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Sample records for enn siimer ludmilla

  1. Active Masks and Active Inhibition: A Comment on Lleras and Enns (2004) and on Verleger, Jaskowski, Aydemir, van der Lubbe, and Groen (2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlaghecken, Friederike; Eimer, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Verleger, Jaskowski, Aydemir, van der Lubbe, and Groen (see record 2004-21166-002) and Lleras and Enns (see record 2004-21166-001) have argued that negative compatibility effects (NCEs) obtained with masked primes do not reflect self-inhibition processes in motor control. Instead, NCEs are assumed to reflect activation of the response opposite to…

  2. Active masks and active inhibition: a comment on Lleras and Enns (2004) and on Verleger, Jaskowski, Aydemir, van der Lubbe, and Groen (2004).

    PubMed

    Schlaghecken, Friederike; Eimer, Martin

    2006-08-01

    Verleger, Jaskowski, Aydemir, van der Lubbe, and Groen and Lleras and Enns have argued that negative compatibility effects (NCEs) obtained with masked primes do not reflect self-inhibition processes in motor control. Instead, NCEs are assumed to reflect activation of the response opposite to the prime, triggered by the presence of prime/targetlike features in the mask. Thus, no NCEs should be elicited when masks do not contain such task-relevant features. In Experiments 1 and 3, the authors demonstrate that NCEs can be obtained when masks contain only irrelevant features. Experiment 2 demonstrates that positive compatibility effects (PCEs) will occur with such masks when masked primes are presented peripherally. These results are inconsistent with the mask-induced activation accounts but are in line with the self-inhibition hypothesis of the NCE. Although perceptual interactions and mask-induced motor activations may contribute to NCEs under certain conditions, they cannot provide a full explanation for these effects. PMID:16846277

  3. EURAPS at 20 years. A brief history of European Plastic Surgery from the Société Européenne de Chirurgie Structive to the European Association of Plastic Surgeons (EURAPS).

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Riccardo F; Kon, Moshe

    2010-06-01

    By the end of WWI, plastic surgery had reached unexpected heights. The high quality of the work done for soldiers with facial injuries and burns, either as an emergency or as a delayed procedure, demonstrated that this new discipline was honourable, worthwhile and socially crucial, thus deserving official recognition and independence. The establishment of new plastic surgery centres, scientific societies and specialised journals were the key to success for the achievement of this goal. In 1936, the Belgian Maurice Coelst (1894-1963) founded the Société Européenne de Chirurgie Structive, the first supranational society, with the aim of gathering once a year all those interested in this new branch of surgery and favouring confrontation of ideas by showing innovative clinical procedures. The very successful first Congress with a large international participation was held in Brussels, with Coelst as the president, the second in London, in 1937, organised by Kilner and the third in Milano, in 1938, arranged by Sanvenero Rosselli. Even live surgery was performed during the meetings. The beginning of the WWII stopped the Societé's activities, which were never resumed. In the late 1980s, when plastic surgery reached its zenith, the necessity was felt to create a new supranational society, different in its purpose from the existing European Section of IPRAS, later European Society of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery (ESPRAS), an organisation where all the official European plastic surgery societies merged automatically. The aim was to promote the excellence of plastic surgery in Europe, to furnish an annual forum for the selection of the best scientific works presented at national societies and to stimulate research and education at a European level. Established in 1989, 53 years after the foundation of the Société Européenne de Chirurgie Structive, it was named the European Association of Plastic Surgeons (EURAPS). The first scientific meeting took place

  4. L'ÉDUCATION Musicale pour la Formation D'une IDENTITÉ EUROPÉENNE Pluraliste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarea, Roberto

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents some of the elements which have been typical of music in different contexts and cultures, and describes an approach to musical phenomena which relates them to the intercultural and interdisciplinary dimension of lifelong education (music considered as a cultural good, an expression form, a field of creativity, an artistic production and an aesthetic experience). From the educational point of view, the aim is to form "multi-musical" individuals. In this framework are set the problem of musical identity and the need to spell out that identity in relation to stereotypes (popular music, classical music, folk music, etc.) and the differing shades of diversity. Particular attention needs to be given to the question of the universals seen in the psychology of music and the configuration of musical phenomena as structures which are organized hierarchically in several dimensions. In short, music in all its forms can help to form a dynamic, pluralist identity in the European context.

  5. The Future of Interpreting & Translation: Keeping in Touch with a Changing World. Proceedings of the Conference (University of Western Sydney, Macarthur, New South Wales, Australia, April 1, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, George, Ed.; Ginori, Luciano, Comp.

    Papers from a conference on translating and interpreting include: "Babel and the Brain" (Philip Grundy); "Simultaneous Interpreting: Its Role in International Conferences" (Yvonne Hu); "The Past, Present and Future of Legal Interpreting/Translating in NSW" (Ludmilla Robinson); "What's In a Name?" (Terry Chesher); "Interpreting and Advocacy" (Colin…

  6. Myélome multiple survenant au cours d'une Fièvre Méditerranéenne Familiale

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Bouomrani; Afef, Farah; Nadia, Bouassida; Nabil, Ayadi; Zouhir, Bahloul; Maher, Béji

    2013-01-01

    L'objectif de ce travail est de rapporter une observation particulière de myélome multiple survenant au cours d'une maladie périodique. Il s'agit d'un patient tunisien de 53 ans suivi depuis le jeune âge pour maladie périodique dont le diagnostic était confirmé par l’étude génétique montrant l'homozygotie pour la mutation M694V du gène MEFV, fut admis pour exploration d'une douleur avec tuméfaction fessière droite récente. Les explorations biologiques et radiologiques ont permis de retenir le diagnostic d'un myélome multiple de type IgA à chaînes légères kappa stade III B, associé à une volumineuse localisation plasmocytaire très agressive de l'aile iliaque droite envahissant les structures musculaires avoisinantes. Notre observation, qui à notre connaissance est la deuxième signalant une telle association, se distingue par sa survenue brutale, sa progression rapide et le caractère très agressif de l'hémopathie. PMID:24255729

  7. Évolution de l'occupation des terres et ressources en eau en région Méditerranéenne karstique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambal, S.

    1987-09-01

    A computer model, with explicit descriptions for the major processes involved in the transfert of water in the soil-plant system at a local level, formed a basis for simulating the consequences of land-use change on streamflow in a 35 km 2 karstic catchment near Montpellier, southern France. Natural vegetation, occupying more than 95% of the total surface, is divided in four types according to their tree covers. In condition of lithologic homogeneity, these types can be used as hydrologic units. Computed streamflow for existing land-use corresponds with recorded data on both the monthly and annual scales. Land-use changes, due to the natural evolution of the vegetation from 1946 to 1979, produced a 80 mm reduction in streamflow for average rainfall conditions (1200 mm).

  8. Durangites, Protacanthodiscus (Ammonitina) et formes voisines du Tithonien supérieur — Berriasien dans la Téthys méditerranéenne (SE France, Espagne, Algérie et Tunisie)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enay, Raymond; Boughdiri, Mabrouk; Le Hégarat, Gérard

    1998-09-01

    The relationships between Durangites and Protacanthoduscus are revised using also calpionellids ages. The earliest Durangites in the calpionellids A2 and A3 ( pars) subzones are both microconchs and macroconchs. In the A3 subzone, microconchs are differentiated only at species level, while macroconchs change into Protacanthodiscus type which is in part the macroconch of Durangites. Durangites and Protacanthodiscus are Mediterranean Tethyan taxa from which originated the Tethyan afflux during A2 subzone (France, Tunisia) and, at the same time (according to the ammonites), the Durangites of Mexico where the genus was first described and considered for a long time as endemic. Another line of Durangites develops Dalmasiceras-like forms.

  9. La limite Crétacé-Tertiaire en domaine marin dans les Pyrénées centrales (zone sous-pyrénéenne, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peybernès, Bernard; Fondecave-Wallez, Marie-José; Eichène, Paule; Robin, Eric; Rocchia, Robert

    1998-05-01

    The discovery of Paleocene planktonic Foraminifera (subzones P1c to P3b) in the western sub-Pyrenean zone (Haute-Garonne) made it possible to locate an anomalously high abundance of iridium at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary underlining the interface between the 'calcaires à Bryozoaires/calcaires à Algues, of Larcan-Nizan', newly assigned to Danian-Selandian and the underlying 'marnes bleues de Saint-Loup', the top of them being Uppermost Maastrichtian in age (Hariaensis zone and grade-datation of 65.47 Ma). A short gap (subzones P0 to P1b, Lowermost Danian) probably marks, as in Béarn, the base of the Paleocene Larcan-Nizan Bryalgal limestones.

  10. Interaction effects of enniatin B, deoxinivalenol and alternariol in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Blanco, Celia; Font, Guillermina; Ruiz, Maria-Jose

    2016-01-22

    Enniatin B (ENN B), deoxinivalenol (DON) and alternariol (AOH) are secondary metabolites of filamentous fungi. These mycotoxins are contaminants of vegetables and cereals. They are cytotoxic and their effects are enhanced by their mixtures. The objectives of this study were to compare the cytotoxicity of ENN B, DON and AOH alone or in combination in human adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells and to evaluate the type of interactions of mycotoxin mixtures by the isobologram analysis. Cells were treated with concentrations ranging from 1.85 to 90μM (AOH) and from 0.312 to 10μM (for ENN B and DON), individually and in combination of two and three mycotoxins (from 1.85 to 30μM for AOH and from 0.312 to 5μM for ENN B and DON). The relation ratios between the mixtures DON+ENN B was 1:1; AOH+DON and ENN B+AOH was 1:6, and for the tertiary combination DON, ENN B and AOH 1:1:6. The IC50 value of ENN B and DON were 3.87 and 5.54μM, respectively. No IC50 values were obtained for the AOH at any time tested in Caco-2 cells. With the isobologram the type of interaction between mycotoxin was evaluated. Synergistic, antagonistic and addictive effect was observed for the combination studied depending on the concentration affected. Mycotoxins combinations reduce cellular viability in the following increasing order: (DON+ENN B)>(ENN B+AOH)>(DON+AOH)>(DON+AOH+ENN B). PMID:26581633

  11. Mouse tissue distribution and persistence of the food-born fusariotoxins Enniatin B and Beauvericin.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Heilos, Daniela; Richter, Lennart; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Heffeter, Petra; Sulyok, Michael; Kenner, Lukas; Berger, Walter; Dornetshuber-Fleiss, Rita

    2016-04-15

    The fusariotoxins Enniatin B (Enn B) and Beauvericin (Bea) have recently aroused interest as food contaminants and as potential anticancer drugs. However, limited data are available about their toxic profile. Aim of this study was to investigate their pharmacological behavior in vivo and their persistence in mice. Therefore, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to analyze the distribution of Enn B and Bea in selected tissue samples and biological fluids originating from mice treated intraperitoneally with these cyclohexadepsipeptides. Overall, no toxicological signs during life time or pathological changes were observed. Moreover, both fusariotoxins were found in all tissues and serum but not in urine. Highest amounts were measured in liver and fat demonstrating the moleculeś tendency to bioaccumulate in lipophilic tissues. While for Bea no metabolites could be detected, for Enn B three phase I metabolites (dioxygenated-Enn B, mono- and di-demethylated-Enn B) were found in liver and colon, with dioxygenated-Enn B being most prominent. Consequently, contribution of hepatic as well as intestinal metabolism seems to be involved in the overall metabolism of Enn B. Thus, despite their structural similarity, the metabolism of Enn B and Bea shows distinct discrepancies which might affect long-term effects and tolerability in humans. PMID:26892719

  12. Enniatin B-induced cell death and inflammatory responses in RAW 267.4 murine macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Gammelsrud, A.; Solhaug, A.; Dendelé, B.; Sandberg, W.J.; Ivanova, L.; Kocbach Bølling, A.; Lagadic-Gossmann, D.; Refsnes, M.; Becher, R.; Eriksen, G.; Holme, J.A.

    2012-05-15

    The mycotoxin enniatin B (EnnB) is predominantly produced by species of the Fusarium genera, and often found in grain. The cytotoxic effect of EnnB has been suggested to be related to its ability to form ionophores in cell membranes. The present study examines the effects of EnnB on cell death, differentiation, proliferation and pro-inflammatory responses in the murine monocyte–macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Exposure to EnnB for 24 h caused an accumulation of cells in the G0/G1-phase with a corresponding decrease in cyclin D1. This cell cycle-arrest was possibly also linked to the reduced cellular ability to capture and internalize receptors as illustrated by the lipid marker ganglioside GM1. EnnB also increased the number of apoptotic, early apoptotic and necrotic cells, as well as cells with elongated spindle-like morphology. The Neutral Red assay indicated that EnnB induced lysosomal damage; supported by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showing accumulation of lipids inside the lysosomes forming lamellar structures/myelin bodies. Enhanced levels of activated caspase-1 were observed after EnnB exposure and the caspase-1 specific inhibitor ZYVAD-FMK reduced EnnB-induced apoptosis. Moreover, EnnB increased the release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in cells primed with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and this response was reduced by both ZYVAD-FMK and the cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074Me. In conclusion, EnnB was found to induce cell cycle arrest, cell death and inflammation. Caspase-1 appeared to be involved in the apoptosis and release of IL-1β and possibly activation of the inflammasome through lysosomal damage and leakage of cathepsin B. -- Highlights: ► The mycotoxin EnnB induced cell cycle arrest, cell death and inflammation. ► The G0/G1-arrest was linked to a reduced ability to internalize receptors. ► EnnB caused lysosomal damage, leakage of cathepsin B and caspase-1 cleavage. ► Caspase-1 was partly involved in both apoptosis and release of IL-1

  13. Les politiques éducatives dans l'Union européenne - d'une approche intergouvernementaliste vers une démarche d'intégration ? Enquête auprès de fonctionnaires européens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruşitoru, Mihaela-Viorica

    2015-10-01

    Educational policies in the European Union: from intergovernmentalism to integration? A survey conducted among European officials - Officially, education remains a national competence of the Member States of the European Union. However, in the context of Europeanisation, policy changes are taking place in education. In this article, the author argues that, at the dawn of the third millennium, educational policies in the European Union are shifting from intergovernmentalism to integration. The European Qualifications Framework, the key competencies for lifelong education and training, and the benchmark criteria set out in two European strategies - Lisbon and Europe 2020 - attest to a real change in the field of educational policies. The author conducted interviews with officials from various European institutions, including the Commission, the Parliament and the Council, in order to compare their testimonies to the official discourse on education policies. The qualitative analysis of the interviews reveals that the principles of subsidiarity and neutrality have been called into question since the introduction of the open method of coordination. In contradiction with the legal framework and the official discourse, it would appear that, due to the growing influence of the European Union in education policy, the objective of reaching a common education policy in the Member States could become a reality in the coming decades.

  14. La marge européenne de la Téthys jurassique en Corse : datation de trondhjémites de Balagne et indices de croûte continentale sous le domaine Balano-LigureThe European margin of the Jurassic Tethys in Corsica: dating of Balagne trondhjemites and evidence to support a continental crust beneath the Balagne-Ligurian domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Philippe; Cocherie, Alain; Lahondère, Didier; Fanning, C. Mark

    Vein trondhjemite in gabbro of the Carnispola Bridge has been dated to 169±3 Ma (UPb on zircon). This date indicates that E-MORB-type ophiolites were emplaced in the marginal Balagne part of the Ligurian Jurassic basin about some 10 Ma before the emplacement of N-MORB ophiolites in the most central part of the ocean. In addition, the presence of inherited zircons with Ordovician (431±8 Ma) and Archean (2693±12 Ma) ages reveals that the Balagne ophiolites were emplaced on a thinned continental crust. Finally, the 298±4 Ma age of zircons from eclogitised meta-arkose in the eclogitic Morteda-Farinole unit ('Schistes lustrés' zone) confirms the attribution of these rocks to a palaeogeographic area that laid between continent and ocean, along the edge of the Hercynian granite batholith in Corsica. To cite this article: P. Rossi et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 313-322.

  15. Superposition de la tectonique éburnéenne et panafricaine dans les granitoïdes de la bordure nord du craton ouest africain, boutonniére de Zenaga, Anti-Atlas central, Maroc(Pan-african overprint on Eburnian granitoids at the northern boundary of the West African Craton, Zenaga Inlier, central Anti-Atlas, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennih, N.; Laduron, D.; Greiling, R. O.; Errami, E.; de Wall, H.; Boutaleb, M.

    2001-05-01

    The Zenaga Inlier shows a comprehensive record of the Eburnian and Pan-African Orogenies. The Eburnian is characterised by high-temperature regional metamorphism and complex magmatism. The early (Azguemerzi) granodiorite has an isotopic mantle signature and was emplaced diapirically during the Eburnian Orogeny causing local thermal metamorphism. The foliation observed in this granitoid is a result of the interference between its primary syn-emplacement foliation and the regional foliation under amphibolite-facies conditions. The northern part of Zenaga has been intruded by the leucocratic granites of Tazenakht. These granites are cut by mylonites and phyllonites, corresponding to the Pan-African shear zones and accompanied with sub-greenschist-facies metamorphism during the Pan-African Orogeny. The deformation was the result of a regional sinistral transpressive event. This study in the northern part of the West African Craton shows the superposition of the Pan-African on the Eburnian Orogeny and the presence of a major fault in the Anti-Atlas.

  16. AFLP Phylogeny of 36 Erythroxylum species- genetic relationships among Erythroxylum species inferred by AFLP analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plant genus Erythroxylum is known for four cultivated taxa, Erythroxylum coca var. coca (Ecc), Erythroxylum coca var. ipadu (Eci), Erythroxylum novogranatense var. novogranatense (Enn) and Erythroxylum novogranatense var. truxillense (Ent) that are cultivated primarily for the illicit extraction...

  17. Evolutionary neural networks for monthly pan evaporation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kişi, Özgür

    2013-08-01

    Estimating pan evaporation is very important for monitoring, survey and management of water resources. This study proposes the application evolutionary neural networks (ENN) for modeling monthly pan evaporations. Solar radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and pan evaporation data from two stations, Antalya and Mersin, in Mediterranean Region of Turkey are used in the study. In the first part of the study, ENN models are compared with those of the fuzzy genetic (FG), neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS), artificial neural networks (ANN) and Stephens-Stewart (SS) methods in estimating pan evaporations of Antalya and Mersin stations, separately. Comparison results indicate that the ENN models generally perform better than the FG, ANFIS, ANN and SS models. In the second part of the study, models are compared with each other in estimating Mersin’s pan evaporations using input data of both stations. Results reveal that the ENN models performed better than the FG, ANFIS and ANN models. It was concluded that monthly pan evaporations can be successfully estimated by the ENN method. The performance of the ENN model with full weather data as inputs presents 0.749 and 0.759 mm of mean absolute error for the Antalya and Mersin stations, respectively.

