinguished Brown Lindsay Jane

Kasman, Alex

48

2014 Spring : Distinguished Honors Distinguished  

E-print Network

Brandon Katherine Kelly Distinguished Brennan Jennifer Marie Distinguished Breyer Melissa Diane Christina Lee Distinguished Burnell Shannon Akili Distinguished Burrus Connor Patrick Distinguished Butler Katherine Murphy Distinguished Calabro Katherine Elizabeth Distinguished Calci Angelica Kaitlyn

Kasman, Alex

49

Glucose Administration Enhances fMRI Brain Activation and Connectivity Related to Episodic Memory Encoding for Neutral and Emotional Stimuli  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Glucose enhances memory in a variety of species. In humans, glucose administration enhances episodic memory encoding, although little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying these effects. Here we examined whether elevating blood glucose would enhance functional MRI (fMRI) activation and connectivity in brain regions associated with…

Parent, Marise B.; Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Ryan, John P.; Wilson, Jennifer S.; Harenski, Carla; Hamann, Stephan

2011-01-01

50

Delayed enhancement imaging of myocardial viability: low-dose high-pitch CT versus MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  To evaluate the accuracy of high-pitch delayed enhancement (DE) CT for the assessment of myocardial viability with MRI as\\u000a the reference standard.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twenty-four patients (mean age 66.9?±?9.2 years) with coronary artery disease underwent DE imaging with 128-slice dual-source\\u000a CT (prospective electrocardiography (ECG)-triggering) and MRI at 1.5 T. Two observers assessed DE transmurality per segment,\\u000a and measured signal intensity (MRI) or attenuation (CT)

Robert Goetti; Gudrun Feuchtner; Paul Stolzmann; Olivio F. Donati; Monika Wieser; André Plass; Thomas Frauenfelder; Sebastian Leschka; Hatem Alkadhi

51

The role of dynamic contrast-enhanced screening breast MRI in populations at increased risk for breast cancer.  

PubMed

Breast MRI is more sensitive than mammography in detecting breast cancer. However, MRI as a screening tool is limited to high-risk patients due to cost, low specificity and insufficient evidence for its use in intermediate-risk populations. Nonetheless, in the past decade, there has been a dramatic increase in the use of breast-screening MRI in the community setting. In this review, we set to describe the current literature on the use of screening MRI in high- and intermediate-risk populations. We will also describe novel applications of breast MRI including abbreviated breast MRI protocols, background parenchymal enhancement and diffusion-weighted imaging. PMID:25482488

Gillman, Jennifer; Toth, Hildegard K; Moy, Linda

2014-11-01

52

Investigation of PET/MRI Image Fusion Schemes for Enhanced Breast Cancer Diagnosis  

E-print Network

. Initial experience with combined PET (functional imaging) and x-ray computed tomography (CT, anatomicalInvestigation of PET/MRI Image Fusion Schemes for Enhanced Breast Cancer Diagnosis Karl G. Baum, and Andrzej Krol, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract­The benefit of registration and fusion of functional images

53

The dynamic of FUS-induced BBB Opening in Mouse Brain assessed by contrast enhanced MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focused ultrasound (FUS) in combination with the administration of gas-filled microbubbles, can induce a localized and reversible opening of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been demonstrated as a precise tool to monitor such a local BBB disruption. However, the opening\\/closing mechanisms of the BBB with FUS are still largely unknown. In this ongoing

Jürgen W. Jenne; Axel J. Krafft; Florian Maier; Marie N. Krause; Susanne Kleber; Peter E. Huber; Ana Martin-Villalba; Michael Bock

2010-01-01

54

MRI  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program explains Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), the role of this imaging in diagnosis, the procedure itself, and associated benefits and risks. This is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: The tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute

55

Randomized multicentre trial of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI versus conventional MRI or CT in the staging of colorectal cancer liver metastases  

PubMed Central

Background This multicentre international randomized trial compared the impact of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), MRI with extracellular contrast medium (ECCM-MRI) and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) as a first-line imaging method in patients with suspected colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRCLM). Methods Between October 2008 and September 2010, patients with suspected CRCLM were randomized to one of the three imaging modalities. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients for whom further imaging after initial imaging was required for a confident diagnosis. Secondary variables included confidence in the therapeutic decision, intraoperative deviations from the initial imaging-based surgical plan as a result of additional operative findings, and diagnostic efficacy of the imaging modalities versus intraoperative and pathological extent of the disease. Results A total of 360 patients were enrolled. Efficacy was analysed in 342 patients (118, 112 and 112 with gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI, ECCM-MRI and CE-CT respectively as the initial imaging procedure). Further imaging was required in 0 of 118, 19 (17·0 per cent) of 112 and 44 (39·3 per cent) of 112 patients respectively (P < 0·001). Diagnostic confidence was high or very high in 98·3 per cent of patients for gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI, 85·7 per cent for ECCM-MRI and 65·2 per cent for CE-CT. Surgical plans were changed during surgery in 28, 32 and 47 per cent of patients in the respective groups. Conclusion The diagnostic performance of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI was better than that of CE-CT and ECCM-MRI as the initial imaging modality. No further imaging was needed in the gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI group and comparison of diagnostic efficacy parameters demonstrated the diagnostic superiority of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. Registration number: NCT00764621( http://clinicaltrials.gov ); EudraCT number: 2008-000583-16 ( https://eudract.ema.europa.eu/ ). PMID:24652690

Zech, C J; Korpraphong, P; Huppertz, A; Denecke, T; Kim, M-J; Tanomkiat, W; Jonas, E; Ba-Ssalamah, A

2014-01-01

56

Characterisation of tumour vasculature in mouse brain by USPIO contrast-enhanced MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

To enhance the success rate of antiangiogenic therapies in the clinic, it is crucial to identify parameters for tumour angiogenesis that can predict response to these therapies. In brain tumours, one such parameter is vascular leakage, which is a response to tumour-derived vascular endothelial growth factor-A and can be measured by Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, as vascular

G. Gambarota; W. P. J. Leenders; C. Maass; P. Wesseling; B van der Kogel; O van Tellingen; A. Heerschap

2008-01-01

57

Relationship of MRI Delayed Contrast Enhancement to Irreversible Injury, Infarct Age, and Contractile Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Contrast MRI enhancement patterns in several pathophysiologies resulting from ischemic myocardial injury are controversial or have not been investigated. We compared contrast enhancement in acute infarction (AI), after severe but reversible ischemic injury (RII), and in chronic infarction. Methods and Results—In dogs, a large coronary artery was occluded to study AI and\\/or chronic infarction (n 518), and a second coronary

Raymond J. Kim; David S. Fieno; Todd B. Parrish; Kathleen Harris; Enn-Ling Chen; Orlando Simonetti; Jeffrey Bundy; J. Paul Finn; Francis J. Klocke; Robert M. Judd

58

Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis with signs of increased intracranial pressure and progressive meningeal enhancement on MRI.  

PubMed

A 21-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of meningeal signs and evidence of intracranial hypertension and, as shown by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), progressively more extensive meningeal enhancement, particularly within the spinal canal. Autopsy disclosed the presence of primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis with spinal cord predominance, possibly arising within heterotopic leptomeningeal glial tissue in the cervical region. No parenchymal primary lesion was identified. MRI with gadolinium appears to be the imaging modality of choice for the early detection of primary diffuse leptomeningeal neoplasia. PMID:8903081

Park, J S; van den Noort, S; Kim, R C; Walot, I; Licht, H

1996-10-01

59

Diagnostic efficacy of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for hepatocellular carcinoma and dysplastic nodule  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the relationship between the signal intensity of hepatobiliary phase images on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological grade. METHODS: Fifty-nine patients with 82 hepatocellular lesions were evaluated retrospectively. Hepatobiliary phase images on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI were classified into 3 groups: low, iso or high. Angiography-assisted computed tomography (CT) findings were also classified into 3 groups: CT during arterial portography, and CT hepatic arteriography: A: iso, iso or low; B: slightly low, iso or low; and C: low, high. We correlated angiography-assisted CT, hepatobiliary phase findings during gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and histological grades. Furthermore, correlations between MRI findings and histological grade for each hemodynamic pattern were performed. Correlations among radiological and pathological findings were statistically evaluated using the chi-square test and Fisher’ s exact test. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between histological grade and hemodynamic pattern (P < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between histological grade and signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase (P < 0.05) in group A lesions. There was no significant correlation between histological grade and signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase in group B or C lesions (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase correlated with histological grade in the lesions that maintained portal blood flow, but did not correlate in lesions that showed decreased or defective portal blood flow. PMID:21941417

Saito, Kazuhiro; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Sugimoto, Katsutoshi; Nishio, Ryota; Saguchi, Toru; Nagao, Toshitaka; Taira, Junichi; Akata, Soichi; Tokuuye, Koichi

2011-01-01

60

Automatic Detection and Size Quantification of Infarcts by Myocardial Perfusion SPECT: Clinical Validation by Delayed-Enhancement MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to validate the accuracy of a new automated myo- cardial perfusion SPECT quantification based on normal limits for detection and sizing of infarcts, using delayed-enhancement MRI (DE-MRI) as a gold standard. Methods: Eighty-two imme- diate 201Tl rest scans and 26 201Tl delayed redistribution scans were compared with resting DE-MRI scans acquired within 24 h of SPECT acquisition. The

Piotr J. Slomka; David Fieno; Louise Thomson; John D. Friedman; Sean W. Hayes; Guido Germano; Daniel S. Berman

2005-01-01

61

Cardiac Amyloidosis: Typical Imaging Findings and Diffuse Myocardial Damage Demonstrated by Delayed Contrast-Enhanced MRI  

SciTech Connect

Amyloidosis is a rare systemic disease. However, involvement of the heart is a common finding and is the most frequent cause of death in amyloidosis. We report the sonographic, scintigraphic, and MRI features of a pathologically proven case of cardiac amyloidosis. Delayed contrast-enhanced MR images, using an inversion recovery prepped gradient-echo sequence, revealed diffuse enhancement in the wall of both left and right ventricles. This enhancement suggested expansion of the extracellular space of the myocardium caused by diffuse myocardial necrosis secondary to deposition of amyloid.

Sueyoshi, Eijun, E-mail: EijunSueyoshi@aol.com; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Okimoto, Tomoaki; Hayashi, Kuniaki [Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Tanaka, Kyouei; Toda, Genji [Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology (Japan)

2006-08-15

62

Voluntary Enhancement of Neural Signatures of Affiliative Emotion Using fMRI Neurofeedback  

PubMed Central

In Ridley Scott’s film “Blade Runner”, empathy-detection devices are employed to measure affiliative emotions. Despite recent neurocomputational advances, it is unknown whether brain signatures of affiliative emotions, such as tenderness/affection, can be decoded and voluntarily modulated. Here, we employed multivariate voxel pattern analysis and real-time fMRI to address this question. We found that participants were able to use visual feedback based on decoded fMRI patterns as a neurofeedback signal to increase brain activation characteristic of tenderness/affection relative to pride, an equally complex control emotion. Such improvement was not observed in a control group performing the same fMRI task without neurofeedback. Furthermore, the neurofeedback-driven enhancement of tenderness/affection-related distributed patterns was associated with local fMRI responses in the septohypothalamic area and frontopolar cortex, regions previously implicated in affiliative emotion. This demonstrates that humans can voluntarily enhance brain signatures of tenderness/affection, unlocking new possibilities for promoting prosocial emotions and countering antisocial behavior. PMID:24847819

Moll, Jorge; Weingartner, Julie H.; Bado, Patricia; Basilio, Rodrigo; Sato, João R.; Melo, Bruno R.; Bramati, Ivanei E.; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Zahn, Roland

2014-01-01

63

Multiphasic contrast-enhanced CT and MRI findings of adult mesoblastic nephroma: A report of two cases  

PubMed Central

Mesoblastic nephroma (MN) presenting in an adult is extremely rare. The computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of this tumor in adulthood have not been widely reported. We present two additional cases of adult MN and describe the multiphasic contrast-enhanced CT and MRI findings. PMID:23986620

Ding, Yuqin; He, Deming; Zhou, Jianjun; Zeng, Mengsu

2013-01-01

64

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI of Cervical Cancers: Temporal Percentile Screening of Contrast Enhancement Identifies Parameters for Prediction of Chemoradioresistance  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To systematically screen the tumor contrast enhancement of locally advanced cervical cancers to assess the prognostic value of two descriptive parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Methods and Materials: This study included a prospectively collected cohort of 81 patients who underwent DCE-MRI with gadopentetate dimeglumine before chemoradiotherapy. The following descriptive DCE-MRI parameters were extracted voxel by voxel and presented as histograms for each time point in the dynamic series: normalized relative signal increase (nRSI) and normalized area under the curve (nAUC). The first to 100th percentiles of the histograms were included in a log-rank survival test, resulting in p value and relative risk maps of all percentile-time intervals for each DCE-MRI parameter. The maps were used to evaluate the robustness of the individual percentile-time pairs and to construct prognostic parameters. Clinical endpoints were locoregional control and progression-free survival. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Results: The p value maps of nRSI and nAUC showed a large continuous region of percentile-time pairs that were significantly associated with locoregional control (p < 0.05). These parameters had prognostic impact independent of tumor stage, volume, and lymph node status on multivariate analysis. Only a small percentile-time interval of nRSI was associated with progression-free survival. Conclusions: The percentile-time screening identified DCE-MRI parameters that predict long-term locoregional control after chemoradiotherapy of cervical cancer.

Andersen, Erlend K.F. [Department of Medical Physics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Hole, Knut Hakon; Lund, Kjersti V. [Department of Radiology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Sundfor, Kolbein [Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Kristensen, Gunnar B. [Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Institute for Medical Informatics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Lyng, Heidi [Department of Radiation Biology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Malinen, Eirik, E-mail: eirik.malinen@fys.uio.no [Department of Medical Physics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

2012-03-01

65

Immobilized Contrast Enhanced (ICE) MRI: Gadolinium-based long-term MR Contrast Enhancement of the Vein Graft Vessel Wall*  

PubMed Central

An implantable MR contrast agent that can be covalently immobilized on tissue during surgery has been developed. The rationale is that a durable increase in tissue contrast using an implantable contrast agent can enhance post-surgical tissue differentiation using MRI. For small vessel (e.g., vein graft) MRI, the direct benefit of such permanent “labeling” of the vessel wall by modification of its relaxation properties is to achieve more efficient imaging. This efficiency can be realized as either increased contrast leading to more accurate delineation of vessel wall and lesion tissue boundaries, or, faster imaging without penalizing contrast-to-noise ratio, or a combination thereof. We demonstrate, for the first time, stable long-term MRI enhancement using such an exogenous contrast mechanism based on immobilizing a modified Gd-DTPA complex on a human vein using a covalent amide bond. Signal enhancement due to the covalently immobilized contrast agent is demonstrated for excised human vein specimens imaged at 3T, and its long-term stability is demonstrated during a 4-month incubation period. PMID:20859994

Mitsouras, Dimitris; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Yu, Peng; Tao, Ming; Nguyen, Binh T.; Campagna, Christina M.; Karp, Jeffrey M.; Mulkern, Robert V.; Ozaki, C. Keith; Rybicki, Frank J.

2010-01-01

66

2012 Fall : Distinguished Honors Distinguished  

E-print Network

Alexander Jacob Joseph Distinguished Alimpich Michelle Ann Distinguished Allen Brennan Noah Distinguished Honors LAST_NAME FIRST_NAME MIDDLE_NAME HONORS Barry Katelyn Marie Distinguished Barry Madeline Regan

Kasman, Alex

67

Perceptual enhancement of arteriovenous malformation in MRI angiography displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of presenting medical images in an intuitive and usable manner during a procedure is essential. However, most medical visualization interfaces, particularly those designed for minimally-invasive surgery, suffer from a number of issues as a consequence of disregarding the human perceptual, cognitive, and motor system's limitations. This matter is even more prominent when human visual system is overlooked during the design cycle. One example is the visualization of the neuro-vascular structures in MR angiography (MRA) images. This study investigates perceptual performance in the usability of a display to visualize blood vessels in MRA volumes using a contour enhancement technique. Our results show that when contours are enhanced, our participants, in general, can perform faster with higher level of accuracy when judging the connectivity of different vessels. One clinical outcome of such perceptual enhancement is improvement of spatial reasoning needed for planning complex neuro-vascular operations such as treating Arteriovenous Malformations (AVMs). The success of an AVM intervention greatly depends on fully understanding the anatomy of vascular structures. However, poor visualization of pre-operative MRA images makes the planning of such a treatment quite challenging.

Abhari, Kamyar; Baxter, John S. H.; Eagleson, Roy; Peters, Terry; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine

2012-02-01

68

Quantitative Evaluation of Enhancement Patterns in Focal Solid Liver Lesions with Gd-EOB-DTPA-Enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Purpose The objective was to investigate the dynamic enhancement patterns in focal solid liver lesions after the administration of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) by means of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including hepatobiliary phase (HP) images 20 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. Materials and Methods Non-enhanced T1/T2-weighted as well as dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) images during the arterial phase (AP), the portal venous phase (PVP), the late phase (LP), and the HP (20 min) were obtained from 83 patients (54 male, 29 female, mean age 62.01 years) with focal solid liver lesions. MRI was conducted by means of a 1.5-T system for 63 patients with malignant liver lesions (HCCs: n?=?34, metastases: n?=?29) and for 20 patients with benign liver lesions (FNH lesions: n?=?14, hemangiomas: n?=?3, adenomas: n?=?3). For quantitative analysis, signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), contrast enhancement ratios (CER), lesion-to-liver contrast ratios (LLC), and signal intensity (SI) ratios were measured. Results The SNR of liver parenchyma significantly increased in each dynamic phase after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration compared to the SNR of non-enhanced images (p<0.001). The CER of HCCs and metastases significantly decreased between LP and HP images (p?=?0.0011, p<0.0001). However, FNH lesions did not show any significant difference, whereas an increased CER was found in hemangiomas. The mean LLCs of FNH lesions were significantly higher than those of HCCs and metastases. The LLC values of hemangiomas remained negative during the entire time course, whereas the LLC of adenomas indicated hyperintensity from the AP to the LP. Furthermore, adenomas showed hypointensity in HP images. Conclusion Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI may help diagnose focal solid liver lesions by evaluating their enhancement patterns. PMID:24950259

Haimerl, Michael; Wächtler, Max; Zeman, Florian; Verloh, Niklas; Platzek, Ivan; Schreyer, Andreas Georg; Stroszczynski, Christian; Wiggermann, Philipp

2014-01-01

69

MRI-guided gas bubble enhanced ultrasound heating in in vivo rabbit thigh.  

PubMed

In this study, we propose a focused ultrasound surgery protocol that induces and then uses gas bubbles at the focus to enhance the ultrasound absorption and ultimately create larger lesions in vivo. MRI and ultrasound visualization and monitoring methods for this heating method are also investigated. Larger lesions created with a carefully monitored single ultrasound exposure could greatly improve the speed of tumour coagulation with focused ultrasound. All experiments were performed under MRI (clinical, 1.5 T) guidance with one of two eight-sector, spherically curved piezoelectric transducers. The transducer, either a 1.1 or 1.7 MHz array, was driven by a multi-channel RF driving system. The transducer was mounted in an MRI-compatible manual positioning system and the rabbit was situated on top of the system. An ultrasound detector ring was fixed with the therapy transducer to monitor gas bubble activity during treatment. Focused ultrasound surgery exposures were delivered to the thighs of seven New Zealand while rabbits. The experimental, gas-bubble-enhanced heating exposures consisted of a high amplitude 300 acoustic watt, half second pulse followed by a 7 W, 14 W or 21 W continuous wave exposure for 19.5 s. The respective control sonications were 20 s exposures of 14 W, 21 W and 28 W. During the exposures, MR thermometry was obtained from the temperature dependency of the proton resonance frequency shift. MRT2-enhanced imaging was used to evaluate the resulting lesions. Specific metrics were used to evaluate the differences between the gas-bubble-enhanced exposures and their respective control sonications: temperatures with respect to time and space, lesion size and shape, and their agreement with thermal dose predictions. The bubble-enhanced exposures showed a faster temperature rise within the first 4 s and higher overall temperatures than the sonications without bubble formation. The spatial temperature maps and the thermal dose maps derived from the MRI thermometry closely correlated with the resulting lesion as examined by T2-weighted imaging. The lesions created with the gas-bubble-enhanced heating exposures were 2-3 times larger by volume, consistently more spherical in shape and closer to the transducer than the control exposures. The study demonstrates that gas bubbles can reliably be used to create significantly larger lesions in vivo. MRI thermometry techniques were successfully used to monitor the thermal effects mediated by the bubble-enhanced exposures. PMID:12587906

Sokka, S D; King, R; Hynynen, K

2003-01-21

70

Assessment of blood–brain barrier disruption using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. A systematic review  

PubMed Central

There is increasing recognition of the importance of blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption in aging, dementia, stroke and multiple sclerosis in addition to more commonly-studied pathologies such as tumors. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is a method for studying BBB disruption in vivo. We review pathologies studied, scanning protocols and data analysis procedures to determine the range of available methods and their suitability to different pathologies. We systematically review the existing literature up to February 2014, seeking studies that assessed BBB integrity using T1-weighted DCE-MRI techniques in animals and humans in normal or abnormal brain tissues. The literature search provided 70 studies that were eligible for inclusion, involving 417 animals and 1564 human subjects in total. The pathologies most studied are intracranial neoplasms and acute ischemic strokes. There are large variations in the type of DCE-MRI sequence, the imaging protocols and the contrast agents used. Moreover, studies use a variety of different methods for data analysis, mainly based on model-free measurements and on the Patlak and Tofts models. Consequently, estimated KTrans values varied widely. In conclusion, DCE-MRI is shown to provide valuable information in a large variety of applications, ranging from common applications, such as grading of primary brain tumors, to more recent applications, such as assessment of subtle BBB dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. Further research is required in order to establish consensus-based recommendations for data acquisition and analysis and, hence, improve inter-study comparability and promote wider use of DCE-MRI. PMID:25379439

Heye, Anna K.; Culling, Ross D.; Valdés Hernández, Maria del C.; Thrippleton, Michael J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

2014-01-01

71

Contrast-enhanced ultra-high-field liver MRI: A feasibility trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced 7T MRI of the liver using an eight-channel radiofrequency (RF) transmit\\/receive body-coil. 16 healthy subjects were examined on a 7T MR system utilizing a custom-built eight-channel RF body-coil suitable for RF-shimming. The following data were acquired: (1) steady state free precession imaging, (2) T2w turbo spin echo

Lale Umutlu; Andreas K. Bitz; Stefan Maderwald; Stephan Orzada; Sonja Kinner; Oliver Kraff; Irina Brote; Susanne C. Ladd; Tobias Schroeder; Michael Forsting; Gerald Antoch; Mark E. Ladd; Harald H. Quick; Thomas C. Lauenstein

72

In vivo detection of neuroarchitecture in the rodent brain using manganese-enhanced MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visualizing brain anatomy in vivo could provide insight into normal and pathophysiology. Here it is demonstrated that neuroarchitecture can be detected in the rodent brain using MRI after systemic MnCl2. Administration of MnCl2 leads to rapid T1 enhancement in the choroid plexus and circumventricular organs, which spreads to the CSF space in ventricles and periventricular tissue. After 1 day, there

Ichio Aoki; Yi-Jen Lin Wu; Afonso C Silva; Ronald M Lynch; Alan P Koretsky

2004-01-01

73

Multifunctional nanoparticle platforms for in vivo MRI enhancement and photodynamic therapy of a rat brain cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A paradigm for brain cancer detection, treatment, and monitoring is established. Multifunctional biomedical nanoparticles (30–60nm) containing photosensitizer externally deliver reactive oxygen species (ROS) to cancer cells while simultaneously enhancing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast providing real-time tumor kill measurement. Plasma residence time control and specific cell targeting are achieved. A 5min treatment in rats halted and even reversed in vivo

Raoul Kopelman; Yong-Eun Lee Koo; Martin Philbert; Bradford A. Moffat; G. Ramachandra Reddy; Patrick McConville; Daniel E. Hall; Thomas L. Chenevert; Mahaveer Swaroop Bhojani; Sarah M. Buck; Alnawaz Rehemtulla; Brian D. Ross

2005-01-01

74

Casein-coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for High MRI Contrast Enhancement and Efficient Cell Targeting  

PubMed Central

Surface properties, as well as inherent physicochemical properties, of the engineered nanomaterials play important roles in their interactions with the biological systems, which eventually affect their efficiency in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here we report a new class MRI contrast agent based on milk casein protein coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CNIOs) with a core size of 15 nm and hydrodynamic diameter ~30 nm. These CNIOs exhibited excellent water-solubility, colloidal stability, and biocompatibility. Importantly, CNIOs exhibited prominent T2 enhancing capability with a transverse relaxivity r2 of 273 mM?1s?1 at 3 Tesla. The transverse relaxivity is ~2.5-fold higher than that of iron oxide nanoparticles with the same core but an amphiphilic polymer coating. CNIOs showed pH-responsive properties, formed loose and soluble aggregates near the pI (pH~4.0). The aggregates could be dissociated reversibly when the solution pH was adjusted away from the pI. The transverse relaxation property and MRI contrast enhancing effect of CNIOs remained unchanged in the pH range of 2.0 to 8.0. Further functionalization of CNIOs can be achieved via surface modification of the protein coating. Bio-affinitive ligands, such as a single chain fragment from the antibody of epidermal growth factor receptor (ScFvEGFR), could be readily conjugated onto the protein coating, enabling specific targeting to MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells over-expressing EGFR. T2-weighted MRI of mice intravenously administered with CNIOs demonstrated strong contrast enhancement in the liver and spleen. These favorable properties suggest CNIOs as a class of biomarker targeted magnetic nanoparticles for MRI contrast enhancement and related biomedical applications. PMID:23633522

Huang, Jing; Wang, Liya; Lin, Run; Wang, Andrew Y.; Yang, Lily; Kuang, Min; Qian, Weiping; Mao, Hui

2013-01-01

75

Interpreting therapeutic effect in multiple sclerosis via MRI contrast enhancing lesions: now you see them, now you don't.  

PubMed

Gadolinium (Gd) enhancement of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions on MRI scans is a commonly used outcome measure in therapeutic trials. However, enhancement depends on MRI acquisition parameters that might significantly alter detectability. We investigated how the difference in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability threshold between MRI protocols affects lesion detection and apparent enhancement time using dynamic-contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI. We examined fourty-four relapsing-remitting MS patients with two MRI protocols: 'standard sensitivity' (SS) (1.5 T, single-dose Gd) and 'high sensitivity' (HS) (3 T, triple-dose Gd, delayed acquisition). Eleven patients had at least one enhancing lesion and completed the 1-month follow-up. We acquired DCE-MRI during the HS protocol and calculated BBB permeability. Sixty-five lesions were enhanced with the SS vs. 135 with the HS protocol. The detection threshold of the HS was significantly lower than that of the SS protocol (K trans = 2.64 vs. 4.00E-3 min(-1), p < 0.01). Most lesions (74 %) were in the recovery phase; none were in the onset phase and 26 % were at the peak of enhancement. The estimated duration of detectability with the HS protocol was significantly longer than for the SS protocol (6-12 weeks vs. 3 weeks). Our observations on the protocol-dependent threshold for detection and time-course help explain discrepancies in the observed effects of anti-inflammatory therapies on MS lesions. PMID:24570281

Leppert, Ilana R; Narayanan, S; Araújo, D; Giacomini, P S; Lapierre, Y; Arnold, D L; Pike, G B

2014-04-01

76

Lack of nephrotoxicity of gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced non-vascular MRI and MRI without contrast agent in patients at high-risk for acute kidney injury  

PubMed Central

Background Gadolinium chelates (GCs) have been traditionally considered as non-nephrotoxic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast materials. However, it has been suggested in some recent articles that GCs may have a nephrotoxic potential, but most of these reports are retrospective. However, the evaluated contrast agents, their doses, and the tests used to determine the kidney function were not consistent across studies. We aimed to investigate the effect of magnetic field and an MRI contrast agent, gadopentetate dimeglumine (GD), on renal functions in patients at high risk for acute kidney injury (AKI). Material/Methods We designed a prospective case-control study with 2 age- and sex-matched groups of patients at high-risk for AKI (n=72 for each group). Patients in Group 1 received a fixed dose of (0.2 mmol/kg) GD-enhanced non-vascular MRI and patients in Group 2 received MRI without GD. Before the MRI and at 6, 24, 72, and 168 hours after the MRI, biochemical tests, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albumin/creatinine ratio in spot urine, and early AKI biomarkers (cystatin C, N-Acetyl-Glucosaminidase [NAG], Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL]) were measured. Results Serum creatinine, albumin/creatinine ratio, and eGFR were not different between Group 1 and 2 (p>0.05). There were no significant changes in renal function tests and AKI biomarkers (?serum creatinine, ?albumin/creatinine ratio, ?GFR, ?cystatin C, ?NAG, and ?NGAL) for either groups 6, 24, 72, and 168 hours after the procedures (p>0.05). Conclusions MRI without contrast agent and non-vascular contrast-enhanced (GD, 0.2 mmol/kg) MRI are not nephrotoxic procedures for patients at high risk for AKI. PMID:24193150

Oguz, Ebru Gok; Kiykim, Ahmet; Turgutalp, Kenan; Olmaz, Refik; Ozhan, Onur; Muslu, Necati; Horoz, Mehmet; Bardak, Simge; Sungur, Mehmet Ali

2013-01-01

77

Automatic Detection of Regional Heart Rejection in USPIO-Enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful to study the infiltration of cells in vivo. This research adopts ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles as contrast agents. USPIO particles administered intravenously can be endocytosed by circulating immune cells, in particular, macrophages. Hence, macrophages are labeled with USPIO particles. When a transplanted heart undergoes rejection, immune cells will infiltrate the allograft. Imaged by T2?- weighted MRI, USPIO-labeled macrophages display dark pixel intensities. Detecting these labeled cells in the image facilitates the identification of acute heart rejection. This paper develops a classifier to detect the presence of USPIO-labeled macrophages in the myocardium in the framework of spectral graph theory. First, we describe a USPIO-enhanced heart image with a graph. Classification becomes equivalent to partitioning the graph into two disjoint subgraphs. We use the Cheeger constant of the graph as an objective functional to derive the classifier. We represent the classifier as a linear combination of basis functions given from the spectral analysis of the graph Laplacian. Minimization of the Cheeger constant based functional leads to the optimal classifier. Experimental results and comparisons with other methods suggest the feasibility of our approach to study the rejection of hearts imaged by USPIO-enhanced MRI. PMID:18672427

Chang, Hsun-Hsien; Moura, José M. F.; Wu, Yijen L.; Ho, Chien

2008-01-01

78

Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement  

PubMed Central

We present quantitative optical images of human breast in vivo. The images were obtained by using near-infrared diffuse optical tomography (DOT) after the administration of indocyanine green (ICG) for contrast enhancement. The optical examination was performed concurrently with a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exam on patients scheduled for excisional biopsy or surgery so that accurate image coregistration and histopathological information of the suspicious lesions was available. The ICG-enhanced optical images coregistered accurately with Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance images validating the ability of DOT to image breast tissue. In contrast to simple transillumination, we found that DOT provides for localization and quantification of exogenous tissue chromophore concentrations. Additionally our use of ICG, an albumin bound absorbing dye in plasma, demonstrates the potential to differentiate disease based on the quantified enhancement of suspicious lesions. PMID:10706610

Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Yodh, A. G.; Schnall, Mitchell; Chance, Britton

2000-01-01

79

Neural Correlates of Feigned Memory Impairment are Distinguishable from Answering Randomly and Answering Incorrectly: An fMRI and Behavioral Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified activation in the prefrontal-parietal-sub-cortical circuit during feigned memory impairment when comparing with truthful telling. Here, we used fMRI to determine whether neural activity can differentiate between answering correctly, answering randomly, answering…

Liang, Chun-Yu; Xu, Zhi-Yuan; Mei, Wei; Wang, Li-Li; Xue, Li; Lu, De Jian; Zhao, Hu

2012-01-01

80

fMRI feedback enhances emotion regulation as evidenced by a reduced amygdala response.  

PubMed

Deficits in emotion regulation are a prominent feature of psychiatric conditions and a promising target for treatment. For instance, cognitive reappraisal is regarded as an effective strategy for emotion regulation. Neurophysiological models have established the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) as a key structure in the regulation of emotion processing through modulations of emotion-eliciting structures such as the amygdala. Feedback of the LPFC activity by real-time functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) may thus enhance the efficacy of cognitive reappraisal. During cognitive reappraisal of aversive visual stimuli, LPFC activity was fed back to the experimental group, whereas control participants received no such information. As a result, during reappraisal, amygdala activity was lower in the experimental group than in the controls. Furthermore, an increase of inter-hemispheric functional connectivity emerged in the feedback group. The current study extends the neurofeedback literature by suggesting that fMRI feedback can modify brain activity during a given task. PMID:25461265

Sarkheil, Pegah; Zilverstand, Anna; Kilian-Hütten, Niclas; Schneider, Frank; Goebel, Rainer; Mathiak, Klaus

2015-03-15

81

T? and T? dual-mode MRI contrast agent for enhancing accuracy by engineered nanomaterials.  

PubMed

One of the holy grails in biomedical imaging technology is to achieve accurate imaging of biological targets. The development of sophisticated instrumentation and the use of contrast agents have improved the accuracy of biomedical imaging. However, the issue of false imaging remains a problem. Here, we developed a dual-mode artifact filtering nanoparticle imaging agent (AFIA) that comprises a combination of paramagnetic and superparamagnetic nanomaterials. This AFIA has the ability to perform "AND logic gate" algorithm to eliminate false errors (artifacts) from the raw images to enhance accuracy of the MRI. We confirm the artifact filtering capability of AFIA in MRI phantoms and further demonstrate that artifact-free imaging of stem cell migration is possible in vivo. PMID:24673493

Shin, Tae-Hyun; Choi, Jin-sil; Yun, Seokhwan; Kim, Il-Sun; Song, Ho-Taek; Kim, Youngmee; Park, Kook In; Cheon, Jinwoo

2014-04-22

82

The dynamic of FUS-induced BBB Opening in Mouse Brain assessed by contrast enhanced MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Focused ultrasound (FUS) in combination with the administration of gas-filled microbubbles, can induce a localized and reversible opening of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been demonstrated as a precise tool to monitor such a local BBB disruption. However, the opening/closing mechanisms of the BBB with FUS are still largely unknown. In this ongoing project, we study the BBB opening dynamics in mouse brain comparing an interstitial and an intravascular MR contrast agent (CA). FUS in mouse brain was performed with an MRI compatible treatment setup (1.7 MHz fix-focus US transducer, f' = 68 mm, NA = 0.44; focus: 8.1 mm length; O/ = 1.1 mm) in a 1.5 T whole body MRI system. For BBB opening, forty 10 ms-long FUS-pulses were applied at a repetition rate of 1 Hz at 1 MPa. The i.v. administration of the micro bubbles (50 ?l SonoVue®) was started simultaneously with FUS exposure. To analyze the BBB opening process, short-term and long-term MRI signal dynamics of the interstitial MR contrast agent Magnevist® and the intravascular CA Vasovist® (Bayer-Schering) were studied. To assess short-term signal dynamics, T1-weighted inversion recovery turbo FLASH images (1s) were repeatedly acquired. Repeated 3D FLASH acquisitions (90 s) were used to assess long-term MRI signal dynamics. The short-term MRI signal enhancements showed comparable time constants for both types of MR contrast agents: 1.1 s (interstitial) vs. 0.8 s (intravascular). This time constant may serve as a time constant of the BBB opening process with the given FUS exposure parameters. For the long-term signal dynamics the intravascular CA (62±10 min) showed a fife times greater time constant as the interstitial contrast agent (12±10 min). This might be explained by the high molecular weight (˜60 kDa) of the intravascular Vasovist due to its reversible binding to blood serum albumin resulting in a prolonged half-life in the blood stream compared to the interstitial CA. As the intravascular CA offers a much longer time window for therapy assessment, FUS-BBB therapy control with an intravascular CA might be favorable.

Jenne, Jürgen W.; Krafft, Axel J.; Maier, Florian; Krause, Marie N.; Kleber, Susanne; Huber, Peter E.; Martin-Villalba, Ana; Bock, Michael

2010-03-01

83

Quantification of fibrosis in infarcted swine hearts by ex vivo late gadolinium-enhancement and diffusion-weighted MRI methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many have speculated that MRI signal characteristics can be used to identify regions of heterogeneous infarct associated with an arrhythmogenic substrate; however, direct evidence of this relationship is limited. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the remodelling characteristics of fibrosis by means of histology and high-resolution MR imaging. For this purpose, we performed whole-mount histology in heart samples (n = 9) collected from five swine at six weeks post-infarction and compared the extent of fibrosis in the infarcted areas delineated in these histological images with that obtained ex vivo by MRI using late gadolinium-enhancement (LGE) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) methods. All MR images were obtained at a submillimetre resolution (i.e., voxel size of 0.6×0.6×1.2 mm3). Specifically, in the histology images, we differentiated moderate fibrosis (consisting of a mixture of viable and non-viable myocytes, known as border zone, BZ) from severe fibrosis (i.e., the dense scar). Correspondingly, tissue heterogeneities in the MR images were categorized by a Gaussian mixture model into healthy, BZ and scar. Our results showed that (a) both MRI methods were capable of qualitatively distinguishing sharp edges between dense scar and healthy tissue from regions of heterogeneous BZ; (b) the BZ and dense scar areas had intermediate-to-high increased values of signal intensity in the LGE images and of apparent diffusion coefficient in the DWI, respectively. In addition, as demonstrated by the Picrosirius Red and immunohistochemistry stains, the viable bundles in the BZ were clearly separated by thin collagen strands and had reduced expression of Cx43, whereas the core scar was composed of dense fibrosis. A quantitative analysis demonstrated that the comparison between BZ/scar extent in LGE and DWI to the corresponding areas identified in histology yielded very good correlations (i.e., for the scar identified by LGE, R2 was 0.96 compared to R2 = 0.93 for the scar identified in ADC maps, whereas the BZ had R2 = 0.95 for the correlation between LGE and histology compared to R2 = 0.91 obtained for ADC). This novel study represents an intermediate step in translating such research to the in vivo stages, as well as in establishing the best and most accurate MR method to help identify arrhythmia substrate in patients with structural heart disease.

Pop, Mihaela; Ghugre, Nilesh R.; Ramanan, Venkat; Morikawa, Lily; Stanisz, Greg; Dick, Alexander J.; Wright, Graham A.

2013-08-01

84

2011 Spring : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished  

E-print Network

Distinguished Andrews Sarah Katherine Highly Distinguished Arjomand Sanaz Afrooz Highly Distinguished Armstrong Distinguished Bush Leah Faith Highly Distinguished Bush Susannah Joy Highly Distinguished Butler Katelyn Lee

Kasman, Alex

85

2009 Fall : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished  

E-print Network

Highly Distinguished Beck Adrienne Leigh Highly Distinguished Bedillion Kirstan N Highly Distinguished Distinguished Bocharski Jessica Marie Highly Distinguished Bodmer-Turner Simone Highly Distinguished Boggs Kyle

Kasman, Alex

86

Diagnostic efficacy of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in the detection of hepatocellular carcinomas: comparison with gadopentetate dimeglumine  

PubMed Central

This study compared the efficacy of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI in the detection of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Both MRI techniques were performed on 43 patients with a total of 59 HCCs (size range, 0.5–2.0 cm), with a mean interval between the two MRI studies of 3 days (range, 2–7 days). Two observers reviewed both data sets in consensus. Diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity were evaluated using the alternative-free response receiver operator characteristic (ROC) method. The gadoxetic acid set showed a trend toward increased area under the ROC curve (Az value = 0.958) compared with the gadopentetate dimeglumine set (Az value = 0.927), but the difference was not significant (p = 0.362). The sensitivity of the gadoxetic acid set (n = 51, 86.4%) was significantly higher than that of the gadopentetate dimeglumine set (n = 38, 64.4%) (p = 0.0001). Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI is a more sensitive diagnostic tool for detection of HCC than gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI. PMID:20682591

Park, G; Kim, Y K; Kim, C S; Yu, H C; Hwang, S B

2010-01-01

87

Histogram Analysis of Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced MRI for Quantitative Hepatic Fibrosis Measurement  

PubMed Central

Purpose The diagnosis and monitoring of liver fibrosis is an important clinical issue; however, this is usually achieved by invasive methods such as biopsy. We aimed to determine whether histogram analysis of hepatobiliary phase images of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide non-invasive quantitative measurement of liver fibrosis. Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional ethics committee, and a waiver of informed consent was obtained. Hepatobiliary phase images of preoperative gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI studies of 105 patients (69 males, 36 females; age 56.1±12.2) with pathologically documented liver fibrosis grades were analyzed. Fibrosis staging was F0/F1/F2/F3/F4 (METAVIR system) for 11/20/13/15/46 patients, respectively. Four regions-of-interest (ROI, each about 2 cm2) were placed on predetermined locations of representative images. The measured signal intensity of pixels in each ROI was used to calculate corrected coefficient of variation (cCV), skewness, and kurtosis. An average value of each parameter was calculated for comparison. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and linear regression. Results The cCV showed statistically significant differences among pathological fibrosis grades (P<0.001) whereas skewness and kurtosis did not. Univariable linear regression analysis suggested cCV to be a meaningful parameter in predicting the fibrosis grade (P<0.001, ??=?0.40 and standard error ?=?0.06). For discriminating F0-3 from F4, the area under ROC score was 0.857, standard deviation 0.036, 95% confidence interval 0.785–0.928. Conclusion Histogram analysis of hepatobiliary phase images of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI can provide non-invasive quantitative measurements of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:25460180

Kim, Honsoul; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Park, Young Nyun; Park, Hae-Jeong; Choi, Jin-Young

2014-01-01

88

Mapping Tumor Hypoxia In Vivo Using Pattern Recognition of Dynamic Contrast-enhanced MRI Data12  

PubMed Central

In solid tumors, hypoxia contributes significantly to radiation and chemotherapy resistance and to poor outcomes. The “gold standard” pO2 electrode measurements of hypoxia in vivo are unsatisfactory because they are invasive and have limited spatial coverage. Here, we present an approach to identify areas of tumor hypoxia using the signal versus time curves of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) data as a surrogate marker of hypoxia. We apply an unsupervised pattern recognition (PR) technique to determine the differential signal versus time curves associated with different tumor microenvironmental characteristics in DCE-MRI data of a preclinical cancer model. Well-perfused tumor areas are identified by rapid contrast uptake followed by rapid washout; hypoxic areas, which are regions of reduced vascularization, are identified by delayed contrast signal buildup and washout; and necrotic areas exhibit slow or no contrast uptake and no discernible washout over the experimental observation. The strength of the PR concept is that it captures the pixel-enhancing behavior in its entirety—during both contrast agent uptake and washout—and thus, subtleties in the temporal behavior of contrast enhancement related to features of the tumor microenvironment (driven by vascular changes) may be detected. The assignment of the tumor compartments/microenvironment to well vascularized, hypoxic, and necrotic is validated by comparison to data previously obtained using complementary imaging modalities. The proposed novel analysis approach has the advantage that it can be readily translated to the clinic, as DCE-MRI is used routinely for the identification of tumors in patients, is widely available, and easily implemented on any clinical magnet. PMID:23326621

Stoyanova, Radka; Huang, Kris; Sandler, Kiri; Cho, HyungJoon; Carlin, Sean; Zanzonico, Pat B; Koutcher, Jason A; Ackerstaff, Ellen

2012-01-01

89

Quantifying heterogeneity of lesion uptake in dynamic contrast enhanced MRI for breast cancer diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current study investigates whether texture features extracted from lesion kinetics feature maps can be used for breast cancer diagnosis. Fifty five women with 57 breast lesions (27 benign, 30 malignant) were subjected to dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) on 1.5T system. A linear-slope model was fitted pixel-wise to a representative lesion slice time series and fitted parameters were used to create three kinetic maps (wash out, time to peak enhancement and peak enhancement). 28 grey level co-occurrence matrices features were extracted from each lesion kinetic map. The ability of texture features per map in discriminating malignant from benign lesions was investigated using a Probabilistic Neural Network classifier. Additional classification was performed by combining classification outputs of most discriminating feature subsets from the three maps, via majority voting. The combined scheme outperformed classification based on individual maps achieving area under Receiver Operating Characteristics curve 0.960±0.029. Results suggest that heterogeneity of breast lesion kinetics, as quantified by texture analysis, may contribute to computer assisted tissue characterization in DCE-MRI.

Karahaliou, A.; Vassiou, K.; Skiadopoulos, S.; Kanavou, T.; Yiakoumelos, A.; Costaridou, L.

2009-07-01

90

Visualization of thermal ablation lesions using cumulative dynamic contrast enhancement MRI.  

PubMed

A novel robust and user friendly method for post-processing dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI data is presented, which provides reliable real-time delineation of the borders of thermal ablation lesions on low SNR images shortly after contrast agent injection without any model-based curve fitting. Some simple descriptors of the DCE process are calculated in a time efficient recursive manner and combined into a single image reflecting both current and previous enhancement states of each pixel, which allows robust discrimination between tissue areas with different perfusion properties. The resulting cumulative DCE (CDCE) images are shown to exhibit a strong correlation with histopathology and late gadolinium enhancement representations of the thermal damage in soft tissue. It is shown that the outer border of the non-perfused ablation lesion core on CDCE MRI corresponds to the histopathological lesion border. The described method has a potential not only to facilitate thermal ablation outcome assessment, but also to improve detection of infiltrative tumours and reduce the administered contrast agent dose in any DCE scans. PMID:23615319

Shmatukha, Andriy; Sethi, Benu; Shurrab, Mohammed; Ghate, Sudip; Qi, Xiuling; Barry, Jennifer; Wright, Graham; Crystal, Eugene

2013-05-21

91

Interactive detection and visualization of breast lesions from dynamic contrast enhanced MRI volumes.  

PubMed

Mammography is currently regarded as the most effective and widely used method for early detection of breast cancer, but recently its sensitivity in certain high risk cases has been less than desired. The use of Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) has gained considerable attention in the past 10 years, especially for high risk cases, for smaller multi-focal lesions, or very sparsely distributed lesions. In this work, we present an interactive visualization system to identify, process, visualize and quantify lesions from DCE-MRI volumes. Our approach has the following key features: (1) we determine a confidence measure for each voxel, representing the probability that the voxel is part of the tumor, using a rough goodness-of-fit for the shape of the intensity-time curves, (2) our system takes advantage of low-cost, readily available 3D texture mapping hardware to produce both 2D and 3D visualizations of the segmented MRI volume in near real-time, enabling improved spatial perception of the tumor location, shape, size, distribution, and other characteristics useful in staging and treatment courses, and (3) our system permits interactive manipulation of the signal-time curves, adapts to different tumor types and morphology, thus making it a powerful tool for radiologists/physicians to rapidly assess probable malignant volumes. We illustrate the application of our system with four case studies: invasive ductal cancer, benign fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma in situ and lobular carcinoma. PMID:15541950

Subramanian, Kalpathi R; Brockway, John P; Carruthers, William B

2004-12-01

92

Brain-wide pathway for waste clearance captured by contrast-enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

The glymphatic system is a recently defined brain-wide paravascular pathway for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange that facilitates efficient clearance of solutes and waste from the brain. CSF enters the brain along para-arterial channels to exchange with ISF, which is in turn cleared from the brain along para-venous pathways. Because soluble amyloid ? clearance depends on glymphatic pathway function, we proposed that failure of this clearance system contributes to amyloid plaque deposition and Alzheimer’s disease progression. Here we provide proof of concept that glymphatic pathway function can be measured using a clinically relevant imaging technique. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was used to visualize CSF-ISF exchange across the rat brain following intrathecal paramagnetic contrast agent administration. Key features of glymphatic pathway function were confirmed, including visualization of para-arterial CSF influx and molecular size-dependent CSF-ISF exchange. Whole-brain imaging allowed the identification of two key influx nodes at the pituitary and pineal gland recesses, while dynamic MRI permitted the definition of simple kinetic parameters to characterize glymphatic CSF-ISF exchange and solute clearance from the brain. We propose that this MRI approach may provide the basis for a wholly new strategy to evaluate Alzheimer’s disease susceptibility and progression in the live human brain. PMID:23434588

Iliff, Jeffrey J.; Lee, Hedok; Yu, Mei; Feng, Tian; Logan, Jean; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene

2013-01-01

93

DCE@urLAB: a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI pharmacokinetic analysis tool for preclinical data  

PubMed Central

Background DCE@urLAB is a software application for analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging data (DCE-MRI). The tool incorporates a friendly graphical user interface (GUI) to interactively select and analyze a region of interest (ROI) within the image set, taking into account the tissue concentration of the contrast agent (CA) and its effect on pixel intensity. Results Pixel-wise model-based quantitative parameters are estimated by fitting DCE-MRI data to several pharmacokinetic models using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA). DCE@urLAB also includes the semi-quantitative parametric and heuristic analysis approaches commonly used in practice. This software application has been programmed in the Interactive Data Language (IDL) and tested both with publicly available simulated data and preclinical studies from tumor-bearing mouse brains. Conclusions A user-friendly solution for applying pharmacokinetic and non-quantitative analysis DCE-MRI in preclinical studies has been implemented and tested. The proposed tool has been specially designed for easy selection of multi-pixel ROIs. A public release of DCE@urLAB, together with the open source code and sample datasets, is available at http://www.die.upm.es/im/archives/DCEurLAB/. PMID:24180558

2013-01-01

94

Enhancement of NMR and MRI in the presence of hyperpolarized noble gases  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates generally to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques for both spectroscopy and imaging. More particularly, the present invention relates to methods in which hyperpolarized noble gases (e.g., Xe and He) are used to enhance and improve NMR and MRI. Additionally, the hyperpolarized gas solutions of the invention are useful both in vitro and in vivo to study the dynamics or structure of a system. When used with biological systems, either in vivo or in vitro, it is within the scope of the invention to target the hyperpolarized gas and deliver it to specific regions within the system.

