Science.gov

Sample records for enhancing research relevant

  1. Enhancing Success in American Indian Students: Participatory Research at Akwesasne as Part of the Development of a Culturally Relevant Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbo, Seth A.

    2001-01-01

    Participatory research by the State University of New York at Potsdam and the Mohawk Nation involved community discussion groups, which established needs for bicultural education for Indian students, the use of Mohawk culture as the arena for curriculum development, development of Mohawk cultural standards, and teacher training in Mohawk culture.…

  2. Research for Locally Relevant Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In the CIDA-funded University Partnerships in Cooperation and Development program--where Canadian universities establish knowledge partnerships with Southern universities--projects with a well-developed research dimension have proven to be the strongest projects, with broader and deeper contributions to the local institutions and larger community.…

  3. Cultural relevance of physical activity intervention research with underrepresented populations

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Chan, Keith; Banks, JoAnne; Ruppar, Todd M.; Scharff, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes cultural relevance in physical activity intervention research with underrepresented populations. Seventy-one extant studies which tested interventions to increase physical activity among underrepresented adults were included. Verbatim descriptions of efforts to enhance cultural relevance of study designs and interventions were extracted and then content analyzed. We found strategies to enhance cultural relevance of interventions as soliciting input from population members, linking intervention content with values, addressing language and literacy challenges, incorporating population media figures, using culturally relevant forms of physical activity, and addressing specific population linked barriers to activity. Methodological approaches included specialized recruitment and study locations, culturally relevant measures, underrepresented personnel, and cost-awareness study procedures to prevent fiscal barriers to participation. Most reported activities were surface matching. Existing research neither compared the effectiveness of cultural relevance approaches to standardized interventions nor addressed economic, education, geographic, or cultural heterogeneity among groups. PMID:25228486

  4. Social Relevance Enhances Memory for Impressions in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Brittany S.; Gutchess, Angela H.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that older adults have difficulty retrieving contextual material over items alone. Recent research suggests this deficit can be reduced by adding emotional context, allowing for the possibility that memory for social impressions may show less age-related decline than memory for other types of contextual information. Two studies investigated how orienting to social or self-relevant aspects of information contributed to the learning and retrieval of impressions in young and older adults. Participants encoded impressions of others in conditions varying in the use of self-reference (Experiment 1) and interpersonal meaningfulness (Experiment 2), and completed memory tasks requiring the retrieval of specific traits. For both experiments, age groups remembered similar numbers of impressions. In Experiment 1, using more self-relevant encoding contexts increased memory for impressions over orienting to stimuli in a non-social way, regardless of age. In Experiment 2, older adults had enhanced memory for impressions presented in an interpersonally meaningful relative to a personally irrelevant way, whereas young adults were unaffected by this manipulation. The results provide evidence that increasing social relevance ameliorates age differences in memory for impressions, and enhances older adults’ ability to successfully retrieve contextual information. PMID:22364168

  5. Teaching to Enhance Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harland, Tony

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I present a conceptual argument for "teaching-led research" in which university lecturers construct courses that directly and positively influence their research, while at the same time, safeguard and enhance the student experience. A research-pedagogy for higher education considers the link between teaching and research,…

  6. Molecular Imaging in Tumor Angiogenesis and Relevant Drug Research

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xibo; Tian, Jie; Yang, Xin; Qin, Chenghu

    2011-01-01

    Molecular imaging, including fluorescence imaging (FMI), bioluminescence imaging (BLI), positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT), and computed tomography (CT), has a pivotal role in the process of tumor and relevant drug research. CT, especially Micro-CT, can provide the anatomic information for a region of interest (ROI); PET and SPECT can provide functional information for the ROI. BLI and FMI can provide optical information for an ROI. Tumor angiogenesis and relevant drug development is a lengthy, high-risk, and costly process, in which a novel drug needs about 10–15 years of testing to obtain Federal Drug Association (FDA) approval. Molecular imaging can enhance the development process by understanding the tumor mechanisms and drug activity. In this paper, we focus on tumor angiogenesis, and we review the characteristics of molecular imaging modalities and their applications in tumor angiogenesis and relevant drug research. PMID:21808639

  7. Enhancement, disability and the riddle of the relevant circumstances.

    PubMed

    Zohny, Hazem

    2016-09-01

    The welfarist account of enhancement and disability holds enhanced and disabled states on a spectrum: the former are biological or psychological states that increase the chances of a person leading a good life in the relevant set of circumstances, while the latter decrease those chances. Here, I focus on a particular issue raised by this account: what should we count as part of an individual's relevant set of circumstances when thinking about enhanced and disabled states? Specifically, is social prejudice relevant to an individual's circumstances in regards to how disabled or enhanced they are? For instance, if an individual is discriminated against on the basis of their skin colour, and this leads to a reduction in their well-being, the welfarist account suggests that their skin colour is a disability. To avoid such a seeming mislabel, Savulescu and Kahane have argued for excluding social prejudice from counting as a relevant circumstance to their welfarist definition of disability. I argue, however, that this exclusion of social prejudice is unsatisfactory and incompatible with the goals of this account. PMID:27178536

  8. A Blueprint for Increasing the Relevance of Family Therapy Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lee M.

    1991-01-01

    Notes that family therapy research and psychotherapy research in general have been criticized for their lack of relevance to clinical practice. Presents five-stage model, based on marketing and developmental perspective, that family therapy researchers can follow to increase relevance of their work for clinicians and other consumers of family…

  9. Conducting Policy-Relevant Developmental Psychopathology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Anne C.

    2006-01-01

    Policy, defined broadly to include public policy as well as institutional or organizational policy, is useful for sustaining change in human development and its contexts and systems. The role for developmental psychopathology research in policy analysis and policy making is discussed. To assure that developmental psychopathology research is useful…

  10. NEUROLOGICAL RESEARCH RELEVANT TO READING--1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ISOM, JOHN B.

    ASPECTS OF NEUROLOGICAL RESEARCH ARE PRESENTED UNDER THE TOPICS OF NEUROLOGICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT, CEREBRAL DOMINANCE, "SPLIT-BRAIN" SYNDROME, AND SEQUENCING. THE FIRST TWO AREAS INDICATE THAT ASSESSMENT OF A CHILD'S NEUROLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT MUST TAKE INTO ACCOUNT VARIATION OF RATE AND DEGREE OF DEVELOPMENT, AND THAT THE SIGNIFICANCE OF…

  11. The Relevance of AI Research to CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearsley, Greg P.

    This article provides a tutorial introduction to Artificial Intelligence (AI) research for those involved in Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). The general theme is that much of the current work in AI, particularly in the areas of natural language understanding systems, rule induction, programming languages, and socratic systems, has important…

  12. Anthropologists and Policy-Relevant Research: The Case for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Milton M. R.

    Anthropology research should be relevant to public policy formation. If anthropologists continue to produce research which reflects a "detached observer" perspective, their studies will not enjoy widespread credibility. The use of policy-relevant anthropology (applied anthropology) will depend in large part on the efforts of anthropologists toward…

  13. Physician information seeking: improving relevance through research.

    PubMed

    Gruppen, L D

    1990-04-01

    Health sciences libraries have considerable potential as resources for both formal continuing professional education, as well as the informal continuing education that results from the professional's efforts to solve problems in daily practice. While there is a growing interest in making the resources of health sciences libraries more accessible to practitioners on a routine, day-to-day basis, there also needs to be more awareness of how, when, where, and why professionals look for information in the context of practical problems. This paper reviews recent research that identifies the context in which physicians seek information and advice from external sources, the information sources that physicians access, and the factors that influence which particular sources are sought. The results indicate that physicians vary in their information needs, preferences, motivations, and strategies for seeking information. This diversity suggests that health sciences libraries, in their efforts to be more accessible, should consider "market research" to determine the needs, preferences, and use patterns of the library's targeted users. Libraries may also benefit from exploring alternative methods of improving access to their resources. PMID:2183904

  14. The Potential Relevance of Cognitive Neuroscience for the Development and Use of Technology-Enhanced Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard-Jones, Paul; Ott, Michela; van Leeuwen, Theo; De Smedt, Bert

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the application of cognitive neuroscience in educational thinking and practice, and here we review findings from neuroscience that demonstrate its potential relevance to technology-enhanced learning (TEL). First, we identify some of the issues in integrating neuroscientific concepts into TEL research. We caution…

  15. Increasing the Relevance of Research to Underserved Communities: Lessons Learned from a Retreat to Engage Community Health Workers with Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Angier, Heather; Wiggins, Noelle; Gregg, Jessica; Gold, Rachel; DeVoe, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Summary This article presents information on a community retreat developed to seek input from community health workers (CHWs) to increase the relevance of our research to underserved communities in Oregon. Retreats facilitating dialogue between researchers and CHWs could yield important insight to enhance the significance of research for communities. PMID:23728049

  16. Developing Researching Managers and Relevant Research--The "Executive Research Programme"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werr, Andreas; Strannegård, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The current paper argues for bridging the "relevance gap" in management research and education by creating educational programmes that bring together experienced managers and management researchers. In the "Executive Research Programme" discussed in this paper, managers were paired up with researchers to conduct a collaborative…

  17. Reconciling the Rigor-Relevance Dilemma in Intellectual Capital Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andriessen, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    This paper raises the issue of research methodology for intellectual capital and other types of management research by focusing on the dilemma of rigour versus relevance. The more traditional explanatory approach to research often leads to rigorous results that are not of much help to solve practical problems. This paper describes an alternative…

  18. Relevance as Process: Judgements in the Context of Scholarly Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Theresa Dirndorfer

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This paper discusses how exploring the research process in-depth and over time contributes to a fuller understanding of interactions with various representations of information. Method. A longitudinal ethnographic study explored decisions made by two informants involved in scholarly research. Relevance assessment and information…

  19. Conditions for the relevance of infant research to clinical psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, B

    1993-10-01

    There is increased pluralism within psychoanalysis today, and the practice of psychoanalysis rests on many different theories and distinctly different epistemologic perspectives about the nature of the truth, the position of the observer-analyst in the process, and the phenomena to be observed. The relevance of developmental observation research to clinical psychoanalysis will vary with the epistemological perspective of the practitioner, and to be relevant the perspective of the researcher must 'match' that of the clinician. Additionally, its relevance is conditioned by what is considered 'empirical' data, i.e. whether the data are defined behaviourally or by empathic judgements of an observer. Three broad categories of psychoanalytic perspectives are discussed: empirical-natural science, hermeneutic-empirical, and hermeneutic-constructivist. A patient in analysis is described, with details of two sessions. Three imaginary consultants, each representing one of the major epistemological clinical perspectives, comment on the material to demonstrate the relationship among technique, epistemology, and the ways infants and developmental observation research may be relevant (or not relevant). PMID:8307704

  20. Content Validity in Evaluation and Policy-Relevant Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, Melvin M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The role of content validity in policy-relevant research is illustrated in a study contrasting results of surveys concerning public opinion toward gun control. Inadequate content validity threatened inferences about the overall level of support for gun control, but not about opinion difference between sexes or respondents of varying political…

  1. Tobacco Industry Efforts to Undermine Policy-Relevant Research

    PubMed Central

    Landman, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The tobacco industry, working through third parties to prevent policy-relevant research that adversely affected it between 1988 and 1998, used coordinated, well-funded strategies in repeated attempts to silence tobacco researcher Stanton A. Glantz. Tactics included advertising, litigation, and attempts to have the US Congress cut off the researcher's National Cancer Institute funding. Efforts like these can influence the policymaking process by silencing opposing voices and discouraging other scientists from doing work that may expose them to tobacco industry attacks. The support of highly credible public health organizations and of researchers’ employers is crucial to the continued advancement of public health. PMID:19008508

  2. The Legal Research Method: An Approach to Enhance Nursing Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjervik, Diane K.; King, Floris E.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of legal research as it relates to other research methods used in nursing is described, its history discussed, and its relevance to nursing science examined. The phenomenological method is the one considered most likely to be enhanced by legal research. Also described are steps in the legal research process and source materials.…

  3. Theoretical research relevant to medium energy upgrades and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, T.; Benesh, C.; Carlson, J.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This work provides theoretical research results for sources of pions, neutrons, neutrinos and heavy ions. The authors have undertaken specific calculations in neutrino-nucleus scattering and to analyze constraints on exotic decays relevant to the study of neutrino oscillations. They have also performed calculations regarding neutrino cosmology and astrophysics relevant to the experimental study of neutrino masses. They analyzed the constraints of data on T-violation in neutron decay and the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction which will be important for the understanding of experiments with cold and ultra-cold neutrons. They completed several specific calculations which were essential to predict (pion, kaon) hypernuclear production and pion-induced reactions studying baryonic resonances. They also calculated the nuclear spectroscopy of nuclei far from stability that can be studied experimentally.

  4. Re-Educating Jet-Engine-Researchers to Stay Relevant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal-Or, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    To stay relevantly supported, jet-engine researchers, designers and operators should follow changing uses of small and large jet engines, especially those anticipated to be used by/in the next generation, JET-ENGINE-STEERED ("JES") fleets of jet drones but fewer, JES-Stealth-Fighter/Strike Aircraft. In addition, some diminishing returns from isolated, non-integrating, jet-engine component studies, vs. relevant, supersonic, shock waves control in fluidic-JES-side-effects on compressor stall dynamics within Integrated Propulsion Flight Control ("IPFC"), and/or mechanical JES, constitute key relevant methods that currently move to China, India, South Korea and Japan. The central roles of the jet engine as primary or backup flight controller also constitute key relevant issues, especially under post stall conditions involving induced engine-stress while participating in crash prevention or minimal path-time maneuvers to target. And when proper instructors are absent, self-study of the JES-STVS REVOLUTION is an updating must, where STVS stands for wing-engine-airframe-integrated, embedded stealthy-jet-engine-inlets, restructured engines inside Stealth, Tailless, canard-less, Thrust Vectoring IFPC Systems. Anti-terror and Airliners Super-Flight-Safety are anticipated to overcome US legislation red-tape that obstructs JES-add-on-emergency-kits-use.

  5. Relevance, Rigor, and Return on Investment: How Honors Enhances Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    In an opening address to the university community a few years ago, Thomas Haas, President of Grand Valley State University set out three key concepts (three contemporary Rs) to guide thinking as the institution grows and develops. They all have to do with student success: relevance, rigor, and return on investment. Haas articulated that the…

  6. Microneedle enhanced delivery of cosmeceutically relevant peptides in human skin.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Yousuf H; Yamada, Miko; Lin, Lynlee L; Grice, Jeffrey E; Roberts, Michael S; Raphael, Anthony P; Benson, Heather A E; Prow, Tarl W

    2014-01-01

    Peptides and proteins play an important role in skin health and well-being. They are also found to contribute to skin aging and melanogenesis. Microneedles have been shown to substantially enhance skin penetration and may offer an effective means of peptide delivery enhancement. The aim of this investigation was to assess the influence of microneedles on the skin penetration of peptides using fluorescence imaging to determine skin distribution. In particular the effect of peptide chain length (3, 4, 5 amino acid chain length) on passive and MN facilitated skin penetration was investigated. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to image fluorescence intensity and the area of penetration of fluorescently tagged peptides. Penetration studies were conducted on excised full thickness human skin in Franz type diffusion cells for 1 and 24 hours. A 2 to 22 fold signal improvement in microneedle enhanced delivery of melanostatin, rigin and pal-KTTKS was observed. To our knowledge this is the first description of microneedle enhanced skin permeation studies on these peptides. PMID:25033398

  7. Enhancing Research Papers in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroffe, Kerry; McCann, G.

    2013-01-01

    XML-based production of journal articles, combined with real-time transformations, now make it possible to develop new enhancements to the reading experience and to the content of the article itself. Papers from AAS journals are now available in ‘Article Evolution’ HTML format, providing both familiar and new functionality that improves the reading experience. This poster will outline the roadmap for the development of ‘Article Evolution’ functionality and ask for input to help shape future enhancements that meet the needs of the astronomy community. Two of the ongoing developments described are ’semantic enrichment’ of articles and adoption of ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID). Both of these have exciting possibilities at an article level within ‘Article Evolution’ but will also impact widely on third party services, such as linking and discovery of research papers.

  8. Signaling pathways relevant to cognition-enhancing drug targets.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Caroline; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Quirion, Rémi

    2015-01-01

    Aging is generally associated with a certain cognitive decline. However, individual differences exist. While age-related memory deficits can be observed in humans and rodents in the absence of pathological conditions, some individuals maintain intact cognitive functions up to an advanced age. The mechanisms underlying learning and memory processes involve the recruitment of multiple signaling pathways and gene expression, leading to adaptative neuronal plasticity and long-lasting changes in brain circuitry. This chapter summarizes the current understanding of how these signaling cascades could be modulated by cognition-enhancing agents favoring memory formation and successful aging. It focuses on data obtained in rodents, particularly in the rat as it is the most common animal model studied in this field. First, we will discuss the role of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and its receptors, downstream signaling effectors [e.g., calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), protein kinase C (PKC), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)], associated immediate early gene (e.g., Homer 1a, Arc and Zif268), and growth factors [insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)] in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Second, the impact of the cholinergic system and related modulators on memory will be briefly reviewed. Finally, since dynorphin neuropeptides have recently been associated with memory impairments in aging, it is proposed as an attractive target to develop novel cognition-enhancing agents. PMID:25977080

  9. Science youth action research: Promoting critical science literacy through relevance and agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Elizabeth R.

    This three-article dissertation presents complementary perspectives on Science Youth Action Research (Sci-YAR), a K-12 curriculum designed to emphasize relevance and agency to promote youth's science learning. In Sci-YAR, youth conduct action research projects to better understand science-related issues in their lives, schools, or communities, while they simultaneously document, analyze, and reflect upon their own practices as researchers. The first article defines Sci-YAR and argues for its potential to enhance youth's participation as citizens in a democratic society. The second article details findings from a case study of youth engaged in Sci-YAR, describing how the curriculum enabled and constrained youth's identity work in service of critical science agency. The third article provides guidance to science teachers in implementing student-driven curriculum and instruction by emphasizing Sci-YAR's key features as a way to promote student agency and relevance in school science.

  10. Health system research in Vietnam: Generating policy-relevant knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Le Minh; Cashin, Cheryl; Hinh, Nguyen Duc

    2015-01-01

    Vietnam’s health system continues to make great progress in improving its capacities and performance. However, despite the many significant achievements that have been made, this paper summaries 11 health system research papers from different perspectives with the aim of providing scientific evidence for policy actions in Vietnam. Health system research is ultimately concerned with improving the health of people and communities, by enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of the health system as an integral part of the overall process of socioeconomic development, with full involvement of all actors. We hope the findings from this cluster of papers provide some insights into issues of importance for the continued advancement and strengthening of the health system in Vietnam and can be considered a valid and reliable resource to inform planning, management and policy-making decisions. PMID:25622126

  11. Enhancing Ocean Research Data Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Cynthia; Groman, Robert; Shepherd, Adam; Allison, Molly; Arko, Robert; Chen, Yu; Fox, Peter; Glover, David; Hitzler, Pascal; Leadbetter, Adam; Narock, Thomas; West, Patrick; Wiebe, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) works in partnership with ocean science investigators to publish data from research projects funded by the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections and the Office of Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms & Ecosystems Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation. Since 2006, researchers have been contributing data to the BCO-DMO data system, and it has developed into a rich repository of data from ocean, coastal and Great Lakes research programs. While the ultimate goal of the BCO-DMO is to ensure preservation of NSF funded project data and to provide open access to those data, achievement of those goals is attained through a series of related phases that benefits from active collaboration and cooperation with a large community of research scientists as well as curators of data and information at complementary data repositories. The BCO-DMO is just one of many intermediate data management centers created to facilitate long-term preservation of data and improve access to ocean research data. Through partnerships with other data management professionals and active involvement in local and global initiatives, BCO-DMO staff members are working to enhance access to ocean research data available from the online BCO-DMO data system. Continuing efforts in use of controlled vocabulary terms, development of ontology design patterns and publication of content as Linked Open Data are contributing to improved discovery and availability of BCO-DMO curated data and increased interoperability of related content available from distributed repositories. We will demonstrate how Semantic Web technologies (e.g. RDF/XML, SKOS, OWL and SPARQL) have been integrated into BCO-DMO data access and delivery systems to better serve the ocean research community and to contribute to an expanding global knowledge network.

  12. Assessing and communicating data quality in policy-relevant research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanza, Robert; Funtowicz, Silvio O.; Ravetz, Jerome R.

    1992-01-01

    The quality of scientific information in policy-relevant fields of research is difficult to assess, and quality control in these important areas is correspondingly difficult to maintain. Frequently there are insufficient high-quality measurements for the presentation of the statistical uncertainty in the numerical estimates that are crucial to policy decisions. We propose and develop a grading system for numerical estimates that can deal with the full range of data quality—from statistically valid estimates to informed guesses. By analyzing the underlying quality of numerical estimates, summarized as spread and grade, we are able to provide simple rules whereby input data can be coded for quality, and these codings carried through arithmetical calculations for assessing the quality of model results. For this we use the NUSAP (numeral, unit, spread, assessment, pedigree) notational system. It allows the more quantitative and the more qualitative aspects of data uncertainty to be managed separately. By way of example, we apply the system to an ecosystem valuation study that used several different models and data of widely varying quality to arrive at a single estimate of the economic value of wetlands. The NUSAP approach illustrates the major sources of uncertainty in this study and can guide new research aimed at the improvement of the quality of outputs and the efficiency of the procedures.

  13. Relevance of CONSORT Reporting Criteria for Research on eHealth Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Timothy B.; Gustafson, David H.; Shaw, Bret; Hawkins, Robert; Pingree, Suzy; Roberts, Linda; Strecher, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Objective In 1996, 2001, and 2010, the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) group released criteria for reporting critical information about randomized clinical trials (1, 2). These criteria were intended to improve the quality and completeness of reporting of RCTs in health care research. This paper discusses the relevance of the CONSORT recommendations for the reporting and design of eHealth research. Methods We reviewed the CONSORT recommendations and discussed their particular relevance to eHealth (electronic information, support and/or communication resources designed to promote health) research. This review focuses on such issues as recruitment and screening of participants, description of treatment elements, and reporting of outcome data and adverse events. Results eHealth research presents special challenges regarding the comprehensive and effective reporting of research information. However, the strategic application of CONSORT recommendations holds great promise for improving the quality and informativeness of eHealth research. Conclusion Investigators need to consider CONSORT recommendations at all stages of the research enterprise, including planning, execution and reporting in order to increase the informativeness of their research efforts. Practice Implications The recommendations contained in this paper have the potential to enhance the public health and scientific value of eHealth research. PMID:20843621

  14. 3 CFR - Enhanced Collection of Relevant Data and Statistics Relating to Women

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Enhanced Collection of Relevant Data and Statistics... Collection of Relevant Data and Statistics Relating to Women Memorandum for the Heads of Executive... light of available statistical evidence. It will also assist the work of the nongovernmental...

  15. Transversal Traits in Science Education Research Relevant for Teaching and Research: A Meta-Interpretative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, J. Bernardino; Silva, Antonio Alberto; Cravino, Jose P.; Costa, Nilza; Marques, Luis; Campos, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    This study is a meta-interpretative analysis that focuses on research conducted and published by other researchers. Concepts central to this study include global practical relevance, curriculum design, and formative situation. We analyzed 35 studies selected from 374 published studies in the years 2000 and 2001 in three journals referenced in the…

  16. In support of descriptive studies; relevance to translational research

    PubMed Central

    Marincola, Francesco M

    2007-01-01

    The contemporary scientific establishment equates hypothesis testing to good science. This stance bypasses the preliminary need to identify a worthwhile hypothesis through rigorous observation of natural processes. If alleviation of human suffering is claimed as the goal of a scientific undertaking, it would be unfair to test a hypothesis whose relevance to human disease has not been satisfactorily proven. Here, we argue that descriptive investigations based on direct human observation should be highly valued and regarded essential for the selection of worthwhile hypotheses while the pursuit of costly scientific investigations without such evidence is a desecration of the cause upon which biomedical research is grounded. There are good things so in the tide pools and interesting thoughts to be generated from the seeing. Every new eye applied to the peephole which looks out at the world may fish in some new beauty and some new pattern, and the world of the human mind must be enriched by such fishing. John Steinbeck – Foreword to the Third Edition of Ed Ricketts' "Tides". PMID:17474987

  17. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    SciTech Connect

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  18. Praxis-based research networks: an emerging paradigm for research that is rigorous, relevant and inclusive

    PubMed Central

    Werner, James J.; Stange, Kurt C.

    2016-01-01

    Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) have developed a grounded approach to conducting practice-relevant and translational research in community practice settings. Seismic shifts in the healthcare landscape are shaping PBRNs that work across organizational and institutional margins to address complex problems. Praxis-based research networks combine PBRN knowledge generation with multi-stakeholder learning, experimentation, and practical knowledge application. The catalytic processes in praxis-based research networks are cycles of action and reflection based on experience, observation, conceptualization, and experimentation by network members and partners. To facilitate co-learning and solution-building, these networks have a flexible architecture that allows pragmatic inclusion of stakeholders based on demands of the problem and the needs of the network. Praxis-based research networks represent an evolving trend that combines the core values of PBRNs with new opportunities for relevance, rigor, and broad participation. PMID:25381067

  19. "Comments on Bulterman-Bos": Research Relevancy or Research for Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noffke, Susan E.

    2008-01-01

    Three issues emanating from the Bulterman-Bos article (2008) form the core of this commentary. First, the issue of relevancy is addressed from the standpoint of action research and other forms of practitioner inquiry. From this perspective, the divisions between the cultures of university and school are addressed both ways: Each can potentially be…

  20. Culturally Relevant Training of American Indian Educational Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFromboise, Teresa D.; Plake, Barbara S.

    American Indian participation in educational research suffers from minimal involvement of tribal people in the research effort, the obtrusive role of researchers, controversies over the content of published research, and inadequate preparation of researchers sensitive to American Indian community needs. Existing supplementary training methods to…

  1. Bovine tuberculosis research: Immune mechanisms relevant to biomedical applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pioneer studies on infectious disease and immunology by Jenner, Pasteur, Koch, Von Behring, Nocard, Roux, and Ehrlich forged a path for the dual-purpose with dual benefit approach, clearly demonstrating the relevance of veterinary studies for biomedical applications. Tuberculosis (TB), primarily due...

  2. Research methodology in Dentistry: Part I – The essentials and relevance of research

    PubMed Central

    Krithikadatta, Jogikalmat

    2012-01-01

    The need for scientific evidence should be the basis of clinical practice. The field of restorative dentistry and endodontics is evolving at a rapid pace, with the introduction of several materials, instruments, and equipments. However, there is minimal information of their relevance in clinical practice. On the one hand, material and laboratory research is critical, however; its translation into clinical practice is not being substantiated enough with clinical research. This four part review series focuses on methods to improve evidence-based practice, by improving methods to integrate laboratory and clinical research. PMID:22368327

  3. Document Selection and Relevance Assessments during a Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Marilyn Domas; Wang, Peiling

    User's information needs and the tasks they face change over the stages of a research project. In previous research by Peiling Wang, a cognitive model of users' document selection behavior for their research projects was developed. This study looks at the general applicability of Wang's model to subsequent decision-making about items selected…

  4. 76 FR 12823 - Enhanced Collection of Relevant Data and Statistics Relating to Women

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... HOUSE, Washington, March 4, 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-5568 Filed 3-8-11; 8:45 am] Billing code 3110-01-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Memorandum of March 4, 2011 Enhanced Collection of Relevant Data and Statistics Relating..., will assist Government officials in crafting policies in light of available statistical evidence....

  5. Quantifying the Impact and Relevance of Scientific Research

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, William J.; Goulson, David; Potts, Simon G.; Dicks, Lynn V.

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative methods are being developed to measure the impacts of research on society, but they suffer from serious drawbacks associated with linking a piece of research to its subsequent impacts. We have developed a method to derive impact scores for individual research publications according to their contribution to answering questions of quantified importance to end users of research. To demonstrate the approach, here we evaluate the impacts of research into means of conserving wild bee populations in the UK. For published papers, there is a weak positive correlation between our impact score and the impact factor of the journal. The process identifies publications that provide high quality evidence relating to issues of strong concern. It can also be used to set future research agendas. PMID:22110667

  6. Methodologies and study designs relevant to medical education research.

    PubMed

    Turner, Teri L; Balmer, Dorene F; Coverdale, John H

    2013-06-01

    Research is an important part of educational scholarship. Knowledge of research methodologies is essential for both conducting research as well as determining the soundness of the findings from published studies. Our goals for this paper therefore are to inform medical education researchers of the range and key components of educational research designs. We will discuss both qualitative and quantitative approaches to educational research. Qualitative methods will be presented according to traditions that have a distinguished history in particular disciplines. Quantitative methods will be presented according to an evidence-based hierarchy akin to that of evidence-based medicine with the stronger designs (systematic reviews and well conducted educational randomized controlled trials) at the top, and weaker designs (descriptive studies without comparison groups, or single case studies) at the bottom. It should be appreciated, however, that the research question determines the study design. Therefore, the onus is on the researcher to choose a design that is appropriate to answering the question. We conclude with an overview of how educational researchers should describe the study design and methods in order to provide transparency and clarity. PMID:23859093

  7. Objectification Theory: Of Relevance for Eating Disorder Researchers and Clinicians?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiggemann, Marika

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a large and expanding body of research on Objectification Theory. Central to the theory is the proposition that self-objectification results in shame and anxiety surrounding the body, and as a consequence, the development of eating disorders. However, the theory and research have been developed and reported in the gender and…

  8. The relevance of research to policy formulation: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Kingdon, T

    1993-01-01

    This paper puts the role of research into perspective in the policy-making context. It points out that there are differing 'policy' goals of government and the use of research might be vital for one element, e.g. health policy, but of lesser significance in, say, international policy. The paper then goes on to describe case studies of where research has had a major impact on government decision making in Australia in the past 2 years, notably in the area of proposed changes to the marketing and sale of alcoholic beverages. PMID:8453346

  9. Enhancing Theory Courses with Racially Inclusive Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramlett-Solomon, Sharon; Liebler, Carol M.

    1999-01-01

    Offers a blueprint that instructors of mass media theory courses can adopt to expose students to racially inclusive research in order to encourage students to explore and employ relevant theories when probing media and race questions. Offers examples of inclusive media research, examining six prominent theories: selective-perception theory,…

  10. Research Service-Learning: Making the Academy Relevant Again

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Kristin A.; Gastwirth, David A.; Parkash, Seema G.

    2010-01-01

    For at least 20 years, American universities, political scientists, and college students have each been criticized for holding themselves aloof from public life. This article introduces a pedagogical method--research service-learning (RSL)--and examines whether it can provide a means of integrating scholarly theory with civic practice to enhance…

  11. Relevance, New Literacies, & Pragmatic Research for Middle Grades Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Leslie David

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how scholarship from the New Literacy Studies can shed "more light" (Florio-Ruane, 2002) on middle school education and youth literacies, allowing users to examine claims about students, schools, policy, and research. Hypothesizing that shortcomings in early adolescent literacy education have less to do with lack of…

  12. Researching the Real: Transforming the Science Fair through Relevant and Authentic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Rosemary McBryan

    This teacher research study documents the processes used to help students in an all-female, religious-based high school create science fair projects that are personally meaningful, scientifically sophisticated and up-to date in terms of science content. One-hundred sixteen young women in an honors chemistry class were introduced by their teacher to the methods used by science journalists when researching and crafting articles. The students then integrated these strategies into their science fair research through collaborative classroom activities designed by their teacher. Data collected during the process included audio and video tapes of classroom activities, student interviews, process work, finished projects, email conversations and the reflective journaling, annotated lesson plans, and memories of the lived experience by the teacher. The pedagogical changes which resulted from this project included the use of Read Aloud-Think Alouds (RATA) to introduce content and provide relevance, a discussion based topic selection process, the encouragement of relevant topic choices, the increased use of technology for learning activities and for sharing research, and an experimental design process driven by the student's personally relevant, topic choice. Built in feedback loops, provided by the teacher, peer editors and an outside editor, resulted in multiple revisions and expanded opportunities for communicating results to the community-at-large. Greater student engagement in science fair projects was evident: questioning for understanding, active involvement in decision making, collaboration within the classroom community, experience and expertise with reading, writing and the use of technology, sense of agency and interest in science related activities and careers all increased. Students communicated their evolving practices within the school community and became leaders who promoted the increased use of technology in all of their classes. Integrating journalistic

  13. Distractor-relevance determines whether task-switching enhances or impairs distractor memory.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yu-Chin; Egner, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Richter and Yeung (2012) recently documented a novel task-switching effect, a switch-induced reduction in "memory selectivity," characterized by relatively enhanced memory for distractor stimuli and impaired memory for target stimuli encountered on switch trials compared with repeat trials. One interpretation of this finding argues that task-switching involves opening a "gate" to working memory, which promotes updating of the task-set, but at the same time allows for increased distraction from task-irrelevant information. However, in that study, the distractor category on a switch trial also represented the task-relevant target category from the previous trial. Thus, distractors were only intermittently task-irrelevant, such that switch-enhanced distractor memory could alternatively be because of remnant attention to the previously relevant stimuli, or "task-set inertia." Here we adjudicated between the open-gate and the task-set inertia accounts of switch-enhanced distractor memory by assessing incidental memory for distractors that were either intermittently or always task-irrelevant. While we replicated switch-enhanced distractor memory in the intermittently irrelevant distractor condition, this effect was reversed in the always-irrelevant distractor condition. These results speak against the open-gate account, and instead indicate that switch-enhanced distractor memory arises from task-set inertia, and will not be observed for truly task-irrelevant stimuli presented during switching. PMID:26594883

  14. Background of the completed research; relevances to solar physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellin, I. A.

    1973-01-01

    Research activities reported consider the atomic structures of highly stripped heavy ions and their modes of formation and destruction in collisions. The lifetime of the metastable 2 3p1 state of the two electron ion F-7(+) was determined by measuring the radiative decay of an excited helium-like fluorine beam, Metastable state quenching measurements were performed on a helium-like ion to obtain the 1 1S0 to 2 3p2 transition probability. Exponential exchange state dependence of X-ray production cross sections was studied in heavy target atoms during collisions with light charged particles.

  15. Relevance of advanced nuclear fusion research: Breakthroughs and obstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    An in depth understanding of the collective modes that can be excited in a wide range of high-energy plasmas is necessary to advance nuclear fusion research in parallel with other fields that include space and astrophysics in particular. Important achievements are shown to have resulted from implementing programs based on this reality, maintaining a tight connection with different areas of investigations. This involves the undertaking of a plurality of experimental approaches aimed at understanding the physics of fusion burning plasmas. At present, the most advanced among these is the Ignitor experiment involving international cooperation, that is designed to investigate burning plasma regimes near ignition for the first time.

  16. Outer Space Medicine and Relevant Ongoing Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, William R.

    1979-01-01

    An update of outer space medicine is given emphasizing main areas such as cardiopulmonary responses, vestibular functions, physiology, weightlessness, ecosystems, and radiation. A prospective view is also presented on the medical problems resulting from various hazards of outer space and planetary missions. Although an outgrowth of aviation and environmental medicine, this relatively new, special branch of medicine is currently undergoing an unprecedented rise as a vital modern specialty. The aims of the United States, Russia, and the nations of Europe in space research are shown to be in accord in learning how to live and work in space when confronted with the unique factors of zero gravity, cosmic radiation, and magnetic variations. PMID:439154

  17. Language of interview: relevance for research of southwest Hispanics.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkman-Liff, B; Mondragón, D

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND. This paper reports the results of a survey investigating health status, access, satisfaction with care, and barriers to care in Arizona. The major focus is on the association between language of interview and the dependent measures; interviews were conducted in English and Spanish. METHODS. The differences between groups were tested using chi-square statistics for each independent categorical variable; the significance of all the independent variables on each of the dependent variables was tested simultaneously using maximum likelihood logistical regression models. RESULTS. Language of interview for Hispanic children was a significant variable, more important than ethnicity itself, in determining health status, access, satisfaction with care, and barriers to care; language of interview for Hispanic adults was not a significant measure, but neither was ethnicity. Instead, income affected access to care for adults. CONCLUSIONS. This pattern of results suggests that in the southwestern United States, studies on health status and access to care that use only ethnicity and do not include language of interview may fail to identify populations of Hispanic children who are remarkably more vulnerable. Public health research of Hispanic populations can be more instrumental toward policy improvement if it increases its specificity with this heterogeneous group. Analysis of language of interview has a low cost and a high benefit toward this specification. PMID:1951794

  18. Dynamic Visual Acuity: a Functionally Relevant Research Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Brian T.; Brady, Rachel A.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Wood, Scott J.; Cohen, Helen S.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    Coordinated movements between the eyes and head are required to maintain a stable retinal image during head and body motion. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) plays a significant role in this gaze control system that functions well for most daily activities. However, certain environmental conditions or interruptions in normal VOR function can lead to inadequate ocular compensation, resulting in oscillopsia, or blurred vision. It is therefore possible to use acuity to determine when the environmental conditions, VOR function, or the combination of the two is not conductive for maintaining clear vision. Over several years we have designed and tested several tests of dynamic visual acuity (DVA). Early tests used the difference between standing and walking acuity to assess decrements in the gaze stabilization system after spaceflight. Supporting ground-based studies measured the responses from patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction and explored the effects of visual target viewing distance and gait cycle events on walking acuity. Results from these studies show that DVA is affected by spaceflight, is degraded in patients with vestibular dysfunction, changes with target distance, and is not consistent across the gait cycle. We have recently expanded our research to include studies in which seated subjects are translated or rotated passively. Preliminary results from this work indicate that gaze stabilization ability may differ between similar active and passive conditions, may change with age, and can be affected by the location of the visual target with respect to the axis of motion. Use of DVA as a diagnostic tool is becoming more popular but the functional nature of the acuity outcome measure also makes it ideal for identifying conditions that could lead to degraded vision. By doing so, steps can be taken to alter the problematic environments to improve the man-machine interface and optimize performance.

  19. The Role of Relevance in Education Research, as Viewed by Former Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Catherine E.

    2016-01-01

    American Educational Research Association presidents' presidential addresses have only intermittently considered relevance as a criterion of quality for education research. A few, though, argued that education research could only distinguish itself from research in the disciplines through attention to improving educational outcomes. David…

  20. Enhancing Research Capacity in Gerontological Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Chandra M.; Townsend, Aloen; Berkman, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    There is an untapped potential of social work faculty to conduct aging research aimed at enhancing the well-being of older adults. To better exploit this resource, we have designed, implemented, and evaluated a postgraduate training program in aging research. The goal of the program is to build and sustain a community of social work faculty…

  1. Jmol-Enhanced Biochemistry Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saderholm, Matthew; Reynolds, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    We developed a protein research project for a one-semester biochemistry lecture class to enhance learning and more effectively train students to understand protein structure and function. During this semester-long process, students select a protein with known structure and then research its structure, sequence, and function. This project…

  2. Enhancing Undergraduate Students' Research and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Concern about the research and writing abilities of undergraduate students led to the development, implementation and enhancement of four sequential writing assignments in an introductory course. These writing assignments--which included a report on an interview of a professional in the field, a research paper on an aspirational career, a research…

  3. SLA Research and L2 Pedagogy: Misapplications and Questions of Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spada, Nina

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable debate about the relevance and applicability of SLA theory and research for L2 pedagogy. There are those who maintain that SLA must be applicable to L2 pedagogy: a view based on the argument that because SLA is a subfield of applied linguistics, it should have direct relevance to L2 teaching. Others take the view that…

  4. Enhancing Validity When Researching the "Other": Insights from Pierre Bourdieu's Theory of Social Science Research Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Devika

    2014-01-01

    This article explores aspects of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of social science research practice and discusses their relevance for enhancing validity when researching the "other." Aspects such as: a relational way of thinking about concepts, epistemology and methodology; the rigorous construction of the object of research; and…

  5. Enhanced surface functionality via plasma modification and plasma deposition techniques to create more biologically relevant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, Jeffrey C.

    Functionalizing nanoparticles and other unusually shaped substrates to create more biologically relevant materials has become central to a wide range of research programs. One of the primary challenges in this field is creating highly functionalized surfaces without modifying the underlying bulk material. Traditional wet chemistry techniques utilize thin film depositions to functionalize nanomaterials with oxygen and nitrogen containing functional groups, such as --OH and --NHx. These functional groups can serve to create surfaces that are amenable to cell adhesion or can act as reactive groups for further attachment of larger structures, such as macromolecules or antiviral agents. Additional layers, such as SiO2, are often added between the nanomaterial and the functionalized coating to act as a barrier films, adhesion layers, and to increase overall hydrophilicity. However, some wet chemistry techniques can damage the bulk material during processing. This dissertation examines the use of plasma processing as an alternative method for producing these highly functionalized surfaces on nanoparticles and polymeric scaffolds through the use of plasma modification and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition techniques. Specifically, this dissertation will focus on (1) plasma deposition of SiO2 barrier films on nanoparticle substrates; (2) surface functionalization of amine and alcohol groups through (a) plasma co-polymerization and (b) plasma modification; and (3) the design and construction of plasma hardware to facilitate plasma processing of nanoparticles and polymeric scaffolds. The body of work presented herein first examines the fabrication of composite nanoparticles by plasma processing. SiOxC y and hexylamine films were coated onto TiO2 nanoparticles to demonstrate enhanced water dispersion properties. Continuous wave and pulsed allyl alcohol plasmas were used to produce highly functionalized Fe2 O3 supported nanoparticles. Specifically, film composition was

  6. Review and Index to Research in Dance Relevant to Aesthetic Education, 1900-1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thomas J.

    This study is a review of the social and behavioral science research covering the period 1900-1968 relevant to aesthetic education in the field of dance. The objectives of this study were to provide an overview of the state of the art, a summary of research findings, and an index to research studies. For purposes of this review, the articles…

  7. The Theory and Practice of Culturally Relevant Education: A Synthesis of Research across Content Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Brittany; Laughter, Judson

    2016-01-01

    Many teachers and educational researchers have claimed to adopt tenets of culturally relevant education (CRE). However, recent work describes how standardized curricula and testing have marginalized CRE in educational reform discourses. In this synthesis of research, we sought examples of research connecting CRE to positive student outcomes across…

  8. Knowledge as a Common Good: The Societal Relevance of Scientific Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouter, Lex M.

    2010-01-01

    Universities are, to a large extent, publicly funded. It is reasonable to expect that society should benefit as a result. This means that scientific research should at least have a potential societal impact. Universities and individual researchers should therefore give serious thought to the societal relevance of their research activities and…

  9. Research Courses in Education Leadership Programs: Relevance in an Era of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bustamante, Rebecca M.; Combs, Julie P.

    2011-01-01

    Master's degree research course offerings of 72 university education leadership programs were examined to explore how relevant the courses were to the inquiry needs of practicing school leaders. Research course titles and descriptions were analyzed using content analysis. Findings revealed considerable variation in research course requirements,…

  10. Relevance of Donepezil in Enhancing Learning and Memory in Special Populations: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, J. Helen; Valdovinos, Maria G.; Williams, Dean C.

    2007-01-01

    This review discusses the laboratory and clinical research supporting the rationale for the efficacy of donepezil (Aricept[R] USA) in enhancing cognition in autism, Alzheimer disease, Down syndrome, traumatic brain injury, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and schizophrenia. While preliminary animal models have shown effective,…

  11. Enhancing Biological Understanding through Undergraduate Field Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Samuel

    2001-01-01

    Describes a PEET (Partnerships for Enhancing Expertise in Taxonomy) project designed for undergraduate biology students at Boston University's College of General Studies. Reports that the project used a small group field research setting, facilitating critical thinking skills and group dynamics. Discusses the issue of how to introduce and…

  12. [Promotion of public health research: attempting to balance relevance and excellence].

    PubMed

    de los Ríos, R

    1999-01-01

    Those in charge of directing scientific research face a daunting task: finding a proper balance between excellence in research and that research's relevance to people's health problems. In developing countries, this task is further hampered by deficient scientific and technological infrastructure, the lack of competitiveness of its research community, and the shortage of research funds. This article explains some of the mechanisms that have been put in place in Latin America to achieve a balance between excellence and relevance, especially by promoting research that targets pertinent public health problems. Within this context, the multicenter studies being conducted under the auspices of the Pan American Health Organization's Program for the Support of Research are described. The article also lays out the fundamental features of a new model for international cooperation to generate knowledge to help resolve the public health problems of the countries of the Americas. PMID:10355330

  13. Systematically Identifying Relevant Research: Case Study on Child Protection Social Workers' Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Paula; Taylor, Brian J.; Campbell, Anne; McQuilkin, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Context: The development of a consolidated knowledge base for social work requires rigorous approaches to identifying relevant research. Method: The quality of 10 databases and a web search engine were appraised by systematically searching for research articles on resilience and burnout in child protection social workers. Results: Applied Social…

  14. "Comments on Bulterman-Bos": The Dysfunctional Pursuit of Relevance in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labaree, David F.

    2008-01-01

    Responding to Bulterman-Bos (2008), the author argues that the effort to make education research more relevant is counterproductive. Teachers and researchers have different orientations toward education that arise from different institutional settings, occupational constraints, daily work demands, and professional incentives. These are not…

  15. Conducting rapid, relevant research: lessons learned from the My Own Health Report project.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, Russell E; Kessler, Rodger S; Ory, Marcia G; Roby, Dylan; Gorin, Sherri Sheinfeld; Krist, Alex

    2014-08-01

    The lengthy and uncertain translation of research into clinical practice is well documented. Much of the current "gold standard" clinical research is slow, expensive, and lacks perceived relevance for practitioners and decision makers. In contrast, we summarize experiences conducting the My Own Health Report (MOHR) project to collect and address patient reported measures using principles of rapid, relevant pragmatic research. The methods used for rapid design and fielding of the MOHR project to improve attention to health behaviors and mental health are detailed. Within the multisite, pragmatic, implementation-focused MOHR study, we describe the four phases of the research and the key decisions made and actions taken within each. We provide concrete examples of how relevant research can be conducted transparently to rapidly provide information to practitioners. Data were collected and analyzed in 2013. The multisite (seven research centers partnered with 18 clinics) cluster randomized pragmatic delayed intervention trial was conducted in less than 18 months from receipt of funding applications to completion of data collection. Phases that were especially accelerated included funding and review, and recruitment and implementation. Conducting complex studies rapidly and efficiently is a realistic goal. Key lessons learned for prevention research include use of existing research networks; use of web-based assessment/feedback tools that are tailored to fit local needs; engaging relevant stakeholders early on and throughout the process to minimize need for redesign; and making pragmatic decisions that balance internal and external validity concerns rather than waiting for perfect solutions. PMID:24953520

  16. Crossmodal integration enhances neural representation of task-relevant features in audiovisual face perception.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanqing; Long, Jinyi; Huang, Biao; Yu, Tianyou; Wu, Wei; Liu, Yongjian; Liang, Changhong; Sun, Pei

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that audiovisual integration improves identification performance and enhances neural activity in heteromodal brain areas, for example, the posterior superior temporal sulcus/middle temporal gyrus (pSTS/MTG). Furthermore, it has also been demonstrated that attention plays an important role in crossmodal integration. In this study, we considered crossmodal integration in audiovisual facial perception and explored its effect on the neural representation of features. The audiovisual stimuli in the experiment consisted of facial movie clips that could be classified into 2 gender categories (male vs. female) or 2 emotion categories (crying vs. laughing). The visual/auditory-only stimuli were created from these movie clips by removing the auditory/visual contents. The subjects needed to make a judgment about the gender/emotion category for each movie clip in the audiovisual, visual-only, or auditory-only stimulus condition as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals were recorded. The neural representation of the gender/emotion feature was assessed using the decoding accuracy and the brain pattern-related reproducibility indices, obtained by a multivariate pattern analysis method from the fMRI data. In comparison to the visual-only and auditory-only stimulus conditions, we found that audiovisual integration enhanced the neural representation of task-relevant features and that feature-selective attention might play a role of modulation in the audiovisual integration. PMID:23978654

  17. Pathways to Advancing Aging Policy-Relevant Research in Academic Settings.

    PubMed

    Kietzman, Kathryn G; Troy, Lisa M; Green, Carmen R; Wallace, Steven P

    2016-01-01

    Policy-level changes have a significant influence on the health and well-being of aging populations. Yet there is often a gap between scientific knowledge and policy action. Although previous research has identified barriers and facilitators to effective knowledge translation, little attention has been given to the role of academic institutions in knowledge generation. This exploratory focus group study examines barriers and pathways to developing and maintaining an aging policy-relevant research agenda in academic settings, and additional challenges associated with minority group membership in this pursuit. Participants were personally committed to conducting policy-relevant research despite institutional barriers such as fewer funding opportunities and less value attributed to their research, particularly in the context of tenure and promotion. Although many viewed their research as an opportunity to make a difference, especially for underserved older adult populations, a number of minority group participants expressed that their policy research interests were marginalized. Participants offer individual and institutional-level strategies for addressing barriers, including collaborating with community members and colleagues and engaging mentors within and outside of their academic institutions. Reframing the valuation of policy research through the diversification of funding and publishing opportunities can better support scholars engaged in aging policy-relevant research. PMID:26849290

  18. Balancing relevance and excellence: organizational responses to link research with decision making.

    PubMed

    Frenk, J

    1992-12-01

    Research faces the challenge of balancing relevance to decision making and excellence in the strict adherence to the norms of scientific inquiry. This paper examines the organizational responses that can be undertaken to promote integration of these potentially conflicting goals. We posit that there seem to be structural barriers to effective communication between researchers and decision makers, such as differences in priorities, time management, language, means of communication, integration of findings and definition of the final product of research. These barriers must be overcome through solutions aimed at the organization of research. In this respect, there are three possible models to approach the tension between excellence and relevance: academic subordination, segregation and integration. Only the latter makes it possible to reconcile the advantages of proximity to decision making with the procedures to assure academic quality. In addition to organizational design and institutional development, a strategy to promote research must include a set of incentives to prevent the 'internal brain drain', that is, the tendency of researchers to move to managerial positions. There are four guiding principles to address this problem: parallel careers, academic autonomy, administrative sacrifice and inverted incentives. The complexities of health problems demand that we create new organizational formulas to finally balance relevance and excellence in research. PMID:1462179

  19. Individual and Family Resilience: Definitions, Research, and Frameworks Relevant for All Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    The author provides a brief review of the clinical and research literature on individual and family resilience. The review includes resilience-focused frameworks that may have relevance to counselors working in varied contexts who provide strength-based counseling. School, family, and mental health counselors are encouraged to consider the…

  20. SELECTED ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RESEARCH RELEVANT TO EDUCATION AND CULTURAL DEPRIVATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SILVERMAN, SUSAN B.

    A SUMMARY OF THE EMPIRICAL RESEARCH RELEVANT TO THE PROBLEMS OF EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL DEPRIVATION IS PRESENTED IN AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY. THE HYPOTHESIS, METHODS, SAMPLING, FINDINGS, AND CONCLUSIONS ARE CONTAINED IN EACH REFERENCE. EACH IS CLASSIFIED AS TO HOME ENVIRONMENT, SIBLINGS AND PEER GROUP, INTRODUCTION TO SCHOOL, SCHOOL PROGRAMS AND…

  1. Science and Television Commercials: Adding Relevance to the Research Methodology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    Contends that research methodology courses can be relevant to issues outside of psychology and describes a method which relates the course to consumer problems. Students use experimental methodology to test claims made in television commercials advertising deodorant, bathroom tissues, and soft drinks. (KC)

  2. Legal and Social Service Responses to Child Sexual Abuse: A Primer and Discussion of Relevant Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Tisha R. A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a broad overview of legal and social service responses to child sexual abuse, the overarching legal framework provided by federal legislation, and funding mandates and the unique and shared investigative concerns of law enforcement and child protective service entities. Relevant psychological research is highlighted throughout,…

  3. Policy-Relevant Research within the Community Colleges: An IHE Focus for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Dennis A., II; Campbell, Dale F.