  18. Nouvelle interprétation structurale de la O faille Nord- Pyrénéenne e en vallée d'Aspe (Pyrénées-Atlantiques). Remise en question d'un plutonisme ophitique danien dans leBsecteur de BedousNew structural interpretation of the ?North-Pyrenean Fault? in the Aspe Valley (Pyrénées-Atlantiques, France). Question about a so-called Danian ophitic plutonism in the Bedous area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canérot, Joseph; Majesté-Menjoulas, Claude; Ternet, Yves

    2004-02-01

    In the Aspe Valley (western Pyrenees), the Europe/Iberia boundary corresponds to a complex fracturing zone, called the 'Bielle-Accous Wrench-Faulting Corridor', which represents the classical 'North-Pyrenean Fault'. Located between the High Primary Range and the North-Pyrenean Zone, the BAWC shows different south-verging sheets mainly composed of Triassic materials. The Bedous ophite, associated with Muschelkalk and Keuper sediments, is also Triassic in age and involved in the same Pyrenean thrusting structures. So, contrary to a recent interpretation, this magmatic rock cannot be related to a supposed Danian plutonism inducing metamorphic processes in the surrounding Mesozoic formations. To cite this article: J. Canérot et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  19. Discrimination of neutrons and γ-rays in liquid scintillator based on Elman neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cai-Xun; Lin, Shin-Ted; Zhao, Jian-Ling; Yu, Xun-Zhen; Wang, Li; Zhu, Jing-Jun; Xing, Hao-Yang

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a new neutron and γ (n/γ) discrimination method based on an Elman Neural Network (ENN) is proposed to improve the discrimination performance of liquid scintillator (LS) detectors. Neutron and γ data were acquired from an EJ-335 LS detector, which was exposed in a 241Am-9Be radiation field. Neutron and γ events were discriminated using two methods of artificial neural network including the ENN and a typical Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) as a control. The results show that the two methods have different n/γ discrimination performances. Compared to the BPNN, the ENN provides an improved of Figure of Merit (FOM) in n/γ discrimination. The FOM increases from 0.907 ± 0.034 to 0.953 ± 0.037 by using the new method of the ENN. The proposed n/γ discrimination method based on ENN provides a new choice of pulse shape discrimination in neutron detection. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11275134,11475117)

  20. Feminism and Feminist Therapy: Lessons from the Past and Hopes for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Kathy M.; Kincade, Elizabeth A.; Marbley, Aretha F.; Seem, Susan R.

    2005-01-01

    Feminist therapy and counseling emerged nearly 40 years ago to better meet the needs of women experiencing psychological distress (Enns, 1997). Since its inception, feminist therapy has evolved in terms of theory, therapeutic techniques, and scope of application. In this article, the authors explore five areas relevant to counselors and counselor…

  1. Sciences and society

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    J.Luns des Pays-Bas, ancien sécétaire général de NATO (OTAN=Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord) parle du passé, présent et future de la défense européenne et des relations est et ouest

  2. An integrated sample preparation to determine coccidiostats and emerging Fusarium-mycotoxins in various poultry tissues with LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Jestoi, Marika; Rokka, Mervi; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2007-05-01

    The usefulness of an existing sample preparation technique used for ionophoric coccidiostats (lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin and narasin) was applied in the analysis of emerging Fusarium-mycotoxins beauvericin (BEA) and enniatins (ENNs) in poultry tissues (liver and meat). Also, maduramicin and liver as a new sample matrix was introduced. The developed methods were validated and applied for the determination of coccidiostats and BEA/ENNs in Finnish poultry tissues in 2004-2005. The validation parameters demonstrated that the integrated sample preparation technique is applicable to the parallel determination of these contaminants in poultry tissues. Of the samples analysed (276 meat and 43 liver), only trace levels of LAS, MON, SAL, NAR and MAD were detected in 7, 3, 5, 6 and 4% of the samples, respectively. Interestingly, for the first time, traces of BEA and ENNs could also be detected in animal tissues. BEA and ENNs A, A1, B and B1 were found in 2, 0.3, 0.6, 4 and 3% of the samples, respectively. The simultaneous presence of coccidiostats and mycotoxins was detected in three turkey samples in 2004. PMID:17440994

  3. Attentional Distractor Interference May Be Diminished by Concurrent Working Memory Load in Normal Participants and Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Liano, Beatriz Gil-Gomez; Umilta, Carlo; Stablum, Franca; Tebaldi, Francesca; Cantagallo, Anna

    2010-01-01

    A reduction in congruency effects under working memory (WM) load has been previously described using different attentional paradigms (e.g., Kim, Kim, & Chun, 2005; Smilek, Enns, Eastwood, & Merikle, 2006). One hypothesis is that different types of WM load have different effects on attentional selection, depending on whether a specific memory load…

  4. Complexity, Contextualism, and Multiculturalism: Responses to the Critiques and Future Directions for the Gender Role Conflict Research Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, James M.

    2008-01-01

    The author reacts to three reviews by Carolyn Enns, Stephen Wester, and P. Paul and Mary Heppner on "The Counseling Psychologist" Major Contribution "Summarizing 25 Years of Research on Men's Gender Role Conflict Using the Gender Role Conflict Scale: New Research Paradigms and Clinical Implications." The reviews provide support for assessing the…

  5. Sciences and society

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-10

    J.Luns des Pays-Bas, ancien sécétaire général de NATO (OTAN=Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord) parle du passé, présent et future de la défense européenne et des relations est et ouest

  6. An investigation of the endocrine disrupting potential of enniatin B using in vitro bioassays.

    PubMed

    Kalayou, Shewit; Ndossi, Doreen; Frizzell, Caroline; Groseth, Per Kristian; Connolly, Lisa; Sørlie, Morten; Verhaegen, Steven; Ropstad, Erik

    2015-03-01

    Evidence that some of the fungal metabolites present in food and feed may act as potential endocrine disruptors is increasing. Enniatin B (ENN B) is among the emerging Fusarium mycotoxins known to contaminate cereals. In this study, the H295R and neonatal porcine Leydig cell (LC) models, and reporter gene assays (RGAs) have been used to investigate the endocrine disrupting activity of ENN B. Aspects of cell viability, cell cycle distribution, hormone production as well as the expression of key steroidogenic genes were assessed using the H295R cell model. Cell viability and hormone production levels were determined in the LC model, while cell viability and steroid hormone nuclear receptor transcriptional activity were measured using the RGAs. ENN B (0.01-100μM) was cytotoxic in the H295R and LC models used; following 48h incubation with 100μM. Flow cytometry analysis showed that ENN B exposure (0.1-25μM) led to an increased proportion of cells in the S phase at higher ENN B doses (>10μM) while cells at G0/G1 phase were reduced. At the receptor level, ENN B (0.00156-15.6μM) did not appear to induce any specific (ant) agonistic responses in reporter gene assays (RGAs), however cell viability was affected at 15.6μM. Measurement of hormone levels in H295R cells revealed that the production of progesterone, testosterone and cortisol in exposed cells were reduced, but the level of estradiol was not significantly affected. There was a general reduction of estradiol and testosterone levels in exposed LC. Only the highest dose (100μM) used had a significant effect, suggesting the observed inhibitory effect is more likely associated with the cytotoxic effect observed at this dose. Gene transcription analysis in H295R cells showed that twelve of the sixteen genes were significantly modulated (p<0.05) by ENN B (10μM) compared to the control. Genes HMGR, StAR, CYP11A, 3βHSD2 and CYP17 were downregulated, whereas the expression of CYP1A1, NR0B1, MC2R, CYP21, CYP11B1, CYP

  7. Human skin permeation of emerging mycotoxins (beauvericin and enniatins).

    PubMed

    Taevernier, Lien; Veryser, Lieselotte; Roche, Nathalie; Peremans, Kathelijne; Burvenich, Christian; Delesalle, Catherine; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2016-05-01

    Currently, dermal exposure data of cyclic depsipeptide mycotoxins are completely absent. There is a lack of understanding about the local skin and systemic kinetics and effects, despite their widespread skin contact and intrinsic hazard. Therefore, we provide a quantitative characterisation of their dermal kinetics. The emerging mycotoxins enniatins (ENNs) and beauvericin (BEA) were used as model compounds and their transdermal kinetics were quantitatively evaluated, using intact and damaged human skin in an in vitro Franz diffusion cell set-up and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-MS analytics. We demonstrated that all investigated mycotoxins are able to penetrate through the skin. ENN B showed the highest permeation (kp,v=9.44 × 10(-6) cm/h), whereas BEA showed the lowest (kp,v=2.35 × 10(-6) cm/h) and the other ENNs ranging in between. Combining these values with experimentally determined solubility data, Jmax values ranging from 0.02 to 0.35 μg/(cm(2) h) for intact skin and from 0.07 to 1.11 μg/(cm(2) h) for damaged skin were obtained. These were used to determine the daily dermal exposure (DDE) in a worst-case scenario. On the other hand, DDE's for a typical occupational scenario were calculated based on real-life mycotoxin concentrations for the industrial exposure of food-related workers. In the latter case, for contact with intact human skin, DDE's up to 0.0870 ng/(kg BW × day) for ENN A were calculated, whereas for impaired skin barrier this can even rise up to 0.3209 ng/(kg BW × day) for ENN B1. This knowledge is needed for the risk assessment after skin exposure of contaminated food, feed, indoor surfaces and airborne particles with mycotoxins. PMID:25757886

  8. Evaluation of Emerging Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin, Enniatins, Fusaproliferin and Moniliformin in Domestic Rice in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nazari, Firouzeh; Sulyok, Michael; Kobarfard, Farzad; Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Krska, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of emerging Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENNs) (A, A1, B, B1), Fusaproliferin and moniliformin was evaluated by a liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometric (LC/ESI-MS/MS) technique in 65 domestic rice samples produced in Gilan and Mazandaran Provinces in Iran. The results showed that 46% of the samples were contaminated with at least one of the emerging mycotoxins. BEA was the most prevalent mycotoxin, which was found in 26 out of 65 rice samples at the concentrations up to 0.47 µg/Kg. Enniatin A1 which was the only member of ENNs was detected in the samples, occurred in 7.7% of samples with an average level of 0.06 μg/Kg. No detectable level of Fusaproliferin and moniliformin was found. This is the first report concerning the contamination of Iranian domestic rice samples with the emerging Fusarium mycotoxins. PMID:25901158

  9. History of Cern

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Cérémonie à l'occasion de l'apparition du premier volume du livre sur l'histoire du Cern, avec plusieurs personnes présentes qui jouaient un rôle important dans cette organisation européenne couronnée de succès grâce à l'esprit des membres fondateurs qui est et restera essentiel

  10. The naturally born fusariotoxin Enniatin B and Sorafenib exert synergistic activity against cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Thomas; Richter, Lennart; Süssmuth, Roderich D.; Zlesak, Markus; Novicky, Astrid; Heffeter, Petra; Lemmens-Gruber, Rosa; Berger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades substantial progress has been made in developing systemic cancer therapy. However, tumors are frequently intrinsically resistant against structurally and mechanistically unrelated drugs. Thus, it is of predominant interest to overcome drug resistance and to encourage the research for novel chemotherapeutic approaches. Recently, we have introduced Enniatins, naturally occurring cyclohexadepsipeptides produced by filamentous fungi of the genus Fusarium, as potential anticancer drugs. Here, we expend this approach by demonstrating antiangiogenic properties for Enniatin B (Enn B) indicated by a strong inhibition of human endothelial cell migration and tube formation. Moreover, combination of Enn B with the clinically approved multi-kinase inhibitor Sorafenib (Sora) displayed profound synergistic in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects against cervical cancer. Subsequent studies showed that this strong synergism is accompanied by a marked increase in mitochondrial injury and apoptosis induction reflected by mitochondrial membrane depolarization, caspase-7 activation, and subsequent cleavage of PARP. Additionally, cells were shown to stop DNA synthesis and accumulate in S and G2/M phase of the cell cycle. The multifaceted characteristics underlying this strong synergism were suggested to be based on interference with the p38 MAPK as well as the ERK signaling pathways. Finally, also in vivo studies revealed that the combination treatment is distinctly superior to single drug treatments against the KB-3-1 cervix carcinoma xenograft model. Taken together, our data confirm the anticancer benefits of the naturally occurring fusariotoxin Enn B and further present Enn B/Sora as a novel combination strategy especially for the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:25557295

  11. Vénus version Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël

    2010-04-01

    En avril 2006, Vénus a "capturé" un objet d'un genre particulier: une sonde robotique européenne, baptisée Venus Express et destinée à scruter cette planète sous tous les angles. Bilan de cette mission 5 ans après le lancement de la sonde, dont 4 d'observations vénusiennes.

  12. Short-term forecasting of groundwater levels under conditions of mine-tailings recharge using wavelet ensemble neural network models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Bahaa; Broda, Stefan; Adamowski, Jan; Ozga-Zielinski, Bogdan; Donohoe, Amanda

    2015-02-01

    Several groundwater-level forecasting studies have shown that data-driven models are simpler, faster to develop, and provide more accurate and precise results than physical or numerical-based models. Five data-driven models were examined for the forecasting of groundwater levels as a result of recharge via tailings from an abandoned mine in Quebec, Canada, for lead times of 1 day, 1 week and 1 month. The five models are: a multiple linear regression (MLR); an artificial neural network (ANN); two models that are based on de-noising the model predictors using the wavelet-transform (W-MLR, W-ANN); and a W-ensemble ANN (W-ENN) model. The tailing recharge, total precipitation, and mean air temperature were used as predictors. The ANN models performed better than the MLR models, and both MLR and ANN models performed significantly better after de-noising the predictors using wavelet-transforms. Overall, the W-ENN model performed best for each of the three lead times. These results highlight the ability of wavelet-transforms to decompose non-stationary data into discrete wavelet-components, highlighting cyclic patterns and trends in the time-series at varying temporal scales, rendering the data readily usable in forecasting. The good performance of the W-ENN model highlights the usefulness of ensemble modeling, which ensures model robustness along with improved reliability by reducing variance.

  13. Detecting Susceptibility to Breast Cancer with SNP-SNP Interaction Using BPSOHS and Emotional Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Peng, Qinke; Fan, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Studies for the association between diseases and informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have received great attention. However, most of them just use the whole set of useful SNPs and fail to consider the SNP-SNP interactions, while these interactions have already been proven in biology experiments. In this paper, we use a binary particle swarm optimization with hierarchical structure (BPSOHS) algorithm to improve the effective of PSO for the identification of the SNP-SNP interactions. Furthermore, in order to use these SNP interactions in the susceptibility analysis, we propose an emotional neural network (ENN) to treat SNP interactions as emotional tendency. Different from the normal architecture, just as the emotional brain, this architecture provides a specific path to treat the emotional value, by which the SNP interactions can be considered more quickly and directly. The ENN helps us use the prior knowledge about the SNP interactions and other influence factors together. Finally, the experimental results prove that the proposed BPSOHS_ENN algorithm can detect the informative SNP-SNP interaction and predict the breast cancer risk with a much higher accuracy than existing methods. PMID:27294121

  14. Evolutionary neural networks for anomaly detection based on the behavior of a program.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Jun; Cho, Sung-Bae

    2006-06-01

    The process of learning the behavior of a given program by using machine-learning techniques (based on system-call audit data) is effective to detect intrusions. Rule learning, neural networks, statistics, and hidden Markov models (HMMs) are some of the kinds of representative methods for intrusion detection. Among them, neural networks are known for good performance in learning system-call sequences. In order to apply this knowledge to real-world problems successfully, it is important to determine the structures and weights of these call sequences. However, finding the appropriate structures requires very long time periods because there are no suitable analytical solutions. In this paper, a novel intrusion-detection technique based on evolutionary neural networks (ENNs) is proposed. One advantage of using ENNs is that it takes less time to obtain superior neural networks than when using conventional approaches. This is because they discover the structures and weights of the neural networks simultaneously. Experimental results with the 1999 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Intrusion Detection Evaluation (IDEVAL) data confirm that ENNs are promising tools for intrusion detection. PMID:16761810

  15. Separation of the attractive and repulsive contributions to the adsorbate-adsorbate interactions of polar adsorbates on Si(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ying-Hsiu; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Lin, Deng-Sung

    2015-11-01

    Dissociative adsorption of H2O, NH3, CH3OH and CH3NH2 polar molecules on the Si(100) surface results in a 1:1 mixture of two adsorbates (H and multi-atomic fragment A = OH, NH2, CH3O, CH3NH, respectively) on the surface. By using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the adsorption geometry, the total energies and the charge densities for various possible ordered structures of the mixed adsorbate layer have been found. Analyzing the systematic trends in the total energies unveils concurrently the nearest-neighbor interactions ENN and the next nearest-neighbor interactions ENNN between two polar adsorbates A. In going from small to large polar adsorbates, ENN's exhibit an attractive-to-repulsive crossover behavior, indicating that they include competing attractive and repulsive contributions. Exploration of the charge density distributions allows the estimation of the degree of charge overlapping between immediately neighboring A's, the resulting contribution of the steric repulsions, and that of the attractive interactions to the corresponding ENN's. The attractive contributions to nearest neighboring adsorbate-adsorbate interactions between the polar adsorbates under study are shown to result from hydrogen bonds or dipole-dipole interactions.