Pines, Alexander; Budinger, Thomas; Navon, Gil; Song, Yi-Qiao; Appelt, Stephan; Bifone, Angelo; Taylor, Rebecca; Goodson, Boyd; Seydoux, Roberto; Room, Toomas; Pietrass, Tanja

2004-11-16

95

Water-dispersible ascorbic-acid-coated magnetite nanoparticles for contrast enhancement in MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles of size ~5 nm surface functionalized with ascorbic acid (vitamin C) form a stable dispersion in water with a hydrodynamic size of ~30 nm. The anti-oxidant property of ascorbic acid is retained after capping, as evidenced from the capability of converting methylene blue to its reduced leuco form. NMR relaxivity studies show that the ascorbic-acid-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide aqueous nanofluid is suitable as a contrast enhancement agent for MRI applications, coupled with the excellent biocompatibility and medicinal values of ascorbic acid.

Sreeja, V.; Jayaprabha, K. N.; Joy, P. A.

2015-04-01

96

Reproducible imaging of rat corticothalamic pathway by longitudinal manganese-enhanced MRI (L-MEMRI).  

PubMed

Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) has been described as a powerful tool to depict the architecture of neuronal circuits. The aim of the present study was to optimize the experimental conditions of MEMRI that permits the study of insult-induced alterations of the somatosensory pathway in a longitudinal way, and to provide functional information on rat corticothalamic connectivity or disturbances thereof. A guidance screw was implanted in the skull of the rats, over the forelimb representation area of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1fl), allowing repetitive injections at the same stereotactic coordinates. MnCl2 (200 nL, 0.3 M) was injected 1.5 mm below the dura using a calibrated microcapillary. Animals received MnCl2 injections 3 times at 15 day intervals. Spatiotemporal patterns showed a significant hyperintensity on T1-weighted images induced by manganese transport in structures related to the somatosensory pathway, i.e. globus pallidus, caudate putamen, thalamus and substantia nigra. 7 days after MnCl2 injection hyperintensity was only evident at some points surrounding the injection site. Complete loss of manganese-induced contrast was achieved after 15 days after injection. Functional MRI (fMRI) experiments were performed under the same conditions, 24 h after MnCl2 injection. Activation of S1fl was observed showing that fMRI and MEMRI studies are compatible and can be performed in parallel in the same animals. The present study shows, for the first time, a robust and reproducible technique to perform longitudinal MEMRI (L-MEMRI) experiments and to study the time course of alterations of the corticothalamic connections following stroke in the rat. PMID:18445533

Soria, Guadalupe; Wiedermann, Dirk; Justicia, Carles; Ramos-Cabrer, Pedro; Hoehn, Mathias

2008-07-01

97

Complete biodegradable nature of calcium hydroxylapatite after injection for malar enhancement: an MRI study  

PubMed Central

Background Radiesse® (Calcium hydroxylapatite [CaHA]) is a biocompatible, injectable gel for facial soft tissue augmentation. It is a completely biodegradable filler and this is well documented, but objective imaging methods to confirm this property are scarce. Methods We present a case report in which CaHA was injected into the midface of a 50-year-old woman for volume restoration and shaping of the cheek region. On the right side of the face, 1.6 mL CaHA was injected as several (5?7) small depots (0.1?0.2 mL) using a 28G 3/4 inch needle and the vertical supraperiosteal depot technique. On the contralateral side of the face, the subject received 1.6 mL CaHA over three entry points using a 27G 1 1/2 inch blunt cannula and the fanning technique. CaHA location and degradation were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results CaHA appears as low-to-intermediate signal intensity on MRI images taken immediately after injection for malar enhancement with a symmetrical distribution. On MRI images taken 2.5 years after injection, no CaHA was visible but tissue volume remained increased, indicating a collagen-stimulating effect. The treatment was well tolerated. Conclusion In addition to producing long-lasting aesthetic and collagen-stimulating effects, MRI images confirm that CaHA is completely biodegradable with no product remaining 2.5 years after injection. PMID:25709485

Pavicic, Tatjana

2015-01-01

98

A data-driven approach to prostate cancer detection from dynamic contrast enhanced MRI.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) imaging, has shown great potential in prostate cancer diagnosis and staging. In the current practice of DCE-MRI, diagnosis is based on quantitative parameters extracted from the series of T1-weighted images acquired after the injection of a contrast agent. To calculate these parameters, a pharmacokinetic model is fitted to the T1-weighted intensities. Most models make simplistic assumptions about the perfusion process. Moreover, these models require accurate estimation of the arterial input function, which is challenging. In this work we propose a data-driven approach to characterization of the prostate tissue that uses the time series of DCE T1-weighted images without pharmacokinetic modeling. This approach uses a number of model-free empirical parameters and also the principal component analysis (PCA) of the normalized T1-weighted intensities, as features for cancer detection from DCE MRI. The optimal set of principal components is extracted with sparse regularized regression through least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO). A support vector machine classifier was used with leave-one-patient-out cross validation to determine the ability of this set of features in cancer detection. Our data is obtained from patients prior to radical prostatectomy and the results are validated based on histological evaluation of the extracted specimens. Our results, obtained on 449 tissue regions from 16 patients, show that the proposed data-driven features outperform the traditional pharmacokinetic parameters with an area under ROC of 0.86 for LASSO-isolated PCA parameters, compared to 0.78 for pharmacokinetic parameters. This shows that our novel approach to the analysis of DCE data has the potential to improve the multiparametric MRI protocol for prostate cancer detection. PMID:25060941

Haq, Nandinee Fariah; Kozlowski, Piotr; Jones, Edward C; Chang, Silvia D; Goldenberg, S Larry; Moradi, Mehdi

2015-04-01

99

2008 Fall : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished  

E-print Network

Distinguished Altman Matthew Lee Highly Distinguished Ameli-Grillon Leila Julie Highly Distinguished Anderson Caroleanne Highly Distinguished Anderson Kathryn Paige Highly Distinguished Anderson Kimberly Susan Highly Distinguished Blackwell Christina N Highly Distinguished Bladestorm Sarameyori Mae Highly Distinguished

Kasman, Alex

100

2009 Spring : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished  

E-print Network

Distinguished Andrews Sarah Katherine Highly Distinguished Anthony Paige Constance Highly Distinguished Distinguished Brown Stephen W Highly Distinguished Browne Katherine E Highly Distinguished Browning Christine Faith Highly Distinguished Bush Susannah Joy Highly Distinguished Butler Katelyn Lee Highly

Kasman, Alex

101

Monitoring radiation-induced changes in bone marrow histopathology with ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO)-enhanced MRI.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to monitor radiation-induced alterations of the blood-bone marrow barrier (BMB) and the reticuloendothelial system (RES) with AMI-227-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty New Zealand white rabbits (n = 10 following total body irradiation and n = 10 controls) underwent AMI-227-enhanced MRI. Pulse sequences included dynamic fast low-angle shot (FLASH; TR/TE 50/4 msec, flip angle 60 degrees) MRI and static T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) and turbo-SE sequences of the lumbar spine and sacrum. Bone marrow enhancement was quantified as delta signal intensity (SI) (%) =|[(SIpost - SIpre)/SIpre] x 100%| and compared with histopathology, including iron stains and electron microscopy. Dynamic bone marrow deltaSI (%) data steadily increased up to 10-15 minutes after AMI-227 administration, while blood deltaSI (%) data stayed nearly constant, histologically corresponding to iron oxide leakage into the bone marrow interstitium. This bone marrow contrast enhancement increased significantly following irradiation, corresponding to alterations of the endothelial lining of the bone marrow sinusoids. Late postcontrast images exhibited a significant positive T1 enhancement and negative T2 enhancement of the normal bone marrow, which further increased with irradiation due to increased RES activity. Irradiation-induced changes in bone marrow physiology could be reliably assessed with AMI-227-enhanced MRI. PMID:10331759

Daldrup, H E; Link, T M; Blasius, S; Strozyk, A; Könemann, S; Jürgens, H; Rummeny, E J

1999-05-01

102

The MRI Contrast Agent Gadoteridol Enhances Distribution of rAAV1 in the Rat Hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Contrast agents are commonly used in combination with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor the distribution of molecules in the brain. Recent experiments conducted in our laboratory have shown that co-infusion of recombinant Adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (rAAV5) and the MRI contrast agent gadoteridol (Gd) enhances vector transduction of in the rat striatum. The goal of this study was to determine whether gadoteridol may also be used as a tool to enhance transduction efficiency of rAAV1 and rAAV5 within the rat hippocampus. We show that Gd/rAAV1-GFP but not Gd/rAAV5-GFP co-infusion results in significantly higher distribution of the transgene both in the injected hemisphere as well as in the contralateral side and adjacent areas of cortex along the injection track. We also show that Gd/rAAV1-GFP co-infusion has no deleterious effect on hippocampal function as assessed by two tests of spatial memory formation. This work indicates that gadoteridol can be exploited as a method to increase transduction efficiency of AAV1 in the hippocampus for animal studies. PMID:24048419

Hullinger, Rikki; Ugalde, Jeanet; Purón-Sierra, Liliana; Osting, Sue; Burger, Corinna

2013-01-01

103

The distribution of Mn2+ in rabbit eyes after topical administration for manganese-enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To analyze the distribution of Mn2+ in rabbit eyes after topical administration of Mncl2 for manganese-enhanced MRI. Methods: Forty-eight Chinese white rabbits were divided into three groups. In group 1 (n = 4), the baseline concentration of Mn2+ in aqueous, vitreous and serum samples were analyzed. In group 2 and 3, the rabbits received one topical instillation (20 ?L) of Mncl2 (1 mol•L-1). In group 2 (n = 40), aqueous, vitreous and serum samples were collected and analyzed at predetermined time points (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 168 hours postdose). Assays were performed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). In group 3 (n = 4), after topical administration of Mncl2, dynamic manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) was performed at predetermined time points. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was calculated to evaluate the enhancements of eyes. Results: After topical administration, the maximum concentrations of Mn2+ in the aqueous and vitreous samples were 11.1641 ± 0.7202 (2 hours) and 1.5622 ± 0.1567 (12 hours). In group 3, the maximum enhancement of aqueous humor (SNR = 108.81 ± 10.65) appeared at 2 hours postdose, whereas, no significant changes were detected in vitreous. Conclusion: Mn2+ could distribute into aqueous humor rapidly after topical administration of Mncl2, whereas, the concentration of Mn2+ in vitreous body fluctuated in a narrow range over the course. The uptake of Mn2+ in retina may involve several different pathways. PMID:25755783

Liang, Shenzhi; Liang, Miao; Zhu, Yu; Cheng, Jingliang; Yang, Zitao

2015-01-01

104

Interpretation and applicability of empirical tissue enhancement metrics in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI based on a multiple pathway model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer simulations based on a physiologically realistic tracer kinetic model with multiple pathways was used to provide insights on the applicability and interpretation of tissue enhancement metrics such as the maximum slope, peak enhancement and area under curve, commonly used in dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI. Results show that physiological conditions of the tissue that could affect the accuracy of the maximal slope method include a high blood flow, increased variability of flow within the vasculature or a low vascular volume. Interestingly, changes in permeability and interstitial volume might not affect the accuracy of the maximal slope method. Time-to-peak and peak value of the tissue enhancement curve are not strictly properties of the tissue alone, and they cannot be linearly related to intrinsic tissue parameters such as blood flow, blood volume, capillary permeability, interstitial volume and mean transit time. Similar to the normalized initial area under tissue concentration curve, an alternative estimate of the total tracer distribution volume can be simply given by the ratio of tracer concentration in the tissue and artery sampled at the final DCE scan.

Koh, T. S.; Shi, W.; Thng, C. H.; Kwek, J. W.; Bisdas, S.; Khoo, J. B. K.

2012-08-01

105

The Quality of Tumor Size Assessment by Contrast-Enhanced Spectral Mammography and the Benefit of Additional Breast MRI  

PubMed Central

Background - Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) is a promising new breast imaging modality that is superior to conventional mammography for breast cancer detection. We aimed to evaluate correlation and agreement of tumor size measurements using CESM. As additional analysis, we evaluated whether measurements using an additional breast MRI exam would yield more accurate results. Methods - Between January 1st 2013 and April 1st 2014, 87 consecutive breast cancer cases that underwent CESM were collected and data on maximum tumor size measurements were gathered. In 57 cases, tumor size measurements were also available for breast MRI. Histopathological results of the surgical specimen served as gold standard in all cases. Results - The Pearson's correlation coefficients (PCC) of CESM versus histopathology and breast MRI versus histopathology were all >0.9, p<0.0001. For the agreement between measurements, the mean difference between CESM and histopathology was 0.03 mm. The mean difference between breast MRI and histopathology was 2.12 mm. Using a 2x2 contingency table to assess the frequency distribution of a relevant size discrepancy of >1 cm between the two imaging modalities and histopathological results, we did not observe any advantage of performing an additional breast MRI after CESM in any of the cases. Conclusion - Quality of tumor size measurement using CESM is good and matches the quality of these measurement assessed by breast MRI. Additional measurements using breast MRI did not improve the quality of tumor size measurements. PMID:25561979

Lobbes, Marc B.I.; Lalji, Ulrich C.; Nelemans, Patty J.; Houben, Ivo; Smidt, Marjolein L.; Heuts, Esther; de Vries, Bart; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Beets-Tan, Regina G.

2015-01-01

106

2010 Spring : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished  

E-print Network

Ameli-Grillon Leila Julie Highly Distinguished Anderson Kathryn Paige Highly Distinguished Anderson Lucy Distinguished Beesley Jaclyn Mae Highly Distinguished Beidler Brien Hunter Highly Distinguished Beidler Katilyn

Kasman, Alex

107

The correlation of contrast-enhanced ultrasound and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis in rabbit VX2 liver cancer.  

PubMed

Our objective is to explore the value of liver cancer contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis in liver cancer and the correlation between these two analysis methods. Rabbit VX2 liver cancer model was established in this study. CEUS was applied. Sono Vue was applied in rabbits by ear vein to dynamically observe and record the blood perfusion and changes in the process of VX2 liver cancer and surrounding tissue. MRI perfusion quantitative analysis was used to analyze the mean enhancement time and change law of maximal slope increasing, which were further compared with the pathological examination results. Quantitative indicators of liver cancer CEUS and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis were compared, and the correlation between them was analyzed by correlation analysis. Rabbit VX2 liver cancer model was successfully established. CEUS showed that time-intensity curve of rabbit VX2 liver cancer showed "fast in, fast out" model while MRI perfusion quantitative analysis showed that quantitative parameter MTE of tumor tissue increased and MSI decreased: the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The diagnostic results of CEUS and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis were not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, the quantitative parameter of them were significantly positively correlated (P < 0.05). CEUS and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis can both dynamically monitor the liver cancer lesion and surrounding liver parenchyma, and the quantitative parameters of them are correlated. The combined application of both is of importance in early diagnosis of liver cancer. PMID:25123838

Xiang, Zhiming; Liang, Qianwen; Liang, Changhong; Zhong, Guimian

2014-12-01

108

2012 Fall : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished  

E-print Network

Hanna Lynne Highly Distinguished Augur Isabel Furse Highly Distinguished Austin Adrian Thomas Highly Highly Distinguished Baker Laura Jane Highly Distinguished Baker Ross E Highly Distinguished Baker Sarah Demetrius Highly Distinguished Bednar Parker William Highly Distinguished Bell Jaclyn Austin Highly

Kasman, Alex

109

2013 Spring : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished  

E-print Network

-riche Jeanmarc Robert Highly Distinguished Austin Adrian Thomas Highly Distinguished Awgulewitsch Cassandra Distinguished Bailey Connor Shane Highly Distinguished Baker Anne Marie Highly Distinguished Baker Laura Jane Demetrius Highly Distinguished Bednar Parker William Highly Distinguished Bell Jaclyn Austin Highly

Kasman, Alex

110

Ferumoxytol enhanced resting state fMRI and relative cerebral blood volume mapping in normal human brain.  

PubMed

The brain demonstrates spontaneous low-frequency (<0.1 Hz) cerebral blood flow (CBF) fluctuations, measurable by resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). Ultra small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles have been shown to enhance task-based fMRI signals (cerebral blood volume fMRI or CBV-fMRI), compared to the BOLD effect, by a factor of ?2.5 at 3 T in primates and humans. We evaluated the use of ferumoxytol for steady state, resting state FMRI (CBV-rs-fMRI) and relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) mapping, at 3T, in healthy volunteers. All standard resting state networks (RSNs) were identified in all subjects. On average the RSN Z statistics (MELODIC independent components) and volumes of the visual and default mode (DMN) networks were comparable. rCBV values were averaged for the visual (Vis) and DMN networks and correlated with the corresponding DMN and visual network Z statistics. There was a negative correlation between the rCBV and the Z statistics for the DMN, for both BOLD and CBV-rs-fMRI contrast (R2=0.63, 0.76). A similar correlation was not found for the visual network. Short repetition time rs-fMRI data were Fourier transformed to evaluate the effect of ferumoxytol on cardiac and respiratory fluctuations in the brain rs-BOLD, CBV signals. Cardiac and respiratory fluctuations decreased to baseline within large vessels post ferumoxytol. Robust rs-fMRI and CBV mapping is possible in normal human brain. PMID:23831413

D'Arceuil, Helen; Coimbra, Alexandre; Triano, Pamela; Dougherty, Margaret; Mello, Julie; Moseley, Michael; Glover, Gary; Lansberg, Maarten; Blankenberg, Francis

2013-12-01

111

Computerized breast lesions detection using kinetic and morphologic analysis for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.  

PubMed

To facilitate rapid and accurate assessment, this study proposed a novel fully automatic method to detect and identify focal tumor breast lesions using both kinetic and morphologic features from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). After motion registration of all phases of the DCE-MRI study, three automatically generated lines were used to segment the whole breast region of each slice. The kinetic features extracted from the pixel-based time-signal intensity curve (TIC) by a two-stage detection algorithm was first used, and then three-dimensional (3-D) morphologic characteristics of the detected regions were applied to differentiate between tumor and non-tumor regions. In this study, 95 biopsy-confirmed lesions (28 benign and 67 malignant lesions) in 54 women were used to evaluate the detection efficacy of the proposed system. The detection performance was analyzed using the free-response operating characteristics (FROC) curve and detection rate. The proposed computer-aided detection (CADe) system had a detection rate of 92.63% (88/95) of all tumor lesions, with 6.15 false positives per case. Based on the results, kinetic features extracted by TIC can be used to detect tumor lesions and 3-D morphology can effectively reduce the false positives. PMID:24582545

Chang, Yeun-Chung; Huang, Yan-Hao; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Chang, Ruey-Feng

2014-06-01

112

Enhancing creativity by means of cognitive stimulation: evidence from an fMRI study.  

PubMed

Cognitive stimulation via the exposure to ideas of other people is an effective tool in stimulating creativity in group-based creativity techniques. In this fMRI study, we investigate whether creative cognition can be enhanced through idea sharing and how performance improvements are reflected in brain activity. Thirty-one participants had to generate alternative uses of everyday objects during fMRI recording. Additionally, participants performed this task after a time period in which they had to reflect on their ideas or in which they were confronted with stimulus-related ideas of others. Cognitive stimulation was effective in improving originality, and this performance improvement was associated with activation increases in a neural network including right-hemispheric temporo-parietal, medial frontal, and posterior cingulate cortices, bilaterally. Given the involvement of these brain areas in semantic integration, memory retrieval, and attentional processes, cognitive stimulation could have resulted in a modulation of bottom-up attention enabling participants to produce more original ideas. PMID:20561898

Fink, Andreas; Grabner, Roland H; Gebauer, Daniela; Reishofer, Gernot; Koschutnig, Karl; Ebner, Franz

2010-10-01

113

Quantitative gadopentetate-enhanced MRI of breast tumors: testing of different analytic methods.  

PubMed

This study assessed several proposed imaging strategies and analytic methods based on gadopentetate-enhanced MRI to differentiate benign from malignant breast tumors in a blinded experimental animal study. Steady-state dynamic MRI and first-pass imaging, performed with either T(1)- or T*(2)- weighted sequences, were compared. Semiquantitative and quantitative analysis methods, based on empirical measures of the data or physiological models, were subsequently applied to the imaging datasets. Comparative measures provided pathologic distinction of benign from malignant tumors, tumor grading, and histologic determination of microvascular density. Of the eight tested methods, only one, an estimate of first-pass perfusion using T *(2)-weighted imaging, showed an almost significant (P = 0.05) difference between benign and malignant tumors and correlated almost significantly (r =.3, P = 0.06) with the tumor grade. All other tests, performed either with steady-state imaging or with T(1)-weighted first-pass imaging, failed to differentiate benign from malignant tumors. In addition, they yielded poor correlations with tumor grade and microvascular density. PMID:11108629

Helbich, T H; Roberts, T P; Gossmann, A; Wendland, M F; Shames, D M; Adachi, M; Yang, S; Huber, S; Daldrup, H; Brasch, R C

2000-12-01

114

Enhanced identification of BOLD-like components with multi-echo simultaneous multi-slice (MESMS) fMRI and multi-echo ICA.  

PubMed

The recent introduction of simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) acquisitions has enabled the acquisition of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data with significantly higher temporal sampling rates. In a parallel development, the use of multi-echo fMRI acquisitions in conjunction with a multi-echo independent component analysis (ME-ICA) approach has been introduced as a means to automatically distinguish functionally-related BOLD signal components from signal artifacts, with significant gains in sensitivity, statistical power, and specificity. In this work, we examine the gains that can be achieved with a combined approach in which data obtained with a multi-echo simultaneous multi-slice (MESMS) acquisition are analyzed with ME-ICA. We find that ME-ICA identifies significantly more BOLD-like components in the MESMS data as compared to data acquired with a conventional multi-echo single-slice acquisition. We demonstrate that the improved performance of MESMS derives from both an increase in the number of temporal samples and the enhanced ability to filter out high-frequency artifacts. PMID:25743045

Olafsson, Valur; Kundu, Prantik; Wong, Eric C; Bandettini, Peter A; Liu, Thomas T

2015-05-15

115

Dynamic contrast-enhanced(DCE) MRI Assessment of microvascular characteristics in the murine orthotopic pancreatic cancer model.  

PubMed

Object To assess the dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI)-derived pharmacokinetic parameters between two contrast agents in a murine orthotopic pancreatic cancer model and to evaluate the tumor heterogenity and the potential association between kinetic parameters and angiogenic markers such as the microvessel density (MVD) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression by immunohistochemistry. PMID:25169584

Wu, Li; Lv, Peng; Zhang, Haitao; Fu, Caixia; Yao, Xiuzhong; Wang, Chen; Zeng, Mengsu; Li, Yingyi; Wang, Xiaolin

2014-08-25

116

Infarction of Uterine Fibroids After Embolization: Relationship Between Postprocedural Enhanced MRI Findings and Long-Term Clinical Outcomes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To retrospectively evaluate the relationship between the degree of infarction of uterine fibroids on enhanced MRI after embolization and long-term clinical outcomes. Methods. During 92 months, 290 consecutive patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids were treated with embolization; 221 who underwent enhanced MRI before embolization and 1 week after embolization were included in this study. The infarction rates of all fibroid tissue were assessed using enhanced MRI after embolization. Patients were divided into three groups according to the infarction rates: group A (100% infarction, n 142), group B (90-99% infarction, n = 74), group C (<90% infarction, n = 5). The cumulative rates of clinical outcomes were compared among groups using the Kaplan-Meier limited method. Results. Group A had a significantly higher rate of symptom control than groups B and C. The cumulative rates of symptom control at 5 years were 93%, 71%, and 60% in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Group A had a significantly lower rate of gynecologic intervention after embolization than groups B and C. The cumulative rates of additional gynecologic intervention at 5 years were 3%, 15%, and 20% in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Conclusions. The degree of infarction of uterine fibroids after embolization on enhanced MRI was related to long-term clinical outcomes. Complete infarction of all fibroid tissue can induce a higher rate of symptom control, with a lower rate of additional gynecologic intervention in the long term compared with incomplete infarction of fibroid tissue.

Katsumori, Tetsuya, E-mail: katsumo@eurus.dti.ne.jp; Kasahara, Toshiyuki; Kin, Yoko; Nozaki, Taiki [Saiseikai Shiga Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2008-01-15

117

Nanoparticle-Enhanced MRI to Evaluate Radiation Delivery to the Regional Lymphatics for Patients With Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: At present, radiation (RT) fields are based largely, and often solely, on bony anatomy. Recent efforts have been taken to better define lymphatic regions for RT planning. Lymphotrophic nanoparticle-enhanced MRI (LN-MRI) allows for accurate identification of malignant and benign lymph nodes. We sought to evaluate RT delivery to lymphatics for breast cancer using LN-MRI. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three patients with breast cancer underwent LN-MRI. MRIs were anatomically registered to a reference CT; benign and malignant lymph nodes were contoured. Standard RT fields were planned and dose calculated to prescribe 45-50 Gy. Lymphatic regions were contoured on CT. Coverage of LN-MRI lymph nodes by RT fields and contoured lymphatics were assessed. Results: Eighty-one percent of all lymph nodes defined by LN-MRI were covered by the 45-Gy isodose line; 82% of malignant and 79% of benign. The 50-Gy isodose line only encompassed 60% of LN-MRI defined lymph nodes-64% of malignant and 59% of benign. For nodal volumes contoured in the absence of a margin, 86% of actual lymph nodes were within contoured volumes. When a 5-mm expansion was added, 99% were included. Conclusions: LN-MRI is a useful tool to delineate the location of breast regional lymphatics. These results suggest less than desired coverage of lymph nodes using standard RT fields and that a margin may be advisable when defining nodal volumes by CT. The use of IMRT and RT in lieu of surgery makes accurate definition of the location of breast regional lymphatics of paramount importance.

MacDonald, Shannon M., E-mail: smacdonald@partners.or [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Harisinghani, Mukesh G.; Katkar, Amol; Napolitano, Brian; Wolfgang, John; Taghian, Alphonse G. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

2010-07-15

118

Statistical mapping of sound-evoked activity in the mouse auditory midbrain using Mn-enhanced MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) has been developed to image brain activity in small animals, including normal and genetically modified mice. Here, we report the use of a MEMRI-based statistical parametric mapping method to analyze sound-evoked activity in the mouse auditory midbrain, the inferior colliculus (IC). Acoustic stimuli with defined frequency and amplitude components were shown to activate and enhance neuronal ensembles

Xin Yu; Jing Zou; James S. Babb; Glyn Johnson; Dan H. Sanes; Daniel H. Turnbull

2008-01-01

119

2013 Fall : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished  

E-print Network

Alexander Highly Distinguished Allen Meagan Lynn Highly Distinguished Allen Nicholas Parker Highly Parker William Highly Distinguished Belk Lauren Ashley Highly Distinguished Bellanger Lucia Anne Highly Distinguished Boyd Lindsay Elizabeth Louis Highly Distinguished Bradd Rachel Jo

Kasman, Alex

120

Combined use of T2-weighted MRI and T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in the automated analysis of breast lesions.  

PubMed

A multiparametric computer-aided diagnosis scheme that combines information from T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI and T2-weighted MRI was investigated using a database of 110 malignant and 86 benign breast lesions. Automatic lesion segmentation was performed, and three categories of lesion features (geometric, T1-weighted DCE, and T2-weighted) were automatically extracted. Stepwise feature selection was performed considering only geometric features, only T1-weighted DCE features, only T2-weighted features, and all features. Features were merged with Bayesian artificial neural networks, and diagnostic performance was evaluated by ROC analysis. With leave-one-lesion-out cross-validation, an area under the ROC curve value of 0.77±0.03 was achieved with T2-weighted-only features, indicating high diagnostic value of information in T2-weighted images. Area under the ROC curve values of 0.79±0.03 and 0.80 ± 0.03 were obtained for geometric-only features and T1-weighted DCE-only features, respectively. When all features were considered, an area under the ROC curve value of 0.85±0.03 was achieved. We observed P values of 0.006, 0.023, and 0.0014 between the geometric-only, T1-weighted DCE-only, and T2-weighted-only features and all features conditions, respectively. When ranked, the P values satisfied the Holm-Bonferroni multiple-comparison test; thus, the improvement of multiparametric computer-aided diagnosis was statistically significant. A computer-aided diagnosis scheme that combines information from T1-weighted DCE and T2-weighted MRI may be advantageous over conventional T1-weighted DCE-MRI computer-aided diagnosis. PMID:21523818

Bhooshan, Neha; Giger, Maryellen; Lan, Li; Li, Hui; Marquez, Angelica; Shimauchi, Akiko; Newstead, Gillian M

2011-08-01

121

Myelin mapping in the central nervous system of living mice using contrast-enhanced magnetization transfer MRI.  

PubMed

This work compares magnetization transfer (MT) MRI of living mice with contrast-enhanced MT MRI using intraventricular administration of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA), systemic administration of MnCl2, and both. In MT MRI at 9.4 T, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) increased by 85% after Gd-DTPA injection into the lateral ventricle. When applied in conjunction with manganese-enhanced MT MRI (117 ?m isotropic resolution, 6 min measuring time), Gd-DTPA boosted the CNR increase from +56% to +117%. Additional T1 measurements at 2.35 T revealed that intraventricular Gd-DTPA shortens the T1 of GM much more than that of WM, which corresponds to estimated extracellular spaces of 26% in GM and only 15% in WM. These results explain the additional MT contrast enhancement by Gd-DTPA and demonstrate that the T1 shortening by intracellular Mn2+ is well complemented by extracellular Gd-DTPA. The data suggest a high myelin and low water content to hinder access of hydrophilic paramagnetic agents, so that the resulting differential accumulation effectively reduces the MT saturation in water-rich tissues and thereby facilitates the mapping of myelin-rich tissues. Finally, a 156% CNR increase between GM and WM for contrast-enhanced MT MRI at 9.4T using both Gd-DTPA and manganese allowed for 60?m isotropic resolution (102 min measuring time), which delineated myelinated fibers and layers even within GM areas such as the thalamus and cerebellar cortex. Improved MT contrasts were also seen in the cervical spinal cord. PMID:22796983

Watanabe, Takashi; Frahm, Jens; Michaelis, Thomas

2012-11-01

122

Investigating the Influence of Flip Angle and k-Space Sampling on Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI Breast Examinations  

PubMed Central

Rationale and Objectives To retrospectively investigate the effect of flip angle (FA) and k-space sampling on the performance of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) breast sequences. Materials and Methods Five DCE-MRI breast sequences were evaluated (10°, 14°, and 18° FAs; radial or linear k-space sampling), with 7–10 patients in each group (n = 45). All sequences were compliant with current technical breast screening guidelines. Contrast agent (CA) uptake curves were constructed from the right mammary artery for each examination. Maximum relative enhancement, Emax, and time-to-peak enhancement, Tmax, were measured and compared between protocols (analysis of variance and Mann–Whitney). For each sequence, calculated values of maximum relative enhancement, Ecalc, were derived from the Bloch equations and compared to Emax. Fat suppression performance (residual bright fat and chemical shift artifact) was rated for each examination and compared between sequences (Fisher exact tests). Results Significant differences were identified between DCE-MRI sequences. Emax increased significantly at higher FAs and with linear k-space sampling (P < .0001; P = .001). Radial protocols exhibited greater Tmax than linear protocols at FAs of both 14° (P = .025) and 18° (P < .0001), suggesting artificially flattened uptake curves. Good correlation was observed between Ecalc and Emax (r = 0.86). Fat suppression failure was more pronounced at an FA of 18° (P = .008). Conclusions This retrospective approach is validated as a tool to compare and optimize breast DCE-MRI sequences. Alterations in FA and k-space sampling result in significant differences in CA uptake curve shape which could potentially affect diagnostic interpretation. These results emphasize the need for careful parameter selection and greater standardization of breast DCE-MRI sequences. PMID:25179563

Ledger, Araminta E.W.; Borri, Marco; Pope, Romney J.E.; Scurr, Erica D.; Wallace, Toni; Richardson, Cheryl; Usher, Marianne; Allen, Steven; Wilson, Robin M.; Thomas, Karen; deSouza, Nandita M.; Leach, Martin O.; Schmidt, Maria A.

2014-01-01

123

Whole-body kinetic image of a redox probe in mice using Overhauser-enhanced MRI.  

PubMed

Overhauser-enhanced MRI (OMRI) enables visualization of free radicals in animals based on dynamic nuclear polarization. Real-time data of tissue redox status gathered from kinetic images of redox-sensitive nitroxyl radical probes using OMRI provided both anatomic and physiological information. Phantom experiments demonstrated the linear correlation between the enhancement factor and the concentration of a membrane-impermeable probe, carboxy-PROXYL (3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl- pyrrolidine-1-oxyl). Whole-body OMRI images illustrated the in vivo kinetics of carboxy-PROXYL for 25 min. Initial distribution was observed in lung, heart, liver, and kidney, but not brain, corresponding to its minimal lipophilicity. Based on these images (pixel size, 1.33 × 1.33 mm; slice thickness, 50mm), a time-concentration curve with low coefficient of variance (<0.21) was created to assess pharmacokinetic behaviors. A biexponential curve showed a distribution phase from 1 to 10 min and an elimination phase from 15 to 25 min. The ? rate constant was greater than the ? rate constant in ROIs, confirming that its pharmacokinetics obeyed a two-compartment model. As a noninvasive technique, combining OMRI imaging with redox probes to monitor tissue redox status may be useful in acquiring valuable information regarding organ function for preclinical and clinical studies of oxidative diseases. PMID:22579576

Kosem, Nuttavut; Naganuma, Tatsuya; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Phumala Morales, Noppawan; Yasukawa, Keiji; Hyodo, Fuminori; Yamada, Ken-Ichi; Utsumi, Hideo

2012-07-15

124

Parametric mapping of the hepatic perfusion index with gadolinium-enhanced volumetric MRI.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to adapt the hepatic perfusion index (HPI) methodology previously developed for MRI to derive 3D parametric maps of HPI, and to investigate apparent differences in HPI maps between a group of colorectal cancer patients and controls. To achieve this, a new and simpler approach to HPI calculation which does not require measurements from the aorta or portal vein is introduced, and assessed with large liver regions of interest (ROIs) in patients and controls. Several example HPI maps showing localized variation are then presented. The subject group consisted of 12 patients with known colorectal metastases, and 13 control subjects referred for routine contrast-enhanced spine imaging with no history of neoplastic disease. HPI was evaluated from serial T1 volume acquisitions acquired over the course of a Gd-DTPA bolus injection. Regions of abnormal perfusion were visible on the HPI maps derived for the patient group, manifested as areas of locally increased HPI extending around the visible margins of known metastases evident on the conventional contrast-enhanced images. This method for MR voxel-based parametric mapping of HPI has the potential to demonstrate regional variations in perfusion at the segmental and subsegmental level. PMID:16854961

White, M J; O'Gorman, R L; Charles-Edwards, E M; Kane, P A; Karani, J B; Leach, M O; Totman, J J

2007-02-01

125

Practical Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI in Small Animal Models of Cancer: Data Acquisition, Data Analysis, and Interpretation  

PubMed Central

Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) consists of the continuous acquisition of images before, during, and after the injection of a contrast agent. DCE-MRI allows for noninvasive evaluation of tumor parameters related to vascular perfusion and permeability and tissue volume fractions, and is frequently employed in both preclinical and clinical investigations. However, the experimental and analytical subtleties of the technique are not frequently discussed in the literature, nor are its relationships to other commonly used quantitative imaging techniques. This review aims to provide practical information on the development, implementation, and validation of a DCE-MRI study in the context of a preclinical study (though we do frequently refer to clinical studies that are related to these topics). PMID:23105959

Barnes, Stephanie L.; Whisenant, Jennifer G.; Loveless, Mary E.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.

2012-01-01

126

Magic Angle–Enhanced MRI of Fibrous Microstructures in Sclera and Cornea With and Without Intraocular Pressure Loading  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The structure and biomechanics of the sclera and cornea are central to several eye diseases such as glaucoma and myopia. However, their roles remain unclear, partly because of limited noninvasive techniques to assess their fibrous microstructures globally, longitudinally, and quantitatively. We hypothesized that magic angle–enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can reveal the structural details of the corneoscleral shell and their changes upon intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation. Methods. Seven ovine eyes were extracted and fixed at IOP = 50 mm Hg to mimic ocular hypertension, and another 11 eyes were unpressurized. The sclera and cornea were scanned at different angular orientations relative to the main magnetic field inside a 9.4-Tesla MRI scanner. Relative MRI signal intensities and intrinsic transverse relaxation times (T2 and T2*) were determined to quantify the magic angle effect on the corneoscleral shells. Three loaded and eight unloaded tendon samples were scanned as controls. Results. At magic angle, high-resolution MRI revealed distinct scleral and corneal lamellar fibers, and light/dark bands indicative of collagen fiber crimps in the sclera and tendon. Magic angle enhancement effect was the strongest in tendon and the least strong in cornea. Loaded sclera, cornea, and tendon possessed significantly higher T2 and T2* than unloaded tissues at magic angle. Conclusions. Magic angle–enhanced MRI can detect ocular fibrous microstructures without contrast agents or coatings and can reveal their MR tissue property changes with IOP loading. This technique may open up new avenues for assessment of the biomechanical and biochemical properties of ocular tissues in aging and in diseases involving the corneoscleral shell. PMID:25103267

Ho, Leon C.; Sigal, Ian A.; Jan, Ning-Jiun; Squires, Alexander; Tse, Zion; Wu, Ed X.; Kim, Seong-Gi; Schuman, Joel S.; Chan, Kevin C.

2014-01-01

127

Is 3-Tesla Gd-EOB-DTPA-Enhanced MRI with Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Superior to 64-Slice Contrast-Enhanced CT for the Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma?  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare 64-slice contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) with 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using Gd-EOB-DTPA for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and evaluate the utility of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in this setting. Methods 3-phase-liver-CT was performed in fifty patients (42 male, 8 female) with suspected or proven HCC. The patients were subjected to a 3-Tesla-MRI-examination with Gd-EOB-DTPA and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) at b-values of 0, 50 and 400 s/mm2. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)-value was determined for each lesion detected in DWI. The histopathological report after resection or biopsy of a lesion served as the gold standard, and a surrogate of follow-up or complementary imaging techniques in combination with clinical and paraclinical parameters was used in unresected lesions. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were evaluated for each technique. Results MRI detected slightly more lesions that were considered suspicious for HCC per patient compared to CT (2.7 versus 2.3, respectively). ADC-measurements in HCC showed notably heterogeneous values with a median of 1.2±0.5×10?3 mm2/s (range from 0.07±0.1 to 3.0±0.1×10?3 mm2/s). MRI showed similar diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and positive and negative predictive values compared to CT (AUC 0.837, sensitivity 92%, PPV 80% and NPV 90% for MRI vs. AUC 0.798, sensitivity 85%, PPV 79% and NPV 82% for CT; not significant). Specificity was 75% for both techniques. Conclusions Our study did not show a statistically significant difference in detection in detection of HCC between MRI and CT. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI tended to detect more lesions per patient compared to contrast-enhanced CT; therefore, we would recommend this modality as the first-choice imaging method for the detection of HCC and therapeutic decisions. However, contrast-enhanced CT was not inferior in our study, so that it can be a useful image modality for follow-up examinations. PMID:25375778

Maiwald, Bettina; Lobsien, Donald; Kahn, Thomas; Stumpp, Patrick

2014-01-01

128

In Vivo Detection of Excitotoxicity by Manganese-Enhanced MRI: Comparison with Physiological Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) is a powerful technique for the in vivo monitoring of brain function in animals. Manganese enters into cells through calcium channels, i.e., voltage-gated calcium channels and activated glutamate receptors (e.g., N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors). N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors are activated both in normal physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Consistent with these mechanisms, we showed that in the olfactory bulb, the MEMRI signal strongly increases when excitotoxic mechanisms are induced by an administration of a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist, quinolinate. We found that the intensity of the MEMRI signal in excitotoxic conditions is similar to the odor-evoked signal in normal physiological conditions. Finally, we showed that the dynamics of the MEMRI signal are determined by the early phase of manganese in the olfactory bulb. Overall, these data show that, in addition to physiological studies, MEMRI can be used as an in vivo method to follow-up the dynamics of excitotoxic events. Magn Reson Med 68:234–240, 2012. PMID:22127903

Gobbo, Oliviero L.; Petit, Fanny; Gurden, Hirac; Dhenain, Marc

2013-01-01

129

Inflow-weighted pulmonary perfusion: comparison between dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI versus perfusion scintigraphy in complex pulmonary circulation  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the different properties of the contrast agents, the lung perfusion maps as measured by 99mTc-labeled macroaggregated albumin perfusion scintigraphy (PS) are not uncommonly discrepant from those measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) using indicator-dilution analysis in complex pulmonary circulation. Since PS offers the pre-capillary perfusion of the first-pass transit, we hypothesized that an inflow-weighted perfusion model of DCE-MRI could simulate the result by PS. Methods 22 patients underwent DCE-MRI at 1.5T and also PS. Relative perfusion contributed by the left lung was calculated by PS (PSL%), by DCE-MRI using conventional indicator dilution theory for pulmonary blood volume (PBVL%) and pulmonary blood flow (PBFL%) and using our proposed inflow-weighted pulmonary blood volume (PBViwL%). For PBViwL%, the optimal upper bound of the inflow-weighted integration range was determined by correlation coefficient analysis. Results The time-to-peak of the normal lung parenchyma was the optimal upper bound in the inflow-weighted perfusion model. Using PSL% as a reference, PBVL% showed error of 49.24% to ?40.37% (intraclass correlation coefficient RI?=?0.55) and PBFL% had error of 34.87% to ?27.76% (RI?=?0.80). With the inflow-weighted model, PBViwL% had much less error of 12.28% to ?11.20% (RI?=?0.98) from PSL%. Conclusions The inflow-weighted DCE-MRI provides relative perfusion maps similar to that by PS. The discrepancy between conventional indicator-dilution and inflow-weighted analysis represents a mixed-flow component in which pathological flow such as shunting or collaterals might have participated. PMID:23448679

2013-01-01

130

Diagnostic per-patient accuracy of an abbreviated hepatobiliary phase gadoxetic Acid-enhanced MRI for hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the per-patient diagnostic performance of an abbreviated gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI protocol for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A retrospective review identified 298 consecutive patients at risk for HCC enrolled in a gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI-based HCC surveillance program. For each patient, the first gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI was analyzed. To simulate an abbreviated protocol, two readers independently read two image sets per patient: set 1 consisted of T1-weighted 20-minute hepatobiliary phase and T2-weighted single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) images; set 2 included diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and images from set 1. Image sets were scored as positive or negative according to the presence of at least one nodule 10 mm or larger that met the predetermined criteria. Agreement was assessed using Cohen kappa statistics. A composite reference standard was used to determine the diagnostic performance of each image set for each reader. RESULTS. Interreader agreement was substantial for both image sets (? = 0.72 for both) and intrareader agreement was excellent (? = 0.97-0.99). Reader performance for image set 1 was sensitivity of 85.7% for reader A and 79.6% for reader B, specificity of 91.2% for reader A and 95.2% for reader B, and negative predictive value of 97.0% for reader A and 96.0% for reader B. Reader performance for image set 2 was nearly identical, with only one of 298 examinations scored differently on image set 2 compared with set 1. CONCLUSION. An abbreviated MRI protocol consisting of T2-weighted SSFSE and gadoxetic acid-enhanced hepatobiliary phase has high negative predictive value and may be an acceptable method for HCC surveillance. The inclusion of a DWI sequence did not significantly alter the diagnostic performance of the abbreviated protocol. PMID:25714281

Marks, Robert M; Ryan, Andrew; Heba, Elhamy R; Tang, An; Wolfson, Tanya J; Gamst, Anthony C; Sirlin, Claude B; Bashir, Mustafa R

2015-03-01

131

Manganese-impregnated mesoporous silica nanoparticles for signal enhancement in MRI cell labelling studies.  

PubMed

Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are used in drug delivery and cell tracking applications. As Mn(2+) is already implemented as a "positive" cell contrast agent in preclinical imaging procedures (in the form of MnCl2 for neurological studies), the introduction of Mn in the porous network of MSNs would allow labelling cells and tracking them using MRI. These particles are in general internalized in endosomes, an acidic environment with high saline concentration. In addition, the available MSN porosity could also serve as a carrier to deliver medical/therapeutic substances through the labelled cells. In the present study, manganese oxide was introduced in the porous network of MCM-48 silica nanoparticles (Mn-M48SNs). The particles exhibit a narrow size distribution (~140 nm diam.) and high porosity (~60% vol.), which was validated after insertion of Mn. The resulting Mn-M48SNs were characterized by TEM, N2 physisorption, and XRD. Evidence was found with H2-TPR, and XPS characterization, that Mn(II) is the main oxidation state of the paramagnetic species after suspension in water, most probably in the form of Mn-OOH. The colloidal stability as a function of time was confirmed by DLS in water, acetate buffer and cell culture medium. In NMR data, no significant evidence of Mn(2+) leaching was found in Mn-M48SNs in acidic water (pH 6), up to 96 hours after suspension. High longitudinal relaxivity values of r1 = 8.4 mM(-1) s(-1) were measured at 60 MHz and 37 °C, with the lowest relaxometric ratios (r2/r1 = 2) reported to date for a Mn-MSN system. Leukaemia cells (P388) were labelled with Mn-M48SNs and nanoparticle cell internalization was confirmed by TEM. Finally, MRI contrast enhancement provided by cell labelling with escalated incubation concentrations of Mn-M48SNs was quantified at 1 T. This study confirmed the possibility of efficiently confining Mn into M48SNs using incipient wetness, while maintaining an open porosity and relatively high pore volume. Because these Mn-labelled M48SNs express strong "positive" contrast media properties at low concentrations, they are potentially applicable for cell tracking and drug delivery methodologies. PMID:24178890

Guillet-Nicolas, Rémy; Laprise-Pelletier, Myriam; Nair, Mahesh M; Chevallier, Pascale; Lagueux, Jean; Gossuin, Yves; Laurent, Sophie; Kleitz, Freddy; Fortin, Marc-André

2013-12-01

132

Diagnostic efficacy of gadoxetic acid (Primovist)-enhanced MRI and spiral CT for a therapeutic strategy: comparison with intraoperative and histopathologic findings in focal liver lesions.  