    2015-01-01

    Grounded in policy-relevant research, the Institute of Higher Education at the University of Florida is focused on supporting local, state, and national postsecondary policy development as well as training the next generation of institutional leaders. IHE conducts rigorous scholarship focused on postsecondary policy analysis and supporting the…

  4. Low-Educated Immigrants and the Social Relevance of Second Language Acquisition Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Scholten, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s' decoupling of the formal study of second language acquisition from pedagogical concerns, the social relevance of such research has been of little concern. Early studies, in the 1970s, of uninstructed adult learners' acquisition of morphosyntax pointed to social implications: these working class immigrants had varying…

  5. Legal and social service responses to child sexual abuse: a primer and discussion of relevant research.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Tisha R A

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a broad overview of legal and social service responses to child sexual abuse, the overarching legal framework provided by federal legislation, and funding mandates and the unique and shared investigative concerns of law enforcement and child protective service entities. Relevant psychological research is highlighted throughout, including research on investigator training, forensic interviewing techniques, children's suggestibility, jurors' perceptions of child witnesses, and courtroom accommodations for child witnesses. PMID:19856733

  6. Enhancement in dentin collagen’s biological stability after proanthocyanidins treatment in clinically relevant time periods

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Chen, Mingsheng; Yao, Xiaomei; Xu, Changqi; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether proanthocyanidins (PA) is capable of improving dentin collagen’s biological stability through cross-linking within time periods that are clinically relevant. Materials and methods Demineralized dentin collagen slabs were treated with 3.75 wt% PA solution for 10 s, 1 min, 30 min, 60 min, 120 min, 360 min, and 720 min, respectively. The resultant cross-linked collagen samples were subject to digestion with 0.1% collagenase at 37 °C for 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 36 h, and 48 h. The percentage of weight loss after digestion was calculated to evaluate PA-treated collagen’s resistance toward enzymatic degradation. Fourier-Transformed Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to probe evidences of PA-collagen interactions after various periods of PA treatment. Results The collagenase digestion assay suggests that PA treatment as short as 10 s can enhance collagen’s resistance toward enzymatic challenge. The FTIR spectroscopy further verifies that PA is indeed incorporated into collagen regardless of treatment time, possibly via a mechanism involving the chemical interactions between PA and collagen. Significance This study confirmed that PA can effectively cross-link collagen and improve its biological stability in time periods as short as 10 s. The use of PA as a priming agent is therefore clinically feasible and is a promising approach to improving the durability of current dentin bonding systems. PMID:23434233

  7. The ChEBI reference database and ontology for biologically relevant chemistry: enhancements for 2013.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Janna; de Matos, Paula; Dekker, Adriano; Ennis, Marcus; Harsha, Bhavana; Kale, Namrata; Muthukrishnan, Venkatesh; Owen, Gareth; Turner, Steve; Williams, Mark; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    ChEBI (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi) is a database and ontology of chemical entities of biological interest. Over the past few years, ChEBI has continued to grow steadily in content, and has added several new features. In addition to incorporating all user-requested compounds, our annotation efforts have emphasized immunology, natural products and metabolites in many species. All database entries are now 'is_a' classified within the ontology, meaning that all of the chemicals are available to semantic reasoning tools that harness the classification hierarchy. We have completely aligned the ontology with the Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Foundry-recommended upper level Basic Formal Ontology. Furthermore, we have aligned our chemical classification with the classification of chemical-involving processes in the Gene Ontology (GO), and as a result of this effort, the majority of chemical-involving processes in GO are now defined in terms of the ChEBI entities that participate in them. This effort necessitated incorporating many additional biologically relevant compounds. We have incorporated additional data types including reference citations, and the species and component for metabolites. Finally, our website and web services have had several enhancements, most notably the provision of a dynamic new interactive graph-based ontology visualization. PMID:23180789

  8. The Ivory Tower and the Community: A New Approach to Emphasizing the Relevance of Environmental Science Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuff, K. E.; Corazza, L.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past eight years we have developed and implemented several U.C. Berkeley-based outreach programs that provide opportunities for grades nine through eleven students in the East San Francisco Bay Area to gain skills and understandings that increase their capacity to enroll and perform successfully in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses in the future, which enhances their capacity to decide to pursue STEM careers. A common element of these programs is the opportunity they provide participants to engage in environmental science research projects that are directly linked to relevant, real-world environmental problems and issues facing their communities. Analysis of evidence gleaned from questionnaires, interviews and specific assessment instruments indicates that these programs have consistently achieved a high degree of success in that they have: significantly increased participants' understanding of the process and nature of science; enhanced their intellectual self-confidence with regard to STEM; developed deeper appreciation of how scientific research can contribute to the maintenance of healthy local environments; developed a greater interest in participating in STEM-related courses of study and after school programs; and improved attitudes toward STEM. These results corroborate recent research studies that indicate a close relationship between educational activities that promote the perception of STEM as being relevant and the ability to foster development of deeper conceptual understandings among teens. Moreover, they support the notion that providing opportunities for students to develop personal connections with particular issues discussed, and real-world STEM experiences that make STEM more relevant and interesting can help to bring about changes in attitude, which is a key component in improving STEM learning and understanding particularly among urban youth. Overall, our work suggests that in order for a given STEM

  9. Reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery research

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, L.W.; Pope, G.A.; Schechter, R.S.

    1992-03-01

    The research in this annual report falls into three tasks each dealing with a different aspect of enhanced oil recovery. The first task strives to develop procedures for accurately modeling reservoirs for use as input to numerical simulation flow models. This action describes how we have used a detail characterization of an outcrop to provide insights into what features are important to fluid flow modeling. The second task deals with scaling-up and modeling chemical and solvent EOR processes. In a sense this task is the natural extension of task 1 and, in fact, one of the subtasks uses many of the same statistical procedures for insight into the effects of viscous fingering and heterogeneity. The final task involves surfactants and their interactions with carbon dioxide and reservoir minerals. This research deals primarily with phenomena observed when aqueous surfactant solutions are injected into oil reservoirs.

  10. Academically Ambitious and Relevant Higher Education Research: The Legacy of the Consortium of Higher Education Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichler, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    The Consortium of Higher Education Researchers (CHER) was founded in 1988 to stimulate international communication and collaboration of higher education researchers. A need was felt to offset the isolation of the small numbers of scholars in this area of expertise in many countries, as well as the isolation of individual disciplines addressing…

  11. Exploring the Relevance of Qualitative Research Synthesis to Higher Education Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Claire; Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the importance of qualitative research synthesis to the field of higher education. It examines seven key texts that undertake synthesis in this field and compares essential features and elements across studies. The authors indicate strengths of the approaches and highlight ways forward for using qualitative research synthesis…

  12. Enhancing Seismic Calibration Research Through Software Automation

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, S; Dodge, D; Elliott, A; Ganzberger, M; Hauk, T; Matzel, E; Ryall, F

    2004-07-09

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (GNEM R&E) Program has made significant progress enhancing the process of deriving seismic calibrations and performing scientific integration with automation tools. We present an overview of our software automation efforts and framework to address the problematic issues of very large datasets and varied formats utilized during seismic calibration research. The software and scientific automation initiatives directly support the rapid collection of raw and contextual seismic data used in research, provide efficient interfaces for researchers to measure/analyze data, and provide a framework for research dataset integration. The automation also improves the researcher's ability to assemble quality controlled research products for delivery into the NNSA Knowledge Base (KB). The software and scientific automation tasks provide the robust foundation upon which synergistic and efficient development of, GNEM R&E Program, seismic calibration research may be built. The task of constructing many seismic calibration products is labor intensive and complex, hence expensive. However, aspects of calibration product construction are susceptible to automation and future economies. We are applying software and scientific automation to problems within two distinct phases or 'tiers' of the seismic calibration process. The first tier involves initial collection of waveform and parameter (bulletin) data that comprise the 'raw materials' from which signal travel-time and amplitude correction surfaces are derived and is highly suited for software automation. The second tier in seismic research content development activities include development of correction surfaces and other calibrations. This second tier is less susceptible to complete automation, as these activities require the judgment of scientists skilled in the interpretation of often highly unpredictable event

  13. Lessons Learned from the Development and Implementation of Two Internet-enhanced Culturally Relevant Physical Activity Interventions for Young Overweight African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Pekmezi, Dori W.; Allison, Jeroan J.; Durant, Nefertiti H.

    2014-01-01

    This research team has designed and implemented 2 culturally relevant, Internet-enhanced physical activity (PA) interventions for overweight/obese African-American female college students. Presumably, these are the only prospectively designed, culturally relevant interventions using the Internet to promote PA among African-American women. Due to the limited research on this topic, the experiences associated the design and implementation of these studies were syntesized and 5 key lessons learned from this research were formulated. Findings provide insight for researchers to consider when developing Internet-based PA promotion interventions for African-American women. Lessons learned included: 1) Elicit and incorporate feedback from the target population throughout development of an Internet-based PA promotion tool; 2) Incorporate new and emerging technologies into Internet-enhanced PA programs; 3) Maintain frequent participant contact and provide frequent incentives to promote participant engagement; 4) Supplement Internet-based efforts with face-to-face interactions; 5) Include diverse images of African-American women and culturally relevant PA-related information in Internet-based PA promotion materials. PMID:25653465

  14. Relevant incidental findings at abdominal multi-detector contrast-enhanced computed tomography: A collateral screening?

    PubMed Central

    Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Mauri, Giovanni; Muzzupappa, Claudia; Poloni, Alessandro; Bandirali, Michele; Esseridou, Anastassia; Tritella, Stefania; Secchi, Francesco; Di Leo, Giovanni; Sardanelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence of relevant incidental findings (RIFs) detected during routine abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CeCT). METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the reports of a consecutive series of abdominal CeCT studies performed between January and May 2013. For each report, patients’ age and sex, admission as inpatient or outpatient, clinical suspicion as indicated by the requesting physician, availability of a previous abdominal examination, and name of the reporting radiologist were recorded. Based on the clinical suspicion, the presence and features of any RIFs (if needing additional workup) was noted. RESULTS: One thousand forty abdominal CeCT were performed in 949 patients (528 males, mean age 66 ± 14 years). No significant difference was found between inpatients and outpatients age and sex distribution (P > 0.472). RIFs were found in 195/1040 (18.8%) CeCT [inpatients = 108/470 (23.0%); outpatients = 87/570 (15.2%); P = 0.002]. RIFs were found in 30/440 (6.8%) CeCT with a previous exam and in 165/600 (27.5%) without a previous exam (P < 0.001). Radiologists’ distribution between inpatients or outpatients was significantly different (P < 0.001). RIFs prevalence increased with aging, except for a peak in 40-49 year group. Most involved organs were kidneys, gallbladder, and lungs. CONCLUSION: A RIF is detected in 1/5 patients undergoing abdominal CeCT. Risk of overdiagnosis should be taken into account. PMID:26516432

  15. The Clinical Urine Culture: Enhanced Techniques Improve Detection of Clinically Relevant Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Price, Travis K; Dune, Tanaka; Hilt, Evann E; Thomas-White, Krystal J; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Brincat, Cynthia; Brubaker, Linda; Wolfe, Alan J; Mueller, Elizabeth R; Schreckenberger, Paul C

    2016-05-01

    Enhanced quantitative urine culture (EQUC) detects live microorganisms in the vast majority of urine specimens reported as "no growth" by the standard urine culture protocol. Here, we evaluated an expanded set of EQUC conditions (expanded-spectrum EQUC) to identify an optimal version that provides a more complete description of uropathogens in women experiencing urinary tract infection (UTI)-like symptoms. One hundred fifty adult urogynecology patient-participants were characterized using a self-completed validated UTI symptom assessment (UTISA) questionnaire and asked "Do you feel you have a UTI?" Women responding negatively were recruited into the no-UTI cohort, while women responding affirmatively were recruited into the UTI cohort; the latter cohort was reassessed with the UTISA questionnaire 3 to 7 days later. Baseline catheterized urine samples were plated using both standard urine culture and expanded-spectrum EQUC protocols: standard urine culture inoculated at 1 μl onto 2 agars incubated aerobically; expanded-spectrum EQUC inoculated at three different volumes of urine onto 7 combinations of agars and environments. Compared to expanded-spectrum EQUC, standard urine culture missed 67% of uropathogens overall and 50% in participants with severe urinary symptoms. Thirty-six percent of participants with missed uropathogens reported no symptom resolution after treatment by standard urine culture results. Optimal detection of uropathogens could be achieved using the following: 100 μl of urine plated onto blood (blood agar plate [BAP]), colistin-nalidixic acid (CNA), and MacConkey agars in 5% CO2 for 48 h. This streamlined EQUC protocol achieved 84% uropathogen detection relative to 33% detection by standard urine culture. The streamlined EQUC protocol improves detection of uropathogens that are likely relevant for symptomatic women, giving clinicians the opportunity to receive additional information not currently reported using standard urine culture

  16. The relevance of postcolonial theoretical perspectives to research in Aboriginal health.

    PubMed

    Browne, Annette J; Smye, Victoria L; Varcoe, Colleen

    2005-12-01

    The authors critically examine the relevance of postcolonial theoretical perspectives to nursing research in the area of Aboriginal health. They discuss key theoretical underpinnings of postcolonial theory, citing differences and commonalities in postcolonial theory, postcolonial indigenous thinking, and other forms of critical theory. Drawing on insights from Aboriginal scholars, they critique the relevance of postcolonial discourses to issues of concern to Aboriginal peoples, and the potential limitations of those discourses. They then consider the implications of conducting research that is informed by postcolonial perspectives. They argue that postcolonial perspectives provide direction for research with Aboriginal communities in 4 interrelated ways. These are focused on (a) issues of partnership and "voice" in the research process, (b) a commitment to engaging in praxis-oriented inquiry, (c) understanding how continuities from the past shape the present context of health and health care, and (d) the colonizing potential of research. The authors draw attention to the concept of cultural safety as an instrument for incorporating postcolonial perspectives into the realm of nursing. To illustrate applications of postcolonial theory, they give examples from recent research conducted in partnership with Aboriginal communities. Although postcolonial theories are relatively new in nursing discourses, they provide a powerful analytical framework for considering the legacy of the colonial past and the neocolonial present as the context in which health care is delivered. PMID:16541817

  17. Enhancing Policymakers’ Understanding of Disparities: Relevant Data from an Information-Rich Environment

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Noralou P; Roos, Leslie L; Brownell, Marni; Fuller, Emma L

    2010-01-01

    Context: Information-rich environments, with access and funding provided by government, make it possible to organize longitudinal administrative data to support analyses of policy-relevant questions. This paper describes insights into children's well-being and social equity obtained from data available in Manitoba, Canada, and highlights findings that have engaged policymakers. Methods: Analyses draw on Manitoba-linked data providing information over time (going back to 1970 in some files) and across space (with residential location documented every six months) for each provincial resident. Routinely collected data from the Ministries of Health, Education, and Family Services and Consumer Affairs have been integrated with a population registry. Findings: Identifying risk factors and presenting outcomes by social groups and by local communities capture the attention of policymakers. Linking an individual's area of residence to census and health data has led to developing measures of population health status and socioeconomic status. These measures focus on whether delivery patterns track health and educational needs, and a population registry makes it possible to describe who is (and is not) served by each program. Conclusions: The nature of health and social research has been changed by the development of information-rich environments. Many findings in Manitoba could not be replicated without a population registry. Engaging decision makers through effective presentations can ensure continuing support for diverse efforts based on these environments, and this article suggests ways of better communicating with policymakers. PMID:20860576

  18. Using Relevant Video Clips from Popular Media to Enhance Learning in Large Introductory Psychology Classes: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland-Bryant, Emily; Skinner, Amy L.; Dixon, Lee; Skinner, Christopher H.; Saudargas, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance students' learning by supplementing a multimedia lesson with interesting and relevant video clips (VCs). Undergraduate students watched a target material PowerPoint (tmPP) presentation with voice-over lecture covering the Big Five trait theory of personality. Students were randomly assigned to one of four…

  19. Enhanced stability and local structure in biologically relevant amorphous materials containing pyrophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, Colin; Laurencin, Danielle; Burnell, Victoria; Smith, Mark E.; Grover, Liam M.; Hriljac, Joseph A.; Wright, Adrian J.

    2012-10-25

    There is increasing evidence that amorphous inorganic materials play a key role in biomineralisation in many organisms, however the inherent instability of synthetic analogues in the absence of the complex in vivo matrix limits their study and clinical exploitation. To address this, we report here an approach that enhances long-term stability to >1 year of biologically relevant amorphous metal phosphates, in the absence of any complex stabilizers, by utilizing pyrophosphates (P{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 4-}); species themselves ubiquitous in vivo. Ambient temperature precipitation reactions were employed to synthesise amorphous Ca{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}.nH{sub 2}O and Sr{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}.nH{sub 2}O (3.8 < n < 4.2) and their stability and structure were investigated. Pair distribution functions (PDF) derived from synchrotron X-ray data indicated a lack of structural order beyond 8 {angstrom} in both phases, with this local order found to resemble crystalline analogues. Further studies, including {sup 1}H and {sup 31}P solid state NMR, suggest the unusually high stability of these purely inorganic amorphous phases is partly due to disorder in the P-O-P bond angles within the P{sub 2}O{sub 7} units, which impede crystallization, and to water molecules, which are involved in H-bonds of various strengths within the structures and hamper the formation of an ordered network. In situ high temperature powder X-ray diffraction data indicated that the amorphous nature of both phases surprisingly persisted to 450 C. Further NMR and TGA studies found that above ambient temperature some water molecules reacted with P{sub 2}O{sub 7} anions, leading to the hydrolysis of some P-O-P linkages and the formation of HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} anions within the amorphous matrix. The latter anions then recombined into P{sub 2}O{sub 7} ions at higher temperatures prior to crystallization. Together, these findings provide important new materials with unexplored potential for enzyme

  20. Advancing Sustainable Bioenergy: Evolving Stakeholder Interests and the Relevance of Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Timothy Lawrence; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Dodder, Rebecca S.; Hilliard, Michael R.; Ozge Kaplan, P.; Andrew Miller, C.

    2013-02-01

    The sustainability of future bioenergy production rests on more than continual improvements in its environmental, economic, and social impacts. The emergence of new biomass feedstocks, an expanding array of conversion pathways, and expected increases in overall bioenergy production are connecting diverse technical, social, and policy communities. These stakeholder groups have different—and potentially conflicting—values and cultures, and therefore different goals and decision making processes. Our aim is to discuss the implications of this diversity for bioenergy researchers. The paper begins with a discussion of bioenergy stakeholder groups and their varied interests, and illustrates how this diversity complicates efforts to define and promote "sustainable" bioenergy production. We then discuss what this diversity means for research practice. Researchers, we note, should be aware of stakeholder values, information needs, and the factors affecting stakeholder decision making if the knowledge they generate is to reach its widest potential use. We point out how stakeholder participation in research can increase the relevance of its products, and argue that stakeholder values should inform research questions and the choice of analytical assumptions. Finally, we make the case that additional natural science and technical research alone will not advance sustainable bioenergy production, and that important research gaps relate to understanding stakeholder decision making and the need, from a broader social science perspective, to develop processes to identify and accommodate different value systems. While sustainability requires more than improved scientific and technical understanding, the need to understand stakeholder values and manage diversity presents important research opportunities.

  1. Advancing sustainable bioenergy: Evolving stakeholder interests and the relevance of research

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Timothy L; Bielicki, Dr Jeffrey M; Dodder, Rebecca; Hilliard, Michael R; Kaplan, Ozge; Miller, C. Andy

    2013-01-01

    The sustainability of future bioenergy production rests on more than continual improvements in its environmental, economic, and social impacts. The emergence of new biomass feedstocks, an expanding array of conversion pathways, and expected increases in overall bioenergy production are connecting diverse technical, social, and policy communities. These stakeholder groups have different and potentially conflicting values and cultures, and therefore different goals and decision making processes. Our aim is to discuss the implications of this diversity for bioenergy researchers. The paper begins with a discussion of bioenergy stakeholder groups and their varied interests, and illustrates how this diversity complicates efforts to define and promote sustainable bioenergy production. We then discuss what this diversity means for research practice. Researchers, we note, should be aware of stakeholder values, information needs, and the factors affecting stakeholder decision making if the knowledge they generate is to reach its widest potential use. We point out how stakeholder participation in research can increase the relevance of its products, and argue that stakeholder values should inform research questions and the choice of analytical assumptions. Finally, we make the case that additional natural science and technical research alone will not advance sustainable bioenergy production, and that important research gaps relate to understanding stakeholder decision making and the need, from a broader social science perspective, to develop processes to identify and accommodate different value systems. While sustainability requires more than improved scientific and technical understanding, the need to understand stakeholder values and manage diversity presents important research opportunities.

  2. Ensuring the policy relevance of population health research: experiences from the Drug Policy Modelling Program.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Alison

    2011-04-01

    Illicit drugs are an important public health concern. A unique approach to tackling this problem is represented in the work of the Drug Policy Modelling Program which aims to improve evidence-informed policy by reducing the gap between research and policy. There are three elements to the Drug Policy Modelling Program: generating new knowledge; translating evidence into information of relevance for decision makers; and studying policy processes. Key aspects include the use of computer modelling as a translational tool and the focus on understanding policy processes such as the role of media and politics, important in contextualising the research-policy nexus. Other features of the Drug Policy Modelling Program approach include engagement of diverse disciplines, and government researcher partnerships. PMID:21527076

  3. Rotary-Wing Relevant Compressor Aero Research and Technology Development Activities at Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Gerard E.; Hathaway, Michael D.; Skoch, Gary J.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Technical challenges of compressors for future rotorcraft engines are driven by engine-level and component-level requirements. Cycle analyses are used to highlight the engine-level challenges for 3000, 7500, and 12000 SHP-class engines, which include retention of performance and stability margin at low corrected flows, and matching compressor type, axial-flow or centrifugal, to the low corrected flows and high temperatures in the aft stages. At the component level: power-to-weight and efficiency requirements impel designs with lower inherent aerodynamic stability margin; and, optimum engine overall pressure ratios lead to small blade heights and the associated challenges of scale, particularly increased clearance-to-span ratios. The technical challenges associated with the aerodynamics of low corrected flows and stability management impel the compressor aero research and development efforts reviewed herein. These activities include development of simple models for clearance sensitivities to improve cycle calculations, full-annulus, unsteady Navier-Stokes simulations used to elucidate stall, its inception, and the physics of stall control by discrete tip-injection, development of an actuator-duct-based model for rapid simulation of nonaxisymmetric flow fields (e.g., due inlet circumferential distortion), advanced centrifugal compressor stage development and experimentation, and application of stall control in a T700 engine.

  4. Advanced Multi-Axis Spine Testing: Clinical Relevance and Research Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Holsgrove, Timothy P.; Nayak, Nikhil R.; Welch, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Back pain and spinal degeneration affect a large proportion of the general population. The economic burden of spinal degeneration is significant, and the treatment of spinal degeneration represents a large proportion of healthcare costs. However, spinal surgery does not always provide improved clinical outcomes compared to non-surgical alternatives, and modern interventions, such as total disc replacement, may not offer clinically relevant improvements over more established procedures. Although psychological and socioeconomic factors play an important role in the development and response to back pain, the variation in clinical success is also related to the complexity of the spine, and the multi-faceted manner by which spinal degeneration often occurs. The successful surgical treatment of degenerative spinal conditions requires collaboration between surgeons, engineers, and scientists in order to provide a multi-disciplinary approach to managing the complete condition. In this review, we provide relevant background from both the clinical and the basic research perspectives, which is synthesized into several examples and recommendations for consideration in increasing translational research between communities with the goal of providing improved knowledge and care. Current clinical imaging, and multi-axis testing machines, offer great promise for future research by combining invivo kinematics and loading with in-vitro testing in six degrees of freedom to offer more accurate predictions of the performance of new spinal instrumentation. Upon synthesis of the literature, it is recommended that in-vitro tests strive to recreate as many aspects of the in-vivo environment as possible, and that a physiological preload is a critical factor in assessing spinal biomechanics in the laboratory. A greater link between surgical procedures, and the outcomes in all three anatomical planes should be considered in both the in-vivo and in-vitro settings, to provide data relevant to

  5. Visual Experience Enhances Infants' Use of Task-Relevant Information in an Action Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Su-hua; Kohne, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether infants' use of task-relevant information in an action task could be facilitated by visual experience in the laboratory. Twelve- but not 9-month-old infants spontaneously used height information and chose an appropriate (taller) cover in search of a hidden tall toy. After watching examples of covering events in a…

  6. Experiential Learning and Research Ethics: Enhancing Knowledge through Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie M.; Cameron, Abigail E.; Schulman, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    How can instructors use experiential learning strategies to enhance student understanding of research ethics and responsible research conduct? In this article, the authors review literature on using experiential learning to teach research ethics and responsible research conduct. They present a three-step exercise for teaching research ethics and…

  7. Enhancing Social Work Research Education through Research Field Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, Jennifer A.; Walsh, Christine A.; Bradshaw, Cathryn

    2010-01-01

    The increased focus on the role of research in the social service sector, pressure for practitioners to engage in research and the demand for integration of research and practice challenges faculties about ways in which to engage social work students in research. This paper evaluates a research based practicum program within a social work faculty…

  8. A Research Practitioner's Perspective on Culturally Relevant Prevention: Scientific and Practical Considerations for Community-Based Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, James P., Jr.; Miller, Erica

    2007-01-01

    This article is a response to a number of articles that use a culturally relevant prevention (CRP) approach for ethnic and racial minorities. The reaction is from a research practitioner's viewpoint. The authors argue in favor of determining an operational definition of cultural relevance by implementing prevention services with fidelity in the…

  9. Embedding Research Activities to Enhance Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Cynthia M.; Kenney, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper's novel, research-oriented approach is to embed research-based activities in a core second-year course of a university business degree program to support and develop student research capabilities. Design/methodology/approach: The design draws on Boud and Prosser's work to foster participation in a…

  10. Enhancing the Relevance of Incident Management Systems in Public Health Emergency Preparedness: A Novel Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Bochenek, Richard; Grant, Moira; Schwartz, Brian

    2015-08-01

    We outline a conceptual framework developed to meet the needs of public health professionals in the province of Ontario for incident management system-related education and training. By using visual models, this framework applies a public health lens to emergency management, introducing concepts relevant to public health and thereby shifting the focus of emergency preparedness from a strict "doctrine" to a more dynamic and flexible approach grounded in the traditional principles of incident management systems. These models provide a foundation for further exploration of the theoretical foundations for public health emergency preparedness in practice. PMID:25991506

  11. Rigor "and" Relevance: Enhancing High School Students' Math Skills through Career and Technical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, James R., III; Alfeld, Corinne; Pearson, Donna

    2008-01-01

    Numerous high school students, including many who are enrolled in career and technical education (CTE) courses, do not have the math skills necessary for today's high-skill workplace or college entrance requirements. This study tests a model for enhancing mathematics instruction in five high school CTE programs (agriculture, auto technology,…

  12. Enhancing the Relevance and Value of Marketing Curriculum Outcomes to a Liberal Arts Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Could marketing coursework be part of the general education requirements for all college students? This article describes the ways in which the professional school marketing curriculum model (Schibrowsky, Peltier, & Boyt, 2002) can complement and enhance liberal arts education outcomes. First, the general relationship between liberal arts…

  13. Enhancing the Popularity and the Relevance of Science Teaching in Portuguese Science Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvão, Cecília; Reis, Pedro; Freire, Sofia; Almeida, Paulo

    2011-11-01

    PARSEL Project emerged from the urgent need to overcome the problem of lack of scientific literacy in the population, which should be a priority in a society where science occupies a central place. Indeed, nowadays for any citizen to participate in a responsible and informed way in society he has to be scientifically acknowledgeable. Nevertheless, not only are scientific levels low in the general population, but also there is an increasing number of students who avoid science and technology courses and related professions. Within this context, PARSEL aims at raising science and scientific courses' popularity and relevancy as well as at enacting teachers' professional development. In order to achieve these goals, the PARSEL group developed 54 pan-European modules, which were tested and evaluated by several teachers in several European countries and Israel. Teachers maintained a close relationship with the university, were highly encouraged to appropriate the modules and to adapt them to their local conditions and, also to discuss and share their experiences. In Portugal, modules were tested by a group of eight teachers, and their students. This paper presents data concerning teachers' evaluation. Data was collected by means of interviews, observation and written documents and reveals that teachers positively evaluated PARSEL's impact on their own professional development. Furthermore, they considered modules as well as the teaching-learning approach essential for making science learning relevant and popular for their students.

  14. Mode 2 and the Tension between Excellence and Utility: The Case of a Policy-Relevant Research Field in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Håkansta, Carin; Jacob, Merle

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of changing science policy doctrines on the development of an academic field, working life research. Working life research is an interdisciplinary field of study in which researchers and stakeholders collaborated to produce relevant knowledge. The development of the field, we argue, was both facilitated and…

  15. Design-Based Research and Technology-Enhanced Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Feng; Hannafin, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    During the past decade, design-based research has demonstrated its potential as a methodology suitable to both research and design of technology-enhanced learning environments (TELEs). In this paper, we define and identify characteristics of design-based research, describe the importance of design-based research for the development of TELEs,…

  16. The relevance of traditional knowledge systems for ethnopharmacological research: theoretical and methodological contributions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ethnopharmacology is at the intersection of the medical, natural, and social sciences. Despite its interdisciplinary nature, most ethnopharmacological research has been based on the combination of the chemical, biological, and pharmacological sciences. Far less attention has been given to the social sciences, including anthropology and the study of traditional knowledge systems. Methods I reviewed the literature on traditional knowledge systems highlighting its potential theoretical and methodological contributions to ethnopharmacology. Results I discuss three potential theoretical contributions of traditional knowledge systems to ethnopharmacological research. First, while many plants used in indigenous pharmacopoeias have active compounds, those compounds do not always act alone in indigenous healing systems. Research highlights the holistic nature of traditional knowledge systems and helps understand plant's efficacy in its cultural context. Second, research on traditional knowledge systems can improve our understanding of how ethnopharmacological knowledge is distributed in a society, and who benefits from it. Third, research on traditional knowledge systems can enhance the study of the social relations that enable the generation, maintenance, spread, and devolution of cultural traits and innovations, including ethnopharmacological knowledge. At a methodological level, some ethnopharmacologists have used anthropological tools to understand the context of plant use and local meanings of health and disease. I discuss two more potential methodological contributions of research on traditional knowledge systems to ethnopharmacological research. First, traditional knowledge systems research has developed methods that would help ethnopharmacologists understand how people classify illnesses and remedies, a fundamental aspect of folk medicinal plant selection criteria. Second, ethnopharmacologists could also borrow methods derived from cultural consensus

  17. A curated compendium of monocyte transcriptome datasets of relevance to human monocyte immunobiology research

    PubMed Central

    Rinchai, Darawan; Boughorbel, Sabri; Presnell, Scott; Quinn, Charlie; Chaussabel, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Systems-scale profiling approaches have become widely used in translational research settings. The resulting accumulation of large-scale datasets in public repositories represents a critical opportunity to promote insight and foster knowledge discovery. However, resources that can serve as an interface between biomedical researchers and such vast and heterogeneous dataset collections are needed in order to fulfill this potential. Recently, we have developed an interactive data browsing and visualization web application, the Gene Expression Browser (GXB). This tool can be used to overlay deep molecular phenotyping data with rich contextual information about analytes, samples and studies along with ancillary clinical or immunological profiling data. In this note, we describe a curated compendium of 93 public datasets generated in the context of human monocyte immunological studies, representing a total of 4,516 transcriptome profiles. Datasets were uploaded to an instance of GXB along with study description and sample annotations. Study samples were arranged in different groups. Ranked gene lists were generated based on relevant group comparisons. This resource is publicly available online at http://monocyte.gxbsidra.org/dm3/landing.gsp. PMID:27158452

  18. The old problem of adherence: research on treatment adherence and its relevance for HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Wright, M T

    2000-12-01

    The international published research on patient adherence was selectively reviewed with the goal of determining its relevance for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Results show that not adhering to treatment regimes is so widespread that no combination of sociodemographic variables is reliably predictive of patients' not following doctors' orders. Achieving 100% adherence for any treatment or patient group does not appear to be realistic. Characteristics of the patient's situation, of the given therapy, and of the disease itself affect adherence. In addition, the patient-doctor relationship and the context of the treatment are important. Often overlooked are the existential dimensions of meaning, self-determination and quality of life which are particularly important for the chronically ill. Treatment needs to be negotiated individually with each patient on the basis of an open therapeutic relationship and with the help of multidimensional interventions. Lessons from the discourse on safer sex can steer adherence research and practice away from a behavioural and reductionist approach toward the context and meaning of treatment. PMID:11177448

  19. A curated compendium of monocyte transcriptome datasets of relevance to human monocyte immunobiology research.

    PubMed

    Rinchai, Darawan; Boughorbel, Sabri; Presnell, Scott; Quinn, Charlie; Chaussabel, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Systems-scale profiling approaches have become widely used in translational research settings. The resulting accumulation of large-scale datasets in public repositories represents a critical opportunity to promote insight and foster knowledge discovery. However, resources that can serve as an interface between biomedical researchers and such vast and heterogeneous dataset collections are needed in order to fulfill this potential. Recently, we have developed an interactive data browsing and visualization web application, the Gene Expression Browser (GXB). This tool can be used to overlay deep molecular phenotyping data with rich contextual information about analytes, samples and studies along with ancillary clinical or immunological profiling data. In this note, we describe a curated compendium of 93 public datasets generated in the context of human monocyte immunological studies, representing a total of 4,516 transcriptome profiles. Datasets were uploaded to an instance of GXB along with study description and sample annotations. Study samples were arranged in different groups. Ranked gene lists were generated based on relevant group comparisons. This resource is publicly available online at http://monocyte.gxbsidra.org/dm3/landing.gsp. PMID:27158452

  20. A Balancing Act: Integrating Evidence-Based Knowledge and Cultural Relevance in a Program of Prevention Parenting Research with Latino/a Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Parra-Cardona, José Rubén; López-Zerón, Gabriela; Domenech Rodríguez, Melanie M; Escobar-Chew, A Rocío; Whitehead, Michael R; Sullivan, Cris M; Bernal, Guillermo

    2016-06-01

    Family therapists have a unique opportunity to contribute toward the reduction of widespread mental health disparities impacting diverse populations by developing applied lines of research focused on cultural adaptation. For example, although evidence-based prevention parent training (PT) interventions have been found to be efficacious with various Euro-American populations, there is a pressing need to understand which specific components of PT interventions are perceived by ethnic minority parents as having the highest impact on their parenting practices. Equally important is to examine the perceived cultural relevance of adapted PT interventions. This qualitative investigation had the primary objective of comparing and contrasting the perceived relevance of two culturally adapted versions of the efficacious parenting intervention known as Parent Management Training, the Oregon Model (PMTO). According to feasibility indicators provided by 112 Latino/a immigrant parents, as well as findings from a qualitative thematic analysis, the core parenting components across both adapted interventions were identified by the majority of research participants as relevant to their parenting practices. Participants exposed to the culturally enhanced intervention, which included culture-specific sessions, also reported high satisfaction with components exclusively focused on cultural issues that directly impact their parenting practices (e.g., immigration challenges, biculturalism). This investigation illustrates the relevant contributions that family therapy scholars can offer toward addressing mental health disparities, particularly as it refers to developing community-based prevention interventions that achieve a balance between evidence-based knowledge and cultural relevance. PMID:26503301

  1. Enhanced chlorine dioxide decay in the presence of metal oxides: relevance to drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; von Gunten, Urs; Croué, Jean-Philippe

    2013-08-01

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) decay in the presence of typical metal oxides occurring in distribution systems was investigated. Metal oxides generally enhanced ClO2 decay in a second-order process via three pathways: (1) catalytic disproportionation with equimolar formation of chlorite and chlorate, (2) reaction to chlorite and oxygen, and (3) oxidation of a metal in a reduced form (e.g., cuprous oxide) to a higher oxidation state. Cupric oxide (CuO) and nickel oxide (NiO) showed significantly stronger abilities than goethite (α-FeOOH) to catalyze the ClO2 disproportionation (pathway 1), which predominated at higher initial ClO2 concentrations (56-81 μM). At lower initial ClO2 concentrations (13-31 μM), pathway 2 also contributed. The CuO-enhanced ClO2 decay is a base-assisted reaction with a third-order rate constant of 1.5 × 10(6) M(-2) s(-1) in the presence of 0.1 g L(-1) CuO at 21 ± 1 °C, which is 4-5 orders of magnitude higher than in the absence of CuO. The presence of natural organic matter (NOM) significantly enhanced the formation of chlorite and decreased the ClO2 disproportionation in the CuO-ClO2 system, probably because of a higher reactivity of CuO-activated ClO2 with NOM. Furthermore, a kinetic model was developed to simulate CuO-enhanced ClO2 decay at various pH values. Model simulations that agree well with the experimental data include a pre-equilibrium step with the rapid formation of a complex, namely, CuO-activated Cl2O4. The reaction of this complex with OH(-) is the rate-limiting and pH-dependent step for the overall reaction, producing chlorite and an intermediate that further forms chlorate and oxygen in parallel. These novel findings suggest that the possible ClO2 loss and the formation of chlorite/chlorate should be carefully considered in drinking water distribution systems containing copper pipes. PMID:23796229

  2. Near infrared cavity enhanced absorption spectra of atmospherically relevant ether-1, 4-Dioxane.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Satheesh; Varma, Ravi

    2016-01-15

    1, 4-Dioxane (DX) is a commonly found ether in industrially polluted atmosphere. The near infrared absorption spectra of this compound has been recorded in the region 5900-8230 cm(-1) with a resolution of 0.08 cm(-1) using a novel Fourier transform incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer (FT-IBBCEAS). All recorded spectra were found to contain regions that are only weakly perturbed. The possible combinations of fundamental modes and their overtone bands corresponding to selected regions in the measured spectra are tabulated. Two interesting spectral regions were identified as 5900-6400 cm(-1) and 8100-8230 cm(-1). No significant spectral interference due to presence of water vapor was observed suggesting the suitability of these spectral signatures for spectroscopic in situ detection of DX. The technique employed here is much more sensitive than standard Fourier transform spectrometer measurements on account of long effective path length achieved. Hence significant enhancement of weaker absorption lines above the noise level was observed as demonstrated by comparison with an available measurement from database. PMID:26474242

  3. Near infrared cavity enhanced absorption spectra of atmospherically relevant ether-1, 4-Dioxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, Satheesh; Varma, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    1, 4-Dioxane (DX) is a commonly found ether in industrially polluted atmosphere. The near infrared absorption spectra of this compound has been recorded in the region 5900-8230 cm- 1 with a resolution of 0.08 cm- 1 using a novel Fourier transform incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer (FT-IBBCEAS). All recorded spectra were found to contain regions that are only weakly perturbed. The possible combinations of fundamental modes and their overtone bands corresponding to selected regions in the measured spectra are tabulated. Two interesting spectral regions were identified as 5900-6400 cm- 1 and 8100-8230 cm- 1. No significant spectral interference due to presence of water vapor was observed suggesting the suitability of these spectral signatures for spectroscopic in situ detection of DX. The technique employed here is much more sensitive than standard Fourier transform spectrometer measurements on account of long effective path length achieved. Hence significant enhancement of weaker absorption lines above the noise level was observed as demonstrated by comparison with an available measurement from database.

  4. The relevance of wind-driven rain for future soil erosion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fister, Wolfgang; Marzen, Miriam; Iserloh, Thomas; Seeger, Manuel; Heckrath, Goswin; Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Ries, Johannes B.

    2014-05-01

    The influence of wind on falling raindrops and its potential to alter soil erosion rates was already proposed during the 1960s, but never really reached broad awareness in the soil erosion research community. Laboratory investigations over the last 15 years confirmed earlier findings and have proven that wind modifies the characteristics of falling raindrops in many ways. Most importantly, the impact angles and impact frequencies, as well as the drop velocities, drop sizes and hence the kinetic energy are modified. Consequently, the results of laboratory experiments on highly disturbed, loose, and mostly sandy substrates indicate that soil detachment and transport/splash distances of particles increase under the influence of wind. However, these experiments cannot reflect the complexity of naturally developed soils and a direct transfer of these findings to field conditions is therefore limited. So far, only a few field studies have reported increased erosion rates due to splash drift or increased runoff by wind-driven rain. Because of the lack of simultaneous reference measurements without the influence of wind, these studies were not able to discriminate between the different processes and thus couldn not clearly prove the relevance of wind-driven rainfall. Despite all these findings, the awareness of this phenomenon is, in our opinion, still limited. Almost all rainfall simulations exclude the factor of wind as a disturbance to reach more representative rainfall conditions on the plot. We think, that among other reasons, this underestimation of the influence of wind could be due to the absence of an adequate measurement device to simulate these processes and additionally, due to the fact that the relevance of wind-driven rain in a landscape context has not yet been proven. To overcome this lack of a useful device, and to take the research from the laboratory to the field on real soils again, the first portable wind and rainfall simulator was developed within

  5. Mechanisms Relevant to the Enhanced Virulence of a Dihydroxynaphthalene-Melanin Metabolically Engineered Entomopathogen

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Min-Nan; Chung, Chia-Ling; Tzean, Shean-Shong

    2014-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae MA05-169 is a transformant strain that has been metabolically engineered to express dihydroxynaphthalene-melanin biosynthesis genes. In contrast to the wild type strain, the transformant displays a greater resistance to environmental stress and a higher virulence toward target insect host. However, the underlying mechanisms for these characteristics remain unclear; hence experiments were initiated to explore the possible mechanism(s) through physiological and molecular approaches. Although both transformant and wild type strains could infect and share the same insect host range, the former germinated faster and produced more appressoria than the latter, both in vivo and in vitro. The transformant showed a significantly shorter median lethal time (LT50) when infecting the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and the striped flea beetle (Phyllotreta striolata), than the wild type. Additionally, the transformant was more tolerant to reactive oxygen species (ROS), produced 40-fold more orthosporin and notably overexpressed the transcripts of the pathogenicity-relevant hydrolytic enzymes (chitinase, protease, and phospholipase) genes in vivo. In contrast, appressorium turgor pressure and destruxin A content were slightly decreased compared to the wild type. The transformant's high anti-stress tolerance, its high virulence against five important insect pests (cowpea aphid Aphis craccivora, diamondback moth Pl. xylostella, striped flea beetle Ph. striolata, and silverleaf whitefly Bemisia argentifolii) and its capacity to colonize the root system are key properties for its potential bio-control field application. PMID:24662974

  6. Rehabilitation drives enhancement of neuronal structure in functionally relevant neuronal subsets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Conner, James M.; Nagahara, Alan H.; Tuszynski, Mark H.

    2016-01-01

    We determined whether rehabilitation after cortical injury also drives dynamic dendritic and spine changes in functionally distinct subsets of neurons, resulting in functional recovery. Moreover, given known requirements for cholinergic systems in mediating complex forms of cortical plasticity, including skilled motor learning, we hypothesized that cholinergic systems are essential mediators of neuronal structural and functional plasticity associated with motor rehabilitation. Adult rats learned a skilled forelimb grasping task and then, underwent destructive lesions of the caudal forelimb region of the motor cortex, resulting in nearly complete loss of grasping ability. Subsequent intensive rehabilitation significantly enhanced both dendritic architecture and spine number in the adjoining rostral forelimb area compared with that in the lesioned animals that were not rehabilitated. Cholinergic ablation markedly attenuated rehabilitation-induced recovery in both neuronal structure and motor function. Thus, rehabilitation focused on an affected limb robustly drives structural compensation in perilesion cortex, enabling functional recovery. PMID:26903653

  7. Rehabilitation drives enhancement of neuronal structure in functionally relevant neuronal subsets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Conner, James M; Nagahara, Alan H; Tuszynski, Mark H

    2016-03-01

    We determined whether rehabilitation after cortical injury also drives dynamic dendritic and spine changes in functionally distinct subsets of neurons, resulting in functional recovery. Moreover, given known requirements for cholinergic systems in mediating complex forms of cortical plasticity, including skilled motor learning, we hypothesized that cholinergic systems are essential mediators of neuronal structural and functional plasticity associated with motor rehabilitation. Adult rats learned a skilled forelimb grasping task and then, underwent destructive lesions of the caudal forelimb region of the motor cortex, resulting in nearly complete loss of grasping ability. Subsequent intensive rehabilitation significantly enhanced both dendritic architecture and spine number in the adjoining rostral forelimb area compared with that in the lesioned animals that were not rehabilitated. Cholinergic ablation markedly attenuated rehabilitation-induced recovery in both neuronal structure and motor function. Thus, rehabilitation focused on an affected limb robustly drives structural compensation in perilesion cortex, enabling functional recovery. PMID:26903653

  8. Enhancing Student Understanding of Environmental Sciences Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurwick, Noel P.; Krasny, Marianne E.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an authentic semi-guided student research project. Studies the impact of a regional invasion of non-indigenous worm species on decomposition in forest soils. Describes the experimental design, data analysis, and interpretation of the data. (Contains 16 references.) (YDS)

  9. E-Portfolio for Enhancing Graduate Research Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Quynh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: E-Portfolio is a powerful tool for demonstrating evidence of learning and achievements in graduate research. The purpose of this paper is to examine the concept, structure and functions of e-Portfolio in graduate research and discuss the significance of the role of e-Portfolio in enhancing the quality of graduate research students and…

  10. Enhancing Effective Instructional Time: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Tanya M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This policy brief was written to provide the North Carolina State Board of Education with a summary of research on enhancing effective instructional time. The impetus for extending school time appears to stem from two primary sources: international comparisons, and research on the relationship between time and learning. Research findings indicate…

  11. Hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor activation enhances voltage-dependent Ca2+ conductances: relevance to brain aging.

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, D S; Campbell, L W; Thibault, O; Landfield, P W

    1992-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) activate several biochemical/molecular processes in the hippocampus through two receptor types. In addition, GCs influence cognitive behaviors and hippocampal neural activity and can also increase the rate of aging-dependent cell loss in the hippocampus. However, the ionic mechanisms through which GCs modulate hippocampal neuronal function are not well understood. We report here direct evidence that activation of cytosolic steroid receptors, specifically of the type II GC receptor, can enhance voltage-dependent Ca2+ conductances in brain neurons. Ca2+ current was assessed by current-clamp measures of Ca2+ action potentials and by sharp electrode voltage-clamp analyses of voltage-sensitive currents in cesium-, tetrodotoxin-, and tetraethylammonium-treated CA1 neurons in hippocampal slices. Both Ca2+ action potentials and voltage-activated Ca2+ currents (N- and L-like) were increased by 2-hr exposure to the synthetic GC receptor agonist, RU 28362. This effect of RU 28362 was blocked by coincubation with cycloheximide, indicating that the GC receptor-Ca2+ channel interaction depends on de novo protein synthesis. Dysregulated calcium homeostasis is also viewed as a candidate mechanism in brain aging. Thus, present results are consistent with the hypothesis that excessive GC-receptor activation and resultant increased Ca2+ influx may be two sequential phases of a brain-aging process that results initially in impairment of function and eventually in neuronal loss. PMID:1528857

  12. International Comparative Assessments: Broadening the Interpretability, Application and Relevance to the United States. Research in Review 2012-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Giacomo, F. Tony; Fishbein, Bethany G.; Buckley, Vanessa W.

    2013-01-01

    Many articles and reports have reviewed, researched, and commented on international assessments from the perspective of exploring what is relevant for the United States' education systems. Researchers make claims about whether the top-performing systems have transferable practices or policies that could be applied to the United States. However,…

  13. The 5 R’s: An Emerging Bold Standard for Conducting Relevant Research in a Changing World

    PubMed Central

    Peek, C. J.; Glasgow, Russell E.; Stange, Kurt C.; Klesges, Lisa M.; Purcell, E. Peyton; Kessler, Rodger S.

    2014-01-01

    Research often fails to find its way into practice or policy in a timely way, if at all. Given the current pressure and pace of health care change, many authors have recommended different approaches to make health care research more relevant and rapid. An emerging standard for research, the “5 R’s” is a synthesis of recommendations for care delivery research that (1) is relevant to stakeholders; (2) is rapid and recursive in application; (3) redefines rigor; (4) reports on resources required; and (5) is replicable. Relevance flows from substantive ongoing participation by stakeholders. Rapidity and recursiveness occur through accelerated design and peer reviews followed by short learning/implementation cycles through which questions and answers evolve over time. Rigor is the disciplined conduct of shared learning within the specific changing situations in diverse settings. Resource reporting includes costs of interventions. Replicability involves designing for the factors that may affect subsequent implementation of an intervention or program in different contexts. These R’s of the research process are mutually reinforcing and can be supported by training that fosters collaborative and reciprocal relationships among researchers, implementers, and other stakeholders. In sum, a standard is emerging for research that is both rigorous and relevant. Consistent and bold application will increase the value, timeliness, and applicability of the research enterprise. PMID:25354409

  14. The moral pop-out effect: enhanced perceptual awareness of morally relevant stimuli.

    PubMed

    Gantman, Ana P; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2014-07-01

    People perceive religious and moral iconography in ambiguous objects, ranging from grilled cheese to bird feces. In the current research, we examined whether moral concerns can shape awareness of perceptually ambiguous stimuli. In three experiments, we presented masked moral and non-moral words around the threshold for conscious awareness as part of a lexical decision task. Participants correctly identified moral words more frequently than non-moral words-a phenomenon we term the moral pop-out effect. The moral pop-out effect was only evident when stimuli were presented at durations that made them perceptually ambiguous, but not when the stimuli were presented too quickly to perceive or slowly enough to easily perceive. The moral pop-out effect was not moderated by exposure to harm and cannot be explained by differences in arousal, valence, or extremity. Although most models of moral psychology assume the initial perception of moral stimuli, our research suggests that moral beliefs and values may shape perceptual awareness. PMID:24747444

  15. Students' Evaluation Strategies in a Web Research Task: Are They Sensitive to Relevance and Reliability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodicio, Héctor García

    2015-01-01

    When searching and using resources on the Web, students have to evaluate Web pages in terms of relevance and reliability. This evaluation can be done in a more or less systematic way, by either considering deep or superficial cues of relevance and reliability. The goal of this study was to examine how systematic students are when evaluating Web…

  16. Microbial enhanced oil recovery research. [Peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, M.M.; Georgiou, G. )

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an engineering framework for the exploitation of microorganisms to enhance oil recovery. Specific goals include: (1) the production, isolation, chemical characterization and study of the physical properties of microbially produced surfactants; (2) development of simulators for MEOR; (3) model studies in sandstone cores for the characterization of the interactions between growing microbially cultures and oil reservoirs,; (4) design of operation strategies for the sequential injection of microorganisms and nutrient in reservoirs. Accomplishments are: (1) ultra low interfacial tensions (0.003 mN/M) were obtained between decane and 5% NaCl brine using biosurfactants obtained from Bacillus Licheniformis, JF-2 which is the lowest IFT ever reported for biosurfactants; (2) a method to was developed isolate the biosurfactant from the growth medium; (3) the structure of the isolated biosurfactant has been determined; (4) several techniques have been proposed to increase the yield of the surfactant; and (5) an MEOR simulator has been completed.

  17. Enhancing Transdisciplinary Research Through Collaborative Leadership

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Transcending the well-established and familiar boundaries of disciplinary silos poses challenges for even the most interpersonally competent scientists. This paper explores the challenges inherent in leading transdisciplinary projects, detailing the critical roles that leaders play in shepherding transdisciplinary scientific endeavors. Three types of leadership tasks are considered: cognitive, structural, and processual. Distinctions are made between leading small, co-located projects and large, dispersed ones. Finally, social-network analysis is proposed as a useful tool for conducting research on leadership, and, in particular, on the role of brokers, on complex transdisciplinary teams. PMID:18619392

  18. NASA Research Announcement for Space Suit Survivability Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Thad H.; Ware, Joanne S.; Lin, John K.; Pastore, Christopher M.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the research activities for space suit survivability material enhancements. Self-sealing mechanisms for the pressure envelope were addressed, as were improvements in materials for cut, puncture, and hypervelocity impact resistance.

  19. Enhanced Field Emission Studies on Niobium Surfaces Relevant to High Field Superconducting Radio-Frequency Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Tong Wang

    2002-09-18

    Enhanced field emission (EFE) presents the main impediment to higher acceleration gradients in superconducting niobium (Nb) radiofrequency cavities for particle accelerators. The strength, number and sources of EFE sites strongly depend on surface preparation and handling. The main objective of this thesis project is to systematically investigate the sources of EFE from Nb, to evaluate the best available surface preparation techniques with respect to resulting field emission, and to establish an optimized process to minimize or eliminate EFE. To achieve these goals, a scanning field emission microscope (SFEM) was designed and built as an extension to an existing commercial scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the SFEM chamber of ultra high vacuum, a sample is moved laterally in a raster pattern under a high voltage anode tip for EFE detection and localization. The sample is then transferred under vacuum to the SEM chamber equipped with an energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer for individual emitting site characterization. Compared to other systems built for similar purposes, this apparatus has low cost and maintenance, high operational flexibility, considerably bigger scan area, as well as reliable performance. EFE sources from planar Nb have been studied after various surface preparation, including chemical etching and electropolishing, combined with ultrasonic or high-pressure water rinse. Emitters have been identified, analyzed and the preparation process has been examined and improved based on EFE results. As a result, field-emission-free or near field-emission-free surfaces at ~140 MV/m have been consistently achieved with the above techniques. Characterization on the remaining emitters leads to the conclusion that no evidence of intrinsic emitters, i.e., no fundamental electric field limit induced by EFE, has been observed up to ~140 MV/m. Chemically etched and electropolished Nb are compared and no significant difference is observed up to ~140 MV/m. To

  20. Microbial enhanced oil recovery research. [Peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, M.M.; Georgiou, G. )

    1992-01-01

    The surface active lipopeptide produced by Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 was isolated to near apparent homogeneity. NMR experiments revealed that this compound consists of a heptapeptide with an amino acid sequence similar to surfactin and a heterogeneous fatty acid consisting of the normal-, anteiso-, and iso- branched isomers. The surface activity of the B. licheniformis JF-2 surfactant was shown to depend on the presence of fermentation products and is strongly affected by the pH. Under conditions of optimal salinity and pH the interfacial tension against decane was 6 [times] 10[sup 3] mN/m which is one of the lowest values ever obtained with a microbial surfactant. Microbial compounds which exhibit particularly high surface activity are classified as biosurfactants. Microbial biosurfactants include a wide variety of surface and interfacially active compounds, such as glycolipids, lipopeptides polysaccharideprotein complexes, phospholipids, fatty acids and neutral lipids. Biosurfactants are easily biodegradable and thus are particularly suited for environmental applications such as bioremediation and the dispersion of oil spills. Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 has been shown to be able to grow and produce a very effective biosurfactant under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and in the presence of high salt concentrations. The production of biosurfactants in anaerobic, high salt environments is potentially important for a variety of in situ applications such as microbial enhanced oil recovery. As a first step towards evaluating the commercial utility of the B. licheniformis JF-2 surfactant, we isolated t-he active. compound from the culture supernatant, characterized its chemical structure and investigated its phase behavior. We found that the surface activity of the surfactant is strongly dependent on the pH of the aqueous. phase. This may be important for the biological function of the surfactant and is of interest for several applications in surfactancy.