  16. Detecting Susceptibility to Breast Cancer with SNP-SNP Interaction Using BPSOHS and Emotional Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao; Fan, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Studies for the association between diseases and informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have received great attention. However, most of them just use the whole set of useful SNPs and fail to consider the SNP-SNP interactions, while these interactions have already been proven in biology experiments. In this paper, we use a binary particle swarm optimization with hierarchical structure (BPSOHS) algorithm to improve the effective of PSO for the identification of the SNP-SNP interactions. Furthermore, in order to use these SNP interactions in the susceptibility analysis, we propose an emotional neural network (ENN) to treat SNP interactions as emotional tendency. Different from the normal architecture, just as the emotional brain, this architecture provides a specific path to treat the emotional value, by which the SNP interactions can be considered more quickly and directly. The ENN helps us use the prior knowledge about the SNP interactions and other influence factors together. Finally, the experimental results prove that the proposed BPSOHS_ENN algorithm can detect the informative SNP-SNP interaction and predict the breast cancer risk with a much higher accuracy than existing methods. PMID:27294121

  17. Case study for the identification and evaluation of rainfall-runoff models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaleris, Vassilios; Langousis, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the modeling assumptions used in two rainfall-runoff models, namely the model ENNS (Nachtnebel et al., 1993) and the model MIKE SHE (http://www.dhigroup.com/), and study how those assumptions affect the effectiveness and quality of model fitting and runoff simulation. To avoid artificial effects caused by simplifications in the equations used in ENNS for the calculation of the outflow from two-outlet linear reservoirs, a new version of the ENNS code is developed that is fully compatible with the corresponding equations used in MIKE SHE. The two models are applied in a real-word case study, using 19-year long historical time-series of daily precipitation, temperature and runoff from Glafkos river basin. The latter is located near the city of Patras, in Peloponnese, Greece. Both models are manually calibrated using five years of the available data, whereas the remaining part of the data is used for model validation. The effectiveness of the models to simulate the runoff process is evaluated using (a) the relative model bias, (b) the criterion of Nash and Sutcliffe (N-S) and (c) the modified N-S-criterion calculated using the logarithmically or square root transformed observed and simulated flows. While both models describe the base- and inter-flow hydrological processes using the same conceptual model of linear reservoirs, they use different modeling assumptions to describe surface runoff and infiltration through the unsaturated zone. To that extent, the presented comparison sheds light to (a) the effectiveness of each modeling assumption to describe surface runoff and infiltration through the unsaturated zone, (b) the quality of model calibration, and (c) the optimality and robustness of the estimated parameters, common to the two models (thickness of the unsaturated zone, water content, field capacity, wilting point etc.). Differences in the simulated surface runoff, the infiltration and other runoff components, are not caused solely by the different

  18. Role of microbial iron reduction in the dissolution of iron hydroxysulfate minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, E.J.P.; Nadeau, T.-L.; Voytek, M.A.; Landa, E.R.

    2006-01-01

    Iron-hydroxysulfate minerals can be important hosts for metals such as lead, mercury, copper, zinc, silver, chromium, arsenic, and selenium and for radionuclides such as 226Ra. These mineral-bound contaminants are considered immobilized under oxic conditions. However, when anoxic conditions develop, the activities of sulfate- or iron-reducing bacteria could result in mineral dissolution, releasing these bound contaminants. Reduction of structural sulfate in the iron-hydroxysulfate mineral jarosite by sulfate-reducing bacteria has previously been demonstrated. The primary objective of this work was to evaluate the potential for anaerobic dissolution of the iron-hydroxysulfate minerals jarosite and schwertmannite at neutral PH by iron-reducing bacteria. Mineral dissolution was tested using a long-term cultivar, Geobacter metallireducens strain GS-15, and a fresh isolate Geobacter sp. strain ENN1, previously undescribed. ENN1 was isolated from the discharge site of Shadle Mine, in the southern anthracite coalfield of Pennsylvania, where schwertmannite was the predominant iron-hydroxysulfate mineral. When jarosite from Elizabeth Mine (Vermont) was provided as the sole terminal electron acceptor, resting cells of both G. metallireducens and ENN1 were able to reduce structural Fe(III), releasing Fe+2, SO4-2, and K+ ions. A lithified jarosite sample from Utah was more resistant to microbial attack, but slow release of Fe+2 was observed. Neither bacterium released Fe+2 from poorly crystalline synthetic schwertmannite. Our results indicate that exposure of jarosite to iron-reducing conditions at neutral pH is likely to promote the mobility of hazardous constituents and should therefore be considered in evaluating waste disposal and/or reclamation options involving jarosite-bearing materials.

  19. Skirted Cannula Technique for Apical Cannulation in Implantation of Centrimag Left Ventricular Assist Device.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ta-Chung; Tsai, Kuei-Ton; Hu, Chin-Yuan; Chen, Robert Jeen-Chen

    2016-06-01

    The CentriMag, an extracorporeal short-term ventricular assist device designed for treatment of patients with acute cardiogenic shock, is Conformité Européenne-marked in Europe for use up to 30 days. Extended use beyond the licensed period is not uncommon, however. We have developed a skirted cannula technique for apical cannulation in implantation of the Centrimag. This technique allows easy positioning of the cannula and excellent hemostasis. It also offers secure fixation of the cannula so that patients can ambulate and attend rehabilitation programs should extended use be anticipated. PMID:27211964

  20. Calibration of rainfall-runoff models: The effect of the temporal distribution of rainfall on uncertainties in model parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaleris, Vassilios; Kourakos, Vassilios; Langousis, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The temporal distribution of rainfall, which is used as input in rainfall-runoff simulations, determines (along with the model parameters) the form of the simulated hydrographs of the total runoff. Independent of the method used for the calibration of a rainfall-runoff model, the uncertainty in estimating the model parameters depends on the smoothness of the measured hydrographs. For instance, the estimation of those parameters that determine the recession limp of a hydrograph, which is relatively smooth, is less uncertain than the estimation of the parameters determining the peaks of a hydrograph. The smoothness of a runoff hydrograph mainly depends on the temporal distribution of rainfall, which enforces the runoff in the catchment. In this study we investigate the uncertainty in model parameter estimation with respect to the temporal distribution of rainfall. To do so we use smoothed rainfall distributions to study the efficiency of adaptive methods when calibrating rainfall-runoff models. The investigations are performed using the ENNS rainfall-runoff model (Nachtnebel et al., 1993), as follows: (a) The equations used in ENNS are written in dimensionless form to reduce the number of model parameters. (b) Starting with smooth rainfall distributions over the wet period of the year (e.g. uniform, sinusoidal or other distributions) and proceeding with measured distributions smoothed to different degrees, we investigate the sensitivity of the total runoff and its particular components to different model parameters. In this way we assess the effects of the temporal distribution of rainfall on the uncertainty in model parameter estimation. (c) We produce synthetic time series of rainfall smoothed to different degrees and, then, we select a set of model parameters to simulate runoff hydrographs using ENNS. Finally, we apply the uniform random sampling procedure (see e.g. Duan et al., 1992) to identify the parameter set that best approximates the simulated runoff

  1. Occurrence of 26 Mycotoxins in the Grain of Cereals Cultivated in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bryła, Marcin; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Podolska, Grażyna; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Damaziak, Krzysztof; Sułek, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    The levels of 26 mycotoxins were determined in 147 samples of the grain of cereals cultivated in five regions of Poland during the 2014 growing season. The HPLC-HRMS (time-of-flight) analytical technique was used. An analytical procedure to simultaneously determine 26 mycotoxins in grain was developed, tested and verified. Samples from eastern and southern Poland were more contaminated with mycotoxins than the samples from northern and western Poland. Toxins produced by Fusarium fungi were the main contaminants found. Some deoxynivalenol (DON) was found in 100% of the tested samples of wheat (Osiny, Borusowa, Werbkowice), triticale, winter barley and oats, while the maximum permissible DON level (as defined in the EU Commission Regulation No. 1881/2006) was exceeded in 10 samples. Zearalenone (ZEN), DON metabolites and enniatins were also commonly found. The presence of mycotoxins in grain reflected the prevailing weather conditions during the plant flowering/earing stages, which were favorable for the development of blight. Among all investigated wheat genotypes, cv. Fidelius was the least contaminated, while Bamberka, Forkida and Kampana were the most contaminated. However, the single-factor ANOVA analysis of variance did not reveal (at a statistical significance level α = 0.05) any differences between levels of mycotoxins in individual genotypes. Triticale was the most contaminated grain among all of the tested varieties. ZEN, DON and the sum of 3-acetyldexynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3- and 15-ADON) were found in 100% of the tested triticale samples at concentrations within the 4-86, 196-1326 and 36-374 µg·kg(-1) range, respectively. Of particular concern was the fact that some "emerging mycotoxins" (enniatins) (in addition to commonly-known and legally-regulated mycotoxins) were also found in the tested triticale samples (enniatin B (Enn-B), enniatin B1 (Enn-B1), enniatin A-1 (Enn-A1), 100% of samples, and enniatin A (Enn-A), 70% of samples

  2. Occurrence of 26 Mycotoxins in the Grain of Cereals Cultivated in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Bryła, Marcin; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Podolska, Grażyna; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Damaziak, Krzysztof; Sułek, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    The levels of 26 mycotoxins were determined in 147 samples of the grain of cereals cultivated in five regions of Poland during the 2014 growing season. The HPLC-HRMS (time-of-flight) analytical technique was used. An analytical procedure to simultaneously determine 26 mycotoxins in grain was developed, tested and verified. Samples from eastern and southern Poland were more contaminated with mycotoxins than the samples from northern and western Poland. Toxins produced by Fusarium fungi were the main contaminants found. Some deoxynivalenol (DON) was found in 100% of the tested samples of wheat (Osiny, Borusowa, Werbkowice), triticale, winter barley and oats, while the maximum permissible DON level (as defined in the EU Commission Regulation No. 1881/2006) was exceeded in 10 samples. Zearalenone (ZEN), DON metabolites and enniatins were also commonly found. The presence of mycotoxins in grain reflected the prevailing weather conditions during the plant flowering/earing stages, which were favorable for the development of blight. Among all investigated wheat genotypes, cv. Fidelius was the least contaminated, while Bamberka, Forkida and Kampana were the most contaminated. However, the single-factor ANOVA analysis of variance did not reveal (at a statistical significance level α = 0.05) any differences between levels of mycotoxins in individual genotypes. Triticale was the most contaminated grain among all of the tested varieties. ZEN, DON and the sum of 3-acetyldexynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3- and 15-ADON) were found in 100% of the tested triticale samples at concentrations within the 4–86, 196–1326 and 36–374 µg·kg−1 range, respectively. Of particular concern was the fact that some “emerging mycotoxins” (enniatins) (in addition to commonly-known and legally-regulated mycotoxins) were also found in the tested triticale samples (enniatin B (Enn-B), enniatin B1 (Enn-B1), enniatin A-1 (Enn-A1), 100% of samples, and enniatin A (Enn-A), 70% of

  3. Highlights of recent studies and future plans for the French human biomonitoring (HBM) programme.

    PubMed

    Fréry, Nadine; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Etchevers, Anne; Fillol, Clémence

    2012-02-01

    This manuscript presents highlights of recent studies and perspectives from the French human biomonitoring (HBM) programme. Until recently, HBM studies focused on specific populations or pollutants to gain a better understanding of exposure to environmental chemicals, to help regulators reduce environmental exposure and to monitor existing policies on specific concerns. Highlights of recent multicentre biomonitoring studies with specific population or pollutant focus are given. These French HBM studies have been implemented to know: (1) the influence of living near an incinerator on serum dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels, (2) the influence of consuming river fish contaminated by PCBs on serum PCBs of fishermen, and (3) the evolution of blood lead levels in children from 1 to 6 years old since 1995. Special emphasis is placed on the use of an integrated (HBM coupled with nutrition and health studies), multipollutant approach. This approach has been initiated in France with a recent national population-based biomonitoring survey, the Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé (ENNS; French Nutrition and Health Survey). This survey will provide the first reference distribution for 42 biomarkers in the French population. The current national HBM strategy will build upon the ENNS and include a national survey of people aged between 6 and 74 years complemented for the neonatal period and childhood by the Etude Longitudinale Française depuis l'Enfance (ELFE; French longitudinal study of children). France also contributes to the harmonization of HBM activities in Europe through participation in European HBM projects. PMID:21940210

  4. Computer-aided diagnosis system for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules in multi-stained FNAB cytological images.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Balasubramanian; Shanthi, Natesan

    2013-06-01

    An automated computer-aided diagnosis system is developed to classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules using multi-stained fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytological images. In the first phase, the image segmentation is performed to remove the background staining information and retain the appropriate foreground cell objects in cytological images using mathematical morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. Subsequently, statistical features are extracted using two-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposition, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor filter based methods. The classifiers k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), Elman neural network (ENN) and support vector machine (SVM) are tested for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The combination of watershed segmentation, GLCM features and k-NN classifier results a lowest diagnostic accuracy of 60 %. The highest diagnostic accuracy of 93.33 % is achieved by ENN classifier trained with the statistical features extracted by Gabor filter bank from the images segmented by morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. It is also observed that SVM classifier results its highest diagnostic accuracy of 90 % for DWT and Gabor filter based features along with morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. The experimental results suggest that the developed system with multi-stained thyroid FNAB images would be useful for identifying thyroid cancer irrespective of staining protocol used. PMID:23690210

  5. A systematic catalogue of butterflies of the former Soviet Union (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lituania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan) with special account to their type specimens (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea, Papilionoidea).

    PubMed

    Korb, Stanislav K; Bolshakov, Lavr V

    2016-01-01

    comma repugnans (Staudinger, 1892) = lena Korshunov et Gorbunov, 1995, syn.n.; Argynnis niobe orientalis Alphéraky, 1881 =ornata Staudinger, 1901, syn.n. =tanjusha Zhdanko, 2011, syn.n.; Boloria frigga gibsoni (Barnes & Benjamin, 1926) = kosarevi Korb, 2011, syn.n., B. erubescens houri Wyatt, 1961 =ancilla Churkin, 2004, syn.n.; Melitaea fergana maracandica Staudinger, 1882 = irinae Churkin, Kolesnichenko et Tremasov, 2012, syn.n.; M. asteroida clara Staudinger, 1887 =ludmilla Churkin, Kolesnichenko et Tuzov, 2000, syn.n.; Paralasa jordana jordana (Staudinger, 1882) =khramovi Churkin et Pletnev, 2012, syn.n.; P. jordana subocellata (Staudinger, 1901) =kipnisi Churkin et Pletnev, 2012, syn.n.; P. kusnezovi kusnezovi (Avinov, 1910) =bosbutaensis Churkin et Pletnev, 2012, syn.n.; Erebia meta Staudinger, 1886 =gertha Staudinger, 1886, syn.n.; Oeneis ammon ammon Elwes, 1899 =smirnovi Yakovlev, 2011, syn.n.; O. norna tundra A.Bang-Haas, 1912 =ivonini Yakovlev, 2011, syn.n.; Chazara briseis ianthe (Pallas, 1771) =lyrnessus Fruhstorfer, 1908, syn.n., Plebejides stekolnikovi (Stradomsky et Tikhonov, 2015), comb.n. PMID:27615908

  6. How does our search engine "see" the world? The case of amodal completion.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Jeremy M; Reijnen, Ester; Horowitz, Todd S; Pedersini, Riccardo; Pinto, Yair; Hulleman, Johan

    2011-05-01

    This article illustrates a dissociation between the perceived attributes of an object and the ability of those attributes to guide the deployment of attention in visual search. Orientation is an attribute that guides search. Thus, a vertical line will "pop out" amid horizontal distractors. Amodal completion can create perceptually convincing oriented stimuli when two elements appear to form a complete object partially hidden behind an occluder. Previous work (e.g., Rensink & Enns, Vision Research, 38, 2489-2505, 1998) has shown a preattentive role for amodal completion in search tasks. Here, we show that orientation based on perceptually compelling amodal completion may fail to guide attention. The broader conclusion is that introspection is a poor guide to the capabilities of our internal search engine. PMID:21331672

  7. 20. 'Erection Plan, Renewal of Bridge 210 C over Sacramento ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. 'Erection Plan, Renewal of Bridge 210 C over Sacramento River near Tehama, Calif., 3 140'-0' S. T. Riveted Thru Truss Spans, 17'-9' C. to C. Trusses, 31'-0' C. To C. Chords. U.S.S. P. Co. Pacific Coast Dept., Order No. SF 604, Southern Pacific Co., Order No. 51168-P-38428, 1925 Specifications, Scale in. ft., American Bridge Co., Ambridge Plant, Dwgs. made at Ambridge No. 5 in charge of Reehl, Detailed by W.F.R., Date, Checked by L.A.E., Date 1/5/29, Fld. conn. chk. by ENN, Date 3/9/29, Order No. F5659, Sheet No. E3.' - Southern Pacific Railroad Shasta Route, Bridge No. 210.52, Milepost 210.52, Tehama, Tehama County, CA

  8. The Ultimaster Biodegradable-Polymer Sirolimus-Eluting Stent: An Updated Review of Clinical Evidence.

    PubMed

    Chisari, Alberto; Pistritto, Anna Maria; Piccolo, Raffaele; La Manna, Alessio; Danzi, Gian Battista

    2016-01-01

    The Ultimaster coronary stent system (Terumo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) represents a new iteration in drug-eluting stent (DES) technology that has recently received the Conformité Européenne (CE) mark approval for clinical use. The Ultimaster is a thin-strut, cobalt chromium, biodegradable-polymer, sirolimus-eluting coronary stent. The high elasticity of the biodegradable-polymer (PDLLA-PCL) and the abluminal gradient coating technology are additional novel features of this coronary device. The Ultimaster DES has undergone extensive clinical evaluation in two studies: The CENTURY I and II trials. Results from these two landmark studies suggested an excellent efficacy and safety profile of the Ultimaster DES across several lesion and patient subsets, with similar clinical outcomes to contemporary, new-generation DES. The aim of this review is to summarize the rationale behind this novel DES technology and to provide an update of available evidence about the clinical performance of the Ultimaster DES. PMID:27608017

  9. Italian Exposition

    SciTech Connect

    2006-10-11

    Le DG parle dans son allocution à l'occasion de l'exposition (suivi d'une visite)de la contribution du Cern à la création d'une espace de la technologie européenne. Il parle de la manière comment organiser des formes fructueuses de coopération et coordination internationales dans ce domaine. "Afin de renforcer encore notre relation avec l'industrie et intensifier le transfert de la technologie nous proposerons au ministre de recherche de poursuivre dans le cadre du programme EUREKA ensemble avec les industries des programmes concrètes." Le ministre italien prend ensuite la parole.

  10. About SEFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruprecht, Robert

    SEFI stands for Société Européenne pour la Formation des Ingénieurs (European Society of Engineering Education). This society, founded in 1973, is presented on the background of European educational tradition. SEFI is one of two European societies dedicated to the question of engineering education. For a long time, SEFI represented rather the western and northern part of Europe, while its sister organization IGIP (Internationale Gesellschaft für Ingenieurpädagogik - International Society for Engineering Pedagogy) concentrated on Middle and Eastern Europe. Nowadays, the two societies are working together and cover more or less all of Europe. SEFI’s activities, outreach, links, projects, and prospects are described and characterized. SEFI is not just involved with didactical questions. The society also takes an active role in the shaping of the European landscape of engineering education being member or partner of in a number of societies and contributing actively to EU projects.

