Science.gov

Sample records for enhances astrocyte proliferation

  1. Prostaglandin E2 released from activated microglia enhances astrocyte proliferation in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Dan; Hu Xiaoming; Qian Li; Wilson, Belinda; Lee, Christopher; Flood, Patrick; Langenbach, Robert; Hong, J.-S.

    2009-07-01

    Microglial activation has been implicated in many astrogliosis-related pathological conditions including astroglioma; however, the detailed mechanism is not clear. In this study, we used primary enriched microglia and astrocyte cultures to determine the role of microglial prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) in the proliferation of astrocytes. The proliferation of astrocytes was measured by BrdU incorporation. The level of PGE{sub 2} was measured by ELISA method. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of COX-2 in microglia were also applied in this study. We found that proliferation of astrocytes increased following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment in the presence of microglia. Furthermore, increased proliferation of astrocytes was observed in the presence of conditioned media from LPS-treated microglia. The potential involvement of microglial PGE{sub 2} in enhanced astrocyte proliferation was suggested by the findings that PGE{sub 2} production and COX-2 expression in microglia were increased by LPS treatment. In addition, activated microglia-induced increases in astrocyte proliferation were blocked by the PGE{sub 2} antagonist AH6809, COX-2 selective inhibitor DuP-697 or by genetic knockout of microglial COX-2. These findings were further supported by the finding that addition of PGE{sub 2} to the media significantly induced astrocyte proliferation. These results indicate that microglial PGE{sub 2} plays an important role in astrocyte proliferation, identifying PGE{sub 2} as a key neuroinflammatory molecule that triggers the pathological response related to uncontrollable astrocyte proliferation. These findings are important in elucidating the role of activated microglia and PGE{sub 2} in astrocyte proliferation and in suggesting a potential avenue in the use of anti-inflammatory agents for the therapy of astroglioma.

  2. Astrocyte-Secreted Factors Selectively Alter Neural Stem and Progenitor Cell Proliferation in the Fragile X Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Sourial, Mary; Doering, Laurie C.

    2016-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence indicates that astrocytes contribute to the governance and fine tuning of stem and progenitor cell production during brain development. The effect of astrocyte function in cell production in neurodevelopmental disorders is unknown. We used the Neural Colony Forming Cell assay to determine the effect of astrocyte conditioned media (ACM) on the generation of neurospheres originating from either progenitor cells or functional stem cells in the knock out (KO) Fragile X mouse model. ACM from both normal and Fmr1-KO mice generated higher percentages of smaller neurospheres indicative of restricted proliferation of the progenitor cell population in Fmr1-KO brains. Wild type (WT) neurospheres, but not KO neurospheres, showed enhanced responses to ACM from the Fmr1-KO mice. In particular, Fmr1-KO ACM increased the percentage of large neurospheres generated, representative of spheres produced from neural stem cells. We also used 2D DIGE to initiate identification of the astrocyte-secreted proteins with differential expression between Fmr1-KO and WT cortices and hippocampi. The results further support the critical role of astrocytes in governing neural cell production in brain development and point to significant alterations in neural cell proliferation due to astrocyte secreted factors from the Fragile X brain. Highlights: • We studied the proliferation of neural stem and progenitor cells in Fragile X. • We examined the role of astrocyte-secreted factors in neural precursor cell biology. • Astrocyte-secreted factors with differential expression in Fragile X identified. PMID:27242437

  3. Diverse FGF receptor signaling controls astrocyte specification and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Kyungjun; Song, Mi-Ryoung

    2010-05-07

    During CNS development, pluripotency neuronal progenitor cells give rise in succession to neurons and glia. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), a major signal that maintains neural progenitors in the undifferentiated state, is also thought to influence the transition from neurogenesis to gliogenesis. Here we present evidence that FGF receptors and underlying signaling pathways transmit the FGF-2 signals that regulate astrocyte specification aside from its mitogenic activity. Application of FGF-2 to cortical progenitors suppressed neurogenesis whereas treatment with an FGFR antagonist in vitro promoted neurogenesis. Introduction of chimeric FGFRs with mutated tyrosine residues into cortical progenitors and drug treatments to specifically block individual downstream signaling pathways revealed that the overall activity of FGFR rather than individual autophosphorylation sites is important for delivering signals for glial specification. In contrast, a signal for cell proliferation by FGFR was mainly delivered by MAPK pathway. Together our findings indicate that FGFR activity promotes astrocyte specification in the developing CNS.

  4. PCBP2 Modulates Neural Apoptosis and Astrocyte Proliferation After Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xingxing; Liu, Jin; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Weidong; Qian, Rong; Chen, Xinlei; Lu, Hongjian; Ge, Jianbing; Zhao, Chengjin; Zhang, Dongmei; Wang, Youhua

    2016-09-01

    PCBP2, a member of the poly(C)-binding protein (PCBP) family, plays a pivotal role in posttranscriptional and translational regulation by interacting with single-stranded poly(C) motifs in target mRNAs. It is reported that several PCBP family members are involved in human malignancies. However, the distribution and function of PCBP2 in the central nervous system (CNS) remain unclear. In this study, we performed an acute spinal cord injury (SCI) model in adult rats and investigated the dynamic changes of PCBP2 expression in the spinal cord. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that PCBP2 presented in normal spinal cord. It gradually increased, reached a peak at 3 day, and then declined to basal levels at 14 days after SCI. We observed that the expression of PCBP2 was enhanced in the gray and white matter. Immunofluorescence indicated that PCBP2 was located in the neurons and astrocytes. Moreover, colocalization of PCBP2/active caspase-3 was detected in neurons, and colocalization of PCBP2/proliferating cell nuclear antigen was detected in astrocytes after SCI. These results indicated that PCBP2 might play an important role in neuronal apoptosis and astrocyte proliferation. In vitro, PCBP2-specific siRNA-transfected neuron showed significantly decrease of neuronal apoptosis and expression of cell cycle related proteins following glutamate stimulation. Meanwhile, PCBP2 knockdown also reduced primary astrocytes proliferation. All above indicated that PCBP2 might play a crucial role in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Collectively, our data suggested that PCBP2 might play important roles in CNS pathophysiology after SCI. PMID:27209304

  5. Increased proliferation and gliogenesis of cultured rat neural progenitor cells by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Go, Hyo Sang; Shin, Chan Young; Lee, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Se-Jin; Kim, Ki Chan; Choi, Chang Soon; Ko, Kwang Ho

    2009-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells (NPC) are self-renewing multipotent cells that generate neurons and glial cells in the brain. NPCs generate neurons and glia not only during development but also after neural injury. Recent studies have shown that endogenous NPCs are activated after brain injury and migrate toward damaged areas where astrocyte activation occurs. Considering the massive proliferation of astrocytes as well as the production of several kinds of cytoactive molecules after brain injury, such as NO, growth factors and cytokines, it is tempting to think that cytoactive molecules released by activated glial cells regulate neural progenitor differentiation and proliferation through inflammatory mediators. To test this hypothesis, we stimulated rat primary astrocytes with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce the activation of astrocytes. After addition of the conditioned media from LPS-stimulated astrocytes to NPC culture, proliferation was examined by MTT assay and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. The differentiation of NPC into neurons and astrocytes was examined by Western blot, ELISA and immunocytochemical staining with cell-type-specific markers. Conditioned media from LPS-stimulated astrocytes increased NPC proliferation as well as gliogenesis as compared with control conditioned media from astrocytes without LPS stimulation. In contrast, neurogenesis was decreased by LPS-conditioned media. To investigate the molecular mechanism mediating glial differentiation and proliferation of NPC by reactive astrocytes, we added inhibitors of the Erk and JNK pathways during LPS stimulation. These inhibitors - except for a p38 inhibitor - decreased NPC proliferation and glial differentiation. These results suggest that LPS stimulated astrocytes generate factors regulating NPC proliferation and gliogenesis via the Erk and JNK pathways. PMID:19609085

  6. Tumor-Associated Retinal Astrocytes Promote Retinoblastoma Cell Proliferation Through Production of IGFBP-5

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoliang L.; Lee, Thomas C.; Offor, Nneka; Cheng, Christine; Liu, Aihong; Fang, Yuqiang; Jhanwar, Suresh C.; Abramson, David H.; Cobrinik, David

    2010-01-01

    Retinoblastomas consist of cone-like neoplastic cells and diverse non-neoplastic cells whose roles in tumorigenesis have not been defined. Here, we investigated the glial cells that constitute 2% to 3% of the cells in retinoblastoma tumors, including their origin, their relationship to a potential retinoblastoma stem cell population, and their effects on tumor cell proliferation. Retinoblastoma glia consistently expressed the retinal astrocyte marker Pax2 but inconsistently expressed the Müller cell and occasional astrocyte marker CRALBP. Many of the glia expressed the stem cell–associated Sox2 but nevertheless were non-neoplastic as they coexpressed Rb and/or retained two RB1 alleles. Conversely, the glia were distinct from the non-neoplastic cells that strongly expressed the stem cell–associated ABCG2. Adherent Pax2+,Sox2+,Rb+ glia readily grew from explanted retinoblastomas and produced soluble factors that enhanced the proliferation of cocultured retinoblastoma cells. This effect was emulated by normal retinal glia and appeared to be mediated by insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5), as it was mimicked by recombinant IGFBP-5 and mitigated by neutralizing IGFBP-5 antibody. As glia-derived IGFBP-5 was earlier found to promote photoreceptor survival, our findings indicate that retinal astrocytes enhance the proliferation of cone-like retinoblastoma cells by deploying a factor that also provides trophic support to the tumor cells’ non-neoplastic counterparts. These observations suggest that a tissue-specific microenvironmental feature cooperates with oncogenic mutations in a cancer cell of origin to promote retinoblastoma tumorigenesis. PMID:20508032

  7. Notch1-STAT3-ETBR signaling axis controls reactive astrocyte proliferation after brain injury.

    PubMed

    LeComte, Matthew D; Shimada, Issei S; Sherwin, Casey; Spees, Jeffrey L

    2015-07-14

    Defining the signaling network that controls reactive astrogliosis may provide novel treatment targets for patients with diverse CNS injuries and pathologies. We report that the radial glial cell antigen RC2 identifies the majority of proliferating glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive (GFAP(+)) reactive astrocytes after stroke. These cells highly expressed endothelin receptor type B (ETB(R)) and Jagged1, a Notch1 receptor ligand. To study signaling in adult reactive astrocytes, we developed a model based on reactive astrocyte-derived neural stem cells isolated from GFAP-CreER-Notch1 conditional knockout (cKO) mice. By loss- and gain-of-function studies and promoter activity assays, we found that Jagged1/Notch1 signaling increased ETB(R) expression indirectly by raising the level of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a previously unidentified EDNRB transcriptional activator. Similar to inducible transgenic GFAP-CreER-Notch1-cKO mice, GFAP-CreER-ETB(R)-cKO mice exhibited a defect in reactive astrocyte proliferation after cerebral ischemia. Our results indicate that the Notch1-STAT3-ETB(R) axis connects a signaling network that promotes reactive astrocyte proliferation after brain injury. PMID:26124113

  8. Upregulation of PRDM5 Is Associated with Astrocyte Proliferation and Neuronal Apoptosis Caused by Lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Liu, Xiaojuan; Xue, Huaqing; Liu, Xiaorong; Dai, Aihua; Song, Yan; Ke, Kaifu; Cao, Maohong

    2016-05-01

    PRDM5 (PR domain containing 5) belongs to PRDM family which consists of transcriptional regulators that modulate cellular processes such as cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. However, the function of PRDM5 in central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory response is unknown. In recent study, an adult rat neuroinflammation model via lipopolysaccharide (LPS) lateral ventricle injection was constructed. PRDM5 expression was increased in activated astrocytes and apoptotic neurons of the adult rat cerebral cortex after LPS injection. In vitro studies showed that the remarkable upregulation of PRDM5 might be involved in rat primary astrocyte proliferation and rat primary neuronal apoptosis in the cerebral cortex following LPS administration. In addition, using PRDM5 RNA interference both in rat primary asrtocytes and neurons, further indicated that PRDM5 was required for astrocyte proliferation and neuronal apoptosis induced by LPS. Our findings on the cellular signaling pathway may provide a new therapeutic strategy against neuroinflammation in the CNS. PMID:27074744

  9. Astrocytes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimelberg, Harold K.; Norenberg, Michael D.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the astrocytes' function as equal partners with neurons in both the normal and the abnormal brain. Discusses the developmental scaffolds, inert scar tissue, Huntington's disease, psychiatric disorders, and the identification of these brain cells. (RT)

  10. Neuronal-derived Ccl7 drives neuropathic pain by promoting astrocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Ke, Bin Chang; Huang, Xia Xiao; Li, Yang; Li, Li Ya; Xu, Qin Xue; Gao, Yan; Liu, Yingju; Luo, Jie

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that peripheral nerve injury converts resting spinal cord astroglial cells into an activated state, which is required for the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. However, the underlying mechanisms of how resting astrocytes are activated after nerve injury remain largely unknown. Astroglial cell proliferation and activation could be affected by endogenous factors including chemokines, growth factors, and neurotropic factor. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7 (Ccl7) is essential in facilitating the development of neuropathic pain; however, the mechanism is unknown. In the present study, we found that Ccl7 promoted astrocyte proliferation and thus contributed toward neuropathic pain. Spinal nerve ligation increased the expression in the spinal cord of neuronal Ccl7. Behavioral analyses showed that knockdown of Ccl7 alleviated spinal nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain. Further in-vitro study showed that neuronal-derived Ccl7 was sufficient for the proliferation and activation of astroglial cells. We found a novel mechanism of Ccl7 stimulating the proliferation and activation of spinal cord astrocytes that contributes toward neuropathic pain. PMID:27295026

  11. Astrocytes Enhance Streptococcus suis-Glial Cell Interaction in Primary Astrocyte-Microglial Cell Co-Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Seele, Jana; Nau, Roland; Prajeeth, Chittappen K.; Stangel, Martin; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Seitz, Maren

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus (S.) suis infections are the most common cause of meningitis in pigs. Moreover, S. suis is a zoonotic pathogen, which can lead to meningitis in humans, mainly in adults. We assume that glial cells may play a crucial role in host-pathogen interactions during S. suis infection of the central nervous system. Glial cells are considered to possess important functions during inflammation and injury of the brain in bacterial meningitis. In the present study, we established primary astrocyte-microglial cell co-cultures to investigate interactions of S. suis with glial cells. For this purpose, microglial cells and astrocytes were isolated from new-born mouse brains and characterized by flow cytometry, followed by the establishment of astrocyte and microglial cell mono-cultures as well as astrocyte-microglial cell co-cultures. In addition, we prepared microglial cell mono-cultures co-incubated with uninfected astrocyte mono-culture supernatants and astrocyte mono-cultures co-incubated with uninfected microglial cell mono-culture supernatants. After infection of the different cell cultures with S. suis, bacteria-cell association was mainly observed with microglial cells and most prominently with a non-encapsulated mutant of S. suis. A time-dependent induction of NO release was found only in the co-cultures and after co-incubation of microglial cells with uninfected supernatants of astrocyte mono-cultures mainly after infection with the capsular mutant. Only moderate cytotoxic effects were found in co-cultured glial cells after infection with S. suis. Taken together, astrocytes and astrocyte supernatants increased interaction of microglial cells with S. suis. Astrocyte-microglial cell co-cultures are suitable to study S. suis infections and bacteria-cell association as well as NO release by microglial cells was enhanced in the presence of astrocytes. PMID:27304968

  12. Astrocytes Enhance Streptococcus suis-Glial Cell Interaction in Primary Astrocyte-Microglial Cell Co-Cultures.

    PubMed

    Seele, Jana; Nau, Roland; Prajeeth, Chittappen K; Stangel, Martin; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Seitz, Maren

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus (S.) suis infections are the most common cause of meningitis in pigs. Moreover, S. suis is a zoonotic pathogen, which can lead to meningitis in humans, mainly in adults. We assume that glial cells may play a crucial role in host-pathogen interactions during S. suis infection of the central nervous system. Glial cells are considered to possess important functions during inflammation and injury of the brain in bacterial meningitis. In the present study, we established primary astrocyte-microglial cell co-cultures to investigate interactions of S. suis with glial cells. For this purpose, microglial cells and astrocytes were isolated from new-born mouse brains and characterized by flow cytometry, followed by the establishment of astrocyte and microglial cell mono-cultures as well as astrocyte-microglial cell co-cultures. In addition, we prepared microglial cell mono-cultures co-incubated with uninfected astrocyte mono-culture supernatants and astrocyte mono-cultures co-incubated with uninfected microglial cell mono-culture supernatants. After infection of the different cell cultures with S. suis, bacteria-cell association was mainly observed with microglial cells and most prominently with a non-encapsulated mutant of S. suis. A time-dependent induction of NO release was found only in the co-cultures and after co-incubation of microglial cells with uninfected supernatants of astrocyte mono-cultures mainly after infection with the capsular mutant. Only moderate cytotoxic effects were found in co-cultured glial cells after infection with S. suis. Taken together, astrocytes and astrocyte supernatants increased interaction of microglial cells with S. suis. Astrocyte-microglial cell co-cultures are suitable to study S. suis infections and bacteria-cell association as well as NO release by microglial cells was enhanced in the presence of astrocytes. PMID:27304968

  13. Silencing TRPM7 in Mouse Cortical Astrocytes Impairs Cell Proliferation and Migration via ERK and JNK Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zhao; Leng, Tiandong; Feng, Xuechao; Sun, Huawei; Inoue, Koichi; Zhu, Li; Xiong, Zhi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7), a non-selective cation channel, is highly expressed expressed in the brain and plays a critical role in ischemic neuronal death. Astrocyte, the most abundant cell type in central nervous system (CNS), exerts many essential functions in the physiological and pathological conditions. Here we investigated the expression and functions of the TRPM7 channel in mouse cortical astrocytes. Using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, immunostaining, western blot and patch clamp recording, we showed that functional TRPM7 channel is expressed in cultured mouse cortical astrocytes. Knocking down TRPM7 with specific siRNA impairs the proliferation and migration of astrocytes by 40.2% ± 3.9% and 40.1% ± 11.5%, respectively. Consistently, inhibition of TRPM7 with 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) also decreases astrocyte proliferation and migration by 46.1% ± 2.5% and 64.2% ± 2.4%. MAPKs and Akt signaling pathways have been shown to be implicated in TRPM7-mediated responses including cell proliferation and migration. Our data show that suppression of TRPM7 in astrocytes reduces the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), but not p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt. In addition, TRPM7, as a cation channel, has been involved in the Ca2+ and Mg2+ homeostasis in several types of cells. In our study, we found that silencing TRPM7 decreases the intracellular basal Mg2+ concentration without affecting Ca2+ concentration in astrocytes. However, an addition of Mg2+ to the growth medium could not rescue the impaired proliferation of astrocytes. Together, our data suggest that TRPM7 channel may play a critical role in the proliferation and migration of astrocytes via the ERK and JNK pathways. PMID:25799367

  14. Quercetin inhibits the migration and proliferation of astrocytes in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhaohu; Yao, Fang; Hu, Ziyou; Sun, Shumei; Wu, Bingyi

    2015-05-01

    A previous study showed that quercetin inhibits astrogliosis in a scratch-wound model, but did not identify the underlying mechanisms. Here, we show that quercetin exerts no effect on apoptosis or the viability of astrocytes, but significantly inhibits their proliferation, arresting them in the G1 phase and decreasing the percentage of cells in the S and G2 phase. In addition, we found that quercetin significantly decreased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and FAK, a downstream ERK signaling protein. Inhibition of this pathway with U0126, an inhibitor of MAP kinase, retarded wound closure, whereas sustained p-ERK1/2 activation, induced by vanadate, restored astrocyte migration. Our findings thus indicate that quercetin inhibits healing in the scratch-wound model of primary astrocytes in two ways: blockade of the G1 to S phase cell cycle transition and inhibition of the ERK/FAK signaling pathway, which may contribute toward decreasing astroglial scar formation in vivo. PMID:25793633

  15. Maternal obesity leads to increased proliferation and numbers of astrocytes in the developing fetal and neonatal mouse hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Won; Glendining, Kelly A; Grattan, David R; Jasoni, Christine L

    2016-10-01

    Maternal obesity during pregnancy is associated with chronic maternal, placental, and fetal inflammation; and it elevates the risk for offspring obesity. Changes in the development of the hypothalamus, a brain region that regulates body weight and energy balance, are emerging as important determinants of offspring risk, but such changes are only beginning to be defined. Here we focused on the hypothesis that the pathological exposure of developing hypothalamic astrocytes to cytokines would alter their development. A maternal high-fat diet (mHFD) mouse model was used to investigate changes in hypothalamic astrocytes in the fetus during late gestation and in early neonates by using immunochemistry, confocal microscopy, and qPCR. The number of astrocytes and the proportion of proliferating astrocytes was significantly higher in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus at both ages compared to control offspring from normal weight pregnancies. Supplemental to this we found that cultured fetal hypothalamic astrocytes proliferated significantly in response to IL6 (10ng/ml), one of the cytokines significantly elevated in fetuses of obese dams, via the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway. Thus, maternal obesity during pregnancy stimulated the proliferation and thereby increased numbers of astrocytes in the fetal as well as early neonatal hypothalamus, which may be driven, during fetal life, by IL6. PMID:27326907

  16. Notch1–STAT3–ETBR signaling axis controls reactive astrocyte proliferation after brain injury

    PubMed Central

    LeComte, Matthew D.; Shimada, Issei S.; Sherwin, Casey; Spees, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Defining the signaling network that controls reactive astrogliosis may provide novel treatment targets for patients with diverse CNS injuries and pathologies. We report that the radial glial cell antigen RC2 identifies the majority of proliferating glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive (GFAP+) reactive astrocytes after stroke. These cells highly expressed endothelin receptor type B (ETBR) and Jagged1, a Notch1 receptor ligand. To study signaling in adult reactive astrocytes, we developed a model based on reactive astrocyte-derived neural stem cells isolated from GFAP-CreER-Notch1 conditional knockout (cKO) mice. By loss- and gain-of-function studies and promoter activity assays, we found that Jagged1/Notch1 signaling increased ETBR expression indirectly by raising the level of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a previously unidentified EDNRB transcriptional activator. Similar to inducible transgenic GFAP-CreER-Notch1-cKO mice, GFAP-CreER-ETBR-cKO mice exhibited a defect in reactive astrocyte proliferation after cerebral ischemia. Our results indicate that the Notch1–STAT3–ETBR axis connects a signaling network that promotes reactive astrocyte proliferation after brain injury. PMID:26124113

  17. Rapamycin increases neuronal survival, reduces inflammation and astrocyte proliferation after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Goldshmit, Yona; Kanner, Sivan; Zacs, Maria; Frisca, Frisca; Pinto, Alexander R; Currie, Peter D; Pinkas-Kramarski, Ronit

    2015-09-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently leads to a permanent functional impairment as a result of the initial injury followed by secondary injury mechanism, which is characterised by increased inflammation, glial scarring and neuronal cell death. Finding drugs that may reduce inflammatory cell invasion and activation to reduce glial scarring and increase neuronal survival is of major importance for improving the outcome after SCI. In the present study, we examined the effect of rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor and an inducer of autophagy, on recovery from spinal cord injury. Autophagy, a process that facilitates the degradation of cytoplasmic proteins, is also important for maintenance of neuronal homeostasis and plays a major role in neurodegeneration after neurotrauma. We examined rapamycin effects on the inflammatory response, glial scar formation, neuronal survival and regeneration in vivo using spinal cord hemisection model in mice, and in vitro using primary cortical neurons and human astrocytes. We show that a single injection of rapamycin, inhibited p62/SQSTM1, a marker of autophagy, inhibited mTORC1 downstream effector p70S6K, reduced macrophage/neutrophil infiltration into the lesion site, microglia activation and secretion of TNFα. Rapamycin inhibited astrocyte proliferation and reduced the number of GFAP expressing cells at the lesion site. Finally, it increased neuronal survival and axonogenesis towards the lesion site. Our study shows that rapamycin treatment increased significantly p-Akt levels at the lesion site following SCI. Similarly, rapamycin treatment of neurons and astrocytes induced p-Akt elevation under stress conditions. Together, these findings indicate that rapamycin is a promising candidate for treatment of acute SCI condition and may be a useful therapeutic agent. PMID:25936601

  18. Ginsenoside compound K promotes β-amyloid peptide clearance in primary astrocytes via autophagy enhancement.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinhui; Chang, Li; Zhang, Xin; Pei, Sujuan; Yu, Meishuang; Gao, Jianlian

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ginsenoside compound K on β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide clearance in primary astrocytes. Aβ degradation in primary astrocytes was determined using an intracellular Aβ clearance assay. Aggregated LC3 in astrocyte cells, which is a marker for the level of autophagy, was detected using laser scanning confocal microscope. The effect of compound K on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/autophagy pathway was determined using western blot analysis, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for Aβ detection. The results demonstrated that compound K promoted the clearance of Aβ and enhanced autophagy in primary astrocytes. In addition, it was found that phosphorylation of mTOR was inhibited by compound K, which may have contributed to the enhanced autophagy. In conclusion, compound K promotes Aβ clearance by enhancing autophagy via the mTOR signaling pathway in primary astrocytes. PMID:25187838

  19. Acute stress enhances adult rat hippocampal neurogenesis and activation of newborn neurons via secreted astrocytic FGF2

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Elizabeth D; Muroy, Sandra E; Sun, Wayne G; Covarrubias, David; Leong, Megan J; Barchas, Laurel A; Kaufer, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Stress is a potent modulator of the mammalian brain. The highly conserved stress hormone response influences many brain regions, particularly the hippocampus, a region important for memory function. The effect of acute stress on the unique population of adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) that resides in the adult hippocampus is unclear. We found that acute stress increased hippocampal cell proliferation and astrocytic fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) expression. The effect of acute stress occurred independent of basolateral amygdala neural input and was mimicked by treating isolated NPCs with conditioned media from corticosterone-treated primary astrocytes. Neutralization of FGF2 revealed that astrocyte-secreted FGF2 mediated stress-hormone-induced NPC proliferation. 2 weeks, but not 2 days, after acute stress, rats also showed enhanced fear extinction memory coincident with enhanced activation of newborn neurons. Our findings suggest a beneficial role for brief stress on the hippocampus and improve understanding of the adaptive capacity of the brain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00362.001 PMID:23599891

  20. Fluoxetine Requires the Endfeet Protein Aquaporin-4 to Enhance Plasticity of Astrocyte Processes.

    PubMed

    Di Benedetto, Barbara; Malik, Victoria A; Begum, Salina; Jablonowski, Lena; Gómez-González, Gabriela B; Neumann, Inga D; Rupprecht, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Morphological alterations in astrocytes are characteristic for post mortem brains of patients affected by major depressive disorder (MDD). Recently, a significant reduction in the coverage of blood vessels (BVs) by aquaporin-4 (AQP-4)-positive astrocyte endfeet has been shown in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of MDD patients, suggesting that either alterations in the morphology of endfeet or in AQP-4 distribution might be responsible for the disease phenotype or constitute a consequence of its progress. Antidepressant drugs (ADs) regulate the expression of several proteins, including astrocyte-specific ones. Thus, they may target AQP-4 to induce morphological changes in astrocytes and restore their proper shape or relocate AQP-4 to endfeet. Using an animal model of depression, rats selectively bred for high anxiety-like behavior (HAB), we confirmed a reduced coverage of BVs in the adult PFC by AQP-4-immunoreactive (AQP-4-IR) astrocyte processes with respect to non-selected Wistar rats (NAB), thereby validating it for our study. A further evaluation of the morphology of astrocyte in brain slices (ex vivo) and in vitro using an antibody against the astrocyte-specific cytoskeletal protein glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) revealed that HAB astrocytes extended less processes than NAB cells. Furthermore, short-term drug treatment in vitro with the AD fluoxetine (FLX) was sufficient to increase the plasticity of astrocyte processes, enhancing their number in NAB-derived cells and recovering their basal number in HAB-derived cells. This enhanced FLX-dependent plasticity occurred, however, only in the presence of intact AQP-4, as demonstrated by the lack of effect after the downregulation of AQP-4 with RNAi in both NAB and HAB cells. Nonetheless, a similar short-term treatment did neither modulate the coverage of BVs with AQP-4-positive astrocyte endfeet in NAB nor in HAB rats, although dosage and time of treatment were sufficient to fully recover GFAP expression in HAB

  1. Inhibition of mTOR pathway restrains astrocyte proliferation, migration and production of inflammatory mediators after oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Yu; Li, Xiao; Liu, Shuang-Feng; Qu, Wen-Sheng; Wang, Wei; Tian, Dai-Shi

    2015-01-01

    Glial scar is a major impediment to axonal regeneration in central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Overcoming this physical and biochemical barrier might be crucial for axonal regeneration and functional compensation during the progression of CNS disorders. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase, involved in process of cell proliferation, migration, autophagy and protein synthesis. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR signaling, can exert neuroprotective effects in several CNS diseases. However, its role in the process of reactive astrogliosis including cell proliferation, migration and cytokine production after cerebral ischemia still remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of mTOR blockade in cultured astrocytes exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R), a wildly used cellular ischemia model which mimics ideally cerebral ischemia model in vivo. We found that astrocytes became activated after OGD/R, characterized by change of astrocytic morphology, upregulation of GFAP expression, the increase number of Edu positive cells, and accompanied with phosphorylation of mTOR protein and its substrate S6K1. Rapamycin significantly inhibited mTOR signal pathway, suppressed proliferation of astrocytes via modulation of cell cycle progression. Moreover, rapamycin attenuated astrocytic migration and mitigated production of inflammatory factors such as TNF-α and iNOS induced by astrocytes exposed to OGD/R. Taken together, our findings indicated that mTOR blockade by rapamycin attenuates astrocyte migration, proliferation and production of inflammation mediators. We suggest that targeting mTOR pathway in astrocyte activation may represent a potentially new therapeutic strategy against deleterious neurotoxic processes of reactive astrogliosis in CNS disorders such as ischemic stroke. PMID:25770080

  2. Astrocytic TIMP-1 Promotes Oligodendrocyte Differentiation and Enhances CNS Myelination

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Craig S.; Milner, Richard; Nishiyama, Akiko; Frausto, Ricardo F.; Serwanski, David R.; Pagarigan, Roberto R.; Whitton, J. Lindsay; Miller, Robert H.; Crocker, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) is an extracellular protein and endogenous regulator of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) secreted by astrocytes in response to CNS myelin injury. We have previously reported that adult TIMP-1KO mice exhibit poor myelin repair following demyelinating injury. This observation led us to hypothesize a role for TIMP-1 in oligodendrogenesis and CNS myelination. Herein, we demonstrate that compact myelin formation is significantly delayed in TIMP-1KO mice which coincided with dramatically reduced numbers of white matter astrocytes in the developing CNS. Analysis of differentiation in CNS progenitor cells (neurosphere) cultures from TIMP-1KO mice revealed a specific deficit of NG2+ oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Application of rmTIMP-1 to TIMP-1KO neurosphere cultures evoked a dose-dependent increase in NG2+ cell numbers, while treatment with GM6001, a potent broad spectrum MMP inhibitor did not. Similarly, administration of recombinant murine TIMP-1 (rmTIMP-1) to A2B5+ immunopanned oligodendrocyte progenitors significantly increased the number of differentiated O1+ oligodendrocytes, while antisera to TIMP-1 reduced oligodendrocyte numbers. We also determined that A2B5+ oligodendrocyte progenitors grown in conditioned media derived from TIMP-1KO primary glial cultures resulted in reduced differentiation of mature O1+ oligodendrocytes. Finally, we report that addition of rmTIMP-1 to primary glial cultures resulted in a dose-dependent proliferative response of astrocytes. Together, these findings describe a previously uncharacterized role for TIMP-1 in the regulation of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes during development and provide a novel function for TIMP-1 on myelination in the developing CNS. PMID:21508247

  3. Enhancing Astrocytic Lysosome Biogenesis Facilitates Aβ Clearance and Attenuates Amyloid Plaque Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qingli; Yan, Ping; Ma, Xiucui; Liu, Haiyan; Perez, Ronaldo; Zhu, Alec; Gonzales, Ernesto; Burchett, Jack M.; Schuler, Dorothy R.; Cirrito, John R.

    2014-01-01

    In sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), impaired Aβ removal contributes to elevated extracellular Aβ levels that drive amyloid plaque pathogenesis. Extracellular proteolysis, export across the blood–brain barrier, and cellular uptake facilitate physiologic Aβ clearance. Astrocytes can take up and degrade Aβ, but it remains unclear whether this function is insufficient in AD or can be enhanced to accelerate Aβ removal. Additionally, age-related dysfunction of lysosomes, the major degradative organelles wherein Aβ localizes after uptake, has been implicated in amyloid plaque pathogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that enhancing lysosomal function in astrocytes with transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosome biogenesis, would promote Aβ uptake and catabolism and attenuate plaque pathogenesis. Exogenous TFEB localized to the nucleus with transcriptional induction of lysosomal biogenesis and function in vitro. This resulted in significantly accelerated uptake of exogenously applied Aβ42, with increased localization to and degradation within lysosomes in C17.2 cells and primary astrocytes, indicating that TFEB is sufficient to coordinately enhance uptake, trafficking, and degradation of Aβ. Stereotactic injection of adeno-associated viral particles carrying TFEB driven by a glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter was used to achieve astrocyte-specific expression in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Exogenous TFEB localized to astrocyte nuclei and enhanced lysosome function, resulting in reduced Aβ levels and shortened half-life in the brain interstitial fluid and reduced amyloid plaque load in the hippocampus compared with control virus-injected mice. Therefore, activation of TFEB in astrocytes is an effective strategy to restore adequate Aβ removal and counter amyloid plaque pathogenesis in AD. PMID:25031402

  4. Diclofenac enhances proinflammatory cytokine-induced nitric oxide production through NF-{kappa}B signaling in cultured astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kakita, Hiroki; Aoyama, Mineyoshi Hussein, Mohamed Hamed; Kato, Shin; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ito, Tetsuya; Togari, Hajime; Asai, Kiyofumi

    2009-07-01

    Recently, the number of reports of encephalitis/encephalopathy associated with influenza virus has increased. In addition, the use of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac sodium (DCF), is associated with a significant increase in the mortality rate of influenza-associated encephalopathy. Activated astrocytes are a source of nitric oxide (NO), which is largely produced by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in response to proinflammatory cytokines. Therefore, we investigated whether DCF enhances nitric oxide production in astrocytes stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines. We stimulated cultured rat astrocytes with three cytokines, interleukin-1{beta}, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and interferon-{gamma}, and then treated the astrocytes with DCF or acetaminophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol: APAP). iNOS and NO production in astrocyte cultures were induced by proinflammatory cytokines. The addition of DCF augmented NO production, but the addition of APAP did not. NF-{kappa}B inhibitors SN50 and MG132 inhibited iNOS gene expression in cytokine-stimulated astrocytes with or without DCF. Similarly, NF-{kappa}B p65 Stealth small interfering RNA suppressed iNOS gene expression in cytokine-stimulated astrocytes with or without DCF. LDH activity and DAPI staining showed that DCF induces cell damage in cytokine-stimulated astrocytes. An iNOS inhibitor, L-NMMA, inhibited the cytokine- and DCF-induced cell damage. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that iNOS and NO are induced in astrocyte cultures by proinflammatory cytokines. Addition of DCF further augments NO production. This effect is mediated via NF-{kappa}B signaling and leads to cell damage. The enhancement of DCF on NO production may explain the significant increase in the mortality rate of influenza-associated encephalopathy in patients treated with DCF.

  5. Endothelial cell-derived nitric oxide enhances aerobic glycolysis in astrocytes via HIF-1α-mediated target gene activation.

    PubMed

    Brix, Britta; Mesters, Jeroen R; Pellerin, Luc; Jöhren, Olaf

    2012-07-11

    Astrocytes exhibit a prominent glycolytic activity, but whether such a metabolic profile is influenced by intercellular communication is unknown. Treatment of primary cultures of mouse cortical astrocytes with the nitric oxide (NO) donor DetaNONOate induced a time-dependent enhancement in the expression of genes encoding various glycolytic enzymes as well as transporters for glucose and lactate. Such an effect was shown to be dependent on the hypoxia-inducible factor HIF-1α, which is stabilized and translocated to the nucleus to exert its transcriptional regulation. NO action was dependent on both the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MEK signaling pathways and required the activation of COX, but was independent of the soluble guanylate cyclase pathway. Furthermore, as a consequence of NO treatment, an enhanced lactate production and release by astrocytes was evidenced, which was prevented by downregulating HIF-1α. Several brain cell types represent possible sources of NO. It was found that endothelial cells, which express the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) isoform, constitutively produced the largest amount of NO in culture. When astrocytes were cocultured with primary cultures of brain vascular endothelial cells, stabilization of HIF-1α and an enhancement in glucose transporter-1, hexokinase-2, and monocarboxylate transporter-4 expression as well as increased lactate production was found in astrocytes. This effect was inhibited by the NOS inhibitor l-NAME and was not seen when astrocytes were cocultured with primary cultures of cortical neurons. Our findings suggest that endothelial cell-derived NO participates to the maintenance of a high glycolytic activity in astrocytes mediated by astrocytic HIF-1α activation. PMID:22787058

  6. Overexpression of miR-506 suppresses proliferation and promotes apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells by targeting astrocyte elevated gene-1

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jie; Qin, Li; Miao, Sen; Wang, Xiangshan; Wu, Xuejian

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that microRNAs (miRs) are implicated in tumor development and progression; however, their specific roles in osteosarcoma are not well understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of miR-506 in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. The expression levels of miR-506 and astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) mRNA were detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the protein levels of AEG-1, β-catenin, c-myc and cyclin D1 were determined using western blot analysis. The effects of miR-506 and AEG-1 on cell viability, colony forming ability and apoptosis were assessed using MTT assay, colony formation assay, and flow cytometry, respectively. Lucifer reporter assays were used to demonstrate whether AEG-1 is a direct target of miR-506. The present study identified that miR-506 was downregulated in osteosarcoma tissues and cells. Overexpression of miR-506 suppressed the proliferation and induced apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells in vitro and inhibited tumor formation in vivo. Overexpression of miR-506 significantly inhibited the luciferase activity of AEG-1 with a wild-type 3′-untranslated region, providing clear evidence that AEG-1 was a direct and functional downstream target of miR-506. Similar to the overexpression of miR-506, downregulation of AEG-1 lead to an inhibitory effect on osteosarcoma in vitro. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-506 or downregulation of AEG-1 inhibited the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and inhibition of this pathway by β-catenin small interfering RNA or CGP049090, a small molecule inhibitor, suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in vitro. Overall, the present data indicated that miR-506 functions as a tumor suppressor by targeting AEG-1 in osteosarcoma via the regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:27602115

  7. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes are released from astrocytes and increase astrocyte proliferation and glial fibrillary acidic protein via cys-LT1 receptors and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Ciccarelli, Renata; D'Alimonte, Iolanda; Santavenere, Clara; D'Auro, Mariagrazia; Ballerini, Patrizia; Nargi, Eleonora; Buccella, Silvana; Nicosia, Simonetta; Folco, Giancarlo; Caciagli, Francesco; Di Iorio, Patrizia

    2004-09-01

    Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs), potent mediators in inflammatory diseases, are produced by nervous tissue, but their cellular source and role in the brain are not very well known. In this report we have demonstrated that rat cultured astrocytes express the enzymes (5'-lipoxygenase and LTC(4) synthase) required for cys-LT production, and release cys-LTs in resting condition and, to a greater extent, in response to calcium ionophore A23187, 1 h combined oxygen-glucose deprivation or 2-methyl-thioATP, a selective P2Y(1)/ATP receptor agonist. MK-886, a LT synthesis inhibitor, prevented basal and evoked cys-LT release. In addition, 2-methyl-thioATP-induced cys-LT release was abolished by suramin, a P2 receptor antagonist, or by inhibitors of ATP binding cassette proteins involved in cys-LT release. We also showed that astrocytes express cys-LT(1) and not cys-LT(2) receptors. The stimulation of these receptors by LTD(4) activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. This effect was: (i) insensitive to inhibitors of receptor-coupled Gi protein (pertussis toxin) or tyrosine kinase receptors (genistein); (ii) abolished by MK-571, a cys-LT(1) selective receptor antagonist, or PD98059, a MAPK inhibitor; (iii) reduced by inhibitors of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (KN-93), Ca(2+)-dependent and -independent (GF102903X) or Ca(2+)-dependent (Gö6976) protein kinase C isoforms. LTD(4) also increased astrocyte proliferation and glial fibrillary acidic protein content, which are considered hallmarks of reactive astrogliosis. Both effects were counteracted by cell pretreatment with MK-571 or PD98059. Thus, cys-LTs released from astrocytes might play an autocrine role in the induction of reactive astrogliosis that, in brain injuries, contributes to the formation of a reparative glial scar. PMID:15355318

  8. [Enhanced control of proliferation in telomerized cells].

    PubMed

    Egorov, E E; Moldaver, M V; Vishniakova, Kh S; Terekhov, S M; Dashinimaev, E B; Cheglakov, I B; Toropygin, I Iu; Iarygin, K N; Chumakov, P M; Korochkin, L I; Antonova, G A; Rybalkina, E Iu; Saburina, I N; Burnaevskiĭ, N S; Zelenin, A V

    2007-01-01

    Clones of telomerized fibroblasts of adult human skin have earlier been obtained. It was shown that despite their fast growth in mass cultures, these cells poorly form colonies. Conditioned medium, antioxidants, and reduced partial oxygen pressure enhanced their colony formation, but not to the level characteristic of the initial cells. The conditioned medium of telomerized cells enhanced colony formation to a much greater extent than that of the initial cells. A study of proteome of the telomerized fibroblasts has revealed changes in the activities of tens of genes. A general trend consists in weakening and increased lability of the cytoskeleton and in activation of the mechanisms controlling protein degradation. However, these changes are not very pronounced. During the formation of immortal telomerized cells, selection takes place, which appears to determine changes in the expression of some genes. It was proposed that a decrease in the capacity of telomerized cells for colony formation is due to increased requirements of these cells to cell-cell contacts. The rate of cell growth reached that characteristic of mass cultures only in the largest colonies. In this respect, the telomerized fibroblasts resembled stem cells: they are capable of self-maintenance, but "escape" to differentiation in the absence of the corresponding microenvironment (niche), which is represented by other fibroblasts. Non-dividing cells in the test of colony formation should be regarded as differentiated cells, since they have no features of degradation, preserve their viability, actively move, grow, phagocytized debris, etc. It was also shown that telomerization did not prevent differentiation of myoblasts and human neural stem cells. Thus, the results obtained suggest the existence of normal mechanisms underlying the regulation of proliferation in the telomerized cells, which opens possibilities of their use in cell therapy, especially in the case of autotransplantation to senior people

  9. Proinflammatory cytokines and HIV-1 synergistically enhance CXCL10 expression in human astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rachel; Dhillon, Navneet K; Hegde, Sonia T; Yao, Honghong; Peng, Fuwang; Callen, Shannon; Chebloune, Yahia; Davis, Randall L; Buch, Shilpa J

    2009-05-01

    HIV encephalitis (HIVE), the pathologic correlate of HIV-associated dementia (HAD) is characterized by astrogliosis, cytokine/chemokine dysregulation, and neuronal degeneration. Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation is actively involved in the pathogenesis of HAD. In fact, the severity of HAD/HIVE correlates more closely with the presence of activated glial cells than with the presence and amount of HIV-infected cells in the brain. Astrocytes, the most numerous cell type within the brain, provide an important reservoir for the generation of inflammatory mediators, including interferon-gamma inducible peptide-10 (CXCL10), a neurotoxin and a chemoattractant, implicated in the pathophysiology of HAD. Additionally, the proinflammatory cytokines, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, are also markedly increased in CNS tissues during HIV-1 infection. In this study, we hypothesized that the interplay of host cytokines and HIV-1 could lead to enhanced expression of the toxic chemokine, CXCL10. Our findings demonstrate a synergistic induction of CXCL10 mRNA and protein in human astrocytes exposed to HIV-1 and the proinflammatory cytokines. Signaling molecules, including JAK, STATs, MAPK (via activation of Erk1/2, AKT, and p38), and NF-kappaB were identified as instrumental in the synergistic induction of CXCL10. Understanding the mechanisms involved in HIV-1 and cytokine-mediated up-regulation of CXCL10 could aid in the development of therapeutic modalities for HAD. PMID:18985732

  10. Progranulin enhances neural progenitor cell proliferation through glycogen synthase kinase 3β phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Nedachi, T; Kawai, T; Matsuwaki, T; Yamanouchi, K; Nishihara, M

    2011-06-30

    Progranulin (PGRN) is an estrogen-inducible growth factor thought to affect multiple processes in the CNS, including brain sexual differentiation, adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus, and development of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the precise physiological functions of PGRN in individual nerve cells are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to enhance the understanding of PGRN function in the CNS by investigating the effects of PGRN on neural progenitor cells (NPCs). We found that significant amounts of endogenous PGRN were secreted from isolated NPCs in cultures. To assess the bioactivities of endogenous and exogenous PGRN, we studied NPCs derived from wild-type mice (WT-NPCs) and PGRN-deficient mice (KO-NPCs). We found that proliferation of KO-NPCs was significantly enhanced by PGRN treatment; however, PGRN treatment apparently did not affect proliferation of WT-NPCs perhaps because of the high levels of endogenous PGRN expression. NPC death and asymmetric cellular division of KO-NPCs and WT-NPCs, which results in production of neural stem cells, astrocytes, or oligodendrocytes, were not affected by PGRN treatment. We also investigated the signaling mechanism(s) that mediate PGRN-induced NPC proliferation and found that phosphorylation of serine 9 (S9) of glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK3β), which was dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, was induced by PGRN treatment. In addition, a GSK3β-specific inhibitor enhanced NPC proliferation. Taken together, our observations indicate that PGRN enhanced NPC proliferation, at least in part, via inducing GSK3β phosphorylation. PMID:21540081

  11. Astrocytic CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein δ Regulates Neuronal Viability and Spatial Learning Ability via miR-135a.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yu-Yi; Ko, Chiung-Yuan; Wang, Wei-Jan; Wang, Shao-Ming; Gean, Po-Wu; Kuo, Yu-Min; Wang, Ju-Ming

    2016-08-01

    The progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been associated with astrocytes-induced neuroinflammation. However, the detailed mechanism of astrocytes associated with learning impairments and neuronal loss in AD is poorly defined. Here, we provide novel evidences that astrocytic miR-135a is critical for neuronal viability and spatial learning ability in vivo. The AppTg/Cebpd (-/-) mice showed a spatial learning improvement compared with the APPswe/PS1/E9 bigenic (AppTg) mice. miR-135a was found to be a CCAAT/enhancer binding protein δ (CEBPD) responsive miRNA and can repress the transcription of thrombospondin 1 (THBS1) / Thbs1 (mouse) via its 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR). We used different experimental approaches to attenuate the expression of CEBPD/Cebpd (mouse) or miR-135a in astrocytes and found the following results: increase in THBS1/Thbs1 expression, decrease in neuronal apoptosis, and increase in growth of neurites. Importantly, injection of miR-135a antagonist (AM135a) into the brain of AppTg mice was found to prevent neuronal apoptosis and improved the spatial learning ability. Together, our findings demonstrate a critical function for the astrocytic CEBPD, and point to miR-135a antagonist as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26208701

  12. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 enhances neural stem cell proliferation and oligodendrocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Hasti Atashi; Rasouli, Javad; Ciric, Bogoljub; Rostami, Abdolmohamad; Zhang, Guang-Xian

    2015-04-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) has recently been found to suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although its effect was attributed to an anti-inflammatory mechanism, it is not clear whether this treatment can also directly act on neural cells to promote CNS recovery. The present study investigates the effect of various concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3 on neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and their differentiation to oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells. We have, for the first time, shown that NSCs constitutively express vitamin D receptor (VDR), which can be upregulated by 1,25(OH)2D3. This vitamin significantly enhanced proliferation of NSCs, and enhanced their differentiation into neurons and oligodendrocytes, but not astrocytes. NSCs treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 showed increased expression of NT-3, BDNF, GDNF and CNTF, important neurotrophic factors for neural cell survival and differentiation. Overall, we demonstrated that 1,25(OH)2D3 has a direct effect on NSC proliferation, survival, and neuron/oligodendrocyte differentiation, thus representing a novel mechanism underlying its remyelinating and neuroprotective effect in MS/EAE therapy. PMID:25681066

  13. Differentiation of purified astrocytes in a chemically defined medium

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, R.S.; de Vellis, J.

