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Sample records for enlarged parietal foramina

  1. Genetics Home Reference: enlarged parietal foramina

    MedlinePlus

    ... parietal foramina is an inherited condition of impaired skull development. It is characterized by enlarged openings (foramina) ... that form the top and sides of the skull. This condition is due to incomplete bone formation ( ...

  2. Enlarged parietal foramina: a rare forensic autopsy finding.

    PubMed

    Durão, Carlos; Carpinteiro, Dina; Pedrosa, Frederico; Machado, Marcos P; Cunha, Eugénia

    2016-05-01

    Enlarged parietal foramina (EPF) are a quite rare developmental defect of the parietal bone which has to be distinguished from the normal small parietal foramina. We report a forensic case of an individual found in an advanced state of putrefaction in his own house with an undetermined cause of death. No evidence of trauma was observed, and the toxicological exam was negative. The victim was a 40-year-old man with a history of epilepsy. The large biparietal foramina, a rare anatomical variation and unusual autopsy finding, were observed at autopsy. The recognition of anatomical variations is important to avoid false interpretations and conclusions and has a significant potential as an identity factor, thus contributing to positive identification. PMID:26233611

  3. [Mother and son with enlarged parietal foramina, persistent fetal vein, and ALX4 mutation].

    PubMed

    Morita, Motoaki; Nanba, Eiji; Adachi, Kaori; Ohno, Kousaku

    2016-05-01

    Enlarged parietal foramina (EPF) are rare congenital skull defects. These round or oval defects are situated on each parietal bone approximately 1 cm from the midline. Most patients with EPF have a positive family history. The condition is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with relatively high, but not full, penetrance. Mutation in either MSX2 or ALX4 genes is associated with enlarged parietal foramina. Case 1 is a boy who was noticed to have a large anterior fontanelle, large posterior fontanelle, and widely opened sagittal suture at 2 months. During development, the anterior fontanelle and sagittal suture closed at 3 years and the posterior fontanelle subsequently divided into two foramina with ossification of the midline bridge by 4 years. The foramina were about 2.5 x 2.5 cm in diameter at 8 years. Case 2 is the 34-year-old mother of Case 1. She showed similar bone defects in her cranium, again about 2.5 x 2.5 cm in diameter. Neither patient showed any neurological symptoms. Genetic analysis revealed a mutation in the ALX4 gene in both patients, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a persistent falcine sinus and a hypoplastic straight sinus. Further evaluation revealed that the mother of Case 2 also had a mutation in the ALX4 gene, but no enlarged parietal foramina. Although high penetrance of this condition has been reported, this family suggests incomplete penetrance of this disorder. PMID:27349084

  4. Delineation of a contiguous gene syndrome with multiple exostoses, enlarged parietal foramina, craniofacial dysostosis, and mental retardation, caused by deletions in the short arm of chromosome 11.

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, O.; Wuyts, W.; Van Hul, W.; Hecht, J. T.; Meinecke, P.; Hogue, D.; Werner, W.; Zabel, B.; Hinkel, G. K.; Powell, C. M.; Shaffer, L. G.; Willems, P. J.

    1996-01-01

    A contiguous gene syndrome due to deletions of the proximal short arm of chromosome 11 is described in eight patients belonging to four families. The main clinical features are multiple exostoses, enlarged parietal foramina, craniofacial dysostosis, and mental retardation. The patients have cytogenetic and/or molecular deletions of chromosome 11p11-p13. These deletions are located between the centromere and D11S914 in a region of approximately 20cM. The present study confirms the presence of a multiple exostoses gene on chromosome 11p. Furthermore, it suggests that the gene for isolated foramina parietalie permagna and genes associated with craniofacial dysostosis and mental retardation reside in the same chromosomal region. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8644736

  5. Delineation of a contiguous gene syndrome with multiple exostoses, enlarged parietal foramina, craniofacial dysostosis, and mental retardation, caused by deletions on the short arm of chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    Bartsch, O.; Werner, W.; Hinkel, G.K.; Van Hul, W.; Willems, P.J.

    1996-04-01

    A contiguous gene syndrome due to deletions of the proximal short arm of chromosome 11 is described in eight patients belonging to four families. The main clinical features are multiple exostoses, enlarged parietal foramina, craniofacial dysostosis, and mental retardation. The patients have cytogenetic and/or molecular deletions of chromosome 11p11-p13. These deletions are located between the centromere and D11S914 in a region of {approximately}20 cM. The present study confirms the presence of a multiple exostoses gene on chromosome 11p. Furthermore, it suggests that the gene for isolated foramina parietalia permagna and genes associated with craniofacial dysostosis and mental retardation reside in the same chromosomal region. 31 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Malformation of cortical and vascular development in one family with parietal foramina determined by an ALX4 homeobox gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Valente, Marcelo; Valente, Kette D; Sugayama, Sofia S M; Kim, Chong Ae

    2004-01-01

    Vascular and cortical anomalies have been found in a family with parietal foramina type 2 (PFM2), which is determined by the ALX4 gene. It is believed that ALX4 has a bone-restricted expression. We report a case of PFM with age-related size variation in a 4-year-old boy, as well as in his mother, aunt and grandfather. MR imaging of the child demonstrates prominent malformations of cortical (polymicrogyric cortex with an unusual infolding pattern) and vascular development (persistence median prosencephalic vein), associated with high tentorial incisure periatrial white matter changes. PMID:15569759

  7. Enlargement of Neural Foramina and Dynamic Stabilization in Spondylolisthesis without Restoring the Alignment: Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    Suzer, Tuncer; Sasani, Mehdi; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Egemen, Emrah

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the cause of radiculopathy is the compression of the nerve root within the foramina which is narrowed secondary to sliding of the corpus and reduced disc height. In some patients, unroofing the foramen does not resolve this problem. We described a new decompression technique using pedicle removal and transpedicular dynamic instrumentation to stabilization the spine. We performed this operation in 2 patients and achieved very good results. PMID:27123030

  8. An Enlarged Parietal Foramen in the Late Archaic Xujiayao 11 Neurocranium from Northern China, and Rare Anomalies among Pleistocene Homo

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Song

    2013-01-01

    We report here a neurocranial abnormality previously undescribed in Pleistocene human fossils, an enlarged parietal foramen (EPF) in the early Late Pleistocene Xujiayao 11 parietal bones from the Xujiayao (Houjiayao) site, northern China. Xujiayao 11 is a pair of partial posteromedial parietal bones from an adult. It exhibits thick cranial vault bones, arachnoid granulations, a deviated posterior sagittal suture, and a unilateral (right) parietal lacuna with a posteriorly-directed and enlarged endocranial vascular sulcus. Differential diagnosis indicates that the perforation is a congenital defect, an enlarged parietal foramen, commonly associated with cerebral venous and cranial vault anomalies. It was not lethal given the individual’s age-at-death, but it may have been associated with secondary neurological deficiencies. The fossil constitutes the oldest evidence in human evolution of this very rare condition (a single enlarged parietal foramen). In combination with developmental and degenerative abnormalities in other Pleistocene human remains, it suggests demographic and survival patterns among Pleistocene Homo that led to an elevated frequency of conditions unknown or rare among recent humans. PMID:23527224

  9. Anatomical observations of the foramina transversaria.

    PubMed Central

    Taitz, C; Nathan, H; Arensburg, B

    1978-01-01

    Four hundred and eighty foramina transversaria in dry cervical vertebrae of 36 spines and in a number of dissections were studied and classified according to size, shape, and direction of their main diameter. A coefficient of roundness was then elaborated. The variations of foramina appear to follow a pattern at various vertebral levels. The possible factors (in addition to the embryological ones) involved in causing these variations-for example, mechanical stress, size, course, and number of vertebral vessels-were analysed. The importance of the correct interpretation of the variations in the foramina transversaria in radiographic or computerised axial tomography is discussed. The contribution of the present study to the understanding and diagnosis of pathological conditions related to the vertebral artery and its sympathetic plexus is stressed. Images PMID:632823

  10. Gingival Enlargement

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2017 Annual Meeting Orlando, FL Our Partners Gingival Enlargement Gingival (Gum) enlargement, also known as gingival hyperplasia or hypertrophy, is an abnormal overgrowth of gingival tissues. There ...

  11. Anterior Mandibular Lingual Foramina: An In Vivo Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Rastelli, Claudio; Leuter, Cinzia; Gatto, Roberto; Continenza, Maria Adelaide

    2014-01-01

    In descriptions of surgical procedures in mandible, often there is no mention of an anatomical variance, the genial spinal foramina, where nerves and vessels go through. Aim of this study is to investigate frequency, shape, and dimensions of these foramina. 56 computed tomography dentascans were analyzed with an implant planning software. The considered parameters were frequency, number, position, diameters, and length of canals; the collected data were inserted in a spreadsheet and statistically analyzed; therefore, they were compared with those found in the literature. The measurements agree with the ones found in earlier studies, except for the length of the inferior spinal canals, which resulted lesser than that found in the literature. The frequency of the inferior spinal foramina, the data related to the inferior spinal foramina diameter (cross scan), and the measurements related to the superior spinal foramina diameter (axial scan) resulted to be major compared to those reported in literature. These obtained results are clinically interesting because an implant planning software has been employed, daily used by operators, and that permits in vivo investigations. Furthermore, due to the possibility of hemorrhagic accidents in this mandibular region, these data are particularly interesting for all of the operators who make interventions in this area. PMID:25215238

  12. Enlarged prostate

    MedlinePlus

    BPH; Benign prostatic hyperplasia (hypertrophy); Prostate - enlarged ... The actual cause of prostate enlargement is unknown. Factors linked to aging and changes in the cells of the testicles may have a role in the growth ...

  13. Occipital foramina development involves localised regulation of mesenchyme proliferation and is independent of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Akbareian, Sophia E; Pitsillides, Andrew A; Macharia, Raymond G; McGonnell, Imelda M

    2015-06-01

    Cranial foramina are holes within the skull, formed during development, allowing entry and exit of blood vessels and nerves. Once formed they must remain open, due to the vital structures they contain, i.e. optic nerves, jugular vein, carotid artery, and other cranial nerves and blood vessels. Understanding cranial foramina development is essential as cranial malformations lead to the stenosis or complete closure of these structures, resulting in blindness, deafness, facial paralysis, raised intracranial pressure and lethality. Here we focus on describing early events in the formation of the jugular, carotid and hypoglossal cranial foramina that form in the mesoderm-derived, endochondral occipital bones at the base of the embryonic chick skull. Whole-mount skeletal staining of skulls indicates the appearance of these foramina from HH32/D7.5 onwards. Haematoxylin & eosin staining of sections shows that the intimately associated mesenchyme, neighbouring the contents of these cranial foramina, is initially very dense and gradually becomes sparser as development proceeds. Histological examination also revealed that these foramina initially contain relatively large-diameter nerves, which later become refined, and are closely associated with the blood vessel, which they also innervate within the confines of the foramina. Interestingly cranial foramina in the base of the skull contain blood vessels lacking smooth muscle actin, which suggests these blood vessels belong to glomus body structures within the foramina. The blood vessel shape also appears to dictate the overall shape of the resulting foramina. We initially hypothesised that cranial foramina development could involve targeted proliferation and local apoptosis to cause 'mesenchymal clearing' and the creation of cavities in a mechanism similar to joint cavitation. We find that this is not the case, and propose that a mechanism reliant upon local nerve/blood vessel-derived restriction of ossification may contribute

  14. An Anatomical Study of the Nutrient Foramina of the Human Humeral Diaphysis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zichao; Ding, Haoliang; Hu, Chuanzhen; Xu, Haitao; An, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Understanding the nutrient foramina is critical to clinical practice. An insult to the nutrient foramina can be caused by trauma and/or surgical dissection and lead to devascularization and bad outcomes. Few studies have looked at the humerus, and no studies have described relative information of humeral nutrient foramen related to anatomical structures that might be located by palpable landmarks. In this study, we analyzed the anatomical features of the nutrient foramina of the diaphyseal humerus and provide a discussion of clinical relevance. MATERIAL AND METHODS We dissected 19 cadavers and analyzed the relative positions of the foramina and surrounding muscles, and the number, direction, diameter, and location of the nutrient foramina. Foramina index and a new landmark index were used to calculate the location. We compared the data from both sides and the relationships between transverse and longitudinal locations, diameter and total length, and foramina index and landmark index were also analyzed. RESULTS The humeri had one or two main nutrient foramina located in a small area between the coracobrachialis and brachial muscles and oriented toward the elbow. The mean diameter was 1.11±0.32 mm. The mean index and landmark index were 43.76±4.94% and 42.26±5.35%, respectively. There were no differences between sides in terms of diameter, length, or nutrient foramina index. There were no significant correlations between transverse and longitudinal locations or diameter and total length. The foramina index and landmark index showed strong positive correlation (r=0.994, p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Our study provides details about the nutrient foramina that will benefit clinicians who treat injuries and diseases of the humerus. Surgeons should be mindful of soft tissue in the foraminal area during surgical procedures. PMID:27180828

  15. An Anatomical Study of the Nutrient Foramina of the Human Humeral Diaphysis

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Zichao; Ding, Haoliang; Hu, Chuanzhen; Xu, Haitao; An, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding the nutrient foramina is critical to clinical practice. An insult to the nutrient foramina can be caused by trauma and/or surgical dissection and lead to devascularization and bad outcomes. Few studies have looked at the humerus, and no studies have described relative information of humeral nutrient foramen related to anatomical structures that might be located by palpable landmarks. In this study, we analyzed the anatomical features of the nutrient foramina of the diaphyseal humerus and provide a discussion of clinical relevance. Material/Methods We dissected 19 cadavers and analyzed the relative positions of the foramina and surrounding muscles, and the number, direction, diameter, and location of the nutrient foramina. Foramina index and a new landmark index were used to calculate the location. We compared the data from both sides and the relationships between transverse and longitudinal locations, diameter and total length, and foramina index and landmark index were also analyzed. Results The humeri had one or two main nutrient foramina located in a small area between the coracobrachialis and brachial muscles and oriented toward the elbow. The mean diameter was 1.11±0.32 mm. The mean index and landmark index were 43.76±4.94% and 42.26±5.35%, respectively. There were no differences between sides in terms of diameter, length, or nutrient foramina index. There were no significant correlations between transverse and longitudinal locations or diameter and total length. The foramina index and landmark index showed strong positive correlation (r=0.994, p<0.0001). Conclusions Our study provides details about the nutrient foramina that will benefit clinicians who treat injuries and diseases of the humerus. Surgeons should be mindful of soft tissue in the foraminal area during surgical procedures. PMID:27180828

  16. A bivariate approach to the variation of the parietal curvature in the genus homo.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Emiliano; De La Cuétara, José Manuel; Holloway, Ralph

    2011-09-01

    The parietal bones approximately cover the extension of the underlying parietal lobes. Although the boundaries of these two anatomical elements do not coincide, during morphogenesis the growth of the parietal bones is largely induced by the pressure exerted by the parietal lobes. Modern humans display larger parietal chords and arcs compared with non-modern human species. However, the variation of these variables have not been analyzed before according to the covariation with the general endocranial diameters. When the curvature of the parietal bones is regressed onto the main neurocranial distances, modern humans show larger relative values, suggesting not only an absolute enlargement but a definite allometric change. Taking into account the morphogenetic relationships with the parietal lobes, these results further support previous hypotheses suggesting a relative enlargement of these cortical areas in Homo sapiens, by using simple and reliable homologous neurocranial arcs. PMID:21809464

  17. Parietal bone agenesis and associated multiple congenital anomalies.

    PubMed

    de Heer, Inge M; van Nesselrooij, Bernadette P M; Spliet, Willem; Vermeij-Keers, Christl

    2003-03-01

    Congenital defects of the calvaria in general and the parietal bones in particular are rare diseases. The latter are of three kinds: 1) cranioschisis, 2) craniodysostosis, and 3) foramina parietalia permagna (FPP). Here, we describe an exceptional anomaly, namely, complete absence of one parietal bone and dysplasia of the other. Agenesis has been reported twice before in the literature. In these cases, the calvarial defect was the only congenital anomaly. In contrast, the patient described in this article exhibited many other congenital deformities, namely, iris coloboma, facial dysmorphism, a large ventricular septal defect of the heart, and a horseshoe kidney. Some of these deformities are associated with neural crest development. Chromosomal analysis was normal in both blood and fibroblasts, and fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis failed to demonstrate a 22q11 deletion as seen in DiGeorge syndrome, a neural crest-related disease complex. Since 2000, the third group of congenital defects of the parietal bones, FPP, has been associated with mutations of the MSX-2 gene. In our case, a genetic analysis of this gene was performed, but no mutations or deletions of MSX-2 were detected. PMID:12621289

  18. Distribution of the lingual foramina in mandibular cortical bone in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Moon Yong

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The interforminal region, between the mandibular foramen, is known as a relatively safe area that is free of anatomic structures, such as inferior alveolar nerve, submandibular fossa, and lingual side of the mandible is occasionally neglected for its low clinical importance. Even in the case of a severely constricted alveolus, perforation of the lingual cortical bone had been intended. However, anterior extension of the inferior alveolar canal, important anatomic structure, such as concavity of lingual bone, lingual foramina, and lingual canal, has recently been reported through various studies, and untypical bleeding by perforation of the lingual plate on implantation has also been reported. Therefore, in this study, we performed radiographic and statistical analysis on distribution and appearance frequencies of the lingual foramina that causes perforation of the mandibular lingual cortical bone to prevent complications, such as untypical bleeding, during surgical procedure. Materials and Methods We measured the horizontal length from a midline of the mandible to the lingual foramina, as well as the horizontal length from the alveolar crest to the lingual foramina and from the lingual foramina to the mandibular border by multi-detector computed tomography of 187 patients, who visited Dankook University Dental Hospital for various reasons from January 1, 2008 to August 31, 2012. Results From a total of 187 human mandibles, 110 (58.8%) mandibles had lingual foramina; 39 (20.9%) had bilateral lingual foramen; 34 (18.2%) had the only left lingual foramen; and 37 (19.8%) had the only right lingual foramen. Conclusion When there is consistent bleeding during a surgical procedure, clinicians must consider damages on the branches of the sublingual artery, which penetrate the lingual foramina. Also, when there is a lingual foramina larger than 1 mm in diameter on a pre-implantation computed tomography, clinicians must beware of vessel damage. In order to prevent

  19. Characterization of a New Syndrome That Associates Craniosynostosis, Delayed Fontanel Closure, Parietal Foramina, Imperforate Anus, and Skin Eruption: CDAGS

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Londono, Roberto ; Lammer, Edward ; Watson, Rosemarie ; Harper, John ; Hatamochi, Atsushi ; Hatamochi-Hayashi, Saori ; Napierala, Dobrawa ; Hermanns, Pia ; Collins, Sinead ; Roa, Benjamin B. ; Hedge, Madhuri R. ; Wakui, Keiko ; Nguyen, Diep ; Stockton, David W. ; Lee, Brendan 

    2005-01-01

    We describe the clinical characterization, molecular analyses, and genetic mapping of a distinct genetic condition characterized by craniosynostosis, delayed closure of the fontanel, cranial defects, clavicular hypoplasia, anal and genitourinary malformations, and skin eruption. We have identified seven patients with this phenotype in four families from different geographic regions and ethnic backgrounds. This is an autosomal recessive condition that brings together apparently opposing pathophysiologic and developmental processes, including accelerated suture closure and delayed ossification. Selected candidate genes—including RUNX2, CBFB, MSX2, ALX4, TWIST1, and RECQL4—were screened for mutations, by direct sequencing of their coding regions, and for microdeletions, by fluorescent in situ hybridization. No mutations or microdeletions were detected in any of the genes analyzed. A genomewide screen yielded the maximum estimated LOD score of +2.38 for markers D22S283 and D22S274 on chromosome 22q12-q13. We hypothesize that the gene defect in this condition causes novel context-dependent dysregulation of multiple signaling pathways, including RUNX2, during osteoblast differentiation and craniofacial morphogenesis. PMID:15924278

  20. Characterization of a new syndrome that associates craniosynostosis, delayed fontanel closure, parietal foramina, imperforate anus, and skin eruption: CDAGS.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Lammer, Edward; Watson, Rosemarie; Harper, John; Hatamochi, Atsushi; Hatamochi-Hayashi, Saori; Napierala, Dobrawa; Hermanns, Pia; Collins, Sinead; Roa, Benjamin B; Hedge, Madhuri R; Wakui, Keiko; Nguyen, Diep; Stockton, David W; Lee, Brendan

    2005-07-01

    We describe the clinical characterization, molecular analyses, and genetic mapping of a distinct genetic condition characterized by craniosynostosis, delayed closure of the fontanel, cranial defects, clavicular hypoplasia, anal and genitourinary malformations, and skin eruption. We have identified seven patients with this phenotype in four families from different geographic regions and ethnic backgrounds. This is an autosomal recessive condition that brings together apparently opposing pathophysiologic and developmental processes, including accelerated suture closure and delayed ossification. Selected candidate genes--including RUNX2, CBFB, MSX2, ALX4, TWIST1, and RECQL4--were screened for mutations, by direct sequencing of their coding regions, and for microdeletions, by fluorescent in situ hybridization. No mutations or microdeletions were detected in any of the genes analyzed. A genomewide screen yielded the maximum estimated LOD score of +2.38 for markers D22S283 and D22S274 on chromosome 22q12-q13. We hypothesize that the gene defect in this condition causes novel context-dependent dysregulation of multiple signaling pathways, including RUNX2, during osteoblast differentiation and craniofacial morphogenesis. PMID:15924278

  1. Breast enlargement in males

    MedlinePlus

    Gynecomastia; Breast enlargement in a male ... The condition may occur in one or both breasts. It begins as a small lump beneath the nipple, which may be tender. One breast may be larger than the other. Enlarged breasts ...

  2. Enlarged Adenoids (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Enlarged Adenoids KidsHealth > ...

  3. Breast enlargement in males

    MedlinePlus

    ... substances can cause breast enlargement: Alcohol Amphetamines Heroin Marijuana Methadone Breast cancer in men is rare. Signs ... include: Stop taking all recreational drugs, such as marijuana Stop taking all nutritional supplements or any drugs ...

  4. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is encased within the prostate gland. As a man ages, the prostate typically enlarges in size in ... urinate, and incontinence. Less than half of all men with BPH have symptoms of the disease, or ...

  5. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... enlarges in size in a process called benign hypertrophy, which means that the gland got larger without ... in several of the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, or BPH. Symptoms may include a slowed or ...

  6. Benign fibrous histiocytoma of parietal bone: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lili; Feng, Yan; Yan, Xu; Li, Yanhui; Bie, Li

    2015-01-01

    A benign fibrous histiocytoma with primary site of origin in the parietal bone has not yet been reported in the literature. We report here a case concerning a 12-year-old girl with a 14-month history of an enlarging parietal bone mass. The tumor was excised after removal of the cortical bone and resection of the tumor surrounding the cortical bone erosion using pre-plasticity titanium repair. Both postoperative histopathological examination and immunohistochemical analysis were consistent with a benign fibrous histiocytoma. No clinical or computed tomography (CT) radiological signs of tumor recurrence and/or metastasis were observed at 12 months. Although a primary benign fibrous histiocytoma of the parietal bone is a rare tumor, it should be considered as a potential diagnosis for any cranial tumor. Surgical intervention is the most effective treatment technique for a benign fibrous histiocytoma. PMID:25951848

  7. Job Enlargement: A Multidimensional Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Lex

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation study into the effects of a job enlargement exercise indicates that the expected increases in satisfaction associated with greater work variety, novelty, and felt use of abilities were achieved. (Author/MLF)

  8. Volume reduction of the jugular foramina in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with syringomyelia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the pathogenesis of the chiari-like malformation in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS) is incomplete, and current hypotheses do not fully explain the development of syringomyelia (SM) in the spinal cords of affected dogs. This study investigates an unconventional pathogenetic theory for the development of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure waves in the subarachnoid space in CKCS with SM, by analogy with human diseases. In children with achondroplasia the shortening of the skull base can lead to a narrowing of the jugular foramina (JF) between the cranial base synchondroses. This in turn has been reported to cause a congestion of the major venous outflow tracts of the skull and consequently to an increase in the intracranial pressure (ICP). Amongst brachycephalic dog breeds the CKCS has been identified as having an extremely short and wide braincase. A stenosis of the JF and a consequential vascular compromise in this opening could contribute to venous hypertension, raising ICP and causing CSF jets in the spinal subarachnoid space of the CKCS. In this study, JF volumes in CKCSs with and without SM were compared to assess a possible role of this pathologic mechanism in the development of SM in this breed. Results Computed tomography (CT) scans of 40 CKCSs > 4 years of age were used to create three-dimensional (3D) models of the skull and the JF. Weight matched groups (7–10 kg) of 20 CKCSs with SM and 20 CKCSs without SM were compared. CKCSs without SM presented significantly larger JF -volumes (median left JF: 0.0633 cm3; median right JF: 0.0703 cm3; p < 0.0001) when compared with CKCSs with SM (median left JF: 0.0382 cm3; median right JF: 0.0434 cm3; p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference between the left and right JF within each group. Bland-Altman analysis revealed excellent reproducibility of all volume measurements. Conclusion A stenosis of the JF and consecutive venous congestion may explain the aetiology of CSF

  9. Prolonged rock climbing activity induces structural changes in cerebellum and parietal lobe.

    PubMed

    Di Paola, Margherita; Caltagirone, Carlo; Petrosini, Laura

    2013-10-01

    This article analyzes whether climbing, a motor activity featured by upward movements by using both feet and hands, generation of new strategies of motor control, maintenance of not stable equilibrium and adoption of long-lasting quadrupedal posture, is able to modify specific brain areas. MRI data of 10 word-class mountain climbers (MC) and 10 age-matched controls, with no climbing experience were acquired. Combining region-of-interest analyses and voxel-based morphometry we investigated cerebellar volumes and correlation between cerebellum and whole cerebral gray matter. In comparison to controls, world-class MC showed significantly larger vermian lobules I-V volumes, with no significant difference in other cerebellar vermian lobules or hemispheres. The cerebellar enlargement was associated with an enlargement of right medial posterior parietal area. The specific features of the motor climbing skills perfectly fit with the plastic anatomical changes we found. The enlargement of the vermian lobules I-V seems to be related to highly dexterous hand movements and to eye-hand coordination in the detection of and correction of visuomotor errors. The concomitant enlargement of the parietal area is related to parallel work in predicting sensory consequences of action to make movement corrections. Motor control and sensory-motor prediction of actions make the difference between survive or not at extreme altitude. PMID:22522914

  10. Progressive bilateral thinning of the parietal bones

    SciTech Connect

    Cederlund, C.G.; Andren, L.; Olivecrona, H.

    1982-03-01

    Observation of a case of progressive bilateral parietal thinning within a period of 14 years induced us to study skull films of 3 636 consecutive patients. Parietal thinning was found in 86 patients (2.37%). It was more common in women, with a sex ratio of 1:1.9. The mean age of the females was 72 years, and that of the males 63 years. Previous skull films of 25 of these patients were available and showed progression in 10. It is concluded that parietal thinning is a slowly progressive disease of middle-aged and old patients and is not an anatomical variant or congenital dysplasia of the dipole.

  11. Dramatic Cataplexy Improvement Following Right Parietal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fam, David J.; Shammi, Prathiba; Mainprize, Todd G.; Murray, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    This is the case of a 34-year-old woman with severe narcolepsy with cataplexy who experienced a dramatic reduction in cataplexy symptoms after resection of a right parietal astrocytoma. The patient underwent detailed neurological exam, neuropsychological testing, polysomnography and multiple sleep latency testing following surgery. Citation: Fam DJ, Shammi P, Mainprize TG, Murray BJ. Dramatic cataplexy improvement following right parietal surgery. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(7):829–830. PMID:25902819

  12. [Vectorcardiographic manifestations of atrial enlargements].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, A; Medrano, G A

    1990-01-01

    Rational interpretation of changes of the P loop due to atrial enlargements must to rely on the magnitude and spatial orientation of main resultant vectors of the activation sequence of the atria. Under normal conditions, these vectors give rise to a mean vector oriented to the left downward and discretely forward with respect to their point of origin. In the presence of right atrial enlargement, the manifestation of the first vector of atrial depolarization, oriented downward and forward, is increased. This one moves in the same direction as the mean vector of atrial depolarization, originating an elongated P loop of more than 100 mcv in the three planes. Nevertheless, in the horizontal plane, increase of the P loop voltage predominates when hypertrophy exists, while augmentation of its area predominates when dilatation exists. In left atrial enlargement, the manifestation of the second vector of atrial depolarization, oriented to the left and backward, is augmented, and it moves in the same direction as the mean vector of atrial depolarization. For this, the PF loop acquires a characteristic aspect of a boxing glove, an the PH loop becomes diphasic, with its posterior area more or less prominent, or with a typical figure-eight conformation. If a biatrial enlargement is present, the manifestation of both the main resultant vectors of atrial depolarization is accentuated. Therefore the voltage of the diphasic P loop increases. Moreover the Ps loop has a triangular configuration, with its base of 30 msc or more, located below its point of origin. Generally disturbances of interatrial and intraatrial conduction coexist owing to myocardial damage. PMID:2146934

  13. Parietal contributions to recollection: electrophysiological evidence from aging and patients with parietal lesions.

    PubMed

    Ally, Brandon A; Simons, Jon S; McKeever, Joshua D; Peers, Polly V; Budson, Andrew E

    2008-01-01

    There has been much recent investigation into the role of parietal cortex in memory retrieval. Proposed hypotheses include attention to internal memorial representations, an episodic working memory-type buffer, and an accumulator of retrieved memorial information. The current investigation used event-related potentials (ERPs) to test the episodic buffer hypothesis, and to assess the memorial contribution of parietal cortex in younger and older adults, and in patients with circumscribed lateral parietal lesions. In a standard recognition memory paradigm, subjects studied color pictures of common objects. One-third of the test items were presented in the same viewpoint as the study phase, one-third were presented in a 90 degrees rotated viewpoint, and one-third were presented in a noncanonical viewpoint. Conflicting with the episodic buffer hypothesis, results revealed that the duration of the parietal old/new effect was longest for the canonical condition and shortest for the noncanonical condition. Results also revealed that older adults demonstrated a diminished parietal old/new effect relative to younger adults. Consistent with previous data reported by Simons et al., patients with lateral parietal lesions showed no behavioral impairment compared to controls. Behavioral and ERP data from parietal lesion patients are presented and discussed. From these results, the authors speculate that the parietal old/new effect may be the neural correlate of an individual's subjective recollective experience. PMID:18402990

  14. Enlarged Vestibular Aqueducts and Childhood Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Enlarged Vestibular Aqueducts and Childhood Hearing Loss On this page: ... more information about enlarged vestibular aqueducts? What are vestibular aqueducts? The inner ear Credit: NIH Medical Arts ...

  15. Spatial updating in human parietal cortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Elisha P.; Genovese, Christopher R.; Colby, Carol L.

    2003-01-01

    Single neurons in monkey parietal cortex update visual information in conjunction with eye movements. This remapping of stimulus representations is thought to contribute to spatial constancy. We hypothesized that a similar process occurs in human parietal cortex and that we could visualize it with functional MRI. We scanned subjects during a task that involved remapping of visual signals across hemifields. We observed an initial response in the hemisphere contralateral to the visual stimulus, followed by a remapped response in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the stimulus. We ruled out the possibility that this remapped response resulted from either eye movements or visual stimuli alone. Our results demonstrate that updating of visual information occurs in human parietal cortex.

  16. Apraxia, pantomime and the parietal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Niessen, E.; Fink, G.R.; Weiss, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    Apraxia, a disorder of higher motor cognition, is a frequent and outcome-relevant sequel of left hemispheric stroke. Deficient pantomiming of object use constitutes a key symptom of apraxia and is assessed when testing for apraxia. To date the neural basis of pantomime remains controversial. We here review the literature and perform a meta-analysis of the relevant structural and functional imaging (fMRI/PET) studies. Based on a systematic literature search, 10 structural and 12 functional imaging studies were selected. Structural lesion studies associated pantomiming deficits with left frontal, parietal and temporal lesions. In contrast, functional imaging studies associate pantomimes with left parietal activations, with or without concurrent frontal or temporal activations. Functional imaging studies that selectively activated parietal cortex adopted the most stringent controls. In contrast to previous suggestions, current analyses show that both lesion and functional studies support the notion of a left-hemispheric fronto-(temporal)-parietal network underlying pantomiming object use. Furthermore, our review demonstrates that the left parietal cortex plays a key role in pantomime-related processes. More specifically, stringently controlled fMRI-studies suggest that in addition to storing motor schemas, left parietal cortex is also involved in activating these motor schemas in the context of pantomiming object use. In addition to inherent differences between structural and functional imaging studies and consistent with the dedifferentiation hypothesis, the age difference between young healthy subjects (typically included in functional imaging studies) and elderly neurological patients (typically included in structural lesion studies) may well contribute to the finding of a more distributed representation of pantomiming within the motor-dominant left hemisphere in the elderly. PMID:24967158

  17. Parietal function in good and poor readers

    PubMed Central

    Laycock, Robin; Crewther, Sheila G; Kiely, Patricia M; Crewther, David P

    2006-01-01

    Background While there are many psychophysical reports of impaired magnocellular pathway function in developmental dyslexia (DD), few have investigated parietal function, the major projection of this pathway, in good and poor readers closely matched for nonverbal intelligence. In view of new feedforward-feedback theories of visual processing, impaired magnocellular function raises the question of whether all visually-driven functions or only those associated with parietal cortex functions are equally impaired and if so, whether parietal performance is more closely related to general ability levels than reading ability. Methods Reading accuracy and performance on psychophysical tasks purported to selectively activate parietal cortex such as motion sensitivity, attentional tracking, and spatial localization was compared in 17 children with DD, 16 younger reading-age matched (RA) control children, and 46 good readers of similar chronological-age (CA) divided into CA-HighIQ and a CA-LowIQ matched to DD group nonverbal IQ. Results In the age-matched groups no significant differences were found between DD and CA controls on any of the tasks relating to parietal function, although performance of the DD group and their nonverbal IQ scores was always lower. As expected, CA and RA group comparisons indicated purported parietal functioning improves with age. No difference in performance was seen on any of the parietally driven tasks between the DD and age-nonverbal IQ matched groups, whereas performance differentiated the DD group from the age-matched, higher nonverbal IQ group on several such tasks. An unexpected statistical difference in performance between lower reading age (DD and RA children) and all higher reading age (CA) children was seen on a test of chromatic sensitivity, whereas when high and low nonverbal IQ normal readers were compared performance was not different Conclusion The results indicate that performance on purported parietal functions improves with age

  18. Magnetoencephalography in Fronto-Parietal Opercular Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kakisaka, Yosuke; Iwasaki, Masaki; Alexopoulos, Andreas V.; Enatsu, Rei; Jin, Kazutaka; Wang, Zhong I.; Mosher, John C.; Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Nair, Dileep R.; Burgess, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To clarify the clinical and neurophysiological profiles of fronto-parietal opercular epilepsy in which epileptic spikes are detected with magnetoencephalography (MEG) but not with scalp electroencephalography (EEG). Methods Four patients presented with epileptic spikes localized to the fronto-parietal opercular cortex, which were only appreciated following MEG recordings. Results In all cases, seizure semiology suggested early activation of the operculum and lower peri-rolandic cortex consistent with the somatotopic organization of this region, i.e. tingling sensation involving the throat and hemi-face or contralateral upper limb, and spasms of the neck and throat. MEG spikes were localized in the fronto-parietal operculum. Three of the four patients underwent invasive electrocorticography and/or stereo-EEG recordings, and spikes were confirmed to arise from the estimated area of MEG dipole localization. Two patients remained seizure-free for over 1 year after resection of the epileptogenic region; the other patient declined resective surgery due to proximity to the language cortex. Conclusion This study demonstrates the usefulness of MEG in localizing spikes arising from within the fronto-parietal opercular regions, and implies that MEG may provide localizing information in patients with symptoms suggestive of opercular epilepsy, even if scalp EEG recordings fail to disclose any epileptogenic activities. PMID:22658720

  19. A Legal Perspective of the Parietal Rule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Barbara Y.

    The legal issues involved in requiring students to live on campus, the parietal rule, are examined. It is suggested that the reason for establishing student housing and the rationale justifying the establishment of residence halls are important aspects of the question. Court cases are cited from 1899 that upheld the college's right to exemption…

  20. Enhancing duration processing with parietal brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Dormal, Valérie; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Pesenti, Mauro; Walsh, Vincent; Cappelletti, Marinella

    2016-05-01

    Numerosity and duration are thought to share common magnitude-based mechanisms in brain regions including the right parietal and frontal cortices like the supplementary motor area, SMA. Numerosity and duration are, however, also different in several intrinsic features. For instance, in a quantification context, numerosity is known for being more automatically accessed than temporal events, and durations are by definition sequential whereas numerosity can be both sequential and simultaneous. Moreover, numerosity and duration processing diverge in terms of their neuronal correlates. Whether these observed neuronal specificities can be accounted for by differences in automaticity or presentation-mode is however not clear. To address this issue, we used brain stimulation (transcranial random noise stimulation, tRNS) to the right parietal cortex or the SMA combined with experimental stimuli differing in their level of automaticity (numerosity and duration) and presentation mode (sequential or simultaneous). Compared to a no stimulation group, performance changed in duration but not in numerosity categorisation following right parietal but not SMA stimulation. These results indicate that the right parietal cortex is critical for duration processing, and suggest that tRNS has a stronger effect on less automatic processes such as duration. PMID:27037043

  1. Apparatus for drilling enlarged boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.R.

    1982-10-19

    A rotary bore hole enlarging bit is connected to a rotary pipe string having a drilling fluid flow path and an actuator flow path. The bit comprises a body structure including inner and outer telescopic body sections, expansible and retractible arms carrying cutters on the outer body section and an expander on the inner body section engageable with the arms to expand the arms and cutters upon telescopic movement of body sections in one relative direction. A piston and cylinder is provided between the inner and outer body sections to secure relative telescopic movement between the body sections. A first passage is disposed in the body structure and expansible arms and cutters for conducting drilling fluid to the cutters from the drilling fluid flow path, there being a second passage in the body structure for conducting actuator fluid to the piston and cylinder from the actuator fluid flow path.

  2. 3-D Cavern Enlargement Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; SOBOLIK, STEVEN R.

    2002-03-01

    Three-dimensional finite element analyses simulate the mechanical response of enlarging existing caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The caverns are located in Gulf Coast salt domes and are enlarged by leaching during oil drawdowns as fresh water is injected to displace the crude oil from the caverns. The current criteria adopted by the SPR limits cavern usage to 5 drawdowns (leaches). As a base case, 5 leaches were modeled over a 25 year period to roughly double the volume of a 19 cavern field. Thirteen additional leaches where then simulated until caverns approached coalescence. The cavern field approximated the geometries and geologic properties found at the West Hackberry site. This enabled comparisons are data collected over nearly 20 years to analysis predictions. The analyses closely predicted the measured surface subsidence and cavern closure rates as inferred from historic well head pressures. This provided the necessary assurance that the model displacements, strains, and stresses are accurate. However, the cavern field has not yet experienced the large scale drawdowns being simulated. Should they occur in the future, code predictions should be validated with actual field behavior at that time. The simulations were performed using JAS3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasi-static solids. The results examine the impacts of leaching and cavern workovers, where internal cavern pressures are reduced, on surface subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The results suggest that the current limit of 5 oil drawdowns may be extended with some mitigative action required on the wells and later on to surface structure due to subsidence strains. The predicted stress state in the salt shows damage to start occurring after 15 drawdowns with significant failure occurring at the 16th drawdown, well beyond the current limit of 5 drawdowns.

  3. The Quadratojugal of Eryops studied by computed tomography and the morphological variability of foramina and canals in the quadratojugal of basal tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Čerňanský, Andrej; Witzmann, Florian; Klembara, Jozef; van Heteren, Anneke H

    2016-08-01

    With respect to its large size and abundance, Eryops is an important representative of Permo-Carboniferous basal tetrapods and one of the best-known large temnospondyl amphibians of this period. This taxon forms a significant component of the Early Permian tetrapod fauna of Texas and New Mexico and here we describe a new record of skull remains, the first one from Brushy Creek (30 km northeast of Seymour) in Texas (Petrolia Formation, Wichita Group; Lower Permian - lower Artinskian). Our material, found in 2015, consists of a left nasal, a jaw fragment (premaxilla or maxilla), left quadratojugal fragments, and a partial left mandible. We used computed tomography methods (micro-CT) for imaging both internal and external structures, for the first time, for Eryops. The quadratojugal presented here is exceptional compared to all known basal tetrapods in having four different internal foramina. CT data show that these foramina are interconnected by canals within the bone. This indicates that the morphology of the foramina and the course of the canals in the quadratojugal of basal tetrapods are more variable than hitherto thought. Anat Rec, 299:1073-1079, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27224928

  4. Atrophy of the Parietal Lobe in Preclinical Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Heidi I. L.; Van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Uylings, Harry B. M.; Gronenschild, Ed H. B. M.; Verhey, Frans R.; Jolles, Jelle

    2011-01-01

    Cortical grey matter atrophy patterns have been reported in healthy ageing and Alzheimer disease (AD), but less consistently in the parietal regions of the brain. We investigated cortical grey matter volume patterns in parietal areas. The grey matter of the somatosensory cortex, superior and inferior parietal lobule was measured in 75 older adults…

  5. Social Distance Evaluation in Human Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Yoshinori; Kanai, Ryota; Matsumura, Michikazu; Naito, Eiichi

    2009-01-01

    Across cultures, social relationships are often thought of, described, and acted out in terms of physical space (e.g. “close friends” “high lord”). Does this cognitive mapping of social concepts arise from shared brain resources for processing social and physical relationships? Using fMRI, we found that the tasks of evaluating social compatibility and of evaluating physical distances engage a common brain substrate in the parietal cortex. The present study shows the possibility of an analytic brain mechanism to process and represent complex networks of social relationships. Given parietal cortex's known role in constructing egocentric maps of physical space, our present findings may help to explain the linguistic, psychological and behavioural links between social and physical space. PMID:19204791

  6. The left parietal cortex and motor attention.

    PubMed

    Rushworth, M F; Nixon, P D; Renowden, S; Wade, D T; Passingham, R E

    1997-09-01

    The posterior parietal cortex, particularly in the right hemisphere, is crucially important for covert orienting; lesions impair the ability to disengage the focus of covert orienting attention from one potential saccade target to another (Posner, M. I. et al., Journal of Neuroscience, 1984, 4, 1863-1874). We have developed a task where precues allow subjects to covertly prepare subsequent cued hand movements, as opposed to an orienting or eye movement. We refer to this process as motor attention to distinguish it from orienting attention. Nine subjects with lesions that included the left parietal cortex and nine subjects with lesions including the right parietal cortex were compared with control subjects on the task. The left hemisphere subjects showed the same ability as controls to engage attention to a movement when they were forewarned by a valid precue. The left hemisphere subjects, however, were impaired in their ability to disengage the focus of motor attention from one movement to another when the precue was incorrect. The results support the existence of two distinct attentional systems allied to the orienting and limb motor systems. Damage to either system causes analogous problems in disengaging from one orienting/movement target to another. The left parietal cortex, particularly the supramarginal gyrus, is associated with motor attention. All the left hemisphere subjects had ideomotor apraxia and had particular problems performing sequences of movements. We suggest that the well documented left hemisphere and apraxic impairment in movement sequencing is the consequence of a difficulty in shifting the focus of motor attention from one movement in a sequence to the next. PMID:9364496

  7. Towards an understanding of parietal mnemonic processes: some conceptual guideposts

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    The posterior parietal lobes have been implicated in a range of episodic memory retrieval tasks, but the nature of parietal contributions to remembering remains unclear. In an attempt to identify fruitful avenues of further research, several heuristic questions about parietal mnemonic activations are considered in light of recent empirical findings: Do such parietal activations reflect memory processes, or their contents? Do they precede, follow, or co-occur with retrieval? What can we learn from their pattern of lateralization? Do they index access to episodic representations, or the feeling of remembering? Are parietal activations graded by memory strength, quantity of retrieved information, or the type of retrieval? How do memory-related activations map onto functional parcellation of parietal lobes suggested by other cognitive phenomena? Consideration of these questions can promote understanding of the relationship between parietal mnemonic effects and perceptual, attentional, and action-oriented cognitive processes. PMID:22783175

  8. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia causing massive breast enlargement.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Anita Geraldine; Tiang, Stephen; Harvey, Nathan; McClure, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast is a benign mesenchymal proliferative process, initially described by Vuitch et al. We report an unusual case of a 46-year-old woman who presented with a 6-week history of bilateral massive, asymmetrical, painful enlargement of her breasts, without a history of trauma. On clinical examination, both breasts were markedly enlarged and oedematous, but there were no discrete palpable masses. Preoperative image-guided core biopsies and surgery showed PASH. PASH is increasingly recognised as an incidental finding on image-guided core biopsy performed for screen detected lesions. There are a few reported cases of PASH presenting as rapid breast enlargement. In our case, the patient presented with painful, asymmetrical, massive breast enlargement. Awareness needs to be raised of this entity as a differential diagnosis in massive, painful breast enlargement. PMID:26475873

  9. Transcriptional Landscape of Glomerular Parietal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, Sina A.; Pippin, Jeffrey W.; Ohse, Takamoto; Pickering, Scott G.; Krofft, Ronald D.; Shankland, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about the function of glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs). In this study, we performed genome-wide expression analysis on PEC-enriched capsulated vs. PEC-deprived decapsulated rat glomeruli to determine the transcriptional state of PECs under normal conditions. We identified hundreds of differentially expressed genes that mapped to distinct biologic modules including development, tight junction, ion transport, and metabolic processes. Since developmental programs were highly enriched in PECs, we characterized several of their candidate members at the protein level. Collectively, our findings confirm that PECs are multifaceted cells and help define their diverse functional repertoire. PMID:25127402

  10. Enlarged facial pores: an update on treatments.

    PubMed

    Dong, Joanna; Lanoue, Julien; Goldenberg, Gary

    2016-07-01

    Enlarged facial pores remain a common dermatologic and cosmetic concern from acne and rosacea, among other conditions, that is difficult to treat due to the multifactorial nature of their pathogenesis and negative impact on patients' quality of life. Enlarged facial pores are primarily treated through addressing associative factors, such as increased sebum production and cutaneous aging. We review the current treatment modalities for enlarged or dense facial pores, including topical retinoids, chemical peels, oral antiandrogens, and lasers and devices, with a focus on newer therapies. PMID:27529707

  11. Osmotic barrier of the parietal peritoneum.

    PubMed

    Flessner, M F

    1994-11-01

    Fluid movement into the peritoneal cavity results after instillation of a hypertonic solution. Some investigators have assumed that the peritoneum is a significant barrier to small solutes and have predicted that fluid would be drawn by an osmotic gradient into the cavity from the tissue surrounding the peritoneal cavity, resulting in tissue hydrostatic pressures well below atmospheric pressure. Contrary to this, we have previously shown that protein and fluid cross the peritoneum and enter the tissue at the same rate during either isotonic or hypertonic dialysis. To investigate the nature of the osmotic barrier of the peritoneum, the hydrostatic pressure profiles were measured in the abdominal wall of the rat during conditions of either isotonicity or hypertonicity in the peritoneal cavity and constant intraperitoneal hydrostatic pressure (Pip). Measurements were made with a micropipette mounted on a micromanipulator and connected to a servo-null pressure measurement system. No interstitial pressures below atmospheric pressure were observed with either type of solution in the peritoneal cavity. For the three Pip values tested, there were few significant differences between the corresponding pressure profiles of isotonic or hypertonic solutions. It is concluded that the parietal peritoneum is not a functional barrier to small solutes, which are often used to raise the osmolality of intraperitoneal solutions. This finding also implies that the tissue interstitium underlying the parietal peritoneum is not the source of water flow into the cavity, which is observed during hypertonic dialysis. PMID:7977791

  12. Severe gingival enlargement associated with aggressive periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Shyam; Dwarakanath, C. D.

    2013-01-01

    Enlargement of the gingiva can be due to various causes. Most prevalent are the inflammatory type and drug-induced type of gingival hyperplasia. However, sever enlargement associated with an aggressive type of periodontitis is an infrequent finding. Reported here is a case of a female patient aged 18 years who presented with severe enlargement of the maxillary and mandibular gingiva. Examination revealed enlargement extending up to the incisal edge of all the teeth and also an associated generalized loss of attachment with radiographic evidence of reduced bone height resembling an aggressive type of periodontitis. There were no associated systemic signs and symptoms or any family history except that there was generalized vitiligo of the skin and oral mucous membrane. The case was treated by gross electrosection of the gingiva. PMID:23633785

  13. Non-focal enlargement in pancreatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenberg, J.; Simeone, J.F.; Ferrucci, J.T. Jr.; Mueller, P.R.; van Sonnenberg, E.; Neff, C.C.

    1982-07-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma can appear radiographically as enlargement of the major part of the pancreas. In this series, part or all of three or more pancreatic segments (head, neck, body, and tail) were involved in 27% of patients with adenocarcinoma who had computed tomography. Differentiation from pure pancreatitis may require additional radiographic studies. The varied tissue composition of a pancreas enlarged by adenocarcinoma will often require biopsy of multiple sites for confirmation.

  14. Alzheimer's disease: the downside of a highly evolved parietal lobe?

    PubMed

    Bruner, Emiliano; Jacobs, Heidi I L

    2013-01-01

    Clinical grade Alzheimer's disease (AD) is only described in humans. Recent imaging studies in early AD patients showed that the parietal areas display the most prominent metabolic impairments. So far, neuroimaging studies have not been able to explain why the medial parietal regions possess this hub characteristic in AD. Paleoneurological and neuroanatomical studies suggest that our species, Homo sapiens, has a unique and derived organization of the parietal areas, which are involved in higher cognitive functions. Combining evidence from neuroimaging, paleontology, and comparative anatomy, we suggest that the vulnerability of the parietal lobe to neurodegenerative processes may be associated with the origin of our species. The species-specific parietal morphology in modern humans largely influenced the brain spatial organization, and it involved changes in vascularization and energy management, which may underlie the sensitivity of these areas to metabolic impairment. Metabolic constraints and anatomical evolutionary changes in the medial parietal regions of modern humans may be important in early AD onset. Taking into account the species-specific adaptations of the modern human parietal areas and their association with AD, we hypothesize that AD can be the evolutionary drawback of the specialized structure of our parietal lobes. The cognitive advantage is associated with increased sensitivity to neurodegenerative processes which, being limited to the post-reproductive period, have a minor effect on the overall genetic fitness. The changes of energy requirements associated with form and size variations at the parietal areas may support the hypothesis of AD as a metabolic syndrome. PMID:23435412

  15. Atrophy of the parietal lobe in preclinical dementia.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Heidi I L; Van Boxtel, Martin P J; Uylings, Harry B M; Gronenschild, Ed H B M; Verhey, Frans R; Jolles, Jelle

    2011-03-01

    Cortical grey matter atrophy patterns have been reported in healthy ageing and Alzheimer disease (AD), but less consistently in the parietal regions of the brain. We investigated cortical grey matter volume patterns in parietal areas. The grey matter of the somatosensory cortex, superior and inferior parietal lobule was measured in 75 older adults (38 cognitively stable and 37 individuals with cognitive decline after 3 years). Dementia screening 6 years after scanning resulted in nine AD cases from the cognitively stable (n=3) and cognitive decline group (n=6), who were assigned to a third group, the preclinical AD group. When regional differences in cortical volume in the parietal lobe areas were compared between groups, significant differences were found between either the cognitive decline or stable group on the one hand and preclinical AD individuals on the other hand in the inferior parietal lobule. Group membership was best predicted by the grey matter volume of the inferior parietal lobule, compared to the other parietal lobe areas. The parietal lobe was characterised by a differential atrophy pattern based on cognitive status, which is in agreement with the 'last-developed-first-atrophied' principle. Future studies should investigate the surplus value of the inferior parietal lobe as a potential marker for the diagnosis of AD compared to other brain regions, such as the medial temporal lobe and the prefrontal lobe. PMID:21130554

  16. Acute enlargement of subdural hygroma due to subdural hemorrhage in a victim of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiromasa; Hyodoh, Hideki; Watanabe, Satoshi; Okazaki, Shunichiro; Mizuo, Keisuke

    2015-03-01

    An 11-month-old female baby was found dead by her mother. Cranial postmortem CT prior to the forensic autopsy showed dilatation of bilateral extra-axial spaces and ventricles. The autopsy revealed a new linear fracture of the left parietal bone and occipital bone, and a healed linear fracture of the right parietal bone and occipital bone like a mirror image of the left one as well. Intracranially, 230ml of subdural fluid were collected, which was mixed with blood. There was a fresh hemorrhage around a bridging vein of the left parietal lobe and the dura mater. Moreover, the outer side of the cerebrum and the inner side of the dura mater were covered by a thin membrane, which mater might have been previously formed because of being positive for Fe-staining and anti-CD68 antibody. A subdural hematoma might have been developed when the right side of the skull was previously fractured, which was transformed into a subdural hygroma. Subsequently, it is likely that, after the left side fracture of the skull occurred, the subdural hygroma rapidly enlarged due to hemorrhaging from the bridging vein, which resulted in intracranial hypertension, because microbleeding was detected in the brain stem. Accordingly, we diagnosed the cause and manner of death as intracranial hypertension due to subdural hemorrhage in subdural hygroma, and homicide, including child abuse, respectively. PMID:25457269

  17. The pathology of parietal pleural plaques

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, G. Hefin

    1971-01-01

    The incidence, morbid anatomy, histology, and relationship of hyaline pleural plaques to exposure to asbestos has been studied. Plaques were found in 12·3% of 334 hospital necropsies (in an urban population in Glasgow, 41 cases). In 85·3% (35 cases) asbestos bodies were found in the lungs. There is evidence of a dose-response relationship between the number of asbestos bodies found in the lungs and the presence of pleural plaques. The selective distribution of plaques within the pleural cavities suggests that mechanical factors play a part in their localization. Histological examination contributed little to understanding the mechanism of plaque formation; that asbestos bodies have been detected in only a few cases suggest that their presence in the parietal pleura is not essential to plaque formation. The suggested mechanisms of plaque formation are discussed. Images PMID:5556121

  18. Benign fibrous histiocytoma of the fronto-temporo-parietal region: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongxu; Li, Pengcheng; Liu, Zhiyong; Xu, Jianguo; Hui, Xuhui

    2015-01-01

    Primary benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) at the skull is extremely rare. Here we report a case of a 22-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of progressive enlargement subcutaneous mass on the right side of the fronto-temporo-parietal region without symptoms. The tumor was radical resected through craniotomy and the bone defect was repaired by pre-plasticity titanium mesh. Histopathologic examination confirmed a benign fibrous histiocytoma, and no signs of tumor recurrence were detected at 3-year follow-up. PMID:26823894

  19. The Contribution of the Parietal Lobes to Speaking and Writing

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Richard J. S.

    2010-01-01

    The left parietal lobe has been proposed as a major language area. However, parietal cortical function is more usually considered in terms of the control of actions, contributing both to attention and cross-modal integration of external and reafferent sensory cues. We used positron emission tomography to study normal subjects while they overtly generated narratives, both spoken and written. The purpose was to identify the parietal contribution to the modality-specific sensorimotor control of communication, separate from amodal linguistic and memory processes involved in generating a narrative. The majority of left and right parietal activity was associated with the execution of writing under visual and somatosensory control irrespective of whether the output was a narrative or repetitive reproduction of a single grapheme. In contrast, action-related parietal activity during speech production was confined to primary somatosensory cortex. The only parietal area with a pattern of activity compatible with an amodal central role in communication was the ventral part of the left angular gyrus (AG). The results of this study indicate that the cognitive processing of language within the parietal lobe is confined to the AG and that the major contribution of parietal cortex to communication is in the sensorimotor control of writing. PMID:19531538

  20. Parcellation of left parietal tool representations by functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Garcea, Frank E.; Z. Mahon, Bradford

    2014-01-01

    Manipulating a tool according to its function requires the integration of visual, conceptual, and motor information, a process subserved in part by left parietal cortex. How these different types of information are integrated and how their integration is reflected in neural responses in the parietal lobule remains an open question. Here, participants viewed images of tools and animals during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). K-means clustering over time series data was used to parcellate left parietal cortex into subregions based on functional connectivity to a whole brain network of regions involved in tool processing. One cluster, in the inferior parietal cortex, expressed privileged functional connectivity to the left ventral premotor cortex. A second cluster, in the vicinity of the anterior intraparietal sulcus, expressed privileged functional connectivity with the left medial fusiform gyrus. A third cluster in the superior parietal lobe expressed privileged functional connectivity with dorsal occipital cortex. Control analyses using Monte Carlo style permutation tests demonstrated that the clustering solutions were outside the range of what would be observed based on chance ‘lumpiness’ in random data, or mere anatomical proximity. Finally, hierarchical clustering analyses were used to formally relate the resulting parcellation scheme of left parietal tool representations to previous work that has parcellated the left parietal lobule on purely anatomical grounds. These findings demonstrate significant heterogeneity in the functional organization of manipulable object representations in left parietal cortex, and outline a framework that generates novel predictions about the causes of some forms of upper limb apraxia. PMID:24892224

  1. Mandatory Housing Requirements: The Constitutionality of Parietal Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Law Review, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Analyzes the validity of parietal rules under both the due process and equal protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment. Models of substantive due process and equal protection are developed and applied to the various types of parietal rules that have been implemented at universities throughout the nation. (Author/JT)

  2. The Role of Human Parietal Cortex in Attention Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Shihui; Jiang, Yi; Gu, Hua; Rao, Hengyi; Mao, Lihua; Cui, Yong; Zhai, Renyou

    2004-01-01

    The parietal cortex has been proposed as part of the neural network for guiding spatial attention. However, it is unclear to what degree the parietal cortex contributes to the attentional modulations of activities of the visual cortex and the engagement of the frontal cortex in the attention network. We recorded behavioural performance and…

  3. Uncertain relational reasoning in the parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Ragni, Marco; Franzmeier, Imke; Maier, Simon; Knauff, Markus

    2016-04-01

    The psychology of reasoning is currently transitioning from the study of deductive inferences under certainty to inferences that have degrees of uncertainty in both their premises and conclusions; however, only a few studies have explored the cortical basis of uncertain reasoning. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we show that areas in the right superior parietal lobe (rSPL) are necessary for solving spatial relational reasoning problems under conditions of uncertainty. Twenty-four participants had to decide whether a single presented order of objects agreed with a given set of indeterminate premises that could be interpreted in more than one way. During the presentation of the order, 10-Hz TMS was applied over the rSPL or a sham control site. Right SPL TMS during the inference phase disrupted performance in uncertain relational reasoning. Moreover, we found differences in the error rates between preferred mental models, alternative models, and inconsistent models. Our results suggest that different mechanisms are involved when people reason spatially and evaluate different kinds of uncertain conclusions. PMID:26970943

  4. Decoding Trajectories from Posterior Parietal Cortex Ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Mulliken, Grant H.; Musallam, Sam; Andersen, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    High-level cognitive signals in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) have previously been used to decode the intended endpoint of a reach, providing the first evidence that PPC can be used for direct control of a neural prosthesis (Musallam et al., 2004). Here we expand on this work by showing that PPC neural activity can be harnessed to estimate not only the endpoint but also to continuously control the trajectory of an end effector. Specifically, we trained two monkeys to use a joystick to guide a cursor on a computer screen to peripheral target locations while maintaining central ocular fixation. We found that we could accurately reconstruct the trajectory of the cursor using a relatively small ensemble of simultaneously recorded PPC neurons. Using a goal-based Kalman filter that incorporates target information into the state-space, we showed that the decoded estimate of cursor position could be significantly improved. Finally, we tested whether we could decode trajectories during closed-loop brain control sessions, in which the real-time position of the cursor was determined solely by a monkey’s neural activity in PPC. The monkey learned to perform brain control trajectories at 80% success rate(for 8 targets) after just 4–5 sessions. This improvement in behavioral performance was accompanied by a corresponding enhancement in neural tuning properties (i.e., increased tuning depth and coverage of encoding parameter space) as well as an increase in off-line decoding performance of the PPC ensemble. PMID:19036985

  5. Hearts and Flowers: Learning To Enlarge Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Judy

    2003-01-01

    Describes a lesson that teaches kindergarten students how to enlarge a smaller drawing onto a bigger piece of paper. Explains that the students create their heart-shape designs using tempera paint and pastels in the larger picture. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  6. Endodontic treatment of a C-shaped mandibular second premolar with four root canals and three apical foramina: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Thikamphaa

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a unique C-shaped mandibular second premolar with four canals and three apical foramina and its endodontic management with the aid of cone-beam computer tomography (CBCT). C-shaped root canal morphology with four canals was identified under a dental operating microscope. A CBCT scan was taken to evaluate the aberrant root canal anatomy and devise a better instrumentation strategy based on the anatomy. All canals were instrumented to have a 0.05 taper using 1.0 mm step-back filing with appropriate apical sizes determined from the CBCT scan images and filled using a warm vertical compaction technique. A C-shaped mandibular second premolar with multiple canals is an anatomically rare case for clinicians, yet its endodontic treatment may require a careful instrumentation strategy due to the difficulty in disinfecting the canals in the thin root area without compromising the root structure. PMID:26877993

  7. Frontal-parietal responses to "oddball" stimuli depicting "fattened" faces are increased in successful dieters: an electroencephalographic study.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Del Percio, Claudio; Triggiani, Antonio Ivano; Marzano, Nicola; Valenzano, Anna; De Rosas, Mario; Petito, Annamaria; Bellomo, Antonello; Lecce, Brunello; Mundi, Ciro; Limatola, Cristina; Cibelli, Giuseppe

    2011-11-01

    Here we tested the hypothesis that compared with normal weight non dieting (control) subjects, normal weight successful dieters submitted to a rigorous and continuous monitoring of body weight (i.e. karate athletes) are characterized by an increase of cortical responses to oddball visual stimuli depicting the enlargement of faces or foods, as neural underpinning of attention processes related to the control of weight and eating. Electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded in 18 successful dieters (5 females) and 24 non dieting subjects (9 females). The subjects were given frequent (70%) and rare (30%) stimuli depicting faces (FACE), food (FOOD), and landscapes (CONTROL). The task was to click the mouse after the rare stimuli. The rare stimuli depicted the frequent stimuli graphically dilated by 25% along the horizontal axis. Cortical responses accompanying attention processes were probed by the difference between positive event-related potentials peaking around 400-500ms post-stimulus for the rare minus frequent stimuli (P300). The popular freeware LORETA estimated P300 cortical sources. The results showed that in the FACE condition, the amplitude of left frontal (BA 6) and medial parietal (BA 5) P300 sources was higher in the successful dieters (karate athletes) than non dieting subjects. These results disclose that frontal-parietal responses to "oddball" stimuli depicting enlarged faces (i.e. representing face fattening) are enhanced in successful dieters (karate athletes). Future studies should evaluate this effect in other populations of successful dieters (i.e. boxers, top models etc.). PMID:21854815

  8. Evolution of posterior parietal cortex and parietal-frontal networks for specific actions in primates.

    PubMed

    Kaas, Jon H; Stepniewska, Iwona

    2016-02-15

    Posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is an extensive region of the human brain that develops relatively late and is proportionally large compared with that of monkeys and prosimian primates. Our ongoing comparative studies have led to several conclusions about the evolution of this posterior parietal region. In early placental mammals, PPC likely was a small multisensory region much like PPC of extant rodents and tree shrews. In early primates, PPC likely resembled that of prosimian galagos, in which caudal PPC (PPCc) is visual and rostral PPC (PPCr) has eight or more multisensory domains where electrical stimulation evokes different complex motor behaviors, including reaching, hand-to-mouth, looking, protecting the face or body, and grasping. These evoked behaviors depend on connections with functionally matched domains in premotor cortex (PMC) and motor cortex (M1). Domains in each region compete with each other, and a serial arrangement of domains allows different factors to influence motor outcomes successively. Similar arrangements of domains have been retained in New and Old World monkeys, and humans appear to have at least some of these domains. The great expansion and prolonged development of PPC in humans suggest the addition of functionally distinct territories. We propose that, across primates, PMC and M1 domains are second and third levels in a number of parallel, interacting networks for mediating and selecting one type of action over others. PMID:26101180

  9. Premotor and parietal cortex: corticocortical connectivity and combinatorial computations.

    PubMed

    Wise, S P; Boussaoud, D; Johnson, P B; Caminiti, R

    1997-01-01

    The dorsal premotor cortex is a functionally distinct cortical field or group of fields in the primate frontal cortex. Anatomical studies have confirmed that most parietal input to the dorsal premotor cortex originates from the superior parietal lobule. However, these projections arise not only from the dorsal aspect of area 5, as has long been known, but also from newly defined areas of posterior parietal cortex, which are directly connected with the extrastriate visual cortex. Thus, the dorsal premotor cortex receives much more direct visual input than previously accepted. It appears that this fronto-parietal network functions as a visuomotor controller-one that makes computations based on proprioceptive, visual, gaze, attentional, and other information to produce an output that reflects the selection, preparation, and execution of movements. PMID:9056706

  10. Parietal damage impairs learning of a visuomotor tracking skill.

    PubMed

    Cavaco, Sara; Anderson, Steven W; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Damasio, Hanna

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the consequences of damage to the parietal lobe for learning a visuomotor tracking skill. Thirty subjects with a single unilateral brain lesion (13 with and 17 without parietal damage) and 23 demographically comparable healthy subjects performed the Rotary Pursuit task. For each group, time on target increased significantly across the four learning blocks. Subjects with parietal lesions had smaller improvements on the Rotary Pursuit from the 1st to the 4th block than subjects with lesions in other brain areas and healthy comparison subjects. The improvements on task performance from the 1st to the 2nd and from the 1st to the 3rd learning blocks were similar between groups. The parietal lobe appears to play an important role in the acquisition of a new visuomotor tracking skill, in particular during a relatively late phase of learning. PMID:26536523

  11. Successfully use agglomeration for size enlargement

    SciTech Connect

    Pietsch, W.