PubMed

A multicenter study has been employed to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using the new liver-specific contrast agent gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA, Primovist), as opposed to contrast-enhanced biphasic spiral computed tomography (CT), in the diagnosis of focal liver lesions, compared with a standard of reference (SOR). One hundred and sixty-nine patients with hepatic lesions eligible for surgery underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI as well as CT within 6 weeks. Pathologic evaluation of the liver specimen combined with intraoperative ultrasound established the SOR. Data sets were evaluated on-site (14 investigators) and off-site (three independent blinded readers). Gd-EOB-DTPA was well tolerated. Three hundred and two lesions were detected in 131 patients valid for analysis by SOR. The frequency of correctly detected lesions was significantly higher on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI compared with CT in the clinical evaluation [10.44%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.88, 16.0]. In the blinded reading there was a trend towards Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI, not reaching statistical significance (2.14%; 95% CI: -4.32, 8.6). However, the highest rate of correctly detected lesions with a diameter below 1 cm was achieved by Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI. Differential diagnosis was superior for Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI (82.1%) versus CT (71.0%). A change in surgical therapy was documented in 19 of 131 patients (14.5%) post Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI was superior in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of focal liver lesions compared with CT. PMID:18058107

Hammerstingl, Renate; Huppertz, Alexander; Breuer, Josy; Balzer, Thomas; Blakeborough, Anthony; Carter, Rick; Fusté, Lluis Castells; Heinz-Peer, Gertraud; Judmaier, Werner; Laniado, Michael; Manfredi, Riccardo M; Mathieu, Didier G; Müller, Dieter; Mortelè, Koenraad; Reimer, Peter; Reiser, Maximilian F; Robinson, Philip J; Shamsi, Kohkan; Strotzer, Michael; Taupitz, Matthias; Tombach, Bernd; Valeri, Gianluca; van Beers, Bernhard E; Vogl, Thomas J

2008-03-01

133

Development and characterization of a dynamic lesion phantom for the quantitative evaluation of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To develop a dynamic lesion phantom that is capable of producing physiological kinetic curves representative of those seen in human dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data. The objective of this phantom is to provide a platform for the quantitative comparison of DCE-MRI protocols to aid in the standardization and optimization of breast DCE-MRI. Methods: The dynamic lesion consists of a hollow, plastic mold with inlet and outlet tubes to allow flow of a contrast agent solution through the lesion over time. Border shape of the lesion can be controlled using the lesion mold production method. The configuration of the inlet and outlet tubes was determined using fluid transfer simulations. The total fluid flow rate was determined using x-ray images of the lesion for four different flow rates (0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ml?s) to evaluate the resultant kinetic curve shape and homogeneity of the contrast agent distribution in the dynamic lesion. High spatial and temporal resolution x-ray measurements were used to estimate the true kinetic curve behavior in the dynamic lesion for benign and malignant example curves. DCE-MRI example data were acquired of the dynamic phantom using a clinical protocol. Results: The optimal inlet and outlet tube configuration for the lesion molds was two inlet molds separated by 30° and a single outlet tube directly between the two inlet tubes. X-ray measurements indicated that 1.0 ml?s was an appropriate total fluid flow rate and provided truth for comparison with MRI data of kinetic curves representative of benign and malignant lesions. DCE-MRI data demonstrated the ability of the phantom to produce realistic kinetic curves. Conclusions: The authors have constructed a dynamic lesion phantom, demonstrated its ability to produce physiological kinetic curves, and provided estimations of its true kinetic curve behavior. This lesion phantom provides a tool for the quantitative evaluation of DCE-MRI protocols, which may lead to improved discrimination of breast cancer lesions. PMID:21992378

Freed, Melanie; de Zwart, Jacco A.; Hariharan, Prasanna; R. Myers, Matthew; Badano, Aldo

2011-01-01

134

Increase in tumour permeability following TGF-? type I receptor-inhibitor treatment observed by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Background: To enhance the success rate of nanocarrier-mediated chemotherapy combined with an anti-angiogenic agent, it is crucial to identify parameters for tumour vasculature that can predict a response to the treatment of the anti-angiogenic agent. Methods: To apply transforming growth factor (TGF)-? type I receptor (T?R-I) inhibitor, A-83-01, to combined therapy, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) was carried out in mice bearing colon 26 cells using gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA and for its liposomal formulation to evaluate changes in tumour microvasculature following A-83-01. Tumour vascular parameters from DCE-MRI were compared with histological assessment and apparent diffusion coefficient of water in tumour generated by diffusion-weighted MRI. Results: Contrary to evaluations reported for anti-angiogenic agents, A-83-01 treatment increased the initial area under the Gd concentration–time curve (IAUGC60), volume transfer constant (Ktrans) and fractional plasma volume (vp) significantly within 24?h, that was positively related to ?-smooth muscle actin-positive pericyte coverage and tumour cell proliferation, and was correlated inversely with the apparent diffusion coefficient. The vascular function of the tumour improved by A-83-01 treatment was well assessed on post-liposomal Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR images, which predicted delivery of a liposomal drug to the tumour. Conclusion: These findings suggest that DCE-MRI and, in particular, Ktrans and vp quantitation, provide important additional information about tumour vasculature by A-83-01 treatment. PMID:19888220

Minowa, T; Kawano, K; Kuribayashi, H; Shiraishi, K; Sugino, T; Hattori, Y; Yokoyama, M; Maitani, Y

2009-01-01

135

Manganese-impregnated mesoporous silica nanoparticles for signal enhancement in MRI cell labelling studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are used in drug delivery and cell tracking applications. As Mn2+ is already implemented as a ``positive'' cell contrast agent in preclinical imaging procedures (in the form of MnCl2 for neurological studies), the introduction of Mn in the porous network of MSNs would allow labelling cells and tracking them using MRI. These particles are in general internalized in endosomes, an acidic environment with high saline concentration. In addition, the available MSN porosity could also serve as a carrier to deliver medical/therapeutic substances through the labelled cells. In the present study, manganese oxide was introduced in the porous network of MCM-48 silica nanoparticles (Mn-M48SNs). The particles exhibit a narrow size distribution (~140 nm diam.) and high porosity (~60% vol.), which was validated after insertion of Mn. The resulting Mn-M48SNs were characterized by TEM, N2 physisorption, and XRD. Evidence was found with H2-TPR, and XPS characterization, that Mn(ii) is the main oxidation state of the paramagnetic species after suspension in water, most probably in the form of Mn-OOH. The colloidal stability as a function of time was confirmed by DLS in water, acetate buffer and cell culture medium. In NMR data, no significant evidence of Mn2+ leaching was found in Mn-M48SNs in acidic water (pH 6), up to 96 hours after suspension. High longitudinal relaxivity values of r1 = 8.4 mM-1 s-1 were measured at 60 MHz and 37 °C, with the lowest relaxometric ratios (r2/r1 = 2) reported to date for a Mn-MSN system. Leukaemia cells (P388) were labelled with Mn-M48SNs and nanoparticle cell internalization was confirmed by TEM. Finally, MRI contrast enhancement provided by cell labelling with escalated incubation concentrations of Mn-M48SNs was quantified at 1 T. This study confirmed the possibility of efficiently confining Mn into M48SNs using incipient wetness, while maintaining an open porosity and relatively high pore volume. Because these Mn-labelled M48SNs express strong ``positive'' contrast media properties at low concentrations, they are potentially applicable for cell tracking and drug delivery methodologies.Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are used in drug delivery and cell tracking applications. As Mn2+ is already implemented as a ``positive'' cell contrast agent in preclinical imaging procedures (in the form of MnCl2 for neurological studies), the introduction of Mn in the porous network of MSNs would allow labelling cells and tracking them using MRI. These particles are in general internalized in endosomes, an acidic environment with high saline concentration. In addition, the available MSN porosity could also serve as a carrier to deliver medical/therapeutic substances through the labelled cells. In the present study, manganese oxide was introduced in the porous network of MCM-48 silica nanoparticles (Mn-M48SNs). The particles exhibit a narrow size distribution (~140 nm diam.) and high porosity (~60% vol.), which was validated after insertion of Mn. The resulting Mn-M48SNs were characterized by TEM, N2 physisorption, and XRD. Evidence was found with H2-TPR, and XPS characterization, that Mn(ii) is the main oxidation state of the paramagnetic species after suspension in water, most probably in the form of Mn-OOH. The colloidal stability as a function of time was confirmed by DLS in water, acetate buffer and cell culture medium. In NMR data, no significant evidence of Mn2+ leaching was found in Mn-M48SNs in acidic water (pH 6), up to 96 hours after suspension. High longitudinal relaxivity values of r1 = 8.4 mM-1 s-1 were measured at 60 MHz and 37 °C, with the lowest relaxometric ratios (r2/r1 = 2) reported to date for a Mn-MSN system. Leukaemia cells (P388) were labelled with Mn-M48SNs and nanoparticle cell internalization was confirmed by TEM. Finally, MRI contrast enhancement provided by cell labelling with escalated incubation concentrations of Mn-M48SNs was quantified at 1 T. This study confirmed the possibility of efficiently confining Mn into M48SNs using incipient wetness

Guillet-Nicolas, Rémy; Laprise-Pelletier, Myriam; Nair, Mahesh M.; Chevallier, Pascale; Lagueux, Jean; Gossuin, Yves; Laurent, Sophie; Kleitz, Freddy; Fortin, Marc-André

2013-11-01

136

Correlative assessment of tumor microcirculation using contrast-enhanced perfusion MRI and intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted MRI: is there a link between them?  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to correlate intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging with classical perfusion-weighted MRI metrics in human gliomas. Parametric images for slow diffusion coefficient (D), fast diffusion coefficient (D*), and fractional perfusion-related volume (f) in patients with high-grade gliomas were generated. Maps of Fp (plasma flow), vp (vascular plasma volume), PS (permeability surface-area product), ve (extravascular, extracellular volume), E (extraction ratio), ke (influx ratio into the interstitium), and tc (vascular transit time) from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced (DSC) MRI were also generated. A region-of-interest analysis on the contralateral healthy white matter and on the tumor areas was performed and the extracted parameter values were tested for any significant differences among tumor grades or any correlations. Only f could be significantly correlated to DSC-derived vp and tc in healthy brain tissue. Concerning the tumor regions, Fp was significantly positively correlated with D* and inversely correlated with f in DSC measurements. The D*, f, and f?×?D* values in the WHO grade III gliomas were non-significantly different from those in the grade IV gliomas. There was a trend to significant negative correlations between f and PS as well as between f?×?D* and ke in DCE experiments. Presumably due to different theoretical background, tracer properties and modeling of the tumor vasculature in the IVIM theory, there is no clearly evident link between D*, f and DSC- and DCE-derived metrics. PMID:25088433

Bisdas, Sotirios; Braun, Christian; Skardelly, Marco; Schittenhelm, Jens; Teo, Tze Hern; Thng, Choon Hua; Klose, Uwe; Koh, Tong San

2014-10-01

137

Improved parameter extraction and classification for dynamic contrast enhanced MRI of prostate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) imaging, has shown great potential in prostate cancer diagnosis and prognosis. The time course of the DCE images provides measures of the contrast agent uptake kinetics. Also, using pharmacokinetic modelling, one can extract parameters from the DCE-MR images that characterize the tumor vascularization and can be used to detect cancer. A requirement for calculating the pharmacokinetic DCE parameters is estimating the Arterial Input Function (AIF). One needs an accurate segmentation of the cross section of the external femoral artery to obtain the AIF. In this work we report a semi-automatic method for segmentation of the cross section of the femoral artery, using circular Hough transform, in the sequence of DCE images. We also report a machine-learning framework to combine pharmacokinetic parameters with the model-free contrast agent uptake kinetic parameters extracted from the DCE time course into a nine-dimensional feature vector. This combination of features is used with random forest and with support vector machine classi cation for cancer detection. The MR data is obtained from patients prior to radical prostatectomy. After the surgery, wholemount histopathology analysis is performed and registered to the DCE-MR images as the diagnostic reference. We show that the use of a combination of pharmacokinetic parameters and the model-free empirical parameters extracted from the time course of DCE results in improved cancer detection compared to the use of each group of features separately. We also validate the proposed method for calculation of AIF based on comparison with the manual method.

Haq, Nandinee Fariah; Kozlowski, Piotr; Jones, Edward C.; Chang, Silvia D.; Goldenberg, S. Larry; Moradi, Mehdi

2014-03-01

138

Manganese-enhanced MRI detection of impaired calcium regulation in a mouse model of cardiac hypertrophy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to use manganese (Mn)-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) to detect changes in calcium handling associated with cardiac hypertrophy in a mouse model, and to determine whether the impact of creatine kinase ablation is detectable using this method. Male C57BL/6 (C57, n?=?11) and male creatine kinase double-knockout (CK-M/Mito(-/-) , DBKO, n?=?12) mice were imaged using the saturation recovery Look-Locker T1 mapping sequence before and after the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Hypertrophy was induced via subcutaneous continuous 3-day infusion of isoproterenol, and sham mice not subjected to cardiac hypertrophy were also imaged. During each scan, the contrast agent Mn was administered and the resulting change in R1 (=1/T1) was calculated. Two anatomical regions of interest (ROIs) were considered, the left-ventricular free wall (LVFW) and the septum, and one ROI in an Mn-containing standard placed next to the mouse. We found statistically significant (p?

Andrews, Martin; Giger, Maryellen L; Roman, Brian B

2015-02-01

139

Magnetic resonance imaging: a useful tool to distinguish between keratocystic odontogenic tumours and odontogenic cysts.  

PubMed

In contrast to odontogenic cysts, keratocystic odontogenic tumours often recur and require more aggressive surgical treatment, so we tried to find features that distinguished between them on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Without knowing the diagnosis, two radiologists reviewed intensity (low, intermediate, or high) and homogeneity (homogeneous or heterogeneous) of signals in short-tau-inversion-recovery (STIR), T1- and T2-weighted, and fat-suppressed, contrast-enhanced MRI in 20 consecutive patients with oval, radiolucent lesions of the mandible on panoramic radiography, and who were subsequently confirmed histopathologically to have either an odontogenic cyst or a keratocystic odontogenic tumour (n=10 in each group). Fisher's exact test was statistically significant at p<0.05. Delineation of a contrast-enhanced wall of a cyst with high signal intensity distinguished odontogenic cysts (9/10 and 8/10, respectively) from keratocystic odontogenic tumours (3/10, p=0.02, and 1/10, p=0.01, respectively). One radiologist found odontogenic cysts were more likely to be homogeneous on unenhanced T1-weighted images (odontogenic cysts 9/10, keratocystic odontogenic tumours 3/10, p=0.02) and one on contrast-enhanced MRI, when the cyst wall was enhanced (odontogenic cysts 7/9, keratocystic odontogenic tumours 0/3, p=0.01). There were no other significant distinguishing features on MRI. In conclusion, the signal intensity of the enhanced wall seems to be a feature on contrast-enhanced MRI that differentiates odontogenic cysts from keratocystic odontogenic tumours. PMID:25554593

Probst, F A; Probst, M; Pautke, Ch; Kaltsi, E; Otto, S; Schiel, S; Troeltzsch, M; Ehrenfeld, M; Cornelius, C P; Müller-Lisse, U G

2015-03-01

140

Organ-focused mutual information for nonrigid multimodal registration of liver CT and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI.  

PubMed

Accurate detection of liver lesions is of great importance in hepatic surgery planning. Recent studies have shown that the detection rate of liver lesions is significantly higher in gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI) than in contrast-enhanced portal-phase computed tomography (CT); however, the latter remains essential because of its high specificity, good performance in estimating liver volumes and better vessel visibility. To characterize liver lesions using both the above image modalities, we propose a multimodal nonrigid registration framework using organ-focused mutual information (OF-MI). This proposal tries to improve mutual information (MI) based registration by adding spatial information, benefiting from the availability of expert liver segmentation in clinical protocols. The incorporation of an additional information channel containing liver segmentation information was studied. A dataset of real clinical images and simulated images was used in the validation process. A Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI simulation framework is presented. To evaluate results, warping index errors were calculated for the simulated data, and landmark-based and surface-based errors were calculated for the real data. An improvement of the registration accuracy for OF-MI as compared with MI was found for both simulated and real datasets. Statistical significance of the difference was tested and confirmed in the simulated dataset (p<0.01). PMID:24080528

Fernandez-de-Manuel, Laura; Wollny, Gert; Kybic, Jan; Jimenez-Carretero, Daniel; Tellado, Jose M; Ramon, Enrique; Desco, Manuel; Santos, Andres; Pascau, Javier; Ledesma-Carbayo, Maria J

2014-01-01

141

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)  

Cancer.gov

Different tissues (including tumors) emit a more or less intense signal based on their chemical makeup, so a picture of the body organs can be displayed on a computer screen. Much like CT scans, MRI can produce three-dimensional images of sections of the body, but MRI is sometimes more sensitive than CT scans for distinguishing soft tissues.

142

Role of Diffusion Weighted Imaging and Contrast-Enhanced MRI in the Evaluation of Intrapelvic Recurrence of Gynecological Malignant Tumor  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose To investigate the diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and contrast-enhanced imaging in combination with T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of intrapelvic recurrence of gynecological malignancies. Materials and Methods Sixty-two patients with suspected intrapelvic recurrence of gynecological malignancies underwent pelvic MRI including T2WI DWI, and contrast-enhanced imaging. Diagnostic performance for detection of local recurrence, pelvic lymph node and bone metastases, and peritoneal lesions was evaluated by consensus reading of two experienced radiologists using a 5-point scoring system, and compared among T2WI with unenhanced T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) (protocol A), a combination of protocol A and DWI (protocol B), and a combination of protocol B and contrast-enhanced imaging (protocol C). Final diagnoses were obtained by histopathological examinations, radiological imaging and clinical follow-up for at least 6 months. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and McNemar test were employed for statistical analysis. Results Locally recurrent disease, lymph node recurrence, peritoneal dissemination and bone metastases were present in 48.4%, 29.0%, 16.1%, and 6.5% of the patients, respectively. The patient-based sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under the ROC curve (AUC) for detection of intrapelvic recurrence were 55.0, 81.8, 64.5% and 0.753 for protocol A, 80.0, 77.3, 79.0% and 0.838 for protocol B, and 80.0, 90.9, 83.9% and 0.862 for protocol C, respectively. The sensitivity, accuracy, and AUC were significantly better for protocols B and C than for protocol A (p<0.001). There was no significant difference between protocols B and C. Conclusion MRI using a combination of DWI and T2WI gives comparatively acceptable results for assessment of intrapelvic recurrence of gynecological malignancies. PMID:25629156

Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Utaru; Ueno, Yoshiko; Maeda, Tetsuo; Suenaga, Yuko; Takahashi, Satoru; Deguchi, Masashi; Miyahara, Yoshiya; Ebina, Yasuhiko; Yamada, Hideto; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Tamaki, Yukihisa; Sugimura, Kazuro

2015-01-01

143

Preliminary Study of Oxygen-Enhanced Longitudinal Relaxation in MRI: A Potential Novel Biomarker of Oxygenation Changes in Solid Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: There is considerable interest in developing non-invasive methods of mapping tumor hypoxia. Changes in tissue oxygen concentration produce proportional changes in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) longitudinal relaxation rate (R{sub 1}). This technique has been used previously to evaluate oxygen delivery to healthy tissues and is distinct from blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) imaging. Here we report application of this method to detect alteration in tumor oxygenation status. Methods and materials: Ten patients with advanced cancer of the abdomen and pelvis underwent serial measurement of tumor R{sub 1} while breathing medical air (21% oxygen) followed by 100% oxygen (oxygen-enhanced MRI). Gadolinium-based dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was then performed to compare the spatial distribution of perfusion with that of oxygen-induced DELTAR{sub 1}. Results: DELTAR{sub 1} showed significant increases of 0.021 to 0.058 s{sup -1} in eight patients with either locally recurrent tumor from cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas or metastases from ovarian and colorectal carcinomas. In general, there was congruency between perfusion and oxygen concentration. However, regional mismatch was observed in some tumor cores. Here, moderate gadolinium uptake (consistent with moderate perfusion) was associated with low area under the DELTAR{sub 1} curve (consistent with minimal increase in oxygen concentration). Conclusions: These results provide evidence that oxygen-enhanced longitudinal relaxation can monitor changes in tumor oxygen concentration. The technique shows promise in identifying hypoxic regions within tumors and may enable spatial mapping of change in tumor oxygen concentration.

O'Connor, James P.B. [Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom) and Cancer Research UK Department of Medical Oncology, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Naish, Josephine H.; Parker, Geoff J.M. [Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Waterton, John C. [Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); AstraZeneca, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Watson, Yvonne [Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Jayson, Gordon C. [Cancer Research UK Department of Medical Oncology, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Buonaccorsi, Giovanni A.; Cheung, Sue; Buckley, David L.; McGrath, Deirdre M. [Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); West, Catharine M.L. [Academic Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Davidson, Susan E. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Roberts, Caleb; Mills, Samantha J. [Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Mitchell, Claire L.; Hope, Lynn; Ton, N. Chan [Cancer Research UK Department of Medical Oncology, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Jackson, Alan [Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

2009-11-15

144

Permeability assessment of the focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Focused ultrasound (FUS) in conjunction with microbubbles has been shown to successfully open the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the mouse brain. In this study, we compute the BBB permeability after opening in vivo. The spatial permeability of the BBB-opened region was assessed using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). The DCE-MR images were post-processed using the general kinetic model (GKM) and the reference region model (RRM). Permeability maps were generated and the Ktrans values were calculated for a predefined volume of interest in the sonicated and the control area for each mouse. The results demonstrated that Ktrans in the BBB-opened region (0.02 ± 0.0123 for GKM and 0.03 ± 0.0167 min-1 for RRM) was at least two orders of magnitude higher when compared to the contra-lateral (control) side (0 and 8.5 × 10-4 ± 12 × 10-4 min-1, respectively). The permeability values obtained with the two models showed statistically significant agreement and excellent correlation (R2 = 0.97). At histological examination, it was concluded that no macroscopic damage was induced. This study thus constitutes the first permeability assessment of FUS-induced BBB opening using DCE-MRI, supporting the fact that the aforementioned technique may constitute a safe, non-invasive and efficacious drug delivery method.

Vlachos, F.; Tung, Y.-S.; Konofagou, E. E.

2010-09-01

145

A dimensionless dynamic contrast enhanced MRI parameter for intra-prostatic tumour target volume delineation: initial comparison with histology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: T2 weighted and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) show promise in isolating prostate tumours. Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI has also been employed as a component in multi-parametric tumour detection schemes. Model-based parameters such as Ktrans are conventionally used to characterize DCE images and require arterial contrast agent (CR) concentration. A robust parameter map that does not depend on arterial input may be more useful for target volume delineation. We present a dimensionless parameter (Wio) that characterizes CR wash-in and washout rates without requiring arterial CR concentration. Wio is compared to Ktrans in terms of ability to discriminate cancer in the prostate, as demonstrated via comparison with histology. Methods: Three subjects underwent DCE-MRI using gadolinium contrast and 7 s imaging temporal resolution. A pathologist identified cancer on whole-mount histology specimens, and slides were deformably registered to MR images. The ability of Wio maps to discriminate cancer was determined through receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. Results: There is a trend that Wio shows greater area under the ROC curve (AUC) than Ktrans with median AUC values of 0.74 and 0.69 respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant based on a Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p = 0.13). Conclusions: Preliminary results indicate that Wio shows potential as a tool for Ktrans QA, showing similar ability to discriminate cancer in the prostate as Ktrans without requiring arterial CR concentration.

Hrinivich, W. Thomas; Gibson, Eli; Gaed, Mena; Gomez, Jose A.; Moussa, Madeleine; McKenzie, Charles A.; Bauman, Glenn S.; Ward, Aaron D.; Fenster, Aaron; Wong, Eugene

2014-03-01

146

Quantitative Estimation of Renal Function with Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI Using a Modified Two-Compartment Model  

PubMed Central

Objective To establish a simple two-compartment model for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) estimations by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Materials and Methods A total of eight New Zealand white rabbits were included in DCE-MRI. The two-compartment model was modified with the impulse residue function in this study. First, the reliability of GFR measurement of the proposed model was compared with other published models in Monte Carlo simulation at different noise levels. Then, functional parameters were estimated in six healthy rabbits to test the feasibility of the new model. Moreover, in order to investigate its validity of GFR estimation, two rabbits underwent acute ischemia surgical procedure in unilateral kidney before DCE-MRI, and pixel-wise measurements were implemented to detect the cortical GFR alterations between normal and abnormal kidneys. Results The lowest variability of GFR and RPF measurements were found in the proposed model in the comparison. Mean GFR was 3.03±1.1 ml/min and mean RPF was 2.64±0.5 ml/g/min in normal animals, which were in good agreement with the published values. Moreover, large GFR decline was found in dysfunction kidneys comparing to the contralateral control group. Conclusion Results in our study demonstrate that measurement of renal kinetic parameters based on the proposed model is feasible and it has the ability to discriminate GFR changes in healthy and diseased kidneys. PMID:25141138

Chen, Bin; Zhang, Yudong; Song, Xiaojian; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

2014-01-01

147

Validation of Contrast-Enhanced MRI to Monitor Regenerative Efficacy after Cell Therapy in a Porcine Model of Convalescent Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Background Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the CADUCEUS trial revealed that cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) decrease scar size and increase viable myocardium post-myocardial infarction (MI), but MRI has not been validated as an index of regeneration after cell therapy. We tested the validity of contrast-enhanced MRI in quantifying scarred and viable myocardium after cell therapy in a porcine model of convalescent MI. Methods and Results Yucatan minipigs underwent induction of MI and 2-3 weeks later were randomized to receive intracoronary infusion of 12.5×106 mismatched allogeneic CDCs or vehicle. Allogeneic CDCs induced mild local mononuclear infiltration but no systemic immunogenicity. MRI revealed that allogeneic CDCs attenuated remodeling, improved global and regional function, decreased scar size and increased viable myocardium compared to placebo 2 months post-treatment. Extensive histological analysis validated quantitatively the MRI measurements of scar size, scar mass and viable mass. CDCs neither altered gadolinium contrast myocardial kinetics, nor induced changes in vascular density or architecture in viable and scarred myocardium. Histology demonstrated that CDCs lead to cardiomyocyte hyperplasia in the border zone, consistent with the observed stimulation of endogenous regenerative mechanisms (cardiomyocyte cycling, upregulation of endogenous progenitors, angiogenesis). Conclusions Contrast-enhanced MRI accurately measures scarred and viable myocardium after cell therapy in a porcine model of convalescent MI. MRI represents a useful tool for assessing dynamic changes in the infarct and monitoring regenerative efficacy. PMID:24061088

Malliaras, Konstantinos; Smith, Rachel R.; Kanazawa, Hideaki; Yee, Kristine; Seinfeld, Jeffrey; Tseliou, Eleni; Dawkins, James F.; Kreke, Michelle; Cheng, Ke; Luthringer, Daniel; Ho, Chak-Sum; Blusztajn, Agnieszka; Valle, Ileana; Chowdhury, Supurna; Makkar, Raj R.; Dharmakumar, Rohan; Li, Debiao; Marbán, Linda; Marbán, Eduardo

2014-01-01

148

Improved multimodality data fusion of late gadolinium enhancement MRI to left ventricular voltage maps in ventricular tachycardia ablation.  

PubMed

Electroanatomical voltage mapping (EAVM) is commonly performed prior to catheter ablation of scar-related ventricular tachycardia (VT) to locate the arrhythmic substrate and to guide the ablation procedure. EAVM is used to locate the position of the ablation catheter and to provide a 3-D reconstruction of left-ventricular anatomy and scar. However, EAVM measurements only represent the endocardial scar with no transmural or epicardial information. Furthermore, EAVM is a time-consuming procedure, with a high operator dependence and has low sampling density, i.e., spatial resolution. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows noninvasive assessment of scar morphology that can depict 3-D scar architecture. Despite the potential use of LGE as a roadmap for VT ablation for identification of arrhythmogenic substrate, its utility has been very limited. To allow for identification of VT substrate, a correlation is needed between the substrates identified by EAVM as the gold standard and LGE-MRI scar characteristics. To do so, a system must be developed to fuse the datasets from these modalities. In this study, a registration pipeline for the fusion of LGE-MRI and EAVM data is presented. A novel surface registration algorithm is proposed, integrating the matching of global scar areas as an additional constraint in the registration process. A preparatory landmark registration is initially performed to expedite the convergence of the algorithm. Numerical simulations were performed to evaluate the accuracy of the registration in the presence of errors in identifying landmarks in EAVM or LGE-MRI datasets as well as additional errors due to respiratory or cardiac motion. Subsequently, the accuracy of the proposed fusion system was evaluated in a cohort of ten patients undergoing VT ablation where both EAVM and LGE-MRI data were available. Compared to landmark registration and surface registration, the presented method achieved significant improvement in registration error. The proposed data fusion system allows the fusion of EAVM and LGE-MRI data in VT ablation with registration errors less than 3.5  mm. PMID:23247842

Roujol, Sebastien; Basha, Tamer A; Tan, Alex; Khanna, Varun; Chan, Raymond H; Moghari, Mehdi H; Rayatzadeh, Hussein; Shaw, Jaime L; Josephson, Mark E; Nezafat, Reza

2013-05-01

149

A comparison of Gd-BOPTA and Gd-DOTA for contrast-enhanced MRI of intracranial tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-centre intra-individual crossover study was performed in 23 patients with suspected high-grade glioma or metastases to assess and compare the safety and enhancement characteristics of two different MRI contrast media (gadobenate dimeglumine, Gd-BOPTA and gadoterate meglumine, Gd-DOTA) at equivalent doses of 0.1 mmol\\/kg body weight. T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) and T2-weighted fast SE images were obtained before and T1-weighted images 0, 2,

C. Colosimo; M. V. Knopp; X. Barreau; E. Gérardin; M. A. Kirchin; F. Guézénoc; K. P. Lodemann

2004-01-01

150

Pharmacokinetic Changes Induced by Focused Ultrasound in Glioma-Bearing Rats as Measured by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Focused ultrasound (FUS) combined with microbubbles has been shown to be a noninvasive and targeted drug delivery technique for brain tumor treatment. The purpose of this study was to measure the kinetics of Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) in glioma-bearing rats in the presence of FUS-induced blood-brain barrier disruption (BBB-D) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A total of ten glioma-bearing rats (9–12 weeks, 290–340 g) were used in this study. Using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI, the spatial permeability of FUS-induced BBB-D was evaluated and the kinetic parameters were calculated by a general kinetic model (GKM). The results demonstrate that the mean Ktrans of the sonicated tumor (0.128±0.019 at 20 min and 0.103±0.023 at 24 h after sonication, respectively) was significantly higher than (2.46-fold at 20 min and 1.78-fold at 24 h) that of the contralateral (non-sonicated) tumor (0.052±0.019 at 20 min and 0.058±0.012 at 24 h after sonication, respectively). In addition, the transfer constant Ktrans in the sonicated tumor correlated strongly with tissue EB extravasation (R?=?0.95), which suggests that DCE-MRI may reflect drug accumulation in the brain. Histological observations showed no macroscopic damage except for a few small erythrocyte extravasations. The current study demonstrates that DCE-MRI can monitor the dynamics of the FUS-induced BBB-D process and constitutes a useful tool for quantifying BBB permeability in tumors. PMID:24670992

Yang, Feng-Yi; Ko, Chia-En; Huang, Sheng-Yao; Chung, I-Fang; Chen, Gin-Shin

2014-01-01

151

Assessment of tumor necrotic fraction by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI: a preclinical study of human tumor xenografts with histopathologic correlation.  

PubMed

Contrary to the common notion that tumor necrotic regions are non-enhancing after contrast administration, recent evidence has shown that necrotic regions exhibit delayed and slow uptake of gadolinium tracer on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE MRI). The purpose of this study is to explore whether the mapping of tumor voxels with delayed and slow enhancement on DCE MRI can be used to derive estimates of tumor necrotic fraction. Patient-derived tumor xenograft lines of seven human cancers were implanted in 26 mice which were subjected to DCE MRI performed using a spoiled gradient recalled sequence. Gadolinium tracer concentration was estimated using the variable flip angle technique. To identify tumor voxels exhibiting delayed and slow uptake of contrast medium, clustering analysis was performed using a k-means clustering algorithm that classified tumor voxels according to their contrast enhancement patterns. Comparison of the percentage of tumor voxels exhibiting delayed and slow enhancement with the tumor necrotic fraction estimated on histology showed a strong correlation (r?=?0.962, p?MRI correlated strongly with tumor necrotic fraction, and can potentially serve as a non-invasive imaging surrogate for the in vivo assessment of necrotic fraction. PMID:24535773

Koh, Tong San; Thng, Choon Hua; Hartono, Septian; Dominguez, Lourdes T M; Lim, Tony K H; Huynh, Hung; Martarello, Laurent; Ng, Quan Sing

2014-04-01

152

Can contrast-enhanced ultrasound with second-generation contrast agents replace computed tomography angiography for distinguishing between occlusion and pseudo-occlusion of the internal carotid artery?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of contrast-enhanced ultrasound with a second-generation contrast agent in distinguishing between occlusion and pseudo-occlusion of the cervical internal carotid artery, comparing it with that of conventional Doppler ultrasound and the gold standard, computed tomography angiography. METHOD: Between June 2006 and June 2012, we screened 72 symptomatic vascular surgery outpatients at a public hospital. Among those patients, 78 cervical internal carotid arteries were previously classified as occluded by Doppler ultrasound (without contrast). The patients were examined again with Doppler ultrasound, as well as with contrast-enhanced ultrasound and computed tomography angiography. The diagnosis was based on the presence or absence of flow. RESULTS: Among the 78 cervical internal carotid arteries identified as occluded by Doppler ultrasound, occlusion was confirmed by computed tomography angiography in only 57 (73.1%), compared with 59 (77.5%) for which occlusion was confirmed by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (p>0.5 vs. computed tomography angiography). Comparing contrast-enhanced ultrasound with Doppler ultrasound, we found that the proportion of cervical internal carotid arteries classified as occluded was 24.4% higher when the latter was used (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that, in making the differential diagnosis between occlusion and pseudo-occlusion of the cervical internal carotid artery, contrast-enhanced ultrasound with a second-generation contrast agent is significantly more effective than conventional Doppler ultrasound and is equally as effective as the gold standard (computed tomography angiography). Our findings suggest that contrast-enhanced ultrasound could replace computed tomography angiography in this regard. PMID:25672421

Ventura, Carlos Augusto Pinto; da Silva, Erasmo Simão; Cerri, Giovanni Guido; Leão, Pedro Puech; Tachibana, Adriano; Chammas, Maria Cristina

2015-01-01

153

Role of neuronal activity and kinesin on tract tracing by manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

MEMRI offers the exciting possibility of tracing neuronal circuits in living animals by MRI. Here we use the power of mouse genetics and the simplicity of the visual system to test rigorously the parameters affecting Mn2+ uptake, transport and trans-synaptic tracing. By measuring electrical response to light before and after injection of Mn2+ into the eye, we determine the dose

Elaine L. Bearer; Tomás Luis Falzone; XiaoWei Zhang; Octavian Biris; Arkady Rasin; Russell E. Jacobs

2007-01-01

154

SPIO-conjugated, doxorubicin-loaded microbubbles for concurrent MRI and focused-ultrasound enhanced brain-tumor drug delivery.  

PubMed

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) can be temporarily and locally opened by focused ultrasound (FUS) in the presence of circulating microbubbles (MBs). Currently, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) is used to monitor contrast agent leakage to verify BBB-opening and infer drug deposition. However, despite being administered concurrently, MBs, therapeutic agent, and contrast agent have distinct pharmacodynamic behaviors, thus complicating the quantification and optimization of BBB-opening and drug delivery. Here we propose multifunctional MBs loaded with therapeutic agent (doxorubicin; DOX) and conjugated with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles. These DOX-SPIO-MBs were designed to concurrently open the BBB and perform drug delivery upon FUS exposure, act as dual MRI and ultrasound contrast agent, and allow magnetic targeting (MT) to achieve enhanced drug delivery. We performed burst-tone FUS after injection of DOX-SPIO-MBs, followed by MT with an external magnet attached to the scalp in a rat glioma model. Animals were monitored by T2-weighted MRI and susceptibility weighted imaging and the concentration of SPIO particles was determined by spin-spin relaxivity. We found that DOX-SPIO-MBs were stable and provided significant superparamagnetic/acoustic properties for imaging. BBB-opening and drug delivery were achieved concurrently during the FUS exposure. In addition, MT increased local SPIO deposition in tumor regions by 22.4%. Our findings suggest that DOX-SPIO-MBs with FUS could be an excellent theranostic tool for future image-guided drug delivery to brain tumors. PMID:23433776

Fan, Ching-Hsiang; Ting, Chien-Yu; Lin, Han-Jung; Wang, Chung-Hsin; Liu, Hao-Li; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

2013-05-01

155

Added value of hepatobiliary phase gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma in high-risk patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the added value of hepatobiliary phase (HBP) gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluating hepatic nodules in high-risk patients. METHODS: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived the requirement for informed consent. This study included 100 patients at high risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 105 hepatic nodules that were larger than 1 cm. A blind review of two MR image sets was performed in a random order: set 1, unenhanced (T1- and T2-weighted) and dynamic images; and set 2, unenhanced, dynamic 20-min and HBP images. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were compared for the two image sets. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on the MR characteristics utilized to diagnose HCC. RESULTS: A total of 105 hepatic nodules were identified in 100 patients. Fifty-nine nodules were confirmed to be HCC. The diameter of the 59 HCCs ranged from 1 to 12 cm (mean: 1.9 cm). The remaining 46 nodules were benign (28 were of hepatocyte origin, nine were hepatic cysts, seven were hemangiomas, one was chronic inflammation, and one was focal fat infiltration). The diagnostic accuracy significantly increased with the addition of HBP images, from 88.7% in set 1 to 95.5% in set 2 (P = 0.002). In set 1 vs set 2, the sensitivity and NPV increased from 79.7% to 93.2% and from 78.9% to 91.8%, respectively, whereas the specificity and PPV were not significantly different. The hypointensity on the HBP images was the most sensitive (93.2%), and typical arterial enhancement followed by washout was the most specific (97.8%). The multivariate analysis revealed that typical arterial enhancement followed by washout, hyperintensity on T2-weighted images, and hypointensity on HBP images were statistically significant MRI findings that could diagnose HCC (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The addition of HBP gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI statistically improved the diagnostic accuracy in HCCs larger than 1 cm. Typical arterial enhancement followed by washout and hypointensity on HBP images are useful for diagnosing HCC. PMID:24363528

Phongkitkarun, Sith; Limsamutpetch, Kuruwin; Tannaphai, Penampai; Jatchavala, Janjira

2013-01-01

156

Diagnostic efficacy of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for the detection and characterisation of liver metastases: comparison with multidetector-row CT  

PubMed Central

Objectives We compared the diagnostic performance of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and 16-slice multidetector CT (MDCT) with respect to their abilities to detect hepatic metastases and differentiate hepatic metastases from hepatic cysts and haemangiomas. Methods 67 patients with 110 liver metastases (size 0.3–2.5 cm), 33 haemangiomas (size 0.5–1.5 cm) and 17 cysts (size 0.3–1.0 cm) underwent 4-phase MDCT and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI, including early dynamic phases, post-contrast T2 weighted turbo spin echo sequences and 20 min hepatocyte-selective phases. Two observers independently analysed each image in random order. Sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy for lesion detection and differentiation for MDCT and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI were calculated using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results For both observers, the Az values of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (mean, 0.982 and 0.981) were significantly higher than the Az values of MDCT (mean, 0.839 and 0.892) (p<0.05) for the detection of metastases and for the differentiation of metastases from haemangiomas and cysts. Sensitivities of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI with regard to the detection and characterisation of liver metastases (mean, 96.9% and 96.0%) were significantly higher than those of MDCT (mean, 78.7% and 75.0%) (p<0.05). Conclusion Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI showed higher diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity than did MDCT for the detection of hepatic metastases and for the differentiation between hepatic metastases and hepatic haemangiomas or cysts. PMID:22556405

Kim, Y K; Park, G; Kim, C S; Yu, H C; Han, Y M

2012-01-01

157

Sol and Gel States in Peptide Hydrogels Visualized by Gd(III)-enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

The hydrogels assembled from a pair of self-repulsive but mutually-attractive decapeptides are visualized by magnetic resonance imaging. It is found that in the absence of Gd(III)-chelate, gelation has little effect on MRI signal intensity. In the presence of Gd(III)-chelate, gelation leads to significant changes in water relaxation and MR signal intensity. The sol to gel transition is best visualized by T2-weighted imaging using large echo time with the sol producing a bright spot and the gel producing a dark spot. MRI studies indicate high local Gd(III)-chelate concentration. Small-angle X-ray scattering study indicates that this local enrichment of Gd(III)-chelate has two contributing processes: first, the aggregation of peptides into fibers; second, within peptide fibers, Gd(III)-chelate further aggregate into clusters. This work demonstrates that the status of peptide-based hydrogels can be visualized by MRI with the aid of covalently linked Gd(III)-chelates. This result has implications for monitoring peptide scaffolds in vivo. PMID:22252424

Weerasekare, Mahika; Taraban, Marc B.; Shi, Xianfeng; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Trewhella, Jill; Yu, Yihua Bruce

2013-01-01

158

MRI-based estimation of liver function: Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced T1 relaxometry of 3T vs. the MELD score  

PubMed Central

Gd-EOB-DTPA is a hepatocyte-specific MRI contrast agent. Due to its hepatocyte-specific uptake and paramagnetic properties, functioning areas of the liver exhibit shortening of the T1 relaxation time. We report the potential use of T1 relaxometry of the liver with Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for estimating the liver function as expressed by the MELD score. 3 T MRI relaxometry was performed before and 20?min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. A strong correlation between changes in the T1 relaxometry and the extent of liver disease, expressed by the MELD score, was documented. Reduced liver function correlates with decreased Gd-EOB-DTPA accumulation in the hepatocytes during the hepatobiliary phase. MRI-based T1 relaxometry with Gd-EOB-DTPA may be a useful method for assessing overall and segmental liver function. PMID:25001391

Haimerl, Michael; Verloh, Niklas; Fellner, Claudia; Zeman, Florian; Teufel, Andreas; Feigl, Stefan Fichtner-; Schreyer, Andreas G.; Stroszczynski, Christian; Wiggermann, Philipp

2014-01-01

159

Head MRI  

MedlinePLUS

... the head; MRI - cranial; NMR - cranial; Cranial MRI; Brain MRI; MRI - brain; MRI - head ... tell your health care provider if you have: Brain aneurysm clips Certain types of artificial heart valves ...

160

Brain Processing of Biologically Relevant Odors in the Awake Rat, as Revealed by Manganese-Enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Background So far, an overall view of olfactory structures activated by natural biologically relevant odors in the awake rat is not available. Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) is appropriate for this purpose. While MEMRI has been used for anatomical labeling of olfactory pathways, functional imaging analyses have not yet been performed beyond the olfactory bulb. Here, we have used MEMRI for functional imaging of rat central olfactory structures and for comparing activation maps obtained with odors conveying different biological messages. Methodology/Principal Findings Odors of male fox feces and of chocolate flavored cereals were used to stimulate conscious rats previously treated by intranasal instillation of manganese (Mn). MEMRI activation maps showed Mn enhancement all along the primary olfactory cortex. Mn enhancement elicited by male fox feces odor and to a lesser extent that elicited by chocolate odor, differed from that elicited by deodorized air. This result was partly confirmed by c-Fos immunohistochemistry in the piriform cortex. Conclusion/Significance By providing an overall image of brain structures activated in awake rats by odorous stimulation, and by showing that Mn enhancement is differently sensitive to different stimulating odors, the present results demonstrate the interest of MEMRI for functional studies of olfaction in the primary olfactory cortex of laboratory small animals, under conditions close to natural perception. Finally, the factors that may cause the variability of the MEMRI signal in response to different odor are discussed. PMID:23119035

Lehallier, Benoist; Rampin, Olivier; Saint-Albin, Audrey; Jérôme, Nathalie; Ouali, Christian; Maurin, Yves; Bonny, Jean-Marie

2012-01-01

161

Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced 3.0-Tesla MRI findings for the preoperative detection of focal liver lesions: Comparison with iodine-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The safety of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic-acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) has been confirmed, but more study is needed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) for whom surgical treatment is considered or with a metastatic hepatoma. Research is also needed to examine the rate of detection of hepatic lesions compared to multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), which is used most frequently to localize and characterize a HCC. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and iodine-enhanced MDCT imaging were compared for the preoperative detection of focal liver lesions. The clinical usefulness of each method was examined. The current study enrolled 79 patients with focal liver lesions who preoperatively underwent MRI and MDCT. In these patients, there was less than one month between the two diagnostic modalities. Imaging data were taken before and after contrast enhancement in both methods. To evaluate the images, we analyzed the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the lesions and the liver parenchyma. To compare the sensitivity of the two methods, we performed a quantitative analysis of the percentage signal intensity of the liver (PSIL) on a high resolution picture archiving and communication system (PACS) monitor (paired-samples t-test, p < 0.05). The enhancement was evaluated based on a consensus of four observers. The enhancement pattern and the morphological features during the arterial and the delayed phases were correlated between the Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI findings and the iodine-enhanced MDCT by using an adjusted x2 test. The SNRs, CNRs, and PSIL all had a greater detection rate in Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI than in iodine-enhanced MDCT. Hepatocyte-selective uptake was observed 20 minutes after the injection in the focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH, 9/9), adenoma (9/10), and highly-differentiated HCC (grade G1, 27/30). Rim enhancement was detected in all metastases (30/30). During the arterial and the delayed phases, good overall agreement between the gadoxetic-acid-enhanced MR and CT was observed (x2 test, p < 0.05). For the preoperative detection of focal liver lesions, Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI had a higher diagnostic value and higher detection rate than iodine-enhanced MDCT. The arterial and the delayed dynamic enhancement patterns, and the gadoxetic-acid-enhanced MR imaging can provide information on the possible degree of cellular differentiation of a HCC, adenoma or metastatic tumor.

Park, Hyong-Hu; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Im, In-Chul; Lee, Jae-Seung; Kim, Moon-Jib; Kwak, Byung-Joon; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Dong, Kyung-Rae

2012-12-01

162

Functional Lung MRI in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Comparison of T1 Mapping, Oxygen-Enhanced T1 Mapping and Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Perfusion  

PubMed Central

Purpose Monitoring of regional lung function in interventional COPD trials requires alternative endpoints beyond global parameters such as FEV1. T1 relaxation times of the lung might allow to draw conclusions on tissue composition, blood volume and oxygen fraction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential value of lung Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with native and oxygen-enhanced T1 mapping for the assessment of COPD patients in comparison with contrast enhanced perfusion MRI. Materials and Methods 20 COPD patients (GOLD I-IV) underwent a coronal 2-dimensional inversion recovery snapshot flash sequence (8 slices/lung) at room air and during inhalation of pure oxygen, as well as dynamic contrast-enhanced first-pass perfusion imaging. Regional distribution of T1 at room air (T1), oxygen-induced T1 shortening (?T1) and peak enhancement were rated by 2 chest radiologists in consensus using a semi-quantitative 3-point scale in a zone-based approach. Results Abnormal T1 and ?T1 were highly prevalent in the patient cohort. T1 and ?T1 correlated positively with perfusion abnormalities (r = 0.81 and r = 0.80; p&0.001), and with each other (r = 0.80; p<0.001). In GOLD stages I and II ?T1 was normal in 16/29 lung zones with mildly abnormal perfusion (15/16 with abnormal T1). The extent of T1 (r = 0.45; p<0.05), ?T1 (r = 0.52; p<0.05) and perfusion abnormalities (r = 0.52; p<0.05) showed a moderate correlation with GOLD stage. Conclusion Native and oxygen-enhanced T1 mapping correlated with lung perfusion deficits and severity of COPD. Under the assumption that T1 at room air correlates with the regional pulmonary blood pool and that oxygen-enhanced T1 reflects lung ventilation, both techniques in combination are principally suitable to characterize ventilation-perfusion imbalance. This appears valuable for the assessment of regional lung characteristics in COPD trials without administration of i.v. contrast. PMID:25822195

Jobst, Bertram J.; Triphan, Simon M. F.; Sedlaczek, Oliver; Anjorin, Angela; Kauczor, Hans Ulrich; Biederer, Jürgen; Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Ley, Sebastian; Wielpütz, Mark O.

2015-01-01

163

Automated scoring of regional lung perfusion in children from contrast enhanced 3D MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MRI perfusion images give information about regional lung function and can be used to detect pulmonary pathologies in cystic fibrosis (CF) children. However, manual assessment of the percentage of pathologic tissue in defined lung subvolumes features large inter- and intra-observer variation, making it difficult to determine disease progression consistently. We present an automated method to calculate a regional score for this purpose. First, lungs are located based on thresholding and morphological operations. Second, statistical shape models of left and right children's lungs are initialized at the determined locations and used to precisely segment morphological images. Segmentation results are transferred to perfusion maps and employed as masks to calculate perfusion statistics. An automated threshold to determine pathologic tissue is calculated and used to determine accurate regional scores. We evaluated the method on 10 MRI images and achieved an average surface distance of less than 1.5 mm compared to manual reference segmentations. Pathologic tissue was detected correctly in 9 cases. The approach seems suitable for detecting early signs of CF and monitoring response to therapy.

Heimann, Tobias; Eichinger, Monika; Bauman, Grzegorz; Bischoff, Arved; Puderbach, Michael; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

2012-03-01

164

Gd-EOB-DTPA-Enhanced MRI for Detection of Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancer: A Surgeon's Perspective!  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer affects over one million people worldwide annually, with the liver being the most common site of metastatic spread. Adequate resection of hepatic metastases is the only chance for a cure in a subset of patients, and five-year survival increases to 35% with complete resection. Traditionally, computed tomographic imaging (CT) was utilized for staging and to evaluate metastases in the liver. Recently, the introduction of hepatobiliary contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agents including gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Eovist in the United States, Primovist in Europe, or Gd-EOB-DTPA) has proved to be a sensitive method for detection of hepatic metastases. Accurate detection of liver metastases is critical for staging of colorectal cancer as well as preoperative planning. PMID:23653860

Lafaro, Kelly J.; Roumanis, Panayota; Demirjian, Aram N.; Lall, Chandana; Imagawa, David K.

2013-01-01

165

Comparison of gadoxetic acid and gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI for HCC detection: prospective crossover study at 3?T  

PubMed Central

Background Gadoxetic acid and gadopentetate dimeglumine are gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) with an established role in HCC detection and characterization. Purpose To compare gadopentetate dimeglumine and gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for image quality and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) detection/conspicuity. Material and Methods In this IRB approved cross-over pilot prospective study, 12 patients (all men; mean age, 56 years) with chronic liver disease at risk of HCC underwent two repeat MRI examinations using gadopentetate dimeglumine and gadoxetic acid (mean interval between studies, 5 days). Two independent observers analyzed images for image quality and HCC detection/conspicuity. Per-lesion sensitivity, positive predictive value, quantitative enhancement, and lesion-to-liver contrast ratio were calculated for both contrast agents. Results There was no significant difference in image quality scores between both GBCAs (P?=?0.3). A total of 20 HCCs were identified with reference standard in 12 patients (mean size 2.6?cm, range, 1.0–5.0?cm). Higher sensitivity was seen for observer 1 for gadoxetic acid-set in comparison with gadopentetate dimeglumine-set (sensitivity increased from 85.7% to 92.8%), while no difference was noted for observer 2 (sensitivity of 78.5%). Lesion conspicuity was significantly higher on hepatobiliary phase (HBP) images compared to arterial phase images with both GBCAs for both observers (P?