  1. Adiponectin at Physiologically Relevant Concentrations Enhances the Vasorelaxative Effect of Acetylcholine via Cav-1/AdipoR-1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yunhui; Li, Rui; Lau, Wayne Bigond; Zhao, Jianli; Lopez, Bernard; Christopher, Theodore A.; Ma, Xin-Liang; Wang, Yajing

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies have identified hypoadiponectinemia as an independent hypertension risk factor. It is known that adiponectin (APN) can directly cause vasodilation, but the doses required exceed physiologic levels several fold. In the current study, we determine the effect of physiologically relevant APN concentrations upon vascular tone, and investigate the mechanism(s) responsible. Physiologic APN concentrations alone induced no significant vasorelaxation. Interestingly, pretreatment of wild type mouse aortae with physiologic APN levels significantly enhanced acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasorelaxation (P<0.01), an endothelium-dependent and nitric oxide (NO)-mediated process. Knockout of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) or caveolin-1 (Cav-1, a cell signaling facilitating molecule), but not adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) abolished APN-enhanced ACh-induced vasorelaxation. Immunoblot assay revealed APN promoted the AdipoR1/Cav1 signaling complex in human endothelial cells. Treatment of HUVECs with physiologic APN concentrations caused significant eNOS phosphorylation and nitric oxide (NO) production (P<0.01), an effect abolished in knockdown of either AdipoR1 or Cav-1. Taken together, these data demonstrate for the first time physiologic APN levels enhance the vasorelaxative response to ACh by inducing NO production through AdipoR1/Cav-1 mediated signaling. In physiologic conditions, APN plays an important function of maintaining vascular tone. PMID:27023866

  2. VAO Tools Enhance CANDELS Research Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Gretchen; Donley, J.; Rodney, S.; LAZIO, J.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Busko, I.; Hanisch, R. J.; VAO Team; CANDELS Team

    2013-01-01

    The formation of galaxies and their co-evolution with black holes through cosmic time are prominent areas in current extragalactic astronomy. New methods in science research are building upon collaborations between scientists and archive data centers which span large volumes of multi-wavelength and heterogeneous data. A successful example of this form of teamwork is demonstrated by the CANDELS (Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey) and the Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO) collaboration. The CANDELS project archive data provider services are registered and discoverable in the VAO through an innovative web based Data Discovery Tool, providing a drill down capability and cross-referencing with other co-spatially located astronomical catalogs, images and spectra. The CANDELS team is working together with the VAO to define new methods for analyzing Spectral Energy Distributions of galaxies containing active galactic nuclei, and helping to evolve advanced catalog matching methods for exploring images of variable depths, wavelengths and resolution. Through the publication of VOEvents, the CANDELS project is publishing data streams for newly discovered supernovae that are bright enough to be followed from the ground.

  3. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) R&D Program, Status Report: Foreign Research on Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    McLarty, Lynn; Entingh, Daniel

    2000-09-29

    This report reviews enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) research outside the United States. The term ''enhanced geothermal systems'' refers to the use of advanced technology to extract heat energy from underground in areas with higher than average heat flow but where the natural permeability or fluid content is limited. EGS covers the spectrum of geothermal resources from low permeability hydrothermal to hot dry rock.

  4. Medical relevance of UK-funded non-human primate research published from January 1997 to July 2012.

    PubMed

    Moore, Edward

    2014-04-16

    In 2012, the Bateson Review of research using non-human primates (NHPs) recommended the commissioning of a working group to identify and follow-up the results of UK-funded NHP research of potential benefit for human health (Recommendation 4), but the Medical Research Council (MRC) has postponed implementation of the recommendation. Information on results and potential benefits of NHP research therefore remains unavailable. To fill this gap in knowledge, this study identified all published NHP research studies funded by the MRC, Wellcome Trust and Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) from January 1997 to July 2012 and assessed full texts for medical relevance. In total, 284 papers were identified, of which 51 (18%) involved invasive NHP research, compared to 176 (61%) which used NHP tissue and cell lines, indicating a shift in research emphasis from invasive whole animal to cell-based research. Of these studies, 98 (35%) were medically relevant, of which 22 had potential therapeutic or public health applications. The relatively low proportion of medical studies together with the small number of applied studies raises questions over the level of investment in medical research and the effectiveness of knowledge transfer from basic to applied research. Implementation of the Bateson Review's Recommendation 4 would address these questions. PMID:24739383

  5. Medical relevance of UK-funded non-human primate research published from January 1997 to July 2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the Bateson Review of research using non-human primates (NHPs) recommended the commissioning of a working group to identify and follow-up the results of UK-funded NHP research of potential benefit for human health (Recommendation 4), but the Medical Research Council (MRC) has postponed implementation of the recommendation. Information on results and potential benefits of NHP research therefore remains unavailable. To fill this gap in knowledge, this study identified all published NHP research studies funded by the MRC, Wellcome Trust and Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) from January 1997 to July 2012 and assessed full texts for medical relevance. In total, 284 papers were identified, of which 51 (18%) involved invasive NHP research, compared to 176 (61%) which used NHP tissue and cell lines, indicating a shift in research emphasis from invasive whole animal to cell-based research. Of these studies, 98 (35%) were medically relevant, of which 22 had potential therapeutic or public health applications. The relatively low proportion of medical studies together with the small number of applied studies raises questions over the level of investment in medical research and the effectiveness of knowledge transfer from basic to applied research. Implementation of the Bateson Review’s Recommendation 4 would address these questions. PMID:24739383

  6. Providing policy-relevant information for greenhouse gas management: Perspectives from science and technology policy research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilling, L.

    2009-12-01

    In the 12 years since the Kyoto Protocol was signed setting forth targets for greenhouse gas emissions from several nations, the number of policies, voluntary programs and commercial enterprises that have developed to manage carbon has grown exponentially. Many of these programs have occurred in a voluntary context, such as carbon trading, carbon offset programs, and climate registries . To date, no single, common system for accrediting, verifying and recording carbon credits has developed. Moreover, as the international community continues to negotiate the dimensions of an international agreement for the post-Kyoto time period, discussions still center on targets for fossil fuel emissions, biospheric carbon protection, and appropriate distribution of the burden of compliance globally. If carbon still remains the currency for discussion in a climate agreement, some type of effective measurement and verification system will be needed to ensure that commitments are being met. While entire volumes over the past decade have been written on what it is possible to observe about the carbon cycle and how to do so-- these tend to describe observations from the perspective of studying the carbon cycle to discover fundamental new knowledge. I will argue, however, that for the application under consideration in this session, i.e. a global greenhouse gas information system, it is essential to bring in the perspective of the policy and regulatory community. The needs of the scientific community for measuring the uncertainties in the global carbon cycle are not necessarily the same as those for the policy community. To ensure that such a system can serve a policy-relevant function, the scientific community must engage with policy makers, entrepreneurs, those who must comply, and others involved in constructing the policy framework. This paper will examine some of the key fundamentals that the policy community may be considering in designing a greenhouse gas monitoring system. I

  7. Enhancing Alkane Production in Cyanobacterial Lipid Droplets: A ModeFl Platform for Industrially Relevant Compound Production

    PubMed Central

    Peramuna, Anantha; Morton, Ray; Summers, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacterial lipid droplets (LDs) are packed with hydrophobic energy-dense compounds and have great potential for biotechnological expression and the compartmentalization of high value compounds. Nostoc punctiforme normally accumulates LDs containing neutral lipids, and small amounts of heptadecane, during the stationary phase of growth. In this study, we further enhanced heptadecane production in N. punctiforme by introducing extrachromosomal copies of aar/adc genes, and report the discovery of a putative novel lipase encoded by Npun_F5141, which further enhanced alkane production. Extra copies of all three genes in high light conditions resulted in a 16-fold higher accumulation of heptadecane compared to the wild type strain in the exponential phase. LD accumulation during exponential phase also increased massively to accommodate the heptadecane production. A large number of small, less fluorescent LDs were observed at the cell periphery in exponential growth phase, whereas fewer number of highly fluorescent, much larger LDs were localized towards the center of the cell in the stationary phase. These advances demonstrate that cyanobacterial LDs are an ideal model platform to make industrially relevant compounds, such as alkanes, during exponential growth, and provide insight into LD formation in cyanobacteria. PMID:25821934

  8. Academic Rigour, Managerial Relevance and Triangulation of Research Methods: A Perspective of Expectations Fulfilment in Postgraduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Loi Teck; Fatt, Quek Kia

    2008-01-01

    Developing high-quality human capital and advancing existing knowledge stocks are crucial for the competitive advantage of a nation. The authors argue that offering postgraduate programmes that give great emphasis to academic rigour, managerial relevance and the triangulation of research methods is vital if these ends are to be achieved. They…

  9. Music's relevance for children with cancer: music therapists' qualitative clinical data-mining research.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Dun, Beth; Baron, Annette; Barry, Philippa

    2013-01-01

    Music is central in most children's lives. Understanding its relevance will advance efficacious pediatric supportive cancer care. Qualitative clinical data-mining uncovered four music therapists' perspectives about music and music therapy's relevance for pediatric oncology patients up to 14 years old. Inductive and comparative thematic analysis was performed on focus group transcripts and qualitative interrater reliability integrated. Music can offer children a safe haven for internalizing a healthy self-image alongside patient identity. Music therapy can calm, relieve distress, promote supportive relationships, enable self-care, and inspire playful creativity, associated with "normalcy" and hope. Preferred music and music therapy should be available in pediatric oncology. PMID:23521381

  10. Fidelity in Animal Modeling: Prerequisite for a Mechanistic Research Front Relevant to the Inflammatory Incompetence of Acute Pediatric Malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory incompetence is characteristic of acute pediatric protein-energy malnutrition, but its underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Perhaps substantially because the research front lacks the driving force of a scholarly unifying hypothesis, it is adrift and research activity is declining. A body of animal-based research points to a unifying paradigm, the Tolerance Model, with some potential to offer coherence and a mechanistic impetus to the field. However, reasonable skepticism prevails regarding the relevance of animal models of acute pediatric malnutrition; consequently, the fundamental contributions of the animal-based component of this research front are largely overlooked. Design-related modifications to improve the relevance of animal modeling in this research front include, most notably, prioritizing essential features of pediatric malnutrition pathology rather than dietary minutiae specific to infants and children, selecting windows of experimental animal development that correspond to targeted stages of pediatric immunological ontogeny, and controlling for ontogeny-related confounders. In addition, important opportunities are presented by newer tools including the immunologically humanized mouse and outbred stocks exhibiting a magnitude of genetic heterogeneity comparable to that of human populations. Sound animal modeling is within our grasp to stimulate and support a mechanistic research front relevant to the immunological problems that accompany acute pediatric malnutrition. PMID:27077845

  11. Fidelity in Animal Modeling: Prerequisite for a Mechanistic Research Front Relevant to the Inflammatory Incompetence of Acute Pediatric Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory incompetence is characteristic of acute pediatric protein-energy malnutrition, but its underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Perhaps substantially because the research front lacks the driving force of a scholarly unifying hypothesis, it is adrift and research activity is declining. A body of animal-based research points to a unifying paradigm, the Tolerance Model, with some potential to offer coherence and a mechanistic impetus to the field. However, reasonable skepticism prevails regarding the relevance of animal models of acute pediatric malnutrition; consequently, the fundamental contributions of the animal-based component of this research front are largely overlooked. Design-related modifications to improve the relevance of animal modeling in this research front include, most notably, prioritizing essential features of pediatric malnutrition pathology rather than dietary minutiae specific to infants and children, selecting windows of experimental animal development that correspond to targeted stages of pediatric immunological ontogeny, and controlling for ontogeny-related confounders. In addition, important opportunities are presented by newer tools including the immunologically humanized mouse and outbred stocks exhibiting a magnitude of genetic heterogeneity comparable to that of human populations. Sound animal modeling is within our grasp to stimulate and support a mechanistic research front relevant to the immunological problems that accompany acute pediatric malnutrition. PMID:27077845

  12. Goal Theory and Indigenous Minority School Motivation: Relevance and Application. Australian Aboriginal and Navajo Indian Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Dennis M.

    This paper reports on a continuing study of Australian Aboriginal and Navajo Indian children. The study investigates the relevance and applicability of goal theory to explaining indigenous minority motivation in school settings. Task, ego social solidarity, and extrinsic goal structures were examined as a means of explaining and predicting…

  13. Cultural Relevance in Research Methodology/Paradigm/Terminology: Dilemma, Contradiction and Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maina, Faith

    This paper describes an incident between an academic researcher and a community member. The encounter, in which a researcher asked questions about farming practices, shows how cultural misunderstanding and failure to communicate the gains of research to the community has the potential to generate distorted information. The academic researcher has…

  14. Functionally relevant microorganisms to enhanced biological phosphorus removal performance at full-scale wastewater treatment plants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gu, April Z; Saunders, A; Neethling, J B; Stensel, H D; Blackall, L L

    2008-08-01

    The abundance and relevance ofAccumulibacter phosphatis (presumed to be polyphosphate-accumulating organisms [PAOs]), Competibacter phosphatis (presumed to be glycogen-accumulating organisms [GAOs]), and tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs) to phosphorus removal performance at six full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) wastewater treatment plants were investigated. Coexistence of various levels of candidate PAOs and GAOs were found at these facilities. Accumulibacter were found to be 5 to 20% of the total bacterial population, and Competibacter were 0 to 20% of the total bacteria population. The TFO abundance varied from nondetectable to dominant. Anaerobic phosphorus (P) release to acetate uptake ratios (P(rel)/HAc(up)) obtained from bench tests were correlated positively with the abundance ratio of Accumulibacter/(Competibacter +TFOs) and negatively with the abundance of (Competibacter +TFOs) for all plants except one, suggesting the relevance of these candidate organisms to EBPR processes. However, effluent phosphorus concentration, amount of phosphorus removed, and process stability in an EBPR system were not directly related to high PAO abundance or mutually exclusive with a high GAO fraction. The plant that had the lowest average effluent phosphorus and highest stability rating had the lowest P(rel)/HAc(up) and the most TFOs. Evaluation of full-scale EBPR performance data indicated that low effluent phosphorus concentration and high process stability are positively correlated with the influent readily biodegradable chemical oxygen demand-to-phosphorus ratio. A system-level carbon-distribution-based conceptual model is proposed for capturing the dynamic competition between PAOs and GAOs and their effect on an EBPR process, and the results from this study seem to support the model hypothesis. PMID:18751532

  15. Behavioral Recommendations in Health Research News as Cues to Action: Self-Relevancy and Self-Efficacy Processes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chingching

    2016-08-01

    This study argues that behavioral recommendations in health news function as cues to action. A proposed self-oriented model seeks to explore the impacts of behavioral recommendations in health research news as cues to action through their influences on self-relevancy and self-efficacy. A content analysis (Study 1) first establishes that health research news commonly features behavioral recommendations. A message experiment (Study 2) then explores the utility of behavioral recommendations as cues to action by demonstrating a self-relevancy effect: Health research news with, as opposed to without, behavioral recommendations increases the self-relevancy of advocated health behaviors, which then improve people's attitudes toward and intentions to adopt those behaviors. A second message experiment (Study 3) tests whether varying presentations of behavioral recommendations alter their effectiveness as cues to action and thus people's behavioral intentions through a dual effect process. In addition to the previously demonstrated self-relevancy effect, this experiment shows that concrete, as opposed to abstract, behavioral recommendations trigger a self-efficacy effect, increasing perceived self-efficacy and further improving behavioral intentions. PMID:27442057

  16. Enhanced sensitization to animal, interpersonal, and intergroup fear-relevant stimuli (but no evidence for selective one-trial fear learning).

    PubMed

    Lipp, Ottmar V; Cronin, Sophie L; Alhadad, Sakinah S J; Luck, Camilla C

    2015-11-01

    Selective sensitization has been proposed as an alternative explanation for enhanced responding to animal fear-relevant stimuli--snakes and spiders--during extinction of Pavlovian fear conditioning. The current study sought to replicate the phenomenon using a shock workup procedure as the sensitizing manipulation and to extend it to interpersonal and intergroup fear-relevant stimuli--angry faces and other-race faces. Assessment of selective sensitization was followed by a one-trial fear learning procedure. Selective sensitization, larger electrodermal responses to fear-relevant than to control stimuli after sensitization, or a larger increase in electrodermal responding to fear-relevant than to control stimuli after sensitization was observed across stimulus domains. However, the one-trial fear learning procedure failed to provide evidence for enhanced fear conditioning to fear-relevant stimuli. One-trial fear learning was either absent or present for fear-relevant and nonfear-relevant stimuli. The current study confirms that electrodermal responses to fear-relevant stimuli across stimulus domains are subject to selective sensitization. PMID:26283264

  17. The QUIPPED Project: Exploring Relevance and Rigor of Action Research Using Established Principles and Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Christine; Paterson, Margo; Medves, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the last in a series of three manuscripts published in the TQR journal over the past few years. This work is part of a larger program of research that has been carried out by a team of researchers detailing various aspects of a three year action research project carried out from 2005 and 2008. This particular paper addresses issues…

  18. The Interface between Research and Policy--A Note with Potential Relevance for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gornitzka, Åse

    2013-01-01

    The nexus between research and policy in higher education as in other sectors of society is multimodal and not adequately captured by the notion of a cultural gap between the world of practice and the world of research. Neither can the relationship be seen as unidirectional. This paper sketches out the range of uses of research in policy-making,…

  19. Public-academic partnerships: a rapid small-grant program for policy-relevant research: motivating public-academic partnerships.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Carolyn I; Arbuckle, Melissa R; Simpson, Helen B; Herman, Daniel B; Stroup, T Scott; Skrobala, Anne M; Sederer, Lloyd I; Appel, Anita; Essock, Susan M

    2013-02-01

    To help grow a cadre of researchers with the knowledge and skills to pursue topics of great utility to public mental health systems, the director of the Division of Mental Health Services and Policy Research at Columbia University used funding from the New York State Office of Mental Health (OMH) to create a rapid small-grant program called the OMH Policy Scholars Program. This column uses two case examples to describe how this public-academic partnership exposes early-career researchers to the needs and complexities of large public mental health systems while providing them with senior research and policy mentors to help ensure the success of the scholars' projects and oversee their introduction to and work within the public mental health system. This type of collaboration is one model of encouraging early-career psychiatric researchers to pursue policy-relevant research. PMID:23370621

  20. Increasingly mobile: How new technologies can enhance qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Carrie Ann; Derr, Amelia Seraphia; Lindhorst, Taryn

    2015-01-01

    Advances in technology, such as the growth of smart phones, tablet computing, and improved access to the internet have resulted in many new tools and applications designed to increase efficiency and improve workflow. Some of these tools will assist scholars using qualitative methods with their research processes. We describe emerging technologies for use in data collection, analysis, and dissemination that each offer enhancements to existing research processes. Suggestions for keeping pace with the ever-evolving technological landscape are also offered. PMID:25798072

  1. Relevance or Excellence? Setting Research Priorities for Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Humanitarian Settings

    PubMed Central

    Tol, Wietse A; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Baingana, Florence; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Sondorp, Egbert; van Ommeren, Mark; Wessells, Michael G; Catherine, Panter-Brick

    2012-01-01

    Background: Humanitarian crises are associated with an increase in mental disorders and psychological distress. Despite the emerging consensus on intervention strategies in humanitarian settings, the field of mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) in humanitarian settings lacks a consensus-based research agenda. Methods: From August 2009 to February 2010, we contacted policymakers, academic researchers, and humanitarian aid workers, and conducted nine semistructured focus group discussions with 114 participants in three locations (Peru, Uganda, and Nepal), in both the capitals and remote humanitarian settings. Local stakeholders representing a range of academic expertise (psychiatry, psychology, social work, child protection, and medical anthropology) and organizations (governments, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and UN agencies) were asked to identify priority questions for MHPSS research in humanitarian settings, and to discuss factors that hamper and facilitate research. Results: Thematic analyses of transcripts show that participants broadly agreed on prioritized research themes in the following order: (1) the prevalence and burden of mental health and psychosocial difficulties in humanitarian settings, (2) how MHPSS implementation can be improved, (3) evaluation of specific MHPSS interventions, (4) the determinants of mental health and psychological distress, and (5) improved research methods and processes. Rather than differences in research themes across countries, what emerged was a disconnect between different groups of stakeholders regarding research processes: the perceived lack of translation of research findings into actual policy and programs; misunderstanding of research methods by aid workers; different appreciation of the time needed to conduct research; and disputed universality of research constructs. Conclusions: To advance a collaborative research agenda, actors in this field need to bridge the perceived disconnect between

  2. Challenge: Reframing, communicating, and finding relevance. Solution: Teachers on the research team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholow, S.; Warburton, J.

    2013-12-01

    PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) is a program in which K-12 teachers spend 2-6 weeks participating in hands-on field research experiences in the polar regions. The goal of PolarTREC is to invigorate polar science education and understanding by bringing K-12 educators and polar researchers together. Program data has illuminated a crucial dynamic that increases the potential for a successful climate change science campaign. We contend that the inclusion of a teacher into the field research campaign can tackle challenges such as reframing climate change science to better address the need for a particular campaign, as well as garnering the science project the necessary support through effective, authentic, and tangible communication efforts to policymakers, funders, students, and the public. The program evaluation queried researchers on a.) the teachers' primary roles in the field b.) the impact teachers on the team's field research, and c.) the teachers' role conducting outreach. Additionally, researchers identified the importance of the facilitator, the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS), as an integral component to the challenge of providing a meaningful broader impact statement to the science proposal. Researchers reported the value of explaining their science, in-situ, allowed them to reframe and rework the objectives of the science project to attain meaningful outcomes. More than half of the researchers specifically noted that one of the strengths of the PolarTREC project is its benefit to the scientific process. The researchers also viewed PolarTREC as an essential outreach activity for their research project. Other researchers said that the outreach provided by their teacher also improved the research project's public image and articulated complex ideas to the public at large. This presentation will speak to the practices within the PolarTREC program and how researchers can meet outreach expectations, impact

  3. The development of a relevant and comprehensive research agenda to improve Hispanic health.

    PubMed Central

    Marin, G; Amaro, H; Eisenberg, C; Opava-Stitzer, S

    1993-01-01

    The development of an appropriate research agenda for Hispanics requires progress in three areas: (a) developing an appropriate research infrastructure, (b) increasing the availability of appropriate research instrumentation, and (c) identifying and assigning priority areas. In addition, a Latino health research agenda must identify mechanisms for increasing the number of trained Hispanic researchers and the number of Latino professional staff members at the Department of Health and Human Services. It is recommended that an Office of Hispanic Health be established within the Office of Minority Health at the Department to oversee the implementation of the recommendations made as part of the Surgeon General's National Hispanic Health Initiative. PMID:8416112

  4. Enrofloxacin at environmentally relevant concentrations enhances uptake and toxicity of cadmium in the earthworm Eisenia fetida in farm soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinsheng; Tang, Hao; Hu, Yingxiu; Wang, Xiuhong; Ai, Xiaojie; Tang, Li; Matthew, Cory; Cavanagh, Jo; Qiu, Jiangping

    2016-05-01

    Individual and combined effects of enrofloxacin (EF) and cadmium (Cd) on the earthworm Eisenia fetida at environmentally relevant concentrations were investigated. EF is a veterinary antibiotic; Cd is an impurity in phosphatic fertiliser. For both, residues may accumulate in farm soils. In laboratory tests, over 98% of spiked EF was adsorbed by farm soils, with a half-life >8 weeks. However, earthworms absorbed less than 20% of spiked EF. Earthworms in soil with EF concentration 10 mg kg(-1) soil experienced transient oxidative stress and exhibited reduced burrowing activity and respiration after an 8-week exposure; EF at 0.1 and 1.0 mg kg(-1) soil did not elicit toxicity symptoms. When both were added, Cd did not affect EF uptake, but each increment of spiked EF increased Cd bioaccumulation and associated oxidative stress of earthworms, and also caused decreased burrow length and CO2 production. However, metallothionein induction was not affected. The enhanced toxicity of Cd to earthworms in the presence of EF at low environmental concentrations may have implications for the health and reproductive success of earthworm populations and highlights the importance of understanding effects of antibiotic contamination of farm soils, and of awareness of environmental effects from interaction between multiple contaminants. PMID:26852206

  5. Investigation of coatings of natural organic matter on silver nanoparticles under environmentally relevant conditions by surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Melanie; Ivleva, Natalia P; Klitzke, Sondra; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The widespread use of engineered inorganic nanoparticles (EINP) leads to a growing risk for an unintended release into the environment. Despite the good characterization of EINP in regard to their function scale and the application areas, there is still a gap of knowledge concerning their behaviour in the different environmental compartments. Due to their high surface to volume ratio, surface properties and existence or development of a coating are of high importance for their stability and transport behaviour. However, analytical methods to investigate organic coatings on nanoparticles in aqueous media are scarce. We used Raman microspectroscopy in combination with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to investigate humic acid coatings on silver nanoparticles under environmentally relevant conditions and in real world samples. This setup is more challenging than previous mechanistic studies using SERS to characterize the humic acids in tailored settings where only one type of organic matter is present and the concentrations of the nanoparticles can be easily adjusted to the experimental needs. SERS offers the unique opportunity to work with little sample preparation directly with liquid samples, thus significantly reducing artefacts. SERS spectra of different natural organic matter brought into contact with silver nanoparticles indicate humic acid in close proximity to the nanoparticles. This coating was also present after several washing steps by centrifugation and resuspension in deionized water and after an increase in ionic strength. PMID:25554386

  6. Research Ethics and Participatory Research in an Interdisciplinary Technology-Enhanced Learning Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Frances; Carmichael, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This account identifies some of the tensions that became apparent in a large interdisciplinary technology-enhanced learning project as its members attempted to maintain their commitment to responsive, participatory research and development in naturalistic research settings while also "enacting" these commitments in formal research review…

  7. Visual Methodology in Classroom Inquiry: Enhancing Complementary Qualitative Research Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the argument that combining visual methods with other qualitative research methods enhances the inherent strengths of each methodology and allows new understandings to emerge. These would otherwise remain hidden if only one method were used in isolation. In a qualitative inquiry of an elementary teacher's constructivist…

  8. Using the Enhanced Critical Incident Technique in Counselling Psychology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, Lee D.; Borgen, William A.; Maglio, Asa-Sophia T.; Amundson, Norman E.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an effective approach to using the Enhanced Critical Incident Technique (ECIT) research method based on Flanagan's (1954) Critical Incident Technique (CIT). It begins with an overview of the CIT, how to decide if it is the appropriate methodology to use, then, using a recent CIT study as an example, discusses Flanagan's five…

  9. Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration: Research Needs and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2008-03-21

    Fossil fuel combustion, deforestation, and biomass burning are the dominant contributors to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations and global warming. Many approaches to mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions are being pursued, and among the most promising are terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. Recent advances in ecology and microbial biology offer promising new possibilities for enhancing terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. A workshop was held October 29, 2007, at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) on Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration (BECS). The workshop participants (approximately 30 scientists from California, Illinois, Oregon, Montana, and New Mexico) developed a prioritized list of research needed to make progress in the development of biological enhancements to improve terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. The workshop participants also identified a number of areas of supporting science that are critical to making progress in the fundamental research areas. The purpose of this position paper is to summarize and elaborate upon the findings of the workshop. The paper considers terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration separately. First, we present a summary in outline form of the research roadmaps for terrestrial and geologic BECS. This outline is elaborated upon in the narrative sections that follow. The narrative sections start with the focused research priorities in each area followed by critical supporting science for biological enhancements as prioritized during the workshop. Finally, Table 1 summarizes the potential significance or 'materiality' of advances in these areas for reducing net greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. Enhancing Field Research Methods with Mobile Survey Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the experience of undergraduate students using mobile devices and a commercial application, iSurvey, to conduct a neighborhood survey. Mobile devices offer benefits for enhancing student learning and engagement. This field exercise created the opportunity for classroom discussions on the practicalities of urban research, the…

  11. The Field Relevance of NHTSA's Oblique Research Moving Deformable Barrier Tests.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Priya; Dalmotas, Dainius; German, Alan

    2014-11-01

    A small overlap frontal crash test has been recently introduced by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety in its frontal rating scheme. Another small overlap frontal crash test is under development by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Whereas the IIHS test is conducted against a fixed rigid barrier, the NHTSA test is conducted with a moving deformable barrier that overlaps 35% of the vehicle being tested and the angle between the longitudinal axis of the barrier and the longitudinal axis of the test vehicle is 15 degrees. The field relevance of the IIHS test has been the subject of a paper by Prasad et al. (2014). The current study is aimed at examining the field relevance of the NHTSA test. The field relevance is indicated by the frequency of occurrence of real world crashes that are simulated by the test conditions, the proportion of serious-to-fatal real world injuries explained by the test condition, and rates of serious injury to the head, chest and other body regions in the real world crashes resembling the test condition. The database examined for real world crashes is NASS. Results of the study indicate that 1.4% of all frontal 11-to-1 o'clock crashes are simulated by the test conditions that account for 2.4% to 4.5% of all frontal serious-to-fatal (MAIS3+F) injuries. Injury rates of the head and the chest are substantially lower in far-side than in near-side frontal impacts. Crash test ATD rotational responses of the head in the tests overpredict the real world risk of serious-to-fatal brain injuries. PMID:26192954

  12. Enhancing electronic health records to support clinical research.

    PubMed

    Vawdrey, David K; Weng, Chunhua; Herion, David; Cimino, James J

    2014-01-01

    The "Learning Health System" has been described as an environment that drives research and innovation as a natural outgrowth of patient care. Electronic health records (EHRs) are necessary to enable the Learning Health System; however, a source of frustration is that current systems fail to adequately support research needs. We propose a model for enhancing EHRs to collect structured and standards-based clinical research data during clinical encounters that promotes efficiency and computational reuse of quality data for both care and research. The model integrates Common Data Elements (CDEs) for clinical research into existing clinical documentation workflows, leveraging executable documentation guidance within the EHR to support coordinated, standardized data collection for both patient care and clinical research. PMID:25954585

  13. Dissemination of original NMR data enhances reproducibility and integrity in chemical research.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Jonathan; Simmler, Charlotte; Chen, Shao-Nong; Friesen, J Brent; Lankin, David C; McAlpine, James B; Pauli, Guido F

    2016-08-25

    The notion of data transparency is gaining a strong awareness among the scientific community. The availability of raw data is actually regarded as a fundamental way to advance science by promoting both integrity and reproducibility of research outcomes. Particularly, in the field of natural product and chemical research, NMR spectroscopy is a fundamental tool for structural elucidation and quantification (qNMR). As such, the accessibility of original NMR data, i.e., Free Induction Decays (FIDs), fosters transparency in chemical research and optimizes both peer review and reproducibility of reports by offering the fundamental tools to perform efficient structural verification. Although original NMR data are known to contain a wealth of information, they are rarely accessible along with published data. This viewpoint discusses the relevance of the availability of original NMR data as part of good research practices not only to promote structural correctness, but also to enhance traceability and reproducibility of both chemical and biological results. PMID:27197893

  14. Structures and Systems and Bodies and Things: Historical Research on Primary Schooling and Its Professional Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Recalling its origins as a research journal addressing educationists this article seeks to understand historical research published in "History of Education" as aimed at a professional audience. Primary schooling provides a significant focus as the study of education history was fostered especially in the training of elementary teachers.1 In that…

  15. The Confucian View of the Relationship between Knowledge and Action and Its Relevance to Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Ching-tien

    2014-01-01

    There are marked similarities between Confucian ideas about the relationship between action, knowledge and learning, and contemporary educational thinking about action research. Examples can be seen in the relationship between action and research. First, Confucius emphasized the importance of "action" which was different from…

  16. Game-Based Learning in Science Education: A Review of Relevant Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ming-Chaun; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review empirical research articles regarding game-based science learning (GBSL) published from 2000 to 2011. Thirty-one articles were identified through the Web of Science and SCOPUS databases. A qualitative content analysis technique was adopted to analyze the research purposes and designs, game design and…

  17. Early-Career Professional Development Training for Stakeholder-Relevant, Interdisciplinary Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosendahl, D. H.; Bamzai, A.; Mcpherson, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    There are many challenges to conducting inter- or multi-disciplinary research because basic research, applied research, management processes, disciplines, and even sub-disciplines have been "siloed" for so long that many research and management professionals find it difficult to communicate common interests and research needs. It is clear that the next generation of researchers must overcome these disciplinary biases and engage in more open dialogue with other disciplines and the management community in order to be better positioned to collaborate, speak a common language, and understand each other's needs. The U.S. Department of the Interior's South Central Climate Science Center recently conducted a professional development workshop for 28 early-career researchers involved in climate-related research across the South-Central U.S. The participants consisted of graduate students, postdocs, and junior faculty representing 17 different natural and social science disciplines and seven Universities/Institutions. The workshop provided the participants with guidance and instruction on how to overcome the identified challenges in conducting "actionable" research and how to better navigate multi-institutional and multi- or inter-disciplinary research. The workshop was comprised of: (1) a series of instructional presentations organized into themed sessions; (2) two keynote addresses to provide a broader perspective; (3) a real-world case study activity; (4) individual and group projects/presentations; and (5) field trips. In addition, we purposely created informal opportunities for participants to network, which met the goal of facilitating interdisciplinary interactions. An overview of the workshop experience will be provided, including a focus on those aspects leading to its ultimate success and recommendations for how to develop and implement a similar early-career workshop for your own purposes.

  18. A Response to Scott's Concerns about the Relevance of Environmental Education Research: Applying Social-Ecological Systems Thinking and Consilience to Defining Research Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasny, Marianne E.

    2009-01-01

    In William Scott's plenary address at the World Environmental Education Conference, he expressed concerns about the relevance of environmental education research in a world facing global environmental and demographic change. In responding to Scott's concerns, I argue that addressing challenges related to development and the environment requires…

  19. Methods to enhance capacity of medical teachers for research publications.

    PubMed

    Asokan, Neelakandhan; Shaji, Kunnukattil S

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, the Medical Council of India (MCI) made a certain number of research publications mandatory for the promotion to higher posts of medical teachers. Responding to this, there was a series of workshops on research and scientific writing for faculty members of a medical college. We decided to explore the opinions and perceptions of the participants on the need and relevance of such efforts, using qualitative methods such as focus-group discussions (FGDs) and semi-structured interview. The main themes that emerged from the study were as follows: a) presently, there are several hurdles for research and publication; b) recent attempts to upgrade skills of research methodology and scientific writing are encouraging, but need to be sustained; c) the traditional role of clinician - teacher is being replaced with that of clinician-teacher-researcher. Suggestions for future included - a) combined workshops on research methodology and scientific writing skills, b) continuous institutional support system for research and publication, and c) effective mentorship. PMID:27350712

  20. Gain-of-Function Research and the Relevance to Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Kilianski, Andy; Nuzzo, Jennifer B; Modjarrad, Kayvon

    2016-05-01

    The ongoing moratorium on gain-of-function (GOF) research with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus has drawn attention to the current debate on these research practices and the potential benefits and risks they present. While much of the discussion has been steered by members of the microbiology and policy communities, additional input from medical practitioners will be highly valuable toward developing a broadly inclusive policy that considers the relative value and harm of GOF research. This review attempts to serve as a primer on the topic for the clinical community by providing a historical context for GOF research, summarizing concerns about its risks, and surveying the medical products that it has yielded. PMID:26416657

  1. The Development of a Regional Nursing History Collection: Its Relevance to Practice, Education, and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hezel, Linda F.; Linebach, Laura M.

    1991-01-01

    The Nursing History Collection at the University of Missouri-Kansas City preserves artifacts and memorabilia of regional nursing history. Such collections are essential to practice, education, and research in nursing. (SK)

  2. Embryonic stem cell research: the relevance of ethics in the progress of science.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Canela, Miguel

    2002-05-01

    Experimentation with embryonic stem (ES) cells has become an important breakthrough in medical research. However, it is also a source of controversy, because it requires the destruction of the human embryos used to derive ES cells. This paper deals with some of the ethical issues concerning ES cell research. To begin with, the terms used in the debate on the ethical status of the human embryo need to be defined. Apart from the presumed benefits of ES cell research, we should also consider such issues as the strong opposition to this research by a large part of society, who argue in favour of protecting and respecting human embryos; the fragility and defenseless of human embryos; and the contradiction in terms inherent in the statement that human embryos must be treated with respect. Secondly, we should focus on possible conflicts between the financial, scientific, and ethical aspects of this debate. Thirdly, the significance of social and political debate requires clear and complete information that takes all consequences into account. Finally, the paper suggests how multipotent adult stem cell research may be an optimal and realistic alternative to ES cell research. PMID:12011787

  3. Application of FEPs analysis to identify research priorities relevant to the safety case for an Australian radioactive waste facility

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, T.E.; McGlinn, P.J.

    2007-07-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has established a project to undertake research relevant to the safety case for the proposed Australian radioactive waste facility. This facility will comprise a store for intermediate level radioactive waste, and either a store or a near-surface repository for low-level waste. In order to identify the research priorities for this project, a structured analysis of the features, events and processes (FEPs) relevant to the performance of the facility was undertaken. This analysis was based on the list of 137 FEPs developed by the IAEA project on 'Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities' (ISAM). A number of key research issues were identified, and some factors which differ in significance for the store, compared to the repository concept, were highlighted. For example, FEPs related to long-term groundwater transport of radionuclides are considered to be of less significance for a store than a repository. On the other hand, structural damage from severe weather, accident or human interference is more likely for a store. The FEPs analysis has enabled the scientific research skills required for the inter-disciplinary project team to be specified. The outcomes of the research will eventually be utilised in developing the design, and assessing the performance, of the future facility. It is anticipated that a more detailed application of the FEPs methodology will be undertaken to develop the safety case for the proposed radioactive waste management facility. (authors)

  4. LINKAGES ACROSS PM POLICY AND RESEARCH: EXAMINING THE POLICY RELEVANT FINDINGS FROM THE PM2.5 SUPERSITES PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The PM2.5 Supersites program was designed to complement routinely operating PM2.5 networks by providing enhanced temporal and chemical/physical composition data in addressing three overarching objectives: supporting health effects and exposure research, advanced monitoring meth...

  5. A Council on Undergraduate Research Workshop Initiative to Establish, Enhance, and Institutionalize Undergraduate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karukstis, Kerry K.

    2006-01-01

    The value of undergraduate research workshop to significantly enhance the quality of undergraduate science education was cited as one of the goals by the National Science Foundations (NSF) Strategic Plan. To address this strategic national need, the Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR) has granted an NSF course, curriculum, and laboratory…

  6. Poverty and Child Development: Relevance of Research in Developing Countries to the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, Ernesto

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that research from developing countries may help in understanding effects of poverty on child development in the United States, citing three cases: (1) the link between anemia and decreased levels of mental and motor development; (2) the positive effects of supplemental nutrition programs on child development; and (3) effects of poor…

  7. Reading Economics, Thinking Education: The Relevance--and Irrelevance--of Economic Theory for Curriculum Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, David; Rutkowski, Leslie; Langfeldt, Gjert

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to better understand economists' increasingly influential voice to the conversation of schooling and education. It draws on curriculum theory to develop a framework for analysis of current economic research in education. The framework consists of the following tri-partition: the political, the practical, and the programmatical.…

  8. The Relevance of Kohut's Self Psychology to Theory and Research in Counseling Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael J.

    In terms of clinical practice, few differences exist between Freud and Heinz Kohut in the conduct of psychoanalysis. Kohut's style of theorizing facilitates the use of his ideas by counseling psychologists for both research and practice. According to Kohut's theory, the self is the fundamental constituent of mind. Development of the self proceeds…

  9. Revisiting Fixed- and Random-Effects Models: Some Considerations for Policy-Relevant Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Paul; Crawford, Claire; Steele, Fiona; Vignoles, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The use of fixed (FE) and random effects (RE) in two-level hierarchical linear regression is discussed in the context of education research. We compare the robustness of FE models with the modelling flexibility and potential efficiency of those from RE models. We argue that the two should be seen as complementary approaches. We then compare both…

  10. The Contemporary Relevance of Communication Research: Using "Communication Currents" in the Communication Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldeck, Jennifer H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe a rationale and strategies for use of the National Communication Association's online magazine, "Communication Currents", in the undergraduate communication curriculum. "Communication Currents" features essays that translate current scholarship published in NCA journals, making the research "understandable…

  11. Ties That Do Not Bind: Musings on the Specious Relevance of Academic Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Michael J.; Stolcis, Gregory B.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the gap between academic research and practice in public administration and argues that it can be traced to conflicts such as theoretical vs. pragmatic knowledge, data-supported vs. logic-driven information, scientific method vs. case studies, academic vs. practitioner journals, and tenure vs. organizational effectiveness. Explores…

  12. The High School and Beyond Data Set: Its Relevance for Bilingual Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Alvin Y.

    1983-01-01

    The High School and Beyond data set, despite sample constraints, is an invaluable resource for researchers in bilingual education; it contains information from Hispanic students and parents, and from teachers and school administrators, and includes an excellent language file, useful for studying language shift and impact of bilingual education…

  13. The Relevance of Interlanguage and Pidginization to French Immersion Schooling. Research Report 81-07.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Michael

    Research on the language development of children in immersion programs has uncovered a certain amount of data. Immersion students have less well developed productive skills than their francophone peers and passive receptive skills which approach those of francophones. Error analysis studies have found that immersion students reach a plateau in…

  14. Design for Living: The Theoretical and Practical Relevance of HCI to Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Kevin; Dillon, Andrew

    Viewed through an investigation of the cultural and social impact of Information Technology (IT), this paper attempts to illustrate the theoretical and practical utility of HCI (Human Computer Interaction) to communication research. Informed by the full integration hypothesis, which suggests that information technologies have become part of the…

  15. Game-Based Learning in Science Education: A Review of Relevant Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming-Chaun; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to review empirical research articles regarding game-based science learning (GBSL) published from 2000 to 2011. Thirty-one articles were identified through the Web of Science and SCOPUS databases. A qualitative content analysis technique was adopted to analyze the research purposes and designs, game design and implementation, theoretical backgrounds and learning foci of these reviewed studies. The theories and models employed by these studies were classified into four theoretical foundations including cognitivism, constructivism, the socio-cultural perspective, and enactivism. The results indicate that cognitivism and constructivism were the major theoretical foundations employed by the GBSL researchers and that the socio-cultural perspective and enactivism are two emerging theoretical paradigms that have started to draw attention from GBSL researchers in recent years. The analysis of the learning foci showed that most of the digital games were utilized to promote scientific knowledge/concept learning, while less than one-third were implemented to facilitate the students' problem-solving skills. Only a few studies explored the GBSL outcomes from the aspects of scientific processes, affect, engagement, and socio-contextual learning. Suggestions are made to extend the current GBSL research to address the affective and socio-contextual aspects of science learning. The roles of digital games as tutor, tool, and tutee for science education are discussed, while the potentials of digital games to bridge science learning between real and virtual worlds, to promote collaborative problem-solving, to provide affective learning environments, and to facilitate science learning for younger students are also addressed.

  16. Resilience, an Evolving Concept: A Review of Literature Relevant to Aboriginal Research

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, John; Ledogar, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Resilience has been most frequently defined as positive adaptation despite adversity. Over the past 40 years, resilience research has gone through several stages. From an initial focus on the invulnerable or invincible child, psychologists began to recognize that much of what seems to promote resilience originates outside of the individual. This led to a search for resilience factors at the individual, family, community — and, most recently, cultural — levels. In addition to the effects that community and culture have on resilience in individuals, there is growing interest in resilience as a feature of entire communities and cultural groups. Contemporary researchers have found that resilience factors vary in different risk contexts and this has contributed to the notion that resilience is a process. In order to characterize the resilience process in a particular context, it is necessary to identify and measure the risk involved and, in this regard, perceived discrimination and historical trauma are part of the context in many Aboriginal communities. Researchers also seek to understand how particular protective factors interact with risk factors and with other protective factors to support relative resistance. For this purpose they have developed resilience models of three main types: “compensatory,” “protective,” and “challenge” models. Two additional concepts are resilient reintegration, in which a confrontation with adversity leads individuals to a new level of growth, and the notion endorsed by some Aboriginal educators that resilience is an innate quality that needs only to be properly awakened. The review suggests five areas for future research with an emphasis on youth: 1) studies to improve understanding of what makes some Aboriginal youth respond positively to risk and adversity and others not; 2) case studies providing empirical confirmation of the theory of resilient reintegration among Aboriginal youth; 3) more comparative studies on the

  17. Enhancing Undergraduate Education through Mentored Research and Practical Writing Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Denise C.; Hintz, Eric G.; Joner, Michael D.; Moody, J. Ward

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years ago I attended my very first AAS meeting as a 21-year old undergraduate physics major. At that meeting I presented the light curve of a variable star I had studied as part of a mentored research program at BYU. That opportunity to do mentored research, and to attend a professional meeting of astronomers, helped to set the foundation for my success today as an associate professor of physics and astronomy. Twenty years ago I was the student, now I am the mentor! I have eight undergraduate students whom I currently supervise in active research, four of which are presenting their senior projects at the 225th meeting of the AAS.My experience has shown me that the full impact of mentored research cannot be measured by yearly numbers or statistics. When we mentor a student, we influence their career path and choices for years to come. Where feasible, every undergraduate should have the opportunity to do research if they so choose. It is a sacrifice of our time and our effort that cannot be easily measured through numbers or results, and is only visible many years down the road as these students become the future leaders in astronomy and policy. In this poster, I will discuss the benefits of mentored research, the growth we have seen at BYU over the past twenty years with the introduction of a mentored research program, and ideas for implementing mentored research and writing into course curricula to enhance the undergraduate educational experience.

  18. The relevance of Rawls' principle of justice for research on cognitively impaired patients.

    PubMed

    Maio, Giovanni

    2002-01-01

    An ethical conflict arises when we must perform research in the interest of future patients, but that this may occasionally injure the interests of today's patients. In the case of cognitively impaired persons, the question arises whether it is compatible with humane healthcare not only to treat, but also to use these patients for research purposes. Some bioethicists and theologians have formulated a general duty of solidarity, also pertaining to cognitively impaired persons, as a justification for research on these persons. If one examines this thesis from the theory of justice according to John Rawls, it is revealed that such a duty of solidarity cannot necessarily be extrapolated from Rawls' conception of justice. This is at least true of Rawls' difference principle, because according to the difference principle only those measures are justifiable which serve the interest of the respective least well off. Those measures which would engender additional injury for the least well off could not be balanced by any utility according to Rawls. However, John Rawls' difference principle is subordinate to the first principle, which is that each person has an equal right to the most extensive basic liberty compatible with the same liberty for others. These "primary goods" are determined by the freedom and integrity of the person. This integrity of decisionally impaired persons would be in danger if one would abstain from research and thus forego the increase in knowledge related to their disease. Thus one could conclude, at least from Rawls' first principle, that society must take on a duty to guarantee the degrees of freedom for cognitively impaired persons and thus also support the efforts for their healing. PMID:12222620

  19. Research awareness: making learning relevant for pre-registration nursing students.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Fiona; Gracey, Caryl; Jones, Orlagh S; Roberts, Joanne L; Tamsons, R Emma; Tranter, Siobhan

    2008-07-01

    This paper outlines efforts to improve the teaching and learning methods for research on a second year pre-registration nursing programme in one university in Wales, UK. This focussed on experiential approaches supported by electronic learning resources. A subsequent evaluation aimed to elicit participating students' and lecturers' perceptions of the success of the experiential approaches and the supporting resources. A questionnaire was distributed to 53 student nurses who participated in the experiential learning and this was supplemented with an informal qualitative 'graffiti board' evaluation with the cohort; and a group interview with 4 of the lecturers who had acted as group facilitators during the experiential research sessions. The findings revealed that similar issues were pertinent for both lecturers and students and these were contained within three distinct themes relating to the structure, process and outcomes of the teaching and learning approaches. The student-led approach to evaluation offers a fresh outlook which ensures that the emic perspective is included through the study. The study sheds light on the strengths and limitations of experiential approaches to research teaching and suggest that this is a challenging approach both for students and lecturers, which should not be entered into lightly. PMID:17993290

  20. Omics of the marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) and its relevance to marine environmental research.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Kim, Jaebum; Choi, Ik-Young; Raisuddin, Sheikh; Au, Doris W T; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Wu, Rudolf S S; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, the marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma), also known as the Indian medaka or brackish medaka, has been recognized as a model fish species for ecotoxicology and environmental research in the Asian region. O. melastigma has several promising features for research, which include a short generation period (3-4 months), daily spawning, small size (3-4 cm), transparent embryos, sexual dimorphism, and ease of mass culture in the laboratory. There have been extensive transcriptome and genome studies on the marine medaka in the past decade. Such omics data can be useful in understanding the signal transduction pathways of small teleosts in response to environmental stressors. An omics-integrated approach in the study of the marine medaka is important for strengthening its role as a small fish model for marine environmental studies. In this review, we present current omics information about the marine medaka and discuss its potential applications in the study of various molecular pathways that can be targets of marine environmental stressors, such as chemical pollutants. We believe that this review will encourage the use of this small fish as a model species in marine environmental research. PMID:26716363

  1. A Literature Review of Homelessness and Aging: Suggestions for a Policy and Practice-Relevant Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Amanda; Barken, Rachel; Sussman, Tamara; Rothwell, David; Bourgeois-Guérin, Valérie; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Homelessness among older people is a growing concern across Canada and is expected to rise with demographic change (Crane & Warnes, 2010; Culhane, Metraux, Byrne, Stino, & Bainbridge, 2013). Yet current knowledge, policies, and practices on homelessness largely focus on younger populations. Likewise, research and policies on aging typically overlook homelessness. Responses to homelessness among older people must address complex needs related to health, income security, and housing. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this article outlines the existing and needed research with regards to homelessness among older people. We clarify the intersections of aging and homelessness; review the relevant statistics, including estimated prevalence; discuss pathways and variations in experience; and identify gaps in knowledge. We conclude with a call for an inclusive research agenda that will help build policies and practices to reduce and ultimately to eliminate homelessness among older people in Canada. PMID:26782092

  2. Stakeholder analysis of perceived relevance of connectivity - the implication to your research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smetanova, Anna; Müller, Eva Nora Nora; Fernández-Getino, Ana Patricia; José Marqués, María; Vericat, Damià; Dugodan, Recep; Kapovic, Marijana; Ljusa, Melisa; Ferreira, Carla Sofia; Cavalli, Marco; Marttila, Hannu; Broja, Manuel Esteban Lucas; Święchowicz, Jolanta; Zumr, David

    2016-04-01

    Effectively communicated connectivity research is inevitable for targeting the real world connectivity issues, the land and water managers - stakeholders, deal with every day. The understanding of stakeholder's perception of connectivity and the usage of the connectivity concept in their work (both theoretically and practically), are the pre-requisites for successful dialogue between scientist and the end-users of the scientific advancements, that is one of the goals of the COST Action ES1306: Connecting European connectivity research (Connecteur). The contribution presents the results of a questionnaire survey on stakeholders perception of connectivity from 20 European countries. Potential stakeholders on local/ regional and national level, in agriculture, water and land management, or cross-sectoral management authorities, were identified and interviewed in their native language by 29 members of the Connecteur network. Semi-structured interviews consisted of mix of 20 opened, multiple-choice and closed questions. They focused on the context the stakeholders' work, the management issues they deal with, the sources and type of data their use, their collaborative network in relation to management, understanding of connectivity and their expectation on connectivity research. Semi-qualitative analysis was applied to the final datasets of 85 questionnaires in order to (i) understand the stakeholders mental models and perception of connectivity,(ii) to identify the management issues where immediate scientific cooperation is required and / or demanded, and (iii) to identify the tools to represent connectivity that would accepted and implemented by the practitioners. Direct implications for the experts in different domains of the connectivity research, including (i) its theoretical conceptualisation, (ii) measurements, (iii) modelling, (iv) connectivity indices and (v)communication, are presented. Following members of the Connecteur expert team are acknowledged for

  3. Clinically relevant variants identified in thoracic aortic aneurysm patients by research exome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Jeffrey A; Landis, Benjamin J; Shikany, Amy R; Hinton, Robert B; Ware, Stephanie M

    2016-05-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is a genetically heterogeneous disease involving subclinical and progressive dilation of the thoracic aorta, which can lead to life-threatening complications such as dissection or rupture. Genetic testing is important for risk stratification and identification of at risk family members, and clinically available genetic testing panels have been expanding rapidly. However, when past testing results are normal, there is little evidence to guide decision-making about the indications and timing to pursue additional clinical genetic testing. Results from research based genetic testing can help inform this process. Here we present 10 TAA patients who have a family history of disease and who enrolled in research-based exome testing. Nine of these ten patients had previous clinical genetic testing that did not identify the cause of disease. We sought to determine the number of rare variants in 23 known TAA associated genes identified by research-based exome testing. In total, we found 10 rare variants in six patients. Likely pathogenic variants included a TGFB2 variant in one patient and a SMAD3 variant in another. These variants have been reported previously in individuals with similar phenotypes. Variants of uncertain significance of particular interest included novel variants in MYLK and MFAP5, which were identified in a third patient. In total, clinically reportable rare variants were found in 6/10 (60%) patients, with at least 2/10 (20%) patients having likely pathogenic variants identified. These data indicate that consideration of re-testing is important in TAA patients with previous negative or inconclusive results. PMID:26854089

  4. Spinal Cord Injury Caused by Stab Wounds: Incidence, Natural History, and Relevance for Future Research.

    PubMed

    McCaughey, Euan J; Purcell, Mariel; Barnett, Susan C; Allan, David B

    2016-08-01

    Spinal cord injury caused by stab wounds (SCISW) results from a partial or complete transection of the cord, and presents opportunities for interventional research. It is recognized that there is low incidence, but little is known about the natural history or the patient's suitability for long-term clinical outcome studies. This study aims to provide population-based evidence of the demographics of SCISW, and highlight the issues regarding the potential for future research. The database of the Queen Elizabeth National Spinal Injuries Unit (QENSIU), the sole center for treating SCI in Scotland, was reviewed between 1994 and 2013 to ascertain the incidence, demographics, functional recovery, and mortality rates for new SCISW. During this 20 year period, 35 patients with SCISW were admitted (97.1% male, mean age 30.0 years); 31.4% had a cervical injury, 60.0% had a thoracic injury, and 8.6% had a lumbar injury. All had a neurological examination, with 42.9% diagnosed as motor complete on admission and 77.1% discharged as motor incomplete. A total of 70.4% of patients with an American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) level of A to C on admission had an improved AIS level on discharge. Nine (25.7%) patients have died since discharge, with mean life expectancy for these patients being 9.1 years after injury (20-65 years of age). Patients had higher levels of comorbidities, substance abuse, secondary events, and poor compliance compared with the general SCI population, which may have contributed to the high mortality rate observed post-discharge. The low incidence, heterogeneous nature, spontaneous recovery rate, and problematic follow-up makes those with penetrating stab injuries of the spinal cord a challenging patient group for SCI research. PMID:26825180

  5. A review of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension and its relevance for cardiovascular physiotherapy research

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lim-Kyu; Kim, Mee-Young; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Hye-Young; Hwang, Byong-Yong; Kim, Bokyung; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this review was to elucidate the deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-related hypertensive mechanism and to contribute to future studies of cardiovascular physiotherapy. [Methods] This paper focuses on the signal transductions that control hypertension and its mechanisms. We include results reported by our laboratory in a literature review. [Results] Our results and the literature show the various mechanisms of DOCA-salt hypertension. [Conclusion] In this review paper, we carefully discuss the signal transduction in hypertension based on our studies and with reference to cardiovascular physiotherapy research. PMID:25642096

  6. Lessons Learned: Cultural and linguistic enhancement of surveys through community-based participatory research

    PubMed Central

    Formea, Christine M.; Mohamed, Ahmed A.; Hassan, Abdullahi; Osman, Ahmed; Weis, Jennifer A.; Sia, Irene G.; Wieland, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Surveys are frequently implemented in community-based participatory research (CBPR), but adaptation and translation of surveys can be logistically and methodologically challenging when working with immigrant and refugee populations. Objective To describe a process of participatory survey adaptation and translation. Methods Within an established CBPR partnership, a survey about diabetes was adapted for health literacy and local relevance and then translated through a process of forward translation, group deliberation, and back translation. Lessons Learned The group deliberation process was the most time-intensive and important component of the process. The process enhanced community ownership of the larger project while maximizing local applicability of the product. Conclusions A participatory process of survey adaptation and translation resulted in significant revisions to approximate semantic, cultural, and conceptual equivalence with the original surveys. This approach is likely to enhance community acceptance of the survey instrument during the implementation phase. PMID:25435559

  7. Enhancing Astronomy Major Learning Through Group Research Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Allison M.; Hardegree-Ullman, K.; Turner, J.; Shirley, Y. L.; Walker-Lafollette, A.; Scott, A.; Guvenen, B.; Raphael, B.; Sanford, B.; Smart, B.; Nguyen, C.; Jones, C.; Smith, C.; Cates, I.; Romine, J.; Cook, K.; Pearson, K.; Biddle, L.; Small, L.; Donnels, M.; Nieberding, M.; Kwon, M.; Thompson, R.; De La Rosa, R.; Hofmann, R.; Tombleson, R.; Smith, T.; Towner, A. P.; Wallace, S.