    1996-04-01

    The processing of fine and ultrafine particles by size enlargement finds an ever increasing application. At the same time, undesirable agglomeration such as buildup, caking, bridging, and uncontrolled aggregation of fine particles can occur during processing and handling of these particulate solids. This article will provide a survey of the phenomena of agglomeration and discuss the unit operation of size enlargement by agglomeration. This article is also an invitation, particularly to young engineers, to become interested in agglomeration. Considering that mechanical process technologies are requiring more energy every year than any other group of consumers and efficiencies are typically in the single digits or teens at best, considerable rewards can be expected from the development of scientifically modified, more energy-efficient methods and equipment.

  12. Parietal lesion effects on cued recall following pair associate learning.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zvi, Shir; Soroker, Nachum; Levy, Daniel A

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the involvement of the posterior parietal cortex in episodic memory in a lesion-effects study of cued recall following pair-associate learning. Groups of patients who had experienced first-incident stroke, generally in middle cerebral artery territory, and exhibited damage that included lateral posterior parietal regions, were tested within an early post-stroke time window. In three experiments, patients and matched healthy comparison groups executed repeated study and cued recall test blocks of pairs of words (Experiment 1), pairs of object pictures (Experiment 2), or pairs of object pictures and environmental sounds (Experiment 3). Patients' brain CT scans were subjected to quantitative analysis of lesion volumes. Behavioral and lesion data were used to compute correlations between area lesion extent and memory deficits, and to conduct voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. These analyses implicated lateral ventral parietal cortex, especially the angular gyrus, in cued recall deficits, most pronouncedly in the cross-modal picture-sound pairs task, though significant parietal lesion effects were also found in the unimodal word pairs and picture pairs tasks. In contrast to an earlier study in which comparable parietal lesions did not cause deficits in item recognition, these results indicate that lateral posterior parietal areas make a substantive contribution to demanding forms of recollective retrieval as represented by cued recall, especially for complex associative representations. PMID:25998492

  13. Mapping multisensory parietal face and body areas in humans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ruey-Song; Chen, Ching-fu; Tran, Alyssa T; Holstein, Katie L; Sereno, Martin I

    2012-10-30

    Detection and avoidance of impending obstacles is crucial to preventing head and body injuries in daily life. To safely avoid obstacles, locations of objects approaching the body surface are usually detected via the visual system and then used by the motor system to guide defensive movements. Mediating between visual input and motor output, the posterior parietal cortex plays an important role in integrating multisensory information in peripersonal space. We used functional MRI to map parietal areas that see and feel multisensory stimuli near or on the face and body. Tactile experiments using full-body air-puff stimulation suits revealed somatotopic areas of the face and multiple body parts forming a higher-level homunculus in the superior posterior parietal cortex. Visual experiments using wide-field looming stimuli revealed retinotopic maps that overlap with the parietal face and body areas in the postcentral sulcus at the most anterior border of the dorsal visual pathway. Starting at the parietal face area and moving medially and posteriorly into the lower-body areas, the median of visual polar-angle representations in these somatotopic areas gradually shifts from near the horizontal meridian into the lower visual field. These results suggest the parietal face and body areas fuse multisensory information in peripersonal space to guard an individual from head to toe. PMID:23071340

  14. Parietal cortex and representation of the mental Self

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Hans C.; Luber, Bruce; Crupain, Michael; Keenan, Julian P.; Nowak, Markus; Kjaer, Troels W.; Sackeim, Harold A.; Lisanby, Sarah H.

    2004-01-01

    For a coherent and meaningful life, conscious self-representation is mandatory. Such explicit “autonoetic consciousness” is thought to emerge by retrieval of memory of personally experienced events (“episodic memory”). During episodic retrieval, functional imaging studies consistently show differential activity in medial prefrontal and medial parietal cortices. With positron-emission tomography, we here show that these medial regions are functionally connected and interact with lateral regions that are activated according to the degree of self-reference. During retrieval of previous judgments of Oneself, Best Friend, and the Danish Queen, activation increased in the left lateral temporal cortex and decreased in the right inferior parietal region with decreasing self-reference. Functionally, the former region was preferentially connected to medial prefrontal cortex, the latter to medial parietal. The medial parietal region may, then, be conceived of as a nodal structure in self-representation, functionally connected to both the right parietal and the medial prefrontal cortices. To determine whether medial parietal cortex in this network is essential for episodic memory retrieval with self-representation, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation over the region to transiently disturb neuronal circuitry. There was a decrease in the efficiency of retrieval of previous judgment of mental Self compared with retrieval of judgment of Other with transcranial magnetic stimulation at a latency of 160 ms, confirming the hypothesis. This network is strikingly similar to the network of the resting conscious state, suggesting that self-monitoring is a core function in resting consciousness. PMID:15096584

  15. Enlarging mediastinal/hilar lymphadenopathy with calcification.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Takashi; Nakahata, Masashi; Moritani, Suzuko; Iida, Hiroatsu; Ogawa, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    A 77-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to enlarging mediastinal/hilar lymphadenopathy with calcification. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and bone marrow aspiration were performed. Subsequently, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) associated with mediastinal amyloidosis was diagnosed. We hereby report a case in which EBUS-TBNA led to a successful diagnosis of amyloidosis. PMID:26862422

  16. Penile enlargement: from medication to surgery.

    PubMed

    Nugteren, Helena M; Balkema, G T; Pascal, A L; Schultz, W C M Weijmar; Nijman, J M; van Driel, M F

    2010-01-01

    Penis lengthening pills, stretch apparatus, vacuum pumps, silicone injections, and lengthening and thickening operations are available for men who worry about their penis size. Surgery is thus far the only proven scientific method for penile enlargement. In this article, we consider patient selection, outcome evaluation, and techniques applied. In our view, sexological counseling and detailed explanation of risks and complications are mandatory before any operative intervention. PMID:20169492

  17. Quantitative characterization of airspace enlargement in emphysema.

    PubMed

    Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Majumdar, Arnab; Ito, Satoru; Alencar, Adriano M; Suki, Béla

    2006-01-01

    The mean linear intercept (L(m)) can be used to estimate the surface area for gas exchange in the lung. However, in recent years, it is most commonly used as an index for characterizing the enlargement of airspaces in emphysema and the associated severity of structural destruction in the lung. Specifically, an increase in L(m) is thought to result from an increase in airspace sizes. In this paper, we examined how accurately L(m) measures the linear dimensions of airspaces from histological sections and a variety of computer-generated test images. To this end, we developed an automated method for measuring linear intercepts from digitized images of tissue sections and calculate L(m) as their mean. We examined how the shape of airspaces and the variability of their sizes influence L(m) as well as the distribution of linear intercepts. We found that, for a relatively homogeneous enlargement of airspaces, L(m) was a reliable index for detecting emphysema. However, in the presence of spatial heterogeneities with a large variability of airspace sizes, L(m) did not significantly increase and sometimes even decreased compared with its value in normal tissue. We also developed an automated method for measuring the area and computed an equivalent diameter of each individual airspace that is independent of shape. Finally, we introduced new indexes based on the moments of diameter that we found to be more reliable than L(m) to characterize airspace enlargement in the presence of heterogeneities. PMID:16166240

  18. Treating Enlarged Prostate (BPH): Which Drugs Work Best

    MedlinePlus

    ... the prostate gets larger. This is called prostate enlargement, or BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia). Why should I ... alpha-blocker doxazosin for a first treatment. Prostate enlargement affects millions of men, including about half of ...

  19. Enlarging perineal endometrioma developing after colpoperineorrhaphy.

    PubMed

    Strube, Felix Andreas; Niazi, Masooma; Lazarou, George

    2011-10-01

    Although endometriosis is not infrequent, the occurrence of perineal endometriomata is relatively rare and is generally attributed to seeding of endometrial cells to the perineal body during obstetrical trauma. A 45-year-old female with a history of a colpoperineorrhaphy during menses and a remote history of obstetric perineal trauma presented with an enlarging perineal mass. Excision of the mass led to a clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of perineal endometriosis. Elective surgery disrupting the vaginoperineal epithelium performed during menses may facilitate the seeding of endometrial cells to the perineal body and formation of perineal endometriomata. PMID:21431936

  20. Mechanisms of spatial attention control in frontal and parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Szczepanski, Sara M; Konen, Christina S; Kastner, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Theories of spatial attentional control have been largely based upon studies of patients suffering from visuospatial neglect, resulting from circumscribed lesions of frontal and posterior parietal cortex. In the intact brain, the control of spatial attention has been related to a distributed frontoparietal attention network. Little is known about the nature of the control mechanisms exerted by this network. Here, we used a novel region-of-interest approach to relate activations of the attention network to recently described topographic areas in frontal cortex [frontal eye field (FEF), PreCC/IFS (precentral cortex/inferior frontal sulcus)] and parietal cortex [intraparietal sulcus areas (IPS1-IPS5) and an area in the superior parietal lobule (SPL1)] to examine their spatial attention signals. We found that attention signals in most topographic areas were spatially specific, with stronger responses when attention was directed to the contralateral than to the ipsilateral visual field. Importantly, two hemispheric asymmetries were found. First, a region in only right, but not left SPL1 carried spatial attention signals. Second, left FEF and left posterior parietal cortex (IPS1/2) generated stronger contralateral biasing signals than their counterparts in the right hemisphere. These findings are the first to characterize spatial attention signals in topographic frontal and parietal cortex and provide a neural basis in support of an interhemispheric competition account of spatial attentional control. PMID:20053897

  1. Midwifery and the enlarged European Union.

    PubMed

    Mead, Marianne

    2003-06-01

    The freedom of movement of midwives within the European Union has been guaranteed by the application of midwives' sectoral directives signed in 1980 and applied in 1983. Since then the size of the European Union has grown from 9 to 15 members and is due for a next wave of enlargement of another 10 member states in 2004. The rules and regulations that govern the European Union are being revisited to accommodate this change. Midwifery will be affected and some changes are potentially worrying, in particular the proposed loss of the Advisory Committee on the Training of Midwives. Six other professions regulated in a very similar way are also to lose their own advisory committees. The European Commission has proposed the adoption of a single directive for all professions, together with the setting up of an expert group whose function would be to deal principally with health professions. However, neither its remit nor its membership has been determined. Whereas previous movement of midwives within Europe has been minimal, it is anticipated that this may well be changed at the next enlargement stage. Without clear directives and some form of controlling power at European level, public health may be threatened. In this paper the developments to date and the concerns that have emerged from the recent proposals are outlined. PMID:12809627

  2. [Microbiocenosis of parietal mucin in the gastrointestinal tract of rats].

    PubMed

    Vorob'ev, A A; Nesvizhskiĭ, Iu V; Bogdanova, E A; Korneev, L M

    2005-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative composition of the microbial community in parietal mucin at different areas of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of rats was revealed. The pronounced variability in the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of microbiocenosis in parietal mucin of rats at different sections was revealed. The differences were most pronounced in the passage from upper to lower GIT sections, the large intestine found to be the richest biocenosis. The microbial composition of rat feces was faintly associated with the GIT parietal microbiocenosis. The individual areas of GIT mucosa were unique of their microbial characteristics and organization. This makes it possible to regard them as relatively independent biotopes and indicates that it is impossible to evaluate the microbial community by one of the colonic mucosal sifes. PMID:16438365

  3. FRONTAL AND PARIETAL CORTEX CONTRIBUTIONS TO ACTION MODIFICATION

    PubMed Central

    Mutha, Pratik K.; Stapp, Lee H.; Sainburg, Robert L.; Haaland, Kathleen Y.

    2014-01-01

    Successful achievement of task goals depends critically on the ability to adjust ongoing actions in response to environmental changes. The neural substrates underlying action modification have been a topic of great controversy: both, posterior parietal cortex and frontal regions, particularly prefrontal cortex have been previously identified as crucial in this regard, with most studies arguing in favor of one or the other. We aimed to address this controversy and understand whether frontal and parietal regions might play distinct roles during action modification. We tested ipsilesional arm performance of 27 stroke patients with focal lesions to frontal or parietal regions of the left or right cerebral hemisphere, and left or right arm performance of 18 healthy subjects on the classic double-step task in which a target is unpredictably displaced to a new location, requiring modification of the ongoing action. Only right hemisphere frontal lesions adversely impacted the timing of initiation of the modified response, while only left hemisphere parietal lesions impaired the accuracy of the modified action. Patients with right frontal lesions tended to complete the ongoing action to the initially displayed baseline target and initiated the new movement after a significant delay. In contrast, patients with left parietal damage did not accurately reach the new target location, but compared to the other groups, initiated the new action during an earlier phase of motion, before their baseline action was complete. Our findings thus suggest distinct, hemisphere specific contributions of frontal and parietal regions to action modification, and bring together, for the first time, disparate sets of prior findings about its underlying neural substrates. PMID:24763127

  4. Conductance enlargement in picoscale electroburnt graphene nanojunctions

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Hatef; Mol, Jan A.; Lau, Chit Siong; Briggs, G. Andrew D.; Warner, Jamie; Lambert, Colin J.

    2015-01-01

    Provided the electrical properties of electroburnt graphene junctions can be understood and controlled, they have the potential to underpin the development of a wide range of future sub-10-nm electrical devices. We examine both theoretically and experimentally the electrical conductance of electroburnt graphene junctions at the last stages of nanogap formation. We account for the appearance of a counterintuitive increase in electrical conductance just before the gap forms. This is a manifestation of room-temperature quantum interference and arises from a combination of the semimetallic band structure of graphene and a cross-over from electrodes with multiple-path connectivity to single-path connectivity just before breaking. Therefore, our results suggest that conductance enlargement before junction rupture is a signal of the formation of electroburnt junctions, with a picoscale current path formed from a single sp2 bond. PMID:25730863

  5. Parietal network underlying movement control: disturbances during subcortical electrostimulation.

    PubMed

    Almairac, Fabien; Herbet, Guillaume; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Duffau, Hugues

    2014-07-01

    Our understanding of brain movement control has changed over the last two decades. Recent findings in the monkey and in humans have led to a parallel and interconnected network. Nevertheless, little is known about these networks. Here, we present two cases of patients with a parietal low-grade glioma. They underwent surgery under local anesthesia with cortical and subcortical mapping. For patient 1, subcortical electrostimulation immediately posterior to thalamocortical fibers induced movement disorders, with an inhibition of leg and arm movements medially and, more laterally, an acceleration of arm movement. For patient 2, electrostimulation of white matter immediately posterior to thalamocortical fibers induced an inhibition of both arm movement. It means that the detected fibers in the parietal lobe may be involved in the motor control modulation. They are distributed veil-like immediately posterior to thalamocortical pathways and could correspond to a fronto-parietal movement control subnetwork. These two cases highlight the major role of the subcortical connectivity in movement regulation, involving parietal lobe, thus the necessity to be identified and preserved during brain surgery. PMID:24526369

  6. Impairments in Tactile Search Following Superior Parietal Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skakoon-Sparling, Shayna P.; Vasquez, Brandon P.; Hano, Kate; Danckert, James

    2011-01-01

    The superior parietal cortex is critical for the control of visually guided actions. Research suggests that visual stimuli relevant to actions are preferentially processed when they are in peripersonal space. One recent study demonstrated that visually guided movements towards the body were more impaired in a patient with damage to superior…

  7. Parietal cortex mediates perceptual Gestalt grouping independent of stimulus size.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Pablo R; Zaretskaya, Natalia; Bartels, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    The integration of local moving elements into a unified gestalt percept has previously been linked to the posterior parietal cortex. There are two possible interpretations for the lack of involvement of other occipital regions. The first is that parietal cortex is indeed uniquely functionally specialized to perform grouping. Another possibility is that other visual regions can perform grouping as well, but that the large spatial separation of the local elements used previously exceeded their neurons' receptive field (RF) sizes, preventing their involvement. In this study we distinguished between these two alternatives. We measured whole-brain activity using fMRI in response to a bistable motion illusion that induced mutually exclusive percepts of either an illusory global Gestalt or of local elements. The stimulus was presented in two sizes, a large version known to activate IPS only, and a version sufficiently small to fit into the RFs of mid-level dorsal regions such as V5/MT. We found that none of the separately localized motion regions apart from parietal cortex showed a preference for global Gestalt perception, even for the smaller version of the stimulus. This outcome suggests that grouping-by-motion is mediated by a specialized size-invariant mechanism with parietal cortex as its anatomical substrate. PMID:26975554

  8. Left inferior parietal lobe engagement in social cognition and language.

    PubMed

    Bzdok, Danilo; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Reid, Andrew; Laird, Angela R; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2016-09-01

    Social cognition and language are two core features of the human species. Despite distributed recruitment of brain regions in each mental capacity, the left parietal lobe (LPL) represents a zone of topographical convergence. The present study quantitatively summarizes hundreds of neuroimaging studies on social cognition and language. Using connectivity-based parcellation on a meta-analytically defined volume of interest (VOI), regional coactivation patterns within this VOI allowed identifying distinct subregions. Across parcellation solutions, two clusters emerged consistently in rostro-ventral and caudo-ventral aspects of the parietal VOI. Both clusters were functionally significantly associated with social-cognitive and language processing. In particular, the rostro-ventral cluster was associated with lower-level processing facets, while the caudo-ventral cluster was associated with higher-level processing facets in both mental capacities. Contrarily, in the (less stable) dorsal parietal VOI, all clusters reflected computation of general-purpose processes, such as working memory and matching tasks, that are frequently co-recruited by social or language processes. Our results hence favour a rostro-caudal distinction of lower- versus higher-level processes underlying social cognition and language in the left inferior parietal lobe. PMID:27241201

  9. A rare chronic constrictive pericarditis with localized adherent visceral pericardium and normal parietal pericardium: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qingqiang; Yun, Lin; Xu, Rui; Li, Guohua; Yao, Yucai; Li, Jiamin

    2016-09-01

    Classic constrictive pericarditis (CP) is characterized by fibrous scarring and adhesion of both the visceral pericardium and the parietal pericardium, which leads to restricted cardiac filling. However, diagnosing CP with normal thickness pericardium and without calcification is still a challenge. The predominant cause in the developed world is idiopathic or viral pericarditis followed by post-cardiac surgery and post-radiation. Tuberculosis still remains a common cause of CP in developing countries. In this report, we describe a rare case of idiopathic localized constrictive visceral pericardium with normal thickness of the parietal pericardium in a middle-aged man. The patient presented with unexplained right heart failure and echocardiography showed moderate bi-atrial enlargement which should be identified with the restrictive cardiomyopathy. After 10 months of conservative treatment, the progression of right heart failure was remaining. A pericardiectomy was performed and the patient recovered. This case serves as a reminder to consider CP in patients with unexplained right heart failure, so that timely investigation and treatment can be initiated. PMID:27527362

  10. Enlarged cerebrospinal fluid spaces in infants with subdural hematomas

    SciTech Connect

    Kapila, A.; Trice, J.; Spies, W.G.; Siegel, B.A.; Gado, M.H.

    1982-03-01

    Computed tomography in 16 infants with subdural hematomas showed enlarged basal cisterns, a wide interhemispheric fissure, prominent cortical sulci, and varying degrees of ventricular enlargement. Radionuclide cisternography in eight of the 16 patients showed findings consistent with enlargement of the subarachnoid space rather than those of communicating hydrocephalus. Clinical findings and brief follow-up showed no convincing evidence for cerebral atrophy in 13 patients. These findings suggest that the enlarged subarachnoid space, which is encountered in some infants and may be a developmental variant, predisposes such infants to subdural hematomas.

  11. Dissociation of Subtraction and Multiplication in the Right Parietal Cortex: Evidence from Intraoperative Cortical Electrostimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Xiaodan; Chen, Chuansheng; Pu, Song; Wu, Chenxing; Li, Yongnian; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Xinlin

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has consistently shown that the left parietal cortex is critical for numerical processing, but the role of the right parietal lobe has been much less clear. This study used the intraoperative cortical electrical stimulation approach to investigate neural dissociation in the right parietal cortex for subtraction and…

  12. Overlapping Parietal Activity in Memory and Perception: Evidence for the Attention to Memory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabeza, Roberto; Mazuz, Yonatan S.; Stokes, Jared; Kragel, James E.; Woldorff, Marty G.; Ciaramelli, Elisa; Olson, Ingrid R.; Moscovitch, Morris

    2011-01-01

    The specific role of different parietal regions to episodic retrieval is a topic of intense debate. According to the Attention to Memory (AtoM) model, dorsal parietal cortex (DPC) mediates top-down attention processes guided by retrieval goals, whereas ventral parietal cortex (VPC) mediates bottom-up attention processes captured by the retrieval…

  13. Optic ataxia: from Balint's syndrome to the parietal reach region.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Richard A; Andersen, Kristen N; Hwang, Eun Jung; Hauschild, Markus

    2014-03-01

    Optic ataxia is a high-order deficit in reaching to visual goals that occurs with posterior parietal cortex (PPC) lesions. It is a component of Balint's syndrome that also includes attentional and gaze disorders. Aspects of optic ataxia are misreaching in the contralesional visual field, difficulty preshaping the hand for grasping, and an inability to correct reaches online. Recent research in nonhuman primates (NHPs) suggests that many aspects of Balint's syndrome and optic ataxia are a result of damage to specific functional modules for reaching, saccades, grasp, attention, and state estimation. The deficits from large lesions in humans are probably composite effects from damage to combinations of these functional modules. Interactions between these modules, either within posterior parietal cortex or downstream within frontal cortex, may account for more complex behaviors such as hand-eye coordination and reach-to-grasp. PMID:24607223

  14. Neuronal oscillations form parietal/frontal networks during contour integration

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Marta; Plöchl, Michael; Vicente, Raul; Pipa, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    The ability to integrate visual features into a global coherent percept that can be further categorized and manipulated are fundamental abilities of the neural system. While the processing of visual information involves activation of early visual cortices, the recruitment of parietal and frontal cortices has been shown to be crucial for perceptual processes. Yet is it not clear how both cortical and long-range oscillatory activity leads to the integration of visual features into a coherent percept. Here, we will investigate perceptual grouping through the analysis of a contour categorization task, where the local elements that form contour must be linked into a coherent structure, which is then further processed and manipulated to perform the categorization task. The contour formation in our visual stimulus is a dynamic process where, for the first time, visual perception of contours is disentangled from the onset of visual stimulation or from motor preparation, cognitive processes that until now have been behaviorally attached to perceptual processes. Our main finding is that, while local and long-range synchronization at several frequencies seem to be an ongoing phenomena, categorization of a contour could only be predicted through local oscillatory activity within parietal/frontal sources, which in turn, would synchronize at gamma (>30 Hz) frequency. Simultaneously, fronto-parietal beta (13–30 Hz) phase locking forms a network spanning across neural sources that are not category specific. Both long range networks, i.e., the gamma network that is category specific, and the beta network that is not category specific, are functionally distinct but spatially overlapping. Altogether, we show that a critical mechanism underlying contour categorization involves oscillatory activity within parietal/frontal cortices, as well as its synchronization across distal cortical sites. PMID:25165437

  15. [The endocranial parietal vascular traces in the hominid line].

    PubMed

    Saban, R

    1977-03-01

    The study of the grooves traced by the middle meningeal veins on the parietal bone or the endocast of Hominid fossils shows different patterns which correspond to each evolutive stage. Height types are characterised among the Hominids (Australopithecines, Archanthropines, Paleanthropines and Neanthropines): I, robust Australopithecine type; II, gracile Australopithecine type; III, earliest Pithecanthropine type; IV, evolved Pithecanthropine type; V, Preneandertal type; VI, neandertal type; VII, Neanthropine type; VIII, modern type. PMID:405108

  16. Early recurrence and ongoing parietal driving during elementary visual processing.

    PubMed

    Plomp, Gijs; Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Astolfi, Laura; Michel, Christoph M

    2015-01-01

    Visual stimuli quickly activate a broad network of brain areas that often show reciprocal structural connections between them. Activity at short latencies (<100 ms) is thought to represent a feed-forward activation of widespread cortical areas, but fast activation combined with reciprocal connectivity between areas in principle allows for two-way, recurrent interactions to occur at short latencies after stimulus onset. Here we combined EEG source-imaging and Granger-causal modeling with high temporal resolution to investigate whether recurrent and top-down interactions between visual and attentional brain areas can be identified and distinguished at short latencies in humans. We investigated the directed interactions between widespread occipital, parietal and frontal areas that we localized within participants using fMRI. The connectivity results showed two-way interactions between area MT and V1 already at short latencies. In addition, the results suggested a large role for lateral parietal cortex in coordinating visual activity that may be understood as an ongoing top-down allocation of attentional resources. Our results support the notion that indirect pathways allow early, evoked driving from MT to V1 to highlight spatial locations of motion transients, while influence from parietal areas is continuously exerted around stimulus onset, presumably reflecting task-related attentional processes. PMID:26692466

  17. Early recurrence and ongoing parietal driving during elementary visual processing

    PubMed Central

    Plomp, Gijs; Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Astolfi, Laura; Michel, Christoph M.

    2015-01-01

    Visual stimuli quickly activate a broad network of brain areas that often show reciprocal structural connections between them. Activity at short latencies (<100 ms) is thought to represent a feed-forward activation of widespread cortical areas, but fast activation combined with reciprocal connectivity between areas in principle allows for two-way, recurrent interactions to occur at short latencies after stimulus onset. Here we combined EEG source-imaging and Granger-causal modeling with high temporal resolution to investigate whether recurrent and top-down interactions between visual and attentional brain areas can be identified and distinguished at short latencies in humans. We investigated the directed interactions between widespread occipital, parietal and frontal areas that we localized within participants using fMRI. The connectivity results showed two-way interactions between area MT and V1 already at short latencies. In addition, the results suggested a large role for lateral parietal cortex in coordinating visual activity that may be understood as an ongoing top-down allocation of attentional resources. Our results support the notion that indirect pathways allow early, evoked driving from MT to V1 to highlight spatial locations of motion transients, while influence from parietal areas is continuously exerted around stimulus onset, presumably reflecting task-related attentional processes. PMID:26692466

  18. Bottom-up Visual Integration in the Medial Parietal Lobe.

    PubMed

    Pflugshaupt, Tobias; Nösberger, Myriam; Gutbrod, Klemens; Weber, Konrad P; Linnebank, Michael; Brugger, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Largely based on findings from functional neuroimaging studies, the medial parietal lobe is known to contribute to internally directed cognitive processes such as visual imagery or episodic memory. Here, we present 2 patients with behavioral impairments that extend this view. Both had chronic unilateral lesions of nearly the entire medial parietal lobe, but in opposite hemispheres. Routine neuropsychological examination conducted >4 years after the onset of brain damage showed little deficits of minor severity. In contrast, both patients reported persistent unusual visual impairment. A comprehensive series of tachistoscopic experiments with lateralized stimulus presentation and comparison with healthy participants revealed partial visual hemiagnosia for stimuli presented to their contralesional hemifield, applying inferential single-case statistics to evaluate deficits and dissociations. Double dissociations were found in 4 experiments during which participants had to integrate more than one visual element, either through comparison or formation of a global gestalt. Against the background of recent neuroimaging findings, we conclude that of all medial parietal structures, the precuneus is the most likely candidate for a crucial involvement in such bottom-up visual integration. PMID:25331599

  19. Enlargement of the Baldone near-surface radioactive waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Dreimanis, A.

    2007-07-01

    A unified analysis of the enlargement of the Baldone near-surface radioactive waste (RW) repository RADONS considers the interplay of the existing engineering, safety and infrastructure premises, with the foreseen newly socio-technical features. This enlargement consists in construction of two additional RW disposal vaults and in building a long-term storage facility for spent sealed sources at the RADONS territory. Our approach is based on consecutive analysis of following basic elements: - the origin of enlargement - the RADONS safety analysis and a set of optimal socio-technical solutions of Salaspils research reactor decommissioning waste management; - the enlargement - a keystone of the national RW management concept, including the long-term approach; - the enlargement concept - the result of international co-operation and obligations; - arrangement optimization of new disposal and storage space; - environmental impact assessment for the repository enlargement - the update of socio-technical studies. The study of the public opinion revealed: negative attitude to repository enlargement is caused mainly due to missing information on radiation level and on the RADONS previous operations. These results indicate: basic measures to improve the public attitude to repository enlargement: the safety upgrade, public education and compensation mechanisms. A detailed stakeholders engagement and public education plan is elaborated. (author)

  20. 48 CFR 6101.3 - Time: enlargement; computation [Rule 3].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Time: enlargement; computation . 6101.3 Section 6101.3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System CIVILIAN BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS, GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT DISPUTE CASES 6101.3 Time: enlargement; computation . (a)...

  1. Scene-Selectivity and Retinotopy in Medial Parietal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Silson, Edward H; Steel, Adam D; Baker, Chris I

    2016-01-01

    Functional imaging studies in human reliably identify a trio of scene-selective regions, one on each of the lateral [occipital place area (OPA)], ventral [parahippocampal place area (PPA)], and medial [retrosplenial complex (RSC)] cortical surfaces. Recently, we demonstrated differential retinotopic biases for the contralateral lower and upper visual fields within OPA and PPA, respectively. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we combine detailed mapping of both population receptive fields (pRF) and category-selectivity, with independently acquired resting-state functional connectivity analyses, to examine scene and retinotopic processing within medial parietal cortex. We identified a medial scene-selective region, which was contained largely within the posterior and ventral bank of the parieto-occipital sulcus (POS). While this region is typically referred to as RSC, the spatial extent of our scene-selective region typically did not extend into retrosplenial cortex, and thus we adopt the term medial place area (MPA) to refer to this visually defined scene-selective region. Intriguingly MPA co-localized with a region identified solely on the basis of retinotopic sensitivity using pRF analyses. We found that MPA demonstrates a significant contralateral visual field bias, coupled with large pRF sizes. Unlike OPA and PPA, MPA did not show a consistent bias to a single visual quadrant. MPA also co-localized with a region identified by strong differential functional connectivity with PPA and the human face-selective fusiform face area (FFA), commensurate with its functional selectivity. Functional connectivity with OPA was much weaker than with PPA, and similar to that with face-selective occipital face area (OFA), suggesting a closer link with ventral than lateral cortex. Consistent with prior research, we also observed differential functional connectivity in medial parietal cortex for anterior over posterior PPA, as well as a region on the lateral

  2. Scene-Selectivity and Retinotopy in Medial Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Silson, Edward H.; Steel, Adam D.; Baker, Chris I.

    2016-01-01

    Functional imaging studies in human reliably identify a trio of scene-selective regions, one on each of the lateral [occipital place area (OPA)], ventral [parahippocampal place area (PPA)], and medial [retrosplenial complex (RSC)] cortical surfaces. Recently, we demonstrated differential retinotopic biases for the contralateral lower and upper visual fields within OPA and PPA, respectively. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we combine detailed mapping of both population receptive fields (pRF) and category-selectivity, with independently acquired resting-state functional connectivity analyses, to examine scene and retinotopic processing within medial parietal cortex. We identified a medial scene-selective region, which was contained largely within the posterior and ventral bank of the parieto-occipital sulcus (POS). While this region is typically referred to as RSC, the spatial extent of our scene-selective region typically did not extend into retrosplenial cortex, and thus we adopt the term medial place area (MPA) to refer to this visually defined scene-selective region. Intriguingly MPA co-localized with a region identified solely on the basis of retinotopic sensitivity using pRF analyses. We found that MPA demonstrates a significant contralateral visual field bias, coupled with large pRF sizes. Unlike OPA and PPA, MPA did not show a consistent bias to a single visual quadrant. MPA also co-localized with a region identified by strong differential functional connectivity with PPA and the human face-selective fusiform face area (FFA), commensurate with its functional selectivity. Functional connectivity with OPA was much weaker than with PPA, and similar to that with face-selective occipital face area (OFA), suggesting a closer link with ventral than lateral cortex. Consistent with prior research, we also observed differential functional connectivity in medial parietal cortex for anterior over posterior PPA, as well as a region on the lateral

  3. Syndecan-1 in the Mouse Parietal Peritoneum Microcirculation in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kowalewska, Paulina M.; Patrick, Amanda L.; Fox-Robichaud, Alison E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1 (CD138) was shown to regulate inflammatory responses by binding chemokines and cytokines and interacting with adhesion molecules, thereby modulating leukocyte trafficking to tissues. The objectives of this study were to examine the expression of syndecan-1 and its role in leukocyte recruitment and chemokine presentation in the microcirculation underlying the parietal peritoneum. Methods Wild-type BALB/c and syndecan-1 null mice were stimulated with an intraperitoneal injection of Staphylococcus aureus LTA, Escherichia coli LPS or TNFα and the microcirculation of the parietal peritoneum was examined by intravital microscopy after 4 hours. Fluorescence confocal microscopy was used to examine syndecan-1 expression in the peritoneal microcirculation using fluorescent antibodies. Blocking antibodies to adhesion molecules were used to examine the role of these molecules in leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in response to LTA. To determine whether syndecan-1 co-localizes with chemokines in vivo, fluorescent antibodies to syndecan-1 were co-injected intravenously with anti-MIP-2 (CXCL2), anti-KC (CXCL1) or anti-MCP-1 (CCL2). Results and Conclusion Syndecan-1 was localized to the subendothelial region of peritoneal venules and the mesothelial layer. Leukocyte rolling was significantly decreased with LPS treatment while LTA and TNFα significantly increased leukocyte adhesion compared with saline control. Leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions were not different in syndecan-1 null mice. Antibody blockade of β2 integrin (CD18), ICAM-1 (CD54) and VCAM-1 (CD106) did not decrease leukocyte adhesion in response to LTA challenge while blockade of P-selectin (CD62P) abrogated leukocyte rolling. Lastly, MIP-2 expression in the peritoneal venules was not dependent on syndecan-1 in vivo. Our data suggest that syndecan-1 is expressed in the parietal peritoneum microvasculature but does not regulate leukocyte recruitment

  4. Parietal and hippocampal contribution to topokinetic and topographic memory.

    PubMed Central

    Berthoz, A

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the involvement of the parietal cortex and the hippocampus in three kinds of spatial memory tasks which all require a memory of a previously experienced movement in space. The first task compared, by means of positron emission tomography (PET) scan techniques, the production, in darkness, of self-paced saccades (SAC) with the reproduction, in darkness, of a previously learned sequence of saccades to visual targets (SEQ). The results show that a bilateral increase of activity was seen in the depth of the intraparietal sulcus and the medial superior parietal cortex (superior parietal gyrus and precuneus) together with the frontal sulcus but only in the SEQ task, which involved memory of the previously seen targets and possibly also motor memory. The second task is the vestibular memory contingent task, which requires that the subject makes, in darkness, a saccade to the remembered position of a visual target after a passively imposed whole-body rotation. Deficits in this task, which involves vestibular memory, were found predominantly in patients with focal vascular lesions in the parieto-insular (vestibular) cortex, the supplementary motor area-supplementary eye field area, and the prefrontal cortex. The third task requires mental navigation from the memory of a previously learned route in a real environment (the city of Orsay in France). A PET scan study has revealed that when subjects were asked to remember visual landmarks there was a bilateral activation of the middle hippocampal regions, left inferior temporal gyrus, left hippocampal regions, precentral gyrus and posterior cingulate gyrus. If the subjects were asked to remember the route, and their movements along this route, bilateral activation of the dorsolateral cortex, posterior hippocampal areas, posterior cingulate gyrus, supplementary motor areas, right middle hippocampal areas, left precuneus, middle occipital gyrus, fusiform gyrus and lateral premotor area was found. Subtraction

  5. Giant pediatric glioblastoma multiforme causing primary calvarial erosion and sutural diastasis presenting with enlarged head

    PubMed Central

    Satyarthee, Guru Dutta; Mahapatra, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Authors report a rare case of supratentorial glioblastoma multiforme in a 13-year-old boy, who had headache, vomiting and left sided hemiparesis for last 6 months. On evaluation by primary physician he was labeled as hydrocephalus in view of enlarged head with papilledema on fundoscopic evaluation and no imaging was carried out. On current admission, magnetic resonance imaging brain revealed a large heterogeneous mass lesion involving right frontoparietal region associated with massive perilesional edema causing significant mass effect. He underwent right fronto-temporal craniotomy and intraoperatively erosion of parietal bone was observed, unassociated with any extradural deposit of tumor. After surgery, he noticed improvement in headache along with hemiparesis. Primary calvarial erosion in glioblastoma is extremely rare, and there is paucity of literature as evident from the few case reports reported previously and all occurred in elderly, so current case is the first pediatric case having primary calvarial erosion. Management of such case and pertinent literature is briefly discussed. PMID:26557181

  6. Sylvian fissure and parietal anatomy in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Tracey A; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Foundas, Anne L

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in social functioning and language and communication, with restricted interests or stereotyped behaviors. Anatomical differences have been found in the parietal cortex in children with ASD, but parietal subregions and associations between Sylvian fissure (SF) and parietal anatomy have not been explored. In this study, SF length and anterior and posterior parietal volumes were measured on MRI in 30 right-handed boys with ASD and 30 right-handed typically developing boys (7-14 years), matched on age and non-verbal IQ. There was leftward SF and anterior parietal asymmetry, and rightward posterior parietal asymmetry, across groups. There were associations between SF and parietal asymmetries, with slight group differences. Typical SF asymmetry was associated with typical anterior and posterior parietal asymmetry, in both groups. In the atypical SF asymmetry group, controls had atypical parietal asymmetry, whereas in ASD there were more equal numbers of individuals with typical as atypical anterior parietal asymmetry. We did not find significant anatomical-behavioral associations. Our findings of more individuals in the ASD group having a dissociation between cortical asymmetries warrants further investigation of these subgroups and emphasizes the importance of investigating anatomical relationships in addition to group differences in individual regions. PMID:22713374

  7. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Enlarged ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Enlarged Photographed by Harold Bush-Brown Nov. 14, 1936 GENERAL VIEW OF SLAVE CABINS - Bass Place (Slave Cabins), Columbus, Muscogee County, GA

  8. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer, Enlarged ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer, Enlarged Photographed by Harold Bush-Brown Nov. 14, 1936 VIEW OF EASTERN SLAVE CABIN - Bass Place (Slave Cabins), Columbus, Muscogee County, GA

  9. How do plants enlarge? A balancing act; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    Cells of plants are surrounded by strong walls that prevent rupture from internal pressures that can be two or three times that of an automobile tire. In this way, the walls protect the cytoplasm. However, at the same time, the cells can enlarge as they grow. How this balancing act works and how it enlarges the plant were the subject of a recent conference at the University of Delaware in Lewes. The aim was to identify areas for future research that could explain the enlargement of whole plants. There is a large practical need to predict and modify plant enlargement but the additional processes that overlie the molecular ones need to be integrated with the molecular information before a picture will emerge. How best to accomplish this involved input from cross-disciplinary areas in biomechanics, physics and engineering as well as molecular biology, biochemistry and ultrastructure.

  10. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Enlarged ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Enlarged from picture photographed by Harold Bush-Brown Aug. 1936 VIEW OF FRONT AND RIGHT SIDE - Old Methodist Church, Roswell, Fulton County, GA

  11. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Enlarged ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Enlarged Photo From photo of Miss Edith Johnston, Savannah, Ga. 1936 VIEW OF FRONT AND RIGHT SIDE (Restoration 1936) - Wild Heron Plantation, Little Ogeechee River Vicinity, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  12. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Enlarged ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Enlarged Photo From Photo of Miss Edith Johnston's, Savannah, Ga. 1936 VIEW OF FRONT AND SIDE (Before Restoration, 1936). - Wild Heron Plantation, Little Ogeechee River Vicinity, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  13. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer (Enlarged ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer (Enlarged by) Aug. 6, 1936 Photographed by Harold Bush-Brown SIDE VIEW - Covered Bridge, Spanning Soap Creek, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  14. 9. (5 X 7 enlargement from 4 X 5 negative) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. (5 X 7 enlargement from 4 X 5 negative) FIRST FLOOR, WINDOW MOLDING ON SOUTH WALL LOOKING SOUTH - Sites Homestead, Monongahela National Forest (Tract 390) East of Route 28, Seneca Rocks, Pendleton County, WV

  15. The universe, life, and intelligence (Sixth enlarged edition)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shklovskii, Iosif Samuilovich

    This classic work examines the possibility of the existence of life (including intelligent life) on other planetary systems. This enlarged edition includes essays on the search for extraterrestrial civilizations and the possibility of communication with intelligent beings on other planets.

  16. Gingival enlargements: Differential diagnosis and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Amit Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Gingival enlargement is one of the frequent features of gingival diseases. However due to their varied presentations, the diagnosis of these entities becomes challenging for the clinician. They can be categorized based on their etiopathogenesis, location, size, extent, etc. Based on the existing knowledge and clinical experience, a differential diagnosis can be formulated. Subsequently, after detailed investigation, clinician makes a final diagnosis or diagnosis of exclusion. A perfect diagnosis is critically important, since the management of these lesions and prevention of their recurrence is completely dependent on it. Furthermore, in some cases where gingival enlargement could be the primary sign of potentially lethal systemic diseases, a correct diagnosis of these enlargements could prove life saving for the patient or at least initiate early treatment and improve the quality of life. The purpose of this review article is to highlight significant findings of different types of gingival enlargement which would help clinician to differentiate between them. A detailed decision tree is also designed for the practitioners, which will help them arrive at a diagnosis in a systematic manner. There still could be some lesions which may present in an unusual manner and make the diagnosis challenging. By knowing the existence of common and rare presentations of gingival enlargement, one can keep a broad view when formulating a differential diagnosis of localized (isolated, discrete, regional) or generalized gingival enlargement. PMID:26380825

  17. Sleep Related Hypermotor Seizures with a Right Parietal Onset

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Steve A.; Figorilli, Michela; Casaceli, Giuseppe; Proserpio, Paola; Nobili, Lino

    2015-01-01

    Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is a syndrome characterized by the occurrence of sleep related seizures of variable complexity and duration. Hypermotor seizures (HMS) represent a classic manifestation of this syndrome, associated with a perturbation of the ventromesial frontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus regions. Nevertheless, in recent years, reports have showed that the seizure onset zone (SOZ) need not be of frontal origin to generate HMS. Here we report an unusual case of a patient presenting with a seven-year history of drug-resistant sleep related HMS arising from the mesial parietal region. The presence of an infrequent feeling of levitation before the HMS was key to suspecting a subtle focal cortical dysplasia in the right precuneus region. A stereo-EEG investigation confirmed the extra-frontal seizure onset of the HMS and highlighted the interrelationship between unstable sleep and seizure precipitation. Citation: Gibbs SA, Figorilli M, Casaceli G, Proserpio P, Nobili L. Sleep related hypermotor seizures with a right parietal onset. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(8):953–955. PMID:25902821

  18. Fronto-parietal network supports context-dependent speech comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Smirnov, Dmitry; Glerean, Enrico; Lahnakoski, Juha M.; Salmi, Juha; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the context of a discourse is an essential prerequisite for comprehension. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to disclose brain networks supporting context-dependent speech comprehension. During fMRI, 20 participants listened to 1-min spoken narratives preceded by pictures that were either contextually matching or mismatching with the narrative. Matching pictures increased narrative comprehension, decreased hemodynamic activity in Broca׳s area, and enhanced its functional connectivity with left anterior superior frontal gyrus, bilateral inferior parietal cortex, as well as anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Further, the anterior (BA 45) and posterior (BA 44) portions of Broca׳s area differed in their functional connectivity patterns. Both BA 44 and BA 45 have shown increased connectivity with right angular gyrus and supramarginal gyrus. Whereas BA 44 showed increased connectivity with left angular gyrus, left inferior/middle temporal gyrus and left postcentral gyrus, BA 45 showed increased connectivity with right posterior cingulate cortex, right anterior inferior frontal gyrus, lateral occipital cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. Our results suggest that a fronto-parietal functional network supports context-dependent narrative comprehension, and that Broca׳s area is involved in resolving ambiguity from speech when appropriate contextual cues are lacking. PMID:25218167

  19. Frontal Monitoring and Parietal Evidence: Mechanisms of Error Correction.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Cebrian, Ana; Knight, Robert T; Kayser, Andrew S

    2016-08-01

    When we respond to a stimulus, our decisions are based not only on external stimuli but also on our ongoing performance. If the response deviates from our goals, monitoring and decision-making brain areas interact so that future behavior may change. By taking advantage of natural variation in error salience, as measured by the RT taken to correct an error (RTEC), here we argue that an evidence accumulation framework provides a potential underlying mechanism for this variable process of error identification and correction, as evidenced by covariation of frontal monitoring and parietal decision-making processes. We study two early EEG signals linked to monitoring within medial PFC-the error-related negativity (ERN) and frontocentral theta activity-and a third EEG signal, the error positivity (Pe), that is thought to share the same parietal substrates as a signal (the P3b) proposed to reflect evidence accumulation. As predicted, our data show that on slow RTEC trials, frontal monitoring resources are less strongly employed, and the latency of the Pe is longer. Critically, the speed of the RTEC also covaries with the magnitude of subsequent neural (intertrial alpha power) and behavioral (post-error slowing) adjustments following the correction. These results are synthesized to describe a timing diagram for adaptive decision-making after errors and support a potential evidence accumulation mechanism in which error signaling is followed by rapid behavioral adjustments. PMID:27027420

  20. Right parietal cortex mediates recognition memory for melodies.

    PubMed

    Schaal, Nora K; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Halpern, Andrea R; Pollok, Bettina; Banissy, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    Functional brain imaging studies have highlighted the significance of right-lateralized temporal, frontal and parietal brain areas for memory for melodies. The present study investigated the involvement of bilateral posterior parietal cortices (PPCs) for the recognition memory of melodies using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Participants performed a recognition task before and after tDCS. The task included an encoding phase (12 melodies), a retention period, as well as a recognition phase (24 melodies). Experiment 1 revealed that anodal tDCS over the right PPC led to a deterioration of overall memory performance compared with sham. Experiment 2 confirmed the results of Experiment 1 and further showed that anodal tDCS over the left PPC did not show a modulatory effect on memory task performance, indicating a right lateralization for musical memory. Furthermore, both experiments revealed that the decline in memory for melodies can be traced back to an interference of anodal stimulation on the recollection process (remember judgements) rather than to familiarity judgements. Taken together, this study revealed a causal involvement of the right PPC for memory for melodies and demonstrated a key role for this brain region in the recollection process of the memory task. PMID:25959620

  1. Modeling Murine Gastric Metaplasia Through Tamoxifen-Induced Acute Parietal Cell Loss.

    PubMed

    Saenz, Jose B; Burclaff, Joseph; Mills, Jason C

    2016-01-01

    Parietal cell loss represents the initial step in the sequential progression toward gastric adenocarcinoma. In the setting of chronic inflammation, the expansion of the mucosal response to parietal cell loss characterizes a crucial transition en route to gastric dysplasia. Here, we detail methods for using the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen as a novel tool to rapidly and reversibly induce parietal cell loss in mice in order to study the mechanisms that underlie these pre-neoplastic events. PMID:27246044

  2. Discrimination and evocation of affectively intoned speech in patients with right parietal disease.

    PubMed

    Tucker, D M; Watson, R T; Heilman, K M

    1977-10-01

    Patients with right parietal disease have disturbed comprehension of affective speech. Ability to discriminate affective speech (make same/different discriminations) and ability to repeat emotionally bland sentences with affective tones were tested in three groups of subjects--patients with right parietal dysfunction and neglect, conduction aphasics with left hemispheric lesions, and patients without intracranial disease. Patients with right parietal dysfunction performed significantly poorer than did aphasic controls on both a recognition and discrimination task. Patients with right parietal dysfunction also scored poorer on the evocative task than the nonaphasic controls. PMID:561908

  3. A rare case of unusual gingival enlargement post radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vishal; Bhat, G. Subraya; Bhat, K. Mahalinga

    2011-01-01

    Oral changes following radiotherapy are not uncommon. Oral mucositis, alteration in salivary gland function, radiation caries, and gingival changes have all been reported following radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The gingival changes seen after radiotherapy may be unusual and often cause diagnostic dilemma. Metastasis to the gingiva has also to be ruled out in these cases. A 30-year-old female patient presented with enlargement of the gingiva of 6 months’ duration and lower lip swelling of 7 months’ duration. She was a known case of carcinoma of nasopharynx and had received radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Based on the history, the clinical appearance of the gingiva, and the other oral changes we considered both post-radiotherapy gingival enlargement and secondary metastasis to gingiva as possibilities. An incisional biopsy was performed (internal bevel gingivectomy). The histopathological report did not reveal any metastatic changes. Thus, we diagnosed post-radiotherapy gingival enlargement. For the multiple carious teeth, extraction and root canal treatment was carried out as necessary. The patient was referred to the department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery for management of swelling of the lips, which was diagnosed as lymphedema of the lip. Gingival enlargement is rare post radiotherapy. Such nonplaque-associated gingival enlargement in a patient who has undergone radiotherapy should be subjected to biopsy and histopathological examination to distinguish between secondary metastasis and post-radiation changes. PMID:22028519

  4. Transient contribution of left posterior parietal cortex to cognitive restructuring.

    PubMed

    Sutoh, Chihiro; Matsuzawa, Daisuke; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Makiko; Nagaoka, Sawako; Chakraborty, Sudesna; Ishii, Daisuke; Matsuda, Shingo; Tomizawa, Haruna; Ito, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Obata, Takayuki; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive restructuring is a fundamental method within cognitive behavioural therapy of changing dysfunctional beliefs into flexible beliefs and learning to react appropriately to the reality of an anxiety-causing situation. To clarify the neural mechanisms of cognitive restructuring, we designed a unique task that replicated psychotherapy during a brain scan. The brain activities of healthy male participants were analysed using functional magnetic resonance imaging. During the brain scan, participants underwent Socratic questioning aimed at cognitive restructuring regarding the necessity of handwashing after using the restroom. The behavioural result indicated that the Socratic questioning effectively decreased the participants' degree of belief (DOB) that they must wash their hands. Alterations in the DOB showed a positive correlation with activity in the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) while the subject thought about and rated own belief. The involvement of the left PPC not only in planning and decision-making but also in conceptualization may play a pivotal role in cognitive restructuring. PMID:25775998

  5. Sleep Related Hypermotor Seizures with a Right Parietal Onset.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Steve A; Figorilli, Michela; Casaceli, Giuseppe; Proserpio, Paola; Nobili, Lino

    2015-08-01

    Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is a syndrome characterized by the occurrence of sleep related seizures of variable complexity and duration. Hypermotor seizures (HMS) represent a classic manifestation of this syndrome, associated with a perturbation of the ventromesial frontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus regions. Nevertheless, in recent years, reports have showed that the seizure onset zone (SOZ) need not be of frontal origin to generate HMS. Here we report an unusual case of a patient presenting with a seven-year history of drug-resistant sleep related HMS arising from the mesial parietal region. The presence of an infrequent feeling of levitation before the HMS was key to suspecting a subtle focal cortical dysplasia in the right precuneus region. A stereo-EEG investigation confirmed the extra-frontal seizure onset of the HMS and highlighted the interrelationship between unstable sleep and seizure precipitation. PMID:25902821

  6. Transient contribution of left posterior parietal cortex to cognitive restructuring

    PubMed Central

    Sutoh, Chihiro; Matsuzawa, Daisuke; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Makiko; Nagaoka, Sawako; Chakraborty, Sudesna; Ishii, Daisuke; Matsuda, Shingo; Tomizawa, Haruna; Ito, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Obata, Takayuki; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive restructuring is a fundamental method within cognitive behavioural therapy of changing dysfunctional beliefs into flexible beliefs and learning to react appropriately to the reality of an anxiety-causing situation. To clarify the neural mechanisms of cognitive restructuring, we designed a unique task that replicated psychotherapy during a brain scan. The brain activities of healthy male participants were analysed using functional magnetic resonance imaging. During the brain scan, participants underwent Socratic questioning aimed at cognitive restructuring regarding the necessity of handwashing after using the restroom. The behavioural result indicated that the Socratic questioning effectively decreased the participants' degree of belief (DOB) that they must wash their hands. Alterations in the DOB showed a positive correlation with activity in the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) while the subject thought about and rated own belief. The involvement of the left PPC not only in planning and decision-making but also in conceptualization may play a pivotal role in cognitive restructuring. PMID:25775998

  7. Hypermotor seizures in lateral and mesial parietal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Montavont, Alexandra; Kahane, Philippe; Catenoix, Hélène; Ostrowsky-Coste, Karine; Isnard, Jean; Guénot, Marc; Rheims, Sylvain; Ryvlin, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    Four patients with refractory epilepsy and hypermotor seizures (HMS) benefited from an intracerebral investigation after a presurgical evaluation and demonstrated an ictal onset zone primarily involving the posterior cortex, specifically the posterior cingulate gyrus in two patients. At seizure onset, these two patients reported a falling sensation, followed by HMSs characterized by swinging movements of the trunk with intense grasping of the bed railing. The two other patients with lateral parietal seizure onset reported blurred vision and dizziness, followed by a mixed pattern of the previously described type 1 and 2 HMSs. Three patients have been operated on, including two class I of Engel after 36 and 52months of follow-up. One patient developed a postoperative infection and continues to suffer seizures. Pathological findings disclosed a type IIa focal cortical dysplasia in all the patients. The last patient is awaiting surgery. Posterior cortex epilepsies, including those originating from the posterior cingulate cortex, can be responsible for HMSs. PMID:23872083

  8. Scalp Medical Tattooing Technique to Camouflage Bifid Parietal Whorls

    PubMed Central

    You, Seung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background: To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no reports have described cosmetic problems arising from the hair direction around the parietal whorl (PW). This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of scalp medical tattooing technique for camouflaging bifid PWs. Methods: We retrospectively examined the outcomes of scalp medical tattooing in 38 patients who were admitted for camouflage of a bifid PW. Results: All patients’ cosmetic appearance was judged, by both the patients and the surgeon, to be markedly improved. No specific complications occurred, such as infection, hair loss in the operative field, or other problems. Conclusion: Scalp medical tattooing appears to be an effective method that helps to camouflage the see-through appearance of bifid PWs. PMID:27200232

  9. Subcortical mapping of calculation processing in the right parietal lobe.

    PubMed

    Della Puppa, Alessandro; De Pellegrin, Serena; Lazzarini, Anna; Gioffrè, Giorgio; Rustemi, Oriela; Cagnin, Annachiara; Scienza, Renato; Semenza, Carlo

    2015-05-01

    Preservation of calculation processing in brain surgery is crucial for patients' quality of life. Over the last decade, surgical electrostimulation was used to identify and preserve the cortical areas involved in such processing. Conversely, subcortical connectivity among different areas implicated in this function remains unclear, and the role of surgery in this domain has not been explored so far. The authors present the first 2 cases in which the subcortical functional sites involved in calculation were identified during right parietal lobe surgery. Two patients affected by a glioma located in the right parietal lobe underwent surgery with the aid of MRI neuronavigation. No calculation deficits were detected during preoperative assessment. Cortical and subcortical mapping were performed using a bipolar stimulator. The current intensity was determined by progressively increasing the amplitude by 0.5-mA increments (from a baseline of 1 mA) until a sensorimotor response was elicited. Then, addition and multiplication calculation tasks were administered. Corticectomy was performed according to both the MRI neuronavigation data and the functional findings obtained through cortical mapping. Direct subcortical electrostimulation was repeatedly performed during tumor resection. Subcortical functional sites for multiplication and addition were detected in both patients. Electrostimulation interfered with calculation processing during cortical mapping as well. Functional sites were spared during tumor removal. The postoperative course was uneventful, and calculation processing was preserved. Postoperative MRI showed complete resection of the tumor. The present preliminary study shows for the first time how functional mapping can be a promising method to intraoperatively identify the subcortical functional sites involved in calculation processing. This report therefore supports direct electrical stimulation as a promising tool to improve the current knowledge on

  10. Population interactions between parietal and primary motor cortices during reach

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Naveen G.; Bondy, Adrian; Truccolo, Wilson; Donoghue, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Neural interactions between parietal area 2/5 and primary motor cortex (M1) were examined to determine the timing and behavioral correlates of cortico-cortical interactions. Neural activity in areas 2/5 and M1 was simultaneously recorded with 96-channel microelectrode arrays in three rhesus monkeys performing a center-out reach task. We introduce a new method to reveal parietal-motor interactions at a population level using partial spike-field coherence (PSFC) between ensembles of neurons in one area and a local field potential (LFP) in another. PSFC reflects the extent of phase locking between spike times and LFP, after removing the coherence between LFPs in the two areas. Spectral analysis of M1 LFP revealed three bands: low, medium, and high, differing in power between movement preparation and performance. We focus on PSFC in the 1–10 Hz band, in which coherence was strongest. PSFC was also present in the 10–40 Hz band during movement preparation in many channels but generally nonsignificant in the 60–200 Hz band. Ensemble PSFC revealed stronger interactions than single cell-LFP pairings. PSFC of area 2/5 ensembles with M1 LFP typically rose around movement onset and peaked ∼500 ms afterward. PSFC was typically stronger for subsets of area 2/5 neurons and M1 LFPs with similar directional bias than for those with opposite bias, indicating that area 2/5 contributes movement direction information. Together with linear prediction of M1 LFP by area 2/5 spiking, the ensemble-LFP pairing approach reveals interactions missed by single neuron-LFP pairing, demonstrating that cortico-cortical communication can be more readily observed at the ensemble level. PMID:25210154

  11. Development of Cutting Device with Enlargement Mechanism of Displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Yoshitaka; Ichida, Yoshio; Sato, Ryunosuke; Ohori, Yukio

    A new cutting device driven by an enlargement mechanism with a PZT drive has been developed to realize positioning the cutting tool from nm to mm. In this study, the mechanical principal of a newly developed enlargement mechanism consisting of fluid chamber, a PZT device, and cutting tool stage is reported. The basic performances of the developed mechanism are also evaluated. This developed device demonstrates that the magnitude of enlargement reaches 4 times of stroke than the original one of the PZT. The dynamic characteristics show DC to 50 Hz which is enough frequency response to realize the non-circle cutting. The non-circle profile is machined by the developed mechanism. The profile accuracy obtained settles in ±1.3μm by the repetitive control method.

  12. Neurovascular Compression Caused by Popliteus Muscle Enlargement Without Discrete Trauma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Popliteal entrapment syndrome caused by isolated popliteus muscle enlargement is very rare, although its occurrence has been reported after discrete trauma. However, popliteal artery stenosis with combined peroneal and proximal tibial neuropathy caused by popliteus muscle enlargement without preceding trauma has not been reported. A 57-year-old man presented with a tingling sensation and pain in his left calf. He had no previous history of an injury. The symptoms were similar to those of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Calf pain became worse despite treatment, and the inability to flex his toes progressed. Computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance imaging of the lower extremity showed popliteal artery stenosis caused by popliteus muscle enlargement and surrounding edema. An electrodiagnostic study confirmed combined peroneal and proximal tibial neuropathy at the popliteal fossa. Urgent surgical decompression was performed because of the progressive neurologic deficit and increasing neuropathic pain. The calf pain disappeared immediately after surgery, and he was discharged after the neurologic functions improved. PMID:27446794

  13. Arachnoid cyst slit valves: the mechanism for arachnoid cyst enlargement.

    PubMed

    Halani, Sameer H; Safain, Mina G; Heilman, Carl B

    2013-07-01

    Arachnoid cysts are common, accounting for approximately 1% of intracranial mass lesions. Most are congenital, clinically silent, and remain static in size. Occasionally, they increase in size and produce symptoms due to mass effect or obstruction. The mechanism of enlargement of arachnoid cysts is controversial. One-way slit valves are often hypothesized as the mechanism for enlargement. The authors present 4 cases of suprasellar prepontine arachnoid cysts in which a slit valve was identified. The patients presented with hydrocephalus due to enlargement of the cyst. The valve was located in the arachnoid wall of the cyst directly over the basilar artery. The authors believe this slit valve was responsible for the net influx of CSF into the cyst and for its enlargement. They also present 1 case of an arachnoid cyst in the middle cranial fossa that had a small circular opening but lacked a slit valve. This cyst did not enlarge but surgery was required because of rupture and the development of a subdural hygroma. One-way slit valves exist and are a possible mechanism of enlargement of suprasellar prepontine arachnoid cysts. The valve was located directly over the basilar artery in each of these cases. Caudad-to-cephalad CSF flow during the cardiac cycle increased the opening of the valve, whereas cephalad-to-caudad CSF flow during the remainder of the cardiac cycle pushed the slit opening against the basilar artery and decreased the size of the opening. Arachnoid cysts that communicate CSF via circular, nonslit valves are probably more likely to remain stable. PMID:23662935

  14. Cardiac Asystole Triggered by Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Amygdala Enlargement.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Junko; Nagai, Tomoo; Takasaki, Hiroshi; Sugano, Hidenori; Hamabe, Akira; Tahara, Mai; Mori, Hitoshi; Takase, Yoshiyuki; Gatate, Youdou; Togashi, Naohiko; Takiguchi, Shunichi; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ishigami, Norio; Tabata, Hirotsugu; Fukushima, Kouji; Katsushika, Shuichi

    2016-01-01

    A 25-year-old previously healthy man was hospitalized for syncope. While standing, he suddenly lost consciousness, followed by a generalized tonic clonic seizure. An electrocardiogram demonstrated asystole. No cardiac abnormalities were detected on the echocardiogram, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography, or a coronary angiogram. An electrophysiological study showed normal sinus node and atrioventricular node function. An electroencephalogram revealed small spike waves in the fronto-temporal region. Brain MRI demonstrated a left-sided amygdala enlargement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of temporal lobe epilepsy with an amygdala enlargement that induced cardiac asystole. PMID:27250053

  15. Eye discomfort when reading microfilm in different enlargers.

    PubMed

    Hultgren, G V; Knave, B; Werner, M

    1974-12-01

    At a large banking firm, the lighting conditions under which middle-aged women employees read microfilms in different enlargers were studied. Complaints from the staff were analyzed and compared with the results obtained. Discomfort glare, due to heavy contrasts between the dark documents on the screens and other light surfaces in the visual fields, was the main cause of the complaints. It was recommended that individual near-work spectacles might decrease or eliminate some of the disturbing factors which had led to the subjective complaints. Suggestions were made for improving the enlargers. PMID:15677155

  16. The Role of Right and Left Parietal Lobes in the Conceptual Processing of Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Lee, Hwee Ling; Freeman, Elliot D.; Price, Cathy J.

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychological and functional imaging studies have associated the conceptual processing of numbers with bilateral parietal regions (including intraparietal sulcus). However, the processes driving these effects remain unclear because both left and right posterior parietal regions are activated by many other conceptual, perceptual, attention,…

  17. The Contribution of the Inferior Parietal Cortex to Spoken Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geranmayeh, Fatemeh; Brownsett, Sonia L. E.; Leech, Robert; Beckmann, Christian F.; Woodhead, Zoe; Wise, Richard J. S.

    2012-01-01

    This functional MRI study investigated the involvement of the left inferior parietal cortex (IPC) in spoken language production (Speech). Its role has been apparent in some studies but not others, and is not convincingly supported by clinical studies as they rarely include cases with lesions confined to the parietal lobe. We compared Speech with…

  18. Differences in biomechanical properties and thickness among frontal and parietal bones in a Japanese sample.

    PubMed

    Torimitsu, Suguru; Nishida, Yoshifumi; Takano, Tachio; Yajima, Daisuke; Inokuchi, Go; Makino, Yohsuke; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Yamaguchi, Rutsuko; Hashimoto, Mari; Hoshioka, Yumi; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mechanical properties and thickness of adult frontal and parietal bones. The heads of 114 Japanese cadavers (78 male cadavers and 36 female cadavers) of known age and sex were used. A total of 912 cranial samples, 8 from each skull, were collected. Samples were imaged using multidetector computed tomography to measure sample thickness. The fracture load of each sample was measured using a bending test with calculation of flexural strength. Statistical analyses demonstrated no significant bilateral difference in either the mechanical properties or thickness of frontal or parietal bones. The mechanical properties and thicknesses of frontal bones were significantly greater than those of parietal bones regardless of sex. Therefore, the skull may have a great ability to resist frontal impacts compared with parietal impacts. In female samples, parietal bones were found to have a more uniform structure when compared with male samples. Male parietal bones were found to be thicker at medial sites than at lateral sites. This study also revealed parietal bones at lateral sites in female samples were thicker than in male samples. No strong association was observed between age and flexural strength of frontal or parietal bones. However, the fracture load was negatively correlated with age most likely due to the reduction of thickness. PMID:25998720

  19. Dissociable Temporo-Parietal Memory Networks Revealed by Functional Connectivity during Episodic Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Satoshi; Kimura, Hiroko M.; Jimura, Koji; Kunimatsu, Akira; Abe, Osamu; Ohtomo, Kuni; Miyashita, Yasushi; Konishi, Seiki

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory retrieval most often recruits multiple separate processes that are thought to involve different temporal regions. Previous studies suggest dissociable regions in the left lateral parietal cortex that are associated with the retrieval processes. Moreover, studies using resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) have provided evidence for the temporo-parietal memory networks that may support the retrieval processes. In this functional MRI study, we tested functional significance of the memory networks by examining functional connectivity of brain activity during episodic retrieval in the temporal and parietal regions of the memory networks. Recency judgments, judgments of the temporal order of past events, can be achieved by at least two retrieval processes, relational and item-based. Neuroimaging results revealed several temporal and parietal activations associated with relational/item-based recency judgments. Significant RSFC was observed between one parahippocampal region and one left lateral parietal region associated with relational recency judgments, and between four lateral temporal regions and another left lateral parietal region associated with item-based recency judgments. Functional connectivity during task was found to be significant between the parahippocampal region and the parietal region in the RSFC network associated with relational recency judgments. However, out of the four tempo-parietal RSFC networks associated with item-based recency judgments, only one of them (between the left posterior lateral temporal region and the left lateral parietal region) showed significant functional connectivity during task. These results highlight the contrasting roles of the parahippocampal and the lateral temporal regions in recency judgments, and suggest that only a part of the tempo-parietal RSFC networks are recruited to support particular retrieval processes. PMID:24009657

  20. Intrinsic connections and architectonics of posterior parietal cortex in the rhesus monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Pandya, D.N.; Seltzer, B.