Besa, Cecilia; Kakite, Suguru; Cooper, Nancy; Facciuto, Marcelo

2015-01-01

166

Multifunctional 1D magnetic and fluorescent nanoparticle chains for enhanced MRI, fluorescent cell imaging, and combined photothermal/chemotherapy.  

PubMed

While the assembled 1D magnetic nanoparticle (NP) chains have demonstrated synergistic magnetic effects from the individual NPs, it is essential to prepare new 1D NP chains that can combine the magnetism with other important material properties for multifunctional applications. This paper reports the fabrication and multifunctional investigation of a new type of 1D NP chains that combine the magnetic properties with fluorescent properties, photothermal conversion ability, and drug carrier function. The building block NPs are composed of magnetic Fe(3)O(4) nanocrystals clustered in the core and fluorescent carbon dots embedded in the mesoporous carbon shell with hydroxyl/carboxyl groups anchored on their surface. These NPs can assemble under the induction of external magnetic field and form stable 1D NP chains of diameter ? 90 nm and length ? 3 ?m via the hydrogen bonding and ?-? stacking linkage of the carbon shell. The resulted 1D hybrid NP chains not only demonstrate much higher magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrasting ability than the dispersed building block NPs, but also enter into intracellular region and light up the B16F10 cells under a laser excitation with strong and stable fluorescence. While the mesoporous carbon shell provides high drug loading capacity, the embedded fluorescent carbon dots convert near-infrared (NIR) light to heat, and hence kill the tumor cells efficiently and enhance the drug release rate to further improve the therapeutic efficacy under NIR irradiation. Such designed 1D magnetic-fluorescent hybrid NP chains with enhanced MRI contrast, fluorescent imaging ability, and combined chemo-/photothermal therapeutic ability have great potential for various biomedical applications. PMID:25127411

Wang, Hui; Mararenko, Anton; Cao, Guixin; Gai, Zheng; Hong, Kunlun; Banerjee, Probal; Zhou, Shuiqin

2014-09-10

167

Joint estimation of shape and deformation for the detection of lesions in dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a mathematical framework for simultaneously delineating the boundary of object and estimating its temporal motion in the application of lesion detection in a dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) breast MRI sequence where both the appearance and the shape of region of interest is assumed to change in time. A unified energy functional for a joint segmentation and registration is proposed based on the assumption that the statistical properties of dynamic intensity curves within a region of interest are homogeneous. Our algorithm is designed to provide the morphological properties of the enhanced region and its dynamic intensity profiles, called kinetic signatures, in the analysis of DCE imagery since these features are considered as significant cues in understanding images. The proposed energy comprises a combination of a segmentation energy and a registration energy. The segmentation energy is developed based on a convex formulation being insensitive to the initialization. The registration energy is designed to compensate motion artifacts that are usually involved in the temporal imaging procedure. The major objective of this work is to provide a mathematical framework for a joint segmentation and registration on a dynamic sequence of images, and we demonstrate the mutual benefit of the estimation of temporal deformations for the registration step and the localization of regions of interest for the segmentation step. The effectiveness of the developed algorithm has been demonstrated on a number of clinical DCE breast MRI data in the application of breast lesion detection and the results show its potential to improve the accuracy and the efficiency in the diagnosis of breast cancer.

Hong, Byung-Woo

2013-11-01

168

Hydrothermally synthesized PEGylated calcium phosphate nanoparticles incorporating Gd-DTPA for contrast enhanced MRI diagnosis of solid tumors.  

PubMed

Organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles with calcium phosphate (CaP) core and PEGylated shell were developed to incorporate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid gadolinium (III) (Gd-DTPA) for noninvasive diagnosis of solid tumors. A two-step preparation method was applied to elaborate hybrid nanoparticles with a z-average hydrodynamic diameter about 80nm, neutral surface ?-potential and high colloidal stability in physiological environments by self-assembly of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(aspartic acid) block copolymer, Gd-DTPA, and CaP in aqueous solution, followed with hydrothermal treatment. Incorporation into the hybrid nanoparticles allowed Gd-DTPA to show significant enhanced retention ratio in blood circulation, leading to high accumulation in tumor positions due to enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Moreover, Gd-DTPA revealed above 6 times increase of relaxivity in the nanoparticle system compared to free form, and eventually, selective and elevated contrast enhancements in the tumor positions were observed. These results indicate the high potential of Gd-DTPA-loaded PEGylated CaP nanoparticles as a novel contrast agent for noninvasive cancer diagnosis. PMID:24211705

Mi, Peng; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Cabral, Horacio; Kumagai, Michiaki; Nomoto, Takahiro; Aoki, Ichio; Terada, Yasuko; Kishimura, Akihiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

2014-01-28

169

Monitoring Pc 4-mediated photodynamic therapy of U87 tumors with dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in the athymic nude rat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-operative verification of the specificity and sensitivity of photodynamic therapy (PDT) is most pressing for deeply placed lesions such as brain tumors. We wish to determine whether Dynamic Contrast Enhanced-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) can provide a non-invasive and unambiguous quantitative measure of the specificity and sensitivity of brain tumor PDT. Methods: 2.5 x 10 5 U87 cells were injected into the brains of six athymic nude rats. After 5-6 days, the animals received 0.5 mg/kg b.w. of the phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 via tail-vein injection. On day 7 peri-tumor DCE-MRI images were acquired on a 7T microMRI scanner before and after tail-vein administration of 100 ?L gadolinium and 400 ?L saline. After this scan the animals received a 30 J/cm2 dose of 672-nm light from a diode laser (i.e., PDT). The DCE-MRI scan protocol was repeated on day 13. Next, the animals were euthanized and their brains were explanted for Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) histology. Results: No tumor was found in one animal. The DCE-MRI images of the other five animals demonstrated significant tumor enhancement increase (p < 0.053 two-sided t-test and p < 0.026 one-sided t-test) following PDT. H&E histology presented moderate to severe tumor necrosis. Discussion: The change in signal detected by DCE-MRI appears to be due to PDT-induced tumor necrosis. This DCE-MRI signal appears to provide a quantitative, non-invasive measure of the outcome of PDT in this animal model and may be useful for determining the safety and effectiveness of PDT in deeply placed tumors (e.g., glioma).

Varghai, Davood; Covey, Kelly; Sharma, Rahul; Cross, Nathan; Feyes, Denise K.; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Flask, Chris A.; Dean, David

2008-02-01

170

Optimal clustering of kinetic patterns on malignant breast lesions: comparison between K-means clustering and three-time-points method in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.  

PubMed

Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is useful for breast cancer diagnosis and treatment planning. Nevertheless, due to the multi-temporal nature of DCE-MRI data, the assessment of early stage breast cancer is a challenging task. In this study, we applied an unsupervised clustering approach and cluster validation technique to the analysis of malignant intral-tumoral kinetic curves in DCE-MRI. K-means cluster analysis was performed from real world malignant tumor cases and the data were transformed into an optimal number of reference patterns representative each cluster. The optimal number of clusters was estimated by a cluster validation index, which was calculated with the ratio of inter-class scatter to intra-class scatter. This technique then classifies tumor specific patterns from a given MRI data by measuring the vector distances from the reference pattern set, and compared the result from the k-means clustering with that from three-time-points (3TP) method, which represents a clinical standard protocol for analysis of tumor kinetics. The evaluation of twenty five cases indicates that optimal k-means clustering reflects partitioning intra-tumoral kinetic patterns better than the 3TP technique. This method will greatly enhance the capability of radiologists to identify and characterize internal kinetic heterogeneity and vascular change of a tumor in breast DCE-MRI. PMID:18002399

Lee, S H; Kim, J H; Kim, K G; Park, J S; Park, S J; Moon, W K

2007-01-01

171

Quantification of synovistis by MRI: correlation between dynamic and static gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and microscopic and macroscopic signs of synovial inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic and static gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid(Gd-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were evaluated as measures of joint inflammation in arthritis, by a comparison with macroscopic and microscopic signs of synovitis. Furthermore, the importance of the size of the evaluated synovial areas was investigated, as was the optimal time for enhancement measurements. Seventeen rheumatoid arthritis knees and 25 osteoarthritis knees, scheduled for arthroscopy

Mikkel Østergaard; Michael Stoltenberg; Preben Løvgreen-Nielsen; Birgitte Volck; Stig Sonne-Holm; Ib Lorenzen

1998-01-01

172

Multimodality Functional Imaging in Radiation Therapy Planning: Relationships between Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI, Diffusion-Weighted MRI, and 18F-FDG PET  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Biologically guided radiotherapy needs an understanding of how different functional imaging techniques interact and link together. We analyse three functional imaging techniques that can be useful tools for achieving this objective. Materials and Methods. The three different imaging modalities from one selected patient are ADC maps, DCE-MRI, and 18F-FDG PET/CT, because they are widely used and give a great amount of complementary information. We show the relationship between these three datasets and evaluate them as markers for tumour response or hypoxia marker. Thus, vascularization measured using DCE-MRI parameters can determine tumour hypoxia, and ADC maps can be used for evaluating tumour response. Results. ADC and DCE-MRI include information from 18F-FDG, as glucose metabolism is associated with hypoxia and tumour cell density, although 18F-FDG includes more information about the malignancy of the tumour. The main disadvantage of ADC maps is the distortion, and we used only low distorted regions, and extracellular volume calculated from DCE-MRI can be considered equivalent to ADC in well-vascularized areas. Conclusion. A dataset for achieving the biologically guided radiotherapy must include a tumour density study and a hypoxia marker. This information can be achieved using only MRI data or only PET/CT studies or mixing both datasets. PMID:25788972

Mera Iglesias, Moisés; Aramburu Núñez, David; del Olmo Claudio, José Luis; Salvador Gómez, Francisco; Driscoll, Brandon; Coolens, Catherine; Alba Castro, José L.; Muñoz, Victor

2015-01-01

173

Estimating kinetic parameter maps from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI using spatial prior knowledge  

E-print Network

Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MR) imaging can be used to study microvascular structure in vivo by monitoring the abundance of an injected diffusible contrast agent over time. The resulting spatially ...

Menze, Bjoern Holger

174

Combination of model-free and model-based analysis of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI for breast cancer diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) is the leading technique in magnetic resonance imaging for cancer detection and diagnosis. However, there are large variations in the reported sensitivity and specificity of this method that result from the wide range of contrast-enhanced MRI sequences and protocols, image processing methods, and interpretation criteria. Analysis methods can be divided to physiological based models that take into account the vascular and tissue specific features that influence tracer perfusion, and to model free algorithms that decompose enhancement patterns in order to segment and classify different tissue types. Inhere we present a general hybrid method for analyzing dynamic contrast enhanced images integrating a mathematical, model-free technique with a model derived approach that characterizes tissue microvasculature function. We demonstrate the application of the method for breast cancer diagnosis. A brief description of this approach was recently presented for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. The model free method employed principal component analysis and yielded eigen-vectors of which two were relevant for characterizing breast malignancy. The physiological relevance of the two eigen-vectors was revealed by a quantitative correlation with the model based three time point technique. Projection maps of the eigen-vector that specifically related to the wash-out rate of the contrast agent depicted with high accuracy breast cancer. Overall, this hybrid method is fast, standardized, and yields parametric images characterizing tissue microvascular function. It can improve breast cancer detection and be potentially extended as a computer-aided tool for the detection and diagnosis of other cancers.

Eyal, E.; Furman-Haran, E.; Badikhi, D.; Kelcz, F.; Degani, H.

2008-03-01

175

Correcting saturation effects of the arterial input function in dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI: a Monte Carlo simulation.  

PubMed

To prevent systematic errors in quantitative brain perfusion studies using dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI), a reliable determination of the arterial input function (AIF) is essential. We propose a novel algorithm for correcting distortions of the AIF caused by saturation of the peak amplitude and discuss its relevance for longitudinal studies. The algorithm is based on the assumption that the AIF can be separated into a reliable part at low contrast agent concentrations and an unreliable part at high concentrations. This unreliable part is reconstructed, applying a theoretical framework based on a transport-diffusion theory and using the bolus-shape in the tissue. A validation of the correction scheme is tested by a Monte Carlo simulation. The input of the simulation was a wide range of perfusion, and the main aim was to compare this input to the determined perfusion parameters. Another input of the simulation was an AIF template derived from in vivo measurements. The distortions of this template was modeled via a Rician distribution for image intensities. As for a real DSC-MRI experiment, the simulation returned the AIF and the tracer concentration-dependent signal in the tissue. The novel correction scheme was tested by deriving perfusion parameters from the simulated data for the corrected and the uncorrected case. For this analysis, a common truncated singular value decomposition approach was applied. We find that the saturation effect caused by Rician-distributed noise leads to an overestimation of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume, as compared to the input parameter. The aberration can be amplified by a decreasing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) or an increasing tracer concentration. We also find that the overestimation can be successfully eliminated by the proposed saturation-correction scheme. In summary, the correction scheme will allow DSC-MRI to be expanded towards higher tracer concentrations and lower SNR and will help to increase the measurement to measurement reproducibility for longitudinal studies. PMID:17462846

Brunecker, Peter; Villringer, Arno; Schultze, Jörg; Nolte, Christian H; Jungehülsing, Gerhard Jan; Endres, Matthias; Steinbrink, Jens

2007-11-01

176

Molecular imaging of tumors and metastases using chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two glucose analogs 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) and 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) are preferentially taken up by cancer cells, undergo phosphorylation and accumulate in the cells. Owing to their exchangeable protons on their hydroxyl residues they exhibit significant chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) effect in MRI. Here we report CEST-MRI on mice bearing orthotopic mammary tumors injected with 2-DG or FDG. The tumor exhibited an enhanced CEST effect of up to 30% that persisted for over one hour. Thus 2-DG/FDG CEST MRI can replace PET/CT or PET/MRI for cancer research in laboratory animals, but also has the potential to be used in the clinic for the detection of tumors and metastases, distinguishing between malignant and benign tumors and monitoring tumor response to therapy as well as tumors metabolism noninvasively by using MRI, without the need for radio-labeled isotopes.

Rivlin, Michal; Horev, Judith; Tsarfaty, Ilan; Navon, Gil

2013-10-01

177

The effects of glutamate receptor agonists and antagonists on mouse hypothalamic and hippocampal neuronal activity shown through manganese enhanced MRI.  

PubMed

Manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI) is an imaging paradigm that can be used to assess neuronal activity in vivo. Here we investigate, through the use of MEMRI, the influence of receptor dynamics on neuronal activity in the hypothalamus and hippocampus focusing on the glutamate receptor signalling system. We demonstrate that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and the ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) agonists NMDA and AMPA resulted in significantly increased signal intensity (SI) in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the CA3 region of the hippocampus of mice consistent with increased neuronal activity. Administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 resulted in significantly decreased SI in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) consistent with decreased neuronal activity. Co-administration of MSG and the AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX attenuated the increase in SI observed in the ARC from MSG alone, suggesting MEMRI may be applicable to the study of receptor dynamics in vivo. We also observed that administration of the various iGluR agonists and antagonists modulated SI in the lateral ventricle and that high dose MSG (300 mg) caused a hitherto unseen enhancement in SI in the entire cortical/subarachnoid region. In conclusion, MEMRI reveals changes in neuronal activity in response to iGluR agonists and antagonists in the CNS in vivo as well as revealing multifaceted effects beyond those attributable to neuronal activity alone. PMID:21925279

Hankir, Mohammed K; Parkinson, James R; Bloom, Stephen R; Bell, Jimmy D

2012-01-16

178

In Vivo Mn-Enhanced MRI for Early Tumor Detection and Growth Rate Analysis in a Mouse Medulloblastoma Model12  

PubMed Central

Mouse models have increased our understanding of the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor that often forms in the cerebellum. A major goal of ongoing research is to better understand the early stages of tumorigenesis and to establish the genetic and environmental changes that underlie MB initiation and growth. However, studies of MB progression in mouse models are difficult due to the heterogeneity of tumor onset times and growth patterns and the lack of clinical symptoms at early stages. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is critical for noninvasive, longitudinal, three-dimensional (3D) brain tumor imaging in the clinic but is limited in resolution and sensitivity for imaging early MBs in mice. In this study, high-resolution (100 ?m in 2 hours) and high-throughput (150 ?m in 15 minutes) manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) protocols were optimized for early detection and monitoring of MBs in a Patched-1 (Ptch1) conditional knockout (CKO) model. The high tissue contrast obtained with MEMRI revealed detailed cerebellar morphology and enabled detection of MBs over a wide range of stages including pretumoral lesions as early as 2 to 3 weeks postnatal with volumes close to 0.1 mm3. Furthermore, longitudinal MEMRI allowed noninvasive monitoring of tumors and demonstrated that lesions within and between individuals have different tumorigenic potentials. 3D volumetric studies allowed quantitative analysis of MB tumor morphology and growth rates in individual Ptch1-CKO mice. These results show that MEMRI provides a powerful method for early in vivo detection and longitudinal imaging of MB progression in the mouse brain. PMID:25499213

Suero-Abreu, Giselle A.; Praveen Raju, G.; Aristizábal, Orlando; Volkova, Eugenia; Wojcinski, Alexandre; Houston, Edward J.; Pham, Diane; Szulc, Kamila U.; Colon, Daniel; Joyner, Alexandra L.; Turnbull, Daniel H.

2014-01-01

179

Assessment of microvascular integrity in the isolated perfused rat liver by contrast-enhanced MRI. Attenuation of reperfusion injury by conjugated deferoxamine.  

PubMed

Reperfusion of an ischemic organ can lead to microcirculatory impairment caused, in part, by the generation of reactive free radicals. The iron-catalyzed formation of these deleterious substances can be counteracted by strong metal chelators like deferoxamine. In this study, the protective effect of deferoxamine conjugate was evaluated by assessment of the hepatic microcirculation in the post-ischemic phase. Assessment of the microvasculature was performed by MRI on the isolated perfused rat liver. The restriction of sinusoids subsequent to reperfusion injury was demonstrated by the use of a particulate superparamagnetic contrast agent trapped in the microvasculature. The protective effect of conjugated deferoxamine was evaluated by both MRI and release of alanine aminotransferase. Contrast-enhanced MRI demonstrated a marked impairment of the microcirculation subsequent to the unprotected reperfusion of the ischemic tissue. This injury was attenuated by deferoxamine conjugated to hydroxyethyl-starch (HES-DFO). PMID:8916026

Colet, J M; Cetiner, E; Hedlund, B E; Muller, R N

1996-11-01

180

Role of Neuronal Activity and Kinesin on Tract Tracing by Manganese-Enhanced MRI (MEMRI)  

PubMed Central

MEMRI offers the exciting possibility of tracing neuronal circuits in living animals by MRI. Here we use the power of mouse genetics and the simplicity of the visual system to test rigorously the parameters affecting Mn2+ uptake, transport and trans-synaptic tracing. By measuring electrical response to light before and after injection of Mn2+ into the eye, we determine the dose of Mn2+ with the least toxicity that can still be imaged by MR at 11.7T. Using mice with genetic retinal blindness, we discover that electrical activity is not necessary for uptake and transport of Mn2+ in the optic nerve but is required for trans-synaptic transmission of this tracer to distal neurons in this pathway. Finally, using a kinesin light chain 1 knock-out mouse, we find that conventional kinesin is a participant but not essential to neuronal transport of Mn2+ in the optic tract. This work provides a molecular and physiological framework for interpreting data acquired by MEMRI of circuitry in the brain. PMID:17600729

Bearer, Elaine L.; Falzone, Tomás Luis; Zhang, XiaoWei; Biris, Octavian; Rasin, Arkady; Jacobs, Russell E.

2007-01-01

181

Highly accelerated dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI with temporal constrained reconstruction.  

PubMed

For DCE MRI applications, the images of adjacent time frames are often similar, especially when motion is minimal, in which case temporal TV is a reasonable regularization term. Temporal constraint reconstruction (TCR) has been developed to reconstruct dynamic images from undersampled k-t space data based on such prior information. However, the convergence speed of the algorithm highly depends on the initialization method. In this study, we study initialization using a composite high resolution image based on a jigsaw sampling pattern during pre-contrast frames. The proposed initialization method converges much faster than a conventional initialization method using low resolution images, especially at high reduction factors. In vivo breast imaging experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Experiments show the new initialization method allows TCR to achieve a high reduction factor up to 40 without compromising much of the spatial or temporal resolution. The reconstruction errors are much lower than those using the low resolution initialization when the same number of measurements is used. PMID:25570475

Huajun She; Rong-Rong Chen; DiBella, Edward V R; Schabel, Matthias; Ying, Leslie

2014-01-01

182

Contrast enhancement of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of polymer gel dosimeter by adding Platinum nano- particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research different concentrations of Platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs) embedded in PAGAT polymer gel and irradiated with Cobalt -60 (60Co). The OD of samples indicate significant dose enhancement caused by Pt-NPs. Different concentrations of Pt-NPs were investigated: 0.5×10?2,1×10?2 2×10?2 and 3×10?2 mg/l and these were presented the enhancement in OD by the factor of 11.56, 27.10, 15.84 and 10.07 respectively. As the mean energy of 60Co is 1.25 MeV and atomic number (Z) of Pt is 78, the predominant effect will be Compton effect and Photoelectric cannot occurred. This work studied the feasibility of using PAGAT polymer gel combined with Pt-NPs as a suitable tool to perform dosimetric investigation of nanoparticles application in radiotherapy as dosimeter and dose enhancer.

Deyhimihaghighi, N.; Mohd Noor, N.; Soltani, N.; Jorfi, R.; Erfani Haghir, M.; Adenan, M. Z.; Saion, E.; Khandaker, M. U.

2014-11-01

183

A case of cervical juxtafacet cyst with extensive rim enhancement on Gd-DTPA MRI.  

PubMed

The authors reported a case of cervical juxtafacet cyst with extensive rim enhancement on gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacid magnetic resonance imaging. Operative finding revealed the epidural space around the mass filled with abundant venous plexus. Histological examination demonstrated that cyst wall was composed of the well-vascularized fibrous connective tissue with some inflammatory changes. We speculate that extensive rim enhancement of juxtafacet cyst may be attributed not only to the chronic inflammatory changes of cyst wall, but to engorged venous plexus within the widened epidural space. PMID:24332973

Sasamori, Toru; Hida, Kazutoshi; Anzai, Kimio; Yano, Shunsuke; Kato, Yasutaka; Tanaka, Shinya; Saito, Hisatoshi; Houkin, Kiyohiro

2014-01-01

184

Enhanced disease characterization through multi network functional normalization in fMRI  

PubMed Central

Conventionally, structural topology is used for spatial normalization during the pre-processing of fMRI. The co-existence of multiple intrinsic networks which can be detected in the resting brain are well-studied. Also, these networks exhibit temporal and spatial modulation during cognitive task vs. rest which shows the existence of common spatial excitation patterns between these identified networks. Previous work (Khullar et al., 2011) has shown that structural and functional data may not have direct one-to-one correspondence and functional activation patterns in a well-defined structural region can vary across subjects even for a well-defined functional task. The results of this study and the existence of the neural activity patterns in multiple networks motivates us to investigate multiple resting-state networks as a single fusion template for functional normalization for multi groups of subjects. We extend the previous approach (Khullar et al., 2011) by co-registering multi group of subjects (healthy control and schizophrenia patients) and by utilizing multiple resting-state networks (instead of just one) as a single fusion template for functional normalization. In this paper we describe the initial steps toward using multiple resting-state networks as a single fusion template for functional normalization. A simple wavelet-based image fusion approach is presented in order to evaluate the feasibility of combining multiple functional networks. Our results showed improvements in both the significance of group statistics (healthy control and schizophrenia patients) and the spatial extent of activation when a multiple resting-state network applied as a single fusion template for functional normalization after the conventional structural normalization. Also, our results provided evidence that the improvement in significance of group statistics lead to better accuracy results for classification of healthy controls and schizophrenia patients. PMID:25873853

Çetin, Mustafa S.; Khullar, Siddharth; Damaraju, Eswar; Michael, Andrew M.; Baum, Stefi A.; Calhoun, Vince D.

2015-01-01

185

Impact of Repeated Topical-Loaded Manganese-Enhanced MRI on the Mouse Visual System  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Optic nerve degeneration in diseases such as glaucoma and multiple sclerosis evolves in months to years. The use of Mn2+-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MEMRI) in a time-course study may provide new insights into the disease progression. Previously, we demonstrated the feasibility of using a topical administration for Mn2+ delivery to the visual system. This study is to evaluate the impact of biweekly or monthly repeated Mn2+ topical administration and the pH levels of the Mn2+ solutions for MEMRI on the mouse visual pathway. Methods. Using groups of mice, the MEMRI with an acidic or pH neutralized 1 M MnCl2 solution was performed. To evaluate the feasibility of repeated MEMRIs, topical-loaded MEMRI was conducted biweekly seven times or monthly three times. The enhancement of MEMRI in the visual system was quantified. After repeated MEMRIs, the corneas were examined by optical coherence tomography. The retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and optic nerves were examined by histology. Results. All mice exhibited consistent enhancements along the visual system following repeated MEMRIs. The acidic Mn2+ solution induced a greater MEMRI enhancement as compared with a neutral pH Mn2+ solution. Significant 20% RGC loss was found after three biweekly Mn2+ inductions, but no RGC loss was found after three monthly Mn2+ treatments. The corneal thickness was found increased after seven biweekly topical-loaded MEMRI. Conclusions. Acidic Mn2+ solutions enhanced the uptake of Mn2+ observed on the MEMRI. Increasing the time intervals of repeated Mn2+ topical administration reduced the adverse effects caused by MEMRI. PMID:22700708

Sun, Shu-Wei; Thiel, Tiffany; Liang, Hsiao-Fang

2012-01-01

186

Small (?2 cm) hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic liver disease: comparison of gadoxetic acid-enhanced 3.0 T MRI and multiphasic 64-multirow detector CT  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare the diagnostic performance of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI using 3.0 T with that of multiphasic 64-multirow detector CT (MDCT) for the detection of small (?2 cm) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic liver disease. Methods A total of 54 patients (44 men, 10 women; age range, 33–81 years) with 59 HCCs (?2 cm in diameter) who underwent both multiphasic (arterial, portal venous, equilibrium) 64-MDCT and gadoxetic acid-enhanced 3.0 T MRI were enrolled in this study. Two observers independently and randomly reviewed the MR and CT images on a lesion-by-lesion basis. The diagnostic performance of these techniques for the detection of HCC was assessed by alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, in addition to evaluating the sensitivity and positive predictive value. Results For each observer, the areas under the ROC curve were 0.874 and 0.863 for MRI, respectively, as opposed to 0.660 and 0.687 for CT, respectively. The differences between the two techniques were statistically significant for each observer (p<0.001). The sensitivities (89.8% and 86.4%) of MRI for both observers were significantly higher than those (57.6% and 61.0% for each observer, respectively) of MDCT. No significant difference was seen between the positive predictive values for the two techniques (p>0.05). Conclusion Gadoxetic acid-enhanced 3.0 T MRI shows a better diagnostic performance than that of 64-MDCT for the detection of small (?2 cm) HCCs in patients with chronic liver disease. PMID:22167508

Hwang, J; Kim, S H; Lee, M W; Lee, J Y

2012-01-01

187

Simultaneous Measurement of Kidney Function by Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI and FITC-Sinistrin Clearance in Rats at 3 Tesla: Initial Results  

PubMed Central

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is an essential parameter of kidney function which can be measured by dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-GFR) and transcutaneous approaches based on fluorescent tracer molecules (optical-GFR). In an initial study comparing both techniques in separate measurements on the same animal, the correlation of the obtained GFR was poor. The goal of this study was to investigate if a simultaneous measurement was feasible and if thereby, the discrepancies in MRI-GFR and optical-GFR could be reduced. For the experiments healthy and unilateral nephrectomised (UNX) Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were used. The miniaturized fluorescent sensor was fixed on the depilated back of an anesthetized rat. A bolus of 5 mg/100 g b.w. of FITC-sinistrin was intravenously injected. For dynamic contrast enhanced perfusion imaging (DCE-MRI) a 3D time-resolved angiography with stochastic trajectories (TWIST) sequence was used. By means of a one compartment model the excretion half-life (t1/2) of FITC-sinistrin was calculated and converted into GFR. GFR from DCE-MRI was calculated by fitting pixel-wise a two compartment renal filtration model. Mean cortical GFR and GFR by FITC-sinistrin were compared by Bland-Altman plots and pair-wise t-test. Results show that a simultaneous GFR measurement using both techniques is feasible. Mean optical-GFR was 4.34±2.22 ml/min (healthy SD rats) and 2.34±0.90 ml/min (UNX rats) whereas MRI-GFR was 2.10±0.64 ml/min (SD rats) and 1.17±0.38 ml/min (UNX rats). Differences between healthy and UNX rats were significant (p<0.05) and almost equal percentage difference (46.1% and 44.3%) in mean GFR were assessed with both techniques. Overall mean optical-GFR values were approximately twice as high compared to MRI-GFR values. However, compared to a previous study, our results showed a higher agreement. In conclusion, the possibility to use the transcutaneous method in MRI may have a huge impact in improving and validating MRI methods for GFR assessment in animal models. PMID:24260332

Bäcker, Sandra; Neudecker, Sabine; Gretz, Norbert; Schad, Lothar R.

2013-01-01

188

Differentiation between multiple liver hemangiomas and liver metastases of gastrinomas: Value of enhanced MRI  

SciTech Connect

Hepatic metastases of neuroendocrine tumors are known to mimic hemangiomas on nonenhanced SE MR sequences. The usefulness of MR examination with gadolinium injection to identify lesions was prospectively evaluated. Nine patients with multiple liver metastases of gastrinomas were compared with six patients showing multiple liver hemangiomas. Patients underwent unenhanced T2-weighted SE, T1-weighted SE, and FLASH sequences, followed by enhanced sequential FLASH sequences and a 5 min delayed T1-weighted SE sequence. On T2-weighted SE sequence, all hemangiomas displayed the same typical morphology as a sharply defined, homogeneous, high signal intensity lesion, but this pattern was also observed for some or all of the lesions in seven of nine patients with gastrinoma metastases. Dynamic FLASH sequences were accurate for lesions larger than 2 cm, hemangiomas displaying a nodular peripheral enhancement with centripetal filling in, and metastases displaying either an initial homogeneous or a regular peripheral enhancement. Precise assessment of lesions smaller than 2 cm remained equivocal. Delayed T1-weighted SE sequence (performed at least 5 min after Gd-chelate injection) was the most accurate technique to identify metastases by showing hypo-or isointensity signal, whereas all hemangiomas were hyperintense. Postcontrast delayed T1-weighted sequence is the primary technique to differentiate equivocal cases of hemangiomas from metastases of gastrinoma. 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Berger, J.F.; Laissy, J.P.; Limot, O.; Cadiot, G. [Hospital Bichat, Paris (France)] [and others] [Hospital Bichat, Paris (France); and others

1996-05-01

189

Breast MRI Fibroglandular Volume and Parenchymal Enhancement in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers Before and Immediately After Risk-Reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to assess the difference in fibroglandular volume and background parenchymal enhancement in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers on contrast-enhanced breast MRI (CE-MRI) performed before and immediately after risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). MATERIALS AND METHODS. We retrospectively compared fibroglandular volume and background parenchymal enhancement in 55 female BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers before and after RRSO using standard BI-RADS categories and a paired Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U test. A two-sample Wilcoxon test was performed to compare fibroglandular volume and background parenchymal enhancement in women with and without subsequent breast cancer diagnosis on follow-up. RESULTS. The median time to post-RRSO CE-MRI was 8 months (range, 1-40 months). There was no difference in fibroglandular volume before and after RRSO (p = 0.65). The mean background parenchymal enhancement was 2.5 (range, 1-4) before and 1.5 (range, 1-4) after RRSO (overall range, -2.5 to 1.5; p = 0.0001). Breast cancer was detected in nine women at a median time of 4.8 years (range, 1.8-13.3 years) after RRSO. For women who received a diagnosis of breast cancer after RRSO compared with those who did not, mean background parenchymal enhancement before RRSO was 3 (range, 2-4) versus 2.5 (range, 1-4; p = 0.001), and mean background parenchymal enhancement after RRSO was 2.5 (range, 1.5-4) versus 1.5 (range 2-4; p = 0.0018). There was no difference in fibroglandular volume before and after RRSO. CONCLUSION. In BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, we observed a significant reduction in background parenchymal enhancement on the first CE-MRI after RRSO and no significant change in fibroglandular volume. Higher background parenchymal enhancement before and after RRSO was observed in women who subsequently received a diagnosis of breast cancer. This suggests that background parenchymal enhancement, rather than fibro-glandular volume, may be a more sensitive imaging biomarker of breast cancer risk. PMID:25714301

DeLeo, Michael J; Domchek, Susan M; Kontos, Despina; Conant, Emily; Chen, Jinbo; Weinstein, Susan

2015-03-01

190

Enhanced smoking cue salience associated with depression severity in nicotine-dependent individuals: a preliminary fMRI study.  

PubMed

The association between cigarette smoking and depression has been well documented; however, little research has been done to elucidate the neurobiological substrates of this highly prevalent comorbidity. We used multiple linear regression analysis to evaluate the relationship between depression severity as assessed by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses to visual smoking cues in drug-free nicotine-dependent smokers (n=18). Two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans were completed over a single study day, following overnight smoking abstinence (pre-smoking scan) and after cigarette reinstatement (post-smoking scan). During the pre-smoking scan positive correlations between BOLD activity and HAMD scores were observed in areas of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system [inferior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), hippocampus (HC), anterior cingulate gyrus] and areas of the visuospatial attention circuit (medial occipital lobe, middle cingulate cortex, superior frontal gyrus, angular gyrus). During the post-smoking scan positive correlations were observed in areas of the brain implicated in drug expectancy (MFG), memory (HC), attentional motivation (posterior cingulate cortex), and visual processing and attention (precuneus). These preliminary findings demonstrate that smokers with higher depression severity attribute greater incentive salience to smoking-related cues and this is especially pronounced during periods of acute abstinence. Such enhanced salience of smoking cues, even after smoking a cigarette, may play a critical role both in the maintenance of smoking in depression and in greater levels of nicotine dependence seen in this patient population. PMID:20604987

Kushnir, Vladyslav; Menon, Mahesh; Balducci, Xavier L; Selby, Peter; Busto, Usoa; Zawertailo, Laurie

2013-06-01

191

Monitoring Pc 4-mediated photodynamic therapy of U87 tumors with dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in the athymic nude rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-operative verification of the specificity and sensitivity of photodynamic therapy (PDT) is most pressing for deeply placed lesions such as brain tumors. We wish to determine whether Dynamic Contrast Enhanced-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) can provide a non-invasive and unambiguous quantitative measure of the specificity and sensitivity of brain tumor PDT. Methods: 2.5 x 105 U87 cells were injected into the

Davood Varghai; Kelly Covey; Rahul Sharma; Nathan Cross; Denise K. Feyes; Nancy L. Oleinick; Chris A. Flask; David Dean

2008-01-01

192

Live nephron imaging by MRI.  

PubMed

The local sensitivity of MRI can be improved with small MR detectors placed close to regions of interest. However, to maintain such sensitivity advantage, local detectors normally need to communicate with the external amplifier through cable connections, which prevent the use of local detectors as implantable devices. Recently, an integrated wireless amplifier was developed that can efficiently amplify and broadcast locally detected signals, so that the local sensitivity was enhanced without the need for cable connections. This integrated detector enabled the live imaging of individual glomeruli using negative contrast introduced by cationized ferritin, and the live imaging of renal tubules using positive contrast introduced by gadopentetate dimeglumine. Here, we utilized the high blood flow to image individual glomeruli as hyperintense regions without any contrast agent. These hyperintense regions were identified for pixels with signal intensities higher than the local average. Addition of Mn(2+) allowed the simultaneous detection of both glomeruli and renal tubules: Mn(2+) was primarily reabsorbed by renal tubules, which would be distinguished from glomeruli due to higher enhancement in T1-weighted MRI. Dynamic studies of Mn(2+) absorption confirmed the differential absorption affinity of glomeruli and renal tubules, potentially enabling the in vivo observation of nephron function. PMID:25186296

Qian, Chunqi; Yu, Xin; Pothayee, Nikorn; Dodd, Stephen; Bouraoud, Nadia; Star, Robert; Bennett, Kevin; Koretsky, Alan

2014-11-15

193

Chance and limit of imaging of articular cartilage in vitro in healthy and arthritic joints: DEI (diffraction enhanced imaging) in comparison with MRI, CT, and ultrasound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Description of purpose: Treatment of osteoarthritis in stages of reversible disease requires high resolution visualization of early cartilage damage and of subchondral bone. Here, DEI (Diffraction Enhanced Imaging) is compared to MRI, computed X-ray tomography (CT) and ultrasound (UI) in its ability to detect early degeneration of articular cartilage. In contrast to conventional absorptive X-ray examination where cartilage is poorly visible DEI captures cartilage by detection of selected refraction. Methods: Human femoral heads were investigated by macroscopic inspection, conventional X-ray examination, DEI, MRI, CT, UI and histology. DEI is an imaging technique applying a monochromatic parallel synchrotron X-ray beam. Image features were verified by histology. Results: DEI, MRI and ultrasound lead to interpretable images of cartilage. Of all techniques, DEI provided highest image resolution revealing the structural tissue architecture. MRI needs a very long exposure time (more than 5 hours) to achieve comparable quality. Application of ultrasound is limited because of joint geometry and, at high sound frequency, the necessity of close contact between cartilage and transducer. DEI is an experimental technique which needs synchrotron radiation. Conclusion: DEI is a very promising imaging technique for visualization of cartilage and bone. It may serve as an excellent analytical tool for experimental studies. Our pictures show a part of future of optimised techniques for imaging. Synchrotron based DEI may lead the way towards optimisation of improved techniques for imaging. Upon development of adequate small scale X-ray sources, DEI will also be an important supplementation for medical imaging.

Wagner, Andreas F.; Aurich, Matthias; Stoessel, Marco; Sieber, Norbert; Wetzel, Wolf-Dieter; Mollenhauer, Jurgen; Schmuck, Klaus; Muehleman, Carol; Lohmann, Michael; Reime, Bernd; Metge, Joachim; Coan, Paola; Bravin, Alberto; Arfelli, Fulvia; Rigon, Luigi; Menk, Ralf-Henrik

2005-04-01

194

Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? and -2? in whole-mount prostate histology: relation with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and Gleason score.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the immunohistochemical expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? and HIF-2? and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) parameters Ktrans and kep in prostate cancer. Therefore, 15 patients with biopsy-confirmed prostate cancer underwent a pre-operative 3T DCE-MRI scan. Immunohistochemical analysis of HIF-1? and HIF-2?, and of CD31 for microvessel density (MVD) was performed. Tumor areas were delineated on whole-mount histopathological sections. Nuclear HIF expression was correlated with the quantitative DCE-MRI parameters Ktrans and kep, MVD and Gleason score. HIF expression was highly heterogeneous within tumors and between patients. Pronounced expression of HIF-2? was present, while HIF-1? expression was more limited. Larger tumors showed higher HIF-2? expression (p=0.041). A correlation between HIF-2? and Ktrans p5th was found (r=0.30, p=0.02), but no differences in Ktrans, kep and MVD were observed for different levels of HIF expression. HIF expression was not associated with Gleason score. In conclusion, in this whole-mount prostate cancer study, larger prostate tumors showed frequently high HIF-2? expression, suggesting that larger tumors are clinically most relevant. However, HIF-1? and HIF-2? were not correlated with DCE-MRI parameters. Given the pronounced expression of HIF-2? and independence of Gleason score, HIF expression may function as a biomarker to guide boost dose prescription. PMID:23588703

Borren, Alie; Groenendaal, Greetje; van der Groep, Petra; Moman, Maaike R; Boeken Kruger, Arto E; van der Heide, Uulke A; Jonges, Trudy N; van Diest, Paul J; van Vulpen, Marco; Philippens, Marielle E P

2013-06-01

195

Manganese-Enhanced MRI of Layer-specific Activity in the Visual Cortex from Awake and Free-moving Rats  

PubMed Central

Cortical responses to visual stimulation have been studied extensively in the rodent, but often require post-stimulation ex vivo examination of the tissue. Here, we test the hypothesis that visual stimulus-dependent cortical activity from awake and free-moving rats can be encoded following systemically administered MnCl2, and activity subsequently readout using manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI), a technique that can be performed without sacrificing the animal. Unanaesthetized Sprague–Dawley rats, with or without systemic injection of MnCl2, were maintained for eight hours in either a visually stimulating environment or darkness. To identify vision-dependent changes in cortical activity, animals were anesthetized and cortices were examined by 3D RARE MEMRI. Mean signal intensities in sub-cortical regions (e.g., superior colliculus and the lateral geniculate), and cortical regions (primary and accessory visual cortices) were compared. Cortex linearization was performed to aid in layer-specific signal intensity comparisons. Manganese administration alone globally increased signal intensity in the brain (P < 0.0001). In visually stimulated and unstimulated rats, layer-specific analysis revealed that stimulated rats had on average significantly (P < 0.05) higher signal intensities in layers IV and V of the primary visual cortex, as well as in deeper portions of the superficial superior colliculus, relative to dark adapted rats. Such differences went undetected without layer-specific analysis. We demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of layer-specific stimulus-dependant non-invasive MEMRI readout after encoding activity in awake and free moving rats. Future MEMRI studies are envisioned that measure the effects on cortical activity of sensory stimulation, as well as normal development, disease, plasticity, and therapy in longitudinal studies. PMID:19015035

Bissig, David; Berkowitz, Bruce A.

2009-01-01

196

Quantitative assessment of regional cerebral blood flow by dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI, without the need for arterial blood signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI), an arterial input function (AIF) is usually obtained from a time-concentration curve (TCC) of the cerebral artery. This study was aimed at developing an alternative technique for reconstructing AIF from TCCs of multiple brain regions. AIF was formulated by a multi-exponential function using four parameters, and the parameters were determined so that the AIF curves convolved with a model of tissue response reproduced the measured TCCs for 20 regions. Systematic simulations were performed to evaluate the effects of possible error sources. DSC-MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) studies were performed on 14 patients with major cerebral artery occlusion. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) images were calculated from DSC-MRI data, using our novel method alongside conventional AIF estimations, and compared with those from 15O-PET. Simulations showed that the calculated CBF values were sensitive to variations in the assumptions regarding cerebral blood volume. Nevertheless, AIFs were reasonably reconstructed for all patients. The difference in CBF values between DSC-MRI and PET was -2.2 ± 7.4 ml/100 g/min (r = 0.55, p < 0.01) for our method, versus -0.2 ± 8.2 ml/100 g/min (r = 0.47, p = 0.01) for the conventional method. The difference in the ratio of affected to unaffected hemispheres between DSC-MRI and PET was 0.07 ± 0.09 (r = 0.82, p < 0.01) for our method, versus 0.07 ± 0.09 (r = 0.83, p < 0.01) for the conventional method. The contrasts in CBF images from our method were the same as those from the conventional method. These findings suggest the feasibility of assessing CBF without arterial blood signals.

Enmi, Jun-ichiro; Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Takuya; Yamamoto, Akihide; Iguchi, Satoshi; Moriguchi, Tetsuaki; Hori, Yuki; Koshino, Kazuhiro; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Shah, Nadim Jon; Yamada, Naoaki; Iida, Hidehiro

2012-12-01

197

rf enhancement and shielding in MRI caused by conductive implants: dependence on electrical parameters for a tube model.  

PubMed

Radio frequency (rf) eddy-currents induced in implants made of conductive material might cause significant image artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) such as shielding of the lumen of vascular stents. rf alteration near metal parts was assessed theoretically in the approximation of alternating current electrodynamics: The implant was modeled as tube with diameter d(o), resistance R, and reactance Y, constituting the secondary winding of a transformer. The transmitter coil of the scanner acted as primary winding and generated the linearly polarized rf field B1,app. Tube axis was assumed parallel to B1,app. The results of the calculations were as follows: Ninety percent of the applied rf-field amplitude is reached in the lumen at a ratio chi=R/Y approximately 2. A rapid drop occurs with the reduction of chi, whereas a further increase of chi causes only a small effect. With chi approximately 1/d(o)(Y approximately d2o,R approximately d(o)), conditions for rf alteration clearly depend on the diameter of the tube. Inside tubes with smaller diameter, rf shielding is less pronounced. rf alteration increases in good approximation with the square root of the strength of the static field B0. The following experiments were carried out: Tubes of similar diameter (d(o) approximately 8 mm) made of material of different conductivity (Cu, Nitinol, carbon fiber reinforced plastic with three different fiber structures) were examined at B0=0.2 and 1.5 T in water phantoms. Tube axis was aligned perpendicular to B0 and spin-echo technique was applied. Local rf enhancement near the outer surface of the metal tubes was detected applying manual reduction of the transmitter amplitude. Shielding inside a carbon fiber tube with d(o) approximately 8 mm and inside a smaller tube with d(o)=3.3 mm was compared. Both tubes showed the same wall structure and thickness (d(w)=0.4 mm). All measurements confirmed the theoretical results. Consequences for the construction of vascular stents are discussed, as well as problems with image artifacts due to rf enhancement near solid conductive implants. PMID:15789577

Graf, Hansjörg; Steidle, Günter; Lauer, Ulrike A; Schick, Fritz

2005-02-01

198

Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced MRI and Sonoelastography: Non-Invasive Assessments of Chemoprevention of Liver Fibrosis in Thioacetamide-Induced Rats with Sho-Saiko-To  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to compare the performance of gadoxetic acid -enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and sonoelastography in evaluating chemopreventive effects of Sho-Saiko-To (SST) in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced early liver fibrosis in rats. Materials and Methods Ten of Sprague-Dawley rats receiving TAA (200 mg/kg of body weight) intraperitoneal injection were divided into three groups: Group 1 (TAA only, n?=?3), Group 2 (TAA +0.25 g/kg SST, n?=?4) and Group 3 (TAA+1 g/kg SST, n?=?3). Core needle liver biopsy at week 2 and liver specimens after sacrifice at week 6 confirmed liver fibrosis using histological examinations, including Sirius red staining, Ishak and Metavir scoring systems. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and shear-wave sonoelastography were employed to evaluate liver fibrosis. The expression of hepatic transporter organic anion transporter 1 (Oatp1), multidrug-resistant protein 2 (Mrp2) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-Sma) were also analyzed in each group by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot. Results According to histological grading by Sirius red staining, Ishak scores of liver fibrosis in Groups 1, 2 and 3 were 3, 2 and 1, respectively. As shown in gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI, the ratio of relative enhancement was significantly lower in Group 1 (1.87±0.21) than in Group 2 of low-dose (2.82±0.25) and Group 3 of high-dose (2.72±0.12) SST treatment at 10 minutes after gadoxetic acid intravenous injection (p<0.05). Sonoelastography showed that the mean difference before and after experiments in Groups 1, 2 and 3 were 4.66±0.1, 4.4±0.57 and 3±0.4 KPa (p<0.1), respectively. Chemopreventive effects of SST reduced the Mrp2 protein level (p<0.01) but not Oatp1 and ?-Sma levels. Conclusion Sonoelastography and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI could monitor the treatment effect of SST in an animal model of early hepatic fibrosis. PMID:25490034

Chen, Ya-Wen; Tsai, Meng-Yuan; Pan, Huay-Ben; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Hung, Yu-Ting; Chou, Chen-Pin

2014-01-01

199

Distinguishing inflammation from tumor and peritumoral edema by myeloperoxidase magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Purpose Inflammation occurs routinely when managing gliomas and is not easily distinguishable from tumor re-growth with current magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods. The lack of non-invasive technologies that monitor inflammation prevents us to understand whether it is beneficial or detrimental for the patient, and current therapies do not take this host response in consideration. We aim to establish whether a gadolinium (Gd)-based agent targeting the inflammatory enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) can selectively detect intra- and peri-tumoral inflammation as well as glioma response to treatment by MRI. Methods We performed serial MPO-Gd-MRI before and after treating rodent gliomas with different doses of oncolytic virus (OV) and analyzed animal survival. The imaging results were compared to histo-pathological and molecular analyses of the tumors for macrophage/microglia infiltration, virus persistence and MPO levels. Results Elevated MPO activity was observed by MRI inside the tumor and in the peritumoral cerebrum at day 1 post-OV, which corresponded with activation/infiltration of myeloid cells inhibiting OV intratumoral persistence. MPO activity decreased as the virus and the immune cells were cleared (days 1–7 post-OV), while tumor size increased. A ten-fold increase of viral dose temporally decreased tumor size, but augmented MPO activity, thus preventing extension of viral intratumoral persistence. Conclusions MPO-Gd-MRI can distinguish enhancement patterns that reflect treatment-induced spatio-temporal changes of intratumoral and intracerebral inflammation from those indicating tumor and peritumoral edema. This technology improves the post-treatment diagnosis of gliomas and will increase our understanding of the role of inflammation in cancer therapy. PMID:21558403

Kleijn, Anne; Chen, John W.; Buhrman, Jason S.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R.; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Lamfers, Martine L.; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O.; Rabkin, Samuel D.; Weissleder, Ralph; Martuza, Robert L.; Fulci, Giulia

2011-01-01

200

Intratumor distribution and test-retest comparisons of physiological parameters quantified by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in rat U251 glioma.  