  11. The role of unique color changes and singletons in attention capture.

    PubMed

    von Mühlenen, Adrian; Conci, Markus

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that a sudden color change is typically less salient in capturing attention than the onset of a new object. Von Mühlenen, Rempel, and Enns (Psychological Science 16: 979-986, 2005) showed that a color change can capture attention as effectively as the onset of a new object given that it occurs during a period of temporal calm, where no other display changes happen. The current study presents a series of experiments that further investigate the conditions under which a change in color captures attention, by disentangling the change signal from the onset of a singleton. The results show that the item changing color receives attentional priority irrespective of whether this change goes along with the appearance of a singleton or not. PMID:27206553

  12. Paralysie flasque en début de grossesse: penser à l'hypokaliémie due aux vomissements gravidiques, à propos de deux observations dans un pays en voie de développement

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Maouly

    2015-01-01

    Les vomissements gravidiques peuvent être responsables de rares complications neuromusculaires mais graves notamment la paralysie hypokaliémique. Nous rapportons des observations de deux jeunes femmes d'origine guinéenne, sans histoires familiales ni antécédents particuliers, admises pour paralysie flasque des quatre membres dans un contexte de vomissements incoercibles en début de grossesse. Le bilan retrouvait une hypokaliémie majeure associée à quelques troubles électro-cardiographiques. L'apport de potassium par voie parentérale avait permis une récupération motrice totale. La paralysie hypokaliémique est une complication rare des vomissements gravidiques. Une supplémentation potassique prudente avec une surveillance électro-cardiographique et biologique permet une disparition spectaculaire des troubles neuromusculaires. PMID:26327956

  13. Human gait recognition based on compactness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2008-10-01

    Gait recognition is new biological identity technology and widely researched in recent years for its many advantages compared with other biological identity technology. In this paper, we propose a simple but effective feature-compactness for gait recognition. First an improved background subtraction algorithm is used to obtain the silhouettes. Then the compactness is extracted from the images in the gait sequence as the feature vector. In the step of classification, DTW algorithm is adopted to adjust the feature vectors before classifying and two classifiers (NN and ENN) are used as classifiers. Because of the simple features which we choose, it consumes little time for recognition and the results turn out to be encouraging.

  14. Italian Exposition

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le DG parle dans son allocution à l'occasion de l'exposition (suivi d'une visite)de la contribution du Cern à la création d'une espace de la technologie européenne. Il parle de la manière comment organiser des formes fructueuses de coopération et coordination internationales dans ce domaine. "Afin de renforcer encore notre relation avec l'industrie et intensifier le transfert de la technologie nous proposerons au ministre de recherche de poursuivre dans le cadre du programme EUREKA ensemble avec les industries des programmes concrètes." Le ministre italien prend ensuite la parole.

  15. Evidence for the interaction of the hereditary haemochromatosis protein, HFE, with the transferrin receptor in endocytic compartments.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Paige S; Zhang, An-Sheng; Anderson, Emily L; Roy, Cindy N; Lampson, Michael A; McGraw, Timothy E; Enns, Caroline A

    2003-01-01

    HFE, the protein mutated in hereditary haemochromatosis type 1, is known to interact with the transferrin receptor (TfR) on the cell surface and during endocytosis [Gross, Irrinki, Feder and Enns (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 22068-22074; Roy, Penny, Feder and Enns (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 9022-9028]. However, whether they are capable of interacting with each other once inside the cell is not known. In the present study we present several lines of evidence that they do interact in endosome compartments. Cells expressing a chimaera of HFE protein with the cytoplasmic domain of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) in place of its own (HFE-LAMP) show a decrease in the half-life of the TfR. This implies that the interaction between HFE and TfR in endosomes targets the TfR to lysosomal compartments. The interaction between TfR and HFE-LAMP was confirmed by immunoprecipitation, in addition to immunofluorescence studies. Addition of transferrin (Tf) to HFE-LAMP-expressing cells competes with HFE for binding to the TfR, thereby increasing the half-life of TfR and confirming that the HFE-LAMP-TfR complex reaches the cell surface prior to entering the endosomal vesicles and trafficking to the lysosome. These results raise the possibility that interaction of HFE and TfR in intracellular vesicles may play an important role in determining the function of HFE in iron homoeostasis, which is still unknown. Analysis of endosomal pH and the iron content of internalized Tf indicated that HFE does not appear to alter the unloading of iron from Tf in the endosome. PMID:12667138

  16. Levels and risk assessment of chemical contaminants in byproducts for animal feed in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Alicja; Granby, Kit; Eriksen, Folmer D; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Friis-Wandall, Søren; Simonsen, Yvonne; Broesbøl-Jensen, Birgitte; Bonnichsen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    With aim to provide information on chemical contaminants in byproducts in animal feed, the data from an official control by the Danish Plant Directorate during 1998-2009, were reviewed and several samples of citrus pulp and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) were additionally collected for analysis and risk assessment. The levels of contaminants in the samples from the official control were below maximum limits from EU regulations with only a few exceptions in the following groups; dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in fish-containing byproducts and dioxins in vegetable and animal fat, hydrogen cyanide in linseed, and cadmium in sunflowers. The levels of pesticides and mycotoxins in the additionally collected samples were below maximum limits. Enniatin B (ENN B) was present in all DDGS samples. The hypothetical cases of carry-over of contamination from these byproducts were designed assuming total absorption and accumulation of the ingested contaminant in meat and milk and high exposure (a byproduct formed 15-20% of the feed ration depending on the species). The risk assessment was refined based on literature data on metabolism in relevant animal species. Risk assessment of contaminants in byproducts is generally based on a worst-case approach, as data on carry-over of a contaminant are sparse. This may lead to erroneous estimation of health hazards. The presence of ENN B in all samples of DDGS indicates that potential impact of this emerging mycotoxin on feed and food safety deserves attention. A challenge for the future is to fill up gaps in toxicological databases and improve models for carry-over of contaminants. PMID:25190554

  17. PBPK and population modelling to interpret urine cadmium concentrations of the French population

    SciTech Connect

    Béchaux, Camille; Bodin, Laurent; Clémençon, Stéphan; Crépet, Amélie

    2014-09-15

    As cadmium accumulates mainly in kidney, urinary concentrations are considered as relevant data to assess the risk related to cadmium. The French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS) recorded the concentration of cadmium in the urine of the French population. However, as with all biomonitoring data, it needs to be linked to external exposure for it to be interpreted in term of sources of exposure and for risk management purposes. The objective of this work is thus to interpret the cadmium biomonitoring data of the French population in terms of dietary and cigarette smoke exposures. Dietary and smoking habits recorded in the ENNS study were combined with contamination levels in food and cigarettes to assess individual exposures. A PBPK model was used in a Bayesian population model to link this external exposure with the measured urinary concentrations. In this model, the level of the past exposure was corrected thanks to a scaling function which account for a trend in the French dietary exposure. It resulted in a modelling which was able to explain the current urinary concentrations measured in the French population through current and past exposure levels. Risk related to cadmium exposure in the general French population was then assessed from external and internal critical values corresponding to kidney effects. The model was also applied to predict the possible urinary concentrations of the French population in 2030 assuming there will be no more changes in the exposures levels. This scenario leads to significantly lower concentrations and consequently lower related risk. - Highlights: • Interpretation of urine cadmium concentrations in France • PBPK and Bayesian population modelling of cadmium exposure • Assessment of the historic time-trend of the cadmium exposure in France • Risk assessment from current and future external and internal exposure.

  18. Relationship between Fusarium spp. diversity and mycotoxin contents of mature grains in southern Belgium.

    PubMed

    Hellin, Pierre; Dedeurwaerder, Géraldine; Duvivier, Maxime; Scauflaire, Jonathan; Huybrechts, Bart; Callebaut, Alfons; Munaut, Françoise; Legrève, Anne

    2016-07-01

    Over a 4-year period (2010-13), a survey aiming at determining the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and their relations to mycotoxins in mature grains took place in southern Belgium. The most prevalent species were F. graminearum, F. avenaceum, F. poae and F. culmorum, with large variations between years and locations. An even proportion of mating type found for F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. cerealis and F. tricinctum is usually a sign of ongoing sexual recombination. In contrast, an unbalanced proportion of mating type was found for F. poae and no MAT1-2 allele was present in the F. langsethiae population. Genetic chemotyping indicates a majority of deoxynivalenol (DON)-producing strains in F. culmorum (78%, all 3-ADON producers) and F. graminearum (95%, mostly 15-ADON producers), while all F. cerealis strains belong to the nivalenol (NIV) chemotype. Between 2011 and 2013, DON, NIV, enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON) were found in each field in various concentrations. By comparison, beauvericin (BEA) was scarcely detected and T-2 toxin, zearalenone and α- and β-zearalenols were never detected. Principal component analysis revealed correlations of DON with F. graminearum, ENNs and MON with F. avenaceum and NIV with F. culmorum, F. cerealis and F. poae. BEA was associated with the presence of F. tricinctum and, to a lesser extent, with the presence of F. poae. The use of genetic chemotype data revealed that DON concentrations were mostly influenced by DON-producing strains of F. graminearum and F. culmorum, whereas the concentrations of NIV were influenced by the number of NIV-producing strains of both species added to the number of F. cerealis and F. poae strains. This study emphasises the need to pay attention to less-studied Fusarium spp. for future Fusarium head blight management strategies, as they commonly co-occur in the field and are associated with a broad spectrum of mycotoxins. PMID:27181458

  19. Terrestrial LiDAR monitoring of rock slope-channel coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R.; Blöthe, J. H.; Meyer, N. K.; Hoffmann, T.; Hoffert, H.; Kreiner, D.; Elverfeldt, K. V.

    2009-04-01

    In steep terrain, various types of landslides (e.g. rock falls, debris flows and slides) are important erosional processes which often have a major impact on fluvial systems. On the one hand, they may divert river channels to opposite slopes or even block entire river channels, leading to the formation of landslide-dammed lakes. On the other hand, rivers prepare or even trigger landslides by undercutting slopes, which again will have an impact on the river channel. Our focus is on two study areas. One of them, the Schlichem Valley, is located in the Swabian Alb (SW-Germany), a lower mountain range consisting of Jurassic sedimentary rocks forming a cuesta landscape. There, the focus is on a larger landslide complex which blocked the river Schlichem three times during the 18th century and which is still active. Recent activity, especially at the location where the landslide enters the fluvial system, is investigated using Terrestrial LiDAR monitoring. The second study area is located in the Gesaeuse National Park in the Austrian Alps. There, various geomorphic environments are investigated by Terrestrial LiDAR including a vertical rock face in Dachstein limestone, which talus slope is directly coupled to the river Enns. The talus slope is built up by rock fall deposits, eroded mainly through smaller debris flow events. Furthermore, the talus slope is undercut by flood events of the river Enns. In this study a concept and first results are presented. They suggest how rock slope processes and their interactions with river channels can be monitored.

  20. Fluvial terrace gravels of the "Hochterrasse" (N-Alpine Foreland, Austria): luminescence characteristics of quartz and feldspar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickel, L.; Lomax, J.; Fiebig, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Northern Alpine Foreland has played a major role in the investigation of glacial and furthermore paleo-climatic events. It was at the beginning of the 20th century, when Albrecht Penck developed the idea of four big alpine glaciations which extended into the alpine foreland. He developed the model of the glacial series in which he correlated terminal moraines with distinguishable terrace bodies. In the case of the fluvial sediments of the Hochterrasse (correlated with marine isotope stage (MIS) 6 in Austrian geological maps) the existence of numerical ages in the Austrian Alpine Foreland is sparse. This study is aimed at shedding light on the luminescence properties of quartz and feldspar derived from Hochterrasse systems in foreland valleys (Traun, Enns and Ybbs valley) so far attributed to the penultimate glaciation. Coarse grain (100-200 µm) K-feldspar and quartz are analyzed by Infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL), post-Infrared Infrared stimulated luminescence (pIRIR) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) methods. One of the issues that arise when dating glaciofluvial quartz from this area is the apparent underestimation of the quartz ages which can vary up to 50% from the calculated IRSL ages. Linearly modulated OSL shows a big contribution of thermally unstable components to the overall equivalent dose (De) which can add to the general underestimation of quartz. Also the measurement of feldspar aliquots is anything but trivial. Luminescence signal intensities are very viable for the samples from the Enns and Traun valley. The samples derived from the Ybbs valley in contrast show very low feldspar signal intensities on most aliquots. Thermal transfer has shown to have negligible impact on the overall paleodose for the feldspar samples (maximum 1% of the paleodose attributed to thermal transfer). In contrast anomalous fading seems to be affecting all feldspar samples. However an assessment of the amount of signal loss in time is difficult to

  1. Non-Immune Binding of Human IgG to M-Related Proteins Confers Resistance to Phagocytosis of Group A Streptococci in Blood

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, Harry S.; Li, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The non-immune binding of immunoglobulins by bacteria is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of infections. M-related proteins (Mrp) are group A streptococcal (GAS) receptors for immunoglobulins, but it is not known if this binding has any impact on virulence. To further investigate the binding of immunoglobulins to Mrp, we engineered mutants of an M type 4 strain of GAS by inactivating the genes for mrp, emm, enn, sof, and sfbX and tested these mutants in IgG-binding assays. Inactivation of mrp dramatically decreased the binding of human IgG, whereas inactivation of emm, enn, sof, and sfbx had only minor effects, indicating that Mrp is a major IgG-binding protein. Binding of human immunoglobulins to a purified, recombinant form of Mrp indicated that it selectively binds to the Fc domain of human IgG, but not IgA or IgM and that it preferentially bound subclasses IgG1>IgG4>IgG2>IgG3. Recombinant proteins encompassing different regions of Mrp were engineered and used to map its IgG-binding domain to its A-repeat region and a recombinant protein with 3 A-repeats was a better inhibitor of IgG binding than one with a single A-repeat. A GAS mutant expressing Mrp with an in-frame deletion of DNA encoding the A-repeats had a dramatically reduced ability to bind human IgG and to grow in human blood. Mrp exhibited host specificity in binding IgG; human IgG was the best inhibitor of the binding of IgG followed by pig, horse, monkey, and rabbit IgG. IgG from goat, mouse, rat, cow, donkey, chicken, and guinea pig were poor inhibitors of binding. These findings indicate that Mrp preferentially binds human IgG and that this binding contributes to the ability of GAS to resist phagocytosis and may be a factor in the restriction of GAS infections to the human host. PMID:24205299

  2. Universality and scaling in the N-body sector of Efimov physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattobigio, Mario

    2014-05-01

    In this talk I will illustrate the universal behavior that we have found inside the window of Efimov physics for systems made of N <= 6 particles. We have solved the Schrödinger equation of the few-body systems using different potentials, and we have changed the potential parameters in such a way to explore a range of two-body scattering length, a, around the unitary limit, | a | --> ∞ . The ground- (EN0) and excited-state (EN1) energies have been analyzed by means of a recent-developed method which allows to remove finite-range effects. In this way we show that the calculated ground- and excited-state energies collapse over the same universal curve obtained in the zero-range three-body systems. Universality and scaling are reminiscent of critical phenomena; in that framework, the critical point is mapped onto a fixed point of the Renormalization Group (RG) where the system displays scale-invariant (SI) symmetry. A consequence of SI symmetry is the scaling of the observables: for different materials, in the same class of universality, a selected observable can be represented as a function of the control parameter and, provided that both the observable and the control parameter are scaled by some material-dependent factor, all representations collapse onto a single universal curve. Efimov physics is a more recent example of universality, but in this case the physics is governed by a limit cycle on the RG flow with the emergence of a discrete scale invariance (DSI). The scaling of the few-body energies can be interpreted as follow: few-body systems (at least up to N = 6), inside the Efimov window, belong to the same class of universality, which is governed by the limit cycle. These results can be summarized by the following formula ENn/E2 =tan2 ξκNnaB +ΓNn = e- Δ (ξ) / 2s0 cosξ . where the function Δ (ξ) is universal and it is determined by the three-body physics, and s0 = 1 . 00624 . The parameter κNn appears as a scale parameter and the shift ΓnN is a

  3. Explicit Relations of Physical Potentials Through Generalized Hypervirial and Kramers' Recurrence Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guo-Hua; Dong, Shi-Hai

    2015-06-01

    Based on a Hamiltonian identity, we study one-dimensional generalized hypervirial theorem, Blanchard-like (non-diagonal case) and Kramers' (diagonal case) recurrence relations for arbitrary xκ which is independent of the central potential V(x). Some significant results in diagonal case are obtained for special κ in xκ (κ ≥ 2). In particular, we find the orthogonal relation = δn1n2 (κ = 0), = (En1 - En2)2 (κ = 1), En = + (κ = 2) and -4En| x|n> + + 4 = 0 (κ = 3). The latter two formulas can be used directly to calculate the energy levels. We present useful explicit relations for some well known physical potentials without requiring the energy spectra of quantum system. Supported in part by Project 20150964-SIP-IPN, COFAA-IPN, Mexico

  4. Newer-generation ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shvetank; High, Kane M

    2012-06-01

    The latest generation of ventricular assist devices has evolved from the pulsatile, volume-displacement pumps of the 1990s to today's non-pulsatile, constant pressure-generating rotary pumps. These pumps include both centrifugal and axial flow devices that are currently being used or are in advanced development. Rotary pumps have the advantage of a much longer and more reliable duty life than pulsatile pumps. They are also considerably smaller than pulsatile pumps, requiring less invasive surgery for implantation and smaller transcutaneous (electrical rather than pneumatic) drivelines. Most of these devices have been approved as a bridge to transplant (BTT) while some are currently in trials for destination therapy (DT) in Europe (Conformité Européenne (CE) mark) or the United States (Food and Drug Administration (FDA)). This article discusses the current generation of pumps, examining particular design features as highlighted by the designers as well as the current approval status of each device in the United States and Europe. PMID:22910085

  5. Two Invaders Instead of One: The True Identity of Species under the Name Ceracis cucullatus (Coleoptera: Ciidae)

    PubMed Central

    Antunes-Carvalho, Caio; Lopes-Andrade, Cristiano

    2013-01-01

    The Neotropical obligate fungivorous beetle Ceracis cucullatus (Mellié) has attracted attention of coleopterists due to the increasing number of records of populations in Africa. Although its disjunct populations have been interpreted as a cohesive taxonomic unity, previous comparisons between African and Neotropical specimens revealed differences in their external morphology, causing uncertainty about the true unity of the species. Here, we compare the external morphology of specimens named Cer. cucullatus from several localities of the Neotropical, Palearctic, Afrotropical, Afrotemperate and Oriental regions. As results, we reverse three previous junior synonymies of Cer. cucullatus, proposing Cer. lamellatus (Pic) and Cer. tabellifer (Mellié), both reinstated status and new combinations, as separate species. We also propose Enn. bilamellatum Pic as a new synonym of Cer. tabellifer. In face of these taxonomic changes, we identify Cer. tabellifer as the actual invasive species on African lands, instead of Cer. cucullatus as was previously accepted. Then, through historical records gathered from scientific collections and literature, and through examination of recently collected specimens from South Africa and Brazil, we provide data on host fungi and geographic distribution of Cer. tabellifer. Based on these data, we discuss possible explanations to the successful invasion of Cer. tabellifer in Africa and elsewhere and its potential threat to native faunas of ciids. This study helps to fulfil an old gap in the literature on biological invasions, with considerably more studies on predatory species, disease vectors or potential pests of agricultural crops, than on non-pest fungivorous organisms. PMID:24015233

  6. Success Stories in Control: Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John T.

    2010-01-01

    NASA plays an important role in advancing the state of the art in flight control systems. In the case of Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) NASA supported initial implementation of the theory in an aircraft and demonstration in a space vehicle. Dr. Dale Enns of Honeywell Aerospace Advanced Technology performed this work in cooperation with NASA and under NASA contract. Honeywell and Lockheed Martin were subsequently contracted by AFRL to create "Design Guidelines for Multivariable Control Theory". This foundational work directly contributed to the advancement of the technology and the credibility of the control law as a design option. As a result Honeywell collaborated with Lockheed Martin to produce a Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion controller for the X-35 and subsequently Lockheed Martin did the same for the production Lockheed Martin F-35 vehicle. The theory behind NDI is to use a systematic generalized approach to controlling a vehicle. Using general aircraft nonlinear equations of motion and onboard aerodynamic, mass properties, and engine models specific to the vehicle, a relationship between control effectors and desired aircraft motion can be formulated. Using this formulation a control combination is used that provides a predictable response to commanded motion. Control loops around this formulation shape the response as desired and provide robustness to modeling errors. Once the control law is designed it can be used on a similar class of vehicle with only an update to the vehicle specific onboard models.