    1981-01-01

    Homogeneous cultures of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes provide an excellent model system for studying the regulation of glial structure and function. Recently, a chemically defined (CD) medium was developed for purified cultures of astrocytes, thus eliminating the requirement for serum and providing a controlled system for the study of astroglial properties. Due to the widespread use of astrocyte cultures and the potential benefits to be gained from using a defined medium, astrocyte cultures raised in CD medium were analyzed for purity as well as morphological and biochemical properties. Purity was assessed using immunocytochemical staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and fibronectin. Astrocytes raised in CD medium are 95% pure using the expression of GFAP as a criterion. Fewer than 1% of the cells in CD medium stained positive for fibronectin eliminating the possibility that CD medium is selective for meningeal or endothelial cells. Astrocytes raised in CD medium exhibit a striking degree of morphological differentiation as seen in scanning electron micrographs. They also exhibit a high degree of biochemical differentiation illustrated by increases in the specific activity of S-100 protein and the induction of glutamine synthetase by glucocorticoids. A defined medium that supports the proliferation of rat astrocytes and enhances numerous morphological and biochemical properties should greatly facilitate the study of factors controlling glial proliferation and differentiation.

  14. Predominant enhancement of glucose uptake in astrocytes versus neurons during activation of the somatosensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Chuquet, Julien; Quilichini, Pascale; Nimchinsky, Esther A.; Buzsáki, György

    2010-01-01

    Glucose is the primary energetic substrate of the brain and measurements of its metabolism are the basis of major functional cerebral imaging methods. Contrary to the general view that neurons are fueled solely by glucose in proportion to their energetic needs, recent in vitro and ex vivo analyses suggest that glucose preferentially feeds astrocytes. However, the cellular fate of glucose in the intact brain has not yet been directly observed. We have used a real-time method for measuring glucose uptake in astrocytes and neurons in vivo in male rats by imaging the trafficking of the non-metabolizable glucose analog 6-NBDG using two-photon microscopy. During resting conditions we found that astrocytes and neurons both uptake 6-NBDG at the same rate in the barrel cortex of the rat. However, during intense neuronal activity triggered by whisker stimulation, astrocytes rapidly accelerated their uptake whereas neuronal uptake remained almost unchanged. Following the stimulation period, astrocytes returned to their pre-activation rates of uptake paralleling the neuronal rate of uptake. These observations suggest that glucose is primarily taken-up by astrocytes, supporting the view that functional imaging experiments based on glucose analogs extraction may predominantly reflect the metabolic activity of the astrocytic network. PMID:21068334

  15. Proliferation inhibition of astrocytes, neurons, and non-glial cells by intracellularly expressed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Betty Y; He, Johnny J

    2004-04-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein is one of the soluble neurotoxins. Most studies have to date focused on Tat as an extracellular molecule and its role in neuronal apoptosis, as recombinant Tat protein is often used in these studies. In this study, we expressed Tat protein in astrocytes and neurons, and examined its effects on these cells. We found that Tat expression resulted in growth inhibition of astrocytes, neurons, as well as non-glial cells 293T. We further showed that Tat interacted with a number of cell cycle-related proteins including cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D3, Cdk2, Cdk4, Cdk1/Cdc2, cdc6, p27, p53, p63, hdlg, and PCNA. These data demonstrate that Tat inhibited cell proliferation when expressed intracellularly, and suggest that Tat interactions with multiple cell cycle regulators may account for this anti-proliferative effect. These results support the notion that Tat-induced neuropathogenesis is mediated by multiple mechanisms involving both intracellular and extracellular Tat protein. PMID:15050687

  16. The Modulation of Neurotrophin and Epigenetic Regulators: Implication for Astrocyte Proliferation and Neuronal Cell Apoptosis After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate alterations in the expression of the main regulators of neuronal survival and death related to astrocytes and neuronal cells in the brain in a mouse model of spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods Eight-week-old male imprinting control region mice (n=36; 30–35 g) were used in this study and randomly assigned to two groups: the naïve control group (n=18) and SCI group (n=18). The mice in both groups were randomly allocated to the following three time points: 3 days, 1 week, and 2 weeks (n=6 each). The expression levels of regulators such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), and methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP 2) in the brain were evaluated following thoracic contusive SCI. In addition, the number of neuronal cells in the motor cortex (M1 and M2 areas) and the number of astrocytes in the hippocampus were determined by immunohistochemistry. Results BDNF expression was significantly elevated at 2 weeks after injury (p=0.024). The GDNF level was significantly elevated at 3 days (p=0.042). The expression of HDAC1 was significantly elevated at 1 week (p=0.026). Following SCI, compared with the control the number of NeuN-positive cells in the M1 and M2 areas gradually and consistently decreased at 2 weeks after injury. In contrast, the number of astrocytes was significantly increased at 1 week (p=0.029). Conclusion These results demonstrate that the upregulation of BDNF, GDNF and HDAC1 might play on important role in brain reorganization after SCI. PMID:27606261

  17. Assessment of C-phycocyanin effect on astrocytes-mediated neuroprotection against oxidative brain injury using 2D and 3D astrocyte tissue model.

    PubMed

    Min, Seul Ki; Park, Jun Sang; Luo, Lidan; Kwon, Yeo Seon; Lee, Hoo Cheol; Shim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Ja-Kyeong; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2015-01-01

    Drugs are currently being developed to attenuate oxidative stress as a treatment for brain injuries. C-phycocyanin (C-Pc) is an antioxidant protein of green microalgae known to exert neuroprotective effects against oxidative brain injury. Astrocytes, which compose many portions of the brain, exert various functions to overcome oxidative stress; however, little is known about how C-Pc mediates the antioxidative effects of astrocytes. In this study, we revealed that C-Pc intranasal administration to the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats ensures neuroprotection of ischemic brain by reducing infarct size and improving behavioral deficits. C-Pc also enhanced viability and proliferation but attenuated apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) of oxidized astrocytes, without cytotoxicity to normal astrocytes and neurons. To elucidate how C-Pc leads astrocytes to enhance neuroprotection and repair of ischemia brain, we firstly developed 3D oxidized astrocyte model. C-Pc had astrocytes upregulate antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and catalase and neurotrophic factors BDNF and NGF, while alleviating inflammatory factors IL-6 and IL-1β and glial scar. Additionally, C-Pc improved viability of 3D oxidized neurons. In summary, C-Pc was concluded to activate oxidized astrocytes to protect and repair the ischemic brain with the combinatorial effects of improved antioxidative, neurotrophic, and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:26399322

  18. Assessment of C-phycocyanin effect on astrocytes-mediated neuroprotection against oxidative brain injury using 2D and 3D astrocyte tissue model

    PubMed Central

    Min, Seul Ki; Park, Jun Sang; Luo, Lidan; Kwon, Yeo Seon; Lee, Hoo Cheol; Jung Shim, Hyun; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Ja-Kyeong; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2015-01-01

    Drugs are currently being developed to attenuate oxidative stress as a treatment for brain injuries. C-phycocyanin (C-Pc) is an antioxidant protein of green microalgae known to exert neuroprotective effects against oxidative brain injury. Astrocytes, which compose many portions of the brain, exert various functions to overcome oxidative stress; however, little is known about how C-Pc mediates the antioxidative effects of astrocytes. In this study, we revealed that C-Pc intranasal administration to the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats ensures neuroprotection of ischemic brain by reducing infarct size and improving behavioral deficits. C-Pc also enhanced viability and proliferation but attenuated apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) of oxidized astrocytes, without cytotoxicity to normal astrocytes and neurons. To elucidate how C-Pc leads astrocytes to enhance neuroprotection and repair of ischemia brain, we firstly developed 3D oxidized astrocyte model. C-Pc had astrocytes upregulate antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and catalase and neurotrophic factors BDNF and NGF, while alleviating inflammatory factors IL-6 and IL-1β and glial scar. Additionally, C-Pc improved viability of 3D oxidized neurons. In summary, C-Pc was concluded to activate oxidized astrocytes to protect and repair the ischemic brain with the combinatorial effects of improved antioxidative, neurotrophic, and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:26399322

  19. CNTF-Treated Astrocyte Conditioned Medium Enhances Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel Activity in Rat Cortical Neurons.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meiqun; Liu, Hongli; Xu, Huanbai; Wang, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaojing

    2016-08-01

    Seizure activity is linked to astrocyte activation as well as dysfunctional cortical neuron excitability produced from changes in calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channel function. Ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte conditioned medium (CNTF-ACM) can be used to investigate the peripheral effects of activated astrocytes upon cortical neurons. However, CNTF-ACM's effect upon KCa channel activity in cultured cortical neurons has not yet been investigated. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were performed in rat cortical neurons to evaluate CNTF-ACM's effects upon charybdotoxin-sensitive large-conductance KCa (BK) channel currents and apamin-sensitive small-conductance KCa (SK) channel current. Biotinylation and RT-PCR were applied to assess CNTF-ACM's effects upon the protein and mRNA expression, respectively, of the SK channel subunits SK2 and SK3 and the BK channel subunits BKα1 and BKβ3. An anti-fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) monoclonal neutralizing antibody was used to assess the effects of the FGF-2 component of CNTF-ACM. CNTF-ACM significantly increased KCa channel current density, which was predominantly attributable to gains in BK channel activity (p < 0.05). CNTF-ACM produced a significant increase in BKα1 and BKβ3 expression (p < 0.05) but had no significant effect upon SK2 or SK3 expression (p > 0.05). Blocking FGF-2 produced significant reductions in KCa channel current density (p > 0.05) as well as BKα1 and BKβ3 expression in CNTF-ACM-treated neurons (p > 0.05). CNTF-ACM significantly enhances BK channel activity in rat cortical neurons and that FGF-2 is partially responsible for these effects. CNTF-induced astrocyte activation results in secretion of neuroactive factors which may affect neuronal excitability and resultant seizure activity in mammalian cortical neurons. PMID:27097551

  20. Graphene Enhances Cellular Proliferation through Activating the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Sun, Cheng; Liao, Chunyang; Cui, Lin; Li, Haishan; Qu, Guangbo; Yu, Wenlian; Song, Naining; Cui, Yuan; Wang, Zheng; Xie, Wenping; Chen, Huiming; Zhou, Qunfang

    2016-07-27

    Graphene has promising applications in food packaging, water purification, and detective sensors for contamination monitoring. However, the biological effects of graphene are not fully understood. It is necessary to clarify the potential risks of graphene exposure to humans through diverse routes, such as foods. In the present study, graphene, as the model nanomaterial, was used to test its potential effects on the cell proliferation based on multiple representative cell lines, including HepG2, A549, MCF-7, and HeLa cells. Graphene was characterized by Raman spectroscopy, particle size analysis, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The cellular responses to graphene exposure were evaluated using flow cytometry, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, and alamarBlue assays. Rat cerebral astrocyte cultures, as the non-cancer cells, were used to assess the potential cytotoxicity of graphene as well. The results showed that graphene stimulation enhanced cell proliferation in all tested cell cultures and the highest elevation in cell growth was up to 60%. A western blot assay showed that the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) was upregulated upon graphene treatment. The phosphorylation of EGF receptor (EGFR) and the downstream proteins, ShC and extracellular regulating kinase (ERK), were remarkably induced, indicating that the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK signaling pathway was triggered. The activation of PI3 kinase p85 and AKT showed that the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was also involved in graphene-induced cell proliferation, causing the increase of cell ratios in the G2/M phase. No influences on cell apoptosis were observed in graphene-treated cells when compared to the negative controls, proving the low cytotoxicity of this emerging nanomaterial. The findings in this study revealed the potential cellular biological effect of graphene, which may give useful hints on its biosafety

  1. Enhancing NAD+ Salvage Pathway Reverts the Toxicity of Primary Astrocytes Expressing Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-linked Mutant Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1).

    PubMed

    Harlan, Benjamin A; Pehar, Mariana; Sharma, Deep R; Beeson, Gyda; Beeson, Craig C; Vargas, Marcelo R

    2016-05-13

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) participates in redox reactions and NAD(+)-dependent signaling pathways. Although the redox reactions are critical for efficient mitochondrial metabolism, they are not accompanied by any net consumption of the nucleotide. On the contrary, NAD(+)-dependent signaling processes lead to its degradation. Three distinct families of enzymes consume NAD(+) as substrate: poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, ADP-ribosyl cyclases (CD38 and CD157), and sirtuins (SIRT1-7). Because all of the above enzymes generate nicotinamide as a byproduct, mammalian cells have evolved an NAD(+) salvage pathway capable of resynthesizing NAD(+) from nicotinamide. Overexpression of the rate-limiting enzyme in this pathway, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, increases total and mitochondrial NAD(+) levels in astrocytes. Moreover, targeting nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase to the mitochondria also enhances NAD(+) salvage pathway in astrocytes. Supplementation with the NAD(+) precursors nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinamide riboside also increases NAD(+) levels in astrocytes. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by the progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and motor cortex. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations account for up to 20% of familial ALS and 1-2% of apparently sporadic ALS cases. Primary astrocytes isolated from mutant human superoxide dismutase 1-overexpressing mice as well as human post-mortem ALS spinal cord-derived astrocytes induce motor neuron death in co-culture. Increasing total and mitochondrial NAD(+) content in ALS astrocytes increases oxidative stress resistance and reverts their toxicity toward co-cultured motor neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that enhancing the NAD(+) salvage pathway in astrocytes could be a potential therapeutic target to prevent astrocyte-mediated motor neuron death in ALS. PMID:27002158

  2. Corticosterone treatment results in enhanced release of peptidergic vesicles in astrocytes via cytoskeletal rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sreejata; Sikdar, Sujit K

    2013-12-01

    While the effect of stress on neuronal physiology is widely studied, its effect on the functionality of astrocytes is not well understood. We studied the effect of high doses of stress hormone corticosterone, on two physiological properties of astrocytes, i.e., gliotransmission and interastrocytic calcium waves. To study the release of peptidergic vesicles from astrocytes, hippocampal astrocyte cultures were transfected with a plasmid to express pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) fused with the emerald green fluorescent protein (ANP.emd). The rate of decrease in fluorescence of ANP.emd on application of ionomycin, a calcium ionophore was monitored. Significant increase in the rate of calcium-dependent exocytosis of ANP.emd was observed with the 100 nM and 1 μM corticosterone treatments for 3 h, which depended on the activation of the glucocorticoid receptor. ANP.emd tagged vesicles exhibited increased mobility in astrocyte culture upon corticosterone treatment. Increasing corticosterone concentrations also resulted in concomitant increase in the calcium wave propagation velocity, initiated by focal ATP application. Corticosterone treatment also resulted in increased GFAP expression and F-actin rearrangements. FITC-Phalloidin immunostaining revealed increased formation of cross linked F-actin networks with the 100 nM and 1 μM corticosterone treatment. Alternatively, blockade of actin polymerization and disruption of microtubules prevented the corticosterone-mediated increase in ANP.emd release kinetics. This study reports for the first time the effect of corticosterone on gliotransmission via modulation of cytoskeletal elements. As ANP acts on both neurons and blood vessels, modulation of its release could have functional implications in neurovascular coupling under pathophysiological conditions of stress. PMID:24123181

  3. ENHANCING ADVANCED CANDU PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE FUEL WITH MINOR ACTINIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Gray S. Chang

    2010-05-01

    The advanced nuclear system will significantly advance the science and technology of nuclear energy systems and to enhance the spent fuel proliferation resistance. Minor actinides (MA) are viewed more as a resource to be recycled, and transmuted to less hazardous and possibly more useful forms, rather than simply disposed of as a waste stream in an expensive repository facility. MAs can play a much larger part in the design of advanced systems and fuel cycles, not only as additional sources of useful energy, but also as direct contributors to the reactivity control of the systems into which they are incorporated. In this work, an Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) fuel unit lattice cell model with 43 UO2 fuel rods will be used to investigate the effectiveness of a Minor Actinide Reduction Approach (MARA) for enhancing proliferation resistance and improving the fuel cycle performance. The main MARA objective is to increase the 238Pu / Pu isotope ratio by using the transuranic nuclides (237Np and 241Am) in the high burnup fuel and thereby increase the proliferation resistance even for a very low fuel burnup. As a result, MARA is a very effective approach to enhance the proliferation resistance for the on power refueling ACR system nuclear fuel. The MA transmutation characteristics at different MA loadings were compared and their impact on neutronics criticality assessed. The concept of MARA, significantly increases the 238Pu/Pu ratio for proliferation resistance, as well as serves as a burnable absorber to hold-down the initial excess reactivity. It is believed that MARA can play an important role in atoms for peace and the intermediate term of nuclear energy reconnaissance.

  4. DNA topoisomerase II-alpha as a proliferation marker in astrocytic neoplasms of the central nervous system: correlation with MIB1 expression and patient survival.

    PubMed

    Holden, J A; Townsend, J J

    1999-12-01

    DNA topoisomerase II-alpha (topo II-alpha) is the target of a variety of clinically used anticancer drugs such as etoposide, teniposide, and doxorubicin. The enzyme has also been used as a cell proliferation marker. Because proliferation measurements in central nervous system (CNS) astrocytic neoplasms have been shown to have prognostic importance and because drugs targeting topo II-alpha may be useful in treating these tumors, we determined topo II-alpha expression in 26 patients with CNS astrocytomas. In these tumors, topo II-alpha expression correlated well with the known proliferation marker, MIB1 (correlation coefficient = 0.94). Topo II-alpha expression also correlated with the histologic classification of the tumor. Grade 1 lesions had an average topo II-alpha index of 2.1 (range, 0 to 3.4); grade 2 lesions, 4.0 (range, 0 to 11.4); grade 3 lesions, 17.3 (range, 3.8 to 69.8); and grade 4 lesions (glioblastoma multiforme), 39.5 (range, 14.8 to 84.0). The average topo II-alpha and MIB1 index of patients alive two years after diagnosis was 8.8 (range, 0 to 45.6) and 11.8 (range, 0.2 to 44.0), respectively. In contrast, the average topo II-alpha and MIB1 index of 30.5 (range, 2.8 to 69.8) and 33.8 (range, 2.2 to 84.6), respectively, was observed in tumors from patients who were dead from disease by two years. The topo II-alpha index between patients alive and dead at two years was statistically different at the 95% confidence level. The MIB1 differences between these two groups of patients was not found to be statistically different. PMID:10619260

  5. Aquaporin-4 knockout enhances astrocyte toxicity induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion and Lipopolysaccharide via increasing the expression of cytochrome P4502E1

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Chunshu; Liu, Wei; Luan, Xiaofei; Li, Yang; Gui, Haiyan; Peng, Yan; Shen, Jianping; Hu, Gang; Yang, Jian

    2010-01-01

    The role of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in the regulation of astrocytes function has been widely investigated. However, there is little information about its contribution to the drug metabolism enzymes such as Cytochrome P4502E1. In the present study, we investigated whether AQP4 is involved in the process of the cell damage caused by MPP+ and LPS through regulating the expression of CYP2E1 in astrocytes. Compared to the wild-type, in primary astrocytes, AQP4 knockout increased the cell damage and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production which were induced by MPP+, LPS and ethanol. Notably, AQP4 knockout enhanced the up-regulation of the expression of CYP2E1 in astrocytes exposed to MPP+, LPS and ethanol. Furthermore, Diallylsulphide (DAS), a CYP2E1 inhibitor, partially or almost abolished the cell injury and the ROS production of the astrocytes induced by MPP+ and LPS. These findings indicate AQP4 protects astrocytes from the damage caused by MPP+ and LPS through reducing the ROS production correlation to the diminished expression of CYP2E1. PMID:20615459

  6. Enhancing VVER Annular Proliferation Resistance Fuel with Minor Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang

    2007-06-01

    Key aspects of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) are to significantly advance the science and technology of nuclear energy systems and the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) program. The merits of nuclear energy are the high-density energy, and low environmental impacts i.e. almost zero greenhouse gas emission. Planned efforts involve near-term and intermediate-term improvements in fuel utilization and recycling in current LWR as well as the longer-term development of new nuclear energy systems that offer much improved fuel utilization and proliferation resistance, along with continued advances in operational safety. The challenges are solving the energy needs of the world, protection against nuclear proliferation, the problem of nuclear waste, and the global environmental problem. To reduce the spent fuel for storage and enhance the proliferation resistance for the intermediate-term, there are two major approaches (a) increase the discharged spent fuel burnup in the advanced LWR (Gen-III Plus), which not only can reduce the spent fuel for storage, but also increase the 238Pu and 240Pu isotopes ratio to enhance the proliferation resistance, (b) use of transuranic nuclides (237Np and 241Am) in the high burnup fuel, which can drastically increase the proliferation resistance isotope 238Pu /Pu ratio. For future advanced nuclear systems, the minor actinides are viewed more as a resource to be recycled, or transmuted to less hazardous and possibly more useful forms, rather than simply as a waste stream to be disposed of in expensive repository facilities. In this paper, a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) VVER-1000 annular fuel unit lattice cell model with UO2 fuel pins will be used to investigate the effectiveness of minor actinide reduction approach (MARA) for enhancing proliferation resistance and improving the fuel cycle performance. We concluded that the concept of MARA, involves the use of transuranic nuclides (237Np and/or 241Am), can not only drastically

  7. Enhancing BWR Proliferation Resistance Fuel with Minor Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Gray S. Chang

    2009-03-01

    To reduce spent fuel for storage and enhance the proliferation resistance for the intermediate-term, there are two major approaches (a) increase the discharged spent fuel burnup in the advanced light water reactor- LWR (Gen-III Plus), which not only can reduce the spent fuel for storage, but also increase the 238Pu isotopes ratio to enhance the proliferation resistance, and (b) use of transuranic nuclides (237Np and 241Am) in the high burnup fuel, which can drastically increase the proliferation resistance isotope ratio of 238Pu/Pu. For future advanced nuclear systems, minor actinides (MA) are viewed more as a resource to be recycled, and transmuted to less hazardous and possibly more useful forms, rather than simply disposed of as a waste stream in an expensive repository facility. As a result, MAs play a much larger part in the design of advanced systems and fuel cycles, not only as additional sources of useful energy, but also as direct contributors to the reactivity control of the systems into which they are incorporated. In the study, a typical boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel unit lattice cell model with UO2 fuel pins will be used to investigate the effectiveness of minor actinide reduction approach (MARA) for enhancing proliferation resistance and improving the fuel cycle performance in the intermediate-term goal for future nuclear energy systems. To account for the water coolant density variation from the bottom (0.76 g/cm3) to the top (0.35 g/cm3) of the core, the axial coolant channel and fuel pin were divided to 24 nodes. The MA transmutation characteristics at different elevations were compared and their impact on neutronics criticality discussed. The concept of MARA, which involves the use of transuranic nuclides (237Np and/or 241Am), significantly increases the 238Pu/Pu ratio for proliferation resistance, as well as serves as a burnable absorber to hold-down the initial excess reactivity. It is believed that MARA can play an important role in atoms

  8. Enhancing BWR proliferation resistance fuel with minor actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Gray S.

    2009-03-01

    To reduce spent fuel for storage and enhance the proliferation resistance for the intermediate-term, there are two major approaches (a) increase the discharged spent fuel burnup in the advanced light water reactor- LWR (Gen-III Plus), which not only can reduce the spent fuel for storage, but also increase the 238Pu isotopes ratio to enhance the proliferation resistance, and (b) use of transuranic nuclides ( 237Np and 241Am) in the high burnup fuel, which can drastically increase the proliferation resistance isotope ratio of 238Pu/Pu. For future advanced nuclear systems, minor actinides (MA) are viewed more as a resource to be recycled, and transmuted to less hazardous and possibly more useful forms, rather than simply disposed of as a waste stream in an expensive repository facility. As a result, MAs play a much larger part in the design of advanced systems and fuel cycles, not only as additional sources of useful energy, but also as direct contributors to the reactivity control of the systems into which they are incorporated. In the study, a typical boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel unit lattice cell model with UO 2 fuel pins will be used to investigate the effectiveness of minor actinide reduction approach (MARA) for enhancing proliferation resistance and improving the fuel cycle performance in the intermediate-term goal for future nuclear energy systems. To account for the water coolant density variation from the bottom (0.76 g/cm 3) to the top (0.35 g/cm 3) of the core, the axial coolant channel and fuel pin were divided to 24 nodes. The MA transmutation characteristics at different elevations were compared and their impact on neutronics criticality discussed. The concept of MARA, which involves the use of transuranic nuclides ( 237Np and/or 241Am), significantly increases the 238Pu/Pu ratio for proliferation resistance, as well as serves as a burnable absorber to hold-down the initial excess reactivity. It is believed that MARA can play an important role in

  9. Enhancing BWR Proliferation Resistance Fuel with Minor Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Gray S. Chang

    2008-07-01

    Key aspects of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) are to significantly advance the science and technology of nuclear energy systems and the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) program. It consists of both innovative nuclear reactors and innovative research in separation and transmutation. To accomplish these goals, international cooperation is very important and public acceptance is crucial. The merits of nuclear energy are high-density energy, with low environmental impacts (i.e. almost zero greenhouse gas emission). Planned efforts involve near-term and intermediate-term improvements in fuel utilization and recycling in current light water reactors (LWRs) as well as the longer-term development of new nuclear energy systems that offer much improved fuel utilization and proliferation resistance, along with continued advances in operational safety. The challenges are solving the energy needs of the world, protection against nuclear proliferation, the problem of nuclear waste, and the global environmental problem. To reduce spent fuel for storage and enhance the proliferation resistance for the intermediate-term, there are two major approaches (a) increase the discharged spent fuel burnup in the advanced LWR (Gen-III Plus), which not only can reduce the spent fuel for storage, but also increase the 238Pu and 240Pu isotopes ratio to enhance the proliferation resistance, and (b) use of transuranic nuclides (237Np and 241Am) in the high burnup fuel, which can drastically increase the proliferation resistance isotope ratio of 238Pu /Pu. For future advanced nuclear systems, the minor actinides (MA) are viewed more as a resource to be recycled, or transmuted to less hazardous and possibly more useful forms, rather than simply as a waste stream to be disposed of in expensive repository facilities. As a result, MAs play a much larger part in the design of advanced systems and fuel cycles, not only as additional sources of useful energy, but also as direct contributors to the

  10. Enhanced osteoblast proliferation and collagen gene expression by estradiol

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest, M.; Schmid, Ch.; Froesch, E.R. )

    1988-04-01

    Estrogens play a crucial role in the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, the mechanism by which estrogens exert their effects on bone is unknown. To examine possible direct effects of 17{beta}-estradiol on bone-forming cells, the authors used pure rat osteoblast-like cells in vitro as a model. Osteoblast-like cells prepared from calvaria of newborn rats were cultured serum-free in methylcellulose-containing medium for 21 days. Osteoblast-like cells proliferate selectively into clonally derived cell clusters of spherical morphorlogy. 17{beta}-Estradiol at concentrations of 0.1 nM and 1 nM enhanced osteoblast-like cell proliferation by 41% and 68% above vehicle-treated controls. The biologically inactive stereoisomer 17{alpha}-estradiol (same concentrations) had no effect. Moreover, the antiestrogen tamoxifen abolished the stimulation of osteoblast-like cell proliferation by 17{beta}-estradiol. After 21 days of culture, RNA was prepared and analyzed in a dot-hybridization assay for the abundance of pro{alpha}1(I) collagen mRNA. Steady-state mRNA levels were increased in cultures treated with 17{beta}-estradiol in a dose-dependent manner with maximal stimulation at 1 nM and 10 nM. At the same concentrations, the percentage of synthesized protein (labeled by ({sup 3}H)proline pulse) that was digestible by collagenase was increased, indicating that 17{beta}-estradiol acts as pretranslational levels to enhance synthesis of bone collagen. These data show that the osteoblast is a direct target for 17{beta}-estradiol.

  11. Dynamic reactive astrocytes after focal ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Shinghua

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes are specialized and most numerous glial cell type in the central nervous system and play important roles in physiology. Astrocytes are also critically involved in many neural disorders including focal ischemic stroke, a leading cause of brain injury and human death. One of the prominent pathological features of focal ischemic stroke is reactive astrogliosis and glial scar formation associated with morphological changes and proliferation. This review paper discusses the recent advances in spatial and temporal dynamics of morphology and proliferation of reactive astrocytes after ischemic stroke based on results from experimental animal studies. As reactive astrocytes exhibit stem cell-like properties, knowledge of dynamics of reactive astrocytes and glial scar formation will provide important insights for astrocyte-based cell therapy in stroke. PMID:25657720

  12. GABA release by hippocampal astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Le Meur, Karim; Mendizabal-Zubiaga, Juan; Grandes, Pedro; Audinat, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    Astrocytes can directly influence neuronal activity through the release of various transmitters acting on membrane receptors expressed by neurons. However, in contrast to glutamate and ATP for instance, the release of GABA (γ-amino-butyric acid) by astrocytes is still poorly documented. Here, we used whole-cell recordings in rat acute brain slices and electron microscopy to test whether hippocampal astrocytes release the inhibitory transmitter GABA. We observed that slow transient inhibitory currents due to the activation of GABAA receptors occur spontaneously in principal neurons of the three main hippocampal fields (CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus). These currents share characteristics with the slow NMDA receptor-mediated currents previously shown to result from astrocytic glutamate release: they occur in the absence of synaptic transmission and have variable kinetics and amplitudes as well as low frequencies. Osmotic pressure reduction, known to enhance transmitter release from astrocytes, similarly increased the frequency of non-synaptic GABA and glutamate currents. Simultaneous occurrence of slow inhibitory and excitatory currents was extremely rare. Yet, electron microscopy examination of immunostained hippocampal sections shows that about 80% of hippocampal astrocytes [positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)] were immunostained for GABA. Our results provide quantitative characteristics of the astrocyte-to-neuron GABAergic signaling. They also suggest that all principal neurons of the hippocampal network are under a dual, excitatory and inhibitory, influence of astrocytes. The relevance of the astrocytic release of GABA, and glutamate, on the physiopathology of the hippocampus remains to be established. PMID:22912614

  13. Ammonia-induced senescence in cultured rat astrocytes and in human cerebral cortex in hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Görg, Boris; Karababa, Ayse; Shafigullina, Aygul; Bidmon, Hans J; Häussinger, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a frequent complication of liver cirrhosis and is due to a low-grade cerebral edema associated with oxidative/nitrosative stress. Recent reports suggest that cognitive impairment in cirrhotic patients may not resolve completely after an attack of manifest HE. As astrocyte dysfunction is central to the pathogenesis of HE and astrocytes are critically involved in synaptic plasticity, we tested for sustained impairment of astrocyte function by analyzing expression levels of senescence biomarkers in ammonia-treated cultured rat astrocytes and in postmortem brain samples from cirrhotic patients with or without HE. NH4 Cl time- and dose-dependently inhibited proliferation of cultured astrocytes by up to 45% (5 mmol/L, 72 h) and strongly increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. Inhibition of astrocyte proliferation by ammonia was mediated by a l-methionine sulfoximine-, oxidative stress-, and p38(MAPK) -dependent activation of p53 associated with enhanced transcription of cell cycle inhibitory genes GADD45α and p21. Mitochondria and the nucleus were identified as sources of oxygen radical formation after prolonged NH4 Cl exposure. Concurrently, NH4 Cl (5 mmol/L) treatment inhibited both epidermal growth factor- and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-induced proliferation as well as BDNF-mediated astrocyte morphology changes through downregulation of the respective growth factor receptors epidermal growth factor receptor and truncated tyrosine receptor kinase B. Increased mRNA expression levels of senescence-associated genes were also found in post mortem brain samples from patients with liver cirrhosis with HE, but not in those without HE. The data suggest that ammonia toxicity and HE are associated with premature astrocyte senescence, which may impair neurotransmission and contribute to persistence of cognitive disturbances after resolution of episodes of overt HE. PMID:25092802

  14. Rebamipide Delivered by Brushite Cement Enhances Osteoblast and Macrophage Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Pujari-Palmer, Michael; Pujari-Palmer, Shiuli; Engqvist, Håkan; Karlsson Ott, Marjam

    2015-01-01

    Many of the bioactive agents capable of stimulating osseous regeneration, such as bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), are limited by rapid degradation, a short bioactive half-life at the target site in vivo, or are prohibitively expensive to obtain in large quantities. Rebamipide, an amino acid modified hydroxylquinoline, can alter the expression of key mediators of bone anabolism, cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), BMP-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in diverse cell types such as mucosal and endothelial cells or chondrocytes. The present study investigates whether Rebamipide enhances proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts when delivered from brushite cement. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) quenching ability of Rebampide was tested in macrophages as a measure of bioactivity following drug release incubation times, up to 14 days. Rebamipide release from brushite occurrs via non-fickian diffusion, with a rapid linear release of 9.70% ±0.37% of drug per day for the first 5 days, and an average of 0.5%-1% per day thereafter for 30 days. Rebamipide slows the initial and final cement setting time by up to 3 and 1 minute, respectively, but does not significantly reduce the mechanical strength below 4% (weight percentage). Pre-osteoblast proliferation increases by 24% upon exposure to 0.4uM Rebamipide, and by up to 73% when Rebamipide is delivered via brushite cement. Low doses of Rebamipide do not adversely affect peak alkaline phosphatase activity in differentiating pre-osteoblasts. Rebamipide weakly stimulates proliferation in macrophages at low concentrations (118 ±7.4% at 1uM), and quenches ROS by 40-60%. This is the first investigation of Rebamipide in osteoblasts. PMID:26023912

  15. Role of Astrocytes in Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Coulter, Douglas A.; Steinhäuser, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes express ion channels, transmitter receptors, and transporters and, thus, are endowed with the machinery to sense and respond to neuronal activity. Recent studies have implicated that astrocytes play important roles in physiology, but these cells also emerge as crucial actors in epilepsy. Astrocytes are abundantly coupled through gap junctions allowing them to redistribute elevated K+ and transmitter concentrations from sites of enhanced neuronal activity. Investigation of specimens from patients with pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy and epilepsy models revealed alterations in expression, localization, and function of astroglial K+ and water channels. In addition, malfunction of glutamate transporters and the astrocytic glutamate-converting enzyme, glutamine synthetase, has been observed in epileptic tissue. These findings suggest that dysfunctional astrocytes are crucial players in epilepsy and should be considered as promising targets for new therapeutic strategies. PMID:25732035

  16. Local production of astrocytes in the cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Ge, W-P; Jia, J-M

    2016-05-26

    Astrocytes are the largest glial population in the mammalian brain. Astrocytes in the cerebral cortex are reportedly generated from four sources, namely radial glia, progenitors in the subventricular zone (SVZ progenitors), locally proliferating glia, and NG2 glia; it remains an open question, however, as to what extent these four cell types contribute to the substantial increase in astrocytes that occurs postnatally in the cerebral cortex. Here we summarize all possible sources of astrocytes and discuss their roles in this postnatal increase. In particular, we focus on astrocytes derived from local proliferation within the cortex. PMID:26343293

  17. Human neural stem cells promote proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells and enhance angiogenesis in ischemic rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Sun; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Seung U.; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of human neural stem cells into the dentate gyrus or ventricle of rodents has been reportedly to enhance neurogenesis. In this study, we examined endogenous stem cell proliferation and angiogenesis in the ischemic rat brain after the transplantation of human neural stem cells. Focal cerebral ischemia in the rat brain was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Human neural stem cells were transplanted into the subventricular zone. The behavioral performance of human neural stem cells-treated ischemic rats was significantly improved and cerebral infarct volumes were reduced compared to those in untreated animals. Numerous transplanted human neural stem cells were alive and preferentially localized to the ipsilateral ischemic hemisphere. Furthermore, 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine-labeled endogenous neural stem cells were observed in the subventricular zone and hippocampus, where they differentiated into cells immunoreactive for the neural markers doublecortin, neuronal nuclear antigen NeuN, and astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein in human neural stem cells-treated rats, but not in the untreated ischemic animals. The number of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine-positive ⁄ anti-von Willebrand factor-positive proliferating endothelial cells was higher in the ischemic boundary zone of human neural stem cells-treated rats than in controls. Finally, transplantation of human neural stem cells in the brains of rats with focal cerebral ischemia promoted the proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells and their differentiation into mature neural-like cells, and enhanced angiogenesis. This study provides valuable insights into the effect of human neural stem cell transplantation on focal cerebral ischemia, which can be applied to the development of an effective therapy for stroke. PMID:27073384

  18. Effects of diet-induced obesity and voluntary exercise in a tauopathy mouse model: implications of persistent hyperleptinemia and enhanced astrocytic leptin receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Koga, Shunsuke; Kojima, Ayako; Ishikawa, Chieko; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Arai, Kimihito; Yoshiyama, Yasumasa

    2014-11-01

    The number of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasing worldwide, and available drugs have shown limited efficacy. Hence, preventive interventions and treatments for presymptomatic AD are currently considered very important. Obesity rates have also been increasing dramatically and it is an independent risk factor of AD. Therefore, for the prevention of AD, it is important to elucidate the pathomechanism between obesity and AD. We generated high calorie diet (HCD)-induced obese tauopathy model mice (PS19), which showed hyperleptinemia but limited insulin resistance. HCD enhanced tau pathology and glial activation. Conversely, voluntary exercise with a running wheel normalized the serum leptin concentration without reducing body weight, and restored the pathological changes induced by HCD. Thus, we speculated that persistent hyperleptinemia played an important role in accelerating pathological changes in PS19 mice. Leptin primarily regulates food intake and body weight via leptin receptor b (LepRb). Interestingly, the nuclear staining for p-STAT3, which was activated by LepRb, was decreased in hippocampal neurons in HCD PS19 mice, indicating leptin resistance. Meanwhile, astroglial activation and the astrocytic expression of a short LepR isoform, LepRa, were enhanced in the hippocampus of HCD PS19 mice. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that leptin increased mRNA levels for pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β and TNF-α in primary cultured astrocytes from wild type and LepRb-deficient mice. These observations suggest that persistent hyperleptinemia caused by obesity induces astrocytic activation, astrocytic leptin hypersensitivity with enhanced LepRa expression, and enhanced inflammation, consequently accelerating tau pathology in PS19 mice. PMID:25132556

  19. Astrocyte cell lineage. II. Mouse fibrous astrocytes and reactive astrocytes in cultures have vimentin- and GFP-containing intermediate filaments.

    PubMed

    Fedoroff, S; White, R; Neal, J; Subrahmanyan, L; Kalnins, V I

    1983-04-01

    When cells from mouse neopallium are grown in colony cultures for 10-12 days, small cells with many processes, resembling normal fibrous astrocytes, form on top of the astrocyte precursor cells independently of the presence of dBcAMP in the culture medium. These cells are distinctly different from the much larger, previously described reactive astrocytes which also form in colony cultures and whose maturation is greatly enhanced by the presence of dBcAMP in the culture medium. Immunofluorescence studies showed that both vimentin-containing and glial filament protein (GFP)-containing intermediate filaments (IF) are present in the small normal fibrous astrocytes as well as in the larger reactive astrocytes. The vimentin-containing IF are assembled first in astrocyte precursor cells, whereas GFP-containing IF are assembled later toward the final stages of astrocyte differentiation both in vivo and in vitro. Thus in respect to the expression of the two types of IF, astrocyte differentiation in vitro closely resembles that in vivo. Parallel studies by electron microscopy showed that the vimentin-positive but GFP-negative astrocyte precursor cells contain single IF or small groups of IF, whereas in the more differentiated normal fibrous astrocytes and reactive astrocytes which are also GFP-positive, additional IF arranged in large bundles are present. PMID:6303521

  20. Cholinergic Enhancement of Cell Proliferation in the Postnatal Neurogenic Niche of the Mammalian Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Corns, Laura F.; Atkinson, Lucy; Daniel, Jill; Edwards, Ian J.; New, Lauryn

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The region surrounding the central canal (CC) of the spinal cord is a highly plastic area, defined as a postnatal neurogenic niche. Within this region are ependymal cells that can proliferate and differentiate to form new astrocytes and oligodendrocytes following injury and cerebrospinal fluid contacting cells (CSFcCs). The specific environmental conditions, including the modulation by neurotransmitters that influence these cells and their ability to proliferate, are unknown. Here, we show that acetylcholine promotes the proliferation of ependymal cells in mice under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Using whole cell patch clamp in acute spinal cord slices, acetylcholine directly depolarized ependymal cells and CSFcCs. Antagonism by specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonists or potentiation by the α7 containing nAChR (α7*nAChR) modulator PNU 120596 revealed that both α7*nAChRs and non‐α7*nAChRs mediated the cholinergic responses. Using the nucleoside analogue EdU (5‐ethynyl‐2'‐deoxyuridine) as a marker of cell proliferation, application of α7*nAChR modulators in spinal cord cultures or in vivo induced proliferation in the CC region, producing Sox‐2 expressing ependymal cells. Proliferation also increased in the white and grey matter. PNU 120596 administration also increased the proportion of cells coexpressing oligodendrocyte markers. Thus, variation in the availability of acetylcholine can modulate the rate of proliferation of cells in the ependymal cell layer and white and grey matter through α7*nAChRs. This study highlights the need for further investigation into how neurotransmitters regulate the response of the spinal cord to injury or during aging. Stem Cells 2015;33:2864–2876 PMID:26038197

  1. Disentangling the Role of Astrocytes in Alcohol Use Disorder.

    PubMed

    Adermark, Louise; Bowers, M Scott

    2016-09-01

    Several laboratories recently identified that astrocytes are critical regulators of addiction machinery. It is now known that astrocyte pathology is a common feature of ethanol (EtOH) exposure in both humans and animal models, as even brief EtOH exposure is sufficient to elicit long-lasting perturbations in astrocyte gene expression, activity, and proliferation. Astrocytes were also recently shown to modulate the motivational properties of EtOH and other strongly reinforcing stimuli. Given the role of astrocytes in regulating glutamate homeostasis, a crucial component of alcohol use disorder (AUD), astrocytes might be an important target for the development of next-generation alcoholism treatments. This review will outline some of the more prominent features displayed by astrocytes, how these properties are influenced by acute and long-term EtOH exposure, and future directions that may help to disentangle astrocytic from neuronal functions in the etiology of AUD. PMID:27476876

  2. Establishment of a luciferase assay-based screening system: Fumitremorgin C selectively inhibits cellular proliferation of immortalized astrocytes expressing an active form of AKT

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Lei; Sasai, Ken Akagi, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Shinya

    2008-08-29

    The AKT pathway is frequently activated in glioblastoma, and as such, inhibitors of this pathway could prove very useful as anti-glioblastoma therapies. Here we established immortalized astrocytes expressing Renilla luciferase as well as those expressing both an active form of AKT and firefly luciferase. Since both luciferase activities represent the numbers of corresponding cell lines, novel inhibitors of the AKT pathway can be identified by treating co-cultures containing the two types of luciferase-expressing cells with individual compounds. Indeed, such a screening system succeeded in identifying fumitremorgin C as an efficient inhibitor of the AKT pathway, which was further confirmed by the ability of fumitremorgin C to selectively inhibit the growth of immortalized astrocytes expressing an active form of AKT. The present study proposes a broadly applicable approach for identifying therapeutic agents that target the pathways and/or molecules responsible for cancer development.