PubMed

The distribution of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) parametric estimates in a rat U251 glioma model was analyzed. Using Magnevist as contrast agent (CA), 17 nude rats implanted with U251 cerebral glioma were studied by DCE-MRI twice in a 24?h interval. A data-driven analysis selected one of three models to estimate either (1) plasma volume (vp), (2) vp and forward volume transfer constant (K(trans)) or (3) vp, K(trans) and interstitial volume fraction (ve), constituting Models 1, 2 and 3, respectively. CA distribution volume (VD) was estimated in Model 3 regions by Logan plots. Regions of interest (ROIs) were selected by model. In the Model 3 ROI, descriptors of parameter distributions--mean, median, variance and skewness--were calculated and compared between the two time points for repeatability. All distributions of parametric estimates in Model 3 ROIs were positively skewed. Test-retest differences between population summaries for any parameter were not significant (p???0.10; Wilcoxon signed-rank and paired t tests). These and similar measures of parametric distribution and test-retest variance from other tumor models can be used to inform the choice of biomarkers that best summarize tumor status and treatment effects. PMID:25125367

Aryal, Madhava P; Nagaraja, Tavarekere N; Brown, Stephen L; Lu, Mei; Bagher-Ebadian, Hassan; Ding, Guangliang; Panda, Swayamprava; Keenan, Kelly; Cabral, Glauber; Mikkelsen, Tom; Ewing, James R

2014-10-01

201

Automatic classification of scar tissue in late gadolinium enhancement cardiac MRI for the assessment of left-atrial wall injury after radiofrequency ablation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiofrequency ablation is a promising procedure for treating atrial fibrillation (AF) that relies on accurate lesion delivery in the left atrial (LA) wall for success. Late Gadolinium Enhancement MRI (LGE MRI) at three months post-ablation has proven effective for noninvasive assessment of the location and extent of scar formation, which are important factors for predicting patient outcome and planning of redo ablation procedures. We have developed an algorithm for automatic classification in LGE MRI of scar tissue in the LA wall and have evaluated accuracy and consistency compared to manual scar classifications by expert observers. Our approach clusters voxels based on normalized intensity and was chosen through a systematic comparison of the performance of multivariate clustering on many combinations of image texture. Algorithm performance was determined by overlap with ground truth, using multiple overlap measures, and the accuracy of the estimation of the total amount of scar in the LA. Ground truth was determined using the STAPLE algorithm, which produces a probabilistic estimate of the true scar classification from multiple expert manual segmentations. Evaluation of the ground truth data set was based on both inter- and intra-observer agreement, with variation among expert classifiers indicating the difficulty of scar classification for a given a dataset. Our proposed automatic scar classification algorithm performs well for both scar localization and estimation of scar volume: for ground truth datasets considered easy, variability from the ground truth was low; for those considered difficult, variability from ground truth was on par with the variability across experts.

Perry, Daniel; Morris, Alan; Burgon, Nathan; McGann, Christopher; MacLeod, Robert; Cates, Joshua

2012-03-01

202

An investigation into the effects of temporal resolution on hepatic dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in volunteers and in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the effect of temporal resolution on the dual-input pharmacokinetic (PK) modelling of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data from normal volunteer livers and from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Eleven volunteers and five patients were examined at 3 T. Two sections, one optimized for the vascular input functions (VIF) and one for the tissue, were imaged within a single heart-beat (HB) using a saturation-recovery fast gradient echo sequence. The data was analysed using a dual-input single-compartment PK model. The VIFs and/or uptake curves were then temporally sub-sampled (at interval ?t = [2-20] s) before being subject to the same PK analysis. Statistical comparisons of tumour and normal tissue PK parameter values using a 5% significance level gave rise to the same study results when temporally sub-sampling the VIFs to HB < ?t <4 s. However, sub-sampling to ?t > 4 s did adversely affect the statistical comparisons. Temporal sub-sampling of just the liver/tumour tissue uptake curves at ?t ? 20 s, whilst using high temporal resolution VIFs, did not substantially affect PK parameter statistical comparisons. In conclusion, there is no practical advantage to be gained from acquiring very high temporal resolution hepatic DCE-MRI data. Instead the high temporal resolution could be usefully traded for increased spatial resolution or SNR.

Gill, Andrew B.; Black, Richard T.; Bowden, David J.; Priest, Andrew N.; Graves, Martin J.; Lomas, David J.

2014-06-01

203

University of Utah Distinguished Professors Distinguished Professor Robert Adler  

E-print Network

and Pharmaceutical Chemistry Distinguished Professor David M. Grant Department of Chemistry Distinguished Professor College of Law Distinguished Professor Sung Wan Kim Department of Pharmaceutics & Pharmaceutical Chemistry) Distinguished Professor Jindrich Kopecek Departments of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry

Tipple, Brett

204

In vivo monitoring of sorafenib therapy effects on experimental prostate carcinomas using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and macromolecular contrast media  

PubMed Central

Abstract Purpose: To investigate dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with macromolecular contrast media (MMCM) to monitor the effects of the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib on subcutaneous prostate carcinomas in rats with immunohistochemical validation. Materials and methods: Copenhagen rats, implanted with prostate carcinoma allografts, were randomized to the treatment group (n?=?8) or the control group (n?=?8). DCE-MRI with albumin-(Gd-DTPA)35 was performed at baseline and after 1 week using a clinical 3-Tesla system. The treatment group received sorafenib, 10?mg/kg body weight daily. Kinetic analysis yielded quantitative parameters of tumor endothelial permeability–surface area product (PS; ml/100?ml/min) and fractional blood volume (Vb, %). Tumors were harvested on day 7 for immunohistochemical analysis. Results: In sorafenib-treated tumors, PS (0.62?±?0.20 vs 0.08?±?0.09?ml/100?ml/min; P?MRI-assayed fractional blood volume Vb showed a highly significant correlation with tumor vascularity (RECA-1; r?=?0.87, P?MRI with MMCM demonstrated good, significant correlations with the immunohistochemically assessed antiangiogenic, antiproliferative, and proapoptotic effects of a 1-week, daily treatment course of sorafenib on experimental prostate carcinoma allografts. PMID:24380871

Schwarz, Bettina; Paprottka, Philipp M.; Sourbron, Steven; von Einem, Jobst C.; Dietrich, Olaf; Hinkel, Rabea; Clevert, Dirk A.; Bruns, Christiane J.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Wintersperger, Bernd J.

2013-01-01

205

Distinguishability of hypotheses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possible approach to estimate the distinguishability of hypotheses is considered. The differences between the distinguishability of hypotheses and the probability of making a correct decision in hypotheses testing are discussed. The proposed estimator allows to take into account systematics and statistical uncertainties in determination of signal and background rates.

Bityukov, S. I.; Krasnikov, N. V.

2004-11-01

206

Alertness in Young Healthy Subjects: An fMRI Study of Brain Region Interactivity Enhanced by a Warning Signal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An effective connectivity study was carried out on 16 young, healthy subjects performing an alertness task. The objective of this study was to develop and to evaluate a putative network model of alertness by adapting structural equation modeling to fMRI data. This study was designed to evaluate the directed interactivity of an attentional network…

Perin, B.; Godefroy, O.; Fall, S.; de Marco, G.

2010-01-01

207

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI in Head-and-Neck Cancer: The Impact of Region of Interest Selection on the Intra- and Interpatient Variability of Pharmacokinetic Parameters  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI-extracted parameters measure tumor microvascular physiology and are usually calculated from an intratumor region of interest (ROI). Optimal ROI delineation is not established. The valid clinical use of DCE-MRI requires that the variation for any given parameter measured within a tumor be less than that observed between tumors in different patients. This work evaluates the impact of tumor ROI selection on the assessment of intra- and interpatient variability. Method and Materials: Head and neck cancer patients received initial targeted therapy (TT) treatment with erlotinib and/or bevacizumab, followed by radiotherapy and concurrent cisplatin with synchronous TT. DCE-MRI data from Baseline and the end of the TT regimen (Lead-In) were analyzed to generate the vascular transfer function (K{sup trans}), the extracellular volume fraction (v{sub e}), and the initial area under the concentration time curve (iAUC{sub 1min}). Four ROI sampling strategies were used: whole tumor or lymph node (Whole), the slice containing the most enhancing voxels (SliceMax), three slices centered in SliceMax (Partial), and the 5% most enhancing contiguous voxels within SliceMax (95Max). The average coefficient of variation (aCV) was calculated to establish intrapatient variability among ROI sets and interpatient variability for each ROI type. The average ratio between each intrapatient CV and the interpatient CV was calculated (aRCV). Results: Baseline primary/nodes aRCVs for different ROIs not including 95Max were, for all three MR parameters, in the range of 0.14-0.24, with Lead-In values between 0.09 and 0.2, meaning a low intrapatient vs. interpatient variation. For 95Max, intrapatient CVs approximated interpatient CVs, meaning similar data dispersion and higher aRCVs (0.6-1.27 for baseline) and 0.54-0.95 for Lead-In. Conclusion: Distinction between different patient's primary tumors and/or nodes cannot be made using 95Max ROIs. The other three strategies are viable and equivalent for using DCE-MRI to measure head and neck cancer physiology.

Craciunescu, Oana I., E-mail: oana.craciunescu@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Yoo, David S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Cleland, Esi [GECAD Ghana Ltd., Acra (Ghana); Muradyan, Naira [iCAD Inc., Nashua, NH (United States); Carroll, Madeline D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); MacFall, James R.; Barboriak, Daniel P. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Brizel, David M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

2012-03-01

208

Breast MRI in Patients with Unilateral Bloody and Serous-Bloody Nipple Discharge: A Comparison with Galactography  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Assessing the role of breast MRI compared to galactography in patients with unilateral bloody or serous-bloody nipple discharge. Materials and Methods. Retrospective study including 53 unilateral discharge patients who performed galactography and MRI. We evaluated the capability of both techniques in identifying pathology and distinguishing between nonmalignant and malignant lesions. Lesions BIRADS 1/2 underwent follow-up, while the histological examination after surgery has been the gold standard to assess pathology in lesions BIRADS 3/4/5. The ROC analysis was used to test diagnostic MRI and galactography ability. Results. After surgery and follow-up, 8 patients had no disease (15%), 23 papilloma (43%), 11 papillomatosis (21%), 5 ductal cancer in situ (10%), and 6 papillary carcinoma (11%) diagnoses. Both techniques presented 100% specificity; MRI sensitivity was 98% versus 49% of galactography. Considering MRI, we found a statistical association between mass enhancement and papilloma (P < 0.001; AUC 0.957; CI 0.888–1.025), ductal enhancement and papillomatosis (P < 0.001; AUC 0.790; CI 0.623–0.958), segmental enhancement and ductal cancer in situ (P = 0.007; AUC 0.750; CI 0.429–1.071), and linear enhancement and papillary cancer (P = 0.011). Conclusions. MRI is a valid tool to detect ductal pathologies in patients with suspicious bloody or serous-bloody discharge showing higher sensitivity and specificity compared to galactography. PMID:25685810

Manganaro, Lucia; D'Ambrosio, Ilaria; Gigli, Silvia; Di Pastena, Francesca; Tardioli, Stefano; Framarino, Marialuisa; Ballesio, Laura

2015-01-01

209

Facile non-hydrothermal synthesis of oligosaccharides coated sub-5 nm magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with dual MRI contrast enhancement effect  

PubMed Central

Ultrafine sub-5 nm magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with oligosaccharides (SIO) with dual T1-T2 weighted contrast enhancing effect and fast clearance has been developed as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. Excellent water solubility, biocompatibility and high stability of such sub-5 nm SIO nanoparticles were achieved by using the “in-situ polymerization” coating method, which enables glucose forming oligosaccharides directly on the surface of hydrophobic iron oxide nanocrystals. Reported ultrafine SIO nanoparticles exhibit a longitudinal relaxivity (r1) of 4.1 mM?1s?1 and a r1/r2 ratio of 0.25 at 3 T (clinical field strength), rendering improved T1 or “brighter” contrast enhancement in T1-weighted MRI in addition to typical T2 or “darkening” contrast of conventional iron oxide nanoparticles. Such dual contrast effect can be demonstrated in liver imaging with T2 “darkening” contrast in the liver parenchyma but T1 “bright” contrast in the hepatic vasculature. More importantly, this new class of ultrafine sub-5 nm iron oxide nanoparticles showed much faster body clearance than those with larger sizes, promising better safety for clinical applications. PMID:25181490

Huang, Jing; Wang, Liya; Zhong, Xiaodong; Li, Yuancheng; Yang, Lily

2014-01-01

210

Iterative approach of dual regression with a sparse prior enhances the performance of independent component analysis for group functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data.  

PubMed

This study proposes an iterative dual-regression (DR) approach with sparse prior regularization to better estimate an individual's neuronal activation using the results of an independent component analysis (ICA) method applied to a temporally concatenated group of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data (i.e., Tc-GICA method). An ordinary DR approach estimates the spatial patterns (SPs) of neuronal activation and corresponding time courses (TCs) specific to each individual's fMRI data with two steps involving least-squares (LS) solutions. Our proposed approach employs iterative LS solutions to refine both the individual SPs and TCs with an additional a priori assumption of sparseness in the SPs (i.e., minimally overlapping SPs) based on L(1)-norm minimization. To quantitatively evaluate the performance of this approach, semi-artificial fMRI data were created from resting-state fMRI data with the following considerations: (1) an artificially designed spatial layout of neuronal activation patterns with varying overlap sizes across subjects and (2) a BOLD time series (TS) with variable parameters such as onset time, duration, and maximum BOLD levels. To systematically control the spatial layout variability of neuronal activation patterns across the "subjects" (n=12), the degree of spatial overlap across all subjects was varied from a minimum of 1 voxel (i.e., 0.5-voxel cubic radius) to a maximum of 81 voxels (i.e., 2.5-voxel radius) across the task-related SPs with a size of 100 voxels for both the block-based and event-related task paradigms. In addition, several levels of maximum percentage BOLD intensity (i.e., 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0%) were used for each degree of spatial overlap size. From the results, the estimated individual SPs of neuronal activation obtained from the proposed iterative DR approach with a sparse prior showed an enhanced true positive rate and reduced false positive rate compared to the ordinary DR approach. The estimated TCs of the task-related SPs from our proposed approach showed greater temporal correlation coefficients with a reference hemodynamic response function than those of the ordinary DR approach. Moreover, the efficacy of the proposed DR approach was also successfully demonstrated by the results of real fMRI data acquired from left-/right-hand clenching tasks in both block-based and event-related task paradigms. PMID:22939873

Kim, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Junghoe; Lee, Jong-Hwan

2012-12-01

211

MRI Scans  

MedlinePLUS

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from ...

212

Chest MRI  

MedlinePLUS

Nuclear magnetic resonance - chest; Magnetic resonance imaging - chest; NMR - chest; MRI of the thorax; Thoracic MRI ... radiation. To date, no side effects from the magnetic fields and radio waves have been reported. The ...

213

Accurate High-Resolution Measurements of 3-D Tissue Dynamics With Registration-Enhanced Displacement Encoded MRI  

PubMed Central

Displacement fields are important to analyze deformation, which is associated with functional and material tissue properties often used as indicators of health. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques like DENSE and image registration methods like Hyperelastic Warping have been used to produce pixel-level deformation fields that are desirable in high-resolution analysis. However, DENSE can be complicated by challenges associated with image phase unwrapping, in particular offset determination. On the other hand, Hyperelastic Warping can be hampered by low local image contrast. The current work proposes a novel approach for measuring tissue displacement with both DENSE and Hyperelastic Warping, incorporating physically accurate displacements obtained by the latter to improve phase characterization in DENSE. The validity of the proposed technique is demonstrated using numerical and physical phantoms, and in vivo small animal cardiac MRI. PMID:24771572

Merchant, Samer S.; Hsu, Edward W.

2014-01-01

214

Enhanced Sympathetic Arousal in Response to fMRI Scanning Correlates with Task Induced Activations and Deactivations  

PubMed Central

It has been repeatedly shown that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) triggers distress and neuroendocrine response systems. Prior studies have revealed that sympathetic arousal increases, particularly at the beginning of the examination. Against this background it appears likely that those stress reactions during the scanning procedure may influence task performance and neural correlates. However, the question how sympathetic arousal elicited by the scanning procedure itself may act as a potential confounder of fMRI data remains unresolved today. Thirty-seven scanner naive healthy subjects performed a simple cued target detection task. Levels of salivary alpha amylase (sAA), as a biomarker for sympathetic activity, were assessed in samples obtained at several time points during the lab visit. SAA increased two times, immediately prior to scanning and at the end of the scanning procedure. Neural activation related to motor preparation and timing as well as task performance was positively correlated with the first increase. Furthermore, the first sAA increase was associated with task induced deactivation (TID) in frontal and parietal regions. However, these effects were restricted to the first part of the experiment. Consequently, this bias of scanner related sympathetic activation should be considered in future fMRI investigations. It is of particular importance for pharmacological investigations studying adrenergic agents and the comparison of groups with different stress vulnerabilities like patients and controls or adolescents and adults. PMID:23967320

Muehlhan, Markus; Lueken, Ulrike; Siegert, Jens; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Smolka, Michael N.; Kirschbaum, Clemens

2013-01-01

215

Enhancement of temporal resolution and BOLD sensitivity in real-time fMRI using multi-slab echo-volumar imaging.  

PubMed

In this study, a new approach to high-speed fMRI using multi-slab echo-volumar imaging (EVI) is developed that minimizes geometrical image distortion and spatial blurring, and enables nonaliased sampling of physiological signal fluctuation to increase BOLD sensitivity compared to conventional echo-planar imaging (EPI). Real-time fMRI using whole brain 4-slab EVI with 286 ms temporal resolution (4mm isotropic voxel size) and partial brain 2-slab EVI with 136 ms temporal resolution (4×4×6 mm(3) voxel size) was performed on a clinical 3 Tesla MRI scanner equipped with 12-channel head coil. Four-slab EVI of visual and motor tasks significantly increased mean (visual: 96%, motor: 66%) and maximum t-score (visual: 263%, motor: 124%) and mean (visual: 59%, motor: 131%) and maximum (visual: 29%, motor: 67%) BOLD signal amplitude compared with EPI. Time domain moving average filtering (2s width) to suppress physiological noise from cardiac and respiratory fluctuations further improved mean (visual: 196%, motor: 140%) and maximum (visual: 384%, motor: 200%) t-scores and increased extents of activation (visual: 73%, motor: 70%) compared to EPI. Similar sensitivity enhancement, which is attributed to high sampling rate at only moderately reduced temporal signal-to-noise ratio (mean: -52%) and longer sampling of the BOLD effect in the echo-time domain compared to EPI, was measured in auditory cortex. Two-slab EVI further improved temporal resolution for measuring task-related activation and enabled mapping of five major resting state networks (RSNs) in individual subjects in 5 min scans. The bilateral sensorimotor, the default mode and the occipital RSNs were detectable in time frames as short as 75 s. In conclusion, the high sampling rate of real-time multi-slab EVI significantly improves sensitivity for studying the temporal dynamics of hemodynamic responses and for characterizing functional networks at high field strength in short measurement times. PMID:22398395

Posse, Stefan; Ackley, Elena; Mutihac, Radu; Rick, Jochen; Shane, Matthew; Murray-Krezan, Cristina; Zaitsev, Maxim; Speck, Oliver

2012-05-15

216

University of Utah Distinguished Professors Distinguished Professor Maurice Abravanel  

E-print Network

Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry *Distinguished Professor Emeritus David M. Grant William I. Higuchi Department of Pharmaceutics & Pharmaceutical Chemistry Distinguished Professor & Pharmaceutical Chemistry *Distinguished Professor Emeritus Willem J. Kolff Departments of Surgery & Internal

van den Berg, Jur

217

Vitamin E (D-alpha-tocopheryl-co-poly(ethylene glycol) 1000 succinate) micelles-superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for enhanced thermotherapy and MRI.  

PubMed

We synthesized vitamin E TPGS (d-?-Tocopheryl-co-poly(ethylene glycol) 1000 succinate) micelles for superparamagnetic iron oxides formulation for nanothermotherapy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which showed better thermal and magnetic properties, and in vitro cellular uptake and lower cytotoxicity as well as better in vivo therapeutic and imaging effects in comparison with the commercial Resovist and the Pluronic F127 micelles reported in the recent literature. The superparamagnetic iron oxides originally coated with oleic acid and oleylamine were formulated in the core of the TPGS micelles using a simple solvent-exchange method. The IOs-loaded TPGS showed greatest colloidal stability due to the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of vitamin E TPGS. Highly monodisperse and water soluble suspension was obtained which were stable in 0.9% normal saline for a period of 12 days. The micelles were characterized for their size and size distribution. Their morphology was examined through transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The enhanced thermal and superparamagnetic properties of the IOs-loaded TPGS micelles were assessed. Cellular uptake and cytotoxicity were investigated in vitro with MCF-7 cancer cells. Relaxivity study showed that the IOs-loaded TPGS micelles can have better effects for T2-weighted imaging using MRI. T2 mapped images of xenograft grown on SCID mice showed that the TPGS micelle formulation of IOs had ?1.7 times and ?1.05 times T2 decrease at the tumor site compared to Resovist and the F127 micelle formulation, respectively. PMID:21550654

Chandrasekharan, Prashant; Maity, Dipak; Yong, Cai Xian; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Ding, Jun; Feng, Si-Shen

2011-08-01

218

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Diffusion MRI Show Rapid and Dramatic Changes in Tumor Microenvironment in Response to Inhibition of HIF-1? Using PX-4781  

PubMed Central

Abstract PX-478 is a new agent known to inhibit the hypoxia-responsive transcription factor, HIF-1?, in experimental tumors. The current study was undertaken in preparation for clinical trials to determine which noninvasive imaging endpoint(s) is sensitive to this drug's actions. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to monitor acute effects on tumor hemodynamics and cellularity, respectively. Mice bearing human xenografts were treated either with PX-478 or vehicle, and imaged over time. DW imaging was performed at three b values to generate apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADCw) maps. For DCE-MRI, a macromolecular contrast reagent, BSA-Gd-DTPA, was used to determine vascular permeability and vascular volume fractions. PX-478 induced a dramatic reduction in tumor blood vessel permeability within 2 hours after treatment, which returned to baseline by 48 hours. The anti-VEGF antibody, Avastin, reduced both the permeability and vascular volume. PX-478 had no effect on the perfusion behavior of a drug-resistant tumor system, A-549. Tumor cellularity, estimated from ADCw, was significantly decreased 24 and 36 hours after treatment. This is the earliest significant response of ADC to therapy yet reported. Based on these preclinical findings, both of these imaging endpoints will be included in the clinical trial of PX-478. PMID:15967100

Jordan, Bénédicte F; Runquist, Matthew; Raghunand, Natarajan; Baker, Amanda; Williams, Ryan; Kirkpatrick, Lynn; Powis, Garth; Gillies, Robert J

2005-01-01

219

The use of error-category mapping in pharmacokinetic model analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI data  

E-print Network

further examinations were performed after treatment though these data were not utilised in the analysis reported here.) At each MRI examination, 0.1 mmol/kg of Gd-DOTA (Dotarem, Guerbet, Paris, France) was administered by power injector at a rate of 3 ml... gradient echo equation [10] and the fact that [Gd] has a linear relationshipwith the tissue relaxation rate. A value of 3.6 l mmol?1 s?1 was used for the relaxivity of Gd-DOTA [12]. atic 247A.B. Gill et al. / Magnetic Resonance Imaging 33 (2015) 246–251Fig...

Gill, Andrew B.; Anandappa, Gayathri; Patterson, Andrew J.; Priest, Andrew N.; Graves, Martin J.; Janowitz, Tobias; Jodrell, Duncan I.; Eisen, Tim; Lomas, David J.

2014-11-07

220

Quasi-Cubic Magnetite/Silica Core-Shell Nanoparticles as Enhanced MRI Contrast Agents for Cancer Imaging  

PubMed Central

Development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents that can be readily applied for imaging of biological tissues under clinical settings is a challenging task. This is predominantly due to the expectation of an ideal MR agent being able to be synthesized in large quantities, possessing longer shelf life, reasonable biocompatibility, tolerance against its aggregation in biological fluids, and high relaxivity, resulting in better contrast during biological imaging. Although a repertoire of reports address various aforementioned issues, the previously reported results are far from optimal, which necessitates further efforts in this area. In this study, we demonstrate facile large-scale synthesis of sub-100 nm quasi-cubic magnetite and magnetite/silica core-shell (Mag@SiO2) nanoparticles and their applicability as a biocompatible T2 contrast agent for MRI of biological tissues. Our study suggests that silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles reported in this study can potentially act as improved MR contrast agents by addressing a number of aforementioned issues, including longer shelf life and stability in biological fluids. Additionally, our in vitro and in vivo studies clearly demonstrate the importance of silica coating towards improved applicability of T2 contrast agents for cancer imaging. PMID:21747962

Cowell, Simon F.; Garg, Ashish; Eu, Peter; Bhargava, Suresh K.; Bansal, Vipul

2011-01-01

221

Laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) for the treatment of liver metastases: the correlation of Gd-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histomorphological findings in the chronic model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the study was to evaluate Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI for the follow-up of laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) in the treatment of liver metastases. Interstitial laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) was performed in 55 chinchilla bastard rabbits with a Nd:YAG laser and a specially developed diffuser tip applicator. The animals were examined at different times using MRI and histological methods. T1-weighted spin-echo sequences were made with gadolinium-DTPA and submitted to correlation analysis. The analysis yielded a good correlation (r equals 0.96) between the largest lesion diameters. Lesions showed discontinuous regeneration kinetics with a 41% volume reduction 1 month after LITT. MRI of the lesion directly after LITT showed a hyperintense transition zone. Following the application of intravenous contrast medium, transition zone enhancement was first seen 72 - 96 hours after LITT. Even after 6 months, the laser-induced lesion is visualized as a non-enhanced area. Lesion regeneration followed the principles of wound healing. It is concluded that gadolinium-DTPA- enhanced MRI yielded definitive criteria for the follow-up assessment of LITT.

Isbert, Christoph M.; Germer, Christoph-Thomas; Albrecht, Dirk; Schilling, Andreas; Heiniche, Antje; Roggan, Andre; Wolf, Karl J.; Mueller, Gerhard J.; Buhr, Heinz-Johannes

1997-05-01

222

The distinguishable cluster approximation  

E-print Network

A new method that accurately describes strongly correlated states and captures dynamical correlation is presented. It is derived as a modification of coupled-cluster theory with single and double excitations (CCSD) through consideration of particle distinguishability between dissociated fragments, whilst retaining the key desirable properties of particle-hole symmetry, size extensivity, invariance to rotations within the occupied and virtual spaces, and exactness for two-electron subsystems. The resulting method called the distinguishable cluster approximation, smoothly dissociates difficult cases such as the nitrogen molecule, with the modest N^6 computational cost of CCSD. Even for molecules near their equilibrium geometries, the new model outperforms CCSD. It also accurately describes the massively correlated states encountered when dissociating hydrogen lattices, a proxy for the metal-insulator transition, and the fully dissociated system is treated exactly.

Kats, Daniel

2013-01-01

223

Intracystic gadolinium-enhanced MRI in the evaluation of residual giant-cystic craniopharyngiomas in children: report of four cases.  

PubMed

Residual giant-cystic craniopharyngiomas are amenable to intracavitary bleomycin treatment. Radiologic identification of potential cyst leaks is of paramount for treatment decisions. This report describes our experience in the use of intracystic Gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced MR imaging to determine potential communications between the tumoral cysts and other intra-axial spaces in 4 pediatric patients with residual giant-cystic craniopharyngiomas in whom intracavitary bleomycin treatment was planned after the injection of .1-.2 mL of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA). In three cases no leaks were found. In one case, whose previous water-soluble iodinated contrast-enhanced CT cystography was negative for leaks, intracystic Gd-enhanced MR showed intraventricular Gd enhancement. We conclude that MR imaging after intracystic administration of Gd-based contrast paramagnetic agents is useful in the detection of potential leaks in cases of giant residual craniopharyngiomas. PMID:23157657

Muñoz, Alberto; Martínez-León, María; Vázquez, Élida; Pérez da Rosa, Sandra; Crespo, José

2014-01-01

224

Chest MRI  

MedlinePLUS

... on Twitter. What Is Chest MRI? Chest MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is a safe, noninvasive test. "Noninvasive" means that no surgery is done and no instruments are inserted into your body. This test creates detailed pictures of the structures in your chest, such as your chest wall, ...

225

The association between meniscal damage of the posterior horns and localized posterior synovitis detected on T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI—the MOST study  

PubMed Central

Objective Synovitis is thought to be a secondary phenomenon in the osteoarthritis (OA) process and the menisci might be triggers of localized synovitis. The aim was to assess the cross-sectional associations of posterior horn meniscal damage with perimeniscal synovitis, and with synovitis posterior to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) using contrast enhanced (CE) MRI. Design The Multicenter Osteoarthritis (MOST) Study is a longitudinal observational study of subjects with or at risk for knee OA. Subjects are a subset of MOST who were examined with 1.5 T CE MRI and had semiquantitative synovitis (scored from 0–2 at 11 locations) and meniscal readings (scored with WORMS from 0–4 ) available. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of posterior meniscal damage and perimeniscal synovitis in the same compartment, and between posterior meniscal damage and synovitis posterior to the PCL. Results Three hundred and seventy seven knees were included (mean age 61.1 years ± 6.9, mean BMI 29.6 ± 4.9, 44.3% women). The odds for ipsi-compartmental perimeniscal synovitis were increased for knees with medial posterior horn meniscal damage (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.5, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 1.3,4.8), but not for lateral damage (aOR 1.7, 95% CI 0.4,6.6). No positive associations were found for meniscal damage and presence of synovitis posterior to the PCL (aOR 0.9, 95% CI 0.6,1.5). Conclusions Meniscal damage of the posterior horns is associated with ipsi-compartmental perimensical synovitis. No associations were found for posterior horn meniscal damage with synovitis posterior to the PCL, which suggests that synovitis posterior to the PCL is likely to be triggered by different pathomechanisms. PMID:23270763

Roemer, Frank W.; Felson, David T.; Yang, Tianzhong; Niu, Jingbo; Crema, Michel D.; Englund, Martin; Nevitt, Michael C.; Zhang, Yuqing; Lynch, John A.; El Khoury, George Y.; Torner, James; Lewis, Cora E.; Guermazi, Ali

2013-01-01

226

Differentiation of Leptomeningeal and Vascular Enhancement on Post-contrast FLAIR MRI Sequence: Role in Early Detection of Infectious Meningitis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To qualitatively and quantitatively differentiate leptomeningeal and vascular enhancement on Post-contrast Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (PCFLAIR) sequence compared to post-contrast T1-weighted (PCT1W) sequence with fat suppression (FS) and evaluate its role in early detection of infectious meningitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty-one patients with diagnosis of meningitis were evaluated with pre and post-contrast FLAIR and T1-weighted sequences with fat suppression (FS). Qualitative assessment was done by two observers for presence, absence or equivocal status of leptomeningeal enhancement. Further, quantitative estimation of single pixel signal intensities (SPSI) for meningeal and vascular enhancement was undertaken. A statistical comparison was performed using Kappa coefficient and t-test. Results: The overall qualitative accuracy was 90.3% for PCFLAIR compared to 54.8% for PCT1W with FS sequence. PCFLAIR was found to be 100% accurate in the detection of tubercular and pyogenic meningitis and 70% accurate in the detection of viral meningitis while PCT1W with FS sequence showed the corresponding accuracy to be 76.2% and 0% respectively. Both observers rated PCFLAIR images better than PCT1W with FS at detecting meningitis (p<0.05). The quantitative assessment revealed that the SPSI difference between the average meningeal and vascular enhancement on PCFLAIR was significantly greater than that on PCT1W with FS sequence (t= 6.31, p<0.01). Conclusion: PCFLAIR sequence has insignificant component of vascular enhancement compared to meningeal enhancement. This makes meningeal inflammation easily discernable and aids in early detection of infectious meningitis. PMID:25738054

Ahmad, Armeen; Azad, Sheenam

2015-01-01

227

Abstract 45432 Automatic evaluation of the peri-infarct area of myocardial infarction from delayed enhancement MRI  

E-print Network

Abstract 45432 Automatic evaluation of the peri-infarct area of myocardial infarction from delayed viability after myocardial infarction (MI). Around the infarcted areas that appear with hyper- enhanced signal, there is a peri-infarct border zone that may be an important arrhythmogenic substrate. The extent

Boyer, Edmond

228

Expiration-phase template-based motion correction of free-breathing abdominal dynamic contrast enhanced MRI.  

PubMed

This paper studies a novel method to compensate for respiratory and peristaltic motions in abdominal dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. The method consists of two steps: 1) expiration-phase "template" construction and retrospective gating of the data to the template; and 2) nonrigid registration of the gated volumes. Landmarks annotated by three experts were used to directly assess the registration performance. A tri-exponential function fit to time intensity curves from regions of interest was used to indirectly assess the performance. One of the parameters of the tri-exponential fit was used to quantify the contrast enhancement. Our method achieved a mean target registration error (MTRE) of 2.12, 2.27, and 2.33 mm with respect to annotations by expert, which was close to the average interobserver variability (2.07 mm). A state-of-the-art registration method achieved an MTRE of 2.83-3.10 mm. The correlation coefficient of the contrast enhancement parameter to the Crohn's disease endoscopic index of Severity ( r = 0.60, p = 0.004 ) was higher than the correlation coefficient for the relative contrast enhancement measurements values of two observers ( r(Observer 1) = 0.29, p = 0.2; r(Observer 2) = 0.45, p = 0.04). Direct and indirect assessments show that the expiration-based gating and a nonrigid registration approach effectively corrects for respiratory motion and peristalsis. The method facilitates improved enhancement measurement in the bowel wall in patients with Crohn's disease. PMID:25546851

Li, Zhang; Tielbeek, Jeroen A W; Caan, Matthan W A; Puylaert, Carl A J; Ziech, Manon L W; Nio, Chung Y; Stoker, Jaap; van Vliet, Lucas J; Vos, Frans M

2015-04-01

229

Response of HT29 Colorectal Xenograft Model to Cediranib Assessed with 18F-FMISO PET, Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Diffusion-Weighted MRI  

PubMed Central

Cediranib (AZD2171, AstraZeneca, UK) is a small-molecule pan-VEGFR inhibitor. The tumor response to short-term cediranib treatment was studied using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI at 7 T as well as 18F-fluoromisonidazle (18F-FMISO) PET and histological markers. Rats bearing subcutaneous HT29 human colorectal tumors were imaged at baseline, then received three doses of cediranib (3 mg/kg per dose daily) or vehicle (dosed daily), with follow up imaging performed 2 hours after the final cediranib or vehicle dose. Tumors were excised and evaluated for the perfusion marker Hoechst 33342, endothelial cell marker CD31, smooth muscle actin (SMA), intercapillary distance (ICD) and tumor necrosis. DCE-MRI-derived parameters decreased significantly in cediranib-treated tumors relative to pre-treatment values: the muscle-normalized initial area under the gadolinium concentration curve (nIAUC90) by 48% (p = 0.002), the enhancing fraction (EnF) by 43% (p = 0.003) and Ktrans by 57% (p = 0.003), but remained unchanged in controls. No change between pre- and post-treatment tumor apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in either cediranib- or vehicle-treated group was observed over the course of this study. 18F-FMISO SUVmean decreased by 33% (p = 0.008) in the cediranib group, but showed no significant change in the control group. Histological analysis showed that the number of CD31-positive vessels (59 per mm2), the fraction of SMA-positive vessels (80 to 87%) and ICD (0.17 mm) were similar in cediranib- and vehicle-treated groups. The fraction of perfused blood vessels in cediranib-treated tumors (81±7%) was lower than in vehicle controls (91±3%, p = 0.02). The necrotic fraction was slightly higher in cediranib-treated rats (34±12%) than in controls (26±10%, p = 0.23). These findings suggest that short-term treatment with cediranib causes a decrease of tumor perfusion/permeability across the tumor cross-section, but changes in vascular morphology, vessel density or tumor cellularity do not manifest at this early time point. PMID:22777834

Bokacheva, Louisa; Kotedia, Khushali; Reese, Megan; Ricketts, Sally-Ann; Halliday, Jane; Le, Carl H.; Koutcher, Jason A.; Carlin, Sean

2012-01-01

230

Sensitivity of contrast enhanced MRI in multiple sclerosis. Effects of gadolinium dose, magnetization transfer contrast and delayed imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Although clinical end points remain the definitive measure the full complement of studies. Seven patients suffered minor self-limiting adverse events possibly related to triple-dose of therapeutic efficacy in multiple sclerosis, more sensitive Gd-DTPA. Overall, triple-dose Gd-DTPA resulted in a markers of disease activity are required to screen potential 75% increase in the number of enhancing lesions detected disease-modifying agents.

N. C. Silver; C. D. Good; G. J. Barker; D. G. MacManus; A. J. Thompson; I. F. Moseley; W. I. McDonald; D. H. Miller

1997-01-01

231

CAD-system based on kinetic analysis for non-mass-enhancing lesions in DCE-MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-mass enhancing lesions represent one of the most challenging types of lesions for both the clinician as well as current computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems. Differently from the well-studied mass-enhancing tumors these lesions do not exhibit a typical kinetic behavior that can be further easily categorized into benign or malignant based on feature descriptors. Furthermore, the poorly defined tumor borders pose a difficulty to even the most sophisticated segmentation algorithms. To address these challenges in terms of segmentation and atypical contrast enhancement dynamics, we apply an ICA-based segmentation on these lesions and extract from the average signal intensity curve of the most representative independent component (IC). Subsequently the dynamics of this IC is modeled based on mathematical models such as the empirical mathematical model and the phenomenological universalities. An automated computer-aided diagnosis system evaluates the atypical behavior of these lesions, and additionally compares the benefit of ICA-segmentation versus active contour segmentation.

Goebl, Sebastian; Plant, Claudia; Lobbes, Marc; Meyer-Bäse, Anke

2013-05-01

232

Heart MRI  

MedlinePLUS

... not allowed into the room with the MRI scanner: Pens, pocketknives, and eyeglasses may fly across the room. Items such as jewelry, watches, credit cards, and hearing aids can be damaged. Pins, hairpins, ...

233

Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis: multiparametric MRI appearances.  

PubMed

Granulomatous prostatitis is an unusual form of prostatitis, and xanthogranulomatous prostatitis (XGP) is an even rarer granulomatous inflammation. Very few XGP cases have been reported in the literature. The reports concerning MRI features of XGP are even less. The present two cases of XGP in our report have different appearances from previous reports and are accompanied by abscess. We also exhibit the magnetic resonance spectroscopy and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI characteristics, which have never been reported. PMID:24852675

Cheng, Yue; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ji, Qian; Shen, Wen

2014-01-01

234

Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI Detects Early Response to Adoptive NK Cellular Immunotherapy Targeting the NG2 Proteoglycan in a Rat Model of Glioblastoma  

PubMed Central

There are currently no established radiological parameters that predict response to immunotherapy. We hypothesised that multiparametric, longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of physiological parameters and pharmacokinetic models might detect early biological responses to immunotherapy for glioblastoma targeting NG2/CSPG4 with mAb9.2.27 combined with natural killer (NK) cells. Contrast enhanced conventional T1-weighted MRI at 7±1 and 17±2 days post-treatment failed to detect differences in tumour size between the treatment groups, whereas, follow-up scans at 3 months demonstrated diminished signal intensity and tumour volume in the surviving NK+mAb9.2.27 treated animals. Notably, interstitial volume fraction (ve), was significantly increased in the NK+mAb9.2.27 combination therapy group compared mAb9.2.27 and NK cell monotherapy groups (p?=?0.002 and p?=?0.017 respectively) in cohort 1 animals treated with 1 million NK cells. ve was reproducibly increased in the combination NK+mAb9.2.27 compared to NK cell monotherapy in cohort 2 treated with increased dose of 2 million NK cells (p<0.0001), indicating greater cell death induced by NK+mAb9.2.27 treatment. The interstitial volume fraction in the NK monotherapy group was significantly reduced compared to mAb9.2.27 monotherapy (p<0.0001) and untreated controls (p?=?0.014) in the cohort 2 animals. NK cells in monotherapy were unable to kill the U87MG cells that highly expressed class I human leucocyte antigens, and diminished stress ligands for activating receptors. A significant association between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water and ve in combination NK+mAb9.2.27 and NK monotherapy treated tumours was evident, where increased ADC corresponded to reduced ve in both cases. Collectively, these data support histological measures at end-stage demonstrating diminished tumour cell proliferation and pronounced apoptosis in the NK+mAb9.2.27 treated tumours compared to the other groups. In conclusion, ve was the most reliable radiological parameter for detecting response to intralesional NK cellular therapy. PMID:25268630

Thuen, Marte; Gras Navarro, Andrea; Huuse, Else Marie; Thorsen, Frits; Poli, Aurelie; Zimmer, Jacques; Haraldseth, Olav; Lie, Stein Atle; Enger, Per Øyvind; Chekenya, Martha

2014-01-01

235

Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI detects early response to adoptive NK cellular immunotherapy targeting the NG2 proteoglycan in a rat model of glioblastoma.  

PubMed

There are currently no established radiological parameters that predict response to immunotherapy. We hypothesised that multiparametric, longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of physiological parameters and pharmacokinetic models might detect early biological responses to immunotherapy for glioblastoma targeting NG2/CSPG4 with mAb9.2.27 combined with natural killer (NK) cells. Contrast enhanced conventional T1-weighted MRI at 7±1 and 17±2 days post-treatment failed to detect differences in tumour size between the treatment groups, whereas, follow-up scans at 3 months demonstrated diminished signal intensity and tumour volume in the surviving NK+mAb9.2.27 treated animals. Notably, interstitial volume fraction (ve), was significantly increased in the NK+mAb9.2.27 combination therapy group compared mAb9.2.27 and NK cell monotherapy groups (p?=?0.002 and p?=?0.017 respectively) in cohort 1 animals treated with 1 million NK cells. ve was reproducibly increased in the combination NK+mAb9.2.27 compared to NK cell monotherapy in cohort 2 treated with increased dose of 2 million NK cells (p<0.0001), indicating greater cell death induced by NK+mAb9.2.27 treatment. The interstitial volume fraction in the NK monotherapy group was significantly reduced compared to mAb9.2.27 monotherapy (p<0.0001) and untreated controls (p?=?0.014) in the cohort 2 animals. NK cells in monotherapy were unable to kill the U87MG cells that highly expressed class I human leucocyte antigens, and diminished stress ligands for activating receptors. A significant association between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water and ve in combination NK+mAb9.2.27 and NK monotherapy treated tumours was evident, where increased ADC corresponded to reduced ve in both cases. Collectively, these data support histological measures at end-stage demonstrating diminished tumour cell proliferation and pronounced apoptosis in the NK+mAb9.2.27 treated tumours compared to the other groups. In conclusion, ve was the most reliable radiological parameter for detecting response to intralesional NK cellular therapy. PMID:25268630

Rygh, Cecilie Brekke; Wang, Jian; Thuen, Marte; Gras Navarro, Andrea; Huuse, Else Marie; Thorsen, Frits; Poli, Aurelie; Zimmer, Jacques; Haraldseth, Olav; Lie, Stein Atle; Enger, Per Øyvind; Chekenya, Martha

2014-01-01

236

Quantitative in vivo assessment of radiation injury of the liver using Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI: tolerance dose of small liver volumes  

PubMed Central

Backround Hepatic radiation toxicity restricts irradiation of liver malignancies. Better knowledge of hepatic tolerance dose is favourable to gain higher safety and to optimize radiation regimes in radiotherapy of the liver. In this study we sought to determine the hepatic tolerance dose to small volume single fraction high dose rate irradiation. Materials and methods 23 liver metastases were treated by CT-guided interstitial brachytherapy. MRI was performed 3 days, 6, 12 and 24 weeks after therapy. MR-sequences were conducted with T1-w GRE enhanced by hepatocyte-targeted Gd-EOB-DTPA. All MRI data sets were merged with 3D-dosimetry data. The reviewer indicated the border of hypointensity on T1-w images (loss of hepatocyte function) or hyperintensity on T2-w images (edema). Based on the volume data, a dose-volume-histogram was calculated. We estimated the threshold dose for edema or function loss as the D90, i.e. the dose achieved in at least 90% of the pseudolesion volume. Results At six weeks post brachytherapy, the hepatocyte function loss reached its maximum extending to the former 9.4Gy isosurface in median (i.e., ?9.4Gy dose exposure led to hepatocyte dysfunction). After 12 and 24 weeks, the dysfunctional volume had decreased significantly to a median of 11.4Gy and 14Gy isosurface, respectively, as a result of repair mechanisms. Development of edema was maximal at six weeks post brachytherapy (9.2Gy isosurface in median), and regeneration led to a decrease of the isosurface to a median of 11.3Gy between 6 and 12 weeks. The dose exposure leading to hepatocyte dysfunction was not significantly different from the dose provoking edema. Conclusion Hepatic injury peaked 6 weeks after small volume irradiation. Ongoing repair was observed up to 6 months. Individual dose sensitivity may differ as demonstrated by a relatively high standard deviation of threshold values in our own as well as all other published data. PMID:21496320

2011-01-01

237

Diagnosis of Pathologically Early HCC with EOB-MRI: Experiences and Current Consensus  

PubMed Central

Objective After much debate, the International Consensus Group for Hepatocellular Neoplasia (ICGHN) has recently arrived at a conclusion regarding the pathological criteria for early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). They have stated that stromal invasion should be recognized as the most important pathological finding for precisely diagnosing and differentiating early HCC from dysplastic nodules (DN). Methods We conducted a review of the imaging findings from multi-imaging modalities of early HCC cases diagnosed according to the pathological criteria of the ICGHN. The multi-imaging modalities included gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), abbreviated as EOB-MRI, contrast-enhanced CT (CE-CT), CT during arterioportography (CTAP), and CT during hepatic arteriography (CTHA). It has been shown that EOB-MRI is the only imaging modality that has sufficient resolution for the detection and classification of early HCC. Results The most significant imaging feature for diagnosing early HCC was hypointensity on hepatobiliary-phase (HP) images of EOB-MRI; all of the cases of early HCC that were detected on HP images of EOB-MRI showed hypointensity, while all of the images of DN showed isointensity or hyperintensity compared with the liver parenchyma. The results of the diagnostic performance analysis showed that EOB-MRI had excellent sensitivity (97%) for detecting early HCC and outstanding specificity (100%) for distinguishing early HCC from DN. Conclusions Considering the results from imaging-pathologic correlations and follow-up studies indicating that many early-stage hepatocellular nodules showing hypointensity on HP images of EOB-MRI tend to develop hypervascularization during a relatively short follow-up period, it is beginning to be accepted that such nodules may be treated as early HCC. However, hepatologists and radiologists should also recognize that some cases of early HCC may show isointensity or hyperintensity on HP images of EOB-MRI, making it impossible to differentiate early HCC from DN, although the low prevalence of such nodules may be unlikely to affect the generally accepted follow-up protocols for cirrhotic patients. Our results and other recent reports have indicated that signal-intensity patterns on HP images of EOB-MRI for DN and early HCC directly correlate with the degree of expression of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B3 in the nodules. Thus, the diagnostic performance of pathological analyses for early HCC cases may be dramatically improved, nearly up to that of EOB-MRI, by incorporating an OATP1B3 staining method. PMID:24945000

Ichikawa, Tomoaki; Sano, Katsuhiro; Morisaka, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

238

AUR memorial award--1988. MRI enhancement of perfused tissues using chromium labeled red blood cells as an intravascular contrast agent  

SciTech Connect

It has been demonstrated that chromium (Cr) labeling significantly decreases the relaxation times of packed red blood cells (RBCs). In this study, the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) of human red cells was shortened from 836 ms to 29 ms and the spin-spin relaxation time (T2) shortened from 134 ms to 18 ms, when the cells were labeled at a Cr incubation concentration of 50 mM. Labeling of canine cells at 50 mM resulted in a T1 of 36 ms and a T2 of 26 ms. A labeling concentration of 10 mM produced similar relaxation enhancement, with uptake of 47% of the available Cr, and was determined to be optimal. The enhancement of longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates (1/T1,-1/T2) per amount of hemoglobin-bound Cr are 6.9 s-1 mM-1 and 9.8 s-1 mM-1 respectively, different from those of a pure Cr+3 solution. Labeling cells at 10 mM decreased the survival half-time in vivo from 16.6 days to 4.7 days in dogs. No difference in red cell survival was found with the use of hetero-transfusion versus auto-transfusion of labeled RBCs. Significant shortening of the T1 (912 ms to 266 ms, P = .03) and T2 (90 ms to 70 ms, P = .006) of spleen and the T1 (764 ms to 282 ms, P = .005) and the T2 (128 ms to 86 ms, P = .005) of liver occurred when 10% of the RBC mass of dogs was exchanged with Cr labeled cells. Liver and spleen spin density changes (P greater than 0.23) and muscle spin density and relaxation changes (P greater than 0.4) were insignificant. The in vivo T1 of a canine spleen which had been infarcted did not change following transfusion with labeled cells, where the T1 of liver did shorten. We believe this preliminary study suggests that Cr labeled red cells may have the potential to become an intravascular magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent.