  7. The measurement error analysis when a pitot probe is used in supersonic air flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, XiWen; Hao, PengFei; Yao, ZhaoHui

    2011-04-01

    Pitot probes enable a simple and convenient way of measuring mean velocity in air flow. The contrastive numerical simulation between free supersonic airflow and pitot tube at different positions in supersonic air flow was performed using Navier-Stokes equations, the ENN scheme with time-dependent boundary conditions (TDBC) and the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The physical experimental results including pitot pressure and shadowgraph are also presented. Numerical results coincide with the experimental data. The flow characteristics of the pitot probe on the supersonic flow structure show that the measurement gives actually the total pressure behind the detached shock wave by using the pitot probe to measure the total pressure. The measurement result of the distribution of the total pressure can still represent the real free jet flow. The similar features of the intersection and reflection of shock waves can be identified. The difference between the measurement results and the actual ones is smaller than 10%. When the pitot probe is used to measure the region of L=0-4 D, the measurement is smaller than the real one due to the increase of the shock wave strength. The difference becomes larger where the waves intersect. If the pitot probe is put at L=8 D-10 D, where the flow changes from supersonic to subsonic, the addition of the pitot probe turns the original supersonic flow region subsonic and causes bigger measurement errors.

  8. Recent achievements with a cryogenic ultra-lightweighted HB-Cesic mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krödel, Matthias R.; Hofbauer, Peter; Devilliers, Christophe; Sodnik, Zoran; Robert, Patrick

    2010-07-01

    During the past two years, ECM, Germany, together with Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO), Japan, developed a new carbon-fiber-reinforced SiC material, called HB-Cesic®, which possesses superior mechanical and thermal cryogenic properties compared to traditional Cesic®. This combination makes HB-Cesic® an excellent choice for large cryogenic mirrors, which will be required for future scientific space missions, such as SPICA and DARWIN. ESA contracted Thales Alenia Space (TAS), France, to design a super-lightweighted HB-Cesic® mirror with a diameter of 600 mm, isostatic fixations, and a special astigmatism compensation device (ACD) for mirror shape control. The mirror was manufactured by ECM, polished and coated by Société Européenne de Systèmes Optiques (SESO), France, and tested to cryogenic temperatures by TAS. The measured wave-front error at ambient and cryogenic temperatures demonstrated the excellent homogeneity of HB-Cesic® and TAS' expertise in mirror mounting. Furthermore, when thermally actuated, the ACD exhibited perfect control of the mirror shape. This success confirmed HB-Cesic®'s superior material properties and its applicability to future cryogenic space mirrors. In this paper we describe the design and fabrication process of this cryogenic mirror and give test results at ambient and cryogenic temperatures.

  9. Identification and expression of the Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin gene.

    PubMed

    Lally, E T; Kieba, I R; Demuth, D R; Rosenbloom, J; Golub, E E; Taichman, N S; Gibson, C W

    1989-02-28

    The leukotoxin produced by the oral bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans has been implicated in the pathogenesis of juvenile periodontitis. In order to elucidate the structure of the leukotoxin, molecular cloning of the leukotoxin gene was carried out. A DNA library of A. actinomycetemcomitans, strain JP2, was constructed by partial digestion of genomic DNA with Sau3AI and ligation of 0.5 to 5.0 kilobase pair fragments into the Bam HI site of the plasmid vector pENN-vrf. After transformation into E. coli RR1 (lambda cI857), the clones were screened for the production of A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin with polyclonal antibody. Six immunoreactive clones were identified. The clones expressed proteins which ranged from 21-80 kilodaltons, and the clone designated pII-2, producing the largest protein was selected for further study. Antibodies eluted from immobilized pII-2 protein also recognized the native A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin molecule indicating that both molecules shared at least one epitope. DNA sequence analysis demonstrated that there are regions of significant amino acid sequence homology between the cloned A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin and two other cytolysins, Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin and Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin, suggesting that a family of cytolysins may exist which share a common mechanism of killing but vary in their target cell specificity. PMID:2647082

  10. Pendra goes Dutch: lessons for the CE mark in Europe.

    PubMed

    Wentholt, I M E; Hoekstra, J B L; Zwart, A; DeVries, J H

    2005-06-01

    The development of a truly non-invasive continuous glucose sensor is an elusive goal. We describe the rise and fall of the Pendra device. In 2000 the company Pendragon Medical introduced a truly non-invasive continuous glucose-monitoring device. This system was supposed to work through so-called impedance spectroscopy. Pendra was Conformité Européenne (CE) approved in May 2003. For a short time the Pendra was available on the Dutch direct-to-consumer market. A post-marketing reliability study was performed in six type 1 diabetes patients. Mean absolute difference between Pendra glucose values and values obtained through self-monitoring of blood glucose was 52%; the Pearson's correlation coefficient was 35.1%; and a Clarke error grid showed 4.3% of the Pendra readings in the potentially dangerous zone E. We argue that the CE certification process for continuous glucose sensors should be made more transparent, and that a consensus on specific requirements for continuous glucose sensors is needed to prevent patient exposure to potentially dangerous situations. PMID:15871008

  11. Recyclable chemosensor for oxalate based on bimetallic complexes of a dinucleating bis(iminopyridine) ligand.

    PubMed

    Beattie, J W; White, D S; Bheemaraju, A; Martin, P D; Groysman, S

    2014-06-01

    Herein we describe bimetallic di-nickel and di-copper complexes [Ni2(L)Br4] (1) and [Cu2(L)Br4(NCMe)2] (2) (L = (1E,1'E)-N,N'-(1,4-phenylenebis(methylene))bis(1-(6-(2,4,6-triisopropylphenyl)pyridin-2-yl)methanimine)) that bind oxalate intramolecularly to form [Ni2(L)Br2(C2O4)(NCMe)] (3) and [Cu2(L)Br2(C2O4)] (4). For the di-nickel complex 1, oxalate incorporation is accompanied by a significant colour change, from red-pink (1) to deep green (3). Mass spectrometric experiments demonstrate that the compound 1 is selective for oxalate versus related mono- and di-carboxylates tested. Oxalate can be released by the addition of slight excess of calcium bromide that forms insoluble calcium oxalate and restores the original Ni2(L)Br4 species. The product of the oxalate release was crystallized as [Ni2(L)Br4]·CaBr2(THF)4 species. PMID:24715149

  12. Negative congruency effects: a test of the inhibition account.

    PubMed

    Kiesel, Andrea; Berner, Michael P; Kunde, Wilfried

    2008-03-01

    Masked priming experiments occasionally revealed surprising effects: Participants responded slower for congruent compared to incongruent primes. This negative congruency effect (NCE) was ascribed to inhibition of prime-induced activation [Eimer, M., & Schlaghecken, F. (2003). Response faciliation and inhibition in subliminal priming. Biological Psychology, 64, 7-26.] that sets in if the prime activation is sufficiently strong. The current study tests this assumption by implementing manipulations designed to vary the amount of prime-induced activation in three experiments. In Experiments 1 and 3, NCEs were observed despite reduced prime-induced activation. Experiment 2 revealed no NCE with at least similar prime strength. Thus, the amount of prime activation did not predict whether or not NCEs occurred. The findings are discussed with regard to the inhibition account and the recently proposed account of mask-induced activation [cf. Lleras, A., & Enns, J. T. (2004). Negative compatibility or object updating? A cautionary tale of mask-dependent priming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133, 475-493; Verleger, R., Jaskowski, P., Aydemir, A., van der Lubbe, R. H. J., & Groen, M. (2004). Qualitative differences between conscious and nonconscious processing? On inverse priming induced by masked arrows. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133, 494-515]. PMID:17188514

  13. An Intelligent Ensemble Neural Network Model for Wind Speed Prediction in Renewable Energy Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ranganayaki, V.; Deepa, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    Various criteria are proposed to select the number of hidden neurons in artificial neural network (ANN) models and based on the criterion evolved an intelligent ensemble neural network model is proposed to predict wind speed in renewable energy applications. The intelligent ensemble neural model based wind speed forecasting is designed by averaging the forecasted values from multiple neural network models which includes multilayer perceptron (MLP), multilayer adaptive linear neuron (Madaline), back propagation neural network (BPN), and probabilistic neural network (PNN) so as to obtain better accuracy in wind speed prediction with minimum error. The random selection of hidden neurons numbers in artificial neural network results in overfitting or underfitting problem. This paper aims to avoid the occurrence of overfitting and underfitting problems. The selection of number of hidden neurons is done in this paper employing 102 criteria; these evolved criteria are verified by the computed various error values. The proposed criteria for fixing hidden neurons are validated employing the convergence theorem. The proposed intelligent ensemble neural model is applied for wind speed prediction application considering the real time wind data collected from the nearby locations. The obtained simulation results substantiate that the proposed ensemble model reduces the error value to minimum and enhances the accuracy. The computed results prove the effectiveness of the proposed ensemble neural network (ENN) model with respect to the considered error factors in comparison with that of the earlier models available in the literature. PMID:27034973

  14. Attentional distractor interference may be diminished by concurrent working memory load in normal participants and traumatic brain injury patients.

    PubMed

    Gil-Gómez de Liaño, Beatriz; Umiltà, Carlo; Stablum, Franca; Tebaldi, Francesca; Cantagallo, Anna

    2010-12-01

    A reduction in congruency effects under working memory (WM) load has been previously described using different attentional paradigms (e.g., Kim, Kim, & Chun, 2005; Smilek, Enns, Eastwood, & Merikle, 2006). One hypothesis is that different types of WM load have different effects on attentional selection, depending on whether a specific memory load demands resources in common with target or distractor processing. In particular, if information in WM is related to the distractors in the selective attention task, there is a reduction in distraction (Kim et al., 2005). However, although previous results seem to point to a decrease in interference under high WM load conditions (Kim et al., 2005), the lack of a neutral baseline for the congruency effects makes it difficult to differentiate between a decrease in interference or in facilitation. In the present work we included neutral trials in the task introduced by Kim et al. (2005) and tested normal participants and traumatic brain injury patients. Results support a reduction in the processing of distractors under WM load, at least for incongruent trials in both groups. Theoretical as well as applied implications are discussed. PMID:20846773

  15. Maladie de kaposi classique avec atteinte surrénalienne: un nouveau cas

    PubMed Central

    Bouzidi, Hanae; Gallouj, Salim; Krich, Sanae; Mernissi, Fatima Zahra

    2014-01-01

    La maladie de kaposi est une pathologie connue généralement dans sa forme épidémique associée au sida ou celle endémique présente dans l'Afrique subsaharienne. La forme classique de cette maladie ou dite également méditerranéenne n'est pas bien connue étant assez rare. Elle touche les hommes âgés HIV séronégatifs originaires de l'Europe centrale, l'Europe de l'Est et les méditerranéens. Elle se manifeste essentiellement par une atteinte cutanée, éventuellement muqueuse mais l'atteinte viscérale reste moins fréquente, dominée par l'atteinte osseuse, pulmonaire et gastrique. La localisation surrénalienne est inhabituelle et très rare. Nous rapportons ce nouveau cas pour mettre le point sur cette pathologie rare et signaler cette localisation atypique. PMID:25170378

  16. Intelligent complementary sliding-mode control for LUSMS-based X-Y-theta motion control stage.

    PubMed

    Lin, Faa-Jeng; Chen, Syuan-Yi; Shyu, Kuo-Kai; Liu, Yen-Hung

    2010-07-01

    An intelligent complementary sliding-mode control (ICSMC) system using a recurrent wavelet-based Elman neural network (RWENN) estimator is proposed in this study to control the mover position of a linear ultrasonic motors (LUSMs)-based X-Y-theta motion control stage for the tracking of various contours. By the addition of a complementary generalized error transformation, the complementary sliding-mode control (CSMC) can efficiently reduce the guaranteed ultimate bound of the tracking error by half compared with the slidingmode control (SMC) while using the saturation function. To estimate a lumped uncertainty on-line and replace the hitting control of the CSMC directly, the RWENN estimator is adopted in the proposed ICSMC system. In the RWENN, each hidden neuron employs a different wavelet function as an activation function to improve both the convergent precision and the convergent time compared with the conventional Elman neural network (ENN). The estimation laws of the RWENN are derived using the Lyapunov stability theorem to train the network parameters on-line. A robust compensator is also proposed to confront the uncertainties including approximation error, optimal parameter vectors, and higher-order terms in Taylor series. Finally, some experimental results of various contours tracking show that the tracking performance of the ICSMC system is significantly improved compared with the SMC and CSMC systems. PMID:20639156

  17. Astronomical Books and Charts in the Book of Bibliographie Coreenne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ki-Won; Yang, Hong-Jin; Park, Myeong-Gu

    2008-06-01

    We investigate astronomical materials listed in the book of Bibliographie Coréenne written by Maurice Courant. He classified ancient Korean books into nine Divisions (?) and thirty six Classes (?), and published them as three volumes (ranging from 1894 to 1896) and one supplement (in 1901). In total, 3,821 books including astronomical ones are listed together with information on physical size, possessional place, bibliographical note, and so forth. Although this book is an essential one in the field of Korea bibliography and contains many astronomical materials such as Cheon-Mun-Ryu-Cho ????, Si-Heon-Seo ??????, and Cheon-Sang-Yeol-Cha-Bun-Ya-Ji-Do ????????, it has not been well known to the public nor to astronomical society. Of 3,821 catalogues, we found that about 50 Items (?) are related to astronomy or astrology, and verified that most ! of them are located in the Kyujanggak Royal Library ???. We also found an unknown astronomical chart, Hon-Cheon-Chong-Seong-Yeol-Cha-Bun-Ya-Ji-Do ??????????. Because those astronomical materials are not well known to international astronomical community and there have been few studies on the materials in Korea, we here introduce and review them, particularly with the astronomical viewpoint.

  18. An Intelligent Ensemble Neural Network Model for Wind Speed Prediction in Renewable Energy Systems.

    PubMed

    Ranganayaki, V; Deepa, S N

    2016-01-01

    Various criteria are proposed to select the number of hidden neurons in artificial neural network (ANN) models and based on the criterion evolved an intelligent ensemble neural network model is proposed to predict wind speed in renewable energy applications. The intelligent ensemble neural model based wind speed forecasting is designed by averaging the forecasted values from multiple neural network models which includes multilayer perceptron (MLP), multilayer adaptive linear neuron (Madaline), back propagation neural network (BPN), and probabilistic neural network (PNN) so as to obtain better accuracy in wind speed prediction with minimum error. The random selection of hidden neurons numbers in artificial neural network results in overfitting or underfitting problem. This paper aims to avoid the occurrence of overfitting and underfitting problems. The selection of number of hidden neurons is done in this paper employing 102 criteria; these evolved criteria are verified by the computed various error values. The proposed criteria for fixing hidden neurons are validated employing the convergence theorem. The proposed intelligent ensemble neural model is applied for wind speed prediction application considering the real time wind data collected from the nearby locations. The obtained simulation results substantiate that the proposed ensemble model reduces the error value to minimum and enhances the accuracy. The computed results prove the effectiveness of the proposed ensemble neural network (ENN) model with respect to the considered error factors in comparison with that of the earlier models available in the literature. PMID:27034973

  19. Physical and rehabilitation medicine section and board of the European Union of Medical Specialists. Community context; history of European medical organizations; actions under way.

    PubMed

    De Korvin, G; Delarque, A

    2009-01-01

    The European Community is based on a series of treaties and legal decisions, which result from preliminary documents prepared long before by different organizations and lobbies. The European union of medical specialists (Union européenne des médecins specialists [UEMS]) came into being in order to address the questions raised by European directives (e.g., free circulation of people and services, reciprocal recognition of diplomas, medical training, quality improvements). The specialty sections of the UEMS contribute actively to this work. The physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) section is composed of three committees: the PRM board is devoted to initial and continuing education and has published a harmonized teaching programme and organized a certification procedure, which can be considered as a European seal of quality; the Clinical Affairs Committee is concerned with the quality of PRM care, and it has set up a European accreditation system for PRM programs of care, which will help to describe PRM clinical activity more concretely; and the Professional Practice Committee works on the fields of competence in our specialty. This third committee has already published a White Book, and further documents are being prepared, based on both the International classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and reference texts developed by the French Federation of PRM. PMID:19709941

  20. l- and n-changing collisions during interaction of a pulsed beam of Li Rydberg atoms with CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubreuil, B.; Harnafi, M.