  3. Podocalyxin expression in malignant astrocytic tumors.

    PubMed

    Hayatsu, Norihito; Kaneko, Mika Kato; Mishima, Kazuhiko; Nishikawa, Ryo; Matsutani, Masao; Price, Janet E; Kato, Yukinari

    2008-09-19

    Podocalyxin is an anti-adhesive mucin-like transmembrane sialoglycoprotein that has been implicated in the development of aggressive forms of cancer. Podocalyxin is also known as keratan sulfate (KS) proteoglycan. Recently, we revealed that highly sulfated KS or another mucin-like transmembrane sialoglycoprotein podoplanin/aggrus is upregulated in malignant astrocytic tumors. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between podocalyxin expression and malignant progression of astrocytic tumors. In this study, 51 astrocytic tumors were investigated for podocalyxin expression using immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry detected podocalyxin on the surface of tumor cells in six of 14 anaplastic astrocytomas (42.9%) and in 17 of 31 glioblastomas (54.8%), especially around proliferating endothelial cells. In diffuse astrocytoma, podocalyxin expression was observed only in vascular endothelial cells. Podocalyxin might be associated with the malignant progression of astrocytic tumors, and be a useful prognostic marker for astrocytic tumors. PMID:18639524

  4. Podocalyxin expression in malignant astrocytic tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Hayatsu, Norihito; Kaneko, Mika Kato; Mishima, Kazuhiko; Nishikawa, Ryo; Matsutani, Masao; Price, Janet E.; Kato, Yukinari

    2008-09-19

    Podocalyxin is an anti-adhesive mucin-like transmembrane sialoglycoprotein that has been implicated in the development of aggressive forms of cancer. Podocalyxin is also known as keratan sulfate (KS) proteoglycan. Recently, we revealed that highly sulfated KS or another mucin-like transmembrane sialoglycoprotein podoplanin/aggrus is upregulated in malignant astrocytic tumors. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between podocalyxin expression and malignant progression of astrocytic tumors. In this study, 51 astrocytic tumors were investigated for podocalyxin expression using immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry detected podocalyxin on the surface of tumor cells in six of 14 anaplastic astrocytomas (42.9%) and in 17 of 31 glioblastomas (54.8%), especially around proliferating endothelial cells. In diffuse astrocytoma, podocalyxin expression was observed only in vascular endothelial cells. Podocalyxin might be associated with the malignant progression of astrocytic tumors, and be a useful prognostic marker for astrocytic tumors.

  5. Nerve growth factor enhances Clara cell proliferation after lung injury.

    PubMed

    Sonar, S S; Schwinge, D; Kilic, A; Yildirim, A O; Conrad, M L; Seidler, K; Müller, B; Renz, H; Nockher, W A

    2010-07-01

    The lung epithelia facilitate wound closure by secretion of various cytokines and growth factors. Nerve growth factor (NGF) has been well described in airway inflammation; however, its likely role in lung repair has not been examined thus far. To investigate the repair function of NGF, experiments were performed in vitro using cultured alveolar epithelial cells and in vivo using a naphthalene-induced model of Clara epithelial cell injury. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments revealed airway epithelial cell proliferation following injury to be dependent on NGF and the expression of its receptor, tropomyosin-receptor-kinase A. Additionally, NGF also augmented in vitro migration of alveolar type II cells. In vivo, transgenic mice over-expressing NGF in Clara cells (NGFtg) did not reveal any proliferation or alteration in Clara cell phenotype. However, following Clara cell specific injury, proliferation was increased in NGFtg and impaired upon inhibition of NGF. Furthermore, NGF also promoted the expression of collagen I and fibronectin in vitro and in vivo during repair, where significantly higher levels were measured in re-epithelialising NGFtg mice. Our study demonstrates that NGF promotes the proliferation of lung epithelium in vitro and the renewal of Clara cells following lung injury in vivo. PMID:20075049

  6. Sparse short-distance connections enhance calcium wave propagation in a 3D model of astrocyte networks

    PubMed Central

    Lallouette, Jules; De Pittà, Maurizio; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Berry, Hugues

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, astrocytes have been considered to couple via gap-junctions into a syncytium with only rudimentary spatial organization. However, this view is challenged by growing experimental evidence that astrocytes organize as a proper gap-junction mediated network with more complex region-dependent properties. On the other hand, the propagation range of intercellular calcium waves (ICW) within astrocyte populations is as well highly variable, depending on the brain region considered. This suggests that the variability of the topology of gap-junction couplings could play a role in the variability of the ICW propagation range. Since this hypothesis is very difficult to investigate with current experimental approaches, we explore it here using a biophysically realistic model of three-dimensional astrocyte networks in which we varied the topology of the astrocyte network, while keeping intracellular properties and spatial cell distribution and density constant. Computer simulations of the model suggest that changing the topology of the network is indeed sufficient to reproduce the distinct ranges of ICW propagation reported experimentally. Unexpectedly, our simulations also predict that sparse connectivity and restriction of gap-junction couplings to short distances should favor propagation while long–distance or dense connectivity should impair it. Altogether, our results provide support to recent experimental findings that point toward a significant functional role of the organization of gap-junction couplings into proper astroglial networks. Dynamic control of this topology by neurons and signaling molecules could thus constitute a new type of regulation of neuron-glia and glia-glia interactions. PMID:24795613

  7. CCL5 activation of CCR5 regulates cell metabolism to enhance proliferation of breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Darrin; Rahbar, Ramtin; Fish, Eleanor N.

    2016-01-01

    In earlier studies, we showed that CCL5 enhances proliferation and survival of MCF-7 breast cancer cells in an mTOR-dependent manner and we provided evidence that, for T cells, CCL5 activation of CCR5 results in increased glycolysis and enhanced ATP production. Increases in metabolic activity of cancer cells, specifically increased glycolytic activity and increased expression of glucose transporters, are associated with tumour progression. In this report, we provide evidence that CCL5 enhances the proliferation of human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MCF-7) and mouse mammary tumour cells (MMTV-PyMT), mediated by CCR5 activation. Concomitant with enhanced proliferation we show that CCL5 increases cell surface expression of the glucose transporter GLUT1, and increases glucose uptake and ATP production by these cells. Blocking CCL5-inducible glucose uptake abrogates the enhanced proliferation induced by CCL5. We provide evidence that increased glucose uptake is associated with enhanced glycolysis, as measured by extracellular acidification. Moreover, CCL5 enhances the invasive capacity of these breast cancer cells. Using metabolomics, we demonstrate that the metabolic signature of CCL5-treated primary mouse mammary tumour cells reflects increased anabolic metabolism. The implications are that CCL5–CCR5 interactions in the tumour microenvironment regulate metabolic events, specifically glycolysis, to promote tumour proliferation and invasion. PMID:27335323

  8. CCL5 activation of CCR5 regulates cell metabolism to enhance proliferation of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Darrin; Rahbar, Ramtin; Fish, Eleanor N

    2016-06-01

    In earlier studies, we showed that CCL5 enhances proliferation and survival of MCF-7 breast cancer cells in an mTOR-dependent manner and we provided evidence that, for T cells, CCL5 activation of CCR5 results in increased glycolysis and enhanced ATP production. Increases in metabolic activity of cancer cells, specifically increased glycolytic activity and increased expression of glucose transporters, are associated with tumour progression. In this report, we provide evidence that CCL5 enhances the proliferation of human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MCF-7) and mouse mammary tumour cells (MMTV-PyMT), mediated by CCR5 activation. Concomitant with enhanced proliferation we show that CCL5 increases cell surface expression of the glucose transporter GLUT1, and increases glucose uptake and ATP production by these cells. Blocking CCL5-inducible glucose uptake abrogates the enhanced proliferation induced by CCL5. We provide evidence that increased glucose uptake is associated with enhanced glycolysis, as measured by extracellular acidification. Moreover, CCL5 enhances the invasive capacity of these breast cancer cells. Using metabolomics, we demonstrate that the metabolic signature of CCL5-treated primary mouse mammary tumour cells reflects increased anabolic metabolism. The implications are that CCL5-CCR5 interactions in the tumour microenvironment regulate metabolic events, specifically glycolysis, to promote tumour proliferation and invasion. PMID:27335323

  9. MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN THE ENHANCED SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SENESCENT RATS TO THE HEPATOCARCINOGENIC EFFECT OF PEROXISOME PROLIFERATORS: ROLE OF PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR ALPHA (PPARA), CELL PROLIFERATION AND OXIDATIVE STRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mechanisms involved in the ENHANCED SUSCEPTIBILITY of SENESCENT Rats TO THE HEPATOCARCINOGENIC EFFECT OF PEROXISOME PROLIFERATORS: Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa), cell proliferation and oxidative stress

    Jihan A. Youssef1, Pierre Ammann2, B...

  10. Enhanced expression of the calcium-sensing receptor in reactive astrocytes following ischemic injury in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pak, Ha-Jin; Riew, Tae-Ryong; Shin, Yoo-Jin; Choi, Jeong-Heon; Jin, Xuyan; Lee, Mun-Yong

    2016-07-15

    We recently demonstrated that the G protein-coupled calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is associated with the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke and may be involved in vascular remodeling and astrogliosis. To further substantiate the involvement of CaSR in the astroglial reaction common to ischemic insults, we investigated the temporal and cell type-specific expression patterns of CaSR in the hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia. CaSR was constitutively expressed in neurons of the pyramidal and granule cell layers, whereas increased CaSR immunoreactivity was observed in reactive astrocytes, but not in activated microglia or macrophages, in the CA1 region of the post-ischemic hippocampus. Astroglial induction of CaSR expression was evident on days 3-7 after reperfusion and appeared to increase progressively through day 28, at which time CaSR expression was prominent in astrocytes with a highly reactive hypertrophic phenotype and elevated levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein. This expression pattern was supported by results of immunoblot analyses. Furthermore, CaSR expression was upregulated in rat primary cortical astrocytes exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation, which undergo reactive gliosis-like changes. Thus, our results demonstrate that selective and long-lasting astroglial induction of CaSR expression is a common characteristic of ischemic injury and suggest its involvement in the ischemia-induced astroglial reaction. PMID:27288786

  11. Effects of fractionated radiation on the brain vasculature in a murine model: Blood-brain barrier permeability, astrocyte proliferation, and ultrastructural changes

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Hong; Gaber, M. Waleed . E-mail: wgaber@utmem.edu; Boyd, Kelli; Wilson, Christy M.; Kiani, Mohammad F.; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy of CNS tumors damages the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and normal brain tissue. Our aims were to characterize the short- and long-term effects of fractionated radiotherapy (FRT) on cerebral microvasculature in mice and to investigate the mechanism of change in BBB permeability in mice. Methods and Materials: Intravital microscopy and a cranial window technique were used to measure BBB permeability to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran and leukocyte endothelial interactions before and after cranial irradiation. Daily doses of 2 Gy were delivered 5 days/week (total, 40 Gy). We immunostained the molecules to detect the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and to demonstrate astrocyte activity in brain parenchyma. To relate the permeability changes to endothelial ultrastructural changes, we used electron microscopy. Results: Blood-brain barrier permeability did not increase significantly until 90 days after FRT, at which point it increased continuously until 180 days post-FRT. The number of adherent leukocytes did not increase during the study. The number of astrocytes in the cerebral cortex increased significantly; vesicular activity in endothelial cells increased beginning 90 days after irradiation, and most tight junctions stayed intact, although some were shorter and less dense at 120 and 180 days. Conclusions: The cellular and microvasculature response of the brain to FRT is mediated through astrogliosis and ultrastructural changes, accompanied by an increase in BBB permeability. The response to FRT is delayed as compared with single-dose irradiation treatment, and does not involve leukocyte adhesion. However, FRT induces an increase in the BBB permeability, as in the case of single-dose irradiation.

  12. PPARgamma agonist curcumin reduces the amyloid-beta-stimulated inflammatory responses in primary astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Mei; Zhao, Yan-Xin; Zhang, Shi; Liu, Gui-Dong; Kang, Wen-Yan; Tang, Hui-Dong; Ding, Jian-Qing; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Accumulating data indicate that astrocytes play an important role in the neuroinflammation related to the pathogenesis of AD. It has been shown that microglia and astrocytes are activated in AD brain and amyloid-beta (Abeta) can increase the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), interleukin-1, and interleukin-6. Suppressing the inflammatory response caused by activated astrocytes may help to inhibit the development of AD. Curcumin is a major constituent of the yellow curry spice turmeric and proved to be a potential anti-inflammatory drug in arthritis and colitis. There is a low age-adjusted prevalence of AD in India, a country where turmeric powder is commonly used as a culinary compound. Curcumin has been shown to suppress activated astroglia in amyloid-beta protein precursor transgenic mice. The real mechanism by which curcumin inhibits activated astroglia is poorly understood. Here we report that the expression of COX-2 and glial fibrillary acidic protein were enhanced and that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) was decreased in Abeta(25-35)-treated astrocytes. In line with these results, nuclear factor-kappaB translocation was increased in the presence of Abeta. All these can be reversed by the pretreatment of curcumin. Furthermore, GW9662, a PPARgamma antagonist, can abolish the anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin. These results show that curcumin might act as a PPARgamma agonist to inhibit the inflammation in Abeta-treated astrocytes. PMID:20413894

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Ischemia-Derived Astrocytes (IDAs) with Ability to Transactivate Quiescent Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Alejandro; Rosciszewski, Gerardo; Murta, Veronica; Cadena, Vanesa; Usach, Vanina; Dodes-Traian, Martin M.; Setton-Avruj, Patricia; Barbeito, Luis H.; Ramos, Alberto J.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive gliosis involving activation and proliferation of astrocytes and microglia, is a widespread but largely complex and graded glial response to brain injury. Astroglial population has a previously underestimated high heterogeneity with cells differing in their morphology, gene expression profile, and response to injury. Here, we identified a subset of reactive astrocytes isolated from brain focal ischemic lesions that show several atypical characteristics. Ischemia-derived astrocytes (IDAs) were isolated from early ischemic penumbra and core. IDA did not originate from myeloid precursors, but rather from pre-existing local progenitors. Isolated IDA markedly differ from primary astrocytes, as they proliferate in vitro with high cell division rate, show increased migratory ability, have reduced replicative senescence and grow in the presence of macrophages within the limits imposed by the glial scar. Remarkably, IDA produce a conditioned medium that strongly induced activation on quiescent primary astrocytes and potentiated the neuronal death triggered by oxygen-glucose deprivation. When re-implanted into normal rat brains, eGFP-IDA migrated around the injection site and induced focal reactive gliosis. Inhibition of gamma secretases or culture on quiescent primary astrocytes monolayers facilitated IDA differentiation to astrocytes. We propose that IDA represent an undifferentiated, pro-inflammatory, highly replicative and migratory astroglial subtype emerging from the ischemic microenvironment that may contribute to the expansion of reactive gliosis. Main Points: Ischemia-derived astrocytes (IDA) were isolated from brain ischemic tissue IDA show reduced replicative senescence, increased cell division and spontaneous migration IDA potentiate death of oxygen-glucose deprived cortical neurons IDA propagate reactive gliosis on quiescent astrocytes in vitro and in vivo Inhibition of gamma secretases facilitates IDA differentiation to astrocytes PMID:27313509

  14. Mixtures of four organochlorines enhance human breast cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, J; Scholze, M; Kortenkamp, A

    2001-01-01

    In view of the large differences between the concentrations of estrogenic chemicals needed to elicit effects in in vitro assays and their levels in human tissues, it is hard to explain possible health risks in terms of exposure to individual compounds. Human populations, however, are exposed to mixtures of estrogenic and estrogen-like agents and it is necessary to consider the impact of combined effects. We assessed the combined effects of 1-(o-chlorophenyl)-1-(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (o,p'-DDT), 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), and 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) on the induction of cell proliferation in MCF-7 cells. All four compounds are persistent organochlorines that can be found in human tissues. We performed extensive concentration-response analyses with the single agents to predict the effects of two mixtures of all four compounds with different mixture ratios. We calculated the predictions by using the pharmacologically well-founded models of concentration addition and independent action and then tested them experimentally. o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, beta-HCH, and p,p'-DDT acted together to produce proliferative effects in MCF-7 cells. The combined effect of the four agents could be predicted on the basis of data about single agent concentration-response relationships. Regression analysis demonstrated that there were combination effects even when each mixture component was present at levels at or below its individual no-observed-effect-concentration. We assessed combination effects in two ways: First, evaluations in relation to the proliferative responses induced by single mixture components revealed that the combination effects were stronger than the effects of the most potent constituent. Thus, according to this method of evaluation, the combined effects may be termed synergistic. Second, comparisons with the expected effects, as predicted by concentration

  15. Synaptic islands defined by the territory of a single astrocyte.

    PubMed

    Halassa, Michael M; Fellin, Tommaso; Takano, Hajime; Dong, Jing-Hui; Haydon, Philip G

    2007-06-13

    In the mammalian brain, astrocytes modulate neuronal function, in part, by synchronizing neuronal firing and coordinating synaptic networks. Little, however, is known about how this is accomplished from a structural standpoint. To investigate the structural basis of astrocyte-mediated neuronal synchrony and synaptic coordination, the three-dimensional relationships between cortical astrocytes and neurons was investigated. Using a transgenic and viral approach to label astrocytes with enhanced green fluorescent protein, we performed a three-dimensional reconstruction of astrocytes from tissue sections or live animals in vivo. We found that cortical astrocytes occupy nonoverlapping territories similar to those described in the hippocampus. Using immunofluorescence labeling of neuronal somata, a single astrocyte enwraps on average four neuronal somata with an upper limit of eight. Single-neuron dye-fills allowed us to estimate that one astrocyte contacts 300-600 neuronal dendrites. Together with the recent findings showing that glial Ca2+ signaling is restricted to individual astrocytes in vivo, and that Ca2+ signaling leads to gliotransmission, we propose the concept of functional islands of synapses in which groups of synapses confined within the boundaries of an individual astrocyte are modulated by the gliotransmitter environment controlled by that astrocyte. Our description offers a new structurally based conceptual framework to evaluate functional data involving interactions between neurons and astrocytes in the mammalian brain. PMID:17567808

  16. [Cordyceps sinensis enhances lymphocyte proliferation and CD markers expression in simulated microgravity environment].

    PubMed

    Hao, Tong; Li, Jun-Jie; Du, Zhi-Yan; Duan, Cui-Mi; Wang, Yan-Meng; Wang, Chang-Yong; Song, Jing-Ping; Wang, Lin-Jie; Li, Ying-Hui; Wang, Yan

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed to explore the effect of cordyceps sinensis enhancing lymphocyte proliferation and surface CD marker expression in simulated microgravity environment. The splenic lymphocytes were separated from mice and cultured in the rotary cell culture system simulated microgravity environment. The cells were treated with different concentration of cordyceps sinensis solution (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 µg/ml) for 24, 48 and 72 h respectively, then the cells were harvested, and analyzed for cell proliferation and the expression of cell surface markers (CD4 and CD8). The results showed that under simulated microgravity environment, the lymphocyte proliferation was inhibited. When the concentration of cordyceps sinensis was 25 or 50 µg/ml, the lymphocyte proliferation, CD4 and CD8 expressions all increased, but 50 µg/ml cordyceps sinensis could inhibit the proliferation ability with the time prolonging. It is concluded that the suitable concentration of cordyceps sinensis displayed the ability to enhance the lymphocyte proliferation and CD marker expression in simulated microgravity environment. These results may be valuable for screening drugs which can be potentially against immunosuppression under simulated microgravity. PMID:23114150

  17. Enhancement of CD3AK cell proliferation and killing ability by α-Thujone.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Liu, Jun-quan; Zhou, Zhong-hai; Lv, Xiao-ting; Chen, Yong-qiang; Sun, Lei-qing; Chen, Fu-xing

    2016-01-01

    Thujone is a monoterpene ketone natural substance found mainly in wormwood and sage. Previous studies have shown that Thujone has various pharmacological effects, such as anti-tumor, analgesic, and insecticide. The effect of α-Thujone to human immune cells is still unknown. Our study focuses on investigating the effects and mechanism of α-Thujone to CD3AK (anti- CD3 antibody induced activated killer) cells proliferation and cytotoxicity to colon cancer cell lines. With cell proliferation and FCM assay, it is found that α-Thujone could significantly enhance CD3AK cell proliferation and expression of CD107a in a dose-dependent manner. The cytotoxicity to colon cancer cells detected by CCK-8 assay is also improved. The expressions of TNF-α and FasL detected with ELISA assay were not significantly changed. Mechanically, the study shows that α-Thujone could enhance the expression of p-ERK1/2 and p-Akt. In addition, α-Thujone has no cytotoxicity to HCT116 and SW620 cells proliferation. In a word, α-Thujone enhances CD3AK cell proliferation and cytotoxicity via the improvement of expression of CD107a, p-Akt and p-ERK1/2. PMID:26655741

  18. YAP stabilizes SMAD1 and promotes BMP2-induced neocortical astrocytic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhihui; Hu, Jinxia; Pan, Jinxiu; Wang, Ying; Hu, Guoqing; Zhou, Jiliang; Mei, Lin; Xiong, Wen-Cheng

    2016-07-01

    ‪YAP (yes-associated protein), a key transcriptional co-factor that is negatively regulated by the Hippo pathway, is crucial for the development and size control of multiple organs, including the liver. However, its role in the brain remains unclear. Here, we provide evidence for YAP regulation of mouse neocortical astrocytic differentiation and proliferation. YAP was undetectable in neurons, but selectively expressed in neural stem cells (NSCs) and astrocytes. YAP in NSCs was required for neocortical astrocytic differentiation, with no apparent role in self-renewal or neural differentiation. However, YAP in astrocytes was necessary for astrocytic proliferation. Yap (Yap1) knockout, Yap(nestin) conditional knockout and Yap(GFAP) conditional knockout mice displayed fewer neocortical astrocytes and impaired astrocytic proliferation and, consequently, death of neocortical neurons. Mechanistically, YAP was activated by BMP2, and the active/nuclear YAP was crucial for BMP2 induction and stabilization of SMAD1 and astrocytic differentiation. Expression of SMAD1 in YAP-deficient NSCs partially rescued the astrocytic differentiation deficit in response to BMP2. Taken together, these results identify a novel function of YAP in neocortical astrocytic differentiation and proliferation, and reveal a BMP2-YAP-SMAD1 pathway underlying astrocytic differentiation in the developing mouse neocortex. PMID:27381227

  19. Astrocytes in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ludwin, Samuel K; Rao, Vijayaraghava Ts; Moore, Craig S; Antel, Jack P

    2016-08-01

    Recent experimental and clinical studies on astrocytes are unraveling the capabilities of these multi-functional cells in normal homeostasis, and in central nervous system (CNS) disease. This review focuses on understanding their behavior in all aspects of the initiation, evolution, and resolution of the multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion. Astrocytes display remarkable flexibility and variability of their physical structure and biochemical output, each aspect finely tuned to the specific stage and location of the disease, participating in both pathogenic and beneficial changes seen in acute and progressive forms. As examples, chemo-attractive or repulsive molecules may facilitate the entry of destructive immune cells but may also aid in the recruitment of oligodendrocyte precursors, essential for repair. Pro-inflammatory cytokines may attack pathogenic cells and also destroy normal oligodendrocytes, myelin, and axons. Protective trophic factors may also open the blood-brain barrier and modulate the extracellular matrix to favor recruitment and persistence of CNS-specific immune cells. A chronic glial scar may confer structural support following tissue loss and inhibit ingress of further noxious insults and also inhibit migration of reparative cells and molecules into the damaged tissue. Continual study into these processes offers the therapeutic opportunities to enhance the beneficial capabilities of these cells while limiting their destructive effects. PMID:27207458

  20. Nitrite circumvents canonical cGMP signaling to enhance proliferation of myocyte precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Totzeck, Matthias; Schicho, Andreas; Stock, Pia; Kelm, Malte; Rassaf, Tienush; Hendgen-Cotta, Ulrike B

    2015-03-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue has a remarkable high regenerative capacity. The underlying cellular events are governed by complex signaling processes, and the proliferation of skeletal myoblasts is a key initial event. The role of nitric oxide (NO) in cell cycle regulation is well-appreciated. Nitrite, an NO oxidation product, is a stable source for NO-like bioactivity particularly in cases when oxygen shortage compromises NO-synthases activity. Although numerous studies suggest that nitrite effects are largely related to NO-dependent signaling, emerging evidence also implicates that nitrite itself can activate protein pathways albeit under physiological, normoxic conditions. This includes a recently demonstrated cyclic guanosine monophosphate-(cGMP)-independent enhancement of endothelial cell proliferation. Whether nitrite itself has the potential to affect myoblast proliferation and metabolism with or without activation of the canonical NO/cGMP pathway to subsequently support muscle cell regeneration is not known. Here we show that nitrite increases proliferation and metabolic activity of murine cultured myoblasts dose-dependently. This effect is not abolished by the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxy-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimida-zoline-1-oxyl-3 oxide and does not affect intracellular cGMP levels, implicating a cGMP-independent mechanism. Nitrite circumvents the rapamycin induced attenuation of myoblast proliferation and enhances mTOR activity. Our results provide evidence for a novel potential physiological and therapeutic approach of nitrite in skeletal muscle regeneration processes under normoxia independent of NO and cGMP. PMID:25501648

  1. Microenvironmental stiffness enhances glioma cell proliferation by stimulating epidermal growth factor receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Umesh, Vaibhavi; Rape, Andrew D; Ulrich, Theresa A; Kumar, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The aggressive and rapidly lethal brain tumor glioblastoma (GBM) is associated with profound tissue stiffening and genomic lesions in key members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that increasing microenvironmental stiffness in culture can strongly enhance glioma cell behaviors relevant to tumor progression, including proliferation, yet it has remained unclear whether stiffness and EGFR regulate proliferation through common or independent signaling mechanisms. Here we test the hypothesis that microenvironmental stiffness regulates cell cycle progression and proliferation in GBM tumor cells by altering EGFR-dependent signaling. We began by performing an unbiased reverse phase protein array screen, which revealed that stiffness modulates expression and phosphorylation of a broad range of signals relevant to proliferation, including members of the EGFR pathway. We subsequently found that culturing human GBM tumor cells on progressively stiffer culture substrates both dramatically increases proliferation and facilitates passage through the G1/S checkpoint of the cell cycle, consistent with an EGFR-dependent process. Western Blots showed that increasing microenvironmental stiffness enhances the expression and phosphorylation of EGFR and its downstream effector Akt. Pharmacological loss-of-function studies revealed that the stiffness-sensitivity of proliferation is strongly blunted by inhibition of EGFR, Akt, or PI3 kinase. Finally, we observed that stiffness strongly regulates EGFR clustering, with phosphorylated EGFR condensing into vinculin-positive focal adhesions on stiff substrates and dispersing as microenvironmental stiffness falls to physiological levels. Our findings collectively support a model in which tissue stiffening promotes GBM proliferation by spatially and biochemically amplifying EGFR signaling. PMID:25000176

  2. L-type voltage-operated calcium channels contribute to astrocyte activation In vitro.

    PubMed

    Cheli, Veronica T; Santiago González, Diara A; Smith, Jessica; Spreuer, Vilma; Murphy, Geoffrey G; Paez, Pablo M

    2016-08-01

    We have found a significant upregulation of L-type voltage-operated Ca(++) channels (VOCCs) in reactive astrocytes. To test if VOCCs are centrally involved in triggering astrocyte reactivity, we used in vitro models of astrocyte activation in combination with pharmacological inhibitors, siRNAs and the Cre/lox system to reduce the activity of L-type VOCCs in primary cortical astrocytes. The endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as well as high extracellular K(+) , glutamate, and ATP promote astrogliosis in vitro. L-type VOCC inhibitors drastically reduce the number of reactive cells, astrocyte hypertrophy, and cell proliferation after these treatments. Astrocytes transfected with siRNAs for the Cav1.2 subunit that conducts L-type Ca(++) currents as well as Cav1.2 knockout astrocytes showed reduce Ca(++) influx by ∼80% after plasma membrane depolarization. Importantly, Cav1.2 knock-down/out prevents astrocyte activation and proliferation induced by LPS. Similar results were found using the scratch wound assay. After injuring the astrocyte monolayer, cells extend processes toward the cell-free scratch region and subsequently migrate and populate the scratch. We found a significant increase in the activity of L-type VOCCs in reactive astrocytes located in the growing line in comparison to quiescent astrocytes situated away from the scratch. Moreover, the migration of astrocytes from the scratching line as well as the number of proliferating astrocytes was reduced in Cav1.2 knock-down/out cultures. In summary, our results suggest that Cav1.2 L-type VOCCs play a fundamental role in the induction and/or proliferation of reactive astrocytes, and indicate that the inhibition of these Ca(++) channels may be an effective way to prevent astrocyte activation. GLIA 2016. GLIA 2016;64:1396-1415. PMID:27247164

  3. Glucocorticoid Regulation of Astrocytic Fate and Function

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuang; Yang, Silei; Holsboer, Florian; Sousa, Nuno; Almeida, Osborne F. X.

    2011-01-01

    Glial loss in the hippocampus has been suggested as a factor in the pathogenesis of stress-related brain disorders that are characterized by dysregulated glucocorticoid (GC) secretion. However, little is known about the regulation of astrocytic fate by GC. Here, we show that astrocytes derived from the rat hippocampus undergo growth inhibition and display moderate activation of caspase 3 after exposure to GC. Importantly, the latter event, observed both in situ and in primary astrocytic cultures is not followed by either early- or late-stage apoptosis, as monitored by stage I or stage II DNA fragmentation. Thus, unlike hippocampal granule neurons, astrocytes are resistant to GC-induced apoptosis; this resistance is due to lower production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a greater buffering capacity against the cytotoxic actions of ROS. We also show that GC influence hippocampal cell fate by inducing the expression of astrocyte-derived growth factors implicated in the control of neural precursor cell proliferation. Together, our results suggest that GC instigate a hitherto unknown dialog between astrocytes and neural progenitors, adding a new facet to understanding how GC influence the cytoarchitecture of the hippocampus. PMID:21811605

  4. Astrocytic TYMP and VEGFA drive blood-brain barrier opening in inflammatory central nervous system lesions.

    PubMed

    Chapouly, Candice; Tadesse Argaw, Azeb; Horng, Sam; Castro, Kamilah; Zhang, Jingya; Asp, Linnea; Loo, Hannah; Laitman, Benjamin M; Mariani, John N; Straus Farber, Rebecca; Zaslavsky, Elena; Nudelman, German; Raine, Cedric S; John, Gareth R

    2015-06-01

    In inflammatory central nervous system conditions such as multiple sclerosis, breakdown of the blood-brain barrier is a key event in lesion pathogenesis, predisposing to oedema, excitotoxicity, and ingress of plasma proteins and inflammatory cells. Recently, we showed that reactive astrocytes drive blood-brain barrier opening, via production of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA). Here, we now identify thymidine phosphorylase (TYMP; previously known as endothelial cell growth factor 1, ECGF1) as a second key astrocyte-derived permeability factor, which interacts with VEGFA to induce blood-brain barrier disruption. The two are co-induced NFκB1-dependently in human astrocytes by the cytokine interleukin 1 beta (IL1B), and inactivation of Vegfa in vivo potentiates TYMP induction. In human central nervous system microvascular endothelial cells, VEGFA and the TYMP product 2-deoxy-d-ribose cooperatively repress tight junction proteins, driving permeability. Notably, this response represents part of a wider pattern of endothelial plasticity: 2-deoxy-d-ribose and VEGFA produce transcriptional programs encompassing angiogenic and permeability genes, and together regulate a third unique cohort. Functionally, each promotes proliferation and viability, and they cooperatively drive motility and angiogenesis. Importantly, introduction of either into mouse cortex promotes blood-brain barrier breakdown, and together they induce severe barrier disruption. In the multiple sclerosis model experimental autoimmune encephalitis, TYMP and VEGFA co-localize to reactive astrocytes, and correlate with blood-brain barrier permeability. Critically, blockade of either reduces neurologic deficit, blood-brain barrier disruption and pathology, and inhibiting both in combination enhances tissue preservation. Suggesting importance in human disease, TYMP and VEGFA both localize to reactive astrocytes in multiple sclerosis lesion samples. Collectively, these data identify TYMP as an

  5. Astrocytic TYMP and VEGFA drive blood–brain barrier opening in inflammatory central nervous system lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chapouly, Candice; Tadesse Argaw, Azeb; Horng, Sam; Castro, Kamilah; Zhang, Jingya; Asp, Linnea; Loo, Hannah; Laitman, Benjamin M.; Mariani, John N.; Straus Farber, Rebecca; Zaslavsky, Elena; Nudelman, German; Raine, Cedric S.

    2015-01-01

    In inflammatory central nervous system conditions such as multiple sclerosis, breakdown of the blood–brain barrier is a key event in lesion pathogenesis, predisposing to oedema, excitotoxicity, and ingress of plasma proteins and inflammatory cells. Recently, we showed that reactive astrocytes drive blood–brain barrier opening, via production of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA). Here, we now identify thymidine phosphorylase (TYMP; previously known as endothelial cell growth factor 1, ECGF1) as a second key astrocyte-derived permeability factor, which interacts with VEGFA to induce blood–brain barrier disruption. The two are co-induced NFκB1-dependently in human astrocytes by the cytokine interleukin 1 beta (IL1B), and inactivation of Vegfa in vivo potentiates TYMP induction. In human central nervous system microvascular endothelial cells, VEGFA and the TYMP product 2-deoxy-d-ribose cooperatively repress tight junction proteins, driving permeability. Notably, this response represents part of a wider pattern of endothelial plasticity: 2-deoxy-d-ribose and VEGFA produce transcriptional programs encompassing angiogenic and permeability genes, and together regulate a third unique cohort. Functionally, each promotes proliferation and viability, and they cooperatively drive motility and angiogenesis. Importantly, introduction of either into mouse cortex promotes blood–brain barrier breakdown, and together they induce severe barrier disruption. In the multiple sclerosis model experimental autoimmune encephalitis, TYMP and VEGFA co-localize to reactive astrocytes, and correlate with blood–brain barrier permeability. Critically, blockade of either reduces neurologic deficit, blood–brain barrier disruption and pathology, and inhibiting both in combination enhances tissue preservation. Suggesting importance in human disease, TYMP and VEGFA both localize to reactive astrocytes in multiple sclerosis lesion samples. Collectively, these data identify TYMP

  6. The immobilization of hepatocytes on 24 nm-sized gold colloid for enhanced hepatocytes proliferation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Hai-Ying; Chen, Zhong; Sa, Rong-Xiao; Yuan, Su-Su; Chen, Hong-Yuan; Ding, Yi-Tao; Yu, Ai-Min

    2004-08-01

    Bioartificial liver and hepatocyte transplantation is anticipated to supply a temporary metabolic support for candidates of liver transplantation or for patients with fulminant liver failure. An essential restriction of this form is the inability to acquire an enough amount of hepatocytes. Enhancement of the proliferation and differentiated function of hepatocytes is becoming a pursued target. Here, porcine hepatocytes were successfully immobilized on nano-sized gold colloid particles to construct a "hepatocyte/gold colloid" interface at which hepatocytes can be quickly proliferated. The properties of this resulting interface were characterized and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The proliferative mechanism of hepatocytes was also discussed. The proliferated hepatocytes could be applied to the clinic based on their excellent functions for the synthesis of protein, glucose and urea as well as lower lactate dehydrogenase release. PMID:15020118

  7. High molecular weight hyaluronic acid limits astrocyte activation and scar formation after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Khaing, Zin Z; Milman, Brian D; Vanscoy, Jennifer E; Seidlits, Stephanie K; Grill, Raymond J; Schmidt, Christine E

    2011-08-01

    A major hurdle for regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) is the ability of axons to penetrate and grow through the scar tissue. After SCI, inflammatory cells, astrocytes and meningeal cells all play a role in developing the glial scar. In addition, degradation of native high molecular weight (MW) hyaluronic acid (HA), a component of the extracellular matrix, has been shown to induce activation and proliferation of astrocytes. However, it is not known if the degradation of native HA actually enhances glial scar formation. We hypothesize that the presence of high MW HA (HA with limited degradation) after SCI will decrease glial scarring. Here, we demonstrate that high MW HA decreases cell proliferation and reduces chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) production in cultured neonatal and adult astrocytes. In addition, stiffness-matched high MW HA hydrogels crosslinked to resist degradation were implanted in a rat model of spinal dorsal hemisection injury. The numbers of immune cells (macrophages and microglia) detected at the lesion site in animals with HA hydrogel implants were significantly reduced at acute time points (one, three and ten days post-injury). Lesioned animals with HA implants also exhibited significantly lower CSPG expression at ten days post-injury. At nine weeks post-injury, animals with HA hydrogel implants exhibited a significantly decreased astrocytic response, but did not have significantly altered CSPG expression. Combined, these data suggest that high MW HA, when stabilized against degradation, mitigates astrocyte activation in vitro and in vivo. The presence of HA implants was also associated with a significant decrease in CSPG deposition at ten days after SCI. Therefore, HA-based hydrogel systems hold great potential for minimizing undesired scarring as part of future repair strategies after SCI. PMID:21753237

  8. High molecular weight hyaluronic acid limits astrocyte activation and scar formation after spinal cord injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaing, Zin Z.; Milman, Brian D.; Vanscoy, Jennifer E.; Seidlits, Stephanie K.; Grill, Raymond J.; Schmidt, Christine E.

    2011-08-01

    A major hurdle for regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) is the ability of axons to penetrate and grow through the scar tissue. After SCI, inflammatory cells, astrocytes and meningeal cells all play a role in developing the glial scar. In addition, degradation of native high molecular weight (MW) hyaluronic acid (HA), a component of the extracellular matrix, has been shown to induce activation and proliferation of astrocytes. However, it is not known if the degradation of native HA actually enhances glial scar formation. We hypothesize that the presence of high MW HA (HA with limited degradation) after SCI will decrease glial scarring. Here, we demonstrate that high MW HA decreases cell proliferation and reduces chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) production in cultured neonatal and adult astrocytes. In addition, stiffness-matched high MW HA hydrogels crosslinked to resist degradation were implanted in a rat model of spinal dorsal hemisection injury. The numbers of immune cells (macrophages and microglia) detected at the lesion site in animals with HA hydrogel implants were significantly reduced at acute time points (one, three and ten days post-injury). Lesioned animals with HA implants also exhibited significantly lower CSPG expression at ten days post-injury. At nine weeks post-injury, animals with HA hydrogel implants exhibited a significantly decreased astrocytic response, but did not have significantly altered CSPG expression. Combined, these data suggest that high MW HA, when stabilized against degradation, mitigates astrocyte activation in vitro and in vivo. The presence of HA implants was also associated with a significant decrease in CSPG deposition at ten days after SCI. Therefore, HA-based hydrogel systems hold great potential for minimizing undesired scarring as part of future repair strategies after SCI.

  9. SIRT2 activates G6PD to enhance NADPH production and promote leukaemia cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuang-Nian; Wang, Tian-Shi; Li, Xi; Wang, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Like most other types of cancer cells, leukaemia cells undergo metabolic reprogramming to support rapid proliferation through enhancing biosynthetic processes. Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) plays a pivotal role in meeting the anabolic demands for cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism by which PPP contributes to leukaemia remains elusive. Here, we report that leukaemia cell proliferation is dependent on the oxidative branch of PPP, in particular the first and rate-limiting enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). Knockdown of G6PD reduces NADPH level in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cell lines. Exogenous lipid supplements partially restore the proliferation of G6PD-depleted cells. Deacetylase SIRT2 promotes NADPH production through deacetylating G6PD at lysine 403 (K403). Activation of G6PD by SIRT2 supports the proliferation and clonogenic activity of leukaemia cells. Chemical inhibitors against SIRT2 suppress G6PD activity, leading to reduced cell proliferation of leukaemia cells, but not normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Importantly, SIRT2 is overexpressed in clinical AML samples, while K403 acetylation is downregulated and G6PD catalytic activity is increased comparing to that of normal control. Together, our study reveals that acetylation regulation of G6PD is involved in the metabolic reprogramming of AML, and SIRT2 serves as a promising target for further therapeutic investigations. PMID:27586085

  10. SIRT2 activates G6PD to enhance NADPH production and promote leukaemia cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shuang-Nian; Wang, Tian-Shi; Li, Xi; Wang, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Like most other types of cancer cells, leukaemia cells undergo metabolic reprogramming to support rapid proliferation through enhancing biosynthetic processes. Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) plays a pivotal role in meeting the anabolic demands for cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism by which PPP contributes to leukaemia remains elusive. Here, we report that leukaemia cell proliferation is dependent on the oxidative branch of PPP, in particular the first and rate-limiting enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). Knockdown of G6PD reduces NADPH level in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cell lines. Exogenous lipid supplements partially restore the proliferation of G6PD-depleted cells. Deacetylase SIRT2 promotes NADPH production through deacetylating G6PD at lysine 403 (K403). Activation of G6PD by SIRT2 supports the proliferation and clonogenic activity of leukaemia cells. Chemical inhibitors against SIRT2 suppress G6PD activity, leading to reduced cell proliferation of leukaemia cells, but not normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Importantly, SIRT2 is overexpressed in clinical AML samples, while K403 acetylation is downregulated and G6PD catalytic activity is increased comparing to that of normal control. Together, our study reveals that acetylation regulation of G6PD is involved in the metabolic reprogramming of AML, and SIRT2 serves as a promising target for further therapeutic investigations. PMID:27586085

  11. Understanding the Role of Dicer in Astrocyte Development

    PubMed Central

    Howng, Shen-Yi Bruce; Huang, Yong; Ptáček, Louis; Fu, Ying-Hui

    2015-01-01

    The Dicer1 allele is used to show that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in astrocyte development and functions. While it is known that astrocytes that lack miRNAs are dysregulated, the in vivo phenotypes of these astrocytes are not well understood. In this study, we use Aldh1l1-EGFP transgene, a marker of astrocytes, to characterize mouse models with conditional Dicer1 ablation (via either human or mouse GFAP-Cre). This transgene revealed novel features of the defective astrocytes from the absence of miRNA. Although astrocyte miRNAs were depleted in both lines, we found histological and molecular differences in the Aldh1l1-EGFP cells between the two Cre lines. Aldh1l1-EGFP cells from hGFAP-Cre mutant lines displayed up-regulation of Aldh1l1-EGFP with increased proliferation and a genomic profile that acquired many features of wildtype primary astrocyte cultures. In the young mGFAP-Cre mutant lines we found that Aldh1l1-EGFP cells were disorganized and hyperproliferative in the developing cerebellum. Using the Aldh1l1-EGFP transgene, our work provides new insights into the roles of miRNAs in astrocyte development and the features of astrocytes in these two mouse models. PMID:25962146

  12. The Neurogenic Potential of Astrocytes Is Regulated by Inflammatory Signals.

    PubMed

    Michelucci, Alessandro; Bithell, Angela; Burney, Matthew J; Johnston, Caroline E; Wong, Kee-Yew; Teng, Siaw-Wei; Desai, Jyaysi; Gumbleton, Nigel; Anderson, Gregory; Stanton, Lawrence W; Williams, Brenda P; Buckley, Noel J

    2016-08-01

    Although the adult brain contains neural stem cells (NSCs) that generate new neurons throughout life, these astrocyte-like populations are restricted to two discrete niches. Despite their terminally differentiated phenotype, adult parenchymal astrocytes can re-acquire NSC-like characteristics following injury, and as such, these 'reactive' astrocytes offer an alternative source of cells for central nervous system (CNS) repair following injury or disease. At present, the mechanisms that regulate the potential of different types of astrocytes are poorly understood. We used in vitro and ex vivo astrocytes to identify candidate pathways important for regulation of astrocyte potential. Using in vitro neural progenitor cell (NPC)-derived astrocytes, we found that exposure of more lineage-restricted astrocytes to either tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (via nuclear factor-κB (NFκB)) or the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitor, noggin, led to re-acquisition of NPC properties accompanied by transcriptomic and epigenetic changes consistent with a more neurogenic, NPC-like state. Comparative analyses of microarray data from in vitro-derived and ex vivo postnatal parenchymal astrocytes identified several common pathways and upstream regulators associated with inflammation (including transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ)) and cell cycle control (including TP53) as candidate regulators of astrocyte phenotype and potential. We propose that inflammatory signalling may control the normal, progressive restriction in potential of differentiating astrocytes as well as under reactive conditions and represent future targets for therapies to harness the latent neurogenic capacity of parenchymal astrocytes. PMID:26138449

  13. Astrocyte-derived sonic hedgehog contributes to angiogenesis in brain microvascular endothelial cells via RhoA/ROCK pathway after oxygen-glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    He, Quan-Wei; Xia, Yuan-Peng; Chen, Sheng-Cai; Wang, Yong; Huang, Ming; Huang, Yan; Li, Jian-Yong; Li, Ya-Nan; Gao, Yuan; Mao, Ling; Mei, Yuan-Wu; Hu, Bo

    2013-06-01

    The human adult brain possesses intriguing plasticity, including neurogenesis and angiogenesis, which may be mediated by the activated sonic hedgehog (Shh). By employing a coculture system, brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) cocultured with astrocytes, which were incubated under oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) condition, we tested the hypothesis that Shh secreted by OGD-activated astrocytes promotes cerebral angiogenesis following ischemia. The results of this study demonstrated that Shh was mainly secreted by astrocytes and the secretion was significantly upregulated after OGD. The proliferation, migration, and tube formation of BMECs cocultured with astrocytes after OGD were significantly enhanced, but cyclopamine (a Shh antagonist) or 5E1 (an antibody of Shh) reversed the change. Furthermore, silencing Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA) of BMECs by RNAi and blocking Rho-dependent kinase (ROCK) by Y27632, a specific antagonist of ROCK, suppressed the upregulation of proliferation, migration, and tube formation of BMECs after OGD. These findings suggested that Shh derived from activated astrocytes stimulated RhoA/ROCK pathway in BMECs after OGD, which might be involved in angiogenesis in vitro. PMID:23325464

  14. Peptide-decorated chitosan derivatives enhance fibroblast adhesion and proliferation in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Patrulea, V; Hirt-Burri, N; Jeannerat, A; Applegate, L A; Ostafe, V; Jordan, O; Borchard, G