    2013-01-01

    The University of Arizona Astronomy Club has been using group research projects to enhance the learning experience of undergraduates in astronomy and related fields. Students work on two projects that employ a peer-mentoring system so they can learn crucial skills and concepts necessary in research environments. Students work on a transiting exoplanet project using the 1.55-meter Kuiper Telescope on Mt. Bigelow in Southern Arizona to collect near-UV and optical wavelength data. The goal of the project is to refine planetary parameters and to attempt to detect exoplanet magnetic fields by searching for near-UV light curve asymmetries. The other project is a survey that utilizes the 12-meter Arizona Radio Observatory on Kitt Peak to search for the spectroscopic signature of infall in nearby starless cores. These are unique projects because students are involved throughout the entire research process, including writing proposals for telescope time, observing at the telescopes, data reduction and analysis, writing papers for publication in journals, and presenting research at scientific conferences. Exoplanet project members are able to receive independent study credit for participating in the research, which helps keep the project on track. Both projects allow students to work on professional research and prepare for several astronomy courses early in their academic career. They also encourage teamwork and mentor-style peer teaching, and can help students identify their own research projects as they expand their knowledge.

  8. Developing a Policy-Relevant Research Agenda for the Patient-Centered Medical Home: A Focus on Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Thom, David H.; Schmittdiel, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) is a widely endorsed model of delivery system reform that emphasizes primary care. Pilot demonstration projects are underway in many states, sponsored by Medicare, Medicaid, major health plans and multi-payer coalitions. Methods In this paper we consider the development of a long-term policy-relevant research agenda on outcomes of the PCMH. We provide an overview of potential measures of PCMH impact, identify measurement challenges and recommend areas for further study. Although the PCMH should not be expected to solve every problem in the health care system, developing a research agenda for measuring outcomes of delivery system innovations such as the PCMH should be considered in the context of the larger effort to improve the US health care system, with the ultimate goal to improve population health. Results As a framework for our discussion, we have chosen the Institute of Medicine’s six specific aims for 21st century health care: (1) safe, (2) effective, (3) patient-centered, (4) timely, (5) efficient and (6) equitable. In addition, we include potential areas of PCMH outcomes that do not easily fall under this framework and consider unintended consequences. Conclusion Multi-stakeholder involvement will be essential in developing a long-term policy-relevant research agenda for outcomes of the PCMH. PMID:20467908

  9. Contemporary social network sites: Relevance in anesthesiology teaching, training, and research

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Rudrashish; Kaushal, Ashutosh; Samanta, Sukhen; Ambesh, Paurush; Srivastava, Shashi; Singh, Prabhat K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The phenomenal popularity of social networking sites has been used globally by medical professionals to boost professional associations and scientific developments. They have tremendous potential to forge professional liaisons, generate employment,upgrading skills and publicizing scientific achievements. We highlight the role of social networking mediums in influencing teaching, training and research in anaesthesiology. Background: The growth of social networking sites have been prompted by the limitations of previous facilities in terms of ease of data and interface sharing and the amalgamation of audio visual aids on common platforms in the newer facilities. Review: Contemporary social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr,Linkedn etc and their respective features based on anaesthesiology training or practice have been discussed. A host of advantages which these sites confer are also discussed. Likewise the potential pitfalls and drawbacks of these facilities have also been addressed. Conclusion: Social networking sites have immense potential for development of training and research in Anaesthesiology. However responsible and cautious utilization is advocated. PMID:27625491

  10. [Basic symptoms in schizophrenia, their clinical study and relevance in research].

    PubMed

    Miret, Salvador; Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; Peralta, Víctor; Fañanás, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Basic symptoms consist of subtle sub-clinical disturbances subjectively experienced by schizophrenia patients. These are mainly related to drive, affect, thinking and language, perception, memory, motor action, central vegetative functions, control of cognitive processes, and stress tolerance. Initially described by Huber, from a phenomenological approach, basic symptoms are part of the earliest features of schizophrenia, and they can evolve along the course of the disorder. Their assessment during the prodromal phase of the disease (together with ultra-high risk criteria) is one of the 2 main approaches that allow the definition of states of clinical risk for the development of psychosis. The present review provides an updated view of the concept of basic symptoms, highlighting its potential value in establishing neurobiological correlates of interest in aetiopathogenic research. PMID:26774677

  11. Relevance of excitable media theory and retinal spreading depression experiments in preclinical pharmacological research.

    PubMed

    V M, Fernandes de Lima; W, Hanke

    2014-09-01

    In preclinical neuropharmacological research, molecular, cell-based, and systems using animals are well established. On the tissue level the situation is less comfortable, although during the last decades some effort went into establishing such systems, i.e. using slices of the vertebrate brain together with optical and electrophysiological techniques. However, these methods are neither fast, nor can they be automated or upscaled. By contrast, the chicken retina can be used as a suitable model. It is easy accessible and can be kept alive in vitro for hours up to days. Due to its structure, in addition the retina displays remarkable intrinsic optical signals, which can be easily used in experiments. Also to electrophysiological methods the retina is well accessible. In excitable tissue, to which the brain and the retina belong, propagating excitation waves can be expected, and the spreading depression is such a phenomenon. It has been first observed in the forties of the last century. Later, Martins-Ferreira established it in the chicken retina (retinal spreading depression or RSD). The electrophysiological characteristics of it are identical with those of the cortical SD. The metabolic differences are known and can be taken into account. The experimental advantage of the RSD compared to the cortical SD is the pronounced intrinsic optical signal (IOS) associated with the travelling wave. This is due to the maximum transparency of retinal tissue in the functional state; thus any physiological event will change it markedly and therefore can be easily seen even by naked eye. The theory can explain wave spread in one (action potentials), two (RSDs) and three dimensions (one heart beat). In this review we present the experimental and the excitable media context for the data interpretation using as example the cholinergic pharmacology in relation to functional syndromes. We also discuss the intrinsic optical signal and how to use it in pre-clinical research. PMID:25426010

  12. Relevance of Excitable Media Theory and Retinal Spreading Depression Experiments in Preclinical Pharmacological Research

    PubMed Central

    V.M, Fernandes de Lima; W, Hanke

    2014-01-01

    In preclinical neuropharmacological research, molecular, cell-based, and systems using animals are well established. On the tissue level the situation is less comfortable, although during the last decades some effort went into establishing such systems, i.e. using slices of the vertebrate brain together with optical and electrophysiological techniques. However, these methods are neither fast, nor can they be automated or upscaled. By contrast, the chicken retina can be used as a suitable model. It is easy accessible and can be kept alive in vitro for hours up to days. Due to its structure, in addition the retina displays remarkable intrinsic optical signals, which can be easily used in experiments. Also to electrophysiological methods the retina is well accessible. In excitable tissue, to which the brain and the retina belong, propagating excitation waves can be expected, and the spreading depression is such a phenomenon. It has been first observed in the forties of the last century. Later, Martins-Ferreira established it in the chicken retina (retinal spreading depression or RSD). The electrophysiological characteristics of it are identical with those of the cortical SD. The metabolic differences are known and can be taken into account. The experimental advantage of the RSD compared to the cortical SD is the pronounced intrinsic optical signal (IOS) associated with the travelling wave. This is due to the maximum transparency of retinal tissue in the functional state; thus any physiological event will change it markedly and therefore can be easily seen even by naked eye. The theory can explain wave spread in one (action potentials), two (RSDs) and three dimensions (one heart beat). In this review we present the experimental and the excitable media context for the data interpretation using as example the cholinergic pharmacology in relation to functional syndromes. We also discuss the intrinsic optical signal and how to use it in pre-clinical research. PMID:25426010

  13. Adventures in Semantic Publishing: Exemplar Semantic Enhancements of a Research Article

    PubMed Central

    Shotton, David; Portwin, Katie; Klyne, Graham; Miles, Alistair

    2009-01-01

    Scientific innovation depends on finding, integrating, and re-using the products of previous research. Here we explore how recent developments in Web technology, particularly those related to the publication of data and metadata, might assist that process by providing semantic enhancements to journal articles within the mainstream process of scholarly journal publishing. We exemplify this by describing semantic enhancements we have made to a recent biomedical research article taken from PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, providing enrichment to its content and increased access to datasets within it. These semantic enhancements include provision of live DOIs and hyperlinks; semantic markup of textual terms, with links to relevant third-party information resources; interactive figures; a re-orderable reference list; a document summary containing a study summary, a tag cloud, and a citation analysis; and two novel types of semantic enrichment: the first, a Supporting Claims Tooltip to permit “Citations in Context”, and the second, Tag Trees that bring together semantically related terms. In addition, we have published downloadable spreadsheets containing data from within tables and figures, have enriched these with provenance information, and have demonstrated various types of data fusion (mashups) with results from other research articles and with Google Maps. We have also published machine-readable RDF metadata both about the article and about the references it cites, for which we developed a Citation Typing Ontology, CiTO (http://purl.org/net/cito/). The enhanced article, which is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000228.x001, presents a compelling existence proof of the possibilities of semantic publication. We hope the showcase of examples and ideas it contains, described in this paper, will excite the imaginations of researchers and publishers, stimulating them to explore the possibilities of semantic publishing for their own research

  14. Legacy model integration for enhancing hydrologic interdisciplinary research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dozier, A.; Arabi, M.; David, O.

    2013-12-01

    Many challenges are introduced to interdisciplinary research in and around the hydrologic science community due to advances in computing technology and modeling capabilities in different programming languages, across different platforms and frameworks by researchers in a variety of fields with a variety of experience in computer programming. Many new hydrologic models as well as optimization, parameter estimation, and uncertainty characterization techniques are developed in scripting languages such as Matlab, R, Python, or in newer languages such as Java and the .Net languages, whereas many legacy models have been written in FORTRAN and C, which complicates inter-model communication for two-way feedbacks. However, most hydrologic researchers and industry personnel have little knowledge of the computing technologies that are available to address the model integration process. Therefore, the goal of this study is to address these new challenges by utilizing a novel approach based on a publish-subscribe-type system to enhance modeling capabilities of legacy socio-economic, hydrologic, and ecologic software. Enhancements include massive parallelization of executions and access to legacy model variables at any point during the simulation process by another program without having to compile all the models together into an inseparable 'super-model'. Thus, this study provides two-way feedback mechanisms between multiple different process models that can be written in various programming languages and can run on different machines and operating systems. Additionally, a level of abstraction is given to the model integration process that allows researchers and other technical personnel to perform more detailed and interactive modeling, visualization, optimization, calibration, and uncertainty analysis without requiring deep understanding of inter-process communication. To be compatible, a program must be written in a programming language with bindings to a common

  15. Survey of Laser Markets Relevant to Inertial Fusion Energy Drivers, information for National Research Council

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, A J; Deri, R J; Erlandson, A C

    2011-02-24

    Development of a new technology for commercial application can be significantly accelerated by leveraging related technologies used in other markets. Synergies across multiple application domains attract research and development (R and D) talent - widening the innovation pipeline - and increases the market demand in common components and subsystems to provide performance improvements and cost reductions. For these reasons, driver development plans for inertial fusion energy (IFE) should consider the non-fusion technology base that can be lveraged for application to IFE. At this time, two laser driver technologies are being proposed for IFE: solid-state lasers (SSLs) and KrF gas (excimer) lasers. This document provides a brief survey of organizations actively engaged in these technologies. This is intended to facilitate comparison of the opportunities for leveraging the larger technical community for IFE laser driver development. They have included tables that summarize the commercial organizations selling solid-state and KrF lasers, and a brief summary of organizations actively engaged in R and D on these technologies.

  16. Self-disturbances in Schizophrenia: History, Phenomenology, and Relevant Findings From Research on Metacognition

    PubMed Central

    Mishara, Aaron L.

    2014-01-01

    With a tradition of examining self-disturbances (Ichstörungen) in schizophrenia, phenomenological psychiatry studies the person’s subjective experience without imposing theoretical agenda on what is reported. Although this tradition offers promising interface with current neurobiological models of schizophrenia, both the concept of Ichstörung and its history are not well understood. In this article, we discuss the meaning of Ichstörung, the role it played in the development of the concept of schizophrenia, and recent research on metacognition that allows for the quantitative study of the link between self-disturbance and outcome in schizophrenia. Phenomenological psychiatrists such as Blankenburg, Binswanger, and Conrad interpreted the Ichstörung as disturbed relationship to self and others, thus challenging recent efforts to interpret self-disturbance as diminished pure passive self-affection, which putatively “explains” schizophrenia and its various symptoms. Narrative is a reflective, embodied process, which requires a dynamic shifting of perspectives which, when compromised, may reflect disrupted binding of the components of self-experience. The Metacognition Assessment Scale—abbreviated as MAS-A—suggests that persons with schizophrenia tend to produce narratives with reductions in the binding processes required to produce an integrated, embodied self within narrated life stories, and in interactive relationships with others. PMID:24319117

  17. Enhanced oil recovery: Definitions, fundamentals, applications, and research frontiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Ralph

    This paper describes the highlights of current oil-recovery technology, including primary, secondary, tertiary, and enhanced recovery processes. Fundamental displacement phenomena are discussed: (1) from a macro-view, such as injection- and production-well patterns, impermeable barriers, and geologic faults; and (2) from a micro-view, which considers oil displacement on a pore-by-pore basis in a three-dimensional interconnected network of flow channels. Applications used to illustrate displacement fundamentals included the major features of water, polymer, and micellar flooding; and steam and CO 2 injection. Also discussed are two principal frontiers of enhanced oil recovery research: definition of the reservoir, and independent measurement of the amount of oil in place.

  18. Recent advances in research on plasmonic enhancement of photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Bich Ha; Hieu Nguyen, Van

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present work is to review the results of the research on the plasmonic enhancement of photocatalytic activity of composite nanostructures consisting of metal and oxide semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs). Besides the separation of electrons and holes photoexcited in an oxide semiconductor resulting in the reduction of their recombination rate, the plasmon resonance in metal NPs deposited on or embedded into the oxide semiconductor significantly enhances the photon absorption by the nanocomposite compared with that by the single oxide semiconductor, i.e. the plasmonic enhancement. The main content of this review is a presentation of the study of various nanocomposite photocatalysts with enhanced activities due to the plasmonic enhancement effect, i.e. the plasmonic photocatalysts. Results of the study of many two-component nanocomposite plasmonic photocatalysts are presented. The simplest one consists of Au NPs or Ag NPs embedded into TiO2. The other ones consist of Au nanorods (NRs) elaborately arranged on the TiO2 surface, Au NPs deposited on different supports such as hydrotalata (HT), γ-Al2O3, n-Al2O3, ZnO as well as TiO2 NRs, CeO2-coated bimetallic nanocomposites Au@Pd and Au@Pt, and the metal nanocrystal core@CeO2 shell nanostructure. Besides these various two-component nanocomposite photocatalysts, several three-component ones have also been studied by many authors. The results of research on Au@TiO2/Pt, Au@TiO2/Pd, Au/TiO2@Pt, Au@Pd/TiO2, Au@SiO2/TiO2, SiO2@TiO2/Au, Au/mp-TiO2/FTO, Au/mp-TiO2/ITO, Au/mp-TiO2/glass, where mp-TiO2 means mesoporous titania, as well as Ag@AgCl/CNTs, Ag@AgBr/CNTs and Ag@AgI/CNTs, are also presented. The plasmonic coupling of metallic NPs in the networks of NPs generates the complementary enhancement effect. The results of the study on the physical mechanisms of the plasmonic coupling are also included.

  19. Integrated Water Resources Management: Relevant concept or irrelevant buzzword? A capacity building and research agenda for Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Zaag, Pieter

    This article examines the concept ‘Integrated Water Resources Management’ (IWRM) and inquires as to its relevance for the Southern African region. The paper first acknowledges the contributions made to IWRM by three regional initiatives-WaterNet, the Water Research Fund for Southern Africa (WARFSA), and the Southern African chapter of the Global Water Partnership. Then, three important aspects of IWRM are highlighted: that IWRM requires institutional capacity to integrate, which often is a scarce resource; that IWRM is neither solution nor recipe, but rather a perspective or way of looking at problems with a view to solving them through transparent and inclusive decision-making processes; and that IWRM should explicitly deal with the fact that water tends to build asymmetrical relationships between people, communities and nations. An IWRM agenda is subsequently set out, focussing on five critical issues: the dilemma between economic development and sustainability; the unresolved issue of water as an economic good; the place and role of rainfed farmers in IWRM; the importance of training and teaching; and the need for building reflexive capacity in the new and existing water institutions. The paper concludes that IWRM is a relevant, yet elusive and fuzzy concept. Evidence from Southern Africa and around the world shows that IWRM inspires a new generation of water managers and researchers to act creatively; assists in addressing the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); and instils mutual respect, understanding and co-operation among water professionals in Southern Africa.

  20. The relationship between passibility, agency and social interaction and its relevance for research and pedagogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirch, Susan A.; Ma, Jasmine Y.

    2016-02-01

    The interaction analysis presented by Kim and Roth examines nine students, their teachers, the learning task and materials in a mixed second and third grade science classroom during the school day. In the research narrative readers are introduced to two resourceful and creative groups of students as they work on a task assigned by their teacher—to cantilever a pizza box over the edge of a student desk. Readers are given glimpses (through images and transcripts) of the inventive ways each group solved the cantilever problem. Sometimes the children disregarded the design constraints, but even after compliance they managed to successfully solve the problem. The point of the learning task was not clearly stated, but readers are told the unit focused on investigating forces, forces in equilibrium, and structures as well as different forces (push, pull, etc.), properties of materials, and the relations between weight and balance while building structures. Kim and Roth were specifically interested in using this session to investigate and resolve the problem of learning as described by socio-cultural theorists as, how does a learner orient toward a learning outcome when they cannot do that until they have learned it? To answer this question Kim and Roth argued that learners (in engineering design) learn when and because: (1) they are open to be affected by the responses of materials to student action (i.e. student and material agency and physical touch) (2) their bodies are endowed with the capacity to be affected (i.e. passibility), and (3) knowledge and understanding emerge as and in social relations first. In their analysis, Kim and Roth argued that knowledge and knowing-how depend on these three universal processes. The authors further theorized the concept of passibility. Included in their theory of passibility was the claim that passibility is necessary for agency. After reading this paper we found we had many questions about Kim and Roth's analysis, context, and

  1. Contribution mapping: a method for mapping the contribution of research to enhance its impact

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background At a time of growing emphasis on both the use of research and accountability, it is important for research funders, researchers and other stakeholders to monitor and evaluate the extent to which research contributes to better action for health, and find ways to enhance the likelihood that beneficial contributions are realized. Past attempts to assess research 'impact' struggle with operationalizing 'impact', identifying the users of research and attributing impact to research projects as source. In this article we describe Contribution Mapping, a novel approach to research monitoring and evaluation that aims to assess contributions instead of impacts. The approach focuses on processes and actors and systematically assesses anticipatory efforts that aim to enhance contributions, so-called alignment efforts. The approach is designed to be useful for both accountability purposes and for assisting in better employing research to contribute to better action for health. Methods Contribution Mapping is inspired by a perspective from social studies of science on how research and knowledge utilization processes evolve. For each research project that is assessed, a three-phase process map is developed that includes the main actors, activities and alignment efforts during research formulation, production and knowledge extension (e.g. dissemination and utilization). The approach focuses on the actors involved in, or interacting with, a research project (the linked actors) and the most likely influential users, who are referred to as potential key users. In the first stage, the investigators of the assessed project are interviewed to develop a preliminary version of the process map and first estimation of research-related contributions. In the second stage, potential key-users and other informants are interviewed to trace, explore and triangulate possible contributions. In the third stage, the presence and role of alignment efforts is analyzed and the preliminary

  2. Enhancing Dissemination and Implementation Research Using Systems Science Methods

    PubMed Central

    Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Neal, Jennifer Watling; Meissner, Helen I.; Yonas, Michael; Mabry, Patricia L.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Dissemination and implementation (D&I) research seeks to understand and overcome barriers to adoption of behavioral interventions that address complex problems; specifically interventions that arise from multiple interacting influences crossing socio-ecological levels. It is often difficult for research to accurately represent and address the complexities of the real world, and traditional methodological approaches are generally inadequate for this task. Systems science methods, expressly designed to study complex systems, can be effectively employed for an improved understanding about dissemination and implementation of evidence-based interventions. METHODS Case examples of three systems science methods – system dynamics modeling, agent-based modeling, and network analysis – are used to illustrate how each method can be used to address D&I challenges. RESULTS The case studies feature relevant behavioral topical areas: chronic disease prevention, community violence prevention, and educational intervention. To emphasize consistency with D&I priorities, the discussion of the value of each method is framed around the elements of the established Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. CONCLUSIONS Systems science methods can help researchers, public health decision makers and program implementers to understand the complex factors influencing successful D&I of programs in community settings, and to identify D&I challenges imposed by system complexity. PMID:24852184

  3. Does a research article's country of origin affect perception of its quality and relevance? A national trial of US public health researchers

    PubMed Central

    Harris, M; Macinko, J; Jimenez, G; Mahfoud, M; Anderson, C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The source of research may influence one's interpretation of it in either negative or positive ways, however, there are no robust experiments to determine how source impacts on one's judgment of the research article. We determine the impact of source on respondents’ assessment of the quality and relevance of selected research abstracts. Design Web-based survey design using four healthcare research abstracts previously published and included in Cochrane Reviews. Setting All Council on the Education of Public Health-accredited Schools and Programmes of Public Health in the USA. Participants 899 core faculty members (full, associate and assistant professors) Intervention Each of the four abstracts appeared with a high-income source half of the time, and low-income source half of the time. Participants each reviewed the same four abstracts, but were randomly allocated to receive two abstracts with high-income source, and two abstracts with low-income source, allowing for within-abstract comparison of quality and relevance Primary outcome measures Within-abstract comparison of participants’ rating scores on two measures—strength of the evidence, and likelihood of referral to a peer (1–10 rating scale). OR was calculated using a generalised ordered logit model adjusting for sociodemographic covariates. Results Participants who received high income country source abstracts were equal in all known characteristics to the participants who received the abstracts with low income country sources. For one of the four abstracts (a randomised, controlled trial of a pharmaceutical intervention), likelihood of referral to a peer was greater if the source was a high income country (OR 1.28, 1.02 to 1.62, p<0.05). Conclusions All things being equal, in one of the four abstracts, the respondents were influenced by a high-income source in their rating of research abstracts. More research may be needed to explore how the origin of a research article may lead to

  4. A Review of the Literature on Memory Enhancement: The Potential and Relevance of Mnemotechnics for Military Training. Technical Report 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Douglas

    An analysis based on an extensive review of the scientific and popular literature indicates that memory enhancement techniques (mnemotechnics) can be used to increase the effectiveness of military training. An overview of the most common memory enhancement techniques provides background for an assessment of the general utility of such techniques…

  5. The Developing Utility of Zebrafish Models for Cognitive Enhancers Research

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2012-01-01

    Whereas cognitive impairment is a common symptom in multiple brain disorders, predictive and high-throughput animal models of cognition and behavior are becoming increasingly important in the field of translational neuroscience research. In particular, reliable models of the cognitive deficits characteristic of numerous neurobehavioral disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia have become a significant focus of investigation. While rodents have traditionally been used to study cognitive phenotypes, zebrafish (Danio rerio) are gaining popularity as an excellent model to complement current translational neuroscience research. Here we discuss recent advances in pharmacological and genetic approaches using zebrafish models to study cognitive impairments and to discover novel cognitive enhancers and neuroprotective mechanisms. PMID:23449968

  6. Engaging Students in Aging Research through the Academic Research Enhancement Award Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Sandra S.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the R15, Academic Research Enhancement Award (AREA) mechanism available through the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for institutions that do not typically receive substantial NIH funding. Equipped with training received at the St. Scholastica National Institute on Social Work and Aging, I was able to secure AREA funding…

  7. Seamless Meteorology-Chemistry Modelling: Status and Relevance for Numerical Weather Prediction, Air Quality and Climate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; EuMetChem Team

    2015-04-01

    Online coupled meteorology atmospheric chemistry models have undergone a rapid evolution in recent years. Although mainly developed by the air quality modelling community, these models are also of interest for numerical weather prediction and climate modelling as they can consider not only the effects of meteorology on air quality, but also the potentially important effects of atmospheric composition on weather. Two ways of online coupling can be distinguished: online integrated and online access coupling. Online integrated models simulate meteorology and chemistry over the same grid in one model using one main timestep for integration. Online access models use independent meteorology and chemistry modules that might even have different grids, but exchange meteorology and chemistry data on a regular and frequent basis. This paper is an overall outcome of the European COST Action ES1004: European Framework for Online Integrated Air Quality and Meteorology Modelling (EuMetChem) and conclusions from the recently organized Symposium on Coupled Chemistry-Meteorology/Climate Modelling: Status and Relevance for Numerical Weather Prediction, Air Quality and Climate Research. It offers a review of the current research status of online coupled meteorology and atmospheric chemistry modelling, a survey of processes relevant to the interactions between atmospheric physics, dynamics and composition; and highlights selected scientific issues and emerging challenges that require proper consideration to improve the reliability and usability of these models for the three scientific communities: air quality, numerical meteorology modelling (including weather prediction) and climate modelling. It presents a synthesis of scientific progress and provides recommendations for future research directions and priorities in the development, application and evaluation of online coupled models.

  8. Rodent models in bone-related research: the relevance of calvarial defects in the assessment of bone regeneration strategies.

    PubMed

    Gomes, P S; Fernandes, M H

    2011-01-01

    In vivo research with animal models has been a preferred experimental system in bone-related biomedical research since, by approximation, it allows relevant data gathering regarding physiological and pathological conditions that could be of use to establish more effective clinical interventions. Animal models, and more specifically rodent models, have been extensively used and have contributed greatly to the development and establishment of a wide range of translational approaches aiming to regenerate the bone tissue. In this regard, the calvarial defect model has found great application in basic and applied research, nonetheless the controversial rationalization for the use of critical size defects - defects that are unable to report spontaneous healing - or subcritical size defects in the proposed applications. Accordingly, this work aims to review the advantages and limitations of the use of rodent models in biomedical bone-related research, emphasizing the problematic issues of the use of calvarial critical and subcritical size defects. Additionally, surgical protocols for the establishment of both defects in rat calvarial bone, as well as the description and exemplification of the most frequently used techniques to access the bone tissue repair, are portrayed. PMID:21156759

  9. [AGIKO (Clinical Research Fellow); a training model aimed at enhancement of clinical scientific research].

    PubMed

    van Rees-Wortelboer, M M; Lamberts, S W; Klasen, E C

    1997-06-21

    The enhancement of clinical scientific research in the Netherlands is being stimulated to a substantial extent by the introduction and stimulation of a training model aimed at the combined training of physicians to both a general practitioner or specialist and a clinical researcher, the AGIKO (Clinical Research Fellow). The model has been recognized by the Central College for Recognition and Registration of Medical Specialists. Extra stimulation by the section Medical Sciences of the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (MW-NWO) makes it possible to appoint AGIKOs on second or third flows of funds but also within the first flow of funds. During the last two years, 25 AGIKO applications from ten medical specialisms have been approved. The AGIKO model may help to meet (expected) needs for future clinical-medical research workers in specific research areas. PMID:9380169

  10. Microbial enhanced oil recovery and wettability research program

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.P.; Bala, G.A.; Duvall, M.L.

    1991-07-01

    This report covers research results for the microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) and wettability research program conducted by EG G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The isolation and characterization of microbial species collected from various locations including target oil field environments is underway to develop more effective oil recovery systems for specific applications. The wettability research is a multi-year collaborative effort with the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center (NMPRRC), to evaluate reservoir wettability and its effects on oil recovery. Results from the wettability research will be applied to determine if alteration of wettability is a significant contributing mechanism for MEOR systems. Eight facultatively anaerobic surfactant producing isolates able to function in the reservoir conditions of the Minnelusa A Sands of the Powder River Basin in Wyoming were isolated from naturally occurring oil-laden environments. Isolates were characterized according to morphology, thermostability, halotolerance, growth substrates, affinity to crude oil/brine interfaces, degradative effects on crude oils, and biochemical profiles. Research at the INEL has focused on the elucidation of microbial mechanisms by which crude oil may be recovered from a reservoir and the chemical and physical properties of the reservoir that may impact the effectiveness of MEOR. Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 (ATCC 39307) has been used as a benchmark organism to quantify MEOR of medium weight crude oils (17.5 to 38.1{degrees}API) the capacity for oil recovery of Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 utilizing a sucrose-based nutrient has been elucidated using Berea sandstone cores. Spacial distribution of cells after microbial flooding has been analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Also the effect of microbial surfactants on the interfacial tensions (IFT) of aqueous/crude oil systems has been measured. 87 refs., 60 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Next-generation phenotyping: requirements and strategies for enhancing our understanding of genotype-phenotype relationships and its relevance to crop improvement.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Joshua N; Declerck, Genevieve; Greenberg, Anthony; Clark, Randy; McCouch, Susan

    2013-04-01

    More accurate and precise phenotyping strategies are necessary to empower high-resolution linkage mapping and genome-wide association studies and for training genomic selection models in plant improvement. Within this framework, the objective of modern phenotyping is to increase the accuracy, precision and throughput of phenotypic estimation at all levels of biological organization while reducing costs and minimizing labor through automation, remote sensing, improved data integration and experimental design. Much like the efforts to optimize genotyping during the 1980s and 1990s, designing effective phenotyping initiatives today requires multi-faceted collaborations between biologists, computer scientists, statisticians and engineers. Robust phenotyping systems are needed to characterize the full suite of genetic factors that contribute to quantitative phenotypic variation across cells, organs and tissues, developmental stages, years, environments, species and research programs. Next-generation phenotyping generates significantly more data than previously and requires novel data management, access and storage systems, increased use of ontologies to facilitate data integration, and new statistical tools for enhancing experimental design and extracting biologically meaningful signal from environmental and experimental noise. To ensure relevance, the implementation of efficient and informative phenotyping experiments also requires familiarity with diverse germplasm resources, population structures, and target populations of environments. Today, phenotyping is quickly emerging as the major operational bottleneck limiting the power of genetic analysis and genomic prediction. The challenge for the next generation of quantitative geneticists and plant breeders is not only to understand the genetic basis of complex trait variation, but also to use that knowledge to efficiently synthesize twenty-first century crop varieties. PMID:23471459

  12. Highlights of mechanistic and therapeutic cachexia and sarcopenia research 2010 to 2012 and their relevance for cardiology.

    PubMed

    Anker, Markus S; von Haehling, Stephan; Springer, Jochen; Banach, Maciej; Anker, Stefan D

    2013-02-21

    Sarcopenia and cachexia are significant medical problems with a high disease-related burden in cardiovascular illness. Muscle wasting and weight loss are very frequent particularly in chronic heart failure and they relate to poor prognosis. Although clinically largely underestimated, the fields of cachexia and sarcopenia are of great relevance to cardiologists. In cachexia and sarcopenia a significant number of research publications related to basic science questions of muscle wasting and lipolysis were published between 2010 and 2012. Recently, the two processes of muscle wasting and lipolysis were found to be closely linked. Treatment research in pre-clinical models involves studies on a number of different therapeutic entities, including ghrelin, selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), as well as drugs targeting myostatin or melanocortin-4. In the human setting, studies using enobosarm (a SARM) and anamorelin (ghrelin) are in phase III. The last 3 years have seen significant efforts to define the field using consensus statements. In the future, these definitions should also be considered for guidelines and treatment trials in cardiovascular medicine. The current review aims to summarize important information and development in the fields of muscle wasting, sarcopenia and cachexia, focusing on findings in cardiovascular research, in order for cardiologists to have a better understanding of the progress in this still insufficiently known field. PMID:23515589

  13. Highlights of the mechanistic and therapeutic cachexia and sarcopenia research 2010 to 2012 and their relevance for cardiology.

    PubMed

    Anker, Markus S; von Haehling, Stephan; Springer, Jochen; Banach, Maciej; Anker, Stefan D

    2013-01-10

    Sarcopenia and cachexia are significant medical problems with a high disease related burden in cardiovascular illness. Muscle wasting and weight loss are very frequent particularly in chronic heart failure and they relate to poor prognosis. Although clinically largely underestimated, the fields of cachexia and sarcopenia are of great relevance to cardiologists. In cachexia and sarcopenia a significant number of research publications related to basic science questions of muscle wasting and lipolysis were published between 2010 and 2012. Recently, the two processes of muscle wasting and lipolysis were found to be closely linked. Treatment research in pre-clinical models involves studies on a number of different therapeutic entities, including ghrelin, selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), as well as drugs targeting myostatin or melanocortin-4. In the human setting, studies using enobosarm (a SARM) and anamorelin (ghrelin) are in phase III. The last 3 years has seen significant efforts to define the field using consensus statements. In the future, these definitions should also be considered for guidelines and treatment trials in cardiovascular medicine. The current review aims to summarize important information and development in the fields of muscle wasting, sarcopenia and cachexia focussing on findings in cardiovascular research, in order for cardiologists to have a better understanding of the progress in the still not well enough known field. PMID:23174169

  14. Highlights of mechanistic and therapeutic cachexia and sarcopenia research 2010 to 2012 and their relevance for cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Anker, Markus S.; von Haehling, Stephan; Springer, Jochen; Banach, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia and cachexia are significant medical problems with a high disease-related burden in cardiovascular illness. Muscle wasting and weight loss are very frequent particularly in chronic heart failure and they relate to poor prognosis. Although clinically largely underestimated, the fields of cachexia and sarcopenia are of great relevance to cardiologists. In cachexia and sarcopenia a significant number of research publications related to basic science questions of muscle wasting and lipolysis were published between 2010 and 2012. Recently, the two processes of muscle wasting and lipolysis were found to be closely linked. Treatment research in pre-clinical models involves studies on a number of different therapeutic entities, including ghrelin, selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), as well as drugs targeting myostatin or melanocortin-4. In the human setting, studies using enobosarm (a SARM) and anamorelin (ghrelin) are in phase III. The last 3 years have seen significant efforts to define the field using consensus statements. In the future, these definitions should also be considered for guidelines and treatment trials in cardiovascular medicine. The current review aims to summarize important information and development in the fields of muscle wasting, sarcopenia and cachexia, focusing on findings in cardiovascular research, in order for cardiologists to have a better understanding of the progress in this still insufficiently known field. PMID:23515589

  15. Enhancing Geoscience Research Discovery Through the Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan, Linda R.; Gross, M. Benjamin; Mayernik, Matthew; Khan, Huda; Boler, Frances; Maull, Keith; Stott, Don; Williams, Steve; Corson-Rikert, Jon; Johns, Erica M.; Daniels, Michael; Krafft, Dean B.; Meertens, Charles

    2016-04-01

    UNAVCO, UCAR, and Cornell University are working together to leverage semantic web technologies to enable discovery of people, datasets, publications and other research products, as well as the connections between them. The EarthCollab project, a U.S. National Science Foundation EarthCube Building Block, is enhancing an existing open-source semantic web application, VIVO, to enhance connectivity across distributed networks of researchers and resources related to the following two geoscience-based communities: (1) the Bering Sea Project, an interdisciplinary field program whose data archive is hosted by NCAR's Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL), and (2) UNAVCO, a geodetic facility and consortium that supports diverse research projects informed by geodesy. People, publications, datasets and grant information have been mapped to an extended version of the VIVO-ISF ontology and ingested into VIVO's database. Much of the VIVO ontology was built for the life sciences, so we have added some components of existing geoscience-based ontologies and a few terms from a local ontology that we created. The UNAVCO VIVO instance, connect.unavco.org, utilizes persistent identifiers whenever possible; for example using ORCIDs for people, publication DOIs, data DOIs and unique NSF grant numbers. Data is ingested using a custom set of scripts that include the ability to perform basic automated and curated disambiguation. VIVO can display a page for every object ingested, including connections to other objects in the VIVO database. A dataset page, for example, includes the dataset type, time interval, DOI, related publications, and authors. The dataset type field provides a connection to all other datasets of the same type. The author's page shows, among other information, related datasets and co-authors. Information previously spread across several unconnected databases is now stored in a single location. In addition to VIVO's default display, the new database can be queried using SPARQL

  16. Enhancing exposure-based therapy from a translational research perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2007-01-01

    Combining an effective psychological treatment with conventional anxiolytic medication is typically not more effective than unimodal therapy for treating anxiety disorders. However, recent advances in the neuroscience of fear reduction have led to novel approaches for combining psychological therapy and pharmacological agents. Exposure-based treatments in humans partly rely on extinction to reduce the fear response in anxiety disorders. Animal studies have shown that d-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist at the glycine recognition site of the glutamatergic N-methyl- d-aspartate receptor facilitates extinction learning. Similarly, recent human trials have shown that DCS enhances fear reduction during exposure therapy of some anxiety disorders. This article discusses the biological and psychological mechanisms of extinction learning and the therapeutic value of DCS as an augmentation strategy for exposure therapy. Areas of future research will be identified. PMID:17659253

  17. Bisphenol A at concentrations relevant to human exposure enhances histamine and cysteinyl leukotriene release from bone marrow-derived mast cells.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Edmund; Dolinoy, Dana C; Mancuso, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a monomer of polycarbonate plastics and epoxide resin, acts as an endocrine-active compound and has been shown to enhance the inflammatory response to allergen challenge. Previous reports in rodents have demonstrated that perinatal BPA exposure alters airway inflammation following sensitization and challenge to ovalbumin in juvenile and adult offspring. Additionally, a high concentration of BPA has been shown to enhance mediator release in mast cell lines. This study aimed to determine if short-term BPA exposure, at levels relevant to human exposure, enhances mast cell release of histamine and cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs). Primary murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) produced from the femurs of female C57BL/6 mice were stimulated with BPA or estradiol (E2) in vitro. It was observed that both BPA and E2 increased BMMC histamine release over a range of nanomolar concentrations (1-1000 nM). The estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI 182,780 partially blocked the ability of E2, but not BPA, to elevate histamine release. BPA also increased CysLT release, which was not abrogated by ER inhibition. It was also observed that the ability of BPA to enhance histamine and CysLT release was inhibited by blocking the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway with U0126 or by chelating extracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) using EGTA. In summary, these experiments are the first to demonstrate that acute BPA exposure enhances mast cell histamine and CysLT release in vitro--an effect that is not dependent on an ER-mediated mechanism. Instead, BPA-induced mast cell histamine and CysLT release may be mediated, in part, by the ERK pathway and extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. These data suggest that exposure to BPA at levels relevant to human exposure may provoke an acute inflammatory response in atopic individuals via enhanced mast cell activation. PMID:23782309

  18. "Moderate Stress Enhances Immediate and Delayed Retrieval of Educationally Relevant Material in Healthy Young Men": Correction to Hupbach and Fieman (2012).

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Reports an error in "Moderate stress enhances immediate and delayed retrieval of educationally relevant material in healthy young men" by Almut Hupbach and Rachel Fieman (Behavioral Neuroscience, 2012[Dec], Vol 126[6], 819-825). In the article there are computational errors in the last sentence of the Memory Performance section. "(M = .30, SD = .11 for CPS, and M = .13, SD = 17 for the warm water control)." should read instead: "(M = .03, SD = .11 for CPS, and M = .13, SD = .17 for the warm water control)." (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2012-27908-001.) Retrieval practice is a powerful memory enhancer. However, in educational settings, test taking is often experienced as a stressful event. While it is known that stress can impair retrieval processes, little is known about the delayed consequences of testing memory for educationally relevant material under stressful conditions, which is the focus of the present study. Participants (38 women, 37 men) memorized a scientific text passage on Day 1. On Day 2, they were either exposed to a stressor (cold pressor test; CPS) or a warm water control, and immediately afterward, they were asked to recall the text passage (i.e., retrieval under stress vs. control). Salivary cortisol was measured as an index of the stress response before, and 20 min after the CPS versus control treatment. The delayed effects of testing under stress were assessed with a final recall test on Day 3. In comparison to the control condition, CPS caused significant increases in salivary cortisol, and, surprisingly resulted in enhanced memory in men. Importantly, this enhancement was not only observed in the test that immediately followed the stressor, but also in the delayed test. In women, CPS caused only marginal increases in cortisol concentrations, and retrieval remained unaffected. Our study suggests that moderate stress can improve memory performance for educationally relevant material in a long-lasting manner

  19. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, M.; Brusseau, M. L. L.; Artiola, J. F.; Maier, R. M.; Gandolfi, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation and decision-making, and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with contaminated sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites.

  20. Environmental Research Translation: enhancing interactions with communities at contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D; Brusseau, Mark L; Artiola, Janick F; Maier, Raina M; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2014-11-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation, and decision-making and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with environmental contamination sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites. PMID:25173762

  1. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Brusseau, Mark L.; Artiola, Janick F.; Maier, Raina M.; Gandolfi, A. Jay

    2014-01-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation, and decision-making and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with environmental contamination sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites. PMID:25173762

  2. Relevance of the chronobiological and non-chronobiological actions of melatonin for enhancing therapeutic efficacy in neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Cecon, Erika; Markus, Regina P

    2011-05-01

    Melatonin is an indolamine with a large spectrum of functions that can be divided into chronobiotic and nonchronobiotic. Chronobiotic effects are mediated by the daily rhythm of melatonin in the plasma due to nocturnal pineal synthesis, whereas the melatonin produced by other cells, such as gastrointestinal and immune competent cells, is independent of the light/dark cycle and exert non-chronobiotic effects. The concentrations achieved by the two sources are significantly different, varying in the pM-nM range in the plasma, and may achieve concentrations in the mM range when released locally by activated immune-competent cells. Consequently, the effects of the melatonin produced in these two situations are distinct. Much has been reported about the beneficial response to exogenous melatonin administration in several pathological conditions. However, the relationship between the establishment of a disease and the state of the physiological activity of the pineal gland is still poorly understood. Here, we review the state of art in the modulation of pineal melatonin synthesis, relevant patents, and discuss its relationship with neurodegenerative disorders that involve a central inflammatory response, such as Alzheimer's disease, to suggest the putative relevance of new therapeutic protocols that replace this pineal hormone. PMID:22074584

  3. Decreased corticolimbic allopregnanolone expression during social isolation enhances contextual fear: A model relevant for posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pibiri, Fabio; Nelson, Marianela; Guidotti, Alessandro; Costa, Erminio; Pinna, Graziano

    2008-01-01

    Mice subjected to social isolation (3–4 weeks) exhibit enhanced contextual fear responses and impaired fear extinction. These responses are time-related to a decrease of 5α-reductase type I (5α-RI) mRNA expression and allopregnanolone (Allo) levels in selected neurons of the medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and basolateral amygdala. Of note, the cued fear response was not different between group housed and socially isolated mice. In socially isolated mice, S-norfluoxetine, a selective brain steroidogenic stimulant (SBSS), in doses (0.45–1.8 μmol/kg) that increase brain Allo levels but fail to inhibit serotonin reuptake, greatly attenuates enhanced contextual fear response. SKF 105,111 (a potent 5α-RI inhibitor) decreases corticolimbic Allo levels and enhances the contextual fear response in group housed mice, which suggests that social isolation alters emotional responses by reducing the positive allosteric modulation of Allo at GABAA receptors in corticolimbic circuits. Thus, these procedures model emotional hyperreactivity, including enhanced contextual fear and impaired contextual fear extinction, which also is observed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. A recent clinical study reported that cerebrospinal fluid Allo levels also are down-regulated in PTSD patients and correlate negatively with PTSD symptoms and negative mood. Thus, protracted social isolation of mice combined with tests of fear conditioning may be a suitable model to study emotional behavioral components associated with neurochemical alterations relating to PTSD. Importantly, drugs like SBSSs, which rapidly increase corticolimbic Allo levels, normalize the exaggerated contextual fear responses resulting from social isolation, suggesting that selective activation of neurosteroidogenesis may be useful in PTSD therapy. PMID:18391192

  4. Enhancing Environmental Communication and Products Through Qualitative Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLorme, D.; Hagen, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation discusses two ongoing interdisciplinary case studies that are using qualitative research to design and enhance environmental communication and science products for outreach and decision making purposes. Both cases demonstrate the viability and practical value of qualitative social science methodology, specifically focus group interviews, to better understand the viewpoints of target audiences, improve deliverables, and support project goals. The first case is a NOAA-funded project to conduct process-based modeling to project impact from climate change in general and sea level rise in particular to the natural and built environment. The project spans the Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida Panhandle coasts with concentration on the three National Estuarine Research Reserves. As part of the broader project, four annual focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of coastal resource managers to capture their perspectives and suggestions to better meet their informational and operational needs. The second case is a Florida Sea Grant-funded project that is developing, implementing, and testing a cohesive outreach campaign to promote voluntary careful and responsible recreational boating to help protect sensitive marine life and habitats (especially seagrasses and oyster reefs) in the Mosquito Lagoon. Six focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of the target audience of boaters to gain insights, feedback, and ideas on the direction of the campaign and design of the messages and products. The campaign materials created include a branded website, Facebook page, mobile app, information packets, brochures, pledge forms, and promotional items. A comparison of these two case studies will be provided and will explain how the qualitative findings were/are being implemented to tailor and refine the respective communication strategies and techniques including the emerging outreach products. The resulting outcomes are messages and tools that are

  5. Observation of vapor pressure enhancement of rare-earth metal-halide salts in the temperature range relevant to metal-halide lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, J. J.; Henins, A.; Hardis, J. E.; Estupinan, E. G.; Lapatovich, W. P.; Shastri, S. D.

    2012-02-20

    Total vapor-phase densities of Dy in equilibrium with a DyI{sub 3}/InI condensate and Tm in equilibrium with a TmI{sub 3}/TlI condensate have been measured for temperatures between 900 K and 1400 K. The measurements show strong enhancements in rare-earth vapor densities compared to vapors in equilibrium with the pure rare-earth metal-halides. The measurements were made with x-ray induced fluorescence on the sector 1-ID beam line at the Advanced Photon Source. The temperature range and salt mixtures are relevant to the operation of metal-halide high-intensity discharge lamps.

  6. Different animal welfare orientations towards some key research areas of current relevance to pastoral dairy farming in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Webster, J R; Schütz, K E; Sutherland, M A; Stewart, M; Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    The New Zealand dairy industry needs to meet public expectations regarding animal welfare in order to retain the freedom to operate and achieve market success. Three key orientations towards animal welfare assessment have been identified, namely biological functioning, affective state and natural living, the last two of which are more recent foci for societal concern. Biological functioning was the first and most-studied aspect of animal welfare and continues to be important, but now the contribution of affective state to animal well-being is emphasised much more. Natural living, or naturalness, has received relatively less attention from animal welfare science. It is proposed that increasing the use of naturalness as a contextual reference point for considering species-specific behavioural expressions of affective state will enhance its inclusion in animal welfare assessment. Nevertheless, all three orientations need to be considered in order to evaluate the significance of welfare research findings. On this basis, five key aspects of the New Zealand dairy industry that have been the subject of recent research, due to the risk of them not meeting public expectations, are highlighted and discussed. The aspects are provision of shade and shelter, meeting targets for body condition, provision of comfortable surfaces for rearing calves, and for adult cows while off pasture, and pain relief for disbudding of calves. Research evidence indicates that the industry guidelines on body condition score, if met, would satisfy public expectations across the three orientations to animal welfare, whereas further work is needed on the other aspects. It is concluded that considering these three orientations to animal welfare when planning research and then evaluating the outcomes will help to promote the market success of the dairy industry in New Zealand. PMID:25157557

  7. Enhancing Human Health Using Space Imagery: Summary of Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finarelli, Margaret G.

    2002-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) 2002 Summer Session was conducted in Pomona, California, June 29-August 30, 2002. Ninety-nine professionals and students from thirty-one countries attended the Summer Session. More than half of these students participated in the Student Research Design Project entitled, "HI-STAR: Health Improvements through Space Technologies and Resources." ISU's interdisciplinary Student Research Design Projects are intended to have great educational value for the participants and, at the same time, to result in a product that will be useful to the field. The HI-STAR project was a success on both counts. The mission of the ISU students' effort on HI-STAR was to develop and promote a global strategy to help combat malaria using space technology. Like the tiny yet powerful mosquito, HI-STAR is a small program that aspires to make a difference. Timely detection of malaria danger zones is essential to help health authorities and policy makers make decisions about how to manage limited resources for combating malaria. In 2001, the technical support network for prevention and control of malaria epidemics published a study called "Malaria Early Warning Systems: Concepts, Indicators and Partners." This study, funded by Roll Back Malaria, a World Health Organization initiative, offered a framework for a monitoring and early warning system. HI-STAR seeks to build on this proposal and enhance the space elements of the suggested framework. Malaria disease dynamics and distributions are related to environmental variables. From space, environmental conditions that support the growth of mosquito populations can be monitored, Malaria-specific information can be gathered from satellite-borne remote sensing instruments and ground-based sensors. This information can be integrated via geographic information systems (GIS) into a Malaria Information System (MIS) that can provide assessment analyses and risk maps as output. HI-STAR defines and suggests the

  8. The development of Army relevant peptide-based surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors for biological threat detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Mikella E.; Strobbia, Pietro; Sarkes, Deborah A.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.; Cullum, Brian M.; Pellegrino, Paul M.

    2016-05-01

    The utility of peptide-based molecular sensing for the development of novel biosensors has resulted in a significant increase in their development and usage for sensing targets like chemical, biological, energetic and toxic materials. Using peptides as a molecular recognition element is particularly advantageous because there are several mature peptide synthesis protocols that already exist, peptide structures can be tailored, selected and manipulated to be highly discerning towards desired targets, peptides can be modified to be very stable in a host of environments and stable under many different conditions, and through the development of bifunctionalized peptides can be synthesized to also bind onto desired sensing platforms (various metal materials, glass, etc.). Two examples of the several Army relevant biological targets for peptide-based sensing platforms include Ricin and Abrin. Ricin and Abrin are alarming threats because both can be weaponized and there is no antidote for exposure. Combining the sensitivity of SERS with the selectivity of a bifunctional peptide allows for the emergence of dynamic hazard sensor for Army application.

  9. Combining research-enhanced and technology-enhanced teaching approaches in module design: A case study of an undergraduate course in Solar Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, V.

    2011-12-01

    There is a growing emphasis on the research-teaching nexus, and there are many innovative ways to incorporate research materials and methods in undergraduate teaching. Solar Physics is a cross-disciplinary subject and offers the ideal opportunity for research-enhanced teaching (1). In this presentation, I outline i) how student-led teaching of research content and methods is introduced in an undergraduate module in Solar Physics, and ii) how electronic learning and teaching can be used to improve students' learning of mathematical concepts in Solar Physics. More specifically, I discuss how research literature reviewing and reporting methods can be embedded and developed systematically throughout the module with aligned assessments. Electronic feedback and feedforward (2) are given to the students in order to enhance their understanding of the subject and improve their research skills. Other technology-enhanced teaching approaches (3) are used to support students' learning of the more quantitative components of the module. This case study is particularly relevant to a wide range of pedagogical contexts (4) as the Solar Physics module is taught to students following undergraduate programs in Geology, Earth Sciences, Environmental Geology as well as Planetary Science with Astronomy in the host Department. Related references: (1) Tong, C. H., Let interdisciplinary research begin in undergraduate years, Nature (2010) v. 463, p. 157. (2) Tong, V. C. H., Linking summative assessments? Electronic feedback and feedforward in module design, British Journal of Educational Technology (2011), accepted for publication. (3) Tong, V. C. H., Using asynchronous electronic surveys to help in-class revision: A case study, British Journal of Educational Technology (2011), doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2011.01207.x (4) Tong, V. C. H. (ed.), Geoscience Research and Education, Springer, Dordrecht (2012)

  10. Learning and Relevance in Information Retrieval: A Study in the Application of Exploration and User Knowledge to Enhance Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact of exploration and learning upon eDiscovery information retrieval; it is written in three parts. Part I contains foundational concepts and background on the topics of information retrieval and eDiscovery. This part informs the reader about the research frameworks, methodologies, data collection, and…

  11. "Evo in the News": A Pedagogical Tool to Enhance Students' Perceptions of the Relevance of Evolutionary Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Infanti, Lynn M.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation evaluated the effects of the use of the pedagogical tool "Evo in the News" on the attitudes toward and knowledge of biological evolution in a sample of undergraduate non-major biology students at a large, private research university. In addition, this study looked at the initial attitudes of the students and their…

  12. A Research Agenda to Examine the Efficacy and Relevance of the Transtheoretical Model for Physical Activity Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Karly S.; Motl, Rob W.; Horwath, Caroline C.; Wertin, Kristin K.; Dishman, Rodney K.