Eisenberg, A.D.; Conturo, T.E.; Price, R.R.; Holburn, G.E.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E. Jr. (Vanderbilt Univ. Medical Center, Nashville, TN (USA))

1989-10-01

239

Enhanced Delivery of Gold Nanoparticles with Therapeutic Potential into the Brain using MRI-Guided Focused Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

The blood brain barrier (BBB) is a major impediment to the delivery of therapeutics into the central nervous system (CNS). Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been successfully employed in multiple potential therapeutic and diagnostic applications outside the CNS. However, AuNPs have very limited biodistribution within the CNS following intravenous administration. Magnetic resonance imaging guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is a novel technique that can transiently increase BBB permeability allowing delivery of therapeutics into the CNS. MRgFUS has not been previously employed for delivery of AuNPs into the CNS. This work represents the first demonstration of focal enhanced delivery of AuNPs into the CNS using MRgFUS in a rat model both safely and effectively. Histologic visualization and analytical quantification of AuNPs within the brain parenchyma suggest BBB transgression. These results suggest a role for MRgFUS in the delivery of AuNPs with therapeutic potential into the CNS for targeting neurological diseases. PMID:22349099

Etame, Arnold B.; Diaz, Roberto J.; O’Reilly, Meaghan A.; Smith, Christian A.; Mainprize, Todd G.; Hynynen, Kullervo; Rutka, James T.

2014-01-01

240

Portable MRI  

SciTech Connect

This project proposes to: (1) provide the power of MRI to situations where it presently isn't available; (2) perform the engineering required to move from lab to a functional prototype; and (3) leverage significant existing infrastructure and capability in ultra-low field MRI. The reasons for doing this: (1) MRI is the most powerful tool for imaging soft-tissue (e.g. brain); (2) Billions don't have access due to cost or safety issues; (3) metal will heat/move in high magnetic fields; (4) Millions of cases of traumatic brain injury in US alone; (5) even more of non-traumatic brain injury; (6) (e.g. stroke, infection, chemical exposure); (7) Need for early diagnostic; (8) 'Signature' wound of recent conflicts; (9) 22% of injuries; (10) Implications for post-traumatic stress disorder; and (11) chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

Espy, Michelle A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-29

241

Distinguishing between applied research and practice  

PubMed Central

Behavior-analytic research is often viewed along a basic—applied continuum of research goals and methods. The applied portion of this continuum has evolved in ways that combine applied research and service delivery. Although these two facets of applied behavior analysis should be closely related, more clearly distinguishing between them, particularly in how we conceptualize and conduct applied research, may enhance the continuing development of each. This differentiation may improve the recruitment and training of graduate students. PMID:22478238

Johnston, James M.

1996-01-01

242

Gd-HOPO based high relaxivity MRI contrast agents  

PubMed Central

Conspectus Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a particularly effective tool in medicine because of its high depth penetration (1 mm to 1 m) and ability to resolve different soft tissues. The MRI signal is generated by the relaxation of in vivo water molecule protons. MRI images can be improved by administering paramagnetic agents, which increase the relaxation rates of nearby water protons, thereby enhancing the MRI signal. The lanthanide cation Gd3+ is generally used because of its favorable electronic properties; high toxicity, however, necessitates strongly coordinating ligands to keep Gd3+ completely bound while in the patient. In this Account, we give a coordination chemistry overview of contrast agents (CAs) based on Gd-hydroxypyridinone (HOPO), which show improved MRI contrast and high thermodynamic stabilities. Tris-bidentate HOPO-based ligands developed in our laboratory were designed to complement the coordination preferences of Gd3+, especially its oxophilicity. The HOPO ligands provide a hexadentate coordination environment for Gd3+ in which all the donor atoms are oxygen. Because Gd3+ favors eight or nine coordination, this design provides two to three open sites for inner-sphere water molecules. These water molecules rapidly exchange with bulk solution, hence affecting the relaxation rates of bulk water molecules. The parameters affecting the efficiency of these contrast agents have been tuned to improve contrast while still maintaining a high thermodynamic stability for Gd3+ binding. The Gd-HOPO-based contrast agents surpass current commercially available agents because of a higher number of inner-sphere water molecules, rapid exchange of inner-sphere water molecules via an associative mechanism, and a long electronic relaxation time. The contrast enhancement provided by these agents is at least twice that of commercial contrast agents, which are based on polyaminocarboxylate ligands. Advances in MRI technology have made significant contributions to the improvement of clinical diagnostics by allowing visualization of underlying pathology. However, understanding the mechanism of a disease at the molecular level requires improved imaging sensitivity. The ultimate goal is to visually distinguish between different disease targets or markers—such as enzymes, hormones, proteins, or small molecules—at biologically relevant concentrations (millimolar to nanomolar). Although MRI techniques can provide images of the organs and tissues in which these biomarkers are regulated, the high sensitivity required to visualize the biological targets within the tissues is currently lacking—contrast enhancements of 50-fold beyond current agents are required to achieve this goal. According to the theory of paramagnetic relaxation, the contrast enhancement can be further improved by slowing the tumbling rate of the MRI agent. Theoretically, this enhancement would be greater for contrast agents with an optimal rate of water exchange. The Gd-HOPO-based contrast agents have optimal water-exchange rates, whereas the commercial agents have slower non-optimal water-exchange rates; thus, the Gd-HOPO agents are ideal for attachment to macromolecules, which will slow down the tumbling rate and increase contrast. This strategy has been recently tested with the Gd-HOPO agents via covalent attachment to virus capsids, affording contrast enhancements 10-fold beyond commercial agents. PMID:19505089

Datta, Ankona; Raymond, Kenneth N.

2009-01-01

243

Classification of small lesions in dynamic breast MRI: Eliminating the need for precise lesion segmentation through spatio-temporal analysis of contrast enhancement over time.  

PubMed

Characterizing the dignity of breast lesions as benign or malignant is specifically difficult for small lesions; they don't exhibit typical characteristics of malignancy and are harder to segment since margins are harder to visualize. Previous attempts at using dynamic or morphologic criteria to classify small lesions (mean lesion diameter of about 1 cm) have not yielded satisfactory results. The goal of this work was to improve the classification performance in such small diagnostically challenging lesions while concurrently eliminating the need for precise lesion segmentation. To this end, we introduce a method for topological characterization of lesion enhancement patterns over time. Three Minkowski Functionals were extracted from all five post-contrast images of sixty annotated lesions on dynamic breast MRI exams. For each Minkowski Functional, topological features extracted from each post-contrast image of the lesions were combined into a high-dimensional texture feature vector. These feature vectors were classified in a machine learning task with support vector regression. For comparison, conventional Haralick texture features derived from gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) were also used. A new method for extracting thresholded GLCM features was also introduced and investigated here. The best classification performance was observed with Minkowski Functionals area and perimeter, thresholded GLCM features f8 and f9, and conventional GLCM features f4 and f6. However, both Minkowski Functionals and thresholded GLCM achieved such results without lesion segmentation while the performance of GLCM features significantly deteriorated when lesions were not segmented (p < 0.05). This suggests that such advanced spatio-temporal characterization can improve the classification performance achieved in such small lesions, while simultaneously eliminating the need for precise segmentation. PMID:24244074

Nagarajan, Mahesh B; Huber, Markus B; Schlossbauer, Thomas; Leinsinger, Gerda; Krol, Andrzej; Wismüller, Axel

2013-10-01

244

Bipolar radiofrequency ablation for liver tumors: comparison of contrast-enhanced ultrasound with contrast-enhanced MRI/CT in the posttreatment imaging evaluation  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in treatment response evaluation after percutaneous bipolar radiofrequency ablation (BRFA) for liver tumors. Methods: From May 2012 to May 2014, 39 patients with 73 tumors were treated by BRFA. One month after the treatment, CEUS and CEMRI/CECT were conducted to evaluate the treatment response. The results of CEUS were compared with CEMRI/CECT. Results: Of the 73 tumors ablated, eight (11.0%) were found to have residual viable tumor tissue and 65 (89.0%) were successfully ablated based on CEMRI/CECT within 1-month after ablation. CEUS detected seven of the eight residual tumors and 63 of 65 completely ablated tumors. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of CEUS were 87.5% (7/8), 96.9% (63/65), 77.8% (7/9), 98.4% (63/64) and 95.9% (70/73), respectively. The complete ablation (CR) rates for the tumors ?3.0 cm, 3.1-5.0 cm, and >5.0 cm were 96.6% (58/60), 63.6% (7/11), and 0% (0/2), respectively (P<0.001). CR rates were 94.7% (36/38) for primary liver tumors and 82.9% (29/35) for metastatic liver tumors (P=0.212), and were 97.4% (38/39) for the tumors with curative treatment intention and 79.4% (27/34) for those with palliative treatment intention (P=0.037). Major complication was not encountered in this series. Conclusions: BRFA is an effective technique of percutaneous ablation for liver tumors and CEUS can be used to assess its therapeutic effect accurately. PMID:25337258

Bo, Xiao-Wan; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Sun, Li-Ping; Zheng, Shu-Guang; Guo, Le-Hang; Lu, Feng; Wu, Jian; Xu, Xiao-Hong

2014-01-01

245

In vivo transport of Gd-DTPA2- into human meniscus and cartilage assessed with delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC)  

PubMed Central

Background Impaired stability is a risk factor in knee osteoarthritis (OA), where the whole joint and not only the joint cartilage is affected. The meniscus provides joint stability and is involved in the early pathological progress of OA. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) has been used to identify pre-radiographic changes in the cartilage in OA, but has been used less commonly to examine the meniscus, and then using only a double dose of the contrast agent. The purpose of this study was to enable improved early OA diagnosis by investigate the temporal contrast agent distribution in the meniscus and femoral cartilage simultaneously, in healthy volunteers, using 3D dGEMRIC at two different doses of the contrast agent Gd-DTPA2-. Methods The right knee in 12 asymptomatic volunteers was examined using a 3D Look-Locker sequence on two occasions after an intravenous injection of a double or triple dose of Gd-DTPA2- (0.2 or 0.3 mmol/kg body weight). The relaxation time (T1) and relaxation rate (R1?=?1/T1) were measured in the meniscus and femoral cartilage before, and 60, 90, 120 and 180 minutes after injection, and the change in relaxation rate (?R1) was calculated. Paired t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used for statistical evaluation. Results The triple dose yielded higher concentrations of Gd-DTPA2- in the meniscus and cartilage than the double dose, but provided no additional information. The observed patterns of ?R1 were similar for double and triple doses of the contrast agent. ?R1 was higher in the meniscus than in femoral cartilage in the corresponding compartments at all time points after injection. ?R1 increased until 90-180 minutes in both the cartilage and the meniscus (p?

2014-01-01

246

Assessment of Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Glycosaminoglycan Content by Gadolinium-Enhanced MRI before and after 21-Days of Head-Down-Tilt Bedrest  

PubMed Central

During spaceflight, it has been shown that intervertebral discs (IVDs) increase in height, causing elongation of the spine up to several centimeters. Astronauts frequently report dull lower back pain that is most likely of discogenic origin and may result from IVD expansion. It is unknown whether disc volume solely increases by water influx, or if the content of glycosaminoglycans also changes in microgravity. Aim of this pilot study was to investigate effects of the spaceflight analog of bedrest on the glycosaminoglycan content of human lumbar IVDs. Five healthy, non-smoking, male human subjects of European descent were immobilized in 6° head-down-tilt bedrest for 21 days. Subjects remained in bed 24 h a day with at least one shoulder on the mattress. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans were taken according to the delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (dGEMRIC) protocol before and after bedrest. The outcome measures were T1 and ?T1. Scans were performed before and after administration of the contrast agent Gd-DOTA, and differences between T1-values of both scans (?T1) were computed. ?T1 is the longitudinal relaxation time in the tissue and inversely related to the glycosaminoglycan-content. For data analysis, IVDs L1/2 to L4/5 were semi-automatically segmented. Zones were defined and analyzed separately. Results show a highly significant decrease in ?T1 (p<0.001) after bedrest in all IVDs, and in all areas of the IVDs. The ?T1-decrease was most prominent in the nucleus pulposus and in L4/5, and was expressed slightly more in the posterior than anterior IVD. Unexpected negative ?T1-values were found in Pfirrmann-grade 2-discs after bedrest. Significantly lower T1 before contrast agent application was found after bedrest compared to before bedrest. According to the dGEMRIC-literature, the decrease in ?T1 may be interpreted as an increase in glycosaminoglycans in healthy IVDs during bedrest. This interpretation seems contradictory to previous findings in IVD unloading. PMID:25380233

Koy, Timmo; Zange, Jochen; Rittweger, Jörn; Pohle-Fröhlich, Regina; Hackenbroch, Matthias; Eysel, Peer; Ganse, Bergita

2014-01-01

247

Tumor Metabolism and Perfusion in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Pretreatment Multimodality Imaging With {sup 1}H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI, and [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To correlate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS), dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), and {sup 18}F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([{sup 18}F]FDG PET) of nodal metastases in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) for assessment of tumor biology. Additionally, pretreatment multimodality imaging was evaluated for its efficacy in predicting short-term response to treatment. Methods and Materials: Metastatic neck nodes were imaged with {sup 1}H-MRS, DCE-MRI, and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET in 16 patients with newly diagnosed HNSCC, before treatment. Short-term patient radiological response was evaluated at 3 to 4 months. Correlations among {sup 1}H-MRS (choline concentration relative to water [Cho/W]), DCE-MRI (volume transfer constant [K{sup trans}]; volume fraction of the extravascular extracellular space [v{sub e}]; and redistribution rate constant [k{sub ep}]), and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET (standard uptake value [SUV] and total lesion glycolysis [TLG]) were calculated using nonparametric Spearman rank correlation. To predict short-term responses, logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: A significant positive correlation was found between Cho/W and TLG ({rho} = 0.599; p = 0.031). Cho/W correlated negatively with heterogeneity measures of standard deviation std(v{sub e}) ({rho} = -0.691; p = 0.004) and std(k{sub ep}) ({rho} = -0.704; p = 0.003). Maximum SUV (SUVmax) values correlated strongly with MRI tumor volume ({rho} = 0.643; p = 0.007). Logistic regression indicated that std(K{sup trans}) and SUVmean were significant predictors of short-term response (p < 0.07). Conclusion: Pretreatment multimodality imaging using {sup 1}H-MRS, DCE-MRI, and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET is feasible in HNSCC patients with nodal metastases. Additionally, combined DCE-MRI and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET parameters were predictive of short-term response to treatment.

Jansen, Jacobus F.A. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Radiology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Schoeder, Heiko [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Lee, Nancy Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Stambuk, Hilda E. [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wang Ya [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Fury, Matthew G. [Department of Medical Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Patel, Senehal G. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Pfister, David G. [Department of Medical Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Shah, Jatin P. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Koutcher, Jason A. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Medical Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Shukla-Dave, Amita, E-mail: davea@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

2012-01-01

248

Multivoxel 1H MR spectroscopy is superior to contrast-enhanced MRI for response assessment after anti-angiogenic treatment of orthotopic human glioma xenografts and provides handles for metabolic targeting  

PubMed Central

Background Anti-angiogenic treatment of glioblastoma characteristically results in therapy resistance and tumor progression via diffuse infiltration. Monitoring tumor progression in these patients is thwarted because therapy results in tumor invisibility in contrast-enhanced (CE) MRI. To address this problem, we examined whether tumor progression could be monitored by metabolic mapping using 1H MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). Methods We treated groups of BALB/c nu/nu mice carrying different orthotopic diffuse-infiltrative glioblastoma xenografts with bevacizumab (anti–vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF] antibody, n = 13), cabozantinib (combined VEGF receptor 2/c-Met tyrosine kinase inhibitor, n = 11), or placebo (n = 15) and compared CE-MRI with MRS-derived metabolic maps before, during, and after treatment. Metabolic maps and CE-MRIs were subsequently correlated to histology and immunohistochemistry. Results In vivo imaging of choline/n-acetyl aspartate ratios via multivoxel MRS is better able to evaluate response to therapy than CE-MRI. Lactate imaging revealed that diffuse infiltrative areas in glioblastoma xenografts did not present with excessive glycolysis. In contrast, glycolysis was observed in hypoxic areas in angiogenesis-dependent compact regions of glioma only, especially after anti-angiogenic treatment. Conclusion Our data present MRSI as a powerful and feasible approach that is superior to CE-MRI and may provide handles for optimizing treatment of glioma. Furthermore, we show that glycolysis is more prominent in hypoxic areas than in areas of diffuse infiltrative growth. The Warburg hypothesis of persisting glycolysis in tumors under normoxic conditions may thus not be valid for diffuse glioma. PMID:24158109

Hamans, Bob; Navis, Anna Catharina; Wright, Alan; Wesseling, Pieter; Heerschap, Arend; Leenders, William

2013-01-01

249

Play the MRI Game  

MedlinePLUS

... Teachers' Questionnaire MRI Play MRI the Magnetic Miracle Game About the game In the MRI imaging technique, strong magnets and ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

250

Leg MRI scan  

MedlinePLUS

... imaging - leg; Magnetic resonance imaging - lower extremity; MRI - ankle; Magnetic resonance imaging - ankle; MRI - femur; MRI - leg ... or bone scan Birth defects of the leg, ankle, or foot Bone pain and fever Broken bone ...

251

Competitive advantage of PET/MRI.  

PubMed

Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved. PMID:23791129

Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M

2014-01-01

252

Patient "candidate" for thrombolysis: MRI is essential.  

PubMed

Because of its excellent sensitivity and specificity to diagnose arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) in the acute phase, MRI answers the main questions to guide treatment in "candidates" for thrombolysis. It lasts less than ten minutes, can confirm the diagnosis of AIS and distinguish it from hematomas and other "stroke mimics". It can identify the ischemic penumbra (perfusion-diffusion mismatch), determine the site of occlusion and provide prognostic information to adapt treatment in some cases in which the indications are poorly defined. In light of the most recent scientific findings, MRI can guide the treatment turning it into the investigation of choice in "candidates" for thrombolysis. PMID:25096784

Tisserand, M; Naggara, O; Legrand, L; Mellerio, C; Edjlali, M; Lion, S; Rodriguez-Régent, C; Souillard-Scemama, R; Jbanca, C-F; Trystram, D; Méder, J-F; Oppenheim, C

2014-12-01

253

Are cerebral cavernomas truly nonenhancing lesions and thereby distinguishable from arteriovenous malformations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe aim of this study was to determine whether cerebral cavernomas are truly nonenhancing lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), whether they can be distinguished from arteriovenous malformations (AVM) on that basis and to evaluate the incidence of their association with developmental venous anomalies (DVA).

Katja Pinker; Ioannis Stavrou; Engelbert Knosp; Siegfried Trattnig

2006-01-01

254

Protein Polymer MRI Contrast Agents: Longitudinal Analysis of Biomaterials In Vivo  

E-print Network

Protein Polymer MRI Contrast Agents: Longitudinal Analysis of Biomaterials In Vivo Lindsay S by inadequate techniques for char- acterizing biomaterials in vivo. Magnetic resonance imaging is a tomographic- gitudinal noninvasive assessment of biomaterials in vivo. To distinguish biomaterials from surrounding

Barron, Annelise E.

255

High-Speed Real-Time Resting-State fMRI Using Multi-Slab Echo-Volumar Imaging  

PubMed Central

We recently demonstrated that ultra-high-speed real-time fMRI using multi-slab echo-volumar imaging (MEVI) significantly increases sensitivity for mapping task-related activation and resting-state networks (RSNs) compared to echo-planar imaging (Posse et al., 2012). In the present study we characterize the sensitivity of MEVI for mapping RSN connectivity dynamics, comparing independent component analysis (ICA) and a novel seed-based connectivity analysis (SBCA) that combines sliding-window correlation analysis with meta-statistics. This SBCA approach is shown to minimize the effects of confounds, such as movement, and CSF and white matter signal changes, and enables real-time monitoring of RSN dynamics at time scales of tens of seconds. We demonstrate highly sensitive mapping of eloquent cortex in the vicinity of brain tumors and arterio-venous malformations, and detection of abnormal resting-state connectivity in epilepsy. In patients with motor impairment, resting-state fMRI provided focal localization of sensorimotor cortex compared with more diffuse activation in task-based fMRI. The fast acquisition speed of MEVI enabled segregation of cardiac-related signal pulsation using ICA, which revealed distinct regional differences in pulsation amplitude and waveform, elevated signal pulsation in patients with arterio-venous malformations and a trend toward reduced pulsatility in gray matter of patients compared with healthy controls. Mapping cardiac pulsation in cortical gray matter may carry important functional information that distinguishes healthy from diseased tissue vasculature. This novel fMRI methodology is particularly promising for mapping eloquent cortex in patients with neurological disease, having variable degree of cooperation in task-based fMRI. In conclusion, ultra-high-real-time speed fMRI enhances the sensitivity of mapping the dynamics of resting-state connectivity and cerebro-vascular pulsatility for clinical and neuroscience research applications. PMID:23986677

Posse, Stefan; Ackley, Elena; Mutihac, Radu; Zhang, Tongsheng; Hummatov, Ruslan; Akhtari, Massoud; Chohan, Muhammad; Fisch, Bruce; Yonas, Howard

2013-01-01

256

Intra voxel analysis in MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new application of Compressive Sensing (CS) in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) field is presented. In particular, first results of the Intra Voxel Analysis (IVA) technique are reported. The idea is to exploit CS peculiarities in order to distinguish different contributions inside the same resolution cell, instead of reconstructing images from not fully sampled k-space acquisition. Applied to MRI field, this means the possibility of estimating the presence of different tissues inside the same voxel, i.e. in one pixel of the obtained image. In other words, the method is the first attempt, as far as we know, of achieving Spectroscopy-like results starting from each pixel of MR images. In particular, tissues are distinguished each others by evaluating their spin-spin relaxation times. Within this manuscript, first results on clinical dataset, in particular a phantom made by aqueous solution and oil and an occipital brain lesion corresponding to a metastatic breast cancer nodule, are reported. Considering the phantom dataset, in particular focusing on the slice where the separation between water and oil occurs, the methodology is able to distinguish the two components with different spin-spin relaxation times. With respect to clinical dataset,focusing on a voxel of the lesion area, the approach is able to detect the presence of two tissues, namely the healthy and the cancer related ones, while in other location outside the lesion only the healthy tissue is detected. Of course, these are the first results of the proposed methodology, further studies on different types of clinical datasets are required in order to widely validate the approach. Although few datasets have been considered, results seem both interesting and promising.

Ambrosanio, Michele; Baselice, Fabio; Ferraioli, Giampaolo; Pascazio, Vito

2014-03-01

257

Telling truth from lie in individual subjects with fast event-related fMRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deception is a clinically important behavior with poorly understood neurobiological correlates. Published functional MRI (fMRI) data on the brain activity during deception indicates that, on a multisubject group level, lie is distinguished from truth by increased prefrontal and parietal activity. These findings are theoretically important; however, their applied value will be determined by the accuracy of the discrimination between single

Daniel D. Langleben; James W. Loughead; Warren B. Bilker; Kosha Ruparel; Anna Rose Childress; Samantha I. Busch; Ruben C. Gur

2005-01-01

258

Pelvis MRI scan  

MedlinePLUS

... pelvis; MRI - hips; Pelvic MRI with prostate probe; Magnetic resonance imaging - pelvis ... radiation. To date, no side effects from the magnetic fields and radio waves have been reported. The ...

259

MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)  

MedlinePLUS

... Radiation-Emitting Products and Procedures Medical Imaging MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Description Uses Risks/Benefits Information for ... Regulations & Performance Standards Industry Guidance Other Resources Description Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging procedure ...

260

Functional Imaging: CT and MRI  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Numerous imaging techniques permit evaluation of regional pulmonary function. Contrast-enhanced CT methods now allow assessment of vasculature and lung perfusion. Techniques using spirometric controlled MDCT allow for quantification of presence and distribution of parenchymal and airway pathology, Xenon gas can be employed to assess regional ventilation of the lungs and rapid bolus injections of iodinated contrast agent can provide quantitative measure of regional parenchymal perfusion. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lung include gadolinium-enhanced perfusion imaging and hyperpolarized helium imaging, which can allow imaging of pulmonary ventilation and .measurement of the size of emphysematous spaces. PMID:18267192

van Beek, Edwin JR; Hoffman, Eric A

2008-01-01

261

On the distinguishability of histograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider an approach for testing the hypothesis that two realizations of the random variables in the form of histograms are taken from the same statistical population ( i.e. two histograms are drawn from the same distribution). The approach is based on the notion of "significance of deviation". This approach allows to estimate the statistical difference between two histograms using multi-dimensional test statistics. The distinguishability of the histograms is estimated by constructing a number of clones (rehistograms) of the observed histograms.

Bityukov, S.; Krasnikov, N.; Nikitenko, A.; Smirnova, V.

2013-11-01

262

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)  

MedlinePLUS

... doctors use to see the body's organs and structures. MRI uses a magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed pictures of the body's insides. Unlike CAT scans or X-rays, MRI doesn't use radiation. An MRI scanner is a large doughnut-shaped magnet that often has a tunnel in the center. ...

263

MRI-Guided Vascular Access with an Active Visualization Needle  

PubMed Central

Purpose To develop an approach to vascular access under MRI, as a component of comprehensive MRI-guided cardiovascular catheterization and intervention. Materials and Methods We attempted jugular vein access in healthy pigs as a model of “difficult” vascular access. Procedures were performed under real-time MRI guidance using reduced field of view imaging. We developed an “active” MRI antenna-needle having an open-lumen, distinct tip appearance and indicators of depth and trajectory, in order to enhance MRI visibility during the procedure. We compared performance of the active needle against an unmodified commercial passively-visualized needle, measured by procedure success among operators with different levels of experience. Results MRI-guided central vein access was feasible using both the active needle and the unmodified passive needle. The active needle required less time (88 vs. 244 sec, p=0.022) and fewer needle passes (4.5 vs. 9.1, p=0.028), irrespective of operator experience. Conclusion MRI-guided access to central veins is feasible in our animal model. When image guidance is necessary for vascular access, performing this component under MRI will allow wholly MRI-guided catheterization procedures that do not require adjunctive imaging facilities such as X-ray or ultrasound. The active needle design showed enhanced visibility, as expected. These capabilities may permit more complex catheter-based cardiovascular interventional procedures enabled by enhanced image guidance. PMID:22006552

Saikus, Christina E.; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Barbash, Israel M.; Colyer, Jessica H.; Kocaturk, Ozgur; Faranesh, Anthony Z.; Lederman, Robert J.

2011-01-01

264

Clinical Utility of Multimodality Imaging with Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI, Diffusion-Weighted MRI, and 18F-FDG PET/CT for the Prediction of Neck Control in Oropharyngeal or Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated with Chemoradiation  

PubMed Central

The clinical usefulness of pretreatment imaging techniques for predicting neck control in patients with oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OHSCC) treated with chemoradiation remains unclear. In this prospective study, we investigated the role of pretreatment dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging (DCE-PWI), diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI), and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET)/CT derived imaging markers for the prediction of neck control in OHSCC patients treated with chemoradiation. Patients with untreated OHSCC scheduled for chemoradiation between August, 2010 and July, 2012 were eligible for the study. Clinical variables and the following imaging parameters of metastatic neck lymph nodes were examined in relation to neck control: transfer constant, volume of blood plasma, and volume of extracellular extravascular space (Ve) on DCE-PWI; apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) on DWI; maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis on 18F-FDG PET/CT. There were 69 patients (37 with oropharynx SCC and 32 with hypopharynx SCC) with successful pretreatment DCE-PWI and DWI available for analysis. After a median follow-up of 31 months, 25 (36.2%) participants had neck failure. Multivariate analysis identified hemoglobin level <14.3 g/dL (P?=?0.019), Ve <0.23 (P?=?0.040), and ADC >1.14×10?3 mm2/s (P?=?0.003) as independent prognostic factors for 3-year neck control. A prognostic scoring system was formulated by summing up the three significant predictors of neck control. Patients with scores of 2–3 had significantly poorer neck control and overall survival rates than patients with scores of 0–1. We conclude that hemoglobin levels, Ve, and ADC are independent pretreatment prognostic factors for neck control in OHSCC treated with chemoradiation. Their combination may identify a subgroup of patients at high risk of developing neck failure. PMID:25531391

Chan, Sheng-Chieh; Lin, Yu-Chun; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Liao, Chun-Ta; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Ko, Sheung-Fat; Wang, Hung- Ming; Chang, Chee-Jen; Wang, Jiun-Jie

2014-01-01

265

A Multi-Scale Geometric Flow for Segmenting Vasculature in MRI  

E-print Network

or Gadolinium enhanced MRI. The key idea is to first apply Frangi's vesselness measure [4] to find putative, angiography and Gadolinium enhanced MRI volumes. 1 Introduction A three-dimensional (3D) representation of these methods have been demonstrated for 2D projection an- giography, 3D CT angiography or Gadolinium enhanced

Siddiqi, Kaleem

266

Predictive Value of Imaging Markers at Multiple Sclerosis Disease Onset Based on Gadolinium- and USPIO-Enhanced MRI and Machine Learning  

PubMed Central

Objectives A novel characterization of Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) patients according to lesion patterns is proposed. More specifically, patients are classified according to the nature of inflammatory lesions patterns. It is expected that this characterization can infer new prospective figures from the earliest imaging signs of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), since it can provide a classification of different types of lesions across patients. Methods The method is based on a two-tiered classification. Initially, the spatio-temporal lesion patterns are classified. The discovered lesion patterns are then used to characterize groups of patients. The patient groups are validated using statistical measures and by correlations at 24-month follow-up with hypointense lesion loads. Results The methodology identified 3 statistically significantly different clusters of lesion patterns showing p-values smaller than 0.01. Moreover, these patterns defined at baseline correlated with chronic hypointense lesion volumes by follow-up with an score of . Conclusions The proposed methodology is capable of identifying three major different lesion patterns that are heterogeneously present in patients, allowing a patient classification using only two MRI scans. This finding may lead to more accurate prognosis and thus to more suitable treatments at early stage of MS. PMID:24691080

Crimi, Alessandro; Commowick, Olivier; Maarouf, Adil; Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Bannier, Elise; Tourbah, Ayman; Berry, Isabelle; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Edan, Gilles; Barillot, Christian

2014-01-01

267

Stochastic Designs in Event-Related fMRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the efficiency of event-related fMRI designs in terms of the optimum temporal pattern of stimulus or trial presentations. The distinction between “stochastic” and “deterministic” is used to distinguish between designs that are specified in terms of the probability that an event will occur at a series of time points (stochastic) and those in which events always occur

K. J. Friston; E. Zarahn; O. Josephs; R. N. A. Henson; A. M. Dale

1999-01-01

268

TEXTURE-BASED CHARACTERIZATION OF ARTERIALIZATION IN SIMULATED MRI OF HYPERVASCULARIZED LIVER TUMORS  

E-print Network

TEXTURE-BASED CHARACTERIZATION OF ARTERIALIZATION IN SIMULATED MRI OF HYPERVASCULARIZED LIVER this influence, we propose a multiscale model of liver dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, consisting of a model Terms-- Physiological modeling, multiscale model, MRI simulation, liver cancer, image analysis 1

269

Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of implanted VX2 tumors in rabbit muscle: comparison of Gd-DTPA and NMS60  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the dynamics of injected contrast enhancement in implanted VX2 tumors in rabbit thigh muscle. We compared two contrast agents Gd-DTPA and NMS60, a novel gadolinium containing trimer of molecular weight 2.1 kd. T1-weighted spin echo images were acquired preinjection and at 5–60 min after i.v. injection of 0.1 mmol\\/kg of agent. Dynamic T1-weighted SPGR images (1.9 s\\/image) were

A. J de Crespigny; Diane Howard; H D’Arceuil; H Muller; A. T Agoston; S Seri; Y Hashiguchi; C Fujimoto; A Nakatani; M. E Moseley

1999-01-01

270

Is there a need for contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI of the spine after inconspicuous short ? inversion recovery imaging?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the use of contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images in comparison with short t inversion recovery (STIR) images for the detection of vertebral bone marrow abnormalities. A total of 201 vertebral magnetic resonance (MR) examinations were included in a prospective trial. Examinations were performed on a 0.5-T MR scanner. The examination protocol included STIR, T2-weighted turbo spin-echo and T1-weighted spin-echo images

Andreas H. Mahnken; Joachim E. Wildberger; Gerhard Adam; Sven Stanzel; Thomas Schmitz-Rode; Rolf W. Günther; Arno Buecker

2005-01-01

271

SENSE: Sensitivity encoding for fast MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

New theoretical and practical concepts are presented for consid- erably enhancing the performance of magnetic resonance imag- ing (MRI) by means of arrays of multiple receiver coils. Sensitiv- ity encoding (SENSE) is based on the fact that receiver sensitivity generally has an encoding effect complementary to Fourier preparation by linear field gradients. Thus, by using multiple receiver coils in parallel

Klaas P. Pruessmann; Markus Weiger; Markus B. Scheidegger; Peter Boesiger

1999-01-01

272

Ex vivo MRI evaluation of breast tumors: a novel tool for verifying resection of nonpalpable only MRI detected lesions.  

PubMed

A fundamental question in surgery of only magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected breast lesions is to ensure their removal when they are not palpable by clinical examination and surgical exploration. This is especially relevant in the case of small tumors, carcinoma in situ or lobular carcinoma. Thirty-nine patients were enrolled in the study, 21 patients with breast lesions detected by both conventional imaging and breast MRI (bMRI) and 18 patients with bMRI findings only. Preoperative bMRI allowed staging the disease and localizing the lesion. In the operating theater, contrast medium was injected 1 minute before skin incision. After removal, surgical specimens were submitted to ex vivo MRI, performed using a dedicated surface coil and Spair inversion recovery sequences for suppression of fat signal intensity. All MRI enhancing lesions were completely included within the surgical specimen and visualized by ex vivo MRI. In the first 21 patients, bMRI was able to visualize branching margins or satellite nodules around the core lesion, and allowed for better staging of the surrounding in situ carcinoma; in the last 18 patients, eight of whom were breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA) mutation carriers, bMRI identified 12 malignant tumors, otherwise undetectable, that were all visualized by ex vivo MRI. This is the first description of a procedure that re-enhances breast lesions within a surgical specimen, demonstrating the surgical removal of nonpalpable breast lesions diagnosed only with bMRI. This new strategy reproduces the morphology and the entire extension of the primary lesion on the specimen, with potentially better local surgical control, reducing additional unplanned surgery. PMID:24102850

Agresti, Roberto; Trecate, Giovanna; Ferraris, Cristina; Valeri, Barbara; Maugeri, Ilaria; Pellitteri, Cristina; Martelli, Gabriele; Migliavacca, Silvana; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa; Bohm, Silvia; Maffioli, Lorenzo; Vergnaghi, Daniele; Panizza, Pietro

2013-01-01

273

MRI of the shoulder  

SciTech Connect

This book reports on the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluating shoulder disorders. The book gives detailed information on MRI techniques and shoulder anatomy, describes and illustrates MRI findings for a wide range of shoulder disorders, and explains how abnormalities seen on MIR images relate to pathophysiology and clinical signs. Special attention is given to imaging of rotator cuff disease and shoulder instability conditions for which MRI is the imaging procedure of choice. Complementing the text are 365 high-quality scans depicting normal shoulder anatomy and showing the wide variety of pathologic findings encountered in practice.

Zlatkin, M.B.; Iannotti, J.P.; Schnall, M.D.

1991-01-01

274

Superficial Siderosis of the Central Nervous System Induced by a Single-Episode of Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Study Using MRI-Enhanced Gradient Echo T2 Star-Weighted Angiography  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine whether a single episode of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) could cause superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (SS-CNS).This study was approved by the local ethics committee. Thirty-two patients with a history of a single episode of tSAH were enrolled in the study. An episode of tSAH was confirmed in patients based on a CT scan or a lumbar puncture, and a follow-up examination was conducted at least six weeks after the brain trauma. A follow-up MRI examination was performed, using enhanced gradient echo T2 star-weighted angiography (ESWAN) to detect hemosiderin deposition on the cortical surface. The extent to which hemosiderin deposition was associated with several clinical factors was investigated. Various degrees of hemosiderin deposition were detected in 31 of 32 (96.9%) single-episode tSAH patients. Analysis of contingency tables revealed an association between the regions of subarachnoid bleeding based on CT images and the regions of hemosiderin deposition based on ESWAN images (?2 = 17.73, P<0.05). SS-CNS was determined to be a common consequence after a single episode of tSAH. The extent of hemosiderin deposition is closely correlated with the initial bleeding sites and bleeding volume. PMID:25647424

Zhao, Hongwei; Wang, Jin; Lu, Zhonglie; Wu, Qingjie; Lv, Haijuan; Liu, Hu; Gong, Xiangyang

2015-01-01

275

MRI findings in a dog with kernicterus.  

PubMed

A severe increase in total bilirubin coincided with a decline in neurologic status to comatose in a 9 yr old spayed female mixed-breed dog being treated for immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. MRI of the brain was performed to investigate potential causes for the neurologic signs. MRI revealed bilaterally symmetrical hyperintensities within the caudate nuclei, globus pallidus, thalamus, deep cerebellar nuclei, and cortical gray matter on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences, which coincided with areas of bilirubin deposition and neuronal necrosis (kernicterus) identified on necropsy examination. This is the second case report of an adult dog exhibiting kernicterus, and the first report to document MRI findings associated with that condition. Kernicterus is an uncommonly reported complication of hyperbilirubinemia in dogs, but is potentially underreported due to difficulties in recognizing subtle lesions and distinguishing kernicterus from other potential causes of neurologic abnormalities with readily available antemortem tests. MRI may be helpful in supporting the diagnosis of kernicterus. PMID:23690488

Belz, Katie M; Specht, Andrew J; Johnson, Victoria S; Conway, Julia A

2013-01-01

276

Distinguished Research Professorship Nomination Cover Sheet  

E-print Network

Distinguished Research Professorship Nomination Cover Sheet Date: _______________ NOMINEE Qualifications Sheet describing how he/she is qualified to evaluate the nominee Has evidence that the nomination

Arnold, Jonathan

277

Local and Global Distinguishability in Quantum Interferometry  

SciTech Connect

A statistical distinguishability based on relative entropy characterizes the fitness of quantum states for phase estimation. This criterion is employed in the context of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and used to interpolate between two regimes of local and global phase distinguishability. The scaling of distinguishability in these regimes with photon number is explored for various quantum states. It emerges that local distinguishability is dependent on a discrepancy between quantum and classical rotational energy. Our analysis demonstrates that the Heisenberg limit is the true upper limit for local phase sensitivity. Only the ''NOON'' states share this bound, but other states exhibit a better trade-off when comparing local and global phase regimes.

Durkin, Gabriel A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Dowling, Jonathan P. [Hearne Institute for Theoretical Physics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

2007-08-17

278

In Situ Non-Invasive T2*-Weighted MRI Derived Parameters Determine Ex Vivo Structural Properties of an ACL Reconstruction or Bio-enhanced Primary Repair in a Porcine Model  

PubMed Central

Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive technology that can quantitatively access ACL graft size and signal intensity. However, how those properties relate to reconstructed or repaired ligament strength during the healing process is yet unknown. Purpose We hypothesized that MR derived measures of graft volume and signal intensity are significant predictors of the structural properties of a healing ACL or ACL graft after 15 weeks and 52 weeks of healing. Study Design Controlled Laboratory Experiment Methods The current data were gathered from two experiments evaluating ACL reconstruction and repair techniques. In the first experiment, pigs underwent unilateral ACL transection and received: 1) ACL reconstruction, 2) ACL reconstruction with collagen platelet composite (CPC), or 3) no treatment. The surgical legs were harvested following 15 weeks of healing. In the second experiment, pigs underwent ACL transection and received: 1) ACL reconstruction, 2) ACL reconstruction with CPC, 3) bio-enhanced ACL primary repair with CPC, or 4) no treatment. The surgical legs were harvested after 52 weeks. The harvested knees were imaged using a T2* weighted 3D-CISS sequence. Each ligament was segmented from the scans, and the intra-articular volume and the median grayscale values were determined. Mechanical testing was performed to establish the ligament structural properties. Results Volume significantly predicted the structural properties (maximum load, yield load, linear stiffness) of the ligaments and grafts (R2 = 0.56, 0.56, 0.49; p?0.001). Likewise, the median grayscale values significantly predicted the structural properties of the ligaments and grafts (R2 = 0.42, 0.37, 0.40; p<0.001). The combination of these two parameters in a multiple regression model improved the predictions (R2 = 0.73, 0.72, 0.68; p?0.001). Conclusion Volume and grayscale values from high resolution T2* weighted MRI images are predictive of structural properties of the healing ligament or graft in a porcine model. Clinical Relevance This study provides a critical step in the development of a non-invasive method to predict the structural properties of the healing ACL graft or repair. This technique may prove beneficial as a surrogate outcome measure in pre-clinical animal and clinical studies. PMID:23348076

Biercevicz, Alison M.; Miranda, Danny L.; Machan, Jason T.; Murray, Martha M.; Fleming, Braden C.

2012-01-01

279

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)  

MedlinePLUS

... addition, any credit cards or anything else with magnetic coding that is near the magnet will be erased by most MRI systems. MRI works by contrasting the differences present in the area being scanned. Different ... ways to the magnetic field that is applied; it is these differences ...

280

Introduction Event-related functional MRI (fMRI) procedures  

E-print Network

Introduction Event-related functional MRI (fMRI) procedures allow different trial types to be randomly intermixed for mapping brain function.1 Such procedures greatly increase the flexibility of fMRI a powerful proce- dure for fMRI brain mapping. Rapid presentation allows for designs that are exactly matched

281

Characteristics of Distinguished Programs of Agricultural Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic program rankings are highly anticipated by many university administrators, faculty, and alumni. This study analyzed the perceptions of agricultural education departmental contact persons to identify esteemed post-secondary agricultural education programs and the distinguishing characteristics of each program. The ten most distinguished

Birkenholz, Robert J.; Simonsen, Jon C.

2011-01-01

282

Non-invasive breast biopsy method using GD-DTPA contrast enhanced MRI series and F-18-FDG PET/CT dynamic image series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was undertaken to develop a nonsurgical breast biopsy from Gd-DTPA Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance (CE-MR) images and F-18-FDG PET/CT dynamic image series. A five-step process was developed to accomplish this. (1) Dynamic PET series were nonrigidly registered to the initial frame using a finite element method (FEM) based registration that requires fiducial skin markers to sample the displacement field between image frames. A commercial FEM package (ANSYS) was used for meshing and FEM calculations. Dynamic PET image series registrations were evaluated using similarity measurements SAVD and NCC. (2) Dynamic CE-MR series were nonrigidly registered to the initial frame using two registration methods: a multi-resolution free-form deformation (FFD) registration driven by normalized mutual information, and a FEM-based registration method. Dynamic CE-MR image series registrations were evaluated using similarity measurements, localization measurements, and qualitative comparison of motion artifacts. FFD registration was found to be superior to FEM-based registration. (3) Nonlinear curve fitting was performed for each voxel of the PET/CT volume of activity versus time, based on a realistic two-compartmental Patlak model. Three parameters for this model were fitted; two of them describe the activity levels in the blood and in the cellular compartment, while the third characterizes the washout rate of F-18-FDG from the cellular compartment. (4) Nonlinear curve fitting was performed for each voxel of the MR volume of signal intensity versus time, based on a realistic two-compartment Brix model. Three parameters for this model were fitted: rate of Gd exiting the compartment, representing the extracellular space of a lesion; rate of Gd exiting a blood compartment; and a parameter that characterizes the strength of signal intensities. Curve fitting used for PET/CT and MR series was accomplished by application of the Levenburg-Marquardt nonlinear regression algorithm. The best-fit parameters were used to create 3D parametric images. Compartmental modeling evaluation was based on the ability of parameter values to differentiate between tissue types. This evaluation was used on registered and unregistered image series and found that registration improved results. (5) PET and MR parametric images were registered through FEM- and FFD-based registration. Parametric image registration was evaluated using similarity measurements, target registration error, and qualitative comparison. Comparing FFD and FEM-based registration results showed that the FEM method is superior. This five-step process constitutes a novel multifaceted approach to a nonsurgical breast biopsy that successfully executes each step. Comparison of this method to biopsy still needs to be done with a larger set of subject data.

Magri, Alphonso William

283

MRI in local staging of rectal cancer: an update.  

PubMed

Preoperative imaging for staging of rectal cancer has become an important aspect of current approach to rectal cancer management, because it helps to select suitable patients for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and determine the appropriate surgical technique. Imaging modalities such as endoscopic ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) play an important role in assessing the depth of tumor penetration, lymph node involvement, mesorectal fascia and anal sphincter invasion, and presence of distant metastatic diseases. Currently, there is no consensus on a preferred imaging technique for preoperative staging of rectal cancer. However, high-resolution phased-array MRI is recommended as a standard imaging modality for preoperative local staging of rectal cancer, with excellent soft tissue contrast, multiplanar capability, and absence of ionizing radiation. This review will mainly focus on the role of MRI in preoperative local staging of rectal cancer and discuss recent advancements in MRI technique such as diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. PMID:25010367

Tapan, Umit; Ozbayrak, Mustafa; Tatl?, Servet

2014-01-01

284

Benchmarking the ERG valve tip and MRI Interventions Smart Flow neurocatheter convection-enhanced delivery system's performance in a gel model of the brain: employing infusion protocols proposed for gene therapy for Parkinson's disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is an advanced infusion technique used to deliver therapeutic agents into the brain. CED has shown promise in recent clinical trials. Independent verification of published parameters is warranted with benchmark testing of published parameters in applicable models such as gel phantoms, ex vivo tissue and in vivo non-human animal models to effectively inform planned and future clinical therapies. In the current study, specific performance characteristics of two CED infusion catheter systems, such as backflow, infusion cloud morphology, volume of distribution (mm3) versus the infused volume (mm3) (Vd/Vi) ratios, rate of infusion (µl min-1) and pressure (mmHg), were examined to ensure published performance standards for the ERG valve-tip (VT) catheter. We tested the hypothesis that the ERG VT catheter with an infusion protocol of a steady 1 µl min-1 functionality is comparable to the newly FDA approved MRI Interventions Smart Flow (SF) catheter with the UCSF infusion protocol in an agarose gel model. In the gel phantom models, no significant difference was found in performance parameters between the VT and SF catheter. We report, for the first time, such benchmark characteristics in CED between these two otherwise similar single-end port VT with stylet and end-port non-stylet infusion systems. Results of the current study in agarose gel models suggest that the performance of the VT catheter is comparable to the SF catheter and warrants further investigation as a tool in the armamentarium of CED techniques for eventual clinical use and application.

Sillay, Karl; Schomberg, Dominic; Hinchman, Angelica; Kumbier, Lauren; Ross, Chris; Kubota, Ken; Brodsky, Ethan; Miranpuri, Gurwattan

2012-04-01

285

Benchmarking the ERG valve tip and MRI Interventions Smart Flow neurocatheter convection-enhanced delivery system's performance in a gel model of the brain: employing infusion protocols proposed for gene therapy for Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is an advanced infusion technique used to deliver therapeutic agents into the brain. CED has shown promise in recent clinical trials. Independent verification of published parameters is warranted with benchmark testing of published parameters in applicable models such as gel phantoms, ex vivo tissue and in vivo non-human animal models to effectively inform planned and future clinical therapies. In the current study, specific performance characteristics of two CED infusion catheter systems, such as backflow, infusion cloud morphology, volume of distribution (mm(3)) versus the infused volume (mm(3)) (Vd/Vi) ratios, rate of infusion (µl min(-1)) and pressure (mmHg), were examined to ensure published performance standards for the ERG valve-tip (VT) catheter. We tested the hypothesis that the ERG VT catheter with an infusion protocol of a steady 1 µl min(-1) functionality is comparable to the newly FDA approved MRI Interventions Smart Flow (SF) catheter with the UCSF infusion protocol in an agarose gel model. In the gel phantom models, no significant difference was found in performance parameters between the VT and SF catheter. We report, for the first time, such benchmark characteristics in CED between these two otherwise similar single-end port VT with stylet and end-port non-stylet infusion systems. Results of the current study in agarose gel models suggest that the performance of the VT catheter is comparable to the SF catheter and warrants further investigation as a tool in the armamentarium of CED techniques for eventual clinical use and application. PMID:22331865

Sillay, Karl; Schomberg, Dominic; Hinchman, Angelica; Kumbier, Lauren; Ross, Chris; Kubota, Ken; Brodsky, Ethan; Miranpuri, Gurwattan

2012-04-01

286

Implantable medical devices MRI safe.  