    2016-05-20

    RGD peptide sequences are known to regulate cellular activities by interacting with α5β1, αvβ5 and αvβ3 integrin, which contributes to the wound healing process. In this study, RGDC peptide was immobilized onto chitosan derivative 1,6-diaminohexane-O-carboxymethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (DAH-CMTMC) to display RGDC-promoting adhesion for enhanced wound healing. The efficiency of N-methylation, O-carboxymethylation and spacer grafting was quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed by (1)H NMR and FTIR, yielding 0.38 degree of substitution for N-methylation and >0.85 for O-carboxymethylation. The glass transition temperatures for chitosan derivatives were also studied. Peptide immobilization was achieved through sulfhydryl groups using sulfosuccinimidyl (4-iodoacetyl)amino-benzoate (sulfo-SIAB method). RGDC immobilized peptide onto DAH-CMTMC was found to be about 15.3 μg/mg of chitosan derivative by amino acid analysis (AAA). The significant increase of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) viability in vitro over 7 days suggests that RGDC-functionalized chitosan may lead to enhanced wound healing (viability >140%). Moreover, bio-adhesion and proliferation assays confirmed that coatings of RGDC-functionalized chitosan derivatives exhibit in vitro wound healing properties by enhancing fibroblast proliferation and adhesion. These results showed that RGDC peptide-functionalized chitosan provides an optimal environment for fibroblast adhesion and proliferation. PMID:26917381

  15. Enhanced Keratinocyte Proliferation and Migration in Co-culture with Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenxiang; Wang, Ying; Farhangfar, Farhang; Zimmer, Monica; Zhang, Yongxin

    2012-01-01

    Wound healing is primarily controlled by the proliferation and migration of keratinocytes and fibroblasts as well as the complex interactions between these two cell types. To investigate the interactions between keratinocytes and fibroblasts and the effects of direct cell-to-cell contact on the proliferation and migration of keratinocytes, keratinocytes and fibroblasts were stained with different fluorescence dyes and co-cultured with or without transwells. During the early stage (first 5 days) of the culture, the keratinocytes in contact with fibroblasts proliferated significantly faster than those not in contact with fibroblasts, but in the late stage (11th to 15th day), keratinocyte growth slowed down in all cultures unless EGF was added. In addition, keratinocyte migration was enhanced in co-cultures with fibroblasts in direct contact, but not in the transwells. Furthermore, the effects of the fibroblasts on keratinocyte migration and growth at early culture stage correlated with heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), IL-1α and TGF-β1 levels in the cultures where the cells were grown in direct contact. These effects were inhibited by anti-HB-EGF, anti-IL-1α and anti-TGF-β1 antibodies and anti-HB-EGF showed the greatest inhibition. Co-culture of keratinocytes and IL-1α and TGF-β1 siRNA-transfected fibroblasts exhibited a significant reduction in HB-EGF production and keratinocyte proliferation. These results suggest that contact with fibroblasts stimulates the migration and proliferation of keratinocytes during wound healing, and that HB-EGF plays a central role in this process and can be up-regulated by IL-1α and TGF-β1, which also regulate keratinocyte proliferation differently during the early and late stage. PMID:22911722

  16. Crocin inhibits cell proliferation and enhances cisplatin and pemetrexed chemosensitivity in lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuangshuang; Zhao, Shuang; Wang, Xinxing; Zhang, Luo; Jiang, Enze; Gu, Yuan; Shangguan, Anna Junjie; Zhao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Crocin is the major constituent of saffron, a naturally derived Chinese medicine obtained from the dried stigma of the Crocus sativus flower. It has a variety of pharmacological effects, including anti-oxidative, immunity enhancement, and anti-tumorigenic properties; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown. Methods To investigate the effects of crocin on proliferation and apoptosis of lung adenocarcinoma cells, lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, A549 and SPC-A1, were treated with crocin at different dosages. Cell morphological changes were observed by light microscopy. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed to detect the inhibitory effect of crocin on cell proliferation and sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs. Flow cytometry was used to characterize cell apoptosis and cell cycle profiles. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect mRNA levels of apoptosis-related genes. Results Crocin inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in A549 and SPC-A1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, accompanied with an increase of G0/G1 arrest. Crocin significantly increased the mRNA levels of both p53 and B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein (Bax), while decreasing B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) mRNA expressions. In addition, crocin combined with either cisplatin or pemetrexed showed additive effects on cell proliferation in two lung cancer cell lines. Conclusions Crocin significantly suppressed the proliferation of human lung adenocarcinoma cells and enhanced the chemo sensitivity of these cells to both cisplatin and pemetrexed. The actions of molecular mechanism could be through the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by p53 and Bax up-regulation but Bcl-2 down-regulation. PMID:26798587

  17. Focused low-intensity pulsed ultrasound enhances bone regeneration in rat calvarial bone defect through enhancement of cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yu Jin; Kim, Ran; Ham, Hyun-Joo; Park, Sang In; Lee, Min Young; Kim, Jongmin; Hwang, Jihwan; Park, Moon-Seo; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Maeng, Lee-So; Chang, Woochul; Chung, Yong-An

    2015-04-01

    A number of studies have reported the therapeutic potential of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) for induction of bone repair. This study investigated whether bone regeneration might be enhanced by application of focused LIPUS to selectively stimulate fractured calvarial bone. To accomplish this, bone defects were surgically created in the middle of the skull of rats that were subsequently exposed to focused LIPUS. Bone regeneration was assessed by repeated computed tomography imaging after the operation, as well as histologic analysis with calcein, hematoxylin and eosin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen assay. At 6 wk after surgery, bone formation in the focused LIPUS-treated group improved significantly relative to the control. Interestingly, new bone tissue sprouted from focused LIPUS target points. Histologic analysis after exposure to focused LIPUS revealed that proliferating cells were significantly increased relative to the control. Taken together, these results suggest that focused LIPUS can improve re-ossification through enhancement of cell proliferation in calvarial defect sites. PMID:25701528

  18. Enhanced Expression of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 IIIc Promotes Human Esophageal Carcinoma Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Nobuhiro; Shimizu, Akio; Kanai, Michiyuki; Iwaya, Yugo; Ueda, Shugo; Nakayama, Jun; Seo, Misuzu Kurokawa

    2016-01-01

    Deregulated expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) and their ligands plays critical roles in tumorigenesis. The gene expression of an alternatively spliced isoforms of FGFR3, FGFR3IIIc, was analyzed by RT-PCR in samples from patients with esophageal carcinoma (EC), including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and adenocarcinoma (EAC). The incidence of FGFR3IIIc was higher in EC [12/16 (75%); p=0.073] than in non-cancerous mucosa (NCM) [6/16 (38%)]. Indeed, an immunohistochemical analysis of early-stage ESCC showed that carcinoma cells expressing FGFR3IIIc stained positively with SCC-112, a tumor marker, and Ki67, a cell proliferation marker, suggesting that the expression of FGFR3IIIc promotes cell proliferation. We used EC-GI-10 cells endogenously expressing FGFR3IIIc as a model of ESCC to provide mechanistic insight into the role of FGFR3IIIc in ESCC. The knockdown of endogenous FGFR3 using siRNA treatment significantly abrogated cell proliferation and the overexpression of FGFR3IIIc in cells with enhanced cell proliferation. EC-GI-10 cells and ESCC from patients with EC showed endogenous expression of FGF2, a specific ligand for FGFR3IIIc, suggesting that the upregulated expression of FGFR3IIIc may create autocrine FGF signaling in ESCC. Taken together, FGFR3IIIc may have the potential to be an early-stage tumor marker and a molecular target for ESCC therapy. PMID:26487184

  19. A novel human astrocyte cell line (A735) with astrocyte-specific neurotransmitter function.

    PubMed

    Price, T N; Burke, J F; Mayne, L V

    1999-05-01

    Studies of brain cell function and physiology are hampered by the limited availability of immortal human brain-derived cell lines, as a result of the technical difficulties encountered in establishing immortal human cells in culture. In this study, we demonstrate the application of recombinant DNA vectors expressing SV40 T antigen for the development of immortal human cell cultures, with morphological, growth, and functional properties of astrocytes. Primary human astrocytes were transfected with the SV40 T antigen expression vectors, pSV3neo or p735.6, and cultures were established with an extended lifespan. One of these cultures gave rise to an immortal cell line, designated A735. All the human SV40-derived lines retained morphological features and growth properties of type 1 astrocytes. Immunohistochemical studies and Western blot analysis of the intermediate filament proteins and glutamine synthetase demonstrated a differentiated but immature astrocyte phenotype. Transport of gamma-amino butyric acid and glutamate were examined and found to be by a glial-specific mechanism, consistent with the cell lines' retaining aspects of normal glial function. We conclude that methods based on the use of SV40 T antigen can successfully immortalize human astrocytes, retaining key astrocyte functions, but T antigen-induced proliferation appeared to interfere with expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein. We believe A735 is the first documented nontumor-derived human glial cell line which is immortal. PMID:10475274

  20. Doxycycline enhances the Ras-MAPK signaling and proliferation of mouse thymic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xun; Xia, Sheng; Li, Rong; Liu, Hui; Huang, Ying; Qian, Xiaoping; Xiao, Xueyuan; Xu, Xun; Lin, Xin; Tian, Yuxiang; Zong, Yangyong; He, Dacheng; Chen, Weifeng; Zhang, Yu; Shao, Qixiang

    2009-06-01

    Depletion of T-cell-dependent immunity is a major consideration for patients suffering from infections of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), those undergoing organ transplantation, and those receiving anti-cancer chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. In general, T-cell regeneration occurs in the thymus through thymopoiesis. We have found that doxycycline (Dox), a tetracycline derivative, enhances the proliferation of mouse thymic epithelial cells, which are unique in their capacity to support positive selection and are essential throughout the development of thymocytes. Cell cycle analysis indicates that the increased cell proliferation is due to a shortened G(0)/G(1) phase. To reveal the underlying mechanisms, we examined the expression of an array of molecules that regulate the cell cycle. The results show that in mouse thymic medullary-type epithelial cell line 1 (MTEC1) Dox leads to elevated levels of H-Ras, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2), cyclin E, cyclin dependent kinase 4/2 (CDK4/CDK2), E2F3, and c-myc. These data, and the observation that the proliferation-enhancing effect is largely abolished following treatment with an ERK inhibitor support an active role of the Ras-ERK/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. In conclusion, the present study reveals a new activity of an old family of antibiotics. The in vivo effect of Dox on immune reconstitution warrants further exploration. PMID:19330805

  1. Enhancement of primary neuronal cell proliferation using printing-transferred carbon nanotube sheets.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong-Wan; Sun, Fangfang; Choi, Yoon Ji; Zou, Fengming; Cho, Won-Ho; Choi, Byung-Kwan; Koh, Kwangnak; Lee, Jaebeom; Han, In Ho

    2015-05-01

    Artificial nerve guidance conduits (aNGCs) prepared from polymer scaffolds and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess unique chemical and physical properties, and have been widely used in preclinical trials to promote neuronal differentiation and growth. However, there have been only a few reports on the clinical applicability of CNT sheets for proliferation of primary neuronal cells due to safety concerns. The present study assesses the ability and potential applicability of multiwalled CNTs (MWNTs) composited with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sheets to promote and enhance the proliferation of primary neuronal cells. In this study, the aqueous MWNT dispersion was filtered, and the PDMS/MWNT sheets were prepared using a simple printing transfer method. Characterization of PDMS/MWNT sheets demonstrated their unique physical properties such as superior mechanical strength and electroconductivity when compared with PDMS sheets. The effect of the PDMS/MWNT sheets on the neural cell proliferation and cytotoxicity was evaluated using MTT and alamar blue assays. Our results indicate the viability and proliferation of primary neuronal cells and Schwann cells in PDMS/MWNT sheets increased over twice when compared with a noncoated dish that is not usual in the primary neuronal cell growth control (p < 0.05). In addition, PDMS/MWNT sheets enhanced the adhesion and viability of the cells compared with poly-l-lysine coated dishes, which are most commonly used for improving cell adherence. Additionally, the PDMS/MWNT sheets exhibited excellent biocompatibility for culturing neuronal and Schwann cells. Overall, all assessments indicate that PDMS/MWNT sheets are ideal candidates for the development of artificial nerve conduits for clinical use following peripheral nerve injury. PMID:25087551

  2. Ability of bovine mammary macrophages to enhance proliferation of autologous blood and mammary secretion lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Concha, C; Holmberg, O

    1990-02-01

    Cells were obtained by centrifuging the mammary secretion of healthy udders of 19 cows during the dry-period and during mid-lactation. The suspended cells were incubated in plastic wells. Those adhered cells classified as mammary macrophages were incubated with pokeweed mitogen (PWM). Autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes were added to wells containing untreated macrophage cultures or cultures pretreated with PWM. In seven cows autologous dry-period mammary lymphocytes were added instead of blood lymphocytes. The macrophages + lymphocyte cultures were subjected to the lymphocyte stimulation test (LST). For comparison, peripheral blood lymphocytes and dry-period secretion lymphocytes were also subjected to the LST in the presence of PWM. In all cases, mitogenic responses were higher in pretreated macrophage cultures than in background control cultures. The stimulation indices (SI) showed that PWM-pretreated dry-period mammary macrophages enhanced the proliferation of autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes to a greater extent than did blood lymphocytes plus PWM (49 +/- 10 v. 30 +/- 6; P less than or equal to 0.05). Mammary macrophages taken from the same cows but during midlactation also clearly induced proliferation of autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes but to a lesser extent than dry-period macrophages (16 +/- 2 v. 49 +/- 10; 16 +/- 2 v. 30 +/- 6; P less than or equal to 0.01 and P less than or equal to 0.05). The PWM pretreatment of mammary macrophages increased the proliferation of autologous dry-period mammary lymphocytes by at least a factor of three (28 +/- 8 v. 8 +/- 2 P less than or equal to 0.05). The present results indicate that bovine mammary macrophages pretreated with PWM enhance proliferation as well as modulation of mammary and peripheral blood lymphocytes. The modulation of lymphocyte stimulation as demonstrated here in vitro, has great significance regarding aspects of local immunostimulation related to modern treatment of mastitis. PMID

  3. SIRT3 Enhances Glycolysis and Proliferation in SIRT3-Expressing Gastric Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yang; Qin, Lili; Wu, Jing; Qu, Xuan; Hou, Chen; Sun, Wenyan; Li, Shiyong; Vaughan, Andrew T. M.; Li, Jian Jian; Liu, Jiankang

    2015-01-01

    SIRT3 is a key NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase in the mitochondria of mammalian cells, functioning to prevent cell aging and transformation via regulation of mitochondrial metabolic homeostasis. However, SIRT3 is also found to express in some human tumors; its role in these SIRT3-expressing tumor cells needs to be elucidated. This study demonstrated that the expression of SIRT3 was elevated in a group of gastric cancer cells compared to normal gastric epithelial cells. Although SIRT3 expression levels were increased in the gastric tumor tissues compared to the adjacent non-tumor tissues, SIRT3 positive cancer cells were more frequently detected in the intestinal type gastric cancers than the diffuse type gastric cancers, indicating that SIRT3 is linked with subtypes of gastric cancer. Overexpression of SIRT3 promoted cell proliferation and enhanced ATP generation, glucose uptake, glycogen formation, MnSOD activity and lactate production, which were inhibited by SIRT3 knockdown, indicating that SIRT3 plays a role in reprogramming the bioenergetics in gastric tumor cells. Further analysis revealed that SIRT3 interacted with and deacetylated the lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), a key protein in regulating anaerobic glycolysis, enhancing LDHA activity. In consistence, a cluster of glycolysis-associated genes was upregulated in the SIRT3-overexpressing gastric tumor cells. Thus, in addition to the well-documented SIRT3-mediated mitochondrial homeostasis in normal cells, SIRT3 may enhance glycolysis and cell proliferation in SIRT3-expressing cancer cells. PMID:26121691

  4. Hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor enhances angiogenesis by promoting proliferation and migration of endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tong Qiangsong; Zheng Liduan; Li Bo; Wang Danming; Huang Chuanshu; Matuschak, George M.; Li Dechun . E-mail: dli2@slu.edu

    2006-11-01

    Our previous studies have indicated that hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor (HIMF) has angiogenic properties in an in vivo matrigel plug model and HIMF upregulates expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in mouse lungs and cultured lung epithelial cells. However, whether HIMF exerts angiogenic effects through modulating endothelial cell function remains unknown. In this study, mouse aortic rings cultured with recombinant HIMF protein resulted in enhanced vascular sprouting and increased endothelial cell spreading as confirmed by Dil-Ac-LDL uptake, von Willebrand factor and CD31 staining. In cultured mouse endothelial cell line SVEC 4-10, HIMF dose-dependently enhanced cell proliferation, in vitro migration and tubulogenesis, which was not attenuated by SU1498, a VEGFR2/Flk-1 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Moreover, HIMF stimulation resulted in phosphorylation of Akt, p38 and ERK1/2 kinases in SVEC 4-10 cells. Treatment of mouse aortic rings and SVEC 4-10 cells with LY294002, but not SB203580, PD098059 or U0126, abolished HIMF-induced vascular sprouting and angiogenic responses. In addition, transfection of a dominant-negative mutant of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K), {delta}p85, blocked HIMF-induced phosphorylation of Akt, endothelial activation and tubulogenesis. These results indicate that HIMF enhances angiogenesis by promoting proliferation and migration of endothelial cells via activation of the PI-3K/Akt pathways.

  5. Nucleolin enhances the proliferation and migration of heat-denatured human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bimei; Li, Yuanbin; Liang, Pengfei; Liu, Yanjuan; Huang, Xu; Tong, Zhongyi; Zhang, Pihong; Huang, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Ying; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Denatured dermis, a part of dermis in burned skin, has the ability to restore its normal morphology and functions after their surrounding microenvironment is improved. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which the denatured dermis could improve wound healing are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of nucleolin during the recovery of heat-denatured human dermal fibroblasts. Nucleolin mRNA and protein expression were significantly increased time-dependently during the recovery of heat-denatured human dermal fibroblasts (52 °C, 30 seconds). Heat-denaturation promoted a time-dependent cell proliferation, migration, chemotaxis, and scratched wound healing during the recovery of human dermal fibroblasts. These effects were prevented by knockdown of nucleolin expression with small interference RNA (siRNA), whereas overexpression of nucleolin enhanced cell proliferation, migration, and chemotaxis of human dermal fibroblasts with heat-denaturation. In addition, the expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1(TGF-β1) was significantly increased during the recovery of heat-denatured dermis and human dermal fibroblasts. TGF-β1 expression was up-regulated by nucleolin in human dermal fibroblasts. The results suggest that nucleolin expression is up-regulated, and play an important role in promoting cell proliferation, migration, and chemotaxis of human dermal fibroblasts during the recovery of heat-denatured dermis with a mechanism probably related to TGF-β1. PMID:26148015

  6. Platelet Lysate-Modified Porous Silicon Microparticles for Enhanced Cell Proliferation in Wound Healing Applications.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Flavia; Mori, Michela; Riva, Federica; Mäkilä, Ermei; Liu, Dongfei; Salonen, Jarno; Nicoletti, Giovanni; Hirvonen, Jouni; Caramella, Carla; Santos, Hélder A

    2016-01-13

    The new frontier in the treatment of chronic nonhealing wounds is the use of micro- and nanoparticles to deliver drugs or growth factors into the wound. Here, we used platelet lysate (PL), a hemoderivative of platelets, consisting of a multifactorial cocktail of growth factors, to modify porous silicon (PSi) microparticles and assessed both in vitro and ex vivo the properties of the developed microsystem. PL-modified PSi was assessed for its potential to induce proliferation of fibroblasts. The wound closure-promoting properties of the microsystem were then assessed in an in vitro wound healing assay. Finally, the PL-modified PSi microparticles were evaluated in an ex vivo experiment over human skin. It was shown that PL-modified PSi microparticles were cytocompatible and enhanced the cell proliferation in different experimental settings. In addition, this microsystem promoted the closure of the gap between the fibroblast cells in the wound healing assay, in periods of time comparable with the positive control, and induced a proliferation and regeneration process onto the human skin in an ex vivo experiment. Overall, our results show that PL-modified PSi microparticles are suitable microsystems for further development toward applications in the treatment of chronic nonhealing wounds. PMID:26652045

  7. Cell proliferation on modified DLC thin films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Stoica, Adrian; Manakhov, Anton; Polčák, Josef; Ondračka, Pavel; Buršíková, Vilma; Zajíčková, Renata; Medalová, Jiřina; Zajíčková, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Recently, diamondlike carbon (DLC) thin films have gained interest for biological applications, such as hip and dental prostheses or heart valves and coronary stents, thanks to their high strength and stability. However, the biocompatibility of the DLC is still questionable due to its low wettability and possible mechanical failure (delamination). In this work, DLC:N:O and DLC: SiOx thin films were comparatively investigated with respect to cell proliferation. Thin DLC films with an addition of N, O, and Si were prepared by plasma enhanced CVD from mixtures of methane, hydrogen, and hexamethyldisiloxane. The films were optically characterized by infrared spectroscopy and ellipsometry in UV-visible spectrum. The thickness and the optical properties were obtained from the ellipsometric measurements. Atomic composition of the films was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy combined with elastic recoil detection analysis and by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The mechanical properties of the films were studied by depth sensing indentation technique. The number of cells that proliferate on the surface of the prepared DLC films and on control culture dishes were compared and correlated with the properties of as-deposited and aged films. The authors found that the level of cell proliferation on the coated dishes was high, comparable to the untreated (control) samples. The prepared DLC films were stable and no decrease of the biocompatibility was observed for the samples aged at ambient conditions. PMID:25967153

  8. Loss of MiR-664 Expression Enhances Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma Proliferation by Upregulating PLP2

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zhenhua; Jian, Sun; Peng, Xuebiao; Liu, Yimin; Wang, Jianyu; Zheng, Li; Ou, Chengshan; Wang, Yinghui; Zeng, Weixia; Zhou, Meijuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Proteolipid protein 2 (PLP2) has been shown to be upregulated in several cancers, including breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, osteosarcoma, and melanoma. PLP2 specifically binds to phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase to activate the protein kinase B pathway to enhance cell proliferation, adhesion, and invasion in melanoma cells. Therefore, we speculated that PLP2 exhibits oncogenic potential. However, the regulatory mechanisms of PLP2 in cancer cells remain unclear. Herein, we found that microRNA (miR)-664 expression was significantly downregulated in cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) cells and tissues compared with normal human melanocytes and benign melanocytic naevi. MiR-664 expression level was significantly correlated with patient survival. Ectopic expression of miR-664 reduced CMM cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth, whereas the inhibition of miR-664 induced these effects. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-664 in CMM cells resulted in modulation of their entry into the G1/S transitional phase, which was caused by downregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor P21 and upregulation of the cell-cycle regulator cyclin D1. Moreover, we demonstrated that miR-664 downregulated PLP2 expression by directly targeting the PLP2 untranslated region. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-664 may play an important role in suppressing proliferation of CMM cells and present a novel mechanism of miR-mediated direct suppression of PLP2 expression in cancer cells. PMID:26287415

  9. Linckosides enhance proliferation and induce morphological changes in human olfactory ensheathing cells.

    PubMed

    Tello Velasquez, Johana; Yao, Rebecca-Qing; Lim, Filip; Han, Chunguang; Ojika, Makoto; Ekberg, Jenny A K; Quinn, Ronald J; John, James A St

    2016-09-01

    Linckosides are members of the steroid glycoside family isolated from the starfish Linckia laevigata. These natural compounds have notable neuritogenic activity and synergistic effects on NGF-induced neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells. Neurogenic factors or molecules that are able to mimic their activities are known to be involved in the survival, proliferation and migration of neurons and glial cells; however how glial cells respond to specific neurogenic molecules such as linckosides has not been investigated. This study aimed to examine the effect of three different linckosides (linckoside A, B and granulatoside A) on the morphological properties, proliferation and migration of human olfactory ensheathing cells (hOECs). The proliferation rate after all the treatments was higher than control as detected by MTS assay. Additionally, hOECs displayed dramatic morphological changes characterized by a higher number of processes after linckoside treatment. Interestingly changes in microtubule organization and expression levels of some early neuronal markers (GAP43 and βIII-tubulin) were also observed. An increase in the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 after addition of the compounds suggests that this pathway may be involved in the linckoside-mediated effects particularly those related to morphological changes. These results are the first description of the stimulating effects of linckosides on hOECs and raise the potential for this natural compound or its derivatives to be used to regulate and enhance the therapeutic properties of OECs, particularly for cell transplantation therapies. PMID:27343824

  10. Canonical Wnt signaling transiently stimulates proliferation and enhances neurogenesis in neonatal neural progenitor cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, Cordula; Campano, Louise M.; Woehrle, Simon; Hecht, Andreas . E-mail: andreas.hecht@mol-med.uni-freiburg.de

    2007-02-01

    Canonical Wnt signaling triggers the formation of heterodimeric transcription factor complexes consisting of {beta}-catenin and T cell factors, and thereby controls the execution of specific genetic programs. During the expansion and neurogenic phases of embryonic neural development canonical Wnt signaling initially controls proliferation of neural progenitor cells, and later neuronal differentiation. Whether Wnt growth factors affect neural progenitor cells postnatally is not known. Therefore, we have analyzed the impact of Wnt signaling on neural progenitors isolated from cerebral cortices of newborn mice. Expression profiling of pathway components revealed that these cells are fully equipped to respond to Wnt signals. However, Wnt pathway activation affected only a subset of neonatal progenitors and elicited a limited increase in proliferation and neuronal differentiation in distinct subsets of cells. Moreover, Wnt pathway activation only transiently stimulated S-phase entry but did not support long-term proliferation of progenitor cultures. The dampened nature of the Wnt response correlates with the predominant expression of inhibitory pathway components and the rapid actuation of negative feedback mechanisms. Interestingly, in differentiating cell cultures activation of canonical Wnt signaling reduced Hes1 and Hes5 expression suggesting that during postnatal neural development, Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling enhances neurogenesis from progenitor cells by interfering with Notch pathway activity.

  11. Surface modification of SU-8 for enhanced cell attachment and proliferation within microfluidic chips.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Qudus; Wang, Chengyang; Snyder, Jessica; Sun, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Advances in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) have led to an increased fabrication of micro-channels. Microfabrication techniques are utilized to develop microfluidic channels for continuous nutrition supply to cells inside a micro-environment. The ability of cells to build tissues and maintain tissue-specific functions depends on the interaction between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). SU-8 is a popular photosensitive epoxy-based polymer in MEMS. The patterning of bare SU-8 alone does not provide the appropriate ECM necessary to develop microsystems for biological applications. Manipulating the chemical composition of SU-8 will enhance the biological compatibility, giving the fabricated constructs the appropriate ECM needed to promote a functional tissue array. This article investigates three frequently used surface treatment techniques: (1) plasma treatment, (2) chemical reaction, and (3) deposition treatment to determine which surface treatment is the most beneficial for enhancing the biological properties of SU-8. The investigations presented in this article demonstrated that the plasma, gelatin, and sulfuric acid treatments have a potential to enhance SU-8's surface for biological application. Of course each treatment has their advantages and disadvantages (application dependent). Cell proliferation was studied with the use of the dye Almar Blue, and a micro-plate reader. After 14 days, cell proliferation to plasma treated surfaces was statistically significantly enhanced (p < 0.00001), compared to untreated surfaces. The plasma treated surface is suggested to be the better of the three treatments for biological enhancement followed by gelatin and sulfuric acid treatments, respectively. PMID:24919697

  12. Astrocyte Contributions to Flow/Pressure-Evoked Parenchymal Arteriole Vasoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Jung; Iddings, Jennifer A.; Stern, Javier E.; Blanco, Víctor M.; Croom, Deborah; Kirov, Sergei A.

    2015-01-01

    Basal and activity-dependent cerebral blood flow changes are coordinated by the action of critical processes, including cerebral autoregulation, endothelial-mediated signaling, and neurovascular coupling. The goal of our study was to determine whether astrocytes contribute to the regulation of parenchymal arteriole (PA) tone in response to hemodynamic stimuli (pressure/flow). Cortical PA vascular responses and astrocytic Ca2+ dynamics were measured using an in vitro rat/mouse brain slice model of perfused/pressurized PAs; studies were supplemented with in vivo astrocytic Ca2+ imaging. In vitro, astrocytes responded to PA flow/pressure increases with an increase in intracellular Ca2+. Astrocytic Ca2+ responses were corroborated in vivo, where acute systemic phenylephrine-induced increases in blood pressure evoked a significant increase in astrocytic Ca2+. In vitro, flow/pressure-evoked vasoconstriction was blunted when the astrocytic syncytium was loaded with BAPTA (chelating intracellular Ca2+) and enhanced when high Ca2+ or ATP were introduced to the astrocytic syncytium. Bath application of either the TRPV4 channel blocker HC067047 or purinergic receptor antagonist suramin blunted flow/pressure-evoked vasoconstriction, whereas K+ and 20-HETE signaling blockade showed no effect. Importantly, we found TRPV4 channel expression to be restricted to astrocytes and not the endothelium of PA. We present evidence for a novel role of astrocytes in PA flow/pressure-evoked vasoconstriction. Our data suggest that astrocytic TRPV4 channels are key molecular sensors of hemodynamic stimuli and that a purinergic, glial-derived signal contributes to flow/pressure-induced adjustments in PA tone. Together our results support bidirectional signaling within the neurovascular unit and astrocytes as key modulators of PA tone. PMID:26019339

  13. Elusive roles for reactive astrocytes in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ben Haim, Lucile; Carrillo-de Sauvage, Maria-Angeles; Ceyzériat, Kelly; Escartin, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes play crucial roles in the brain and are involved in the neuroinflammatory response. They become reactive in response to virtually all pathological situations in the brain such as axotomy, ischemia, infection, and neurodegenerative diseases (ND). Astrocyte reactivity was originally characterized by morphological changes (hypertrophy, remodeling of processes) and the overexpression of the intermediate filament glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). However, it is unclear how the normal supportive functions of astrocytes are altered by their reactive state. In ND, in which neuronal dysfunction and astrocyte reactivity take place over several years or decades, the issue is even more complex and highly debated, with several conflicting reports published recently. In this review, we discuss studies addressing the contribution of reactive astrocytes to ND. We describe the molecular triggers leading to astrocyte reactivity during ND, examine how some key astrocyte functions may be enhanced or altered during the disease process, and discuss how astrocyte reactivity may globally affect ND progression. Finally we will consider the anticipated developments in this important field. With this review, we aim to show that the detailed study of reactive astrocytes may open new perspectives for ND. PMID:26283915

  14. HIV protease inhibitors disrupt astrocytic glutamate transporter function and neurobehavioral performance

    PubMed Central

    Vivithanaporn, Pornpun; Asahchop, Eugene L.; Acharjee, Shaona; Baker, Glen B.; Power, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The neurotoxic actions of the HIV protease inhibitors, amprenavir (APV) and lopinavir (LPV) were investigated. Design: With combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-infected persons exhibit neurocognitive impairments, raising the possibility that cART might exert adverse central nervous system (CNS) effects. We examined the effects of LPV and APV using in-vitro and in-vivo assays of CNS function. Methods: Gene expression, cell viability and amino-acid levels were measured in human astrocytes, following exposure to APV or LPV. Neurobehavioral performance, amino-acid levels and neuropathology were examined in HIV-1 Vpr transgenic mice after treatment with APV or LPV. Results: Excitatory amino-acid transporter-2 (EAAT2) expression was reduced in astrocytes treated with LPV or APV, especially LPV (P < 0.05), which was accompanied by reduced intracellular l-glutamate levels in LPV-treated cells (P < 0.05). Treatment of astrocytes with APV or LPV reduced the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 (P < 0.05) although cell survival was unaffected. Exposure of LPV to astrocytes augmented glutamate-evoked transient rises in [Cai] (P < 0.05). Vpr mice treated with LPV showed lower concentrations of l-glutamate, l-aspartate and l-serine in cortex compared with vehicle-treated mice (P < 0.05). Total errors in T-maze assessment were increased in LPV and APV-treated animals (P < 0.05). EAAT2 expression was reduced in the brains of protease inhibitor-treated animals, which was associated with gliosis (P < 0.05). Conclusion: These results indicated that contemporary protease inhibitors disrupt astrocyte functions at therapeutic concentrations with enhanced sensitivity to glutamate, which can lead to neurobehavioral impairments. ART neurotoxicity should be considered in future therapeutic regimens for HIV/AIDS. PMID:26558720

  15. Identification of genes associated with the astrocyte-specific gene Gfap during astrocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kenji; Sanosaka, Tsukasa; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Ideta-Otsuka, Maky; Aizawa, Akira; Uosaki, Yuichi; Noguchi, Azumi; Arakawa, Hirokazu; Nakashima, Kinichi; Takizawa, Takumi

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomes and genes are non-randomly arranged within the mammalian cell nucleus, and gene clustering is of great significance in transcriptional regulation. However, the relevance of gene clustering and their expression during the differentiation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) into astrocytes remains unclear. We performed a genome-wide enhanced circular chromosomal conformation capture (e4C) to screen for genes associated with the astrocyte-specific gene glial fibrillary acidic protein (Gfap) during astrocyte differentiation. We identified 18 genes that were specifically associated with Gfap and expressed in NPC-derived astrocytes. Our results provide additional evidence for the functional significance of gene clustering in transcriptional regulation during NPC differentiation. PMID:27041678

  16. Cigarette smoke enhances proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition by human fetal airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Elizabeth R.; VanOosten, Sarah K.; Holman, Michelle A.; Hohbein, Danielle D.; Thompson, Michael A.; Vassallo, Robert; Pandya, Hitesh C.; Prakash, Y. S.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a common environmental insult associated with increased risk of developing airway diseases such as wheezing and asthma in neonates and children. In adults, asthma involves airway remodeling characterized by increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell proliferation and increased extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, as well as airway hyperreactivity. The effects of cigarette smoke on remodeling and contractility in the developing airway are not well-elucidated. In this study, we used canalicular-stage (18–20 wk gestational age) human fetal airway smooth muscle (fASM) cells as an in vitro model of the immature airway. fASM cells were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE; 0.5–1.5% for 24–72 h), and cell proliferation, ECM deposition, and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) responses to agonist (histamine 10 μM) were used to evaluate effects on remodeling and hyperreactivity. CSE significantly increased cell proliferation and deposition of ECM molecules collagen I, collagen III, and fibronectin. In contrast, [Ca2+]i responses were not significantly affected by CSE. Analysis of key signaling pathways demonstrated significant increase in extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and p38 activation with CSE. Inhibition of ERK or p38 signaling prevented CSE-mediated changes in proliferation, whereas only ERK inhibition attenuated the CSE-mediated increase in ECM deposition. Overall, these results demonstrate that cigarette smoke may enhance remodeling in developing human ASM through hyperplasia and ECM production, thus contributing to development of neonatal and pediatric airway disease. PMID:25344066

  17. Both core and F proteins of hepatitis C virus could enhance cell proliferation in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Wen-Ta; Li, Hui-Chun; Lee, Shen-Kao; Ma, Hsin-Chieh; Yang, Chee-Hing; Chen, Hung-Ling; Lo, Shih-Yen

    2013-05-24

    Highlights: •HCV core and F proteins could induce hepatocyte proliferation in the transgenic mice. •β-Catenin signaling pathway was activated by core protein in the transgenic mice. •β-Catenin signaling pathway was activated by myc-F protein in the transgenic mice. •Expression of SMA protein was enhanced by core but not myc-F protein. -- Abstract: The role of the protein encoded by the alternative open reading frame (ARF/F/core+1) of the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome in viral pathogenesis remains unknown. The different forms of ARF/F/core+1 protein were labile in cultured cells, a myc-tag fused at the N-terminus of the F protein made it more stable. To determine the role of core and F proteins in HCV pathogenesis, transgenic mice with either protein expression under the control of Albumin promoter were generated. Expression of core protein and F protein with myc tag (myc-F) could be detected by Western blotting analysis in the livers of these mice. The ratio of liver to body weight is increased for both core and myc-F transgenic mice compared to that of wild type mice. Indeed, the proliferating cell nuclear antigen protein, a proliferation marker, was up-regulated in the transgenic mice with core or myc-F protein. Further analyses by microarray and Western blotting suggested that β-catenin signaling pathway was activated by either core or myc-F protein in the transgenic mice. These transgenic mice were further treated with either Diethynitrosamine (a tumor initiator) or Phenobarbital (a tumor promoter). Phenobarbital but not Diethynitrosamine treatment could increase the liver/body weight ratio of these mice. However, no tumor formation was observed in these mice. In conclusion, HCV core and myc-F proteins could induce hepatocyte proliferation in the transgenic mice possibly through β-catenin signaling pathway.

  18. Rho-associated protein kinase inhibition enhances airway epithelial Basal-cell proliferation and lentivirus transduction.

    PubMed

    Horani, Amjad; Nath, Aditya; Wasserman, Mollie G; Huang, Tao; Brody, Steven L

    2013-09-01

    The identification of factors that regulate airway epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation are essential for understanding the pathophysiology of airway diseases. Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCKs) are downstream effector proteins of RhoA GTPase that direct the functions of cell cytoskeletal proteins. ROCK inhibition with Y27632 has been shown to enhance the survival and cloning of human embryonic stem cells and pluripotent cells in other tissues. We hypothesized that Y27632 treatment exerts a similar effect on airway epithelial basal cells, which function as airway epithelial progenitor cells. Treatment with Y27632 enhanced basal-cell proliferation in cultured human tracheobronchial and mouse tracheal epithelial cells. ROCK inhibition accelerated the maturation of basal cells, characterized by a diminution of the cell size associated with cell compaction and the expression of E-cadherin at cell-cell junctions. Transient treatment of cultured basal cells with Y27632 did not affect subsequent ciliated or mucous cell differentiation under air-liquid interface conditions, and allowed for the initial use of lower numbers of human or mouse primary airway epithelial cells than otherwise possible. Moreover, the use of Y27632 during lentivirus-mediated transduction significantly improved posttransduction efficiency and the selection of a transduced cell population, as determined by reporter gene expression. These findings suggest an important role for ROCKs in the regulation of proliferation and maturation of epithelial basal cells, and demonstrate that the inhibition of ROCK pathways using Y27632 provides an adjunctive tool for the in vitro genetic manipulation of airway epithelial cells by lentivirus vectors. PMID:23713995

  19. Wnt5a induces ROR1/ROR2 heterooligomerization to enhance leukemia chemotaxis and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jian; Chen, Liguang; Cui, Bing; Widhopf, George F.; Shen, Zhouxin; Wu, Rongrong; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Suping; Briggs, Steven P.; Kipps, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionarily conserved receptor tyrosine kinase–like orphan receptor-1 and -2 (ROR1/2) are considered distinct receptors for Wnt5a and are implicated in noncanonical Wnt signaling in organogenesis and cancer metastasis. We found that Wnt5a enhanced proliferation and migration of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells and that these effects were blocked by the humanized anti-ROR1 mAb cirmtuzumab (UC-961). Treatment of CLL cells with Wnt5a induced ROR1 to oligomerize with ROR2 and recruit guanine exchange factors (GEFs), which activated Rac1 and RhoA; siRNA-mediated silencing of either ROR1 or ROR2 or treatment with UC-961 inhibited these effects. Using the ROR1-deficient CLL cell line MEC1, we demonstrated that ectopic ROR1 expression induced ROR1/ROR2 heterooligomers, which recruited GEFs, and enhanced proliferation, cytokine-directed migration, and engraftment potential of MEC1 cells in immune-deficient mice. Notably, treatment with UC-961 inhibited engraftment of ROR1+ leukemia cells in immune-competent ROR1-transgenic mice. Molecular analysis revealed that the extracellular Kringle domain is required for ROR1/ROR2 heterooligomerization and the cysteine-rich domain or intracellular proline-rich domain is required for Wnt5a-induced recruitment of GEFs to ROR1/ROR2. This study identifies an interaction between ROR1 and ROR2 that is required for Wnt5a signaling that promotes leukemia chemotaxis and proliferation. PMID:26690702

  20. Proliferation and motility of HaCaT keratinocyte derivatives is enhanced by fibroblast nemosis

    SciTech Connect

    Raesaenen, Kati; Vaheri, Antti

    2010-06-10

    The role of paracrine tumor-stroma regulation in the progression of cancer is under intense investigation. Activated fibroblasts are key components of the tumor microenvironment providing the soluble factors mediating the regulation. Nemosis is an experimental model to study these parameters: formation of a multicellular spheroid activates fibroblasts and leads to increased production of soluble factors involved in the promotion of growth and motility. Role of nemosis was investigated in the tumorigenesis of HaCaT derivatives representing skin carcinoma progression. Conditioned medium from fibroblast spheroids increased proliferation rate of HaCaT derivatives. Expression of proliferation marker Ki-67 increased significantly in benign A5 and low-grade malignant II-4 cells, but did not further increase in the metastatic RT3 cells. Expression of p63, keratinocyte stem cell marker linked to cancer progression, was augmented by medium from nemotic fibroblasts; this increase was also seen in RT3 cells. Scratch-wound healing of the keratinocytes was enhanced in response to fibroblast nemosis. Neutralizing antibodies against growth factors inhibited wound healing to some extent; the response varied between benign and malignant keratinocytes. Migration and invasion were enhanced by conditioned medium from nemotic fibroblasts in benign and low-grade malignant cells. RT3 keratinocyte migration was further augmented, but invasion was not, indicating their intrinsic capacity to invade. Our data demonstrate that fibroblast nemosis increases proliferation and motility of HaCaT keratinocyte derivatives, and thus nemosis can be used as a model to study the role of soluble factors secreted by fibroblasts in tumor progression.