    2010-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) decreases the risk of several chronic diseases including some cancers, type II diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease; however, the majority of US adults are not meeting the recommended levels to experience these benefits. To address this public health concern, the underlying mechanisms for behavior change need to be understood, translated and disseminated into appropriately tailored interventions. The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) provides a framework for both the conceptualization and measurement of behavior change, as well as facilitating promotion strategies that are individualized and easily adapted. The purpose of this manuscript is to present the constructs of the TTM as they relate to PA behavior change. We begin with a brief synopsis of recent examinations of the TTM constructs and their application. Subsequent to its introduction, we specifically present the TTM within the PA context and discuss its application and usefulness to researchers and practitioners. Criticisms of the TTM are also noted and presented as opportunities for future research to enhance the valid application of the TTM. We offer general study design recommendations to appropriately test the hypothesized relationships within the model. With further examinations using appropriate study design and statistical analyses, we believe the TTM has the potential to advance the public health impact of future PA promotion interventions. PMID:21113323

  13. How Contexts and Issues Influence the Use of Policy-Relevant Research Syntheses: A Critical Interpretive Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Moat, Kaelan A; Lavis, John N; Abelson, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Context Evidence briefs have emerged as a promising approach to synthesizing the best available research evidence for health system policymakers and stakeholders. An evidence brief may draw on systematic reviews and many other types of policy-relevant information, including local data and studies, to describe a problem, options for addressing it, and key implementation considerations. We conducted a systematic review to examine the ways in which context- and issue-related factors influence the perceived usefulness of evidence briefs among their intended users. Methods We used a critical interpretive synthesis approach to review both empirical and nonempirical literature and to develop a model that explains how context and issues influence policymakers’ and stakeholders’ views of the utility of evidence briefs prepared for priority policy issues. We used a “compass” question to create a detailed search strategy and conducted electronic searches in CINAHL, EMBASE, HealthSTAR, IPSA, MEDLINE, OAIster (gray literature), ProQuest A&I Theses, ProQuest (Sociological Abstracts, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Worldwide Political Science Abstracts, International Bibliography of Social Sciences, PAIS, Political Science), PsychInfo, Web of Science, and WilsonWeb (Social Science Abstracts). Finally, we used a grounded and interpretive analytic approach to synthesize the results. Findings Of the 4,461 papers retrieved, 3,908 were excluded and 553 were assessed for “relevance,” with 137 included in the initial sample of papers to be analyzed and an additional 23 purposively sampled to fill conceptual gaps. Several themes emerged: (1) many established types of “evidence” are viewed as useful content in an evidence brief, along with several promising formatting features; (2) contextual factors, particularly the institutions, interests, and values of a given context, can influence views of evidence briefs; (3) whether an issue is polarizing and whether

  14. Using my ARMADA Research Experience to Enhance Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, M.

    2006-12-01

    I am a high school Biology teacher living in Layton, Utah. I was chosen to participate in the 2006 ARMADA Project. This project is funded by the National Science Foundation and administered by the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography. The project focuses on a mentoring experience coupled with a summer scientific research for teachers. I wish to present how I am incorporating the University of Rhode Island training experience and my scientific research field experience into my classroom teaching. My research experience was in the Eastern Tropical Pacific estimating current dolphin populations. Other projects I worked on were sea turtle tagging, squid sampling, fish sampling, whale biopsy, and CTD deployment. The knowledge I gleaned from the University of Rhode Island to incorporate into my classroom came from Roger Williams University aquaculture program. I am presently doing two ongoing projects with my students. We are aquaculturing zebra fish, by using this tool I am able to teach each state directed objective with the hands on experience of raising zebra fish. The second project I am involved with is the Great Salt Lake project. The high school environmental club owns a 26 foot sailboat on the Great Salt Lake. Every Saturday we take 6 students out on the lake and record position, visibility, water temperature, and salinity. We are also sampling brine shrimp and bottom bacteria for wet lab work. This is a new and innovative approach for me to teach Biology. The information and experience I was able to receive over the summer of 2006 has greatly enhanced the way I teach. I would like the opportunity to share my experiences and how I have incorporated them into my classroom. I will use power point to share my strategies and will answer questions on the practical application of these projects in the classroom. My students have grasped these 2 projects and inquiry questions have risen. Global warming and lake temperature are now being paralleled

  15. The Academic Researcher Role: Enhancing Expectations and Improved Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyvik, Svein

    2013-01-01

    This article distinguishes between six tasks related to the academic researcher role: (1) networking; (2) collaboration; (3) managing research; (4) doing research; (5) publishing research; and (6) evaluation of research. Data drawn from surveys of academic staff, conducted in Norwegian universities over three decades, provide evidence that the…

  16. A Video Introduction to Psychology: Enhancing Research Interest and Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacco, Donald F.; Bernstein, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    To assess the extent to which a video about psychological research would heighten introductory psychology students' interest and participation in research studies, we created a video about ongoing research at our university, the value of research participation, and course requirements for the research experience. Instructors in 4 courses (N = 471…

  17. Mycobacterium bovis Infection of Cattle and White-Tailed Deer: Translational Research of Relevance to Human Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Waters, W Ray; Palmer, Mitchell V

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a premier example of a disease complex with pathogens primarily affecting humans (i.e., Mycobacterium tuberculosis) or livestock and wildlife (i.e., Mycobacterium bovis) and with a long history of inclusive collaborations between physicians and veterinarians. Advances in the study of bovine TB have been applied to human TB, and vice versa. For instance, landmark discoveries on the use of Koch's tuberculin and interferon-γ release assays for diagnostic purposes, as well as Calmette and Guérin's attenuated M. bovis strain as a vaccine, were first evaluated in cattle for control of bovine TB prior to wide-scale use in humans. Likewise, recent discoveries on the role of effector/memory T cell subsets and polyfunctional T cells in the immune response to human TB, particularly as related to vaccine efficacy, have paved the way for similar studies in cattle. Over the past 15 years, substantial funding for development of human TB vaccines has led to the emergence of multiple promising candidates now in human clinical trials. Several of these vaccines are being tested for immunogenicity and efficacy in cattle. Also, the development of population-based vaccination strategies for control of M. bovis infection in wildlife reservoirs will undoubtedly have an impact on our understanding of herd immunity with relevance to the control of both bovine and human TB in regions of the world with high prevalence of TB. Thus, the one-health approach to research on TB is mutually beneficial for our understanding and control of TB in humans, livestock, and wildlife. PMID:25991696

  18. Characteristics and clinical relevance of late gadolinium enhancement in cardiac magnetic resonance in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sano, Makoto; Satoh, Hiroshi; Suwa, Kenichiro; Nobuhara, Mamoru; Saitoh, Takeji; Saotome, Masao; Urushida, Tsuyoshi; Katoh, Hideki; Shimoyama, Kumiko; Suzuki, Daisuke; Ogawa, Noriyoshi; Takehara, Yasuo; Sakahara, Harumi; Hayashi, Hideharu

    2015-11-01

    Cardiac involvement in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is considerably frequent in autopsy, but the early identification is clinically difficult. Recent advantages in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) enabled to detect myocardial fibrotic scar as late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). We aimed to examine the prevalence and distribution of LGE in patients with SSc, and associate them with clinical features, electrocardiographic abnormalities and cardiac function. Forty patients with SSc (58 ± 14 years-old, 35 females, limited/diffuse 25/15, disease duration 106 ± 113 months) underwent serological tests, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and CMR. Seven patients (17.5 %) showed LGE in 26 segments of left ventricle (LV). LGE distributed mainly in the basal to mid inter-ventricular septum and the right ventricular (RV) insertion points, but involved all the myocardial regions. More patients with LGE showed NYHA functional class II and more (71 vs. 21 %, p < 0.05), bundle branch blocks (57 vs. 6 %, p < 0.05), LV ejection fraction (LVEF) < 50 % (72 vs. 6 %, p < 0.01), LV asynergy (43 vs. 0 %, p < 0.01) and RVEF < 40 % (100 vs. 39 %, p < 0.01). There was no difference in disease duration, disease types, or prevalence of positive autoimmune antibodies or high serum NT-proBNP level (>125 pg/ml). When cardiac involvement of SSc was defined as low LVEF, ECG abnormalities or high NT-proBNP, the sensitivity, specificity positive and negative predictive values of LGE were 36, 92, 71 and 72 %, respectively. We could clarify the prevalence and distribution of LGE in Japanese patients with SSc. The presence of LGE was associated with cardiac symptom, conduction disturbance and impaired LV/RV contraction. PMID:24996373

  19. Innovations in information management to enhance agriculture: A research perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information management should be the cornerstone for innovative agricultural systems; however, the challenge remains on how to utilize all of the components to enhance agriculture. The enhancement of agriculture is often considered from only a yield perspective. This is an important factor and effo...

  20. The relevance of large scale environmental research infrastructures from the point of view of Ethics: the case of EMSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, Paolo; Beranzoli, Laura; Best, Mairi; Franceschini, PierLuigi; Materia, Paola; Peppoloni, Silvia; Picard, John

    2014-05-01

    EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and Water Column Observatory) is a large-scale European Research Infrastructure (RI). It is a geographically distributed infrastructure composed of several deep-seafloor and water-column observatories, which will be deployed at key sites in European waters, spanning from the Arctic, through the Atlantic and Mediterranean, to the Black Sea, with the basic scientific objective of real-time, long-term monitoring of environmental processes related to the interaction between the geosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere. EMSO is one of the environmental RIs on the ESFRI roadmap. The ESRFI Roadmap identifies new RIs of pan-European importance that correspond to the long term needs of European research communities. EMSO will be the sub-sea segment of the EU's large-scale Earth Observation program, Copernicus (previously known as GMES - Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) and will significantly enhance the observational capabilities of European member states. An open data policy compliant with the recommendations being developed within the GEOSS initiative (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) will allow for shared use of the infrastructure and the exchange of scientific information and knowledge. The processes that occur in the oceans have a direct impact on human societies, therefore it is crucial to improve our understanding of how they operate and interact. To encompass the breadth of these major processes, sustained and integrated observations are required that appreciate the interconnectedness of atmospheric, surface ocean, biological pump, deep-sea, and solid-Earth dynamics and that can address: • natural and anthropogenic change; • interactions between ecosystem services, biodiversity, biogeochemistry, physics, and climate; • impacts of exploration and extraction of energy, minerals, and living resources; • geo-hazard early warning capability for earthquakes, tsunamis, gas-hydrate release, and slope

  1. Enhancing American Indian and Alaska Native health research: a multi-faceted challenge.

    PubMed

    Manson, Spero M; Buchwald, Dedra S

    2007-10-01

    The quality, relevance, timeliness, and impact of public health research among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIAN) has improved markedly over the last several decades. These advances are attributable to the more careful fit between investigative methods and field exigencies, to the increased presence of Native scientists among research teams, to greater emphasis on meaningful collaboration between researchers and participating communities, and to new Federal investments in the infrastructure that supports health research within this special population. This paper describes the lessons learned from this recent progress, and highlights opportunities to promote further gains as well as continuing needs in developing our capacity to conduct policy relevant AIAN health research. PMID:17896244

  2. Performing Research in Sociology Classes To Enhance Learning: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seward, Rudy Ray; Oakes, Ann Sutton

    Two problems are encountered by faculty when teaching introductory social science courses. First, most students are only passive recipients of the information made available to them; second, they seldom appreciate the relevance of this information to their own lives. The primary objective of the project described in this paper is to involve…

  3. Thermal image enhancement using bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition in combination with relevance vector machine for rotating machinery fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Van Tung; Yang, Bo-Suk; Gu, Fengshou; Ball, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    In this study, a novel fault diagnosis system for rotating machinery using thermal imaging is proposed. This system consists of bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) for image enhancement, a generalized discriminant analysis (GDA) for feature reduction, and a relevance vector machine (RVM) for fault classification. Firstly, the thermal image obtained from machine conditions is decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by using BEMD. At each decomposed level, the IMF is expanded and fused with the residue by gray-scale transformation and principal component analysis fusion technique, respectively. The enhanced image is then formed by the improved IMFs in reconstruction process. Subsequently, feature extraction is applied for the enhanced images to obtain histogram features which characterize the thermal image and contain useful information for diagnosis. The high dimensionality of the achieved feature set can be reduced by GDA implementation. Moreover, GDA also assists in the increase of the feature cluster separation. Finally, the diagnostic results are performed by RVM. The proposed system is applied and validated with the thermal images of a fault simulator. A comparative study of the classification results obtained from RVM, support vector machines, and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system is also performed to appraise the accuracy of these models. The results show that the proposed diagnosis system is capable of improving the classification accuracy and efficiently assisting in rotating machinery fault diagnosis.

  4. The Shared Mobile Atmospheric Research and Teaching Radar: A Collaboration to Enhance Research and Teaching.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggerstaff, Michael I.; Wicker, Louis J.; Guynes, Jerry; Ziegler, Conrad; Straka, Jerry M.; Rasmussen, Erik N.; Doggett, Arthur, IV; Carey, Larry D.; Schroeder, John L.; Weiss, Chris

    2005-09-01

    A group of scientists from three universities across two different states and from one federal research laboratory joined together to build and deploy two mobile C-band Doppler weather radars to enhance research and promote meteorological education. This 5-yr project led to the development of the Shared Mobile Atmospheric Research and Teaching (SMART) radar coalition that built the first mobile C-band Doppler weather radar in the United States and also successfully deployed the first mobile C-band dual-Doppler network in a landfalling hurricane. This accomplishment marked the beginning of an era in which high temporal and spatial resolution precipitation and dual-Doppler wind data over mesoscale (100 km) regions can be acquired from mobile ground-based platforms during extreme heavy rain and high-wind events.In this paper, we discuss the rationale for building the mobile observing systems, highlight some of the challenges that were encountered in creating a unique multia-gency coalition, provide examples of how the SMART radars have contributed to research and education, and discuss future plans for continued development and management of the radar facility, including how others may use the radars for their own research and teaching programs.The capability of the SMART radars to measure winds in non-precipitating environments, to capture rapidly evolving, short-lived, small-scale tornadic circulations, and to sample mesoscale regions with high spatial resolution over broad regions of heavy rainfall is demonstrated. Repeated successful intercepts provide evidence that these radars are capable of being used to study a wide range of atmospheric phenomena.


  5. Biochar accelerates organic matter degradation and enhances N mineralisation during composting of poultry manure without a relevant impact on gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, M; Alburquerque, J A; Sánchez-Monedero, M A; Roig, A; Cayuela, M L

    2015-09-01

    A composting study was performed to assess the impact of biochar addition to a mixture of poultry manure and barley straw. Two treatments: control (78% poultry manure + 22% barley straw, dry weight) and the same mixture amended with biochar (3% dry weight), were composted in duplicated windrows during 19 weeks. Typical monitoring parameters and gaseous emissions (CO2, CO, CH4, N2O and H2S) were evaluated during the process as well as the agronomical quality of the end-products. Biochar accelerated organic matter degradation and ammonium formation during the thermophilic phase and enhanced nitrification during the maturation phase. Our results suggest that biochar, as composting additive, improved the physical properties of the mixture by preventing the formation of clumps larger than 70 mm. It favoured microbiological activity without a relevant impact on N losses and gaseous emissions. It was estimated that biochar addition at 3% could reduce the composting time by 20%. PMID:26038333

  6. Outcomes of a Research-Driven Laboratory and Literature Course Designed to Enhance Undergraduate Contributions to Original Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasche, Madeline E.

    2004-01-01

    This work describes outcomes of a research-driven advanced microbiology laboratory and literature research course intended to enhance undergraduate preparation for and contributions to original research. The laboratory section was designed to teach fundamental biochemistry and molecular biology techniques in the context of an original research…

  7. Review of statistical methods used in enhanced-oil-recovery research and performance prediction. [131 references

    SciTech Connect

    Selvidge, J.E.

    1982-06-01

    Recent literature in the field of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) was surveyed to determine the extent to which researchers in EOR take advantage of statistical techniques in analyzing their data. In addition to determining the current level of reliance on statistical tools, another objective of this study is to promote by example the greater use of these tools. To serve this objective, the discussion of the techniques highlights the observed trend toward the use of increasingly more sophisticated methods and points out the strengths and pitfalls of different approaches. Several examples are also given of opportunities for extending EOR research findings by additional statistical manipulation. The search of the EOR literature, conducted mainly through computerized data bases, yielded nearly 200 articles containing mathematical analysis of the research. Of these, 21 were found to include examples of statistical approaches to data analysis and are discussed in detail in this review. The use of statistical techniques, as might be expected from their general purpose nature, extends across nearly all types of EOR research covering thermal methods of recovery, miscible processes, and micellar polymer floods. Data come from field tests, the laboratory, and computer simulation. The statistical methods range from simple comparisons of mean values to multiple non-linear regression equations and to probabilistic decision functions. The methods are applied to both engineering and economic data. The results of the survey are grouped by statistical technique and include brief descriptions of each of the 21 relevant papers. Complete abstracts of the papers are included in the bibliography. Brief bibliographic information (without abstracts) is also given for the articles identified in the initial search as containing mathematical analyses using other than statistical methods.

  8. Enhancing Students' Creative Writing Skills: An Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasir, Laraib; Naqvi, Syeda Meenoo; Bhamani, Shelina

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to improve written expression (composition) skills of 5th grade students of an elite private school. The research was designed under the paradigm of action research. A total sample of 39 students' from the same grade was chosen for the study. The baseline assessment was carried out to explore the pre-intervention writing skill…

  9. Relevancy 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris; Newman, Doug

    2016-01-01

    Where we present an overview on why relevancy is a problem, how important it is and how we can improve it. The topic of relevancy is becoming increasingly important in earth data discovery as our audience is tuned to the accuracy of standard search engines like Google.

  10. Pressing Forward: Increasing and Expanding Rigor and Relevance in America's High Schools. Research on High School and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smerdon, Becky, Ed.; Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Pressing Forward: Increasing and Expanding Rigor and Relevance in America's High Schools is organized to place secondary education, specifically the goals of preparing young adults to be college and career ready, in contemporary perspective, emphasizing the changing global economy and trends in policy and practice. High school students must be…

  11. Making Quantitative Genetics Relevant: Effectiveness of a Laboratory Investigation that Links Scientific Research, Commercial Applications, and Legal Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Michael L.; Mathis, Philip M.; Seipelt, Rebecca L.

    2005-01-01

    As students apply their knowledge of scientific concepts and of science as a method of inquiry, learning becomes relevant. This laboratory exercise is designed to foster students' understanding of the genetics of quantitative traits and of the nature of science as a method of inquiry by engaging them in a real-world business scenario. During the…

  12. Relevance of bovine tuberculosis research to the understanding of human disease: Historical perspectives, approaches, and immunologic mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pioneer studies on infectious disease and immunology by Jenner, Pasteur, Koch, Von Behring, Nocard, Roux, and Ehrlich forged a path for the dual-purpose with dual benefit approach, demonstrating a profound relevance of veterinary studies for biomedical applications. Tuberculosis (TB), primarily due ...

  13. Raising the Bar on External Research Funding: Infrastructure and Strategies for Enhancing Faculty Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chval, Kathryn B.; Nossaman, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    Administrators seek faculty who have the expertise to secure external funding to support their research agenda. Administrators also seek strategies to support and enhance faculty productivity across different ranks. In this manuscript, we describe the infrastructure we established and strategies we implemented to enhance the research enterprise at…

  14. Understanding the Varying Investments in Researcher and Teacher Development and Enhancement: Implications for Academic Developers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrova, Petia; Hadjianastasis, Marios

    2015-01-01

    The increasing disparity between the research and teaching aspects of academic careers has been an area of concern in different national contexts over a number of decades. Anyone working with educational enhancement will have encountered the binary choice between research development and educational enhancement that academics are forced to make,…

  15. Enhanced Learning through Electronic Communities: A Research Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgstahler, Sheryl; Swift, Catherine

    This report, in support of the project "Enhanced Learning through Electronic Communities," investigated successful practices of electronic communities. A literature review was conducted and a survey was sent to 15 system operators of networks that had a community-based focus with ancillary educational components and networks that focused primarily…

  16. Target Areas for Enhanced Research Funding and Milestones toward an Improved National Ranking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The quality of institutional research, particularly at New Jersey's research universities, is critical to the competitiveness of both the institutions and the state. Strategic efforts to enhance the quality of research, expand the boundaries of knowledge, and increase the amount of research funding for colleges and universities in the state are…

  17. Jorge A. Swieca's contributions to quantum field theory in the 60s and 70s and their relevance in present research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroer, B.

    2010-07-01

    After revisiting some high points of particle physics and QFT of the two decades from 1960 to 1980, I comment on the work by Jorge André Swieca. I explain how it fits into the quantum field theory during these two decades and draw attention to its relevance to the ongoing particle physics research. A particular aim of this article is to direct the readers mindfulness to the relevance of what at the time of Swieca was called “the Schwinger Higgs screening mechanism” which, together with recent ideas which generalize the concept of gauge theories, has all the ingredients to revolutionize the issue of gauge theories and the standard model.

  18. Action Research: Enhancing Classroom Practice and Fulfilling Educational Responsibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark R.; Rapp, Eve; Murphy, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Action Research is an applied scholarly paradigm resulting in action for continuous improvement in our teaching and learning techniques offering faculty immediate classroom payback and providing documentation of meeting our educational responsibilities as required by AACSB standards. This article reviews the iterative action research process of…

  19. Student Publications Enhance Teaching: Experimental Psychology and Research Methods Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Mark E.; Davis, Stephen F.

    Recent years have witnessed an increased emphasis on the professional development of undergraduate psychology students. One major thrust of this professional development has been on research that results in a convention presentation or journal publication. Research leading to journal publication is becoming a requirement for admission to many…

  20. Enhancing Undergraduate Teaching and Research with a "Drosophila" Virginizing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venema, Dennis R.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory exercises using "Drosophila" crosses are an effective pedagogical method to complement traditional lecture and textbook presentations of genetics. Undergraduate thesis research is another common setting for using "Drosophila." A significant barrier to using "Drosophila" for undergraduate teaching or research is the time and skill…

  1. Women in physics in Bulgaria-Enhancing research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proykova, Ana

    2013-03-01

    Bulgaria currently has a relatively high number of women in top positions at the governmental level, yet the presidents of the important universities and most of the directors of research institutions are male. Gender balance is driven by the need to improve research quality in interdisciplinary fields, where the similarities and differences between men and women in creativity and thought play a crucial role.

  2. Using Technology to Enhance Qualitative Research with Hidden Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, John; Cramer, Elizabeth P.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in technology provide researchers with increased opportunities to locate and conduct research with populations that have historically been inaccessible. This manuscript describes the development of private, voluntary web-based groups, and the process for using web cameras to conduct individual web-based interviews as a method of data…

  3. Enhancing the STEM Ecosystem through Teacher-Researcher Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapprich, William; Grandgenett, Neal; Leas, Heather; Rodie, Steve; Shuster, Robert; Schaben, Chris; Cutucache, Christine

    2016-01-01

    STEM faculty at the University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) have partnered with teachers and administrators in the Omaha Public Schools (OPS) to implement a Teacher-Researcher Partnership Program. This program establishes resources and infrastructure that engage K-12 science teachers in scientific research experiences. In the first implementation of…

  4. Enhancing Research Productivity in Counseling Psychology: Reactions to Three Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Nancy E.

    2005-01-01

    The present reaction responds to the three research-related core articles in the Scientific Forum of the May 2005 issue of "The Counseling Psychologist." I agree that too few of our studies are based on theories or models. Using the nomological network, I suggest how research ideas can more readily be depicted to allow model and theory testing. I…

  5. Enhancing the quality of case studies in health services research.

    PubMed Central

    Yin, R K

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide guidance on improving the quality of case studies in health services research. DATA SOURCES: Secondary data, drawing from previous case study research. RESEARCH DESIGN: Guidance is provided to two audiences: potential case study investigators (eight items) and reviewers of case study proposals (four additional items). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The guidance demonstrates that many operational steps can be undertaken to improve the quality of case studies. These steps have been a hallmark of high-quality case studies in related fields but have not necessarily been practiced in health services research. CONCLUSIONS: Given higher-quality case studies, the case study method can become a valuable tool for health services research. Images Figure 3 PMID:10591280

  6. Research Experience for Undergraduates: an International Program Enhancing Interdisciplinary Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfiffner, S. M.; Davis, K. L.; Phelps, T. J.; Kieft, T. L.; Gihring, T. M.; Onstott, T. C.; Nthangeni, B.; Piater, L.; van Heerden, E.

    2004-12-01

    This NSF-funded research experience for undergraduates (REU) took place in South Africa, where gold mines provided outstanding field sites to investigate biogeochemical processes in deep subsurface environments. Underrepresented minorities were encouraged to participate. Cross-disciplinary training was a major ambition for this REU Site: Biogeochemical Educational Experiences - South Africa. Students were selected from diverse academic disciplines (biology, chemistry, and geology) to participate in this interdisciplinary research program. Research projects included characterizing microbial communities with molecular and biochemical techniques, cultivating microorganisms, utilizing geochemical and isotopic parameters to constrain nutrient cycling in groundwater, investigating extreme enzymes and examining functional genes. During the REU, students collected biofilms and fissure water emanating from gas-rich boreholes in 2-3 km deep mines and performed laboratory research in teams under joint mentorship of U.S. and South African scientists. Research teams consisted of three to five students with at least one student from each country and at least two of the disciplines represented. Team membership reflected students' ranking of their choices among mentor-proposed projects. The REU encouraged students to increase scientific knowledge across disciplines, improve oral and written communication skills, and explore cultural and international challenges for scientific research in the global community. Each research team presented oral progress reports to the other research teams to provide communication skill development and to provide a forum for data exchange and interpretation among the various disciplines. Oral communication training culminated in a public presentation by each team at a university/industry science symposium. Mentors reviewed students' writing skills as they prepared text on experimental design, research findings, data interpretation, and literature

  7. Technical Assistance to Enhance Prevention Capacity: a Research Synthesis of the Evidence Base.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jason; Wandersman, Abraham

    2016-05-01

    Despite the availability of many evidence-based prevention interventions (EBIs), gaps exist in bringing these programs into widespread practice. Technical assistance (TA) is a strategy for enhancing the readiness of practitioners to implement EBIs. Although many millions of dollars are spent on TA each year, there is little consensus about what the essential features of TA are and how to provide TA with quality. A broad-based research synthesis methodology was used for analyzing the current evidence base for TA using three frames: (1) applying the Getting To Outcomes (GTO) model for categorizing evidence on TA that specifies tasks for planning, implementing, and evaluating TA; (2) understanding the relevance of a successful relationship between the TA provider and TA recipient; and (3) considering the extent to which TA fits the life cycle needs of the preventive intervention. Results indicated that an explicit model or organizing framework is rarely used to plan, implement, and/or evaluate TA; specific TA tasks performed vary widely across studies; TA is rarely delivered to recipients who are seeking to sustain innovations subsequent to adoption and implementation; however, there is systematic attention to relationships and relationship-building. Overall, this synthesis indicates that the extent to which TA is being delivered systematically is limited. We suggest that funders and other stakeholders develop and implement standards for TA quality in order to ensure that many of these limitations are addressed. PMID:26858179

  8. Development of an Electronic Research Permissions Management System to Enhance Informed Consents and Capture Research Authorizations Data

    PubMed Central

    Obeid, Jihad S.; Gerken, Katherine; Madathil, Kapil Chalil; Rugg, Daniel; Alstad, Colin E.; Fryar, Katrina; Alexander, Randall; Gramopadhye, Anand K.; Moskowitz, Jay; Sanderson, Iain C.

    Informed consents are a critical and essential component of the clinical research process. Currently, most consents and research privacy authorizations are being captured on paper. In this paper we describe a novel method of capturing this information electronically. The objective is to allow easier tracking of research participants’ intent for current and future research involvement, enhance consent comprehension and facilitate the research workflow. After multidisciplinary analysis in key hospital registration areas and research participant enrollment, an open source software product was designed to capture this data through a user-friendly touch screen interface. The data may then be fed into a clinical data warehouse for use in cohort discovery or consent tracking. Despite ethical, legal and informatics challenges in clinical and research environments, we propose that this technology opens new avenues for significantly enhancing the consent process and positively impacting recruitment. PMID:24303263

  9. Enhancing research capacity of African institutions through social networking.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Castellanos, Ana; Ramirez-Robles, Maximo; Shousha, Amany; Bagayoko, Cheick Oumar; Perrin, Caroline; Zolfo, Maria; Cuzin, Asa; Roland, Alima; Aryeetey, Richmond; Maojo, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, participation of African researchers in top Biomedical Informatics (BMI) scientific journals and conferences has been scarce. Looking beyond these numbers, an educational goal should be to improve overall research and, therefore, to increase the number of scientists/authors able to produce and publish high quality research. In such scenario, we are carrying out various efforts to expand the capacities of various institutions located at four African countries - Egypt, Ghana, Cameroon and Mali - in the framework of a European Commission-funded project, AFRICA BUILD. This project is currently carrying out activities such as e-learning, collaborative development of informatics tools, mobility of researchers, various pilot projects, and others. Our main objective is to create a self-sustained South-South network of BMI developers. PMID:23920873

  10. Enhancing watershed research capacity: the role of data management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water resources are under growing pressure globally, and in the face of projected climate change, changes in precipitation frequency and intensity; evapotranspiration, runoff, and snowmelt pose severe societal challenges. Interdisciplinary environmental research across natural and social sciences to...

  11. Data management to enhance long-term watershed research capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water resources are under growing pressure globally, and in the face of projected climate change, uncertainty about precipitation frequency and intensity; evapotranspiration, runoff, and snowmelt poses severe societal challenges. Interdisciplinary environmental research across natural and social sc...

  12. Enhancing Stewardship of Community-Engaged Research Through Governance

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Malia; Zenone, Heather; White Hat, Emily R.; Wallerstein, Nina; Duran, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We explored the relationship of community-engaged research final approval type (tribal government, health board, or public health office (TG/HB); agency staff or advisory board; or individual or no community approval) with governance processes, productivity, and perceived outcomes. Methods. We identified 294 federally funded community-engaged research projects in 2009 from the National Institutes of Health’s Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Prevention Research Centers, and Native American Research Centers for Health databases. Two hundred (68.0%) investigators completed a survey about governance processes and productivity measures; 312 partners (77.2% of 404 invited) and 138 investigators (69.0% of 200 invited) completed a survey about perceived outcomes. Results. Projects with TG/HB approval had increased likelihood of community control of resources (odds ratios [ORs] ≥ 4.80). Projects with other approvals had decreased likelihood of development or revision of institutional review board policies (ORs ≤ 0.37), having written agreements (ORs ≤ 0.17), and agreements about publishing (ORs ≤ 0.28), data use (ORs ≤ 0.17), and publishing approval (ORs ≤ 0.14). Conclusions. Community-engaged research projects with TG/HB approval had strong stewardship of project resources and agreements. Governance as stewardship protects community interests; thus, is an ethical imperative for communities, especially native communities, to adopt. PMID:25880952

  13. Comparison of Two Old Phytochemicals versus Two Newly Researched Plant-Derived Compounds: Potential for Brain and Other Relevant Ailments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Mei; Liang, Willmann; Yew, D T

    2014-01-01

    Among hundreds of formulae of Chinese herbal prescriptions and recently extracted active components from the herbs, some of which had demonstrated their functions on nervous system. For the last decade or more, Gingko biloba and Polygala tenuifolia were widely studied for their beneficial effects against damage to the brain. Two compounds extracted from Apium graveolens and Rhizoma coptidis, butylphthalide and berberine, respectively, received much attention recently as potential neuroprotective agents. In this review, the two traditionally used herbs and the two relatively new compounds will be discussed with regard to their potential advantages in alleviating brain and other relevant ailments. PMID:24949079

  14. Comparison of Two Old Phytochemicals versus Two Newly Researched Plant-Derived Compounds: Potential for Brain and Other Relevant Ailments

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun-Mei; Yew, D. T.

    2014-01-01

    Among hundreds of formulae of Chinese herbal prescriptions and recently extracted active components from the herbs, some of which had demonstrated their functions on nervous system. For the last decade or more, Gingko biloba and Polygala tenuifolia were widely studied for their beneficial effects against damage to the brain. Two compounds extracted from Apium graveolens and Rhizoma coptidis, butylphthalide and berberine, respectively, received much attention recently as potential neuroprotective agents. In this review, the two traditionally used herbs and the two relatively new compounds will be discussed with regard to their potential advantages in alleviating brain and other relevant ailments. PMID:24949079

  15. Mentoring in Higher Education: Does It Enhance Mentees' Research Productivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muschallik, Julia; Pull, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Mentoring programs are increasingly widespread in academia. Still, comparatively little is known about their effects. With the help of a self-collected dataset of 368 researchers in two different fields and accounting for self-selection via matching techniques, we find mentees in formal mentoring programs to be more productive than comparable…

  16. Integrating enhanced hepatitis C testing and counselling in research.

    PubMed

    Winter, Rebecca; Nguyen, Oanh; Higgs, Peter; Armstrong, Stuart; Duong, Duyen; Thach, My Li; Aitken, Campbell; Hellard, Margaret

    2008-02-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects over 170 million people worldwide. In Australia, over 225,000 people have been diagnosed with HCV infection with 13,000 infections reported annually; 90% are attributed to injecting drug use. Burnet Institute (BI) researchers have been studying the HCV epidemic since the virus was identified in 1989 including community based cohort studies (1990-1995), numerous studies involving Vietnamese-Australian people who inject drugs (PWID) (1996-2004) and social network studies (2000-2002, 2005-2007). Through this work the BI has developed a model of research practice for HCV and PWID, developed in recognition that much research relating to BBV infections - and HCV in particular - could be improved in terms of provision of test results to study participants. Our model endeavours to provide all participants with the highest quality HCV test results, delivered in accordance with best practice for pre- and post-test counselling by engaging participants in environments in which they are comfortable, building trust and rapport and being available throughout and beyond the research study. This paper will discuss the benefits and lessons learned over numerous studies in providing pre- and post-test counselling to PWID in an outreach capacity. PMID:18312821

  17. Enhancing Student Learning with Brain-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnema, Ted R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses brain-based learning and its relation to classroom instruction. A rapidly growing quantity of research currently exists regarding how the brain perceives, processes, and ultimately learns new information. In order to maximize their teaching efficacy, educators should have a basic understanding of key memory functions in the…

  18. Technology-Enhanced Research in the Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Joseph W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a project where students use the Internet as a research tool. Discusses using e-mail to access molecular biology databases and identify proteins using amino acid sequences, obtaining complete amino acid sequences using the world wide web, using telnet to access library resources on the Internet, and various stages of protein analysis…

  19. Enhancing Teaching and Learning: How Cognitive Research Can Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Margo; Frame, Debra L.; Kennette, Lynne N.

    2013-01-01

    Pedagogical considerations should be guided by empirical, brain-based research on the human information processing system. People build and organize knowledge into a network-like system that connects related information. As learning occurs, learners expand the network to accommodate new information. Instructional strategies can be used to maximize…

  20. More than One Voice: Enhancing Our AHRD Research Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storberg-Walker, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Between March 26 and April 3, 2009, 136 Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD) members accessed an on-line survey to provide feedback about the AHRD annual research conferences. The primary purpose of the survey was to understand more about members' experiences in order to improve what is arguably one of the most important "products" of the…

  1. Enhancing the Study Abroad Experience through Independent Research in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streitwieser, Bernhard; Leephaibul, Robin

    2007-01-01

    Research opportunities for undergraduates in the social sciences remain relatively rare. If they exist at all they are usually in the natural sciences and engineering. In study abroad the situation is particularly pronounced: a semester or year abroad is still more a time for cultural and linguistic immersion than it is for building specific…

  2. Transdisciplinary, Multilevel Action Research to Enhance Ecological and Psychopolitical Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christens, Brian; Perkins, Douglas D.

    2008-01-01

    The authors explore the implications of recent proposals for a focus on power and social change in community psychology research and add needed contextual and methodological specificity. An expanded model of psychopolitical validity is presented that merges Isaac Prilleltensky's (this issue, pp. 116-136) domains, or stages of empowerment…

  3. EU-China Environment Research: Enhancing collaboration through SPRING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Michaela; Han, Dawei

    2013-04-01

    There are huge challenges in both known and potential environmental problems in China and EU. Local geographical and climate conditions vary significantly across the two regions. For example the distribution of water resources is spatially and temporally uneven and often leads to water shortages in some areas, and flooding in others. In addition there is a sharp drop in mineral, oil and gas resources, as well as an increase in the living standard, which is a challenge for sustainable development. China's economy is still growing fast, placing an increased burden on the environment. The EU's economy is more developed with a rich experience in dealing with environmental problems in a fast growing economy. Therefore, it is mutually beneficial for the two sides to collaborate in environmental research. The FP7 funded SPRING project is intended to facilitate better EU-China environmental research cooperation and to create a long-term environment vision with clearly identifiable pathways for the two partners to work together. The project team is composed of five EU partners and five Chinese partners with expertise in water, soil, air, climate change and biodiversity. The project runs from March 2010-Feburary 2013. SPRING has taken a multi-level approach to achieving this, developing foresight and road-mapping studies to manage long term aims and facilitate increased cooperation and exchange for researchers, policy and decision makers and funding bodies. The outcomes of the project include detailed technology survey, success scenario analysis and EU-Horizon research road map with a focus on the research needs between EU and China in the next twenty years.

  4. In the Forests of the Night: An Inquiry into the Relevance of Social Dreaming for Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balogh, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the potential for using dream material and social dreaming in action research. Access to emotional dimensions of experience is increasingly recognised as an issue for action researchers, raising questions about how to enable such inquiry and how material from the imaginative sphere may be brought into socially constituted…

  5. Microbial enhanced oil recovery research. Final report, Annex 5

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, M.M.; Gerogiou, G.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an engineering framework for the exploitation of microorganisms to enhance oil recovery. An order of magnitude analysis indicated that selective plugging and the production of biosurfactants are the two most likely mechanisms for the mobilization of oil in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The latter, biosurfactant production, is easier to control within a reservoir environment and was investigated in some detail. An extensive literature survey indicated that the bacterium Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 produces a very effective surface active agent capable of increasing the capillary number to values sufficiently low for oil mobilization. In addition, earlier studies had shown that growth of this bacterium and biosurfactant production occur under conditions that are typically encountered in MEOR, namely temperatures up to 55{degrees}C, lack of oxygen and salinities of up to 10% w/v. The chemical structure of the surfactant, its interfacial properties and its production by fermentation were characterized in some detail. In parallel, a set of experiments as conducted to measure the transport of Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 in sandpacks. It was shown that the determining parameters for cell transport in porous media are: cell size and degree of coagulation, presence of dispersants, injection velocity and cell concentration. The mechanisms of bacteria retention within the pores of the reservoir were analyzed based on heuristic arguments. A mathematical simulator of MEOR was developed using conservation equations in which the mechanisms of bacteria retention and the growth kinetics of the cells were incorporated. The predictions of the model agreed reasonably well with experimental results.

  6. Political Instruments Employed by Governments to Enhance University Research and Knowledge Transfer Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Grant

    2005-01-01

    Governments of developed nations use a variety of policy instruments to enhance university research and knowledge transfer capabilities. These include advocacy, persuasion and information; consultation and committees of enquiry; creation of major research centres and commercialisation agencies, and investment in research infrastructure; grants,…

  7. Lecturers' Perception of Strategies for Enhancing Business Education Research in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoro, James

    2013-01-01

    Business education programme seems to have been faced with inadequate qualitative research in tertiary institution in Nigeria. The study therefore, assessed the strategies for enhancing Business Education research. Two research questions and six hypotheses guided the study. A 66 item questionnaire was administered to 164 colleges of education and…

  8. Developing Social Work Professional Judgment Skills: Enhancing Learning in Practice by Researching Learning in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawles, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this article are twofold: to discuss the value of practice-based research as a basis for enhancing learning and teaching in social work and, as an illustration of this, to present the findings of a preliminary qualitative research study into social work students' development of professional judgment skills. The research was conducted…

  9. Some research advances in computer graphics that will enhance applications to engineering design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, J. J., III

    1975-01-01

    Research in man/machine interactions and graphics hardware/software that will enhance applications to engineering design was described. Research aspects of executive systems, command languages, and networking used in the computer applications laboratory are mentioned. Finally, a few areas where little or no research is being done were identified.

  10. Enhancing the Interpretation of "Significant" Findings: The Role of Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.

    2004-01-01

    The present essay outlines how mixed methods research can be used to enhance the interpretation of significant findings. First, we define what we mean by significance in educational evaluation research. With regard to quantitative-based research, we define the four types of significance: statistical significance, practical significance, clinical…

  11. Investigation of the photoionization properties of pharmaceutically relevant substances by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy and single-photon ionization spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Kleeblatt, Juliane; Ehlert, Sven; Hölzer, Jasper; Sklorz, Martin; Rittgen, Jan; Baumgärtel, Peter; Schubert, Jochen K; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2013-08-01

    The photoionization properties of the pharmaceutically relevant substances amantadine, diazepam, dimethyltryptamine, etomidate, ketamine, mescaline, methadone, and propofol were determined. At beamline U125/2-10m-NIM of the BESSY II synchrotron facility (Berlin, Germany) vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization spectra were recorded in the energy range 7.1 to 11.9 eV (174.6 to 104.2 nm), showing the hitherto unknown ionization energies and fragmentation appearance energies of the compounds under investigation. Furthermore, (1+1)-resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra of selected compounds (amantadine, diazepam, etomidate, ketamine, and propofol) were recorded by a continuous scan in the energy range between 3.6 and 5.7 eV (345 to 218 nm) using a tunable optical parametric oscillator (spectral resolution: 0.1 nm) laser system. The resulting REMPI wavelength spectra of these compounds are discussed and put into context with already known UV absorption data. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used for ion detection in both experiments. Finally, the implications of the obtained physical-chemical results for potential analytical applications are discussed. In this context, fast detection approaches for the considered compounds from breath gas using photoionization mass spectrometry and a rapid pre-concentration step (e.g., needle trap device) are of interest. PMID:23876725

  12. Enhancing the role of geodiversity and geoheritage in environmental management and policy in a changing world: challenges for geoscience research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, John

    2013-04-01

    Geodiversity delivers or underpins many key ecosystem processes and services that deliver valuable benefits for society. With a growing recognition of the wider economic, social and environmental relevance of geodiversity, it is timely to consider the research requirements and priorities that are necessary to underpin a broader interdisciplinary approach to geodiversity that incorporates the links between natural and human systems in a changing world. A key challenge is to develop the scientific framework of geodiversity and at the same time to enhance the protection of geoheritage. Research that helps to support environmental policy and meet the wider needs of society for sustainable development and improved human wellbeing is fundamental both to improve the recognition of geodiversity and to demonstrate the wider relevance and value of geoheritage and geoconservation. Within this wider context, priorities for research include: 1) assessment of geoheritage and best-practice management of geosites for multiple uses including science, education and tourism; 2) evaluation of geodiversity and the ecosystem services it provides, both in economic and non-economic terms, to help build policy support and public awareness; 3) understanding the functional links between geodiversity and biodiversity across a range of spatial and temporal scales to help assess ecosystem sensitivity and inform management adaptations to climate change, particularly in dynamic environments such as the coast, river catchments and mountain areas; 4) providing a longer time perspective on ecosystem trends and services from palaeoenvironmental records; 5) applications of geodiversity in terrestrial and marine spatial planning.

  13. Enhancing Undergraduate Teaching and Research with a Drosophila Virginizing System

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory exercises using Drosophila crosses are an effective pedagogical method to complement traditional lecture and textbook presentations of genetics. Undergraduate thesis research is another common setting for using Drosophila. A significant barrier to using Drosophila for undergraduate teaching or research is the time and skill required to accurately collect virgins for use in controlled crosses. Erroneously collecting males or nonvirgin females contaminates crosses with unintended genotypes and confounds the results. Collecting adequate numbers of virgins requires large amounts of time, even for those skilled in virgin collection. I have adapted an effective method for virgin collection that eliminates these concerns and is straightforward to use in undergraduate settings. Using a heat-shock–induced, conditional lethal transgene specifically in males, male larvae can be eliminated from a culture before adults eclose. Females thus eclose in the absence of males and remain virgin, eliminating the need to laboriously score and segregate freshly eclosed females. This method is reliable, easily adaptable to any desired phenotypic marker, and readily scaleable to provide sufficient virgins for large laboratory classes or undergraduate research projects. In addition, it allows instructors lacking Drosophila expertise to use this organism as a pedagogical tool. PMID:17146043

  14. Strengthening and preparing: enhancing nursing research for disaster management.

    PubMed

    Usher, Kim; Redman-MacLaren, Michelle L; Mills, Jane; West, Caryn; Casella, Evan; Hapsari, Elsi D; Bonita, Sheila; Rosaldo, Rommel; Liswar, Amelia K; Zang, Yuli Amy

    2015-01-01

    Nurses are often first line responders in a large scale emergency or disaster. This paper reports an evaluative study of a tailored research capacity building course for nurse delegates from the Asia Pacific Emergency and Disaster Nursing Network (APEDNN). Twenty-three participant delegates from 19 countries attended a three-week course that included learning and teaching about the critique and conduct of research. An outcome of the course was the collaborative design of a study now being implemented in a number of countries with the aim of investigating nurses' preparedness for disaster response. Formal mentoring relationships have also been established between more and less experienced peers and facilitators to provide support in implementing this collaborative study. Overall, participant delegates rated the planning, implementation and content of the course highly. Recommendations from this study include funding a mix of face-to-face and distance mentoring and writing for publication workshops to ensure the sustainability of outcomes from a research capacity building course such as the one described. PMID:24703706

  15. Enhancing Research Ethics Review Systems in Egypt: The Focus of an International Training Program Informed by an Ecological Developmental Approach to Enhancing Research Ethics Capacity.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Hillary Anne; Hifnawy, Tamer; Silverman, Henry

    2015-12-01

    Recently, training programs in research ethics have been established to enhance individual and institutional capacity in research ethics in the developing world. However, commentators have expressed concern that the efforts of these training programs have placed 'too great an emphasis on guidelines and research ethics review', which will have limited effect on ensuring ethical conduct in research. What is needed instead is a culture of ethical conduct supported by national and institutional commitment to ethical practices that are reinforced by upstream enabling conditions (strong civil society, public accountability, and trust in basic transactional processes), which are in turn influenced by developmental conditions (basic freedoms of political freedoms, economic facilities, social opportunities, transparency guarantees, and protective security). Examining this more inclusive understanding of the determinants of ethical conduct enhances at once both an appreciation of the limitations of current efforts of training programs in research ethics and an understanding of what additional training elements are needed to enable trainees to facilitate national and institutional policy changes that enhance research practices. We apply this developmental model to a training program focused in Egypt to describe examples of such additional training activities. PMID:24894063

  16. A Postgraduate Researcher--Undergraduate Interview Scheme: Enhancing Research-Teaching Linkages to Mutual Benefit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downie, Roger

    2010-01-01

    A science communication project is described where undergraduates in groups interview postgraduate researchers about their research and the life of a researcher. Mutual benefits to undergraduates and researchers are described in terms of creativity, the research-teaching links agenda and employability. (Contains 3 tables.)

  17. Primary care--opportunities and threats. Developing professional knowledge: making primary care education and research more relevant.

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, P.; Jones, K.

    1997-01-01

    The trio of recent government white papers heralds a new world for primary care. Many changes in the education of future primary health care professionals and in the research ethos of the discipline will be needed to realise this vision. New skills and attitudes, not least in multidisciplinary working; lifelong learning; and greater understanding of and participation in primary care research will have to emerge from educational efforts in the next few years. PMID:9081008

  18. Exercise science: research to sustain and enhance performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingo, Jonathan E.

    2013-05-01

    Cardiovascular adjustments accompanying exercise in high ambient temperatures are likely responsible for diminished aerobic capacity and performance in such conditions. These adjustments include a phenomenon known as cardiovascular drift in which heart rate rises and stroke volume declines progressively over time during constant-rate exercise. A variety of factors modulate the magnitude of cardiovascular drift, e.g., elevated core and skin temperatures, dehydration, and exercise intensity. Regardless of the mode of manipulation, decreases in stroke volume associated with cardiovascular drift result in directionally and proportionally similar decreases in maximal aerobic capacity. Maximal aerobic capacity is determined by maximal heart rate, maximal tissue oxygen extraction, and maximal stroke volume. Because maximal heart rate and maximal tissue oxygen extraction are unaffected during exercise in the heat, decreased stroke volume associated with cardiovascular drift likely persists during maximal efforts and explains the decrease in maximal aerobic capacity. Decreased maximal aerobic capacity results in a greater perceptual and physiological strain accompanying any given level of work. Therefore, sustaining and enhancing performance involves sophisticated monitoring of physiological strain combined with development of countermeasures that mitigate the magnitude of deleterious phenomena like cardiovascular drift.

  19. Researching hospital patient data to enhance operational management.

    PubMed

    Heslop, Liz; Gardner, Brendon; Athan, Dean; Diers, Donna; Taylor, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    For the purposes of funding and policy development, the Victorian Department of Human Services expects Victorian health care institutions to capture patient data at all levels. These data can be extracted from hospital information systems and potentially offer a business role within a health service organisation. However, there are many issues to be addressed at the organisational level in order that operational directors can be enabled to use hospital data to solve health service operational problems. In this paper, we discuss some of those considerations and give practical examples of how patient data can be used for research and management purposes. PMID:19468148

  20. Developing measures of community-relevant outcomes for violence prevention programs: a community-based participatory research approach to measurement.

    PubMed

    Hausman, Alice J; Baker, Courtney N; Komaroff, Eugene; Thomas, Nicole; Guerra, Terry; Hohl, Bernadette C; Leff, Stephen S

    2013-12-01

    Community-Based Participatory Research is a research paradigm that encourages community participation in designing and implementing evaluation research, though the actual outcome measures usually reflect the "external" academic researchers' view of program effect and the policy-makers' needs for decision-making. This paper describes a replicable process by which existing standardized psychometric scales commonly used in youth-related intervention programs were modified to measure indicators of program success defined by community partners. This study utilizes a secondary analysis of data gathered in the context of a community-based youth violence prevention program. Data were retooled into new measures developed using items from the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, the Hare Area Specific Self-Esteem Scale, and the Youth Asset Survey. These measures evaluated two community-defined outcome indicators, "More Parental Involvement" and "Showing Kids Love." Results showed that existing scale items can be re-organized to create measures of community-defined outcomes that are psychometrically reliable and valid. Results also show that the community definitions of parent or parenting caregivers exemplified by the two indicators are similar to how these constructs have been defined in previous research, but they are not synonymous. There are nuanced differences that are important and worthy of better understanding, in part through better measurement. PMID:23846829

  1. [Why is environmental adaptation and acculturation relevant when seeking to conduct qualitative research in drug dependency services?].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Dione Viégas de Almeida; de Azevedo, Renata Cruz Soares; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2013-06-01

    This study conducted at the Outpatient Service of Psychoactive Substances, in the University General Hospital of Campinas, sought to report on an experience of proactive participation to study the life experience of chemically dependent patients attended in a specialized university service. These observations emerged from the researcher's experiences in the environmental adaptation and acculturation period, namely through the researcher insertion in the outpatient service, during the preliminary data collection for qualitative research. This experience was important as it enabled clearer comprehension of the psycho-cultural universe of the population attended and how the relation professional-patient is conducted, broadening the knowledge of the field where the research was later carried out. From this initial entry in the field, it was possible to define the subject-matter and the population being studied more clearly, adapting to the needs and the reality observed in that service, as well as to reflect on the research method that serve to better understand the issues raised, and even draw up a roadmap for future interviews in the study. It was concluded that this preliminary stage is very useful as standard practice in new studies using the same methodology in clinical settings. PMID:23752548

  2. Energy conservation through enhanced traffic signal responsiveness. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, T.Y.; Machemehl, R.B.

    1995-06-01

    Traditional traffic system management objectives are based on operational efficiency, including capacity, delay reduction, and safety. A new fuel consumption model called the Analytical Fuel Consumption Model is proposed in this research based on queuing model concepts and different vehicle operational states. The model, aiming to include the impact of traffic characteristics, fuel consumption rates, and control variables, includes different vehicle operational states describing operations on three intersection elements: inbound approach, intersection itself, and outbound approach. For each element, vehicle operational states are described in three signal cycle stages. Numerical experiments are conducted to calibrate fuel consumption rates of the new model for different traffic volumes and cycle lengths. Results show consistency with those of the TEXAS simulation model. Results for both fuel consumption and delay minimization show that short cycle time lengths are preferred in low volume cases, and likewise, long cycle lengths are preferred in high volume cases.

  3. Enhancing water cycle measurements for future hydrologic research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loescher, H.W.; Jacobs, J.M.; Wendroth, O.; Robinson, D.A.; Poulos, G.S.; McGuire, K.; Reed, P.; Mohanty, B.P.; Shanley, J.B.; Krajewski, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences, Inc., established the Hydrologic Measurement Facility to transform watershed-scale hydrologic research by facilitating access to advanced instrumentation and expertise that would not otherwise be available to individual investigators. We outline a committee-based process that determined which suites of instrumentation best fit the needs of the hydrological science community and a proposed mechanism for the governance and distribution of these sensors. Here, we also focus on how these proposed suites of instrumentation can be used to address key scientific challenges, including scaling water cycle science in time and space, broadening the scope of individual subdisciplines of water cycle science, and developing mechanistic linkages among these subdisciplines and spatio-temporal scales. ?? 2007 American Meteorological Society.