    1982-01-10

    By means of autoradiographic and ablation-degeneration techniques, the intrinsic cortical connections of the posterior parietal cortex in the rhesus monkey were traced and correlated with a reappraisal of cerebral architectonics. Two major rostral-to-caudal connectional sequences exist. One begins in the dorsal postcentral gyrus (area 2) and proceeds, through architectonic divisions of the superior parietal lobule (areas PE and PEc), to a cortical region on the medial surface of the parietal lobe (area PGm). This area has architectonic features similar to those of the caudal inferior parietal lobule (area PG). The second sequence begins in the ventral post/central gyrus (area 2) and passes through the rostral inferior parietal lobule (areas PG and PFG) to reach the caudal inferior parietal lobule (area PG). Both the superior parietal lobule and the rostral inferior parietal lobule also send projections to various other zones located in the parietal opercular region, the intraparietal sulcus, and the caudalmost portion of the cingulate sulcus. Areas PGm and PG, on the other hand, project to each other, to the cingulate region, to the caudalmost portion of the superior temporal gyrus, and to the upper bank of the superior temporal sulcus. Finally, a reciprocal sequence of connections, directed from caudal to rostral, links together many of the above-mentioned parietal zones. With regard to the laminar pattern of termination, the rostral-to-caudal connections are primarily distributed in the form of cortical ''columns'' while the caudal-to-rostral connections are found mainly over the first cortical cell layer.

  1. 1. 8' x 10' enlargement from 4' x 5' negative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 8' x 10' enlargement from 4' x 5' negative Kevin Kriesel-Coons, Photographer, November 13, 1990 EXTERIOR OF HYDRO PLANT, SHOWING CURRENT STATE OF DISREPAIR. VIEW FROM WALKWAY OVER TAILRACE OF CROSSCUT CANAL TO THE LARGER, ORIGINAL CROSSCUT HYDRO PLANT. - Crosscut Steam Plant, Ancillary Hydro Unit, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. 2. 8' x 10' enlargement from 4' x 5' negative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 8' x 10' enlargement from 4' x 5' negative Kevin Kriesel-Coons, Photographer, November 13, 1990 INTERIOR OF HYDRO PLANT, SHOWING CURRENT STATE OF DISREPAIR. - Crosscut Steam Plant, Ancillary Hydro Unit, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. Construction and enlargement of traversable wormholes from Schwarzschild black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, Hiroko; Hayward, Sean A.

    2004-10-15

    Analytic solutions are presented which describe the construction of a traversable wormhole from a Schwarzschild black hole, and the enlargement of such a wormhole, in Einstein gravity. The matter model is pure radiation which may have negative-energy density (phantom or ghost radiation) and the idealization of impulsive radiation (infinitesimally thin null shells) is employed.

  4. 22. PHOTOGRAPHIC ENLARGEMENT OF UPPER PHOTOGRAPH ON PAGE 986 IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. PHOTOGRAPHIC ENLARGEMENT OF UPPER PHOTOGRAPH ON PAGE 986 IN Keystone Coal Buyers Catalog, 1922, VIEW SOUTH, COMMUNITY OF ETHEL; ETHEL COAL COMPANY MINE SUPPLY BUILDING IS LOCATED IN MID-GROUND LEFT OF CENTER PARTIALLY OBSCURED BY ROOF OF HOUSE IN FOREGROUND - Ethel Coal Company & Supply Building, Left fork of Dingess Run (Ethel Hollow), Ethel, Logan County, WV

  5. 23. PHOTOGRAPHIC ENLARGEMENT OF UPPER PHOTOGRAPH ON PAGE 986 IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. PHOTOGRAPHIC ENLARGEMENT OF UPPER PHOTOGRAPH ON PAGE 986 IN Keystone Coal Buyers Catalog, 1922, VIEW SOUTH, COMMUNITY OF ETHEL; ETHEL COAL COMPANY MINE SUPPLY BUILDING IS LOCATED IN MID-GROUND IN CENTER PARTIALLY OBSCURED BY ROOF OF HOUSE IN FOREGROUND - Ethel Coal Company & Supply Building, Left fork of Dingess Run (Ethel Hollow), Ethel, Logan County, WV

  6. 9. 8' X 10' Enlargement from 4' x 5' negative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. 8' X 10' Enlargement from 4' x 5' negative Kevin Kriesel-Coons, Photographer PUMPS AFTER REMOVAL FROM PUMPHOUSE BEFORE EXCAVATION OF POND AREA IN 1989. PHOTOGRAPHED LYING ON GROUND NEAR CROSSCUT STEAM PLANT BUILDING. - Crosscut Steam Plant, Indian Bend Pond & Pump Ditch, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. 30. Photocopy from enlarged microfiche of 1896 drawing captioned: Part ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photocopy from enlarged microfiche of 1896 drawing captioned: Part of Plan C/80 showing changes proposed in end doors of Storehouse, then under construction by the Penn Bridge Co. of Beaver Falls, Pa. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Pattern Shop, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  8. 23. Photocopy of photograph (4 x 5 inch enlargement of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photocopy of photograph (4 x 5 inch enlargement of 1940 3-1/4 x 4-1/4 inch print by R. Nevan McCullough; in Cultural Resource files, Supervisor's Office, Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest) SOUTH FRONT - Suntop Lookout, Forest Road 510, Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, Greenwater, Pierce County, WA

  9. Does Society Matter? Life Satisfaction in the Enlarged Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnke, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Life satisfaction is quite heterogeneously distributed across countries of the enlarged European Union. Previous research has shown how living conditions within individual countries, such as access to material and emotional resources, are important for personal well-being, but it has been less successful in explaining differences between…

  10. 17. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. ENLARGEMENT OF PORTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. ENLARGEMENT OF PORTION OF PHOTOGRAPH AZ-10-16, SHOWING WOOD TOWER BEFORE CONCRETE WAS ADDED. NOTE GUY CABLE CONNECTED TO TOP RIGHT OF TOWER. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. VIETNAMESE-ENGLISH STUDENT DICTIONARY (REVISED AND ENLARGED EDITION).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOA, NGUYEN DINH

    THIS DICTIONARY IS INTENDED FOR SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH STUDYING VIETNAMESE. IT IS REVISED AND ENLARGED FROM THE 1959 EDITION. ADDED ENTRIES ARE MAINLY FROM NEWSPAPERS, PERIODICALS, GOVERNMENT RELEASES, AND TEXTBOOKS. THE DICTIONARY CONTAINS BOTH BOUND MORPHEMES AND WORDS. ITS COVERAGE OF COMPOUNDS IS CONSIDERABLY GREATER THAN THAT OF THE PREVIOUS…

  12. Photographic Enlargement of Printed Music: Technique, Application, and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Pauline T.; Rich, A. Jeanette

    1982-01-01

    Addressed a need for enlargement of music when retirement home residents were deprived of a self-fulfillment opportunity from choir activities due to failing eyesight. A photographic process yielded the needed feasible large reproductions. Innovative application of this technique affords wide-ranging potential for positive benefit beyond music…

  13. Income, Deprivation and Economic Stress in the Enlarged European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Christopher T.; Maitre, Bertrand

    2007-01-01

    At risk of poverty indicators based on relative income measures suggest that within the enlarged EU societies located at quite different points on a continuum of affluence have similar levels of poverty. Substantial differences in levels of income between societies do not in themselves invalidate this approach. However, the relative income…

  14. Amygdala and Hippocampus Enlargement during Adolescence in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groen, Wouter; Teluij, Michelle; Buitelaar, Jan; Tendolkar, Indira

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The amygdala and hippocampus are key components of the neural system mediating emotion perception and regulation and are thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of autism. Although some studies in children with autism suggest that there is an enlargement of amygdala and hippocampal volume, findings in adolescence are sparse.…

  15. The Print and Computer Enlargement System--PACE. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morford, Ronald A.

    The Print and Computer Enlargement (PACE) System is being designed as a portable computerized reading and writing system that enables a low-vision person to read regular print and then create and edit text using large-print computerized output. The design goal was to develop a system that: weighed no more than 12 pounds so it could be easily…

  16. True and false memories, parietal cortex, and confidence judgments.

    PubMed

    Urgolites, Zhisen J; Smith, Christine N; Squire, Larry R

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have asked whether activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the neocortex can distinguish true memory from false memory. A frequent complication has been that the confidence associated with correct memory judgments (true memory) is typically higher than the confidence associated with incorrect memory judgments (false memory). Accordingly, it has often been difficult to know whether a finding is related to memory confidence or memory accuracy. In the current study, participants made recognition memory judgments with confidence ratings in response to previously studied scenes and novel scenes. The left hippocampus and 16 other brain regions distinguished true and false memories when confidence ratings were different for the two conditions. Only three regions (all in the parietal cortex) distinguished true and false memories when confidence ratings were equated. These findings illustrate the utility of taking confidence ratings into account when identifying brain regions associated with true and false memories. Neural correlates of true and false memories are most easily interpreted when confidence ratings are similar for the two kinds of memories. PMID:26472645

  17. Spatial invariance of visual receptive fields in parietal cortex neurons.

    PubMed

    Duhamel, J R; Bremmer, F; Ben Hamed, S; Graf, W

    1997-10-23

    Spatial information is conveyed to the primary visual cortex in retinal coordinates. Movement trajectory programming, however, requires a transformation from this sensory frame of reference into a frame appropriate for the selected part of the body, such as the eye, head or arms. To achieve this transformation, visual information must be combined with information from other sources: for instance, the location of an object of interest can be defined with respect to the observer's head if the position of the eyes in the orbit is known and is added to the object's retinal coordinates. Here we show that in a subdivision of the monkey parietal lobe, the ventral intraparietal area (VIP), the activity of visual neurons is modulated by eye-position signals, as in many other areas of the cortical visual system. We find that individual receptive fields of a population of VIP neurons are organized along a continuum, from eye to head coordinates. In the latter case, neurons encode the azimuth and/or elevation of a visual stimulus, independently of the direction in which the eyes are looking, thus representing spatial locations explicitly in at least a head-centred frame of reference. PMID:9349815

  18. Time Adaptation Shows Duration Selectivity in the Human Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Masamichi J.; Ditye, Thomas; Harada, Tokiko; Hashiguchi, Maho; Sadato, Norihiro; Carlson, Synnöve; Walsh, Vincent; Kanai, Ryota

    2015-01-01

    Although psychological and computational models of time estimation have postulated the existence of neural representations tuned for specific durations, empirical evidence of this notion has been lacking. Here, using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation paradigm, we show that the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) (corresponding to the supramarginal gyrus) exhibited reduction in neural activity due to adaptation when a visual stimulus of the same duration was repeatedly presented. Adaptation was strongest when stimuli of identical durations were repeated, and it gradually decreased as the difference between the reference and test durations increased. This tuning property generalized across a broad range of durations, indicating the presence of general time-representation mechanisms in the IPL. Furthermore, adaptation was observed irrespective of the subject’s attention to time. Repetition of a nontemporal aspect of the stimulus (i.e., shape) did not produce neural adaptation in the IPL. These results provide neural evidence for duration-tuned representations in the human brain. PMID:26378440

  19. Contributions of cat posterior parietal cortex to visuospatial discrimination.

    PubMed

    Lomber, S G; Payne, B R

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the contributions made by cat posterior parietal cortex to the analyses of the relative position of objects in visual space. Two cats were trained on a landmark task in which they learned to report the position of a landmark object relative to a right or left food-reward chamber. Subsequently, three pairs of cooling loops were implanted bilaterally in contact with visuoparietal cortices forming the crown of the middle suprasylvian gyrus (MSg; architectonic area 7) and the banks of the posterior-middle suprasylvian sulcus (pMS sulcal cortex) and in contact with the ventral-posterior suprasylvian (vPS) region of visuotemporal cortex. Bilateral deactivation of pMS sulcal cortex resulted in a profound impairment for all six tested positions of the landmark, yet bilateral deactivation of neither area 7 nor vPS cortex yielded any deficits. In control tasks (visual orienting and object discrimination), there was no evidence for any degree of attentional blindness or impairment of form discrimination during bilateral deactivation of pMS cortex. Therefore, we conclude that bilateral cooling of pMS cortex, but neither area 7 nor vPS cortex, induces a specific deficit in spatial localization as examined with the landmark task. These observations have significant bearing on our understanding of visuospatial processing in cat, monkey, and human cortices. PMID:11153650

  20. Influence of monkey dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal activity on behavioral choice during attention tasks.

    PubMed

    Katsuki, Fumi; Saito, Mizuki; Constantinidis, Christos

    2014-09-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal and the posterior parietal cortex have both been implicated in the guidance of visual attention. Traditionally, posterior parietal cortex has been thought to guide visual bottom-up attention and prefrontal cortex to bias attention through top-down information. More recent studies suggest a parallel time course of activation of the two areas in bottom-up attention tasks, suggesting a common involvement, though these results do not necessarily imply identical roles. To address the specific roles of the two areas, we examined the influence of neuronal activity recorded from the prefrontal and parietal cortex of monkeys as they performed attention tasks based on choice probability and on correlation between reaction time and neuronal activity. The results revealed that posterior parietal but not dorsolateral prefrontal activity correlated with behavioral choice during the fixation period, prior to the appearance of the stimulus, resembling a bias factor. This preferential influence of posterior parietal activity on behavior was transient, so that dorsolateral prefrontal activity predicted choice after the appearance of the stimulus. Additionally, reaction time was better predicted by posterior parietal activity. These findings confirm the involvement of both dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex in the bottom-up guidance of visual attention, but indicate different roles of the two areas in the guidance of attention and a dynamic time course of their effects, influencing behavior at different stages of the task. PMID:24964224

  1. Cortical connectivity maps reveal anatomically distinct areas in the parietal cortex of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Wilber, Aaron A.; Clark, Benjamin J.; Demecha, Alexis J.; Mesina, Lilia; Vos, Jessica M.; McNaughton, Bruce L.

    2015-01-01

    A central feature of theories of spatial navigation involves the representation of spatial relationships between objects in complex environments. The parietal cortex has long been linked to the processing of spatial visual information and recent evidence from single unit recording in rodents suggests a role for this region in encoding egocentric and world-centered frames. The rat parietal cortex can be subdivided into four distinct rostral-caudal and medial-lateral regions, which includes a zone previously characterized as secondary visual cortex. At present, very little is known regarding the relative connectivity of these parietal subdivisions. Thus, we set out to map the connectivity of the entire anterior-posterior and medial-lateral span of this region. To do this we used anterograde and retrograde tracers in conjunction with open source neuronal segmentation and tracer detection tools to generate whole brain connectivity maps of parietal inputs and outputs. Our present results show that inputs to the parietal cortex varied significantly along the medial-lateral, but not the rostral-caudal axis. Specifically, retrosplenial connectivity is greater medially, but connectivity with visual cortex, though generally sparse, is more significant laterally. Finally, based on connection density, the connectivity between parietal cortex and hippocampus is indirect and likely achieved largely via dysgranular retrosplenial cortex. Thus, similar to primates, the parietal cortex of rats exhibits a difference in connectivity along the medial-lateral axis, which may represent functionally distinct areas. PMID:25601828

  2. Combined frontal and parietal P300 amplitudes indicate compensated cognitive processing across the lifespan

    PubMed Central

    van Dinteren, Rik; Arns, Martijn; Jongsma, Marijtje L. A.; Kessels, Roy P. C.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study the frontal and parietal P300, elicited in an auditory oddball paradigm were investigated in a large sample of healthy participants (N = 1572), aged 6–87. According to the concepts of the compensation-related utilization of neural circuits hypothesis (CRUNCH) it was hypothesized that the developmental trajectories of the frontal P300 would reach a maximum in amplitude at an older age than the amplitude of the parietal P300 amplitude. In addition, the amplitude of the frontal P300 was expected to increase with aging in adulthood in contrast to a decline in amplitude of the parietal P300 amplitude. Using curve-fitting methods, a comparison was made between the developmental trajectories of the amplitudes of the frontal and parietal P300. It was found that the developmental trajectories of frontal and parietal P300 amplitudes differed significantly across the lifespan. During adulthood, the amplitude of the parietal P300 declines with age, whereas both the frontal P300 amplitude and behavioral performance remain unaffected. A lifespan trajectory of combined frontal and parietal P300 amplitudes was found to closely resemble the lifespan trajectory of behavioral performance. Our results can be understood within the concepts of CRUNCH. That is, to compensate for declining neural resources, older participants recruit additional neural resources of prefrontal origin and consequently preserve a stable behavioral performance. Though, a direct relation between amplitude of the frontal P300 and compensatory mechanisms cannot yet be claimed. PMID:25386141

  3. Sex Differences in Parietal Lobe Morphology: Relationship to Mental Rotation Performance

    PubMed Central

    Koscik, Tim; O’Leary, Dan; Moser, David J.; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Nopoulos, Peg

    2009-01-01

    Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the human brain have reported evidence for sexual dimorphism. In addition to sex differences in overall cerebral volume, differences in the proportion of gray matter (GM) to white matter (WM) volume have been observed, particularly in the parietal lobe. To our knowledge there have been no studies examining the relationship between the sex differences in parietal lobe structure and function. The parietal lobe is thought to be involved in spatial ability, and particularly involved in mental rotation. The purpose of this study is to examine whether sex differences in parietal lobe structure are present, and if present to relate these differences to performance on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT). We found that women had proportionately greater gray matter volume in the parietal lobe compared to men, and this morphologic difference was disadvantageous for women in terms of performance on the MRT. In contrast, we found that men compared to women had proportionately greater parietal lobe surface area, and this morphologic difference was associated with a performance advantage for men on mental rotation. These findings support the possibility that the sexual dimorphism in the structure of the parietal lobe is a neurobiological substrate for the sex difference in performance on the Mental Rotations Test. PMID:18980790

  4. The parietal cortex and saccade planning: lessons from human lesion studies

    PubMed Central

    Ptak, Radek; Müri, René M.

    2013-01-01

    The parietal cortex is a critical interface for attention and integration of multiple sensory signals that can be used for the implementation of motor plans. Many neurons in this region exhibit strong attention-, reach-, grasp- or saccade-related activity. Here, we review human lesion studies supporting the critical role of the parietal cortex in saccade planning. Studies of patients with unilateral parietal damage and spatial neglect reveal characteristic spatially lateralized deficits of saccade programming when multiple stimuli compete for attention. However, these patients also show bilateral impairments of saccade initiation and control that are difficult to explain in the context of their lateralized deficits of visual attention. These findings are reminiscent of the deficits of oculomotor control observed in patients with Bálint's syndrome consecutive to bilateral parietal damage. We propose that some oculomotor deficits following parietal damage are compatible with a decisive role of the parietal cortex in saccade planning under conditions of sensory competition, while other deficits reflect disinhibition of low-level structures of the oculomotor network in the absence of top-down parietal modulation. PMID:23759723

  5. Phenytoin, folic acid and gingival enlargement: Breaking myths

    PubMed Central

    Nayyar, Abhishek Singh; Khan, Mubeen; Vijayalakshmi, K. R.; Suman, B.; Subhas, G. T.; Nataraju, B.; Anitha, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is described as a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures of cerebral origin, presenting with episodes of sensory, motor or autonomic phenomenon with or, without loss of consciousness. A recent meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies puts an overall prevalence rate of epilepsy in India at 5.59 per 1,000 populations. There have been studies that report clinical benefits of the use of folic acid as an adjuvant to the anti-epileptic therapy in the prevention of anti-epileptic drug induced gingival enlargement. However, studies conducted in the past have also reported precipitation of epileptic attacks in patients on folic acid adjuvant therapy due to fall in sera levels of phenytoin due to drug interactions. The study was planned to investigate the association of phenytoin induced gingival enlargement and sera levels of folic acid in epileptic patients on phenytoin therapy so as to justify the use of folic acid as a routine adjuvant to the usual anti-epileptic therapy to prevent this inevitable adverse effect without destabilizing the ongoing regimen leading to the precipitation of seizures in an otherwise stable patient (breakthrough seizures). Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients between the ages 18 and 50 years were clinically diagnosed with epilepsy prior to the start of phenytoin therapy were included based on selection criteria and written informed consents were obtained. Assessment of serum folic acid levels and gingival enlargement was performed prior to the start of and after 1 year of phenytoin therapy. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was carried out using t-test and the baseline serum folate levels and the serum folate levels obtained after 1 year of phenytoin therapy were correlated with the respective grades of gingival enlargement using Pearson's coefficient formula. Results: The results of the study confirmed a significant association between low serum folate levels

  6. Potential relationship of self-injurious behavior to right temporo-parietal lesions.

    PubMed

    Borah, Shaina; McConnell, Brice; Hughes, Richard; Kluger, Benzi

    2016-06-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is associated with several neurologic and psychiatric syndromes but rarely with focal lesions. Two patients with lesions of the right temporo-parietal junction presented to psychiatric inpatient services with SIB in the absence of notable neurologic deficits or suicidal ideation. Right temporo-parietal lesions may be associated with disturbances of agency and body ownership, both of which may facilitate SIB. Misoplegia, or hatred of a limb, may be associated with SIB and has been reported without hemiplegia with a right temporo-parietal lesion. Further study is warranted to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying SIB. PMID:26882285

  7. Benign enlargement of sub-arachnoid spaces in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Kuruvilla, Linu Cherian

    2014-01-01

    Benign enlargement of sub-arachnoid spaces (BESS) is one of the causes of macrocephaly in infants. It is a self-limiting condition and does not require any active medical or surgical treatment. We report a case of an infant aged 4 months who was referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain as the head circumference of the infant had increased rapidly from the 50th percentile in the 3rd month to more than the 95th percentile in the 4th month of age. MRI revealed enlarged anterior sub-arachnoid spaces and mild prominence of all the ventricles. A possibility of BESS was suspected since the child was neurodevelopmentally normal. A follow-up MRI done at the age of 18 months showed a reduction in the size of the sub-arachnoid spaces with normal sized ventricles. PMID:25250066

  8. Performance of enlarged blood pump models with five different impellers.

    PubMed

    Chua, L P; Yu, S C; Leo, H L

    2000-01-01

    In earlier studies, a 5:1 enlarged pump model of the Kyoto-NTN Magnetically Suspended Centrifugal Blood Pump had been constructed and the flow characteristics investigated. Although the results obtained were satisfactory, the medium used was air. A 5:1 enlarged pump model using water as the medium thus was designed and constructed. Five different impeller blade profile designs were used in the present study. By varying (1) the blade profile design: forward, radial, and backward, (2) the number of blades used, and (3) the rotating speed, the flow characteristics of the pump were investigated. It was found that the impeller with the higher number of blades, used in the forward and straight blade profiles, have the best performance. PMID:10999376

  9. Abstract categories of functions in anterior parietal lobe.

    PubMed

    Leshinskaya, Anna; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge of function is critical for selecting objects to meet action goals, even when the affordances of those objects are not mechanical-for instance, both a painting and a vase can decorate a room. To identify neural representations of such abstract function concepts, we asked participants in an fMRI scanner to view a variety of objects and evaluate their utility to each of four goals (two Decoration goals: dress up for a night out and decorate a house, and two Protection goals: protect your body from the cold and keep objects dry in a flooded basement). These task conditions differed in the kind of functional evaluation participants had to perform over objects, but did not vary in the objects themselves. We performed a searchlight multivariate pattern analysis to identify cortical representations in which neural patterns were more similar for the pairs of similar-goal than dissimilar-goal task conditions (Decorate vs. Protect). We report such effects in anterior inferior parietal lobe (aIPL) close to regions typically reported for processing tool-related actions, and thought to be important for representing how they are manipulated. However, the current study design fully controlled for manipulation similarity, which predicted orthogonal relationships among the conditions. We conclude that the aIPL likely has nearby, but distinct, representations of both manipulation and function knowledge, and thereby may have a broader role in understanding how objects can be used, representing not just physical affordances but also abstract functional criteria such as esthetic value or purpose categories such as decorate. This pattern of localization has implications for how semantic knowledge is organized in the brain. PMID:25592369

  10. Hand Shape Representations in the Human Posterior Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Klaes, Christian; Kellis, Spencer; Aflalo, Tyson; Lee, Brian; Pejsa, Kelsie; Shanfield, Kathleen; Hayes-Jackson, Stephanie; Aisen, Mindy; Heck, Christi; Liu, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Humans shape their hands to grasp, manipulate objects, and to communicate. From nonhuman primate studies, we know that visual and motor properties for grasps can be derived from cells in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Are non-grasp-related hand shapes in humans represented similarly? Here we show for the first time how single neurons in the PPC of humans are selective for particular imagined hand shapes independent of graspable objects. We find that motor imagery to shape the hand can be successfully decoded from the PPC by implementing a version of the popular Rock-Paper-Scissors game and its extension Rock-Paper-Scissors-Lizard-Spock. By simultaneous presentation of visual and auditory cues, we can discriminate motor imagery from visual information and show differences in auditory and visual information processing in the PPC. These results also demonstrate that neural signals from human PPC can be used to drive a dexterous cortical neuroprosthesis. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study shows for the first time hand-shape decoding from human PPC. Unlike nonhuman primate studies in which the visual stimuli are the objects to be grasped, the visually cued hand shapes that we use are independent of the stimuli. Furthermore, we can show that distinct neuronal populations are activated for the visual cue and the imagined hand shape. Additionally we found that auditory and visual stimuli that cue the same hand shape are processed differently in PPC. Early on in a trial, only the visual stimuli and not the auditory stimuli can be decoded. During the later stages of a trial, the motor imagery for a particular hand shape can be decoded for both modalities. PMID:26586832

  11. Distinct relationships of parietal and prefrontal cortices to evidence accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Hanks, Timothy; Kopec, Charles D.; Brunton, Bingni W.; Duan, Chunyu A.; Erlich, Jeffrey C.; Brody, Carlos D.

    2014-01-01

    Gradual accumulation of evidence is thought to be fundamental for decision-making, and its neural correlates have been found in multiple brain regions1–8. Here we develop a generalizable method to measure tuning curves that specify the relationship between neural responses and mentally-accumulated evidence, and apply it to distinguish the encoding of decision variables in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and prefrontal cortex (frontal orienting fields, FOF). We recorded the firing rates of neurons in PPC and FOF from rats performing a perceptual decision-making task. Classical analyses uncovered correlates of accumulating evidence, similar to previous observations in primates and also similar across the two regions. However, tuning curve assays revealed that while the PPC encodes a graded value of the accumulating evidence, the FOF has a more categorical encoding that indicates, throughout the trial, the decision provisionally favored by the evidence accumulated so far. Contrary to current views3,5,7–9, this suggests that premotor activity in frontal cortex does not play a role in the accumulation process, but instead has a more categorical function, such as transforming accumulated evidence into a discrete choice. To causally probe the role of FOF activity, we optogenetically silenced it during different timepoints of the trial. Consistent with a role in committing to a categorical choice at the end of the evidence accumulation process, but not consistent with a role during the accumulation itself, a behavioral effect was observed only when FOF silencing occurred at the end of the perceptual stimulus. Our results place important constraints on the circuit logic of brain regions involved in decision-making. PMID:25600270

  12. Heterogeneous and nonlinear development of human posterior parietal cortex function.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ting-Ting; Metcalfe, Arron W S; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Chen, Tianwen; Menon, Vinod

    2016-02-01

    Human cognitive problem solving skills undergo complex experience-dependent changes from childhood to adulthood, yet most neurodevelopmental research has focused on linear changes with age. Here we challenge this limited view, and investigate spatially heterogeneous and nonlinear neurodevelopmental profiles between childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood, focusing on three cytoarchitectonically distinct posterior parietal cortex (PPC) regions implicated in numerical problem solving: intraparietal sulcus (IPS), angular gyrus (AG), and supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Adolescents demonstrated better behavioral performance relative to children, but their performance was equivalent to that of adults. However, all three groups differed significantly in their profile of activation and connectivity across the PPC subdivisions. Activation in bilateral ventral IPS subdivision IPS-hIP1, along with adjoining anterior AG subdivision, AG-PGa, and the posterior SMG subdivision, SMG-PFm, increased linearly with age, whereas the posterior AG subdivision, AG-PGp, was equally deactivated in all three groups. In contrast, the left anterior SMG subdivision, SMG-PF, showed an inverted U-shaped profile across age groups such that adolescents exhibited greater activation than both children and young adults. Critically, greater SMG-PF activation was correlated with task performance only in adolescents. Furthermore, adolescents showed greater task-related functional connectivity of the SMG-PF with ventro-temporal, anterior temporal and prefrontal cortices, relative to both children and adults. These results suggest that nonlinear up-regulation of SMG-PF and its interconnected functional circuits facilitate adult-level performance in adolescents. Our study provides novel insights into heterogeneous age-related maturation of the PPC underlying cognitive skill acquisition, and further demonstrates how anatomically precise analysis of both linear and nonlinear neurofunctional changes with age is

  13. A frontal but not parietal neural correlate of auditory consciousness.

    PubMed

    Brancucci, Alfredo; Lugli, Victor; Perrucci, Mauro Gianni; Del Gratta, Cosimo; Tommasi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Hemodynamic correlates of consciousness were investigated in humans during the presentation of a dichotic sequence inducing illusory auditory percepts with features analogous to visual multistability. The sequence consisted of a variation of the original stimulation eliciting the Deutsch's octave illusion, created to maintain a stable illusory percept long enough to allow the detection of the underlying hemodynamic activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Two specular 500 ms dichotic stimuli (400 and 800 Hz) presented in alternation by means of earphones cause an illusory segregation of pitch and ear of origin which can yield up to four different auditory percepts per dichotic stimulus. Such percepts are maintained stable when one of the two dichotic stimuli is presented repeatedly for 6 s, immediately after the alternation. We observed hemodynamic activity specifically accompanying conscious experience of pitch in a bilateral network including the superior frontal gyrus (SFG, BA9 and BA10), medial frontal gyrus (BA6 and BA9), insula (BA13), and posterior lateral nucleus of the thalamus. Conscious experience of side (ear of origin) was instead specifically accompanied by bilateral activity in the MFG (BA6), STG (BA41), parahippocampal gyrus (BA28), and insula (BA13). These results suggest that the neural substrate of auditory consciousness, differently from that of visual consciousness, may rest upon a fronto-temporal rather than upon a fronto-parietal network. Moreover, they indicate that the neural correlates of consciousness depend on the specific features of the stimulus and suggest the SFG-MFG and the insula as important cortical nodes for auditory conscious experience. PMID:25344118

  14. Credit WCT. This view is an enlargement of an original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit WCT. This view is an enlargement of an original 2-A" x 2-Y4" color negative housed in the JPL Photography Laboratory, Pasadena, California. The doors of the conditioning chamber have been opened to reveal the arrangement of wrapped motors ready for treatment (JPL negative no. JPL-10281BC, 27 January 1989) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Solid Propellant Conditioning Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  15. Hole Enlargement Measurement in Carbon Steel Tube Support Plate

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Y.; Nguyen, H.; Shatat, A.; Russell, D. E.; Muthu, N.

    2006-03-06

    The standard RFT (remote field testing) technique has been found feasible for identifying and sizing tube support plate (TSP) hole enlargement caused by corrosion or erosion. Finite element simulations and experimental studies have shown that detector energy output (DEO) of a single-exciter RFT probe is a linear function of the TSP-tube gap for the gap size range studied in this research. DEO can be used to quantify the gap.

  16. Hole Enlargement Measurement in Carbon Steel Tube Support Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Nguyen, H.; Shatat, A.; Russell, D. E.; Muthu, N.

    2006-03-01

    The standard RFT (remote field testing) technique has been found feasible for identifying and sizing tube support plate (TSP) hole enlargement caused by corrosion or erosion. Finite element simulations and experimental studies have shown that detector energy output (DEO) of a single-exciter RFT probe is a linear function of the TSP-tube gap for the gap size range studied in this research. DEO can be used to quantify the gap.

  17. Pallidum and lateral ventricle volume enlargement in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andia H; Greenspan, Kiefer S; van Erp, Theo G M

    2016-06-30

    Studies on structural brain abnormalities in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been of limited size and many findings have not been replicated. In the largest ASD brain morphology study to date, we compared subcortical, total brain (TBV), and intracranial (ICV) volumes between 472 subjects with DSM-IV ASD diagnoses and 538 healthy volunteers (age range: 6-64 years), obtained from high-resolution structural brain scans provided by the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE). Compared to healthy volunteers, we found significantly larger pallidum (Cohen's d=0.15) and lateral ventricle volumes (Cohen's d=0.18) in ASD. These enlargements were independent of total brain volume and IQ, passed FDR correction for multiple comparisons, and were observed in overall, male-only, and medication-free subjects. In addition, intracranial, hippocampal, and caudate volumes were enlarged in ASD at a nominal statistical threshold of p<0.05. This study provides the first robust evidence for pallidum enlargement in ASD independent from TBV and encourages further study of the functional role of the pallidum in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. PMID:27179315

  18. Stochastic Schrödinger evolution over piecewise enlarged filtrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengütürk, Levent Ali

    2016-03-01

    This paper constructs a nonlinear filtering framework that admits appearances of new information processes at random times by introducing piecewise enlargements of filtrations and proposes a new energy-based Schrodinger evolution expressed as a stochastic differential equation on a complex Hilbert space. Each information process is modeled as the sum of a random variable taking the eigenvalues of a Hamiltonian and an independent Brownian bridge noise. It is shown that under a piecewise enlarged filtration, the wave function is a jump-diffusion process until it collapses at some terminal time. In between discontinuities, the dynamics of the state vector are governed by different Wiener processes and diffusion coefficients. This motivates the introduction of an inclusive chain of Kolmogorov probability spaces or a *-isomorphic chain of commutative von Neumann probability spaces, on which the quantum system evolves differently based on the number of active information processes. The expectation of the Hamiltonian at a given state is the solution of a second-order nonlinear differential equation determined by one of the possible regimes that the quantum system belongs to. It is shown that the collapse rate is a submartingale with positive jumps and the Shannon entropy process is a supermartingale with expected negative jumps when passing to higher-order probability spaces. The framework is extended to the case when the Hamiltonian is modeled as a function of a set of commutative operators, where each operator is associated with a different piecewise enlarged filtration.

  19. Emergency department enlargement in China: exciting or bothering

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Li, Chen; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Hui; Zheng, Liangliang; Yao, Dongqi; Fu, Yangyang; Zhu, Huadong; Guo, Shubin; Wang, Zhong; Walline, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background Emergency department (ED) enlargement became a trend with its development. However, there came some problems such as ED overcrowding and increasing medical disputes. Here we did a survey about the development tendency of EDs in 3A grade hospitals in China, analysed the problems we facing and rendered some solutions combining some special characteristics in China. Methods We randomly selected 17 3A grade general hospitals from 12 provinces from the 50 members of Chinese College of Emergency Physician. A questionnaire survey was conducted. The basic information and problems of EDs were collected and analysed. Results The gross area, the number of beds and the attention paid by the hospitals of EDs increased during the development, so did the patients admitted to EDs, also more doctors and nurses devoted into emergency medicine. But it had become more difficult for doctors to admit ED patients to inpatient wards. Besides the problem of increasing crowding degree, EDs faced more medical disputes and complains during the development. Conclusions ED expanding was the result of emergency medicine development, but the enlargement of ED should be more rational. We should improve our doctors’ medical skills, optimize the health system, pay more attention to preventive medicine and push hard for health-care reform instead of forcing ED enlargement to satisfy the need for ED. PMID:27162657

  20. Does Lateral Parietal Cortex Support Episodic Memory? Evidence from Focal Lesion Patients

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Patrick S. R.; Anaki, David; Ciaramelli, Elisa; Cohn, Melanie; Kim, Alice S. N.; Murphy, Kelly J.; Troyer, Angela K.; Moscovitch, Morris; Levine, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Although neuroimaging and human lesion studies agree that the medial parietal region plays a critical role in episodic memory, many neuroimaging studies have also implicated lateral parietal cortex, leading some researchers to suggest that the lateral region plays a heretofore underappreciated role in episodic memory. Because there are very few extant lesion data on this matter, we examined memory in six cases of focal lateral parietal damage, using both clinical and experimental measures, in which we distinguished between recollection and familiarity. The patients did not have amnesia, but they did show evidence of disrupted recollection on an anterograde memory task. Although the exact mechanisms remain to be elucidated, lateral parietal damage appears to impair some aspects of episodic memory. PMID:18313699

  1. Fusion and Fission of Cognitive Functions in the Human Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Gina F.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    How is higher cognitive function organized in the human parietal cortex? A century of neuropsychology and 30 years of functional neuroimaging has implicated the parietal lobe in many different verbal and nonverbal cognitive domains. There is little clarity, however, on how these functions are organized, that is, where do these functions coalesce (implying a shared, underpinning neurocomputation) and where do they divide (indicating different underlying neural functions). Until now, there has been no multi-domain synthesis in order to reveal where there is fusion or fission of functions in the parietal cortex. This aim was achieved through a large-scale activation likelihood estimation (ALE) analysis of 386 studies (3952 activation peaks) covering 8 cognitive domains. A tripartite, domain-general neuroanatomical division and 5 principles of cognitive organization were established, and these are discussed with respect to a unified theory of parietal functional organization. PMID:25205661

  2. Pyoderma gangrenosum, rare parietal complication after colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Miron, A; Giulea, C; Tudose, I; Petrache, D; Giurcaneanu, C

    2014-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare chronic destructive inflammatory skin disease characterized by the presence of nodules and pustules with progressively enlarging ulcers and orcutaneous necrosis. In most cases PG is idiopathic, but sometimes it is associated with conditions that often have vasculitis, such as gammapathies, inflammatory bowel diseases or chronic arthritis. PG is neither infectious nor gangrenous,but some authors advanced the theory that an infectious etiology (streptococci and staphylococci) could be incriminated.Recently, there are reports in the literature stating that PG is a condition that can occur after local trauma, especially surgery.We report the case of a 73 year old man who presented himself to the Surgery Department with rectal adenocarcinoma and postoperatively developed well-demarcated, vegetative plaques,ranging from 2 to 5 cm in diameter, with central ulceration associated with necrosis and a purulent secretion, delimitated by raised, dusky erythematous borders. These lesions were located on the abdomen and it is important to mention that the injuries occurred at the site of surgical stitches used during the rectum amputation surgery, with no other anatomical locations,pruritus or pain associated. We performed two different histopathological examinations for this patient, regarding the rectal specimens and the cutaneous specimen. The first examinations revealed rectal adenocarcinoma and nonspecific colitis. The second examination was concluded with the diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum, the ulcerative stage. The patient had a very good clinical response to systemic steroid therapy. PMID:24742420

  3. [Sleep and dreams in patients with parietal and frontal lobe lesions].

    PubMed

    Cathala, H P; Laffont, F; Siksou, M; Esnault, S; Gilbert, A; Minz, M; Moret-Chalmin, C; Buzaré, M A; Waisbord, P

    1983-01-01

    Polygraphic recordings, psychological tests, and analyses of dreams during paradoxical sleep were conducted in 9 patients with parietal lobe, in 7 with frontal lobe lesions and in a control group. No significant differences in sleep organization were observed in the parietal group, but there was a considerable reduction in oneiric activity and alterations in results of some psychological tests. Several correlations based on statistical data are discussed. Oneiric activity was disorganized to a much lesser degree in patients with frontal lesions. PMID:6648201

  4. Abnormal Parietal Brain Function in ADHD: Replication and Extension of Previous EEG Beta Asymmetry Findings

    PubMed Central

    Hale, T. Sigi; Kane, Andrea M.; Tung, Kelly L.; Kaminsky, Olivia; McGough, James J.; Hanada, Grant; Loo, Sandra K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abundant work indicates ADHD abnormal posterior brain structure and function, including abnormal structural and functional asymmetries and reduced corpus callosum size. However, this literature has attracted considerably less research interest than fronto-striatal findings. Objective: To help address this imbalance, the current study replicates and extends our previous work showing abnormal parietal brain function in ADHD adults during the Conner’s Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Method: Our previous study found that ADHD adults had increased rightward EEG beta (16–21 Hz) asymmetry in inferior parietal brain regions during the CPT (p = 0.00001), and that this metric exhibited a lack of normal correlation (i.e., observed in controls) with beta asymmetry at temporal–parietal regions. We re-tested these effects in a new ADHD sample and with both new and old samples combined. We additionally examined: (a) EEG asymmetry in multiple frequency bands, (b) unilateral effects for all asymmetry findings, and (c) the association between EEG asymmetry and a battery of cognitive tests. Results: We replicated our original findings by demonstrating abnormal rightward inferior parietal beta asymmetry in adults with ADHD during the CPT, and again this metric exhibited abnormal reduced correlation to temporal–parietal beta asymmetry. Novel analyses also demonstrated a broader pattern of rightward beta and theta asymmetry across inferior, superior, and temporal–parietal brain regions, and showed that rightward parietal asymmetry in ADHD was atypically associated with multiple cognitive tests. Conclusion: Abnormal increased rightward parietal EEG beta asymmetry is an important feature of ADHD. We speculate that this phenotype may occur with any form of impaired capacity for top-down task-directed control over sensory encoding functions, and that it may reflect associated increase of attentional shifting and compensatory sustained/selective attention. PMID

  5. Scalable screen-size enlargement by multi-channel viewing-zone scanning holography.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Yasuhiro; Nakaoka, Mitsuki

    2016-08-01

    Viewing-zone scanning holographic displays can enlarge both the screen size and the viewing zone. However, limitations exist in the screen size enlargement process even if the viewing zone is effectively enlarged. This study proposes a multi-channel viewing-zone scanning holographic display comprising multiple projection systems and a planar scanner to enable the scalable enlargement of the screen size. Each projection system produces an enlarged image of the screen of a MEMS spatial light modulator. The multiple enlarged images produced by the multiple projection systems are seamlessly tiled on the planar scanner. This screen size enlargement process reduces the viewing zones of the projection systems, which are horizontally scanned by the planar scanner comprising a rotating off-axis lens and a vertical diffuser to enlarge the viewing zone. A screen size of 7.4 in. and a viewing-zone angle of 43.0° are demonstrated. PMID:27505840

  6. Diagnostic dilemmas in enlarged and diffusely hemorrhagic adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Diolombi, Mairo L; Khani, Francesca; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2016-07-01

    We have noted an increasing number of cases of enlarged adrenal glands where the underlying diagnosis was masked by a diffusely hemorrhagic process. We identified from our database 59 cases (32 consults, 27 routine) of adrenal glands with diffuse (>25%) hemorrhage received between 2000 and 2014. Fifty-three adrenalectomies and 6 biopsies were identified. The diagnoses after central review were 41 adrenocortical adenomas, 1 nodular adrenocortical hyperplasia with associated myelolipoma, 1 benign adrenocortical cyst, and 10 nonneoplastic adrenal glands with hemorrhage. A definitive diagnosis for the 6 biopsies was precluded by the sample size. The adrenocortical adenomas (size, 1-13 cm; 25%-95% hemorrhage) showed clear cell change in the neoplastic area (10%-80% of the tumor), 19 showed focal calcification (1 with ossification), 11 showed areas of papillary endothelial hyperplasia, 10 showed scattered lymphoplasmacytic inflammation, 6 showed benign cortical tissue extending beyond the adrenal capsule into soft tissue, 1 showed necrosis in the form of ghost cells, 2 showed lipomatous change, and 6 were associated with incidental benign lesions (1 cortical cyst, 1 schwannoma, and 4 myelolipomas). Twenty-four of the adrenocortical adenomas were consults where the referring pathologist had trouble classifying the lesion. Of the 10 nonneoplastic adrenals (4.5-22 cm; 40%-80% hemorrhage), 2 were consults. In summary, pathologists have difficulties recognizing adrenocortical adenomas in the setting of a massively enlarged and hemorrhagic adrenal gland. Although there is a correlation between adrenocortical malignancy and size, hemorrhage into nonmalignant adrenal glands can result in markedly enlarged adrenals. PMID:27001431

  7. Sciatic nerve enlargement in the Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome.

    PubMed

    Meirer, Romed; Huemer, Georg M; Shafighi, Maziar; Kamelger, Florian S; Hussl, Heribert; Piza-Katzer, Hildegunde

    2005-06-01

    The case of a 35-year-old woman with Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome (KTWS) showing clinical symptoms of a peroneal nerve lesion is presented. An immense nerve enlargement along most of the sciatic, peroneal and tibial nerve was found to be due to a lipoma arising from the epi- and perineurium. Treatment consisted of extensive microsurgical neurolysis and excision of the tumor resulting in decompression of the affected nerves. Although rare, a perineural lipoma should be kept in mind in patients with KTWS showing neurological abnormalities. PMID:15897045

  8. Breast enlargement after two reduction mastoplasties: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A Aldo

    2007-01-01

    In 1989, a bilateral breast reduction was performed for a large-breasted woman. She returned 1 year later with bilateral breast enlargement as severe as in the original case. The operation was repeated but in a more aggressive way. She became pregnant 2 years later, and both her small breasts began to grow again until they became gigantic. Hormonal tests showed results within the standard limits, and no medical treatment was effective. After the delivery, her breasts reduced in size spontaneously. PMID:17700982

  9. Hydatid cyst an unusual cause of ovarian enlargement.

    PubMed

    Gaym, Asheber; Abebe, Daniel; Degefe, Daniel Abebe

    2002-07-01

    A case of ovarian hydatosis without other evidence of hydatid disease elsewhere in the body is reported. This 35 years old para eight abortus two Ethiopian mother was admitted to the Gynecology and Obstetrics department of Tikur Anbessa teaching hospital with the diagnosis of ovarian tumor. A uniclocular ovarian cyst was removed at laparotomy which was diagnosed to be hydatid cyst of the ovary on histopathological examination. Epidemiological features, clinical presentation and therapeutic options of this rare cause of adnexal enlargement are discussed. PMID:12602252

  10. Enlargement of choroid plexus in complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guangyu; Hotta, Jaakko; Lehtinen, Maria K.; Forss, Nina; Hari, Riitta

    2015-01-01

    The choroid plexus, located in brain ventricles, has received surprisingly little attention in clinical neuroscience. In morphometric brain analysis, we serendipitously found a 21% increase in choroid plexus volume in 12 patients suffering from complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) compared with age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. No enlargement was observed in a group of 8 patients suffering from chronic pain of other etiologies. Our findings suggest involvement of the choroid plexus in the pathogenesis of CRPS. Since the choroid plexus can mediate interaction between peripheral and brain inflammation, our findings pinpoint the choroid plexus as an important target for future research of central pain mechanisms. PMID:26388497

  11. Ventral fronto-parietal contributions to the disruption of visual working memory storage.

    PubMed

    Hakun, Jonathan G; Ravizza, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    The ability to maintain information in visual working memory (VWM) in the presence of ongoing visual input allows for flexible goal-directed behavior. Previous evidence suggests that categorical overlap between visual distractors and the contents of VWM is associated with both the degree to which distractors disrupt VWM performance and activation among fronto-parietal regions of cortex. While within-category distractors have been shown to elicit a greater response in ventral fronto-parietal regions, to date, no study has linked distractor-evoked response of these regions to VWM performance costs. Here we examined the contributions of ventral fronto-parietal cortex to the disruption of VWM storage by manipulating memoranda-distractor similarity. Our results revealed that the degree of activation across cortex was graded in a manner suggesting that similarity between the contents of VWM and visual distractors influenced distractor processing. While abrupt visual onsets failed to engage ventral fronto-parietal regions during VWM maintenance, objects sharing categorical- (Related objects) and feature-overlap (Matched objects) with VWM elicited a significant response in the right TPJ and right AI. Of central relevance, the magnitude of activation in the right AI elicited by both types of distractor objects subsequently predicted costs to binding change detection accuracy. In addition, Related and Matched distractors differentially affected ventral-dorsal connectivity between the right AI and dorsal parietal regions, uniquely contributing to disruption of VWM storage. Together, our current results implicate activation of ventral fronto-parietal cortex in disruption of VWM storage, and disconnection between ventral frontal and dorsal parietal cortices as a mechanism to protect the contents of VWM. PMID:26436710

  12. Prestimulus frontal-parietal coherence predicts auditory detection performance in rats

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Linnea; Salehi, Kia; Bohon, Kaitlin S.

    2014-01-01

    Electrophysiology in primates has implicated long-range neural coherence as a potential mechanism for enhancing sensory detection. To test whether local synchronization and long-range neural coherence support detection performance in rats, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) in frontal and parietal cortex while rats performed an auditory detection task. We observed significantly elevated power at multiple low frequencies (<15 Hz) preceding the target beep when the animal failed to respond to the signal (misses), in both frontal and parietal cortex. In terms of long-range coherence, we observed significantly more frontal-parietal coherence in the beta band (15–30 Hz) before the signal on misses compared with hits. This effect persisted after regressing away linear trends in the coherence values during a session, showing that the excess frontal-parietal beta coherence prior to misses cannot be explained by slow motivational changes during a session. In addition, a trend toward higher low-frequency (<15 Hz) coherence prior to miss trials compared with hits became highly significant when we rereferenced the LFPs to the mean voltage on each recording array, suggesting that the results are specific to our frontal and parietal areas. These results do not support a role for long-range frontal-parietal coherence or local synchronization in facilitating the detection of external stimuli. Rather, they extend to long-range frontal-parietal coherence previous findings that correlate local synchronization of low-frequency (<15 Hz) oscillations with inattention to external stimuli and synchronization of beta rhythms (15–30 Hz) with voluntary or involuntary prolongation of the current cognitive or motor state. PMID:24572093

  13. Reward-based decision signals in parietal cortex are partially embodied.

    PubMed

    Kubanek, Jan; Snyder, Lawrence H

    2015-03-25

    Recordings in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) reveal that parietal cortex encodes variables related to spatial decision-making, the selection of desirable targets in space. It has been unclear whether parietal cortex is involved in spatial decision-making in general, or whether specific parietal compartments subserve decisions made using specific actions. To test this, we engaged monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a reward-based decision task in which they selected a target based on its desirability. The animals' choice behavior in this task followed the molar matching law, and in each trial was governed by the desirability of the choice targets. Critically, animals were instructed to make the choice using one of two actions: eye movements (saccades) and arm movements (reaches). We recorded the discharge activity of neurons in area LIP and the parietal reach region (PRR) of the parietal cortex. In line with previous studies, we found that both LIP and PRR encode a reward-based decision variable, the target desirability. Crucially, the target desirability was encoded in LIP at least twice as strongly when choices were made using saccades compared with reaches. In contrast, PRR encoded target desirability only for reaches and not for saccades. These data suggest that decisions can evolve in dedicated parietal circuits in the context of specific actions. This finding supports the hypothesis of an intentional representation of developing decisions in parietal cortex. Furthermore, the close link between the cognitive (decision-related) and bodily (action-related) processes presents a neural contribution to the theories of embodied cognition. PMID:25810518

  14. Bone tunnel enlargement on anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Leonardi, Adriano Barros de Aguiar; Duarte, Aires; Severino, Nilson Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the presence of tibial bone tunnel enlargement after surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using quadruple graft of the flexor tendons and correlate the functional results in their presence. Methods: The studied lasted six months and included 25 patients, with ages ranging from 18 to 43 years old. Assessment was based on radiographs taken immediately postoperatively and at the third and sixth month of follow up in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Reconstruction of ligaments was performed with tendon grafts of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscle fixated in the femur with transverse metal screw and in the tibia with interference screws. Patients were evaluated objectively by tests ligament, graded from zero to four crosses and subjectively by the Lysholm method preoperative and after sixth month follow up. Results: Significant increase in the tunnels diameters were observed, 20.56% for radiographs in the anteroposterior view, 26.48% in profile view and 23.22% in computed tomography. Descriptive statistics showed significant improvement in subjective and objective clinical parameters. Conclusions: The bone tunnel enlargement is a phenomenon found in the first months after surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament and it has no implications on clinical outcomes in the short term. Level of Evidence II, Prospective Study. PMID:25328430

  15. Adipocyte cell size enlargement involves plasma membrane area increase.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, H H; Zorec, R

    2012-07-01

    The adipocyte enlargement is associated with an increase in the cytoplasmic lipid content, but how the plasma membrane area follows this increase is poorly understood. We monitored single-cell membrane surface area fluctuations, which mirror the dynamics of exocytosis and endocytosis. We employed the patch-clamp technique to measure membrane capacitance (C(m)), a parameter linearly related to the plasma membrane area. Specifically, we studied whether insulin affects membrane area dynamics in adipocytes. A five-minute cell exposure to insulin increased resting C(m) by 12 ± 4%; in controls the change in C(m) was not different from zero. We measured cell diameter of isolated rat adipocytes microscopically. Twenty-four hour exposure of cells to insulin resulted in a significant increase in cell diameter by 5.1 ± 0.6%. We conclude that insulin induces membrane area increase, which may in chronic hyperinsulinemia promote the enlargement of plasma membrane area, acting in concert with other insulin-mediated metabolic effects on adipocytes. PMID:22540353

  16. Primary Enlarged Craniotomy in Organized Chronic Subdural Hematomas

    PubMed Central

    CALLOVINI, Giorgio Maria; BOLOGNINI, Andrea; CALLOVINI, Gemma; GAMMONE, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of craniotomy and membranectomy as initial treatment of organized chronic subdural hematoma (OCSH). We retrospectively reviewed a series of 34 consecutive patients suffering from OCSH, diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or contrast computer tomography (CCT) in order to establish the degree of organization and determine the intrahematomal architecture. The indication to perform a primary enlarged craniotomy as initial treatment for non-liquefied chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) with multilayer loculations was based on the hematoma MRI appearance—mostly hyperintense in both T1- and T2-weighted images with a hypointense web- or net-like structure within the hematoma cavity. The reason why some hematomas evolve towards a complex and organized architecture remains unclear; the most common aspect to come to light was the “long standing” of the CSDHs which, in our series, had an average interval of 10 weeks between head injury and initial scan. Recurrence was found to have occurred in 2 patients (6% of cases) in the form of acute subdural hematoma. One patient died as the result of an intraventricular and subarachnoid haemorrhage, while 2 patients (6%) suffered an haemorrhagic stroke ipsilateral to the OCSH. Eighty-nine percent of cases had a good recovery, while 11% remained unchanged or worsened. In select cases, based on the MRI appearance, primary enlarged craniotomy seems to be the treatment of choice for achieving a complete recovery and a reduced recurrence rate in OCSH. PMID:24305027

  17. Behaviorally Relevant Abstract Object Identity Representation in the Human Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Su Keun

    2016-01-01

    The representation of object identity is fundamental to human vision. Using fMRI and multivoxel pattern analysis, here we report the representation of highly abstract object identity information in human parietal cortex. Specifically, in superior intraparietal sulcus (IPS), a region previously shown to track visual short-term memory capacity, we found object identity representations for famous faces varying freely in viewpoint, hairstyle, facial expression, and age; and for well known cars embedded in different scenes, and shown from different viewpoints and sizes. Critically, these parietal identity representations were behaviorally relevant as they closely tracked the perceived face-identity similarity obtained in a behavioral task. Meanwhile, the task-activated regions in prefrontal and parietal cortices (excluding superior IPS) did not exhibit such abstract object identity representations. Unlike previous studies, we also failed to observe identity representations in posterior ventral and lateral visual object-processing regions, likely due to the greater amount of identity abstraction demanded by our stimulus manipulation here. Our MRI slice coverage precluded us from examining identity representation in anterior temporal lobe, a likely region for the computing of identity information in the ventral region. Overall, we show that human parietal cortex, part of the dorsal visual processing pathway, is capable of holding abstract and complex visual representations that are behaviorally relevant. These results argue against a “content-poor” view of the role of parietal cortex in attention. Instead, the human parietal cortex seems to be “content rich” and capable of directly participating in goal-driven visual information representation in the brain. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The representation of object identity (including faces) is fundamental to human vision and shapes how we interact with the world. Although object representation has traditionally been

  18. UNDERSTANDING THE PARIETAL LOBE SYNDROME FROM A NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL AND EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Caminiti, Roberto; Chafee, Matthew V.; Battaglia-Mayer, Alexandra; Averbeck, Bruno B.; Crowe, David A.; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P.

    2010-01-01

    In human and non-human primates parietal cortex is formed by a multiplicity of areas. For those of the Superior Parietal Lobule (SPL) there exists a certain homology between man and macaques. As a consequence, Optic Ataxia, a disturbed visual control of hand reaching, has similar features in man and monkeys. Establishing such correspondence has proven difficult for the areas of the Inferior Parietal Lobule (IPL). This difficulty depends on many factors. First, no physiological information is available in man on the dynamic properties of cells in the IPL. Second, the number of IPL areas identified in the monkey is paradoxically higher that that so far described in man, although this issue will probably be reconsidered in future years, thanks to comparative imaging studies. Third, the consequences of parietal lesions in monkeys do not always match those observed in humans. This is another paradox if one considers that, in certain cases, the functional properties of neurons in the monkeys IPL would predict the presence of behavioral skills, such as construction capacity, that however do not seem to emerge in the wild. Therefore, Constructional Apraxia, which is well characterized in man, has never been described in monkeys and apes. Finally, only certain aspects, i.e. hand Directional Hypokinesia and Gaze Apraxia (Balint's Psychic Paralysis of Gaze), of the multifaceted syndrome Hemispatial Neglect have been described in monkeys. These similarities, differences and paradoxes, among many others, make the study of the evolution and function of parietal cortex a challenging “case”. PMID:20550568

  19. Frontal and parietal lobe involvement in the processing of pretence and intention.

    PubMed

    Chiavarino, Claudia; Apperly, Ian A; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2009-09-01

    We assessed whether different processes might be at play during pretence understanding by examining breakdowns of performance in participants with acquired brain damage. In Experiment 1 patients with frontal or parietal lesions and neurologically intact adults were asked to categorize videos of pretend and real actions. In Experiment 2 participants saw three types of videos: real intentional actions, real accidental actions, and pretend actions. In one session they judged whether the actions they saw were intentional or accidental, and in a second session they judged whether the actions were real or pretend. Parietal patients had particular difficulties in the identification of pretend actions, and both parietal and frontal patients were more impaired than controls in understanding the intentional nature of pretence. Analyses of individual patients' performance revealed that parietal lesions, and in particular lesions to the temporo-parietal junction, impaired the ability to discriminate pretend from real actions. However, this did not necessarily affect the discrimination of intentional from unintentional actions, which instead may be independently disrupted by damage to frontal areas. Moreover, spared ability to discriminate pretend actions from real actions, and intentional actions from accidental actions, did not grant a full conceptual understanding of the intentional nature of pretence. The implications for pretence understanding are discussed. PMID:19219753

  20. Understanding the parietal lobe syndrome from a neurophysiological and evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Caminiti, Roberto; Chafee, Matthew V; Battaglia-Mayer, Alexandra; Averbeck, Bruno B; Crowe, David A; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2010-06-01

    In human and nonhuman primates parietal cortex is formed by a multiplicity of areas. For those of the superior parietal lobule (SPL) there exists a certain homology between man and macaques. As a consequence, optic ataxia, a disturbed visual control of hand reaching, has similar features in man and monkeys. Establishing such correspondence has proven difficult for the areas of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL). This difficulty depends on many factors. First, no physiological information is available in man on the dynamic properties of cells in the IPL. Second, the number of IPL areas identified in the monkey is paradoxically higher than that so far described in man, although this issue will probably be reconsidered in future years, thanks to comparative imaging studies. Third, the consequences of parietal lesions in monkeys do not always match those observed in humans. This is another paradox if one considers that, in certain cases, the functional properties of neurons in the monkey's IPL would predict the presence of behavioral skills, such as construction capacity, that however do not seem to emerge in the wild. Therefore, constructional apraxia, which is well characterized in man, has never been described in monkeys and apes. Finally, only certain aspects, i.e. hand directional hypokinesia and gaze apraxia (Balint's psychic paralysis of gaze), of the multifaceted syndrome hemispatial neglect have been described in monkeys. These similarities, differences and paradoxes, among many others, make the study of the evolution and function of parietal cortex a challenging case. PMID:20550568

  1. Feature integration in visual working memory: parietal gamma activity is related to cognitive coordination.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Helen M; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Hibbs, Carina S; Shapiro, Kimron L; Bracewell, R Martyn; Singh, Krish D; Linden, David E J

    2011-12-01

    The mechanism by which distinct subprocesses in the brain are coordinated is a central conundrum of systems neuroscience. The parietal lobe is thought to play a key role in visual feature integration, and oscillatory activity in the gamma frequency range has been associated with perception of coherent objects and other tasks requiring neural coordination. Here, we examined the neural correlates of integrating mental representations in working memory and hypothesized that parietal gamma activity would be related to the success of cognitive coordination. Working memory is a classic example of a cognitive operation that requires the coordinated processing of different types of information and the contribution of multiple cognitive domains. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we report parietal activity in the high gamma (80-100 Hz) range during manipulation of visual and spatial information (colors and angles) in working memory. This parietal gamma activity was significantly higher during manipulation of visual-spatial conjunctions compared with single features. Furthermore, gamma activity correlated with successful performance during the conjunction task but not during the component tasks. Cortical gamma activity in parietal cortex may therefore play a role in cognitive coordination. PMID:21940605

  2. Human posterior parietal cortex plans where to reach and what to avoid.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Axel; Iyer, Asha; Kagan, Igor; Andersen, Richard A

    2010-09-01

    In this time-resolved functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we aimed to trace the neuronal correlates of covert planning processes that precede visually guided motor behavior. Specifically, we asked whether human posterior parietal cortex has prospective planning activity that can be distinguished from activity related to retrospective visual memory and attention. Although various electrophysiological studies in monkeys have demonstrated such motor planning at the level of parietal neurons, comparatively little support is provided by recent human imaging experiments. Rather, a majority of experiments highlights a role of human posterior parietal cortex in visual working memory and attention. We thus sought to establish a clear separation of visual memory and attention from processes related to the planning of goal-directed motor behaviors. To this end, we compared delayed-response tasks with identical mnemonic and attentional demands but varying degrees of motor planning. Subjects memorized multiple target locations, and in a random subset of trials targets additionally instructed (1) desired goals or (2) undesired goals for upcoming finger reaches. Compared with the memory/attention-only conditions, both latter situations led to a specific increase of preparatory fMRI activity in posterior parietal and dorsal premotor cortex. Thus, posterior parietal cortex has prospective plans for upcoming behaviors while considering both types of targets relevant for action: those to be acquired and those to be avoided. PMID:20810892

  3. Role of Medio-Dorsal Frontal and Posterior Parietal Neurons during Auditory Detection Performance in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bohon, Kaitlin S.; Wiest, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    To further characterize the role of frontal and parietal cortices in rat cognition, we recorded action potentials simultaneously from multiple sites in the medio-dorsal frontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex of rats while they performed a two-choice auditory detection task. We quantified neural correlates of task performance, including response movements, perception of a target tone, and the differentiation between stimuli with distinct features (different pitches or durations). A minority of units—15% in frontal cortex, 23% in parietal cortex—significantly distinguished hit trials (successful detections, response movement to the right) from correct rejection trials (correct leftward response to the absence of the target tone). Estimating the contribution of movement-related activity to these responses suggested that more than half of these units were likely signaling correct perception of the auditory target, rather than merely movement direction. In addition, we found a smaller and mostly not overlapping population of units that differentiated stimuli based on task-irrelevant details. The detection-related spiking responses we observed suggest that correlates of perception in the rat are sparsely represented among neurons in the rat's frontal-parietal network, without being concentrated preferentially in frontal or parietal areas. PMID:25479194

  4. Estimating frontal and parietal involvement in cognitive estimation: a study of focal neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bisbing, Teagan A.; Olm, Christopher A.; McMillan, Corey T.; Rascovsky, Katya; Baehr, Laura; Ternes, Kylie; Irwin, David J.; Clark, Robin; Grossman, Murray

    2015-01-01

    We often estimate an unknown value based on available relevant information, a process known as cognitive estimation. In this study, we assess the cognitive and neuroanatomic basis for quantitative estimation by examining deficits in patients with focal neurodegenerative disease in frontal and parietal cortex. Executive function and number knowledge are key components in cognitive estimation. Prefrontal cortex has been implicated in multilevel reasoning and planning processes, and parietal cortex has been associated with number knowledge required for such estimations. We administered the Biber cognitive estimation test (BCET) to assess cognitive estimation in 22 patients with prefrontal disease due to behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), to 17 patients with parietal disease due to corticobasal syndrome (CBS) or posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) and 11 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Both bvFTD and CBS/PCA patients had significantly more difficulty with cognitive estimation than controls. MCI were not impaired on BCET relative to controls. Regression analyses related BCET performance to gray matter atrophy in right lateral prefrontal and orbital frontal cortices in bvFTD, and to atrophy in right inferior parietal cortex, right insula, and fusiform cortices in CBS/PCA. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a frontal-parietal network plays a crucial role in cognitive estimation. PMID:26089786

  5. Neural sources of visual working memory maintenance in human parietal and ventral extrastriate visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Becke, Andreas; Müller, Notger; Vellage, Anne; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel; Hopf, Jens-Max

    2015-04-15

    Maintaining information in visual working memory is reliably indexed by the contralateral delay activity (CDA) - a sustained modulation of the event-related potential (ERP) with a topographical maximum over posterior scalp regions contralateral to the memorized input. Based on scalp topography, it is hypothesized that the CDA reflects neural activity in the parietal cortex, but the precise cortical origin of underlying electric activity was never determined. Here we combine ERP recordings with magnetoencephalography based source localization to characterize the cortical current sources generating the CDA. Observers performed a cued delayed match to sample task where either the color or the relative position of colored dots had to be maintained in memory. A detailed source-localization analysis of the magnetic activity in the retention interval revealed that the magnetic analog of the CDA (mCDA) is generated by current sources in the parietal cortex. Importantly, we find that the mCDA also receives contribution from current sources in the ventral extrastriate cortex that display a time-course similar to the parietal sources. On the basis of the magnetic responses, forward modeling of ERP data reveals that the ventral sources have non-optimal projections and that these sources are therefore concealed in the ERP by overlapping fields with parietal projections. The present observations indicate that visual working memory maintenance, as indexed by the CDA, involves the parietal cortical regions as well as the ventral extrastriate regions, which code the sensory representation of the memorized content. PMID:25662867

  6. Spatially invariant coding of numerical information in functionally defined subregions of human parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Eger, E; Pinel, P; Dehaene, S; Kleinschmidt, A

    2015-05-01

    Macaque electrophysiology has revealed neurons responsive to number in lateral (LIP) and ventral (VIP) intraparietal areas. Recently, fMRI pattern recognition revealed information discriminative of individual numbers in human parietal cortex but without precisely localizing the relevant sites or testing for subregions with different response profiles. Here, we defined the human functional equivalents of LIP (feLIP) and VIP (feVIP) using neurophysiologically motivated localizers. We applied multivariate pattern recognition to investigate whether both regions represent numerical information and whether number codes are position specific or invariant. In a delayed number comparison paradigm with laterally presented numerosities, parietal cortex discriminated between numerosities better than early visual cortex, and discrimination generalized across hemifields in parietal, but not early visual cortex. Activation patterns in the 2 parietal regions of interest did not differ in the coding of position-specific or position-independent number information, but in the expression of a numerical distance effect which was more pronounced in feLIP. Thus, the representation of number in parietal cortex is at least partially position invariant. Both feLIP and feVIP contain information about individual numerosities in humans, but feLIP hosts a coarser representation of numerosity than feVIP, compatible with either broader tuning or a summation code. PMID:24293562

  7. Physiological implications of the abnormal absence of the parietal foramen in a late Permian cynodont (Therapsida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Julien; Abdala, Fernando; Van den Brandt, Marc J.; Manger, Paul R.; Rubidge, Bruce S.