  1. Mast cells and histamine enhance the proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Stoyanov, Evgeniy; Uddin, Mohib; Mankuta, David; Dubinett, Steven M; Levi-Schaffer, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common form of lung cancer with an extremely low survival rate. It is characterized by a chronic inflammatory process with intense mast cell infiltrate that is associated with reduced survival. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that mast cells have an enhancing effect on NSCLC proliferation. To assess the tumor-promoting potential of mast cells, we used the human alveolar basal adenocarcinoma (A549) and the mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cell lines, umbilical cord blood-derived mast cells (CBMC) and the mast cell-deficient mouse Sash model. The proliferation rate of A549/LLC cells was markedly increased by mast cells and histamine. Histamine proliferating activity was mediated via H(1), H(2) and H(4) receptors and caused ERK phosphorylation. LLC induced in Sash mice or in wild-type mice treated with the mast cell stabilizer nedocromil sodium displayed an accelerated growth (number of metastic colonies in the lungs, total lung area and lung/total mice weight ratio). In summary, we have shown a significant effect of mast cells and histamine in enhancing NSCLC/LLCX growth in vitro, while in a mouse LLC model in vivo we have found that mast cells are important negative regulators of cancer development. Therefore our results would indicate a pro-tumorogenic effect of the mast cells in vitro on established lung tumor cell lines, and anti-tumorogenic effect in mice at lung cancer induction. In conclusion, mast cell/anti-histamine targeted therapies should carefully consider this dual effect. PMID:21733595

  2. Fingolimod (FTY720) enhances hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory in Huntington's disease by preventing p75NTR up-regulation and astrocyte-mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Miguez, Andrés; García-Díaz Barriga, Gerardo; Brito, Verónica; Straccia, Marco; Giralt, Albert; Ginés, Silvia; Canals, Josep M; Alberch, Jordi

    2015-09-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and cognitive impairments, involving striatum, cortex and hippocampus. Synaptic and memory dysfunction in HD mouse models have been related to low levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and imbalance between TrkB and p75(NTR) receptors. In addition, astrocyte over-activation has also been suggested to contribute to HD cognitive deficits. Fingolimod (FTY720), a modulator of sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) receptors, has been shown to increase BDNF levels and to reduce astrogliosis, proving its potential to regulate trophic support and inflammatory response. In this view, we have investigated whether FTY720 improves synaptic plasticity and memory in the R6/1 mouse model of HD, through regulation of BDNF signaling and astroglial reactivity. Chronic administration of FTY720 from pre-symptomatic stages ameliorated long-term memory deficits and dendritic spine loss in CA1 hippocampal neurons from R6/1 mice. Furthermore, FTY720 delivery prevented astrogliosis and over-activation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB) signaling in the R6/1 hippocampus, reducing tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels. TNFα decrease correlated with the normalization of p75(NTR) expression in the hippocampus of FTY720-treated R6/1 mice, thus preventing p75(NTR)/TrkB imbalance. In addition, FTY720 increased cAMP levels and promoted phosphorylation of CREB and RhoA in the hippocampus of R6/1 mice, further supporting its role in the enhancement of synaptic plasticity. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanism of action of FTY720 and reveal a novel therapeutic strategy to treat memory deficits in HD. PMID:26063761

  3. Titanium phosphate glass microcarriers induce enhanced osteogenic cell proliferation and human mesenchymal stem cell protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Lakhkar, Nilay J; M Day, Richard; Kim, Hae-Won; Ludka, Katarzyna; Mordan, Nicola J; Salih, Vehid; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have developed 50- to 100-µm-sized titanium phosphate glass microcarriers (denoted as Ti5) that show enhanced proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells and MG63 osteosarcoma cells, as well as enhanced human mesenchymal stem cell expression of bone differentiation markers, in comparison with commercially available glass microspheres at all time points. We also demonstrate that these microcarriers provide superior human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation with conventional Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle medium than with a specially developed commercial stem cell medium. The microcarrier proliferative capacity is revealed by a 24-fold increase in MG63 cell numbers in spinner flask bioreactor studies performed over a 7-day period, versus only a 6-fold increase in control microspheres under the same conditions; the corresponding values of Ti5 and control microspheres under static culture are 8-fold and 7-fold, respectively. The capability of guided osteogenic differentiation is confirmed by ELISAs for bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteopontin, which reveal significantly greater expression of these markers, especially osteopontin, by human mesenchymal stem cells on the Ti5 microspheres than on the control. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy images reveal favorable MG63 and human mesenchymal stem cell adhesion on the Ti5 microsphere surfaces. Thus, the results demonstrate the suitability of the developed microspheres for use as microcarriers in bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:26668711

  4. C1GALT1 enhances proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via modulating MET glycosylation and dimerization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yao-Ming; Liu, Chiung-Hui; Huang, Miao-Juei; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Lee, Po-Huang; Hu, Rey-Heng; Huang, Min-Chuan

    2013-09-01

    Altered glycosylation is a hallmark of cancer. The core 1 β1,3-galactosyltransferase (C1GALT1) controls the formation of mucin-type O-glycans, far overlooked and underestimated in cancer. Here, we report that C1GALT1 mRNA and protein are frequently overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma tumors compared with nontumor liver tissues, where it correlates with advanced tumor stage, metastasis, and poor survival. Enforced expression of C1GALT1 was sufficient to enhance cell proliferation, whereas RNA interference-mediated silencing of C1GALT1 was sufficient to suppress cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Notably, C1GALT1 attenuation also suppressed hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-mediated phosphorylation of the MET kinase in hepatocellular carcinoma cells, whereas enforced expression of C1GALT1 enhanced MET phosphorylation. MET blockade with PHA665752 inhibited C1GALT1-enhanced cell viability. In support of these results, we found that the expression level of phospho-MET and C1GALT1 were associated in primary hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. Mechanistic investigations showed that MET was decorated with O-glycans, as revealed by binding to Vicia villosa agglutinin and peanut agglutinin. Moreover, C1GALT1 modified the O-glycosylation of MET, enhancing its HGF-induced dimerization and activation. Together, our results indicate that C1GALT1 overexpression in hepatocellular carcinoma activates HGF signaling via modulation of MET O-glycosylation and dimerization, providing new insights into how O-glycosylation drives hepatocellular carcinoma pathogenesis. PMID:23832667

  5. Endothelin, Astrocytes and Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Prasanna, Ganesh; Krishnamoorthy, Raghu; Yorio, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that astrocytes may play an important role in the genesis of glaucoma. Astrogliosis occurs in response to ocular stress or the presence of noxious stimuli. Agents that appear to stimulate reactive gliosis are becoming increasingly clear. One class of agents that is emerging is the endothelins (ETs; specifically, ET-1). In this review we examine the interactions of ET-1 with astrocytes and provide examples where ET-1 appears to contribute to activation of astrocytes and play a role in the neurodegenerative effects that accompany such reactivation resulting in astrogliosis. These actions are presented in the context of glaucoma although information is also presented with respect to ET-1's role in the central nervous system and brain. While much has been learned with respect to ET-1/astrocyte interactions, there are still a number of questions concerning the potential therapeutic implications of these findings. Hopefully this review will stimulate others to examine this potential. PMID:20849847

  6. Novel astrocyte targets

    PubMed Central

    Carmignoto, Giorgio; Steinhäuser, Christian

    2015-01-01

    During the last 20 years, it has been well established that a finely tuned, continuous crosstalk between neurons and astrocytes not only critically modulates physiological brain functions but also underlies many neurological diseases. In particular, this novel way of interpreting brain activity is markedly influencing our current knowledge of epilepsy, prompting a re-evaluation of old findings and guiding novel experimentation. Here, we review recent studies that have unraveled novel and unique contributions of astrocytes to the generation and spread of convulsive and nonconvulsive seizures and epileptiform activity. The emerging scenario advocates an overall framework in which a dynamic and reciprocal interplay among astrocytic and neuronal ensembles is fundamental for a fuller understanding of epilepsy. In turn, this offers novel astrocytic targets for the development of those really novel chemical entities for the control of convulsive and nonconvulsive seizures that have been acknowledged as a key priority in the management of epilepsy. PMID:24609207

  7. In vivo astrocytic Ca2+ signaling in health and brain disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Shinghua

    2013-01-01

    Astrocytes are the predominant glial cell type in the CNS. Although astrocytes are electrically nonexcitable, their excitability is manifested by their Ca2+ signaling, which serves as a mediator of neuron–glia bidirectional interactions via tripartite synapses. Studies from in vivo two-photon imaging indicate that in healthy animals, the properties of spontaneous astrocytic Ca2+ signaling are affected by animal species, age, wakefulness and the location of astrocytes in the brain. Intercellular Ca2+ waves in astrocytes can be evoked by a variety of stimulations. In animal models of some brain disorders, astrocytes can exhibit enhanced Ca2+ excitability featured as regenerative intercellular Ca2+ waves. This review first briefly summarizes the astrocytic Ca2+ signaling pathway and the procedure of in vivo two-photon Ca2+ imaging of astrocytes. It subsequently summarizes in vivo astrocytic Ca2+ signaling in health and brain disorders from experimental studies of animal models, and discusses the possible mechanisms and therapeutic implications underlying the enhanced Ca2+ excitability in astrocytes in brain disorders. Finally, this review summarizes molecular genetic approaches used to selectively manipulate astrocyte function in vivo and their applications to study the role of astrocytes in synaptic plasticity and brain disorders. PMID:24376372

  8. Effects of acrylamide on primary neonatal rat astrocyte functions.

    PubMed

    Aschner, Michael; Wu, Qi; Friedman, Marvin A

    2005-08-01

    The present study assessed biochemical endpoints indicative of acrylamide toxicity in astrocyte cultures derived from neonatal rat pups. Given earlier reports on the possible ability of acrylamide to induce astrocytomas in the Fischer 344 rat, we performed studies in neonatal rat astrocyte cultures from the Fischer 344 to assess the ability of acrylamide to induce astrocytic proliferation. Measurements on astrocytic proliferation included [3H]-leucine incorporation, [3H]-thymidine incorporation, and changes in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Although acrylamide (0.1 and 1 mM for 7, 11, 15, or 20 days) did not significantly (P > 0.05) affect [3H]-leucine or [3H]-thymidine incorporation, it significantly (P < 0.05) increased PCNA protein expression in astrocytes exposed to acrylamide for 15 and 20 days. Additional studies revealed that this effect on PCNA protein expression was not associated with activation of dopamine-2 (D2) receptors, given that quinpirole (10 microM added to cultures for the last hour of 7, 11, 15, or 20 days in culture), a selective D2 receptor agonist, did not produce results analogous to those seen with acrylamide treatment. Cotreatment of astrocytes with acrylamide (7, 11, 15, or 20 days) and the D2 receptor antagonist, sulpiride (1 microM for the last 6 h of exposure), also failed to reverse acrylamide's effect on PCNA protein induction. Taken together, these studies suggest that acrylamide promotes astrocytic cell proliferation in the CNS even though DNA synthesis did not appear stimulated. PMID:16179551

  9. Enhanced Clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Brahmchetna; Yuan, Zhihong; Joo, Myungsoo; Zughaier, Susu M; Goldberg, Joanna B; Arbiser, Jack L; Hart, C Michael; Sadikot, Ruxana T

    2016-07-01

    The pathogenic profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is related to its ability to secrete a variety of virulence factors. Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism wherein small diffusible molecules, specifically acyl-homoserine lactones, are produced by P. aeruginosa to promote virulence. We show here that macrophage clearance of P. aeruginosa (PAO1) is enhanced by activation of the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Macrophages treated with a PPARγ agonist (pioglitazone) showed enhanced phagocytosis and bacterial killing of PAO1. It is known that PAO1 QS molecules are inactivated by PON-2. QS molecules are also known to inhibit activation of PPARγ by competitively binding PPARγ receptors. In accord with this observation, we found that infection of macrophages with PAO1 inhibited expression of PPARγ and PON-2. Mechanistically, we show that PPARγ induces macrophage paraoxonase 2 (PON-2), an enzyme that degrades QS molecules produced by P. aeruginosa Gene silencing studies confirmed that enhanced clearance of PAO1 in macrophages by PPARγ is PON-2 dependent. Further, we show that PPARγ agonists also enhance clearance of P. aeruginosa from lungs of mice infected with PAO1. Together, these data demonstrate that P. aeruginosa impairs the ability of host cells to mount an immune response by inhibiting PPARγ through secretion of QS molecules. These studies define a novel mechanism by which PPARγ contributes to the host immunoprotective effects during bacterial infection and suggest a role for PPARγ immunotherapy for P. aeruginosa infections. PMID:27091928

  10. Astrocytes: Targets for Neuroprotection in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, George; White, Robin E.; Ouyang, Yibing; Xu, Lijun; Giffard, Rona G.

    2011-01-01

    In the past two decades, over 1000 clinical trials have failed to demonstrate a benefit in treating stroke, with the exception of thrombolytics. Although many targets have been pursued, including antioxidants, calcium channel blockers, glutamate receptor blockers, and neurotrophic factors, often the focus has been on neuronal mechanisms of injury. Broader attention to loss and dysfunction of non-neuronal cell types is now required to increase the chance of success. Of the several glial cell types, this review will focus on astrocytes. Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the higher mammalian nervous system, and they play key roles in normal CNS physiology and in central nervous system injury and pathology. In the setting of ischemia astrocytes perform multiple functions, some beneficial and some potentially detrimental, making them excellent candidates as therapeutic targets to improve outcome following stroke and in other central nervous system injuries. The older neurocentric view of the central nervous system has changed radically with the growing understanding of the many essential functions of astrocytes. These include K+ buffering, glutamate clearance, brain antioxidant defense, close metabolic coupling with neurons, and modulation of neuronal excitability. In this review, we will focus on those functions of astrocytes that can both protect and endanger neurons, and discuss how manipulating these functions provides a novel and important strategy to enhance neuronal survival and improve outcome following cerebral ischemia. PMID:21521168

  11. Calcium dynamics in astrocyte processes during neurovascular coupling

    PubMed Central

    Otsu, Yo; Couchman, Kiri; Lyons, Declan G; Collot, Mayeul; Agarwal, Amit; Mallet, Jean-Maurice; Pfrieger, Frank W; Bergles, Dwight E; Charpak, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced neuronal activity in the brain triggers a local increase in blood flow, termed functional hyperemia, via several mechanisms, including calcium (Ca2+) signaling in astrocytes. However, recent in vivo studies have questioned the role of astrocytes in functional hyperemia because of the slow and sparse dynamics of their somatic Ca2+ signals and the absence of glutamate metabotropic receptor 5 in adults. Here, we reexamined their role in neurovascular coupling by selectively expressing a genetically encoded Ca2+ sensor in astrocytes of the olfactory bulb. We show that in anesthetized mice, the physiological activation of olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) terminals reliably triggers Ca2+ increases in astrocyte processes but not in somata. These Ca2+ increases systematically precede the onset of functional hyperemia by 1–2 s, reestablishing astrocytes as potential regulators of neurovascular coupling. PMID:25531572

  12. Dopamine Receptor Antagonists Enhance Proliferation and Neurogenesis of Midbrain Lmx1a-expressing Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Eva; Belnoue, Laure; Theofilopoulos, Spyridon; Salto, Carmen; Bye, Chris; Parish, Clare; Deng, Qiaolin; Kadkhodaei, Banafsheh; Ericson, Johan; Arenas, Ernest; Perlmann, Thomas; Simon, András

    2016-01-01

    Degeneration of dopamine neurons in the midbrain causes symptoms of the movement disorder, Parkinson disease. Dopamine neurons are generated from proliferating progenitor cells localized in the embryonic ventral midbrain. However, it remains unclear for how long cells with dopamine progenitor character are retained and if there is any potential for reactivation of such cells after cessation of normal dopamine neurogenesis. We show here that cells expressing Lmx1a and other progenitor markers remain in the midbrain aqueductal zone beyond the major dopamine neurogenic period. These cells express dopamine receptors, are located in regions heavily innervated by midbrain dopamine fibres and their proliferation can be stimulated by antagonizing dopamine receptors, ultimately leading to increased neurogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, treatment with dopamine receptor antagonists enhances neurogenesis in vitro, both from embryonic midbrain progenitors as well as from embryonic stem cells. Altogether our results indicate a potential for reactivation of resident midbrain cells with dopamine progenitor potential beyond the normal period of dopamine neurogenesis. PMID:27246266

  13. XPC inhibits NSCLC cell proliferation and migration by enhancing E-Cadherin expression

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Tiantian; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Han, Chunhua; Yang, Linlin; Zhao, Ran; Zou, Ning; Qu, Meihua; Duan, Wenrui; Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Qi-En

    2015-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) protein is an important DNA damage recognition factor in nucleotide excision repair. Deletion of XPC is associated with early stages of human lung carcinogenesis, and reduced XPC mRNA levels predict poor patient outcome for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the mechanisms linking loss of XPC expression and poor prognosis in lung cancer are still unclear. Here, we report evidence that XPC silencing drives proliferation and migration of NSCLC cells by down-regulating E-Cadherin. XPC knockdown enhanced proliferation and migration while decreasing E-Cadherin expression in NSCLC cells with an epithelial phenotype. Restoration of E-Cadherin in these cells suppressed XPC knockdown-induced cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic studies showed that the loss of XPC repressed E-Cadherin expression by activating the ERK pathway and upregulating Snail expression. Our findings indicate that XPC silencing-induced reduction of E-Cadherin expression contributes, at least in part, to the poor outcome of NSCLC patients with low XPC expression. PMID:25871391

  14. Dopamine Receptor Antagonists Enhance Proliferation and Neurogenesis of Midbrain Lmx1a-expressing Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Hedlund, Eva; Belnoue, Laure; Theofilopoulos, Spyridon; Salto, Carmen; Bye, Chris; Parish, Clare; Deng, Qiaolin; Kadkhodaei, Banafsheh; Ericson, Johan; Arenas, Ernest; Perlmann, Thomas; Simon, András

    2016-01-01

    Degeneration of dopamine neurons in the midbrain causes symptoms of the movement disorder, Parkinson disease. Dopamine neurons are generated from proliferating progenitor cells localized in the embryonic ventral midbrain. However, it remains unclear for how long cells with dopamine progenitor character are retained and if there is any potential for reactivation of such cells after cessation of normal dopamine neurogenesis. We show here that cells expressing Lmx1a and other progenitor markers remain in the midbrain aqueductal zone beyond the major dopamine neurogenic period. These cells express dopamine receptors, are located in regions heavily innervated by midbrain dopamine fibres and their proliferation can be stimulated by antagonizing dopamine receptors, ultimately leading to increased neurogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, treatment with dopamine receptor antagonists enhances neurogenesis in vitro, both from embryonic midbrain progenitors as well as from embryonic stem cells. Altogether our results indicate a potential for reactivation of resident midbrain cells with dopamine progenitor potential beyond the normal period of dopamine neurogenesis. PMID:27246266

  15. Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment - Enhancing a Facility-Level Model for Proliferation Resistance Assessment of a Nuclear Enegry System

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, Garill A.; Brothers, Alan J.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Olson, Jarrod; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2009-10-26

    The Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment project (PL09-UtilSocial) investigates the use of social and cultural information to improve nuclear proliferation assessments, including nonproliferation assessments, Proliferation Resistance (PR) assessments, safeguards assessments, and other related studies. These assessments often use and create technical information about a host State and its posture towards proliferation, the vulnerability of a nuclear energy system (NES) to an undesired event, and the effectiveness of safeguards. This objective of this project is to find and integrate social and technical information by explicitly considering the role of cultural, social, and behavioral factors relevant to proliferation; and to describe and demonstrate if and how social science modeling has utility in proliferation assessment. This report describes a modeling approach and how it might be used to support a location-specific assessment of the PR assessment of a particular NES. The report demonstrates the use of social modeling to enhance an existing assessment process that relies on primarily technical factors. This effort builds on a literature review and preliminary assessment performed as the first stage of the project and compiled in PNNL-18438. [ T his report describes an effort to answer questions about whether it is possible to incorporate social modeling into a PR assessment in such a way that we can determine the effects of social factors on a primarily technical assessment. This report provides: 1. background information about relevant social factors literature; 2. background information about a particular PR assessment approach relevant to this particular demonstration; 3. a discussion of social modeling undertaken to find and characterize social factors that are relevant to the PR assessment of a nuclear facility in a specific location; 4. description of an enhancement concept that integrates social factors into an existing, technically

  16. Enhancing proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of HMSCs on casein/chitosan multilayer films.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zheng, Zebin; Cao, Zhinan; Zhuang, Liangting; Xu, Yong; Liu, Xiaozhen; Xu, Yue; Gong, Yihong

    2016-05-01

    Creating a bioactive surface is important in tissue engineering. Inspired by the natural calcium binding property of casein (CA), multilayer films ((CA/CS)n) with chitosan (CS) as polycation were fabricated to enhance biomineralization, cell adhesion and differentiation. LBL self-assembly technique was used and the assembly process was intensively studied based on changes of UV absorbance, zeta potential and water contact angle. The increasing content of chitosan and casein with bilayers was further confirmed with XPS and TOF-SIMS analysis. To improve the biocompatibility, gelatin was surface grafted. In vitro mineralization test demonstrated that multilayer films had more hydroxyapatite crystal deposition. Human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs) were seeded onto these films. According to fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and cell cytoskeleton staining, MTT assay, expression of osteogenic marker genes, ALP activity, and calcium deposition quantification, it was found that these multilayer films significantly promoted HMSCs attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation than TCPS control. PMID:26895501

  17. FBI-1 Enhances ETS-1 Signaling Activity and Promotes Proliferation of Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weihao; Yang, Yutao; Cui, Jiajun; Zhang, Dong; Linghu, Enqiang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated a potential regulatory role of FBI-1 in transcription factor activity of ETS-1. The protein interaction was identified between ETS-1 and FBI-1 in lovo cells. The accumulating data showed that FBI-1 promoted the recruitment of ETS-1 to endogenous promoter of its target genes and increase ETS-1 accumulation in the nuclear. Our work also indicated that the FBI-1 enhances ETS-1 transcription factor activity via down-regulating p53-mediated inhibition on ETS-1. Further, FBI-1 plays a role in regulation of colorectal carcinoma cells proliferation. These findings supported that FBI-1 might be a potential molecule target for treating colorectal carcinoma. PMID:24857950

  18. GPR171 expression enhances proliferation and metastasis of lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Dho, So Hee; Lee, Kwang-Pyo; Jeong, Dongjun; Kim, Chang-Jin; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Kim, Ji Young; Park, Bum-Chan; Park, Sung Sup; Kim, Seon-Young; Kwon, Ki-Sun

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are among the most significant therapeutic targets and some of them promote the growth and metastasis of cancer. Here, we show that an increase in the levels of GPR171 is crucial for lung cancer tumor progression in vitro and in vivo. Immunostaining of clinical samples indicated that GPR171 was overexpressed in 46.8% of lung carcinoma tissues. Depletion of GPR171 with an anti-GPR171 antibody decreased proliferation of lung carcinoma cells and attenuated tumor progression in a mouse xenograft model. Knockdown of GPR171 also inhibited migration and invasion of the lung cancer cell lines. Notably, inhibition of GPR171 synergistically enhanced the tumoricidal activity of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor in lung cancer cells. These results indicate that GPR171 blockade is a promising antineoplastic strategy and provide a preclinical rationale for combined inhibition of GPR171 and EGFR. PMID:26760963

  19. Enforced expression of NUP98-HOXA9 in human CD34(+) cells enhances stem cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ki Y; Morrone, Giovanni; Schuringa, Jan Jacob; Plasilova, Magdalena; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Zhang, Yue; Zhou, Pengbo; Moore, Malcolm A S

    2006-12-15

    The t(7;11)(p15;p15) translocation, observed in acute myelogenous leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome, generates a chimeric gene where the 5' portion of the sequence encoding the human nucleoporin NUP98 protein is fused to the 3' region of HOXA9. Here, we show that retroviral-mediated enforced expression of the NUP98-HOXA9 fusion protein in cord blood-derived CD34(+) cells confers a proliferative advantage in both cytokine-stimulated suspension cultures and stromal coculture. This advantage is reflected in the selective expansion of hematopoietic stem cells as measured in vitro by cobblestone area-forming cell assays and in vivo by competitive repopulation of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice. NUP98-HOXA9 expression inhibited erythroid progenitor differentiation and delayed neutrophil maturation in transduced progenitors but strongly enhanced their serial replating efficiency. Analysis of the transcriptosome of transduced cells revealed up-regulation of several homeobox genes of the A and B cluster as well as of Meis1 and Pim-1 and down-modulation of globin genes and of CAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha. The latter gene, when coexpressed with NUP98-HOXA9, reversed the enhanced proliferation of transduced CD34(+) cells. Unlike HOXA9, the NUP98-HOXA9 fusion was protected from ubiquitination mediated by Cullin-4A and subsequent proteasome-dependent degradation. The resulting protein stabilization may contribute to the leukemogenic activity of the fusion protein. PMID:17178874

  20. Irradiation enhances the support of haemopoietic cell transmigration, proliferation and differentiation by endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gaugler, M H; Squiban, C; Mouthon, M A; Gourmelon, P; van der Meeren, A

    2001-06-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) are a critical component of the bone marrow stroma in the regulation of haemopoiesis. Recovery of bone marrow aplasia after radiation exposure depends, in part, on the repair of radiation-induced endothelial damage. Therefore, we assessed the ability of an irradiated human bone marrow EC line (TrHBMEC) to support transmigration, proliferation and differentiation of CD34+ bone marrow cells either irradiated or not in transendothelial migration or co-culture models. Radiation-induced EC damage was reflected by an increased release of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1 and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1. Irradiation of TrHBMECs with a 10 Gy dose strongly enhanced the transmigration of CD34+ cells, granulo-monocytic progenitors (CFU-GM) and erythroid progenitors (BFU-E). While ICAM-1 and PECAM-1 expression on irradiated TrHBMECs was increased, only antibodies against PECAM-1 inhibited the radiation-induced enhanced transmigration of haemopoietic cells. Irradiation of TrHBMECs (5-15 Gy) also increased proliferation and differentiation towards the granulo-monocytic lineage of co-cultured CD34+ cells, as well as colony formation by those cells and the production of interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage CSF. Irradiated TrHBMECs were more capable of stimulating irradiated (1,2 Gy) CD34+ cells and haemopoietic progenitors than non-irradiated TrHBMECs. Together, these results suggest that, despite the radiation-induced damage, irradiated ECs may favour haemopoietic reconstitution after radiation exposure. PMID:11442488

  1. Enhanced proliferation of PC12 neural cells on untreated, nanotextured glass coverslips.

    PubMed

    Islam, Muhymin; Atmaramani, Rahul; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Ghosh, Santaneel; Iqbal, Samir M

    2016-10-14

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system is a significant health problem. There is no effective treatment available partly because of the complexity of the system. Implementation of multifunctional micro- and nano-device based combinatorial therapeutics can provide biocompatible and tunable approaches to perform on-demand release of specific drugs. This can help the damaged cells to improve neuronal survival, regeneration of axons, and their reconnection to appropriate targets. Nano-topological features induced rapid cell growth is especially important towards the design of effective platforms to facilitate damaged neural circuit reconstruction. In this study, for the first time, feasibility of neuron-like PC12 cell growth on untreated and easy to prepare nanotextured surfaces has been carried out. The PC12 neuron-like cells were cultured on micro reactive ion etched  nanotextured glass coverslips. The effect of nanotextured topology as physical cue for the growth of PC12 cells was observed exclusively, eliminating the possible influence(s) of the enhanced concentration of coated materials on the surface. The cell density was observed to increase by almost 200% on nanotextured coverslips compared to plain coverslips. The morphology study indicated that PC12 cell attachment and growth on the nanotextured substrates did not launch any apoptotic machinery of the cell. Less than 5% cells deformed and depicted condensed nuclei with apoptotic bodies on nanotextured surfaces which is typical for the normal cell handling and culture. Enhanced PC12 cell proliferation by such novel and easy to prepare substrates is not only attractive for neurite outgrowth and guidance, but may be used to increase the affinity of similar cancerous cells (ex: B35 neuroblastoma) and rapid proliferation thereafter-towards the development of combinatorial theranostics to diagnose and treat aggressive cancers like neuroblastoma. PMID:27587351

  2. Astrocytes as a Source for Extracellular Matrix Molecules and Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Wiese, Stefan; Karus, Michael; Faissner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Research of the past 25 years has shown that astrocytes do more than participating and building up the blood-brain barrier and detoxify the active synapse by reuptake of neurotransmitters and ions. Indeed, astrocytes express neurotransmitter receptors and, as a consequence, respond to stimuli. Within the tripartite synapse, the astrocytes owe more and more importance. Besides the functional aspects the differentiation of astrocytes has gained a more intensive focus. Deeper knowledge of the differentiation processes during development of the central nervous system might help explaining and even help treating neurological diseases like Alzheimer’s disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinsons disease, and psychiatric disorders in which astrocytes have been shown to play a role. Specific differentiation of neural stem cells toward the astroglial lineage is performed as a multi-step process. Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes develop from a multipotent stem cell that prior to this has produced primarily neuronal precursor cells. This switch toward the more astroglial differentiation is regulated by a change in receptor composition on the cell surface and responsiveness to Fibroblast growth factor and Epidermal growth factor (EGF). The glial precursor cell is driven into the astroglial direction by signaling molecules like Ciliary neurotrophic factor, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, and EGF. However, the early astrocytes influence their environment not only by releasing and responding to diverse soluble factors but also express a wide range of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, in particular proteoglycans of the lectican family and tenascins. Lately these ECM molecules have been shown to participate in glial development. In this regard, especially the matrix protein Tenascin C (Tnc) proved to be an important regulator of astrocyte precursor cell proliferation and migration during spinal cord development. Nevertheless, ECM molecules expressed by reactive astrocytes

  3. Nanoparticle-mediated conversion of primary human astrocytes into neurons and oligodendrocytes†

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaowei; Kozielski, Kristen; Cheng, Yu-Hao; Liu, Huanhuan; Zamboni, Camila Gadens; Green, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) diseases and injuries are accompanied by reactive gliosis and scarring involving the activation and proliferation of astrocytes to form hypertrophic and dense structures, which present a significant barrier to neural regeneration. Engineering astrocytes to functional neurons or oligodendrocytes may constitute a novel therapeutic strategy for CNS diseases and injuries. Such direct cellular programming has been successfully demonstrated using viral vectors via the transduction of transcriptional factors, such as Sox2, which could program resident astrocytes into neurons in the adult brain and spinal cord, albeit the efficiency was low. Here we report a non-viral nanoparticle-based transfection method to deliver Sox2 or Olig2 into primary human astrocytes and demonstrate the effective conversion of the astrocytes into neurons and oligodendrocyte progenitors following the transgene expression of Sox2 and Olig2, respectively. This approach is highly translatable for engineering astrocytes to repair injured CNS tissues. PMID:27328202

  4. Nanoparticle-mediated conversion of primary human astrocytes into neurons and oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaowei; Kozielski, Kristen; Cheng, Yu-Hao; Liu, Huanhuan; Zamboni, Camila Gadens; Green, Jordan; Mao, Hai-Quan

    2016-06-21

    Central nervous system (CNS) diseases and injuries are accompanied by reactive gliosis and scarring involving the activation and proliferation of astrocytes to form hypertrophic and dense structures, which present a significant barrier to neural regeneration. Engineering astrocytes to functional neurons or oligodendrocytes may constitute a novel therapeutic strategy for CNS diseases and injuries. Such direct cellular programming has been successfully demonstrated using viral vectors via the transduction of transcriptional factors, such as Sox2, which could program resident astrocytes into neurons in the adult brain and spinal cord, albeit the efficiency was low. Here we report a non-viral nanoparticle-based transfection method to deliver Sox2 or Olig2 into primary human astrocytes and demonstrate the effective conversion of the astrocytes into neurons and oligodendrocyte progenitors following the transgene expression of Sox2 and Olig2, respectively. This approach is highly translatable for engineering astrocytes to repair injured CNS tissues. PMID:27328202

  5. Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts protein-1 regulates epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Lanciotti, Angela; Brignone, Maria Stefania; Visentin, Sergio; De Nuccio, Chiara; Catacuzzeno, Luigi; Mallozzi, Cinzia; Petrini, Stefania; Caramia, Martino; Veroni, Caterina; Minnone, Gaetana; Bernardo, Antonietta; Franciolini, Fabio; Pessia, Mauro; Bertini, Enrico; Petrucci, Tamara Corinna; Ambrosini, Elena

    2016-04-15

    Mutations in the MLC1 gene, which encodes a protein expressed in brain astrocytes, are the leading cause of MLC, a rare leukodystrophy characterized by macrocephaly, brain edema, subcortical cysts, myelin and astrocyte vacuolation. Although recent studies indicate that MLC1 protein is implicated in the regulation of cell volume changes, the exact role of MLC1 in brain physiology and in the pathogenesis of MLC disease remains to be clarified. In preliminary experiments, we observed that MLC1 was poorly expressed in highly proliferating astrocytoma cells when compared with primary astrocytes, and that modulation of MLC1 expression influenced astrocyte growth. Because volume changes are key events in cell proliferation and during brain development MLC1 expression is inversely correlated to astrocyte progenitor proliferation levels, we investigated the possible role for MLC1 in the control of astrocyte proliferation. We found that overexpression of wild type but not mutant MLC1 in human astrocytoma cells hampered cell growth by favoring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) degradation and by inhibiting EGF-induced Ca(+) entry, ERK1/2 and PLCγ1 activation, and calcium-activated KCa3.1 potassium channel function, all molecular pathways involved in astrocyte proliferation stimulation. Interestingly, MLC1 did not influence AKT, an EGFR-stimulated kinase involved in cell survival. Moreover, EGFR expression was higher in macrophages derived from MLC patients than from healthy individuals. Since reactive astrocytes proliferate and re-express EGFR in response to different pathological stimuli, the present findings provide new information on MLC pathogenesis and unravel an important role for MLC1 in other brain pathological conditions where astrocyte activation occurs. PMID:26908604

  6. Cytomegalovirus infection enhances smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal thickening of rat aortic allografts.

    PubMed Central

    Lemström, K B; Bruning, J H; Bruggeman, C A; Lautenschlager, I T; Häyry, P J

    1993-01-01

    Inbred DA (AG-B4, RT1a) and WF (AG-B2, RT1v) rats were used as donors and recipients of aortic allografts. The recipient rats were inoculated i.p. either on day 1 (early infection) or on day 60 (late infection) with 10(5) plaque-forming units of rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV). The control rats were left noninfected. The presence of viral infection was demonstrated by plaque assays from biopsies of the salivary glands, liver, and spleen at sacrifice. The rats received 300 microCi[3H]thymidine by i.v. injection 3 h before sacrifice, and the grafts were removed at various time points for histology, immunohistochemistry, and autoradiography. RCMV infection significantly enhanced the generation of allograft arteriosclerosis. Infection at the time of transplantation had two important effects. First, the infection was associated with an early, prominent inflammatory episode and proliferation of inflammatory cells in the allograft adventitia. Second, the viral infection doubled the proliferation rate of smooth muscle cells and the arteriosclerotic alterations in the intima. In late infection the impact of RCMV infection on the allograft histology was nearly nonexistent. RCMV infection showed no effect in syngeneic grafts. These results suggest that early infection is more important to the generation of accelerated allograft arteriosclerosis than late infection, and that an acute alloimmune response must be associated with virus infection, to induce accelerated allograft arteriosclerosis. RCMV-infected aortic allografts, as described here, provide the first experimental model to investigate the interaction between the virus and the vascular wall of the transplant. Images PMID:8394384

  7. Constitutive Expression of Human Telomerase Enhances the Proliferation Potential of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bischoff, David S.; Makhijani, Nalini S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are highly desirable cells for bone engineering due to the inherent multipotent nature of the cells. Unfortunately, there is a high degree of variability, as primary hMSC cultures quickly undergo replicative senescence with loss of proliferative potential as they are continually propagated in cell culture. We sought to reduce the variability of these cells by insertion and expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) to immortalize the cell line. hMSCs were transduced with a lentivirus containing the human TERT gene. The resulting cell line has been propagated through more than 70 population-doubling level (PDL) to date and continues to grow exhibiting the characteristic fibroblastic hMSC phenotype. Expression of TERT mRNA and protein activity was confirmed in the TERT-transduced cells. Mock-transduced hMSCs had almost undetectable levels of TERT mRNA and protein activity and lost proliferation potential at PDL 14. The enhanced growth capacity of the hMSC TERT cells was due to increased cell proliferation and reduced cellular senescence rather than due to inhibition of apoptosis. The multipotent nature of the TERT cells was confirmed by differentiation toward the osteoblastic and adipogenic lineages in vitro. Osteoblastic differentiation was confirmed by both expression of alkaline phosphate and mineral deposition visualized by Alizarin Red staining. Adipogenic differentiation was confirmed by production of lipid droplets, which were detected by Oil Red-O staining. In summary, we have generated a stable hMSC line that can be continually propagated and retains both osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation potential. PMID:23515239

  8. Wip1 knockout inhibits the proliferation and enhances the migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yiting; Liu, Lan; Sheng, Ming; Xiong, Kai; Huang, Lei; Gao, Qian; Wei, Jingliang; Wu, Tianwen; Yang, Shulin; Liu, Honglin; Mu, Yulian; Li, Kui

    2015-06-10

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a unique population of multipotent adult progenitor cells originally found in bone marrow (BM), are extremely useful for multifunctional therapeutic approaches. However, the growth arrest and premature senescence of MSCs in vitro prevent the in-depth characterization of these cells. In addition, the regulatory factors involved in MSCs migration remain largely unknown. Given that protein phosphorylation is associated with the processes of MSCs proliferation and migration, we focused on wild-type p53-inducible phosphatase-1 (Wip1), a well-studied modulator of phosphorylation, in this study. Our results showed that Wip1 knockout significantly inhibited MSCs proliferation and induced G2-phase cell-cycle arrest by reducing cyclinB1 expression. Compared with WT-MSCs, Wip1{sup −/−} MSCs displayed premature growth arrest after six passages in culture. Transwell and scratch assays revealed that Wip1{sup −/−} MSCs migrate more effectively than WT-MSCs. Moreover, the enhanced migratory response of Wip1{sup −/−} MSCs may be attributed to increases in the induction of Rac1-GTP activity, the pAKT/AKT ratio, the rearrangement of filamentous-actin (f-actin), and filopodia formation. Based on these results, we then examined the effect of treatment with a PI3K/AKT and Rac1 inhibitor, both of which impaired the migratory activity of MSCs. Therefore, we propose that the PI3K/AKT/Rac1 signaling axis mediates the Wip1 knockout-induced migration of MSCs. Our findings indicate that the principal function of Wip1 in MSCs transformation is the maintenance of proliferative capacity. Nevertheless, knocking out Wip1 increases the migratory capacity of MSCs. This dual effect of Wip1 provides the potential for purposeful routing of MSCs. - Highlights: • Wip1 knockout inhibited MSCs proliferation through reducing cyclinB1 expression. • Wip1{sup −/−} MSCs displayed premature growth arrest in vitro after six passages. • Knocking out Wip1

  9. Probing astrocytes with carbon nanotubes and assessing their effects on astrocytic structural and functional properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottipati, Manoj K.

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes, chemically-functionalized with polyethylene glycol (SWCNT-PEG) have been shown to modulate the morphology and proliferation characteristics of astrocytes in culture, when applied to the cells as colloidal solutes or as films upon which the cells can attach and grow. These changes were associated with a change in the immunoreactivity of the astrocyte-specific protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP); the solutes and films caused an increase and a decrease in GFAP levels, respectively. To assess if these morpho-functional changes induced by the SWCNT-PEG modalities are dependent on GFAP or if the changes in GFAP levels are independent events, I used astrocytes isolated from GFAP knockout mice and found that selected changes induced by the SWCNT-PEG modalities are mediated by GFAP, namely the changes in perimeter, shape and cell death for colloidal solutes and the rate of proliferation for films. Since the loss GFAP has been shown to hamper the trafficking of glutamate transporters to the surface of astrocytes, which plays a vital role in the uptake of extracellular glutamate and maintaining homeostasis in the brain and spinal cord, in a subsequent study, I assessed if the SWCNT-PEG solute causes any change in the glutamate uptake characteristics of astrocytes. Using a radioactive glutamate uptake assay and immunolabeling, I found that SWCNT-PEG solute causes an increase in the uptake of glutamate from the extracellular space along with an increase in the immunoreactivity of the glutamate transporter, L-glutamate L-aspartate transporter (GLAST), on their cell surface, a likely consequence of the increase in GFAP levels induced by the SWCNT-PEG solute. These results imply that SWCNT-PEG could potentially be used as a viable candidate in neural prosthesis applications to prevent glutamate excitotoxicity, a pathological process observed in brain and spinal cord injuries, and alleviate the death toll of neurons surrounding the injury

  10. Computational models of neuron-astrocyte interaction in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Volman, Vladislav; Bazhenov, Maxim; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2012-01-01

    Astrocytes actively shape the dynamics of neurons and neuronal ensembles by affecting several aspects critical to neuronal function, such as regulating synaptic plasticity, modulating neuronal excitability, and maintaining extracellular ion balance. These pathways for astrocyte-neuron interaction can also enhance the information-processing capabilities of brains, but in other circumstances may lead the brain on the road to pathological ruin. In this article, we review the existing computational models of astrocytic involvement in epileptogenesis, focusing on their relevance to existing physiological data. PMID:23060780

  11. Regulation of the pituitary tumor transforming gene by insulin-like-growth factor-I and insulin differs between malignant and non-neoplastic astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chamaon, Kathrin; Kirches, Elmar; Kanakis, Dimitrios; Braeuninger, Stefan; Dietzmann, Knut; Mawrin, Christian . E-mail: christian.mawrin@medizin.uni-magdeburg.de

    2005-05-27

    The reasons for overexpression of the oncogene pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) in tumors are still not fully understood. A possible influence of the insulin-like growth factor I (Igf-I) may be of interest, since enhanced Igf-I signalling was reported in various human tumors. We examined the influence of Igf-I and insulin on PTTG expression in human astrocytoma cells in comparison to proliferating non-neoplastic rat embryonal astrocytes. PTTG mRNA expression and protein levels were increased in malignant astrocytes treated with Igf-I or insulin, whereas in rat embryonic astrocytes PTTG expression and protein levels increased only when cells were exposed to Igf-I. Enhanced transcription did not occur after treatment with inhibitors of phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), blocking the two basic signalling pathways of Igf-I and insulin. In addition to this transcriptional regulation, both kinases directly bind to PTTG, suggesting a second regulatory route by phosphorylation. However, the interaction of endogenous PTTG with MAPK and PI3K, as well as PTTG phosphorylation were independent from Igf-I or insulin. The latter results were also found in human testis, which contains high PTTG levels as well as in nonneoplastic astrocytes. This suggest, that PI3K and MAPK signalling is involved in PTTG regulation not only in malignant astrocytomas but also in non-tumorous cells.

  12. Striatal neuronal death mediated by astrocytes from the Gcdh-/- mouse model of glutaric acidemia type I.

    PubMed

    Olivera-Bravo, Silvia; Ribeiro, César A J; Isasi, Eugenia; Trías, Emiliano; Leipnitz, Guilhian; Díaz-Amarilla, Pablo; Woontner, Michael; Beck, Cheryl; Goodman, Stephen I; Souza, Diogo; Wajner, Moacir; Barbeito, Luis

    2015-08-15

    Glutaric acidemia type I (GA-I) is an inherited neurometabolic childhood disorder caused by defective activity of glutaryl CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) which disturb lysine (Lys) and tryptophan catabolism leading to neurotoxic accumulation of glutaric acid (GA) and related metabolites. However, it remains unknown whether GA toxicity is due to direct effects on vulnerable neurons or mediated by GA-intoxicated astrocytes that fail to support neuron function and survival. As damaged astrocytes can also contribute to sustain high GA levels, we explored the ability of Gcdh-/- mouse astrocytes to produce GA and induce neuronal death when challenged with Lys. Upon Lys treatment, Gcdh-/- astrocytes synthetized and released GA and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid (3HGA). Lys and GA treatments also increased oxidative stress and proliferation in Gcdh-/- astrocytes, both prevented by antioxidants. Pretreatment with Lys also caused Gcdh-/- astrocytes to induce extensive death of striatal and cortical neurons when compared with milder effect in WT astrocytes. Antioxidants abrogated the neuronal death induced by astrocytes exposed to Lys or GA. In contrast, Lys or GA direct exposure on Gcdh-/- or WT striatal neurons cultured in the absence of astrocytes was not toxic, indicating that neuronal death is mediated by astrocytes. In summary, GCDH-defective astrocytes actively contribute to produce and accumulate GA and 3HGA when Lys catabolism is stressed. In turn, astrocytic GA production induces a neurotoxic phenotype that kills striatal and cortical neurons by an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism. Targeting astrocytes in GA-I may prompt the development of new antioxidant-based therapeutical approaches. PMID:25968119

  13. Ethanolamine enhances the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells via the mTOR signaling pathway and mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huansheng; Xiong, Xia; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2016-05-01

    Ethanolamine (Etn), which is the base constituent of phosphatidylethanolamine, a major phospholipid in animal cell membranes, is required for the proliferation of many types of mammalian epithelial cells. However, it is not clear whether the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells requires Etn. The present study was conducted to examine the effects of Etn on the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. The addition of Etn at 100 or 200 μM was found to enhance the proliferation of IPEC-1 cells. The expression of cell cycle-related proteins CDK4, RB3, cyclin A, and PCNA was also enhanced by Etn. Moreover, the expression or phosphorylation levels of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway protein and the expression of proteins related to mitochondrial function were also affected by Etn in IPEC-1 cells. These results indicate that Etn promotes the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells by exerting effects on mTOR signaling pathway and mitochondrial function. PMID:27083163

  14. Gelatin modified ultrathin silk fibroin films for enhanced proliferation of cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Luyuan; Yaseen, Mohammed; Zhao, Xiubo; Coffey, Paul; Pan, Fang; Wang, Yuming; Xu, Hai; Webster, John; Lu, Jian R

    2015-04-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) films were modified with gelatin (G) to explore if such SF/G films could enhance the surface biocompatibility of silk as cell growth biomaterials. Ultrathin films were coated from aqueous SF solutions pre-mixed with different amounts of G. It was found that the SF/G blended films after methanol treatment were highly stable in physiological conditions. The incorporation of G smoothed the surface morphology of the SF/G films formed. Surface-exposed RGD sequences were successfully identified on the SF/G films through specific recognition of an integrin-mimicking peptide (bearing the sequence of CWDDGWLC). Cell culture experiments with 3T3 fibroblasts demonstrated that SF/G films with 1.2-20% (w/w) G gave clear improvement in promoting cell attachment and proliferation over pure SF films. Films containing 10-20% (w/w) of G showed cell attachment and growth even superior to the pure G films. The differences as observed from this study suggest that due to the lack of mechanical strength associated with its high solubility, G could not work alone as a cell growth scaffold. The enhanced cellular responses from the blended SF/G films must result from improvement in film stability arising from SF and in cytocompatibility arising from G. The results thus indicate the potential of the SF/G blends in tissue engineering and biomedical engineering where physical and biological properties could be manipulated via mixing either as bulk biomaterials or for coating purposes. PMID:25784671

  15. Simultaneous neuron- and astrocyte-specific fluorescent marking

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, Wiebke; Hayata-Takano, Atsuko; Kamo, Toshihiko; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Nagayasu, Kazuki; Kasai, Atsushi; Seiriki, Kaoru; Shintani, Norihito; Ago, Yukio; Farfan, Camille; and others

    2015-03-27

    Systematic and simultaneous analysis of multiple cell types in the brain is becoming important, but such tools have not yet been adequately developed. Here, we aimed to generate a method for the specific fluorescent labeling of neurons and astrocytes, two major cell types in the brain, and we have developed lentiviral vectors to express the red fluorescent protein tdTomato in neurons and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in astrocytes. Importantly, both fluorescent proteins are fused to histone 2B protein (H2B) to confer nuclear localization to distinguish between single cells. We also constructed several expression constructs, including a tandem alignment of the neuron- and astrocyte-expression cassettes for simultaneous labeling. Introducing these vectors and constructs in vitro and in vivo resulted in cell type-specific and nuclear-localized fluorescence signals enabling easy detection and distinguishability of neurons and astrocytes. This tool is expected to be utilized for the simultaneous analysis of changes in neurons and astrocytes in healthy and diseased brains. - Highlights: • We develop a method for the specific fluorescent labeling of neurons and astrocytes. • Neuron-specific labeling is achieved using Scg10 and synapsin promoters. • Astrocyte-specific labeling is generated using the minimal GFAP promoter. • Nuclear localization of fluorescent proteins is achieved with histone 2B protein.

  16. Lrp4 in astrocytes modulates glutamatergic transmission.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiang-Dong; Li, Lei; Liu, Fang; Huang, Zhi-Hui; Bean, Jonathan C; Jiao, Hui-Feng; Barik, Arnab; Kim, Seon-Myung; Wu, Haitao; Shen, Chengyong; Tian, Yun; Lin, Thiri W; Bates, Ryan; Sathyamurthy, Anupama; Chen, Yong-Jun; Yin, Dong-Min; Xiong, Lei; Lin, Hui-Ping; Hu, Jin-Xia; Li, Bao-Ming; Gao, Tian-Ming; Xiong, Wen-Cheng; Mei, Lin

    2016-08-01

    Neurotransmission requires precise control of neurotransmitter release from axon terminals. This process is regulated by glial cells; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We found that glutamate release in the brain was impaired in mice lacking low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (Lrp4), a protein that is critical for neuromuscular junction formation. Electrophysiological studies revealed compromised release probability in astrocyte-specific Lrp4 knockout mice. Lrp4 mutant astrocytes suppressed glutamatergic transmission by enhancing the release of ATP, whose level was elevated in the hippocampus of Lrp4 mutant mice. Consequently, the mutant mice were impaired in locomotor activity and spatial memory and were resistant to seizure induction. These impairments could be ameliorated by blocking the adenosine A1 receptor. The results reveal a critical role for Lrp4, in response to agrin, in modulating astrocytic ATP release and synaptic transmission. Our findings provide insight into the interaction between neurons and astrocytes for synaptic homeostasis and/or plasticity. PMID:27294513

  17. Lead enhances CD4{sup +} T cell proliferation indirectly by targeting antigen presenting cells and modulating antigen-specific interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Farrer, David G.; Hueber, Sara M.; McCabe, Michael J. . E-mail: michael_mccabe@urmc.rochester.edu

    2005-09-01

    Although Pb is a well-known immunotoxicant, its mechanism of action is not well understood. Low levels of Pb ({approx}1 {mu}M) markedly enhance the proliferative T cell response in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC), a process we have termed allo-enhancement. As Pb allo-enhancement occurs whether alloantigen presenting cells (APC) are derived from C57BL/6 or BALB.B10, the allo-reactive T cells involved are likely to be specific for peptide in the context of the IA{sup b} molecule as the IE molecule is null in H-2{sup b} mice. Analysis of T cell division in MLC with Pb treatment indicated that there was no significant difference between Pb and non-Pb-treated cultures until day 4 when the frequency of proliferating T cells was much greater than in non-treated cultures. Our data suggest that this increased proliferation is not coupled with increased IL-2 levels in the media as these were actually decreased with Pb treatment and that Pb-induced enhancement in the allo-proliferative response is only partially dependent upon IL-2. Pb allo-enhancement is abrogated when stimulating allo-APCs are paraformaldehyde-fixed, and T cell proliferation stimulated by concanavalin A is not enhanced with Pb treatment, suggesting that the APC is the proximate target of Pb in allo-MLC. Pb allo-enhancement does not occur when T cells respond to irradiated allo-B cells, alone; however, it is restored when syngeneic CD11c-enriched cells are added. Of the CD11c-enriched splenocytes, the fraction that is adherent after 24 h, consistent with macrophages, appears to be the cell type targeted by Pb. Using T cells from DO11.10 transgenic mice, we determined that the effect of Pb is centered around specific p:MHC interactions and that enhanced costimulation is an unlikely mechanism for Pb allo-enhancement.