    1989-07-01

    The pulsed Li atomic beam produced in our experiment is based on controlled transversely-excited-atmospheric CO2 laser-induced ablation of a Li metal target. The atomic beam is propagated in vacuum or in CO2 gas at low pressure. Atoms in the beam are probed by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. This allows the determination of time-of-flight and velocity distributions. Li Rydberg states (n=5-13) are populated in the beam by two-step pulsed-laser excitation. The excited atoms interact with CO2 molecules. l- and n-changing cross sections are deduced from the time evolution of the resonant or collision-induced fluorescence following this selective excitation. l-changing cross sections of the order of 104 AṦ are measured; they increase with n as opposed to the plateau observed for Li* colliding with a diatomic molecule. This behavior is qualitatively well explained in the framework of the free-electron model. n-->n' changing processes with large cross sections (10-100 AṦ) are also observed even in the case of large electronic energy change (ΔEnn'>103 cm-1). These results can be interpreted in terms of resonant-electronic to vibrational energy transfers between Li Rydberg states and CO2 vibrational modes.

  1. Visual texture segregation by the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Tomonaga, M

    1999-03-01

    One adult male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) was trained to detect a target area consisting of texture elements from the background texture made of the different elements from the target area. The subject was given eight different stimulus conditions. In Condition 1, segregation was based on the difference of local feature of elements but not on global similarity. Conditions 2-3 investigated the effects of the number of terminators, which was considered as 'textons' in human texture perception. The chimpanzee showed better performance when the discrimination can be based on the difference of the number of terminators. This tendency, however, was reversed when the local salient feature (length of shorter lines) was enhanced, as in Enns' [15] study with humans as subjects. The subject showed asymmetries in segregation performance when discriminating based on gap (Conditions 4-5), line length (Condition 6), and regularity of line arrangement (Condition 7). Observed asymmetries were consistent with humans and with visual search asymmetries. The performance of texture segregation by the chimpanzee was consistent with humans, and the texture segregation is one of the useful tasks for comparative study of early vision as well as visual search task. PMID:10512587

  2. Attentional gating models of object substitution masking.

    PubMed

    Põder, Endel

    2013-11-01

    Di Lollo, Enns, and Rensink (2000) proposed the computational model of object substitution (CMOS) to explain their experimental results with sparse visual maskers. This model supposedly is based on reentrant hypotheses testing in the visual system, and the modeled experiments are believed to demonstrate these reentrant processes in human vision. In this study, I analyze the main assumptions of this model. I argue that CMOS is a version of the attentional gating model and that its relationship with reentrant processing is rather illusory. The fit of this model to the data indicates that reentrant hypotheses testing is not necessary for the explanation of object substitution masking (OSM). Further, the original CMOS cannot predict some important aspects of the experimental data. I test 2 new models incorporating an unselective processing (divided attention) stage; these models are more consistent with data from OSM experiments. My modeling shows that the apparent complexity of OSM can be reduced to a few simple and well-known mechanisms of perception and memory. PMID:23106303

  3. Distributed precipitation corrections in Alpine areas for a real-time flood forecasting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrnegger, Mathew; Senoner, Tobias; Nachtnebel, Hans-Peter

    2014-05-01

    This contribution presents a method for estimating spatial and temporal distributed precipitation correction factors. The approach is applied for a flood forecasting model in the Upper Enns and Upper Mur catchments in the Central Austrian Alps. Precipitation exhibits a large spatio-temporal variability in Alpine areas. Additionally the density of the monitoring network is low and measurements are subjected to major errors. This can lead to significant deficits in stream flow simulations, e.g. for flood forecasting models. Therefore precipitation correction factors are frequently applied. These correction factors are however mostly applied for whole catchments in a lumped manor, neglecting, that the magnitude of precipitation errors are spatially distributed. For the presented study a multiplicative linear correction model is therefore implemented, which enables a distribution of the correction factors as a function of elevation. The applied rainfall-runoff model COSERO is set up with a spatial resolution of 1x1km2. The correction of the rainfall pattern is thereby applied for every grid cell. To account for the local meteorological conditions, the correction model is derived for two elevation zones: (1) Valley floors to 2000 m a.s.l. and (2) above 2000 m a.s.l. to mountain peaks. Measurement errors also depend on the precipitation type, with higher magnitudes in winter months during snow fall. Therefore additionally separate correction factors for winter and summer months are estimated. The parameters for the correction model are estimated for every catchment based on independent station observations and observed and simulated runoff of the conceptual rainfall-runoff model. As driving input the INCA-precipitation fields of the Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) are used. Due to the mentioned errors, these precipitation fields are corrected according to the described method. The results show a significant improvement of the simulated

  4. Research and Innovation of Engineering Education in Europe the contribution of SEFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graaff, Erik De; Borri, Claudio

    The roots of engineering education lie in the workplace. It was not until the 19th century that higher engineering education moved to a more scholarly environment. True to its origins, research in the applied sciences never aimed at pure understanding alone. The goal of engineering investigations has always been to devise solutions to practice problems with a mixture of design, construction and innovation. If the establishing of a research tradition in engineering has taken quite a long time, the time needed to apply an academic mode of thinking to the approach to teaching and learning has been much longer. In fact, most of the design choices concerning the curricula in higher engineering education were made based on intuition, rather than on insight, until well over the half of the last century. Aiming at to support the development of engineering education in Europe, in 1973 the European Society of Engineering Education was established (labelled SEFI according to the French acronym Société. Européenne pour la Formation des Ingénieurs). Presently the society represents 196 institutional members. SEFI promotes cooperation between higher engineering education institutions and other scientific and international bodies on issues of research and development in Engineering Education, for instance through participating in European network projects such as the SOCRATES Thematic Network “TREE” (Teaching and Research in Engineering Education in Europe). SEFI is also engaged in policy development regarding engineering education publishing statements regarding issues like the Bologna process and the proposed European Institute of Technology. In the future SEFI aims to consolidate and strengthen its role in the European arena and to represent Europe on the Global stage.

  5. [Applicability of traditional landscape metrics in evaluating urban heat island effect].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ai-Lian; Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding

    2012-08-01

    By using 24 landscape metrics, this paper evaluated the urban heat island effect in parts of Beijing downtown area. QuickBird (QB) images were used to extract the landscape type information, and the thermal bands from Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images were used to extract the land surface temperature (LST) in four seasons of the same year. The 24 landscape pattern metrics were calculated at landscape and class levels in a fixed window with 120 mx 120 m in size, with the applicability of these traditional landscape metrics in evaluating the urban heat island effect examined. Among the 24 landscape metrics, only the percentage composition of landscape (PLAND), patch density (PD), largest patch index (LPI), coefficient of Euclidean nearest-neighbor distance variance (ENN_CV), and landscape division index (DIVISION) at landscape level were significantly correlated with the LST in March, May, and November, and the PLAND, LPI, DIVISION, percentage of like adjacencies, and interspersion and juxtaposition index at class level showed significant correlations with the LST in March, May, July, and December, especially in July. Some metrics such as PD, edge density, clumpiness index, patch cohesion index, effective mesh size, splitting index, aggregation index, and normalized landscape shape index showed varying correlations with the LST at different class levels. The traditional landscape metrics could not be appropriate in evaluating the effects of river on LST, while some of the metrics could be useful in characterizing urban LST and analyzing the urban heat island effect, but screening and examining should be made on the metrics. PMID:23189682

  6. Complement-mediated opsonization of invasive group A Streptococcus pyogenes strain AP53 is regulated by the bacterial two-component cluster of virulence responder/sensor (CovRS) system.

    PubMed

    Agrahari, Garima; Liang, Zhong; Mayfield, Jeffrey A; Balsara, Rashna D; Ploplis, Victoria A; Castellino, Francis J

    2013-09-20

    Group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) strain AP53 is a primary isolate from a patient with necrotizing fasciitis. These AP53 cells contain an inactivating mutation in the sensor component of the cluster of virulence (cov) responder (R)/sensor (S) two-component gene regulatory system (covRS), which enhances the virulence of the primary strain, AP53/covR(+)S(-). However, specific mechanisms by which the covRS system regulates the survival of GAS in humans are incomplete. Here, we show a key role for covRS in the regulation of opsonophagocytosis of AP53 by human neutrophils. AP53/covR(+)S(-) cells displayed potent binding of host complement inhibitors of C3 convertase, viz. Factor H (FH) and C4-binding protein (C4BP), which concomitantly led to minimal C3b deposition on AP53 cells, further showing that these plasma protein inhibitors are active on GAS cells. This resulted in weak killing of the bacteria by human neutrophils and a corresponding high death rate of mice after injection of these cells. After targeted allelic alteration of covS(-) to wild-type covS (covS(+)), a dramatic loss of FH and C4BP binding to the AP53/covR(+)S(+) cells was observed. This resulted in elevated C3b deposition on AP53/covR(+)S(+) cells, a high level of opsonophagocytosis by human neutrophils, and a very low death rate of mice infected with AP53/covR(+)S(+). We show that covRS is a critical transcriptional regulator of genes directing AP53 killing by neutrophils and regulates the levels of the receptors for FH and C4BP, which we identify as the products of the fba and enn genes, respectively. PMID:23928307

  7. Hanford annual second quarter seismic report, fiscal year 1998: Seismicity on and near the Hanford Site, Pasco, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Hartshorn, D.C.; Reidel, S.P.; Rohay, A.C.

    1998-06-01

    Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the US Department of Energy and its contractors. The staff also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of an earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (ENN) consist of 42 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. The operational rate for the second quarter of FY98 for stations in the HSN was 99.92%. The operational rate for the second quarter of FY98 for stations of the EWRN was 99.46%. For the second quarter of FY98, the acquisition computer triggered 159 times. Of these triggers 14 were local earthquakes: 7 (50%) in the Columbia River Basalt Group, 3 (21%) in the pre-basalt sediments, and 4 (29%) in the crystalline basement. The geologic and tectonic environments where these earthquakes occurred are discussed in this report. The most significant seismic event for the second quarter was on March 23, 1998 when a 1.9 Mc occurred near Eltopia, WA and was felt by local residents. Although this was a small event, it was felt at the surface and is an indication of the potential impact on Hanford of seismic events that are common to the Site.

  8. Traumatismes Oculaires par Petards: Bilan sur Trois Annees

    PubMed Central

    Zouaoui-Kesraoui, N.; Derdour, A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Les accidents dus aux pétards sont des accidents graves. Leur recrudescence ces dernières années en Algérie, essentiellement durant les fêtes du Mawlid Ennabaoui (fête de la naissance du prophète), mérite à notre sens d'entreprendre des bilans exhaustifs dont celui-ci dans le but d'une sensibilisation de toutes les compétences concernées. Nous avons réuni sur trois années consécutives (2002, 2003, 2004) 60 dossiers de malades ayant subi des accidents oculaires par pétards. Nos patients sont répartis en 42 consultations pour blessures légères et 18 hospitalisations pour blessures graves. Parmi ces derniers, neuf ont présenté des complications et séquelles graves (cinq cas de cécité par atrophie du globe oculaire, trois cas de cécité cornéenne et un cas de cécité par trou maculaire). Dans tous ces cas l'incapacité permanente partielle est au minimum de 30%. Au vu de ces données nous proposons des mesures d'éducation sanitaire et une sensibilisation du grand public aux traumatismes oculaires, par le biais de mé dias appropriés: radio, télévision, affiches. PMID:21991157

  9. One Europe, one neurologist?

    PubMed

    Grisold, W; Galvin, R; Lisnic, V; Lopes Lima, J; Mueller, E; Oberndorfer, St; Vodusek, D B

    2007-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a major shift in emphasis within neurology from being a largely diagnostic discipline to one much more actively involved in treating disease. There have been major scientific advances leading to new and effective treatments. There is also a much greater awareness of the burden of neurological disease (Olesen J, Leonardi M. European Journal of Neurology 2003; 10: 471) and informed sufferers are requesting specific intervention. There is wide variation in the delivery of neurological services throughout Europe. This is reflected in manpower levels, the place of neurology related to other medical specialties and different mixes of hospital and private office practice. These differences have been thrown into sharper focus by the recent expansion of the European Union (EU). Initial training in neurology is given to undergraduate/pre-graduate students. Post-graduate education is delivered within a residency program leading to specialist qualification and certification. We now recognize that this is only the beginning of a life long program of continuous education and development (CME/CPD). National and international exchange programs facilitate the growth of knowledge and promote professional harmony and cooperation. The free migration of medical specialists has been an aspiration but remains limited by cultural, linguistic, personal, professional, political and economic factors. Two bodies, the European Board of Neurology (EBN-UEMS) http://www.uems-neuroboard.org (Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes) and the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) http://www.efns.org are actively involved in harmonising and developing neurology at the European level. PMID:17355542

  10. Updated survey of Fusarium species and toxins in Finnish cereal grains.

    PubMed

    Hietaniemi, Veli; Rämö, Sari; Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Jestoi, Marika; Peltonen, Sari; Kartio, Mirja; Sieviläinen, Elina; Koivisto, Tauno; Parikka, Päivi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the project was to produce updated information during 2005-14 on the Fusarium species found in Finnish cereal grains, and the toxins produced by them, as the last comprehensive survey study of Fusarium species and their toxins in Finland was carried out at the turn of the 1960s and the 1970s. Another aim was to use the latest molecular and chemical methods to investigate the occurrence and correlation of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in Finland. The most common Fusarium species found in Finland in the FinMyco project 2005 and 2006 were F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae. F. avenaceum was the most dominant species in barley, spring wheat and oat samples. The occurrence of F. culmorum and F. graminearum was high in oats and barley. Infection by Fusarium fungi was the lowest in winter cereal grains. The incidence of Fusarium species in 2005 was much higher than in 2006 due to weather conditions. F. langsethiae has become much more common in Finland since 2001. F. graminearum has also risen in the order of importance. A highly significant correlation was found between Fusarium graminearum DNA and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in Finnish oats, barley and wheat. When comparing the FinMyco data in 2005-06 with the results of the Finnish safety monitoring programme for 2005-14, spring cereals were noted as being more susceptible to infection by Fusarium fungi and the formation of toxins. The contents of T-2 and HT-2 toxins and the frequency of exceptionally high DON concentrations all increased in Finland during 2005-14. Beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON) were also very common contaminants of Finnish grains in 2005-06. Climate change is leading to warmer weather, and this may indicate more changes in Finnish Fusarium mycobiota and toxin contents and profiles in the near future. PMID:27002810

  11. Considerations for an Institution for Evaluation of Diabetes Technology Devices to Improve Their Quality in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz; Freckmann, Guido; Koschinsky, Theodor

    2013-01-01

    All medical devices used for self-monitoring of blood glucose (BG), insulin injection, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, and continuous glucose monitoring in the European Union (EU) must have a Communauté Européenne (CE) mark. However, the approval process for obtaining this mark is different from that used by the European Medicines Agency in the EU for drugs or by the Food and Drug Administration in the United States for such medical and in vitro diagnostic devices. The notified bodies involved in the CE mark process perform this evaluation in cooperation with the manufacturers. They have only limited diabetes know-how; they have to handle all kinds of medical devices. There are devices for therapy on the market in the EU (i.e., they have market approval) that do not fulfill quality requirements, as indicated, for example, in the international norm ISO 15197 for BG test systems. Evaluation of the performance of such systems is usually provided by the manufacturers. What is missing in the EU is an independent institution that performs regular and critical evaluation of the quality of devices used for diabetes therapy before and also after their market approval. The work of such an institution would focus on BG test systems (these represent two-thirds of the market of medical devices for diabetes treatment) but would also evaluate the performance of other devices. It has to be clarified what legal framework is required for such an institution and how it can be financed; probably this can be done in a shared manner by the manufacturers of such devices and the health insurance companies. Positive evaluation results should be a prerequisite prior to any reimbursement for such devices. PMID:23567012

  12. Drones as tools for monitoring beach topography changes in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casella, Elisa; Rovere, Alessio; Pedroncini, Andrea; Stark, Colin P.; Casella, Marco; Ferrari, Marco; Firpo, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate topographic changes along a stretch of coastline in the Municipality of Borghetto Santo Spirito (Region of Liguria, Italy, north-western Mediterranean) by means of a remotely piloted aircraft system coupled with structure from motion and multi-view stereo techniques. This sector was surveyed three times over 5 months in the fall-winter of 2013-2014 (1 November 2013, 4 December 2013, 17 March 2014) to obtain digital elevation models and orthophotos of the beach. Changes in beach topography associated with storm action and human activities were assessed in terms of gain/loss of sediments and shifting of the wet-dry boundary defining the shoreline. Between the first and second surveys, the study area was hit by two storms (10-11 November 2013 and 21-22 November 2013) with waves approaching from the E-NNE, causing a shoreline retreat which, in some sectors, reached 7 m. Between the second and third surveys, by contrast, four storms (25-27 December 2013, 5-6 January 2014, 17-18 January 2014 and 6-10 February 2014) with waves propagating from the SE produced a general advancement of the shoreline (up to ~5 m) by deposition of sediments along some parts of the beach. The data also reflect changes in beach topography due to human activity during the 2013 fall season, when private beach managers quarried ~178 m3 of sediments on the emerged beach near the shoreline to accumulate them landwards. The results show that drones can be used for regular beach monitoring activities, and that they can provide new insights into the processes related to natural and/or human-related topographic beach changes.