    2015-12-01

    The third eye (pineal eye), an organ responsible for regulating exposure to sunlight in extant ectotherms, is located in an opening on the dorsal surface of the skull, the parietal foramen. The parietal foramen is absent in extant mammals but often observed in basal therapsids, the stem-group to true mammals. Here, we report the absence of the parietal foramen in a specimen of Cynosaurus suppostus, a Late Permian cynodont from South Africa (SA). Comparison with Procynosuchus delaharpeae, a contemporaneous non-mammalian cynodont from SA, demonstrates that the absence of this foramen is an abnormal condition for such a basal species. Because seasonality was marked during the Late Permian in SA, it is proposed that the third eye was functionally redundant in Cynosaurus, possibly due to the acquisition of better thermoregulation or the evolution of specialized cells in the lateral eyes to compensate for the role of the third eye.

  8. Fractionation of parietal function in bistable perception probed with concurrent TMS-EEG.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Georg; Chang, Acer; Schwartzman, David; Rae, Charlotte L; Iriye, Heather; Seth, Anil K; Kanai, Ryota

    2016-01-01

    When visual input has conflicting interpretations, conscious perception can alternate spontaneously between these possible interpretations. This is called bistable perception. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated the involvement of two right parietal areas in resolving perceptual ambiguity (ant-SPLr and post-SPLr). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies that selectively interfered with the normal function of these regions suggest that they play opposing roles in this type of perceptual switch. In the present study, we investigated this fractionation of parietal function by use of combined TMS with electroencephalography (EEG). Specifically, while participants viewed either a bistable stimulus, a replay stimulus, or resting-state fixation, we applied single pulse TMS to either location independently while simultaneously recording EEG. Combined with participant's individual structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, this dataset allows for complex analyses of the effect of TMS on neural time series data, which may further elucidate the causal role of the parietal cortex in ambiguous perception. PMID:27529410

  9. Fractionation of parietal function in bistable perception probed with concurrent TMS-EEG

    PubMed Central

    Schauer, Georg; Chang, Acer; Schwartzman, David; Rae, Charlotte L.; Iriye, Heather; Seth, Anil K.; Kanai, Ryota

    2016-01-01

    When visual input has conflicting interpretations, conscious perception can alternate spontaneously between these possible interpretations. This is called bistable perception. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated the involvement of two right parietal areas in resolving perceptual ambiguity (ant-SPLr and post-SPLr). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies that selectively interfered with the normal function of these regions suggest that they play opposing roles in this type of perceptual switch. In the present study, we investigated this fractionation of parietal function by use of combined TMS with electroencephalography (EEG). Specifically, while participants viewed either a bistable stimulus, a replay stimulus, or resting-state fixation, we applied single pulse TMS to either location independently while simultaneously recording EEG. Combined with participant’s individual structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, this dataset allows for complex analyses of the effect of TMS on neural time series data, which may further elucidate the causal role of the parietal cortex in ambiguous perception. PMID:27529410

  10. Optimized Gamma Synchronization Enhances Functional Binding of Fronto-Parietal Cortices in Mathematically Gifted Adolescents during Deductive Reasoning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Gan, John Q; Wang, Haixian

    2014-01-01

    As enhanced fronto-parietal network has been suggested to support reasoning ability of math-gifted adolescents, the main goal of this EEG source analysis is to investigate the temporal binding of the gamma-band (30-60 Hz) synchronization between frontal and parietal cortices in adolescents with exceptional mathematical ability, including the functional connectivity of gamma neurocognitive network, the temporal dynamics of fronto-parietal network (phase-locking durations and network lability in time domain), and the self-organized criticality of synchronizing oscillation. Compared with the average-ability subjects, the math-gifted adolescents show a highly integrated fronto-parietal network due to distant gamma phase-locking oscillations, which is indicated by lower modularity of the global network topology, more "connector bridges" between the frontal and parietal cortices and less "connector hubs" in the sensorimotor cortex. The time domain analysis finds that, while maintaining more stable phase dynamics of the fronto-parietal coupling, the math-gifted adolescents are characterized by more extensive fronto-parietal connection reconfiguration. The results from sample fitting in the power-law model further find that the phase-locking durations in the math-gifted brain abides by a wider interval of the power-law distribution. This phase-lock distribution mechanism could represent a relatively optimized pattern for the functional binding of frontal-parietal network, which underlies stable fronto-parietal connectivity and increases flexibility of timely network reconfiguration. PMID:24966829

  11. Optimized Gamma Synchronization Enhances Functional Binding of Fronto-Parietal Cortices in Mathematically Gifted Adolescents during Deductive Reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Gan, John Q.; Wang, Haixian

    2014-01-01

    As enhanced fronto-parietal network has been suggested to support reasoning ability of math-gifted adolescents, the main goal of this EEG source analysis is to investigate the temporal binding of the gamma-band (30–60 Hz) synchronization between frontal and parietal cortices in adolescents with exceptional mathematical ability, including the functional connectivity of gamma neurocognitive network, the temporal dynamics of fronto-parietal network (phase-locking durations and network lability in time domain), and the self-organized criticality of synchronizing oscillation. Compared with the average-ability subjects, the math-gifted adolescents show a highly integrated fronto-parietal network due to distant gamma phase-locking oscillations, which is indicated by lower modularity of the global network topology, more “connector bridges” between the frontal and parietal cortices and less “connector hubs” in the sensorimotor cortex. The time domain analysis finds that, while maintaining more stable phase dynamics of the fronto-parietal coupling, the math-gifted adolescents are characterized by more extensive fronto-parietal connection reconfiguration. The results from sample fitting in the power-law model further find that the phase-locking durations in the math-gifted brain abides by a wider interval of the power-law distribution. This phase-lock distribution mechanism could represent a relatively optimized pattern for the functional binding of frontal–parietal network, which underlies stable fronto-parietal connectivity and increases flexibility of timely network reconfiguration. PMID:24966829

  12. Measurements of enlarged blood pump models using Laser Doppler Anemometer.

    PubMed

    Chua, L P; Yu, S C; Leo, H L

    2000-01-01

    In an earlier study (Chua et al., 1998, 1999a), a 5:1 enlarged model of the Kyoto-NTN Magnetically Suspended Centrifugal Blood Pump (Akamatsu et al., 1995) with five different impeller blade profiles was designed and constructed. Their respective flow characteristics with respect to (1) the three different blade profile designs: forward, radial, and backward, (2) the number of blades used, and (3) the rotating speed were investigated. Among the five impeller designs, the results obtained suggested that impellers A and C designs should be adopted if higher head is required. Impellers A and C therefore were selected for the flow in between their blades to be measured using Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA), so as to have a better understanding of the flow physics with respect to the design parameters. PMID:10999377

  13. APECED syndrome in childhood: clinical spectrum is enlarging.

    PubMed

    Valenzise, Mariella; Alessi, Luca; Bruno, Enrico; Cama, Valeria; Costanzo, Daria; Genovese, Cristina; Mignosa, Cristina; Scuderi, Veronica; DE Luca, Filippo

    2016-06-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal-distrophy (APECED) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, which is mainly characterized by the association of many autoimmune diseases, with a classic triad including chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism and adrenocortical failure. Its clinical spectrum has significantly enlarged in the last years and other non-classic components have been recently described. Aim of this review was to alert pediatricians to these novel clinical aspects of this syndrome, that have been recently included among the autoimmune APECED manifestations: a) chronic lung disease, that may evolve to cor pulmonale and terminal respiratory failure; b) chronic inflammatory demyelinating polineuropathy, with progressive muscular weakness of both arms and legs and sensory loss; c) gastrointestinal dysfunction, with recurrent diarrhea, malabsorption and steatorrhea or chronic constipation. For each of these novel components of APECED, specific autoantibodies against either lung autoantigens or peripheral nerves or tryptophan hydroxylase have been just recently identified. PMID:25502918

  14. Philosophy of enlarge and transform of process system

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Y.D.; Han, F.Y.; Ding, J.S.; Dong, Z.C.

    1996-12-31

    Enlarge and Transform of Process System (ETPS) would be met frequently for many commercial process system with challenge. Because ETPS is related to many departments and disciplines, it is important to organize and cooperate in completion of ETPS. In this paper, based upon the authors` long experience in ETPS, the significance of ETPS, the bottleneck of process, the methods to find the bottleneck, the principles, strategy and procedure to complete ETPS are discussed respectively. It is concluded that the computer simulation analysis and the consultation and argue among members of the project group are the key factors making sure ETPS successful. Sometimes, small and/or middle scale test would be needed to solve technologic problem during ETPS process.

  15. A Threshold Neurotoxic Amphetamine Exposure Inhibits Parietal Cortex Expression of Synaptic Plasticity-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Bowyer, John F.; Pogge, Amy R.; Delongchamp, Robert R.; O'Callaghan, James P.; Patel, Kruti M.; Vrana, Kent E.; Freeman, Willard M.

    2007-01-01

    Compulsive drug abuse has been conceptualized as a behavioral state where behavioral stimuli override normal decision making. Clinical studies of methamphetamine users have detailed decision making changes and imaging studies have found altered metabolism and activation in the parietal cortex. To examine the molecular effects of amphetamine on the parietal cortex, gene expression responses to amphetamine challenge (7.5mg/kg) were examined in the parietal cortex of rats pretreated for nine days with either saline, non-neurotoxic AMPH, or neurotoxic AMPH dosing regimens. The neurotoxic AMPH exposure [3 doses of 7.5 mg/kg/day AMPH (6 hr between doses), for nine days] produced histological signs of neurotoxicity in the parietal cortex while a non-neurotoxic dosing regimen (2.0 mg/kg/day × 3) did not. Neurotoxic AMPH pretreatment resulted in significantly diminished AMPH challenge-induced mRNA increases of activity-regulated cytoskeletal protein (ARC), nerve growth-factor inducible protein A (NGFI-A), and nerve growth-factor inducible protein B (NGFI-B) in the parietal cortex while neither saline pretreatment nor non-neurotoxic AMPH pretreatment did. This effect was specific to these genes as tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and c-jun expression in response to AMPH challenge was unaltered or enhanced by amphetamine pretreatements. In the striatum, there were no differences between saline, neurotoxic AMPH, and non-neurotoxic AMPH pretreatments on ARC, NGFI-A or NGFI-B expression elicited by the AMPH challenge. These data indicate that the responsiveness of synaptic plasticity related genes are sensitive to disruption specifically in the parietal cortex by threshold neurotoxic AMPH exposures. PMID:17049170

  16. Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase-mediated proton transport in the rat parietal cell.

    PubMed

    Kopic, Sascha; Wagner, Maximilian E H; Griessenauer, Christoph; Socrates, Thenral; Ritter, Markus; Geibel, John P

    2012-03-01

    The vacuolar-type H-ATPase (V-ATPase) plays an important role in the active acidification of intracellular organelles. In certain specialized cells, such as the renal intercalated cell, apical V-ATPase can also function as a proton secretion pathway. In the parietal cells of the stomach, it has been thought that acid secretion is controlled solely via the H,K-ATPase. However, recent observations suggest that functional V-ATPase is necessary for acid secretion to take place. This study aimed to investigate and characterize the role of V-ATPase in parietal cell proton transport. Individual rat gastric glands were incubated with the pH-sensitive dye (BCECF) to monitor changes in intracellular pH in real time. Parietal cell V-ATPase activity was measured by quantifying the rate of intracellular alkalinization (ΔpH/minute) following an acid load, while excluding the contribution of non-V-ATPase proton transport mechanisms through pharmacological inhibition or ion substitution. Expression of V-ATPase was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. We observed concanamycin A-sensitive V-ATPase activity in rat parietal cells following intracellular acidification and H,K-ATPase inhibition. Furthermore, V-ATPase-mediated proton transport could be abolished by inhibiting trafficking mechanisms with paclitaxel and by stimulating H,K-ATPase with acid secretagogues. Our results propose that parietal cells contain a functional V-ATPase that can be mobilized using a microtubule network. V-ATPase may function as an auxiliary acid secretion or proton-buffering pathway in parietal cells, which is inactive during H,K-ATPase activity. Our findings may have important implications for patients experiencing acid breakthrough under proton pump inhibitor therapy. PMID:22146938

  17. Frontal and Parietal Cortices Show Different Spatiotemporal Dynamics across Problem-solving Stages.

    PubMed

    Tschentscher, Nadja; Hauk, Olaf

    2016-08-01

    Arithmetic problem-solving can be conceptualized as a multistage process ranging from task encoding over rule and strategy selection to step-wise task execution. Previous fMRI research suggested a frontal-parietal network involved in the execution of complex numerical and nonnumerical tasks, but evidence is lacking on the particular contributions of frontal and parietal cortices across time. In an arithmetic task paradigm, we evaluated individual participants' "retrieval" and "multistep procedural" strategies on a trial-by-trial basis and contrasted those in time-resolved analyses using combined EEG and MEG. Retrieval strategies relied on direct retrieval of arithmetic facts (e.g., 2 + 3 = 5). Procedural strategies required multiple solution steps (e.g., 12 + 23 = 12 + 20 + 3 or 23 + 10 + 2). Evoked source analyses revealed independent activation dynamics within the first second of problem-solving in brain areas previously described as one network, such as the frontal-parietal cognitive control network: The right frontal cortex showed earliest effects of strategy selection for multistep procedural strategies around 300 msec, before parietal cortex activated around 700 msec. In time-frequency source power analyses, memory retrieval and multistep procedural strategies were differentially reflected in theta, alpha, and beta frequencies: Stronger beta and alpha desynchronizations emerged for procedural strategies in right frontal, parietal, and temporal regions as function of executive demands. Arithmetic fact retrieval was reflected in right prefrontal increases in theta power. Our results demonstrate differential brain dynamics within frontal-parietal networks across the time course of a problem-solving process, and analyses of different frequency bands allowed us to disentangle cortical regions supporting the underlying memory and executive functions. PMID:27027542

  18. Enlarging the underground hydroelectric plant at Villarino, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Oriard, L.L.

    1997-05-01

    Near the village of Villarino de los Aires, in the province of Salamanca, Spain, was an existing underground hydroelectric power plant. A major enlargement was undertaken to increase the electrical generating capacity, under a contract awarded to a joint venture of Dragados y Construcciones, S. A. (Spain), Entrecanales y Tavora, S. A. (Spain), and S.A. Conrad Zschokke (Switzerland). The enlargement required the excavation of a large and complex underground system of tunnels, shafts and chambers adjacent to existing facilities and interconnected with these facilities. The existing machine hall and transformer chamber were both extended, requiring the blasting of the existing end walls. The drilling, blasting and excavating of the underground system had to be done without damage to existing underground chambers and tunnels, or any of the existing structures, equipment or instrumentation facilities, often within just a few feet of the blasting. This required careful control of vibrations, airblast overpressures and dust. Because the only available non-electric detonating systems were found to be unreliable and unsafe, electric systems would be preferred if they could be used in a safe manner at this site. High electrical potentials existed at the site, and the facilities could not be shut down. Electrical fields were studied carefully, both in the underground environment and above the ground surface. Based on these results, it was concluded that electric detonators could be used if special blasting procedures were developed and followed. In accord with contracting practices of this Spanish agency, the contract was not awarded to the lowest bidder, but to the bidder who demonstrated the best understanding of the project and who presented the best technical proposal for conducting the work to a conclusion that would be satisfactory to the owner. The development of the technical proposal was a two-month effort for a technical group and support staff, prepared in Madrid.

  19. Multimodal responses induced by cortical stimulation of the parietal lobe: a stereo-electroencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Balestrini, Simona; Francione, Stefano; Mai, Roberto; Castana, Laura; Casaceli, Giuseppe; Marino, Daniela; Provinciali, Leandro; Cardinale, Francesco; Tassi, Laura

    2015-09-01

    The functional complexity of the parietal lobe still represents a challenge for neurophysiological and functional neuroimaging studies. While the somatosensory functions of the anterior parietal cortex are well established, the posterior parietal cortex has a relevant role in processing the sensory information, including visuo-spatial perception, visual attention, visuo-motor transformations and other complex and not completely understood functions. We retrospectively analysed all the clinical manifestations induced by intracerebral bipolar electrical stimulation in 172 patients suffering from drug-resistant focal epilepsy (mean age 25.6, standard deviation 11.6; 44% females and 56% males) with at least one electrode stereotactically implanted in the parietal cortex. A total of 1186 electrical stimulations were included in the analysis, of which 88 were subsequently excluded because of eliciting pathological electric activity or inducing ictal symptomatology. In the dominant parietal lobe, clinical responses were observed for 56 (25%) of the low-frequency stimulations and for 76 (50%) of the high-frequency stimulations. In the non-dominant parietal lobe, 111 (27%) low-frequency and 176 (55%) high-frequency stimulations were associated with a clinical response. Body scheme alteration was the only clinical effect showing a lateralization, as they were evoked only in the non-dominant hemisphere. The occurrence of somatosensory sensations, motor symptoms, dysarthria and multimodal responses were significantly associated with stimulation of the postcentral gyrus (odds ratio: 5.83, P < 0.001; odds ratio: 8.77, P < 0.001; odds ratio: 5.44, P = 0.011; odds ratio: 8.33, P = 0.006; respectively). Stimulation of the intraparietal sulcus was associated with the occurrence of sensory illusions or hallucinations (odds ratio: 8.68, P < 0.001) and eyeball/eyelid movements or sensations (odds ratio: 4.35, P = 0.047). To our knowledge, this is the only currently available complete

  20. High Frequency rTMS over the Left Parietal Lobule Increases Non-Word Reading Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Floriana; Menghini, Deny; Caltagirone, Carlo; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Vicari, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence in the literature supports the usefulness of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in studying reading processes. Two brain regions are primarily involved in phonological decoding: the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), which is associated with the auditory representation of spoken words, and the left inferior parietal lobe…

  1. Cortical infarction of the right parietal lobe and neurogenic heart disease: A report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Jia, Yujie

    2012-04-25

    Three male patients were diagnosed with new cortical infarctions of the right parietal lobe on the basis of head magnetic resonance imaging; high-intensity signals indicating lesions in the right parietal lobe were noted on diffusion-weighted images at admission. Two of them presented with left hand weakness, and one exhibited left upper limb weakness. Treatment for improving blood supply to the brain was administered. One patient died suddenly because of ventricular fibrillation 3 days after admission. The other two patients had increased troponin levels and abnormal electrocardiograms, and were diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction half a month after admission. When lesions exist in field 7 of the parietal cortex (resulting in paralysis of the contralateral hand), the sympathetic center of the posterior lateral nucleus of the hypothalamus demonstrates compensatory excitement, which easily causes tachyarrhythmia and sudden death. Our experimental findings indicate that close electrocardiograph monitoring and cerebral infarction treatment should be standard procedures to predict and help prevent heart disease in patients with cerebral infarction in the right parietal lobe and left upper limb weakness as the main complaint. PMID:25722680

  2. The Neuroanatomical Basis for Posterior Superior Parietal Lobule Control Lateralization of Visuospatial Attention.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Wang, Jiaojian; Zhang, Yun; Zheng, Dingchen; Zhang, Jinfeng; Rong, Menglin; Wu, Huawang; Wang, Yinyan; Zhou, Ke; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    The right hemispheric dominance in visuospatial attention in human brain has been well established. Converging evidence has documented that ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) plays an important role in visuospatial attention. The role of dorsal PPC subregions, especially the superior parietal lobule (SPL) in visuospatial attention is still controversial. In the current study, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to test the role of posterior SPL in visuospatial attention and to investigate the potential neuroanatomical basis for right hemisphere dominance in visuospatial function. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) results unraveled that the right SPL predominantly mediated visuospatial attention compared to left SPL. Anatomical connections analyses between the posterior SPL and the intrahemispheric frontal subregions and the contralateral PPC revealed that right posterior SPL has stronger anatomical connections with the ipsilateral middle frontal gyrus (MFG), with the ipsilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and with contralateral PPC than that of the left posterior SPL. Furthermore, these asymmetric anatomical connections were closely related to behavioral performances. Our findings indicate that SPL plays a crucial role in regulating visuospatial attention, and dominance of visuospatial attention results from unbalanced interactions between the bilateral fronto-parietal networks and the interhemispheric parietal network. PMID:27047351

  3. The Neuroanatomical Basis for Posterior Superior Parietal Lobule Control Lateralization of Visuospatial Attention

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yan; Wang, Jiaojian; Zhang, Yun; Zheng, Dingchen; Zhang, Jinfeng; Rong, Menglin; Wu, Huawang; Wang, Yinyan; Zhou, Ke; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    The right hemispheric dominance in visuospatial attention in human brain has been well established. Converging evidence has documented that ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) plays an important role in visuospatial attention. The role of dorsal PPC subregions, especially the superior parietal lobule (SPL) in visuospatial attention is still controversial. In the current study, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to test the role of posterior SPL in visuospatial attention and to investigate the potential neuroanatomical basis for right hemisphere dominance in visuospatial function. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) results unraveled that the right SPL predominantly mediated visuospatial attention compared to left SPL. Anatomical connections analyses between the posterior SPL and the intrahemispheric frontal subregions and the contralateral PPC revealed that right posterior SPL has stronger anatomical connections with the ipsilateral middle frontal gyrus (MFG), with the ipsilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and with contralateral PPC than that of the left posterior SPL. Furthermore, these asymmetric anatomical connections were closely related to behavioral performances. Our findings indicate that SPL plays a crucial role in regulating visuospatial attention, and dominance of visuospatial attention results from unbalanced interactions between the bilateral fronto-parietal networks and the interhemispheric parietal network. PMID:27047351

  4. Temporo-Parietal Junction Activity in Theory-of-Mind Tasks: Falseness, Beliefs, or Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aichhorn, Markus; Perner, Josef; Weiss, Benjamin; Kronbichler, Martin; Staffen, Wolfgang; Ladurner, Gunther

    2009-01-01

    By combining the false belief (FB) and photo (PH) vignettes to identify theory-of-mind areas with the false sign (FS) vignettes, we re-establish the functional asymmetry between the left and right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). The right TPJ (TPJ-R) is specially sensitive to processing belief information, whereas the left TPJ (TPJ-L) is equally…

  5. Lateralization of Egocentric and Allocentric Spatial Processing after Parietal Brain Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iachini, Tina; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Conson, Massimiliano; Trojano, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to verify whether left and right parietal brain lesions may selectively impair egocentric and allocentric processing of spatial information in near/far spaces. Two Right-Brain-Damaged (RBD), 2 Left-Brain-Damaged (LBD) patients (not affected by neglect or language disturbances) and eight normal controls were submitted…

  6. Sex Differences in Parietal Lobe Morphology: Relationship to Mental Rotation Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koscik, Tim; O'Leary, Dan; Moser, David J.; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Nopoulos, Peg

    2009-01-01

    Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the human brain have reported evidence for sexual dimorphism. In addition to sex differences in overall cerebral volume, differences in the proportion of gray matter (GM) to white matter (WM) volume have been observed, particularly in the parietal lobe. To our knowledge there have been no…

  7. Contrasting Effects of Vocabulary Knowledge on Temporal and Parietal Brain Structure across Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Fiona M.; Thomas, Michael S. C.; Filippi, Roberto; Harth, Helen; Price, Cathy J.

    2010-01-01

    Using behavioral, structural, and functional imaging techniques, we demonstrate contrasting effects of vocabulary knowledge on temporal and parietal brain structure in 47 healthy volunteers who ranged in age from 7 to 73 years. In the left posterior supramarginal gyrus, vocabulary knowledge was positively correlated with gray matter density in…

  8. Parietal Lobe Volume Deficits in Adolescents with Schizophrenia and Adolescents with Cannabis Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumra, Sanjiv; Robinson, Paul; Tambyraja, Rabindra; Jensen, Daniel; Schimunek, Caroline; Houri, Alaa; Reis, Tiffany; Lim, Kelvin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In early-onset schizophrenia (EOS), the earliest structural brain volumetric abnormalities appear in the parietal cortices. Early exposure to cannabis may represent an environmental risk factor for developing schizophrenia. This study characterized cerebral cortical gray matter structure in adolescents in regions of interest (ROIs) that…

  9. Role of Right Posterior Parietal Cortex in Maintaining Attention to Spatial Locations over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Paresh; Coulthard, Elizabeth J.; Husain, Masud

    2009-01-01

    Recent models of human posterior parietal cortex (PPC) have variously emphasized its role in spatial perception, visuomotor control or directing attention. However, neuroimaging and lesion studies also suggest that the right PPC might play a special role in maintaining an alert state. Previously, assessments of right-hemisphere patients with…

  10. Transfer of Cognitive Training across Magnitude Dimensions Achieved with Concurrent Brain Stimulation of the Parietal Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Gessaroli, Erica; Hithersay, Rosalyn; Mitolo, Micaela; Didino, Daniele; Kanai, Ryota; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Improvement in performance following cognitive training is known to be further enhanced when coupled with brain stimulation. Here we ask whether training-induced changes can be maintained long term and, crucially, whether they can extend to other related but untrained skills. We trained overall 40 human participants on a simple and well established paradigm assessing the ability to discriminate numerosity–or the number of items in a set–which is thought to rely on an “approximate number sense” (ANS) associated with parietal lobes. We coupled training with parietal stimulation in the form of transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a noninvasive technique that modulates neural activity. This yielded significantly better and longer lasting improvement (up to 16 weeks post-training) of the precision of the ANS compared with cognitive training in absence of stimulation, stimulation in absence of cognitive training, and cognitive training coupled to stimulation to a control site (motor areas). Critically, only ANS improvement induced by parietal tRNS + Training transferred to proficiency in other parietal lobe-based quantity judgment, i.e., time and space discrimination, but not to quantity-unrelated tasks measuring attention, executive functions, and visual pattern recognition. These results indicate that coupling intensive cognitive training with tRNS to critical brain regions resulted not only in the greatest and longer lasting improvement of numerosity discrimination, but importantly in this enhancement being transferable when trained and untrained abilities are carefully chosen to share common cognitive and neuronal components. PMID:24027289

  11. The Neural Dynamics of Fronto-Parietal Networks in Childhood Revealed using Magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Astle, Duncan E; Luckhoo, Henry; Woolrich, Mark; Kuo, Bo-Cheng; Nobre, Anna C; Scerif, Gaia

    2015-10-01

    Our ability to hold information in mind is limited, requires a high degree of cognitive control, and is necessary for many subsequent cognitive processes. Children, in particular, are highly variable in how, trial-by-trial, they manage to recruit cognitive control in service of memory. Fronto-parietal networks, typically recruited under conditions where this cognitive control is needed, undergo protracted development. We explored, for the first time, whether dynamic changes in fronto-parietal activity could account for children's variability in tests of visual short-term memory (VSTM). We recorded oscillatory brain activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG) as 9- to 12-year-old children and adults performed a VSTM task. We combined temporal independent component analysis (ICA) with general linear modeling to test whether the strength of fronto-parietal activity correlated with VSTM performance on a trial-by-trial basis. In children, but not adults, slow frequency theta (4-7 Hz) activity within a right lateralized fronto-parietal network in anticipation of the memoranda predicted the accuracy with which those memory items were subsequently retrieved. These findings suggest that inconsistent use of anticipatory control mechanism contributes significantly to trial-to-trial variability in VSTM maintenance performance. PMID:25410426

  12. Human Topological Task Adapted for Rats: Spatial Information Processes of the Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J.; Howard, Brian P.; Hunsaker, Michael R.; Kesner, Raymond P.

    2008-01-01

    Human research has shown that lesions of the parietal cortex disrupt spatial information processing, specifically topological information. Similar findings have been found in nonhumans. It has been difficult to determine homologies between human and non-human mnemonic mechanisms for spatial information processing because methodologies and neuropathology differ. The first objective of the present study was to adapt a previously established human task for rats. The second objective was to better characterize the role of parietal cortex (PC) and dorsal hippocampus (dHPC) for topological spatial information processing. Rats had to distinguish whether a ball inside a ring or a ball outside a ring was the correct, rewarded object. After rats reached criterion on the task (>95%) they were randomly assigned to a lesion group (control, PC, dHPC). Animals were then re-tested. Post-surgery data show that controls were 94% correct on average, dHPC rats were 89% correct on average, and PC rats were 56% correct on average. The results from the present study suggest that the parietal cortex, but not the dHPC processes topological spatial information. The present data are the first to support comparable topological spatial information processes of the parietal cortex in humans and rats. PMID:18571941

  13. The precision of value-based choices depends causally on fronto-parietal phase coupling

    PubMed Central

    Polanía, Rafael; Moisa, Marius; Opitz, Alexander; Grueschow, Marcus; Ruff, Christian C.

    2015-01-01

    Which meal would you like today, chicken or pasta? For such value-based choices, organisms must flexibly integrate various types of sensory information about internal states and the environment to transform them into actions. Recent accounts suggest that these choice-relevant processes are mediated by information transfer between functionally specialized but spatially distributed brain regions in parietal and prefrontal cortex; however, it remains unclear whether such fronto-parietal communication is causally involved in guiding value-based choices. We find that transcranially inducing oscillatory desynchronization between the frontopolar and -parietal cortex leads to more inaccurate choices between food rewards while leaving closely matched perceptual decisions unaffected. Computational modelling shows that this exogenous manipulation leads to imprecise value assignments to the choice alternatives. Thus, our study demonstrates that accurate value-based decisions critically involve coherent rhythmic information transfer between fronto-parietal brain areas and establishes an experimental approach to non-invasively manipulate the precision of value-based choices in humans. PMID:26290482

  14. Attentional Demands Predict Short-Term Memory Load Response in Posterior Parietal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magen, Hagit; Emmanouil, Tatiana-Aloi; McMains, Stephanie A.; Kastner, Sabine; Treisman, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Limits to the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) indicate a maximum storage of only 3 or 4 items. Recently, it has been suggested that activity in a specific part of the brain, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), is correlated with behavioral estimates of VSTM capacity and might reflect a capacity-limited store. In three experiments that…

  15. The precision of value-based choices depends causally on fronto-parietal phase coupling.

    PubMed

    Polanía, Rafael; Moisa, Marius; Opitz, Alexander; Grueschow, Marcus; Ruff, Christian C

    2015-01-01

    Which meal would you like today, chicken or pasta? For such value-based choices, organisms must flexibly integrate various types of sensory information about internal states and the environment to transform them into actions. Recent accounts suggest that these choice-relevant processes are mediated by information transfer between functionally specialized but spatially distributed brain regions in parietal and prefrontal cortex; however, it remains unclear whether such fronto-parietal communication is causally involved in guiding value-based choices. We find that transcranially inducing oscillatory desynchronization between the frontopolar and -parietal cortex leads to more inaccurate choices between food rewards while leaving closely matched perceptual decisions unaffected. Computational modelling shows that this exogenous manipulation leads to imprecise value assignments to the choice alternatives. Thus, our study demonstrates that accurate value-based decisions critically involve coherent rhythmic information transfer between fronto-parietal brain areas and establishes an experimental approach to non-invasively manipulate the precision of value-based choices in humans. PMID:26290482

  16. Lower neuronal variability in the monkey dorsolateral prefrontal than posterior parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xue-Lian; Constantinidis, Christos

    2015-10-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex are two brain areas involved in cognitive functions such as spatial attention and working memory. When tested with identical tasks, only subtle differences in firing rate are present between neurons recorded in the two areas. In this article we report that major differences in neuronal variability characterize the two areas during working memory. The Fano factors of spike counts in dorsolateral prefrontal neurons were consistently lower than those of the posterior parietal cortex across a range of tasks, epochs, and conditions in the same monkeys. Variability differences were observed despite minor differences in firing rates between the two areas in the tasks tested and higher overall firing rate in the prefrontal than in the posterior parietal sample. Other measures of neuronal discharge variability, such as the coefficient of variation of the interspike interval, displayed the same pattern of lower prefrontal variability. Fano factor values were negatively correlated with performance in the working memory task, suggesting that higher neuronal variability was associated with diminished task performance. The results indicate that information involving remembered stimuli is more reliably represented in the prefrontal than the posterior parietal cortex based on the variability of neuronal responses, and suggest functional differentiation between the two areas beyond differences in firing rate. PMID:26269556

  17. Reconsidering harbingers of dementia: progression of parietal lobe white matter hyperintensities predicts Alzheimer's disease incidence.

    PubMed

    Brickman, Adam M; Zahodne, Laura B; Guzman, Vanessa A; Narkhede, Atul; Meier, Irene B; Griffith, Erica Y; Provenzano, Frank A; Schupf, Nicole; Manly, Jennifer J; Stern, Yaakov; Luchsinger, José A; Mayeux, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence implicates small vessel cerebrovascular disease, visualized as white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, in the pathogenesis and diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cross-sectional volumetric measures of WMH, particularly in the parietal lobes, are associated with increased risk of AD. In the present study, we sought to determine whether the longitudinal regional progression of WMH predicts incident AD above-and-beyond traditional radiological markers of neurodegeneration (i.e., hippocampal atrophy and cortical thickness). Three hundred three nondemented older adults (mean age = 79.24 ± 5.29) received high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and then again 4.6 years (standard deviation = 1.01) later. Over the follow-up interval 26 participants progressed to AD. Using structural equation modeling, we calculated latent difference scores of parietal and nonparietal WMH, hippocampus volumes, and cortical thickness values in AD-related regions. Within the structural equation modeling framework, we determined whether baseline or change scores or both predicted AD conversion, while controlling for several time-invariant relevant variables. Smaller baseline hippocampus volume, change in hippocampus volume (i.e., atrophy), higher baseline parietal lobe WMH, and increasing parietal lobe WMH volume but not WMH in other regions or measures of cortical thickness, independently predicted progression to AD. The findings provide strong evidence that regionally accumulating WMH predict AD onset in addition to hallmark neurodegenerative changes typically associated with AD. PMID:25155654

  18. Prehension Movements in a Patient (AC) with Posterior Parietal Cortex Damage and Posterior Callosal Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frak, Victor; Paulignan, Yves; Jeannerod, Marc; Michel, Francois; Cohen, Henri

    2006-01-01

    Prehension movements of the right hand were recorded in a right-handed man (AC), with an injury to the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and with a section of the left half of the splenium. The kinematic analysis of AC's grasping movements in direct and perturbed conditions was compared to that of five control subjects. A novel effect in…

  19. Altered network properties of the fronto-parietal network and the thalamus in impaired consciousness☆

    PubMed Central

    Crone, Julia Sophia; Soddu, Andrea; Höller, Yvonne; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Schurz, Matthias; Bergmann, Jürgen; Schmid, Elisabeth; Trinka, Eugen; Laureys, Steven; Kronbichler, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Recovery of consciousness has been associated with connectivity in the frontal cortex and parietal regions modulated by the thalamus. To examine this model and to relate alterations to deficits in cognitive functioning and conscious processing, we investigated topological network properties in patients with chronic disorders of consciousness recovered from coma. Resting state fMRI data of 34 patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and 25 in minimally conscious state were compared to 28 healthy controls. We investigated global and local network characteristics. Additionally, behavioral measures were correlated with the local metrics of 28 regions within the fronto-parietal network and the thalamus. In chronic disorders of consciousness, modularity at the global level was reduced suggesting a disturbance in the optimal balance between segregation and integration. Moreover, network properties were altered in several regions which are associated with conscious processing (particularly, in medial parietal, and frontal regions, as well as in the thalamus). Between minimally conscious and unconscious patients the local efficiency of medial parietal regions differed. Alterations in the thalamus were particularly evident in non-conscious patients. Most of the regions affected in patients with impaired consciousness belong to the so-called ‘rich club’ of highly interconnected central nodes. Disturbances in their topological characteristics have severe impact on information integration and are reflected in deficits in cognitive functioning probably leading to a total breakdown of consciousness. PMID:24455474

  20. Assembly and use of new task rules in fronto-parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Dumontheil, Iroise; Thompson, Russell; Duncan, John

    2011-01-01

    Severe capacity limits, closely associated with fluid intelligence, arise in learning and use of new task rules. We used fMRI to investigate these limits in a series of multirule tasks involving different stimuli, rules, and response keys. Data were analyzed both during presentation of instructions and during later task execution. Between tasks, we manipulated the number of rules specified in task instructions, and within tasks, we manipulated the number of rules operative in each trial block. Replicating previous results, rule failures were strongly predicted by fluid intelligence and increased with the number of operative rules. In fMRI data, analyses of the instruction period showed that the bilateral inferior frontal sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, and presupplementary motor area were phasically active with presentation of each new rule. In a broader range of frontal and parietal regions, baseline activity gradually increased as successive rules were instructed. During task performance, we observed contrasting fronto-parietal patterns of sustained (block-related) and transient (trial-related) activity. Block, but not trial, activity showed effects of task complexity. We suggest that, as a new task is learned, a fronto-parietal representation of relevant rules and facts is assembled for future control of behavior. Capacity limits in learning and executing new rules, and their association with fluid intelligence, may be mediated by this load-sensitive fronto-parietal network. PMID:20146600

  1. Auditory Spatial Coding Flexibly Recruits Anterior, but Not Posterior, Visuotopic Parietal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Michalka, Samantha W; Rosen, Maya L; Kong, Lingqiang; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Somers, David C

    2016-03-01

    Audition and vision both convey spatial information about the environment, but much less is known about mechanisms of auditory spatial cognition than visual spatial cognition. Human cortex contains >20 visuospatial map representations but no reported auditory spatial maps. The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) contains several of these visuospatial maps, which support visuospatial attention and short-term memory (STM). Neuroimaging studies also demonstrate that parietal cortex is activated during auditory spatial attention and working memory tasks, but prior work has not demonstrated that auditory activation occurs within visual spatial maps in parietal cortex. Here, we report both cognitive and anatomical distinctions in the auditory recruitment of visuotopically mapped regions within the superior parietal lobule. An auditory spatial STM task recruited anterior visuotopic maps (IPS2-4, SPL1), but an auditory temporal STM task with equivalent stimuli failed to drive these regions significantly. Behavioral and eye-tracking measures rule out task difficulty and eye movement explanations. Neither auditory task recruited posterior regions IPS0 or IPS1, which appear to be exclusively visual. These findings support the hypothesis of multisensory spatial processing in the anterior, but not posterior, superior parietal lobule and demonstrate that recruitment of these maps depends on auditory task demands. PMID:26656996

  2. The Role of the Parietal Lobe in Visual Extinction Studied with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battelli, Lorella; Alvarez, George A.; Carlson, Thomas; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2009-01-01

    Interhemispheric competition between homologous areas in the human brain is believed to be involved in a wide variety of human behaviors from motor activity to visual perception and particularly attention. For example, patients with lesions in the posterior parietal cortex are unable to selectively track objects in the contralesional side of…

  3. Auditory Spatial Coding Flexibly Recruits Anterior, but Not Posterior, Visuotopic Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Michalka, Samantha W.; Rosen, Maya L.; Kong, Lingqiang; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.; Somers, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Audition and vision both convey spatial information about the environment, but much less is known about mechanisms of auditory spatial cognition than visual spatial cognition. Human cortex contains >20 visuospatial map representations but no reported auditory spatial maps. The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) contains several of these visuospatial maps, which support visuospatial attention and short-term memory (STM). Neuroimaging studies also demonstrate that parietal cortex is activated during auditory spatial attention and working memory tasks, but prior work has not demonstrated that auditory activation occurs within visual spatial maps in parietal cortex. Here, we report both cognitive and anatomical distinctions in the auditory recruitment of visuotopically mapped regions within the superior parietal lobule. An auditory spatial STM task recruited anterior visuotopic maps (IPS2–4, SPL1), but an auditory temporal STM task with equivalent stimuli failed to drive these regions significantly. Behavioral and eye-tracking measures rule out task difficulty and eye movement explanations. Neither auditory task recruited posterior regions IPS0 or IPS1, which appear to be exclusively visual. These findings support the hypothesis of multisensory spatial processing in the anterior, but not posterior, superior parietal lobule and demonstrate that recruitment of these maps depends on auditory task demands. PMID:26656996

  4. The Role of the Right Posterior Parietal Cortex in Temporal Order Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Sung-Ho; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Lee, Kyoung-Min

    2009-01-01

    Perceived order of two consecutive stimuli may not correspond to the order of their physical onsets. Such a disagreement presumably results from a difference in the speed of stimulus processing toward central decision mechanisms. Since previous evidence suggests that the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) plays a role in modulating the…

  5. The role of parietal cortex in the formation of color and motion based concepts

    PubMed Central

    Cheadle, Samuel W.; Zeki, Semir

    2014-01-01

    Imaging evidence shows that separate subdivisions of parietal cortex, in and around the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), are engaged when stimuli are grouped according to color and to motion (Zeki and Stutters, 2013). Since grouping is an essential step in the formation of concepts, we wanted to learn whether parietal cortex is also engaged in the formation of concepts according to these two attributes. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and choosing the recognition of concept-based color or motion stimuli as our paradigm, we found that there was strong concept-related activity in and around the IPS, a region whose homolog in the macaque monkey is known to receive direct but segregated anatomical inputs from V4 and V5. Parietal activity related to color concepts was juxtaposed but did not overlap with activity related to motion concepts, thus emphasizing the continuation of the segregation of color and motion into the conceptual system. Concurrent retinotopic mapping experiments showed that within the parietal cortex, concept-related activity increases within later stage IPS areas. PMID:25120447

  6. Rapid Destruction of the Hip Joint Accompanied by an Enlarged Iliopsoas Bursa in a Healthy Man

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju-Oh

    2014-01-01

    Association between enlarged iliopsoas bursa and hip lesions such as osteoarthritis of the hip or femoral head necrosis is infrequently seen. Enlarged iliopsoas bursa with a rapidly destructive arthropathy is claimed to be seen only in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In this paper, we report a patient with a rapidly destructive arthropathy accompanied by an enlarged iliopsoas bursa that has been misdiagnosed as an infection.

  7. Protein kinase C-α attenuates cholinergically stimulated gastric acid secretion of rabbit parietal cells

    PubMed Central

    Fährmann, Michael; Kaufhold, Marc; Pfeiffer, Andreas F; Seidler, Ursula

    2003-01-01

    The phorbolester 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), an activator of protein kinase C (PKC), inhibits cholinergic stimulation of gastric acid secretion. We observed that this effect strongly correlated with the inhibition of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity in rabbit parietal cells. The aim of this study was to specify the function of PKC-α in cholinergically stimulated H+ secretion. PKC-α represents the only calcium-dependent PKC isoenzyme that has been detected in rabbit parietal cells. Gö 6976, an inhibitor of calcium-dependent PKC, concentration-dependently antagonized the inhibitory effect of TPA, and, therefore, revealed the action of PKC-α on carbachol-induced acid secretion in rabbit parietal cells. TPA exerted no additive inhibition of carbachol-stimulated acid secretion if acid secretion was partially inhibited by the potent CaMKII inhibitor 1-[N,O-bis(5-isoquinolinsulfonyl)-N-methyl-L-tyrosyl]-4-phenyl-piperazine (KN-62). Since both kinase modulators, TPA and KN-62, affected no divergent signal transduction pathways in the parietal cell, an in vitro model has been used to study if PKC directly targets CaMKII. CaMKII purified from parietal cell-containing gastric mucosa of pig, was transphosphorylated by purified cPKC containing PKC-α up to 1.8 mol Pi per mol CaMKII in vitro. The autonomy site of CaMKII was not transphosphorylated by PKC. The phosphotransferase activity of the purified CaMKII was in vitro inhibited after transphosphorylation by PKC if calmodulin was absent during transphosphorylation. Attenuation of CaMKII activity by PKC showed strong similarity to the downregulation of CaMKII by basal autophosphorylation. Our results suggest that PKC-α and CaMKII are closely functionally linked in a cholinergically induced signalling pathway in rabbit parietal cells. We assume that in cholinergically stimulated parietal cells PKC-α transinhibits CaMKII activity, resulting in an attenuation of acid secretion

  8. Optic ataxia as a result of the breakdown of the global tuning fields of parietal neurones.

    PubMed

    Battaglia-Mayer, Alexandra; Caminiti, Roberto

    2002-02-01

    Optic ataxia is characterized by an impaired visual control of the direction of arm reaching to a visual target, accompanied by defective hand orientation and grip formation. In humans, optic ataxia is associated with lesions of the superior parietal lobule (SPL), which also affect visually guided saccades and other forms of eye-hand coordination. In the last 10 years, anatomical and physiological studies of the SPL have shed new light on the role of parietal cortex in the control of combined eye-hand movements to visual targets, and on the underlying distributed network which links parietal to frontal cortex. A main emerging functional feature of SPL neurones seems to be their capacity to combine, in a spatially congruent fashion, different directional eye- and hand-related information, that any coding scheme so far proposed, considers essential for the composition of motor commands for reaching. This integration occurs within the global tuning field of parietal neurones, is context-dependent and involves eye and hand information that shares the same directional properties. Depending on task demands, this integration of signals can result in the representation of different reference frames for coordinated eye-hand movements. The dynamic operations occurring within the global tuning fields might depend, at least in part, on the reciprocal sets of association connections linking the SPL and the premotor areas of the frontal lobe. From this picture, the SPL emerges as both a main source of visual input to the frontal cortex and a key structure for visuomotor integration based on re-entrant signalling and, therefore, as a crucial node in the visual control of movement. It is hypothesized that in parietal patients, the directional errors that characterize reaching are a consequence of the breakdown of the combination of directional eye and hand information within the global tuning fields of parietal neurones. In these patients, the spatial match among information about

  9. Gingival Enlargement in a Case of Variant Jones Syndrome: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    DA, Roopa; Singh, Shinkhala; Gupta, Ira; Gopal, Saumiya

    2016-01-01

    Gingival enlargement can be caused by a variety of etiological factors like inflammation, drugs, and systemic diseases or can be presented as a part of a syndrome. One such syndrome is Jones Syndrome, which is associated with gingival enlargement and progressive hearing loss. We present here a case of fifteen-year-old boy with gingival enlargement, hearing loss, and generalized alveolar bone loss and diagnosed as Jones syndrome. The diagnosis was made based on history, clinical, radiographic, and histopathological findings. Gingival enlargement was surgically managed using gingivectomy and no recurrence was observed. The patient showed remarkable esthetical and functional improvement. PMID:26966711

  10. Gingival Enlargement in a Case of Variant Jones Syndrome: a Case Report.

    PubMed

    DA, Roopa; Singh, Shinkhala; Gupta, Ira; Gopal, Saumiya

    2016-03-01

    Gingival enlargement can be caused by a variety of etiological factors like inflammation, drugs, and systemic diseases or can be presented as a part of a syndrome. One such syndrome is Jones Syndrome, which is associated with gingival enlargement and progressive hearing loss. We present here a case of fifteen-year-old boy with gingival enlargement, hearing loss, and generalized alveolar bone loss and diagnosed as Jones syndrome. The diagnosis was made based on history, clinical, radiographic, and histopathological findings. Gingival enlargement was surgically managed using gingivectomy and no recurrence was observed. The patient showed remarkable esthetical and functional improvement. PMID:26966711

  11. Contribution of the posterior parietal cortex in reaching, grasping, and using objects and tools

    PubMed Central

    Vingerhoets, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging data suggest a differential contribution of posterior parietal regions during the different components of a transitive gesture. Reaching requires the integration of object location and body position coordinates and reaching tasks elicit bilateral activation in different foci along the intraparietal sulcus. Grasping requires a visuomotor match between the object's shape and the hand's posture. Lesion studies and neuroimaging confirm the importance of the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus for human grasping. Reaching and grasping reveal bilateral activation that is generally more prominent on the side contralateral to the hand used or the hemifield stimulated. Purposeful behavior with objects and tools can be assessed in a variety of ways, including actual use, pantomimed use, and pure imagery of manipulation. All tasks have been shown to elicit robust activation over the left parietal cortex in neuroimaging, but lesion studies have not always confirmed these findings. Compared to pantomimed or imagined gestures, actual object and tool use typically produces activation over the left primary somatosensory region. Neuroimaging studies on pantomiming or imagery of tool use in healthy volunteers revealed neural responses in possibly separate foci in the left supramarginal gyrus. In sum, the parietal contribution of reaching and grasping of objects seems to depend on a bilateral network of intraparietal foci that appear organized along gradients of sensory and effector preferences. Dorsal and medial parietal cortex appears to contribute to the online monitoring/adjusting of the ongoing prehensile action, whereas the functional use of objects and tools seems to involve the inferior lateral parietal cortex. This functional input reveals a clear left lateralized activation pattern that may be tuned to the integration of acquired knowledge in the planning and guidance of the transitive movement. PMID:24634664

  12. Fronto-Parietal Connectivity Is a Non-Static Phenomenon with Characteristic Changes during Unconsciousness

    PubMed Central

    Kochs, Eberhard F.; Ilg, Rüdiger; Schneider, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been previously shown that loss of consciousness is associated with a breakdown of dominating fronto-parietal feedback connectivity as assessed by electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. Structure and strength of network connectivity may change over time. Aim of the current study is to investigate cortico-cortical connectivity at different time intervals during consciousness and unconsciousness. For this purpose, EEG symbolic transfer entropy (STEn) was calculated to indicate cortico-cortical information transfer at different transfer times. Methods The study was performed in 15 male volunteers. 29-channel EEG was recorded during consciousness and propofol-induced unconsciousness. EEG data were analyzed by STEn, which quantifies intensity and directionality of the mutual information flow between two EEG channels. STEn was computed over fronto-parietal channel pair combinations (10 s length, 0.5–45 Hz total bandwidth) to analyze changes of intercortical directional connectivity. Feedback (fronto → parietal) and feedforward (parieto → frontal) connectivity was calculated for transfer times from 25 ms to 250 ms in 5 ms steps. Transfer times leading to maximum directed interaction were identified to detect changes of cortical information transfer (directional connectivity) induced by unconsciousness (p<0.05). Results The current analyses show that fronto-parietal connectivity is a non-static phenomenon. Maximum detected interaction occurs at decreased transfer times during propofol-induced unconsciousness (feedback interaction: 60 ms to 40 ms, p = 0.002; feedforward interaction: 65 ms to 45 ms, p = 0.001). Strength of maximum feedback interaction decreases during unconsciousness (p = 0.026), while no effect of propofol was observed on feedforward interaction. During both consciousness and unconsciousness, intensity of fronto-parietal interaction fluctuates with increasing transfer times. Conclusion Non-stationarity of directional

  13. Immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the parietal pleura of patients with tuberculous pleurisy.

    PubMed

    Caramori, Gaetano; Lasagna, Lisa; Casalini, Angelo G; Adcock, Ian M; Casolari, Paolo; Contoli, Marco; Tafuro, Federica; Padovani, Anna; Chung, Kian Fan; Barnes, Peter J; Papi, Alberto; Rindi, Guido; Bertorelli, Giuseppina

    2011-01-01

    The T lymphocyte-mediated immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the parietal pleura of patients with tuberculous pleurisy is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the immune response in the parietal pleura of tuberculous pleurisy compared with nonspecific pleuritis. We have measured the numbers of inflammatory cells particularly T-cell subsets (Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg cells) in biopsies of parietal pleura obtained from 14 subjects with proven tuberculous pleurisy compared with a control group of 12 subjects with nonspecific pleuritis. The number of CD3+, CD4+ and CCR4+ cells and the expression of RORC2 mRNA were significantly increased in the tuberculous pleurisy patients compared with the nonspecific pleuritis subjects. The number of toluidine blue+ cells, tryptase+ cells and GATA-3+ cells was significantly decreased in the parietal pleura of patients with tuberculous pleurisy compared with the control group of nonspecific pleuritis subjects. Logistic regression with receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis for the three single markers was performed and showed a better performance for GATA-3 with a sensitivity of 75%, a specificity of 100% and an AUC of 0.88. There was no significant difference between the two groups of subjects in the number of CD8, CD68, neutrophil elastase, interferon (IFN)-γ, STAT4, T-bet, CCR5, CXCR3, CRTH2, STAT6 and FOXP3 positive cells. Elevated CD3, CD4, CCR4 and Th17 cells and decreased mast cells and GATA-3+ cells in the parietal pleura distinguish patients with untreated tuberculous pleurisy from those with nonspecific pleuritis. PMID:21829471

  14. Enlargement of Cerebral Ventricles as an Early Indicator of Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Hentschel, Jan; Ji, Yiyi; Skodowski, Julia; Pohlmann, Andreas; Millward, Jason M.; Paul, Friedemann; Wuerfel, Jens; Niendorf, Thoralf; Waiczies, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system such as multiple sclerosis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis involve an invasion of immune cells that ultimately leads to white matter demyelination, neurodegeneration and development of neurological symptoms. A clinical diagnosis is often made when neurodegenerative processes are already ongoing. In an attempt to seek early indicators of disease, we studied the temporal and spatial distribution of brain modifications in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In a thorough magnetic resonance imaging study performed with EAE mice, we observed significant enlargement of the ventricles prior to disease clinical manifestation and an increase in free water content within the cerebrospinal fluid as demonstrated by changes in T2 relaxation times. The increase in ventricle size was seen in the lateral, third and fourth ventricles. In some EAE mice the ventricle size started returning to normal values during disease remission. In parallel to this macroscopic phenomenon, we studied the temporal evolution of microscopic lesions commonly observed in the cerebellum also starting prior to disease onset. Our data suggest that changes in ventricle size during the early stages of brain inflammation could be an early indicator of the events preceding neurological disease and warrant further exploration in preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:23991157

  15. Hydrodynamic drag constrains head enlargement for mouthbrooding in cichlids.

    PubMed

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Potes, Nuno Zavattieri; Adriaens, Dominique

    2015-08-01

    Presumably as an adaptation for mouthbrooding, many cichlid fish species have evolved a prominent sexual dimorphism in the adult head. Since the head of fishes serves as a bow during locomotion, an evolutionary increase in head volume to brood more eggs can trade-off with the hydrodynamic efficiency of swimming. Here, the differences between males and females in three-dimensional shape and size of the external head surfaces and the effect thereof on drag force during locomotion was analysed for the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a maternal mouthbrooder. To do so, three-dimensional body surface reconstructions from laser scans and computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed. After scaling the scanned specimens to post-cranial body volume, in order to theoretically equalize propulsive power, the external volume of the head of females was 27% larger than that of males (head length + 14%; head width + 9%). These differences resulted in an approximate 15% increase in drag force. Yet, hydrodynamics imposed important constraints on the adaptation for mouthbrooding as a much more drastic drop in swimming efficiency seems avoided by mainly enlarging the head along the swimming direction. PMID:26224567

  16. Pathophysiology and clinical implications of pulmonary arterial enlargement in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Wells, J Michael; Dransfield, Mark T

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex condition defined by progressive airflow limitation in response to noxious stimuli, inflammation, and vascular changes. COPD exacerbations are critical events in the natural history of the disease, accounting for the majority of disease burden, cost, and mortality. Pulmonary vascular disease is an important risk factor for disease progression and exacerbation risk. Relative pulmonary artery enlargement on computed tomography scan, defined by a pulmonary artery to aortic (PA:A) ratio >1, has been evaluated as a marker of pulmonary vascular disease. The PA:A ratio can be measured reliably independent of electrocardiographic gating or the use of contrast, and in healthy patients a PA:A ratio >0.9 is considered to be abnormal. The PA:A ratio has been compared with invasive hemodynamic parameters, primarily mean pulmonary artery pressure in various disease conditions and is more strongly correlated with mean pulmonary artery pressure in obstructive as compared with interstitial lung disease. In patients without known cardiac or pulmonary disease, the PA:A ratio is predictive of mortality, while in COPD, an elevated PA:A ratio is correlated with increased exacerbation risk, outperforming other well established predictors of these events. Future studies should be aimed at determining the stability of the metric over time and evaluating the utility of the PA:A ratio in guiding specific therapies. PMID:24235822

  17. Detection of eviscerated poultry spleen enlargement by machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yang; Shao, June J.; Skeeles, John K.; Chen, Yud-Ren

    1999-01-01

    The size of a poultry spleen is an indication of whether the bird is wholesomeness or has a virus-related disease. This study explored the possibility of detecting poultry spleen enlargement with a computer imaging system to assist human inspectors in food safety inspections. Images of 45-day-old hybrid turkey internal viscera were taken using fluorescent and UV lighting systems. Image processing algorithms including linear transformation, morphological operations, and statistical analyses were developed to distinguish the spleen from its surroundings and then to detect abnormal spleens. Experimental results demonstrated that the imaging method could effectively distinguish spleens from other organ and intestine. Based on a total sample of 57 birds, the classification rates were 92% from a self-test set, and 95% from an independent test set for the correct detection of normal and abnormal birds. The methodology indicated the feasibility of using automated machine vision systems in the future to inspect internal organs and check the wholesomeness of poultry carcasses.

  18. A visible QCD axion from an enlarged color group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gherghetta, Tony; Nagata, Natsumi; Shifman, Mikhail

    2016-06-01

    We consider the possibility of an enlarged QCD color group, SU (3 +N') spontaneously broken to SU (3 )c×SU (N') with extra vectorlike quarks transforming in the fundamental representation. When the heavy quarks are integrated out below the PQ-breaking scale, they generate an axion coupling which simultaneously solves the strong C P problem for both gauge groups. However, the axion mass now receives a new nonperturbative contribution from the SU (N') confinement scale, which can be substantially larger than the QCD scale. This can increase the axion mass to be at or above the electroweak scale. This visible axion can then decay into gluons and photons giving rise to observable signals at run II of the LHC. In particular, if the mass is identified with the 750 GeV diphoton resonance, then the new confinement scale is ˜TeV and the PQ-breaking scale is ˜10 TeV . This predicts vectorlike quarks and a PQ scalar resonance in the multi-TeV range, with the possibility that dark matter is an SU (N') baryon.

  19. Enlargement of cerebral ventricles as an early indicator of encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Lepore, Stefano; Waiczies, Helmar; Hentschel, Jan; Ji, Yiyi; Skodowski, Julia; Pohlmann, Andreas; Millward, Jason M; Paul, Friedemann; Wuerfel, Jens; Niendorf, Thoralf; Waiczies, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system such as multiple sclerosis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis involve an invasion of immune cells that ultimately leads to white matter demyelination, neurodegeneration and development of neurological symptoms. A clinical diagnosis is often made when neurodegenerative processes are already ongoing. In an attempt to seek early indicators of disease, we studied the temporal and spatial distribution of brain modifications in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In a thorough magnetic resonance imaging study performed with EAE mice, we observed significant enlargement of the ventricles prior to disease clinical manifestation and an increase in free water content within the cerebrospinal fluid as demonstrated by changes in T2 relaxation times. The increase in ventricle size was seen in the lateral, third and fourth ventricles. In some EAE mice the ventricle size started returning to normal values during disease remission. In parallel to this macroscopic phenomenon, we studied the temporal evolution of microscopic lesions commonly observed in the cerebellum also starting prior to disease onset. Our data suggest that changes in ventricle size during the early stages of brain inflammation could be an early indicator of the events preceding neurological disease and warrant further exploration in preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:23991157

  20. Assembly and enlargement of the primary cell wall in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    Growing plant cells are shaped by an extensible wall that is a complex amalgam of cellulose microfibrils bonded noncovalently to a matrix of hemicelluloses, pectins, and structural proteins. Cellulose is synthesized by complexes in the plasma membrane and is extruded as a self-assembling microfibril, whereas the matrix polymers are secreted by the Golgi apparatus and become integrated into the wall network by poorly understood mechanisms. The growing wall is under high tensile stress from cell turgor and is able to enlarge by a combination of stress relaxation and polymer creep. A pH-dependent mechanism of wall loosening, known as acid growth, is characteristic of growing walls and is mediated by a group of unusual wall proteins called expansins. Expansins appear to disrupt the noncovalent bonding of matrix hemicelluloses to the microfibril, thereby allowing the wall to yield to the mechanical forces generated by cell turgor. Other wall enzymes, such as (1-->4) beta-glucanases and pectinases, may make the wall more responsive to expansin-mediated wall creep whereas pectin methylesterases and peroxidases may alter the wall so as to make it resistant to expansin-mediated creep.

  1. In vivo phospholipid biosynthesis in cotton cotyledons during glyoxysome enlargement

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, K.D.; Trelease, R.N. )

    1990-05-01

    The surface are of cottonseed glyoxysomes increases about 4 fold within 36 h after imbibition. Membrane phospholipid must become available to glyoxysomes to accommodate expansion. Incubation of cotyledons (18-h-old) in 14C-choline (1 h) resulted in at least 85% recovery of 14C-phosphatidylcholine (PC) in membranes comigrating on sucrose gradients (20-59% w/w) with antimycin A-insensitive cytochrome c reductase (CCR) activity and choline- and ethanolaminephosphotransferase (CPT and EPT) activities (ER at about 24% w/w sucrose). Chase experiments with 3.4 M choline chloride for 2, 12, or 24 h led to increasing proportions of 14C-PC (36% after 24 h) recovery in mitochondria. No transfer of 14C-PC to enlarging glyoxysomes was detected. Incubations in 14C-ethanolamine yielded ER labeling after only 30 min. 14C-PE chased into mitochondria membranes more rapidly than PC (45% after 12 h), and no 14C-PE chased into glyoxysome membranes. Evidence for synthesis of 14C-PC from 14C-PE was found after 12 h chase with 1 M ethanolamine hydrochloride. Our results indicate that ER is the primary site of PC and PE synthesis in vivo and that ER contributes newly synthesized PC and PE to mitochondrial membranes but not to expanding glyoxysomal membranes. This is different from membrane biogenesis of glyoxysomes proliferating in castor bean endosperm.