  4. The Role of Research Coordination in Enhancing Integrative Research: the Co-production of Knowledge Agenda of the Global Land Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, F. M.; Boillat, S. P.; Grove, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The search for sustainability and resilience requires the integration of natural science with social science, as well as the joint production of knowledge and solutions by science and society. In this context, international science coordination initiatives, like Future Earth, have increasingly stressed the need to perform more integrated and more socially relevant research. This contribution has the objective to highlight the potential role of a research coordination initiative, the Global Land Programme (GLP), to provide guidance for more integrative research. The need to perform integrative research is particularly true for land systems, which include dynamic interactions among social and natural drivers that are often multifunctional. Thus, their governance and management is particularity complex and involve highly diverse stakeholders. A key aspect of integrative research is co-production of knowledge, understood as the interactive production of knowledge by both academics and non-academics, that leads to new forms of solutions-oriented knowledge. We relied on experiences of co-production of knowledge on land systems from the GLP network, and drove seven lessons learnt: 1) the importance of including several learning loops in the process, 2) the importance of long-term relationships, 3) the need to overcome the distinction between basic and applied science, 4) the opportunities offered by new communication technologies, 5) the need to train professionals in both breadth and depth, 6) the access to knowledge, and 7) the need to understand better the roles of scientists and decision-makers. These lessons were used to define action-research priorities for enhancing co-production of knowledge on land systems in GLP projects and working groups. As a conclusion, we argue that research coordination initiatives have the potential to provide analysis and guidance for more integrative research. This can be done by performing synthesis and self-reflection activities that

  5. Lifespan Engagement and the Question of Relevance: Challenges for Music Education Research in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, David

    2008-01-01

    The scope of music education research has expanded significantly over the last 50 years. Nevertheless, many studies remain atomistic, with limited contexts for questions, methods, findings and implications. Such approaches may seek to validate instructional strategies within an established music education system, rather than developing a continuum…

  6. Space flight research relevant to health, physical education, and recreation: With particular reference to Skylab's life science experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanhuss, W. D.; Heusner, W. W.

    1979-01-01

    Data collected in the Skylab program relating to physiological stresses is presented. Included are routine blood measures used in clinical medicine as research type endocrine analyses to investigate the metabolic/endocrine responses to weightlessness. The daily routine of physical exercise, coupled with appropriate dietary intake, sleep, work, and recreation periods were considered essential in maintaining the crew's health and well being.

  7. Self- and Cohort-Directed Design in Research Training Tutorials for Undergraduate Researchers: Increasing Ownership and Relevance to Improve Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creese, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses a method of self- and cohort-directed design of research training tutorials for final-year research-oriented undergraduate students at the University of Queensland, Australia. The design methodology centered on a research skills self-assessment document used at the university, and utilized Personal Response System…

  8. Enhanced stability of Cu(2+)-ATCUN complexes under physiologically relevant conditions by insertion of structurally bulky and hydrophobic amino acid residues into the ATCUN motif.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Takaaki; Fukino, Yuta; Kamino, Shinichiro; Ueda, Masashi; Enomoto, Shuichi

    2016-06-21

    Copper complexes formed by an amino terminal Cu(2+)- and Ni(2+)-binding (ATCUN) motif have attracted attention as metallodrug candidates that cleave DNA or RNA and inactivate enzymes. Although the stability of the Cu(2+)-ATCUN complex under physiologically relevant conditions is a key factor for medical applications, it has remained unclear. Here we prepared a series of ATCUN peptides by inserting various amino acid residues into positions 1 and 2, and investigated the stability of the Cu(2+)-ATCUN complexes in aqueous solution, blood plasma, and living animals. Systematic pH titration showed that the low basicity of the N-terminal amine of the peptide stabilized the Cu(2+)-ATCUN complex in aqueous solution. Interestingly, the stability of (64)Cu-labeled ATCUN complexes in blood plasma was significantly enhanced by the structural bulkiness and hydrophobicity of the amino acid residues at positions 1 and 2. To validate the in vivo stability, six ATCUN motifs (YYH, VVH, NNH, TTH, GGH, and DDH) were conjugated to a tumor-targeting peptide, octreotide (Oct). The stability of the (64)Cu-ATCUN-Oct complexes in blood plasma showed a similar trend to that of the (64)Cu-ATCUN complexes. The (64)Cu-YYH-Oct complex exhibited the highest stability in blood plasma. According to the positron emission tomography and competitive blocking studies of a tumor-bearing mouse model, (64)Cu-YYH-Oct specifically accumulated in tumors, suggesting that the complex was sufficiently stable to reach its target in vivo. The results show that the structural bulkiness and hydrophobicity of the residues at positions 1 and 2 are key parameters for designing metallodrugs on the basis of the Cu(2+)-ATCUN complex. PMID:27184978

  9. DNA-Mutation Inventory to Refine and Enhance Cancer Treatment (DIRECT): A Catalog of Clinically Relevant Cancer Mutations to Enable Genome-Directed Anticancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Paul; Chen, Heidi; Andrews, Jenny; Naser, Riyad; Pao, William; Horn, Leora

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Tumor gene mutation status is becoming increasingly important in the treatment of patients with cancer. A comprehensive catalog of tumor gene–response outcomes from individual patients is needed, especially for actionable mutations and rare variants. We created a proof-of-principle database [DNA-mutation Inventory to Refine and Enhance Cancer Treatment (DIRECT)], starting with lung cancer-associated EGF receptor (EGFR) mutations, to provide a resource for clinicians to prioritize treatment decisions based on a patient’s tumor mutations at the point of care. Methods A systematic search of literature published between June 2005 and May 2011 was conducted through PubMed to identify patient-level, mutation–drug response in patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with EGFR mutant tumors. Minimum inclusion criteria included patient’s EGFR mutation, corresponding treatment, and an associated radiographic outcome. Results A total of 1,021 patients with 1,070 separate EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy responses from 116 different publications were included. About 188 unique EGFR mutations occurring in 207 different combinations were identified: 149 different mutation combinations were associated with disease control and 42 were associated with disease progression. Four secondary mutations, in 16 different combinations, were associated with acquired resistance. Conclusions As tumor sequencing becomes more common in oncology, this comprehensive electronic catalog can enable genome-directed anticancer therapy. DIRECT will eventually encompass all tumor mutations associated with clinical outcomes on targeted therapies. Users can make specific queries at http:// www.mycancergenome.org/about/direct to obtain clinically relevant data associated with various mutations. PMID:23344264

  10. [Some notes on the history of the experimental surgery laboratory. Reflections on its relevance in education and surgical research].

    PubMed

    de la Garza-Rodea, Anabel Sofía; Padilla-Sánchez, Luis; de la Garza-Aguilar, Javier; Neri-Vela, Rolando

    2007-01-01

    The progress of medicine has largely been due to research, and for surgery, in particular, the experimental surgical laboratory has been considered fundamental to the surgeon's education. In this study, a general view of experimental surgery is given in animal models based on bioethical norms as well as to design, create and apply different surgical procedures before performing in humans. Experimental surgery also facilitates surgical teaching and promotes the surgeon's scientific reasoning. Methods. This is a retrospective and descriptive study. Data were collected from direct and indirect sources of available publications on the historical, bioethical and educational aspects of medicine, focusing on surgery. The important facts corresponding to the field of experimental surgery and applicable in Mexico were selected. Concepts of experimental surgical models and of the experimental surgery laboratory were described. Bioethical considerations are emphasized for care of experimental animals. Finally, this work focuses on the importance of surgical experimentation in current and future development of the surgical researcher. Conclusions. Experimentation with animal models in a surgical laboratory is essential for surgical teaching and promotes development of the scientific thought in the surgeon. It is necessary for surgical research and is fundamental for making progress in surgery, treatment and medicine as science. PMID:18177574

  11. Enhancing decolonization and knowledge transfer in nursing research with non-western populations: examining the congruence between primary healthcare and postcolonial feminist approaches.

    PubMed

    Racine, Louise; Petrucka, Pammla

    2011-03-01

    This article is a call for reflection from two distinct programs of research which converge on common interests pertaining to issues of health, social justice, and globalization. One of the authors has developed a research program related to the health and well-being of non-western populations, while the other author has expanded the field of Aboriginal and international research in Canada and abroad. Based on examples drawn from our respective programs of research, we suggest conciliating the philosophy of primary healthcare to postcolonial feminism for decolonizing research and enhancing knowledge transfer with non-western populations. We contend that applying the theoretical and methodological strengths of these two approaches is a means to decolonize nursing research and to avoid western neocolonization. In conciliating primary health care and postcolonial feminism, the goal is to enhance the pragmatic relevance of postcolonial feminism to generate resistance through transformative research for achieving social justice. In tapping into the synergistic and complementary epistemological assumptions of the philosophy of primary health care and postcolonial 'feminisms', nurse researchers reinforce the anti-oppresive goals of postcolonial feminist research. Consequently, this approach may enhance both decolonization and knowledge transfer through strategies like photovoice. PMID:21281391

  12. Enhancing Ecological Thought Through Phenological Observation, Research, and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltzin, J. F.; Losleben, M.; Benton, L. M.

    2008-12-01

    Background The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) is an emerging and exciting partnership between federal agencies, the academic community, and the general public to monitor and understand the influence of seasonal cycles and phenology on the Nation's resources. Phenology is the study of the timing of recurring biological phases, the causes of their timing with regard to biotic and abiotic forces, and the interrelation among phases of same or different species. Phenological data and models developed as part of the network can be applied to scientific research, education and outreach, as well as to stakeholders interested in agriculture, tourism and recreation, human health, and natural resource conservation and management. The goal of the USA-NPN (www.usanpn.org) is to establish a nationwide science and monitoring program to better understand how plants, animals and landscapes respond to climatic variation, and to facilitate human adaptation to ongoing and potential future climate change. Results The NPN has a number of programs through which learners of all ages can observe and interpret their environment using phenology as a platform to facilitate understanding through active learning, engagement, and inquiry-based approaches. For example, since February 2008, the NPN-affiliated network Project BudBurst has registered almost 3000 people who are observing nearly 4000 plants across the continental US and are reporting their observations on-line. In addition, we are developing educational programs, modules, and activities applicable to all stages in the educational process from 'K to gray,' and are partnering with local, state, and federal governmental and non- governmental organizations on education/outreach programming. Dissemination of educational materials and information will be facilitated by the creation of an on-line clearing-house for phenology education and outreach. In sum, the NPN is developing a number of programs and products that will capitalize

  13. Reviewing the "Research Placement" as a Means of Enhancing Student Learning and Stimulating Research Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweed, Fiona; Boast, Rob

    2011-01-01

    The links between research and teaching have been the subject of much debate and controversy over the need for both activities to take place in universities remains current. This paper reports on the development and evaluation of a research placement module, which aimed to provide opportunities for students to work as research assistants on…

  14. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 87

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    Approximately 30 research projects are summarized in this report. Title of the project, contract number, company or university, award amount, principal investigators, objectives, and summary of technical progress are given for each project. Enhanced oil recovery projects include chemical flooding, gas displacement, and thermal recovery. Most of the research projects though are related to geoscience technology and reservoir characterization.

  15. Analysis of Factors Enhancing Pitfall in Research and Teaching of the Nigerian University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Tafida; Umar, Kasim; Paul, Chima

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses factors enhancing pitfall in research and teaching in the Nigerian university system. Using data generated from secondary sources, it was found that so many factors are responsible for the constant decay in teaching and research in the Nigerian universities. The paper however found from literature that the high rate of pitfalls…

  16. 50 CFR 216.41 - Permits for scientific research and enhancement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Permits for scientific research and... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.41 Permits for scientific research and enhancement. In addition to the requirements under §§ 216.33 through 216.38, permits for scientific...

  17. 50 CFR 216.41 - Permits for scientific research and enhancement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permits for scientific research and... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.41 Permits for scientific research and enhancement. In addition to the requirements under §§ 216.33 through 216.38, permits for scientific...

  18. Engaging Preservice Teachers in Action Research to Enhance Awareness of Second Language Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainuddin, Hanizah; Moore, Rashid A.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines a study on how preservice teachers enhance their understanding of theory and research in second language learning through an action research project that took place in a TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages) education course. The study focuses on how interaction with English language learners (ELLs)…

  19. Impact of Visual Aids in Enhancing the Learning Process Case Research: District Dera Ghazi Khan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabiralyani, Ghulam; Hasan, Khuram Shahzad; Hamad, Naqvi; Iqbal, Nadeem

    2015-01-01

    This research explores teachers' opinions on the use of visual aids (e.g., pictures, animation videos, projectors and films) as a motivational tool in enhancing students' attention in reading literary texts. To accomplish the aim of the research, a closed ended questionnaire was used to collect the required data. The targeted population for this…

  20. Density of Visual Input Enhancement and Grammar Learning: A Research Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Thu Hoang

    2009-01-01

    Research in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) has been done to ascertain the effectiveness of visual input enhancement (VIE) on grammar learning. However, one issue remains unexplored: the effects of VIE density on grammar learning. This paper presents a research proposal to investigate the effects of the density of VIE on English…

  1. "It's Really Making a Difference": How Small-Scale Research Projects Can Enhance Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dexter, Barbara; Seden, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Following an internal evaluation exercise, using Action Research, this paper identifies the positive impact of small-scale research projects on teaching and learning at a single case study UK University. Clear evidence is given of how the projects benefited students and staff, and enhanced institutional culture. Barriers to better practice are…

  2. 50 CFR 216.41 - Permits for scientific research and enhancement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permits for scientific research and... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.41 Permits for scientific research and enhancement. In addition to the requirements under §§ 216.33 through 216.38, permits for scientific...

  3. 50 CFR 216.41 - Permits for scientific research and enhancement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permits for scientific research and... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.41 Permits for scientific research and enhancement. In addition to the requirements under §§ 216.33 through 216.38, permits for scientific...

  4. 50 CFR 216.41 - Permits for scientific research and enhancement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Permits for scientific research and... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.41 Permits for scientific research and enhancement. In addition to the requirements under §§ 216.33 through 216.38, permits for scientific...

  5. The politics of sex research and constructions of female sexuality: what relevance to sexual health work with young women?

    PubMed

    Few, C

    1997-03-01

    By examining the relationship between the cultural construction of female sexuality and the lack of potential for many young heterosexual women to be truly sexually healthy this paper submits that messages for women within HIV prevention programmes can be confused, confining and at times dangerous to women's health and well-being. It is suggested that these messages also reinforce a traditional, biologically determined medical understanding of female sexuality that does not take note of social or culturally based research or commentary on female experience or female desire, but rather confines many women to sexual restrictions, doing little to empower women to prevent sexual risk-taking. The ideological basis of the discussion within this paper is informed by the awareness that applications and understandings of 'sexuality' are diverse and contested within sex research traditions and will influence the choice of research concerns. The 'deterministic' explanation of sexuality that 'sexuality' (the abstract noun referring to the quality of being 'sexual', Williams 1983) is your fate or destiny and that biology causes the patterns of sexual life, is abandoned in this paper in favour of a search for a definition of sexuality which brings together a host of different biological and mental possibilities which are given meaning only in social relations. This allows for a framework for the study of sexuality that relates it to other social phenomena, particularly economic, political and social structures (Foucault 1979); in other words, a study of the 'social construction' of sexuality. This paper suggests that health care professionals need to develop an awareness of the diversities within female sexuality and gain insight into their own values and assumptions about female sexuality if these are not to inhibit effective approaches and interventions in the areas of HIV and sexual health. PMID:9080290

  6. Waste Characteristics of the Former S-3 Ponds and Outline of Uranium Chemistry Relevant to NABIR Field Research Center Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, S.C.

    2001-06-29

    The Environmental Sciences Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was awarded the first Naturaland Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program, Field Research Center (FRC) based upon the recommendation of a review panel following a competitive peer-reviewed proposal process. The contaminated FRC site at ORNL is centered on groundwater plumes that originate from the former S-3 Waste Disposal Ponds located at the Y-12 Plant and the Y-12 Bone Yard/Bum Yard. Proposals for individual science research projects at the FRC were submitted in the spring of 2000 in response to a solicitation issued by the Department of Energy (DOE). Proposals selected for funding began work in Fiscal Year 2001 (October 1, 2000). The FRC staff have initiated several characterization efforts intended to support, inform, and educate individual FRC investigators, NABIR principal investigators (PIs), and the broader community of the specific conditions, opportunities, and challenges of this site. These efforts include both physical site characterization as well as numerical simulation (modeling) studies. Geochemical modeling has been conducted with the goal of: (1) providing a baseline understanding of the geochemical behavior of uranium (U); (2) examining the interaction of geochemistry and uranium transport in the subsurface; (3) elucidating some potential pitfalls for researchers with respect to manipulating subsurface environments for the purpose of demonstrating bacterially induced U immobilization. The geochemical modeling effort focused on using existing data and resources and did not involve the collection of new data or samples from the field site. Specifically, the following three tasks have been performed to date. (1) Searching for information on the wastes disposed in to the S-3 ponds. These data are typically found in internal technical reports at the labs and are rarely published in the peer-reviewed literature; thus, this information can be very difficult for the

  7. Social Capital and Resilience: A Review of Concepts and Selected Literature Relevant to Aboriginal Youth Resilience Research

    PubMed Central

    Ledogar, Robert J.; Fleming, John

    2010-01-01

    Summary Social capital, as an asset or a resource for resilience, can be a characteristic of the community or the individual. As an individual asset, social capital consists of a person’s relationships to available social resources. As a characteristic of communities, it consists of attributes such as trust, reciprocity, collective action, and participation. Closely related to community social capital is the concept of collective efficacy. Some social networks, however, can be violent, repressive, bigoted, or otherwise destructive. Resilience is also a characteristic of both individuals and communities. This means that the relationship between social capital and resilience is four-dimensional. In discussing each of these dimensions, we highlight the ability of resilience research to link evidence on community social capital with individual data and the recognition that individuals can be resilient even if the communities they live in have low or even negative social capital. Recommendations for future research include greater attention to the social capital potential of Aboriginal spirituality, more comparison of urban-rural differences in social capital, and a better understanding of the factors that underlie Aboriginal youth resilience where social capital is defective. PMID:20963183

  8. Effects of Relevance- and Confidence-Enhancing Motivational Strategies, Suggested Strategies, and Statements on Academic Performance and Course Satisfaction in Undergraduate Students of a Blended Public Speaking Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokelova, Antonia

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted to examine whether the components of Relevance and Confidence from the ARCS motivational model affect academic performance and course satisfaction differently. The participants were students of an online public speaking course at a southern U.S. public university. They were divided into three groups, Relevance, Confidence,…

  9. Dismantling the RB-2 research reactor; An application of a radiation protection approach relevant to Italy's decommissioning methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Laraia, M. ); Brighenti, G.; Camiscioni, B. Via Sabbionara, 611, 40059 Medicina ); Chessa, G. )

    1989-08-01

    The RB-2 research reactor was operated for 17 yr at power levels of the order of 10kW (1963-1969) and 100W (1971-1980). During dismantling, the radiological risk for personnel was recognizable low, but radioactivity levels associated with the waste materials and the site itself needed to be evaluated. Predismantling activities consisted of a preliminary radiological characterization, including direct measurements, spectrometric analyses of samples, and theoretical calculations. Determination of nonradioactive limits determined the disposition of the site and the transportation routes for the waste materials. After dismantling, the site was extensively monitored for remaining radioactivity. In general, unrestricted release has been achievable for the site; only a small area is still subject to radiological control.

  10. Reward Systems and NSF University Research Centers: The Impact of Tenure on University Scientists' Valuation of Applied and Commercially Relevant Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, P. Craig; Ponomariov, Branco L.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past three decades, U.S. science policy has shifted from decentralized support of small, investigator-initiated research projects to more centralized, block grant-based, multidisciplinary research centers. No matter one's take on the "revolutionary" nature of this shift, a major consequence is that university scientists, now more than…

  11. Proceedings of the relevance of mass spectrometry to DNA sequence determination: Research needs for the Human Genome Program

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, C.G.; Smith, R.D. ); Smith, L.M. )

    1990-11-01

    A workshop was sponsored for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Health and Environmental Research by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, April 4--5, 1990, in Seattle, Washington, to examine the potential role of mass spectrometry in the joint DOE/National Institutes of Health (NIH) Human Genome Program. The workshop was occasioned by recent developments in mass spectrometry that are providing new levels for selectivity, sensitivity, and, in particular, new methods of ionization appropriate for large biopolymers such as DNA. During discussions, three general mass spectrometric approaches to the determination of DNA sequence were considered: (1) the mass spectrometric detection of isotopic labels from DNA sequencing mixtures separated using gel electrophoresis, (2) the direct mass spectrometric analysis from direct ionization of unfractionated sequencing mixtures where the measured mass of the constituents functions to identify and order the base sequence (replacing separation by gel electrophoresis), and (3) an approach in which a single highly charged molecular ion of a large DNA segment produced is rapidly sequenced in an ion cyclotron resonance ion trap. The consensus of the workshop was that, on the basis of the new developments, mass spectrometry has the potential to provide the substantial increases in sequencing speed required for the Human Genome Program. 66 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Enhancing research interest and collaboration in the interdisciplinary context of emergency care.

    PubMed

    Short, Alison; Holdgate, Anna; Ahern, Nicole; Morris, Jenny

    2009-03-01

    The interdisciplinary context of the emergency department encompasses diverse clinical presentations requiring teamwork by doctors, nurses and allied health workers to achieve optimal patient care. This interdisciplinary focus is extended by adding a research perspective. This project sought to systematically examine the current research capacity of emergency department staff at a major Australian tertiary urban hospital and to derive information about further research-related needs with a view to enhancing research capacity. The mixed method project utilized a department-wide staff survey followed by focus groups and individual interviews. Adequate response rates to the two phases were achieved (n = 67, n = 17 respectively). Not surprisingly, 89% of participants reported that they needed help with developing their research skills. Clinicians reported little or no experience with (i) finding literature (35%) and critical review (50%), (ii) research skills and techniques, both qualitative (72%) and quantitative (63%), and (iii) research output: publishing (68%), writing & presenting (34%). Data from focus groups and individual interviews yielded themes around developing research skills, communication, meaningfulness, team work and interdisciplinary strategies, forming part of the Dimensional Enhancing Research Capacity (DERC) model. This project highlighted not only interdisciplinary needs for research but also the way that research may additionally assist with building interprofessional linkage. PMID:19283546

  13. Enhancement, ethics and society: towards an empirical research agenda for the medical humanities and social sciences

    PubMed Central

    Hogle, Linda

    2015-01-01

    For some time now, bioethicists have paid close attention to issues associated with ‘enhancement’; specifically, the appropriate use and regulation of substances and artefacts understood by some to improve the functioning of human bodies beyond that associated with ‘normal’ function. Medical humanities scholars (aside from philosophers and lawyers) and social scientists have not been frequent participants in debates around enhancement, but could shine a bright light on the range of dilemmas and opportunities techniques of enhancement are purported to introduce. In this paper, we argue that empirical research into the notion and practice of enhancement is necessary and timely. Such work could fruitfully engage with—and further develop—existing conceptual repertoires within the medical humanities and social sciences in ways that would afford benefit to scholars in those disciplines. We maintain that empirical engagements could also provide important resources to bioethicists seeking to regulate new enhancements in ways that are sensitive to societal context and cultural difference. To this end, we outline an empirical agenda for the medical humanities and social sciences around enhancement, emphasising especially how science and technology studies could bring benefits to—and be benefitted by—research in this area. We also use the example of (pharmaceutical) cognitive enhancement to show how empirical studies of actual and likely enhancement practices can nuance resonant bioethical debates. PMID:26260624

  14. Association of a Biweekly Research Workgroup With Enhanced Resident Research Productivity.

    PubMed

    Brackmann, Melissa; Reynolds, R Kevin; Uppal, Shitanshu; McLean, Karen

    2016-09-01

    Almost all residency programs require a resident research project, yet teaching and mentoring of the required skills are often lacking. We established an every-other-week gynecologic oncology research workgroup at our institution for obstetrics and gynecology faculty, fellows, and residents with the goal of increasing resident research education, involvement, and productivity. An informal, discussion-style format was adopted as a forum for brainstorming research ideas, formulating study protocols, and collaborating on institutional review board submissions. Additional aims included editorial feedback on abstracts and manuscripts as well as oral presentation preparation. The academic productivity of trainees mentored by the gynecologic oncology division was queried for 27 months before and 27 months after workgroup initiation, specifically assessing resident involvement in institutional review board submission, abstract presentation, and manuscript preparation. Institution of our workgroup was associated with a dramatic increase in resident research output, including manuscript preparation and presentations at national meetings. We describe our experience because it may benefit other residency programs wishing to improve both resident research education and productivity. PMID:27500350

  15. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) R&D Program: Monitoring EGS-Related Research

    SciTech Connect

    McLarty, Lynn; Entingh, Daniel; Carwile, Clifton

    2000-09-29

    This report reviews technologies that could be applicable to Enhanced Geothermal Systems development. EGS covers the spectrum of geothermal resources from hydrothermal to hot dry rock. We monitored recent and ongoing research, as reported in the technical literature, that would be useful in expanding current and future geothermal fields. The literature review was supplemented by input obtained through contacts with researchers throughout the United States. Technologies are emerging that have exceptional promise for finding fractures in nonhomogeneous rock, especially during and after episodes of stimulation to enhance natural permeability.

  16. A Symposium: Relevant Cue Research, a Program of Systematic Evaluation: Considerations for Sustaining Instructional Design Research Using an Integrated Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Barbara

    An intelligent videodisc system on which comprehensive instructional development research can be conducted has been developed. This integrated learning system combines all other existing media, except objects, using a videodisc, microcomputer, printer, single monitor, hard disc storage with CPU for random access digitized audio, and headphones.…

  17. "You hoped we would sleep walk into accepting the collection of our data": controversies surrounding the UK care.data scheme and their wider relevance for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Sterckx, Sigrid; Rakic, Vojin; Cockbain, Julian; Borry, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    An 'Information Centre' has recently been established by law which has the power to collect, collate and provide access to the medical information for all patients treated by the National Health Service in England, whether in hospitals or by General Practitioners. This so-called 'care.data' scheme has given rise to major and ongoing controversies. We will sketch the background of the scheme and look at the responses it has elicited from citizens and medical professionals. In Autumn 2013, NHS England set up a care.data website where citizens could record their concerns regarding the collection of health-related data by the Information Centre. We have reviewed all the comments on this website up until June 2015. We have also analysed the readers' comments on the coverage of the care.data scheme in one of the main national UK newspapers. When discussing the responses of citizens, we will make a distinction between the problems that citizens detect and the solutions they propose. The solutions that are being perceived as the most relevant ones can be summarized as follows: citizens wish to further the common good without being manipulated into doing it, while at the same time being safeguarded against various abuses. The issue of trust turns out to figure prominently. Our analysis of reactions to the scheme in no way pretends to be exhaustive, yet it provides various relevant insights into the concerns identified by citizens as well as medical professionals. These concerns, moreover, have a more general relevance in relation to other contexts of medical data-mining as well as biobank research. Our analysis also offers important pointers as to how those concerns might be addressed. PMID:26280642

  18. Information Literacy and Research-Intensive Graduate Students: Enhancing the Role of Research Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Marni R.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates how psychology graduate students find information for coursework and research, who teaches them how to find it, and whether differences emerge over the course of their graduate careers. Findings indicate that these graduate students are comfortable using campus libraries, prefer electronic resources, ask supervisors when…

  19. Is Information Still Relevant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  20. Evaluating Biomedical Enhancement Research: Assessing Risk & Benefit and Obtaining Informed Consent

    PubMed Central

    Mehlman, Maxwell J.; Berg, Jessica W.

    2013-01-01

    There are two primary human subject protections: assessing and comparing the risks and potential benefits of proposed research, and obtaining potential subjects’ informed consent. While there has been extensive discussion in the literature on these two aspects, no attention has been paid to whether the processes should be different when the objective of an experimental biomedical intervention is to improve individual performance or capacity (“enhancement research”) rather than to prevent, cure, or mitigate disease (“health-oriented research”). This essay examines how both assessment of risks and benefits, and obtaining informed consent in an enhancement experiment might differ from the approaches used in health-oriented investigations, and considers appropriate protections for subjects in enhancement research. PMID:18840248

  1. Successful development of satiety enhancing food products: towards a multidisciplinary agenda of research challenges.

    PubMed

    Van Kleef, E; Van Trijp, J C M; Van Den Borne, J J G C; Zondervan, C

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in societies worldwide, enhancing the satiating capacity of foods may help people control their energy intake and weight. This requires an integrated approach between various food-related disciplines. By structuring this approach around the new product development process, this paper aims to present the contours of such an integrative approach by going through the current state of the art around satiety enhancing foods. It portrays actual food choice as the end result of a complex interaction between internal satiety signals, other food benefits, and environmental cues. Three interrelated routes to satiating enhancement are to change the food composition to develop stronger physiological satiation and satiety signals, anticipate and build on smart external stimuli at the moment of purchase and consumption, and improve palatability and acceptance of satiety enhanced foods. Key research challenges in achieving these routes in the field of nutrition, food technology, consumer, marketing, and communication are outlined. PMID:22530713

  2. Successful Development of Satiety Enhancing Food Products: Towards a Multidisciplinary Agenda of Research Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Van Kleef, E.; Van Trijp, J.C.M.; Van Den Borne, J.J.G.C.; Zondervan, C.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in societies worldwide, enhancing the satiating capacity of foods may help people control their energy intake and weight. This requires an integrated approach between various food-related disciplines. By structuring this approach around the new product development process, this paper aims to present the contours of such an integrative approach by going through the current state of the art around satiety enhancing foods. It portrays actual food choice as the end result of a complex interaction between internal satiety signals, other food benefits, and environmental cues. Three interrelated routes to satiating enhancement are to change the food composition to develop stronger physiological satiation and satiety signals, anticipate and build on smart external stimuli at the moment of purchase and consumption, and improve palatability and acceptance of satiety enhanced foods. Key research challenges in achieving these routes in the field of nutrition, food technology, consumer, marketing, and communication are outlined. PMID:22530713

  3. Teachers' Use of Research Evidence in Practice: A Pilot Study of Feedback to Enhance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    See, Beng Huat; Gorard, Stephen; Siddiqui, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is worldwide interest in improving the effectiveness of teachers and teaching. This paper considers two strands of that interest. It revisits the impact of using enhanced feedback from teachers to pupils as a way of improving attainment, and it looks at the feasibility of teachers using research evidence to create their own…

  4. Technology Enhanced Learning Environments for Self-Regulated Learning: A Framework for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffens, Karl

    2008-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) has become an important topic in education during the last three decades. At the same time, advances in technology have made it possible to create complex Technology Enhanced Learning Environments (TELEs). While there is some evidence that these TELEs have the potential to foster SRL, there is only little research on…

  5. Student Learning in Physical Education: Applying Research To Enhance Instruction. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Steven J., Ed.; Ennis, Catherine D., Ed.

    This book provides the latest research on physical education curriculum, teaching, and teacher education and shows physical educators how to apply this knowledge to their day-to-day practices. There are 19 chapters in five parts. Part 1, "Overview of the Field," includes (1) "Enhancing Learning: An Introduction" (Stephen J. Silverman and Catherine…

  6. STEAM ENHANCED REMEDIATION RESEARCH FOR DNAPL IN FRACTURED ROCK, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, LIMESTONE, MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report details a research project on Steam Enhanced Remediation (SER) for the recovery of volatile organic compounds from fractured limestone that was carried out at the Quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base in Limestone, Maine. This project was carried out by USEPA, Ma...

  7. NEW MEDIA TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT TO ENHANCE AND IMPROVE COMMUNICATIONS AT USEPA'S NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    New media technology (NT) interactive applications are currently being developed in house at ORD/NRMRL to enhance and improve communication of NRMRL's 1) research projects, 2) workshops/conferences and 3) specialized training. NT is an exciting mix of cutting-edge information tec...

  8. Performance Funding and Quality Enhancement at Three Research Universities in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Catherine; Lancaster, Carol; Gilbert, James; Higerd, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect performance funding has had on funding and quality enhancement at three research universities as implemented over the past six years. The presentation details the accountability requirements and the relationship they have had on funding levels. It describes the cost-benefit ratio of maintaining and responding to the…

  9. Enhancing Alphabet Knowledge Instruction: Research Implications and Practical Strategies for Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Cindy D.; Clark, Sarah K.; Reutzel, D. Ray

    2013-01-01

    Alphabet knowledge is consistently recognized as the strongest, most durable predictor of later literacy achievement. Recent research offers practical implications for increased effectiveness of teaching alphabet knowledge to young children. In this article, we outline Enhanced Alphabet Knowledge instruction (EAK), a method of practical…

  10. Understanding Why Researchers Should Use Synchrotron-Enhanced FTIR Instead of Traditional FTIR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stem, Michelle R.

    2008-01-01

    A synchrotron-enhanced Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) specializes in combining the tremendous power, brightness, intensity, focusability, and tunability of the photons radiated by a synchrotron with FTIR ability to research the vibrational properties of the lighter elements (i.e., C, N, O, etc.). Infrared (IR) wavelengths correspond to the…

  11. [Research on the Fluorescence Enhancement Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on the Cholesterol].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-jing; Wu, Ying; Liu, Ying; Cai, Tina-dong; Sun, Song

    2016-01-01

    Based on traditional fluorescence spectroscopy and metal nanoparticles-enhanced fluorescence technology, this research explores a method of improving the accuracy and resolution of cholesterol detected by fluorescence spectroscopy in human whole blood solution. In experiment, an adult blood with silver nanoparticles is radiated by a laser pulse with wavelength of 407 nm, the fluorescence enhancement effect of cholesterol in blood is studied. The results show that, colloidal silver nanoparticles can enhance the fluorescence intensity of cholesterol in human blood with low concentration significantly. With the increase of the amount of silver colloids, the enhanced efficiency of fluorescence peaks at different positions increases first, and then decreases. However, the strongest enhanced efficiency of fluorescence peaks is different corresponding to different amount of silver colloids. According to the experimental results and the distribution of cholesterol molecules and silver nanoparticles in solution, molecular spatial distribution model is established by theoretical analyses, and the optimal distance for efficient fluorescence enhancement between cholesterol molecules and silver nanoparticles is calculated, the range is 12.19-25 nm, and the result is in good agreement with the theoretical values in other literatures. In summary, the fluorescence intensity of cholesterol in human blood can be enhanced by colloidal silver nanoparticles, and the results also provide a valuable reference on improving the sensitivity and accuracy of cholesterol detection. PMID:27228757

  12. The use of podcasts to enhance research-teaching linkages in undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Karen; Gray, Colin; Hill, Gordon

    2012-07-01

    An understanding of research is important to enable nurses to provide evidence-based care. However, undergraduate nursing students often find research a challenging subject. The purpose of this paper is to present an evaluation of the introduction of podcasts in an undergraduate research module to enhance research-teaching linkages between the theoretical content and research in practice and improve the level of student support offered in a blended learning environment. Two cohorts of students (n=228 and n=233) were given access to a series of 5 "guest speaker" podcasts made up of presentations and interviews with research experts within Edinburgh Napier. These staff would not normally have contact with students on this module, but through the podcasts were able to share their research expertise and methods with our learners. The main positive results of the podcasts suggest the increased understanding achieved by students due to the multi-modal delivery approach, a more personal student/tutor relationship leading to greater engagement, and the effective use of materials for revision and consolidation purposes. Negative effects of the podcasts centred around problems with the technology, most often difficulty in downloading and accessing the material. This paper contributes to the emerging knowledge base of podcasting in nurse education by demonstrating how podcasts can be used to enhance research-teaching linkages and raises the question of why students do not exploit the opportunities for mobile learning. PMID:22321687

  13. A Decision Support Framework for Feasibility Analysis of International Space Station (ISS) Research Capability Enhancing Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, James N.; Scott,Kelly; Smith, Harold

    2004-01-01

    The assembly and operation of the ISS has generated significant challenges that have ultimately impacted resources available to the program's primary mission: research. To address this, program personnel routinely perform trade-off studies on alternative options to enhance research. The approach, content level of analysis and resulting outputs of these studies vary due to many factors, however, complicating the Program Manager's job of selecting the best option. To address this, the program requested a framework be developed to evaluate multiple research-enhancing options in a thorough, disciplined and repeatable manner, and to identify the best option on the basis of cost, benefit and risk. The resulting framework consisted of a systematic methodology and a decision-support toolset. The framework provides quantifiable and repeatable means for ranking research-enhancing options for the complex and multiple-constraint domain of the space research laboratory. This paper describes the development, verification and validation of this framework and provides observations on its operational use.

  14. Pharmacological cognitive enhancement-how neuroscientific research could advance ethical debate.

    PubMed

    Maslen, Hannah; Faulmüller, Nadira; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    THERE ARE NUMEROUS WAYS PEOPLE CAN IMPROVE THEIR COGNITIVE CAPACITIES: good nutrition and regular exercise can produce long-term improvements across many cognitive domains, whilst commonplace stimulants such as coffee temporarily boost levels of alertness and concentration. Effects like these have been well-documented in the medical literature and they raise few (if any) ethical issues. More recently, however, clinical research has shown that the off-label use of some pharmaceuticals can, under certain conditions, have modest cognition-improving effects. Substances such as methylphenidate and modafinil can improve capacities such as working memory and concentration in some healthy individuals. Unlike their more mundane predecessors, these methods of "cognitive enhancement" are thought to raise a multitude of ethical issues. This paper presents the six principal ethical issues raised in relation to pharmacological cognitive enhancers (PCEs)-issues such as whether: (1) the medical safety-profile of PCEs justifies restricting or permitting their elective or required use; (2) the enhanced mind can be an "authentic" mind; (3) individuals might be coerced into using PCEs; (4), there is a meaningful distinction to be made between the treatment vs. enhancement effect of the same PCE; (5) unequal access to PCEs would have implications for distributive justice; and (6) PCE use constitutes cheating in competitive contexts. In reviewing the six principal issues, the paper discusses how neuroscientific research might help advance the ethical debate. In particular, the paper presents new arguments about the contribution neuroscience could make to debates about justice, fairness, and cheating, ultimately concluding that neuroscientific research into "personalized enhancement" will be essential if policy is to be truly informed and ethical. We propose an "ethical agenda" for neuroscientific research into PCEs. PMID:24999320

  15. Enhancing research capacity across healthcare and higher education sectors: development and evaluation of an integrated model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With current policy in healthcare research, in the United Kingdom and internationally, focused on development of research excellence in individuals and teams, building capacity for implementation and translation of research is paramount among the professionals who use that research in daily practice. The judicious use of research outcomes and evaluation of best evidence and practice in healthcare is integrally linked to the research capacity and capabilities of the workforce. In addition to promoting high quality research, mechanisms for actively enhancing research capacity more generally must be in place to address the complexities that both undermine and facilitate this activity. Methods A comprehensive collaborative model for building research capacity in one health professional group, speech and language therapy, was developed in a region within the UK and is presented here. The North East of England and the strong research ethos of this profession in addressing complex interventions offered a fertile context for developing and implementing a model which integrated the healthcare and university sectors. Two key frameworks underpin this model. The first addresses the individual participants’ potential trajectory from research consciousness to research participative to research active. The second embeds a model developed for general practitioners into a broader framework of practice-academic partnership and knowledge and skills exchange, and considers external drivers and impacts on practice and patient outcomes as key elements. Results and discussion The integration of practice and academia has been successful in building a culture of research activity within one healthcare profession in a region in the UK and has resulted, to date, in a series of research related outcomes. Understanding the key components of this partnership and the explicit strategies used has driven the implementation of the model and are discussed here. Conclusions A strong

  16. Agent-based modeling: a systematic assessment of use cases and requirements for enhancing pharmaceutical research and development productivity

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, C Anthony; Kennedy, Ryan C; Kim, Sean H J; Ropella, Glen E P

    2013-01-01

    A crisis continues to brew within the pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) enterprise: productivity continues declining as costs rise, despite ongoing, often dramatic scientific and technical advances. To reverse this trend, we offer various suggestions for both the expansion and broader adoption of modeling and simulation (M&S) methods. We suggest strategies and scenarios intended to enable new M&S use cases that directly engage R&D knowledge generation and build actionable mechanistic insight, thereby opening the door to enhanced productivity. What M&S requirements must be satisfied to access and open the door, and begin reversing the productivity decline? Can current methods and tools fulfill the requirements, or are new methods necessary? We draw on the relevant, recent literature to provide and explore answers. In so doing, we identify essential, key roles for agent-based and other methods. We assemble a list of requirements necessary for M&S to meet the diverse needs distilled from a collection of research, review, and opinion articles. We argue that to realize its full potential, M&S should be actualized within a larger information technology framework—a dynamic knowledge repository—wherein models of various types execute, evolve, and increase in accuracy over time. We offer some details of the issues that must be addressed for such a repository to accrue the capabilities needed to reverse the productivity decline. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23737142

  17. A clash of values: Fear-relevant stimuli can enhance or corrupt adaptive behavior through competition between Pavlovian and instrumental valuation systems.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Björn; Golkar, Armita; Olsson, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates preferentially learn to fear and avoid archetypical fear-relevant stimuli. Yet how these learning biases influence adaptive behavior, the basic mechanistic underpinnings of these biases, and how they interact with learning experiences during the life span of an individual remain unknown. To study this, we investigated how 4 classes of fear-relevant stimuli (snakes, threatening in-group faces, racial out-group faces, and guns) influenced adaptive behavior. We showed that stimulus-driven biases have a dramatic influence that can either promote or corrupt adaptive behavior depending on how a bias relates to the environment. We quantified and compared the effects of different fear-relevant stimuli on instrumental behavior using a computational reinforcement learning model that formalized the idea that the bias reflects competition between an instrumental and a Pavlovian valuation system. These results were further clarified by 2 independent rating studies showing that perceived danger of the stimuli corresponded well with their influence on adaptive behavior. PMID:25893448

  18. Evaluating research for clinical significance: using critically appraised topics to enhance evidence-based neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Stephen C; Harrison, Elise J; Loring, David W

    2014-01-01

    Meehl's (1973, Psychodiagnosis: Selected papers. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press) distinction between statistical and clinical significance holds special relevance for evidence-based neuropsychological practice. Meehl argued that despite attaining statistical significance, many published findings have limited practical value since they do not inform clinical care. In the context of an ever expanding clinical research literature, accessible methods to evaluate clinical impact are needed. The method of Critically Appraised Topics (Straus, Richardson, Glasziou, & Haynes, 2011, Evidence-based medicine: How to practice and teach EBM (4th ed.). Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill-Livingstone) was developed to provide clinicians with a "toolkit" to facilitate implementation of evidence-based practice. We illustrate the Critically Appraised Topics method using a dementia screening example. We argue that the skills practiced through critical appraisal provide clinicians with methods to: (1) evaluate the clinical relevance of new or unfamiliar research findings with a focus on patient benefit, (2) help focus of research quality, and (3) incorporate evaluation of clinical impact into educational and professional development activities. PMID:23463942

  19. Enhancing Cloud Radiative Processes and Radiation Efficiency in the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model

    SciTech Connect

    Iacono, Michael J.

    2015-03-09

    The objective of this research has been to evaluate and implement enhancements to the computational performance of the RRTMG radiative transfer option in the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Efficiency is as essential as accuracy for effective numerical weather prediction, and radiative transfer is a relatively time-consuming component of dynamical models, taking up to 30-50 percent of the total model simulation time. To address this concern, this research has implemented and tested a version of RRTMG that utilizes graphics processing unit (GPU) technology (hereinafter RRTMGPU) to greatly improve its computational performance; thereby permitting either more frequent simulation of radiative effects or other model enhancements. During the early stages of this project the development of RRTMGPU was completed at AER under separate NASA funding to accelerate the code for use in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Goddard Earth Observing System GEOS-5 global model. It should be noted that this final report describes results related to the funded portion of the originally proposed work concerning the acceleration of RRTMG with GPUs in WRF. As a k-distribution model, RRTMG is especially well suited to this modification due to its relatively large internal pseudo-spectral (g-point) dimension that, when combined with the horizontal grid vector in the dynamical model, can take great advantage of the GPU capability. Thorough testing under several model configurations has been performed to ensure that RRTMGPU improves WRF model run time while having no significant impact on calculated radiative fluxes and heating rates or on dynamical model fields relative to the RRTMG radiation. The RRTMGPU codes have been provided to NCAR for possible application to the next public release of the WRF forecast model.

  20. I'll be a monkey's uncle: a moral challenge to human genetic enhancement research.

    PubMed

    Rosoff, Philip M

    2011-10-01

    The potential for genetic engineering of enhancements to complex human traits has been the subject of vigorous debate for a number of years. Most of the discussion has centered on the possible moral consequences of pursuing enhancements, especially those that might affect complex behaviours and components of personality. Little has been written on the actual process of implementing this technology. This paper presents a 'thought experiment' about the likely form of final preclinical testing for a technology to enhance intelligence as a prototypical multiplex trait. The significance and the potential dangers of implementing enhancements in humans, especially to highly valued traits such as intelligence, would mandate a thorough programme of testing in animals, including non-human primates such as chimpanzees. The implications this would have for researchers, society and, most importantly, the animals themselves are discussed, and the paper concludes with a suggestion for a morally justifiable approach to resolve the tragic question of what to do with research animals who have a cognitive capacity that is close to that of humans. PMID:21515875

  1. A Call for Training the Trainers: Focus on Mentoring to Enhance Diversity in Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Twamley, Elizabeth W.; Cardenas, Veronica; Lebowitz, Barry; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2009-01-01

    There is a widening disparity between the proportion of ethnic minority Americans in the population and the number of researchers from these minority groups. One major obstacle in this arena relates to a dearth of mentors for such trainees. The present academic settings are not optimal for development and sustenance of research mentors, especially for mentees from underrepresented minority ethnic groups. Mentoring skills can and should be evaluated and enhanced. Universities, medical schools, and funding agencies need to join hands and implement national- and local-level programs to help develop and reward mentors of junior scientists from ethnic minority groups. PMID:19246662

  2. The National Research Initiative Competitive Grants Program in animal reproduction: changes in priorities and scope relevant to United States animal agriculture.

    PubMed

    Mirando, M A

    2007-03-01

    The National Research Initiative (NRI) Competitive Grants Program is the USDA's major competitive grants program and is administered by the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service. The NRI was authorized by the US Congress in the 1990 Farm Bill at a funding level of $500 million; however, the maximal NRI appropriation was $181.17 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006. Across all programs, the NRI is mandated to use 40% of its funding to support mission-linked research. Since its inception in 1991, the NRI has funded competitive grants in the discipline of animal reproduction. Before 2004, the Animal Reproduction Program funded a broad range of projects encompassing almost every subdiscipline in reproductive biology of farm animals, including aquatic species important to the aquaculture industry and laboratory animals. During FY 2004, the NRI Animal Reproduction Program narrowed the focus of its funding priorities to 5 issue-based topics in an effort to make greater measurable improvements in a few high-impact areas over the next 10 years. Funding priorities were narrowed further in FY 2006 to 3 subdisciplines based, in part, on recommendations that emerged from a stakeholder workshop conducted by Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service in August 2004. In FY 2003, Congress authorized expenditure of up to 20% of the funds appropriated to the NRI to support projects that integrate at least 2 of the 3 functions of research, education, and extension. In FY 2004, the Animal Reproduction Program included a funding priority for integrated projects focused primarily on infertility in dairy cattle. The program funded its first integrated project in FY 2005. During FY 2002, increased emphasis on justification for the use of model systems (e.g., laboratory animals and in vitro systems) was included in the NRI request for applications. In FY 2006, applications proposing to primarily utilize nonagricultural animal models were excluded from

  3. Developing and evaluating interventions that are applicable and relevant to inpatients and those who care for them; a multiphase, pragmatic action research approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Randomised controlled trials may be of limited use to evaluate the multidisciplinary and multimodal interventions required to effectively treat complex patients in routine clinical practice; pragmatic action research approaches may provide a suitable alternative. Methods A multiphase, pragmatic, action research based approach was developed to identify and overcome barriers to nutritional care in patients admitted to a metropolitan hospital hip-fracture unit. Results Four sequential action research cycles built upon baseline data including 614 acute hip-fracture inpatients and 30 purposefully sampled clinicians. Reports from Phase I identified barriers to nutrition screening and assessment. Phase II reported post-fracture protein-energy intakes and intake barriers. Phase III built on earlier results; an explanatory mixed-methods study expanded and explored additional barriers and facilitators to nutritional care. Subsequent changes to routine clinical practice were developed and implemented by the treating team between Phase III and IV. These were implemented as a new multidisciplinary, multimodal nutritional model of care. A quasi-experimental controlled, ‘before-and-after’ study was then used to compare the new model of care with an individualised nutritional care model. Engagement of the multidisciplinary team in a multiphase, pragmatic action research intervention doubled energy and protein intakes, tripled return home discharge rates, and effected a 75% reduction in nutritional deterioration during admission in a reflective cohort of hip-fracture inpatients. Conclusions This approach allowed research to be conducted as part of routine clinical practice, captured a more representative patient cohort than previously reported studies, and facilitated exploration of barriers and engagement of the multidisciplinary healthcare workers to identify and implement practical solutions. This study demonstrates substantially different findings to those

  4. Students apply research methods to consumer decisions about cognitive enhancing drinks.

    PubMed

    Walters, Charles B; Hill, Katherine G; Zavilla, Anastasia R; Erickson, Cynthia A

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this class project was to provide students with a hands-on research experience that allowed autonomy, but eliminated duplication of effort and could be completed within one semester. Our resources were limited to a small supply budget and an introductory psychology subject pool. Six students from a behavioral neuroscience class tested claims made by a drink company that their product improves cognitive function. The students each chose a cognitive task for their part of the project. The tasks included the Donders Reaction Time Task, the Stroop Task, the Raven's Progressive Matrices, a short-term memory span test, the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test and a simple measure of prefrontal EEG activity. Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental or control drink. The experimental group received the putative cognitive enhancing drink and the control group received a placebo drink that was very similar in color and taste. The two drinks shared no active ingredients. Results suggest that the putative cognitive enhancing drink did not improve performance on any of the tasks and decreased performance on the short-term memory task. These findings are discussed in regard to implications for consumers as well as further research into supplements and their ability to improve cognitive performance. Each student presented his/her results at a university-wide research conference. This project provided a rich experience in which students had the opportunity to carry out a research project from conception to presentation. PMID:25565916

  5. Students Apply Research Methods to Consumer Decisions About Cognitive Enhancing Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Charles B.; Hill, Katherine G.; Zavilla, Anastasia R.; Erickson, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this class project was to provide students with a hands-on research experience that allowed autonomy, but eliminated duplication of effort and could be completed within one semester. Our resources were limited to a small supply budget and an introductory psychology subject pool. Six students from a behavioral neuroscience class tested claims made by a drink company that their product improves cognitive function. The students each chose a cognitive task for their part of the project. The tasks included the Donders Reaction Time Task, the Stroop Task, the Raven’s Progressive Matrices, a short-term memory span test, the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test and a simple measure of prefrontal EEG activity. Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental or control drink. The experimental group received the putative cognitive enhancing drink and the control group received a placebo drink that was very similar in color and taste. The two drinks shared no active ingredients. Results suggest that the putative cognitive enhancing drink did not improve performance on any of the tasks and decreased performance on the short-term memory task. These findings are discussed in regard to implications for consumers as well as further research into supplements and their ability to improve cognitive performance. Each student presented his/her results at a university-wide research conference. This project provided a rich experience in which students had the opportunity to carry out a research project from conception to presentation. PMID:25565916

  6. National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank: A standard based biospecimen and clinical data resource to enhance translational research

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Waqas; Parwani, Anil V; Schmandt, Linda; Mohanty, Sambit K; Farhat, Ghada; Pople, Andrew K; Winters, Sharon B; Whelan, Nancy B; Schneider, Althea M; Milnes, John T; Valdivieso, Federico A; Feldman, Michael; Pass, Harvey I; Dhir, Rajiv; Melamed, Jonathan; Becich, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Background Advances in translational research have led to the need for well characterized biospecimens for research. The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank is an initiative which collects annotated datasets relevant to human mesothelioma to develop an enterprising biospecimen resource to fulfill researchers' need. Methods The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank architecture is based on three major components: (a) common data elements (based on College of American Pathologists protocol and National North American Association of Central Cancer Registries standards), (b) clinical and epidemiologic data annotation, and (c) data query tools. These tools work interoperably to standardize the entire process of annotation. The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank tool is based upon the caTISSUE Clinical Annotation Engine, developed by the University of Pittsburgh in cooperation with the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid™ (caBIG™, see ). This application provides a web-based system for annotating, importing and searching mesothelioma cases. The underlying information model is constructed utilizing Unified Modeling Language class diagrams, hierarchical relationships and Enterprise Architect software. Result The database provides researchers real-time access to richly annotated specimens and integral information related to mesothelioma. The data disclosed is tightly regulated depending upon users' authorization and depending on the participating institute that is amenable to the local Institutional Review Board and regulation committee reviews. Conclusion The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank currently has over 600 annotated cases available for researchers that include paraffin embedded tissues, tissue microarrays, serum and genomic DNA. The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank is a virtual biospecimen registry with robust translational biomedical informatics support to facilitate basic science, clinical, and translational research. Furthermore, it protects patient privacy

  7. Strategies to enhance participant recruitment and retention in research involving a community-based population

    PubMed Central

    McCullagh, Marjorie C.; Sanon, Marie-Anne; Cohen, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Challenges associated with recruiting and retaining community-based populations in research studies have been recognized yet remain of major concern for researchers. There is a need for exchange of recruitment and retention techniques that inform recruitment and retention strategies. Here, the authors discuss a variety of methods that were successful in exceeding target recruitment and retention goals in a randomized clinical trial of hearing protector use among farm operators. Recruitment and retention strategies were 1) based on a philosophy of mutually beneficial engagement in the research process, 2) culturally appropriate, 3) tailored to the unique needs of partnering agencies, and 4) developed and refined in a cyclical and iterative process. Sponsoring organizations are interested in cost-effective recruitment and retention strategies, particularly relating to culturally and ethnically diverse groups. These approaches may result in enhanced subject recruitment and retention, concomitant containment of study costs, and timely accomplishment of study aims. PMID:24667018

  8. Enhancement of L-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity and circulating ketone body levels by pantethine. Relevance to dopaminergic injury

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The administration of the ketone bodies hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate is known to exert a protective effect against metabolic disorders associated with cerebral pathologies. This suggests that the enhancement of their endogenous production might be a rational therapeutic approach. Ketone bodies are generated by fatty acid beta-oxidation, a process involving a mitochondrial oxido-reductase superfamily, with fatty acid-CoA thioesters as substrates. In this report, emphasis is on the penultimate step of the process, i.e. L-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. We determined changes in enzyme activity and in circulating ketone body levels in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Since the active moiety of CoA is pantetheine, mice were treated with pantethine, its naturally-occurring form. Pantethine has the advantage of being known as an anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic agent with very few side effects. Results We found that dehydrogenase activity and circulating ketone body levels were drastically reduced by the neurotoxin MPTP, whereas treatment with pantethine overcame these adverse effects. Pantethine prevented dopaminergic neuron loss and motility disorders. In vivo and in vitro experiments showed that the protection was associated with enhancement of glutathione (GSH) production as well as restoration of respiratory chain complex I activity and mitochondrial ATP levels. Remarkably, pantethine treatment boosted the circulating ketone body levels in MPTP-intoxicated mice, but not in normal animals. Conclusions These finding demonstrate the feasibility of the enhancement of endogenous ketone body production and provide a promising therapeutic approach to Parkinson's disease as well as, conceivably, to other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:20416081

  9. Immediate Dissemination of Student Discoveries to a Model Organism Database Enhances Classroom-Based Research Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, Emily A.; Stover, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Use of inquiry-based research modules in the classroom has soared over recent years, largely in response to national calls for teaching that provides experience with scientific processes and methodologies. To increase the visibility of in-class studies among interested researchers and to strengthen their impact on student learning, we have extended the typical model of inquiry-based labs to include a means for targeted dissemination of student-generated discoveries. This initiative required: 1) creating a set of research-based lab activities with the potential to yield results that a particular scientific community would find useful and 2) developing a means for immediate sharing of student-generated results. Working toward these goals, we designed guides for course-based research aimed to fulfill the need for functional annotation of the Tetrahymena thermophila genome, and developed an interactive Web database that links directly to the official Tetrahymena Genome Database for immediate, targeted dissemination of student discoveries. This combination of research via the course modules and the opportunity for students to immediately “publish” their novel results on a Web database actively used by outside scientists culminated in a motivational tool that enhanced students’ efforts to engage the scientific process and pursue additional research opportunities beyond the course. PMID:24591511

  10. Research Experiences in Teacher Preparation: Effectiveness of the Green Bank preservice teacher enhancement program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemler, Debra A.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the preservice teacher component of the Research Experiences in Teacher Preparation (RETP) project aimed at enhancing teacher perceptions of the nature of science, science research, and science teaching. Data was collected for three preservice teacher groups during the three phases of the program: (I) a one week institute held at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, West Virginia where teachers performed astronomy research using a 40 foot diameter radio telescope; (II) a secondary science methods course; and (III) student teaching placements. Four Likert-type instruments were developed and administered pre and post-institute to assess changes in perceptions of science, attitudes toward research, concerns about implementing research in the classroom, and evaluation of the institute. Instruments were re-administered following the methods course and student teaching. Observations of classroom students conducting research were completed for seven preservice teacher participants in their student teaching placements. Analysis, using t-tests, showed a significant increase in preservice teachers perceptions of their ability to do research. Preservice teachers were not concerned about implementing research in their placements. No significant change was measured in their understanding of the nature of science and science teaching. Concept maps demonstrated a significant increase in radio astronomy content knowledge. Participants responded that the value of institute components, quality of the research elements, and preparation for implementing research in the classroom were "good" to "excellent". Following the methods course (Phase II) no significant change in their understanding of the nature of science or concerns about implementing projects in the classroom were measured. Of the 7 preservice teachers who were observed implementing research projects, 5 projects were consistent with the Green

  11. Workshops on Enhancing the Impact of University Research on Critical Technologies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberger, Peter M.