PubMed

Pacemakers, ICDs, neurostimulators like deep brain stimulator electrodes, spiral cord stimulators, insulin pumps, cochlear implants, retinal implants, hearing aids, electro cardio gram (ECG) leads, or devices in interventional MRI such as vascular guide wires or catheters are affected by MRI magnetic and electromagnetic fields. Design of MRI Safe medical devices requires computer modeling, bench testing, phantom testing, and animal studies. Implanted medical devices can be MRI unsafe, MRI conditional or MRI safe (see glossary). In the following paragraphs we will investigate how to design implanted medical devices MRI safe. PMID:23739365

Dal Molin, Renzo; Hecker, Bertrand

2013-01-01

287

Atrial Fibrosis Helps Select the Appropriate Patient and Strategy in Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation:A DE-MRI  

E-print Network

16 Atrial Fibrosis Helps Select the Appropriate Patient and Strategy in Catheter Ablation of Atrial MRI for AF Patient Selection and Ablation Approach. Introduction: Left atrial (LA) fibrosis used delayed enhancement MRI (DE-MRI) to stratify AF patients based on pre-ablation fibrosis and also

Utah, University of

288

Contrast-enhanced dynamic MRI protocol with improved spatial and time resolution for in vivo microimaging of the mouse with a 1.5-T body scanner and a superconducting surface coil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is well suited for small animal model investigations to study various human pathologies. However, the assessment of microscopic information requires a high-spatial resolution (HSR) leading to a critical problem of signal-to-noise ratio limitations in standard whole-body imager. As contrast mechanisms are field dependent, working at high field do not allow to derive MRI criteria that may

Jean-Christophe Ginefri; Marie Poirier-Quinot; Philippe Robert; Luc Darrasse

2005-01-01

289

Pancreatic lipoma: An incydentaloma which can resemble cancer – analysis of 13 cases studied with CT and MRI  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: The purpose of this article is to present computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of rare pancreatic lipomas. Material/Methods: The analysis covered 13 patients (7 men and 6 women, aged 47–88, average: 65.6 years), with 13 pancreatic lipomas, whose cases constituted the basis for 10 contrast-enhanced CT and 5 MRI studies. Results: Lipomas measured from 6 mm to 32 mm (average 12.8 mm) and were located in the pancreatic head (n=7), body (n=2), tail (n=3) and uncinate process (n=1). Most lesions (n=11) were homogenous, well-circumscribed. On contrast-enhanced CT scans, macroscopic fat (distinguishing them from pancreatic carcinoma, is detection of fatty tissue on CT and MR scans. In these cases differential diagnosis includes other rare fatty tumours of the pancreas (focal fatty infiltration, teratoma, liposarcoma). PMID:23049575

Stadnik, Anna; Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Bako?, Leopold; Grodzicka, Agnieszka; Rowi?ski, Olgierd

2012-01-01

290

Cervical MRI scan  

MedlinePLUS

... not allowed into the room with the MRI scanner: Pens, pocketknives, and eyeglasses may fly across the room. Items such as jewelry, watches, credit cards, and hearing aids can be damaged. Pins, hairpins, ...

291

Knee MRI scan  

MedlinePLUS

... not allowed into the room with the MRI scanner: Pens, pocketknives, and eyeglasses may fly across the room. Items such as jewelry, watches, credit cards, and hearing aids can be damaged. Pins, hairpins, ...

292

Arm MRI scan  

MedlinePLUS

... not allowed into the room with the MRI scanner: Pens, pocketknives, and eyeglasses may fly across the room. Items such as jewelry, watches, credit cards, and hearing aids can be damaged. Pins, hairpins, ...

293

Reconstruction algorithms for MRI  

E-print Network

This dissertation presents image reconstruction algorithms for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) that aims to increase the imaging efficiency. Algorithms that reduce imaging time without sacrificing the image quality and ...

Bilgic?, Berkin

2013-01-01

294

Breast MRI scan  

MedlinePLUS

... such as those with a strong family history) Screen for cancer in women with very dense breast tissue An MRI of the breast can also show: Blood flow through the breast area Blood vessels in the ...

295

Shoulder MRI scan  

MedlinePLUS

MRI - shoulder; Magnetic resonance imaging - shoulder ... Wilkinson ID, Paley MNJ. Magnetic resonance imaging: basic principles. In: Grainger RC, Allison D, Adam, Dixon AK, eds. Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 5th ed. ...

296

Abdominal MRI scan  

MedlinePLUS

Nuclear magnetic resonance - abdomen; NMR - abdomen; Magnetic resonance imaging - abdomen; MRI of the abdomen ... use ionizing radiation. No side effects from the magnetic fields and radio waves have been reported. The ...

297

Multiparametric MRI features of granulomatous prostatitis and tubercular prostate abscess.  

PubMed

The authors report the diffusion and contrast-enhanced MRI appearance of five cases of granulomatous prostatitis (GP), non-specific (two cases) and infectious post-Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy (three cases, with a tubercular abscess in two of them). All patients had raising PSA levels and abnormal DRE. History of BCG therapy or acute prostatitis was present in four patients. Multiparametric MRI (T2W-MRI, DW-MRI and DCE-MRI) was performed before biopsies. Diagnosis was confirmed by TRUS-guided biopsies in four cases and by transurethral resection in one case. MRI showed a tumor-like appearance in three cases, an abscess-like appearance in one case and a combined tumor/abscess-like appearance in one case. Extraprostatic fat was infiltrated in three patients, simulating T3a disease. Histologically, caseous necrosis was found when MRI showed abcedation. Demonstration of occult tubercular abscesses in post-BCG GP may have therapeutic implications and MRI is useful prior to surgical or interventional drainage of large caseous abscesses. PMID:23079151

Bour, L; Schull, A; Delongchamps, N-B; Beuvon, F; Muradyan, N; Legmann, P; Cornud, F

2013-01-01

298

The 2012 Distinguished Lecturer: John B. Burland  

E-print Network

and was a member of the Italian Prime Minister's Commission for stabilizing the Leaning Tower of Pisa. He has the Harry Seed Memorial Medal of the American Society of Civil Engineers "for distinguished contributions

Texas at Austin, University of

299

RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS DISTINGUISH ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI  

EPA Science Inventory

Basidiomycetous fungi, two saprophytes and three mycorrhizal, were used to assess the specificity of DNA hybridization for distinguishing genera from one another. nterspecific comparisons were done with several isolates of mycorrhizal fungi, Laccaria bicolor and L. laccata, colle...

300

Studies of MRI relaxivities of gadolinium-labeled dendrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In cancer detection, imaging techniques have a great importance in early diagnosis. The more sensitive the imaging technique and the earlier the tumor can be detected. Contrast agents have the capability to increase the sensitivity in imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Until now, gadolinium-based contrast agents are mainly used for MRI, and show good enhancement. But improvement is needed for detection of smaller tumors at the earliest stage possible. The dendrons complexed with Gd(DOTA) were synthesized and evaluated as a new MRI contrast agent. The longitudinal and transverse relaxation effects were tested and compared with commercial drug Magnevist, Gd(DTPA).

Pan, Hongmu; Daniel, Marie-Christine

2011-05-01

301

MRI Techniques for Prediction of Local Tumor Progression After High-Intensity Focused Ultrasonic Ablation of Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and of T2-weighted MRI with diffusion- weighted imaging (DWI) for predicting local tumor progression after high-intensity focused ultrasonic ablation of localized prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Twenty-seven patients who had increased levels of pros- tate-specific antigen after high-intensity focused ultrasonic ablation underwent MRI

Chan Kyo Kim; Byung Kwan Park; Hyun Moo Lee; Sam Soo Kim; EunJu Kim; Kim CK; Lee HM; Kim SS

302

Microtesla MRI with dynamic nuclear polarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic resonance imaging at microtesla fields is a promising imaging method that combines the pre-polarization technique and broadband signal reception by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensors to enable in vivo MRI at microtesla-range magnetic fields similar in strength to the Earth magnetic field. Despite significant advances in recent years, the potential of microtesla MRI for biomedical imaging is limited by its insufficient signal-to-noise ratio due to a relatively low sample polarization. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a widely used approach that allows polarization enhancement by 2-4 orders of magnitude without an increase in the polarizing field strength. In this work, the first implementation of microtesla MRI with Overhauser DNP and SQUID signal detection is described. The first measurements of carbon-13 NMR spectra at microtesla fields are also reported. The experiments were performed at the measurement field of 96 ?T, corresponding to Larmor frequency of 4 kHz for protons and 1 kHz for carbon-13. The Overhauser DNP was carried out at 3.5-5.7 mT fields using rf irradiation at 120 MHz. Objects for imaging included water phantoms and a cactus plant. Aqueous solutions of metabolically relevant sodium bicarbonate, pyruvate, alanine, and lactate, labeled with carbon-13, were used for NMR studies. All the samples were doped with TEMPO free radicals. The Overhauser DNP enabled nuclear polarization enhancement by factor as large as -95 for protons and as large as -200 for carbon-13, corresponding to thermal polarizations at 0.33 T and 1.1 T fields, respectively. These results demonstrate that SQUID-based microtesla MRI can be naturally combined with Overhauser DNP in one system, and that its signal-to-noise performance is greatly improved in this case. They also suggest that microtesla MRI can become an efficient tool for in vivo imaging of hyperpolarized carbon-13, produced by low-temperature dissolution DNP.

Zotev, Vadim S.; Owens, Tuba; Matlashov, Andrei N.; Savukov, Igor M.; Gomez, John J.; Espy, Michelle A.

2010-11-01

303

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) during Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) During Pregnancy Play Video Clip (00:02:58) Your Radiologist Explains MRI During ... during the exam? Contrast material MRI during pregnancy Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) If you are pregnant and ...

304

Contrast agents for hepatic MRI.  

PubMed

Liver specific contrast media (LSCM) can be subdivided according to different modalities of hepatic distribution: exclusive distribution to the hepatocellular compartment can be obtained using CM which accumulate within the hepatocytes after slow infusion; other CM demonstrate combined perfusion and hepatocyte-selective properties, with an initial distribution to the vascular-interstitial compartment (in an analogous manner to that of the conventional extracellular CM), thereafter, a fraction of the injected dose is taken up into the hepatocytes causing an increase in the signal intensity of the hepatic tissue. The use of the superparamagnetic effect of iron oxide particles is based on distribution in the reticuloendothelial system (RES), usually well represented in the normal parenchyma as well as in benign hepatocellular lesions, and absent in most malignant lesions. It is necessary to have an in-depth knowledge of either the biological and histological characteristics of focal liver lesions (FLL) or the enhancement mechanism of LSCM to gain significant accuracy in the differential diagnosis of FLL. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is an important tool in the identification and characterization of FLL. With LSCM it is possible to differentiate benign from malignant lesions and hepatocellular lesions from non hepatocellular lesions with high accuracy. To understand the contrast behaviour after injection of LSCM it is necessary to correlate the contrast enhancement with both the biological and histological findings of FLL. PMID:17921081

Morana, Giovanni; Salviato, Elisabetta; Guarise, Alessandro

2007-01-01

305

MRI Catheterization in Cardiopulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Diagnosis and prognostication in patients with complex cardiopulmonary disease can be a clinical challenge. A new procedure, MRI catheterization, involves invasive right-sided heart catheterization performed inside the MRI scanner using MRI instead of traditional radiographic fluoroscopic guidance. MRI catheterization combines simultaneous invasive hemodynamic and MRI functional assessment in a single radiation-free procedure. By combining both modalities, the many individual limitations of invasive catheterization and noninvasive imaging can be overcome, and additional clinical questions can be addressed. Today, MRI catheterization is a clinical reality in specialist centers in the United States and Europe. Advances in medical device design for the MRI environment will enable not only diagnostic but also interventional MRI procedures to be performed within the next few years. PMID:24394821

Rogers, Toby; Ratnayaka, Kanishka

2014-01-01

306

MRI - Nobel Prize Educational Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The MRI educational game is based on the 2003 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, which was awarded for discoveries concerning MRI - magnetic resonance imaging. A technique making it possible to get images of soft tissue inside the body.

2009-01-01

307

MRI of the brain (image)  

MedlinePLUS

An MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) of the brain creates a detailed image of the complex structures in the brain. An MRI can give a three-dimensional depiction of the brain, making location of problems ...

308

Workstation capabilities on an MRI system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to add more powerful image processing and graphics features to an MRI system, manufacturers usually contract a third party to connect the system to a graphics workstation. The MRI user must learn a new operating system, user interface, and graphics package; the workstation may not be able to generate the hardcopy (films); and it adds significantly to the cost. We have developed software to run on an MRI system so that users can enhance and manipulate image data without adding a workstation. We have tailored the package specifically for magnetic resonance images, maximizing quality of output and convenience of operation. The Interactive Image Processor (IIP) uses an adaptive filtering scheme that displays images with improved signal-to-noise without blurring edges. The IIP zooms images with a high resolution Fourier interpolation technique. It also can display an interpolated or extrapolated echo from any dual-echo data set. A second part of this software, the Advanced Performance Package (APP) gives the MRI operator the ability to manipulate images in three dimensions to create oblique views or images that conform to curved surfaces. Like the IIP, the APP uses Fourier interpolation to achieve the best possible image quality, giving the radiologist a way to get multiple views of a patient without having to run many different acquisitions.

Hale, James D.; Li, Andrew; Simovsky, Ilya

1992-06-01

309

Challenges for Molecular Neuroimaging with MRI  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance (MRI)-based molecular imaging methods are beginning to have impact in neuroscience. A growing number of molecular imaging agents have been synthesized and tested in vitro, but so far relatively few have been validated in the brains of live animals. Here, we discuss key challenges associated with expanding the repertoire of successful molecular neuroimaging approaches. The difficulty of delivering agents past the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a particular obstacle to molecular imaging in the central nervous system. We review established and emerging techniques for trans-BBB delivery, including intracranial infusion, BBB disruption, and transporter-related methods. Improving the sensitivity with which MRI-based molecular agents can be detected is a second major challenge. Better sensitivity would in turn reduce the requirements for delivery and alleviate potential side effects. We discuss recent efforts to enhance relaxivity of conventional longitudinal relaxation time (T1) and transverse relaxation time (T2) MRI contrast agents, as well as strategies that involve amplifying molecular signals or reducing endogenous background influences. With ongoing refinement of imaging approaches and brain delivery methods, MRI-based techniques for molecular-level neuroscientific investigation will fall increasingly within reach. PMID:20808721

Lelyveld, Victor S.; Atanasijevic, Tatjana; Jasanoff, Alan

2010-01-01

310

Introduction Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)  

E-print Network

Introduction Statistics Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Statistics in the UK Statistics at UCL and Beyond #12;Introduction Statistics Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Statistics in the UK Statistics Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Statistics in the UK Statistics at UCL Outline Why do Statistics? Some

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

311

Repeatability of Quantitative MRI Measurements in Normal Breast Tissue  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: To evaluate the variability and repeatability of repeated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements in normal breast tissues between and within subjects. METHODS: Eighteen normal premenopausal subjects underwent two contrast-enhanced MRI scans within 72 hours or during the same menstrual phase in two consecutive months. A subset of nine women also completed diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Fibroglandular tissue (FGT) density and FGT enhancement were measured on the contrast-enhanced MRI. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were computed from DWI. Between- and within-subject coefficients of variation (bCV and wCV, respectively) were assessed. Repeatability of all measurements was assessed by the coefficient of repeatability (CR) and Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS: The bCV of FGT density and FGT enhancement at visit 1 and visit 2 ranged from 47% to 63%. The wCV was 13% for FGT density, 22% for FGT enhancement, and 11% for ADC. The CRs of FGT density and FGT enhancement were 0.15 and 0.19, respectively, and for ADC, it was 6.1 x 10-4 mm2/s. CONCLUSIONS: We present an estimate of the variability and repeatability of MR measurements in normal breasts. These estimates provide the basis for understanding the normal variation of healthy breast tissue in MRI and establishing thresholds for agreement between measurements. PMID:24772216

Aliu, Sheye O; Jones, Ella F; Azziz, Ania; Kornak, John; Wilmes, Lisa J; Newitt, David C; Suzuki, Sachiko A; Klifa, Catherine; Gibbs, Jessica; Proctor, Evelyn C; Joe, Bonnie N; Hylton, Nola M

2014-01-01

312

Default-mode network activity distinguishes Alzheimer's disease from healthy aging: evidence from functional MRI.  

PubMed

Recent functional imaging studies have revealed coactivation in a distributed network of cortical regions that characterizes the resting state, or default mode, of the human brain. Among the brain regions implicated in this network, several, including the posterior cingulate cortex and inferior parietal lobes, have also shown decreased metabolism early in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We reasoned that default-mode network activity might therefore be abnormal in AD. To test this hypothesis, we used independent component analysis to isolate the network in a group of 13 subjects with mild AD and in a group of 13 age-matched elderly controls as they performed a simple sensory-motor processing task. Three important findings are reported. Prominent coactivation of the hippocampus, detected in all groups, suggests that the default-mode network is closely involved with episodic memory processing. The AD group showed decreased resting-state activity in the posterior cingulate and hippocampus, suggesting that disrupted connectivity between these two regions accounts for the posterior cingulate hypometabolism commonly detected in positron emission tomography studies of early AD. Finally, a goodness-of-fit analysis applied at the individual subject level suggests that activity in the default-mode network may ultimately prove a sensitive and specific biomarker for incipient AD. PMID:15070770

Greicius, Michael D; Srivastava, Gaurav; Reiss, Allan L; Menon, Vinod

2004-03-30

313

Can medial temporal lobe regions distinguish true from false? An event-related functional MRI study  

E-print Network

, subjects listened to a series of words (e.g., water, ice, wet, dark, freeze, etc.), which were all strongly watched a videotape segment in which two speakers alternatively presented lists of associated words, and then the subjects performed a recognition test includ- ing words presented in the study lists (True items), new

Wagner, Anthony

314

Department of Criminal Justice Distinguished Alumni Presentation  

E-print Network

Department of Criminal Justice Distinguished Alumni Presentation Phone: 3135772705 Fax 48202 Sponsored by The Department of Criminal Justice and The Criminal Justice Club When: Monday of the criminal justice program. She has been involved in a number of famous events in Detroit's history. One

Baskaran, Mark

315

Department of Criminal Justice Distinguished Alumni  

E-print Network

Department of Criminal Justice Distinguished Alumni Presentation Donald J. Amboyer, Ph.D. Topic: "Past, Present, & Future of Criminal Justice Higher Education in Michigan" Phone: 313-577-2705 Fax: 313 Sponsored by The Department of Criminal Justice and The Criminal Justice Club When: March 25, 2010, 11 a

Baskaran, Mark

316

Entropy of Mixing of Distinguishable Particles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The molar entropy of mixing yields values that depend only on the number of mixing components rather than on their chemical nature. To explain this phenomenon using the logic of chemistry, this article considers mixing of distinguishable particles, thus complementing the well-known approach developed for nondistinguishable particles, for example,…

Kozliak, Evguenii I.

2014-01-01

317

Distinguishing Two Stages of Mathematics Conceptual Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this theoretical article, we distinguish two stages of learning a new mathematical concept--participatory and anticipatory. We use a recently developed mechanism for explaining mathematical conceptual learning--reflection on activity-effect relationship--as well as von Glasersfeld's tripartite model of a scheme, to explain qualitative…

Tzur, Ron; Simon, Marty

2004-01-01

318

Distinguishing genotype and phenotype in genetic programming  

E-print Network

Distinguishing genotype and phenotype in genetic programming Norman R Paterson Mike Livesey@dcs.st­and.ac.uk ABSTRACT This paper introduces GADS, a technique for genetic programming where the genotype is distinct from the phenotype . The GADS genotype is a list of integers representing productions in a syntax

Fernandez, Thomas

319

Distinguishing identical twins by face recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper measures the ability of face recognition algorithms to distinguish between identical twin siblings. The experimental dataset consists of images taken of 126 pairs of identical twins (252 people) collected on the same day and 24 pairs of identical twins (48 people) with images collected one year apart. In terms of both the number of paris of twins and

P. Jonathon Phillips; Patrick J. Flynn; Kevin W. Bowyer; Richard W. Vorder Bruegge; Patrick J. Grother; George W. Quinn; Matthew Pruitt

2011-01-01

320

When Plans Distinguish Bayes Nets Alex Dekhtyar  

E-print Network

When Plans Distinguish Bayes Nets Alex Dekhtyar dekhtyar@cs.uky.edu Department of Computer Science distributions result in different plans or significantly different plan success for Bayes nets. Subarea: belief networks. Keywords: Bayes nets, information integration, complexity, stochastic planning. 1 Introduction

Dekhtyar, Alexander

321

Distinguished The Minimum Label Spanning Tree  

E-print Network

Distinguished 2006 Series The Minimum Label Spanning Tree Problem: Illustrating the Power a connected, undirected graph G whose edges are labeled (or colored), the minimum label spanning tree (MLST) problem seeks a spanning tree on G with the minimum number of distinct labels (or colors). The MLST

Aydilek, Ahmet

322

Distinguishing deceptive from non-deceptive speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, studies of deceptive speech have largely been con- fined to descriptive studies and observations from subjects, re- searchers, or practitioners, with few empirical studies of the specific lexical or acoustic\\/prosodic features which may charac- terize deceptive speech. We present results from a study seek- ing to distinguish deceptive from non-deceptive speech using machine learning techniques on features extracted

Julia Hirschberg; Stefan Benus; Jason M. Brenier; Frank Enos; Sarah Friedman; Sarah Gilman; Cynthia Girand; Martin Graciarenay; Andreas Katholy; Laura Michaelis; Bryan L. Pellom; Elizabeth Shriberg; Andreas Stolcke

2005-01-01

323

Soil Properties That Distinguish Ecological Sites  

E-print Network

that determines soil water amounts. Soil properties are features of a soil: · e.g. soil texture, depth #12Soil Properties That Distinguish Ecological Sites Mike Duniway USGS-Southwest Biological Science Properties · Within a climatic zone (e.g. MLRA), differentiation of ecological sites based on soil

324

DISTINGUISHED LECTURE Center for Embedded Computer Systems  

E-print Network

DISTINGUISHED LECTURE Center for Embedded Computer Systems UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, IRVINE Presents A Thermal Perspective of Dependability in Systems on Chip Prof. Jörg Henkel Chair for Embedded the Chair for Embedded Systems CES. Before, he was with NEC Laboratories in Princeton, NJ. His current

Shinozuka, Masanobu

325

Fall 2011 -Distinguished Lecture Program Semantic Web  

E-print Network

Fall 2011 - Distinguished Lecture Program Semantic Web: State of the Art Semantic Web: State record lists over 160 publications in such diverse areas as semantic web, neural-symbolic integration-in-chief of the IOS Press journal "Semantic Web" and the IOS Press book series "Studies on the Semantic Web". He

Mayfield, John

326

Distinguishing Disability: Parents, Privilege, and Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in special education programs can have widely divergent experiences. For some, special education amounts to a dumping ground where schools unload their problem students, while for others, it provides access to services and accommodations that drastically improve chances of succeeding in school and beyond. "Distinguishing Disability"…

Ong-Dean, Colin

2009-01-01

327

Autonomic Nervous System Activity Distinguishes among Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion-specific activity in the autonomic nervous system was generated by constructing facial prototypes of emotion muscle by muscle and by reliving past emotional experiences. The autonomic activity produced distinguished not only between positive and negative emotions, but also among negative emotions. This finding challenges emotion theories that have proposed autonomic activity to be undifferentiated or that have failed to address

Paul Ekman; Robert W. Levenson; Wallace V. Friesen

1983-01-01

328

Distinguished Lecturer Series Understanding Climate Change  

E-print Network

Distinguished Lecturer Series Understanding Climate Change: Opportunities and Challenges for Data A Climate change is the defining environmental challenge facing our planet, yet there is considerable.Anew and transformative approach is required to understand the potential impact of climate change. Data driven approaches

California at Davis, University of

329

Comparative Minicolumnar Morphometry of Three Distinguished Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been suggested that the cell minicolumn is the smallest module capable of information processing within the brain. In this case series, photomicrographs of six regions of interests (Brodmann areas 4, 9, 17, 21, 22, and 40) were analyzed by computerized image analysis for minicolumnar morphometry in the brains of three distinguished

Casanova, Manuel F.; Switala, Andrew E.; Trippe, Juan; Fitzgerald, Michael

2007-01-01

330

Functional MRI-based lie detection: scientific and societal challenges.  

PubMed

Functional MRI (fMRI)-based lie detection has been marketed as a tool for enhancing personnel selection, strengthening national security and protecting personal reputations, and at least three US courts have been asked to admit the results of lie detection scans as evidence during trials. How well does fMRI-based lie detection perform, and how should the courts, and society more generally, respond? Here, we address various questions — some of which are based on a meta-analysis of published studies — concerning the scientific state of the art in fMRI-based lie detection and its legal status, and discuss broader ethical and societal implications. We close with three general policy recommendations. PMID:24588019

Farah, Martha J; Hutchinson, J Benjamin; Phelps, Elizabeth A; Wagner, Anthony D

2014-02-01

331

December 2013 Functional MRI  

E-print Network

BENG-280A December 2013 Functional MRI Richard B. Buxton rbuxton@ucsd.edu Cerebral Blood Flow cerebral blood volume 0.05 ml/ml tissue +10% CMRGlc cereb. metb. rate of Glucose 0.3 µmol/ml tissue-min +25 of the redistribution of blood in his system. ..." William James (Principles of Psychology, 1890) Mosso's experiment

Liu, Thomas T.

332

Item Memory, Context Memory and the Hippocampus: fMRI Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dual-process models of recognition memory distinguish between the retrieval of qualitative information about a prior event (recollection), and judgments of prior occurrence based on an acontextual sense of familiarity. fMRI studies investigating the neural correlates of memory encoding and retrieval conducted within the dual-process framework have…

Rugg, Michael D.; Vilberg, Kaia L.; Mattson, Julia T.; Yu, Sarah S.; Johnson, Jeffrey D.; Suzuki, Maki

2012-01-01

333

Markers of Cochlear Inflammation Using MRI  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To quantify spatial and temporal inflammation-induced changes in vascular permeability and macrophage infiltration in guinea-pig (GP) cochlea using MRI. Materials and Methods: GPs were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce cochlear inflammation. One group was injected with a gadolinium based contrast agent (GBCA) and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI was performed at 4, 7, and 10 days after LPS treatment. A two-compartment pharmacokinetic model was used to determine the apparent rate constant of GBCA extravasation (Ktrans). A second group was injected with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (USPIOs) and studied at 2, 3, and 7 days after LPS treatment to detect tissue USPIO uptake and correlate with histology. For both groups, control GPs were scanned similarly. Results: The signal enhancement increased substantially and more rapidly at day 4 in LPS-treated than in control cochlea shortly following GBCA injection. Ktrans of LPS-treated cochlea was maximum on day 4 at 0.0218±0.0032 min?1 and then decreased to control level at 0.0036±0.0004 min?1 by day 10. In the second group, the relative signal intensity and T2 in cochlear perilymphatic spaces on day 2 decreased, on average, by 54% and 45%, respectively, compared with baseline and then remained under control levels by day 7. This suggests the infiltration of inflammatory cells, although unconfirmed by histology. Conclusion: This provides the first measurement of cochlear vascular permeability using MRI and a quantitative evaluation of the development of cochlear inflammation. MRI holds considerable potential for the assessment of disease processes such as clinical diagnosis of conditions such as labyrinthitis. PMID:23589173

Floc’h, Johann Le; Tan, Winston; Telang, Ravindra S.; Vlajkovic, Srdjan M.; Nuttall, Alfred; Rooney, William D.; Pontré, Beau; Thorne, Peter R.

2014-01-01

334

Distinguishing quantum channels via magic squares game  

E-print Network

We study the effect of quantum memory in magic squares game when played in quantum domain. We consider different noisy quantum channels and analyze their influence on the magic squares quantum pseudo-telepathy game. We show that the probability of success can be used to distinguish the quantum channels. It is seen that the mean success probability decreases with increase of quantum noise. Where as the mean success probability increases with increase of quantum memory. It is also seen that the behaviour of amplitude damping and phase damping channels is similar. On the other hand, the behaviour of depolarizing channel is similar to the flipping channels. Therefore, the probability of success of the game can be used to distinguish the quantum channels.

Ramzan, M

2010-01-01

335

Distinguishing quantum channels via magic squares game  

E-print Network

We study the effect of quantum memory in magic squares game when played in quantum domain. We consider different noisy quantum channels and analyze their influence on the magic squares quantum pseudo-telepathy game. We show that the probability of success can be used to distinguish the quantum channels. It is seen that the mean success probability decreases with increase of quantum noise. Where as the mean success probability increases with increase of quantum memory. It is also seen that the behaviour of amplitude damping and phase damping channels is similar. On the other hand, the behaviour of depolarizing channel is similar to the flipping channels. Therefore, the probability of success of the game can be used to distinguish the quantum channels.

M. Ramzan; M. K. Khan

2010-01-02

336

On Distinguishing Radions From Higgs Bosons  

E-print Network

Radion couplings are almost identical to Higgs boson couplings, making it very difficult to distinguish the two states when the radion mass and vacuum expectation value are similar to those of the Higgs boson. The only real difference lies in the fact that the coupling of radions to off-shell fermions is proportional to the momentum rather than the mass of the fermion. This extra contribution gets cancelled in all tree-level processes and shows up only in loop-induced processes like Phi -> gamma gamma and Phi -> gg. We perform a careful calculation of the branching ratios and establish that they can prove crucial in clearly distinguishing a radion from a Higgs boson. This claim is made concrete by evaluating the exclusive cross-sections in a radiative process involving elementary scalars.

Prasanta Kumar Das; Santosh Kumar Rai; Sreerup Raychaudhuri

2004-12-31

337

Local Distinguishability of Multipartite Unitary Operations  

E-print Network

We show that any two different unitary operations acting on an arbitrary multipartite quantum system can be perfectly distinguishable by local operations and classical communication when a finite number of runs is allowed. We then directly extend this result into the case when the number of unitary operations to be discriminated is more than two. Intuitively, our result means that the lost identity of a nonlocal (entangled) unitary operation can be recovered locally, without any use of entanglement or joint quantum operations.

Runyao Duan; Yuan Feng; Mingsheng Ying

2007-05-10

338

Familial Identification: Population Structure and Relationship Distinguishability  

PubMed Central

With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States. PMID:22346758

Rohlfs, Rori V.; Fullerton, Stephanie Malia; Weir, Bruce S.

2012-01-01

339

Correlation between MRI and biopsies under second look ultrasound.  

PubMed

The term "second look" lesions in MRI refers to lesions detected by MRI that were not initially seen on mammography or ultrasound. The objectives of our study were to analyse the displacement of targets between MRI and ultrasound; to define discriminating BIRADS morphological criteria to predict benign or malignant character and better establish the indications of second look ultrasound and biopsy; and to analyse the agreement between ultrasound and MRI in terms of morphological criteria. A retrospective and monocentric review was performed of the records of consecutive patients with breast abnormalities (mass or non-mass) initially detected by MRI that were not initially seen on mammography or ultrasound. All patients with abnormalities found during the performance of second look ultrasound and biopsied were included in the study. All lesions were documented using the BIRADS lexicon for MRI and ultrasound. Of 100 included patients, 108 lesions were detected by MRI, found via second look ultrasound and biopsied between January 2008 and 2010. All of the included patients were followed-up for a variable period, from 2 to 5 years. Eighty-two upon 108 biopsied lesions (76%) were benign and 26/108 lesions (24%) were malignant. This study confirmed the switch from procubitus to decubitus essentially displaces the tumour in the antero-posterior direction. It showed that the risk factors were not reliable criteria for establishing an indication for second look ultrasound. This study also showed that circumscribed contours and a progressive enhancement curve (type I) for masses on MRI had the strongest negative predictive value of greater than 0.85. In ultrasound, the round or oval shape, circumscribed contours and the parallel orientation to the skin favoured benignity with a NPV of greater than 0.85. For masses, the study showed that the agreement in interpretation of the benign versus suspicious morphological criteria between the MRI and the ultrasound was very weak for the shape (Kappa=0.09) and weak for the contours (Kappa=0.23). Finally, the MRI overestimated the size of the targets compared to ultrasound (Student t-test, p=0.0001). The performance of second look ultrasound has to be performed after the detection of an abdnormality on MRI even for lesion classified BIRADS 3. The biopsy indications must be wide with insertion of a clip and a control MRI. Only this control allows to stop the investigation if the biopsied lesion is benign. PMID:24525086

Nouri-Neuville, M; de Rocquancourt, A; Cohen-Zarade, S; Chapellier-Canaud, M; Albiter, M; Hamy, A-S; Giachetti, S; Cuvier, C; Espié, M; de Kerviler, É; de Bazelaire, C

2014-02-01

340

MRI of the penis.  

PubMed

MRI of the penis is an expensive test that is not always superior to clinical examination or ultrasound. However, it shows many of the important structures, and in particular the combination of tumescence from intracavernosal alprostadil, and high-resolution T(2) sequences show the glans, corpora and the tunica albuginea well. In this paper we summarise the radiological anatomy and discuss the indications for MRI. For penile cancer, it may be useful in cases where the local stage is not apparent clinically. In priapism, it is an emerging technique for assessing corporal viability, and in fracture it can in most cases make the diagnosis and locate the injury. In some cases of penile fibrosis and Peyronie's disease, it may aid surgical planning, and in complex pelvic fracture may replace or augment conventional urethrography. It is an excellent investigation for the malfunctioning penile prosthesis. PMID:23118102

Kirkham, A

2012-11-01

341

Occupational exposure in MRI  

PubMed Central

This article reviews occupational exposure in clinical MRI; it specifically considers units of exposure, basic physical interactions, health effects, guideline limits, dosimetry, results of exposure surveys, calculation of induced fields and the status of the European Physical Agents Directive. Electromagnetic field exposure in MRI from the static field B0, imaging gradients and radiofrequency transmission fields induces electric fields and currents in tissue, which are responsible for various acute sensory effects. The underlying theory and its application to the formulation of incident and induced field limits are presented. The recent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers limits for incident field exposure are interpreted in a manner applicable to MRI. Field measurements show that exposure from movement within the B0 fringe field can exceed ICNIRP reference levels within 0.5 m of the bore entrance. Rate of change of field dB/dt from the imaging gradients is unlikely to exceed the new limits, although incident field limits can be exceeded for radiofrequency (RF) exposure within 0.2–0.5 m of the bore entrance. Dosimetric surveys of routine clinical practice show that staff are exposed to peak values of 42±24% of B0, with time-averaged exposures of 5.2±2.8 mT for magnets in the range 0.6–4 T. Exposure to time-varying fields arising from movement within the B0 fringe resulted in peak dB/dt of approximately 2 T s?1. Modelling of induced electric fields from the imaging gradients shows that ICNIRP-induced field limits are unlikely to be exceeded in most situations; however, movement through the static field may still present a problem. The likely application of the limits is discussed with respect to the reformulation of the European Union (EU) directive and its possible implications for MRI. PMID:22457400

Mcrobbie, D W

2012-01-01

342

Wilson's disease: MRI features  

PubMed Central

A 15-year-old boy presented with coarse tremors of right hand and dysarthric speech. Neurologic examination demonstrated Kayser-Fleischer rings and dystonic tremor of the right hand. Serum ceruloplasmin and urine copper studies established the diagnosis of Wilson's disease. Brain MRI showed bilateral T2 hyperintensity involving putamen, thalami, and brainstem. Involvement of brainstem revealed the characteristic “double panda sign.” PMID:21977083

Singh, Paramdeep; Ahluwalia, Archana; Saggar, Kavita; Grewal, Charanpreet Singh

2011-01-01

343

MRI anatomy of schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data have provided much evidence in support of our current view that schizophrenia is a brain disorder with altered brain structure, and consequently involving more than a simple disturbance in neurotransmission. This review surveys 118 peer–reviewed studies with control group from 1987 to May 1998.Most studies (81%) do not find abnormalities of whole brain\\/intracranial contents,

Robert W. McCarley; Cynthia G. Wible; Melissa Frumin; Yoshio Hirayasu; James J. Levitt; Iris A. Fischer; Martha E. Shenton

1999-01-01

344

MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) : tour an MRI machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this resource, appropriate for students in high school and beyond, the user navigates through a five-page illustrated explanation of MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). Each page profiles a different step in the MRI process. The resource addresses the science behind how MRI works, revealing how a strong magnet and radio wave pulses affect the targeted area of the body and allow that area to be imaged. As part of a set of materials about brain scanning technologies, this resource focuses on brain MRI. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

David Grubin Productions

2001-01-01

345

MRI in recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the MRI features of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in 72 patients who\\u000a underwent MRI before and after gadolinium injection. Recurrent NPC exhibited a high degree of regional spread and a variety\\u000a of signal intensities and contours. MRI showed a nasopharyngeal mass in 50 patients (69.4 %); other sites of involvement included\\u000a the parapharyngeal space

S. H. Ng; J. T. C. Chang; S. F. Ko; Y. L. Wan; L. M. Tang; W. C. Chen

1999-01-01

346

Uterine sarcomas: clinical presentation and MRI features.  

PubMed

Uterine sarcomas are a rare heterogeneous group of tumors of mesenchymal origin, accounting for approximately 8% of uterine malignancies. They comprise leiomyosarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma, undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma, and adenosarcoma. Compared with the more common endometrial carcinomas, uterine sarcomas behave more aggressively and are associated with a poorer prognosis. Due to their distinct clinical and biological behavior, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics introduced a new staging system for uterine sarcomas in 2009, categorizing uterine carcinosarcoma as a variant of endometrial carcinoma, rather than a pure sarcoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a developing role in the assessment of these malignancies. Features such as tumor localization, irregular or nodular margins, necrosis, rapid growth, intense contrast enhancement, and restriction at diffusion-weighted imaging can suggest the diagnosis and help differentiate from more common leiomyomas and endometrial carcinoma. MRI is therefore extremely useful in preoperative detection and staging and, consequently, in determination of appropriate management. This pictorial review aims to discuss the clinical features of uterine sarcomas, as well as their most common appearances and distinct characteristics in MRI. PMID:25347940

Santos, Pedro; Cunha, Teresa Margarida

2015-01-01

347

Hyperpolarized and Inert Gas MRI: The Future.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a potentially ideal imaging modality for noninvasive, nonionizing, and longitudinal assessment of disease. Hyperpolarized (HP) agents have been developed in the past 20 years for MR imaging, and they have the potential to vastly improve MRI sensitivity for the diagnosis and management of various diseases. The polarization of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-sensitive nuclei other than (1)H (e.g., (3)He, (129)Xe) can be enhanced by a factor of up to 100,000 times above thermal equilibrium levels, which enables direct detection of the HP agent with no background signal. In this review, a number of HP media applications in MR imaging are discussed, including HP (3)He and (129)Xe lung imaging, HP (129)Xe brain imaging, and HP (129)Xe biosensors. Inert fluorinated gas MRI, which is a new lung imaging technique that does not require hyperpolarization, is also briefly discussed. This technique will likely be an important future direction for the HP gas lung imaging community. PMID:25228404

Couch, Marcus J; Blasiak, Barbara; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Ouriadov, Alexei V; Fox, Matthew S; Dowhos, Krista M; Albert, Mitchell S

2015-04-01

348

Head and neck MRI of Kimura disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of our study was to describe the MR appearance of Kimura disease and to interpret the differences in appearance from malignant parotid gland tumours. Methods MR studies of seven patients with Kimura disease were reviewed. The MR studies included T1 weighted, T2 weighted, short tau inversion-recovery, diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging. Results Typical Kimura disease featured subcutaneous lesions, continuously infiltrated parotid lesions from the subcutaneous lesions with or without intraparotid lymphadenopathies, and reactive cervical lymphadenopathies. The subcutaneous lesions showed gradual upward enhancement on dynamic contrast-enhanced MR images. Reactive lymph nodes showed early enhancement on contrast-enhanced MR images and marked high intensity and low apparent diffusion coefficient values on DW images. Conclusion An indication for making the diagnosis of Kimura disease should be the subcutaneous tissue of the head and neck showing gradual upward enhancement on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and a lack of high intensity on DW images, associated with reactive lymph nodes. PMID:21849365

Horikoshi, T; Motoori, K; Ueda, T; Shimofusa, R; Hanazawa, T; Okamoto, Y; Ito, H

2011-01-01

349

The Perfect Distinguishability of Quantum Operations  

E-print Network

We provide a feasible necessary and sufficient condition for when an unknown quantum operation (quantum device) secretely selected from a set of known quantum operations can be identified perfectly within a finite number of queries, and thus complete the characterization of the perfect distinguishability of quantum operations. We further design an optimal protocol which can achieve the perfect discrimination between two quantum operations by a minimal number of queries. Interestingly, employing the techniques from the theory of $q$-numerical range we find that an optimal perfect discrimination between two isometries is always achievable without using auxiliary systems or entanglement.

Runyao Duan; Yuan Feng; Mingsheng Ying

2009-08-03

350

Terahertz surface plasmon sensor for distinguishing gasolines.  

PubMed

Gasolines of two different octane numbers are experimentally distinguished using a thin metal sheet perforated with a periodic hole array terahertz surface plasmon (SP) sensor. This sensor is proved to be very sensitive to the change in permittivities of analytes. The differences between the gasolines 93# and 97# in composition lead to various refractive indices, permittivities, and absorption coefficients, thus varying their interactions with surface waves on the sensor, which enables a distinction of 6 GHz between the two octane numbers in the transmission peaks. The freestanding SP sensor is effective and reliable and can be simply employed in analyte distinction, which has potential applications in the petroleum industry. PMID:23938420

Liu, Guanlin; He, Mingxia; Tian, Zhen; Li, Jingyan; Liu, Jiazheng

2013-08-10

351

Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature.

Spehner, Dominique

2014-07-01

352

Hyperpolarized Xenon for NMR and MRI Applications  

PubMed Central

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and imaging (MRI) suffer from intrinsic low sensitivity because even strong external magnetic fields of ~10 T generate only a small detectable net-magnetization of the sample at room temperature 1. Hence, most NMR and MRI applications rely on the detection of molecules at relative high concentration (e.g., water for imaging of biological tissue) or require excessive acquisition times. This limits our ability to exploit the very useful molecular specificity of NMR signals for many biochemical and medical applications. However, novel approaches have emerged in the past few years: Manipulation of the detected spin species prior to detection inside the NMR/MRI magnet can dramatically increase the magnetization and therefore allows detection of molecules at much lower concentration 2. Here, we present a method for polarization of a xenon gas mixture (2-5% Xe, 10% N2, He balance) in a compact setup with a ca. 16000-fold signal enhancement. Modern line-narrowed diode lasers allow efficient polarization 7 and immediate use of gas mixture even if the noble gas is not separated from the other components. The SEOP apparatus is explained and determination of the achieved spin polarization is demonstrated for performance control of the method. The hyperpolarized gas can be used for void space imaging, including gas flow imaging or diffusion studies at the interfaces with other materials 8,9. Moreover, the Xe NMR signal is extremely sensitive to its molecular environment 6. This enables the option to use it as an NMR/MRI contrast agent when dissolved in aqueous solution with functionalized molecular hosts that temporarily trap the gas 10,11. Direct detection and high-sensitivity indirect detection of such constructs is demonstrated in both spectroscopic and imaging mode. PMID:22986346

Witte, Christopher; Kunth, Martin; Döpfert, Jörg; Rossella, Federica; Schröder, Leif

2012-01-01

353

Distinguishing dijet resonances at the LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anticipating that a dijet resonance could be discovered at the 14 TeV LHC, we present two different strategies to reveal the nature of such a particle; in particular to discern whether it is a quark-antiquark (q q ¯), quark-gluon (q g ), or gluon-gluon (g g ) resonance. The first method relies on the color discriminant variable, which can be calculated at the LHC from the measurements of the dijet signal cross section, the resonance mass, and the resonance width. Including estimated statistical uncertainties and experimental resolution, we show that a q g excited quark resonance can be efficiently distinguished from either a q ¯q coloron or a g g color-octet scalar using the color discriminant variable at LHC-14. The second strategy is based on the study of the energy profiles of the two leading jets in the dijet channel. Including statistical uncertainties in the signal and the QCD backgrounds, we show that one can distinguish, in a model-independent way, between g g , q g , and q q ¯ resonances; an evaluation of systematic uncertainties in the measurement of the jet energy profile will require a detailed detector study once sufficient 14 TeV dijet data are in hand.

Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Simmons, Elizabeth H.; Vignaroli, Natascia

2015-03-01

354

Fluorescent pigment distinguishes between sibling snail species.  

PubMed

Traditional taxonomy of shell-bearing molluscs does not generally use soft-body coloration. However, the land snails Bradybaena pellucida and B. similaris have been distinguished only on the basis of the color of the soft-body visible through the shell. Thus, the taxonomic status of the two species has traditionally been questionable. We found that dense spots of pigments embedded in the dorsal mantle are responsible for the yellow coloration of B. pellucida . Similar spots in B. similaris are white and less densely aggregated in whorls further from the apex, and the brown color of the hepatopancreas is visible through the shell. The yellow pigments of B. pellucida seep out with mucus from the body in natural and laboratory conditions. The two species became externally indistinguishable after 30 days of laboratory feeding, because the yellow spots disappeared in B. pellucida and the color of the hepatopancreas changed from dark brown to pale brown in both species. Irradiation with ultraviolet A demonstrated that the yellow pigment of B. pellucida fluoresces. Adult specimens of the two species were distinct in penial microsculpture, with F(1) hybrids intermediate in form. Populations of the two species differed significantly in allelic frequencies at four allozyme loci. Therefore, B. pellucida and B. similaris are morphologically and genetically distinct. The fluorescent yellow pigment distinguishes B. pellucida from B. similaris under natural conditions despite its environmental dependence. PMID:19267648

Seki, Keiichi; Wiwegweaw, Amporn; Asami, Takahiro

2008-12-01

355

Distinguishability of Quantum States by Separable Operations  

E-print Network

We study the distinguishability of multipartite quantum states by separable operations. We first present a necessary and sufficient condition for a finite set of orthogonal quantum states to be distinguishable by separable operations. An analytical version of this condition is derived for the case of $(D-1)$ pure states, where $D$ is the total dimension of the state space under consideration. A number of interesting consequences of this result are then carefully investigated. Remarkably, we show there exists a large class of $2\\otimes 2$ separable operations not being realizable by local operations and classical communication. Before our work only a class of $3\\otimes 3$ nonlocal separable operations was known [Bennett et al, Phys. Rev. A \\textbf{59}, 1070 (1999)]. We also show that any basis of the orthogonal complement of a multipartite pure state is indistinguishable by separable operations if and only if this state cannot be a superposition of 1 or 2 orthogonal product states, i.e., has an orthogonal Schmidt number not less than 3, thus generalize the recent work about indistinguishable bipartite subspaces [Watrous, Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{95}, 080505 (2005)]. Notably, we obtain an explicit construction of indistinguishable subspaces of dimension 7 (or 6) by considering a composite quantum system consisting of two qutrits (resp. three qubits), which is slightly better than the previously known indistinguishable bipartite subspace with dimension 8.

Runyao Duan; Yuan Feng; Yu Xin; Mingsheng Ying

2007-10-08

356

Obturator hernia - MRI image.  

PubMed

Obturator hernia although considered a rare entity is the most frequently encountered pelvic floor hernia. Since the first published report in the 18th century, their unusual and unfamiliar clinical presentation still represents a diagnostic dilemma for the modern day clinician. A detailed history and clinical examination in our thin, elderly female patient who presented with intermittent small bowel obstruction and symptoms of right obturator nerve compression with a positive Howship-Romberg sign was crucial in establishing a diagnosis. Sophisticated radiologic modalities such as MRI as shown below in the case of our patient can reliably confirm the diagnosis of obturator hernia. PMID:24426464

Vitone, Louis; Joel, Abraham; Masters, Andrew; Lea, Simon

2013-08-01

357

MRI in Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Imaging studies play an important role in detection and management of prostate cancer and MRI especially with the use of endorectal coil because of high contrast resolution is recognized as the best imaging modality in evaluation of prostate cancer. Multiparametric MR study including T1 and T2 weighted images, diffusion weighted images, dynamic contrast study and MR spectroscopy is useful for detection and local staging of prostate cancer as well as posts treatment evaluation of patients either after surgery or radiation therapy for detection of local recurrence. PMID:24693403

Ghafoori, Mahyar; Alavi, Manijeh; Aliyari Ghasabeh, Mounes

2013-01-01

358

RF HEATING OF MRI-ASSISTED CATHETER STEERING COILS FOR INTERVENTIONAL MRI  

PubMed Central

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES To assess magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) radiofrequency (RF) related heating of conductive wire coils used in magnetically steerable endovascular catheters. MATERIALS AND METHODS A 3-axis microcoil was fabricated onto a 1.8 Fr catheter tip. In vitro testing was performed in a 1.5 T MRI system using an agarose gel filled vessel phantom, a transmit/receive body RF coil and a steady state free precession (SSFP) pulse sequence, and a fluoroptic thermometry system. Temperature was measured without simulated blood flow at varying distances from magnet isocenter and varying flip angles. Additional experiments were performed with laser-lithographed single-axis microcoil-tipped microcatheters in air and in a saline bath with varied grounding of the microcoil wires. Preliminary in vivo evaluation of RF heating was performed in pigs at 1.5 T with coil-tipped catheters in various positions in the common carotid arteries with SSFP pulse sequence on and off, and under physiologic flow and zero flow conditions. RESULTS In tissue-mimicking agarose gel, RF heating resulted in a maximal temperature increase of 0.35°C after 15 minutes of imaging, 15 cm from magnet isocenter. For a single axis microcoil, maximal temperature increases were 0.73-1.91°C in air and 0.45-0.55°C in saline. In vivo, delayed contrast enhanced MRI revealed no evidence of vascular injury and histopathological sections from the common carotid arteries confirmed the lack of vascular damage. CONCLUSIONS Microcatheter tip microcoils for endovascular catheter steering in MRI experience minimal RF heating under the conditions tested. These data provide the basis for further in vivo testing of this promising technology for endovascular interventional MRI. PMID:21075019

Settecase, Fabio; Hetts, Steven W.; Martin, Alastair J.; Roberts, Timothy P. L.; Bernhardt, Anthony F.; Evans, Lee; Malba, Vincent; Saeed, Maythem; Arenson, Ronald L.; Kucharzyk, Walter; Wilson, Mark W.