  2. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression is enhanced in renal parietal epithelial cells of zucker diabetic Fatty rats and is induced by albumin in in vitro primary parietal cell culture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; George, Jasmine; Li, Yun; Olufade, Rebecca; Zhao, Xueying

    2015-01-01

    As a subfamily of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), gelatinases including MMP-2 and MMP-9 play an important role in remodeling and homeostasis of the extracellular matrix. However, conflicting results have been reported regarding their expression level and activity in the diabetic kidney. This study investigated whether and how MMP-9 expression and activity were changed in glomerular epithelial cells upon albumin overload. In situ zymography, immunostaining and Western blot for renal MMP gelatinolytic activity and MMP-9 protein expression were performed in Zucker lean and Zucker diabetic rats. Confocal microscopy revealed a focal increase in gelatinase activity and MMP-9 protein in the glomeruli of diabetic rats. Increased glomerular MMP-9 staining was mainly observed in hyperplastic parietal epithelial cells (PECs) expressing claudin-1 in the diabetic kidneys. Interestingly, increased parietal MMP-9 was often accompanied by decreased staining for podocyte markers (nephrin and podocalyxin) in the sclerotic area of affected glomeruli in diabetic rats. Additionally, urinary excretion of podocyte marker proteins was significantly increased in association with the levels of MMP-9 and albumin in the urine of diabetic animals. To evaluate the direct effect of albumin on expression and activity of MMP-9, primary cultured rat glomerular PECs were incubated with rat serum albumin (0.25 - 1 mg/ml) for 24 - 48 hrs. MMP-9 mRNA levels were significantly increased following albumin treatment. Meanwhile, albumin administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in MMP-9 protein and activity in culture supernatants of PECs. Moreover, albumin activated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in PECs. Inhibition of p44/42 MAPK suppressed albumin-induced MMP-9 secretion from glomerular PECs. Taken together, we have demonstrated that an up-regulation of MMP-9 in activated parietal epithelium is associated with a loss of adjacent podocytes in progressive diabetic nephropathy

  3. Outcomes and Adverse Events of Enlarged Tracheoesophageal Puncture after Total Laryngectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hutcheson, Katherine A.; Lewin, Jan S.; Sturgis, Erich M.; Risser, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Enlargement of the tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP) results in aspiration around the voice prosthesis (VP) and may lead to pneumonia. The primary objective was to summarize control of leakage around the VP after conservative management of enlarged TEP. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Methods This 5-year cohort included 194 patients who underwent total laryngectomy (± pharyngectomy) and TEP at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Control of leakage around the VP was analyzed at last follow-up after enlarged TEP. Adverse events were compared in patients with and without enlarged TEP. Results The incidence of enlarged TEP was 18.6% (36/194, 95% CI: 13.0%-24.1%). Conservative methods commonly attempted in lieu of complete TEP closure included placement of an enlarged-flange VP (34/36, 94%), temporary VP removal (14/36, 39%), and TEP-site injection (8/36, 22%). At last follow-up, conservative methods controlled leakage around the VP in 81% (29/36) of patients. Only 2 patients required complete TEP closure due to persistent leakage after enlarged TEP. Unresolved leakage was more common in patients with recurrent cancer after laryngectomy (p=0.081) and irregular TEP contour (p=0.003). Relative to controls without TEP enlargement, patients with enlarged TEP had 3-fold higher risk of pneumonia (RR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.9-6.2) and aspiration of the prosthesis (RR: 3.3, 95% CI: 0.8-14.1). Conclusions Although the rate of enlarged TEP is relatively low, the complication significantly elevates risk of pneumonia. Prosthetic leakage related to TEP enlargement can often be managed conservatively to avoid complete closure of the TEP. Level of evidence: 2b PMID:21647906

  4. The Role of the Parietal Cortex in the Representation of Task-Reward Associations.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, David; Reverberi, Carlo; Momennejad, Ida; Kahnt, Thorsten; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2015-09-01

    Rewards obtained from specific behaviors can and do change across time. To adapt to such conditions, humans need to represent and update associations between behaviors and their outcomes. Much previous work focused on how rewards affect the processing of specific tasks. However, abstract associations between multiple potential behaviors and multiple rewards are an important basis for adaptation as well. In this experiment, we directly investigated which brain areas represent associations between multiple tasks and rewards, using time-resolved multivariate pattern analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Importantly, we were able to dissociate neural signals reflecting task-reward associations from those related to task preparation and reward expectation processes, variables that were often correlated in previous research. We hypothesized that brain regions involved in processing tasks and/or rewards will be involved in processing associations between them. Candidate areas included the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, which is involved in associating simple actions and rewards, and the parietal cortex, which has been shown to represent task rules and action values. Our results indicate that local spatial activation patterns in the inferior parietal cortex indeed represent task-reward associations. Interestingly, the parietal cortex flexibly changes its content of representation within trials. It first represents task-reward associations, later switching to process tasks and rewards directly. These findings highlight the importance of the inferior parietal cortex in associating behaviors with their outcomes and further show that it can flexibly reconfigure its function within single trials. Significance statement: Rewards obtained from specific behaviors rarely remain constant over time. To adapt to changing conditions, humans need to continuously update and represent the current association between behavior and its outcomes. However, little is known

  5. Unilateral enlargement of the testis in childhood: does it need exploration?

    PubMed

    MacMahon, R A; Cussen, L J

    1991-01-01

    Unilateral testicular enlargement in the pubertal boy is not an indication for exploration and biopsy, if the clinical features and investigations show no evidence of malignancy. In the prepubertal boy, unilateral testicular enlargement is not necessarily an indication for exploration if there are no clinical or investigational grounds for suspicion of neoplasia. Close follow-up is essential. PMID:2005529

  6. Body-enlarging effect of royal jelly in a non-holometabolous insect species, Gryllus bimaculatus

    PubMed Central

    Miyashita, Atsushi; Kizaki, Hayato; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Honeybee royal jelly is reported to have body-enlarging effects in holometabolous insects such as the honeybee, fly and silkmoth, but its effect in non-holometabolous insect species has not yet been examined. The present study confirmed the body-enlarging effect in silkmoths fed an artificial diet instead of mulberry leaves used in the previous literature. Administration of honeybee royal jelly to silkmoth from early larval stage increased the size of female pupae and adult moths, but not larvae (at the late larval stage) or male pupae. We further examined the body-enlarging effect of royal jelly in a non-holometabolous species, the two-spotted cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, which belongs to the evolutionarily primitive group Polyneoptera. Administration of royal jelly to G. bimaculatus from its early nymph stage enlarged both males and females at the mid-nymph and adult stages. In the cricket, the body parts were uniformly enlarged in both males and females; whereas the enlarged female silkmoths had swollen abdomens. Administration of royal jelly increased the number, but not the size, of eggs loaded in the abdomen of silkmoth females. In addition, fat body cells were enlarged by royal jelly in the silkmoth, but not in the cricket. These findings suggest that the body-enlarging effect of royal jelly is common in non-holometabolous species, G. bimaculatus, but it acts in a different manner than in holometabolous species. PMID:27185266

  7. 46 CFR 502.105 - Waiver of rules governing enlargements of time and postponements of hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waiver of rules governing enlargements of time and postponements of hearings. 502.105 Section 502.105 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Time § 502.105 Waiver of rules governing enlargements of time and postponements of hearings....

  8. Merit Pay and Job Enlargement as Reforms: Incentives, Implementation, and Teacher Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, William A.

    1991-01-01

    Based on intensive case studies of two school districts, this study compared two teacher work reforms: merit pay and job enlargement. Interviews with 64 teachers and 53 administrators, supplemented by over 1,300 survey responses, indicate the efficacy of each approach and the potential advantages of job enlargement. (SLD)

  9. Body-enlarging effect of royal jelly in a non-holometabolous insect species, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Atsushi; Kizaki, Hayato; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2016-01-01

    Honeybee royal jelly is reported to have body-enlarging effects in holometabolous insects such as the honeybee, fly and silkmoth, but its effect in non-holometabolous insect species has not yet been examined. The present study confirmed the body-enlarging effect in silkmoths fed an artificial diet instead of mulberry leaves used in the previous literature. Administration of honeybee royal jelly to silkmoth from early larval stage increased the size of female pupae and adult moths, but not larvae (at the late larval stage) or male pupae. We further examined the body-enlarging effect of royal jelly in a non-holometabolous species, the two-spotted cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, which belongs to the evolutionarily primitive group Polyneoptera. Administration of royal jelly to G. bimaculatus from its early nymph stage enlarged both males and females at the mid-nymph and adult stages. In the cricket, the body parts were uniformly enlarged in both males and females; whereas the enlarged female silkmoths had swollen abdomens. Administration of royal jelly increased the number, but not the size, of eggs loaded in the abdomen of silkmoth females. In addition, fat body cells were enlarged by royal jelly in the silkmoth, but not in the cricket. These findings suggest that the body-enlarging effect of royal jelly is common in non-holometabolous species, G. bimaculatus, but it acts in a different manner than in holometabolous species. PMID:27185266

  10. Temporo-parietal and fronto-parietal lobe contributions to theory of mind and executive control: an fMRI study of verbal jokes

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yu-Chen; Lavallee, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    ‘Getting a joke’ always requires resolving an apparent incongruity, but the particular cognitive operations called upon vary depending on the nature of the joke itself. Previous research has identified the primary neural correlates of the cognitive and affective processes called upon to respond to humor generally, but little work has been done on the substrates underlying the distinct cognitive operations required to comprehend particular joke types. This study explored the neural correlates of the cognitive processes required to successfully comprehend three joke types: bridging-inference jokes (BJs), exaggeration jokes (EJs), and ambiguity jokes (AJs). For all joke types, the left dlPFC appeared to support common cognitive mechanisms, such as script-shifting, while the vACC was associated with affective appreciation. The temporo-parietal lobe (TPJ and MTG) was associated with BJs, suggesting involvement of these regions with ‘theory of mind’ processing. The fronto-parietal lobe (IPL and IFG) was associated with both EJs and AJs, suggesting that it supports executive control processes such as retrieval from episodic memory, self-awareness, and language-based decoding. The social-affective appreciation of verbal jokes was associated with activity in the orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, and parahippocampal gyrus. These results allow a more precise account of the neural processes required to support the particular cognitive operations required for the understanding of different types of humor. PMID:26388803

  11. Isolation of parietal cells from guinea-pig gastric mucosa and the immunological characterization of their antigenic structure.

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, D P; Katiyar, V N; Rees, C; Taylor, K B; Wright, J P

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for the isolation of parietal cells from the gastric mucosa of the guinea pig by enzymatic digestion with collagenase. A suspension was obtained that contained 70-80% parietal cells. About 80% of the cells were viable immediately after incubation, but viability dropped sharply after one hour. Parietal cells were identified by their morphology on light and electron microscopy, by their uptake of neutral red, by immunofluorescent staining and by carbonic anhydrase activity. Antibodies to four distinct parietal-cell antigens were obtained from rabbits immunized with the isolated parietal cells or fractions thereof. These antibodies were directed against the microsomal fraction of the parietal-cell cytoplasm, the plasma and nuclear membranes, the soluble proteins, and Castle's intrinsic factor. The antibody against the microsomal fraction, though reacting in the same way as the antibody to parietal cell canaliculi found in the serum of patients with pernicious anaemia, showed greater species specificity. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 5 Fig 6 PMID:52572

  12. Decoding the view expectation during learned maze navigation from human fronto-parietal network.

    PubMed

    Shikauchi, Yumi; Ishii, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Humans use external cues and prior knowledge about the environment to monitor their positions during spatial navigation. View expectation is essential for correlating scene views with a cognitive map. To determine how the brain performs view expectation during spatial navigation, we applied a multiple parallel decoding technique to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) when human participants performed scene choice tasks in learned maze navigation environments. We decoded participants' view expectation from fMRI signals in parietal and medial prefrontal cortices, whereas activity patterns in occipital cortex represented various types of external cues. The decoder's output reflected participants' expectations even when they were wrong, corresponding to subjective beliefs opposed to objective reality. Thus, view expectation is subjectively represented in human brain, and the fronto-parietal network is involved in integrating external cues and prior knowledge during spatial navigation. PMID:26631641

  13. Parietal and occipital encephalocele in same child: A rarest variety of double encephalocele.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Somnath; Ojha, Bal Krishan; Chandra, Anil; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Srivastava, Chhitij

    2016-05-01

    An encephalocele is a protrusion of the brain and/or meninges through a defect in the skull. Based on the location of the skull defect they are classified into sincipital, basal, occipital or parietal varieties. Occurrence of more than one Encephalocele in a patient is very rare and very few cases of double encephalocele are reported. We report an interesting case where a parietal and an occipital encephalocele were present together. The patient was a 2 months boy who was brought to us with complaints of two swelling on the scalp since birth. Neuroimaging studies confirmed it to be a case of double encephalocele. The rarity of the findings prompted us to report this case. The presentation and management of the case along with and review of the relevant literature is presented. PMID:26876766

  14. Activation of the human posterior parietal and temporoparietal cortices during audiotactile interaction.

    PubMed

    Gobbelé, R; Schürmann, M; Forss, N; Juottonen, K; Buchner, H; Hari, R

    2003-09-01

    We recorded cortical-evoked responses with a whole-scalp neuromagnetometer to study human brain dynamics associated with audiotactile interaction. The subjects received unilateral auditory (A) or tactile (T) stimuli, or both stimuli simultaneously (AT), alternating to the left and right side. Responses to AT stimuli differed significantly from the algebraic sum of responses to A and T stimuli (A + T) at 75-85 and 105-130 ms and indicated suppressive audiotactile interaction. Source modeling revealed that the earlier interaction occurred in the contralateral posterior parietal cortex and the later interaction in the contralateral parietal opercula between the SII cortex and the auditory cortex. The interaction was significantly stronger in the left than the right hemisphere. In most subjects, AT responses were far more similar to T than to A responses, suggesting suppression of auditory processing during the spatially and temporally concordant audiotactile stimuli in which the tactile component was subjectively more salient. PMID:14527610

  15. Decoding the view expectation during learned maze navigation from human fronto-parietal network

    PubMed Central

    Shikauchi, Yumi; Ishii, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Humans use external cues and prior knowledge about the environment to monitor their positions during spatial navigation. View expectation is essential for correlating scene views with a cognitive map. To determine how the brain performs view expectation during spatial navigation, we applied a multiple parallel decoding technique to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) when human participants performed scene choice tasks in learned maze navigation environments. We decoded participants’ view expectation from fMRI signals in parietal and medial prefrontal cortices, whereas activity patterns in occipital cortex represented various types of external cues. The decoder’s output reflected participants’ expectations even when they were wrong, corresponding to subjective beliefs opposed to objective reality. Thus, view expectation is subjectively represented in human brain, and the fronto-parietal network is involved in integrating external cues and prior knowledge during spatial navigation. PMID:26631641

  16. Rhythmic TMS over Parietal Cortex Links Distinct Brain Frequencies to Global versus Local Visual Processing

    PubMed Central

    Romei, Vincenzo; Driver, Jon; Schyns, Philippe G.; Thut, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Summary Neural networks underlying visual perception exhibit oscillations at different frequencies (e.g., [1–6]). But how these map onto distinct aspects of visual perception remains elusive. Recent electroencephalography data indicate that theta or beta frequencies at parietal sensors increase in amplitude when conscious perception is dominated by global or local features, respectively, of a reversible visual stimulus [6]. But this provides only correlative, noninterventional evidence. Here we show via transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) interventions that short rhythmic bursts of right-parietal TMS at theta or beta frequency can causally benefit processing of global or local levels, respectively, for hierarchical visual stimuli, especially in the context of salient incongruent distractors. This double dissociation between theta and beta TMS reveals distinct causal roles for particular frequencies in processing global versus local visual features. PMID:21315592

  17. Differential diagnosis of bilateral parietal abnormalities in I-123 IMP SPECT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwabara, Y.; Ichiya, Y.; Otsuka, M.; Tahara, T.; Fukumura, T.; Gunasekera, R.; Masuda, K. )

    1990-12-01

    This report discusses the clinical significance of bilateral parietal abnormalities on I-123 IMP SPECT imaging in 158 patients with cerebral disorders. This pattern was seen in 15 out of 21 patients with Alzheimer's disease; it was also seen in 4 out of 5 patients with Parkinson's disease with dementia, in 3 out of 17 patients with vascular dementia, in 1 out of 36 patients with cerebral infarction without dementia, in 1 out of 2 patients with hypoglycemia, and in 1 out of 2 patients with CO intoxication. Detection of bilateral parietal abnormalities is a useful finding in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, but one should keep in mind that other cerebral disorders may also show a similar pattern with I-123 IMP SPECT imaging.

  18. Calvarial tuberculosis of the parietal bone: A rare complication after dental extraction

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Anup P.; Mehrotra, Anant; Das, Kuntal Kanti; Kumar, Brijesh; Srivastav, Arun Kumar; Sahu, Rabi Narayan; Kumar, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a well-known endemic in developing countries. However calvarial TB is quiet rare even in such endemic areas. The most common sites affected are the frontal and parietal bones with destruction of both the inner and outer table. We hereby report a young male presenting to us with scalp swelling in the right temporal region with pus discharging sinus after an episode of tooth extraction for dental infection. Radiology revealed a loculated swelling within the right temporalis muscle and an associated bony defect in the right parietal bone. The patient was operated upon and the biopsy was suggestive of tubercular pathology. The patient improved on antitubercular therapy. The rare presentation of calvarial TB occurring secondary to dental infection along with relevant literature is discussed here. PMID:26396611

  19. Negligible fronto-parietal BOLD activity accompanying unreportable switches in bistable perception

    PubMed Central

    Brascamp, Jan; Blake, Randolph; Knapen, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The human brain's executive systems play a vital role in deciding and selecting among actions. Selection among alternatives also occurs in the perceptual domain, for instance when perception switches between interpretations during perceptual bistability. Whether executive systems also underlie this functionality remains debated, with known fronto-parietal concomitants of perceptual switches being variously interpreted as reflecting the switches' cause, or as reflecting their consequences. We developed a paradigm where the two eyes receive different inputs and perception demonstrably switches between these inputs, yet where switches themselves are so inconspicuous as to become unreportable, minimizing their executive consequences. Fronto-parietal fMRI BOLD responses that accompany perceptual switches were similarly minimized in this paradigm, indicating that these reflect the switches' consequences rather than their cause. We conclude that perceptual switches do not always rely on executive brain areas, and that processes responsible for selection among alternatives may operate outside of the brain's executive systems. PMID:26436901

  20. Parietal dysfunction during number processing in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Woods, K J; Meintjes, E M; Molteno, C D; Jacobson, S W; Jacobson, J L

    2015-01-01

    Number processing deficits are frequently seen in children prenatally exposed to alcohol. Although the parietal lobe, which is known to mediate several key aspects of number processing, has been shown to be structurally impaired in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), effects on functional activity in this region during number processing have not previously been investigated. This fMRI study of 49 children examined differences in activation associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in five key parietal regions involved in number processing, using tasks involving simple addition and magnitude comparison. Despite generally similar behavioral performance, in both tasks greater prenatal alcohol exposure was related to less activation in an anterior section of the right horizontal intraparietal sulcus known to mediate mental representation and manipulation of quantity. Children with fetal alcohol syndrome and partial fetal alcohol syndrome appeared to compensate for this deficit by increased activation of the angular gyrus during the magnitude comparison task. PMID:26199871

  1. Parietal dysfunction during number processing in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Woods, K.J.; Meintjes, E.M.; Molteno, C.D.; Jacobson, S.W.; Jacobson, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Number processing deficits are frequently seen in children prenatally exposed to alcohol. Although the parietal lobe, which is known to mediate several key aspects of number processing, has been shown to be structurally impaired in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), effects on functional activity in this region during number processing have not previously been investigated. This fMRI study of 49 children examined differences in activation associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in five key parietal regions involved in number processing, using tasks involving simple addition and magnitude comparison. Despite generally similar behavioral performance, in both tasks greater prenatal alcohol exposure was related to less activation in an anterior section of the right horizontal intraparietal sulcus known to mediate mental representation and manipulation of quantity. Children with fetal alcohol syndrome and partial fetal alcohol syndrome appeared to compensate for this deficit by increased activation of the angular gyrus during the magnitude comparison task. PMID:26199871

  2. Intergenerational transmission of fronto-parietal dysfunction during forethought in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Poissant, Hélène; Rapin, Lucile; Mendrek, Adrianna

    2014-12-30

    There are only a few published reports of neural abnormalities within the families of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare cerebral activation of ADHD and control biological parent-child dyads during forethought, a prospective function of working memory. Reduced activations in ADHD dyads were found in the inferior frontal gyrus, right superior parietal lobule and left inferior parietal lobule. This suggests that fronto-parietal abnormalities are shared within ADHD families. PMID:25443178

  3. Distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interaction on human recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Greene, Ciara M; Flannery, Oliver; Soto, David

    2014-12-01

    The two dimensions of emotion, mood valence and arousal, have independent effects on recognition memory. At present, however, it is not clear how those effects are reflected in the human brain. Previous research in this area has generally dealt with memory for emotionally valenced or arousing stimuli, but the manner in which interacting mood and arousal states modulate responses in memory substrates remains poorly understood. We investigated memory for emotionally neutral items while independently manipulating mood valence and arousal state by means of music exposure. Four emotional conditions were created: positive mood/high arousal, positive mood/low arousal, negative mood/high arousal, and negative mood/low arousal. We observed distinct effects of mood valence and arousal in parietal substrates of recognition memory. Positive mood increased activity in ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and orbitofrontal cortex, whereas arousal condition modulated activity in dorsal PPC and the posterior cingulate. An interaction between valence and arousal was observed in left ventral PPC, notably in a parietal area distinct from the those identified for the main effects, with a stronger effect of mood on recognition memory responses here under conditions of relative high versus low arousal. We interpreted the PPC activations in terms of the attention-to-memory hypothesis: Increased arousal may lead to increased top-down control of memory, and hence dorsal PPC activation, whereas positive mood valence may result in increased activity in ventral PPC regions associated with bottom-up attention to memory. These findings indicate that distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interplay during recognition memory. PMID:24604603

  4. Distinguishing Intentions from Desires: Contributions of the Frontal and Parietal Lobes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiavarino, Claudia; Apperly, Ian A.; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to represent desires and intentions as two distinct mental states was investigated in patients with parietal (N = 8) and frontal (N = 6) lesions and in age-matched controls (N = 7). A task was used where the satisfaction of the desire and the fulfilment of the intention did not co-vary and were manipulated in a 2 x 2 set. In two…

  5. Individual structural differences in left inferior parietal area are associated with schoolchildrens' arithmetic scores.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongxin; Hu, Yuzheng; Wang, Yunqi; Weng, Jian; Chen, Feiyan

    2013-01-01

    Arithmetic skill is of critical importance for academic achievement, professional success and everyday life, and childhood is the key period to acquire this skill. Neuroimaging studies have identified that left parietal regions are a key neural substrate for representing arithmetic skill. Although the relationship between functional brain activity in left parietal regions and arithmetic skill has been studied in detail, it remains unclear about the relationship between arithmetic achievement and structural properties in left inferior parietal area in schoolchildren. The current study employed a combination of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) for high-resolution T1-weighted images and fiber tracking on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine the relationship between structural properties in the inferior parietal area and arithmetic achievement in 10-year-old schoolchildren. VBM of the T1-weighted images revealed that individual differences in arithmetic scores were significantly and positively correlated with the gray matter (GM) volume in the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Fiber tracking analysis revealed that the forceps major, left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) were the primary pathways connecting the left IPS with other brain areas. Furthermore, the regression analysis of the probabilistic pathways revealed a significant and positive correlation between the fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the left SLF, ILF and bilateral IFOF and arithmetic scores. The brain structure-behavior correlation analyses indicated that the GM volumes in the left IPS and the FA values in the tract pathways connecting left IPS were both related to children's arithmetic achievement. The present findings provide evidence that individual structural differences in the left IPS are associated with arithmetic scores in schoolchildren. PMID:24367320

  6. Disruption of Frontal-Parietal Communication by Ketamine, Propofol, and Sevoflurane

    PubMed Central

    Lee, UnCheol; Ku, SeungWoo; Noh, GyuJeong; Baek, SeungHye; Choi, ByungMoon; Mashour, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Directional connectivity from anterior to posterior brain regions (or “feedback” connectivity) has been shown to be inhibited by the gamma-aminobutyric acid agonists propofol and sevoflurane. In this study we tested the hypothesis that ketamine would also inhibit cortical feedback connectivity in frontoparietal networks. Methods Surgical patients (n=30) were recruited for induction of anesthesia with intravenous ketamine (2mg/kg); electroencephalography of the frontal and parietal regions was acquired. We used normalized symbolic transfer entropy, a computational method based in information theory, to measure directional connectivity across frontal and parietal regions. Statistical analysis of transfer entropy measures was performed with the permutation test and the time shift test to exclude false positive connectivity. For comparison, we used normalized symbolic transfer entropy to reanalyze electroencephalographic data gathered from surgical patients receiving either propofol (n=9) or sevoflurane (n=9) for anesthetic induction. Results Ketamine reduced alpha power and increased gamma power, in contrast to both propofol and sevoflurane. During administration of ketamine, feedback connectivity gradually diminished and was significantly inhibited after loss of consciousness (Mean±SD of baseline & anesthesia: 0.0074±0.003 & 0.0055±0.0027, F(5,179)= 7.785, p<0.0001). By contrast, feedforward connectivity was preserved during exposure to ketamine (Mean±SD of baseline & anesthesia: 0.0041±0.0015 & 0.0046±0.0018, F(5,179)=2.07, p=0.072). Like ketamine, propofol and sevoflurane selectively inhibited feedback connectivity after anesthetic induction. Conclusions Three major classes of anesthetics disrupt frontal-parietal communication, despite molecular and neurophysiologic differences. Analysis of directional connectivity in frontal-parietal networks could provide a common metric of general anesthesia and insight into the cognitive neuroscience of

  7. Enlargement of Glenoid Defects in Traumatic Anterior Shoulder Instability

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Shigeto; Ozaki, Ritsuro; Take, Yasuhiro; Mizuno, Naoko; Mae, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    defect was 12.0% in rugby players, 8.9% in American football players, 4.7% in female athletes, and 4.5% in baseball players. Glenoid defects were significantly smaller in male baseball players and female athletes than in male collision athletes. Conclusion: The glenoid defect is significantly enlarged by damage due to recurrent dislocation and subluxation; therefore, glenoid rim morphology differs markedly between primary and recurrent instability. Glenoid defect size is also influenced by sex and by the type of sport. PMID:26535319

  8. Space Radar Image of Giza Egypt - with enlargement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image shows the area west of the Nile River near Cairo, Egypt. The Nile River is the dark band along the right side of the image and it flows approximately due North from the bottom to the right. The boundary between dense urbanization and the desert can be clearly seen between the bright and dark areas in the center of the image. This boundary represents the approximate extent of yearly Nile flooding which played an important part in determining where people lived in ancient Egypt. This land usage pattern persists to this day. The pyramids at Giza appear as three bright triangles aligned with the image top just at the boundary of the urbanized area. They are also shown enlarged in the inset box in the top left of the image. The Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops in Greek) is the northern most of the three Giza pyramids. The side-looking radar illuminates the scene from the top, the two sides of the pyramids facing the radar reflect most of the energy back to the antenna and appear radar bright; the two sides away from the radar reflect less energy back and appear dark Two additional pyramids can be seen left of center in the lower portion of the image. The modern development in the desert on the left side of the image is the Sixth of October City, an area of factories and residences started by Anwar Sadat to relieve urban crowding. The image was taken on April 19, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered on latitude 29.72 degrees North latitude and 30.83 degrees East longitude. The area shown is approximately 20 kilometers by 30 kilometers. The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is C

  9. Differential roles of the dorsal prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices in visual search: a TMS study

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yulong; Wei, Rizhen; Zhang, Qian; Jin, Zhenlan; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown that fronto-parietal attentional networks play a crucial role in bottom-up and top-down processes, the relative contribution of the frontal and parietal cortices to these processes remains elusive. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to interfere with the activity of the right dorsal prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC), immediately prior to the onset of the visual search display. Participants searched a target defined by color and orientation in “pop-out” or “search” condition. Repetitive TMS was applied to either the right DLPFC or the right PPC on different days. Performance was evaluated at baseline (no TMS), during TMS, and after TMS (Post-session). RTs were prolonged when TMS was applied over the DLPFC in the search, but not in the pop-out condition, relative to the baseline session. In comparison, TMS over the PPC prolonged RTs in the pop-out condition, and when the target appeared in the left visual field for the search condition. Taken together these findings provide evidence for a differential role of DLPFC and PPC in the visual search, indicating that DLPFC has a specific involvement in the “search” condition, while PPC is mainly involved in detecting “pop-out” targets. PMID:27452715

  10. Developmental changes in mental arithmetic: evidence for increased functional specialization in the left inferior parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Rivera, S M; Reiss, A L; Eckert, M A; Menon, V

    2005-11-01

    Arithmetic reasoning is arguably one of the most important cognitive skills a child must master. Here we examine neurodevelopmental changes in mental arithmetic. Subjects (ages 8-19 years) viewed arithmetic equations and were asked to judge whether the results were correct or incorrect. During two-operand addition or subtraction trials, for which accuracy was comparable across age, older subjects showed greater activation in the left parietal cortex, along the supramarginal gyrus and adjoining anterior intra-parietal sulcus as well as the left lateral occipital temporal cortex. These age-related changes were not associated with alterations in gray matter density, and provide novel evidence for increased functional maturation with age. By contrast, younger subjects showed greater activation in the prefrontal cortex, including the dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting that they require comparatively more working memory and attentional resources to achieve similar levels of mental arithmetic performance. Younger subjects also showed greater activation of the hippocampus and dorsal basal ganglia, reflecting the greater demands placed on both declarative and procedural memory systems. Our findings provide evidence for a process of increased functional specialization of the left inferior parietal cortex in mental arithmetic, a process that is accompanied by decreased dependence on memory and attentional resources with development. PMID:15716474

  11. Vestibular function in the temporal and parietal cortex: distinct velocity and inertial processing pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ventre-Dominey, Jocelyne

    2014-01-01

    A number of behavioral and neuroimaging studies have reported converging data in favor of a cortical network for vestibular function, distributed between the temporo-parietal cortex and the prefrontal cortex in the primate. In this review, we focus on the role of the cerebral cortex in visuo-vestibular integration including the motion sensitive temporo-occipital areas i.e., the middle superior temporal area (MST) and the parietal cortex. Indeed, these two neighboring cortical regions, though they both receive combined vestibular and visual information, have distinct implications in vestibular function. In sum, this review of the literature leads to the idea of two separate cortical vestibular sub-systems forming (1) a velocity pathway including MST and direct descending pathways on vestibular nuclei. As it receives well-defined visual and vestibular velocity signals, this pathway is likely involved in heading perception and rapid top-down regulation of eye/head coordination and (2) an inertial processing pathway involving the parietal cortex in connection with the subcortical vestibular nuclei complex responsible for velocity storage integration. This vestibular cortical pathway would be implicated in high-order multimodal integration and cognitive functions, including world space and self-referential processing. PMID:25071481

  12. Fronto-Parietal Network Reconfiguration Supports the Development of Reasoning Ability.

    PubMed

    Wendelken, Carter; Ferrer, Emilio; Whitaker, Kirstie J; Bunge, Silvia A

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this fMRI study was to examine how well developmental improvements in reasoning ability can be explained by changes in functional connectivity between specific nodes in prefrontal and parietal cortices. To this end, we examined connectivity within the lateral fronto-parietal network (LFPN) and its relation to reasoning ability in 132 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years, 56 of whom were scanned twice over the course of 1.5 years. Developmental changes in strength of connections within the LFPN were most prominent in late childhood and early adolescence. Reasoning ability was related to functional connectivity between left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL), but only among 12-18-year olds. For 9-11-year olds, reasoning ability was most strongly related to connectivity between left and right RLPFC; this relationship was mediated by working memory. For 6-8-year olds, significant relationships between connectivity and performance were not observed; in this group, processing speed was the primary mediator of improvement in reasoning ability. We conclude that different connections best support reasoning at different points in development and that RLPFC-IPL connectivity becomes an important predictor of reasoning during adolescence. PMID:25824536

  13. Asymmetric Multisensory Interactions of Visual and Somatosensory Responses in a Region of the Rat Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lippert, Michael T.; Takagaki, Kentaroh

    2013-01-01

    Perception greatly benefits from integrating multiple sensory cues into a unified percept. To study the neural mechanisms of sensory integration, model systems are required that allow the simultaneous assessment of activity and the use of techniques to affect individual neural processes in behaving animals. While rodents qualify for these requirements, little is known about multisensory integration and areas involved for this purpose in the rodent. Using optical imaging combined with laminar electrophysiological recordings, the rat parietal cortex was identified as an area where visual and somatosensory inputs converge and interact. Our results reveal similar response patterns to visual and somatosensory stimuli at the level of current source density (CSD) responses and multi-unit responses within a strip in parietal cortex. Surprisingly, a selective asymmetry was observed in multisensory interactions: when the somatosensory response preceded the visual response, supra-linear summation of CSD was observed, but the reverse stimulus order resulted in sub-linear effects in the CSD. This asymmetry was not present in multi-unit activity however, which showed consistently sub-linear interactions. These interactions were restricted to a specific temporal window, and pharmacological tests revealed significant local intra-cortical contributions to this phenomenon. Our results highlight the rodent parietal cortex as a system to model the neural underpinnings of multisensory processing in behaving animals and at the cellular level. PMID:23667650

  14. Longitudinal working memory development is related to structural maturation of frontal and parietal cortices.

    PubMed

    Tamnes, Christian K; Walhovd, Kristine B; Grydeland, Håkon; Holland, Dominic; Østby, Ylva; Dale, Anders M; Fjell, Anders M

    2013-10-01

    Parallels between patterns of brain maturation and cognitive development have been observed repeatedly, but studies directly testing the relationships between improvements in specific cognitive functions and structural changes in the brain are lacking. Working memory development extends throughout childhood and adolescence and likely plays a central role for cognitive development in multiple domains and in several neurodevelopmental disorders. Neuroimaging, lesion, and electrophysiological studies indicate that working memory emerges from coordinated interactions of a distributed neural network in which fronto-parietal cortical regions are critical. In the current study, verbal working memory function, as indexed by performance on the Keep Track task, and volumes of brain regions were assessed at two time points in 79 healthy children and adolescents in the age range of 8-22 years. Longitudinal change in cortical and subcortical volumes was quantified by the use of Quantitative Anatomical Regional Change. Improvement in working memory was related to cortical volume reduction in bilateral prefrontal and posterior parietal regions and in regions around the central sulci. Importantly, these relationships were not explained by differences in gender, age, or intelligence level or change in intellectual abilities. Furthermore, the relationships did not interact with age and were not significantly different in children, young adolescents, and old adolescents. The results provide the first direct evidence that structural maturation of a fronto-parietal cortical network supports working memory development. PMID:23767921

  15. Neural representation of observed actions in the parietal and premotor cortex.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kenji; Inui, Toshio

    2011-05-15

    We investigated the neural representation of observed actions in the human parietal and premotor cortex, which comprise the action observation network or the mirror neuron system for action recognition. Participants observed object-directed hand actions, in which action as well as other properties were independently manipulated: action (grasp or touch), object (cup or bottle), perspective (1st or 3rd person), hand (right or left), and image size (large or small). We then used multi-voxel pattern analysis to determine whether each feature could be correctly decoded from regional activities. The early visual area showed significant above-chance classification accuracy, particularly high in perspective, hand, and size, consistent with pixel-wise dissimilarity of stimuli. In contrast, the highest decoding accuracy for action was observed in the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) and the ventral premotor cortex (PMv). Moreover, the decoder for action could be correctly generalized for images with high dissimilarity in the parietal and premotor region, but not in the visual area. Our study indicates that the parietal and premotor regions encode observed actions independent of retinal variations, which may subserve our capacity for invariant action recognition of others. PMID:20974271

  16. Bilateral Fronto-Parietal Integrity in Young Chronic Cigarette Smokers: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yanhui; Tang, Jinsong; Deng, Qijian; Deng, Yongwen; Luo, Tao; Wang, Xuyi; Chen, Hongxian; Liu, Tieqiao; Chen, Xiaogang; Brody, Arthur L.; Hao, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in China and other countries. Previous studies have demonstrated gray matter loss in chronic smokers. However, only a few studies assessed the changes of white matter integrity in this group. Based on those previous reports of alterations in white matter integrity in smokers, the aim of this study was to examine the alteration of white matter integrity in a large, well-matched sample of chronic smokers and non-smokers. Methodology/Principal Findings Using in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to measure the differences of whole-brain white matter integrity between 44 chronic smoking subjects (mean age, 28.0±5.6 years) and 44 healthy age- and sex-matched comparison non-smoking volunteers (mean age, 26.3±5.8 years). DTI was performed on a 3-Tesla Siemens scanner (Allegra; Siemens Medical System). The data revealed that smokers had higher fractional anisotropy (FA) than healthy non-smokers in almost symmetrically bilateral fronto-parietal tracts consisting of a major white matter pathway, the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Conclusion/Significance We found the almost symmetrically bilateral fronto-parietal whiter matter changes in a relatively large sample of chronic smokers. These findings support the hypothesis that chronic cigarette smoking involves alterations of bilateral fronto-parietal connectivity. PMID:22069452

  17. Effects of parietal TMS on somatosensory judgments challenge interhemispheric rivalry accounts.

    PubMed

    Eshel, Neir; Ruff, Christian C; Spitzer, Bernhard; Blankenburg, Felix; Driver, Jon

    2010-10-01

    Interplay between the cerebral hemispheres is vital for coordinating perception and behavior. One influential account holds that the hemispheres engage in rivalry, each inhibiting the other. In the somatosensory domain, a seminal paper claimed to demonstrate such interhemispheric rivalry, reporting improved tactile detection sensitivity on the right hand after transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the right parietal lobe (Seyal, Ro, & Rafal, 1995). Such improvement in tactile detection ipsilateral to TMS could follow from interhemispheric rivalry, if one assumes that TMS disrupted cortical processing under the coil and thereby released the other hemisphere from inhibition. Here we extended the study by Seyal et al. (1995) to determine the effects of right parietal TMS on tactile processing for either hand, rather than only the ipsilateral hand. We performed two experiments applying TMS in the context of median-nerve stimulation; one experiment required somatosensory detection, the second somatosensory intensity discrimination. We found different TMS effects on detection versus discrimination, but neither set of results followed the prediction from hemispheric rivalry that enhanced performance for one hand should invariably be associated with impaired performance for the other hand, and vice-versa. Our results argue against a strict rivalry interpretation, instead suggesting that parietal TMS can provide a pedestal-like increment in somatosensory response. PMID:20678510

  18. 1-Hz Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation over the Posterior Parietal Cortex Modulates Spatial Attention

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guang-qing; Lan, Yue; Zhang, Qun; Liu, Dong-xu; He, Xiao-fei; Lin, Tuo

    2016-01-01

    Lesion and neuroimaging studies have suggested that regions in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) are involved in visual spatial attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects on spatial attention resulting from a transient parietal impairment induced by 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We examined 50 healthy subjects using the attention network test (ANT) after first applying rTMS to right or left PPC. The right parietal rTMS, but not left PPC rTMS, caused a significant slowing in the mean reaction time (RT) to target presentation following a spatial cue during the ANT test. There were no significant effects of rTMS on mean RT under the no-cue, center-cue, and double-cue conditions, or for each flanker type among the experimental groups. Moreover, after rTMS to the right PPC, test subjects displayed deficits in networks related to alerting and orienting, whereas they exhibited improvement following rTMS to the left PPC. These findings indicate that the right PPC serves an important function in spatial orienting and the alerting activities. We interpreted the enhancement in alerting and spatial orienting function following low-frequency rTMS of left PPC as reflecting a disinhibition of right PPC via an inter-hemispheric inhibition account. PMID:26869911

  19. Fronto-parietal regulation of media violence exposure in adolescents: a multi-method study

    PubMed Central

    Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; van der Meer, Elke

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents spend a significant part of their leisure time watching TV programs and movies that portray violence. It is unknown, however, how the extent of violent media use and the severity of aggression displayed affect adolescents’ brain function. We investigated skin conductance responses, brain activation and functional brain connectivity to media violence in healthy adolescents. In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, subjects repeatedly viewed normed videos that displayed different degrees of aggressive behavior. We found a downward linear adaptation in skin conductance responses with increasing aggression and desensitization towards more aggressive videos. Our results further revealed adaptation in a fronto-parietal network including the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC), right precuneus and bilateral inferior parietal lobules, again showing downward linear adaptations and desensitization towards more aggressive videos. Granger causality mapping analyses revealed attenuation in the left lOFC, indicating that activation during viewing aggressive media is driven by input from parietal regions that decreased over time, for more aggressive videos. We conclude that aggressive media activates an emotion–attention network that has the capability to blunt emotional responses through reduced attention with repeated viewing of aggressive media contents, which may restrict the linking of the consequences of aggression with an emotional response, and therefore potentially promotes aggressive attitudes and behavior. PMID:20934985

  20. Fronto-parietal regulation of media violence exposure in adolescents: a multi-method study.

    PubMed

    Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Lenroot, Rhoshel K; van der Meer, Elke; Grafman, Jordan

    2011-10-01

    Adolescents spend a significant part of their leisure time watching TV programs and movies that portray violence. It is unknown, however, how the extent of violent media use and the severity of aggression displayed affect adolescents' brain function. We investigated skin conductance responses, brain activation and functional brain connectivity to media violence in healthy adolescents. In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, subjects repeatedly viewed normed videos that displayed different degrees of aggressive behavior. We found a downward linear adaptation in skin conductance responses with increasing aggression and desensitization towards more aggressive videos. Our results further revealed adaptation in a fronto-parietal network including the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC), right precuneus and bilateral inferior parietal lobules, again showing downward linear adaptations and desensitization towards more aggressive videos. Granger causality mapping analyses revealed attenuation in the left lOFC, indicating that activation during viewing aggressive media is driven by input from parietal regions that decreased over time, for more aggressive videos. We conclude that aggressive media activates an emotion-attention network that has the capability to blunt emotional responses through reduced attention with repeated viewing of aggressive media contents, which may restrict the linking of the consequences of aggression with an emotional response, and therefore potentially promotes aggressive attitudes and behavior. PMID:20934985

  1. 1-Hz Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation over the Posterior Parietal Cortex Modulates Spatial Attention.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guang-Qing; Lan, Yue; Zhang, Qun; Liu, Dong-Xu; He, Xiao-Fei; Lin, Tuo

    2016-01-01

    Lesion and neuroimaging studies have suggested that regions in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) are involved in visual spatial attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects on spatial attention resulting from a transient parietal impairment induced by 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We examined 50 healthy subjects using the attention network test (ANT) after first applying rTMS to right or left PPC. The right parietal rTMS, but not left PPC rTMS, caused a significant slowing in the mean reaction time (RT) to target presentation following a spatial cue during the ANT test. There were no significant effects of rTMS on mean RT under the no-cue, center-cue, and double-cue conditions, or for each flanker type among the experimental groups. Moreover, after rTMS to the right PPC, test subjects displayed deficits in networks related to alerting and orienting, whereas they exhibited improvement following rTMS to the left PPC. These findings indicate that the right PPC serves an important function in spatial orienting and the alerting activities. We interpreted the enhancement in alerting and spatial orienting function following low-frequency rTMS of left PPC as reflecting a disinhibition of right PPC via an inter-hemispheric inhibition account. PMID:26869911

  2. Intrinsic and Task-Dependent Coupling of Neuronal Population Activity in Human Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Brett L.; Rangarajan, Vinitha; Shirer, William R.; Parvizi, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Summary Human neuroimaging studies have suggested that subregions of the medial and lateral parietal cortex form key nodes of a larger brain network supporting episodic memory retrieval. To explore the electrophysiological correlates of functional connectivity between these subregions, we recorded simultaneously from medial and lateral parietal cortex using intracranial electrodes in three human subjects. We observed electrophysiological co-activation of retrosplenial/posterior cingulate cortex (RSC/PCC) and angular gyrus (AG) in the high frequency broadband (HFB, or high-gamma) range, for conditions that required episodic retrieval. During resting and sleeping states, slow fluctuations (< 1 Hz) of HFB activity were highly correlated between these task-co-activated neuronal populations. Furthermore, intrinsic electrophysiological connectivity patterns matched those obtained with resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from the same subjects. Our findings quantify the spatiotemporal dynamics of parietal cortex during episodic memory retrieval and provide clear neurophysiological correlates of intrinsic and task-dependent functional connectivity in the human brain. PMID:25863718

  3. Frontal and parietal theta burst TMS impairs working memory for visual-spatial conjunctions.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Helen M; Jackson, Margaret C; van Koningsbruggen, Martijn G; Shapiro, Kimron L; Linden, David E J

    2013-03-01

    In tasks that selectively probe visual or spatial working memory (WM) frontal and posterior cortical areas show a segregation, with dorsal areas preferentially involved in spatial (e.g. location) WM and ventral areas in visual (e.g. object identity) WM. In a previous fMRI study [1], we showed that right parietal cortex (PC) was more active during WM for orientation, whereas left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was more active during colour WM. During WM for colour-orientation conjunctions, activity in these areas was intermediate to the level of activity for the single task preferred and non-preferred information. To examine whether these specialised areas play a critical role in coordinating visual and spatial WM to perform a conjunction task, we used theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to induce a functional deficit. Compared to sham stimulation, TMS to right PC or left IFG selectively impaired WM for conjunctions but not single features. This is consistent with findings from visual search paradigms, in which frontal and parietal TMS selectively affects search for conjunctions compared to single features, and with combined TMS and functional imaging work suggesting that parietal and frontal regions are functionally coupled in tasks requiring integration of visual and spatial information. Our results thus elucidate mechanisms by which the brain coordinates spatially segregated processing streams and have implications beyond the field of working memory. PMID:22483548

  4. Preferential encoding of visual categories in parietal cortex compared with prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Sruthi K; Freedman, David J

    2012-02-01

    The ability to recognize the behavioral relevance, or category membership, of sensory stimuli is critical for interpreting the meaning of events in our environment. Neurophysiological studies of visual categorization have found categorical representations of stimuli in prefrontal cortex (PFC), an area that is closely associated with cognitive and executive functions. Recent studies have also identified neuronal category signals in parietal areas that are typically associated with visual-spatial processing. It has been proposed that category-related signals in parietal cortex and other visual areas may result from 'top-down' feedback from PFC. We directly compared neuronal activity in the lateral intraparietal (LIP) area and PFC in monkeys performing a visual motion categorization task. We found that LIP showed stronger, more reliable and shorter latency category signals than PFC. These findings suggest that LIP is strongly involved in visual categorization and argue against the idea that parietal category signals arise as a result of feedback from PFC during this task. PMID:22246435

  5. Tool-use practice induces changes in intrinsic functional connectivity of parietal areas

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Kwangsun; Sohn, William S.; Jeong, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsic functional connectivity from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has increasingly received attention as a possible predictor of cognitive function and performance. In this study, we investigated the influence of practicing skillful tool manipulation on intrinsic functional connectivity in the resting brain. Acquisition of tool-use skill has two aspects such as formation of motor representation for skillful manipulation and acquisition of the tool concept. To dissociate these two processes, we chose chopsticks-handling with the non-dominant hand. Because participants were already adept at chopsticks-handling with their dominant hand, practice with the non-dominant hand involved only acquiring the skill for tool manipulation with existing knowledge. Eight young participants practiced chopsticks-handling with their non-dominant hand for 8 weeks. They underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions before and after the practice. As a result, functional connectivity among tool-use-related regions of the brain decreased after practice. We found decreased functional connectivity centered on parietal areas, mainly the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and superior parietal lobule (SPL) and additionally between the primary sensorimotor area and cerebellum. These results suggest that the parietal lobe and cerebellum purely mediate motor learning for skillful tool-use. This decreased functional connectivity may represent increased efficiency of functional network. PMID:23550165

  6. Differential roles of the dorsal prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices in visual search: a TMS study.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yulong; Wei, Rizhen; Zhang, Qian; Jin, Zhenlan; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown that fronto-parietal attentional networks play a crucial role in bottom-up and top-down processes, the relative contribution of the frontal and parietal cortices to these processes remains elusive. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to interfere with the activity of the right dorsal prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC), immediately prior to the onset of the visual search display. Participants searched a target defined by color and orientation in "pop-out" or "search" condition. Repetitive TMS was applied to either the right DLPFC or the right PPC on different days. Performance was evaluated at baseline (no TMS), during TMS, and after TMS (Post-session). RTs were prolonged when TMS was applied over the DLPFC in the search, but not in the pop-out condition, relative to the baseline session. In comparison, TMS over the PPC prolonged RTs in the pop-out condition, and when the target appeared in the left visual field for the search condition. Taken together these findings provide evidence for a differential role of DLPFC and PPC in the visual search, indicating that DLPFC has a specific involvement in the "search" condition, while PPC is mainly involved in detecting "pop-out" targets. PMID:27452715

  7. ES1 is a mitochondrial enlarging factor contributing to form mega-mitochondria in zebrafish cones

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Takamasa; Wada, Yasutaka; Kawamura, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Total mass of mitochondria increases during cell proliferation and differentiation through mitochondrial biogenesis, which includes mitochondrial proliferation and growth. During the mitochondrial growth, individual mitochondria have been considered to be enlarged independently of mitochondrial fusion. However, molecular basis for this enlarging process has been poorly understood. Cone photoreceptor cells in the retina possess large mitochondria, so-called mega-mitochondria that have been considered to arise via the enlarging process. Here we show that ES1 is a novel mitochondria-enlarging factor contributing to form mega-mitochondria in cones. ES1 is specifically expressed in cones and localized to mitochondria including mega-mitochondria. Knockdown of ES1 markedly reduced the mitochondrial size in cones. In contrast, ectopic expression of ES1 in rods significantly increased both the size of individual mitochondria and the total mass of the mitochondrial cluster without changing the number of them. RNA-seq analysis showed that ERRα and its downstream mitochondrial genes were significantly up-regulated in the ES1-expressing rods, suggesting facilitation of mitochondrial enlargement via ERRα-dependent processes. Furthermore, higher energy state was detected in the ES1-expressing rods, indicating that the enlarged mitochondria by ES1 are capable of producing high energy. ES1 is the mitochondrial protein that is first found to promote enlargement of individual mitochondria. PMID:26926452

  8. ES1 is a mitochondrial enlarging factor contributing to form mega-mitochondria in zebrafish cones.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Takamasa; Wada, Yasutaka; Kawamura, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Total mass of mitochondria increases during cell proliferation and differentiation through mitochondrial biogenesis, which includes mitochondrial proliferation and growth. During the mitochondrial growth, individual mitochondria have been considered to be enlarged independently of mitochondrial fusion. However, molecular basis for this enlarging process has been poorly understood. Cone photoreceptor cells in the retina possess large mitochondria, so-called mega-mitochondria that have been considered to arise via the enlarging process. Here we show that ES1 is a novel mitochondria-enlarging factor contributing to form mega-mitochondria in cones. ES1 is specifically expressed in cones and localized to mitochondria including mega-mitochondria. Knockdown of ES1 markedly reduced the mitochondrial size in cones. In contrast, ectopic expression of ES1 in rods significantly increased both the size of individual mitochondria and the total mass of the mitochondrial cluster without changing the number of them. RNA-seq analysis showed that ERRα and its downstream mitochondrial genes were significantly up-regulated in the ES1-expressing rods, suggesting facilitation of mitochondrial enlargement via ERRα-dependent processes. Furthermore, higher energy state was detected in the ES1-expressing rods, indicating that the enlarged mitochondria by ES1 are capable of producing high energy. ES1 is the mitochondrial protein that is first found to promote enlargement of individual mitochondria. PMID:26926452

  9. Refuting the hypothesis that a unilateral human parietal lesion abolishes saccade corollary discharge.

    PubMed

    Rath-Wilson, Kate; Guitton, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    This paper questions the prominent role that the parietal lobe is thought to play in the processing of corollary discharges for saccadic eye movements. A corollary discharge copies the motor neurons' signal and sends it to brain areas involved in monitoring eye trajectories. The classic double-step saccade task has been used extensively to study these mechanisms: two targets (T1 and T2) are quickly (40-150 ms) flashed sequentially in the periphery. After the extinction of the fixation point, subjects are to make two saccades (S1 and S2), in the dark, to the remembered locations of the targets in the order they appeared. The success of S2 requires a corollary discharge encoding S1's vector. Patients with a parietal lobe lesion, particularly on the right, are impaired at generating an accurate S2 when S1 is directed contralesionally, but not ipsilesionally, thought due to an impaired contralesional corollary discharge. In contrast, we hypothesize that failure on the classic double-step task is due to visual processing and attentional deficits that commonly result from lesions of the parietal lobe and imperfect data analysis methods. Here, we studied parietal patients who fail in the classic double-step task when tested and data analysed according to previously published methods. We then tested our patients on two modified versions of the double-step task, designed to mitigate deficits other than corollary discharge that may have confounded previous investigations. In our 'exogenous' task, T2 was presented prior to T1 and for longer (T2: 800-1200 ms, T1: 350 ms) than in the classic task. S1 went to T1 and S2 to T2, all in the dark. All patients who completed sufficient trials had a corollary discharge for contralesional and ipsilesional S1s (5/5). In our 'endogenous' task, a single target was presented peripherally for 800-1200 ms. After extinction of target and fixation point, patients made first an 'endogenous' S1, of self-determined amplitude either to the left or

  10. Examining the role of the temporo-parietal network in memory, imagery, and viewpoint transformations

    PubMed Central

    Dhindsa, Kiret; Drobinin, Vladislav; King, John; Hall, Geoffrey B.; Burgess, Neil; Becker, Suzanna

    2014-01-01

    The traditional view of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) focuses on its role in episodic memory. However, some of the underlying functions of the MTL can be ascertained from its wider role in supporting spatial cognition in concert with parietal and prefrontal regions. The MTL is strongly implicated in the formation of enduring allocentric representations (e.g., O'Keefe, 1976; King et al., 2002; Ekstrom et al., 2003). According to our BBB model (Byrne et al., 2007), these representations must interact with head-centered and body-centered representations in posterior parietal cortex via a transformation circuit involving retrosplenial areas. Egocentric sensory representations in parietal areas can then cue the recall of allocentric spatial representations in long-term memory and, conversely, the products of retrieval in MTL can generate mental imagery within a parietal “window.” Such imagery is necessarily egocentric and forms part of visuospatial working memory, in which it can be manipulated for the purpose of planning/imagining the future. Recent fMRI evidence (Lambrey et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2012) supports the BBB model. To further test the model, we had participants learn the locations of objects in a virtual scene and tested their spatial memory under conditions that impose varying demands on the transformation circuit. We analyzed how brain activity correlated with accuracy in judging the direction of an object (1) from visuospatial working memory (we assume transient working memory due to the order of tasks and the absence of change in viewpoint, but long-term memory retrieval is also possible), (2) after a rotation of viewpoint, or (3) after a rotation and translation of viewpoint (judgment of relative direction). We found performance-related activity in both tasks requiring viewpoint rotation (ROT and JRD, i.e., conditions 2 and 3) in the core medial temporal to medial parietal circuit identified by the BBB model. These results are consistent with

  11. Phospholipids Trigger Cryptococcus neoformans Capsular Enlargement during Interactions with Amoebae and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chrisman, Cara J.; Albuquerque, Patricia; Guimaraes, Allan J.; Nieves, Edward; Casadevall, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    A remarkable aspect of the interaction of Cryptococcus neoformans with mammalian hosts is a consistent increase in capsule volume. Given that many aspects of the interaction of C. neoformans with macrophages are also observed with amoebae, we hypothesized that the capsule enlargement phenomenon also had a protozoan parallel. Incubation of C. neoformans with Acanthamoeba castellanii resulted in C. neoformans capsular enlargement. The phenomenon required contact between fungal and protozoan cells but did not require amoeba viability. Analysis of amoebae extracts showed that the likely stimuli for capsule enlargement were protozoan polar lipids. Extracts from macrophages and mammalian serum also triggered cryptococcal capsular enlargement. C. neoformans capsule enlargement required expression of fungal phospholipase B, but not phospholipase C. Purified phospholipids, in particular, phosphatidylcholine, and derived molecules triggered capsular enlargement with the subsequent formation of giant cells. These results implicate phospholipids as a trigger for both C. neoformans capsule enlargement in vivo and exopolysaccharide production. The observation that the incubation of C. neoformans with phospholipids led to the formation of giant cells provides the means to generate these enigmatic cells in vitro. Protozoan- or mammalian-derived polar lipids could represent a danger signal for C. neoformans that triggers capsular enlargement as a non-specific defense mechanism against potential predatory cells. Hence, phospholipids are the first host-derived molecules identified to trigger capsular enlargement. The parallels apparent in the capsular response of C. neoformans to both amoebae and macrophages provide additional support for the notion that certain aspects of cryptococcal virulence emerged as a consequence of environmental interactions with other microorganisms such as protists. PMID:21637814

  12. Successful management of phenytoin and phenobarbitone induced gingival enlargement: A multimodal approach

    PubMed Central

    Priyadharshini, V.; Belure, Vinita V.; Triveni, M. G.; Tarun Kumar, A. B.; Mehta, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    Medication-related gingival enlargement is a common reactionary phenomenon that occurs with the use of several types of therapeutic agents, including antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). This disorder has been documented since 1939, shortly after the introduction of phenytoin. In the present case, a concise review of literature concerning the etiopathogenesis and management of AEDs (phenobarbitone and phenytoin) induced gingival enlargement has been described. It is vital that not only the periodontist, but also dental surgeons and medical practitioners should become aware of the potential etiologic agents, characteristic features, and the differential diagnosis of drug induced gingival enlargement in order to be able to prevent, diagnose and successfully manage the condition. PMID:24963262

  13. Aortic Root Enlargement with Ascending-to-Descending Aortic Bypass in Repair of Coarctation.

    PubMed

    Perry, Paul A; Young, Nilas

    2015-07-01

    Ascending-to-descending aortic bypass is a valuable technique for addressing coarctation of the aorta when additional cardiac procedures are indicated in adults. Among these, aortic valve replacement is one of the most commonly performed concomitant procedures, and there are instances in which aortic root enlargement is required. Herein, a novel technique is described for performing simultaneous ascending-to-descending aortic bypass in conjunction with aortic root enlargement which incorporates the bypass graft as part of the aortic root enlargement. PMID:26897826

  14. Cooperative diplomacy: Citizens, sovereignty, and the logic of democratic enlargement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndungu, Anthony Mark

    2000-12-01

    that intergovernmental agreement on compliance questions is most likely to occur when decision-making and policy-implementing processes are decentralized, and when governments establish and support decentralized intra- and trans-governmental institutions that enable private domestic groups of individuals to participate in international governance through two mechanisms. First, those decentralized institutions facilitate the formation of transnational coalitions of politically autonomous private domestic groups that can serve as a ``horizontal transmission belt'' for ideas and practices among private and public proponents of the major opposing domestic positions, thereby generating public transnational deliberation on compliance, monitoring and distributive questions. Second, politically autonomous private domestic groups can, by engaging in performance-based partnerships with senior government officials, also serve as a ``vertical transmission belt'' between domestic and intergovernmental regimes and vice versa, thereby encouraging their respective governments to adapt the social practices in issue-specific domestic regimes to international structural forces. These findings have significant ramifications for the concept of democratic enlargement, the institutionalization of competitive pluralism in non- liberal states. The robustness, across changes in administrations both at home and abroad, of the norms codified in international agreements may hinge on institutionalizing the participation of politically autonomous private domestic groups in decentralized intra- and trans-governmental decision-making and policy- implementing processes.

  15. Variation in left posterior parietal-motor cortex interhemispheric facilitation following right parietal continuous theta-burst stimulation in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Killington, Christopher; Barr, Christopher; Loetscher, Tobias; Bradnam, Lynley V

    2016-08-25

    Spatial neglect is modeled on an imbalance of interhemispheric inhibition (IHI); however evidence is emerging that it may not explain neglect in all cases. The aim of this study was to investigate the IHI imbalance model of visual neglect in healthy adults, using paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to probe excitability of projections from posterior parietal cortex (PPC) to contralateral primary motor cortex (M1) bilaterally. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the first dorsal interossei and facilitation was determined as ratio of conditioned to non-conditioned MEP amplitude. A laterality index reflecting the balance of excitability between the two hemispheres was calculated. A temporal order judgment task (TOJ) assessed visual attention. Continuous theta-burst stimulation was used to transiently suppress right parietal cortex activity and the effect on laterality and judgment task measured, along with associations between baseline and post stimulation measures. Stimulation had conflicting results on laterality, with most participants demonstrating an effect in the negative direction with no decrement in the TOJ task. Correlation analysis suggests a strong association between laterality direction and degree of facilitation of left PPC-to right M1 following stimulation (r=.902), with larger MEP facilitation at baseline demonstrating greater reduction (r=-.908). Findings indicate there was relative balance between the cortices at baseline but right PPC suppression did not evoke left PPC facilitation in most participants, contrary to the IHI imbalance model. Left M1 facilitation prior to stimulation may predict an individual's response to continuous theta-burst stimulation of right PPC. PMID:27267243

  16. [Changes in the ultrastructure of the stomach mucous membrane parietal cells caused by inhibitors of hydrochloric acid secretion].

    PubMed

    Dondukova, G V; Morozov, I A

    2002-01-01

    The study of the action of phamotidine and omeprazol on the stomach parietal cells in patients with duodenal ulcer has shown that phamotidin results in changes of secretory membrane of the parietal cells increasing its secretory potential while omeprazol reduces energetic metabolism of the lining cell by the impact on its mitochondrial apparatus. Both in children and adults with duodenal ulcer more developed mitochondrial cell activity was found after omeprazol treatment. PMID:15338718

  17. Localization of intrinsic factor and complement fixing intrinsic factor–intrinsic factor antibody complex in parietal cell of man

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Elizabeth; Glass, G. B. J.

    1971-01-01

    In an attempt to localize intrinsic factor in the human parietal cell, and to study its intracellular union with the intrinsic factor antibody and complement, intrinsic factor antibody was separated from coexisting parietal cell antibody in pernicious anaemia sera by gel filtration. Intrinsic factor antibody of both `binding' and `blocking' type was also produced in rabbits by immunization with semi-purified human intrinsic factor–[57Co]B12 complex. Intrinsic factor antibody obtained from both sources produced fluorescence in the human parietal cells in the indirect Coons' test in the presence of fluoresceinated anti-human IgG. The fluorescence was localized peripherally, at the cell membrane. When instead of the fluoresceinated anti-human IgG a fluoresceinated anti-human complement (C) serum and normal complement containing serum were used, intrinsic factor antibody from both sources produced fluorescence of the entire parietal cell cytoplasm of the human mucosa. Thus, intrinsic factor was localized at highest concentration at the membrane of the parietal cell in man, the intrinsic factor antibody–intrinsic factor complex was demonstrated within the human parietal cell, and evidence was obtained that this antigen–antibody complex fixes complement (C). The possible role of the intrinsic factor–intrinsic factor antibody–complement complex in the development of gastric atrophy in pernicious anaemia has been considered. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4995933

  18. HISTOPATHOLOGY AND ENLARGEMENT OF THE PITUITARY OF A TELEOST EXPOSED TO THE HERBICIDE TRIFLURALIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pituitary glands of sheepshead minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus, exposed for 19 months to 1-5 micrograms/l trifluralin were significantly enlarged and possessed histopathologic characteristics (when compared to glands of controls) such as pseudocysts, congestion of blood vessels an...