  18. Overexpression of TGF-β1 enhances chondrogenic differentiation and proliferation of human synovium-derived stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yong Il; Ryu, Jae-Sung; Yeo, Jee Eun; Choi, Yun Jin; Kim, Yong Sang; Ko, Kinarm; Koh, Yong-Gon

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Continuous TGF-β1 overexpression in hSD-MSCs did not influence their phenotypes. • Retroviral-mediated transduction of TGFB1 in hSD-MSCs enhances cell proliferation. • TGF-β1 overexpression did not effect to adipo- or osteogenic potential of hSD-MSCs. • TGF-β1 overexpression in hSD-MSCs could stimulate and accelerate chondrogenesis. - Abstract: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily proteins play a critical role in proliferation, differentiation, and other functions of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). During chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs, TGF-β up-regulates chondrogenic gene expression by enhancing the expression of the transcription factor SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box9 (Sox9). In this study, we investigated the effect of continuous TGF-β1 overexpression in human synovium-derived MSCs (hSD-MSCs) on immunophenotype, differentiation potential, and proliferation rate. hSD-MSCs were transduced with recombinant retroviruses (rRV) encoding TGF-β1. The results revealed that continuous overexpression of TGF-β1 did not affect their phenotype as evidenced by flow cytometry and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). In addition, continuous TGF-β1 overexpression strongly enhanced cell proliferation of hSD-MSCs compared to the control groups. Also, induction of chondrogenesis was more effective in rRV-TGFB-transduced hSD-MSCs as shown by RT-PCR for chondrogenic markers, toluidine blue staining and glycosaminoglycan (GAG)/DNA ratio. Our data suggest that overexpression of TGF-β1 positively enhances the proliferation and chondrogenic potential of hSD-MSCs.

  19. Proteomic analysis of astrocytic secretion that regulates neurogenesis using quantitative amine-specific isobaric tagging

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Hu; Zhou, Wenhao; Wei, Liming; Zhong, Fan; Yang, Yi

    2010-01-08

    Astrocytes are essential components of neurogenic niches that affect neurogenesis through membrane association and/or the release of soluble factors. To identify factors released from astrocytes that could regulate neural stem cell differentiation and proliferation, we used mild oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) to inhibit the secretory capacity of astrocytes. Using the Transwell co-culture system, we found that OGD-treated astrocytes could not promote neural stem cell differentiation and proliferation. Next, isobaric tagging for the relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomics techniques was performed to identify the proteins in the supernatants of astrocytes (with or without OGD). Through a multi-step analysis and gene ontology classification, 130 extracellular proteins were identified, most of which were involved in neuronal development, the inflammatory response, extracellular matrix composition and supportive functions. Of these proteins, 44 had never been reported to be produced by astrocytes. Using ProteinPilot software analysis, we found that 60 extracellular proteins were significantly altered (27 upregulated and 33 downregulated) in the supernatant of OGD-treated astrocytes. Among these proteins, 7 have been reported to be able to regulate neurogenesis, while others may have the potential to regulate neurogenesis. This study profiles the major proteins released by astrocytes, which play important roles in the modulation of neurogenesis.

  20. Pioglitazone enhances small-sized adipocyte proliferation in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Kajita, Kazuo; Mori, Ichiro; Hanamoto, Takayuki; Ikeda, Takahide; Fujioka, Kei; Yamauchi, Masahiro; Okada, Hideyuki; Usui, Taro; Takahashi, Noriko; Kitada, Yoshihiko; Taguchi, Kohichiro; Kajita, Toshiko; Uno, Yoshihiro; Morita, Hiroyuki; Ishizuka, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    The possibility that mature adipocytes proliferate has not been fully investigated. In this study, we demonstrate that adipocytes can proliferate. 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled adipocyte like cells, most of which were less than 30 μm in diameter, were observed in adipose tissue. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was simultaneously detected in BrdU-labeled nuclei. Observation of individual mature adipocytes of smeared specimens on glass slides revealed that small sized adipocytes more frequently incorporated BrdU. Cultured mature adipocytes using the ceiling-cultured method showed clustering of proliferating cells in small-sized adipocytes. These small cultured adipocytes, but not large ones, extensively incorporated BrdU. Quantified analysis of BrdU incorporation demonstrated that mature visceral adipocytes, including epididymal, mesenteric and perirenal adipocytes, proliferated more actively than subcutaneous ones. On the other hand, treatment with pioglitazone (Pio), a ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, containing food for 2w, elevated BrdU incorporation and expression of PCNA in mature adipocytes isolated from subcutaneous, but not visceral adipose tissue. Moreover, Pio induced increased BrdU-labeled small-sized subcutaneous adipocytes, which was associated with an increased number of total small adipocytes in subcutaneous adipose tissue. In conclusion, mature adipocytes have a subgroup representing the potential to replicate, and this proliferation is more active in visceral adipocytes. Treatment with Pio increases proliferation in subcutaneous adipocytes. These results may explain the mechanism of Pio-induced hyperplasia especially in subcutaneous adipocytes. PMID:22972172

  1. p53 isoforms regulate astrocyte-mediated neuroprotection and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Turnquist, C; Horikawa, I; Foran, E; Major, E O; Vojtesek, B; Lane, D P; Lu, X; Harris, B T; Harris, C C

    2016-09-01

    Bidirectional interactions between astrocytes and neurons have physiological roles in the central nervous system and an altered state or dysfunction of such interactions may be associated with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Astrocytes exert structural, metabolic and functional effects on neurons, which can be either neurotoxic or neuroprotective. Their neurotoxic effect is mediated via the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) involving pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-6), while their neuroprotective effect is attributed to neurotrophic growth factors (e.g., NGF). We here demonstrate that the p53 isoforms Δ133p53 and p53β are expressed in astrocytes and regulate their toxic and protective effects on neurons. Primary human astrocytes undergoing cellular senescence upon serial passaging in vitro showed diminished expression of Δ133p53 and increased p53β, which were attributed to the autophagic degradation and the SRSF3-mediated alternative RNA splicing, respectively. Early-passage astrocytes with Δ133p53 knockdown or p53β overexpression were induced to show SASP and to exert neurotoxicity in co-culture with neurons. Restored expression of Δ133p53 in near-senescent, otherwise neurotoxic astrocytes conferred them with neuroprotective activity through repression of SASP and induction of neurotrophic growth factors. Brain tissues from AD and ALS patients possessed increased numbers of senescent astrocytes and, like senescent astrocytes in vitro, showed decreased Δ133p53 and increased p53β expression, supporting that our in vitro findings recapitulate in vivo pathology of these neurodegenerative diseases. Our finding that Δ133p53 enhances the neuroprotective function of aged and senescent astrocytes suggests that the p53 isoforms and their regulatory mechanisms are potential targets for therapeutic intervention in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27104929

  2. Enhanced osteoblast proliferation and corrosion resistance of commercially pure titanium through surface nanostructuring by ultrasonic shot peening and stress relieving.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Shitu; Bansal, Rajesh; Singh, Bijay P; Pandey, Rajiv; Narayanan, Shankar; Wani, Mohan R; Singh, Vakil

    2014-07-01

    This investigation was carried out to study the effect of a novel process of surface modification, surface nanostructuring by ultrasonic shot peening, on osteoblast proliferation and corrosion behavior of commercially pure titanium (c p-Ti) in simulated body fluid. A mechanically polished disc of c p-Ti was subjected to ultrasonic shot peening with stainless steel balls to create nanostructure at the surface. A nanostructure (<20 nm) with inhomogeneous distribution was revealed by atomic force and scanning electron microscopy. There was an increase of approximately 10% in cell proliferation, but there was drastic fall in corrosion resistance. Corrosion rate was increased by 327% in the shot peened condition. In order to examine the role of residual stresses associated with the shot peened surface on these aspects, a part of the shot peened specimen was annealed at 400°C for 1 hour. A marked influence of annealing treatment was observed on surface structure, cell proliferation, and corrosion resistance. Surface nanostructure was much more prominent, with increased number density and sharper grain boundaries; cell proliferation was enhanced to approximately 50% and corrosion rate was reduced by 86.2% and 41% as compared with that of the shot peened and the as received conditions, respectively. The highly significant improvement in cell proliferation, resulting from annealing of the shot peened specimen, was attributed to increased volume fraction of stabilized nanostructure, stress recovery, and crystallization of the oxide film. Increase in corrosion resistance from annealing of shot peened material was related to more effective passivation. Thus, the surface of c p-Ti, modified by this novel process, possessed a unique quality of enhancing cell proliferation as well as the corrosion resistance and could be highly effective in reducing treatment time of patients adopting dental and orthopedic implants of titanium and its alloys. PMID:25020216

  3. Sodium Phenylbutyrate Enhances Astrocytic Neurotrophin Synthesis via Protein Kinase C (PKC)-mediated Activation of cAMP-response Element-binding Protein (CREB)

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Grant T.; Roy, Avik; Pahan, Kalipada

    2013-01-01

    Neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), are believed to be genuine molecular mediators of neuronal growth and homeostatic synapse activity. However, levels of these neurotrophic factors decrease in different brain regions of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Induction of astrocytic neurotrophin synthesis is a poorly understood phenomenon but represents a plausible therapeutic target because neuronal neurotrophin production is aberrant in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we delineate that sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB), a Food and Drug Administration-approved oral medication for hyperammonemia, induces astrocytic BDNF and NT-3 expression via the protein kinase C (PKC)-cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway. NaPB treatment increased the direct association between PKC and CREB followed by phosphorylation of CREB (Ser133) and induction of DNA binding and transcriptional activation of CREB. Up-regulation of markers for synaptic function and plasticity in cultured hippocampal neurons by NaPB-treated astroglial supernatants and its abrogation by anti-TrkB blocking antibody suggest that NaPB-induced astroglial neurotrophins are functionally active. Moreover, oral administration of NaPB increased the levels of BDNF and NT-3 in the CNS and improved spatial learning and memory in a mouse model of AD. Our results highlight a novel neurotrophic property of NaPB that may be used to augment neurotrophins in the CNS and improve synaptic function in disease states such as AD. PMID:23404502

  4. The use of astrocytes in culture as model systems for evaluating neurotoxic-induced-injury.

    PubMed

    Aschner, M; Kimelberg, H K

    1991-01-01

    The prevailing thought that astrocytes function predominantly as passive metabolic or even physical support for neurons has faded over the last 20 years. Today these stellar shaped cells are credited with an expanded role, playing key functions in CNS development, homeostasis, and pathology. In probing their expanded roles, primary astrocyte culture systems have proven to be an indispensable tool. Astrocytes have been implicated in both a defensive and facilitatory capacity for many toxic injuries. Evidence for a protective role of astrocytes in modulating CNS toxicity is afforded by observations that the toxicity of glutamate to cortical neurons is diminished upon astrocytic enrichment of the cell culture (Rosenberg and Aizenman, 1989). In cultures of rat cerebral cortex in which astrocyte proliferation is stringently suppressed, glutamate neurotoxicity occurs at low glutamate concentrations similar to those which are normally found in the extracellular space in the hippocampus. In the presence of excess astrocytes, concentrations of glutamate one-hundred fold higher are required to produce equivalent neurotoxicity (Rosenberg and Aizenman, 1989). Astrocytes can facilitate the action of neurotoxins via a modulating process which takes place within the astrocyte or by a direct cytotoxic effect. Whereas primary astrocyte cultures remain unaffected by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP; Marini et al., 1989), they function prominently in the selective destruction of dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway in humans, other primates and rodents (Davis et al. 1979; Langston et al., 1983; Burns et al., 1983; Langston et al., 1984; Heikkila et al., 1984; Jarvis and Wagner, 1985). Thus, while MPTP by itself is not toxic to cerebellar cells in co-culture with cerebellar astrocytes, MPTP is toxic to the granule cells (Marini et al, 1989). This is thought to be due to an astrocyte-mediated conversion of MPTP to its highly polar and toxic metabolite, 1

  5. Bone Marrow-Derived Nonreactive Astrocytes in the Mouse Brain After Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Zsuzsanna E.; Leker, Ronen R.; Shahar, Tal; Bratincsak, Andras; Szalayova, Ildiko; Key, Sharon; Palkovits, Miklós; Cassiani-Ingoni, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effect of permanent unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO) on the generation of bone marrow (BM)-derived astrocytes in female mice previously transplanted with enchanced green fluorescent protein-expressing BM from male donors. In addition to an untreated PMCAO group, one group of mice also received intracerebral infusion of transforming growth factor-alpha, resulting in a decrease in the size of the infarct. Two months after PMCAO, we found a specific type of astrocyte of BM origin in the side of the injury, near the lesion. These astrocytes did not express glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) by conventional fluorescence immunostaining; however, GFAP was easily detectable by tyramide signal amplification. These cells also expressed S100β, confirming their astrocytic character. Unlike the endogenous reactive astrocytes, these BM-derived astrocytes did not proliferate during the first week of ischemia and did not contribute to the glial scar formation. Transforming growth factor-alpha infusion increased the number of BM-derived astrocytes, without affecting their distribution. Interestingly, exclusively by tyramide signal amplification staining, we found that endogenous astrocytes displaying an identical morphology were also present in control mouse and human brains. Our data demonstrate that a subpopulation of nonreactive astrocytes expressing low levels of GFAP can originate from transplanted BM in the ischemic brain. We believe that these cells represent a subpopulation of astrocytes earlier considered to be GFAP negative. The high number of astrocytes with identical morphology and chemical character in control brains suggest that these type of astrocytes may have important functional role in the central nervous system that calls for further studies. PMID:20604679

  6. Astrocytes in Multiple Sclerosis: A Product of their Environment

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Aji; Frederick, Terra J.; Miller, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    It has long been thought that astrocytes, like other glial cells, simply provide a support mechanism for neuronal function in the healthy and inflamed central nervous system (CNS). However, recent evidence suggests that astrocytes play an active and dual role in CNS inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Astrocytes not only have the ability to enhance immune responses and inhibit myelin repair, but they can also be protective and limit CNS inflammation while supporting oligodendrocyte and axonal regeneration. The particular impact of these cells on the pathogenesis and repair of an inflammatory demyelinating process is dependent upon a number of factors, including the stage of the disease, the type and microenvironment of the lesion, and the interactions with other cell types and factors that influence their activation. In this review, we summarize recent data supporting the idea that astrocytes play a complex role in the regulation of CNS autoimmunity. PMID:18516496

  7. ME-07INFLUENCE OF REGIONAL MICROENVIROMENT AND ASTROCYTE HETEROGENEITY ON ASTROCYTOMA DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Irvin, David; Schmid, Ralf; Bash, Ryan; Miller, C. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The role of the local microenvironment during early astrocytoma development remains elusive. We previously showed that Rb and Pten inactivation and Kras activation (TRP) transforms Gfap+ astrocytes and induces low-grade astrocytoma tumorigenesis throughout the adult brain. To confirm that astrocytes are the cell of origin, we targeted them using an alternative astrocyte-specific promoter, Glast. In the absence of oncogenic mutations, genetic lineage tracing with Glast-CreER; floxed TdTomato mice produced recombination in 8-38% of Gfap/Blbp+ astrocytes in the cortex, diencephalon, brainstem, and olfactory bulb. EdU labeling showed <0.04% proliferated at 7 days. Astrocyte proliferation (EdU+) increased 8-29-fold 3 weeks and TdTomato+ cells increased 3-7-fold by 8 weeks after TRP transformation. Glast;TdTomato+ astrocytes were rare in the brainstem and their transformation produced minimal tumorigenesis. In contrast, hGFAP-CreER uniformly induced recombination in ∼50% of astrocytes in all regions, including the brainstem. Whereas TdTomato+ astrocytes increased 6-11-fold in hGFAP-TRP mice after 8 weeks, Glast-targeted transformation was 1-4 fold lower. Differences in growth rates were most pronounced in the brainstem (P<0.001), but olfactory bulb growth rates were similar (P>0.05). Both CreER driver and brain region significantly affected astrocyte growth rate (ANOVA P < 0.0003). In both models, transformed astrocytes maintained Gfap/Blbp expression, gained expression of the stem cell marker Nestin, and formed increasingly dense perineuronal satellites over time. Ki-67 labeling showed clonal expansion, as hypercellular foci with 11-fold higher proliferation relative to less-cellular areas of tumor developed by 16 weeks. Glast-, but not hGFAP-driven tumors contained dividing, but untransformed (TdTomato;T121−) BLBP+ astrocytes, IBA1+ microglia, and PDGFRα+ oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPC). Proliferating microglia (6-0%) and OPC (18-5%) decreased over time, while

  8. A Novel Subtype of Astrocytes Expressing TRPV4 (Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4) Regulates Neuronal Excitability via Release of Gliotransmitters*

    PubMed Central

    Shibasaki, Koji; Ikenaka, Kazuhiro; Tamalu, Fuminobu; Tominaga, Makoto; Ishizaki, Yasuki

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes play active roles in the regulation of synaptic transmission. Neuronal excitation can evoke Ca2+ transients in astrocytes, and these Ca2+ transients can modulate neuronal excitability. Although only a subset of astrocytes appears to communicate with neurons, the types of astrocytes that can regulate neuronal excitability are poorly characterized. We found that ∼30% of astrocytes in the brain express transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), indicating that astrocytic subtypes can be classified on the basis of their expression patterns. When TRPV4+ astrocytes are activated by ligands such as arachidonic acid, the activation propagates to neighboring astrocytes through gap junctions and by ATP release from the TRPV4+ astrocytes. After activation, both TRPV4+ and TRPV4− astrocytes release glutamate, which acts as an excitatory gliotransmitter to increase synaptic transmission through type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR). Our results indicate that TRPV4+ astrocytes constitute a novel subtype of the population and are solely responsible for initiating excitatory gliotransmitter release to enhance synaptic transmission. We propose that TRPV4+ astrocytes form a core of excitatory glial assembly in the brain and function to efficiently increase neuronal excitation in response to endogenous TRPV4 ligands. PMID:24737318

  9. 1,3-Dinitrobenzene neurotoxicity - Passage effect in immortalized astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Laura L; Latham, Jackelyn D; Landis, Rory W; Song, Dong Hoon; Epstein, Tamir; Philbert, Martin A

    2016-03-01

    Age-related disturbances in astrocytic mitochondrial function are linked to loss of neuroprotection and decrements in neurological function. The immortalized rat neocortical astrocyte-derived cell line, DI-TNC1, provides a convenient model for the examination of cellular aging processes that are difficult to study in primary cell isolates from aged brain. Successive passages in culture may serve as a surrogate of aging in which time-dependent adaptation to culture conditions may result in altered responses to xenobiotic challenge. To investigate the hypothesis that astrocytic mitochondrial homeostatic function is decreased with time in culture, low passage DI-TNC1 astrocytes (LP; #2-8) and high passage DI-TNC1 astrocytes (HP; #17-28) were exposed to the mitochondrial neurotoxicant 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB). Cells were exposed in either monoculture or in co-culture with primary cortical neurons. Astrocyte mitochondrial membrane potential, morphology, ATP production and proliferation were monitored in monoculture, and the ability of DI-TNC1 cells to buffer K(+)-induced neuronal depolarization was examined in co-cultures. In HP DI-TNC1 cells, DNB exposure decreased proliferation, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and significantly decreased mitochondrial form factor. Low passage DI-TNC1 cells effectively attenuated K(+)-induced neuronal depolarization in the presence of DNB whereas HP counterparts were unable to buffer K(+) in DNB challenge. Following DNB challenge, LP DI-TNC1 cells exhibited greater viability in co-culture than HP. The data provide compelling evidence that there is an abrupt phenotypic change in DI-TNC1 cells between passage #9-16 that significantly diminishes the ability of DI-TNC1 cells to compensate for neurotoxic challenge and provide neuroprotective spatial buffering. Whether or not these functional changes have an in vivo analog in aging brain remains to be determined. PMID:26769196

  10. The Role of Astrocytes in Multiple Sclerosis Progression

    PubMed Central

    Correale, Jorge; Farez, Mauricio F.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disorder causing central nervous system (CNS) demyelination and axonal injury. Although its etiology remains elusive, several lines of evidence support the concept that autoimmunity plays a major role in disease pathogenesis. The course of MS is highly variable; nevertheless, the majority of patients initially present a relapsing–remitting clinical course. After 10–15 years of disease, this pattern becomes progressive in up to 50% of untreated patients, during which time clinical symptoms slowly cause constant deterioration over a period of many years. In about 15% of MS patients, however, disease progression is relentless from disease onset. Published evidence supports the concept that progressive MS reflects a poorly understood mechanism of insidious axonal degeneration and neuronal loss. Recently, the type of microglial cell and of astrocyte activation and proliferation observed has suggested contribution of resident CNS cells may play a critical role in disease progression. Astrocytes could contribute to this process through several mechanisms: (a) as part of the innate immune system, (b) as a source of cytotoxic factors, (c) inhibiting remyelination and axonal regeneration by forming a glial scar, and (d) contributing to axonal mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, regulatory mechanisms mediated by astrocytes can be affected by aging. Notably, astrocytes might also limit the detrimental effects of pro-inflammatory factors, while providing support and protection for oligodendrocytes and neurons. Because of the dichotomy observed in astrocytic effects, the design of therapeutic strategies targeting astrocytes becomes a challenging endeavor. Better knowledge of molecular and functional properties of astrocytes, therefore, should promote understanding of their specific role in MS pathophysiology, and consequently lead to development of novel and more successful therapeutic approaches. PMID:26347709

  11. Interferon-Gamma Promotes Infection of Astrocytes by Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rafael Rodrigues; Mariante, Rafael M.; Silva, Andrea Alice; dos Santos, Ana Luiza Barbosa; Roffê, Ester; Santiago, Helton; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (IFNγ) is crucial for immunity against intracellular pathogens such as the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease (CD). IFNγ is a pleiotropic cytokine which regulates activation of immune and non-immune cells; however, the effect of IFNγ in the central nervous system (CNS) and astrocytes during CD is unknown. Here we show that parasite persists in the CNS of C3H/He mice chronically infected with the Colombian T. cruzi strain despite the increased expression of IFNγ mRNA. Furthermore, most of the T. cruzi-bearing cells were astrocytes located near IFNγ+ cells. Surprisingly, in vitro experiments revealed that pretreatment with IFNγ promoted the infection of astrocytes by T. cruzi increasing uptake and proliferation of intracellular forms, despite inducing increased production of nitric oxide (NO). Importantly, the effect of IFNγ on T. cruzi uptake and growth is completely blocked by the anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibody Infliximab and partially blocked by the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis L-NAME. These data support that IFNγ fuels astrocyte infection by T. cruzi and critically implicate IFNγ-stimulated T. cruzi-infected astrocytes as sources of TNF and NO, which may contribute to parasite persistence and CNS pathology in CD. PMID:25695249

  12. Astrocytes and NG2-glia: what's in a name?

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Akiko; Yang, Zhongshu; Butt, Arthur

    2005-01-01

    Classic studies recognize two functionally segregated macroglial cell types in the central nervous system (CNS), namely astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. A third macroglial cell type has now been identified by its specific expression of the NG2 chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (NG2-glia). These NG2-glia exist abundantly in both grey and white matter of the mature CNS and are almost as numerous as astrocytes. It is well established that NG2-glia give rise to oligodendrocytes. However, the majority of NG2-glia in the adult CNS proliferate very slowly and are non-motile. Both astrocytes and NG2-glia display a stellate morphology and express ion channels and receptors to neurotransmitters used by neurons. Both types of glia make intimate contacts with neurons in grey and white matter, and their functional differences and similarities are only beginning to be unravelled. Recent observations emphasize the need to examine the relationship between astrocytes and NG2-glia, and address the question of whether they represent overlapping or two distinct glial cell populations. To be of any relevance, this classification must relate to specific functions in the neural network. At present, the balance of evidence is that NG2-glia and astrocytes are functionally segregated populations. PMID:16367796

  13. Interferon-gamma promotes infection of astrocytes by Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rafael Rodrigues; Mariante, Rafael M; Silva, Andrea Alice; dos Santos, Ana Luiza Barbosa; Roffê, Ester; Santiago, Helton; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (IFNγ) is crucial for immunity against intracellular pathogens such as the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease (CD). IFNγ is a pleiotropic cytokine which regulates activation of immune and non-immune cells; however, the effect of IFNγ in the central nervous system (CNS) and astrocytes during CD is unknown. Here we show that parasite persists in the CNS of C3H/He mice chronically infected with the Colombian T. cruzi strain despite the increased expression of IFNγ mRNA. Furthermore, most of the T. cruzi-bearing cells were astrocytes located near IFNγ+ cells. Surprisingly, in vitro experiments revealed that pretreatment with IFNγ promoted the infection of astrocytes by T. cruzi increasing uptake and proliferation of intracellular forms, despite inducing increased production of nitric oxide (NO). Importantly, the effect of IFNγ on T. cruzi uptake and growth is completely blocked by the anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibody Infliximab and partially blocked by the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis L-NAME. These data support that IFNγ fuels astrocyte infection by T. cruzi and critically implicate IFNγ-stimulated T. cruzi-infected astrocytes as sources of TNF and NO, which may contribute to parasite persistence and CNS pathology in CD. PMID:25695249

  14. Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Enhances Cell Proliferation of Human Gastric Cancer AGS Cells.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Sekimoto, Teruki; Ogura, Ayaka; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third gasotransmitter, is endogenously generated by certain H2S synthesizing enzymes, including cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) from L-cysteine in the mammalian body. Several studies have shown that endogenous and exogenous H2S affects the proliferation of cancer cells, although the effects of H2S appear to vary with cell type, being either promotive or suppressive. In the present study, we determined whether endogenously formed H2S regulates proliferation in human gastric cancer AGS cells. CSE, but not CBS, was expressed in AGS cells. CSE inhibitors, DL-propargylglycine (PPG) and β-cyano-L-alanine (BCA), significantly suppressed the proliferation of AGS cells in a concentration-dependent manner. CSE inhibitors did not increase lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in the same concentration range. The inhibitory effects of PPG and BCA on cell proliferation were reversed by repetitive application of NaHS, a donor of H2S. Interestingly, nuclear condensation and fragmentation were detected in AGS cells treated with PPG or BCA. These results suggest that endogenous H2S produced by CSE may contribute to the proliferation of gastric cancer AGS cells, most probably through anti-apoptotic actions. PMID:27150157

  15. Hypothalamic proline-rich polypeptide enhances bone marrow colony-forming cell proliferation and stromal progenitor cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Galoyan, A A; Korochkin, L I; Rybalkina, E J; Pavlova, G V; Saburina, I N; Zaraiski, E I; Galoyan, N A; Davtyan, T K; Bezirganyan, K B; Revishchin, A V

    2008-01-01

    The AGAPEPAEPAQPGVY proline-rich peptide (PRP-1) was isolated from neurosecretory granules of the bovine neurohypophysis; it is produced by N. supraopticus and N. paraventricularis. It has been shown that PRP-1 has many potentially beneficial biological effects, including immunoregulatory, hematopoietic, antimicrobial, and antineurodegenerative properties. Here we showed that PRP increased colony-forming cell (CFC) proliferation in rat bone marrow (BM) cells in vivo. In PRP-treated rat BM, the CFU number at day 7 and day 14 was considerably increased in comparison with untreated rat BM and no difference was found at day 21 and day 28. The related peptide [arg8]vasopressin did not reveal CFC proliferation. PRP failed to farther increase CFC proliferation in vitro in BM obtained from PRP-treated or untreated rats. After 3-4 days of human BM stromal cell cultivation in the presence of 2-20 microg/ml PRP the appearance of cells expressing CD15, CD10, CD11a, CD11b, CD3, CD4, and CD16 surface antigens did not differ from the untreated cells. PRP increased the appearance of CD14-positive cells upon 3-4-day incubation with both adult and fetal BM stromal cells. Our results suggest a previously undescribed role for the hypothalamic peptide within neurosecretory hypothalamus-bone marrow humoral axis, because PRP enhances BM colony-forming cell proliferation and stromal cell differentiation. PMID:19177842

  16. Arsenic-induced cell proliferation is associated with enhanced ROS generation, Erk signaling and CyclinA expression.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Rajdeep; Chatterjee, Raghunath; Giri, Ashok K; Mandal, Chitra; Chaudhuri, Keya

    2010-10-01

    Arsenic is a well-established human carcinogen; however molecular mechanisms to arsenic-induced carcinogenesis are complex and elusive. The present study identifies a potential biomarker of arsenic exposure, and redefines arsenic-induced signaling in stimulation of cell proliferation. The effect of arsenic exposure on gene expression was evaluated in PBMC of arsenic-exposed individuals selected from a severely affected district of West Bengal, India. A novel, un-documented biomarker of arsenic exposure, CyclinA was identified by microarray analysis from the study. Non-transformed cell lines HaCat and Int407 when exposed to clinically achievable arsenic concentration showed significant increase of CyclinA substantiating the clinical data. An associated increase in S phase population of cells in cell cycle, indicative of enhanced proliferation was also noticed. On further investigation of the pathway to arsenic-induced proliferation, we observed that arsenic resulted: ROS generation; activated Erk signaling; stimulated AP-1 activity, including immediate early genes, c-Jun and c-Fos. N-Acetyl-l-cysteine, a ROS quencher, blocked the arsenic-induced effects. Our study underlines a previously undefined mechanism by which arsenic imparts its toxicity and results in uncontrolled cell proliferation. PMID:20654705

  17. Valproic acid stimulates proliferation of glial precursors during cortical gliogenesis in developing rat.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Jae; Dreyfus, Cheryl; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel

    2016-07-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a neurotherapeutic drug prescribed for seizures, bipolar disorder, and migraine, including women of reproductive age. VPA is a well-known teratogen that produces congenital malformations in many organs including the nervous system, as well as later neurodevelopmental disorders, including mental retardation and autism. In developing brain, few studies have examined VPA effects on glial cells, particularly astrocytes. To investigate effects on primary glial precursors, we developed new cell culture and in vivo models using frontal cerebral cortex of postnatal day (P2) rat. In vitro, VPA exposure elicited dose-dependent, biphasic effects on DNA synthesis and proliferation. In vivo VPA (300 mg/kg) exposure from P2 to P4 increased both DNA synthesis and cell proliferation, affecting primarily astrocyte precursors, as >75% of mitotic cells expressed brain lipid-binding protein. Significantly, the consequence of early VPA exposure was increased astrocytes, as both S100-β+ cells and glial fibrillary acidic protein were increased in adolescent brain. Molecularly, VPA served as an HDAC inhibitor in vitro and in vivo as enhanced proliferation was accompanied by increased histone acetylation, whereas it elicited changes in culture in cell-cycle regulators, including cyclin D1 and E, and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, p21 and p27. Collectively, these data suggest clinically relevant VPA exposures stimulate glial precursor proliferation, though at higher doses can elicit inhibition through differential regulation of CDK inhibitors. Because changes in glial cell functions are proposed as mechanisms contributing to neuropsychiatric disorders, these observations suggest that VPA teratogenic actions may be mediated through changes in astrocyte generation during development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 780-798, 2016. PMID:26505176

  18. Astrocytes regulate heterogeneity of presynaptic strengths in hippocampal networks.

    PubMed

    Letellier, Mathieu; Park, Yun Kyung; Chater, Thomas E; Chipman, Peter H; Gautam, Sunita Ghimire; Oshima-Takago, Tomoko; Goda, Yukiko

    2016-05-10

    Dendrites are neuronal structures specialized for receiving and processing information through their many synaptic inputs. How input strengths are modified across dendrites in ways that are crucial for synaptic integration and plasticity remains unclear. We examined in single hippocampal neurons the mechanism of heterosynaptic interactions and the heterogeneity of synaptic strengths of pyramidal cell inputs. Heterosynaptic presynaptic plasticity that counterbalances input strengths requires N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and astrocytes. Importantly, this mechanism is shared with the mechanism for maintaining highly heterogeneous basal presynaptic strengths, which requires astrocyte Ca(2+) signaling involving NMDAR activation, astrocyte membrane depolarization, and L-type Ca(2+) channels. Intracellular infusion of NMDARs or Ca(2+)-channel blockers into astrocytes, conditionally ablating the GluN1 NMDAR subunit, or optogenetically hyperpolarizing astrocytes with archaerhodopsin promotes homogenization of convergent presynaptic inputs. Our findings support the presence of an astrocyte-dependent cellular mechanism that enhances the heterogeneity of presynaptic strengths of convergent connections, which may help boost the computational power of dendrites. PMID:27118849

  19. Targeted deletion in astrocyte intermediate filament (Gfap) alters neuronal physiology.

    PubMed Central

    McCall, M A; Gregg, R G; Behringer, R R; Brenner, M; Delaney, C L; Galbreath, E J; Zhang, C L; Pearce, R A; Chiu, S Y; Messing, A

    1996-01-01

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a member of the family of intermediate filament structural proteins and is found predominantly in astrocytes of the central nervous system (CNS). To assess the function of GFAP, we created GFAP-null mice using gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. The GFAP-null mice have normal development and fertility, and show no gross alterations in behavior or CNS morphology. Astrocytes are present in the CNS of the mutant mice, but contain a severely reduced number of intermediate filaments. Since astrocyte processes contact synapses and may modulate synaptic function, we examined whether the GFAP-null mice were altered in long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. The GFAP-null mice displayed enhanced long-term potentiation of both population spike amplitude and excitatory post-synaptic potential slope compared to control mice. These data suggest that GFAP is important for astrocyte-neuronal interactions, and that astrocyte processes play a vital role in modulating synaptic efficacy in the CNS. These mice therefore represent a direct demonstration that a primary defect in astrocytes influences neuronal physiology. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8692820

  20. NEURONAL ACTIVITY REGULATES GLUTAMATE TRANSPORTER DYNAMICS IN DEVELOPING ASTROCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Benediktsson, A.M.; Marrs, G.S.; Tu, J.C.; Worley, P.F.; Rothstein, J.D.; Bergles, D.E.; Dailey, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Glutamate transporters maintain a low ambient level of glutamate in the CNS and shape the activation of glutamate receptors at synapses. Nevertheless, the mechanisms that regulate the trafficking and localization of transporters near sites of glutamate release are poorly understood. Here we examined the subcellular distribution and dynamic remodeling of the predominant glutamate transporter GLT-1 (EAAT2) in developing hippocampal astrocytes. Immunolabeling revealed that endogenous GLT-1 is concentrated into discrete clusters along branches of developing astrocytes that were apposed preferentially to synapsin-1 positive synapses. GFP-GLT-1 fusion proteins expressed in astrocytes also formed distinct clusters that lined the edges of astrocyte processes, as well as the tips of filopodia and spine-like structures. Time-lapse 3D confocal imaging in tissue slices revealed that GFP-GLT-1 clusters were dynamically remodeled on a timescale of minutes. Some transporter clusters moved within developing astrocyte branches as filopodia extended and retracted, while others maintained stable positions at the tips of spine-like structures. Blockade of neuronal activity with tetrodotoxin reduced both the density and perisynaptic localization of GLT-1 clusters. Conversely, enhancement of neuronal activity increased the size of GLT-1 clusters and their proximity to synapses. Together, these findings indicate that neuronal activity influences both the organization of glutamate transporters in developing astrocyte membranes and their position relative to synapses. PMID:22052455

  1. Chicken stem cell factor enhances primordial germ cell proliferation cooperatively with fibroblast growth factor 2

    PubMed Central

    MIYAHARA, Daichi; OISHI, Isao; MAKINO, Ryuichi; KURUMISAWA, Nozomi; NAKAYA, Ryuma; ONO, Tamao; KAGAMI, Hiroshi; TAGAMI, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    An in vitro culture system of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) has been recently developed, but the growth factor involved in the proliferation of PGCs is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the growth effects of chicken stem cell factor (chSCF) on the in vitro proliferation of chicken PGCs. We established two feeder cell lines (buffalo rat liver cells; BRL cells) that stably express the putative secreted form of chSCF (chSCF1-BRL) and membrane bound form of chSCF (chSCF2-BRL). Cultured PGC lines were incubated on chSCF1 or chSCF2-BRL feeder cells with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and growth effects of each chSCF isoform were investigated. The in vitro proliferation rate of the PGCs cultured on chSCF2-BRL at 20 days of culture was more than threefold higher than those cultured on chSCF1-BRL cells and more than fivefold higher than those cultured on normal BRL cells. Thus, use of chSCF2-BRL feeder layer was effective for in vitro proliferation of chicken PGCs. However, the acceleration of PGC proliferation on chSCF2-BRL was not observed without FGF2, suggesting that chSCF2 would act as a proliferation co-factor of FGF2. We transferred the PGCs cultured on chSCF2-BRL cells to recipient embryos, generated germline chimeric chickens and assessed the germline competency of cultured PGCs by progeny test. Donor-derived progenies were obtained, and the frequency of germline transmission was 3.39%. The results of this study demonstrate that chSCF2 induces hyperproliferation of chicken PGCs retaining germline competency in vitro in cooperation with FGF2. PMID:26727404

  2. Astrocytes: Orchestrating synaptic plasticity?

    PubMed

    De Pittà, M; Brunel, N; Volterra, A

    2016-05-26

    Synaptic plasticity is the capacity of a preexisting connection between two neurons to change in strength as a function of neural activity. Because synaptic plasticity is the major candidate mechanism for learning and memory, the elucidation of its constituting mechanisms is of crucial importance in many aspects of normal and pathological brain function. In particular, a prominent aspect that remains debated is how the plasticity mechanisms, that encompass a broad spectrum of temporal and spatial scales, come to play together in a concerted fashion. Here we review and discuss evidence that pinpoints to a possible non-neuronal, glial candidate for such orchestration: the regulation of synaptic plasticity by astrocytes. PMID:25862587

  3. The Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecule, SynCAM1, Mediates Astrocyte-to-Astrocyte and Astrocyte-to-GnRH Neuron Adhesiveness in the Mouse Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Sandau, Ursula S.; Mungenast, Alison E.; McCarthy, Jack; Biederer, Thomas; Corfas, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    We previously identified synaptic cell adhesion molecule 1 (SynCAM1) as a component of a genetic network involved in the hypothalamic control of female puberty. Although it is well established that SynCAM1 is a synaptic adhesion molecule, its contribution to hypothalamic function is unknown. Here we show that, in addition to the expected neuronal localization illustrated by its presence in GnRH neurons, SynCAM1 is expressed in hypothalamic astrocytes. Cell adhesion assays indicated that SynCAM is recognized by both GnRH neurons and astrocytes as an adhesive partner and promotes cell-cell adhesiveness via homophilic, extracellular domain-mediated interactions. Alternative splicing of the SynCAM1 primary mRNA transcript yields four mRNAs encoding membrane-spanning SynCAM1 isoforms. Variants 1 and 4 are predicted to be both N and O glycosylated. Hypothalamic astrocytes and GnRH-producing GT1-7 cells express mainly isoform 4 mRNA, and sequential N- and O-deglycosylation of proteins extracted from these cells yields progressively smaller SynCAM1 species, indicating that isoform 4 is the predominant SynCAM1 variant expressed in astrocytes and GT1-7 cells. Neither cell type expresses the products of two other SynCAM genes (SynCAM2 and SynCAM3), suggesting that SynCAM-mediated astrocyte-astrocyte and astrocyte-GnRH neuron adhesiveness is mostly mediated by SynCAM1 homophilic interactions. When erbB4 receptor function is disrupted in astrocytes, via transgenic expression of a dominant-negative erbB4 receptor form, SynCAM1-mediated adhesiveness is severely compromised. Conversely, SynCAM1 adhesive behavior is rapidly, but transiently, enhanced in astrocytes by ligand-dependent activation of erbB4 receptors, suggesting that erbB4-mediated events affecting SynCAM1 function contribute to regulate astrocyte adhesive communication. PMID:21486931

  4. Astrocyte membrane properties are altered in a rat model of developmental cortical malformation but single-cell astrocytic glutamate uptake is robust.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Elizabeth; Danbolt, Niels Christian; Dulla, Chris G

    2016-05-01

    Developmental cortical malformations (DCMs) are linked with severe epilepsy and are caused by both genetic and environmental insults. DCMs include several neurological diseases, such as focal cortical dysplasia, polymicrogyria, schizencephaly, and others. Human studies have implicated astrocyte reactivity and dysfunction in the pathophysiology of DCMs, but their specific role is unknown. As astrocytes powerfully regulate glutamate neurotransmission, and glutamate levels are known to be increased in human epileptic foci, understanding the role of astrocytes in the pathological sequelae of DCMs is extremely important. Additionally, recent studies examining astrocyte glutamate uptake in DCMs have reported conflicting results, adding confusion to the field. In this study we utilized the freeze lesion (FL) model of DCM, which is known to induce reactive astrocytosis and cause significant changes in astrocyte morphology, proliferation, and distribution. Using whole-cell patch clamp recording from astrocytes, we recorded both UV-uncaging and synaptically evoked glutamate transporter currents (TCs), widely accepted assays of functional glutamate transport by astrocytes. With this approach, we set out to test the hypothesis that astrocyte membrane properties and glutamate transport were disrupted in this model of DCM. Though we found that the developmental maturation of astrocyte membrane resistance was disrupted by FL, glutamate uptake by individual astrocytes was robust throughout FL development. Interestingly, using an immunolabeling approach, we observed spatial and developmental differences in excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) expression in FL cortex. Spatially specific differences in EAAT2 (GLT-1) and EAAT1 (GLAST) expression suggest that the relative contribution of each EAAT to astrocytic glutamate uptake may be altered in FL cortex. Lastly, we carefully analyzed the amplitudes and onset times of both synaptically- and UV uncaging-evoked TCs. We found that in

  5. Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields enhance the proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells cultured from ischemic brains.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yannan; Dai, Yiqin; Zhu, Ximin; Xu, Haochen; Cai, Ping; Xia, Ruohong; Mao, Lizhen; Zhao, Bing-Qiao; Fan, Wenying

    2015-10-21

    In the mammalian brain, neurogenesis persists throughout the embryonic period and adulthood in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and the granular zone (dentate gyrus) of the hippocampus. Newborn neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the two regions play a critical role in structural and functional plasticity and neural regeneration after brain injury. Previous studies have reported that extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) could promote osteogenesis, angiogenesis, and cardiac stem cells' differentiation, which indicates that ELF-EMF might be an effective tool for regenerative therapy. The present studies were carried out to examine the effects of ELF-EMF on hippocampal NPCs cultured from embryonic and adult ischemic brains. We found that exposure to ELF-EMF (50 Hz, 0.4 mT) significantly enhanced the proliferation capability both in embryonic NPCs and in ischemic NPCs. Neuronal differentiation was also enhanced after 7 days of cumulative ELF-EMF exposure, whereas glial differentiation was not influenced markedly. The expression of phosphorylated Akt increased during the proliferation process when ischemic NPCs were exposed to ELF-EMF. However, blockage of the Akt pathway abolished the ELF-EMF-induced proliferation of ischemic NPCs. These data show that ELF-EMF promotes neurogenesis of ischemic NPCs and suggest that this effect may occur through the Akt pathway.Video abstract, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/WNR/A347. PMID:26339991

  6. Metformin Acts on Two Different Molecular Pathways to Enhance Adult Neural Precursor Proliferation/Self-Renewal and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Fatt, Michael; Hsu, Karolynn; He, Ling; Wondisford, Fredric; Miller, Freda D.; Kaplan, David R.; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Summary The recruitment of endogenous adult neural stem cells for brain repair is a promising regenerative therapeutic strategy. This strategy involves stimulation of multiple stages of adult neural stem cell development, including proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation. Currently, there is a lack of a single therapeutic approach that can act on these multiple stages of adult neural stem cell development to enhance neural regeneration. Here we show that metformin, an FDA-approved diabetes drug, promotes proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation of adult neural precursors (NPCs). Specifically, we show that metformin enhances adult NPC proliferation and self-renewal dependent upon the p53 family member and transcription factor TAp73, while it promotes neuronal differentiation of these cells by activating the AMPK-aPKC-CBP pathway. Thus, metformin represents an optimal candidate neuro-regenerative agent that is capable of not only expanding the adult NPC population but also subsequently driving them toward neuronal differentiation by activating two distinct molecular pathways. PMID:26677765

  7. [Lily polysaccharide 1 enhances the effect of metformin on proliferation and apoptosis of human breast carcinoma cells].