2010-01-01

359

CT and MRI Findings of Hepatic Involvement in Rendu-Osler-Weber Disease  

PubMed Central

Rendu-Osler-Weber disease is a rare autosomal dominant disorder. Hepatic involvement manifests itself as vascular, parenchymal, and biliary lesions with characteristic telangiectasias and vascular shunts. In a 37-year-old female patient, dynamic contrast-enhanced upper abdominal CT and MRI were performed. CT and MRI revealed dilated celiac trunk and hepatic artery. On early arterial phase, dilated hepatic veins showed significant enhancement. On arterial and portal venous phases, liver showed significantly heterogeneous contrast enhancement and showed homogenous enhancement in the hepatic parenchymal phase. On the magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, irregular biliary ducts with strictures and dilatation were seen. PMID:23198241

Bilgin, Mehmet; Yildiz, Seyma; Toprak, Huseyin; Ahmad, Issam Cheikh; Kocakoc, Ercan

2012-01-01

360

Clinical Features that Distinguish Psychogenic and Essential Tremor  

E-print Network

Clinical Features that Distinguish Psychogenic and Essential Tremor Christopher Kenney, MD, Alan ABSTRACTABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To seek clinical features that reliably distinguish psychogenic tremor (PT) from essential tremor (ET). BACKGROUND: PT is often manifested by shaking characterized by variable amplitude

Lichtarge, Olivier

361

Edinburgh Research Explorer Native gel electrophoresis of human telomerase distinguishes  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Native gel electrophoresis of human telomerase distinguishes active Bihan, T & Harrington, L 2012, 'Native gel electrophoresis of human telomerase distinguishes active and investigate your claim. Download date: 16. Jun. 2014 #12;Native gel electrophoresis of human telomerase

Millar, Andrew J.

362

Cyclic generalized projection MRI.  

PubMed

Progress in the development of portable MRI hinges on the ability to use lightweight magnets that have non-uniform magnetic fields. An image encoding method and mathematical procedure for recovering the image from the NMR signal from non-uniform magnets with closed isomagnetic contours is given. Individual frequencies in an NMR signal from an object in a non-uniform magnetic field give rise to integrals of the object along contours of constant magnetic field: generalized projections. With closed isomagnetic field contours a simple, cyclic, direct reconstruction of the image from the generalized projections is possible when the magnet and RF transmit coil are held fixed relative to the imaged object while the RF receive coil moves. Numerical simulations, using the Shepp and Logan mathematical phantom, were completed to show that the mathematical method works and to illustrate numerical limitations. The method is numerically verified and exact reconstruction demonstrated for discrete mathematical image phantoms. Correct knowledge of the RF receive field is necessary or severe image distortions will result. The cyclic mathematical reconstruction method presented here will be useful for portable MRI schemes that use non-uniform magnets with closed isomagnetic contours along with mechanically or electronically moving the RF receive coils. PMID:25532468

Sarty, Gordon E

2015-04-01

363

Musculoskeletal MRI: dedicated systems.  

PubMed

The "dedicated" MRI units have characteristics of high diagnostic accuracy and lower installation and management costs as compared with whole-body systems. The dedicated MRI units are easy to install. The low weight allows their installation also under unfavorable circumstances. In a dedicated system cost-effectiveness and ease of installation must be accompanied by the capability of providing high-quality images. In our experience, the high number of examinations performed, the most part of which provided with the surgical controls, allowed an accurate evaluation of the diagnostic potentialities of the dedicated magnet. We were not able to perform the examinations in only 3 % of cases due to the physical shape of the patient and the clinical condition of the patient which may hinder the correct positioning of the limb. The overlapping of the diagnostic accuracy of the E-scan and Artoscan units in the study of the lower limbs, compared with whole-body units and surgery, prompted us to exploit the potentialities of the E-Scan in the study of the shoulder. We had a good correlation between E-Scan, whole-body units, and surgical findings, which confirmed the high diagnostic accuracy of the dedicated system. In conclusion, in our experience carried out in the musculoskeletal system, the dedicated magnets showed promising results. Their diagnostic reliability and utility was comparable to that obtained from conventional units operating at higher magnetic fields. PMID:10663754

Masciocchi, C; Barile, A; Satragno, L

2000-01-01

364

MRI-based morphometric characterizations of sexual dimorphism of the cerebrum of ferrets (Mustela putorius).  

PubMed

The present study aimed to characterize cerebral morphology in young adult ferrets and its sexual dimorphism using high-field MRI and MRI-based morphometry. Ex vivo short TR/TE (typical T1-weighted parameter setting for conventional MRI) and T2W (long TR/TE) MRI with high spatial resolution at 7-tesla could visualize major subcortical and archicortical structures, i.e., the caudate nucleus, lentiform nucleus, amygdala and hippocampus. In particular, laminar organization of the olfactory bulb was identifiable by short TR/TE-MRI. The primary and secondary sulci observable in the adult ferret were distinguishable on either short TR/TE- or T2W-MRI, and the cortical surface morphology was reproduced well by 3D-rendered images obtained by short TR/TE-MRI. The cerebrum had a significantly lower volume in females than in males, which was attributed to region-specific volume reduction in the cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter in females. A sexual difference was also detected, manifested by an overall reduction in normalized signal ratios of short TR/TE-MRI in all cerebral structures examined in females than in males. On the other hand, an alternating array of higher and lower short TR/TE-MRI intensity transverse zones throughout the cortex, which was reminiscent of the functional cortical areas, was revealed by maximum intensity projection (MIP) in 3D. The normalized signal ratio of short TR/TE-MRI, but not T2W-MRI in the cortex, was negatively correlated with the density of myelin-basic protein immunoreactive fibers (males, r=-0.440; females, r=-0.481). The present results suggest that sexual differences in the adult ferret cerebrum are characterized by reduced volumes of the cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter in females, and by overall reductions in physiochemical characteristics, as obtained by short TR/TE-MRI, in females. It should be noted that short TR/TE-MRI-based MIP delineated functional cortical areas related to myeloarchitecture in 3D. Such an approach makes possible conventional investigation of the functional organization of the cerebral cortex and its abnormalities using high-field MRI. PMID:23770407

Sawada, Kazuhiko; Horiuchi-Hirose, Miwa; Saito, Shigeyoshi; Aoki, Ichio

2013-12-01

365

Distinguishing locally of quantum states and the distillation of entanglement  

E-print Network

This paper try to probe the relation of distinguishing locally and distillation of entanglement. The distinguishing information (DI) and the maximal distinguishing information (MDI) of a set of pure states are defined. The interpretation of distillation of entanglement in term of information is given. The relation between the maximal distinguishing information and distillable entanglement is gained. As a application of this relation the distillable entanglement of Bell-diagonal states is present.

ping-xing. chen; Cheng-zu Li

2002-02-27

366

University of Massachusetts: Distinguished Visitors Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Massachusetts at Amherst Library has an elaborate mix of digital collections available through their UMarmot program, which is the online presence of their Special Collections & University Archives division. One of the more recent digitization projects they have completed is the Distinguished Visitors Program. The Program contains talks from a wide range of visitors who came to Amherst in the 1970s. The talks here include lively conversations with Isaac Asimov, Julian Bond, Angela Davis, David Halberstam, Tom Hayden, and Jane Fonda. Visitors will also find a short description of each individual's talk, along with information about what brought him or her to campus. The talks are engaging; one of the best is the talk by David Halberstam, which features a discussion of American politics and foreign policy in the wake of Watergate.

2012-04-06

367

Inequality indicators and distinguishability in economics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Money has a material counterpart, such as banknotes or coins, and an ideal expression, monetary units. In the latter case, it is boson-like: individual incomes have no a priori limit, and their units are not distinguishable from each other in economic processes. Individuals, on the other hand, usually occupy one job at a time which makes them akin to fermions. We apply to individual incomes down-to-earth statistical calculations, similar to those for quantum particles, and obtain expressions for the cumulative distribution function, probability density and Lorenz function resulting from the simultaneous use of both statistics. They provide extremely good fits to corresponding data on French income distributions. On this basis, we propose a new entropic inequality indicator.

Rosenblatt, J.; Martinás, K.

2008-03-01

368

Distinguishing treatment from research: a functional approach  

PubMed Central

The best way to distinguish treatment from research is by their functions. This mode of distinction fits well with the basic ethical work that needs to be carried out. The distinction needs to serve as an ethical flag, highlighting areas in which the goals of doctors and patients are more likely than usual to diverge. The distinction also allows us to illuminate and understand some otherwise puzzling elements of debates on research ethics: it shows the peculiarity of exclusive conceptions of the distinction between research and treatment; it allows us to frame questions about therapeutic obligations in the research context, and it allows us to consider whether there may be research obligations in the therapeutic context. PMID:16816045

Lewens, T

2006-01-01

369

The Emanuel Saxe Distinguished Lectures in Accounting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the Stan Ross Department of Accountancy at Baruch College of the City University of New York, the Emanuel Saxe Distinguished Lectures in Accounting, a series of public lectures, are in the process of being digitized. The lectures date back to 1973 and include the 1997 speech by Michael H. Sutton, Chief Accountant, Securities and Exchange Commission, entitled "Financial Reporting and Investor Protection"; "FASB in my Rear View Mirror," a speech given in 1996 by Robert J. Swieringa, Dean of the Johnson School of Management, Cornell University; and a 1973 lecture from David M. Hawkins, Professor of Business Administration, Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University, on "Financial Accounting, The Standards Board, and Economic Development." Lecture transcripts, in HTML format, also include introductory notes and footnotes.

370

MRI breast screening in high-risk women: cancer detection and survival analysis.  

PubMed

Women with a genetic predisposition to breast cancer tend to develop the disease at a younger age with denser breasts making mammography screening less effective. The introduction of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for familial breast cancer screening programs in recent years was intended to improve outcomes in these women. We aimed to assess whether introduction of MRI surveillance improves 5- and 10-year survival of high-risk women and determine the accuracy of MRI breast cancer detection compared with mammography-only or no enhanced surveillance and compare size and pathology of cancers detected in women screened with MRI + mammography and mammography only. We used data from two prospective studies where asymptomatic women with a very high breast cancer risk were screened by either mammography alone or with MRI also compared with BRCA1/2 carriers with no intensive surveillance. 63 cancers were detected in women receiving MRI + mammography and 76 in women receiving mammography only. Sensitivity of MRI + mammography was 93 % with 63 % specificity. Fewer cancers detected on MRI were lymph node positive compared to mammography/no additional screening. There were no differences in 10-year survival between the MRI + mammography and mammography-only groups, but survival was significantly higher in the MRI-screened group (95.3 %) compared to no intensive screening (73.7 %; p = 0.002). There were no deaths among the 21 BRCA2 carriers receiving MRI. There appears to be benefit from screening with MRI, particularly in BRCA2 carriers. Extended follow-up of larger numbers of high-risk women is required to assess long-term survival. PMID:24687378

Evans, D Gareth; Gareth, Evans D; Kesavan, Nisha; Nisha, Kesavan; Lim, Yit; Yit, Lim; Gadde, Soujanye; Soujanye, Gadde; Hurley, Emma; Emma, Hurley; Massat, Nathalie J; Maxwell, Anthony J; Ingham, Sarah; Sarah, Ingham; Eeles, Rosalind; Rosalind, Eeles; Leach, Martin O; Howell, Anthony; Anthony, Howell; Duffy, Stephen W; Stephen, Duffy

2014-06-01

371

California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects  

E-print Network

California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects by Richard J: _______________________________________ Date #12;California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects Richard J, 2006 #12;#12;ABSTRACT California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming

Kammen, Daniel M.

372

BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY DISTINGUISHED PROFESSORSHIPS FY11 PROGRAM  

E-print Network

BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY DISTINGUISHED PROFESSORSHIPS FY11 PROGRAM In the Spring 2010, the Faculty. These individuals would carry the title "Boise State University Distinguished Professor." The Distinguished Professor title at Boise State University constitutes one of the highest honors that can be accorded

Barrash, Warren

373

MRI in necrotizing fasciitis of the extremities  

PubMed Central

Necrotizing fasciitis is a life-threatening soft-tissue infection of bacterial origin, which involves mainly the deep fascia. Early recognition of this condition may be hampered by the uncommon nature of the disease and non-specificity of initial clinical signs and symptoms in less fulminant cases, making the role of imaging important. MRI is the most useful imaging modality in the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis. The presence of thick (>3?mm) hyperintense signal in the deep fascia (particularly intermuscular fascia) on fat-suppressed T2 weighted or short tau inversion–recovery images is an important marker for necrotizing fasciitis. Contrast enhancement of the thickened necrotic fascia can be variable, with a mixed-pattern of enhancement being more commonly encountered. Involvement of multiple musculofascial compartments increases the likelihood of necrotizing fasciitis. It is important to remember that T2-hyperintense signal in the deep fascia is not specific to necrotizing fasciitis and can also be seen in cases such as non-infective inflammatory fasciitis or muscle tear. In this pictorial essay, we aim to review the MRI findings in necrotizing fasciitis, discuss its limitations and pitfalls and identify differentiating features from non-necrotizing soft-tissue infections, such as cellulitis and infective myositis/pyomyositis, conditions which may clinically mimic necrotizing fasciitis. PMID:24288403

Srinivasan, S; Peh, W C G

2014-01-01

374

Functional MRI and CT biomarkers in oncology.  

PubMed

Imaging biomarkers derived from MRI or CT describe functional properties of tumours and normal tissues. They are finding increasing numbers of applications in diagnosis, monitoring of response to treatment and assessment of progression or recurrence. Imaging biomarkers also provide scope for assessment of heterogeneity within and between lesions. A wide variety of functional parameters have been investigated for use as biomarkers in oncology. Some imaging techniques are used routinely in clinical applications while others are currently restricted to clinical trials or preclinical studies. Apparent diffusion coefficient, magnetization transfer ratio and native T1 relaxation time provide information about structure and organization of tissues. Vascular properties may be described using parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced CT, transverse relaxation rate (R2*), vessel size index and relative blood volume, while magnetic resonance spectroscopy may be used to probe the metabolic profile of tumours. This review describes the mechanisms of contrast underpinning each technique and the technical requirements for robust and reproducible imaging. The current status of each biomarker is described in terms of its validation, qualification and clinical applications, followed by a discussion of the current limitations and future perspectives. PMID:25578953

Winfield, J M; Payne, G S; deSouza, N M

2015-04-01

375

[Cardiac MRI: technology, clinical applications, and future directions].  

PubMed

The field of cardiovascular MRI has evolved rapidly over the past decade, feeding new applications across a broad spectrum of clinical and research areas. Advances in magnet hardware technology, and key developments such as segmented k-space acquisitions, advanced motion encoding techniques, ultra-rapid perfusion imaging and delayed myocardial enhancement imaging have all contributed to a revolution in how patients with ischemic and non-ischemic heart disease are diagnosed and treated. Actually, cardiac MRI is a widely accepted method as the "gold standard" for detection and characterization of many forms of cardiac diseases. The aim of this review is to present an overview of cardiac MRI technology, advances in clinical applications, and future directions. PMID:24035258

Pesenti-Rossi, D; Peyrou, J; Baron, N; Allouch, P; Aubert, S; Boueri, Z; Livarek, B

2013-11-01

376

Displaying perfusion MRI images as color intensity projections  

E-print Network

Dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced (DSC) MRI or perfusion-MRI plays an important role in the non-invasive assessment of tumor vascularity. However, the large number of images provided by the method makes display and interpretation of the results challenging. Current practice is to display the perfusion information as relative cerebral blood volume maps (rCBV). Color intensity projections (CIPs) provides a simple, intuitive display of the perfusion-MRI data so that regional perfusion characteristics are intrinsically integrated into the anatomy structure the T2 images. The ease of use and quick calculation time of CIPs should allow it to be easily integrated into current analysis and interpretation pipelines.

Friso Hoefnagels; Keith S Cover; Ester Sanchez; Frank J. Lagerwaard

2007-11-19

377

Quantitative Serial MRI of the Treated Fibroid Uterus  

PubMed Central

Objective There are no long-term medical treatments for uterine fibroids, and non-invasive biomarkers are needed to evaluate novel therapeutic interventions. The aim of this study was to determine whether serial dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and magnetization transfer MRI (MT-MRI) are able to detect changes that accompany volume reduction in patients administered GnRH analogue drugs, a treatment which is known to reduce fibroid volume and perfusion. Our secondary aim was to determine whether rapid suppression of ovarian activity by combining GnRH agonist and antagonist therapies results in faster volume reduction. Methods Forty women were assessed for eligibility at gynaecology clinics in the region, of whom thirty premenopausal women scheduled for hysterectomy due to symptomatic fibroids were randomized to three groups, receiving (1) GnRH agonist (Goserelin), (2) GnRH agonist+GnRH antagonist (Goserelin and Cetrorelix) or (3) no treatment. Patients were monitored by serial structural, DCE-MRI and MT-MRI, as well as by ultrasound and serum oestradiol concentration measurements from enrolment to hysterectomy (approximately 3 months). Results A volumetric treatment effect assessed by structural MRI occurred by day 14 of treatment (9% median reduction versus 9% increase in untreated women; P?=?0.022) and persisted throughout. Reduced fibroid perfusion and permeability assessed by DCE-MRI occurred later and was demonstrable by 2–3 months (43% median reduction versus 20% increase respectively; P?=?0.0093). There was no apparent treatment effect by MT-MRI. Effective suppression of oestradiol was associated with early volume reduction at days 14 (P?=?0.041) and 28 (P?=?0.0061). Conclusion DCE-MRI is sensitive to the vascular changes thought to accompany successful GnRH analogue treatment of uterine fibroids and should be considered for use in future mechanism/efficacy studies of proposed fibroid drug therapies. GnRH antagonist administration does not appear to accelerate volume reduction, though our data do support the role of oestradiol suppression in GnRH analogue treatment of fibroids. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00746031 PMID:24608161

Williams, Alistair R. W.; McKillop, Graham; Walker, Jane; Horne, Andrew W.; Newby, David E.; Anderson, Richard A.; Semple, Scott I.; Marshall, Ian; Lewis, Steff C.; Millar, Robert P.; Bastin, Mark E.; Critchley, Hilary O. D.

2014-01-01

378

Adrenal pseudomasses due to varices: angiographic-CT-MRI-pathologic correlations  

SciTech Connect

Periadrenal and adrenal portosystemic collaterals are a recently reported cause of adrenal pseudotumor on computed tomography (CT). Nine patients with this left adrenal pseudotumor illustrate its typical position and appearance on CT, angiography, CT-angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The anatomic basis for variceal adrenal pseudotumors is the left inferior phrenic vein, which passes immediately anterior to the left adrenal gland and which serves as a collateral pathway from splenic to left renal vein in portal hypertension. Thus, unlike previously described adrenal pseudotumors, these venous collaterals are not anatomically distinguishable from the adrenal gland on CT. Bolus dynamic CT is usually diagnostic, but in equivocal cases, MRI may prove useful.

Brady, T.M.; Gross, B.H.; Glazer, G.M. Williams, D.M.

1985-08-01

379

Comparison of SPECT/CT, MRI and CT in diagnosis of skull base bone invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.  

PubMed

Early detection of skull base invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is crucial for correct staging, assessing treatment response and contouring the tumor target in radiotherapy planning, as well as improving the patient's prognosis. To compare the diagnostic efficacy of single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) for the detection of skull base invasion in NPC. Sixty untreated patients with histologically proven NPC underwent SPECT/CT imaging, contrast-enhanced MRI and CT. Of the 60 patients, 30 had skull base invasion confirmed by the final results of contrast-enhanced MRI, CT and six-month follow-up imaging (MRI and CT). The diagnostic efficacy of the three imaging modalities in detecting skull base invasion was evaluated. The rates of positive findings of skull base invasion for SPECT/CT, MRI and CT were 53.3%, 48.3% and 33.3%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 93.3%, 86.7% and 90.0% for SPECT/CT fusion imaging, 96.7%, 100.0% and 98.3% for contrast-enhanced MRI, and 66.7%, 100.0% and 83.3% for contrast-enhanced CT. MRI showed the best performance for the diagnosis of skull base invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, followed closely by SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT had poorer specificity than that of both MRI and CT, while CT had the lowest sensitivity. PMID:24212004

Zhang, Shu-xu; Han, Peng-hui; Zhang, Guo-qian; Wang, Rui-hao; Ge, Yong-bin; Ren, Zhi-gang; Li, Jian-sheng; Fu, Wen-hai

2014-01-01

380

MRI evaluation of RF ablation scarring for atrial fibrillation treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a multi-modality image registration method that evaluates left atrial scarring after radiofrequency (RF) ablation for pulmonary vein (PV) isolation. Our group has recently developed a delayed enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (DE-MRI) method with the potential to visualize and monitor non-invasively post-ablation scarring in the left atrium and the PV ostia. We wished to compare the 3D configuration of scarring in the DE-MRI image and the ablation points recorded by electroanatomical mapping (EAM) system, hypothesizing that scarring detected by DE-MRI overlaps with ablation points recorded by the EAM system used in the procedure. Methods and Results: Three data sets, DE-MRI images and pulmonary vein MR angiography (PV-MRA) images, and EAM data (CARTO-XP, Biosense-Webster, Inc., Diamond Bar, CA) from a patient who underwent PV ablation, were used for the multi-modal image registration. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging was performed 38 days after the ablation procedure. PV-MRA and DE-MRI were fused by intensity-based rigid registration. Scar tissue was extracted from the DE-MRI images using multiple threshold values. EAM data was further fused with segmented PV-MRA by the iterative closest point algorithm (ICP). After registration, the distance from PV-MRA to the scar was 2.6 +/- 2.1 mm, and from ablation points to the surface of the scar was 2.5 +/- 2.3 mm. The fused image demonstrates the 3D relationship between the PV ostia, the scar and the EAM recording of ablation points. Conclusion: Multimodal data fusion indicated that the scar tissue lesion after PV isolation showed good overlap with the ablation points.

Ishihara, Yuri; Nazafat, Reza; Wylie, John V.; Linguraru, Marius G.; Josephson, Mark E.; Howe, Robert D.; Manning, Warren J.; Peters, Dana C.

2007-03-01

381

MRI Technologies in Recent Human Brain Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology and techniques used in human brain mapping are remarkable. They are getting, faster, stronger and better. The advanced MRI technologies and techniques include, but not to limited to, the magnetic resonance imaging at higher magnetic field strengths, diffusion tensor imaging, multimodal neuroimaging, and monkey functional MRI. In this article, these advanced MRI techniques

Yuka Sasaki

2008-01-01

382

Mouse MRI: Concepts and Applications in Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brief introduction to the rapidly expanding field of mouse magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including the basics of MRI theory, insight into the basic experiments that can be performed in mice by using MRI, and some factors to consider when planning a mouse MRI experiment.

PhD Robia G. Pautler (Baylor College of Medicine Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics)

2004-08-01

383

Real-Time MRI-Guided Endovascular Recanalization of Chronic Total Arterial Occlusion in a Swine Model  

PubMed Central

Background Endovascular recanalization (guidewire traversal) of peripheral artery chronic total occlusion (CTO) can be challenging. X-Ray angiography resolves CTO poorly. Virtually “blind” device advancement during X-ray-guided interventions can lead to procedure failure, perforation and hemorrhage. Alternatively, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may delineate the artery within the occluded segment to enhance procedural safety and success. We hypothesized that real-time MRI (rtMRI) guided CTO recanalization can be accomplished in an animal model. Methods and Results Carotid artery CTO was created by balloon injury in 19 lipid overfed swine. After 6–8 weeks, two underwent direct necropsy analysis for histology, three underwent primary X-ray-guided CTO recanalization attempts, and the remaining 14 underwent rtMRI-guided recanalization attempts in a 1.5T interventional MRI system. rtMRI intervention used custom CTO catheters and guidewires that incorporated MRI receiver antennae to enhance device visibility. The mean length of the occluded segments was 13.3 ± 1.6cm. rtMRI-guided CTO recanalization was successful in 11/14 swine and only 1/3 swine using X-ray alone. After unsuccessful rtMRI (n = 3), X-ray-guided attempts also were all unsuccessful. Conclusions Recanalization of long CTO is feasible entirely using rtMRI guidance. Low profile clinical-grade devices will be required to translate this experience to humans. Endovascular recanalization of chronic total arterial occlusion (CTO) is challenging under conventional X-ray guidance because devices are advanced almost blindly. MRI can image CTO borders and luminal contents, and could potentially guide these procedures. We test the feasibility of real-time MRI guided wire traversal in a swine model of peripheral artery CTO using custom active MRI catheters. PMID:16490819

Raval, Amish N.; Karmarkar, Parag V.; Guttman, Michael A.; Ozturk, Cengizhan; Sampath, Smita; DeSilva, Ranil; Aviles, Ronnier J.; Xu, Minnan; Wright, Victor J.; Schenke, William H.; Kocaturk, Ozgur; Dick, Alexander J.; Raman, Venkatesh K.; Atalar, Ergin; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Lederman, Robert J.

2006-01-01

384

Composite MRI Scores Improve Correlation with EDSS in Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background Quantitative measures derived from MRI have been widely investigated as noninvasive biomarkers in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the correlation of single measures with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) is poor, especially for studies with large population samples. Objective To explore the correlation of MRI-derived measures with EDSS through composite MRI scores. Methods Magnetic resonance images of 126 patients with relapsing-remitting MS were segmented into white and gray matter, CSF, T2-hyperintense lesions, gadolinium contrast-enhancing lesions, T1-hypointense lesions (“black holes (BH)”). The volumes and average T2 values for each of these tissues and lesions were calculated and converted to a z-score (in units of standard deviation from the mean). These z-scores were combined to construct composite z-scores, and evaluated against individual z-scores for correlation with EDSS. Results Composite scores including relaxation times of different tissues and/or volumetric measures generally correlated more strongly with EDSS than individual measures. The maximum observed correlation of a composite with EDSS was r = 0.344 (p < 0.0001), which is an improvement over the highest-performing single MRI measure (BH; r=0.298, p<0.001). Conclusion Z-transformation permits construction of composite scores including volumetric and T2-relaxation measures. Inclusion of multiple MRI measures in the composite can provide a broader characterization of the disease process, resulting in more robust correlations with EDSS. PMID:20813778

Poonawalla, Aziz H.; Datta, Sushmita; Juneja, Vaibhav; Nelson, Flavia; Wolinsky, Jerry S.; Cutter, Gary; Narayana, Ponnada A.

2010-01-01

385

Cerebral Blood Volume MRI with Intravascular Superparamagentic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Cerebral blood volume (CBV) is a crucial physiological indicator of tissue viability and vascular reactivity. Thus, non-invasive CBV mapping has been of great interest. For this, ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO) including monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticles (MION) can be used as long half-life, intravascular susceptibility agents of CBV MRI measurements. Also, CBV-weighted fMRI with USPIO provides enhanced sensitivity, reduced large vessel contribution, and improved spatial specificity compared to conventional blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) fMRI, and measures a single physiological parameter that is easily interpretable. We review physiochemical and magnetic properties as well as pharmacokinetics of USPIO in brief. We then extensively discuss quantifications of baseline CBV, vessel size index, and functional CBV change. We also provide reviews of dose-dependent sensitivity, vascular filter function, specificity, characteristics, and impulse response function of CBV fMRI. Examples of CBV fMRI specificity at the laminar and columnar resolution are provided. Finally, we briefly review application of CBV measurements to functional and pharmacological studies in animals. Overall, the use of USPIO can determine baseline CBV and its changes induced by functional activity and pharmacological interventions. PMID:23208650

Kim, Seong-Gi; Harel, Noam; Jin, Tao; Kim, Tae; Lee, Phil; Zhao, Fuqiang

2013-01-01

386

MRI of cholangiocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Cholangiocarcinomas are the second most common primary hepatobiliary tumors after hepatocellular carcinomas. They can be categorized either based on their location (intrahepatic/perihilar/extrahepatic distal) or their growth characteristics (mass-forming/periductal-infiltrating/intraductal) because they exhibit varied presentations and outcomes based on their location and or pattern of growth. The increased risk of cholangiocarcinoma in PSC necessitates close surveillance of these patients by means of imaging and laboratory measures; and because currently surgical resection is the only effective treatment for cholangiocarcinoma, the need for accurate pre-operative staging and assessment of resectability has emphasized the role of high quality imaging in management. Today magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice for detection, pre-operative staging and surveillance of cholangiocarcinoma. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2014. PMID:25447417

Jhaveri, Kartik S; Hosseini-Nik, Hooman

2014-12-01

387

Complementary aspects of diffusion imaging and fMRI; I: structure and function.  

PubMed

Studying the intersection of brain structure and function is an important aspect of modern neuroscience. The development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over the last 25 years has provided new and powerful tools for the study of brain structure and function. Two tools in particular, diffusion imaging and functional MRI (fMRI), are playing increasingly important roles in elucidating the complementary aspects of brain structure and function. In this work, we review basic technical features of diffusion imaging and fMRI for studying the integrity of white matter structural components and for determining the location and extent of cortical activation in gray matter, respectively. We then review a growing body of literature in which the complementary aspects of diffusion imaging and fMRI, applied as separate examinations but analyzed in tandem, have been exploited to enhance our knowledge of brain structure and function. PMID:16677953

Mulkern, Robert V; Davis, Peter E; Haker, Steven J; Estepar, Raul San Jose; Panych, Lawrence P; Maier, Stephan E; Rivkin, Michael J

2006-05-01

388

Review of treatment assessment using DCE-MRI in breast cancer radiation therapy  

PubMed Central

As a noninvasive functional imaging technique, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is being used in oncology to measure properties of tumor microvascular structure and permeability. Studies have shown that parameters derived from certain pharmacokinetic models can be used as imaging biomarkers for tumor treatment response. The use of DCE-MRI for quantitative and objective assessment of radiation therapy has been explored in a variety of methods and tumor types. However, due to the complexity in imaging technology and divergent outcomes from different pharmacokinetic approaches, the method of using DCE-MRI in treatment assessment has yet to be standardized, especially for breast cancer. This article reviews the basic principles of breast DCE-MRI and recent studies using DCE-MRI in treatment assessment. Technical and clinical considerations are emphasized with specific attention to assessment of radiation treatment response. PMID:25332905

Wang, Chun-Hao; Yin, Fang-Fang; Horton, Janet; Chang, Zheng

2014-01-01

389

Use of diffusion-weighted MRI in the emergency department for unconscious trauma patients with negative brain CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffusion-weighted MRI, a type of MR technique that can distinguish between cerebral fat embolism and diffuse axonal injury, is presented in this report. Emergency physicians should consider using diffusion-weighted imaging in unconscious trauma patients when their brain CT scans are unremarkable.

Je Sung You; Seung Whan Kim; Hahn Shick Lee; Sung Pil Chung

2010-01-01

390

Cardiac ventricular chambers are epigenetically distinguishable.  

PubMed

The left and right ventricles are muscular chambers of the heart that differ significantly in the extent of pressure work-load. The regional and differential distribution of gene expression patterns is critical not only for heart development, but, also in the establishment of cardiac hypertrophy phenotypes. the cells of the myocardium employ elaborate regulatory mechanisms to establish changes in chromatin structure and function, yet, the role of epigenetic modifications and specific gene expression patterns in cardiac ventricles remains poorly understood. We have examined gene expression changes and studied histone H3 and H4 acetylation as well as dimethylation of lysine 4 on histone H3 on promoters of alpha-Myosin heavy chain gene (alpha-MHC), beta-Myosin heavy chain gene (beta-MHC), Atrial natriuretic peptide gene (ANp), B-type natriuretic peptide gene (BNP) and Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase gene (SERCA2a). The recruitment of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) enzyme p300, which is a transcriptional coactivator, was also studied on the hyperacetylated promoters using immunopurification of soluble chromatin in the left and right ventricles of the mouse. We present evidence for the first time that the pattern of gene expression is closely linked with histone modifications and propose the left and right chambers of the heart are epigenetically distinguishable. PMID:20090419

Mathiyalagan, Prabhu; Chang, Lisa; Du, Xiao-Jun; El-Osta, Assam

2010-02-01

391

Distinguishing Modified Gravity from Dark Energy  

E-print Network

The acceleration of the universe can be explained either through dark energy or through the modification of gravity on large scales. In this paper we investigate modified gravity models and compare their observable predictions with dark energy models. Modifications of general relativity are expected to be scale-independent on super-horizon scales and scale-dependent on sub-horizon scales. For scale-independent modifications, utilizing the conservation of the curvature scalar and a parameterized post-Newtonian formulation of cosmological perturbations, we derive results for large scale structure growth, weak gravitational lensing, and cosmic microwave background anisotropy. For scale-dependent modifications, inspired by recent $f(R)$ theories we introduce a parameterization for the gravitational coupling $G$ and the post-Newtonian parameter $\\gamma$. These parameterizations provide a convenient formalism for testing general relativity. However, we find that if dark energy is generalized to include both entropy and shear stress perturbations, and the dynamics of dark energy is unknown a priori, then modified gravity cannot in general be distinguished from dark energy using cosmological linear perturbations.

Edmund Bertschinger; Phillip Zukin

2008-06-13

392

Hepatic Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome Caused by Herbal Medicine: CT and MRI Features  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the CT and MRI features of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) caused by herbal medicine Gynura segetum. Materials and Methods The CT and MRI features of 16 consecutive Gynura segetum induced HSOS cases (12 men, 4 women) were analyzed. Eight patients had CT; three patients had MRI, and the remaining five patients had both CT and MRI examinations. Based on their clinical presentations and outcomes, the patients were classified into three categories: mild, moderate, and severe. The severity of the disease was also evaluated radiologically based on the abnormal hepatic patchy enhancement in post-contrast CT or MRI images. Results Ascites, patchy liver enhancement, and main right hepatic vein narrowing or occlusion were present in all 16 cases. Hepatomegaly and gallbladder wall thickening were present in 14 cases (87.5%, 14/16). Periportal high intensity on T2-weighted images was present in 6 cases (75%, 6/8). Normal liver parenchymal enhancement surrounding the main hepatic vein forming a clover-like sign was observed in 4 cases (25%, 4/16). The extent of patchy liver enhancement was statistically associated with clinical severity classification (kappa = 0.565). Conclusion Ascites, patchy liver enhancement, and the main hepatic veins narrowing were the most frequent signs of herbal medicine induced HSOS. The grade of abnormal patchy liver enhancement was associated with the clinical severity. PMID:24643319

Zhou, Hua; Wang, Yi-Xiang J.; Lou, Hai-yan; Xu, Xiao-jun

2014-01-01

393

Potential Clinical Applications for Spinal Functional MRI  

PubMed Central

Functional MRI (fMRI) of the spinal cord is a noninvasive technique for obtaining information regarding spinal cord neuronal function. This article provides a brief overview of recent developments in spinal cord fMRI and outlines potential applications, as well as the limitations that must be overcome, for using spinal fMRI in the clinic. This technique is currently used for research purposes, but significant potential exists for spinal fMRI to become an important clinical tool. PMID:17504642

Kornelsen, Jennifer; Mackey, Sean

2010-01-01

394

Distinguishing Between Site Waste, Natural, and Other Sources of Contamination at Uranium and Thorium Contaminated Sites - 12274  

SciTech Connect

Uranium and thorium processing and milling sites generate wastes (source, byproduct, or technically enhanced naturally occurring material), that contain contaminants that are similar to naturally occurring radioactive material deposits and other industry wastes. This can lead to mis-identification of other materials as Site wastes. A review of methods used by the US Army Corps of Engineers and the Environmental Protection Agency to distinguish Site wastes from potential other sources, enhanced materials, and natural deposits, at three different thorium mills was conducted. Real case examples demonstrate the importance of understanding the methods of distinguishing wastes. Distinguishing between Site wastes and enhanced Background material can be facilitated by establishing and applying a formal process. Significant project cost avoidance may be realized by distinguishing Site wastes from enhanced NORM. Collection of information on other potential sources of radioactive material and physical information related to the potential for other radioactive material sources should be gathered and reported in the Historical Site Assessment. At a minimum, locations of other such information should be recorded. Site decision makers should approach each Site area with the expectation that non site related radioactive material may be present and have a process in place to distinguish from Site and non Site related materials. (authors)

Hays, David C. [United States Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City, Missouri, 64106 (United States)

2012-07-01

395

Intracranial metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma: CT and MRI.  

PubMed

We report clinical characteristics and CT and MRI in 16 patients with brain metastases due to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Eight of these 16 patients presented with apoplexy-like symptoms (50%). Pulmonary metastases were found in 13 cases (81.3%). The mean survival from the appearance of cerebral metastases to death was 6.2 weeks, which is one of the shortest survival terms in metastatic brain tumours. Haemorrhagic brain metastases were observed in 14 patients (87.5%) with a tendency for the frequency of bleeding to increase in proportion to the size of the tumour. On both contrast-enhanced CT and MRI, metastatic brain tumours enhanced strongly, suggesting that brain metastases, like HCC, are also hypervascular. MRI is useful in evaluating brain metastases from HCC, especially in order to differentiate tumour from haemorrhage. Our results demonstrated a poor prognosis and bleeding tendency of brain metastases due to HCC and showed the usefulness of CT and MRI in achieving a correct diagnosis. PMID:8811676

Murakami, K; Nawano, S; Moriyama, N; Sekiguchi, R; Satake, M; Fujimoto, H; Ichikawa, T

1996-05-01

396

Multiparametric MRI of solid renal masses: pearls and pitfalls.  

PubMed

Functional imaging [diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE)] techniques combined with T2-weighted (T2W) and chemical-shift imaging (CSI), with or without urography, constitutes a comprehensive multiparametric (MP) MRI protocol of the kidneys. MP-MRI of the kidneys can be performed in a time-efficient manner. Breath-hold sequences and parallel imaging should be used to reduce examination time and improve image quality. Increased T2 signal intensity (SI) in a solid renal nodule is specific for renal cell carcinoma (RCC); whereas, low T2 SI can be seen in RCC, angiomyolipoma (AML), and haemorrhagic cysts. Low b-value DWI can replace conventional fat-suppressed T2W. DWI can be performed free-breathing (FB) with two b-values to reduce acquisition time without compromising imaging quality. RCC demonstrates restricted diffusion; however, restricted diffusion is commonly seen in AML and in chronic haemorrhage. CSI must be performed using the correct echo combination at 3 T or T2* effects can mimic intra-lesional fat. Two-dimensional (2D)-CSI has better image quality compared to three-dimensional (3D)-CSI, but volume averaging in small lesions can simulate intra-lesional fat using 2D techniques. SI decrease on CSI is present in both AML and clear cell RCC. Verification of internal enhancement with MRI can be challenging and is improved with image subtraction. Subtraction imaging is prone to errors related to spatial misregistration, which is ameliorated with expiratory phase imaging. SI ratios can be used to confirm subtle internal enhancement and enhancement curves are predictive of RCC subtype. MR urography using conventional extracellular gadolinium must account for T2* effects; however, gadoxetic acid enhanced urography is an alternative. The purpose of this review it to highlight important technical and interpretive pearls and pitfalls encountered with MP-MRI of solid renal masses. PMID:25472466

Ramamurthy, N K; Moosavi, B; McInnes, M D F; Flood, T A; Schieda, N

2015-03-01

397

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain  

MedlinePLUS

KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What It Is Why It's Done Preparation Procedure What ...

398

Metalloprotein-based MRI probes  

PubMed Central

Metalloproteins have long been recognized as key determinants of endogenous contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of biological subjects. More recently, both natural and engineered metalloproteins have been harnessed as biotechnological tools to probe gene expression, enzyme activity, and analyte concentrations by MRI. Metalloprotein MRI probes are paramagnetic and function by analogous mechanisms to conventional gadolinium or iron oxide-based MRI contrast agents. Compared with synthetic agents, metalloproteins typically offer worse sensitivity, but the possibilities of using protein engineering and targeted gene expression approaches in conjunction with metalloprotein contrast agents are powerful and sometimes definitive strengths. This review summarizes theoretical and practical aspects of metalloprotein-based contrast agents, and discusses progress in the exploitation of these proteins for molecular imaging applications. PMID:23376346

Matsumoto, Yuri; Jasanoff, Alan

2013-01-01

399

Can breast MRI help in the management of women with breast cancer treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy?  

PubMed

Contrast-enhanced (CE) MRI was used to monitor breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patients underwent CE MRI before and after therapy, together with conventional assessment methods (CAM). CE MRI was carried out at 1.5 T in the coronal plain with 3D sequences before and after bolus injection. An expert panel determined chemotherapy response using both CE MRI and CAM. Histopathological response in the surgical specimen was then used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of CE MRI and CAM. In total, 67 patients with 69 breast cancers were studied (mean age of 46 years). Tumour characteristics showed a high-risk tumour population: median size 49 mm: histopathological grade 3 (55%): oestrogen receptor (ER) negative (48%). Histopathological response was as follows: - complete pathological response (pCR) 17%; partial response (pPR) 68%; no response (NR) 15%. Sensitivity of CAM for pCR or pPR was 98% (CI 91-100%) and specificity was 50% (CI 19-81%). CE MRI sensitivity was 100% (CI 94-100%), and specificity was 80% (CI 44-97%). The absolute agreement between assessment methods and histopathology was marginally higher for CE MRI than CAM (81 vs 68%; P=0.09). In 71%, CE MRI increased diagnostic knowledge, although in 20% it was judged confusing or incorrect. The 2nd MRI study significantly increased diagnostic confidence, and in 19% could have changed the treatment plan. CE MRI persistently underestimated minimal residual disease. In conclusion, CE MRI of breast cancer proved more reliable for predicting histopathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy than conventional assessment methods. PMID:15054453

Warren, R M L; Bobrow, L G; Earl, H M; Britton, P D; Gopalan, D; Purushotham, A D; Wishart, G C; Benson, J R; Hollingworth, W

2004-04-01

400

Non-invasive functional imaging of Cerebral Blood Volume with Vascular-Space-Occupancy (VASO) MRI  

PubMed Central

Functional MRI (fMRI) based on changes in cerebral blood volume (CBV) can directly probe vasodilatation and vasoconstriction during brain activation or physiologic challenges, and can provide important insights into the mechanism of Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD) signal changes. At present, the most widely used CBV fMRI technique in humans is called Vascular-Space-Occupancy (VASO) MRI and this article provides a technical review of this method. VASO MRI utilizes T1 differences between blood and tissue to distinguish these two compartments within a voxel and uses blood-nulling inversion recovery sequence to yield an MR signal proportional to 1-CBV. As such, vasodilatation will result in a VASO signal decrease and vasoconstriction will have the reverse effect. The VASO technique can be performed dynamically with a temporal resolution comparable to several other fMRI methods such as BOLD or Arterial-Spin-Labeling (ASL), and is particularly powerful when conducted in conjunction with these complementary techniques. The pulse sequence and imaging parameters of VASO can be optimized such that the signal change is predominantly of CBV origin, but careful considerations should be taken to minimize other contributions, such as those from the BOLD effect, CBF, and CSF. Sensitivity of the VASO technique remains to be the primary disadvantage when compared to BOLD, but this technique is increasingly demonstrating utility in neuroscientific and clinical applications. PMID:23355392

Lu, Hanzhang; Hua, Jun; van Zijl, Peter C.M.

2013-01-01

401

Dynamic MRI of the Spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Spinal imaging is one of the most important diagnostic tools for assessing spine pathologies. The advent of Magnetic Resonance\\u000a Imaging (MRI) allowed much more detailed evaluation of musculoskeletal injuries including the spine. However, because of the\\u000a structural limitations of MRI equipment, patient scanning has been limited to supine or prone positions without weight-bearing,\\u000a which renders static images in fixed positions.

J. J. Abitbol; Soon-Woo Hong; Sana Khan; Jeffrey C. Wang

402

Functional MRI Limitations and Aspirations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most would agree that knowing precisely what was happening in the brain during the act of thinking would help in our pursuit\\u000a to understand what thinking really is. This chapter describes the basics, limits, and future directions of one of the more\\u000a effective tools we have to observe the human brain while it is functioning — functional MRI. Functional MRI

Peter A. Bandettini

403

Two pitfalls of BOLD fMRI magnitude-based neuroimage analysis: non-negativity and edge effect  

PubMed Central

BOLD fMRI is accepted as a noninvasive imaging modality for neuroimaging and brain mapping. A BOLD fMRI dataset consists of magnitude and phase components. Currently, only the magnitude is used for neuroimage analysis. In this paper, we show that the fMRI-magnitude-based neuroimage analysis may suffer two pitfalls: one is that the magnitude is non-negative and cannot differentiate positive from negative BOLD activity; the other is an edge effect that may manifest as an edge enhancement or a spatial interior dip artifact at a local uniform BOLD region. We demonstrate these pitfalls via numeric simulations using a BOLD fMRI model and also via a phantom experiment. We also propose a solution by making use of the fMRI phase image, the counterpart of the fMRI magnitude. PMID:21640135

Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince D.

2015-01-01

404

LDRD 149045 final report distinguishing documents.  

SciTech Connect

This LDRD 149045 final report describes work that Sandians Scott A. Mitchell, Randall Laviolette, Shawn Martin, Warren Davis, Cindy Philips and Danny Dunlavy performed in 2010. Prof. Afra Zomorodian provided insight. This was a small late-start LDRD. Several other ongoing efforts were leveraged, including the Networks Grand Challenge LDRD, and the Computational Topology CSRF project, and the some of the leveraged work is described here. We proposed a sentence mining technique that exploited both the distribution and the order of parts-of-speech (POS) in sentences in English language documents. The ultimate goal was to be able to discover 'call-to-action' framing documents hidden within a corpus of mostly expository documents, even if the documents were all on the same topic and used the same vocabulary. Using POS was novel. We also took a novel approach to analyzing POS. We used the hypothesis that English follows a dynamical system and the POS are trajectories from one state to another. We analyzed the sequences of POS using support vector machines and the cycles of POS using computational homology. We discovered that the POS were a very weak signal and did not support our hypothesis well. Our original goal appeared to be unobtainable with our original approach. We turned our attention to study an aspect of a more traditional approach to distinguishing documents. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) turns documents into bags-of-words then into mixture-model points. A distance function is used to cluster groups of points to discover relatedness between documents. We performed a geometric and algebraic analysis of the most popular distance functions and made some significant and surprising discoveries, described in a separate technical report.

Mitchell, Scott A.

2010-09-01

405

Distinguishing dynamical dark matter at the LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamical dark matter (DDM) is a new framework for dark-matter physics in which the dark sector comprises an ensemble of individual component fields which collectively conspire to act in ways that transcend those normally associated with dark matter. Because of its nontrivial structure, this DDM ensemble—unlike most traditional dark-matter candidates—cannot be characterized in terms of a single mass, decay width, or set of scattering cross sections, but must instead be described by parameters which describe the collective behavior of its constituents. Likewise, the components of such an ensemble need not be stable so long as lifetimes are balanced against cosmological abundances across the ensemble as a whole. In this paper, we investigate the prospects for identifying a DDM ensemble at the LHC and for distinguishing such a dark-matter candidate from the candidates characteristic of traditional dark-matter models. In particular, we focus on DDM scenarios in which the component fields of the ensemble are produced at colliders alongside some number of standard-model particles via the decays of additional heavy fields. The invariant-mass distributions of these standard-model particles turn out to possess several unique features that cannot be replicated in most traditional dark-matter models. We demonstrate that in many situations it is possible to differentiate between a DDM ensemble and a traditional dark-matter candidate on the basis of such distributions. Moreover, many of our results also apply more generally to a variety of other extensions of the standard model which involve multiple stable or metastable neutral particles.

Dienes, Keith R.; Su, Shufang; Thomas, Brooks

2012-09-01

406

How do recovery definitions distinguish recovering individuals?  

PubMed Central

Background Six percent of American adults say they are “in recovery” from an alcohol or drug problem yet only a scant emergent literature has begun to ask how they define “recovery” or explored whether there is heterogeneity among their definitions. Methods Secondary analysis of the What Is Recovery? online survey employed Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to identify typologies of