  19. A case of huge enlargement of cystosarcoma phylloides of breast in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, J B; Wadhwa, L; Malhotra, M; Arora, R; Singh, S

    2004-08-10

    A case of unilateral phylloides tumor of breast with sudden enlargement during pregnancy has been presented with successful pregnancy outcome followed by complete surgical excision (simple mastectomy) in the puerperium. PMID:15262364

  20. Image of tumor metastasis and inflammatory lymph node enlargement by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Takaya; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Yamamoto, Kei; Shimizu, Masafumi; Yamada, Masahiko; Imai, Yasuharu

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To compare the difference between tumor-induced lymph node enlargement and inflammation-induced lymph node enlargement by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and pathological findings. METHODS: A model of tumor-induced lymph node metastasis was prepared by embedding a VX2 tumor into the hind paws of white rabbits. A model of inflammation-induced enlargement was prepared by injecting a suspension of Escherichia coli into separate hind paws of white rabbits. Then, a solution of Sonazoid™ (GE Healthcare, Oslo, Norway) was injected subcutaneously in the proximity of the lesion followed by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the enlarged popliteal lymph nodes. RESULTS: In the contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the tumor-induced metastasis model, the sentinel lymph node was imaged. An area of filling defect was observed in that enlarged lymph node. In the histology examination, the area of filling defect corresponded to the metastatic lesion of the tumor. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the model on inflammation-induced lymph node enlargement, and that of the acute inflammation model performed 3-7 d later, revealed dense staining that was comparatively uniform. The pathological findings showed acute lymphadenitis mainly due to infiltration of inflammatory cells. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography that was performed 28 d post-infection in the acute inflammation model showed speckled staining. Inflammation-induced cell infiltration and fiberization, which are findings of chronic lymphadenitis, were seen in the pathological findings. CONCLUSION: Sentinel lymph node imaging was made possible by subcutaneous injection of Sonazoid™. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was suggested to be useful in differentiating tumor-induced enlargement and inflammation-induced enlargement of lymph nodes. PMID:22224178

  1. Severe gingival enlargement with coexisting erosive lichen planus in severe chronic periodontitis patient.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ambika; Aggarwal, Chakshu; Mathur, Vijay P; Sardana, Divesh

    2015-01-01

    Plaque induced gingival enlargement is most commonly seen and when encountered simultaneously with erosive lichen planus poses a challenge to the treating dentist. Prognosis of one condition may influence the prognosis of another condition. The presented case highlights the significance of proper diagnosis and the management of simultaneously occurring gingival lesions. A 49-year-old hypertensive female presented with painful enlarged bleeding and suppurating gums with burning sensation on eating food along with long-term usage of antihypertensive drug amlodipine known for its gingival enlargement effect. All these multiple factors led to diagnostic dilemma. Effective management of the gingival enlargement was done by using electrocautery to rehabilitate the functions and esthetics of the patient. Gingival condition was also complicated by the presence of coexisting lichen planus which was predominantly erosive for which topical corticosteroid, antifungal, and antimicrobial agents were prescribed. Eight-month follow-up did not show recurrence of gingival enlargement. Electrocautery is an effective tool for the gingivectomy in severe inflammatory type of gingival enlargement because of rapid postoperative hemostasis. For the management of erosive lichen planus, long-term use of topical corticosteroids is an effective approach. Maintenance of oral hygiene and regular follow-ups are essential for these conditions. PMID:25838949

  2. Severe Gingival Enlargement with Coexisting Erosive Lichen Planus in Severe Chronic Periodontitis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ambika; Aggarwal, Chakshu; Mathur, Vijay P.; Sardana, Divesh

    2015-01-01

    Plaque induced gingival enlargement is most commonly seen and when encountered simultaneously with erosive lichen planus poses a challenge to the treating dentist. Prognosis of one condition may influence the prognosis of another condition. The presented case highlights the significance of proper diagnosis and the management of simultaneously occurring gingival lesions. A 49-year-old hypertensive female presented with painful enlarged bleeding and suppurating gums with burning sensation on eating food along with long-term usage of antihypertensive drug amlodipine known for its gingival enlargement effect. All these multiple factors led to diagnostic dilemma. Effective management of the gingival enlargement was done by using electrocautery to rehabilitate the functions and esthetics of the patient. Gingival condition was also complicated by the presence of coexisting lichen planus which was predominantly erosive for which topical corticosteroid, antifungal, and antimicrobial agents were prescribed. Eight-month follow-up did not show recurrence of gingival enlargement. Electrocautery is an effective tool for the gingivectomy in severe inflammatory type of gingival enlargement because of rapid postoperative hemostasis. For the management of erosive lichen planus, long-term use of topical corticosteroids is an effective approach. Maintenance of oral hygiene and regular follow-ups are essential for these conditions. PMID:25838949

  3. The effect of oppositional parietal transcranial direct current stimulation on lateralized brain functions.

    PubMed

    Li, Lucia M; Leech, Rob; Scott, Gregory; Malhotra, Paresh; Seemungal, Barry; Sharp, David J

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive functions such as numerical processing and spatial attention show varying degrees of lateralization. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can be used to investigate how modulating cortical excitability affects performance of these tasks. This study investigated the effect of bi-parietal tDCS on numerical processing, spatial and sustained attention. It was hypothesized that tDCS would have distinct effects on these tasks because of varying lateralization (numerical processing left, spatial attention right) and that these effects are partly mediated by modulation of sustained attention. A single-blinded, crossover, sham-controlled study was performed. Eighteen healthy right-handed participants performed cognitive tasks during three sessions of oppositional parietal tDCS stimulation: sham; right anodal with left cathodal (RA/LC); and right cathodal with left anodal (RC/LA). Participants performed a number comparison task, a modified Posner task, a choice reaction task (CRT) and the rapid visual processing task (RVP). RA/LC tDCS impaired number comparison performance compared with sham, with slower responses to numerically close numbers pairs. RA/LC and RC/LA tDCS had distinct effects on CRT performance, specifically affecting vigilance level during the final block of the task. No effect of stimulation on the Posner task or RVP was found. It was demonstrated that oppositional parietal tDCS affected both numerical performance and vigilance level in a polarity-dependent manner. The effect of tDCS on numerical processing may partly be due to attentional effects. The behavioural effects of tDCS were specifically observed under high task demands, demonstrating the consequences of an interaction between stimulation type and cognitive load. PMID:26414683

  4. The left inferior parietal lobe represents stored hand-postures for object use and action prediction

    PubMed Central

    van Elk, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Action semantics enables us to plan actions with objects and to predict others' object-directed actions as well. Previous studies have suggested that action semantics are represented in a fronto-parietal action network that has also been implicated to play a role in action observation. In the present fMRI study it was investigated how activity within this network changes as a function of the predictability of an action involving multiple objects and requiring the use of action semantics. Participants performed an action prediction task in which they were required to anticipate the use of a centrally presented object that could be moved to an associated target object (e.g., hammer—nail). The availability of actor information (i.e., presenting a hand grasping the central object) and the number of possible target objects (i.e., 0, 1, or 2 target objects) were independently manipulated, resulting in different levels of predictability. It was found that making an action prediction based on actor information resulted in an increased activation in the extrastriate body area (EBA) and the fronto-parietal action observation network (AON). Predicting actions involving a target object resulted in increased activation in the bilateral IPL and frontal motor areas. Within the AON, activity in the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) and the left premotor cortex (PMC) increased as a function of the level of action predictability. Together these findings suggest that the left IPL represents stored hand-postures that can be used for planning object-directed actions and for predicting other's actions as well. PMID:24795681

  5. Superior parietal lobule approach for choroid plexus papillomas without preoperative embolization in very young children.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Benjamin C; Cloney, Michael B; Anderson, Richard C E; Feldstein, Neil A

    2015-07-01

    OBJECT Choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) are rare neoplasms, often found in the atrium of the lateral ventricle of infants, and cause overproduction hydrocephalus. The extensive vascularity and medially located blood supply of these tumors, coupled with the young age of the patients, can make prevention of blood loss challenging. Preoperative embolization has been advocated to reduce blood loss and prevent the need for transfusion, but this mandates radiation exposure and the additional risks of vessel injury and stroke. For these reasons, the authors present their experience using the superior parietal lobule approach to CPPs of the atrium without adjunct therapy. METHODS A retrospective review was conducted of all children who presented to Columbia University/Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of New York with a CPP in the atrium of the lateral ventricle and who underwent surgery using a superior parietal lobule approach without preoperative embolization. RESULTS Nine children were included, with a median age of 7 months. There were no perioperative complications or new neurological deficits. All patients had intraoperative blood loss of less than 100 ml, with a mean minimum hematocrit of 26.9% (range 19.6%-36.2%). No patients required a blood transfusion. The median follow-up was 39 months, during which time no patient demonstrated residual or recurrent tumor on MRI, nor did any have an increase in ventricular size or require CSF diversion. CONCLUSIONS The superior parietal lobule approach is safe and effective for very young children with CPPs in the atrium of the lateral ventricle. The results suggest that preoperative embolization is not essential to avoid transfusion or achieve overall good outcomes in these patients. This management strategy avoids radiation exposure and the additional risks associated with embolization. PMID:25860983

  6. The Acid-Secreting Parietal Cell as an Endocrine Source of Sonic Hedgehog During Gastric Repair

    PubMed Central

    Engevik, Amy C.; Feng, Rui; Yang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) has been shown to regulate wound healing in various tissues. Despite its known function in tissue regeneration, the role of Shh secreted from the gastric epithelium during tissue repair in the stomach remains unknown. Here we tested the hypothesis that Shh secreted from the acid-secreting parietal cell is a fundamental circulating factor that drives gastric repair. A mouse model expressing a parietal cell-specific deletion of Shh (PC-ShhKO) was generated using animals bearing loxP sites flanking exon 2 of the Shh gene (Shhflx/flx) and mice expressing a Cre transgene under the control of the H+,K+-ATPase β-subunit promoter. Shhflx/flx, the H+,K+-ATPase β-subunit promoter, and C57BL/6 mice served as controls. Ulcers were induced via acetic acid injury. At 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 days after the ulcer induction, gastric tissue and blood samples were collected. Parabiosis experiments were used to establish the effect of circulating Shh on ulcer repair. Control mice exhibited an increased expression of Shh in the gastric tissue and plasma that correlated with the repair of injury within 7 days after surgery. PC-ShhKO mice showed a loss of ulcer repair and reduced Shh tissue and plasma concentrations. In a parabiosis experiment whereby a control mouse was paired with a PC-ShhKO littermate and both animals subjected to gastric injury, a significant increase in the circulating Shh was measured in both parabionts. Elevated circulating Shh concentrations correlated with the repair of gastric ulcers in the PC-ShhKO parabionts. Therefore, the acid-secreting parietal cell within the stomach acts as an endocrine source of Shh during repair. PMID:24092639

  7. Motor imagery-based skill acquisition disrupted following rTMS of the inferior parietal lobule.

    PubMed

    Kraeutner, Sarah N; Keeler, Laura T; Boe, Shaun G

    2016-02-01

    Motor imagery (MI), the mental rehearsal of motor tasks, has promise as a therapy in post-stroke rehabilitation. The potential effectiveness of MI is attributed to the facilitation of plasticity in numerous brain regions akin to those recruited for physical practice. It is suggested, however, that MI relies more heavily on regions commonly affected post-stroke, including left hemisphere parietal regions involved in visuospatial processes. However, the impact of parietal damage on MI-based skill acquisition that underlies rehabilitation remains unclear. Here, we examine the contribution of the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) to MI using inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and an MI-based implicit sequence learning (ISL) paradigm. Participants (N = 27) completed the MI-based ISL paradigm after receiving continuous theta burst stimulation to the left IPL (TMS), or with the coil angled away from the scalp (sham). Reaction time differences (dRT) and effect sizes between implicit and random sequences assessed success of MI-based learning. Mean dRT for the sham group was 36.1 ± 28.2 ms (d = 0.71). Mean dRT in the TMS group was 7.7 ± 38.5 ms (d = 0.11). These results indicate that inhibition of the left IPL impaired MI-based learning. We conclude that the IPL and likely the visuospatial processes it mediates are critical for MI performance and thus MI-based skill acquisition or learning. Ultimately, these findings have implications for the use of MI in post-stroke rehabilitation. PMID:26487181

  8. Redistribution and characterization of (H+ + K+)-ATPase membranes from resting and stimulated gastric parietal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, B H; Forte, J G

    1985-01-01

    When isolated from resting parietal cells, the majority of the (H+ + K+)-ATPase activity was recovered in the microsomal fraction. These microsomal vesicles demonstrated a low K+ permeability, such that the addition of valinomycin resulted in marked stimulation of (H+ + K+)-ATPase activity, and proton accumulation. When isolated from stimulated parietal cells, the (H+ + K+)-ATPase was redistributed to larger, denser vesicles: stimulation-associated (s.a.) vesicles. S.a. vesicles showed an increased K+ permeability, such that maximal (H+ + K+)-ATPase and proton accumulation activities were observed in low K+ concentrations and no enhancement of activities occurred on the addition of valinomycin. The change in subcellular distribution of (H+ + K+)-ATPase correlated with morphological changes observed with stimulation of parietal cells, the microsomes and s.a. vesicles derived from the intracellular tubulovesicles and the apical plasma membrane, respectively. Total (H+ + K+)-ATPase activity recoverable from stimulated gastric mucosa was 64% of that from resting tissue. Therefore, we tested for latent activity in s.a. vesicles. Permeabilization of s.a. vesicles with octyl glucoside increased (H+ + K+)-ATPase activity by greater than 2-fold. Latent (H+ + K+)-ATPase activity was resistant to highly tryptic conditions (which inactivated all activity in gastric microsomes). About 20% of the non-latent (H+ + K+)-ATPase activity was also resistant to trypsin digestion. We interpret these results as indicating that, of the s.a. vesicles, approx. 55% have a right-side-out orientation and are impermeable to ATP, 10% right-side-out and permeable to ATP, and 35% have an inside-out orientation. PMID:3000356

  9. Low glucose level and low pH alter the electrochemical function of human parietal pleura.

    PubMed

    Kouritas, V K; Hatzoglou, C; Foroulis, C N; Hevas, A; Gourgoulianis, K I; Molyvdas, P A

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether low glucose and pH level, which are usually measured in complicated pleural effusions, alter the electrochemical function of healthy human parietal pleura. Parietal pleural pieces were stripped from 66 patients during thoracic surgery and were mounted in Ussing chambers. Krebs' solutions containing different glucose levels (0, 40 and 100 mg) and balanced at different pH levels (7.4, 7.3 and 7.2) were added to the pleural cavity surface of the pieces. Transmesothelial potential difference was measured at various time-points as an electrophysiological variable and transmesothelial resistance (R(TM)) was calculated using Ohm's law. When normal-glucose Krebs at pH 7.45 was used, R(TM) remained unchanged over time, but when low-glucose Krebs was used, R(TM) decreased. Krebs without glucose caused the greatest decrease in R(TM). Use of low-pH Krebs decreased R(TM). The lower the pH of the Krebs, the faster the decrease in R(TM) and the greater the effect. The decrease in R(TM) was greater with low-pH than with low-glucose Krebs. Low glucose and low pH caused an additive decrease in R(TM). Low glucose concentration and low pH cause alteration of the electrochemical function of human parietal pleura and could act as agents that lead to further exudate progression. PMID:17666558

  10. Aberrant functional network recruitment of posterior parietal cortex in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bray, Signe; Hoeft, Fumiko; Hong, David S; Reiss, Allan L

    2013-12-01

    Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the complete or partial absence of an X chromosome in affected women. Individuals with TS show characteristic difficulties with executive functions, visual-spatial and mathematical cognition, with relatively intact verbal skills, and congruent abnormalities in structural development of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). The functionally heterogeneous PPC has recently been investigated using connectivity-based clustering methods, which sub-divide a given region into clusters of voxels showing similar structural or functional connectivity to other brain regions. In the present study, we extended this method to compare connectivity-based clustering between groups and investigate whether functional networks differentially recruit the PPC in TS. To this end, we parcellated the PPC into sub-regions based on temporal correlations with other regions of the brain. fMRI data were collected from 15 girls with TS and 14 typically developing (TD) girls, aged 7-14, while they performed a visual-spatial task. Temporal correlations between voxels in the PPC and a set of seed regions were calculated, and the PPC divided into clusters of voxels showing similar connectivity. It was found that in general the PPC parcellates similarly in TS and TD girls, but that regions in bilateral inferior parietal lobules, and posterior right superior parietal lobule, were reliably recruited by different networks in TS relative to TD participants. These regions showed weaker correlation in TS with a set of regions involved in visual processing. These results suggest that abnormal development of visuospatial functional networks in TS may relate to the well documented cognitive difficulties in this disorder. PMID:22711287

  11. Improving ideomotor limb apraxia by electrical stimulation of the left posterior parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, Nadia; Convento, Silvia; Banco, Elisabetta; Mattioli, Flavia; Tesio, Luigi; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    Limb apraxia, a deficit of planning voluntary gestures, is most frequently caused by damage to the left hemisphere, where, according to an influential neurofunctional model, gestures are planned, before being executed through the motor cortex of the hemisphere contralateral to the acting hand. We used anodal transcranial direct current stimulation delivered to the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC), the right motor cortex (M1), and a sham stimulation condition, to modulate the ability of six left-brain-damaged patients with ideomotor apraxia, and six healthy control subjects, to imitate hand gestures, and to perform skilled hand movements using the left hand. Transcranial direct current stimulation delivered to the left PPC reduced the time required to perform skilled movements, and planning, but not execution, times in imitating gestures, in both patients and controls. In patients, the amount of decrease of planning times brought about by left PPC transcranial direct current stimulation was influenced by the size of the parietal lobe damage, with a larger parietal damage being associated with a smaller improvement. Of interest from a clinical perspective, left PPC stimulation also ameliorated accuracy in imitating hand gestures in patients. Instead, transcranial direct current stimulation to the right M1 diminished execution, but not planning, times in both patients and healthy controls. In conclusion, by using a transcranial stimulation approach, we temporarily improved ideomotor apraxia in the left hand of left-brain-damaged patients, showing a role of the left PPC in planning gestures. This evidence opens up novel perspectives for the use of transcranial direct current stimulation in the rehabilitation of limb apraxia. PMID:25481002

  12. Inactivation of Parietal Reach Region Affects Reaching But Not Saccade Choices in Internally Guided Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Bonaiuto, James; Kagan, Igor; Andersen, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) has traditionally been considered important for awareness, spatial perception, and attention. However, recent findings provide evidence that the PPC also encodes information important for making decisions. These findings have initiated a running argument of whether the PPC is critically involved in decision making. To examine this issue, we reversibly inactivated the parietal reach region (PRR), the area of the PPC that is specialized for reaching movements, while two monkeys performed a memory-guided reaching or saccade task. The task included choices between two equally rewarded targets presented simultaneously in opposite visual fields. Free-choice trials were interleaved with instructed trials, in which a single cue presented in the peripheral visual field defined the reach and saccade target unequivocally. We found that PRR inactivation led to a strong reduction of contralesional choices, but only for reaches. On the other hand, saccade choices were not affected by PRR inactivation. Importantly, reaching and saccade movements to single instructed targets remained largely intact. These results cannot be explained as an effector-nonspecific deficit in spatial attention or awareness, since the temporary “lesion” had an impact only on reach choices. Hence, the PPR is a part of a network for reach decisions and not just reach planning. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT There has been an ongoing debate on whether the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) represents only spatial awareness, perception, and attention or whether it is also involved in decision making for actions. In this study we explore whether the parietal reach region (PRR), the region of the PPC that is specialized for reaches, is involved in the decision process. We inactivated the PRR while two monkeys performed reach and saccade choices between two targets presented simultaneously in both hemifields. We found that inactivation affected only the reach choices, while leaving

  13. A single aspergillus fumigatus intracranial abscess in an immunocompetent patient with parietal lobe tumorectomy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillosis of the central nervous system is a rare fungal infection that is mainly reported in patients with immune deficiency, such as AIDS patients and organ transplant patients treated with immunosuppressive agents, and is uncommon among patients with intact immune function. We report here a rare case of intracranial aspergillosis in a patient who had previously undergone a parietal lobe tumorectomy. Aspergillus fumigatus was confirmed by histopathology, and susceptibility tests reported that this infection should respond to voriconazole. We believe the immunosuppression resulting from surgical trauma and glucocorticosteroid treatment may be contributing to the infection, and therefore management of these two factors may improve the prognosis. PMID:24906819

  14. Thoracoscopic 360 degree apical pleurodesis with turned-over parietal pleura.

    PubMed

    Hamaji, Masatsugu; Tanaka, Toru; Tachi, Hidekazu; Ohsumi, Akihiro

    2014-08-01

    Apical pleurodesis procedures, in addition to the resection of bullae or blebs, proved to lower the recurrence rate in spontaneous pneumothoraces. Here, we describe our thoracoscopic technique of making a 360° apical pleurodesis. After resecting responsible bullae or blebs thoracoscopically, we dissect the parietal pleura off the chest wall up, turn it over on the mediastinal side, clip it on the mediastinal pleura and place the lung apex against the rough surface to promote extensive apical pleurodesis. The technique has been performed for 18 patients so far and no late recurrence of pneumothorax has been noted. PMID:23918769

  15. A distinct role of the temporal-parietal junction in predicting socially guided decisions.

    PubMed

    Carter, R McKell; Bowling, Daniel L; Reeck, Crystal; Huettel, Scott A

    2012-07-01

    To make adaptive decisions in a social context, humans must identify relevant agents in the environment, infer their underlying strategies and motivations, and predict their upcoming actions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging, in conjunction with combinatorial multivariate pattern analysis, to predict human participants' subsequent decisions in an incentive-compatible poker game. We found that signals from the temporal-parietal junction provided unique information about the nature of the upcoming decision, and that information was specific to decisions against agents who were both social and relevant for future behavior. PMID:22767930

  16. Atypical lateralization of language predicts cerebral asymmetries in parietal gesture representations

    PubMed Central

    Króliczak, Gregory; Piper, Brian J.; Frey, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    Humans typically show left-hemisphere dominance both for language and manual gestures. If this reflects a dependence of these behaviors on a common cerebral specialization, then healthy left-handers with atypical organization of language should show a similar pattern for gesture. Consistent with this hypothesis, we report fMRI data indicating that sinistrals (5/15) with bilateral, or right-lateralized, language representations in inferior frontal cortex exhibit a similar atypical pattern in inferior parietal representations of familiar gestures. PMID:21382390

  17. New Insights into Glomerular Parietal Epithelial Cell Activation and Its Signaling Pathways in Glomerular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hua; Chen, Shan; He, Fang-Fang; Wang, Yu-Mei; Bondzie, Philip; Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    The glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs) have aroused an increasing attention recently. The proliferation of PECs is the main feature of crescentic glomerulonephritis; besides that, in the past decade, PEC activation has been identified in several types of noninflammatory glomerulonephropathies, such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, diabetic glomerulopathy, and membranous nephropathy. The pathogenesis of PEC activation is poorly understood; however, a few studies delicately elucidate the potential mechanisms and signaling pathways implicated in these processes. In this review we will focus on the latest observations and concepts about PEC activation in glomerular diseases and the newest identified signaling pathways in PEC activation. PMID:25866774

  18. Differential contributions of the superior and inferior parietal cortex to feedback versus feedforward control of tools.

    PubMed

    Macuga, Kristen L; Frey, Scott H

    2014-05-15

    Damage to the superior and/or inferior parietal lobules (SPL, IPL) (Sirigu et al., 1996) or cerebellum (Grealy and Lee, 2011) can selectively disrupt motor imagery, motivating the hypothesis that these regions participate in predictive (i.e., feedforward) control. If so, then the SPL, IPL, and cerebellum should show greater activity as the demands on feedforward control increase from visually-guided execution (closed-loop) to execution without visual feedback (open-loop) to motor imagery. Using fMRI and a Fitts' reciprocal aiming task with tools directed at targets in far space, we found that the SPL and cerebellum exhibited greater activity during closed-loop control. Conversely, open-loop and imagery conditions were associated with increased activity within the IPL and prefrontal areas. These results are consistent with a superior-to-inferior gradient in the representation of feedback-to-feedforward control within the posterior parietal cortex. Additionally, the anterior SPL displayed greater activity when aiming movements were performed with a stick vs. laser pointer. This may suggest that it is involved in the remapping of far into near (reachable) space (Maravita and Iriki, 2004), or in distalization of the end-effector from hand to stick (Arbib et al., 2009). PMID:24473100

  19. Neural circuitry involved in quitting after repeated failures: role of the cingulate and temporal parietal junction

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Weihua; Kendrick, Keith M; Chen, Fei; Li, Hong; Feng, Tingyong

    2016-01-01

    The more times people fail the more likely they are to give up, however little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying this impact of repeated failure on decision making. Here we have used a visual shape discrimination task with computer-controlled feedback combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural circuits involved. The behavioral task confirmed that the more times subjects experienced failure the more likely they were to give up, with three successive failures being the key threshold and the majority of subjects reaching the point where they decided to quit and try a new stimulus set after three or four failures. The fMRI analysis revealed activity changes in frontal, parietal, temporal, limbic and striatal regions, especially anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and temporal parietal junction (TPJ) associated with the number of previous failures experienced. Furthermore, their parameter estimates were predictive of subjects’ quitting rate. Thus, subjects reach the point where they decide to quit after three/four failures and this is associated with differential changes in brain regions involved in error monitoring and reward which regulate both failure detection and changes in decision-making strategy. PMID:27097529

  20. Spatial selectivity in the temporoparietal junction, inferior frontal sulcus, and inferior parietal lobule

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Kathleen A.; Chu, Carlton; Dickinson, Annelise; Pye, Brandon; Weller, J. Patrick; Ungerleider, Leslie G.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial selectivity, as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity patterns that vary consistently with the location of visual stimuli, has been documented in many human brain regions, notably the occipital visual cortex and the frontal and parietal regions that are active during endogenous, goal-directed attention. We hypothesized that spatial selectivity also exists in regions that are active during exogenous, stimulus-driven attention. To test this hypothesis, we acquired fMRI data while subjects maintained passive fixation. At jittered time intervals, a briefly presented wedge-shaped array of rapidly expanding circles appeared at one of three contralateral or one of three ipsilateral locations. Positive fMRI activations were identified in multiple brain regions commonly associated with exogenous attention, including the temporoparietal junction, the inferior parietal lobule, and the inferior frontal sulcus. These activations were not organized as a map across the cortical surface. However, multivoxel pattern analysis of the fMRI activity correctly classified every pair of stimulus locations, demonstrating that patterns of fMRI activity were correlated with spatial location. These observations held for both contralateral and ipsilateral stimulus pairs as well as for stimuli of different textures (radial checkerboard) and shapes (squares and rings). Permutation testing verified that the obtained accuracies were not due to systematic biases and demonstrated that the findings were statistically significant. PMID:26382006

  1. Common substrate for mental arithmetic and finger representation in the parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Andres, Michael; Michaux, Nicolas; Pesenti, Mauro

    2012-09-01

    The history of mathematics provides several examples of the use of fingers to count or calculate. These observations converge with developmental data showing that fingers play a critical role in the acquisition of arithmetic knowledge. Further studies evidenced specific interference of finger movements with arithmetic problem solving in adults, raising the question of whether or not finger and number manipulations rely on common brain areas. In the present study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the possible overlap between the brain areas involved in mental arithmetic and those involved in finger discrimination. Solving subtraction and multiplication problems was found to increase cerebral activation bilaterally in the horizontal part of the intraparietal sulcus (hIPS) and in the posterior part of the superior parietal lobule (PSPL). Finger discrimination was associated with increased activity in a bilateral occipito-parieto-precentral network extending from the extrastriate body area to the primary somatosensory and motor cortices. A conjunction analysis showed common areas for mental arithmetic and finger representation in the hIPS and PSPL bilaterally. Voxelwise correlations further showed that finger discrimination and mental arithmetic induced a similar pattern of activity within the parietal areas only. Pattern similarity was more important for the left than for the right hIPS and for subtraction than for multiplication. These findings provide the first evidence that the brain circuits involved in finger representation also underlie arithmetic operations in adults. PMID:22634854

  2. Functional Dissociations Within Posterior Parietal Cortex During Scene Integration and Viewpoint Changes.

    PubMed

    van Assche, Mitsouko; Kebets, Valeria; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Assal, Frédéric

    2016-02-01

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is an anatomically heterogeneous brain region implicated in a wide range of cognitive operations, including egocentric spatial processing and both short- and long-term memory. Here, we report functional specificities of cytoarchitectonically defined subregions of PPC during the processing of scenes across changes in viewpoint. Participants (n = 16) saw photographs of familiar and unfamiliar places while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). On each trial, 4 viewpoints of the same place were presented, with either a plausible sequence of viewpoints (SEQ) or a scrambled order (SCRA). Distinct response profiles were observed within PPC. Area 7A showed increased activity for SEQ versus SCRA order, regardless of place familiarity, whereas the rostral inferior parietal lobule showed preferential increases for unfamiliar versus familiar places in SEQ series. In contrast, more posterior subregions in both superior and inferior PPC exhibited increases for familiar versus unfamiliar places at the end of the sequence, regardless of order. The data highlight the distinctive contribution of several subregions of PPC during the processing of scenes, with specific cortical areas involved in the progressive integration of spatial information across viewpoint changes, and others involved in the retrieval and maintenance of scene information in memory. PMID:25246508

  3. Abnormalities in personal space and parietal-frontal function in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Holt, Daphne J; Boeke, Emily A; Coombs, Garth; DeCross, Stephanie N; Cassidy, Brittany S; Stufflebeam, Steven; Rauch, Scott L; Tootell, Roger B H

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with subtle abnormalities in day-to-day social behaviors, including a tendency in some patients to "keep their distance" from others in physical space. The neural basis of this abnormality, and related changes in social functioning, is unknown. Here we examined, in schizophrenic patients and healthy control subjects, the functioning of a parietal-frontal network involved in monitoring the space immediately surrounding the body ("personal space"). Using fMRI, we found that one region of this network, the dorsal intraparietal sulcus (DIPS), was hyper-responsive in schizophrenic patients to face stimuli appearing to move towards the subjects, intruding into personal space. This hyper-responsivity was predicted both by the size of personal space (which was abnormally elevated in the schizophrenia group) and the severity of negative symptoms. In contrast, in a second study, the activity of two lower-level visual areas that send information to DIPS (the fusiform face area and middle temporal area) was normal in schizophrenia. Together, these findings suggest that changes in parietal-frontal networks that support the sensory-guided initiation of behavior, including actions occurring in the space surrounding the body, contribute to social dysfunction and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. PMID:26484048

  4. Multimodal integration for the representation of space in the posterior parietal cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, R A

    1997-01-01

    The posterior parietal cortex has long been considered an 'association' area that combines information from different sensory modalities to form a cognitive representation of space. However, until recently little has been known about the neural mechanisms responsible for this important cognitive process. Recent experiments from the author's laboratory indicate that visual, somatosensory, auditory and vestibular signals are combined in areas LIP and 7a of the posterior parietal cortex. The integration of these signals can represent the locations of stimuli with respect to the observer and within the environment. Area MSTd combines visual motion signals, similar to those generated during an observer's movement through the environment, with eye-movement and vestibular signals. This integration appears to play a role in specifying the path on which the observer is moving. All three cortical areas combine different modalities into common spatial frames by using a gain-field mechanism. The spatial representations in areas LIP and 7a appear to be important for specifying the locations of targets for actions such as eye movements or reaching; the spatial representation within area MSTd appears to be important for navigation and the perceptual stability of motion signals. PMID:9368930

  5. Functional heterogeneity of inferior parietal cortex during mathematical cognition assessed with cytoarchitectonic probability maps.

    PubMed

    Wu, S S; Chang, T T; Majid, A; Caspers, S; Eickhoff, S B; Menon, V

    2009-12-01

    Although the inferior parietal cortex (IPC) has been consistently implicated in mathematical cognition, the functional roles of its subdivisions are poorly understood. We address this problem using probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps of IPC subdivisions intraparietal sulcus (IPS), angular gyrus (AG), and supramarginal gyrus. We quantified IPC responses relative to task difficulty and individual differences in task proficiency during mental arithmetic (MA) tasks performed with Arabic (MA-A) and Roman (MA-R) numerals. The 2 tasks showed similar levels of activation in 3 distinct IPS areas, hIP1, hIP2, and hIP3, suggesting their obligatory role in MA. Both AG areas, PGa and PGp, were strongly deactivated in both tasks, with stronger deactivations in posterior area PGp. Compared with the more difficult MA-R task, the MA-A task showed greater responses in both AG areas, but this effect was driven by less deactivation in the MA-A task. AG deactivations showed prominent overlap with lateral parietal nodes of the default mode network, suggesting a nonspecific role in MA. In both tasks, greater bilateral AG deactivation was associated with poorer performance. Our findings suggest a close link between IPC structure and function and they provide new evidence for behaviorally salient functional heterogeneity within the IPC during mathematical cognition. PMID:19406903

  6. Prism adaptation reverses the local processing bias in patients with right temporo-parietal junction lesions

    PubMed Central

    Rafal, Robert D.; List, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Lesions to the right temporo-parietal cortex commonly result in hemispatial neglect. Lesions to the same area are also associated with hyperattention to local details of a scene and difficulty perceiving the global structure. This local processing bias is an important factor contributing to neglect and may contribute to the higher prevalence of the disorder following right compared with left hemisphere strokes. In recent years, visuomotor adaptation to rightward-shifting prisms has been introduced as a promising treatment for hemispatial neglect. Explanations for these improvements have generally described a leftward realignment of attention, however, the present investigation provides evidence that prism adaptation reduces the local processing bias. Five patients with right temporal-parietal junction lesions were asked to identify the global or local levels of hierarchical figures before and after visuomotor adaptation to rightward-shifting prisms. Prior to prism adaptation the patients had difficulty ignoring the local elements when identifying the global component. Following prism adaptation, however, this pattern was reversed, with greater global interference during local level identification. The results suggest that prism adaptation may improve non-spatially lateralized deficits that contribute to the neglect syndrome. PMID:19416951

  7. Neural circuitry involved in quitting after repeated failures: role of the cingulate and temporal parietal junction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weihua; Kendrick, Keith M; Chen, Fei; Li, Hong; Feng, Tingyong

    2016-01-01

    The more times people fail the more likely they are to give up, however little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying this impact of repeated failure on decision making. Here we have used a visual shape discrimination task with computer-controlled feedback combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural circuits involved. The behavioral task confirmed that the more times subjects experienced failure the more likely they were to give up, with three successive failures being the key threshold and the majority of subjects reaching the point where they decided to quit and try a new stimulus set after three or four failures. The fMRI analysis revealed activity changes in frontal, parietal, temporal, limbic and striatal regions, especially anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and temporal parietal junction (TPJ) associated with the number of previous failures experienced. Furthermore, their parameter estimates were predictive of subjects' quitting rate. Thus, subjects reach the point where they decide to quit after three/four failures and this is associated with differential changes in brain regions involved in error monitoring and reward which regulate both failure detection and changes in decision-making strategy. PMID:27097529

  8. fMRI Adaptation Reveals Mirror Neurons in Human Inferior Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Trevor T.-J.; Cunnington, Ross; Williams, Mark A.; Kanwisher, Nancy; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Mirror neurons, as originally described in the macaque, have two defining properties [1] and [2]: They respond specifically to a particular action (e.g., bringing an object to the mouth), and they produce their action-specific responses independent of whether the monkey executes the action or passively observes a conspecific performing the same action. In humans, action observation and action execution engage a network of frontal, parietal, and temporal areas. However, it is unclear whether these responses reflect the activity of a single population that represents both observed and executed actions in a common neural code or the activity of distinct but overlapping populations of exclusively perceptual and motor neurons [3]. Here, we used fMRI adaptation to show that the right inferior parietal lobe (IPL) responds independently to specific actions regardless of whether they are observed or executed. Specifically, responses in the right IPL were attenuated when participants observed a recently executed action relative to one that had not previously been performed. This adaptation across action and perception demonstrates that the right IPL responds selectively to the motoric and perceptual representations of actions and is the first evidence for a neural response in humans that shows both defining properties of mirror neurons. PMID:18948009

  9. Parietal Bone Thickness and Vascular Diameters in Adult Modern Humans: A Survey on Cranial Remains.

    PubMed

    Eisová, Stanislava; Rangel de Lázaro, Gizéh; Píšová, Hana; Pereira-Pedro, Sofia; Bruner, Emiliano

    2016-07-01

    Cranial bone thickness varies among modern humans, and many factors influencing this variability remain unclear. Growth hormones and physical activity are thought to influence the vault thickness. Considering that both systemic factors and energy supply influence the vascular system, and taking into account the structural and biomechanical interaction between endocranial vessels and vault bones, in this study we evaluate the correlation between vascular and bone diameters. In particular, we tested the relationship between the thickness of the parietal bone (which is characterized, in modern humans, by a complex vascular network) and the lumen size of the middle meningeal and diploic vessels, in adult modern humans. Our results show no patent correlation between the thickness of parietal bone and the size of the main vascular channels. Values and distributions of the branching patterns, as well as anatomical relationships between vessels and bones, are also described in order to provide information concerning the arrangement of the endocranial vascular morphology. This information is relevant in both evolutionary and medical contexts. Anat Rec, 299:888-896, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27072555

  10. Contextual modulation of pain in masochists: involvement of the parietal operculum and insula

    PubMed Central

    Kamping, Sandra; Andoh, Jamila; Bomba, Isabelle C.; Diers, Martin; Diesch, Eugen; Flor, Herta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pain can be modulated by contextual stimuli, such as emotions, social factors, or specific bodily perceptions. We presented painful laser stimuli together with body-related masochistic visual stimuli to persons with and without preferred masochistic sexual behavior and used neutral, positive, and negative pictures with and without painful stimuli as control. Masochists reported substantially reduced pain intensity and unpleasantness in the masochistic context compared with controls but had unaltered pain perception in the other conditions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that masochists activated brain areas involved in sensory-discriminative processing rather than affective pain processing when they received painful stimuli on a masochistic background. The masochists compared with the controls displayed attenuated functional connectivity of the parietal operculum with the left and right insulae, the central operculum, and the supramarginal gyrus. Masochists additionally showed negative correlations between the duration of interest in masochistic activities and activation of areas involved in motor activity and affective processing. We propose that the parietal operculum serves as an important relay station that attenuates the affective-motivational aspects of pain in masochists. This novel mechanism of pain modulation might be related to multisensory integration and has important implications for the assessment and treatment of pain. PMID:26808014

  11. The Effect of Thoracoscopic Pleurodesis in Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax: Apical Parietal Pleurectomy versus Pleural Abrasion

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Up; Cho, Jeong Su; I, Hoseok; Lee, Jon Geun; Lee, Jun Ho

    2012-01-01

    Background The standard operative treatment of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is thoracoscopic wedge resection, but necessity of pleurodesis still remains controversial. Nevertheless, pleural procedure after wedge resection such as pleurodesis has been performed in some patients who need an extremely low recurrence rate. Materials and Methods From January 2000 to July 2010, 207 patients who had undergone thoracoscopic wedge resection and pleurodesis were enrolled in this study. All patients were divided into two groups according to the methods of pleurodesis; apical parietal pleurectomy (group A) and pleural abrasion (group B). The recurrence after surgery had been checked by reviewing medical record through follow-up in ambulatory care clinic or calling to the patients, directly until January 2011. Results Of the 207 patients, the recurrence rate of group A and B was 9.1% and 12.8%, respectively and there was a significant difference (p=0.01, Cox's proportional hazard model). There was no significant difference in age, gender, smoking status, and body mass index between two groups. Conclusion This study suggests that the risk of recurrence after surgery in PSP is significantly low in patients who underwent thoracoscopic wedge resection with parietal pleurectomy than pleural abrasion. PMID:23130305

  12. Parietal endoderm secreted S100A4 promotes early cardiomyogenesis in embryoid bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Stary, Martina; Schneider, Mikael; Sheikh, Soren P.; Weitzer, Georg . E-mail: georg.weitzer@meduniwien.ac.at

    2006-05-05

    Cardiomyogenesis is influenced by factors secreted by anterior-lateral and extra-embryonic endoderm. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells in embryoid bodies allows to study the influence of growth factors on cardiomyogenesis. By these means SPARC was identified as a new factor enhancing cardiomyogenesis [M. Stary, W. Pasteiner, A. Summer, A. Hrdina, A. Eger, G. Weitzer, Parietal endoderm secreted SPARC promotes early cardiomyogenesis in vitro, Exp. Cell Res. 310 (2005) 331-341]. Here we report a similar and new function for S100A4, a calcium-binding protein of the EF-hand type. S100A4 is secreted by parietal endoderm and promotes early differentiation and proliferation of cardiomyocytes. Oligomeric S100A4 supports cardiomyogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas inhibition of autocrine S100A4 severely attenuates cardiomyogenesis. S100A4 specifically influences transcription in differentiating cardiomyocytes, as evident from increased expression of cardiac transcription factor genes nkx2.5 and mef2C. These data suggest that S100A4, like SPARC, plays a supportive role in early in vitro cardiomyogenesis.

  13. Different Representations of Potential and Selected Motor Plans by Distinct Parietal Areas

    PubMed Central

    Cui, He; Andersen, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional theories have considered decision making as a separate neural process occurring before action planning. However, recent neurophysiological studies of spatial target selection have suggested that decision making and motor planning may be performed in an integrated manner. It was proposed that multiple potential plans are concurrently formed and the ultimately selected action simultaneously emerges within the same circuits (e.g., Cisek and Kalaska, 2010; Shadlen and Newsome, 2001). In the present study, we recorded from the parietal reach region (PRR) and dorsal area 5 (area 5d) in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) while monkeys performed a non-spatial effector (saccade vs reach) choice task. The results show that PRR encodes potential and selected reach plans whereas area 5d encodes only selected reach plans, suggesting a serial visuomotor cortical circuitry for non-spatial effector decisions. Thus, there appears to be a different flow of processing for decisions and planning for spatial target selection, which is more integrated, and non-spatial effector decisions between eye and limb movements, which are more serial. PMID:22159124

  14. Posterior Parietal Cortex Drives Inferotemporal Activations During Three-Dimensional Object Vision

    PubMed Central

    Van Dromme, Ilse C.; Premereur, Elsie; Verhoef, Bram-Ernst; Vanduffel, Wim; Janssen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The primate visual system consists of a ventral stream, specialized for object recognition, and a dorsal visual stream, which is crucial for spatial vision and actions. However, little is known about the interactions and information flow between these two streams. We investigated these interactions within the network processing three-dimensional (3D) object information, comprising both the dorsal and ventral stream. Reversible inactivation of the macaque caudal intraparietal area (CIP) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) reduced fMRI activations in posterior parietal cortex in the dorsal stream and, surprisingly, also in the inferotemporal cortex (ITC) in the ventral visual stream. Moreover, CIP inactivation caused a perceptual deficit in a depth-structure categorization task. CIP-microstimulation during fMRI further suggests that CIP projects via posterior parietal areas to the ITC in the ventral stream. To our knowledge, these results provide the first causal evidence for the flow of visual 3D information from the dorsal stream to the ventral stream, and identify CIP as a key area for depth-structure processing. Thus, combining reversible inactivation and electrical microstimulation during fMRI provides a detailed view of the functional interactions between the two visual processing streams. PMID:27082854

  15. Biofidelic neck influences head kinematics of parietal and occipital impacts following short falls in infants

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Sarah; Coats, Brittany; Margulies, Susan S.

    2015-01-01

    Falls are a major cause of traumatic head injury in children. Understanding head kinematics during low height falls is essential for evaluating injury risk and designing mitigating strategies. Typically, these measurements are made with commercial anthropomorphic infant surrogates, but these surrogates are designed based on adult biomechanical data. In this study, we improve upon the state-of-the-art anthropomorphic testing devices by incorporating new infant cadaver neck bending and tensile data. We then measure head kinematics following head-first falls onto 4 impact surfaces from 3 fall heights with occipital and parietal head impact locations. The biofidelic skull compliance and neck properties of the improved infant surrogate significantly influenced the measured kinematic loads, decreasing the measured impact force and peak angular accelerations, lowering the expected injury risk. Occipital and parietal impacts exhibited distinct kinematic responses in primary head rotation direction and the magnitude of the rotational velocities and accelerations, with larger angular velocities as the head rebounded after occipital impacts. Further evaluations of injury risk due to short falls should take into account the impact surface and head impact location, in addition to the fall height. PMID:26072183

  16. Receptor binding characteristics of tritiated misoprostol free acid in enriched canine parietal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, B.S.; Kessler, L.K.; Conway, R.G.; Schoenhard, G.; Stolzenbach, J.; Collins, P.; Kramer, S.; Butchko, G.M.; Bauer, R.F.

    1986-03-01

    Misoprostol (MISO) is a synthetic prostaglandin (PG) E/sub 1/ methyl ester with gastric antisecretory and mucosal protective properties. MISO is rapidly de-esterified to misoprostol free acid (MISO-FA) in enriched (65-80%) canine parietal cell preparations. Both forms appear to possess equivalent antisecretory potency and (/sup 3/H) MISO-FA is stable in these preparations. (/sup 3/H) MISO-FA binding was reversible and saturable with a maximal number of binding sites estimated at 8138 +/- 1893 per cell. The scatchard plot was linear, indicating a single, high affinity receptor population with a dissociation constant of 11 +/- 2.6 x 10/sup -9/ M. Unlabeled MISO-FA and MISO were equally potent inhibitors (IC/sub 50/, approx. 10/sup -8/M) of (/sup 3/H) MISO-FA binding. At 10/sup -5/ M, the dinor and tetranor ..beta..-oxidation metabolites of MISO were weak binding inhibitors. Strict stereospecific binding was shown by MISO stereoisomers, and the 11R, 16S isomer was most active. Both PGE/sub 1/ and 16,16 dimethyl PGE/sub 2/ were potent binding inhibitors, but PGF/sub 1/..cap alpha.. (10/sup -6/ M) and Hoe 892 (10/sup -5/ M), a stable PGI/sub 2/ analog, were weak inhibitors. Neither histamine or cimetidine competed for binding sites. These data indicate the presence of stereospecific E-type prostaglandin receptors in enriched canine parietal cell preparations.

  17. Differential contributions of the superior and inferior parietal cortex to feedback versus feedforward control of tools

    PubMed Central

    Macuga, Kristen L.; Frey, Scott H.

    2016-01-01

    Damage to the superior and/or inferior parietal lobules (SPL, IPL) (Sirigu et al., 1996) or cerebellum (Grealy and Lee, 2011) can selectively disrupt motor imagery, motivating the hypothesis that these regions participate in predictive (i.e., feedforward) control. If so, then the SPL, IPL, and cerebellum should show greater activity as the demands on feedforward control increase from visually-guided execution (closed-loop) to execution without visual feedback (open-loop) to motor imagery. Using fMRI and a Fitts’ reciprocal aiming task with tools directed at targets in far space, we found that the SPL and cerebellum exhibited greater activity during closed-loop control. Conversely, open-loop and imagery conditions were associated with increased activity within the IPL and prefrontal areas. These results are consistent with a superior-to-inferior gradient in the representation of feedback-to-feedforward control within the posterior parietal cortex. Additionally, the anterior SPL displayed greater activity when aiming movements were performed with a stick vs. laser pointer. This may suggest that it is involved in the remapping of far into near (reachable) space (Maravita and Iriki, 2004), or in distalization of the end-effector from hand to stick (Arbib et al., 2009). PMID:24473100

  18. The predictive value of white matter organization in posterior parietal cortex for spatial visualization ability.

    PubMed

    Wolbers, Thomas; Schoell, Eszter D; Büchel, Christian

    2006-09-01

    Humans differ substantially in their ability to imagine spatial transformations of novel stimuli (i.e., mental rotation). Whereas "high-spatial" individuals are able to maintain high-quality representations even after complex mental transformations, "low-spatial" individuals often experience substantial degradation of the initial representation. Even though subdivisions of the posterior parietal cortex are known to instantiate the necessary spatial transformations, a direct demonstration of neuroanatomical differences predicting this behavioral variability is currently missing. Because recent evidence suggests that interindividual differences on the behavioral level might be related to regionally specific white matter organization, we addressed this question using diffusion tensor imaging in combination with well-established psychometric tests. As expected, behavioral results revealed a substantial disparity in mental rotation performance. Most importantly, despite controlling for differences in spatial short-term memory capacity, we observed a tight relationship between mental rotation proficiency and white matter organization near the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus. Whereas high-level proficiency was paralleled by high fractional anisotropy (FA) values, the opposite pattern was observed in "low spatials". The present results strongly indicate that the efficiency of information transfer between posterior parietal regions involved in the mental transformation process could be one decisive factor in individual spatial visualization proficiency. PMID:16793288

  19. Subregions of the inferior parietal lobule are affected in the progression to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Greene, Sarah J; Killiany, Ronald J

    2010-08-01

    Changes in several regions within the brain have been associated with progression from healthy aging to Alzheimer's disease (AD), including the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and the inferior parietal lobule (IPL). In this study, the IPL was divided into three subregions: the gyrus, the banks of the sulcus, and the fundus to determine if these regions are independent of medial temporal regions in the progression of AD. Participants of the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative (Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging initiative (ADNI); n = 54) underwent a structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan and neuropsychological examination, and were categorized as normal controls, mild cognitively impaired (MCI), or AD. FreeSurfer was initially used to identify the boundaries of the IPL. Each subregion was then manually traced based on FreeSurfer curvature intensities. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to compare groups. Results suggest that changes in thickness of the banks of the inferior parietal lobule are occurring early in the progression from normal to MCI, followed by changes in the gyrus and fundus, and these measures are related to neuropsychological performance. PMID:20570398

  20. Parietal Fast Sleep Spindle Density Decrease in Alzheimer's Disease and Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Gorgoni, Maurizio; Lauri, Giulia; Truglia, Ilaria; Cordone, Susanna; Sarasso, Simone; Scarpelli, Serena; Mangiaruga, Anastasia; D'Atri, Aurora; Tempesta, Daniela; Ferrara, Michele; Marra, Camillo; Rossini, Paolo Maria; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have identified two types of sleep spindles: fast (13–15 Hz) centroparietal and slow (11–13 Hz) frontal spindles. Alterations in spindle activity have been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Only few studies have separately assessed fast and slow spindles in these patients showing a reduction of fast spindle count, but the possible local specificity of this phenomenon and its relation to cognitive decline severity are not clear. Moreover, fast and slow spindle density have never been assessed in AD/MCI. We have assessed fast and slow spindles in 15 AD patients, 15 amnesic MCI patients, and 15 healthy elderly controls (HC). Participants underwent baseline polysomnographic recording (19 cortical derivations). Spindles during nonrapid eye movements sleep were automatically detected, and spindle densities of the three groups were compared in the derivations where fast and slow spindles exhibited their maximum expression (parietal and frontal, resp.). AD and MCI patients showed a significant parietal fast spindle density decrease, positively correlated with Minimental State Examination scores. Our results suggest that AD-related changes in spindle density are specific for frequency and location, are related to cognitive decline severity, and may have an early onset in the pathology development. PMID:27066274

  1. Timing of spatial priming within the fronto-parietal attention network: A TMS study.

    PubMed

    Kehrer, Stefanie; Kraft, Antje; Koch, Stefan P; Kathmann, Norbert; Irlbacher, Kerstin; Brandt, Stephan A

    2015-07-01

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) are known to be part of a cortical network involved in visual spatial attention. Top-down control can modulate processing at target and distractor positions over a sequence of trials, leading to positive priming at prior target positions and negative priming at prior distractor positions. In order to elucidate the exact time course of this top-down mechanism we here propose a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocol. Single-pulses were applied over the right PPC, the right DLPFC or over the vertex (sham stimulation) at five time intervals (50, 100, 150, 200, 250 ms) after onset of a probe display during a spatial negative priming paradigm. Both suppression of the negative priming effect at a previous distractor position and enhancement of positive priming at a previous target position was found if a TMS pulse was applied 100 ms after the probe display onset either over the right DLPFC or the right PPC. We suggest that top-down mechanisms within the right fronto-parietal attention network are compromised during TMS interference in this time window. PMID:25448855

  2. Alpha stimulation of the human parietal cortex attunes tactile perception to external space.

    PubMed

    Ruzzoli, Manuela; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2014-02-01

    An intriguing question in neuroscience concerns how somatosensory events on the skin are represented in the human brain. Since Head and Holmes' [1] neuropsychological dissociation between localizing touch on the skin and localizing body parts in external space, touch is considered to operate in a variety of spatial reference frames [2]. At least two representations of space are in competition during orienting to touch: a somatotopic one, reflecting the organization of the somatosensory cortex (S1) [3], and a more abstract, external reference frame that factors postural changes in relation to body parts and/or external space [4, 5]. Previous transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggest that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) plays a key role in supporting representations as well as orienting attention in an external reference frame [4, 6]. Here, we capitalized on the TMS entrainment approach [7, 8], targeting the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). We found that frequency-specific (10 Hz) tuning of the PPC induced spatially specific enhancement of tactile detection that was expressed in an external reference frame. This finding establishes a tight causal link between a concrete form of brain activity (10 Hz oscillation) and a specific type of spatial representation, revealing a fundamental property of how the parietal cortex encodes information. PMID:24440394

  3. Spatial effects of shifting prisms on properties of posterior parietal cortex neurons

    PubMed Central

    Karkhanis, Anushree N; Heider, Barbara; Silva, Fabian Muñoz; Siegel, Ralph M

    2014-01-01

    The posterior parietal cortex contains neurons that respond to visual stimulation and motor behaviour. The objective of the current study was to test short-term adaptation in neurons in macaque area 7a and the dorsal prelunate during visually guided reaching using Fresnel prisms that displaced the visual field. The visual perturbation shifted the eye position and created a mismatch between perceived and actual reach location. Two non-human primates were trained to reach to visual targets before, during and after prism exposure while fixating the reach target in different locations. They were required to reach to the physical location of the reach target and not the perceived, displaced location. While behavioural adaptation to the prisms occurred within a few trials, the majority of neurons responded to the distortion either with substantial changes in spatial eye position tuning or changes in overall firing rate. These changes persisted even after prism removal. The spatial changes were not correlated with the direction of induced prism shift. The transformation of gain fields between conditions was estimated by calculating the translation and rotation in Euler angles. Rotations and translations of the horizontal and vertical spatial components occurred in a systematic manner for the population of neurons suggesting that the posterior parietal cortex retains a constant representation of the visual field remapping between experimental conditions. PMID:24928956

  4. Alpha power increases in right parietal cortex reflects focused internal attention

    PubMed Central

    Benedek, Mathias; Schickel, Rainer J.; Jauk, Emanuel; Fink, Andreas; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the functional significance of EEG alpha power increases, a finding that is consistently observed in various memory tasks and specifically during divergent thinking. It was previously shown that alpha power is increased when tasks are performed in mind—e.g., when bottom-up processing is prevented. This study aimed to examine the effect of task-immanent differences in bottom-up processing demands by comparing two divergent thinking tasks, one intrinsically relying on bottom-up processing (sensory-intake task) and one that is not (sensory-independence task). In both tasks, stimuli were masked in half of the trials to establish conditions of higher and lower internal processing demands. In line with the hypotheses, internal processing affected performance and led to increases in alpha power only in the sensory-intake task, whereas the sensory-independence task showed high levels of task-related alpha power in both conditions. Interestingly, conditions involving focused internal attention showed a clear lateralization with higher alpha power in parietal regions of the right hemisphere. Considering evidence from fMRI studies, right-parietal alpha power increases may correspond to a deactivation of the right temporoparietal junction, reflecting an inhibition of the ventral attention network. Inhibition of this region is thought to prevent reorienting to irrelevant stimulation during goal-driven, top-down behavior, which may serve the executive function of task shielding during demanding cognitive tasks such as idea generation and mental imagery. PMID:24561034

  5. True Memory, False Memory, and Subjective Recollection Deficits after Focal Parietal Lobe Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Drowos, David B.; Berryhill, Marian; André, Jessica M.; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective There is mounting evidence that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) plays an important role in episodic memory. We previously found that patients with PPC damage exhibit retrieval-related episodic memory deficits. Our objective was to assess whether parietal lobe damage affects episodic memory on a different task: the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false-memory paradigm. Method Two patients with bilateral PPC damage and matched controls were tested. In Experiment 1, the task was to remember words; in Experiment 2 the task was to remember pictures of common objects. Prior studies have shown that normal participants have high levels of false memory to words, low levels to pictures. Results The patients exhibited significantly lower levels of false memory to words. The patients' false memories were accompanied by reduced levels of recollection, as tested by a Remember/Know procedure. It is unlikely that a failure of gist processing accounts for these results, as patients accurately remembered thematic elements of short vignettes, but failed to remember details. These results support the view that portions of the PPC play a critical role in objective and subjective aspects of recollection. PMID:20604621

  6. Right Ventricular Enlargement within Months of Arteriovenous Fistula Creation in 2 Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ragupathi, Loheetha; Johnson, Drew

    2016-01-01

    Surgically created arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) for hemodialysis can contribute to hemodynamic changes. We describe the cases of 2 male patients in whom new right ventricular enlargement developed after an AVF was created for hemodialysis. Patient 1 sustained high-output heart failure solely attributable to the AVF. After AVF banding and subsequent ligation, his heart failure and right ventricular enlargement resolved. In Patient 2, the AVF contributed to new-onset right ventricular enlargement, heart failure, and ascites. His severe pulmonary hypertension was caused by diastolic heart failure, diabetes mellitus, and obstructive sleep apnea. His right ventricular enlargement and heart failure symptoms did not improve after AVF ligation. We think that our report is the first to specifically correlate the echocardiographic finding of right ventricular enlargement with AVF sequelae. Clinicians who treat end-stage renal disease patients should be aware of this potential sequela of AVF creation, particularly in the upper arm. We recommend obtaining preoperative echocardiograms in all patients who will undergo upper-arm AVF creation, so that comparisons can be made postoperatively. Alternative consideration should be given to creating the AVF in the radial artery, because of less shunting and therefore less potential for right-sided heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. A multidisciplinary approach is optimal when selecting patients for AVF banding or ligation. PMID:27547150

  7. Right Ventricular Enlargement within Months of Arteriovenous Fistula Creation in 2 Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Ragupathi, Loheetha; Johnson, Drew; Marhefka, Gregary D

    2016-08-01

    Surgically created arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) for hemodialysis can contribute to hemodynamic changes. We describe the cases of 2 male patients in whom new right ventricular enlargement developed after an AVF was created for hemodialysis. Patient 1 sustained high-output heart failure solely attributable to the AVF. After AVF banding and subsequent ligation, his heart failure and right ventricular enlargement resolved. In Patient 2, the AVF contributed to new-onset right ventricular enlargement, heart failure, and ascites. His severe pulmonary hypertension was caused by diastolic heart failure, diabetes mellitus, and obstructive sleep apnea. His right ventricular enlargement and heart failure symptoms did not improve after AVF ligation. We think that our report is the first to specifically correlate the echocardiographic finding of right ventricular enlargement with AVF sequelae. Clinicians who treat end-stage renal disease patients should be aware of this potential sequela of AVF creation, particularly in the upper arm. We recommend obtaining preoperative echocardiograms in all patients who will undergo upper-arm AVF creation, so that comparisons can be made postoperatively. Alternative consideration should be given to creating the AVF in the radial artery, because of less shunting and therefore less potential for right-sided heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. A multidisciplinary approach is optimal when selecting patients for AVF banding or ligation. PMID:27547150

  8. Enlarged Tracheoesophageal Puncture after Total Laryngectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hutcheson, Katherine A.; Lewin, Jan S.; Sturgis, Erich M.; Kapadia, Asha; Risser, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background Enlargement of the tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP) is a challenging complication after laryngectomy with TEP. We sought to estimate the rate of enlarged puncture, associated pneumonia rates, potential risk factors, and conservative treatments excluding complete surgical TEP closure. Methods A systematic review was conducted (1978–2008). A summary risk estimate was calculated using a random-effects meta-analysis model. Results Twenty-seven peer-reviewed manuscripts were included. The rate of enlarged puncture and/or leakage around the prosthesis was reported in 23 articles (range, 1% to 29%; summary risk estimate, 7.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.8% to 9.6%). Temporary removal of the prosthesis and TEP- site injections were the most commonly reported conservative treatments. Prosthetic diameter (p =.076) and timing of TEP (p = .297) were analyzed as risk factors; however, radiotherapy variables were inconsistently reported. Conclusion The overall risk of enlarged puncture seems relatively low, but it remains a rehabilitative challenge. Future research should clearly establish risk factors for enlarged puncture and optimal conservative management. PMID:20848420

  9. Etiologic significance of enlargement of the left atrial appendage in adults

    SciTech Connect

    Green, C.E.; Kelley, M.J.; Higgins, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    Fifty-one patients were divided into two groups: 20 patients with proven rheumatic mitral valve disease (RMVD) and 31 patients with left atrial enlargement (LAE) of a nonrheumatic etiology. The latter group included patients with ischemic papillary muscle dysfunction, mitral valve prolapse, and congestive cardiomyopathy. Radiographic studies showed that enlargement of the left atrial appendage (LAAE) was present in 18 of 20 rheumatics but in only one of 31 nonrheumatics. There was no direct relationship between enlargement of the LAA and radiographic or echocardiographic left atrial size, degree of pulmonary venous hypertension (PVH), or presence of atrial fibrillation. It is postulated that rheumatic influammation of the LAA allows it to dilate out of proportion to the body of the left atrium. In the adult patient with radiographic findings of PVH, LAAE is a valuable and specific radiographic sign of rheumatic mitral valve disease.

  10. Primary tuberculous gingival enlargement - A rare clinical entity: Case report and brief review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Suhail Majid; Khan, Fayiza Youqoob; Bhat, Muzafar Ahmad; Behal, Roobal

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic specific granulomatous disease and a major cause of death in developing countries. The clinical presentation of TB lesions of the oral cavity varies widely and can manifest as ulcerations, diffuse inflammatory lesions, granulomas and fissures. Oral lesions generally appear secondary to primary TB infection elsewhere, although primary infection of the oral mucosa by Mycobacterium tuberculosis has also been described. We hereby report a case of primary TB of the gingiva manifesting as gingival enlargement. Diagnosis was based on histopathological examination, complete blood count, X-ray chest and immunological investigations with detection of antibodies against M. tuberculosis. Anti-tuberculous therapy was carried out for over 6 months and was followed by surgical excision of the residual enlargement under local anesthesia. After 1-year follow-up, there was no recurrence of the disease. This case report emphasizes the need for dentists to include TB in the differential diagnosis of various types of gingival enlargements. PMID:25425826

  11. Modeling the Effect of Enlarging Seating Room on Passengers' Preference of Taiwan's Domestic Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Jin-Long; Tsai, Li-Non

    2003-01-01

    This study addresses the need for measuring the effect of enlarging seating room in airplane on passengers' preferences of airline in Taiwan. The results can assist Taiwan's domestic air carriers in better understanding their customers' expectations. Stated choice experiment is used to incorporate passengers' trade-offs in the preferred measurement, and three major attributes are taken into account in the stated choice experiment: (1) type of seat (enlarged or not), (2) price, and (3) brand names of airlines. Furthermore, a binary logit model is used to model the choice behavior of air passengers. The findings show that the type of seat is a major significant variable; price and airline's brand are also significant as well. It concludes that air carriers should put more emphasis on the issue of improving the quality of seat comfort. Keywords: Passengers' preference, Enlarged seating room, Stated choice experiment, Binary logit model.

  12. Nocturnal foraging enhanced by enlarged secondary eyes in a net-casting spider.

    PubMed

    Stafstrom, Jay A; Hebets, Eileen A

    2016-05-01

    Animals that possess extreme sensory structures are predicted to have a related extreme behavioural function. This study focuses on one such extreme sensory structure-the posterior median eyes of the net-casting spider Deinopis spinosa. Although past research has implicated the importance of vision in the nocturnal foraging habits of Deinopis, no direct link between vision in the enlarged eyes and nocturnal foraging has yet been made. To directly test the hypothesis that the enlarged posterior median eyes facilitate visually based nocturnal prey capture, we conducted repeated-measures, visual occlusion trials in both natural and laboratory settings. Our results indicate that D. spinosa relies heavily on visual cues detected by the posterior median eyes to capture cursorial prey items. We suggest that the enlarged posterior median eyes benefit D. spinosa not only through increased diet breadth, but also by allowing spiders to remain active solely at night, thus evading predation by diurnal animals. PMID:27194291

  13. Aberrant parietal cortex developmental trajectories in girls with Turner syndrome and related visual-spatial cognitive development: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Green, Tamar; Chromik, Lindsay C; Mazaika, Paul K; Fierro, Kyle; Raman, Mira M; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Hong, David S; Reiss, Allan L

    2014-09-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) arises from partial or complete absence of the X-chromosome in females. Girls with TS show deficits in visual-spatial skills as well as reduced brain volume and surface area in the parietal cortex which supports these cognitive functions. Thus, measuring the developmental trajectory of the parietal cortex and the associated visual-spatial cognition in TS may provide novel insights into critical brain-behavior associations. In this longitudinal study, we acquired structural MRI data and assessed visual-spatial skills in 16 (age: 8.23 ± 2.5) girls with TS and 13 age-matched controls over two time-points. Gray and white matter volume, surface area and cortical thickness were calculated from surfaced based segmentation of bilateral parietal cortices, and the NEPSY Arrows subtest was used to assess visual-spatial ability. Volumetric and cognitive scalars were modeled to obtain estimates of age-related change. The results show aberrant growth of white matter volume (P = 0.011, corrected) and surface area (P = 0.036, corrected) of the left superior parietal regions during childhood in girls with TS. Other parietal sub-regions were significantly smaller in girls with TS at both time-points but did not show different growth trajectories relative to controls. Furthermore, we found that visual-spatial skills showed a widening deficit for girls with TS relative to controls (P = 0.003). Young girls with TS demonstrate an aberrant trajectory of parietal cortical and cognitive development during childhood. Elucidating aberrant neurodevelopmental trajectories in this population is critical for determining specific stages of brain maturation that are particularly dependent on TS-related genetic and hormonal factors. PMID:25044604

  14. Functional coupling of parietal α rhythms is enhanced in athletes before visuomotor performance: a coherence electroencephalographic study.

    PubMed

    Del Percio, C; Iacoboni, M; Lizio, R; Marzano, N; Infarinato, F; Vecchio, F; Bertollo, M; Robazza, C; Comani, S; Limatola, C; Babiloni, C

    2011-02-23

    It has been shown that elite pistol shooters are characterized by a power increase of wide cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha (about 8-12 Hz) and beta (about 14-35 Hz) rhythms during the preparation of air pistol shots, possibly related to selective attentional and "neural efficiency" processes [Del Percio C, Babiloni C, Bertollo M, Marzano N, Iacoboni M, Infarinato F, Lizio R, Stocchi M, Robazza C, Cibelli G, Comani S, Eusebi F (2009a) Hum Brain Mapp 30(11):3527-3540; Del Percio C, Babiloni C, Marzano N, Iacoboni M, Infarinato F, Vecchio F, Lizio R, Aschieri P, Fiore A, Toràn G, Gallamini M, Baratto M, Eusebi F (2009b) Brain Res Bull 79(3-4):193-200]. Here, we tested the hypothesis that such processes are associated with an enhanced functional coupling of posterior cortical regions involved in task-relevant attentional processes and visuo-motor transformations. To this aim, between-electrodes spectral coherence was computed from spatially enhanced EEG data collected during a previous study (i.e. right handed 18 elite air pistol shooters and 10 matched non-athletes; augmented 10-20 system; surface Laplacian estimation). Theta (about 4-6 Hz), low-frequency alpha (about 8-10 Hz), high-frequency alpha (about 10-12 Hz), low-frequency beta (14-22 Hz), high-frequency beta (23-35 Hz), and gamma (36-44 Hz) bands were considered. Statistical results showed that intra-hemispheric low-frequency alpha (parietal-temporal and parietal-occipital regions), high-frequency alpha (parietal-temporal and parietal-occipital regions), high-frequency beta, and gamma (parietal-temporal regions) coherence values were stable in amplitude in the elite athletes but not in the non-athletes during the preparation of pistol shots. The same applies to inter-hemispheric low-frequency alpha (parietal regions), high-frequency alpha (parietal regions), high-frequency beta and gamma coherence values. These findings suggest that under the present experimental conditions, elite athletes are

  15. Phenytoin-induced gingival enlargement: a dental awakening for patients with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Ravi Prakah Sasankoti; Rastogi, Khushboo; Bhushan, Rajarshi; Verma, Sankalp

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced gingival enlargement is the term now used to describe medication-related gingival hypertrophy or hyperplasia, a condition commonly induced by three main classes of drugs: anticonvulsants, antihypertensive calcium channel blockers and the immunosuppressant cyclosporine. The pathogenesis of drug-induced gingival enlargement is uncertain and there appears to be no unifying hypothesis that links together the three commonly implicated drugs. Phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth is a well known and frequently reported gingival lesion, which was first detected in 1939. This case report consists of phenytoin usage, duration and poor oral hygiene. PMID:23616318

  16. Inductive pulsed phase thermography for reducing or enlarging the effect of surface emissivity variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ruizhen; He, Yunze; Gao, Bin; Tian, Gui Yun

    2014-11-01

    Emissivity variation introduces illusory temperature inhomogeneity and results in false alarms in infrared thermography, thus, it is important to separate the influence of surface emissivity variation. This letter experimentally demonstrates the advantages of phase information to reduce or enlarge the effect of surface emissivity variation with inductive pulsed phase thermography, where inductive excitation is emissivity-independent and avoids the effect of emissivity variation in heating process. The directly heated area and the indirectly heated area are divided in the phasegrams. The emissivity variation is removed or enlarged perfectly at the specific frequency and defect detectability is improved remarkably.

  17. Enlarged band gap and electron switch in graphene-based step-barrier structure

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Wei-Tao Ye, Cheng-Zhi; Li, Wen

    2013-11-04

    We study the transmission through a step-barrier in gapped graphene and propose a method to enlarge the band gap. The step-barrier structure consists of two or more barriers with different strengths. It is found that the band gap could be effectively enlarged and controlled by adjusting the barrier strengths in the light of the mass term. Klein tunneling at oblique incidence is suppressed due to the asymmetry of step-barrier, contrary to the cases in single-barrier and superlattices. Furthermore, a tunable conductance channel could be opened up in the conductance gap, suggesting an application of the structure as an electron switch.