    1998-12-01

    This proposal was designed to initiate a series of workshops in which participants from universities, government and industry would look strategically at selected areas of technological and societal importance. One of these workshops, dedicated to the discussion of how materials modeling can solve critical problems in industry, held at the Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California Santa Barbara, January 7 through 11, 1996. ''Modeling of Industrial Materials: Connecting Atomistic and Continuum Scales'' was the first of a coordinated series of workshops, spanning over two years, being organized by a group of academic scientists at UCSB, MIT, and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH). On the premise that materials research focused on technology also presents fundamental scientific challenges, the Workshop sought to identify specific areas of industrial needs and opportunities for materials modeling, interpreted as theory and simulation across all the relevant length scales, and to stimulate meaningful university-industry partnerships.

  12. Promoting Climate Literacy and Enhancing Student Achievement Through a Worldwide Student Research Campaign on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geary, E. E.

    2008-12-01

    In 2011, the GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) program in collaboration with numerous U.S. and international scientific and educational organizations, will launch a worldwide student research campaign on Climate Change. The goals of the campaign are: (1) to engage over 1 million K-16 students and teachers in collaborative, grade-level appropriate climate research, (2) enhance climate and environmental literacy for students, teachers, parents, and citizens in tens of thousands of communities around the world, and (3) encourage action stewardship on climate-related environmental issues at local and regional levels. "Climate Literacy: Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts" (NOAA, 2008) will provide a foundation for student learning, research, and stewardship activities. Planning is currently underway between scientists, students, and teachers from around the world to identify the key questions that will guide student research investigations on topics ranging from Climate, Carbon and Energy to Climate, Weather, and Water to Climate and Ecosystems to Climate and Human Health. Once a set of key climate questions and investigation topics have been selected, high quality climate resources including learning activities, data sets, images, models, and professional development modules and courses, will be found, assembled, and made available to Climate Change Campaign participants through the GLOBE Research Collaboratory. The Collaboratory, which is currently under development, will be a virtual learning, research, and collaboration environment that will include easy to use data collection, analysis, sharing, review, and reporting tools as well as tools and services to promote school to school and student-scientist- teacher collaborations. The formal portion of the Climate Campaign will end in 2013 with a high-profile student research conference at which students will share the results of their research and their local and regional

  13. Chronic restraint stress induces mechanical and cold allodynia, and enhances inflammatory pain in rat: Relevance to human stress-associated painful pathologies.

    PubMed

    Bardin, L; Malfetes, N; Newman-Tancredi, A; Depoortère, R

    2009-12-28

    Whereas acute stress often results in analgesia, chronic stress can trigger hyperalgesia/allodynia. This influence of long-term stress on nociception is relevant to numerous painful pathologies, such as fibromyalgia (FM), characterized by diffuse muscular pain (hyperalgesia) and/or tenderness (allodynia). Hence, there is a need for pre-clinical models integrating a chronic-stress dimension to the study of pain. Here, we assessed the effects of protracted/intermittent stress produced by daily, 1h restraint periods in cylinders, 4 days/week over 5 weeks, on eight models of hyperalgesia and allodynia in rats. This type of stress potentiated chemical hyperalgesia in the formalin model (160 and 76% increase of pain score above controls, during the early and late phases, respectively). It also produced thermal allodynia in response to cold (paw acetone test: 200% increase of allodynia score during week 3-5) and heat (42 degrees C tail immersion test: 15% decrease of withdrawal threshold, from week 2 onward). This stress also resulted in mechanical allodynia in the von Frey filaments model (60% decrease in threshold during week 2-5). However, such a stress regimen had no influence in the Randall-Selitto test of mechanical hyperalgesia, and in the tail immersion models of cold (4 degrees C) or hot (48 degrees C) thermal hyperalgesia, as well as cold (15 degrees C) allodynia. This model of prolonged/intermittent restraint stress may be useful in investigating the mechanisms linking stress and pain, and provide an assay to assess the potential therapeutic efficacy of drugs targeted against painful pathologies with a strong stress component, including but not restricted to FM. PMID:19616033

  14. Rock Mechanics and Enhanced Geothermal Systems: A DOE-sponsored Workshop to Explore Research Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Francois Heuze; Peter Smeallie; Derek Elsworth; Joel L. Renner

    2003-10-01

    This workshop on rock mechanics and enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) was held in Cambridge, Mass., on June 20-21 2003, before the Soil and Rock America 2003 International Conference at MIT. Its purpose was to bring together experts in the field of rock mechanics and geothermal systems to encourage innovative thinking, explore new ideas, and identify research needs in the areas of rock mechanics and rock engineering applied to enhanced geothermal systems. The agenda is shown in Appendix A. The workshop included experts in the fields of rock mechanics and engineering, geological engineering, geophysics, drilling, the geothermal energy production from industry, universities and government agencies, and laboratories. The list of participants is shown is Appendix B. The first day consisted of formal presentations. These are summarized in Chapter 1 of the report. By the end of the first day, two broad topic areas were defined: reservoir characterization and reservoir performance. Working groups were formed for each topic. They met and reported in plenary on the second day. The working group summaries are described in Chapter 2. The final session of the workshop was devoted to reaching consensus recommendations. These recommendations are given in Chapter 3. That objective was achieved. All the working group recommendations were considered and, in order to arrive at a practical research agenda usable by the workshop sponsors, workshop recommendations were reduced to a total of seven topics. These topics were divided in three priority groups, as follows. First-priority research topics (2): {sm_bullet} Define the pre-existing and time-dependent geometry and physical characteristics of the reservoir and its fracture network. That includes the identification of hydraulically controlling fractures. {sm_bullet} Characterize the physical and chemical processes affecting the reservoir geophysical parameters and influencing the transport properties of fractures. Incorporate those

  15. Technology and Research Requirements for Combating Human Trafficking: Enhancing Communication, Analysis, Reporting, and Information Sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Kreyling, Sean J.; West, Curtis L.; Olson, Jarrod

    2011-03-17

    DHS’ Science & Technology Directorate directed PNNL to conduct an exploratory study on the domain of human trafficking in the Pacific Northwest in order to examine and identify technology and research requirements for enhancing communication, analysis, reporting, and information sharing – activities that directly support efforts to track, identify, deter, and prosecute human trafficking – including identification of potential national threats from smuggling and trafficking networks. This effort was conducted under the Knowledge Management Technologies Portfolio as part of the Integrated Federal, State, and Local/Regional Information Sharing (RISC) and Collaboration Program.

  16. Action Research as an Agent for Enhancing Teaching and Learning in Physical Education: A Physical Education Teacher's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Action research is a useful method for implementing change through its spiral of plan, act, observe, and reflect, but little research has been published on it in the area of physical education. The purpose of this intervention was to assess the effectiveness of action research as an agent of change and its impact on enhancing my…

  17. Enhancing the Reading of Peer-Reviewed Research in the Teaching English as a Second Language Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, Marian J.; Abbott, Marilyn L.; Hatami, Sarvenaz

    2013-01-01

    Adult ESL instructors' engagement with research can enhance instruction but is "a minority activity in our field" (Borg, 2010, p391). We explored instructors' engagement with research; applied linguists' and instructors' conceptions of teacher-friendly, peer-reviewed research articles; and academics' commitment…

  18. The Big Challenge in Big Earth Science Data: Maturing to Transdisciplinary Data Platforms that are Relevant to Government, Research and Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyborn, Lesley; Evans, Ben

    2016-04-01

    scientific domain silos, including into the humanities and social sciences. Furthermore there is increasing desire for these 'Big Data' data infrastructures to prove their value not only as platforms for scientific discovery, but to also support the development of evidence-based government policies, economic growth, and private-sector opportunities. The capacity of these transdisciplinary data repositories leads to many new exciting opportunities for the next generation of large-scale data integration, but there is an emerging suite of data challenges that now need to be tackled. Many large volume data sets have historically been developed within traditional domain silos and issues such as difference of standards (informal and formal), the data conventions, the lack of controlled or even uniform vocabularies, the non-existent/not machine-accessible semantic information, and bespoke or unclear copyrights and licensing are becoming apparent. The different perspectives and approaches of the various communities have also started to come to the fore; particularly the dominant file based approach of the big data generating science communities versus the database approach of the point observational communities; and the multidimensional approach of the climate and oceans community versus the traditional 2D approach of the GIS/spatial community. Addressing such challenges is essential to fully unlock online access to all relevant data to enable the maturing of research to the transdisciplinary paradigm.

  19. Reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery research. Annual report, September 1988--August 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, L.W.; Pope, G.A.; Schechter, R.S.

    1992-03-01

    The research in this annual report falls into three tasks each dealing with a different aspect of enhanced oil recovery. The first task strives to develop procedures for accurately modeling reservoirs for use as input to numerical simulation flow models. This action describes how we have used a detail characterization of an outcrop to provide insights into what features are important to fluid flow modeling. The second task deals with scaling-up and modeling chemical and solvent EOR processes. In a sense this task is the natural extension of task 1 and, in fact, one of the subtasks uses many of the same statistical procedures for insight into the effects of viscous fingering and heterogeneity. The final task involves surfactants and their interactions with carbon dioxide and reservoir minerals. This research deals primarily with phenomena observed when aqueous surfactant solutions are injected into oil reservoirs.

  20. Generation and Disease Model Relevance of a Manganese Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based NOD/scid-IL-2Rγc(null) Mouse Brain Atlas.

    PubMed

    Sajja, Balasrinivasa R; Bade, Aditya N; Zhou, Biyun; Uberti, Mariano G; Gorantla, Santhi; Gendelman, Howard E; Boska, Michael D; Liu, Yutong

    2016-03-01

    Strain specific mouse brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlases provide coordinate space linked anatomical registration. This allows longitudinal quantitative analyses of neuroanatomical volumes and imaging metrics for assessing the role played by aging and disease to the central nervous system. As NOD/scid-IL-2Rγ(c)(null) (NSG) mice allow human cell transplantation to study human disease, these animals are used to assess brain morphology. Manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI) improves contrasts amongst brain components and as such can greatly help identifying a broad number of structures on MRI. To this end, NSG adult mouse brains were imaged in vivo on a 7.0 Tesla MR scanner at an isotropic resolution of 100 μm. A population averaged brain of 19 mice was generated using an iterative alignment algorithm. MEMRI provided sufficient contrast permitting 41 brain structures to be manually labeled. Volumes of 7 humanized mice brain structures were measured by atlas-based segmentation and compared against non-humanized controls. The humanized NSG mice brain volumes were smaller than controls (p < 0.001). Many brain structures of humanized mice were significantly smaller than controls. We posit that the irradiation and cell grafting involved in the creation of humanized mice were responsible for the morphological differences. Six NSG mice without MnCl2 administration were scanned with high resolution T2-weighted MRI and segmented to test broad utility of the atlas. PMID:26556033

  1. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery and Wettability Research Program. Annual report, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bala, G.A.; Barrett, K.B.; Eastman, S.L.; Herd, M.D.; Jackson, J.D.; Robertson, E.P.; Thomas, C.P.

    1993-09-01

    This report covers research results for fiscal year 1991 for the Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) and Wettability Research Program conducted by EG&G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory ONEL) for the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office (DOE-ID). The program is funded by the Assistant Secretary of Fossil Energy, and managed by DOE-ID and the Bartlesville Project Office (BPO). The objectives of this multi-year program are to develop MEOR systems for application to reservoirs containing medium to heavy crude oils and to design and implement an industry cost-shared field demonstration project of the developed technology. An understanding of the controlling mechanisms will first be developed through the use of laboratory scale testing to determine the ability of microbially mediated processes to recover oil under reservoir conditions and to develop the design criteria for scale-up to the field. Concurrently with this work, the isolation and characterization of microbial species collected from various locations including target oil field environments is underway to develop more effective oil recovery systems for specific applications. Research focus includes the study of biogenic product and formation souring processes including mitigation and prevention. Souring research performed in FY 1991 also included the development of microsensor probe technology for the detection of total sulfide in collaboration with the Montana State University Center for Interfacial Microbial Process Engineering (CIMPE). Wettability research is a multi-year collaborative effort with the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center (NMPRRC) at the New Mexico institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM to evaluate reservoir wettability and its effects on oil recovery. Results from the wettability research will be applied to determine if alteration of wettability is a significant contributing mechanism for MEOR systems.

  2. Enhancing Access to Audio and Video Collections of Raman Research Institute Library through Digitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraj, M. N.; Benegal, V. J.; Bhandi, M. K.

    2015-04-01

    The library at the Raman Research (RRI) began digitization of its audio and video (AV) collections starting in the year 2000 with the intent to enhance the accessibility of these items. AV collections in their original format are problematic since they are vulnerable to physical damage and decay in uncontrolled climate conditions. Further, as AV formats have changed over the years, older formats become unreadable due to the fact that the equipment needed to view such materials is obsolete or no longer available. This paper will show how RRI has taken multiple measures to address these various problems. At first, catalogue records were enhanced with additional metadata, but this did not sufficiently enhance access. Next, the library converted the AV materials to CDs, but this format also posed various problems, as CDs are susceptible to damage and do not allow for multiple simultaneous use. Finally, the RRI library digitized AV materials and placed them on the RRI intranet and the web for wider accessibility.

  3. Research sites of the H2STORE project and the relevance of lithological/mineralogical rock variations for hydrogen storage at depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkel, Steven; Pudlo, Dieter; Gaupp, Reinhard; H2STORE Team

    2013-04-01

    ) injection in potential reservoir rocks. The recent depths of investigated sites vary between ≥ 3.0 km (Altmark area) to ~ 0.8 km in the Thuringian Basin. However, maximum burial depths, which are probably established during Triassic-Cretaceous and Neocene times and dominated the fluid-rock-reactions, are about 4.0 - 7.8 km in the Altmark and 2.8 - 1.8 km in the Thuringian area. Due to their capacity of hydrogen adsorption at interlayers and their chemical reactivity the behaviour of clay minerals during hydrogen storage is most important. At the selected locations site-specific different proportions of (authigenic) clay minerals are substantiated. Thereby illite > illite-smectite interlayers > chlorite ≥ kaolinite are common. In general, such reactions involving authigenic clay minerals are accompanied by the dissolution of detrital feldspars and lithoclasts as well as of the pore filling cements (e.g. carbonate, anhydrite) and Fe-mobilization. Moreover injection of fluids (hydrogen) will cause physical processes, like fingering and gas trapping in the formation fluids and will induce bio-geological reactions with the microbiological community, present at depths. Therefore selected research sites are characterized by variable primary and authigenic mineral content establish at different depths (= p-/T-conditions), which comprise various formation water compositions and (micro-) biocenoses. Investigation of such features and their reproduction in laboratory experiments enables an evaluation of potential fluid (hydrogen)-rock interactions, which will be relevant during hydrogen storage and synthetic natural gas (SNG) production during methanization processes in pore space reservoirs; most important for Power-to-Gas (P2G) technology.

  4. Enhanced oil recovery and applied geoscience research program. [Quarterly] report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.P.

    1993-12-31

    The objectives of this research program are to develop microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) systems for application to reservoirs containing medium to heavy oils and to evaluate reservoir wettability and its effects on oil recovery. The MEOR research goals include: (a) development of bacterial cultures that are effective for oil displacement under a broad range of reservoir conditions, (b) improved understanding of the mechanisms by which microbial systems displace oil under reservoir conditions, (c) determination of the feasibility of combining microbial systems with or following conventional enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, (d) development and implementation of industry cost-shared field demonstration projects for MEOR technology. The goals of the reservoir wettability project are to develop: (a) better methods for assessment of reservoir core wettability, (b) more certainty in relating laboratory core analysis procedures to field conditions, (c) a better understanding of the effects of reservoir matrix properties and heterogeneity on wettability, and (d) improved ability to predict and influence waterflood and EOR response through control of wettability in reservoirs.

  5. The use of nano-computed tomography to enhance musculoskeletal research

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Basma M.; Bigelow, Erin M. R.; Smith, Lauren M.; Schlecht, Stephen H.; Scheller, Erica L.; Andarawis-Puri, Nelly; Jepsen, Karl J.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in computed tomography (CT) imaging are opening new avenues toward more precise characterization and quantification of connective tissue microarchitecture. In the last two decades, micro-computed tomography (microCT) has significantly augmented destructive methods for the 3D micro-analysis of tissue structure, primarily in the bone research field. Recently, microCT has been employed in combination with contrast agents to generate contrast-enhanced images of soft tissues that are otherwise difficult to visualize due to their native radiodensity. More recent advances in CT technology have enabled ultra-high resolution imaging by utilizing a more powerful nano-focused X-ray source, such as that found in nano-computed tomography (nanoCT) systems. NanoCT imaging has facilitated the expansion of musculoskeletal research by reducing acquisition time and significantly expanding the range of samples that can be imaged in terms of size, age and tissue-type (bone, muscle, tendon, cartilage, vessels and adipose tissue). We present the application and early results of nanoCT imaging in various tissue types and how this ultra-high resolution imaging modality is capable of characterizing microstructures at levels of details previously not possible. Contrast-enhanced imaging techniques to enable soft-tissue visualization and characterization are also outlined. PMID:25646568

  6. The use of nano-computed tomography to enhance musculoskeletal research.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Basma M; Bigelow, Erin M R; Smith, Lauren M; Schlecht, Stephen H; Scheller, Erica L; Andarawis-Puri, Nelly; Jepsen, Karl J

    2015-04-01

    Advances in computed tomography (CT) imaging are opening new avenues toward more precise characterization and quantification of connective tissue microarchitecture. In the last two decades, micro-computed tomography (microCT) has significantly augmented destructive methods for the 3D micro-analysis of tissue structure, primarily in the bone research field. Recently, microCT has been employed in combination with contrast agents to generate contrast-enhanced images of soft tissues that are otherwise difficult to visualize due to their native radiodensity. More recent advances in CT technology have enabled ultra-high resolution imaging by utilizing a more powerful nano-focused X-ray source, such as that found in nano-computed tomography (nanoCT) systems. NanoCT imaging has facilitated the expansion of musculoskeletal research by reducing acquisition time and significantly expanding the range of samples that can be imaged in terms of size, age and tissue-type (bone, muscle, tendon, cartilage, vessels and adipose tissue). We present the application and early results of nanoCT imaging in various tissue types and how this ultra-high resolution imaging modality is capable of characterizing microstructures at levels of details previously not possible. Contrast-enhanced imaging techniques to enable soft-tissue visualization and characterization are also outlined. PMID:25646568

  7. Application research on enhancing near-infrared micro-imaging quality by 2nd derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Ma, Zhi-hong; Zhao, Liu; Wang, Bei-hong; Han, Ping; Pan, Li-gang; Wang, Ji-hua

    2013-08-01

    Near-infrared micro-imaging will not only provide the sample's spatial distribution information, but also the spectroscopic information of each pixel. In this thesis, it took the artificial sample of wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate distribution given for example to research the data processing method for enhancing the quality of near-infrared micro-imaging. Near-infrared spectroscopic feature of wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate being studied on, compare correlation imaging and 2nd derivative imaging were applied in the imaging processing of the near-infrared micro-image of the artificial sample. Furthermore, the two methods were combined, i.e. 2nd derivative compare correlation imaging was acquired. The result indicated that the difference of the correlation coefficients between the two substances, i.e. wheat flour and formaldehyde sodium sulfoxylate, and the reference spectrum has been increased from 0.001 in compare correlation image to 0.796 in 2nd derivative compare correlation image respectively, which enhances the imaging quality efficiently. This study will, to some extent, be of important reference significance to near-infrared micro-imaging method research of agricultural products and foods.

  8. Could intranasal oxytocin be used to enhance relationships? Research imperatives, clinical policy, and ethical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Guastella, Adam; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Well-functioning romantic relationships are important for long-term health and well-being, but they are often difficult to sustain. This difficulty arises (in part) because of an underlying tension between our psychobiological natures, culture/environment, and modern love and relationship goals. One possible solution to this predicament is to intervene at the level of psychobiology, enhancing partners’ interpersonal connection through neurochemical modulation. This article focuses on a single, promising biobehavioral subsystem for such intervention: the attachment system, based largely upon the expression of the neuropeptide oxytocin. Could the exogenous administration of oxytocin—under the right conditions—be used to facilitate relational or marital well-being? Recent findings If so, it would require considerable forethought. Recent research complicates the popular image of oxytocin as a universal social enhancer or ‘love hormone’ and shows that it may exert a variety of different effects, at different dosages, on different people, under different circumstances. Accordingly, we discuss what is known about oxytocin, including its “good” and “bad” effects on human behavior and on higher-order functional processes. Summary Building upon animal-model, human preclinical, and clinical findings, we outline a proposal for the use of oxytocin in the therapeutic neuroenhancement of contemporary romantic relationships. Highlighting key targets for future research along the way, we then conclude by discussing some of the clinical and ethical considerations that would pertain to the implementation of this knowledge in applied settings. PMID:23880593

  9. Experimental Research on Heat Transfer Enhancement for High Prandtl-Number Fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, Shin-ya; Omae, Masahiro; Yuki, Kazuhisa; Hashizume, Hidetoshi; Toda, Saburo; Sagara, Akio

    2005-04-15

    The experimental research on heat-transfer enhancement for such high Prandtl-number fluid as Flibe has been performed with a large molten salt circulating experimental loop named as 'TNT loop' (Tohoku-NIFS Thermofluid loop). Through the experiments, a packed-bed tube is employed as the enhancer for molten salt. It is clarified that the enhancement of packed-bed tube is superior to that of turbulent heat transfer from the viewpoint of the same flow rate. Also, the 1/4-diameter bed is superior to the 1/2-diameter one at the same flow rate. Furthermore, at low flow rate, a little differences of heat transfer performance can be seen between the stainless-steel bed and copper bed. At high flow rate, however, the heat-transfer coefficient ratio strongly depends on the flow rate in the case of the 1/4-diameter copper bed only. As a result, it is considered that the thermal energy is expanded from a heated wall deeply and fast through packed bed at low flow rate. On the contrary, it is also considered that the convective heat transfer in the vicinity of a heated wall is strong at high flow rate. The evaluation from the viewpoint of the pressure drop shows that the turbulent heat transfer is superior to that with packed bed. However, the ratio of heat transfer with bed to turbulent one is steeply improved at low flow rate. Taking account of MHD effect, avoidance of erosion and electrolysis of Flibe, the enhancement under low flow-rate condition can be suitable in a fusion reactor.

  10. Development of a Research and Public Service Foundation to support enhanced energy research at Alabama A and M University. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.

    1995-07-01

    The most recent project thrust was enacted to advance and further strengthen institutional capacity to carry out energy related research with the eventual aim of adopting a programmatic research posture to attractive long-term, stable, multi-million dollar funding commitments. Benefits from successful project implementation include enhanced prominence, involvement and achievement in the bid for competitive research grants and contracts and the associated attraction of minority individuals to energy related disciplines and research careers. The specific objectives were: (1) to implement a semiautonomous Research and Public Service Foundation incorporating pre-award through project close-out sponsored program management, fiscal accounting and assistance to investigators; (2) to implement a sponsored programs Document Processing Center to aid in research opportunity notification, proposal development and periodic progress reporting; and (3) to continue to enhance the University`s research capability in specific energy related disciplines via development of a programmatic posture with sponsoring agencies to ensure stable long-term funding.

  11. Enhancing Quality Interventions Promoting Healthy Sexuality (EQUIPS): A novel application of translational research methods

    PubMed Central

    Chinman, Matthew; Acosta, Joie; Ebener, Patricia; Driver, Jennifer; Keith, Jamie; Peebles, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Translational research is expanding, in part, because Evidence-Based Programs or Practices (EBPs) are not adopted in many medical domains. However, little translational research exists on EBPs that are prevention programs delivered in non-clinical, community-based settings. These organizations often have low capacity, which undermines implementation quality and outcomes. Rigorous translational research is needed in these settings so within a single study, capacity, implementation quality, and outcomes are measured and links between them tested. This paper overviews the study Enhancing Quality Interventions Promoting Healthy Sexuality (EQUIPS), which tests how well a community-based setting (Boys & Girls Clubs) conducts an EBP called Making Proud Choices that aims to prevent teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, with and without an implementation support intervention called Getting To Outcomes®. The study design is novel as it assesses: Getting To Outcomes’ impact on capacity, implementation quality, and outcomes simultaneously and in both study conditions; will assess sustainability by measuring capacity and fidelity a year after the Getting To Outcomes support ends; and will operate on a large scale similar to many national initiatives. Many studies have not incorporated all these elements and thus EQUIPS could serve as a model for translational research in many domains. PMID:23751031

  12. Building a Long Distance Training Program to Enhance Clinical Cancer Research Capacity in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Appleyard, Caroline B.; Antonia, Scott J.; Sullivan, Daniel M.; Santiago-Cardona, Pedro G.; Cáceres, William; Velez, Hector; Torres-Ruiz, Jose A.; Wright, Kenneth L.

    2015-01-01

    Barriers persist in the development and delivery of effective cancer therapies to under-represented minority populations. In Puerto Rico, cancer is the second leading cause of death, yet cancer research awareness and training opportunities remain somewhat limited on the island. These limitations hinder progress toward decreasing the cancer health disparities that exist within the Puerto Rican population. The predominantly Hispanic population of Puerto Rico is the focus of a partnership between the Ponce Health Sciences University-Medical School and Ponce Research Institute (PHSU) in Ponce, Puerto Rico and the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center in Tampa, Florida. The Partnership goals are to reduce these barriers through an integrated, multipronged approach of training and education alongside outreach and research components. This report describes the approaches, successes and challenges of enhancing clinical cancer research capacity on the island and the unique challenges of a partnership between two institutes physically separated by long distances. Once fully developed this model may be exportable to other Latin American countries where the need is even greater. PMID:25626061

  13. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review No. 78, quarter ending March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This report presents descriptions of various research projects and field projects concerned with the enhanced recovery of petroleum. Contract numbers, principal investigators, company names, and project management information is included.

  14. ENHANCING SEISMIC CALIBRATION RESEARCH THROUGH SOFTWARE AUTOMATION AND SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, S D; Dodge, D A; Ganzberger, M D; Hauk, T F; Matzel, E M

    2007-07-06

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (GNEM R&E) Program at LLNL has made significant progress enhancing the process of deriving seismic calibrations and performing scientific integration, analysis, and information management with software automation tools. Several achievements in schema design, data visualization, synthesis, and analysis were completed this year. Our tool efforts address the problematic issues of very large datasets and varied formats encountered during seismic calibration research. As data volumes have increased, scientific information management issues such as data quality assessment, ontology mapping, and metadata collection that are essential for production and validation of derived calibrations have negatively impacted researchers abilities to produce products. New information management and analysis tools have resulted in demonstrated gains in efficiency of producing scientific data products and improved accuracy of derived seismic calibrations. Significant software engineering and development efforts have produced an object-oriented framework that provides database centric coordination between scientific tools, users, and data. Nearly a half billion parameters, signals, measurements, and metadata entries are all stored in a relational database accessed by an extensive object-oriented multi-technology software framework that includes elements of stored procedures, real-time transactional database triggers and constraints, as well as coupled Java and C++ software libraries to handle the information interchange and validation requirements. Significant resources were applied to schema design to enable recording of processing flow and metadata. A core capability is the ability to rapidly select and present subsets of related signals and measurements to the researchers for analysis and distillation both visually (JAVA GUI client applications) and in batch mode

  15. EuCARD2: enhanced accelerator research and development in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. EuCARD2 is an European research project which will be realized during 2013-2017 inside the EC FP7 framework. The project concerns the development and coordination of European Accelerator Research and Development. The project is particularly important, to a number of domestic laboratories, due to some plans to build large accelerator infrastructure in Poland. Large accelerator infrastructure of fundamental and applied research character stimulates around it the development and industrial applications as well as biomedical of advanced accelerators, material research and engineering, cryo-technology, mechatronics, robotics, and in particular electronics - like networked measurement and control systems, sensors, computer systems, automation and control systems. The paper presents a digest of the European project EuCARD2 which is Enhanced European Coordination for Accelerator Research and Development. The paper presents a digest of the research results and assumptions in the domain of accelerator science and technology in Europe, shown during the final fourth annual meeting of the EuCARD - European Coordination of Accelerator R&D, and the kick-off meeting of the EuCARD2. There are debated a few basic groups of accelerator systems components like: measurement - control networks of large geometrical extent, multichannel systems for large amounts of metrological data acquisition, precision photonic networks of reference time, frequency and phase distribution, high field magnets, superconducting cavities, novel beam collimators, etc. The paper bases on the following materials: Internet and Intranet documents combined with EuCARD2, Description of Work FP7 EuCARD-2 DoW-312453, 2013-02-13, and discussions and preparatory materials worked on by Eucard-2 initiators.

  16. Benchmarking and Its Relevance to the Library and Information Sector. Interim Findings of "Best Practice Benchmarking in the Library and Information Sector," a British Library Research and Development Department Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnell, Margaret; Garrod, Penny

    This British Library Research and Development Department study assesses current activities and attitudes toward quality management in library and information services (LIS) in the academic sector as well as the commercial/industrial sector. Definitions and types of benchmarking are described, and the relevance of benchmarking to LIS is evaluated.…

  17. Enhancing Seismic Calibration Research Through Software Automation and Scientific Information Management

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, S D; Dodge, D A; Elliott, A B; Ganzberger, M D; Hauk, T F; Matzel, E M

    2005-07-12

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (GNEM R&E) Program has made significant progress enhancing the process of deriving seismic calibrations and performing scientific integration with automation tools. We present an overview of our software automation and scientific data management efforts and discuss frameworks to address the problematic issues of very large datasets and varied formats utilized during seismic calibration research. The software and scientific automation initiatives directly support the rapid collection of raw and contextual seismic data used in research, provide efficient interfaces for researchers to measure/analyze data, and provide a framework for research dataset integration. The automation also improves the researchers ability to assemble quality controlled research products for delivery into the NNSA Knowledge Base (KB). The software and scientific automation tasks provide the robust foundation upon which synergistic and efficient development of, GNEM R&E Program, seismic calibration research may be built. The task of constructing many seismic calibration products is labor intensive and complex, hence expensive. However, aspects of calibration product construction are susceptible to automation and future economies. We are applying software and scientific automation to problems within two distinct phases or ''tiers'' of the seismic calibration process. The first tier involves initial collection of waveform and parameter (bulletin) data that comprise the ''raw materials'' from which signal travel-time and amplitude correction surfaces are derived and is highly suited for software automation. The second tier in seismic research content development activities include development of correction surfaces and other calibrations. This second tier is less susceptible to complete automation, as these activities require the judgment of scientists skilled in the

  18. Adopting a K-12 Family Model with Undergraduate Research to Enhance STEM Persistence and Achievement in Underrepresented Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendricks, Kimberly; Arment, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    K-12 education has identified an important need for culturally relevant practices among underrepresented minority students in the classroom. Research has shown that minority students perform better in multicultural learning environments that place an emphasis on addressing both the student's social and academic needs. Accordingly, Central State…

  19. Relevance--There and Here

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Herbert A.

    1973-01-01

    Advocates that in the United States, as in China, scientific research receives government financial support essentially for utilitarian ends. Primary interest of the average citizen in research is not in acquiring knowledge but in its relevance to the needs of society. (JR)

  20. Partnered Research Experiences for Junior Faculty at Minority-Serving Institutions Enhance Professional Success

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Andrew G.; Leibowitz, Michael J.; Murray, Sandra A.; Burgess, David; Denetclaw, Wilfred F.; Carrero-Martinez, Franklin A.; Asai, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific workforce diversity is critical to ensuring the realization of our national research goals and minority-serving institutions play a vital role in preparing undergraduate students for science careers. This paper summarizes the outcomes of supporting career training and research practices by faculty from teaching-intensive, minority-serving institutions. Support of these faculty members is predicted to lead to: 1) increases in the numbers of refereed publications, 2) increases in federal grant funding, and 3) a positive impact on professional activities and curricular practices at their home institutions that support student training. The results presented show increased productivity is evident as early as 1 yr following completion of the program, with participants being more independently productive than their matched peers in key areas that serve as measures of academic success. These outcomes are consistent with the goals of the Visiting Professorship Program to enhance scientific practices impacting undergraduate student training. Furthermore, the outcomes demonstrate the benefits of training support for research activities at minority-serving institutions that can lead to increased engagement of students from diverse backgrounds. The practices and results presented demonstrate a successful generalizable approach for stimulating junior faculty development and can serve as a basis for long-term faculty career development strategies that support scientific workforce diversity. PMID:24006388

  1. A Review of Concepts from Policy Studies Relevant to the Analysis of EFA in Developing Countries. Create Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lall, Marie

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to give an introduction to the central concepts and the literature of Policy Studies in education. The first part of the paper addresses the questions of what policy is. How is it made and why is it relevant? It looks in particular at the role of the state and the Policy cycle framework which is an analytical tool that helps to…

  2. Student Perspectives on Liberal Learning at Alverno College: Justifying Learning as Relevant to Performance in Personal and Professional Roles. Final Report, Research Report Number Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Much, Nancy; Mentkowski, Marcia

    Student perspectives on learning was investigated at Alverno College. Attention was directed to how students understand and justify learning outcomes, and how they understand liberal learning as relevant to performance in personal and professional roles. The competency-based curriculum at Alverno College defines competencies as developmental,…

  3. Earthdata Search: The Relevance of Relevance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Through recent usability studies, the issue of relevance became increasingly clear in the Earthdata Search Client. After all, if a user can't find the data they are looking for, nothing else we do matters. This presentation walks through usability testing findings and recent relevance improvements made to the Earthdata Search Client.

  4. Enhancing cancer registry data for comparative effectiveness research (CER) project: overview and methodology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Vivien W; Eheman, Christie R; Johnson, Christopher J; Hernandez, Monique N; Rousseau, David; Styles, Timothy S; West, Dee W; Hsieh, Meichin; Hakenewerth, Anne M; Celaya, Maria O; Rycroft, Randi K; Wike, Jennifer M; Pearson, Melissa; Brockhouse, Judy; Mulvihill, Linda G; Zhang, Kevin B

    2014-01-01

    Following the Institute of Medicine's 2009 report on the national priorities for comparative effectiveness research (CER), funding for support of CER became available in 2009 through the American Recovery and Re-investment Act. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) received funding to enhance the infrastructure of population-based cancer registries and to expand registry data collection to support CER. The CDC established 10 specialized registries within the National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) to enhance data collection for all cancers and to address targeted CER questions, including the clinical use and prognostic value of specific biomarkers. The project also included a special focus on detailed first course of treatment for cancers of the breast, colon, and rectum, as well as chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) diagnosed in 2011. This paper describes the methodology and the work conducted by the CDC and the NPCR specialized registries in collecting data for the 4 special focused cancers, including the selection of additional data variables, development of data collection tools and software modifications, institutional review board approvals, training, collection of detailed first course of treatment, and quality assurance. It also presents the characteristics of the study population and discusses the strengths and limitations of using population-based cancer registries to support CER as well as the potential future role of population-based cancer registries in assessing the quality of patient care and cancer control. PMID:25419602

  5. Enhancing Cancer Registry Data for Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) Project: Overview and Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Vivien W.; Eheman, Christie R.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Hernandez, Monique N.; Rousseau, David; Styles, Timothy S.; West, Dee W.; Hsieh, Meichin; Hakenewerth, Anne M.; Celaya, Maria O.; Rycroft, Randi K.; Wike, Jennifer M.; Pearson, Melissa; Brockhouse, Judy; Mulvihill, Linda G.; Zhang, Kevin B.

    2015-01-01

    Following the Institute of Medicine's 2009 report on the national priorities for comparative effectiveness research (CER), funding for support of CER became available in 2009 through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) received funding to enhance the infrastructure of population-based cancer registries and to expand registry data collection to support CER. The CDC established 10 specialized registries within the National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) to enhance data collection for all cancers and to address targeted CER questions, including the clinical use and prognostic value of specific biomarkers. The project also included a special focus on detailed first course of treatment for cancers of the breast, colon, and rectum, as well as chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) diagnosed in 2011. This paper describes the methodology and the work conducted by the CDC and the NPCR specialized registries in collecting data for the 4 special focused cancers, including the selection of additional data variables, development of data collection tools and software modifications, institutional review board approvals, training, collection of detailed first course of treatment, and quality assurance. It also presents the characteristics of the study population and discusses the strengths and limitations of using population-based cancer registries to support CER as well as the potential future role of population-based cancer registries in assessing the quality of patient care and cancer control. PMID:25419602

  6. Enhancing the Safety, Security and Resilience of ICT and Scada Systems Using Action Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsen, Stig; Skramstad, Torbjorn; Hagen, Janne

    This paper discusses the results of a questionnaire-based survey used to assess the safety, security and resilience of information and communications technology (ICT) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems used in the Norwegian oil and gas industry. The survey identifies several challenges, including the involvement of professionals with different backgrounds and expertise, lack of common risk perceptions, inadequate testing and integration of ICT and SCADA systems, poor information sharing related to undesirable incidents and lack of resilience in the design of technical systems. Action research is proposed as a process for addressing these challenges in a systematic manner and helping enhance the safety, security and resilience of ICT and SCADA systems used in oil and gas operations.

  7. Delivery Order 9 enhanced preliminary assessment, Woodbridge Research Facility, Virginia. Final report, Dec 91-Mar 92

    SciTech Connect

    Shimko, R.G.; Turner, R.E.

    1992-03-01

    An enhanced preliminary assessment was conducted at Woodbridge Research Facility (WRF) in Woodbridge, Virginia. WRF is a 579-acre facility located 22 miles southeast of Washington, D.C. It is operated by Harry Diamond Laboratory (HDL) at Adelphi, Maryland for the U.S. Army Laboratory Command. Its mission is to support HDL in a variety of programs involving nuclear weapons effects and Army systems survivability. Based on information obtained during and subsequent to a site visit (18 through 20 September 1991), 27 areas requiring environmental evaluation (AREE) were identified, including landfills, a pistol range, oil-contaminated areas, waste handling areas, storage areas, test areas, underground storage tanks, transformers, oil/water separators, asbestos, drainage ditches and spill areas. This report presents a summary of findings for each AREE and recommendations for further action.

  8. Challenging Teachers' Practice through Learning: Reflections on the Enhancing Effective Practice in Special Education Programme of Research and Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Roseanna

    2006-01-01

    When teachers participate in professional development and learning opportunities it enables them to reconceptualise their assessment and teaching practices with the support of facilitators and researchers. National programmes of professional development and research, such as the three year Enhancing Effective Practice in Special Education (EEPiSE)…

  9. Enhancing Research Ethics Capacity in the Middle East: Experience and Challenges of a Fogarty-Sponsored Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Henry; Edwards, Hillary; Shamoo, Adil; Matar, Amal

    2014-01-01

    we describe the research ethics capacity needs of the countries from the Middle East region. Against this background, we relate the experience of an international training program focused on providing long-term training in research ethics to individuals from low- and middle-income countries in the Middle East area. We describe our pedagogical approach to training, program changes to address challenges faced, and accomplishments of trainees. Many former trainees developed research ethics curricula in their home institutions, established or enhanced their institutions’ research ethics committees, provided leadership to national research ethics systems, and conducted research in research ethics. Based on our analysis, we make recommendations for how trainees can further address current regional research ethics needs in the Middle East and conduct future research. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center’s International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development program. PMID:24384515

  10. Research Highlights and Recent Enhancements at the NEES@UCSB Permanently Instrumented Field Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steidl, J. H.; Hegarty, P.; Seale, S. H.; Lamere, T.; Stinson, E.; Wojcik, K.

    2012-12-01

    The NEES@UCSB facility consists of experimental facilities and cyber infrastructure for active testing and passive earthquake monitoring at instrumented geotechnical field sites. There have been a number of facility enhancements to both the experimental facilities and the cyber infrastructure for facilitating research at the sites and access to the data they produce. Through both the maintenance and operations and the NEES Research program funding sources, the scope of monitoring at the field sites continues to expand. A permanent cross-hole source and sensor array has been installed at both the Wildlife Liquefaction Array (WLA) and at the Garner Valley Downhole Array (GVDA) field sites. This enhancement provides daily measurements of shear-wave velocity and automated post-earthquake observations of velocity to examine soil modulus reduction and recovery. After a very large event, where nonlinear soil behavior is expected, cross-hole hammer source time intervals are as short as 5 minutes. While waiting for larger earthquakes to occur, the daily cross-hole hammer tests are providing interesting data on shear-wave velocity changes with seasonal water table height. Testing of a small reconfigurable structure at both the WLA and GVDA sites was conducted using the NEES@UCLA mobile shakers. The structure, which is a smaller version of a permanent structure at GVDA, has been left at the GVDA site and can be used for future experiments or site instrumentation enhancements. The large soil-foundation-interaction structure at GVDA has a 1D shaker mounted under its roof slab. This shaker runs nightly and the data provide insight into the influence of environmental conditions on the response of the structure. At WLA, additional sensors have been installed in a dense Shape Accelerometer Array (SAA). Each of the seven arrays contain 24 3-component MEMS accelerometers at approximately 0.3 meter spacing that span the upper 8 meters of the site, from above to below the liquefiable

  11. Communications and Control for Enhanced Autonomy in Underwater Vehicles for Deep Oceanographic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakuba, M.; Kinsey, J. C.; Yoerger, D. R.; Whitcomb, L. L.; Camilli, R.; Murphy, C.; Bowen, A.; German, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    NASA’s Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP) program is a science-driven program to produce advances in scientific and technological capabilities for planetary exploration. Oceanographic robotic vehicles and planetary exploration robots have proven to be highly effective scientific tools for performing scientific research in remote, extreme, and hostile environments that preclude direct human presence. In both domains, the planets and the world’s oceans, human oversight of remote robotic exploration can dramatically enhance scientific return in comparison to purely pre-planned missions by combining the perception, intelligence, and domain knowledge of the human operators with the super-human physical and sensory capabilities of robots. The degree of human oversight, however, is restricted in sea and space by physical limits on the bandwidth and time delay of communications between human operators and remote robotic platforms. Enhanced robotic autonomy can alleviate this obstacle. We present a communications and control architecture for underwater oceanographic robot vehicles that has permitted us to introduce elements of enhanced autonomy into operations with the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) Nereus and Sentry. Our architecture is designed to facilitate: (1) autonomous distillation of scientific data and transmission of salient synopses from the remote vehicle to its human operators; (2) high-level near real-time human supervision and control of mission programming; (3) semi-supervised learning of environmental models for enhanced survey and search mission effectiveness. Specific capabilities our group has demonstrated include selective data delivery via acoustic link; near real-time reprogramming of vehicle mission programs during otherwise preplanned dives; and validation of autonomous decision-making processes with human-supervision. These elements have been recently demonstrated

  12. ENHANCING SEISMIC CALIBRATION RESEARCH THROUGH SOFTWARE AUTOMATION AND SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, S; Dodge, D A; Ganzberger, M D; Hauk, T F; Matzel, E M

    2008-07-03

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development (GNEMRD) Program at LLNL continues to make significant progress enhancing the process of deriving seismic calibrations and performing scientific integration, analysis, and information management with software automation tools. Our tool efforts address the problematic issues of very large datasets and varied formats encountered during seismic calibration research. New information management and analysis tools have resulted in demonstrated gains in efficiency of producing scientific data products and improved accuracy of derived seismic calibrations. The foundation of a robust, efficient data development and processing environment is comprised of many components built upon engineered versatile libraries. We incorporate proven industry 'best practices' throughout our code and apply source code and bug tracking management as well as automatic generation and execution of unit tests for our experimental, development and production lines. Significant software engineering and development efforts have produced an object-oriented framework that provides database centric coordination between scientific tools, users, and data. Over a half billion parameters, signals, measurements, and metadata entries are all stored in a relational database accessed by an extensive object-oriented multi-technology software framework that includes stored procedures, real-time transactional database triggers and constraints, as well as coupled Java and C++ software libraries to handle the information interchange and validation requirements. Significant resources were applied to schema design to enable management of processing methods and station parameters, responses and metadata. This allowed for the development of merged ground-truth (GT) data sets compiled by the NNSA labs and AFTAC that include hundreds of thousands of events and tens of millions of arrivals. The schema

  13. Enhancing elementary-school mathematics teachers' efficacy beliefs: a qualitative action research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Sara; Stupel, Moshe

    2016-04-01

    Individuals and societies that can use mathematics effectively in this period of rapid changes will have a voice on increasing the opportunities and potentials which can shape their future. This has brought affective characteristics, such as self-efficacy, that affect mathematics achievement into focus of the research. Teacher efficacy refers to the extent to which a teacher feels capable to help students learn, influence students' performance and commitment, and thus plays a crucial role in developing the student in all aspects. In this study, we used two sources of efficacy beliefs, mastery experiences and physiological and emotional states, in an interesting and challenging seven month workshop, as tools to foster teacher efficacy for six elementary-school teachers who were frustrated and wanted to leave their job. Our aim was to study the nature of these teachers' efficacy in order to change it. In this qualitative action research, we used open interviews, non-participant observations and field notes. Results show that these teachers became efficacious, their students' achievements and motivation were enhanced, and the school climate was changed. Qualitative inquiry of this construct sheds light on efficacy beliefs of mathematics teachers. Nurturing teacher efficacy has borne much fruit in the field of mathematics in school.

  14. Using GIS to profile health-care costs of VA Quality-Enhancement Research Initiative diseases.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei; Cowper, Diane; Berger, Magdalena; Kuebeler, Mark; Kubal, Joe; Manheim, Larry

    2004-06-01

    The Health Services Research and Development (HSR&D) Service at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care System launched a Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) in 1998. This study estimated health-care costs of nine diseases under the QUERI project and analyzed geographic differences in health-care costs and utilization across 22 VA Integrated Service Networks (VISNs), using a geographic information system (GIS). Patients with these diseases were identified from diagnoses recorded between October 1999 and September 2000. Annual health-care costs for each disease were estimated in four categories: inpatient medical or surgical, other inpatient, outpatient, and outpatient pharmacy. Geographic differences of costs and health-care utilization across the 22 VISNs for chronic heart failure, diabetes, and spinal-cord injury were mapped using a GIS package. Average costs and patterns of health-care utilization varied substantially across the 22 VISNs. The observed differences in health-care utilization across geographic regions raised questions for further investigation. PMID:15446617

  15. UC Berkeley Nuclear Engineering Curriculum and Research Enhancement. Final report, February 14, 1993--February 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T.K.; Peterson, P.F.

    1995-05-11

    This is a report for the 2/14/93 to 2/14/95 period of the five-year program proposed and initiated in 1992, for curriculum and research enhancement for the Department of Nuclear Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. The program is designed to strengthen the departmental academic infrastructure and improve the education breadth of nuclear engineering students. The DOE funds have supported scholarships and a novel educational program which includes summer coursework at the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant. The summer course provides an important introduction to reactor safety and operations to students who will in the future be responsible for running many of our existing nuclear power plants. The work was funded under DOE contract DE-FG0393ER75856, with a matching gift to the Department from the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E). The program described in the original grant proposal has been successful implemented with an enthusiastic response from our students and faculty. The program consisted of two parts, one for innovative additions to our curriculum funded by the DOE, and the other for distinguished lectureships and support for basic research funded by gifts from PG&E.

  16. Understanding Why Researchers Should Use Synchrotron-Enhanced FTIR Instead of Traditional FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stem, Michelle R.

    2008-07-01

    A synchrotron-enhanced Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) specializes in combining the tremendous power, brightness, intensity, focusability, and tunability of the photons radiated by a synchrotron with FTIR ability to research the vibrational properties of the lighter elements (i.e., C, N, O, etc.). Infrared (IR) wavelengths correspond to the sizes of molecular bonds having these lighter elements, and only species for which IR photons alter the molecule's dipole moment are detectable and considered to be IR responsive. SR-FTIR excels over traditional FTIR at examining the detailed properties of IR-responsive molecules. Further, SR-FTIR has superior signal-to-noise ratios, brightness, and ability to conduct long-duration scans without altering sample properties. A SR-FTIR scan can reveal exacting molecular details, unrivaled by traditional FTIR. IR-responsive species best analyzed by SR-FTIR can include trace elements, chemical structures, biological specimens, chemical reactions (pump-probe), small or dilute specimens, and molecular matrices. A SR-FTIR is especially likely to give results that have greater precision than traditional FTIR for submonolayers, polymers, semiconductors, superconductors, and environmental samples. Increasingly, the SR-FTIR is used by forensics researchers to examine potential evidentiary materials, such as drugs, paints, fibers, explosives, polymers, inks, documents, blood, and soil.

  17. Shale oil value enhancement research. Quarterly report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    A major push was made to identify the hydrocarbon and heteroatom types present in raw shale oil. A comprehensive, qualitative picture of the <400{degrees}C material has been obtained. In addition to the expected types, e.g., pyridines, pyrroles, indoles and phenols, the presence of aliphatic carboxylic acids, ketones and nitrites was confirmed. Most importantly, heteroatom types are able to be concentrated nearly quantitatively by liquid-liquid extraction with polar solvents. Compound types characterization of the >400{degrees}C material, as well as rapid, routine analysis of separations fractions, requires new methodologies founded in the Z-BASIC concept. Advances were made in establishing the interface protocol needed to utilize Z-BASIC methodologies for interpretation of gc-ms output data. It is anticipated that all interface protocols will be completed and a computerized reporting system will be in place by the end of the next quarter. Progress reports were made at the Contractor`s Review Meeting (METC), November 16th and at the Eastern Oil Shale Symposium (Lexington), November 17th. Research results continue to be well-received. The concept of a thermodynamically logical map of potential products from shale oil is a sound approach to value-enhancement research. From a commercial perspective, the concept of establishing a demand for raw shale oil at a reasonable purchase price of, say $30/bbl, is increasingly being recognized as the best means of pulling shale oil into the marketplace.