    PubMed

    Hou, Jin; Li, Fen; Li, Xinhua; Mei, Qibing; Mi, Man

    2016-06-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of metformin, alone or in combination with Lily polysaccharide 1 (LP1), on cell viability and apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Methods LP1 (0.5, 1.0 mg/mL) and metformin (5, 10, 20, 50 mmol/L) were added into MCF-7 cell culture medium, followed by incubating for 72 hours in carbon dioxide incubators at 37DegreesCelsius. MCF-7 cell proliferation was determined using MTT assay; the apoptosis and cell cycle of MCF-7 cells were examined using annexin V-FITC/PI double staining combined with flow cytometry; Western blotting was used to determine the content of Bcl-2, Bax, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphorated AMPK (p-AMPK) proteins. Results Metformin-induced inhibition of MCF-7 cell proliferation was significantly enhanced when 1 mg/mL LP1 was added in. Compared with the control group and the metformin only group, more cells were arrested to G1 and the apoptosis rate was raised obviously in the metformin and LP1 combination group. LP1 promoted the downregulated expression of Bcl-2 and the upregulated expression of Bax induced by metformin, but it didn't show any impact on the metformin-activated AMPK pathway. Conclusion LP1 enhances the proliferation-inhibitory and apoptosis-promoting effect of metformin on human breast carcinoma cells. The mechanism may be related with Bcl-2 downregulation and Bax upregulation. PMID:27371846

  8. Optimization of Heterogeneous Utilization of Thorium in PRWs to Enhance Proliferation Resistance & Reduce Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Mujid Kazimi

    2003-12-18

    Typical pressurized water reactors, although loaded with uranium fuel, produce 225 to 275 kg of plutonium per gigawatt year of operation. Although the spent fuel is highly radioactive, it nevertheless offers a potential proliferation pathway because the plutonium is relatively easy to separate, amounts to many critical masses, and aside from the alpha (n reaction on the 240 Pu isotope) does not present any significant intrinsic barrier to weapon assembly

  9. PPARγ1 phosphorylation enhances proliferation and drug resistance in human fibrosarcoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Xiaojuan; Shu, Yuxin; Niu, Zhiyuan; Zheng, Wei; Wu, Haochen; Lu, Yan; Shen, Pingping

    2014-03-10

    Post-translational regulation plays a critical role in the control of cell growth and proliferation. The phosphorylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is the most important post-translational modification. The function of PPARγ phosphorylation has been studied extensively in the past. However, the relationship between phosphorylated PPARγ1 and tumors remains unclear. Here we investigated the role of PPARγ1 phosphorylation in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line. Using the nonphosphorylation (Ser84 to alanine, S84A) and phosphorylation (Ser84 to aspartic acid, S84D) mutant of PPARγ1, the results suggested that phosphorylation attenuated PPARγ1 transcriptional activity. Meanwhile, we demonstrated that phosphorylated PPARγ1 promoted HT1080 cell proliferation and this effect was dependent on the regulation of cell cycle arrest. The mRNA levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} descended in PPARγ1{sup S84D} stable HT1080 cell, whereas the expression of p18{sup INK4C} was not changed. Moreover, compared to the PPARγ1{sup S84A}, PPARγ1{sup S84D} up-regulated the expression levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin A. Finally, PPARγ1 phosphorylation reduced sensitivity to agonist rosiglitazone and increased resistance to anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in HT1080 cell. Our findings establish PPARγ1 phosphorylation as a critical event in human fibrosarcoma growth. These findings raise the possibility that chemical compounds that prevent the phosphorylation of PPARγ1 could act as anticancer drugs. - Highlights: • Phosphorylation attenuates PPARγ1 transcriptional activity. • Phosphorylated PPARγ1 promotes HT1080 cells proliferation. • PPARγ1 phosphorylation regulates cell cycle by mediating expression of cell cycle regulators. • PPARγ1 phosphorylation reduces sensitivity to agonist and anticancer drug. • Our findings establish PPARγ1 phosphorylation as a critical event in HT1080

  10. Chemosensitizing effects of carbon-based nanomaterials in cancer cells: enhanced apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation as underlying mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Kati; Ringel, Jessica; Hampel, Silke; Rieger, Christiane; Huebner, Doreen; Wirth, Manfred P.; Fuessel, Susanne

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanofibres (CNFs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can exert antitumor activities themselves and sensitize cancer cells to conventional chemotherapeutics such as carboplatin and cisplatin. In the present study, the chemosensitizing effect of CNFs and CNTs on cancer cells of urological origin was investigated regarding the underlying mechanisms. Prostate cancer (DU-145, PC-3) and bladder cancer (EJ28) cells were treated with carbon nanomaterials (CNFs, CNTs) and chemotherapeutics (carboplatin, cisplatin) alone as well as in combination for 24 h. Forty-eight (EJ28) or 72 h (DU-145, PC-3) after the end of treatment the effects on cellular proliferation, clonogenic survival, cell death rate and cell cycle distribution were evaluated. Depending on the cell line, simultaneous administration of chemotherapeutics and carbon nanomaterials produced an additional inhibition of cellular proliferation and clonogenic survival of up to 77% and 98%, respectively, compared to the inhibitory effects of the chemotherapeutics alone. These strongly enhanced antiproliferative effects were accompanied by an elevated cell death rate, which was predominantly mediated via apoptosis and not by necrosis. The antitumor effects of combinations with CNTs were less pronounced than those with CNFs. The enhanced effects of the combinatory treatments on cellular function were mostly of additive to partly synergistic nature. Furthermore, cell cycle analysis demonstrated an arrest at the G2/M phase mediated by a monotreatment with chemotherapeutics. Following combinatory treatments, mostly less than or nearly additive increases of cell fractions in the G2/M phase could be observed. In conclusion, the pronounced chemosensitizing effects of CNFs and CNTs were mediated by an enhanced apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation. The combination of carbon-based nanomaterials and conventional chemotherapeutics represents a novel

  11. Enhancement of Human Skin Fibroblasts Proliferation as a Result of Treating With Quince Seed Mucilage

    PubMed Central

    Ghafourian, Mehri; Tamri, Pari; Hemmati, Aliasghar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Quince seed mucilage (QSM) has been used in Iranian folk medicine in the treatment of wounds and burns. Experimental and clinical studies showed its wound healing activity. However, the mechanism by which this agent affects cells involved in the wound healing process is unknown. Objectives: In this study, we investigated the effects of QSM at concentrations of 50, 100, 200, and 400 µg/mL on human skin fibroblast proliferation as an aspect of promotion of wound healing. Materials and Methods: Human skin fibroblast cell line (HNFF-P18) was used in the experiment. Cell proliferation assay was measured by a MTT assay. Results: Cells treated with QSM at concentrations less than 400 µg/mL increased their proliferative activity. The concentration of 50 µg/mL was the most effective dose after 72 hours treatment. Conclusions: QSM has the ability to stimulate proliferation of human skin fibroblast. This effect suggests that this compound can act as a wound healing agent. PMID:25866719

  12. Uropathogenic E.coli (UPEC) Infection Induces Proliferation through Enhancer of Zeste Homologue 2 (EZH2)

    PubMed Central

    Penna, Frank; Samiei, Alaleh Najdi; Sidler, Martin; Jiang, Jia-Xin; Ibrahim, Fadi; Tolg, Cornelia; Delgado-Olguin, Paul; Rosenblum, Norman; Bägli, Darius J.

    2016-01-01

    Host-pathogen interactions can induce epigenetic changes in the host directly, as well as indirectly through secreted factors. Previously, uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) was shown to increase DNA methyltransferase activity and expression, which was associated with methylation-dependent alterations in the urothelial expression of CDKN2A. Here, we showed that paracrine factors from infected cells alter expression of another epigenetic writer, EZH2, coordinate with proliferation. Urothelial cells were inoculated with UPEC, UPEC derivatives, or vehicle (mock infection) at low moi, washed, then maintained in media with Gentamycin. Urothelial conditioned media (CM) and extracellular vesicles (EV) were isolated after the inoculations and used to treat naïve urothelial cells. EZH2 increased with UPEC infection, inoculation-induced CM, and inoculation-induced EV vs. parallel stimulation derived from mock-inoculated urothelial cells. We found that infection also increased proliferation at one day post-infection, which was blocked by the EZH2 inhibitor UNC1999. Inhibition of demethylation at H3K27me3 had the opposite effect and augmented proliferation. CONCLUSION: Uropathogen-induced paracrine factors act epigenetically by altering expression of EZH2, which plays a key role in early host cell proliferative responses to infection. PMID:26964089

  13. Immature and Mature Megakaryocytes Enhance Osteoblast Proliferation and Inhibit Osteoclast Formation

    PubMed Central

    Ciovacco, Wendy A.; Cheng, Ying-Hua; Horowitz, Mark C.; Kacena, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent data suggests that megakaryocytes (MKs) play a role in skeletal homeostasis. In vitro and in vivo data show that MKs stimulate osteoblast (OB) proliferation and inhibit osteoclast (OC) formation, thus favoring net bone deposition. There are several mouse models with dysregulated megakaryopoiesis and resultant high bone mass phenotypes. One such model that our group has extensively studied is GATA-1 deficient mice. GATA-1 is a transcription factor required for normal megakaryopoiesis, and mice deficient in GATA-1 have increases in immature MK number and a striking increase in bone mass. While the increased bone mass could simply be a result of increased MK number, here we take a more in depth look at the MKs of these mice to see if there is a unique factor inherent to GATA-1 deficient MKs that favors increased bone deposition. We show that increased MK number does correspond with increased OB proliferation and decreased OC proliferation, that stage of maturation does not alter the effect of MKs on bone cell lineages beyond the megakaryoblast stage, and that GATA-1 deficient MKs survive longer than wild-type controls. So while increased MK number in GATA-1 deficient mice likely contributes to the high bone mass phenotype, we propose that the increased longevity of this lineage also plays a role. Since GATA-1 deficient MKs live longer they are able to exert both more proliferative influence on OBs and more inhibitory influence on OCs. PMID:20052670

  14. Lentivirus-mediated silencing of MPHOSPH8 inhibits MTC proliferation and enhances apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    LI, PEIYONG; YANG, WEIPING; SHEN, BAIYONG; LI, HONGWEI; YAN, JIQI

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma (TC) is the most common malignancy of the endocrine organs, and its incidence rate has steadily increased over the last decade. For medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), a type of TC, a high mortality rate has been reported. In previous studies, M-phase phosphoprotein 8 (MPHOSPH8) displayed an elevated expression in various human carcinoma cells. Thus, MPHOSPH8 may be a sensitive biomarker that could be used for the diagnosis and follow-up of MTC. In the present study, plasmids of RNA interference targeting the MPHOSPH8 gene were constructed. Once these lentiviruses targeting MPHOSPH8 were transfected into the MTC cell line TT, cell viability and proliferation were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Flow cytometry was used to assess the cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. The expression levels of MPHOSPH8 were detected by reverse transcription quantitative-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses. Depletion of MPHOSPH8 significantly inhibited cell proliferation. Furthermore, knockdown of MPHOSPH8 in TT cells led to G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The results of the present study suggest that MPHOSPH8 promotes cell proliferation and may be a potential target for anticancer therapy of MTC. PMID:27313751

  15. Canine PHA-stimulated adherent cell enhance interferon-gamma production and proliferation of autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Ide, Kaori; Momoi, Yasuyuki; Iwasaki, Toshiroh

    2005-03-01

    Dendritic cells are specialized antigen-presenting cells with immuno-modulating functions that are attractive for clinical applications for cancer immunotherapy. This study examined immunostimulatory functions of phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated adherent cells (PHA-Ad cells) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in dogs. PHA-Ad cells enhanced interferon-gamma from autologous PBMC in vitro. PHA-Ad cells also stimulated antigen-independent proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes. These results suggest that PHA-Ad cells from PBMC possess a stimulatory function to evoke anti-tumour immunity and that they demonstrate potential for therapeutic applications in dogs. PMID:19379211

  16. Diabetes enhances the proliferation of adult pancreatic multipotent progenitor cells and biases their differentiation to more β-cell production.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Rozita; Najafabadi, Hamed S; Abdullah, Sarah; Smukler, Simon; Arntfield, Margot; van der Kooy, Derek

    2015-04-01

    Endogenous pancreatic multipotent progenitors (PMPs) are ideal candidates for regenerative approaches to compensate for β-cell loss since their β-cell-producing capacities as well as strategic location would eliminate unnecessary invasive manipulations. However, little is known about the status and potentials of PMPs under diabetic conditions. Here we show that β-cell metabolic stress and hyperglycemia enhance the proliferation capacities of adult PMP cells and bias their production of progeny toward β-cells in mouse and human. These effects are dynamic and correlate with functional β-cell regeneration when conditions allow. PMID:25392245

  17. Suppression of hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation by short hairpin RNA of frizzled 2 with Sonazoid-enhanced irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Ishige, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Short-hairpin RNA of frizzled-2 (shRNA-Fz2) is known to suppress the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells; however, its effect on HCC cell motility is unknown. In this study, suppression of HCC cell motility by shRNA-Fz2 was analyzed, and introduction of shRNA-Fz2 into HCC cells was facilitated with ultrasound (US) irradiation generated from a diagnostic US device, which was enhanced by the contrast-enhanced US reagent Sonazoid. The HCC cell lines HLF and PLC/PRF/5 that were transfected with shRNA-Fz2 were plated to form monolayers, following which the cell monolayers were scratched with a sterile razor. After 48 h, the cells were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and the distance between the growing edge of the cell layer and the scratch lines was measured. Total RNA from the cells was isolated and subjected to real-time quantitative PCR to quantify matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression at 48 h after transfection of shRNA-Fz2. Starch-iodide method was applied to analyze the generation of H2O2 following US irradiation with the addition of Sonazoid in the liquid, and cell proliferation was analyzed 72 h later. The distances between the growing edge of the cell layer and the scratch lines and MMP9 expression levels were significantly decreased with transfection of shRNA-Fz2 (P<0.05). In the starch-iodide method, absorbance significantly decreased with the addition of Sonazoid (P<0.05), which suggested that US irradiation with Sonazoid generated H2O2 and enhanced sonoporation. ShRNA-Fz2 suppressed cell proliferation of both cell lines at a mechanical index of 0.4. Motility of HLF cells and PLC/PRF/5 cells was suppressed by shRNA-FZ2. Sonazoid enhanced sonoporation of the cells with the diagnostic US device and the suppression of proliferation of both HCC cell lines by shRNA-Fz2. PMID:26648389

  18. Platelet-derived growth factor enhances proliferation and matrix synthesis of temporomandibular joint disc-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Hanaoka, Koichi; Tanaka, Eiji; Takata, Takashi; Miyauchi, Mutsumi; Aoyama, Junko; Kawai, Nobuhiko; Dalla-Bona, Diego A; Yamano, Eizo; Tanne, Kazuo

    2006-05-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is an essential signaling molecule for wound healing and tissue repair. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of PDGF on the proliferation of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc-derived cells and extracellular matrix synthesis. The number of cultured cells were counted by COULTER Z1. The assay for collagen synthesis was performed using a sircol soluble collagen assay. Hyaluronic acid (HA) synthesis was analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography. The expression of collagens, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) were examined using SYBR Green in terms of the RNA levels. PDGF treatment significantly (P < .01) increased the proliferation rate of the disc-derived cells as compared with the controls when the dose was 5 ng/ mL or greater. Treatment with more than 5 ng/mL PDGF resulted in an amount of collagen synthesis significantly (P < .01) higher than the controls. HA synthesis was maximal with 5 ng/mL PDGF treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that treatment with 5 ng/mL of PDGF-BB upregulated the mitochondrial RNA levels of type I and II collagens, MMPs, and TIMPs within 6 hours. It is concluded that PDGF, if its concentration is optimal, enhanced proliferation and matrix synthesis of TMJ disc-derived cells, indicating that PDGF may be effective for use in tissue engineering of the TMJ disc. PMID:16637732

  19. Effects of Ranolazine on Astrocytes and Neurons in Primary Culture.

    PubMed

    Aldasoro, Martin; Guerra-Ojeda, Sol; Aguirre-Rueda, Diana; Mauricio, M Dolores; Vila, Jose M; Marchio, Patricia; Iradi, Antonio; Aldasoro, Constanza; Jorda, Adrian; Obrador, Elena; Valles, Soraya L

    2016-01-01

    Ranolazine (Rn) is an antianginal agent used for the treatment of chronic angina pectoris when angina is not adequately controlled by other drugs. Rn also acts in the central nervous system and it has been proposed for the treatment of pain and epileptic disorders. Under the hypothesis that ranolazine could act as a neuroprotective drug, we studied its effects on astrocytes and neurons in primary culture. We incubated rat astrocytes and neurons in primary cultures for 24 hours with Rn (10-7, 10-6 and 10-5 M). Cell viability and proliferation were measured using trypan blue exclusion assay, MTT conversion assay and LDH release assay. Apoptosis was determined by Caspase 3 activity assay. The effects of Rn on pro-inflammatory mediators IL-β and TNF-α was determined by ELISA technique, and protein expression levels of Smac/Diablo, PPAR-γ, Mn-SOD and Cu/Zn-SOD by western blot technique. In cultured astrocytes, Rn significantly increased cell viability and proliferation at any concentration tested, and decreased LDH leakage, Smac/Diablo expression and Caspase 3 activity indicating less cell death. Rn also increased anti-inflammatory PPAR-γ protein expression and reduced pro-inflammatory proteins IL-1 β and TNFα levels. Furthermore, antioxidant proteins Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD significantly increased after Rn addition in cultured astrocytes. Conversely, Rn did not exert any effect on cultured neurons. In conclusion, Rn could act as a neuroprotective drug in the central nervous system by promoting astrocyte viability, preventing necrosis and apoptosis, inhibiting inflammatory phenomena and inducing anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents. PMID:26950436

  20. Decreased functions of astrocytes on carbon nanofiber materials.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Janice L; Waid, Michael C; Shi, Riyi; Webster, Thomas J

    2004-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers possess excellent conductivity properties, which may be beneficial in the design of more effective neural prostheses; however, limited evidence on their cytocompatibility properties currently exists. The objective of the present in vitro study was to determine cytocompatibility properties of formulations containing carbon nanofibers pertinent to neural implant applications. Substrates were prepared from four different types of carbon fibers, two with nanoscale diameters (nanophase, or less than or equal to 100 nm) and two with conventional diameters (or greater than 100 nm). Within these two categories, both a high and a low surface energy fiber were investigated and tested. Carbon fibers were compacted in a manual hydraulic press via a uniaxial loading cycle. Astrocytes (glial scar tissue-forming cells) were seeded onto the substrates for adhesion, proliferation, and long-term function studies (such as total intracellular protein and alkaline phosphatase activity). Results provided the first evidence that astrocytes preferentially adhered and proliferated on carbon fibers that had the largest diameter and the lowest surface energy. Based on these results, composite substrates were also formed using different weight percentages (0-25 wt%) of the nanophase, high surface energy fibers in a polycarbonate urethane matrix. Results provided the first evidence of decreased adhesion of astrocytes with increasing weight percents of the high surface energy carbon nanofibers in the polymer composite; this further demonstrates that formulations containing carbon fibers in the nanometer regime may limit astrocyte functions leading to decreased glial scar tissue formation. Positive interactions with neurons, and, at the same time, limited astrocyte functions leading to decreased gliotic scar tissue formation are essential for increased neuronal implant efficacy. PMID:14643605

  1. Effects of Ranolazine on Astrocytes and Neurons in Primary Culture

    PubMed Central

    Aldasoro, Martin; Guerra-Ojeda, Sol; Aguirre-Rueda, Diana; Mauricio, Mª Dolores; Vila, Jose Mª; Marchio, Patricia; Iradi, Antonio; Aldasoro, Constanza; Jorda, Adrian; Obrador, Elena; Valles, Soraya L.

    2016-01-01

    Ranolazine (Rn) is an antianginal agent used for the treatment of chronic angina pectoris when angina is not adequately controlled by other drugs. Rn also acts in the central nervous system and it has been proposed for the treatment of pain and epileptic disorders. Under the hypothesis that ranolazine could act as a neuroprotective drug, we studied its effects on astrocytes and neurons in primary culture. We incubated rat astrocytes and neurons in primary cultures for 24 hours with Rn (10−7, 10−6 and 10−5 M). Cell viability and proliferation were measured using trypan blue exclusion assay, MTT conversion assay and LDH release assay. Apoptosis was determined by Caspase 3 activity assay. The effects of Rn on pro-inflammatory mediators IL-β and TNF-α was determined by ELISA technique, and protein expression levels of Smac/Diablo, PPAR-γ, Mn-SOD and Cu/Zn-SOD by western blot technique. In cultured astrocytes, Rn significantly increased cell viability and proliferation at any concentration tested, and decreased LDH leakage, Smac/Diablo expression and Caspase 3 activity indicating less cell death. Rn also increased anti-inflammatory PPAR-γ protein expression and reduced pro-inflammatory proteins IL-1 β and TNFα levels. Furthermore, antioxidant proteins Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD significantly increased after Rn addition in cultured astrocytes. Conversely, Rn did not exert any effect on cultured neurons. In conclusion, Rn could act as a neuroprotective drug in the central nervous system by promoting astrocyte viability, preventing necrosis and apoptosis, inhibiting inflammatory phenomena and inducing anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents. PMID:26950436

  2. CPEB1 modulates lipopolysaccharide-mediated iNOS induction in rat primary astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ki Chan; Hyun Joo, So; Shin, Chan Young

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} Expression and phosphorylation of CPEB1 is increased by LPS stimulation in rat primary astrocytes. {yields} JNK regulates expression and phosphorylation of CPEB1 in reactive astrocytes. {yields} Down-regulation of CPEB1 using siRNA inhibits oxidative stress and iNOS induction by LPS stimulation. {yields} CPEB1 may play an important role in regulating inflammatory responses in reactive astrocytes induced by LPS. -- Abstract: Upon CNS damage, astrocytes undergo a series of biological changes including increased proliferation, production of inflammatory mediators and morphological changes, in a response collectively called reactive gliosis. This process is an essential part of the brains response to injury, yet much is unknown about the molecular mechanism(s) that induce these changes. In this study, we investigated the role of cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 1 (CPEB1) in the regulation of inflammatory responses in a model of reactive gliosis, lipopolysaccharide-stimulated astrocytes. CPEB1 is an mRNA-binding protein recently shown to be expressed in astrocytes that may play a role in astrocytes migration. After LPS stimulation, the expression and phosphorylation of CPEB1 was increased in rat primary astrocytes in a JNK-dependent process. siRNA-induced knockdown of CPEB1 expression inhibited the LPS-induced up-regulation of iNOS as well as NO and ROS production, a hallmark of immunological activation of astrocytes. The results from the study suggest that CPEB1 is actively involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses in astrocytes, which might provide new insights into the regulatory mechanism after brain injury.

  3. Astrocyte reactivity to Fas activation is attenuated in TIMP-1 deficient mice, an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ogier, Crystel; Creidy, Rita; Boucraut, José; Soloway, Paul D; Khrestchatisky, Michel; Rivera, Santiago

    2005-01-01

    Background Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) is a multifunctional secreted protein with pleiotropic actions, including the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), cell death/survival and growth promoting activities. After inflammatory challenge, the levels of TIMP-1 are highly and selectively upregulated in astrocytes among glial cells, but little is know about its role in these neural cells. We investigated the influence of TIMP-1 null mutation in the reactivity of cultured astrocytes to pro-inflammatory stimuli with TNF-α and anti-Fas antibody. Results When compared to WT, mutant astrocytes displayed an overall increased constitutive gelatinase expression and were less responsive to Fas-mediated upregulation of MMP-9, of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), all markers of astrocyte inflammatory response. In contrast, TNF-α treatment induced all these factors similarly regardless of the astrocyte genotype. The incorporation of 3H-thymidin, a marker of cell proliferation, increased in wild-type (WT) astrocytes after treatment with anti-Fas antibody or recombinant TIMP-1 but not in mutant astrocytes. Finally, lymphocyte chemotaxis was differentially regulated by TNF-α in WT and TIMP-1 deficient astrocytes. Conclusion We provide evidence that the alteration of the MMP/TIMP balance in astrocytes influences their reactivity to pro-inflammatory stimuli and that Fas activation modulates the expression of members of the MMP/TIMP axis. We hypothesise that the Fas/FasL transduction pathway and the MMP/TIMP system interact in astrocytes to modulate their inflammatory response to environmental stimuli. PMID:16316466

  4. Pathogenesis of Lyme neuroborreliosis: mitogen-activated protein kinases Erk1, Erk2, and p38 in the response of astrocytes to Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Geeta; Philipp, Mario T

    Lyme borreliosis, which is prevalent both in the US and in Europe, is an infectious disease that may cause local inflammation in numerous organs. We have hypothesized that, as with some neurodegenerative diseases, the pathogenesis of the neurocognitive deficiencies associated with Lyme neuroborreliosis of the central nervous system also has an inflammatory component. Dysregulated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-alpha can lead to neuronal damage. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) play a key role in the regulation of neuronal development, growth, and survival, as well as that of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. As a model, we explored the possibility that MAPK-mediated lipoprotein-induced apoptosis and gliosis of rhesus monkey astrocytes stimulated in vitro. Lipoproteins are the key inflammatory molecule type of Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochete that causes Lyme disease, and we had previously shown that lipoprotein-induced TNF-alpha production in astrocytes caused astrocyte apoptosis, and IL-6 enhanced proliferation of these cells. Lipoproteins readily activated p38 and Erk1/2 MAPK, thus enlisting these pathways among the kinase pathways that spirochetes may address as they invade the central nervous system. We also investigated whether specific inhibition of p38 and Erk1/2 MAPK would inhibit TNF-alpha and IL-6 production and thus astrocyte apoptosis, and proliferation, respectively. Lipoprotein-stimulated IL-6 production was unaffected by the MAPK inhibitors. In contrast, inhibition of both p38 and Erk1/2 significantly diminished TNF-alpha production, and totally abrogated production of this cytokine when both MAPK pathways were inhibited simultaneously. MAPK inhibition thus may be considered as a strategy to control inflammation and apoptosis in Lyme neuroborreliosis. PMID:15893422

  5. OPTIMIZATION OF HETEROGENEOUS UTILIZATION OF THORIUM IN PWRS TO ENHANCE PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND REDUCE WASTE.

    SciTech Connect

    TODOSOW,M.; KAZIMI,M.

    2004-08-01

    Issues affecting the implementation, public perception and acceptance of nuclear power include: proliferation, radioactive waste, safety, and economics. The thorium cycle directly addresses the proliferation and waste issues, but optimization studies of core design and fuel management are needed to ensure that it fits within acceptable safety and economic margins. Typical pressurized water reactors, although loaded with uranium fuel, produce 225 to 275 kg of plutonium per gigawatt-year of operation. Although the spent fuel is highly radioactive, it nevertheless offers a potential proliferation pathway because the plutonium is relatively easy to separate, amounts to many critical masses, and does not present any significant intrinsic barrier to weapon assembly. Uranium 233, on the other hand, produced by the irradiation of thorium, although it too can be used in weapons, may be ''denatured'' by the addition of natural, depleted or low enriched uranium. Furthermore, it appears that the chemical behavior of thoria or thoria-urania fuel makes it a more stable medium for the geological disposal of the spent fuel. It is therefore particularly well suited for a once-through fuel cycle. The use of thorium as a fertile material in nuclear fuel has been of interest since the dawn of nuclear power technology due to its abundance and to potential neutronic advantages. Early projects include homogeneous mixtures of thorium and uranium oxides in the BORAX-IV, Indian Point I, and Elk River reactors, as well as heterogeneous mixtures in the Shippingport seed-blanket reactor. However these projects were developed under considerably different circumstances than those which prevail at present. The earlier applications preceded the current proscription, for non-proliferation purposes, of the use of uranium enriched to more than 20 w/o in {sup 235}U, and has in practice generally prohibited the use of uranium highly enriched in {sup 235}U. They were designed when the expected burnup of

  6. Aβ 1-40 enhances the proliferation of human diploid fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Theda, Lindsey; Drews, Michelle K; Zitnik, Galynn; Oshima, Junko; Martin, George M

    2016-02-01

    There is a vast literature on the role of beta amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. However, there is a paucity of research on the potential physiological functions of these evolutionarily conserved products of the Aβ precursor protein. Based on previous studies in neuroblastoma cells, we hypothesized that Aβ may contribute to the proliferation of somatic cells. We present evidence supporting this hypothesis for the case of cultured human skin fibroblasts immortalized with the catalytic subunit of human telomerase (hTERT). Optimal concentrations ranged from 100 pM-10 nM, depending on the nature of the assay. PMID:26827638

  7. Comparative analysis of optogenetic actuators in cultured astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Melina; Lane, Samantha; Stout, Randy F.; Liu, Beihui; Parpura, Vladimir; Teschemacher, Anja G.; Kasparov, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes modulate synaptic transmission via release of gliotransmitters such as ATP, glutamate, d-serine and l-lactate. One of the main problems when studying the role of astrocytes in vitro and in vivo is the lack of suitable tools for their selective activation. Optogenetic actuators can be used to manipulate astrocytic activity by expression of variants of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) or other optogenetic actuators with the aim to initiate intracellular events such as intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) and/or cAMP increases. We have developed an array of adenoviral vectors (AVV) with ChR2-like actuators, including an enhanced ChR2 mutant (H134R), and a mutant with improved Ca2+ permeability (Ca2+ translocating channelrhodopsin, CatCh). We show here that [Ca2+]i elevations evoked by ChR2(H134R) and CatCh in astrocytes are largely due to release of Ca2+ from the intracellular stores. The autocrine action of ATP which is released under these conditions and acts on the P2Y receptors also contributes to the [Ca2+]i elevations. We also studied effects evoked using light-sensitive G-protein coupled receptors (opto-adrenoceptors). Activation of optoα1AR (Gq-coupled) and optoβ2AR (Gs-coupled) resulted in astrocytic [Ca2+]i increases which were suppressed by blocking the corresponding intracellular signalling cascade (phospholipase C and adenylate cyclase, respectively). Interestingly, the bulk of [Ca2+]i responses evoked using either optoAR was blocked by an ATP degrading enzyme, apyrase, or a P2Y1 receptor blocker, MRS 2179, indicating that they are to a large extent triggered by the autocrine action of ATP. We conclude that, whilst optimal tools for control of astrocytes are yet to be generated, the currently available optogenetic actuators successfully initiate biologically relevant signalling events in astrocytes. PMID:25109549

  8. Reactive Transformation and Increased BDNF Signaling by Hippocampal Astrocytes in Response to MK-801

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yueming; Li, Guanjun; Wang, Lihua; Li, Huafang

    2015-01-01

    MK-801, also known as dizocilpine, is a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist that induces schizophrenia-like symptoms. While astrocytes have been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, astrocytic responses to MK-801 and their significance to schizotypic symptoms are unclear. Changes in the expression levels of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), a marker of astrocyte activation in response to a variety of pathogenic stimuli, were examined in the hippocampus of rats treated with the repeated MK-801 injection (0.5 mg/10ml/kg body weight for 6 days) and in primary cultured hippocampal astrocytes incubated with MK-801 (5 or 20 μM for 24 h). Moreover, the expression levels of BDNF and its receptors TrkB and p75 were examined in MK-801-treated astrocyte cultures. MK-801 treatment enhanced GFAP expression in the rat hippocampus and also increased the levels of GFAP protein and mRNA in hippocampal astrocytes in vitro. Treatment of cultured hippocampal astrocytes with MK-801 enhanced protein and mRNA levels of BDNF, TrkB, and p75. Collectively, our results suggest that hippocampal astrocytes may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia symptoms associated with NMDA receptor hypofunction by reactive transformation and altered BDNF signaling. PMID:26700309

  9. Conditionally immortalized human pancreatic stellate cell lines demonstrate enhanced proliferation and migration in response to IGF-I

    SciTech Connect

    Rosendahl, Ann H.; Gundewar, Chinmay; Said Hilmersson, Katarzyna; Ni, Lan; Saleem, Moin A.; Andersson, Roland

    2015-01-15

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a key role in the dense desmoplastic stroma associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Studies on human PSCs have been minimal due to difficulty in maintaining primary PSC in culture. We have generated the first conditionally immortalized human non-tumor (NPSC) and tumor-derived (TPSC) pancreatic stellate cells via transformation with the temperature-sensitive SV40 large T antigen and human telomerase (hTERT). These cells proliferate at 33°C. After transfer to 37°C, the SV40LT is switched off and the cells regain their primary PSC phenotype and growth characteristics. NPSC contained cytoplasmic vitamin A-storing lipid droplets, while both NPSC and TPSC expressed the characteristic markers αSMA, vimentin, desmin and GFAP. Proteome array analysis revealed that of the 55 evaluated proteins, 27 (49%) were upregulated ≥3-fold in TPSC compared to NPSC, including uPA, pentraxin-3, endoglin and endothelin-1. Two insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) were inversely expressed. Although discordant IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 levels, IGF-I was found to stimulate proliferation of both NPSC and TPSC. Both basal and IGF-I stimulated motility was significantly enhanced in TPSC compared to NPSC. In conclusion, these cells provide a unique resource that will facilitate further study of the active stroma compartment associated with pancreatic cancer. - Highlights: • Generation of human conditionally immortalized human pancreatic stellate cell lines. • Temperature-sensitive SV40LT allows switch to primary PSC phenotype characteristics. • Proteome profiling revealed distinct expression patterns between TPSC and NPSC. • Enhanced IGF-I-stimulated proliferation and motility by TPSC compared to NPSC.

  10. Enhancement of B-cell translocation gene-1 expression by prostaglandin E2 in macrophages and the relationship to proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Suk, K; Sipes, D G; Erickson, K L

    1997-01-01

    Although prostaglandin (PG) E2 is known to suppress various macrophage functions, the molecular mechanisms by which that occurs are largely unknown. To understand better those mechanisms, differential screening of a cDNA library from PGE2-treated macrophages was performed. Subsequently, the DNA sequence of a differentially expressed cDNA clone was determined and the cDNA was identified as B-cell translocation gene-1 (BTG1), a recently cloned antiproliferative gene. A two-to threefold increase in macrophage BTG1 expression was observed after PGE2 treatment. PGE1 and platelet-activating factor, but not leukotrienes B4, and C4, or lipopolysaccharide, also enhanced BTG1 expression. Furthermore, this effect ws mimicked by dibutyryl cAMP which indicated the involvement of elevated cAMP in the PGE2-mediated enhancement of BTG1. Moreover, there was an inverse correlation between BTG1 mRNA expression and macrophage proliferation; however, BTG1 alteration was not associated with macrophage tumoricidal activation. Thus, BTG1 may play a role in PGE2-mediated inhibition of macrophage proliferation and not activation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9203975

  11. Active Sulforhodamine 101 Uptake into Hippocampal Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Christian; Hagos, Yohannes; Hülsmann, Swen

    2012-01-01

    Sulforhodamine 101 (SR101) is widely used as a marker of astrocytes. In this study we investigated labeling of astrocytes by SR101 in acute slices from the ventrolateral medulla and the hippocampus of transgenic mice expressing EGFP under the control of the astrocyte-specific human GFAP promoter. While SR101 efficiently and specifically labeled EGFP-expressing astrocytes in hippocampus, we found that the same staining procedure failed to label astrocytes efficiently in the ventrolateral medulla. Although carbenoxolone is able to decrease the SR101-labeling of astrocytes in the hippocampus, it is unlikely that SR101 is taken up via gap-junction hemichannels because mefloquine, a blocker for pannexin and connexin hemichannels, was unable to prevent SR101-labeling of hippocampal astrocytes. However, SR101-labeling of the hippocampal astrocytes was significantly reduced by substrates of organic anion transport polypeptides, including estron-3-sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, suggesting that SR101 is actively transported into hippocampal astrocytes. PMID:23189143

  12. Enhanced engraftment, proliferation, and therapeutic potential in heart using optimized human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Funakoshi, Shunsuke; Miki, Kenji; Takaki, Tadashi; Okubo, Chikako; Hatani, Takeshi; Chonabayashi, Kazuhisa; Nishikawa, Misato; Takei, Ikue; Oishi, Akiko; Narita, Megumi; Hoshijima, Masahiko; Kimura, Takeshi; Yamanaka, Shinya; Yoshida, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) are a promising tool for cardiac cell therapy. Although transplantation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived CMs have been reported in several animal models, the treatment effect was limited, probably due to poor optimization of the injected cells. To optimize graft cells for cardiac reconstruction, we compared the engraftment efficiency of intramyocardially-injected undifferentiated-iPSCs, day4 mesodermal cells, and day8, day20, and day30 purified iPSC-CMs after initial differentiation by tracing the engraftment ratio (ER) using in vivo bioluminescence imaging. This analysis revealed the ER of day20 CMs was significantly higher compared to other cells. Transplantation of day20 CMs into the infarcted hearts of immunodeficient mice showed good engraftment, and echocardiography showed significant functional improvement by cell therapy. Moreover, the imaging signal and ratio of Ki67-positive CMs at 3 months post injection indicated engrafted CMs proliferated in the host heart. Although this graft growth reached a plateau at 3 months, histological analysis confirmed progressive maturation from 3 to 6 months. These results suggested that day20 CMs had very high engraftment, proliferation, and therapeutic potential in host mouse hearts. They also demonstrate this model can be used to track the fate of transplanted cells over a long time. PMID:26743035

  13. Pathological integrin signaling enhances proliferation of primary lung fibroblasts from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hong; Diebold, Deanna; Nho, Richard; Perlman, David; Kleidon, Jill; Kahm, Judy; Avdulov, Svetlana; Peterson, Mark; Nerva, John; Bitterman, Peter; Henke, Craig

    2008-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a relentlessly progressive lung disease in which fibroblasts accumulate in the alveolar wall within a type I collagen-rich matrix. Although lung fibroblasts derived from patients with IPF display durable pathological alterations in proliferative function, the molecular mechanisms differentiating IPF fibroblasts from their normal counterparts remain unknown. Polymerized type I collagen normally inhibits fibroblast proliferation, providing a physiological mechanism to limit fibroproliferation after tissue injury. We demonstrate that beta1 integrin interaction with polymerized collagen inhibits normal fibroblast proliferation by suppression of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-S6K1 signal pathway due to maintenance of high phosphatase activity of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN). In contrast, IPF fibroblasts eluded this restraint, displaying a pathological pattern of beta1 integrin signaling in response to polymerized collagen that leads to aberrant activation of the PI3K-Akt-S6K1 signal pathway caused by inappropriately low PTEN activity. Mice deficient in PTEN showed a prolonged fibroproliferative response after tissue injury, and immunohistochemical analysis of IPF lung tissue demonstrates activation of Akt in cells within fibrotic foci. These results provide direct evidence for defective negative regulation of the proliferative pathway in IPF fibroblasts and support the theory that the pathogenesis of IPF involves an intrinsic fibroblast defect. PMID:18541712

  14. Pathological integrin signaling enhances proliferation of primary lung fibroblasts from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hong; Diebold, Deanna; Nho, Richard; Perlman, David; Kleidon, Jill; Kahm, Judy; Avdulov, Svetlana; Peterson, Mark; Nerva, John; Bitterman, Peter; Henke, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a relentlessly progressive lung disease in which fibroblasts accumulate in the alveolar wall within a type I collagen–rich matrix. Although lung fibroblasts derived from patients with IPF display durable pathological alterations in proliferative function, the molecular mechanisms differentiating IPF fibroblasts from their normal counterparts remain unknown. Polymerized type I collagen normally inhibits fibroblast proliferation, providing a physiological mechanism to limit fibroproliferation after tissue injury. We demonstrate that β1 integrin interaction with polymerized collagen inhibits normal fibroblast proliferation by suppression of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)–Akt–S6K1 signal pathway due to maintenance of high phosphatase activity of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN). In contrast, IPF fibroblasts eluded this restraint, displaying a pathological pattern of β1 integrin signaling in response to polymerized collagen that leads to aberrant activation of the PI3K–Akt–S6K1 signal pathway caused by inappropriately low PTEN activity. Mice deficient in PTEN showed a prolonged fibroproliferative response after tissue injury, and immunohistochemical analysis of IPF lung tissue demonstrates activation of Akt in cells within fibrotic foci. These results provide direct evidence for defective negative regulation of the proliferative pathway in IPF fibroblasts and support the theory that the pathogenesis of IPF involves an intrinsic fibroblast defect. PMID:18541712

  15. Fluoxetine enhances cell proliferation and prevents apoptosis in dentate gyrus of maternally separated rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, H J; Kim, J W; Yim, S V; Kim, M J; Kim, S A; Kim, Y J; Kim, C J; Chung, J H

    2001-11-01

    The mother-infant relationship is an instinctive phenomenon, and loss of maternal care in early life influences neonatal development, behavior and physiologic responses.(1,2) Furthermore, the early loss may affect the vulnerability of the infant to neuropsychiatric disorders, such as childhood anxiety disorders, personality disorders and depression, over its lifespan.(3,4) Fluoxetine is prescribed worldwide for depression and is often used in the treatment of childhood mental problems related to maternal separation or loss of maternal care.(5,6) In the present study, fluoxetine was administrated to rats with maternal separation to determine its effects on neuronal development, in particular with respect to cell proliferation and apoptosis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Rat pups were separated from their mothers and socially isolated on postnatal day 14 and were treated with fluoxetine (5 mg kg(-1)) and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (50 mg kg(-1)) for 7 days, after which immunohistochemistry and a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining were carried out. In the pups with maternal separation treated with fluoxetine, the number of BrdU-positive cells was significantly increased and that of TUNEL-positive cells was significantly decreased in the dentate gyrus compared to pups with maternal separation that did not receive fluoxetine treatment. These findings indicate that fluoxetine affects new cell proliferation and apoptosis, and we propose that fluoxetine may be useful in the treatment of maternal separation-related diseases. PMID:11673802

  16. A Strong U.S. Nuclear Enterprise Enhances Global Nuclear Proliferation Management

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, M.R.

    2001-01-29

    Nuclear policy in the U.S. has evolved over the last five decades as a result of reactions to certain defining events in the evolution of global nuclear technology. These events generally involved either safety issues or concerns about the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons. A world unthreatened by nuclear weapons proliferation is a vision that U.S. policy has strived for since the early years of the atomic age. The U.S. approach to stemming the spread of nuclear weapons has undergone three significant changes over the last fifty-plus years. The McMahon Act of 1946 proscribed dissemination of U. S. nuclear technology overseas for any purpose, whether for weapons or peaceful uses. This approach was superseded by the Atomic Energy Act, stimulated by the Atoms for Peace Initiative (1), which provided for the sharing of substantial scope of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes with countries willing to forego nuclear weapons development. In the decades that followed, the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) was signed by 187 nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was formed to monitor adherence to the Treaty and assist in technology transfer. This international initiative was instrumental in limiting the emergence of new States with nuclear weapons capabilities to a few as compared to the more than fifty that was projected in the early 50's.