  18. Fit and fat from enlarged badges: a field experiment on male sand lizards.

    PubMed Central

    Anderholm, Sofia; Olsson, Mats; Wapstra, Erik; Ryberg, Karin

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the impact of nuptial coloration (the badge) on male fitness in the Swedish sand lizard (Lacerta agilis), we conducted a manipulation experiment in a natural population. Males in one group had their badges enlarged by being painted as cheaters and were compared to a control group with respect to mate acquisition, body condition and survival. Badge enlargement did not affect survival, but elevated mate acquisition by almost 400%, and body condition in small males. This increase in condition is likely to stem from greater access to female-associated sites with high food availability. PMID:15252966

  19. Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome in patients presenting enlarged aortic root: case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Raquel da Silva; Costa, Ana Lúcia Martins; Gib, Marcelo Cúrcio; Dexheimer Neto, Felippe Leopoldo

    2014-01-01

    We describe herein a case of a patient who, when in orthostatic positions, had severe hypoxemia and ventilatory dysfunction. Although the severity of symptoms required hospitalization in an intensive care setting, the initial tests only identified the presence of enlarged aortic root, which did not explain the condition. The association of these events with an unusual etiology, namely intracardiac shunt, characterized the diagnosis of platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome. The literature review shows that, with advancing research methods, there was a progressive increase in the identification of this condition, and this association should be part of the differential diagnosis of dyspnea in patients with enlarged aortic root. PMID:25295827

  20. Unusual presentation of localized gingival enlargement associated with a slow-growing odontogenic myxoma

    PubMed Central

    Miranda Rius, Jaume; Nadal, Alfons; Lahor, Eduard; Mtui, Beatus; Brunet, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    Unusual presentation of localized gingival enlargement associated with a subjacent tumoural pathology is reported. The patient was a 55-year-old black male, whose chief complaint was a progressive gingival overgrowth for more than ten years, in the buccal area of the anterior left mandible. According to the clinical features and the radiological diagnosis of odontogenic keratocyst, a conservative surgery with enucleation and curettage was performed. Tissue submitted for histopathological analysis rendered the diagnosis of odontogenic myxoma. After 12-month of follow-up, no evidence of recurrence was found. Clinicians should be cautious when facing any gingival enlargement to avoid diagnostic pitfalls and to indicate the appropriate treatment. PMID:23722914

  1. Interaction of Egocentric and World-Centered Reference Frames in the Rat Posterior Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Benjamin J.; Forster, Tyler C.; Tatsuno, Masami; McNaughton, Bruce L.

    2014-01-01

    Navigation requires coordination of egocentric and allocentric spatial reference frames and may involve vectorial computations relative to landmarks. Creation of a representation of target heading relative to landmarks could be accomplished from neurons that encode the conjunction of egocentric landmark bearings with allocentric head direction. Landmark vector representations could then be created by combining these cells with distance encoding cells. Landmark vector cells have been identified in rodent hippocampus. Given remembered vectors at goal locations, it would be possible to use such cells to compute trajectories to hidden goals. To look for the first stage in this process, we assessed parietal cortical neural activity as a function of egocentric cue light location and allocentric head direction in rats running a random sequence to light locations around a circular platform. We identified cells that exhibit the predicted egocentric-by-allocentric conjunctive characteristics and anticipate orienting toward the goal. PMID:24741034

  2. Temporary Interference over the Posterior Parietal Cortices Disrupts Thermoregulatory Control in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Gallace, Alberto; Soravia, Giovanna; Cattaneo, Zaira; Moseley, G. Lorimer; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The suggestion has recently been made that certain higher-order cortical areas involved in supporting multisensory representations of the body, and of the space around it, might also play a role in controlling thermoregulatory functions. Here we demonstrate that temporary interference with the function of one of these areas, the posterior parietal cortex, by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, results in a decrease in limb temperature. By contrast, interference with the activity of a sensory-specific area (the primary somatosensory cortex) had no effect on temperature. The results of this experiment suggest that associative multisensory brain areas might exert a top-down modulation over basic physiological control. Such a function might be part of a larger neural circuit responsible for maintaining the integrity of the body at both a homeostatic and a psychological level. PMID:24622382

  3. Object vision to hand action in macaque parietal, premotor, and motor cortices

    PubMed Central

    Schaffelhofer, Stefan; Scherberger, Hansjörg

    2016-01-01

    Grasping requires translating object geometries into appropriate hand shapes. How the brain computes these transformations is currently unclear. We investigated three key areas of the macaque cortical grasping circuit with microelectrode arrays and found cooperative but anatomically separated visual and motor processes. The parietal area AIP operated primarily in a visual mode. Its neuronal population revealed a specialization for shape processing, even for abstract geometries, and processed object features ultimately important for grasping. Premotor area F5 acted as a hub that shared the visual coding of AIP only temporarily and switched to highly dominant motor signals towards movement planning and execution. We visualize these non-discrete premotor signals that drive the primary motor cortex M1 to reflect the movement of the grasping hand. Our results reveal visual and motor features encoded in the grasping circuit and their communication to achieve transformation for grasping. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15278.001 PMID:27458796

  4. Agnosia for mirror stimuli: a new case report with a small parietal lesion.

    PubMed

    Martinaud, Olivier; Mirlink, Nicolas; Bioux, Sandrine; Bliaux, Evangéline; Lebas, Axel; Gerardin, Emmanuel; Hannequin, Didier

    2014-11-01

    Only seven cases of agnosia for mirror stimuli have been reported, always with an extensive lesion. We report a new case of an agnosia for mirror stimuli due to a circumscribed lesion. An extensive battery of neuropsychological tests and a new experimental procedure to assess visual object mirror and orientation discrimination were assessed 10 days after the onset of clinical symptoms, and 5 years later. The performances of our patient were compared with those of four healthy control subjects matched for age. This test revealed an agnosia for mirror stimuli. Brain imaging showed a small right occipitoparietal hematoma, encompassing the extrastriate cortex adjoining the inferior parietal lobe. This new case suggests that: (i) agnosia for mirror stimuli can persist for 5 years after onset and (ii) the posterior part of the right intraparietal sulcus could be critical in the cognitive process of mirror stimuli discrimination. PMID:25037846

  5. Decoding motor imagery from the posterior parietal cortex of a tetraplegic human

    PubMed Central

    Aflalo, Tyson; Kellis, Spencer; Klaes, Christian; Lee, Brian; Shi, Ying; Pejsa, Kelsie; Shanfield, Kathleen; Hayes-Jackson, Stephanie; Aisen, Mindy; Heck, Christi; Liu, Charles; Andersen, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primate and human studies have suggested that populations of neurons in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) may represent high-level aspects of action planning that can be used to control external devices as part of a brain-machine interface. However, there is no direct neuron-recording evidence that human PPC is involved in action planning, and the suitability of these signals for neuroprosthetic control has not been tested. We recorded neural population activity with arrays of microelectrodes implanted in the PPC of a tetraplegic subject. Motor imagery could be decoded from these neural populations, including imagined goals, trajectories, and types of movement. These findings indicate that the PPC of humans represents high-level, cognitive aspects of action and that the PPC can be a rich source for cognitive control signals for neural prosthetics that assist paralyzed patients. PMID:25999506

  6. Neuronal representation of saccadic error in macaque posterior parietal cortex (PPC).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Liu, Yining; Lu, Haidong; Wu, Si; Zhang, Mingsha

    2016-01-01

    Motor control, motor learning, self-recognition, and spatial perception all critically depend on the comparison of motor intention to the actually executed movement. Despite our knowledge that the brainstem-cerebellum plays an important role in motor error detection and motor learning, the involvement of neocortex remains largely unclear. Here, we report the neuronal computation and representation of saccadic error in macaque posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Neurons with persistent pre- and post-saccadic response (PPS) represent the intended end-position of saccade; neurons with late post-saccadic response (LPS) represent the actual end-position of saccade. Remarkably, after the arrival of the LPS signal, the PPS neurons' activity becomes highly correlated with the discrepancy between intended and actual end-position, and with the probability of making secondary (corrective) saccades. Thus, this neuronal computation might underlie the formation of saccadic error signals in PPC for speeding up saccadic learning and leading the occurrence of secondary saccade. PMID:27097103

  7. The posterior parietal cortex and long-term memory representation of spatial information

    PubMed Central

    Kesner, Raymond P.

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis to be explored in this chapter is based on the assumption that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is directly involved in representing a subset of the spatial features associated with spatial information processing and plays an important role in perceptual memory as well as long-term memory encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of spatial information. After presentation of the anatomical location of the PPC in rats, the nature of PPC representation based on single spatial features, binding of visual features associated with visual spatial attention, binding of object-place associations associated with acquisition and storage of associations where one of the elements is a spatial component, and binding of ideothetic and allothetic information in long-term memory is discussed. Additional evidence for a PPC role in mediation of spatial information in long-term storage is offered. Finally, the relationship between the PPC and the hippocampus from a systems and dynamic point view is presented. PMID:18835456

  8. Functional definitions of parietal areas in human and non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Orban, Guy A.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing homologies between cortical areas in animal models and humans lies at the heart of translational neuroscience, as it demonstrates how knowledge obtained from these models can be applied to the human brain. Here, we review progress in using parallel functional imaging to ascertain homologies between parietal areas of human and non-human primates, species sharing similar behavioural repertoires. The human homologues of several areas along monkey IPS involved in action planning and observation, such as AIP, LIP and CIP, as well as those of opercular areas (SII complex), have been defined. In addition, uniquely human areas, such as the tool-use area in left anterior supramarginal gyrus, have also been identified. PMID:27053755

  9. Distinct Roles of the Prefrontal and Posterior Parietal Cortices in Response Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Qi, Xue-Lian; Constantinidis, Christos

    2016-03-29

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex have been implicated in the planning of movements and inhibition of inappropriate responses, though their precise roles in these functions are not known. To address this question, we trained monkeys to perform memory-guided saccade and anti-saccade tasks and compared neural responses in the same animals. A population of neurons with no motor responses was also activated by a stimulus appearing out of the receptive field and could therefore mediate vector inversion. These neurons were found almost exclusively in the prefrontal cortex. Prefrontal cortical activity better predicted the level of performance in the task. Representation of the saccade goal also peaked in the prefrontal cortex at a time that was predictive of reaction time. These results suggest that the prefrontal cortex is the primary site of vector inversion in the cerebral cortex and explain the importance of this area in response inhibition. PMID:26997283

  10. Distinct Roles of the Prefrontal and Posterior Parietal Cortices in Response Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin; Qi, Xue-Lian; Constantinidis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex have been implicated in planning of movements and inhibition of inappropriate responses, though their precise roles in these functions are not known. To address this question we trained monkeys to perform memory guided saccade and anti-saccade tasks and compared neural responses in the same animals. A population of neurons with no motor responses was also activated by a stimulus appearing out of the receptive field and could therefore mediate vector inversion. These neurons were found almost exclusively in the prefrontal cortex. Prefrontal cortical activity better predicted the level of performance in the task. Representation of the saccade goal also peaked in the prefrontal cortex at a time that was predictive of reaction time. These results suggest that prefrontal cortex is the primary site of vector inversion in the cerebral cortex and explain the importance of this area in response inhibition. PMID:26997283

  11. Optical properties of parietal peritoneum in the spectral range 350-2500 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozintseva, Marina D.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.; Genina, Elina A.; Gorodkov, Sergey Y.; Morozov, Dmitry A.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2014-01-01

    The wide application of optical methods in the areas of diagnostics, therapy and surgery of modern medicine has stimulated the investigation of optical properties of various biological tissues. Numerous investigations related to determination of tissue optical properties are available; however, the optical properties of many tissues have not been studied in a wide wavelength range. In this work the optical properties of parietal peritoneum in the wavelength range 350-2500 nm were measured. Measurement of the diffuse reflectance, total and collimated transmittance were performed using LAMBDA 950 (Perkin Elmer, USA) spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere, and values of absorption and scattering coefficients, and the scattering anisotropy factor were calculated by inverse Monte Carlo Method.

  12. Task-specific versus generalized mnemonic representations in parietal and prefrontal cortices.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Arup; Masse, Nicolas Y; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Freedman, David J

    2016-01-01

    Our ability to learn a wide range of behavioral tasks is essential for responding appropriately to sensory stimuli according to behavioral demands, but the underlying neural mechanism has been rarely examined by neurophysiological recordings in the same subjects across learning. To understand how learning new behavioral tasks affects neuronal representations, we recorded from posterior parietal cortex (PPC) before and after training on a visual motion categorization task. We found that categorization training influenced cognitive encoding in PPC, with a marked enhancement of memory-related delay-period encoding during the categorization task that was absent during a motion discrimination task before categorization training. In contrast, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) exhibited strong delay-period encoding during both discrimination and categorization tasks. This reveals a dissociation between PFC's and PPC's roles in working memory, with general engagement of PFC across multiple tasks, in contrast with more task-specific mnemonic encoding in PPC. PMID:26595652

  13. Agnosia for Mirror Stimuli: A New Case Report with a Small Parietal Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Martinaud, Olivier; Mirlink, Nicolas; Bioux, Sandrine; Bliaux, Evangéline; Lebas, Axel; Gerardin, Emmanuel; Hannequin, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Only seven cases of agnosia for mirror stimuli have been reported, always with an extensive lesion. We report a new case of an agnosia for mirror stimuli due to a circumscribed lesion. An extensive battery of neuropsychological tests and a new experimental procedure to assess visual object mirror and orientation discrimination were assessed 10 days after the onset of clinical symptoms, and 5 years later. The performances of our patient were compared with those of four healthy control subjects matched for age. This test revealed an agnosia for mirror stimuli. Brain imaging showed a small right occipitoparietal hematoma, encompassing the extrastriate cortex adjoining the inferior parietal lobe. This new case suggests that: (i) agnosia for mirror stimuli can persist for 5 years after onset and (ii) the posterior part of the right intraparietal sulcus could be critical in the cognitive process of mirror stimuli discrimination. PMID:25037846

  14. Surface Reconstruction from Parallel Curves with Application to Parietal Bone Fracture Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Abdul; Mt Piah, Abd Rahni; Ridzuan Yahya, Zainor

    2016-01-01

    Maxillofacial trauma are common, secondary to road traffic accident, sports injury, falls and require sophisticated radiological imaging to precisely diagnose. A direct surgical reconstruction is complex and require clinical expertise. Bio-modelling helps in reconstructing surface model from 2D contours. In this manuscript we have constructed the 3D surface using 2D Computerized Tomography (CT) scan contours. The fracture part of the cranial vault are reconstructed using GC1 rational cubic Ball curve with three free parameters, later the 2D contours are flipped into 3D with equidistant z component. The constructed surface is represented by contours blending interpolant. At the end of this manuscript a case report of parietal bone fracture is also illustrated by employing this method with a Graphical User Interface (GUI) illustration. PMID:26967643

  15. Object vision to hand action in macaque parietal, premotor, and motor cortices.

    PubMed

    Schaffelhofer, Stefan; Scherberger, Hansjörg

    2016-01-01

    Grasping requires translating object geometries into appropriate hand shapes. How the brain computes these transformations is currently unclear. We investigated three key areas of the macaque cortical grasping circuit with microelectrode arrays and found cooperative but anatomically separated visual and motor processes. The parietal area AIP operated primarily in a visual mode. Its neuronal population revealed a specialization for shape processing, even for abstract geometries, and processed object features ultimately important for grasping. Premotor area F5 acted as a hub that shared the visual coding of AIP only temporarily and switched to highly dominant motor signals towards movement planning and execution. We visualize these non-discrete premotor signals that drive the primary motor cortex M1 to reflect the movement of the grasping hand. Our results reveal visual and motor features encoded in the grasping circuit and their communication to achieve transformation for grasping. PMID:27458796

  16. Parietal pilomyxoid astrocytoma with recurrence in 10 months: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Patibandla, Mohana Rao; Thotakura, Amit K.; Uppin, Megha; Challa, Sundaram; Addagada, Gokul Chowdary; Nukavarapu, Manisha

    2016-01-01

    Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a new entity described in WHO 2007 classification of brain tumors. Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) and PMA share many histopathological features with a few differences in histopathology and behavior of the tumor. This tumor is commonly located in the hypothalamic chiasmatic region. PMA behaves more aggressively than PA, with shorter progression-free survival as well as a higher rate of recurrence and CNS dissemination. We describe a case of PMA in a 10-year-old male involving left parietal lobe presenting with raised ICP features along with the follow-up. Patient was symptom free after 7 months of postoperative and 5½ months of post-radiation. The unusual site and atypical Magnetic resonance imaging features are distinctive in this case report. PMID:27366287

  17. Parietal pilomyxoid astrocytoma with recurrence in 10 months: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Patibandla, Mohana Rao; Thotakura, Amit K; Uppin, Megha; Challa, Sundaram; Addagada, Gokul Chowdary; Nukavarapu, Manisha

    2016-01-01

    Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a new entity described in WHO 2007 classification of brain tumors. Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) and PMA share many histopathological features with a few differences in histopathology and behavior of the tumor. This tumor is commonly located in the hypothalamic chiasmatic region. PMA behaves more aggressively than PA, with shorter progression-free survival as well as a higher rate of recurrence and CNS dissemination. We describe a case of PMA in a 10-year-old male involving left parietal lobe presenting with raised ICP features along with the follow-up. Patient was symptom free after 7 months of postoperative and 5½ months of post-radiation. The unusual site and atypical Magnetic resonance imaging features are distinctive in this case report. PMID:27366287

  18. Decreased limbic and increased fronto-parietal connectivity in unmedicated patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Göttlich, Martin; Krämer, Ulrike M; Kordon, Andreas; Hohagen, Fritz; Zurowski, Bartosz

    2014-11-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent intrusive thoughts and ritualized, repetitive behaviors, or mental acts. Convergent experimental evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies supports an orbitofronto-striato-thalamo-cortical dysfunction in OCD. Moreover, an over excitability of the amygdala and over monitoring of thoughts and actions involving the anterior cingulate, frontal and parietal cortex has been proposed as aspects of pathophysiology in OCD. We chose a data driven, graph theoretical approach to investigate brain network organization in 17 unmedicated OCD patients and 19 controls using resting-state fMRI. OCD patients showed a decreased connectivity of the limbic network to several other brain networks: the basal ganglia network, the default mode network, and the executive/attention network. The connectivity within the limbic network was also found to be decreased in OCD patients compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, we found a stronger connectivity of brain regions within the executive/attention network in OCD patients. This effect was positively correlated with disease severity. The decreased connectivity of limbic regions (amygdala, hippocampus) may be related to several neurocognitive deficits observed in OCD patients involving implicit learning, emotion processing and expectation, and processing of reward and punishment. Limbic disconnection from fronto-parietal regions relevant for (re)-appraisal may explain why intrusive thoughts become and/or remain threatening to patients but not to healthy subjects. Hyperconnectivity within the executive/attention network might be related to OCD symptoms such as excessive monitoring of thoughts and behavior as a dysfunctional strategy to cope with threat and uncertainty. PMID:25044747

  19. Electrocorticography reveals the temporal dynamics of posterior parietal cortical activity during recognition memory decisions

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Alex; Hutchinson, J. Benjamin; Uncapher, Melina R.; Chen, Janice; LaRocque, Karen F.; Foster, Brett L.; Rangarajan, Vinitha; Parvizi, Josef; Wagner, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Theories of the neurobiology of episodic memory predominantly focus on the contributions of medial temporal lobe structures, based on extensive lesion, electrophysiological, and imaging evidence. Against this backdrop, functional neuroimaging data have unexpectedly implicated left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in episodic retrieval, revealing distinct activation patterns in PPC subregions as humans make memory-related decisions. To date, theorizing about the functional contributions of PPC has been hampered by the absence of information about the temporal dynamics of PPC activity as retrieval unfolds. Here, we leveraged electrocorticography to examine the temporal profile of high gamma power (HGP) in dorsal PPC subregions as participants made old/new recognition memory decisions. A double dissociation in memory-related HGP was observed, with activity in left intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and left superior parietal lobule (SPL) differing in time and sign for recognized old items (Hits) and correctly rejected novel items (CRs). Specifically, HGP in left IPS increased for Hits 300–700 ms poststimulus onset, and decayed to baseline ∼200 ms preresponse. By contrast, HGP in left SPL increased for CRs early after stimulus onset (200−300 ms) and late in the memory decision (from 700 ms to response). These memory-related effects were unique to left PPC, as they were not observed in right PPC. Finally, memory-related HGP in left IPS and SPL was sufficiently reliable to enable brain-based decoding of the participant’s memory state at the single-trial level, using multivariate pattern classification. Collectively, these data provide insights into left PPC temporal dynamics as humans make recognition memory decisions. PMID:26283375

  20. Meta-analysis: how does posterior parietal cortex contribute to reasoning?

    PubMed

    Wendelken, Carter

    2014-01-01

    Reasoning depends on the contribution of posterior parietal cortex (PPC). But PPC is involved in many basic operations-including spatial attention, mathematical cognition, working memory, long-term memory, and language-and the nature of its contribution to reasoning is unclear. Psychological theories of the processes underlying reasoning make divergent claims about the neural systems that are likely to be involved, and better understanding the specific contribution of PPC can help to inform these theories. We set out to address several competing hypotheses, concerning the role of PPC in reasoning: (1) reasoning involves application of formal logic and is dependent on language, with PPC activation for reasoning mainly reflective of linguistic processing; (2) reasoning involves probabilistic computation and is thus dependent on numerical processing mechanisms in PPC; and (3) reasoning is built upon the representation and processing of spatial relations, and PPC activation associated with reasoning reflects spatial processing. We conducted two separate meta-analyses. First, we pooled data from our own studies of reasoning in adults, and examined activation in PPC regions of interest (ROI). Second, we conducted an automated meta-analysis using Neurosynth, in which we examined overlap between activation maps associated with reasoning and maps associated with other key functions of PPC. In both analyses, we observed reasoning-related activation concentrated in the left Inferior Parietal Lobe (IPL). Reasoning maps demonstrated the greatest overlap with mathematical cognition. Maintenance, visuospatial, and phonological processing also demonstrated some overlap with reasoning, but a large portion of the reasoning map did not overlap with the map for any other function. This evidence suggests that the PPC's contribution to reasoning may be most closely related to its role in mathematical cognition, but that a core component of this contribution may be specific to reasoning

  1. The contribution of fronto-parietal regions to sentence comprehension: insights from the Moses illusion.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Ana; Marques, J Frederico

    2013-12-01

    To interpret a sentence, the reader must not only process the linguistic input, but many times has also to draw inferences about what is implicitly stated. In some cases, the generation and integration of inferred information may lead to semantic illusions. In these sentences, subjects fail to detect errors such as in "It was two animals of each kind that Moses took on the ark" despite knowing that the correct answer is Noah, not Moses. The relative inability to notice these errors raises questions about how people establish and integrate inferences and which conditions improve error detection. To unravel the neural processes underlying inference and error detection in language comprehension, we carried out an fMRI study in which participants read sentences containing true or false statements. The false statements either took the form of more obvious (i.e., clearly false) or subtle (i.e., semantic illusions) inconsistent relations. Participants had to decide if each statement was true or false. Processing semantic illusions relative to true and clearly false sentences significantly engaged the right inferior parietal lobule, suggesting higher demands in establishing coherence. Successful versus unsuccessful error detection revealed a network of regions, including right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal, insula/putamen and anterior cingulate cortex. Such activation was significantly correlated with overall response accuracy to the illusions. These results suggest that to detect the semantic conflict, people must inhibit the tendency to draw pragmatic inferences. These findings demonstrate that fronto-parietal areas are involved in inference and inhibition processes necessary for establishing semantic coherence. PMID:23796543

  2. Facilitation of neuronal activity in somatosensory and posterior parietal cortex during prehension.

    PubMed

    Gardner, E P; Ro, J Y; Debowy, D; Ghosh, S

    1999-08-01

    In order to study prehension in a reproducible manner, we trained monkeys to perform a task in which rectangular, spherical, and cylindrical objects were grasped, lifted, held, and lowered in response to visual cues. The animal's hand movements were monitored using digital video, together with simultaneously recorded spike trains of neurons in primary somatosensory cortex (S-I) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Statistically significant task-related modulation of activity occurred in 78% of neurons tested in the hand area; twice as many cells were facilitated during object acquisition as were depressed. Cortical neurons receiving inputs from tactile receptors in glabrous skin of the fingers and palm, hairy skin of the hand dorsum, or deep receptors in muscles and joints of the hand modulated their firing rates during prehension in consistent and reproducible patterns. Spike trains of individual neurons differed in duration and amplitude of firing, the particular hand behavior(s) monitored, and their sensitivity to the shape of the grasped object. Neurons were classified by statistical analysis into groups whose spike trains were tuned to single task stages, spanned two successive stages, or were multiaction. The classes were not uniformly distributed in specific cytoarchitectonic fields, nor among particular somatosensory modalities. Sequential deformation of parts of the hand as the task progressed was reflected in successive responses of different members of this population. The earliest activity occurred in PPC, where 28% of neurons increased firing prior to hand contact with objects; such neurons may participate in anticipatory motor control programs. Activity shifted rostrally to S-I as the hand contacted the object and manipulated it. The shape of the grasped object had the strongest influence on PPC cells. The results suggest that parietal neurons monitor hand actions during prehension, as well as the physical properties of the grasped object, by shifting

  3. Dysregulated left inferior parietal activity in schizophrenia and depression: functional connectivity and characterization

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Veronika I.; Cieslik, Edna C.; Laird, Angela R.; Fox, Peter T.; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2013-01-01

    The inferior parietal cortex (IPC) is a heterogeneous region that is known to be involved in a multitude of diverse different tasks and processes, though its contribution to these often-complex functions is yet poorly understood. In a previous study we demonstrated that patients with depression failed to deactivate the left IPC during processing of congruent audiovisual information. We now found the same dysregulation (same region and condition) in schizophrenia. By using task-independent (resting state) and task-dependent meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) analyses we aimed at characterizing this particular region with regard to its connectivity and function. Across both approaches, results revealed functional connectivity of the left inferior parietal seed region with bilateral IPC, precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex (PrC/PCC), medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), left middle frontal (MFG) as well as inferior frontal (IFG) gyrus. Network-level functional characterization further revealed that on the one hand, all interconnected regions are part of a network involved in memory processes. On the other hand, sub-networks are formed when emotion, language, social cognition and reasoning processes are required. Thus, the IPC-region that is dysregulated in both depression and schizophrenia is functionally connected to a network of regions which, depending on task demands may form sub-networks. These results therefore indicate that dysregulation of left IPC in depression and schizophrenia might not only be connected to deficits in audiovisual integration, but is possibly also associated to impaired memory and deficits in emotion processing in these patient groups. PMID:23781190

  4. Evolution of mammalian sensorimotor cortex: thalamic projections to parietal cortical areas in Monodelphis domestica

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, James C.; Franca, João G.; Seelke, Adele M. H.; Cooke, Dylan F.; Krubitzer, Leah A.

    2015-01-01

    The current experiments build upon previous studies designed to reveal the network of parietal cortical areas present in the common mammalian ancestor. Understanding this ancestral network is essential for highlighting the basic somatosensory circuitry present in all mammals, and how this basic plan was modified to generate species specific behaviors. Our animal model, the short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica), is a South American marsupial that has been proposed to have a similar ecological niche and morphology to the earliest common mammalian ancestor. In this investigation, we injected retrograde neuroanatomical tracers into the face and body representations of primary somatosensory cortex (S1), the rostral and caudal somatosensory fields (SR and SC), as well as a multimodal region (MM). Projections from different architectonically defined thalamic nuclei were then quantified. Our results provide further evidence to support the hypothesized basic mammalian plan of thalamic projections to S1, with the lateral and medial ventral posterior thalamic nuclei (VPl and VPm) projecting to S1 body and S1 face, respectively. Additional strong projections are from the medial division of posterior nucleus (Pom). SR receives projections from several midline nuclei, including the medial dorsal, ventral medial nucleus, and Pom. SC and MM show similar patterns of connectivity, with projections from the ventral anterior and ventral lateral nuclei, VPm and VPl, and the entire posterior nucleus (medial and lateral). Notably, MM is distinguished from SC by relatively dense projections from the dorsal division of the lateral geniculate nucleus and pulvinar. We discuss the finding that S1 of the short-tailed opossum has a similar pattern of projections as other marsupials and mammals, but also some distinct projections not present in other mammals. Further we provide additional support for a primitive posterior parietal cortex which receives input from multiple modalities. PMID

  5. Attention enhances multi-voxel representation of novel objects in frontal, parietal and visual cortices.

    PubMed

    Woolgar, Alexandra; Williams, Mark A; Rich, Anina N

    2015-04-01

    Selective attention is fundamental for human activity, but the details of its neural implementation remain elusive. One influential theory, the adaptive coding hypothesis (Duncan, 2001, An adaptive coding model of neural function in prefrontal cortex, Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2:820-829), proposes that single neurons in certain frontal and parietal regions dynamically adjust their responses to selectively encode relevant information. This selective representation may in turn support selective processing in more specialized brain regions such as the visual cortices. Here, we use multi-voxel decoding of functional magnetic resonance images to demonstrate selective representation of attended--and not distractor--objects in frontal, parietal, and visual cortices. In addition, we highlight a critical role for task demands in determining which brain regions exhibit selective coding. Strikingly, representation of attended objects in frontoparietal cortex was highest under conditions of high perceptual demand, when stimuli were hard to perceive and coding in early visual cortex was weak. Coding in early visual cortex varied as a function of attention and perceptual demand, while coding in higher visual areas was sensitive to the allocation of attention but robust to changes in perceptual difficulty. Consistent with high-profile reports, peripherally presented objects could also be decoded from activity at the occipital pole, a region which corresponds to the fovea. Our results emphasize the flexibility of frontoparietal and visual systems. They support the hypothesis that attention enhances the multi-voxel representation of information in the brain, and suggest that the engagement of this attentional mechanism depends critically on current task demands. PMID:25583612

  6. A review of the evidence for a disengage deficit following parietal lobe damage.

    PubMed

    Losier, B J; Klein, R M

    2001-01-01

    We review the literature on response times to ipsilesional and contralesional targets following spatial precues in patients with damage involving the left- and right-parietal lobes with the aim of appraising the 'disengage deficit' reported initially by Posner and colleagues (Posner MI, Cohen A, Rafal RD. Neural systems control of spatial orienting. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 1982;298:187-98). The data of individual subjects from a sub-sample of studies were submitted to analyses of variance, and data from all studies meeting our selection criteria were submitted to meta-analytic procedures (Hunter JE, Schmidt FL. Methods of meta-analysis: correcting error and bias in research. Newberg Park: Sagge Publications, 1990). Findings from both types of analysis conducted on data from patients with right-hemisphere lesions indicate that: (1) the disengage deficit phenomenon is robust following peripheral cues, but not following central cues; (2) the disengage deficit is large at shorter cue-target stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), and decreases as SOA increases; (3) the disengage deficit is larger in patients with a diagnosis of hemispatial neglect; and (4) although the magnitude of the disengage deficit appears to increase with increases in lesion size, multilobar vs unilobar involvement did not significantly alter the pattern of the disengage deficit. We also show that responses to validly cued targets in the contralesional hemispace were significantly slower than for validly cued targets in ipsilesional hemispace. Similar, but usually smaller, effects were observed in patients with homologous left-hemisphere damage. The implications of these results for current models of the role of the parietal lobes in attentional orienting are discussed. PMID:11166074

  7. Computer modeling of gastric parietal cell: significance of canalicular space, gland lumen, and variable canalicular [K+].

    PubMed

    Crothers, James M; Forte, John G; Machen, Terry E

    2016-05-01

    A computer model, constructed for evaluation of integrated functioning of cellular components involved in acid secretion by the gastric parietal cell, has provided new interpretations of older experimental evidence, showing the functional significance of a canalicular space separated from a mucosal bath by a gland lumen and also shedding light on basolateral Cl(-) transport. The model shows 1) changes in levels of parietal cell secretion (with stimulation or H-K-ATPase inhibitors) result mainly from changes in electrochemical driving forces for apical K(+) and Cl(-) efflux, as canalicular [K(+)] ([K(+)]can) increases or decreases with changes in apical H(+)/K(+) exchange rate; 2) H-K-ATPase inhibition in frog gastric mucosa would increase [K(+)]can similarly with low or high mucosal [K(+)], depolarizing apical membrane voltage similarly, so electrogenic H(+) pumping is not indicated by inhibition causing similar increase in transepithelial potential difference (Vt) with 4 and 80 mM mucosal K(+); 3) decreased H(+) secretion during strongly mucosal-positive voltage clamping is consistent with an electroneutral H-K-ATPase being inhibited by greatly decreased [K(+)]can (Michaelis-Menten mechanism); 4) slow initial change ("long time-constant transient") in current or Vt with clamping of Vt or current involves slow change in [K(+)]can; 5) the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) symporter (NKCC) is likely to have a significant role in Cl(-) influx, despite evidence that it is not necessary for acid secretion; and 6) relative contributions of Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger (AE2) and NKCC to Cl(-) influx would differ greatly between resting and stimulated states, possibly explaining reported differences in physiological characteristics of stimulated open-circuit Cl(-) secretion (≈H(+)) and resting short-circuit Cl(-) secretion (>H(+)). PMID:26847387

  8. Brain polarization of parietal cortex augments training-induced improvement of visual exploratory and attentional skills.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, Nadia; Fregni, Felipe; Casati, Carlotta; Olgiati, Elena; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2010-08-19

    Recent evidence suggests that behavioural gains induced by behavioural training are maximized when combined with techniques of cortical neuromodulation, such as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). Here we address the validity of this appealing approach by investigating the effect of coupling a multisensory visual field exploration training with tDCS of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). The multisensory visual field exploration training consisted in the practice of visual search through the systematic audio-visual stimulation of the visual field. Neurologically unimpaired participants performed a bimodal exploration training for 30 min, while simultaneously receiving anodal-excitatory PPC tDCS or sham tDCS. In two different experiments, the left and the right hemisphere were stimulated. Outcome measures included visual exploration speed at different time intervals during the training, and the post-training effects on tests assessing visual scanning and visuo-spatial orienting. Results show that PPC tDCS applied to the right, but not to the left, hemisphere increases the training-induced behavioural improvement of visual exploration, as compared to sham tDCS. In addition, right PPC tDCS brings about an improvement of covert visual orienting, in a task different from the visual search practice. In an additional experiment, we confirm that right parietal tDCS by itself, even without the associated training, can lead to enhancement of visual search. Overall, anodal PPC tDCS is a promising technique to enhance visuo-spatial abilities, when combined to a visual field exploration training task. PMID:20599813

  9. Relationship between gastric acid secretion and the rate of recurrent ulcer after parietal cell vagotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, F; Valleur, P; Serra, J; Brisset, D; Chiche, L; Hautefeuille, P

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the effect of gastric secretion on the rate of recurrent ulcer after parietal cell vagotomy for duodenal ulcer. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Three hundred patients who underwent parietal cell vagotomy for duodenal ulcer between 1975 and 1986 were evaluated. The mean follow-up period for 280 patients was 5 years. METHODS: The gastric secretion tests concerned basal acid output (BAO) and peak acid output stimulated by pentagastrin or insulin. Tests were preoperative for 172 patients and postoperative for 118. RESULTS: At the end of that time, the overall incidence of symptomatic recurrent ulcer was 15%. Two criteria were shown to be important predictors of recurrent ulcer: preoperative BAO > 7 mmol/hr, for which the recurrence rate 5 years after vagotomy was 30% versus 11% for values below this threshold (p = 0.01), and postoperative BAO > 1.4 mmol/hr, for which the recurrence rate at 5 years was 72% versus 8% for lower values (p = 0.0001). All patients with recurrent ulcer had either a postoperative BAO > 7 mmol/hr and/or a postoperative reduction in BAO < 80%. CONCLUSION: Preoperative BAO > 7 mmol/hr and postoperative BAO > 1.4 mmol/hr were shown to be factors predictive of RU. All patients with RU presented either with preoperative BAO > 7 mmol/hr and/or a reduction in BAO < 80%. Consequently, in our opinion, these criteria could be used either to select patients for vagotomy or to assess the effectiveness of vagotomy of different types, especially those performed by celioscopy. PMID:8452404

  10. Compensatory fronto-parietal hyperactivation during set-shifting in unmedicated patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gerrits, Niels J H M; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; Verhoef, Kim M W; Veltman, Dick J; Groenewegen, Henk J; Berendse, Henk W; van den Heuvel, Odile A

    2015-02-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often suffer from impairments in executive functions, such as mental rigidity, which can be measured as impaired set-shifting. Previous studies have shown that set-shifting deficits in patients with PD result from hypo-excitation of the caudate nucleus and lateral prefrontal cortices. The results of these studies may have been influenced by the inclusion of patients on dopaminergic medication, and by choosing set-shifting paradigms in which performance also depends on other cognitive mechanisms, such as matching-to-sample. To circumvent these potential confounding factors, we tested patients with PD that were not on dopamine replacement therapy, and we developed a new feedback-based paradigm to measure the cognitive construct set-shifting more accurately. In this case-control study, 18 patients with PD and 35 well-matched healthy controls performed the set-shifting task, while task-related neural activation was recorded using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Behaviourally, PD patients, compared with healthy controls, made more errors during repeat trials, but not set-shift trials. The patients, compared with controls, showed increased task-related activation of the bilateral inferior parietal cortex, and the right superior frontal gyrus, and decreased activation of the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex during set-shift trials. Our findings suggest that, despite decreased task-related activation of the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, these early-stage unmedicated patients with PD do not yet suffer from set-shifting deficits due to compensatory hyperactivation in the inferior parietal cortex and the superior frontal gyrus. PMID:25576907

  11. Motor and parietal cortex stimulation for phantom limb pain and sensations.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, Nadia; Olgiati, Elena; Maravita, Angelo; Ferraro, Francesco; Fregni, Felipe

    2013-08-01

    Limb amputation may lead to chronic painful sensations referred to the absent limb, ie phantom limb pain (PLP), which is likely subtended by maladaptive plasticity. The present study investigated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a noninvasive technique of brain stimulation that can modulate neuroplasticity, can reduce PLP. In 2 double-blind, sham-controlled experiments in subjects with unilateral lower or upper limb amputation, we measured the effects of a single session of tDCS (2 mA, 15 min) of the primary motor cortex (M1) and of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) on PLP, stump pain, nonpainful phantom limb sensations and telescoping. Anodal tDCS of M1 induced a selective short-lasting decrease of PLP, whereas cathodal tDCS of PPC induced a selective short-lasting decrease of nonpainful phantom sensations; stump pain and telescoping were not affected by parietal or by motor tDCS. These findings demonstrate that painful and nonpainful phantom limb sensations are dissociable phenomena. PLP is associated primarily with cortical excitability shifts in the sensorimotor network; increasing excitability in this system by anodal tDCS has an antalgic effect on PLP. Conversely, nonpainful phantom sensations are associated to a hyperexcitation of PPC that can be normalized by cathodal tDCS. This evidence highlights the relationship between the level of excitability of different cortical areas, which underpins maladaptive plasticity following limb amputation and the phenomenology of phantom limb, and it opens up new opportunities for the use of tDCS in the treatment of PLP. PMID:23707312

  12. Prefrontal, posterior parietal and sensorimotor network activity underlying speed control during walking

    PubMed Central

    Bulea, Thomas C.; Kim, Jonghyun; Damiano, Diane L.; Stanley, Christopher J.; Park, Hyung-Soon

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests cortical circuits may contribute to control of human locomotion. Here, noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) recorded from able-bodied volunteers during a novel treadmill walking paradigm was used to assess neural correlates of walking. A systematic processing method, including a recently developed subspace reconstruction algorithm, reduced movement-related EEG artifact prior to independent component analysis and dipole source localization. We quantified cortical activity while participants tracked slow and fast target speeds across two treadmill conditions: an active mode that adjusted belt speed based on user movements and a passive mode reflecting a typical treadmill. Our results reveal frequency specific, multi-focal task related changes in cortical oscillations elicited by active walking. Low γ band power, localized to the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices, was significantly increased during double support and early swing phases, critical points in the gait cycle since the active controller adjusted speed based on pelvis position and swing foot velocity. These phasic γ band synchronizations provide evidence that prefrontal and posterior parietal networks, previously implicated in visuo-spatial and somotosensory integration, are engaged to enhance lower limb control during gait. Sustained μ and β band desynchronization within sensorimotor cortex, a neural correlate for movement, was observed during walking thereby validating our methods for isolating cortical activity. Our results also demonstrate the utility of EEG recorded during locomotion for probing the multi-regional cortical networks which underpin its execution. For example, the cortical network engagement elicited by the active treadmill suggests that it may enhance neuroplasticity for more effective motor training. PMID:26029077

  13. Alpha suppression and connectivity modulations in left temporal and parietal cortices index partial awareness of words.

    PubMed

    Magazzini, Lorenzo; Ruhnau, Philipp; Weisz, Nathan

    2016-06-01

    The partial awareness hypothesis is a theoretical proposal that recently provided a reconciling solution to graded and dichotomous accounts of consciousness. It suggests that we can become conscious of distinct properties of an object independently, ranging from low-level features to complex forms of representation. We investigated this hypothesis using classic visual word masking adapted to a near-threshold paradigm. The masking intensity was adjusted to the individual perception threshold, at which individual alphabetical letters, but not words, could be perceived in approximately half of the trials. We confined perception to a pre-lexical stage of word processing that corresponded to a clear condition of partial awareness. At this level of representation, the stimulus properties began to emerge within consciousness, yet they did not escalate to full stimulus awareness. In other words, participants were able to perceive individual letters, while remaining unaware of the whole letter strings presented. Cortical activity measured with MEG was compared between physically identical trials that differed in perception (perceived, not perceived). We found that compared to no awareness, partial awareness of words was characterized by suppression of oscillatory alpha power in left temporal and parietal cortices. The analysis of functional connectivity with seeds based on the power effect in these two regions revealed sparse connections for the parietal seed, and strong connections between the temporal seed and other regions of the language network. We suggest that the engagement of language regions indexed by alpha power suppression is responsible for establishing and maintaining conscious representations of individual pre-lexical units. PMID:27001501

  14. Normalization of sonographical multifocal nerve enlargements in a MADSAM patient following a good clinical response to intravenous immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kanta; Ota, Natsuko; Harada, Yuzuru; Wada, Ikko; Suenaga, Toshihiko

    2016-09-01

    Focal nerve enlargements at sites of conduction blocks can be visualized sonographically in patients with multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy (MADSAM). However, little is known about association between nerve morphological changes and treatment responses. Here we present a 73-year-old female MADSAM patient whose sonographical multifocal nerve enlargements normalized following a good treatment response. She was admitted to our department with progressive asymmetrical muscle weakness and sensory disturbances for 6 months. Ultrasonography revealed multifocal nerve enlargements at sites of electrophysiological demyelination. Intravenous immunoglobulin improved her symptoms and electrophysiological abnormalities. Six months later, ultrasonography revealed normalization of multifocal nerve enlargements. Contrary to our observations, one previous report described a MADSAM patient with persistent nerve enlargements at the sites of resolved conduction blocks. In this earlier patient, however, the time from onset to remission was approximately 30 months. Morphological changes of nerve enlargements in MADSAM may vary with treatment response. PMID:27460345

  15. 9. Photographic copy enlargement from a 4x5 copy negative. (Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photographic copy enlargement from a 4x5 copy negative. (Original drawing located on abandoned NASA site, currently owned by the City of Downey, Downey, California). 1976 BLDGS.25, 41 SITE PLAN. - NASA Industrial Plant, Storage Facility, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 22. Photographic copy enlargement from a 4x5 copy negative of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photographic copy enlargement from a 4x5 copy negative of a print. (Original print located on abandoned NASA site, currently owned by the City of Downey, Downey, California). 1954 USAF PLANT 16 AERIAL BUILDING 41 NORTH TO SOUTH. - NASA Industrial Plant, Missile Research Laboratory, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 23. Photographic copy enlargement from a 4x5 copy negative of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photographic copy enlargement from a 4x5 copy negative of a drawing (Original drawing located on abandoned NASA site, currently owned by the City of Downey, Downey, Calfornia). JANUARY 1960 USAF PLANT 16 MASTER PLOT AND GRID PLAN. - NASA Industrial Plant, Missile Research Laboratory, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. Enlargement of the third ventricle and hyponatraemia in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Wijdicks, E F; Vandongen, K J; Vangijn, J; Hijdra, A; Vermeulen, M

    1988-01-01

    Hyponatraemia following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage is associated with an increased risk of cerebral infarction. Whether the development of hyponatraemia was related to enlargement of the third ventricle on the admission CT scan was investigated in a consecutive series of 133 patients who were seen within 72 hours of aneurysmal haemorrhage. Hyponatraemia occurred significantly more often in patients with enlargement of the third ventricle (with or without dilatation of the lateral ventricles) than in patients with a normal ventricular system (20/41 versus 24/92, p = 0.016). After ventricular drainage, the sodium levels returned to normal in two patients in whom the size of the third ventricle decreased and not in four patients with persistent enlargement of the third ventricle. The significant relationship between enlargement of the third ventricle and hyponatraemia remained after adjustment for the amount of cisternal blood, but not after adjustment for the amount of intraventricular blood. These results suggest that the size of the third ventricle is an important but not the only factor in the relationship between acute hydrocephalus and hyponatraemia in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Images PMID:3379424

  19. Precise control of critical dimension shrinkage and enlargement by in-situ polysilicon etch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linliu, Kung; Kuo, Mai-Rue

    2000-07-01

    The control of critical dimension shrinkage and enlargement of polysilicon line or space obtained precisely using in- situ process with different ratio of gas combination is investigate din this paper. A polysilicon line could be etched down to 0.054 micrometers from 0.22 micrometers of the original critical dimension (CD). The CD shrinking rate of polysilicon line is 2.48 nm per second per side. On the other hand, the space can also be trimmed down to 0.03 micrometers from the original CD of 0.3 micrometers . The CD enlarging rate of polysilicon rate is 0.421 nm per second per side using the present polymer deposition method. The factors that cause shrinkage and enlargement of CD are the etching of photoresist and the deposition of polymer on the surface of photoresist, respectively. The oxygen-rich gas is used for the shrinkage of CD and the fluorocarbon-rich gas is used for the enlargement of CD. Therefore, a critical dimension could not afforded by the present existed optical photolithography tool or method might probably be solved by alternative innovation such as the plasma dry etching technology.

  20. 19. (4"X5" image enlarged from 2 1/4" negative) Sam Fowler, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. (4"X5" image enlarged from 2 1/4" negative) Sam Fowler, Photographer, February 1998 VIEW OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 051-00025D-01986N (JAMES P. HOULIHAN BRIDGE). NAVIGATIONAL LIGHT LOCATED ON TOP OF FENDER - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 051-00025D-01986N, US 17 & State Route 25 Spanning Savannah River, Port Wentworth, Chatham County, GA

  1. Anterograde labeling of ventrolateral funiculus pathways with spinal enlargement connections in the adult rat spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Reed, William R.; Shum-Siu, Alice; Whelan, Ashley; Onifer, Stephen M.; Magnuson, David S.K.

    2009-01-01

    The ventrolateral funiculus in the spinal cord has been identified as containing important ascending and descending pathways related to locomotion and interlimb coordination. The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate the patterns of axon termination of long ascending and descending ventrolateral pathways within the cervical and lumbar enlargements of the adult rat spinal cord. To accomplish this, we made discrete unilateral injections of the tracer biotinylated dextran-amine (BDA) into the ventrolateral white matter at T9. Although some BDA-labeled axons with varicosities were found bilaterally at all cervical levels, particularly dense BDA-labeling was observed in laminae VIII and IX ipsilaterally at the C6 and C8 levels. In the same animals, dense terminal labeling was found in the lumbar enlargement in medial lamina VII and ventromedial laminae VIII and IX contralaterally. This labeling was most apparent in the more rostral lumbar segments. These observations continue the characterization of inter-enlargement (long propriospinal) pathways, illustrating a substantial and largely reciprocal inter-enlargement network with large numbers of both ascending and descending ventrolateral commissural neurons. These pathways are anatomically well-suited to the task of interlimb coordination and to participate in the remarkable recovery of locomotor function seen in the rat following thoracic spinal cord injuries that spare as little as 20% of the total white matter cross sectional area. PMID:19766612

  2. Technobabble: Why You Can't Just Enlarge a Digital Photograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bradley

    2000-01-01

    Offers information for student photojournalists describing how to work with photographs, scanners, software, and digital information to reduce and enlarge photographs for page layouts to achieve clear, precise images. Notes definitions and formulas. Includes two exercises to teach and practice these principles. (SR)

  3. 14. (4"X5" image enlarged from 2 1/4" negative) Sam Fowler, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. (4"X5" image enlarged from 2 1/4" negative) Sam Fowler, Photographer, February 1998 VIEW OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 051-00025D-01986N (JAMES P. HOULIHAN BRIDGE) TURN-SPAN AND LOCKING MECHANISM - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 051-00025D-01986N, US 17 & State Route 25 Spanning Savannah River, Port Wentworth, Chatham County, GA

  4. 17. (4"X5" image enlarged from 2 1/4" negative) Sam Fowler, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. (4"X5" image enlarged from 2 1/4" negative) Sam Fowler, Photographer, February 1998 VIEW OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 051-00025D-01986N (JAMES P. HOULIHAN BRIDGE) APPROACH SPAN FENDER - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 051-00025D-01986N, US 17 & State Route 25 Spanning Savannah River, Port Wentworth, Chatham County, GA

  5. 12. (4'X5' image enlarged from 2 1/4' negative) Sam Fowler, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. (4'X5' image enlarged from 2 1/4' negative) Sam Fowler, Photographer, February 1998 VIEW OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 051-00025D-01986N (JAMES P. HOULIHAN BRIDGE) SOUTH SIDE ELEVATION. - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 051-00025D-01986N, US 17 & State Route 25 Spanning Savannah River, Port Wentworth, Chatham County, GA

  6. 15. (4"X5" image enlarged from 2 1/4" negative) Sam Fowler, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. (4"X5" image enlarged from 2 1/4" negative) Sam Fowler, Photographer, February 1998 VIEW OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 051-00025D-01986N (JAMES P. HOULIHAN BRIDGE) PIVOT PIER - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 051-00025D-01986N, US 17 & State Route 25 Spanning Savannah River, Port Wentworth, Chatham County, GA

  7. 16. (4'X5' image enlarged from 2 1/4' negative) Sam Fowler, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. (4'X5' image enlarged from 2 1/4' negative) Sam Fowler, Photographer, February 1998 VIEW OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 051-00025D-01986N (JAMES P. HOULIHAN BRIDGE). DETAIL OF TURN-SPAN MECHANISM. - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 051-00025D-01986N, US 17 & State Route 25 Spanning Savannah River, Port Wentworth, Chatham County, GA

  8. 13. (4'X5' image enlarged from 2 1/4' negative) Sam Fowler, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. (4'X5' image enlarged from 2 1/4' negative) Sam Fowler, Photographer, February 1998 VIEW OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 051-00025D-01986N (JAMES P. HOULIHAN BRIDGE) NORTH SIDE ELEVATION. - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 051-00025D-01986N, US 17 & State Route 25 Spanning Savannah River, Port Wentworth, Chatham County, GA

  9. 47 CFR 1.229 - Motions to enlarge, change, or delete issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in the Federal Register. (See § 1.223 of this part). (2) In comparative broadcast proceedings... motion to modify the issues after the expiration of periods specified in paragraphs (a), (b)(1), and (b... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motions to enlarge, change, or delete issues....

  10. CAFETERIA, TRA616. MODIFICATIONS ENLARGED SEATING AND WORK AREAS IN 1957. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CAFETERIA, TRA-616. MODIFICATIONS ENLARGED SEATING AND WORK AREAS IN 1957. FLOOR PLAN. WALL BETWEEN CAFETERIA AND WAREHOUSE SECTIONS. C.A. SUNDBERG AND ASSOCIATES 884-MTR-616-A-2, 12/1956. INL INDEX NO. 531-0616-00-822-101880, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Reduced tabletability of roller compacted granules as a result of granule size enlargement.

    PubMed

    Sun, Changquan Calvin; Himmelspach, Micah W

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism for the frequently observed "loss of reworkability or tabletability" of dry-granulated (DG) powders was investigated in detail using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). It was hypothesized that granule size enlargement is the primary mechanism to the phenomenon. Detrimental effects of size enlargement on tabletability of plastic materials are predictable based on the physical model of interparticulate bonding within a tablet. In absence of extensive fracture of particles/granules, larger particles/granules exhibit lower surface area available for bonding thus lower tensile strength when compressed under identical conditions. Size effects were first demonstrated using different grades of MCC powders, both whole and sieved, of different particle size distributions. Regardless grade and sieve fraction, larger particles always resulted in lower tabletability, that is, lower tensile strength at the same compaction pressure. It was subsequently shown that enlargement of granules also reduced powder tabletability regardless grade of MCC. Tabletability of sieved granules after roller compacted for one, two, and four times decreased monotonically with increasing granule size but independent of the total number of roller compaction. Moreover, tabletability of fine granules (44-106 microm) was higher than that of coarse MCC powder (Avicel PH-200). These results suggest that the primary mechanism for reduced tabletabilty of DG granules of MCC is granule size enlargement rather than "work-hardening." PMID:16315244

  12. 47 CFR 1.229 - Motions to enlarge, change, or delete issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... supported by affidavits of a person or persons having personal knowledge thereof. The failure to file an... procedures the moving party wishes to employ in the event the requested issue is added to the proceeding. (1) In the event the motion to enlarge issues is granted, the Commission or delegated authority acting...

  13. 16. Photocopy of drawing enlarged from a 4x5 negative (from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy of drawing enlarged from a 4x5 negative (from Cultural Resources plan files, Gateway National Recreation Area, New Jersey) U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Designers, 1909 PLAN OF DRAINAGE AND ELECTRICAL SYSTEM OF BATTERY - Fort Hancock, Battery George Arrowsmith, Southwest edge of Sandy Point extending to Horseshoe Cove, Fort Hancock, Monmouth County, NJ

  14. 4. Photocopy of photograph (enlargement of NJ1623). View looking northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph (enlargement of NJ-162-3). View looking northeast, showing vessel 53 (Minerva, formerly Jane Moselery) in foreground with side wheels and vessel 54 (package freighter) beside it. Circa 1940, from The Staten Island Advance, photographer not stated. (Original in Staten Island Historic Society, Staten Island, New York) - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  15. Diaphragmatic hernia and right-sided heart enlargement in a Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Trevor J; de Wit, Martine; Landolfi, Jennifer A

    2012-10-01

    Postmortem evaluation of a Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) revealed cold stress lesions and previous watercraft trauma that included broken ribs, a diaphragmatic hernia, an enlarged vena cava, and right-sided cardiomegaly. We discuss these findings and present a possible pathogenesis for the cardiomegaly. PMID:23060518

  16. INDIUM AND ZINC MEDIATED ONE-ATOM CARBOCYCLE ENLARGEMENT IN WATER. (R822668)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Six-, seven-, eight-membered rings are enlarged by one carbon-atom into seven-, eight- and nine-membered ring derivatives respectively, via indium or zinc mediated reactions in aqueous medium.

  17. Multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphism in amlodipine-induced gingival enlargement.

    PubMed

    Naik, Kumaraswamy Naik Lambani Rama; Jhajharia, Kapil; Chaudhary, Roopam; Tatikonda, Aravind; Dhaliwal, Aprinderpal Singh; Kaur, Rose Kanwaljeet

    2015-01-01

    Gingival enlargement comprises any clinical condition in which an increase in the size of the gingiva is observed. It is a side effect associated with some distinct classes of drugs, such as anticonvulsants, immunosuppressant, and calcium channel blockers. Among calcium channel blockers, nifedipine causes gingival enlargement in about 10% of patients, whereas the incidence of amlodipine, a third-generation calcium channel blocker, induced gingival enlargement is very limited. Because the calcium antagonists, albeit to a variable degree, act as inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the gene product of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1), and inflammation may modify P-gp expression. We hereby, report a case of amlodipine-induced gingival enlargement with MDR1 3435C/T polymorphism, associated with inflammatory changes due to plaque accumulation, in a 50-year-old hypertensive male patient. The genotype obtained for the polymorphism was a heteromutant genotype, thus supporting the contention that the MDR1 polymorphism may alter the inflammatory response to the drug. PMID:26015682

  18. Calcium localization and tipburn development in lettuce leaves during early enlargement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, D. J.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    2000-01-01

    Tissue concentrations of Ca, Mg, and K were determined across immature leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. 'Buttercrunch') at different stages of enlargement using electron microprobe x-ray analysis. The analysis was with a wavelength dispersive spectrometer to permit detection of low concentrations of Ca. Patterns of mineral accumulation in immature leaves that were exposed were compared to patterns of accumulation in leaves that were enclosed within a developing head. The leaves developing without enclosure were free to transpire and developed normally whereas leaves developing with enclosure were restricted in transpiration and developed an injury that was characteristic of Ca deficiency. In the exposed leaves, Ca concentrations increased from an average of 1.0 to 2.1 mg g-1 dry weight (DW) as the leaves enlarged from 5 to 30 mm in length. In the enclosed leaves, Ca concentrations decreased from 1.0 to 0.7 mg g-1 DW as the leaves enlarged from 5 to 30 mm in length. At the tips of these enclosed leaves a larger decrease was found, from 0.9 to 0.3 mg g-1 DW during enlargement. Necrotic injury first became apparent in this tip area when the concentration was approximate to 0.4 mg g-1 DW. Magnesium concentrations across the exposed leaves were similar to concentrations across the enclosed leaves, and did not change with enlargement. Magnesium concentrations averaged 3.5. mg g-1 DW in both enclosed and exposed leaves during enlargement from 5 to 30 mm. In both exposed and enclosed leaves, K concentrations increased during enlargement from 40 to approximate to 60 mg g-1 DW. Potassium concentrations were highest toward the leaf apex and upper margin where injury symptoms occurred, and this may have enhanced injury development. This research documents the critical low levels of Ca (0.2 to 0.4 mg g-1 DW) that can occur in enclosed leaves of plants and which apparently leads to the marginal apex necrosis of developing leaves seen frequently on lettuce and other crops.

  19. At the Intersection of Attention and Memory: The Mechanistic Role of the Posterior Parietal Lobe in Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryhill, Marian E.; Chein, Jason; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2011-01-01

    Portions of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) play a role in working memory (WM) yet the precise mechanistic function of this region remains poorly understood. The "pure storage" hypothesis proposes that this region functions as a short-lived modality-specific memory store. Alternatively, the "internal attention" hypothesis proposes that the PPC…

  20. Cortical connections of parietal field PEc in the macaque: linking vision and somatic sensation for the control of limb action.

    PubMed

    Bakola, Sophia; Gamberini, Michela; Passarelli, Lauretta; Fattori, Patrizia; Galletti, Claudio

    2010-11-01

    The cortical projections to the caudal part of the superior parietal lobule (area PEc) were studied in 6 cynomolgus monkeys using fluorescence tracers. Significant numbers of labeled cells were found in a restricted network of parietal, mesial, and frontal areas. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that approximately 30% of the total projection neurons originated in the adjacent areas of the dorsocaudal part of the superior parietal lobule (areas PE and V6A). The medial bank of the intraparietal sulcus, inferior parietal lobule, and frontal lobe (mainly the dorsocaudal part of premotor area F2) each contributed approximately 15% of the projection neurons. About 15% of the labeled neurons were located in the posterior cingulate area (PEci) and another 10% in other areas of the mesial surface of the hemisphere. Based on these data, we suggest that PEc processes information about the position of the limbs. The specific anatomical links between PEc and motor and premotor areas that host a representation of the lower limbs, together with the link with vestibular cortex and with areas involved in the analysis of optic flow and spatial navigation, imply a role for PEc in locomotion and coordinated limb movement in the environment. PMID:20176687

  1. Task deactivation reductions and atrophy within parietal default mode regions are overlapping but only weakly correlated in mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Threlkeld, Zachary D.; Jicha, Greg A.; Smith, Charles D.; Gold, Brian T.

    2012-01-01

    Reduced task deactivation within regions of the default mode network (DMN) has been frequently reported in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). As task deactivations reductions become increasingly used in the study of early AD states, it is important to understand their relationship to atrophy. To address this issue, the present study compared task deactivation reductions during a lexical decision task and atrophy in aMCI, using a series of parallel voxel-wise and region-wise analyses of fMRI and structural data. Our results identified multiple regions within parietal cortex as convergence areas of task deactivation and atrophy in aMCI. Relationships between parietal regions showing overlapping task deactivation reductions and atrophy in aMCI were then explored. Regression analyses demonstrated minimal correlation between task deactivation reductions and either local or global atrophy in aMCI. In addition, a logistic regression model which combined task deactivation reductions and atrophy in parietal DMN regions showed higher classificatory accuracy of aMCI than separate task deactivation or atrophy models. Results suggest that task deactivation reductions and atrophy in parietal regions provide complementary rather than redundant information in aMCI. Future longitudinal studies will be required to assess the utility of combining task deactivation reductions and atrophy in the detection of early AD. PMID:21860094

  2. Why I tense up when you watch me: Inferior parietal cortex mediates an audience’s influence on motor performance

    PubMed Central

    Yoshie, Michiko; Nagai, Yoko; Critchley, Hugo D.; Harrison, Neil A.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of an evaluative audience can alter skilled motor performance through changes in force output. To investigate how this is mediated within the brain, we emulated real-time social monitoring of participants’ performance of a fine grip task during functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging. We observed an increase in force output during social evaluation that was accompanied by focal reductions in activity within bilateral inferior parietal cortex. Moreover, deactivation of the left inferior parietal cortex predicted both inter- and intra-individual differences in socially-induced change in grip force. Social evaluation also enhanced activation within the posterior superior temporal sulcus, which conveys visual information about others’ actions to the inferior parietal cortex. Interestingly, functional connectivity between these two regions was attenuated by social evaluation. Our data suggest that social evaluation can vary force output through the altered engagement of inferior parietal cortex; a region implicated in sensorimotor integration necessary for object manipulation, and a component of the action-observation network which integrates and facilitates performance of observed actions. Social-evaluative situations may induce high-level representational incoherence between one’s own intentioned action and the perceived intention of others which, by uncoupling the dynamics of sensorimotor facilitation, could ultimately perturbe motor output. PMID:26787326

  3. Motor imagery of hand actions: Decoding the content of motor imagery from brain activity in frontal and parietal motor areas

    PubMed Central

    Pilgramm, Sebastian; de Haas, Benjamin; Helm, Fabian; Zentgraf, Karen; Stark, Rudolf; Munzert, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    Abstract How motor maps are organized while imagining actions is an intensely debated issue. It is particularly unclear whether motor imagery relies on action‐specific representations in premotor and posterior parietal cortices. This study tackled this issue by attempting to decode the content of motor imagery from spatial patterns of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) signals recorded in the frontoparietal motor imagery network. During fMRI‐scanning, 20 right‐handed volunteers worked on three experimental conditions and one baseline condition. In the experimental conditions, they had to imagine three different types of right‐hand actions: an aiming movement, an extension–flexion movement, and a squeezing movement. The identity of imagined actions was decoded from the spatial patterns of BOLD signals they evoked in premotor and posterior parietal cortices using multivoxel pattern analysis. Results showed that the content of motor imagery (i.e., the action type) could be decoded significantly above chance level from the spatial patterns of BOLD signals in both frontal (PMC, M1) and parietal areas (SPL, IPL, IPS). An exploratory searchlight analysis revealed significant clusters motor‐ and motor‐associated cortices, as well as in visual cortices. Hence, the data provide evidence that patterns of activity within premotor and posterior parietal cortex vary systematically with the specific type of hand action being imagined. Hum Brain Mapp 37:81–93, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26452176

  4. Right Fronto-Parietal Dysfunction in Children with ADHD and Developmental Dyslexia as Determined by Line Bisection Judgements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldie, Karen E.; Hausmann, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Visual line bisection is a reliable and valid laterality task that is typically used with patients with acquired brain damage to assess right hemisphere functioning. Neurologically normal individuals tend to bisect lines to the left of the objective midline whereas those with right parietal damage bisect lines to the right. In this study children…

  5. Driven to less distraction: rTMS of the right parietal cortex reduces attentional capture in visual search.

    PubMed

    Hodsoll, John; Mevorach, Carmel; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2009-01-01

    In visual search, the presence of a highly salient color singleton can slow or facilitate search for a shape target depending on whether the singleton is a distractor or coincides with the target. This is consistent with an attentional shift (attentional capture) to the salient item. This attentional capture can be driven by bottom-up or top-down processes or both. We investigated the role of the parietal cortex in attentional capture by a singleton using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Following disruption to the right posterior parietal cortex by sustained transcranial magnetic stimulation, the reaction time (RT) cost of the singleton distractor was reduced. At least part of this lessening of singleton distraction was due to the elimination of priming (top-down) effects between target and distractor singletons on consecutive trials. In Experiment 2, we presented the different conditions in separate blocks meaning any effects of the distractor can most likely be attributed to bottom-up processes. Nevertheless, there was still a decrease in RT interference from the distractor so that a reduction in priming cannot provide a full account of the results. The data are consistent with previous work positing that the right parietal cortex directs attention to salient stimuli (e.g., Constantinidis 2005, Mevorach et al. 2006), while also suggesting a role for the right parietal cortex in the integration of bottom-up salience information with memories for salient features on prior trials. PMID:18515299

  6. Motor imagery of hand actions: Decoding the content of motor imagery from brain activity in frontal and parietal motor areas.