  18. Can cognitive psychological research on reasoning enhance the discussion around moral judgments?

    PubMed

    Bialek, Michal; Terbeck, Sylvia

    2016-08-01

    In this article we will demonstrate how cognitive psychological research on reasoning and decision making could enhance discussions and theories of moral judgments. In the first part, we will present recent dual-process models of moral judgments and describe selected studies which support these approaches. However, we will also present data that contradict the model predictions, suggesting that approaches to moral judgment might be more complex. In the second part, we will show how cognitive psychological research on reasoning might be helpful in understanding moral judgments. Specifically, we will highlight approaches addressing the interaction between intuition and reflection. Our data suggest that a sequential model of engaging in deliberation might have to be revised. Therefore, we will present an approach based on Signal Detection Theory and on intuitive conflict detection. We predict that individuals arrive at the moral decisions by comparing potential action outcomes (e.g., harm caused and utilitarian gain) simultaneously. The response criterion can be influenced by intuitive processes, such as heuristic moral value processing, or considerations of harm caused. PMID:27016146

  19. Enhancing Seismic Calibration Research Through Software Automation and Scientific Information Management

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, S D; Dodge, D A; Ganzberger, M D; Harris, D B; Hauk, T F

    2009-07-07

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development (GNEMRD) Program at LLNL continues to make significant progress enhancing the process of deriving seismic calibrations and performing scientific integration, analysis, and information management with software automation tools. Our tool efforts address the problematic issues of very large datasets and varied formats encountered during seismic calibration research. New information management and analysis tools have resulted in demonstrated gains in efficiency of producing scientific data products and improved accuracy of derived seismic calibrations. In contrast to previous years, software development work this past year has emphasized development of automation at the data ingestion level. This change reflects a gradually-changing emphasis in our program from processing a few large data sets that result in a single integrated delivery, to processing many different data sets from a variety of sources. The increase in the number of sources had resulted in a large increase in the amount of metadata relative to the final volume of research products. Software developed this year addresses the problems of: (1) Efficient metadata ingestion and conflict resolution; (2) Automated ingestion of bulletin information; (3) Automated ingestion of waveform information from global data centers; and (4) Site Metadata and Response transformation required for certain products. This year, we also made a significant step forward in meeting a long-standing goal of developing and using a waveform correlation framework. Our objective for such a framework is to extract additional calibration data (e.g. mining blasts) and to study the extent to which correlated seismicity can be found in global and regional scale environments.

  20. Participatory research to enhance vision sharing for Healthy Town initiatives in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takano, Takehito; Nakamura, Keiko

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a participatory research project conducted by the Tokyo Citizens' Council for Health Promotion (Citizens' Council) to enhance vision sharing, thereby aiding the implementation of Healthy Town initiatives. The Citizens' Council conducted a survey to elucidate citizen interests and expectations regarding Healthy Towns. The project had three stages: (i) a survey; (ii) dissemination of the results; and (iii) evaluation of the impact of the survey's findings. The survey was conducted among ordinary citizens, community group members, health promotion practitioners and members of the Citizens' Council. Responses from 476 ordinary citizens, 400 community group members, 316 health promotion practitioners and 387 members of the Citizens' Council were received and analyzed. Major criteria that respondents required of a Healthy Town were: adequate sports facilities and walking/jogging trails (44.5%); easy access for senior citizens, small children and people with disabilities (42.2%); and parks, clean rivers and other natural features (33.1%). Prioritized criteria given by specific respondent groups were (i) a town with little crime and few traffic accidents (ordinary citizens: 37.2%) and (ii) a town where people help each other (health promotion practitioners: 36.7%; members of the Citizens' Council: 31.5%). Factor analysis revealed that the structure of citizen views on criteria for a Healthy Town had the following three dimensions: (i) health conducive physical living environment; (ii) social networks and mutual help; and (iii) societal discipline/rules and good access to services. The research results were disseminated to the general public, community groups and members of the Citizens' Council. The results substantiated citizen views, which were then incorporated into plans towards realizing Healthy Towns initiatives. This research effort generated a vision of the creation of Healthy Towns by the participation of citizens in a megacity

  1. Advances in desertification and climate change research: Are they accessible for application to enhance adaptive capacity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, M.; Dirkx, E.; Hager, C.; Klintenberg, P.; Roberts, C.; von Oertzen, D.

    2008-12-01

    Sustainable living in arid lands is the goal of many, including local residents, policy-makers and scientists. Research into desertification and climate change has the potential to significantly enhance livelihoods of resident people. It also has the potential to contribute to their capacity for risk reduction, improved natural resources management and adaptation to climatic and other changes in multi-stressor systems. This potential is not frequently realised. To effectively ensure that scientific insights and contemporary technologies are applied, active involvement of and feedback from those who apply and use the benefits offered by science and technology are required. Scientists and technologists have to address the diverse, mainly non-technical, aspects required to understand and cope with endemic climate variability, desertification and climate change. They need to appropriately tailor their approaches to disseminate results, and communicate their findings in a way that can be understood and readily implemented by policy-makers, politicians and communities. At the same time, they must learn from experiences gained through implementation by users at all levels. The challenges of making the necessary connections between the combinatory effects of desertification and climate change and their effective application are explored and tested. It was found that several key factors contribute to making the necessary connections to facilitate application on all levels of research advances. These include translation, information dissemination, communication, communication platforms, boundary organisations and leadership contributing to knowledge, motivation and capacity. The purpose of this paper is to assess research experiences from integrated land and water resource management, the application of renewable energy and energy efficiency, and local-level monitoring of natural resources and their application to the challenges of desertification and climate change. The

  2. Research Opportunities in Corrosion Science for Long-Term Prediction of Materials Performance: A Report of the DOE Workshop on “Corrosion Issues of Relevance to the Yucca Mountain Waste Repository”.

    SciTech Connect

    Payer, Joe H.; Scully, John R.

    2003-07-29

    The report summarizes the findings of a U.S. Department of Energy workshop on “Corrosion Issues of Relevance to the Yucca Mountain Waste Repository”. The workshop held on July 29-30, 2003 in Bethesda, MD and was co-sponsored by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The workshop focus was corrosion science relevant to long-term prediction of materials performance in hostile environments and with special focus on relevance to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The culmination of the workshop is this report that identifies both generic and Yucca-Mountain-Project specific research opportunities in basic and applied topic areas. The research opportunities would be realized well after the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s initial construction-authorization licensing process. At the workshop, twenty-three invited scientists deliberated on basic and applied science opportunities in corrosion science relevant to long-term prediction of damage accumulation by corrosive processes that affect materials performance.

  3. Preventing School Violence: Plenary Papers of the 1999 Conference on Criminal Justice Research and Evaluation--Enhancing Policy and Practice through Research, Volume 2. National Institute of Justice Research Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellam, Sheppard G.; Prinz, Ron; Sheley, Joseph F.

    This booklet contains conference presentations from the 1999 National Institute of Justice's research forum on preventing school violence. The theme of the conference was "Enhancing Policy and Practice through Research." Three researchers were asked to speak on topics of school violence since effective preventive policy and practices are…

  4. Improving Public Relations Web Sites through Usability Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallahan, Kirk

    2001-01-01

    Argues that usability research has particular relevance for enhancing the effectiveness of websites. Examines the nature and value of usability research, and the elements of an effective website based on usability principles. (SR)

  5. Subtask – CO2 storage and enhanced bakken recovery research program

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, James; Hawthorne, Steven; Smith, Steven; Braunberger, Jason; Liu, Guoxiang; Klenner, Robert; Botnen, Lisa; Steadman, Edward; Harju, John; Doll, Thomas

    2014-05-31

    Small improvements in productivity could increase technically recoverable oil in the Bakken Petroleum System by billions of barrels. The use of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in tight oil reservoirs is a relatively new concept. The large-scale injection of CO2 into the Bakken would also result in the geological storage of significant amounts of CO2. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has conducted laboratory and modeling activities to examine the potential for CO2 storage and EOR in the Bakken. Specific activities included the characterization and subsequent modeling of North Dakota study areas as well as dynamic predictive simulations of possible CO2 injection schemes to predict the potential CO2 storage and EOR in those areas. Laboratory studies to evaluate the ability of CO2 to remove hydrocarbons from Bakken rocks and determine minimum miscibility pressures for Bakken oil samples were conducted. Data from a CO2 injection test conducted in the Elm Coulee area of Montana in 2009 were evaluated with an eye toward the possible application of knowledge gained to future injection tests in other areas. A first-order estimation of potential CO2 storage capacity in the Bakken Formation in North Dakota was also conducted. Key findings of the program are as follows. The results of the research activities suggest that CO2 may be effective in enhancing the productivity of oil from the Bakken and that the Bakken may hold the ability to geologically store between 120 Mt and 3.2 Gt of CO2. However, there are no clear-cut answers regarding the most effective approach for using CO2 to improve oil productivity or the storage capacity of the Bakken. The results underscore the notion that an unconventional resource will likely require unconventional methods of both assessment and implementation when it comes to the injection of CO

  6. Enhancing Junior Faculty Research Productivity through Multiinstitution Collaboration: Participants' Impressions of the School Psychology Research Collaboration Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, S. Craig; Wheeler, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    In addition to teaching and service responsibilities, junior faculty members are required to be productive researchers. Despite the demand on junior faculty to produce published research, studies suggest that they often do not receive adequate assistance with their research endeavors. Mentoring is an effective form of support for junior faculty…

  7. An Enhanced Magnetometer Network in the United States for Magnetoseismic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, P. J.; Bristow, W. A.; Chun, F. K.; Engebretson, M. J.; Hairston, M. R.; Russell, C. T.; Scherrer, D. K.; Takahashi, K.; Wing, S.; Winkler, L. I.

    2009-12-01

    An important use of ground magnetometer observations in the 21st century is magnetoseismic research, which can be performed through two different methodologies. Normal-mode magnetoseismology uses the field line resonance (FLR) frequencies to calculate the plasma density in the magnetosphere. Travel-time magnetoseismology estimates the start time and location of impulsive events in the magnetosphere, such as sudden impulses and substorm onsets, by timing the arrival of impulse signals, and through the process the density structure of the magnetosphere can also be inferred. An existing magnetometer project for magnetoseismic research is the nine-station Mid-continent Magnetoseismic Chain (McMAC) that provides observations along 330° magnetic longitude in the U.S. and Mexico. The more recent Falcon magnetometer project further augments the FLR observations in the U.S. by setting up new stations spanning from Alaska to Maryland. Aided by the recent finding that FLR signatures can usually be identified when the east-west separation of the station pair is within 20° in longitude, the combination of McMAC and Falcon stations along with other magnetometers in North America can significantly enhance the longitudinal coverage of FLR measurements. The increase in magnetometer stations in the region can also benefit travel-time magnetoseismology in obtaining higher accuracy in the estimation from travel-time inversion. In this presentation we demonstrate the magnetoseismic observations made by McMAC and Falcon magnetometers, as well as how they can coordinate with other stations and form a 2-D magnetometer network in the U.S. The observations include the FLR sounding measurements that provide "quot;snapshots" of plasmaspheric densities and the travel-time analysis of sudden impulse and substorm events.

  8. Research on an Improved Medical Image Enhancement Algorithm Based on P-M Model.

    PubMed

    Dong, Beibei; Yang, Jingjing; Hao, Shangfu; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Image enhancement can improve the detail of the image and so as to achieve the purpose of the identification of the image. At present, the image enhancement is widely used in medical images, which can help doctor's diagnosis. IEABPM (Image Enhancement Algorithm Based on P-M Model) is one of the most common image enhancement algorithms. However, it may cause the lost of the texture details and other features. To solve the problems, this paper proposes an IIEABPM (Improved Image Enhancement Algorithm Based on P-M Model). Simulation demonstrates that IIEABPM can effectively solve the problems of IEABPM, and improve image clarity, image contrast, and image brightness. PMID:26628929

  9. Enhancing Hydrologic Modelling in the Coupled Weather Research and Forecasting-Urban Modelling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiachuan; Wang, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Fei; Miao, Shiguang; Tewari, Mukul; Voogt, James A.; Myint, Soe

    2015-04-01

    Urbanization modifies surface energy and water budgets, and has significant impacts on local and regional hydroclimate. In recent decades, a number of urban canopy models have been developed and implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to capture urban land-surface processes. Most of these models are inadequate due to the lack of realistic representation of urban hydrological processes. Here, we implement physically-based parametrizations of urban hydrological processes into the single layer urban canopy model in the WRF model. The new single-layer urban canopy model features the integration of, (1) anthropogenic latent heat, (2) urban irrigation, (3) evaporation from paved surfaces, and (4) the urban oasis effect. The new WRF-urban modelling system is evaluated against field measurements for four different cities; results show that the model performance is substantially improved as compared to the current schemes, especially for latent heat flux. In particular, to evaluate the performance of green roofs as an urban heat island mitigation strategy, we integrate in the urban canopy model a multilayer green roof system, enabled by the physical urban hydrological schemes. Simulations show that green roofs are capable of reducing surface temperature and sensible heat flux as well as enhancing building energy efficiency.

  10. Research to Significantly Enhance Composites Survivability at 550 F in Oxidative Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A. (Technical Monitor); Guinn, L.; Tewoldeberhan, A.; Inkurnsah, M.; Makori, F.; Carty, A.; Carson, L.

    2003-01-01

    Methylene dianiline (MDA) and its derivatives have been used in the synthesis of polyimides to yield polymers with characteristic low-density, high tensile strength, improved solubility in organic solvents, low-melt viscosities and high thermal stability (greater than 550 F) in air. Polyimides with such properties are desirable for use in aerospace systems, e.g., jet engines, airframe, missiles, and rockets where weight is critical. Recent research at Prairie View A&M University is focused on developing monomers to generate polyimides with enhanced performance over that of NASA s PMR-15. The objective of this work is to synthesize three ring aromatic diamines which are non-toxic and when reacted with the appropriate dianhydrides will yield polyimides with lower viscosity, improve processability, good retention of mechanical properties, and oxidative stability at high environmental temperatures. Modifications of the three ring aromatic diamines include replacing the methylene linkages with aromatic ethers by nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions and incorporating mono- and di-substituents to the center aromatic ring. An update of current reactions involved in synthesis efforts to generate three ring aromatic monomers for polyimides with methylene, carbonyl, and ether linkages separating the aromatic moieties will be displayed.

  11. African Scientific Network: A model to enhance scientific research in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Abebe

    2002-03-01

    Africa has over 350 higher education institutions with a variety of experiences and priorities. The primary objectives of these institutions are to produce white-collar workers, teachers, and the work force for mining, textiles, and agricultural industries. The state of higher education and scientific research in Africa have been discussed in several conferences. The proposals that are generated by these conferences advocate structural changes in higher education, North-South institutional linkages, mobilization of the African Diaspora and funding. We propose a model African Scientific Network that would facilitate and enhance international scientific partnerships between African scientists and their counterparts elsewhere. A recent article by James Lamout (Financial Times, August 2, 2001) indicates that emigration from South Africa alone costs $8.9 billion in lost human resources. The article also stated that every year 23,000 graduates leave Africa for opportunities overseas, mainly in Europe, leaving only 20,000 scientists and engineers serving over 600 million people. The International Organization for Migration states that the brain drain of highly skilled professionals from Africa is making economic growth and poverty alleviation impossible across the continent. In our model we will focus on a possible networking mechanism where the African Diaspora will play a major role in addressing the financial and human resources needs of higher education in Africa

  12. Shale oil value enhancement research. Quarterly report, September 1 - November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bunger, J.W.; Russell, C.P.; Tsai, J.C.H.; Cogswell, D.E.; Wiser, J.W.; Mihamou, H.; Wright, A.D.

    1995-12-31

    Activities during this quarter focused on compound type analysis of shale oil extraction products and improvement of the continuous extraction process. We have installed a walk-in fume hood to improve the ventilation of our working environment while handling of larger amounts of shale oil and volatile solvents in our Phase-II(a) work. The fume hood accommodates the distillation column, rotary evaporator, and the CLLX column. During the construction period, experimental work was carried on at a smaller scale. Modifications to the thermal hydrodealkylation process unit at the University of Utah have been completed. The higher boiling polar fraction of shale oil was fed and the preliminary ran showed promising results. The search for potential industrial partners is continuing. During this period, the prijcipal investigator has visited six industrial companies that are candidates for partner/buyer relationship. Currently, we are pursuing confidentiality agreements with four of them. It is the intent to focus our research toward addressing the objectives of those companies who show sufficient interest in the shale oil value enhancement project to enter the next level of discussions.

  13. Transcranial direct current stimulation for memory enhancement: from clinical research to animal models

    PubMed Central

    Bennabi, Djamila; Pedron, Solène; Haffen, Emmanuel; Monnin, Julie; Peterschmitt, Yvan; Van Waes, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing demand for new brain-enhancing technologies to improve mental performance, both for patients with cognitive disorders and for healthy individuals. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive, painless, and easy to use neuromodulatory technique that can improve performance on a variety of cognitive tasks in humans despite its exact mode of action remains unclear. We have conducted a mini-review of the literature to first briefly summarize the growing amount of data from clinical trials assessing the efficacy of tDCS, focusing exclusively on learning and memory performances in healthy human subjects and in patients with depression, schizophrenia, and other neurological disorders. We then discuss these findings in the context of the strikingly few studies resulting from animal research. Finally, we highlight future directions and limitations in this field and emphasize the need to develop translational studies to better understand how tDCS improves memory, a necessary condition before it can be used as a therapeutic tool. PMID:25237299

  14. Enhancement of the epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hungyuan B.; Brugger, R.M.; Rorer, D.C.

    1992-12-31

    Improvements for the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) epithermal neutron beam have been evaluated by MCNP calculations and measurements. Different dosimetric measurements have been made after one fuel element was in place of the graphite stringer in the core. Measurements show an 18% increase of beam intensity without reducing the beam quality. These results are consistent with the predictions of an MCNP calculation. Major changes to enhance the beam include rearranging the fuel elements in the core, placing aluminum pellets in the moderator tank C, redesigning the moderator assembly, replacing the outer bismuth by lead plus 0.05% atomic number density of {sup 6}Li, and modifying the irradiation port to accommodate an air indentation. The MCNP calculated values for the present and new designs were compared to demonstrate the improvements. The results show that the epithermal flux can be increased by 80% at the irradiation port. The neutron dose per epithermal neutron can be reduced by 30%. The beam directionality can be improved by 7%.

  15. Enhancement of the epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hungyuan B.; Brugger, R.M.; Rorer, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Improvements for the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) epithermal neutron beam have been evaluated by MCNP calculations and measurements. Different dosimetric measurements have been made after one fuel element was in place of the graphite stringer in the core. Measurements show an 18% increase of beam intensity without reducing the beam quality. These results are consistent with the predictions of an MCNP calculation. Major changes to enhance the beam include rearranging the fuel elements in the core, placing aluminum pellets in the moderator tank C, redesigning the moderator assembly, replacing the outer bismuth by lead plus 0.05% atomic number density of [sup 6]Li, and modifying the irradiation port to accommodate an air indentation. The MCNP calculated values for the present and new designs were compared to demonstrate the improvements. The results show that the epithermal flux can be increased by 80% at the irradiation port. The neutron dose per epithermal neutron can be reduced by 30%. The beam directionality can be improved by 7%.

  16. pO polarography, contrast enhanced color duplex sonography (CDS), [18F] fluoromisonidazole and [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography: validated methods for the evaluation of therapy-relevant tumor oxygenation or only bricks in the puzzle of tumor hypoxia?

    PubMed Central

    Gagel, Bernd; Piroth, Marc; Pinkawa, Michael; Reinartz, Patrick; Zimny, Michael; Kaiser, Hans J; Stanzel, Sven; Asadpour, Branka; Demirel, Cengiz; Hamacher, Kurt; Coenen, Heinz H; Scholbach, Thomas; Maneschi, Payam; DiMartino, Ercole; Eble, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Background The present study was conducted to analyze the value of ([18F] fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) and [18F]-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyglucose (FDG) PET as well as color pixel density (CPD) and tumor perfusion (TP) assessed by color duplex sonography (CDS) for determination of therapeutic relevant hypoxia. As a standard for measuring tissue oxygenation in human tumors, the invasive, computerized polarographic needle electrode system (pO2 histography) was used for comparing the different non invasive measurements. Methods Until now a total of 38 Patients with malignancies of the head and neck were examined. Tumor tissue pO2 was measured using a pO2-histograph. The needle electrode was placed CT-controlled in the tumor without general or local anesthesia. To assess the biological and clinical relevance of oxygenation measurement, the relative frequency of pO2 readings, with values ≤ 2.5, ≤ 5.0 and ≤ 10.0 mmHg, as well as mean and median pO2 were stated. FMISO PET consisted of one static scan of the relevant region, performed 120 min after intravenous administration. FMISO tumor to muscle ratios (FMISOT/M) and tumor to blood ratios (FMISOT/B) were calculated. FDG PET of the lymph node metastases was performed 71 ± 17 min after intravenous administration. To visualize as many vessels as possible by CDS, a contrast enhancer (Levovist®, Schering Corp., Germany) was administered. Color pixel density (CPD) was defined as the ratio of colored to grey pixels in a region of interest. From CDS signals two parameters were extracted: color hue – defining velocity (v) and color area – defining perfused area (A). Signal intensity as a measure of tissue perfusion (TP) was quantified as follows: TP = vmean × Amean. Results In order to investigate the degree of linear association, we calculated the Pearson correlation coefficient. Slight (|r| > 0.4) to moderate (|r| > 0.6) correlation was found between the parameters of pO2 polarography (pO2 readings with values ≤ 2.5, ≤ 5

  17. Meeting Art with Art: Arts-Based Methods Enhance Researcher Reflexivity in Research with Mental Health Service Users.

    PubMed

    McCaffrey, Tríona; Edwards, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a rationale for arts-based practices in music therapy research, and provides an example of using ABR techniques in research. Arts-based materials are increasingly demonstrated to have the capacity to extend processes of reflexivity and analysis in a range of qualitative health research studies. By comparison, music therapy research studies have rarely employed arts-based methods or techniques. There is a need for more studies in music therapy that employ arts-based research to demystify and elaborate a wider range of creative approaches within music therapy inquiry. In the study described in this paper, ABR was used to reflect on the contribution of a service user in a community mental health context who participated in a focus group about his experiences of music therapy. ABR was found to offer a creative way to engage service users, and to deepen and extend the researcher's reflexivity when responding to materials created by research participants. PMID:26705349

  18. Awareness of federal regulatory mechanisms relevant to community-engaged research: survey of health disparities-oriented NIH-funded investigators

    PubMed Central

    Fullerton, Stephanie M.; Anderson, Emily E.; Cowan, Ketch; Malen, Rachel C.; Brugge, Doug

    2015-01-01

    Few studies or investigators involved in community engaged research or community-based participatory research have examined awareness and adoption of federal regulatory mechanisms. We conducted a survey of investigators affiliated with the ten National Institutes of Health (NIH) Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities. A questionnaire designed to capture experience with the conduct and oversight of community engaged research, and awareness of pertinent regulatory mechanisms, including Federalwide Assurances (FWAs), Individual Investigator Agreements (IIAs), and Institutional Review Board Authorization Agreements (IAAs), was completed by 101 respondents (68% response rate). Although most were aware of FWAs, only a minority of those surveyed reported knowledge of IAAs and IIAs and even fewer had used them in their research with community partners. Implications for future training and oversight are discussed. PMID:25742662

  19. Research on identification and determination of mixed pesticides in apples using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Chen; Li, Yongyu; Peng, Yankun; Xu, Tianfeng; Dhakal, Sagar; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei

    2015-05-01

    Residual pesticides in fruits and vegetables have become one of the major food safety concerns around the world. At present, routine analytical methods used for the determination of pesticide residue on the surface of fruits and vegetables are destructive, complex, time-consuming, high cost and not environmentally friendly. In this study, a novel Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) method with silver colloid was developed for fast and sensitive nondestructive detection of residual pesticides in fruits and vegetables by using a self-developed Raman system. SERS technology is a combination of Raman spectroscopy and nanotechnology. SERS can greatly enhance the Raman signal intensity, achieve single-molecule detection, and has a simple sample pre-treatment characteristic of high sensitivity and no damage; in recent years it has begun to be used in food safety testing research. In this study a rapid and sensitive method was developed to identify and analyze mixed pesticides of chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin and acetamiprid in apple samples by SERS. Silver colloid was used for SERS measurement by hydroxylamine hydrochloride reduced. The advantages of this method are seen in its fast preparation at room temperature, good reproducibility and immediate applicability. Raman spectrum is highly interfered by noise signals and fluorescence background, which make it too complex to get good result. In this study the noise signals and fluorescence background were removed by Savitzky-Golay filter and min-max signal adaptive zooming method. Under optimal conditions, pesticide residues in apple samples can be detected by SERS at 0.005 μg/cm2 and 0.002 μg/cm2 for individual acetamiprid and thiram, respectively. When mixing the two pesticides at low concentrations, their characteristic peaks can still be identified from the SERS spectrum of the mixture. Based on the synthesized material and its application in SERS operation, the method represents an ultrasensitive SERS performance

  20. Performance Engineering Research Center and RECOVERY. Performance Engineering Research Institution SciDAC-e Augmentation. Performance enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Hollingsworth, Jeffrey K.

    2015-10-12

    This project concentrated on various ways to improve the measurement and tuning large-scale parallel applications. This project was supplement to the project DE-FC0206ER25763 (“Performance Engineering Research Center”). The research conducted during this project is summarized in this report. The complete details of the work are available in the ten publications listed at the end of the report. It also supported the Ph.D. studies of three students and one research scientist.

  1. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 83, quarter ending June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Summaries of 41 research projects on enhanced recovery are presented under the following sections: (1) chemical flooding; (2) gas displacement; (3) thermal recovery; (4) geoscience technology; (5) resource assessment technology; and (6) reservoir classes. Each presentation gives the title of the project, contract number, research facility, contract date, expected completion data, amount of the award, principal investigator, and DOE program manager, and describes the objectives of the project and a summary of the technical progress.

  2. The research of infrared image enhancement algorithm based on human vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Gao, Sili; Tang, Xinyi

    2014-11-01

    Infrared images have their own characteristics: low contrast, great noise, large dynamic range and poor visual effect. The traditional image enhancement algorithms have certain limitations and can't achieve a good visual effect. In order to obtain a good visual effect and improve the target detection and recognition capabilities, the paper studied various enhancement methods. After analyzing the retinex theory, we choose the image enhancement method based on human visual system called retinex to process infrared images. Retinex has been used to enhance the visible light image. To do experiment on infrared image enhancement, multi-scale retinex method gets ideal visual effect. On this basis, we propose an improved multi-scale Retinex (AMSR) method based on adaptive adjustment. This method can adaptively adjust the gray level and contrast of the image, enhance the details, make the weak small targets more conducive to the human eye observation. While, it is impossible to find a method suited for all infrared images with different characteristics. So, we use several traditional image enhancement algorithms to compare with the retinex algorithms. And calculate the objective evaluation factors, including average, standard deviation, entropy and so on. After observation the processing results and analyzing these evaluation factors, the AMSR algorithm is proved having its applicability and superiority. In order to select a suitable infrared image enhancement algorithms, we analyze the applicability of each enhancement methods for infrared image has obvious characteristics, To some extent, the study is significant to the infrared target detection and recognition.

  3. R-NEST: Design-Based Research for Technology-Enhanced Reflective Practice in Initial Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson Long, Bonnie; Hall, Tony

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports research into developing digital storytelling (DST) to enhance reflection within a specific professional learning context--that of a programme of teacher education--while concomitantly producing a transferrable design framework for adaption into other, similar post-secondary educational contexts. There has been limited…

  4. Researching the Ethical Dimensions of Mobile, Ubiquitous and Immersive Technology Enhanced Learning (MUITEL): A Thematic Review and Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lally, Vic; Sharples, Mike; Tracy, Frances; Bertram, Neil; Masters, Sherriden

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we examine the ethical dimensions of researching the mobile, ubiquitous and immersive technology enhanced learning (MUITEL), with a particular focus on learning in informal settings. We begin with an analysis of the interactions between mobile, ubiquitous and immersive technologies and the wider context of the digital economy. In…

  5. Enhancing Our Community of Inquiry: Thoughts on Principles and Best Practices in Research with Deaf and Hard of Hearing Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John F.

    2011-01-01

    The beginning of a new editorship for the "Annals" provides a good opportunity to re-engage contributors and the readership in a conversation about the principles and standards for manuscripts submitted to the "Annals". In turn, the hope is that this conversation might help to enhance our research community and therefore the "Annals"'…

  6. The Development of a Benchmarking Methodology to Assist in Managing the Enhancement of University Research Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, Miles G.

    2007-01-01

    The paper proposes a metric, the research quality index (RQI), for assessing and tracking university research quality. The RQI is a composite index that encompasses the three main areas of research activity: publications, research grants and higher degree by research activity. The public availability of such an index will also facilitate…

  7. Demonstrate the Model and Evaluation of Geoscience Research At Storm Peak (GRASP), a Field Research Experience Designed to Enhance Diversity in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallar, A. G.; Mccubbin, I. B.; Lynds, S. E.; Dodson, C.

    2012-12-01

    Geoscience Research at Storm Peak (GRASP) has created an exceptional field-research experience, with both remote and urban settings, for a diverse group of undergraduate students. GRASP is supported by the National Science Foundation's Opportunity for Enhancing Diversity in Geoscience (OEDG) Program. In 2011, GRASP accepted a third cohort. To date, twenty-two students have participated in GRASP. The program exposed GRASP participants to potential careers in the geosciences and provided them with an authentic research experience at Storm Peak Laboratory. Storm Peak Laboratory, a high elevation atmospheric science research facility, is located in Steamboat Springs, Colorado. The GRASP participants were selected based on academic excellence with their scientific disciplines and interest in careers pursing research. They are an interdisciplinary group including majors in engineering, chemistry, geology, and meteorology. Multiple evaluation methods were employed using both qualitative and quantitative techniques in order to examine the impacts and effects of GRASP on participants. Results will be presented.

  8. Occupational Survey Report on Business Data Programmers: Task Data From Workers and Supervisors Indicating Job Relevance and Training Criticalness. Research and Development Series No. 108.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammerman, Harry L.; Pratzner, Frank C.

    The Center for Vocational Education is continuing its programatic research efforts to develop more effective procedures for identifying valid and necessary curriculum content. The occupational task survey report for the occupation of business data programer is a product resulting from this effort. The task inventory data summarized were collected…

  9. Decorative Integration or Relevant Learning? A Literature Review of Studio Arts-Based Management Education with Recommendations for Teaching and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz-Buonincontro, Jen

    2015-01-01

    This review presents a synthesis of the state of arts-based management education scholarship, with teaching and research recommendations. To begin, the lack of creativity and empathy development in management students is presented. Next, literature-based descriptions of arts-based management exercises focus on how to use improvisational theatre,…

  10. Profiling the Flagship University Model: An Exploratory Proposal for Changing the Paradigm from Ranking to Relevancy. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.5.14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, John Aubrey

    2014-01-01

    It's a familiar if not fully explained paradigm. A "World Class University" (WCU) is supposed to have highly ranked research output, a culture of excellence, great facilities, and a brand name that transcends national borders. But perhaps most importantly, the particular institution needs to sit in the upper echelons of one or more…

  11. An Annotated Bibliography of Research and Professional Publications Relevant to the Education of Handicapped, Limited English Proficient Students and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fradd, Sandra H.

    This annotated bibliography includes over 250 citations of research reports, monographs, program descriptions, handbooks, measurement instruments, and journal articles on a variety of aspects of education for students with both disabilities and limited English skills. Listings are in four sections, namely: (1) Assessment (alternative assessment…

  12. A Guide to Learning Curve Technology to Enhance Performance Prediction in Vocational Evaluation. Research Utilization Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCray, Paul M.; Blakemore, Thomas F.

    The primary purpose of this monograph is to describe how learning curves can be applied to vocational evaluation procedures to enhance the reliability and accuracy of performance prediction. Particular emphasis is placed on describing two techniques known as the "best 20 percent method" and the "Performance Analyzer and Enhancer." The latter is a…

  13. A Seed-GUS-Expression Enhancer-trap Library for Germination Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhancer-trap lines are used to identify tissue- and stage-specific gene expression. An Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.) enhancer-trap population from the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center (ABRC), Ohio, USA, has been screened for '-glucuronidase (GUS) expression in germinating see...

  14. Perceptions of document relevance

    PubMed Central

    Bruza, Peter; Chang, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study of how humans perceive and judge the relevance of documents. Humans are adept at making reasonably robust and quick decisions about what information is relevant to them, despite the ever increasing complexity and volume of their surrounding information environment. The literature on document relevance has identified various dimensions of relevance (e.g., topicality, novelty, etc.), however little is understood about how these dimensions may interact. We performed a crowdsourced study of how human subjects judge two relevance dimensions in relation to document snippets retrieved from an internet search engine. The order of the judgment was controlled. For those judgments exhibiting an order effect, a q–test was performed to determine whether the order effects can be explained by a quantum decision model based on incompatible decision perspectives. Some evidence of incompatibility was found which suggests incompatible decision perspectives is appropriate for explaining interacting dimensions of relevance in such instances. PMID:25071622

  15. The Potential Use of Summer Rainfall Enhancement in Illinois. Part II: Integration of Factors Affecting Enhancement Projects and Future Research.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changnon, Stanley A.

    1993-03-01

    technology that could produce a 40% increase in all summer rains, the estimated crop-yield benefit in the simulated project area would have been $25 million.The 1987 91 field trials sampled only 30% of the growing conditions that occur in Illinois, and thus, the rain-modification results are only estimates of the possible outcomes from added rainfall. Nevertheless, they reveal clear needs for research relating to weather modification in the humid climate of the Corn Bell. First, more field trials are needed to define crop yield-rain relations in other types of growing seasons. Second, methods for seeding clouds at night must be developed if agriculturally useful increases are to occur. Since the value of choosing to modify rain in a given summer depends on the availability of an accurate forecast of summer rainfall, increased attention should be given to seasonal forecasting research.

  16. Cultural Speak: Culturally Relevant Pedagogy and Experiential Learning in a Public Speaking Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Janet; Tobler, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the efficacy of modifications made to a higher education Latina/o public speaking course to enhance student growth and understanding. The changes included the addition of a service-learning component and the incorporation of culturally relevant pedagogy. Selected research, particularly related to college students, on…

  17. Enhancing Research and Practice in Early Childhood through Formative and Design Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Barbara A.; Reinking, David

    2011-01-01

    This article describes formative and design experiments and how they can advance research and instructional practices in early childhood education. We argue that this relatively new approach to education research closes the gap between research and practice, and it addresses limitations that have been identified in early childhood research. We…

  18. Rigor, Relevance and Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, Raymond J.; Quaglia, Russell J.

    2007-01-01

    Rigor, relevance, and relationships are three elements that provide the hallmark for education today. These three elements are integrally connected; if one is missing in a teacher's teaching practices, he or she is not doing his or her best to prepare students for success in school and in life. To ensure the inclusion of both rigor and relevance,…

  19. Making Science Relevant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eick, Charles; Deutsch, Bill; Fuller, Jennifer; Scott, Fletcher

    2008-01-01

    Science teachers are always looking for ways to demonstrate the relevance of science to students. By connecting science learning to important societal issues, teachers can motivate students to both enjoy and engage in relevant science (Bennet, Lubben, and Hogarth 2007). To develop that connection, teachers can help students take an active role in…

  20. Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Jacqueline Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Many teachers have only a cursory understanding of culturally relevant pedagogy, and their efforts to bridge the cultural gap often fall short. Culturally relevant pedagogy is a term that describes effective teaching in culturally diverse classrooms. It can be a daunting idea to understand and implement. Yet people tend to appreciate culturally…

  1. Using Research to Enhance Staff Development: A Collaboration between a State Education Agency and an Independent Research Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappa, Joseph B.; Brown, Patricia P.

    In 1981, TDR Associates, a private, independent research organization in Newton, Massachusetts, began a two and one-half year study of "Knowledge Utilization and School Improvement Through Staff Initiated Inservice Programs." This study was funded by a grant from the National Institute of Education and conducted under an arrangement with the…

  2. Enhancing Diversity in the Public Health Research Workforce: The Research and Mentorship Program for Future HIV Vaccine Scientists

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Blythe Jane S.; Andrasik, Michele P.; Flood, Danna M.; Wakefield, Steven F.; Stoff, David M.; Cook, Ryan S.; Kublin, James G.; Fuchs, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We developed and evaluated a novel National Institutes of Health–sponsored Research and Mentorship Program for African American and Hispanic medical students embedded within the international, multisite HIV Vaccine Trials Network, and explored its impact on scientific knowledge, acquired skills, and future career plans. Methods. Scholars conducted social, behavioral, clinical, or laboratory-based research projects with HIV Vaccine Trials Network investigators over 8 to 16 weeks (track 1) or 9 to 12 months (track 2). We conducted an in-depth, mixed-methods evaluation of the first 2 cohorts (2011–2013) to identify program strengths, areas for improvement, and influence on professional development. Results. A pre–post program assessment demonstrated increases in self-reported knowledge, professional skills, and interest in future HIV vaccine research. During in-depth interviews, scholars reported that a supportive, centrally administered program; available funding; and highly involved mentors and staff were keys to the program’s early success. Conclusions. A multicomponent, mentored research experience that engages medical students from underrepresented communities and is organized within a clinical trials network may expand the pool of diverse public health scientists. Efforts to sustain scholar interest over time and track career trajectories are warranted. PMID:25122028

  3. Enhanced Geothermal Systems Research and Development: Models of Subsurface Chemical Processes Affecting Fluid Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Moller, Nancy; Weare J. H.

    2008-05-29

    Successful exploitation of the vast amount of heat stored beneath the earth’s surface in hydrothermal and fluid-limited, low permeability geothermal resources would greatly expand the Nation’s domestic energy inventory and thereby promote a more secure energy supply, a stronger economy and a cleaner environment. However, a major factor limiting the expanded development of current hydrothermal resources as well as the production of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is insufficient knowledge about the chemical processes controlling subsurface fluid flow. With funding from past grants from the DOE geothermal program and other agencies, we successfully developed advanced equation of state (EOS) and simulation technologies that accurately describe the chemistry of geothermal reservoirs and energy production processes via their free energies for wide XTP ranges. Using the specific interaction equations of Pitzer, we showed that our TEQUIL chemical models can correctly simulate behavior (e.g., mineral scaling and saturation ratios, gas break out, brine mixing effects, down hole temperatures and fluid chemical composition, spent brine incompatibilities) within the compositional range (Na-K-Ca-Cl-SO4-CO3-H2O-SiO2-CO2(g)) and temperature range (T < 350°C) associated with many current geothermal energy production sites that produce brines with temperatures below the critical point of water. The goal of research carried out under DOE grant DE-FG36-04GO14300 (10/1/2004-12/31/2007) was to expand the compositional range of our Pitzer-based TEQUIL fluid/rock interaction models to include the important aluminum and silica interactions (T < 350°C). Aluminum is the third most abundant element in the earth’s crust; and, as a constituent of aluminosilicate minerals, it is found in two thirds of the minerals in the earth’s crust. The ability to accurately characterize effects of temperature, fluid mixing and interactions between major rock-forming minerals and hydrothermal and

  4. East Asia Dust Source Location Using the Naval Research Laboratory's 1-km Dust Enhancement Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. L.; Curtis, C. A.; Miller, S. D.; Richardson, K.; Westphal, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    In the effort to predict dust storms and their effects on local, regional and global scales an often cited uncertainty is the precise location of dust sources. Many approaches have been used to identify major dust source regions in East Asia. These approaches include analysis of station data for frequency of dust storms, drifting dust, dusty day, wind speed, and PM10 total suspended particulates. Some approaches emphasize the location of land surface type (Gobi, sandy desert, and loess) and geomorphological setting/features (basins, plateaus, alluvial fans, dry rivers, or oases). Other approaches use remote sensing to locate areas of high dust activity using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer Aerosol Index (TOMS AI) data, to correlate Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) vegetation cover with dust storm frequency, or to track dust storm event origination by analyzing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. It is also customary for researchers to combine two or more of these approaches to identify dust source regions. In this paper we use a novel approach to locate dust sources in East Asia. Utilizing the Naval Research Laboratory's satellite derived 1-km Dust Enhancement Product (DEP) imagery we can readily distinguish elevated dust over land from other components of the scene and individual dust plumes are readily seen. The high resolution of the DEP allows the many small, eroding point sources (measuring 1-10s km across) that form individual plumes to be located. Five years (2007 - 2011) of East Asia DEP imagery have been analyzed. Dust source frequency plots will be shown highlighting the most active dust source areas in East Asia. Our results show the most active point sources are located along the slopes and around the rim of large basins. Within basins, on plateaus and in valleys point sources are concentrated in smaller depressions relative to the surrounding topography. Point sources are also associated with the action of

  5. Earth Science Pipeline: Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences Through Outreach and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, S. F.; Fryxell, J. E.; Smith, A. L.; Leatham, W. B.; Brunkhorst, B. J.

    2004-12-01

    Our efforts to increase diversity in the geosciences have been directed towards pre-college students and their teachers as well as towards undergraduate students. We made presentations about the geosciences and careers in geosciences at local schools, and we invited school groups to visit our campus (located near the San Andreas fault) for hands-on activities related to Earth Science. We also led field trips for high school students to other areas of geologic interest in southern California. We hired undergraduate students, including several from under-represented groups, from both our introductory and upper-division geology courses to help with these outreach activities. During 2001-2004, we conducted 169 outreach sessions that involved over 12,000 contact hours with about 5700 students, mostly middle and high school students. The majority (about 74%) of the students participating in these activities were from ethnic groups that are under-represented in the geosciences. Ninety per cent of the students said they would like to go on another field trip like the one they took to our department. At many outreach events we conducted a pre- and post-survey in which we asked students to what extent they agreed with the statement: "It would be fun to be a geologist." The pre-surveys indicated that 42% of the students either agreed or strongly agreed with the statement before participating in the outreach event. After participating, 61% of the students agreed or strongly agreed with the statement. We have also offered summer field trips and research opportunities for high school teachers. In order to attract and retain undergraduate students to the geology major, we have recruited undergraduate students from under-represented groups (and high school teachers) to participate in various research projects. The two largest projects are (1) geologic mapping and monitoring of volcanoes on the island of Dominica, in the Lesser Antilles and (2) using the Global Positioning System

  6. Recent advances in mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy with applications for research and teaching, focusing on petrochemistry and biotechnology relevant products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, H. M.; Fritzsche, J.; Tkatsch, H.; Waag, F.; Karch, K.; Henze, K.; Delbeck, S.; Budde, J.

    2013-11-01

    Mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy is introduced as a versatile analytical method for characterizing liquid and solid chemicals as obtained from petrochemistry and biotechnology processes. Besides normal transmission measurements, special equipment with silver halide fiber-optic probes allowing efficient analysis based on mid-infrared attenuated total reflection, and an accessory for near-infrared diffuse reflection measurements, are presented. The latter technique can be used advantageously for powdered samples such as microalgae biomass and polysaccharides, as well as for different tissues such as meat samples. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods, which can be used for industrial process monitoring and chemical quality control applications, are discussed, and have been used in several research projects of BSc students within their degree course of bio- and nano-technologies of our University of Applied Sciences.

  7. Analyzing the Impacts of Dams on Riparian Ecosystems: A Review of Research Strategies and Their Relevance to the Snake River Through Hells Canyon

    PubMed Central

    Braatne, Jeffrey H.; Goater, Lori A.; Blair, Charles L.

    2007-01-01

    River damming provides a dominant human impact on river environments worldwide, and while local impacts of reservoir flooding are immediate, subsequent ecological impacts downstream can be extensive. In this article, we assess seven research strategies for analyzing the impacts of dams and river flow regulation on riparian ecosystems. These include spatial comparisons of (1) upstream versus downstream reaches, (2) progressive downstream patterns, or (3) the dammed river versus an adjacent free-flowing or differently regulated river(s). Temporal comparisons consider (4) pre- versus post-dam, or (5) sequential post-dam conditions. However, spatial comparisons are complicated by the fact that dams are not randomly located, and temporal comparisons are commonly limited by sparse historic information. As a result, comparative approaches are often correlative and vulnerable to confounding factors. To complement these analyses, (6) flow or sediment modifications can be implemented to test causal associations. Finally, (7) process-based modeling represents a predictive approach incorporating hydrogeomorphic processes and their biological consequences. In a case study of Hells Canyon, the upstream versus downstream comparison is confounded by a dramatic geomorphic transition. Comparison of the multiple reaches below the dams should be useful, and the comparison of Snake River with the adjacent free-flowing Salmon River may provide the strongest spatial comparison. A pre- versus post-dam comparison would provide the most direct study approach, but pre-dam information is limited to historic reports and archival photographs. We conclude that multiple study approaches are essential to provide confident interpretations of ecological impacts downstream from dams, and propose a comprehensive study for Hells Canyon that integrates multiple research strategies. PMID:18043964

  8. Analyzing the Impacts of Dams on Riparian Ecosystems: A Review of Research Strategies and Their Relevance to the Snake River Through Hells Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braatne, Jeffrey H.; Rood, Stewart B.; Goater, Lori A.; Blair, Charles L.

    2008-02-01

    River damming provides a dominant human impact on river environments worldwide, and while local impacts of reservoir flooding are immediate, subsequent ecological impacts downstream can be extensive. In this article, we assess seven research strategies for analyzing the impacts of dams and river flow regulation on riparian ecosystems. These include spatial comparisons of (1) upstream versus downstream reaches, (2) progressive downstream patterns, or (3) the dammed river versus an adjacent free-flowing or differently regulated river(s). Temporal comparisons consider (4) pre- versus post-dam, or (5) sequential post-dam conditions. However, spatial comparisons are complicated by the fact that dams are not randomly located, and temporal comparisons are commonly limited by sparse historic information. As a result, comparative approaches are often correlative and vulnerable to confounding factors. To complement these analyses, (6) flow or sediment modifications can be implemented to test causal associations. Finally, (7) process-based modeling represents a predictive approach incorporating hydrogeomorphic processes and their biological consequences. In a case study of Hells Canyon, the upstream versus downstream comparison is confounded by a dramatic geomorphic transition. Comparison of the multiple reaches below the dams should be useful, and the comparison of Snake River with the adjacent free-flowing Salmon River may provide the strongest spatial comparison. A pre- versus post-dam comparison would provide the most direct study approach, but pre-dam information is limited to historic reports and archival photographs. We conclude that multiple study approaches are essential to provide confident interpretations of ecological impacts downstream from dams, and propose a comprehensive study for Hells Canyon that integrates multiple research strategies.

  9. Analyzing the impacts of dams on riparian ecosystems: a review of research strategies and their relevance to the Snake River through Hells Canyon.

    PubMed

    Braatne, Jeffrey H; Rood, Stewart B; Goater, Lori A; Blair, Charles L

    2008-02-01

    River damming provides a dominant human impact on river environments worldwide, and while local impacts of reservoir flooding are immediate, subsequent ecological impacts downstream can be extensive. In this article, we assess seven research strategies for analyzing the impacts of dams and river flow regulation on riparian ecosystems. These include spatial comparisons of (1) upstream versus downstream reaches, (2) progressive downstream patterns, or (3) the dammed river versus an adjacent free-flowing or differently regulated river(s). Temporal comparisons consider (4) pre- versus post-dam, or (5) sequential post-dam conditions. However, spatial comparisons are complicated by the fact that dams are not randomly located, and temporal comparisons are commonly limited by sparse historic information. As a result, comparative approaches are often correlative and vulnerable to confounding factors. To complement these analyses, (6) flow or sediment modifications can be implemented to test causal associations. Finally, (7) process-based modeling represents a predictive approach incorporating hydrogeomorphic processes and their biological consequences. In a case study of Hells Canyon, the upstream versus downstream comparison is confounded by a dramatic geomorphic transition. Comparison of the multiple reaches below the dams should be useful, and the comparison of Snake River with the adjacent free-flowing Salmon River may provide the strongest spatial comparison. A pre- versus post-dam comparison would provide the most direct study approach, but pre-dam information is limited to historic reports and archival photographs. We conclude that multiple study approaches are essential to provide confident interpretations of ecological impacts downstream from dams, and propose a comprehensive study for Hells Canyon that integrates multiple research strategies. PMID:18043964

  10. Submerged Medium Voltage Cable Systems at Nuclear Power Plants. A Review of Research Efforts Relevant to Aging Mechanisms and Condition Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Jason; Bernstein, Robert; White, II, Gregory Von; Glover, Steven F.; Neely, Jason C.; Pena, Gary; Williamson, Kenneth Martin; Zutavern, Fred J.; Gelbard, Fred

    2015-03-01

    In a submerged environment, power cables may experience accelerated insulation degradation due to water - related aging mechanisms . Direct contact with water or moisture intrusion in the cable insulation s ystem has been identified in the literature as a significant aging stressor that can affect performance and lifetime of electric cables . Progressive reduction of the dielectric strength is commonly a result of water treeing which involves the development of permanent hydrophilic structures in the insulation coinciding with the absorption of water into the cable . Water treeing is a phenomenon in which dendritic microvoids are formed in electric cable insulation due to electrochemic al reactions , electromechanical forces , and diffusion of contaminants over time . These reactions are caused by the combined effect s of water presence and high electrical stress es in the material . Water tree growth follow s a tree - like branching pattern , i ncreasing in volume and length over time . Although these cables can be "dried out," water tree degradation , specifically the growth of hydrophilic regions, is believed to be permanent and typically worsens over time. Based on established research , water treeing or water induced damage can occur in a variety of electric cables including XLPE, TR - XLPE and other insulating materials, such as EPR and butyl rubber . Once water trees or water induced damage form, the dielectric strength of an insulation materia l will decrease gradually with time as the water trees grow in length, which could eventually result in failure of the insulating material . Under wet conditions or i n submerged environments , several environmental and operational parameters can influence w ater tree initiation and affect water tree growth . These parameters include voltage cycling, field frequency, temperature, ion concentration and chemistry, type of insula tion material , and the characteristics of its defects. In this effort, a review of academic

  11. A Study on the Role of Web Technology in Enhancing Research Pursuance among University Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Irshad; Durrani, Muhammad Ismail

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of web technologies in promoting research pursuance among university teachers, examine the use of web technologies by university teachers in conducting research and identify the problems of university academia in using web technologies for research. The study was delimited to academia of social…

  12. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review No. 89

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    Summaries are presented for the DOE contracts related to supported research for thermal recovery of petroleum, geoscience technology, and field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes. Data included for each project are: title, contract number, principal investigator, research organization, beginning date, expected completion date, amount of award, objectives of the research, and summary of technical progress.

  13. Enhancing Quality Learning through Experiences of Research-Based Learning: Implications for Academic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brew, Angela; Jewell, Evan

    2012-01-01

    Research into undergraduate research and inquiry in Australian universities was conducted during an Australian Learning and Teaching Council National Teaching Fellowship. In this paper we share experiences of this project as a student and an academic, reflecting on key challenges, including undergraduate research as an immersion experience for…

  14. Enhancing Baccalaureate Student Learning in Research and Gerontology through Partnership with an Area Agency on Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Laurie A.; McCaslin, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    Designing an effective research learning experience for undergraduate social work students is challenging. Similarly, although content on elderly adults is a natural fit in many parts of the undergraduate curriculum, doing so in a research course can be a difficult challenge. Described in this article is an undergraduate research course that has…

  15. A Simple E-Mail Mechanism to Enhance Reflection, Independence, and Communication in Young Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, A. Malcolm; Lom, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Providing undergraduates with mentored research experiences is a critical component of contemporary undergraduate science education. Although the benefits of undergraduate research experiences are apparent, the methods for mentoring young scientists as they first begin navigating the research lab environment are reinvented in labs all over the…

  16. Enhancing the Teacher's Research Role in the School Setting: Three Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Paul D.; Lyman, Robert D.

    1980-01-01

    Reports on interviews conducted with researchers, administrators, and teachers at the Brewer-Porch Children's Center for the emotionally disturbed (Tuscaloosa, Alabama). The three groups were asked for their perspectives on the research role of the classroom teacher and on problems teachers face in research participation. Possible solutions are…

  17. Changing Boundaries--Shifting Identities: Strategic Interventions to Enhance the Future of Educational Research in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Neil; Bennett, Sue; Bennett, Dawn; Bobis, Janette; Chan, Philip; Seddon, Terri; Shore, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This paper reflects on the geography of Australian educational research in the context of the ERA 2010 and 2012 assessments results. These results reflect significant changes to the nature of educational research over the past decades, where this research is conducted and by whom. We recap the historical changes to the formation of educational…

  18. STEM High School Teaching Enhancement through Collaborative Engineering Research on Extreme Winds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Danielle; Yazdani, Nur; Manzur, Tanvir

    2013-01-01

    The Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) program on Hazard Mitigation at the University of Texas at Arlington (UT Arlington) involved area high school STEM teachers in engineering research with faculty and graduate students. The primary objective of the project was to train participating teachers in inquiry based research learning, research…

  19. Research of image enhancement of dental cast based on wavelet transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jing; Li, Zhongke; Liu, Xingmiao

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes a 3D laser scanner for dental cast that realize non-contact deepness measuring. The scanner and the control PC make up of a 3D scan system, accomplish the real time digital of dental cast. Owing to the complexity shape of the dental cast and the random nature of scanned points, the detected feature curves are generally not smooth or not accurate enough for subsequent application. The purpose of this p is to present an algorithm for enhancing the useful points and eliminating the noises. So an image enhancement algorithm based on wavelet transform and fuzzy set theory is presented. Firstly, the multi-scale wavelet transform is adopted to decompose the input image, which extracts the characteristic of multi-scale of the image. Secondly, wavelet threshold is used for image de-noising, and then the traditional fuzzy set theory is improved and applied to enhance the low frequency wavelet coefficients and the high frequency wavelet coefficients of different directions of each scale. Finally, the inverse wavelet transform is applied to synthesis image. A group of experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is effective for the dental cast image de-noising and enhancement, the edge of the enhanced image is distinct which is good for the subsequent image processing.

  20. Research on the Hydrogen Passivation of Defects and Impurities in Si Relevant to Crystalline Si Solar Cell Materials: Final Report, 16 February 2000 -- 15 April 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Stavola, M.

    2003-09-01

    The goal of this experimental research program is to increase the understanding, at a microscopic level, of hydrogenation processes and passivation mechanisms for crystalline-Si photovoltaics. In our experiments, vibrational spectroscopy was used to study the properties of the interstitial H2 molecule in Si and the transition-metal-hydrogen complexes in Si. The interstitial H2 molecule is formed readily in Si when hydrogen is introduced. Our studies establish that interstitial H2 in Si behaves as a nearly free rotator, solving puzzles about the behavior of this defect that have persisted since the discovery of its vibrational spectrum. The transition metals are common impurities in Si that decrease the minority-carrier lifetime and degrade the efficiencies of solar cells. Therefore, the possibility that transition-metal impurities in Si might be passivated by hydrogen has long been of interest. Our studies of transition-metal-H complexes in Si help to establish the structural and electrical properties of a family of Pt-H complexes in Si, and have made the Pt-H complexes a model system for understanding the interaction of hydrogen with transition-metal impurities in Si.