  17. Overexpression of TREM2 enhances glioma cell proliferation and invasion: a therapeutic target in human glioma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Qiang; Tao, Bang-Bao; Li, Bin; Wang, Xu-Hui; Zhang, Wen-Chuan; Wan, Liang; Hua, Xu-Ming; Li, Shi-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common and aggressive type of primary adult brain tumors. Although TREM2 mutation is reported to be related to Nasu-Hakola disease and Alzheimer's disease, little is known about the association between TREM2 and gliomas. Here, we reported that TREM2 was significantly overexpressed in glioma tissues compared with non-tumorous brain tissues. Furthermore, TREM2 expression was closely related to pathological grade and overall survival of patients with gliomas. Down-regulation of TREM2 in two glioma cell lines, U87 and U373, resulted in a significant reduction in cell proliferation, migration and invasion and a dramatic increase in S phase arrest and apoptosis. In vivo tumorigenesis experiment also revealed that depletion of TREM2 expression inhibited U87 cell proliferation. Moreover, based on gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset, we found that TREM2 was positive related to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) apoptosis, Cromer metastasis and KEGG chemokine pathways, which was further validated by western blot in TREM2 knockdown glioma cells and indicated a possible mechanism underlying its effects on glioma. In summary, our study suggests that TREM2 may work as an oncogene and a new effective therapeutic target for glioma treatment. PMID:26506595

  18. Serotonin 1A Receptors on Astrocytes as a Potential Target for the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Ikuko; Asanuma, Masato

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes are the most abundant neuron-supporting glial cells in the central nervous system. The neuroprotective role of astrocytes has been demonstrated in various neurological disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal cord injury, stroke and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Astrocyte dysfunction or loss-of-astrocytes increases the susceptibility of neurons to cell death, while astrocyte transplantation in animal studies has therapeutic advantage. We reported recently that stimulation of serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptors on astrocytes promoted astrocyte proliferation and upregulated antioxidative molecules to act as a neuroprotectant in parkinsonian mice. PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with motor symptoms such as tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity and postural instability, that are based on selective loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, and with non-motor symptoms such as orthostatic hypotension and constipation based on peripheral neurodegeneration. Although dopaminergic therapy for managing the motor disability associated with PD is being assessed at present, the main challenge remains the development of neuroprotective or disease-modifying treatments. Therefore, it is desirable to find treatments that can reduce the progression of dopaminergic cell death. In this article, we summarize first the neuroprotective properties of astrocytes targeting certain molecules related to PD. Next, we review neuroprotective effects induced by stimulation of 5-HT1A receptors on astrocytes. The review discusses new promising therapeutic strategies based on neuroprotection against oxidative stress and prevention of dopaminergic neurodegeneration. PMID:26795196

  19. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-β participates in oxidized LDL-enhanced proliferation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Carmela; Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Filesi, Carmelina; D'Archivio, Massimo; Giovannini, Claudio; Masella, Roberta

    2011-09-01

    Increased circulating oxidized LDL (oxLDL) have been found in obese subjects. Obesity is characterized by an excess of fat mass resulting from an increase in adipocyte number and size. The generation of new adipocytes is a tightly controlled process where multiple factors acting in a signaling cascade follow a precise temporal expression pattern; oxLDL appear to have a role in the impairment of this process. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of oxLDL on the mechanisms involved in the proliferative stage of the differentiation process in 3T3-L1 cells. After hormonal induction, 3T3-L1 cells undergo approximately two rounds of mitotic clonal expansion (MCE), a process required for adipogenesis. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) is immediately expressed after induction, and plays a crucial role in MCE, but its expression must decrease to allow preadipocytes to mature into adipocytes. We found that, in the presence of stimuli to differentiate, oxLDL induced a higher proliferation rate in this cell line, associated with a sustained up-regulation of C/EBPβ, which remained activated inside the nucleus for several days. RNAi-mediated knockdown of C/EBPβ 24 h after oxLDL treatment counteracted the increase in proliferation rate. Both C/EBPβ expression and proliferation processes appear to be influenced by cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways. OxLDL treatment led to increased levels of cAMP, and to a strong, prolonged phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and C/EBPβ. The addition of cAMP and PKA inhibitors, SQ22536 and H-89, respectively, reduced proliferation only in oxLDL-treated cells, whereas the addition of ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 blocked proliferation in both control and oxLDL-treated cells. C/EBPβ nuclear expression and DNA-binding activity were reduced by U0126, under all tested conditions. These findings show that the altered expression pattern of C/EBPβ is involved in the increase in the

  20. Galunisertib inhibits glioma vasculogenic mimicry formation induced by astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Chen, Wenliang; Zhang, Xin; Huang, Bin; Chen, Aanjing; He, Ying; Wang, Jian; Li, Xingang

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are among the most lethal primary brain tumors found in humans. In high-grade gliomas, vasculogenic mimicry is often detected and has been correlated with prognosis, thus suggesting its potential as a therapeutic target. Vasculogenic mimicry mainly forms vascular-like channels independent of endothelial cells; however, little is known about the relationship between astrocytes and vasculogenic mimicry. In our study, we demonstrated that the presence of astrocytes promoted vasculogenic mimicry. With suspension microarray technology and in vitro tube formation assays, we identified that astrocytes relied on TGF-β1 to enhance vasculogenic mimicry. We also found that vasculogenic mimicry was inhibited by galunisertib, a promising TGF-β1 inhibitor currently being studied in an ongoing trial in glioma patients. The inhibition was partially attributed to a decrease in autophagy after galunisertib treatment. Moreover, we observed a decrease in VE-cadherin and smooth muscle actin-α expression, as well as down-regulation of Akt and Flk phosphorylation in galunisertib-treated glioma cells. By comparing tumor weight and volume in a xenograft model, we acquired promising results to support our theory. This study expands our understanding of the role of astrocytes in gliomas and demonstrates that galunisertib inhibits glioma vasculogenic mimicry induced by astrocytes. PMID:26976322

  1. Galunisertib inhibits glioma vasculogenic mimicry formation induced by astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Chen, Wenliang; Zhang, Xin; Huang, Bin; Chen, Aanjing; He, Ying; Wang, Jian; Li, Xingang

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are among the most lethal primary brain tumors found in humans. In high-grade gliomas, vasculogenic mimicry is often detected and has been correlated with prognosis, thus suggesting its potential as a therapeutic target. Vasculogenic mimicry mainly forms vascular-like channels independent of endothelial cells; however, little is known about the relationship between astrocytes and vasculogenic mimicry. In our study, we demonstrated that the presence of astrocytes promoted vasculogenic mimicry. With suspension microarray technology and in vitro tube formation assays, we identified that astrocytes relied on TGF-β1 to enhance vasculogenic mimicry. We also found that vasculogenic mimicry was inhibited by galunisertib, a promising TGF-β1 inhibitor currently being studied in an ongoing trial in glioma patients. The inhibition was partially attributed to a decrease in autophagy after galunisertib treatment. Moreover, we observed a decrease in VE-cadherin and smooth muscle actin-α expression, as well as down-regulation of Akt and Flk phosphorylation in galunisertib-treated glioma cells. By comparing tumor weight and volume in a xenograft model, we acquired promising results to support our theory. This study expands our understanding of the role of astrocytes in gliomas and demonstrates that galunisertib inhibits glioma vasculogenic mimicry induced by astrocytes. PMID:26976322

  2. Simultaneous neuron- and astrocyte-specific fluorescent marking.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Wiebke; Hayata-Takano, Atsuko; Kamo, Toshihiko; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Nagayasu, Kazuki; Kasai, Atsushi; Seiriki, Kaoru; Shintani, Norihito; Ago, Yukio; Farfan, Camille; Hashimoto, Ryota; Baba, Akemichi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi

    2015-03-27

    Systematic and simultaneous analysis of multiple cell types in the brain is becoming important, but such tools have not yet been adequately developed. Here, we aimed to generate a method for the specific fluorescent labeling of neurons and astrocytes, two major cell types in the brain, and we have developed lentiviral vectors to express the red fluorescent protein tdTomato in neurons and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in astrocytes. Importantly, both fluorescent proteins are fused to histone 2B protein (H2B) to confer nuclear localization to distinguish between single cells. We also constructed several expression constructs, including a tandem alignment of the neuron- and astrocyte-expression cassettes for simultaneous labeling. Introducing these vectors and constructs in vitro and in vivo resulted in cell type-specific and nuclear-localized fluorescence signals enabling easy detection and distinguishability of neurons and astrocytes. This tool is expected to be utilized for the simultaneous analysis of changes in neurons and astrocytes in healthy and diseased brains. PMID:25721661

  3. Dysregulation of astrocyte extracellular signaling in Costello syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Krencik, Robert; Hokanson, Kenton C.; Narayan, Aditi R.; Dvornik, Jill; Rooney, Gemma E.; Rauen, Katherine A.; Weiss, Lauren A.; Rowitch, David H.; Ullian, Erik M.

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes produce an assortment of signals that promote neuronal maturation according to a precise developmental timeline. Is this orchestrated timing and signaling altered in human neurodevelopmental disorders? To address this question, the astroglial lineage was investigated in two model systems of a developmental disorder with intellectual disability caused by mutant Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (HRAS) termed Costello syndrome: mutant HRAS human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and transgenic mice. Human iPSCs derived from patients with Costello syndrome differentiated to astroglia more rapidly in vitro than those derived from wild-type cell lines with normal HRAS, exhibited hyperplasia, and also generated an abundance of extracellular matrix remodeling factors and proteoglycans. Acute treatment with a farnesyl transferase inhibitor and knockdown of the transcription factor SNAI2 reduced expression of several proteoglycans in Costello syndrome iPSC-derived astrocytes. Similarly, mice in which mutant HRAS was expressed selectively in astrocytes exhibited experience-independent increased accumulation of perineuronal net proteoglycans in cortex, as well as increased parvalbumin expression in interneurons, when compared to wild-type mice. Our data indicate that astrocytes expressing mutant HRAS dysregulate cortical maturation during development as shown by abnormal extracellular matrix remodeling and implicate excessive astrocyte-to-neuron signaling as a possible drug target for treating mental impairment and enhancing neuroplasticity. PMID:25947161

  4. AGGRECAN IS EXPRESSED BY EMBRYONIC BRAIN GLIA AND REGULATES ASTROCYTE DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Domowicz, Miriam S.; Sanders, Timothy A.; Ragsdale, Clifton W.; Schwartz, Nancy B.

    2008-01-01

    Determination of the molecules that regulate astrocyte development has been hindered by the paucity of markers that identify astrocytic precursors in vivo. Here we report that the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan aggrecan both regulates astrocyte development and is expressed by embryonic glial precursors. During chick brain development, the onset of aggrecan expression precedes that of the astrocytic marker GFAP and is concomitant with detection of the early glial markers GLAST and glutamine synthetase. In co-expression studies, we established that aggrecan-rich cells contain the radial glial markers nestin, BLBP and GLAST and later in embryogenesis, the astroglial marker GFAP. Parallel in vitro studies showed that ventricular zone cultures, enriched in aggrecan-expressing cells, could be directed to a GFAP -positive fate in G5-supplemented differentiation media. Analysis of the chick aggrecan mutant nanomelia revealed marked increases in expression of the astrocyte differentiation genes GFAP, GLAST and GS in the absence of extracellular aggrecan. These increases in astrocytic marker gene expression could not be accounted for by changes in precursor proliferation or cell death, suggesting that aggrecan regulates the rate of astrocyte differentiation. Taken together, these results indicate a major role for aggrecan in the control of glial cell maturation during brain development. PMID:18207138

  5. Phenobarbital mechanistic data and risk assessment: enzyme induction, enhanced cell proliferation, and tumor promotion.

    PubMed

    Whysner, J; Ross, P M; Williams, G M

    1996-01-01

    Chronic exposure to high doses of phenobarbital (PB) causes hepatocellular adenomas in both mice and rats and hepatocellular carcinomas in some strains of mice. Long-term PB therapy has not been found to cause human tumors. PB is not DNA reactive, and most genotoxicity tests have yielded negative results. PB has been extensively studied as an epigenetic, rodent liver tumor promoter. At exposures causing rodent liver tumors, PB has measurable effects on hepatocytes: PB inhibits cell-to-cell communication; PB induces enzymes, including P450 cytochromes; PB stimulates proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of hepatocytes in neoplastic foci. Threshold exposures for some of these endpoints coincide with the threshold exposure for tumorigenesis. PMID:8910954

  6. Overexpression of HE4 (human epididymis protein 4) enhances proliferation, invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huimin; Tan, Mingzi; Schwab, Carlton L.; Deng, Lu; Gao, Jian; Hao, Yingying; Li, Xiao; Gao, Song; Liu, Juanjuan; Lin, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) related with a role in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis while little is known about the molecular mechanism alteration by HE4 up regulation. Here we reported that overexpressed HE4 promoted ovarian cancer cells proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Furthermore, human whole genome gene expression profile microarrays revealed that 231 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were altered in response to HE4, in which MAPK signaling, ECM receptor, cell cycle, steroid biosynthesis pathways were involved. The findings suggested that overexpressed HE4 played an important role in ovarian cancer progression and metastasis and that HE4 has the potential to serve as a novel therapeutic target for ovarian cancer. PMID:26575020

  7. Loss of MAP3K1 enhances proliferation and apoptosis during retinal development

    PubMed Central

    Mongan, Maureen; Wang, Jingcai; Liu, Hongshan; Fan, Yunxia; Jin, Chang; Kao, Winston Y.-W.; Xia, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Precise coordination of progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation is essential for proper organ morphogenesis and function during mammalian development. The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MAP3K1) has a well-established role in anterior eyelid development, as Map3k1-knockout mice have defective embryonic eyelid closure and an `eye-open at birth' (EOB) phenotype. Here, we show that MAP3K1 is highly expressed in the posterior of the developing eye and is required for retina development. The MAP3K1-deficient mice exhibit increased proliferation and apoptosis, and Müller glial cell overproduction in the developing retinas. Consequently, the retinas of these mice show localized rosette-like arrangements in the outer nuclear layer, and develop abnormal vascularization, broken down retinal pigment epithelium, photoreceptor loss and early onset of retinal degeneration. Although the retinal defect is associated with increased cyclin D1 and CDK4/6 expression, and RB phosphorylation and E2F-target gene upregulation, it is independent of the EOB phenotype and of JNK. The retinal developmental defect still occurs in knockout mice that have undergone tarsorrhaphy, but is absent in compound mutant Map3k1+/ΔKDJnk1–/– and Map3k1+/ΔKDJnk+/–Jnk2+/– mice that have EOB and reduced JNK signaling. Our results unveil a novel role for MAP3K1 in which it crosstalks with the cell cycle regulatory pathways in the prevention of retina malformation and degeneration. PMID:21862560

  8. Human breast cancer biopsies induce eosinophil recruitment and enhance adjacent cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Szalayova, Gabriela; Ogrodnik, Aleksandra; Spencer, Brianna; Wade, Jacqueline; Bunn, Janice; Ambaye, Abiy; James, Ted; Rincon, Mercedes

    2016-06-01

    Chronic inflammation is known to facilitate cancer progression and metastasis. Less is known about the effect of acute inflammation within the tumor microenvironment, resulting from standard invasive procedures. Recent studies in mouse models have shown that the acute inflammatory response triggered by a biopsy in mammary cancer increases the frequency of distal metastases. Although tumor biopsies are part of the standard clinical practice in breast cancer diagnosis, no studies have reported their effect on inflammatory response. The objective of this study is to (1) determine whether core needle biopsies in breast cancer patients trigger an inflammatory response, (2) characterize the type of inflammatory response present, and (3) evaluate the potential effect of any acute inflammatory response on residual tumor cells. The biopsy wound site was identified in the primary tumor resection tissue samples from breast cancer patients. The inflammatory response in areas adjacent (i.e., immediately around previous biopsy site) and distant to the wound biopsy was investigated by histology and immunohistochemistry analysis. Proliferation of tumor cells was also assayed. We demonstrate that diagnostic core needle biopsies trigger a selective recruitment of inflammatory cells at the site of the biopsy, and they persist for extended periods of time. While macrophages were part of the inflammatory response, an unexpected accumulation of eosinophils at the edge of the biopsy wound was also identified. Importantly, we show that biopsy causes an increase in the proliferation rate of tumor cells located in the area adjacent to the biopsy wound. Diagnostic core needle biopsies in breast cancer patients do induce a unique acute inflammatory response within the tumor microenvironment and have an effect on the surrounding tumor cells. Therefore, biopsy-induced inflammation could have an impact on residual tumor cell progression and/or metastasis in human breast cancer. These findings

  9. Surfactant tuning of hydrophilicity of porous degradable copolymer scaffolds promotes cellular proliferation and enhances bone formation.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Mohammed A; Leknes, Knut N; Sun, Yang; Lie, Stein A; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Mustafa, Kamal

    2016-08-01

    Poly(l-lactide-co-ɛ-caprolactone) (poly(LLA-co-CL)) has been blended with Tween 80 to tune the material properties and optimize cell-material interactions. Accordingly, the aims of this study were fourfold: to evaluate the effect of low concentrations of Tween 80 on the surface microstructure of 3D poly(LLA-co-CL) porous scaffolds: to determine the effect of different concentrations of Tween 80 on proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in vitro under dynamic cell culture at 7 and 21 days; to assess the influence of Tween 80 on the degradation rate of poly(LLA-co-CL) at 7 and 21 days; and in a subcutaneous rat model, to evaluate the effect on bone formation of porous scaffolds modified with 3% Tween 80 at 2 and 8 weeks. Blending 3% (w/w) Tween 80 with poly(LLA-co-CL) improves the surface wettability (p < 0.001). Poly(LLA-co-CL)/3% Tween 80 shows significantly increased cellular proliferation at days 7 and 21 (p < 0.001). Moreover, the presence of Tween 80 facilitates the degradation of poly(LLA-co-CL). Two weeks post-implantation, the poly(LLA-co-CL)/3% Tween 80 scaffolds exhibit significant mRNA expression of Runx2 (p = 0.004). After 8 weeks, poly(LLA-co-CL)/3% Tween 80 scaffolds show significantly increased de novo bone formation, demonstrated by μ-CT (p = 0.0133) and confirmed histologically. It can be concluded that blending 3% (w/w) Tween 80 with poly (LLA-co-CL) improves the hydrophilicity and osteogenic potential of the scaffolds. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2049-2059, 2016. PMID:27086867

  10. Cleavage of Hyaluronan and CD44 Adhesion Molecule Regulate Astrocyte Morphology via Rac1 Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Anna; Zeug, Andre; Skupien, Anna; Kaza, Beata; Mueller, Franziska; Chwedorowicz, Agnieszka; Ponimaskin, Evgeni; Wilczynski, Grzegorz M.; Dzwonek, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Communication of cells with their extracellular environment is crucial to fulfill their function in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The literature data provide evidence that such a communication is also important in case of astrocytes. Mechanisms that contribute to the interaction between astrocytes and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are still poorly understood. Hyaluronan is the main component of ECM in the brain, where its major receptor protein CD44 is expressed by a subset of astrocytes. Considering the fact that functions of astrocytes are tightly coupled with changes in their morphology (e.g.: glutamate clearance in the synaptic cleft, migration, astrogliosis), we investigated the influence of hyaluronan cleavage by hyaluronidase, knockdown of CD44 by specific shRNA and CD44 overexpression on astrocyte morphology. Our results show that hyaluronidase treatment, as well as knockdown of CD44, in astrocytes result in a “stellate”-like morphology, whereas overexpression of CD44 causes an increase in cell body size and changes the shape of astrocytes into flattened cells. Moreover, as a dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is supposed to be responsible for morphological changes of cells, and this reorganization is controlled by small GTPases of the Rho family, we hypothesized that GTPase Rac1 acts as a downstream effector for hyaluronan and CD44 in astrocytes. We used FRET-based biosensor and a dominant negative mutant of Rac1 to investigate the involvement of Rac1 activity in hyaluronidase- and CD44-dependent morphological changes of astrocytes. Both, hyaluronidase treatment and knockdown of CD44, enhances Rac1 activity while overexpression of CD44 reduces the activity state in astrocytes. Furthermore, morphological changes were blocked by specific inhibition of Rac1 activity. These findings indicate for the first time that regulation of Rac1 activity is responsible for hyaluronidase and CD44-driven morphological changes of

  11. The Role of Intermittent Hypoxia on the Proliferative Inhibition of Rat Cerebellar Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Sheng-Chun; Lin, Yu-Jou; Huang, Sung-Ying; Lien, Chih-Feng; Chen, Shee-Ping; Pang, Cheng-Yoong; Lin, Jian-Hong; Yang, Kun-Ta

    2015-01-01

    Sleep apnea syndrome, characterized by intermittent hypoxia (IH), is linked with increased oxidative stress. This study investigates the mechanisms underlying IH and the effects of IH-induced oxidative stress on cerebellar astrocytes. Rat primary cerebellar astrocytes were kept in an incubator with an oscillating O2 concentration between 20% and 5% every 30 min for 1–4 days. Although the cell loss increased with the duration, the IH incubation didn’t induce apoptosis or necrosis, but rather a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest of cerebellar astrocytes was noted. ROS accumulation was associated with cell loss during IH. PARP activation, resulting in p21 activation and cyclin D1 degradation was associated with cell cycle G0/G1 arrest of IH-treated cerebellar astrocytes. Our results suggest that IH induces cell loss by enhancing oxidative stress, PARP activation and cell cycle G0/G1 arrest in rat primary cerebellar astrocytes. PMID:26172116

  12. Properties of astrocytes cultured from GFAP over-expressing and GFAP mutant mice

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Woosung; Messing, Albee

    2009-04-15

    Alexander disease is a fatal leukoencephalopathy caused by dominantly-acting coding mutations in GFAP. Previous work has also implicated elevations in absolute levels of GFAP as central to the pathogenesis of the disease. However, identification of the critical astrocyte functions that are compromised by mis-expression of GFAP has not yet been possible. To provide new tools for investigating the nature of astrocyte dysfunction in Alexander disease, we have established primary astrocyte cultures from two mouse models of Alexander disease, a transgenic that over-expresses wild type human GFAP, and a knock-in at the endogenous mouse locus that mimics a common Alexander disease mutation. We find that mutant GFAP, as well as excess wild type GFAP, promotes formation of cytoplasmic inclusions, disrupts the cytoskeleton, decreases cell proliferation, increases cell death, reduces proteasomal function, and compromises astrocyte resistance to stress.

  13. Malignant gliomas induce and exploit astrocytic mesenchymal-like transition by activating canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Wang, Yajing; Liu, Xiuting; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Kequan; Wang, Qing; Hu, Rong

    2016-07-01

    The complex microenvironment of malignant gliomas plays a dynamic and usually cancer-promoting role in glioma progression. Astrocytes, the major stromal cells in the brain, can be activated by glioma microenvironment, resulting in a layer of reactive astrocytes surrounding the gliomas. Reactive astrocytes are universally characterized with the upregulation of glial fibrillary protein and glycoprotein podoplanin. In this work, we investigated the role of reactive astrocytes on malignant glioma microenvironment and the potential mechanism by which glioma cells activated the tumor-associated astrocytes (TAAs). The reactive astrocytes were observed around gliomas in the intracranial syngeneic implantation of rat C6 and mouse GL261 glioma cells in vivo, as well as primary astrocytes cultured with glioma cells condition medium in vitro. Besides, reactive astrocytes exhibited distinct epithelial-to-mesenchymal (-like) transition and enhanced migration and invasion activity, with the decrease of E-cadherin and concomitant increase of vimentin and matrix metalloproteinases. Furthermore, canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling was activated in TAAs. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor XAV939 and β-catenin plasmid were used to verify the regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling on TAAs and their invasion ability. Taken together, our findings established that glioma cells remarkably activated astrocytes via upregulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling, with obviously mesenchymal-like transition and increased migration and invasion ability, indicating that glioma cells may stimulate adjacent astrocytes to degrade extracellular matrix and thereby promoting tumor invasiveness. PMID:27236327

  14. Diabetes Inhibits Cerebral Ischemia-Induced Astrocyte Activation - an Observation in the Cingulate Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Li; Mai, Li; Zhang, Jian-Zhong; Wang, Jian-Gang; Chang, Yue; Dong, Jian-Da; Guo, Feng-Ying; Li, P. Andy

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to study the effect of diabetic hyperglycemia on astrocytes after forebrain ischemia. Streptozotocin (STZ)-injected hyperglycemic and vehicle-injected normoglycemic rats were subjected to 15 minutes of forebrain ischemia. The brains were harvested in sham-operated controls and in animals with 1 and 6 h of recirculation following ischemia. Brain damage was accessed by haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry and TdT-mediated-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Anti-GFAP antibody was employed to study astrocytes. The results showed that the 15-minute ischemia caused neuronal death after 1 and 6 h of reperfusion as revealed by increased numbers of karyopyknotic cells, edema, TUNEL-positive and active caspase-3-positive cells. Ischemia also activated astrocytes in the cingulated cortex as reflected by astrocyte stomata hypertrophy, elongated dendrites and increases in the number of dendrites, and immunoreactivity of GFAP. Diabetic hyperglycemia further enhanced neuronal death and suppressed ischemia-induced astrocyte activation. Further, diabetes-damaged astrocytes have increased withdrawal of the astrocyte end-foot from the cerebral blood vessel wall. It is concluded that diabetes-induced suppression and damages to astrocytes may contribute to its detrimental effects on recovery from cerebral ischemia. PMID:24163590

  15. A digital implementation of neuron-astrocyte interaction for neuromorphic applications.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Soheila; Faez, Karim; Amiri, Mahmood; Karami, Ehsan

    2015-06-01

    Recent neurophysiologic findings have shown that astrocytes play important roles in information processing and modulation of neuronal activity. Motivated by these findings, in the present research, a digital neuromorphic circuit to study neuron-astrocyte interaction is proposed. In this digital circuit, the firing dynamics of the neuron is described by Izhikevich model and the calcium dynamics of a single astrocyte is explained by a functional model introduced by Postnov and colleagues. For digital implementation of the neuron-astrocyte signaling, Single Constant Multiply (SCM) technique and several linear approximations are used for efficient low-cost hardware implementation on digital platforms. Using the proposed neuron-astrocyte circuit and based on the results of MATLAB simulations, hardware synthesis and FPGA implementation, it is demonstrated that the proposed digital astrocyte is able to change the firing patterns of the neuron through bidirectional communication. Utilizing the proposed digital circuit, it will be illustrated that information processing in synaptic clefts is strongly regulated by astrocyte. Moreover, our results suggest that the digital circuit of neuron-astrocyte crosstalk produces diverse neural responses and therefore enhances the information processing capabilities of the neuromorphic circuits. This is suitable for applications in reconfigurable neuromorphic devices which implement biologically brain circuits. PMID:25814323

  16. Neuronal influences are necessary to produce mitochondrial co-localization with glutamate transporters in astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ugbode, Christopher I; Hirst, Warren D; Rattray, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the predominant astrocyte glutamate transporter, GLT-1/ Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2 (EAAT2) is associated with mitochondria. We used primary cultures of mouse astrocytes to assess co-localization of GLT-1 with mitochondria, and tested whether the interaction was dependent on neurons, actin polymerization or the kinesin adaptor, TRAK2. Mouse primary astrocytes were transfected with constructs expressing V5-tagged GLT-1, pDsRed1-Mito with and without dominant negative TRAK2. Astrocytes were visualized using confocal microscopy and co-localization was quantified using Volocity software. Image analysis of confocal z-stacks revealed no co-localization between mitochondria and GLT-1 in pure astrocyte cultures. Co-culture of astrocytes with primary mouse cortical neurons revealed more mitochondria in processes and a positive correlation between mitochondria and GLT-1. This co-localization was not further enhanced after neuronal depolarization induced by 1 h treatment with 15 mM K+. In pure astrocytes, a rho kinase inhibitor, Y27632 caused the distribution of mitochondria to astrocyte processes without enhancing GLT-1/mitochondrial co-localization, however, in co-cultures, Y27632 abolished mitochondrial:GLT-1 co-localization. Disrupting potential mitochondrial: kinesin interactions using dominant negative TRAK2 did not alter GLT-1 distribution or GLT-1: mitochondrial co-localization. We conclude that the association between GLT-1 and mitochondria is modest, is driven by synaptic activity and dependent on polymerized actin filaments.Mitochondria have limited co-localization with the glutamate transporter GLT-1 in primary astrocytes in culture. Few mitochondria are in the fine processes where GLT-1 is abundant. It is necessary to culture astrocytes with neurones to drive a significant level of co-localization, but co-localization is not further altered by depolarization, manipulating sodium ion gradients or Na/K ATPase activity. PMID

  17. PROX1 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma proliferation and sorafenib resistance by enhancing β-catenin expression and nuclear translocation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Ye, X; Zhang, J-B; Ouyang, H; Shen, Z; Wu, Y; Wang, W; Wu, J; Tao, S; Yang, X; Qiao, K; Zhang, J; Liu, J; Fu, Q; Xie, Y

    2015-10-29

    Aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is frequent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and contributes to HCC initiation and progression. This abnormal activation may result from somatic mutations in the genes of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and/or dysregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The mechanism for the latter remains poorly understood. Prospero-related homeobox 1 (PROX1) is a downstream target of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in human colorectal cancer and elevated PROX1 expression promotes malignant progression. However, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway does not regulate PROX1 expression in the liver and HCC cells. Here we report that PROX1 promotes HCC cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in HCC xenograft mice. PROX1 and β-catenin levels are positively correlated in tumor tissues as well as in cultured HCC cells. PROX1 can upregulate β-catenin transcription by stimulating the β-catenin promoter and enhance the nuclear translocation of β-catenin in HCC cells, which leads to the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Moreover, we show that increase in PROX1 expression renders HCC cells more resistant to sorafenib treatment, which is the standard therapy for advanced HCC. Overall, we have pinpointed PROX1 as a critical factor activating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in HCC, which promotes HCC proliferation and sorafenib resistance. PMID:25684142

  18. Neutrophil elastase enhances the proliferation and decreases apoptosis of leukemia cells via activation of PI3K/Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    YANG, RONG; ZHONG, LIANG; YANG, XIAO-QUN; JIANG, KAI-LING; LI, LIU; SONG, HAO; LIU, BEI-ZHONG

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil elastase (NE) is a neutrophil-derived serine proteinase with specificity for a broad range of substrates. NE has been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of several conditions, particularly that of pulmonary diseases. Previous studies have shown that NE can cleave the pro-myelocyte - retinoic acid receptor-alpha chimeric protein and is important for the development of acute pro-myelocytic leukemia. To further elucidate the role of NE in acute pro-myelocytic leukemia, the present study successfully constructed a lentiviral vector containing the NE gene (LV5-NE), which was transfected into NB4 acute pro-myelocytic leukemia cells. The effects of NE overexpression in NB4 cells were detected using a Cell-Counting Kit-8 assay, flow cytometry and western blot analysis. The results showed that NE significantly promoted the proliferation of NB4 cells, inhibited cell apoptosis and apoptotic signaling, and led the activation of Akt. In an additional experiment, a vector expressing small hairpin RNA targeting NE was constructed to assess the effects of NE knockdown in U937 cells. Western blot analysis revealed that apoptotic signaling was increased, while Akt activation was decreased following silencing of NE. The results of the present study may indicate that NE activates the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway in leukemia cells to inhibit apoptosis and enhance cell proliferation, and may therefore represent a molecular target for the treatment of pro-myelocytic leukemia. PMID:27035679

  19. Hydrophilic PCU scaffolds prepared by grafting PEGMA and immobilizing gelatin to enhance cell adhesion and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Changcan; Yuan, Wenjie; Khan, Musammir; Li, Qian; Feng, Yakai; Yao, Fanglian; Zhang, Wencheng

    2015-05-01

    Gelatin contains many functional motifs which can modulate cell specific adhesion, so we modified polycarbonate urethane (PCU) scaffold surface by immobilization of gelatin. PCU-g-gelatin scaffolds were prepared by direct immobilizing gelatins onto the surface of aminated PCU scaffolds. To increase the immobilization amount of gelatin, poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) was grafted onto PCU scaffolds by surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Then, following amination and immobilization, PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds were obtained. Both modified scaffolds were characterized by chemical and biological methods. After immobilization of gelatin, the microfiber surface became rough, but the original morphology of scaffolds was maintained successfully. PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds were more hydrophilic than PCU-g-gelatin scaffolds. Because hydrophilic PEGMA and gelatin were grafted and immobilized onto the surface, the PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds showed low platelet adhesion, perfect anti-hemolytic activity and excellent cell growth and proliferation capacity. It could be envisioned that PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds might have potential applications in tissue engineering artificial scaffolds. PMID:25746263

  20. Adiponectin Enhances Cold-Induced Browning of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue via Promoting M2 Macrophage Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hui, Xiaoyan; Gu, Ping; Zhang, Jialiang; Nie, Tao; Pan, Yong; Wu, Donghai; Feng, Tianshi; Zhong, Cheng; Wang, Yu; Lam, Karen S L; Xu, Aimin

    2015-08-01

    Adiponectin is an abundant adipokine with pleiotropic protective effects against a cluster of obesity-related cardiometabolic disorders. However, its role in adaptive thermogenesis has scarcely been explored. Here we showed that chronic cold exposure led to a markedly elevated production of adiponectin in adipocytes of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT), which in turn bound to M2 macrophages in the stromal vascular fraction. Chronic cold exposure-induced accumulation of M2 macrophages, activation of beige cells, and thermogenic program were markedly impaired in scWAT of adiponectin knockout (ADN KO) mice, whereas these impairments were reversed by replenishment with adiponectin. Mechanistically, adiponectin was recruited to the cell surface of M2 macrophages via its binding partner T-cadherin and promoted the cell proliferation by activation of Akt, consequently leading to beige cell activation. These findings uncover adiponectin as a key efferent signal for cold-induced adaptive thermogenesis by mediating the crosstalk between adipocytes and M2 macrophages in scWAT. PMID:26166748

  1. Upregulated KLK10 inhibits esophageal cancer proliferation and enhances cisplatin sensitivity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Xu, Nan; Fan, Ning; Meng, Qingchun; Luo, Wenchao; Lv, Lijia; Ma, Wei; Liu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Lu; Xu, Fei; Wang, Huaxin; Mao, Weifeng; Li, Yan

    2015-11-01

    The kallikrein-related peptidase 10 (KLK10) gene has tumor-suppressive function in various types of human cancer. However, previous studies showed that KLK10 also acts as an oncogene and is upregulated in gastrointestinal tumors. The role of KLK10 in human esophageal cancer (EC) remains unclear. In the present study, the expression of KLK10 in human esophageal and non-esophageal cancer tissues was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis were utilized to detect KLK10 mRNA and protein expression in human esophageal cancer cell lines (TE-1 and Eca-109). Small interference RNA was utilized to specifically knockdown KLK10 expression in Eca-109 and TE-1 cells. Cell proliferation, cell cycle analysis as well as CDDP-dependent apoptosis were determined using a CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry. The results showed that, KLK10 was positive in 67 out of 83 (80.72%) human EC and positive in 3 out of 11 (27.27%) normal tissues (P=0.001). The present study indicated that KLK10 potentially plays a crucial role in Eca-109 cell growth. Additionally, the downregulation of KLK10 induced S-phase arrest and promoted cisplatin-induced apoptosis. The resutls of the present study suggested that KLK10 is a promising novel marker for the diagnostic and therapeutic target of esophageal cancer. PMID:26479703

  2. Surface tailored organobentonite enhances bacterial proliferation and phenanthrene biodegradation under cadmium co-contamination.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Asit; Biswas, Bhabananda; Sarkar, Binoy; Patra, Ashok K; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-04-15

    Co-contamination of soil and water with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and heavy metals makes biodegradation of the former extremely challenging. Modified clay-modulated microbial degradation provides a novel insight in addressing this issue. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth and phenanthrene degradation performance of Mycobacterium gilvum VF1 in the presence of a palmitic acid (PA)-grafted Arquad® 2HT-75-based organobentonite in cadmium (Cd)-phenanthrene co-contaminated water. The PA-grafted organobentonite (ABP) adsorbed a slightly greater quantity of Cd than bentonite at up to 30mgL(-1) metal concentration, but its highly negative surface charge imparted by carboxylic groups indicated the potential of being a significantly superior adsorbent of Cd at higher metal concentrations. In systems co-contained with Cd (5 and 10mgL(-1)), the Arquad® 2HT-75-modified bentonite (AB) and PA-grafted organobentonite (ABP) resulted in a significantly higher (72-78%) degradation of phenanthrene than bentonite (62%) by the bacterium. The growth and proliferation of bacteria were supported by ABP which not only eliminated Cd toxicity through adsorption but also created a congenial microenvironment for bacterial survival. The macromolecules produced during ABP-bacteria interaction could form a stable clay-bacterial cluster by overcoming the electrostatic repulsion among individual components. Findings of this study provide new insights for designing clay modulated PAH bioremediation technologies in mixed-contaminated water and soil. PMID:26849325

  3. Chicken biliary exosomes enhance CD4(+)T proliferation and inhibit ALV-J replication in liver.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Wang, Guihua; Wang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Huangge; Zhang, Li; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2014-04-01

    Exosomes, which are small membrane vesicles of endocytic origin, carry lipids, RNA/miRNAs, and proteins and have immune modulatory functions. In this study, we isolated exosomes from the bile of specific pathogen-free chickens, 42-43 days of age, by using an ultracentrifugation and filtration method. The density of the exosomes, isolated by sucrose gradient fractionation, was between 1.13 and 1.19 g/mL. Electron microscopic observation of the liver showed that exosomes were present in the space of Disse and bile canaliculus. Chicken biliary exosomes displayed typical saucer-shaped, rounded morphology. Using liquid chromatography mass spectrum methodology, 196 proteins, including exosomal markers and several unique proteins, were identified and compared with mouse biliary exosomes. Noteworthy, CCCH type zinc finger antiviral protein was found on chicken biliary exosomes never described before. Furthermore, our data show that chicken biliary exosomes promote the proliferation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and monocytes from liver. In addition, chicken biliary exosomes significantly inhibit avian leukosis virus subgroup J, which is an oncogenic retrovirus, from replicating in the DF-1 cell line. These data indicate that chicken biliary exosomes possess the capacity to influence the immune responses of lymphocytes and inhibit avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J). PMID:24697699

  4. Hispidulin inhibits proliferation and enhances chemosensitivity of gallbladder cancer cells by targeting HIF-1α

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Hui; Xie, Jing; Peng, Jianjun; Han, Yantao; Jiang, Qixiao; Han, Mei; Wang, Chunbo

    2015-03-15

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an aggressive malignancy of the bile duct, which is associated with a low (5-year) survival and poor prognosis. The transcription factor HIF-1α is implicated in the angiogenesis, cell survival, epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasiveness of GBC. In this study, we have investigated the role of HIF-1α in the pathobilogy of GBC and effect of hispidulin on the molecular events controlled by this transcription factor. We observed that hispidulin caused induction of apoptosis, blockade of growth and cell cycle progression in GBC cells. Our results have demonstrated for the first time that hispidulin-exerted anti-tumor effect involved the suppression of HIF-1α signaling. Hispidulin was found to repress the expression of HIF-1α protein dose-dependently without affecting the HIF-1α mRNA expression. In addition, the inhibition of HIF-1α protein synthesis was revealed to be mediated through the activation of AMPK signaling. Hispidulin also sensitized the tumor cells to Gemcitabine and 5-Fluoroucil by down-regulating HIF-1α/P-gp signaling. Given the low cost and exceedingly safe profile, hispidulin appears to be a promising and novel chemosensitizer for GBC treatment. - Highlights: • Hispidulin inhibits proliferation of gallbladder cancer cells by targeting HIF-1α. • Hispidulin regulates HIF-1α via activating AMPK signaling. • Hispidulin sensitized the GBC cells to chemotherapeutics by down-regulating P-gp.

  5. Andrographolide Enhances Proliferation and Prevents Dedifferentiation of Rabbit Articular Chondrocytes: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Li-ke; Wei, Qing-jun; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Li; Zhao, Jin-min

    2015-01-01

    As the main active constituent of Andrographis paniculata that was applied in treatment of many diseases including inflammation in ancient China, andrographolide (ANDRO) was found to facilitate reduction of edema and analgesia in arthritis. This suggested that ANDRO may be promising anti-inflammatory agent to relieve destruction and degeneration of cartilage after inflammation. In this study, the effect of ANDRO on rabbit articular chondrocytes in vitro was investigated. Results showed that not more than 8 μM ANDRO did no harm to chondrocytes (P < 0.05). DNA content and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) /DNA were, respectively, improved in ANDRO groups comparing to the control (P < 0.05). ANDRO could promote expression of aggrecan, collagen II, and Sox9 genes while downregulating expression of collagen I gene (P < 0.05). Furthermore, hypertrophy that may result in chondrocyte ossification could not be detected in all groups (P > 0.05). The viability assay, hematoxylin-eosin, safranin O, and immunohistochemical staining also showed better performances in ANDRO groups. As to the doses, 3 μM ANDRO showed the best performance. The results indicate that ANDRO can accelerate proliferation of rabbit articular chondrocytes in vitro and meanwhile maintain the phenotype, which may provide valuable references for further exploration on arthritis. PMID:25802548

  6. Overexpression of FABP3 inhibits human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell proliferation but enhances their survival in hypoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Suna Zhou, Yifu; Andreyev, Oleg; Hoyt, Robert F.; Singh, Avneesh; Hunt, Timothy; Horvath, Keith A.

    2014-04-15

    Studying the proliferative ability of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in hypoxic conditions can help us achieve the effective regeneration of ischemic injured myocardium. Cardiac-type fatty acid binding protein (FABP3) is a specific biomarker of muscle and heart tissue injury. This protein is purported to be involved in early myocardial development, adult myocardial tissue repair and responsible for the modulation of cell growth and proliferation. We have investigated the role of FABP3 in human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells under ischemic conditions. MSCs from 12 donors were cultured either in standard normoxic or modified hypoxic conditions, and the differential expression of FABP3 was tested by quantitative {sup RT}PCR and western blot. We also established stable FABP3 expression in MSCs and searched for variation in cellular proliferation and differentiation bioprocesses affected by hypoxic conditions. We identified: (1) the FABP3 differential expression pattern in the MSCs under hypoxic conditions; (2) over-expression of FABP3 inhibited the growth and proliferation of the MSCs; however, improved their survival in low oxygen environments; (3) the cell growth factors and positive cell cycle regulation genes, such as PCNA, APC, CCNB1, CCNB2 and CDC6 were all down-regulated; while the key negative cell cycle regulation genes TP53, BRCA1, CASP3 and CDKN1A were significantly up-regulated in the cells with FABP3 overexpression. Our data suggested that FABP3 was up-regulated under hypoxia; also negatively regulated the cell metabolic process and the mitotic cell cycle. Overexpression of FABP3 inhibited cell growth and proliferation via negative regulation of the cell cycle and down-regulation of cell growth factors, but enhances cell survival in hypoxic or ischemic conditions. - Highlights: • FABP3 expression pattern was studied in 12 human hypoxic-MSCs. • FABP3 mRNA and proteins are upregulated in the MSCs under hypoxic conditions.

  7. Astrocyte-Dependent Vulnerability to Excitotoxicity in Spermine Oxidase-Overexpressing Mouse.

    PubMed

    Cervetto, Chiara; Vergani, Laura; Passalacqua, Mario; Ragazzoni, Milena; Venturini, Arianna; Cecconi, Francesco; Berretta, Nicola; Mercuri, Nicola; D'Amelio, Marcello; Maura, Guido; Mariottini, Paolo; Voci, Adriana; Marcoli, Manuela; Cervelli, Manuela

    2016-03-01

    Transgenic mice overexpressing spermine oxidase (SMO) in the cerebral cortex (Dach-SMO mice) showed increased vulnerability to excitotoxic brain injury and kainate-induced epileptic seizures. To investigate the mechanisms by which SMO overexpression leads to increased susceptibility to kainate excitotoxicity and seizure, in the cerebral cortex of Dach-SMO and control mice we assessed markers for astrocyte proliferation and neuron loss, and the ability of kainate to evoke glutamate release from nerve terminals and astrocyte processes. Moreover, we assessed a possible role of astrocytes in an in vitro model of epileptic-like activity in combined cortico-hippocampal slices recorded with a multi-electrode array device. In parallel, as the brain is a major metabolizer of oxygen and yet has relatively feeble protective antioxidant mechanisms, we analyzed the oxidative status of the cerebral cortex of both SMO-overexpressing and control mice by evaluating enzymatic and non-enzymatic scavengers such as metallothioneins. The main findings in the cerebral cortex of Dach-SMO mice as compared to controls are the following: astrocyte activation and neuron loss; increased oxidative stress and activation of defense mechanisms involving both neurons and astrocytes; increased susceptibility to kainate-evoked cortical epileptogenic activity, dependent on astrocyte function; appearance of a glutamate-releasing response to kainate from astrocyte processes due to activation of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors in Dach-SMO mice. We conclude that reactive astrocytosis and activation of glutamate release from astrocyte processes might contribute, together with increased reactive oxygen species production, to the vulnerability to kainate excitotoxicity in Dach-SMO mice. This mouse model with a deregulated polyamine metabolism would shed light on roles for astrocytes in increasing vulnerability to excitotoxic neuron injury. PMID:26530396

  8. SMYD3 stimulates EZR and LOXL2 transcription to enhance proliferation, migration, and invasion in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Zhu, Meng-Xiao; Zhang, Xiao-Dan; Xu, Xiu-E; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Liao, Lian-Di; Li, Li-Yan; Xie, Yang-Min; Wu, Jian-Yi; Zou, Hai-Ying; Xie, Jian-Jun; Li, En-Min; Xu, Li-Yan

    2016-06-01

    Epigenetic alterations, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, are involved in the regulation of cancer initiation and progression. SET and MYND domain-containing protein 3 (SMYD3), a methyltransferase, plays an important role in transcriptional regulation during human cancer progression. However, SMYD3 expression and its function in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain unknown. In this study, SMYD3 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry in a tumor tissue microarray from 131 cases of ESCC patients. Statistical analysis showed that overall survival of patients with high SMYD3 expressing in primary tumors was significantly lower than that of patients with low SMYD3-expressing tumors (P = .008, log-rank test). Increased expression of SMYD3 was found to be associated with lymph node metastasis in ESCC (P = .036) and was an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival (P = .025). RNAi-mediated knockdown of SMYD3 suppressed ESCC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and inhibited local tumor invasion in vivo. SMYD3 regulated transcription of EZR and LOXL2 by directly binding to the sequences of the promoter regions of these target genes, as demonstrated by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Immunohistochemical staining of ESCC tissues also confirmed that protein levels of EZR and LOXL2 positively correlated with SMYD3 expression, and the Spearman correlation coefficients (rs) were 0.78 (n = 81; P < .01) and 0.637 (n = 103; P < .01), respectively. These results indicate that SMYD3 enhances tumorigenicity in ESCC through enhancing transcription of genes involved in proliferation, migration, and invasion. PMID:26980013

  9. 10-Shogaol, an Antioxidant from Zingiber officinale for Skin Cell Proliferation and Migration Enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chung-Yi; Cheng, Kuo-Chen; Chang, Andy Y; Lin, Ying-Ting; Hseu, You-Cheng; Wang, Hui-Min

    2012-01-01

    In this work, one of Zingiber officinale components, 10-shogaol, was tested with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, metal chelating ability, and reducing power to show antioxidant activity. 10-Shogaol promoted human normal epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts cell growths. 10-Shogaol enhanced growth factor production in transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), platelet derived growth factor-αβ (PDGF-αβ) and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) of both cells. In the in vitro wound healing assay for 12 or 24 h, with 10-shogaol, the fibroblasts and keratinocytes migrated more rapidly than the vehicle control group. Thus, this study substantiates the target compound, 10-shogaol, as an antioxidant for human skin cell growth and a migration enhancer with potential to be a novel wound repair agent. PMID:22408422

  10. Glutamate Mediated Astrocytic Filtering of Neuronal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Nitzan; De Pittà, Maurizio; Jacob, Eshel Ben; Berry, Hugues; Hanein, Yael

    2014-01-01

    Neuron-astrocyte communication is an important regulatory mechanism in various brain functions but its complexity and role are yet to be fully understood. In particular, the temporal pattern of astrocyte response to neuronal firing has not been fully characterized. Here, we used neuron-astrocyte cultures on multi-electrode arrays coupled to Ca2+ imaging and explored the range of neuronal stimulation frequencies while keeping constant the amount of stimulation. Our results reveal that astrocytes specifically respond to the frequency of neuronal stimulation by intracellular Ca2+ transients, with a clear onset of astrocytic activation at neuron firing rates around 3-5 Hz. The cell-to-cell heterogeneity of the astrocyte Ca2+ response was however large and increasing with stimulation frequency. Astrocytic activation by neurons was abolished with antagonists of type I metabotropic glutamate receptor, validating the glutamate-dependence of this neuron-to-astrocyte pathway. Using a realistic biophysical model of glutamate-based intracellular calcium signaling in astrocytes, we suggest that the stepwise response is due to the supralinear dynamics of intracellular IP3 and that the heterogeneity of the responses may be due to the heterogeneity of the astrocyte-to-astrocyte couplings via gap junction channels. Therefore our results present astrocyte intracellular Ca2+ activity as a nonlinear integrator of glutamate-dependent neuronal activity. PMID:25521344