    PubMed

    Pilgramm, Sebastian; de Haas, Benjamin; Helm, Fabian; Zentgraf, Karen; Stark, Rudolf; Munzert, Jörn; Krüger, Britta

    2016-01-01

    How motor maps are organized while imagining actions is an intensely debated issue. It is particularly unclear whether motor imagery relies on action-specific representations in premotor and posterior parietal cortices. This study tackled this issue by attempting to decode the content of motor imagery from spatial patterns of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) signals recorded in the frontoparietal motor imagery network. During fMRI-scanning, 20 right-handed volunteers worked on three experimental conditions and one baseline condition. In the experimental conditions, they had to imagine three different types of right-hand actions: an aiming movement, an extension-flexion movement, and a squeezing movement. The identity of imagined actions was decoded from the spatial patterns of BOLD signals they evoked in premotor and posterior parietal cortices using multivoxel pattern analysis. Results showed that the content of motor imagery (i.e., the action type) could be decoded significantly above chance level from the spatial patterns of BOLD signals in both frontal (PMC, M1) and parietal areas (SPL, IPL, IPS). An exploratory searchlight analysis revealed significant clusters motor- and motor-associated cortices, as well as in visual cortices. Hence, the data provide evidence that patterns of activity within premotor and posterior parietal cortex vary systematically with the specific type of hand action being imagined. PMID:26452176

  7. Magnetoencephalography Study of Right Parietal Lobe Dysfunction of the Evoked Mirror Neuron System in Antipsychotic-Free Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Yutaka; Muramatsu, Taro; Kato, Motoichiro; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki; Shintani, Masuro; Mimura, Masaru

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Patients with schizophrenia commonly exhibit deficits of non-verbal communication in social contexts, which may be related to cognitive dysfunction that impairs recognition of biological motion. Although perception of biological motion is known to be mediated by the mirror neuron system, there have been few empirical studies of this system in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Using magnetoencephalography, we examined whether antipsychotic-free schizophrenia patients displayed mirror neuron system dysfunction during observation of biological motion (jaw movement of another individual). Results Compared with normal controls, the patients with schizophrenia had fewer components of both the waveform and equivalent current dipole, suggesting aberrant brain activity resulting from dysfunction of the right inferior parietal cortex. They also lacked the changes of alpha band and gamma band oscillation seen in normal controls, and had weaker phase-locking factors and gamma-synchronization predominantly in right parietal cortex. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that untreated patients with schizophrenia exhibit aberrant mirror neuron system function based on the right inferior parietal cortex, which is characterized by dysfunction of gamma-synchronization in the right parietal lobe during observation of biological motion. PMID:22132217

  8. Genetic Ablation of Parietal Cells in Transgenic Mice: A New Model for Analyzing Cell Lineage Relationships in the Gastric Mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfield, Victor; West, A. Brian; Goldenring, James R.; Levenson, Robert

    1996-03-01

    The gastric mucosa of mammalian stomach contains several differentiated cell types specialized for the secretion of acid, digestive enzymes, mucus, and hormones. Understanding whether each of these cell lineages is derived from a common stem cell has been a challenging problem. We have used a genetic approach to analyze the ontogeny of progenitor cells within mouse stomach. Herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase was targeted to parietal cells within the gastric mucosa of transgenic mice, and parietal cells were ablated by treatment of animals with the antiherpetic drug ganciclovir. Ganciclovir treatment produced complete ablation of parietal cells, dissolution of gastric glands, and loss of chief and mucus-producing cells. Termination of drug treatment led to the reemergence of all major gastric epithelial cell types and restoration of glandular architecture. Our results imply the existence of a pluripotent stem cell for the gastric mucosa. Parietal cell ablation should provide a model for analyzing cell lineage relationships within the stomach as well as mechanisms underlying gastric injury and repair.

  9. Modulation of a Fronto-Parietal Network in Event-Based Prospective Memory: An rTMS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisiacchi, P. S.; Cona, G.; Schiff, S.; Basso, D.

    2011-01-01

    Event-based prospective memory (PM) is a multi-component process that requires remembering the delayed execution of an intended action in response to a pre-specified PM cue, while being actively engaged in an ongoing task. Some neuroimaging studies have suggested that both prefrontal and parietal areas are involved in the maintenance and…

  10. The role of fronto-parietal and fronto-striatal networks in the development of working memory: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Darki, Fahimeh; Klingberg, Torkel

    2015-06-01

    The increase in working memory (WM) capacity is an important part of cognitive development during childhood and adolescence. Cross-sectional analyses have associated this development with higher activity, thinner cortex, and white matter maturation in fronto-parietal networks. However, there is still a lack of longitudinal data showing the dynamics of this development and the role of subcortical structures. We included 89 individuals, aged 6-25 years, who were scanned 1-3 times at 2-year intervals. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to identify activated areas in superior frontal, intraparietal cortices, and caudate nucleus during performance on a visuo-spatial WM task. Probabilistic tractography determined the anatomical pathways between these regions. In the cross-sectional analysis, WM capacity correlated with activity in frontal and parietal regions, cortical thickness in parietal cortex, and white matter structure [both fractional anisotropy (FA) and white matter volume] of fronto-parietal and fronto-striatal tracts. However, in the longitudinal analysis, FA in white matter tracts and activity in caudate predicted future WM capacity. The results show a dynamic of neural networks underlying WM development in which cortical activity and structure relate to current capacity, while white matter tracts and caudate activity predict future WM capacity. PMID:24414278

  11. Temporal and Motor Representation of Rhythm in Fronto-Parietal Cortical Areas: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Konoike, Naho; Kotozaki, Yuka; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Miyazaki, Atsuko; Sakaki, Kohei; Shinada, Takamitsu; Sugiura, Motoaki; Kawashima, Ryuta; Nakamura, Katsuki

    2015-01-01

    When sounds occur with temporally structured patterns, we can feel a rhythm. To memorize a rhythm, perception of its temporal patterns and organization of them into a hierarchically structured sequence are necessary. On the other hand, rhythm perception can often cause unintentional body movements. Thus, we hypothesized that rhythm information can be manifested in two different ways; temporal and motor representations. The motor representation depends on effectors, such as the finger or foot, whereas the temporal representation is effector-independent. We tested our hypothesis with a working memory paradigm to elucidate neuronal correlates of temporal or motor representation of rhythm and to reveal the neural networks associated with these representations. We measured brain activity by fMRI while participants memorized rhythms and reproduced them by tapping with the right finger, left finger, or foot, or by articulation. The right inferior frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobule exhibited significant effector-independent activations during encoding and retrieval of rhythm information, whereas the left inferior parietal lobule and supplementary motor area (SMA) showed effector-dependent activations during retrieval. These results suggest that temporal sequences of rhythm are probably represented in the right fronto-parietal network, whereas motor sequences of rhythm can be represented in the SMA-parietal network. PMID:26076024

  12. Enlarged prostate

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you should still take it. SURGERY Prostate surgery may be recommended if you have: Incontinence Recurrent ... of your prostate gland. Most men who have prostate surgery have improvement in urine flow rates and symptoms. ...

  13. NATO Enlargement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volker, Karen

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the history of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and describes the debate over expanding its membership. Includes a discussion of the process for adding NATO members and a copy of the treaty. Suggests several exercises to help students better understand the NATO-expansion debate. (DSK)

  14. Enlarged Tonsils

    Cancer.gov

    A cohort of about 3,000 individuals who were irradiated during childhood for benign head and neck conditions at Michael Reese Hospital was assembled and monitored for the risk of thyroid and other cancers.

  15. Improving the Effect and Efficiency of FMD Control by Enlarging Protection or Surveillance Zones

    PubMed Central

    Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils; Boklund, Anette

    2015-01-01

    An epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in a FMD-free country with large exports of livestock and livestock products would result in profound economic damage. This could be reduced by rapid and efficient control of the disease spread. The objectives of this study were to estimate the economic impact of a hypothetical FMD outbreak in Denmark based on changes to the economic assumptions of the model, and to investigate whether the control of an FMD epidemic can be improved by combining the enlargement of protection or surveillance zones with pre-emptive depopulation or emergency vaccination. The stochastic spatial simulation model DTU-DADS was used to simulate the spread of FMD in Denmark. The control strategies were the basic EU and Danish strategy, pre-emptive depopulation, suppressive or protective vaccination, enlarging protection or surveillance zones, and a combination of pre-emptive depopulation or emergency vaccination with enlarged protection or surveillance zones. Herds are detected either based on basic detection through the appearance of clinical signs, or as a result of surveillance in the control zones. The economic analyses consisted of direct costs and export losses. Sensitivity analysis was performed on uncertain and potentially influential input parameters. Enlarging the surveillance zones from 10 to 15 km, combined with pre-emptive depopulation over a 1-km radius around detected herds resulted in the lowest total costs. This was still the case even when the different input parameters were changed in the sensitivity analysis. Changing the resources for clinical surveillance did not affect the epidemic consequences. In conclusion, an FMD epidemic in Denmark would have a larger economic impact on the agricultural sector than previously anticipated. Furthermore, the control of a potential FMD outbreak in Denmark may be improved by combining pre-emptive depopulation with an enlarged protection or surveillance zone. PMID:26664996

  16. The impact of top-down spatial attention on laterality and hemispheric asymmetry in the human parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Su Keun; Xu, Yaoda

    2016-08-01

    The human parietal cortex exhibits a preference to contralaterally presented visual stimuli (i.e., laterality) as well as an asymmetry between the two hemispheres with the left parietal cortex showing greater laterality than the right. Using visual short-term memory and perceptual tasks and varying target location predictability, this study examined whether hemispheric laterality and asymmetry are fixed characteristics of the human parietal cortex or whether they are dynamic and modulated by the deployment of top-down attention to the target present hemifield. Two parietal regions were examined here that have previously been shown to be involved in visual object individuation and identification and are located in the inferior and superior intraparietal sulcus (IPS), respectively. Across three experiments, significant laterality was found in both parietal regions regardless of attentional modulation with laterality being greater in the inferior than superior IPS, consistent with their roles in object individuation and identification, respectively. Although the deployment of top-down attention had no effect on the superior IPS, it significantly increased laterality in the inferior IPS. The deployment of top-down spatial attention can thus amplify the strength of laterality in the inferior IPS. Hemispheric asymmetry, on the other hand, was absent in both brain regions and only emerged in the inferior but not the superior IPS with the deployment of top-down attention. Interestingly, the strength of hemispheric asymmetry significantly correlated with the strength of laterality in the inferior IPS. Hemispheric asymmetry thus seems to only emerge when there is a sufficient amount of laterality present in a brain region. PMID:27494544

  17. Transient shifts in frontal and parietal circuits scale with enhanced visual feedback and changes in force variability and error

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Cynthia; Coombes, Stephen A.; Corcos, Daniel M.; Christou, Evangelos A.

    2013-01-01

    When subjects perform a learned motor task with increased visual gain, error and variability are reduced. Neuroimaging studies have identified a corresponding increase in activity in parietal cortex, premotor cortex, primary motor cortex, and extrastriate visual cortex. Much less is understood about the neural processes that underlie the immediate transition from low to high visual gain within a trial. This study used 128-channel electroencephalography to measure cortical activity during a visually guided precision grip task, in which the gain of the visual display was changed during the task. Force variability during the transition from low to high visual gain was characterized by an inverted U-shape, whereas force error decreased from low to high gain. Source analysis identified cortical activity in the same structures previously identified using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Source analysis also identified a time-varying shift in the strongest source activity. Superior regions of the motor and parietal cortex had stronger source activity from 300 to 600 ms after the transition, whereas inferior regions of the extrastriate visual cortex had stronger source activity from 500 to 700 ms after the transition. Force variability and electrical activity were linearly related, with a positive relation in the parietal cortex and a negative relation in the frontal cortex. Force error was nonlinearly related to electrical activity in the parietal cortex and frontal cortex by a quadratic function. This is the first evidence that force variability and force error are systematically related to a time-varying shift in cortical activity in frontal and parietal cortex in response to enhanced visual gain. PMID:23365186

  18. The Role of Right Inferior Parietal Cortex in Auditory Spatial Attention: A Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study.

    PubMed

    Karhson, Debra S; Mock, Jeffrey R; Golob, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral studies support the concept of an auditory spatial attention gradient by demonstrating that attentional benefits progressively diminish as distance increases from an attended location. Damage to the right inferior parietal cortex can induce a rightward attention bias, which implicates this region in the construction of attention gradients. This study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to define attention-related gradients before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the right inferior parietal cortex. Subjects (n = 16) listened to noise bursts at five azimuth locations (left to right: -90°, -45°, 0° midline, +45°, +90°) and responded to stimuli at one target location (-90°, +90°, separate blocks). ERPs as a function of non-target location were examined before (baseline) and after 0.9 Hz rTMS. Results showed that ERP attention gradients were observed in three time windows (frontal 230-340, parietal 400-460, frontal 550-750 ms). Significant transient rTMS effects were seen in the first and third windows. The first window had a voltage decrease at the farthest location when attending to either the left or right side. The third window had on overall increase in positivity, but only when attending to the left side. These findings suggest that rTMS induced a small contraction in spatial attention gradients within the first time window. The asymmetric effect of attended location on gradients in the third time window may relate to neglect of the left hemispace after right parietal injury. Together, these results highlight the role of the right inferior parietal cortex in modulating frontal lobe attention network activity. PMID:26636333

  19. The impact of top-down spatial attention on laterality and hemispheric asymmetry in the human parietal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Su Keun; Xu, Yaoda

    2016-01-01

    The human parietal cortex exhibits a preference to contralaterally presented visual stimuli (i.e., laterality) as well as an asymmetry between the two hemispheres with the left parietal cortex showing greater laterality than the right. Using visual short-term memory and perceptual tasks and varying target location predictability, this study examined whether hemispheric laterality and asymmetry are fixed characteristics of the human parietal cortex or whether they are dynamic and modulated by the deployment of top-down attention to the target present hemifield. Two parietal regions were examined here that have previously been shown to be involved in visual object individuation and identification and are located in the inferior and superior intraparietal sulcus (IPS), respectively. Across three experiments, significant laterality was found in both parietal regions regardless of attentional modulation with laterality being greater in the inferior than superior IPS, consistent with their roles in object individuation and identification, respectively. Although the deployment of top-down attention had no effect on the superior IPS, it significantly increased laterality in the inferior IPS. The deployment of top-down spatial attention can thus amplify the strength of laterality in the inferior IPS. Hemispheric asymmetry, on the other hand, was absent in both brain regions and only emerged in the inferior but not the superior IPS with the deployment of top-down attention. Interestingly, the strength of hemispheric asymmetry significantly correlated with the strength of laterality in the inferior IPS. Hemispheric asymmetry thus seems to only emerge when there is a sufficient amount of laterality present in a brain region. PMID:27494544

  20. Decoding the superior parietal lobule connections of the superior longitudinal fasciculus/arcuate fasciculus in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Kamali, A; Sair, H I; Radmanesh, A; Hasan, K M

    2014-09-26

    The temporo-parietal (TP) white matter connections between the inferior parietal lobule and superior temporal gyrus as part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus/arcuate fasciculus (SLF/AF) or middle longitudinal fasciculus (MdLF) have been studied in prior diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) studies. However, few studies have been focusing on the higher TP connections of the superior parietal lobule with the temporal lobe. These higher TP connections have been shown to have a role in core processes such as attention, memory, emotions, and language. Our most recent study, for the first time, hinted to the possibility of a long white matter connection interconnecting the superior parietal lobule (SPL) with the posterior temporal lobe in human brain which we call the SLF/AF TP-SPL and for a shorter abbreviation, the TP-SPL. We decided to further investigate this white matter connection using fiber assignment by continuous tracking deterministic tractography and high spatial resolution diffusion tensor imaging on 3T. Five healthy right-handed men (age range 24-37 years) were studied. We delineated the SPL connections of the SLF/AF TP bilaterally in five normal adult human brains. Using a high resolution DTT technique, we demonstrate for the first time, the trajectory of a long fiber bundle connectivity between the SPL and posterior temporal lobe, called the SLF/AF TP-SPL (or the TP-SPL), bilaterally in five healthy adult human brains. We also demonstrate the trajectory of the vertically oriented posterior TP connections, interconnecting the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) with the posterior temporal lobe (TP-IPL) in relation to the TP-SPL, arcuate fasciculus and other major language pathways. In the current study, for the first time, we categorized the TP connections into the anterior and posterior connectivity groups and subcategorized each one into the SPL or IPL connections. PMID:25086308

  1. Genetic Ablation of the ClC-2 Cl- Channel Disrupts Mouse Gastric Parietal Cell Acid Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Nighot, Meghali P.; Nighot, Prashant K.; Ma, Thomas Y.; Malinowska, Danuta H.; Shull, Gary E.; Cuppoletti, John; Blikslager, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    The present studies were designed to examine the effects of ClC-2 ablation on cellular morphology, parietal cell abundance, H/K ATPase expression, parietal cell ultrastructure and acid secretion using WT and ClC-2-/- mouse stomachs. Cellular histology, morphology and proteins were examined using imaging techniques, electron microscopy and western blot. The effect of histamine on the pH of gastric contents was measured. Acid secretion was also measured using methods and secretagogues previously established to give maximal acid secretion and morphological change. Compared to WT, ClC-2-/- gastric mucosal histological organization appeared disrupted, including dilation of gastric glands, shortening of the gastric gland region and disorganization of all cell layers. Parietal cell numbers and H/K ATPase expression were significantly reduced by 34% (P<0.05) and 53% (P<0.001) respectively and cytoplasmic tubulovesicles appeared markedly reduced on electron microscopic evaluation without evidence of canalicular expansion. In WT parietal cells, ClC-2 was apparent in a similar cellular location as the H/K ATPase by immunofluorescence and appeared associated with tubulovesicles by immunogold electron microscopy. Histamine-stimulated [H+] of the gastric contents was significantly (P<0.025) lower by 9.4 fold (89%) in the ClC-2-/- mouse compared to WT. Histamine/carbachol stimulated gastric acid secretion was significantly reduced (range 84–95%, P<0.005) in ClC-2-/- compared to WT, while pepsinogen secretion was unaffected. Genetic ablation of ClC-2 resulted in reduced gastric gland region, reduced parietal cell number, reduced H/K ATPase, reduced tubulovesicles and reduced stimulated acid secretion. PMID:26378782

  2. Fronto-Parietal Networks are Associated with Multi-Day Savings in Visuomotor Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruitenberg, M. F. L.; Koppelmans, V.; De Dios, Y. E.; Gadd, N. E.; Wood, S. J.; Reuter-Lorenz, P. A.; Riascos, R. F.; Kofman, I.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.

    2016-01-01

    Humans are able to adapt their behavior to changing environmental or internal demands, enabling us to engage in appropriate sensorimotor performance. Mechanisms underlying such adaptation learning to e.g., force field or visual perturbations have been investigated extensively at both the behavioral and neural level, revealing important insights into how people adaptively modify motor control. Interestingly, several studies have shown that retention of the learned information can outlast the training session, and that adaptation learning can lead to the formation of long-term memories (i.e., those lasting 24h or more). However, not much is known about the neural mechanisms that are involved in multi-day adaptation and retention. The present study therefore aimed to I) identify changes in neural activation that occur over the time course of multi-day adaptation learning, and II) identify individual neural predictors of sensorimotor memory retention. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 16 participants (12 males; mean age 40 years) while they performed a manual adaptation task, in which they moved a joystick to hit targets presented on a screen. Initially, they performed the task under normal visual feedback, but then had to adapt to 45 degree clockwise rotated feedback. Participants performed the task during four separate test sessions over a three-month period, allowing us to examine adaptation rates and savings at subsequent sessions (which were completed on average 11 days, 48 days and 86 days after the first session). At the behavioral level, participants' performance improved within each test session and learning rates increased over the sessions. Participants were less perturbed by the rotated feedback in later sessions compared to the initial test session, which reflects savings of adaptation learning. At the neural level, results showed that activation changed over the four test sessions in a variety of frontal, parietal

  3. Semantic retrieval during overt picture description: Left anterior temporal or the parietal lobe?

    PubMed Central

    Geranmayeh, Fatemeh; Leech, Robert; Wise, Richard J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Retrieval of semantic representations is a central process during overt speech production. There is an increasing consensus that an amodal semantic ‘hub’ must exist that draws together modality-specific representations of concepts. Based on the distribution of atrophy and the behavioral deficit of patients with the semantic variant of fronto-temporal lobar degeneration, it has been proposed that this hub is localized within both anterior temporal lobes (ATL), and is functionally connected with verbal ‘output’ systems via the left ATL. An alternative view, dating from Geschwind's proposal in 1965, is that the angular gyrus (AG) is central to object-based semantic representations. In this fMRI study we examined the connectivity of the left ATL and parietal lobe (PL) with whole brain networks known to be activated during overt picture description. We decomposed each of these two brain volumes into 15 regions of interest (ROIs), using independent component analysis. A dual regression analysis was used to establish the connectivity of each ROI with whole brain-networks. An ROI within the left anterior superior temporal sulcus (antSTS) was functionally connected to other parts of the left ATL, including anterior ventromedial left temporal cortex (partially attenuated by signal loss due to susceptibility artifact), a large left dorsolateral prefrontal region (including ‘classic’ Broca's area), extensive bilateral sensory-motor cortices, and the length of both superior temporal gyri. The time-course of this functionally connected network was associated with picture description but not with non-semantic baseline tasks. This system has the distribution expected for the production of overt speech with appropriate semantic content, and the auditory monitoring of the overt speech output. In contrast, the only left PL ROI that showed connectivity with brain systems most strongly activated by the picture-description task, was in the superior parietal lobe (sup

  4. Semantic retrieval during overt picture description: Left anterior temporal or the parietal lobe?

    PubMed

    Geranmayeh, Fatemeh; Leech, Robert; Wise, Richard J S

    2015-09-01

    Retrieval of semantic representations is a central process during overt speech production. There is an increasing consensus that an amodal semantic 'hub' must exist that draws together modality-specific representations of concepts. Based on the distribution of atrophy and the behavioral deficit of patients with the semantic variant of fronto-temporal lobar degeneration, it has been proposed that this hub is localized within both anterior temporal lobes (ATL), and is functionally connected with verbal 'output' systems via the left ATL. An alternative view, dating from Geschwind's proposal in 1965, is that the angular gyrus (AG) is central to object-based semantic representations. In this fMRI study we examined the connectivity of the left ATL and parietal lobe (PL) with whole brain networks known to be activated during overt picture description. We decomposed each of these two brain volumes into 15 regions of interest (ROIs), using independent component analysis. A dual regression analysis was used to establish the connectivity of each ROI with whole brain-networks. An ROI within the left anterior superior temporal sulcus (antSTS) was functionally connected to other parts of the left ATL, including anterior ventromedial left temporal cortex (partially attenuated by signal loss due to susceptibility artifact), a large left dorsolateral prefrontal region (including 'classic' Broca's area), extensive bilateral sensory-motor cortices, and the length of both superior temporal gyri. The time-course of this functionally connected network was associated with picture description but not with non-semantic baseline tasks. This system has the distribution expected for the production of overt speech with appropriate semantic content, and the auditory monitoring of the overt speech output. In contrast, the only left PL ROI that showed connectivity with brain systems most strongly activated by the picture-description task, was in the superior parietal lobe (supPL). This region

  5. Multicenter prospective randomized study comparing the technique of using a bovine pericardium biological prosthesis reinforcement in parietal herniorrhaphy (Tutomesh TUTOGEN) with simple parietal herniorrhaphy, in a potentially contaminated setting.

    PubMed

    Nedelcu, Marius; Verhaeghe, Pierre; Skalli, Mehdi; Champault, Gerard; Barrat, Christophe; Sebbag, Hugues; Reche, Fabian; Passebois, Laurent; Beyrne, Daniel; Gugenheim, Jean; Berdah, Stephane; Bouayed, Amine; Michel Fabre, Jean; Nocca, David

    2016-03-01

    The use of parietal synthetic prosthetic reinforcement material in potentially contaminated settings is not recommended, as there is a risk that the prosthesis may become infected. Thus, simple parietal herniorrhaphy, is the conventional treatment, even though there is a significant risk that the hernia may recur. Using new biomaterials of animal origin presently appears to offer a new therapeutic solution, but their effectiveness has yet to be demonstrated. The purpose of this multicenter prospective randomized single-blind study was to compare the surgical treatment of inguinal hernia or abdominal incisional hernia by simple parietal herniorrhaphy without prosthetic reinforcement (Group A), with Tutomesh TUTOGEN biological prosthesis reinforcement parietal herniorrhaphy (Group B), in a potentially contaminated setting. We examined early postoperative complications in the first month after the operation, performed an assessment after one year of survival without recurrence and analyzed the quality of life and pain of the patients (using SF-12 health status questionnaire and Visual Analog Pain Scale) at 1, 6, and 12 months, together with an economic impact study. Hundred and thirty four patients were enrolled between January 2009 and October 2010 in 20 French hospitals. The groups were comparable with respect to their enrollment characteristics, their history, types of operative indications and procedures carried out. At one month post-op, the rate of infectious complications (n(A) = 11(18.33%) vs. n(B) = 12(19.05%), p = 0.919) was not significantly different between the two groups. The assessment after one year of survival without recurrence revealed that survival was significantly greater in Group B (Group A recurrence: 10, Group B: 3; p = 0.0475). No difference in the patients' quality of life was demonstrated at 1, 6, or 12 months. However, at the 1 month follow-up, the "perceived health" rating seemed better in the group with Tutomesh (p

  6. Successful Remembering Elicits Event-Specific Activity Patterns in Lateral Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Marvin M.

    2014-01-01

    Remembering a past event involves reactivation of content-specific patterns of neural activity in high-level perceptual regions (e.g., ventral temporal cortex, VTC). In contrast, the subjective experience of vivid remembering is typically associated with increased activity in lateral parietal cortex (LPC)—“retrieval success effects” that are thought to generalize across content types. However, the functional significance of LPC activation during memory retrieval remains a subject of active debate. In particular, theories are divided with respect to whether LPC actively represents retrieved content or if LPC activity only scales with content reactivation elsewhere (e.g., VTC). Here, we report a human fMRI study of visual memory recall (faces vs scenes) in which complementary forms of multivoxel pattern analysis were used to test for and compare content reactivation within LPC and VTC. During recall of visual images, we observed robust reactivation of broad category information (face vs scene) in both VTC and LPC. Moreover, recall-related activity patterns in LPC, but not VTC, differentiated between individual events. Importantly, these content effects were particularly evident in areas of LPC (namely, angular gyrus) in which activity scaled with subjective reports of recall vividness. These findings provide striking evidence that LPC not only signals that memories have been successfully recalled, but actively represents what is being remembered. PMID:24899726

  7. Distinct roles of visual, parietal, and frontal motor cortices in memory-guided sensorimotor decisions.

    PubMed

    Goard, Michael J; Pho, Gerald N; Woodson, Jonathan; Sur, Mriganka

    2016-01-01

    Mapping specific sensory features to future motor actions is a crucial capability of mammalian nervous systems. We investigated the role of visual (V1), posterior parietal (PPC), and frontal motor (fMC) cortices for sensorimotor mapping in mice during performance of a memory-guided visual discrimination task. Large-scale calcium imaging revealed that V1, PPC, and fMC neurons exhibited heterogeneous responses spanning all task epochs (stimulus, delay, response). Population analyses demonstrated unique encoding of stimulus identity and behavioral choice information across regions, with V1 encoding stimulus, fMC encoding choice even early in the trial, and PPC multiplexing the two variables. Optogenetic inhibition during behavior revealed that all regions were necessary during the stimulus epoch, but only fMC was required during the delay and response epochs. Stimulus identity can thus be rapidly transformed into behavioral choice, requiring V1, PPC, and fMC during the transformation period, but only fMC for maintaining the choice in memory prior to execution. PMID:27490481

  8. Multiple reference frames for saccadic planning in the human parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Pertzov, Yoni; Avidan, Galia; Zohary, Ehud

    2011-01-19

    We apply functional magnetic resonance imaging and multivariate analysis methods to study the coordinate frame in which saccades are represented in the human cortex. Subjects performed a memory-guided saccade task in which equal-amplitude eye movements were executed from several starting points to various directions. Response patterns during the memory period for same-vector saccades were correlated in the frontal eye fields and the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), indicating a retinotopic representation. Interestingly, response patterns in the middle aspect of the IPS were also correlated for saccades made to the same destination point, even when their movement vector was different. Thus, this region also contains information about saccade destination in (at least) a head-centered coordinate frame. This finding may explain behavioral and neuropsychological studies demonstrating that eye movements are also anchored to an egocentric or an allocentric representation of space rather than strictly to the retinal visual input and that parietal cortex is involved in maintaining these representations of space. PMID:21248131

  9. The junction between self and other? Temporo-parietal dysfunction in neuropsychiatry.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Clare M

    2016-08-01

    The temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) is implicated in a variety of processes including multisensory integration, social cognition, sense of agency and stimulus-driven attention functions. Furthermore, manipulation of cortical excitation in this region can influence a diverse range of personal and interpersonal perceptions, from those involved in moral decision making to judgments about the location of the self in space. Synthesis of existing studies places the TPJ at the neural interface between mind and matter, where information about both mental and physical states is processed and integrated, contributing to self-other differentiation. After first summarising the functions of the TPJ according to existing literature, this narrative review aims to offer insight into the potential role of TPJ dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders, with a focus on the involvement of the right TPJ in controlling representations relating to the self and other. Problems with self-other distinctions may reflect or pose a vulnerability to the symptoms associated with Tourette syndrome, Schizophrenia, Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Further study of this most fascinating neural region will therefore make a substantial contribution to our understanding of neuropsychiatric symptomatology and highlight significant opportunities for therapeutic impact. PMID:27457686

  10. Parietal Reach Region Encodes Reach Depth Using Retinal Disparity and Vergence Angle Signals

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Rajan; Musallam, Sam; Andersen, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Performing a visually guided reach requires the ability to perceive the egocentric distance of a target in three-dimensional space. Previous studies have shown that the parietal reach region (PRR) encodes the two-dimensional location of frontoparallel targets in an eye-centered reference frame. To investigate how a reach target is represented in three dimensions, we recorded the spiking activity of PRR neurons from two rhesus macaques trained to fixate and perform memory reaches to targets at different depths. Reach and fixation targets were configured to explore whether neural activity directly reflects egocentric distance as the amplitude of the required motor command, which is the absolute depth of the target, or rather the relative depth of the target with reference to fixation depth. We show that planning activity in PRR represents the depth of the reach target as a function of disparity and fixation depth, the spatial parameters important for encoding the depth of a reach goal in an eye centered reference frame. The strength of modulation by disparity is maintained across fixation depth. Fixation depth gain modulates disparity tuning while preserving the location of peak tuning features in PRR neurons. The results show that individual PRR neurons code depth with respect to the fixation point, that is, in eye centered coordinates. However, because the activity is gain modulated by vergence angle, the absolute depth can be decoded from the population activity. PMID:19439678

  11. Posterior parietal cortex and long-term memory: some data from laboratory animals

    PubMed Central

    Myskiw, Jociane C.; Izquierdo, Iván

    2012-01-01

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) was long viewed as just involved in the perception of spatial relationships between the body and its surroundings and of movements related to them. In recent years the PPC has been shown to participate in many other cognitive processes, among which working memory and the consolidation and retrieval of episodic memory. The neurotransmitter and other molecular processes involved have been determined to a degree in rodents. More research will no doubt determine the extent to which these findings can be extrapolated to primates, including humans. In these there appears to be a paradox: imaging studies strongly suggest an important participation of the PPC in episodic memory, whereas lesion studies are much less suggestive, let alone conclusive. The data on the participation of the PPC in episodic memory so far do not permit any conclusion as to what aspect of consolidation and retrieval it handles in addition to those dealt with by the hippocampus and basolateral amygdala, if any. PMID:22375107

  12. Lesions to right posterior parietal cortex impair visual depth perception from disparity but not motion cues.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Aidan P; Leopold, David A; Humphreys, Glyn W; Welchman, Andrew E

    2016-06-19

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is understood to be active when observers perceive three-dimensional (3D) structure. However, it is not clear how central this activity is in the construction of 3D spatial representations. Here, we examine whether PPC is essential for two aspects of visual depth perception by testing patients with lesions affecting this region. First, we measured subjects' ability to discriminate depth structure in various 3D surfaces and objects using binocular disparity. Patients with lesions to right PPC (N = 3) exhibited marked perceptual deficits on these tasks, whereas those with left hemisphere lesions (N = 2) were able to reliably discriminate depth as accurately as control subjects. Second, we presented an ambiguous 3D stimulus defined by structure from motion to determine whether PPC lesions influence the rate of bistable perceptual alternations. Patients' percept durations for the 3D stimulus were generally within a normal range, although the two patients with bilateral PPC lesions showed the fastest perceptual alternation rates in our sample. Intermittent stimulus presentation reduced the reversal rate similarly across subjects. Together, the results suggest that PPC plays a causal role in both inferring and maintaining the perception of 3D structure with stereopsis supported primarily by the right hemisphere, but do not lend support to the view that PPC is a critical contributor to bistable perceptual alternations.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'. PMID:27269606

  13. Response inhibition and elevated parietal-cerebellar correlations in chronic adolescent cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Behan, B; Connolly, C G; Datwani, S; Doucet, M; Ivanovic, J; Morioka, R; Stone, A; Watts, R; Smyth, B; Garavan, H

    2014-09-01

    The ability to successfully inhibit an inappropriate behaviour is a crucial component of executive functioning and its impairment has been linked to substance dependence. Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in adolescence and, given the accelerated neuromaturation during adolescence, it is important to determine the effects of cannabis use on neurocognitive functioning during this developmental period. In this study, a cohort of adolescent heavy cannabis users and age-matched non-cannabis-using controls completed a Go/No-Go paradigm. Users were impaired in performance on the task but voxelwise and region-of-interest comparisons revealed no activation differences between groups. Instead, an analysis of correlation patterns between task-activated areas revealed heightened correlation scores in the users between bilateral inferior parietal lobules and the left cerebellum. The increased correlation activity between these regions was replicated with resting state fMRI data and was positively correlated with self-reported, recent cannabis usage. The results suggests that the poorer inhibitory control of adolescent cannabis users might be related to aberrant connectivity between nodes of the response inhibition circuit and that this effect is observable in both task-induced and intrinsic correlation patterns. This article is part of the Special Issue Section entitled 'Neuroimaging in Neuropharmacology'. PMID:23791961

  14. Individual attentional selection capacities are reflected in interhemispheric connectivity of the parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Vossel, Simone; Weidner, Ralph; Moos, Katharina; Fink, Gereon R

    2016-04-01

    Modelling psychophysical data using the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) allows for a quantification of attentional sub-processes, such as the resolution of competition amongst multiple stimuli by top-down control signals for target selection (TVA-parameter α). This fMRI study investigated the neural correlates of α by comparing activity differences and changes of effective connectivity between conditions where a target was accompanied by a distractor or by a second target. Twenty-five participants performed a partial report task inside the MRI scanner. The left angular gyrus (ANG), medial frontal, and posterior cingulate cortex showed higher activity when a target was accompanied by a distractor as opposed to a second target. The reverse contrast yielded activation of a bilateral fronto-parietal network, the anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and left inferior occipital gyrus. A psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed that the connectivity between left ANG and the left and right supramarginal gyrus (SMG), left anterior insula, and right putamen was enhanced in the target-distractor condition in participants with worse attentional top-down control. Dynamic causal modelling suggested that the connection from left ANG to right SMG during distractor presence was modulated by α. Our data show that interindividual differences in attentional processing are reflected in changes of effective connectivity without significant differences in activation strength of network nodes. PMID:26827815

  15. Repetition Suppression for Speech Processing in the Associative Occipital and Parietal Cortex of Congenitally Blind Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arnaud, Laureline; Sato, Marc; Ménard, Lucie; Gracco, Vincent L.

    2013-01-01

    In the congenitally blind (CB), sensory deprivation results in cross-modal plasticity, with visual cortical activity observed for various auditory tasks. This reorganization has been associated with enhanced auditory abilities and the recruitment of visual brain areas during sound and language processing. The questions we addressed are whether visual cortical activity might also be observed in CB during passive listening to auditory speech and whether cross-modal plasticity is associated with adaptive differences in neuronal populations compared to sighted individuals (SI). We focused on the neural substrate of vowel processing in CB and SI adults using a repetition suppression (RS) paradigm. RS has been associated with enhanced or accelerated neural processing efficiency and synchronous activity between interacting brain regions. We evaluated whether cortical areas in CB were sensitive to RS during repeated vowel processing and whether there were differences across the two groups. In accordance with previous studies, both groups displayed a RS effect in the posterior temporal cortex. In the blind, however, additional occipital, temporal and parietal cortical regions were associated with predictive processing of repeated vowel sounds. The findings suggest a more expanded role for cross-modal compensatory effects in blind persons during sound and speech processing and a functional transfer of specific adaptive properties across neural regions as a consequence of sensory deprivation at birth. PMID:23717628

  16. Distributed Representation of Curvilinear Self-Motion in the Macaque Parietal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhixian; Gu, Yong

    2016-05-01

    Information about translations and rotations of the body is critical for complex self-motion perception during spatial navigation. However, little is known about the nature and function of their convergence in the cortex. We measured neural activity in multiple areas in the macaque parietal cortex in response to three different types of body motion applied through a motion platform: translation, rotation, and combined stimuli, i.e., curvilinear motion. We found a continuous representation of motion types in each area. In contrast to single-modality cells preferring either translation-only or rotation-only stimuli, convergent cells tend to be optimally tuned to curvilinear motion. A weighted summation model captured the data well, suggesting that translation and rotation signals are integrated subadditively in the cortex. Interestingly, variation in the activity of convergent cells parallels behavioral outputs reported in human psychophysical experiments. We conclude that representation of curvilinear self-motion perception is widely distributed in the primate sensory cortex. PMID:27117412

  17. Relation between Resting State Front-Parietal EEG Coherence and Executive Function in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Teramoto, Hiroko; Akimoto, Takayoshi; Shiota, Hiroshi; Kamei, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the relation between executive dysfunction (ED) in Parkinson's disease (PD) and resting state functional connectivity evaluated using electroencephalography (EEG) coherence. Methods. Sixty-eight nondemented sporadic PD patients were assessed using the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS) to evaluate executive function. EEG coherence in the left frontoparietal electrode pair (F3-P3) and the right frontoparietal electrode pair (F4-P4) was analyzed in the alpha and theta range. The BADS scores were compared across the coherence groups, and the multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the contribution of confounders. Results. The standardized BADS score was significantly lower in the low F3-P3 coherence group in the alpha range (Mann-Whitney U test, p = 0.032), though there was no difference between F4-P4 coherence group in the alpha range, F3-P3, and F4-P4 coherence groups in the theta range and the standardized BADS score. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed the significant relation between the F3-P3 coherence group in alpha range and age-controlled standardized BADS score (p = 0.039, 95% CI = 1.002–1.062). Conclusion. The decrease in resting state functional connectivity between the frontal and parietal cortices especially in the left side is related to ED in PD. PMID:27433473

  18. Where did you "left" Piazza del Popolo? At your "right" temporo-parietal junction.

    PubMed

    Committeri, Giorgia; Piccardi, Laura; Galati, Gaspare; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2015-12-01

    Humans have an advanced ability to recall places and scenes from memory, which they scan with their "mind's eye" in order to cope with daily demands such as navigating and learning new environments. In the striking neurological syndrome called representational or imaginal neglect, patients with right brain damage fail to report contralesional, left-sided elements of familiar places relative to their imaginary vantage point. Notwithstanding descriptions of single cases of representational neglect dissociated from perceptual or visual neglect, it is still unknown whether this disorder is due to specific brain lesions. Here we show that the ability to properly recall and inspect places from memory is supported by a neural network dissociated from that necessary to properly scan single objects from memory or the external visual world. Lesion-symptoms mapping of 40 right-damaged patients with and without imaginal neglect identified a peak region located at the posterior junction between the parietal and temporal lobes (pTPJ), where the angular and supramarginal gyri abut on the posterior temporal cortex. This region is known to support first-person perspective transformations and is connected with systems relevant for navigation and retrieval from autobiographical memory. Our results provide new insights on human spatial memory and imagery and their relationship with visuospatial attention, directly affecting recent neural and computational models. PMID:26386443

  19. Frontal–Parietal and Limbic-Striatal Activity Underlies Information Sampling in the Best Choice Problem

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Vincent D.; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2015-01-01

    Best choice problems have a long mathematical history, but their neural underpinnings remain unknown. Best choice tasks are optimal stopping problem that require subjects to view a list of options one at a time and decide whether to take or decline each option. The goal is to find a high ranking option in the list, under the restriction that declined options cannot be chosen in the future. Conceptually, the decision to take or decline an option is related to threshold crossing in drift diffusion models, when this process is thought of as a value comparison. We studied this task in healthy volunteers using fMRI, and used a Markov decision process to quantify the value of continuing to search versus committing to the current option. Decisions to take versus decline an option engaged parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, as well ventral striatum, anterior insula, and anterior cingulate. Therefore, brain regions previously implicated in evidence integration and reward representation encode threshold crossings that trigger decisions to commit to a choice. PMID:24142842

  20. Fronto-parietal network oscillations reveal relationship between working memory capacity and cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Gulbinaite, Rasa; van Rijn, Hedderik; Cohen, Michael X

    2014-01-01

    Executive-attention theory proposes a close relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and cognitive control abilities. However, conflicting results are documented in the literature, with some studies reporting that individual variations in WMC predict differences in cognitive control and trial-to-trial control adjustments (operationalized as the size of the congruency effect and congruency sequence effects, respectively), while others report no WMC-related differences. We hypothesized that brain network dynamics might be a more sensitive measure of WMC-related differences in cognitive control abilities. Thus, in the present study, we measured human EEG during the Simon task to characterize WMC-related differences in the neural dynamics of conflict processing and adaptation to conflict. Although high- and low-WMC individuals did not differ behaviorally, there were substantial WMC-related differences in theta (4–8 Hz) and delta (1–3 Hz) connectivity in fronto-parietal networks. Group differences in local theta and delta power were relatively less pronounced. These results suggest that the relationship between WMC and cognitive control abilities is more strongly reflected in large-scale oscillatory network dynamics than in spatially localized activity or in behavioral task performance. PMID:25324759

  1. TMS stimulation over the inferior parietal cortex disrupts prospective sense of agency.

    PubMed

    Chambon, Valérian; Moore, James W; Haggard, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    Sense of agency refers to the feeling of controlling an external event through one's own action. On one influential view, sense of agency is inferred after an action, by "retrospectively" comparing actual effects of actions against their intended effects. However, it has been recently shown that earlier processes, linked to action selection, may also contribute to sense of agency, in advance of the action itself, and independently of action effects. The inferior parietal cortex (IPC) may underpin this "prospective" contribution to agency, by monitoring signals relating to fluency of action selection in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Here, we combined transcranial stimulation (TMS) with subliminal priming of action selection to investigate the causal role of these regions in the prospective coding of agency. In a first experiment, we showed that TMS over left IPC at the time of action selection disrupts perceived control over subsequent effects of action. In a second experiment, we exploited the temporal specificity of single-pulse TMS to pinpoint the exact timing of IPC contribution to sense of agency. We replicated the reduction in perceived control at the point of action selection, while observing no effect of TMS-induced disruption of IPC at the time of action outcomes. PMID:25134684

  2. Activity in superior parietal cortex during training by observation predicts asymmetric learning levels across hands

    PubMed Central

    Ossmy, Ori; Mukamel, Roy

    2016-01-01

    A dominant concept in motor cognition associates action observation with motor control. Previous studies have shown that passive action observation can result in significant performance gains in humans. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether the neural mechanism subserving such learning codes abstract aspects of the action (e.g. goal) or low level aspects such as effector identity. Eighteen healthy subjects learned to perform sequences of finger movements by passively observing right or left hand performing the same sequences in egocentric view. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we show that during passive observation, activity in the superior parietal lobule (SPL) contralateral to the identity of the observed hand (right\\left), predicts subsequent performance gains in individual subjects. Behaviorally, left hand observation resulted in positively correlated performance gains of the two hands. Conversely right hand observation yielded negative correlation - individuals with high performance gains in one hand exhibited low gains in the other. Such behavioral asymmetry is reflected by activity in contralateral SPL during short-term training in the absence of overt physical practice and demonstrates the role of observed hand identity in learning. These results shed new light on the coding level in SPL and have implications for optimizing motor skill learning. PMID:27535179

  3. [Constructive disturbance and low-level perfusion in parietal areas in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with dementia].

    PubMed

    Kondo, Masaki; Ohmichi, Takuma; Mukai, Mao; Fujinami, Jun; Nakagawa, Masanori; Mizuno, Toshiki

    2015-01-01

    Although amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with dementia (ALS-D) has been characterized by symptoms of fronto-temporal dysfunction, we report two patients with ALS-D who showed constructive disturbance and low-level perfusion in the parietal areas. The first was a 69-year-old woman (Case 1) who had been diagnosed with the bulbar type of ALS. She showed fronto-temporal dementia as well as low scores and disturbance on block construction and copying; however, she showed a better score on the imitation of finger postures. The second was a 73-year-old woman (Case 2) who had been diagnosed with the leg onset type of ALS. She showed mild impairment of the frontal function as well as mild disturbance on block construction and copying, but no problem on the imitation of finger postures. Case 1 showed more severe symptoms of dementia and constructive disturbance than Case 2, whereas Case 2 showed lower levels of cerebral perfusion over more extensive areas than Case 1. Cases 1 and 2 were compatible with definite ALS according to the El Escorial Criteria, and they showed constructive disturbance with characteristics reported previously, such as both left and right hemisphere damage and constructive disturbance similar to those seen in Alzheimer's disease. In addition, they showed poorer scores on performing tasks requiring the use of objects (block construction and copying) rather than using their body (imitation of finger postures). PMID:26028194

  4. Left inferior-parietal lobe activity in perspective tasks: identity statements

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Aditi; Weiss, Benjamin; Schurz, Matthias; Aichhorn, Markus; Wieshofer, Rebecca C.; Perner, Josef

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the theory that the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) is closely associated with tracking potential differences of perspective. Developmental studies find that perspective tasks are mastered at around 4 years of age. Our first study, meta-analyses of brain imaging studies shows that perspective tasks specifically activate a region in the left IPL and precuneus. These tasks include processing of false belief, visual perspective, and episodic memory. We test the location specificity theory in our second study with an unusual and novel kind of perspective task: identity statements. According to Frege's classical logical analysis, identity statements require appreciation of modes of presentation (perspectives). We show that identity statements, e.g., “the tour guide is also the driver” activate the left IPL in contrast to a control statements, “the tour guide has an apprentice.” This activation overlaps with the activations found in the meta-analysis. This finding is confirmed in a third study with different types of statements and different comparisons. All studies support the theory that the left IPL has as one of its overarching functions the tracking of perspective differences. We discuss how this function relates to the bottom-up attention function proposed for the bilateral IPL. PMID:26175677

  5. Neuronal representation of saccadic error in macaque posterior parietal cortex (PPC)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yang; Liu, Yining; Lu, Haidong; Wu, Si; Zhang, Mingsha

    2016-01-01

    Motor control, motor learning, self-recognition, and spatial perception all critically depend on the comparison of motor intention to the actually executed movement. Despite our knowledge that the brainstem-cerebellum plays an important role in motor error detection and motor learning, the involvement of neocortex remains largely unclear. Here, we report the neuronal computation and representation of saccadic error in macaque posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Neurons with persistent pre- and post-saccadic response (PPS) represent the intended end-position of saccade; neurons with late post-saccadic response (LPS) represent the actual end-position of saccade. Remarkably, after the arrival of the LPS signal, the PPS neurons’ activity becomes highly correlated with the discrepancy between intended and actual end-position, and with the probability of making secondary (corrective) saccades. Thus, this neuronal computation might underlie the formation of saccadic error signals in PPC for speeding up saccadic learning and leading the occurrence of secondary saccade. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10912.001 PMID:27097103

  6. Parcellation in Left Lateral Parietal Cortex Is Similar in Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Steven M.; Cohen, Alexander L.; Power, Jonathan D.; Coalson, Rebecca S.; Miezin, Francis M.; Vogel, Alecia C.; Dubis, Joseph W.; Church, Jessica A.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2012-01-01

    A key question in developmental neuroscience involves understanding how and when the cerebral cortex is partitioned into distinct functional areas. The present study used functional connectivity MRI mapping and graph theory to identify putative cortical areas and generate a parcellation scheme of left lateral parietal cortex (LLPC) in 7 to 10-year-old children and adults. Results indicated that a majority of putative LLPC areas could be matched across groups (mean distance between matched areas across age: 3.15 mm). Furthermore, the boundaries of children's putative LLPC areas respected the boundaries generated from the adults' parcellation scheme for a majority of children's areas (13/15). Consistent with prior research, matched LLPC areas showed age-related differences in functional connectivity strength with other brain regions. These results suggest that LLPC cortical parcellation and functional connectivity mature along different developmental trajectories, with adult-like boundaries between LLPC areas established in school-age children prior to adult-like functional connectivity. PMID:21810781

  7. Theta, mental flexibility, and post-traumatic stress disorder: connecting in the parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Dunkley, Benjamin T; Sedge, Paul A; Doesburg, Sam M; Grodecki, Richard J; Jetly, Rakesh; Shek, Pang N; Taylor, Margot J; Pang, Elizabeth W

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health injury characterised by re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing and hyperarousal. Whilst the aetiology of the disorder is relatively well understood, there is debate about the prevalence of cognitive sequelae that manifest in PTSD. In particular, there are conflicting reports about deficits in executive function and mental flexibility. Even less is known about the neural changes that underlie such deficits. Here, we used magnetoencephalography to study differences in functional connectivity during a mental flexibility task in combat-related PTSD (all males, mean age = 37.4, n = 18) versus a military control (all males, mean age = 33.05, n = 19) group. We observed large-scale increases in theta connectivity in the PTSD group compared to controls. The PTSD group performance was compromised in the more attentionally-demanding task and this was characterised by 'late-stage' theta hyperconnectivity, concentrated in network connections involving right parietal cortex. Furthermore, we observed significant correlations with the connectivity strength in this region with a number of cognitive-behavioural outcomes, including measures of attention, depression and anxiety. These findings suggest atypical coordination of neural synchronisation in large scale networks contributes to deficits in mental flexibility for PTSD populations in timed, attentionally-demanding tasks, and this propensity toward network hyperconnectivity may play a more general role in the cognitive sequelae evident in this disorder. PMID:25909654

  8. Cortical Connections of the Caudal Portion of Posterior Parietal Cortex in Prosimian Galagos.

    PubMed

    Stepniewska, Iwona; Cerkevich, Christina M; Kaas, Jon H

    2016-06-01

    Posterior parietal cortex (PPC) of prosimian galagos includes a rostral portion (PPCr) where electrical stimulation evokes different classes of complex movements from different subregions, and a caudal portion (PPCc) where such stimulation fails to evoke movements in anesthetized preparations ( Stepniewska, Fang et al. 2009). We placed tracer injections into PPCc to reveal patterns of its cortical connections. There were widespread connections within PPCc as well as connections with PPCr and extrastriate visual areas, including V2 and V3. Weaker connections were with dorsal premotor cortex, and the frontal eye field. The connections of different parts of PPCc with visual areas were roughly retinotopic such that injections to dorsal PPCc labeled more neurons in the dorsal portions of visual areas, representing lower visual quadrant, and injections to ventral PPCc labeled more neurons in ventral portions of these visual areas, representing the upper visual quadrant. We conclude that much of the PPCc contains a crude representation of the contralateral visual hemifield, with inputs largely, but not exclusively, from higher-order visual areas that are considered part of the dorsal visuomotor processing stream. As in galagos, the caudal half of PPC was likely visual in early primates, with the rostral PPC half mediating sensorimotor functions. PMID:26088972

  9. Differential and co-involvement of areas of the temporal and parietal streams in visual tasks.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Amanda; Cowey, Alan

    2009-05-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is particularly useful in teasing apart the contrasting contributions of different anatomical and functional systems in particular aspects of behaviour, for example the involvement of the dorsal and ventral visual streams in tasks involving the perception of distance, shape and colour. In order to investigate the dual involvement of two areas, namely right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and lateral occipital cortex (LO), in a distance discrimination task, neural processing in both areas was concurrently disrupted using dual site TMS. Although there was no change in error rates, reaction time was significantly lengthened over that seen with TMS over either site alone. This additive effect indicates that both PPC and LO are concurrently active and essential for efficient processing of this task. The second experiment investigated the specificity of function within the ventral stream. Performance was assessed for distance and shape discrimination when TMS was applied to our original LO site and an area rostral to V5 but still part of the lateral occipital complex (rostral LOC) that is activated in form and colour discrimination. Performance deficits were restricted to TMS over LO; no significant impairment for either task followed TMS at the rostral LOC site. PMID:19133279

  10. Convergent functional architecture of the superior parietal lobule unraveled with multimodal neuroimaging approaches.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaojian; Yang, Yong; Fan, Lingzhong; Xu, Jinping; Li, Changhai; Liu, Yong; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-01-01

    The superior parietal lobule (SPL) plays a pivotal role in many cognitive, perceptive, and motor-related processes. This implies that a mosaic of distinct functional and structural subregions may exist in this area. Recent studies have demonstrated that the ongoing spontaneous fluctuations in the brain at rest are highly structured and, like coactivation patterns, reflect the integration of cortical locations into long-distance networks. This suggests that the internal differentiation of a complex brain region may be revealed by interaction patterns that are reflected in different neuroimaging modalities. On the basis of this perspective, we aimed to identify a convergent functional organization of the SPL using multimodal neuroimaging approaches. The SPL was first parcellated based on its structural connections as well as on its resting-state connectivity and coactivation patterns. Then, post hoc functional characterizations and connectivity analyses were performed for each subregion. The three types of connectivity-based parcellations consistently identified five subregions in the SPL of each hemisphere. The two anterior subregions were found to be primarily involved in action processes and in visually guided visuomotor functions, whereas the three posterior subregions were primarily associated with visual perception, spatial cognition, reasoning, working memory, and attention. This parcellation scheme for the SPL was further supported by revealing distinct connectivity patterns for each subregion in all the used modalities. These results thus indicate a convergent functional architecture of the SPL that can be revealed based on different types of connectivity and is reflected by different functions and interactions. PMID:25181023

  11. Changes in Effective Connectivity of the Superior Parietal Lobe during Inhibition and Redirection of Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Asscheman, Susanne J.; Thakkar, Katharine N.; Neggers, Sebastiaan F.W.

    2015-01-01

    Executive control is the ability to flexibly control behavior and is frequently studied with saccadic eye movements. Contrary to frontal oculomotor areas, the role of the superior parietal lobe (SPL) in the executive control of saccades remains unknown. To explore the role of SPL networks in saccade control, we performed a saccadic search-step task while acquiring functional magnetic resonance imaging data for 41 participants. Psychophysiological interaction analyses assessed task-related differences in the effective connectivity of SPL with other brain regions during the inhibition and redirection of saccades. Results indicate an increased coupling of SPL with frontal, posterior, and striatal oculomotor areas for redirected saccades versus visually guided saccades. Saccade inhibition versus unsuccessful inhibition revealed an increased coupling of SPL with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. We discuss how these findings relate to ongoing debates about the implementation of executive control and conclude that early attentional control and rapid updating of saccade goals are important signals for executive control. PMID:27147827

  12. Neurological and neuropsychological characteristics of occipital, occipito-temporal and occipito-parietal infarction.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Antje; Grimsen, Cathleen; Kehrer, Stefanie; Bahnemann, Markus; Spang, Karoline; Prass, Maren; Irlbacher, Kerstin; Köhnlein, Martin; Lipfert, Anika; Brunner, Freimuth; Kastrup, Andreas; Fahle, Manfred; Brandt, Stephan A

    2014-07-01

    Neuropsychological deficits after occipital infarction are most often described in case studies and only a small sample of studies has attempted to exactly correlate the anatomical localization of lesions with associated neuropsychological symptoms. The present study investigated a large number of patients (N = 128) in order to provide an overview of neurological and neuropsychological deficits after occipital, occipito-temporal and occipito-parietal infarction. A particular approach of the study was to define exact anatomical correlates of neuropsychological dysfunction by using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) in 61 patients. In addition to a visual field defect and phosphenes, patients often reported anomia, difficulties in reading and memory deficits. Visual disorders, such as achromatopsia, akinetopsia or prosopagnosia, were rarely reported by the patients. Memory and visual disorders were diagnosed efficiently using simple clinical screening tests, such as the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test for immediate recall, the Demtect and the Lang Stereo Test. Visual field defects, reading disorders and the perception of phosphenes were associated primarily with lesions of the calcarine sulcus. Anomia and memory deficits were related to lesions of the occipital inferior gyrus, the lingual gyrus and hippocampus, as well as to lesions of principal white matter tracts. PMID:23206528

  13. Discrete and analogue quantity processing in the parietal lobe: a functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Fulvia; Glaser, Daniel E; Butterworth, Brian

    2006-03-21

    The human intraparietal sulcus (IPS) is implicated in processing symbolic number information and possibly in nonsymbolic number information. Specific IPS activity for discrete quantities (numerosities) as compared with continuous, analogue quantity has not been demonstrated. Here we use a stimulus-driven paradigm to distinguish automatic estimation of "how many things" from "how much" and "how long." The discrete analogue response task (DART) uses the perception of hues which can change either abruptly (discrete, numerous stimuli) or smoothly (analogue, nonnumerous stimuli) in space or in time. Subjects decide whether they saw more green or more blue. A conjunction analysis of spatial and temporal conditions revealed that bilateral IPS was significantly more active during the processing of discrete stimuli than during analogue stimuli, as was a parietal-occipital transition zone. We suggest that processing numerosity is a distinct process from processing analogue quantity, whether extended in space or time, and that an intraparietal network connects objects' segmentation to the estimation of their numerosity. PMID:16537401

  14. Transcranial direct current stimulation over posterior parietal cortex modulates visuospatial localization

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jessica M.; Krekelberg, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Visual localization is based on the complex interplay of bottom-up and top-down processing. Based on previous work, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is assumed to play an essential role in this interplay. In this study, we investigated the causal role of the PPC in visual localization. Specifically, our goal was to determine whether modulation of the PPC via transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could induce visual mislocalization similar to that induced by an exogenous attentional cue (Wright, Morris, & Krekelberg, 2011). We placed one stimulation electrode over the right PPC and the other over the left PPC (dual tDCS) and varied the polarity of the stimulation. We found that this manipulation altered visual localization; this supports the causal involvement of the PPC in visual localization. Notably, mislocalization was more rightward when the cathode was placed over the right PPC than when the anode was placed over the right PPC. This mislocalization was found within a few minutes of stimulation onset, it dissipated during stimulation, but then resurfaced after stimulation offset and lasted for another 10–15 min. On the assumption that excitability is reduced beneath the cathode and increased beneath the anode, these findings support the view that each hemisphere biases processing to the contralateral hemifield and that the balance of activation between the hemispheres contributes to position perception (Kinsbourne, 1977; Szczepanski, Konen, & Kastner, 2010). PMID:25104830

  15. Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over posterior parietal cortex enhances distinct aspects of visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Heinen, Klaartje; Sagliano, Laura; Candini, Michela; Husain, Masud; Cappelletti, Marinella; Zokaei, Nahid

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of tDCS over the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) during a visual working memory (WM) task, which probes different sources of response error underlying the precision of WM recall. In two separate experiments, we demonstrated that tDCS enhanced WM precision when applied bilaterally over the PPC, independent of electrode configuration. In a third experiment, we demonstrated with unilateral electrode configuration over the right PPC, that only cathodal tDCS enhanced WM precision and only when baseline performance was low. Looking at the effects on underlying sources of error, we found that cathodal stimulation enhanced the probability of correct target response across all participants by reducing feature-misbinding. Only for low-baseline performers, cathodal stimulation also reduced variability of recall. We conclude that cathodal- but not anodal tDCS can improve WM precision by preventing feature-misbinding and hereby enhancing attentional selection. For low-baseline performers, cathodal tDCS also protects the memory trace. Furthermore, stimulation over bilateral PPC is more potent than unilateral cathodal tDCS in enhancing general WM precision. PMID:27143222

  16. Changes of somatomotor and parietal regions produced by different amounts of electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Juliana; Velasques, Bruna; Machado, Sergio; Cunha, Marlo; Budde, Henning; Basile, Luis F; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2010-01-18

    Our study aims to investigate changes in electrocortical activity by observing the variations in absolute theta power in the primary somatomotor and parietal regions of the brain under three different electrical stimulation conditions: control group (without stimulation), group 24 (24 trials of stimulation) and group 36 (36 trials of stimulation). Thus, our hypothesis is that the application of different patterns of electrical stimulation will promote different states of habituation in these regions. The sample was composed of 24 healthy (absence of mental and physical impairments) students (14 male and 10 female), with ages varying from 25 to 40 years old (32.5+/-7.5), who are right-handed (Edinburgh Inventory). The subjects were randomly distributed into three groups: control (n=8), G24 (n=8) and G36 (n=8). We use the Functional electrical stimulation (FES) equipment (NeuroCompact-2462) to stimulate the right index finger extensor muscle, while the electroencephalographic signal was simultaneously recorded. We found an interaction between condition and block factors for the C3 and P3 electrode, a condition and block main effects for the C4 electrode, and a condition main effect for the P4 electrode. Our results support the hypothesis that electrical stimulation promotes neurophysiological changes. It appears that stimulus adaptation (accommodation) of specific circuits can strengthen the brain's ability to distinguish between and respond to such stimuli over time. PMID:19945508

  17. The role of the right posterior parietal cortex in letter migration between words.

    PubMed

    Cazzoli, Dario; Müri, René M; Kennard, Christopher; Rosenthal, Clive R

    2015-02-01

    When briefly presented with pairs of words, skilled readers can sometimes report words with migrated letters (e.g., they report hunt when presented with the words hint and hurt). This and other letter migration phenomena have been often used to investigate factors that influence reading such as letter position coding. However, the neural basis of letter migration is poorly understood. Previous evidence has implicated the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in processing visuospatial attributes and lexical properties during word reading. The aim of this study was to assess this putative role by combining an inhibitory TMS protocol with a letter migration paradigm, which was designed to examine the contributions of visuospatial attributes and lexical factors. Temporary interference with the right PPC led to three specific effects on letter migration. First, the number of letter migrations was significantly increased only in the group with active stimulation (vs. a sham stimulation group or a control group without stimulation), and there was no significant effect on other error types. Second, this effect occurred only when letter migration could result in a meaningful word (migration vs. control context). Third, the effect of active stimulation on the number of letter migrations was lateralized to target words presented on the left. Our study thus demonstrates that the right PPC plays a specific and causal role in the phenomenon of letter migration. The nature of this role cannot be explained solely in terms of visuospatial attention, rather it involves an interplay between visuospatial attentional and word reading-specific factors. PMID:25203274

  18. Frontal but not parietal positivity during source recollection is sensitive to episodic content.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jan; Daum, Irene

    2009-05-01

    Remembering contextual aspects of an event (recollection) is an important function subserved by episodic memory. It has recently been shown that the electrophysiological correlates of recollection differ depending upon the type of information subjects retrieve from episodic memory. In the current study, we investigated whether electrophysiological correlates of memory are also affected by the type of source information retrieved from memory. Subjects studied words that were paired with a sound, a picture of a face or a picture of a scene. During test, they were required to judge whether a given probe word was new or old, and whether it had been paired with a sound, scene or face during study. The parietal old/new effect (400-700 ms post-stimulus), which has previously been associated with recollection, was larger for correct compared to incorrect source retrieval and of comparable magnitude for items from the different encoding conditions. A frontal positivity in the same time window, on the other hand, was sensitive to the type of information subjects retrieved from episodic memory, and showed a differential topography depending on memory content. Our findings confirm and extend previous observations by showing that, when recollection is assessed using an objective performance measure (i.e., source accuracy), frontal brain potentials are sensitive to episodic content. PMID:19429080

  19. Herpes simplex encephalitis initially presented with parietal cortex lesions mimicking acute ischemic stroke: A case report.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yoshine; Ishii, Nobuyuki; Sakai, Katsuya; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Shiomi, Kazutaka; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2016-03-01

    A 73-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to a decreased conscious level and a high fever. Six days before her admission, she felt transient numbness in her right lower limb. Brain MRI taken by her local doctor revealed only right parietal cortex lesions. She was diagnosed with transient ischemic attack and started on anti-platelet therapy. One day before her admission, she became drowsy, and left-side weakness developed. She was admitted to a community hospital for treating stroke. On the next day, she was referred to our hospital because of a high fever. Our brain MRI showed new lesions in her right temporal lobe. She had no stroke risk factors, and embolic sources were not detected. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis detected herpes simplex virus DNA. She was diagnosed with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). HSE is common encephalitis which develops fever, headache and alteration in mental status. It often involves temporal lobe, but extratemporal lesions alone are not uncommon. Diffusion-weighted images (DWI) of brain are of importance to differentiate HSE from stroke. When it is questionable to diagnose with stroke for patients with cerebral cortex lesions, they must be monitored with close observation. There is the possibility of initial presentation of HSE in that situation even if patients have no typical symptoms. PMID:26797480

  20. Theta, Mental Flexibility, and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Connecting in the Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Dunkley, Benjamin T.; Sedge, Paul A.; Doesburg, Sam M.; Grodecki, Richard J.; Jetly, Rakesh; Shek, Pang N.; Taylor, Margot J.; Pang, Elizabeth W.

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health injury characterised by re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing and hyperarousal. Whilst the aetiology of the disorder is relatively well understood, there is debate about the prevalence of cognitive sequelae that manifest in PTSD. In particular, there are conflicting reports about deficits in executive function and mental flexibility. Even less is known about the neural changes that underlie such deficits. Here, we used magnetoencephalography to study differences in functional connectivity during a mental flexibility task in combat-related PTSD (all males, mean age = 37.4, n = 18) versus a military control (all males, mean age = 33.05, n = 19) group. We observed large-scale increases in theta connectivity in the PTSD group compared to controls. The PTSD group performance was compromised in the more attentionally-demanding task and this was characterised by 'late-stage' theta hyperconnectivity, concentrated in network connections involving right parietal cortex. Furthermore, we observed significant correlations with the connectivity strength in this region with a number of cognitive-behavioural outcomes, including measures of attention, depression and anxiety. These findings suggest atypical coordination of neural synchronisation in large scale networks contributes to deficits in mental flexibility for PTSD populations in timed, attentionally-demanding tasks, and this propensity toward network hyperconnectivity may play a more general role in the cognitive sequelae evident in this disorder. PMID:25909654