  13. Ostéo-arthrite tuberculeuse tarsienne: à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Yacoubi, Hicham; Erraji, Moncef; Abdelillah, Rachid; Abbassi, Najib; Abdeljawad, Najib; Daoudi, Abdelkrim

    2012-01-01

    Nous rapportons le cas d’une patiente de 45 ans sans antécédents médicaux particuliers, qui a présenté une atteinte inflammatoire du pied gauche, sans notion de traumatisme ni de fièvre, avec apparition secondaire d’une fistule cutanée purulente à la face externe du cou de pied. Les radiographies standards et la Tomodensitométrie de la cheville mettaient en évidence une ostéite calcanéenne avec atteinte articulaire subtalienne. Une biopsie chirurgicale associée à une excision des tissus inflammatoires et nécrotiques et l’ablation du trajet fistuleux, ont été réalisées. L’analyse histologique montrait une image de granulome épithélio-giganto-cellulaire avec une nécrose caséeuse et les prélèvements bactériologiques (retrouvaient Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Une chimiothérapie antituberculeuse a été administrée pendant 12 mois. À 24 mois, la patiente ne présentait pas de récidive mais une arthropathie dégénérative secondaire subtalienne. Il nous semble intéressant de rappeler que tout tableau clinique traînant ou toute lésion osseuse suspecte et de présentation atypique doit faire évoquer le diagnostic de tuberculose afin d’éviter des retards de diagnostic. Ceci permet une prise en charge thérapeutique précoce de la pathologie. PMID:22655098

  14. Training in psychiatry throughout Europe.

    PubMed

    Brittlebank, Andrew; Hermans, Marc; Bhugra, Dinesh; Pinto da Costa, Mariana; Rojnic-Kuzman, Martina; Fiorillo, Andrea; Kurimay, Tamas; Hanon, Cecile; Wasserman, Danuta; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatry is the largest medical specialty in Europe. Despite efforts to bring harmonisation, training in psychiatry in Europe continues to be very diverse. The Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) has issued as from 2000 a charter of requirements for the training in psychiatry with an additional European Framework for Competencies in Psychiatry in 2009. Yet these have not been implemented throughout Europe. In this paper, the diversity in training throughout Europe is approached from different angles: the cultural differences between countries with regards to how mental health care is considered and founded on, the cultural differences between people throughout Europe in all states. The position of psychotherapy is emphasised. What once was the cornerstone of psychiatry as medical specialty seems to have become a neglected area. Seeing the patient with mental health problems within his cultural context is important, but considering him within his family context. The purpose of any training is enabling the trainee to gain the knowledge and acquire the competencies necessary to become a well-equipped professional is the subject of the last paragraph in which trainees consider their position and early career psychiatrists look back to see whether what they were trained in matches with what they need in the working situation. Common standard for training and certification are a necessity within Europe, for the benefit of the profession of psychiatrist but also for patient safety. UEMS is advised to join forces with the Council of National Psychiatric Associations (NPAs) within the EPA and trainings and early career psychiatrist, to discuss with the users what standards should be implemented in all European countries and how a European board examination could ensure professional quality of psychiatrists throughout the continent. PMID:26880078

  15. Contemporary formulation and distribution practices for cold-filled acid products: Australian industry survey and modeling of published pathogen inactivation data.

    PubMed

    Chapman, B; Scurrah, K J; Ross, T

    2010-05-01

    A survey of 12 Australian manufacturers indicated that mild-tasting acids and preservatives are used to partially replace acetic acid in cold-filled acid dressings and sauces. In contrast to traditional ambient temperature distribution practices, some manufacturers indicated that they supply the food service sector with cold-filled acid products prechilled for incorporation into ready-to-eat foods. The Comité des Industries des Mayonnaises et Sauces Condimentaires de la Communauté Economique Européenne (CIMSCEE) Code, a formulation guideline used by the industry to predict the safety of cold-filled acid formulations with respect to Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli, does not extend to the use of acids and preservatives other than acetic acid nor does it consider the effects of chill distribution. We found insufficient data in the published literature to comprehensively model the response of S. enterica and E. coli to all of the predictor variables (i.e., pH, acetic acid, NaCl, sugars, other acids, preservatives, and storage temperature) of relevance for contemporary cold-filled acid products in Australia. In particular, we noted a lack of inactivation data for S. enterica at aqueous-phase NaCl concentrations of >3% (wt/wt). However, our simple models clearly identified pH and 1/absolute temperature of storage as the most important variables generally determining inactivation. To develop robust models to predict the effect of contemporary formulation and storage variables on product safety, additional empirical data are required. Until such models are available, our results support challenge testing of cold-filled acid products to ascertain their safety, as suggested by the CIMSCEE, but suggest consideration of challenging with both E. coli and S. enterica at incubation temperatures relevant to intended product distribution temperatures. PMID:20501041

  16. Complement-mediated Opsonization of Invasive Group A Streptococcus pyogenes Strain AP53 Is Regulated by the Bacterial Two-component Cluster of Virulence Responder/Sensor (CovRS) System*

    PubMed Central

    Agrahari, Garima; Liang, Zhong; Mayfield, Jeffrey A.; Balsara, Rashna D.; Ploplis, Victoria A.; Castellino, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) strain AP53 is a primary isolate from a patient with necrotizing fasciitis. These AP53 cells contain an inactivating mutation in the sensor component of the cluster of virulence (cov) responder (R)/sensor (S) two-component gene regulatory system (covRS), which enhances the virulence of the primary strain, AP53/covR+S−. However, specific mechanisms by which the covRS system regulates the survival of GAS in humans are incomplete. Here, we show a key role for covRS in the regulation of opsonophagocytosis of AP53 by human neutrophils. AP53/covR+S− cells displayed potent binding of host complement inhibitors of C3 convertase, viz. Factor H (FH) and C4-binding protein (C4BP), which concomitantly led to minimal C3b deposition on AP53 cells, further showing that these plasma protein inhibitors are active on GAS cells. This resulted in weak killing of the bacteria by human neutrophils and a corresponding high death rate of mice after injection of these cells. After targeted allelic alteration of covS− to wild-type covS (covS+), a dramatic loss of FH and C4BP binding to the AP53/covR+S+ cells was observed. This resulted in elevated C3b deposition on AP53/covR+S+ cells, a high level of opsonophagocytosis by human neutrophils, and a very low death rate of mice infected with AP53/covR+S+. We show that covRS is a critical transcriptional regulator of genes directing AP53 killing by neutrophils and regulates the levels of the receptors for FH and C4BP, which we identify as the products of the fba and enn genes, respectively. PMID:23928307

  17. Influence of convection on mixed-layer evolution: comparison of two mixing parameterizations with buoys data in the Bay of Biscay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jézéquel, N.; Pichon, A.; Mazé, R.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we compare two 1-D mixing parameterizations developed by Gaspar et al. [J. Geophys. Res. C95 (C9) (1990) 16179] (G90) and Large et al. [Rev. Geophys. 32 (1994) 363] (L94), respectively. Both models are tested against drifting Marisonde bouys deployed in the Bay of Biscay during PRECOCE experiment (1997-1998) [Mariette, V., Ratsivalaka, C., Verbéque V., Leborgne, E., 1999. CAMPAGNE PREOCOCE (PREdiction du comportement des Couches superficielles de l'Océan le long des Côtes Européennes, Tomes 1, 2 and 3, Rapport EPSHOM/CMO/RE/NP 11 du 31 mai 1999]. Periods of stabilizing and destabilizing conditions are successively examined by using both realistic and schematic dynamical and thermodynamical air-sea fluxes. Schematic conditions applied over one diurnal cycle evidence the relative performance of G90 and L94 parameterizations as a function of surface inputs and stratification. The results obtained from these schematic cases are used to compare the results obtained by G90 and L94 over periods of 2 to 10 weeks along three Marisonde buoy trajectories. The ability of both models to simulate the seasonal thermocline formation in Spring as well as its destruction in Fall is discussed. If the nonlocal parameterization used by L94 is taken in its complete form (including the diapycnal mixing), it allows the mixed-layer deepening in Fall in a more satisfactory way than the local parameterization used by G90. The results obtained in Spring by both models are debatable.

  18. Innovation in immediate neonatal care: development of the Bedside Assessment, Stabilisation and Initial Cardiorespiratory Support (BASICS) trolley

    PubMed Central

    Watt, P; Yoxall, C W; Gallagher, A; Burleigh, A; Bewley, S; Heuchan, A M; Duley, L

    2015-01-01

    Objective Babies receive oxygen through their umbilical cord while in the uterus and for a few minutes after birth. Currently, if the baby is not breathing well at birth, the cord is cut so as to transfer the newborn to a resuscitation unit. We sought to develop a mobile resuscitation trolley on which newly born babies can be resuscitated while still receiving oxygenated blood and the ‘placental transfusion’ through the umbilical cord. This would also prevent separation of the mother and baby in the first minutes after birth. Design Multidisciplinary iterative product development. Setting Clinical Engineering Department of a University Teaching Hospital. Methods Following an initial design meeting, a series of prototypes were developed. At each stage, the prototype was reviewed by a team of experts in the laboratory and in the hospital delivery suite to determine ease of use and fitness for purpose. A commercial company was identified to collaborate on the trolley's development and secure marking with the Conformité Européenne mark, allowing the trolley to be introduced into clinical practice. Results The trolley is a small mobile resuscitation unit based on the concept of an overbed hospital table. It can be manoeuvred to within 50 cm of the mother's pelvis so that the umbilical cord can remain intact during resuscitation, irrespective of whether the baby is born naturally, by instrumental delivery or by caesarean section. Warmth for the newborn comes from a heated mattress and the trolley has the facility to provide suction, oxygen and air. Conclusions This is the first mobile resuscitation device designed specifically to facilitate newborn resuscitation at the bedside and with an intact cord. The next step is to assess its safety, its acceptability to clinicians and parents, and to determine whether it allows resuscitation with an intact cord. PMID:26191414

  19. Development and evaluation of the Nurotron 26-electrode cochlear implant system.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Rebscher, Stephen J; Fu, Qian-Jie; Chen, Hongbin; Sun, Xiaoan; Yin, Li; Ping, Lichuan; Feng, Haihong; Yang, Shiming; Gong, Shusheng; Yang, Beibei; Kang, Hou-Yong; Gao, Na; Chi, Fanglu

    2015-04-01

    Although the cochlear implant has been widely acknowledged as the most successful neural prosthesis, only a fraction of hearing-impaired people who can potentially benefit from a cochlear implant have actually received one due to its limited awareness, accessibility, and affordability. To help overcome these limitations, a 26-electrode cochlear implant has been developed to receive China's Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) approval in 2011 and Conformité Européenne (CE) Marking in 2012. The present article describes design philosophy, system specification, and technical verification of the Nurotron device, which includes advanced digital signal processing and 4 current sources with multiple amplitude resolutions that not only are compatible with perceptual capability but also allow interleaved or simultaneous stimulation. The article also presents 3-year longitudinal evaluation data from 60 human subjects who have received the Nurotron device. The objective measures show that electrode impedance decreased within the first month of device use, but was stable until a slight increase at the end of two years. The subjective loudness measures show that electric stimulation threshold was stable while the maximal comfort level increased over the 3 years. Mandarin sentence recognition increased from the pre-surgical 0%-correct score to a plateau of about 80% correct with 6-month use of the device. Both indirect and direct comparisons indicate indistinguishable performance differences between the Nurotron system and other commercially available devices. The present 26-electrode cochlear implant has already helped to lower the price of cochlear implantation in China and will likely contribute to increased cochlear implant access and success in the rest of the world. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:25281795

  20. Pregnancy Requires Major Changes in the Quality of the Diet for Nutritional Adequacy: Simulations in the French and the United States Populations

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Clélia M.; Mariotti, François; Verger, Eric O.; Huneau, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal nutrition is critical to the health of both mother and offspring, but there is a paucity of data on the nutritional adequacy of diets during pregnancy. Objective Our objective was to identify to what extent pregnancy reduces the nutritional adequacy of the expecting mother’s diet and if this nutritional gap can be resolved by simple quantitative or qualitative changes in the diet. Materials and Methods We evaluated the observed overall nutritional adequacy of diets of French and American women of childbearing age participating in ENNS (n = 344) and NHANES (n = 563) using the probabilistic approach of the PANDiet system, resulting in a 100-point score. Then, we simulated the changes in the PANDiet scores of women of childbearing age who would remain on their diet during pregnancy. Finally, by either increasing the quantity of consumed foods or using eleven snacks recommended during pregnancy, we simulated the effect of a 150-kcal increase in the energy intake of French women. Results Observed PANDiet scores were equal to 59.3 ± 7.0 and 58.8 ± 9.3 points respectively in France and in the US. Simulation of pregnancy for women of childbearing age led to a decrease in nutritional adequacy for key nutrients during pregnancy and resulted in reducing PANDiet scores by 3.3 ± 0.1 and 3.7 ± 0.1 points in France and in the US. Simulated 150-kcal increases in energy intake proved to be only partially effective in filling the gap both when the quantity of food consumed was increased and when recommended snacks were used. Conclusions The decrease in nutritional adequacy induced by pregnancy cannot be addressed by simply following generic dietary guidelines. PMID:26959492

  1. PREFACE: 5th International EEIGM/AMASE/FORGEMAT Conference on Advanced Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayadi, Zoubir; Czerwiec, Thierry; Horwat, David; Jamart, Brigitte

    2009-07-01

    This issue of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, contains manuscripts of talks that will be presented at the 5th International EEIGM/AMASE/FORGEMAT Conference on Advanced Materials Research that will be held at the Ecole Européenne d'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux - European School of Materials Science and Engineering (EEIGM) in Nancy on November 4-5 2009. The conference will be organized by the EEIGM. The aim of the conference is to bring together scientists from the six European universities involved in the EEIGM and in the ''Erasmus Mundus'' AMASE Master (Advanced Materials Science and Engineering) programmes and in the Tempus FORGEMAT European project: Nancy-Université - EEIGM/INPL (Nancy, France), Universität des Saarlandes (Saarbrücken, Germany), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya - ETSEIB (Barcelona, Spain), Luleå Tekniska Universitet (Luleå, Sweden), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia - ETSII (Valencia, Spain) and AGH University of Science and Technology, (Kralow, Poland). This conference is also open to other universities who have strong links with the EEIGM and it will provide a forum for exchange of ideas, cooperation and future directions by means of regular presentations, posters and a round-table discussion. After careful refereeing of all manuscripts, equally shared between the four editors, 26 papers have been selected for publication in this issue. The papers are grouped together into different subject categories: polymers, metallurgy, ceramics, composites and nanocomposites, simulation and characterization. The editors would like to take this opportunity to thank all the participants who submitted their manuscripts during the conference and responded in time to the editors' request at every stage from reviewing to final acceptance. The editors are indebted to all the reviewers for painstakingly reviewing the papers at very short notice. Special thanks are called for the sponsors of the conference including

  2. 'Lysi-T-FACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herndl, Markus; Pötsch, Erich; Kandolf, Matthias; Bohner, Andreas; Schaumberger, Andreas; Resch, Reinhard; Graiss, Wilhelm; Krautzer, Bernhard; Buchgraber, Karl

    2010-05-01

    During the past century the average global surface air temperature has already increased by 1°C. A doubling of atmospheric concentration of CO2 near the end of the 21st century is predicted to result in a 3°C temperature increase. The Alpine region has experienced above average warming over the last century and is considered particularly vulnerable to global change. In Austria in some regions, grassland production suffered severe droughts during the last decade leading to serious damages and even temporal shortage in feed supply. Changes in temperature and precipitation have evident consequences for grassland vegetation. Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration is a major driver of climate change. Photosynthesis and productivity of most grassland species might be stimulated by increasing CO2 when soil nutrients and water are not limiting. On dry grassland sites increasing CO2 also reduces plant water loss, thereby increasing plant water use efficiency. When plant production is limited by seasonal cold temperatures as e.g. in the inner Alpine parts of Austria and in high altitude or high latitude grasslands, combined warming and higher CO2 might continue to enhance plant production. However, it is still unknown to what extend a further increase of temperature and CO2 will result in higher biomass yield in different grassland communities. To study the effects of global warming on future grassland communities and management, the application of a heating treatment combined with free-air controlled enhancement of CO2 (T-FACE) to open-field plant canopies at lysimeters is an innovative approach which allows studying responses of the plant-soil-systems as well as carbon- water and nutrient fluxes under expected future climate. The experiment is scheduled to run in the first phase 6 years (2011-2017) and is located at the AREC Raumberg-Gumpenstein, Upper Enns Valley, Austria (47,49; 14,10). Heater arrays and miniFACE rings are installed in 1.6 m diameter plots and expose

  3. Surface and Ground Water Quality in Köprüören Basin (Kütahya), Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, Şebnem; Çelik, Mehmet; Erdem Dokuz, Uǧur; Abadi Berhe, Berihu

    2014-05-01

    In this study, quality of the water resources in Köprüören Basin, located to the west of Kütahya city in western Anatolia, were investigated. The total catchment area of the basin is 275 km2 and it is located upstream of Kütahya and Eskişehir plains. Therefore, besides 6,000 people residing in the basin, a much larger population will be impacted by the quality of surface and groundwater resources. Groundwater occurs under confined conditions in the limestones of Pliocene units. Groundwater flow is from north to south and south to north towards Kocasu stream, which flows to Enne Dam. The surface and ground water quality in this area are negatively affected by the mining activities. In the northern part of the area, there are coal deposits present in Miocene Tunçbilek formation. Ground waters in contact with the coal deposits contain low concentrations of arsenic (up to 30 µg/l). In the southern part, the only silver deposit of Turkey is present, which is developed in metamorphic basement rocks, Early Miocene volcanics and Pliocene units near Gümüşköy (Gümüş means silver, köy means village in Turkish). The amount of silver manufactured annually in this silver plant is huge and comprises about 1% of the World's Silver Production. The wastes, enriched in cyanide, arsenic, stibnite, lead and zinc, are stored in waste pools and there is extensive leakage of these heavy metals from these pools. Therefore, surface waters, soils and plants in the affected areas contain high concentrations of arsenic, stibnite and lead. The As, Sb, Pb and Zn concentrations are up to 733 µg/l, 158 µg/l, 48 µg/l, and 286 µg/l in surface waters (in dry season), 6180 ppm, 410 ppm, 4180 ppm, 9950 ppm in soils and 809 ppm, 399 ppm, 800 ppm, 2217 ppm in plants, respectively. Today, most of the As, Sb, Pb and Zn are absorbed by the soils and only a small part are dissolved in water. However, conditions might change in future leading to desorption of these contaminants. Therefore

  4. Guidelines by the AAPM and GEC-ESTRO on the use of innovative brachytherapy devices and applications: Report of Task Group 167.

    PubMed

    Nath, Ravinder; Rivard, Mark J; DeWerd, Larry A; Dezarn, William A; Thompson Heaton, H; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Meigooni, Ali S; Ouhib, Zoubir; Rusch, Thomas W; Siebert, Frank-André; Venselaar, Jack L M

    2016-06-01

    applications. The current report covers regulatory approvals, calibration, dose calculations, radiobiological issues, and overall safety concerns that should be addressed during the commissioning stage preceding clinical use. These guidelines are based on review of requirements of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, U.S. Department of Transportation, International Electrotechnical Commission Medical Electrical Equipment Standard 60601, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, European Commission for CE Marking (Conformité Européenne), and institutional review boards and radiation safety committees. PMID:27277063

  5. Flash-Flood hydrological simulations at regional scale. Scale signature on road flooding vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anquetin, Sandrine; Vannier, Olivier; Ollagnier, Mélody; Braud, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    evaluation procedure provides new insights on the active hydrological processes at small scales (catchments area < 10 km²) since these small scales, distributed over the whole region, are analyzed through road cuts data and post-flood field investigations. As shown in Vannier (2013), the signature of the altered geological layer is significant on the simulated discharges. For catchments under schisty geology, the simulated discharge, whatever the catchment size, is usually overestimated. Vannier, O, 2013, Apport de la modélisation hydrologique régionale à la compréhension des processus de crue en zone méditerranéenne, PhD-Thesis (in French), Grenoble University.

  6. Dissolution along faults-fractures and hypogenic karst in carbonates: examples from Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennes-Silva, Renata; Cazarin, Caroline; Bezerra, Francisco; Auler, Augusto; Klimchouk, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Dissolution along faults-fractures and hypogenic karst in carbonates: examples from Brazil Ennes-Silva, R.A; Cazarin, C.L.; Bezerra, F.H.; Auler, A.S.; Klimchouk, A.B. Dissolution along zones of preferential flow enhances anisotropy in geological media and increases its complexity. Changes in parameters such as porosity and permeability due to diagenesis and presence of ascendant fluids along fractures and faults can be responsible for hypogenic karstic system. The present study investigates the relationship between lithofacies, tectonics and karstification in the Neoproterozoic Salitre Formation, located in the central-eastern Brazil. This unit comprises several systems of caves including the Toca da Boa Vista and da Barriguda hypogenic caves, the largests in South America, and focus of this study. We focused on cave mapping and morphogenetic analysis, determination of petrophysical properties, thin-section description, micro-tomography, and isotopic analysis. The Salitre Formation, deposited in an epicontinental sea, comprises mud/wakestones, grainstones, microbial facies, and fine siliciclastic rocks. Passages occur in several levels within ca. 60 m thick cave-forming section, limited at the top by lithofacies with low permeability and fractures. Cave development occurred in phreatic sluggish-flow environment with overall upwelling flow. Fluids rise via cross-formational fractures and were distributed laterally within the cave-forming section using geological heterogeneities to eventually discharge up through outlets breaching across the upper confining beds. Maps of conduits show preferred directions for development of conduits: NNE-SSW and E-W. These two directions represents a relation between structures and hypogenic morphology. Joints, axis fold and fractures allowed pathways to the fluid rises, and then development of channels of entrance (feeders), outputs (outlets) and some cupolas, which are clearly aligned to fractures. Our data indicate several events

  7. Diversity of the Insect Visitors on Calluna vulgaris (Ericaceae) in Southern France Heathlands

    PubMed Central

    Descamps, Charlotte; Moquet, Laura; Migon, Marc; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2015-01-01

    As part of an ongoing research project on the pollination networks in European heathlands, the objective of this study was to assess the insect visitor guild on Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull (Ericaceae). We focused the study on a region renowned for its largely well-preserved heathlands, the Cévennes National Park, Southern France. In 2013, flower visitors were observed over 3 d per site, in four heathland sites at mont Lozère. Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) were the main visitors (62–88% of total visitors). Besides honeybees, a high diversity of visitors was detected with 57 different species identified (42 Diptera and 15 Hymenoptera). Hoverflies (Syrphidae, Diptera) visitors were abundant and diverse, especially individuals belonging to the genera Eristalis and Episyrphus. The reported diversity of visitors was probably due to the preservation of large heathland areas at mont Lozère and to the generalist pollination system of C. vulgaris. RESUME. Cette étude fait partie d’un projet de recherche en cours sur les réseaux de pollinisation dans les landes européennes. Son objectif est d’évaluer la guilde des insectes visiteurs de Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull (Ericaceae). Cette étude se déroule dans une région réputée pour ses landes globalement bien préservées: le Parc natinal des Cévennes, situé dans le sud de la France. En 2013, les insectes visiteurs ont été observés durant trois jours par site, dans quatre sites au mont Lozère. Les abeilles domestiques (A. mellifera L.) sont les visiteurs principaux (62–88% du nombre total de visiteurs). Outre les abeilles domestiques, une diversité importante de visiteurs est constatée: 57 espèces ont été identifiées (42 appartenant à l'ordre des Diptères et 15 à l'ordre des Hyménoptères). Les syrphes (Syrphidae, Diptera) sont abondants et diversifiés, en particulier les genres Eristalis et Episyrphus. La diversité de visiteurs observée peut certainement s’expliquer par la préservation de

  8. CO2 and CH4 fluxes of an Alpine peatland during extraordinary summer drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drollinger, Simon; Glatzel, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    In peatland ecosystems, plant production exceeds decomposition due to their typical characteristic of waterlogged soils leading to peatland growth and an accumulation of thick organic soil layers. As a result, peatlands constitute a major global storage of carbon (C) by storing about 612 PgC in their peat, thus representing the most space-effective C stocks of all terrestrial ecosystems, similar in magnitude as the increasing atmospheric C pool (~ 850 PgC). However, little is known about the effects of climate change on peatlands and the contribution of Alpine peatlands as a source of greenhouse gases in the course of a changing climate. It is debatable how land-use changes and ongoing degradation of Alpine peatlands affect the peatland-atmosphere C exchange. On the one hand, more C may sequester due to increased plant growth in a warmer climate, on the other hand large amounts of respired C may release as a consequence of higher temperatures and lowered peatland water table depths due to increasing evaporation rates and extending drought periods. To examine the potential effects of climate change on the peatland carbon exchange with the atmosphere, we calculated CO2 and CH4 fluxes using the eddy covariance method. The investigated ombrotrophic peatland is located on the bottom of the Styrian Enns valley at an altitude of 632 m above sea level. It is a slightly degraded pine peat bog (62 ha) with a closed peat moss cover featuring the three plant associations Pino mugo-Sphagnetum magellanici, Sphagnetum magellanici, and Caricetum limosae, according to the prevailing hydrological site conditions. During summer drought in 2015, the water level decreased from an annual average water level of -10.44 cm to -28.50 cm below surface at the centre of the peat bog. Here, we present diurnal pattern of CO2 and CH4 fluxes during an extraordinary dry summer and compare them to calculated fluxes during periods characterised by precipitation and higher peat water levels of the

  9. Modelling the unexpected effect of acetic and lactic acid in combination with pH and aw on the growth/no growth interface of Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, A; Dang, T D T; Geeraerd, A H; Bernaerts, K; Debevere, J; Van Impe, J; Devlieghere, F

    2008-05-10

    Microbial spoilage of shelf-stable acidified sauces is predominantly caused by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. A specific spoilage yeast in these products is Zygosaccharomyces bailii, as this fructophilic, osmotolerant, and weak acid resistant yeast is difficult to control. A growth/no growth model was developed describing the influence of (i) pH in a range from pH 3.0 to pH 5.0 (5 levels), (ii) acetic acid in a range from 0 to 3.5% (w/v), and (iii) lactic acid in a range from 0 to 3.0% (w/v). aw was fixed at a level of 0.95 which is representative for acidified sauces with high sugar content. Modified Sabouraud medium was inoculated at +/- 10(4) CFU/ml, incubated at 30 degrees C and growth was assessed by optical density measurements. All combinations of environmental conditions were tested in at least twelve replicates, yielding precise values for the probability of growth. Results showed that replacing acetic acid by lactic acid, which has a milder taste, may imply some risks on food spoilage because, under some conditions, stimulation of growth by lactic acid was observed. This stimulation had also consequences on the model development: (i) only ordinary logistic regression models were able to describe this phenomenon due to their flexible behaviour, (ii) it was necessary to split up the data set into two subsets to have the best description of the obtained data. Two different ordinary logistic regression models were fitted on these data sets taking either the total acid concentration as one of the explanatory variables or differentiating between the undissociated and dissociated acid concentrations. The obtained models were compared with the CIMSCEE code [CIMSCEE, 1992. Code for the production of microbiologically safe and stable emulsified and non-emulsified sauces containing acetic acid. Comité des Industries des Mayonnaise et Sauces Condimentaires, de la Communauté Economique Européenne, Brussels, Belgium], a formula which is nowadays often used by the

  10. Comparison of rates of safety issues and reporting of trial outcomes for medical devices approved in the European Union and United States: cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Thomas J; Sokolov, Elisaveta; Franklin, Jessica M; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate safety alerts and recalls, publication of key trial outcomes, and subsequent US approval of high profile medical devices introduced in the European Union. Design Cohort study. Setting Novel cardiovascular, orthopedic, and neurologic devices approved in the EU through Conformité Européenne marking between 2005 and 2010. Data sources Public and commercial databases searched up to January 2016 for press releases and announcements of approvals; public Food and Drug Administration and European regulatory authority databases for US approvals and safety alerts and recalls; and Medline, Embase, and Web of Science for peer reviewed publications. Main outcome measures We categorized the novelty of the devices in the study sample as a “major innovation” or an “other change,” and extracted descriptive data about the devices and information on any safety alerts and withdrawals. Linear regression models examined factors associated with differential EU and US approvals. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate factors associated with safety alerts and recalls and the publication of trial outcomes for devices categorized as major innovations. Models controlled for time, therapeutic category, regulatory pathway, size of sponsoring company, and indicator variables for devices approved first in the EU and devices approved only in the EU. Results 67% (206/309) of devices identified were approved in both the US and the EU, of which 63% (129/206) were approved first in the EU. The unadjusted rate of safety alerts and recalls for devices approved first in the EU was 27% (62/232) compared with 14% (11/77) for devices approved first in the US. The adjusted hazard ratio for safety alerts and recalls was 2.9 (95% confidence interval 1.4 to 6.2) for devices approved first in the EU. The results of pivotal trials were published for 49% (37/75) of devices categorized as major innovations, with an overall publication rate of 37% five

  11. Panitumumab Use in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer and Patterns of KRAS Testing: Results from a Europe-Wide Physician Survey and Medical Records Review

    PubMed Central

    Trojan, Jörg; Mineur, Laurent; Tomášek, Jiří; Rouleau, Etienne; Fabian, Pavel; de Maglio, Giovanna; García-Alfonso, Pilar; Aprile, Giuseppe; Taylor, Aliki; Kafatos, George; Downey, Gerald; Terwey, Jan-Henrik; van Krieken, J. Han

    2015-01-01

    Background From 2008–2013, the European indication for panitumumab required that patients’ tumor KRAS exon 2 mutation status was known prior to starting treatment. To evaluate physician awareness of panitumumab prescribing information and how physicians prescribe panitumumab in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), two European multi-country, cross-sectional, observational studies were initiated in 2012: a physician survey and a medical records review. The first two out of three planned rounds for each study are reported. Methods The primary objective in the physician survey was to estimate the prevalence of KRAS testing, and in the medical records review, it was to evaluate the effect of test results on patterns of panitumumab use. The medical records review study also included a pathologists’ survey. Results In the physician survey, nearly all oncologists (299/301) were aware of the correct panitumumab indication and the need to test patients’ tumor KRAS status before treatment with panitumumab. Nearly all oncologists (283/301) had in the past 6 months of clinical practice administered panitumumab correctly to mCRC patients with wild-type KRAS status. In the medical records review, 97.5% of participating oncologists (77/79) conducted a KRAS test for all of their patients prior to prescribing panitumumab. Four patients (1.3%) did not have tumor KRAS mutation status tested prior to starting panitumumab treatment. Approximately one-quarter of patients (85/306) were treated with panitumumab and concurrent oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy; of these, 83/85 had confirmed wild-type KRAS status prior to starting panitumumab treatment. All 56 referred laboratories that participated used a Conformité Européenne-marked or otherwise validated KRAS detection method, and nearly all (55/56) participated in a quality assurance scheme. Conclusions There was a high level of knowledge amongst oncologists around panitumumab prescribing information and the

  12. Proposing buffer zones and simple technical solutions for safeguarding river water quality and public health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podimata, M. V.; Bekri, E. S.; Yannopoulos, P. C.

    2012-04-01

    Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60, but a practical necessity for the safeguarding of public health and ecosystem health, in general. The present study aims at developing a simple methodology for assessing spatial distribution characteristics of pollution in Erymanthos catchment. Pollution loads at various sites in Erymanthos watershed were illustrated with Geographical Information System (GIS). Flow rates of Erymanthos River were also taken into consideration. Based on previous studies, in situ river discharges have been compared to simulated discharges in order to calibrate the rainfall-runoff model ENNS which can then predict future scenarios regarding the river flow rates with consideration of climate change effects. The goal of this study is to detect the pertinent points and suggest a) suitable buffer zones in areas with high pollution risk and b) simple technical works in order to prevent the main channel of Erymanthos River from direct polluting discharges. The above systems could also act supportively in groundwater enrichment, forest protection and soil erosion prevention. Authors believe that the results of the study could assist authorities and engineers to design and develop strategies of improving river water quality and safeguarding public health. The proposed measures may be applicable to other catchments as well.

  13. History of NAMES Conferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, Lev

    2013-03-01

    Franco-Russian NAMES Seminars are held for the purpose of reviewing and discussing actual developments in the field of materials science by researchers from Russia and from the Lorraine Region of France. In more precise terms, as set down by the organizers of the seminar (the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys and the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine), the mission of the seminars is as follows: the development of scientific and academic contacts, giving a new impulse to joint fundamental research and technology transfer the development and consolidation of scientific, technical and business collaboration between the regions of Russia and Lorraine through direct contact between the universities, institutes and companies involved The first Seminar took place on 27-29 October 2004, at the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (on the premises of the Ecole Européenne d'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux, Nancy, France). The number, variety and quality of the oral presentations given and posters exhibited at the first Seminar were of high international standard. 30 oral presentations were given and 72 posters were presented by 19 participants from five universities and three institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences participants from 11 laboratories of three universities from the Lorraine region three industrial companies, including the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company—EADS, and ANVAR (Agence Nationale de Valorisation de la Recherche) From 2005 onwards, it was decided to organize the Seminar every other year. The second Seminar convened on the occasion of the 75th Anniversary of the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys on 10-12 November 2005 in Moscow, Russia. The seminar demonstrated the efficiency of the scientific partnership founded between the research groups of Russia and France during the first Seminar. High productivity of the Franco-Russian scientific cooperation on the basis of the Research-Educational Franco

  14. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, Alain

    2004-11-01

    Le premier colloque Rayons X et Matière (Rx 95) s'est tenu à Strasbourg en 1995. Il était destiné à célébrer le centenaire de la découverte des rayons X par ROENTGEN et a alors réuni plus de cent trente chercheurs et industriels concernés par les rayons X et les matériaux. Parmi eux se trouvaient les Professeurs André GUINIER et Hans NEFF ainsi que Monsieur Michel BRUNEL qui hélas ne sont plus parmi nous à ce jour. La qualité et la convivialité des échanges entre les participants lors de cette première réunion ne pouvaient que nous inciter à la reconduire et nous avons pris rendez vous pour 1997, puis 1999, puis 2001 et enfin pour 2003, soient cinq colloques, un tous les deux ans pendant dix ans. Au cours des années, nous avons essayé d'adapter les thèmes abordés à l'évolution de la recherche et des techniques. Ces thèmes se sont naturellement ajoutés aux thèmes classiques comme la diffraction et la fluorescence. Les nanomatériaux, les microfaisceaux en sont des exemples. A de très rares exceptions les communications présentées étaient de très bon niveau et nous avons toujours eu beaucoup de plaisir à les publier. Ces colloques ont bien fonctionné en raison de la participation des industriels qui, dans leur grande majorité, nous ont accompagnés régulièrement. Ces colloques présentent l'avantage, par rapport à des colloques spécialisés, de couvrir (presque) tout le champ des applications des rayons X et seulement ce domaine. Toutefois il est clair que les données économiques évoluent et que la situation est chaque aimée plus difficile pour tout le monde, chercheurs et industriels. Temps et moyens sont comptés et maintenant chacun doit faire de plus en plus de choix, rentabilité oblige ! Le maintien du colloque Rayons X et Matière passera obligatoirement par une réflexion globale : redéfinition des objectifs, augmentation de l'ouverture européenne, recherche d'autres formes de participation associant mieux les

  15. Dynamical implications of single-sided subduction and floating continents in global self-consistent models of mantle convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crameri, F.; Rolf, T.; Tackley, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    realistic Earth-like evolution of plate tectonics. References Schmeling, H., Babeyko A., Enns A., Faccenna C., Funiciello F., Gerya T., Golabek G., Grigull S., Kaus B. J. P., Morra G., Schmalholz S. & van Hunen J. (2008): A benchmark comparison of spontaneous subduction models - towards a free surface: Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 171, 198-223. Crameri, F., Schmeling, H., Golabek, G. J., Duretz, T., Orendt, R., Buiter, S. J. H., May, D. A., Kaus, B. J. P., Gerya, T. V. and Tackley, P. J. (2012), A comparison of numerical surface topography calculations in geodynamic modelling: an evaluation of the 'sticky air' method. Geophysical Journal International, 189: 38-54. Crameri, F., P. J. Tackley, I. Meilick, T. V. Gerya, and B. J. P. Kaus (2012), A free plate surface and weak oceanic crust produce single-sided subduction on Earth, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L03306. Rolf, T. and P. J. Tackley (2011), Focussing of stress by continents in 3D spherical mantle convection with self-consistent plate tectonics, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L18301 Tackley, P. J. (2008): Modelling compressible mantle convection with large viscosity contrasts in a three-dimensional spherical shell using the yin-yang grid. Phys. Earth Planet. Int.

  16. La place de la double arthrodèse dans la prise en charge du pied bot varus équin invétéré

    PubMed Central

    Atarraf, Karima; Arroud, Mounir; Chater, Lamiae; Afifi, My Abderrahmane

    2014-01-01

    La prise en charge du pied bot varus équin invétéré ( PBVEI) pose d’énormes problèmes thérapeutiques. La double arthrodèse sous-talienne et médio-tarsienne longtemps considérée comme la solution de sécurité pour ces déformations est encore couramment utilisée. Nous rapportons une série de 13 enfants opérés pour un pied bot varus équin invétérés (16 pieds) par Arthrodèse sous-talienne et médio tarsienne réalisée au service d'orthopédie pédiatrique du CHU Hassan II; de Fès au Maroc sur une période de 4 ans; étalée de janvier 2009 à décembre 2012. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 12,6 ans avec prédominance féminine. L'origine congénitale était retrouvée chez 10 patients. L'atteinte était gauche chez 8 patients avec une localisation bilatérale chez 3 patients. La radiographie standard du pied de face et de profil a révélée une divergence talo-calcanéenne qui variait entre 5 et 20°, l'angle talus-1er métatarsien entre 20 et 40° (avec une moyenne de 28°) et l'angle calcanéus-5ème métatarsien entre 15° et 45° (avec une moyenne de 30°). Tous les patients ont bénéficiés d'une arthrodèse sous-talienne et médio tarsienne. Les résultats étaient satisfaisants dans 98% des cas. Le pied était plantigrade dans 9 cas, le varus de l'arrière pied persistait dans 4 pieds alors que l’équin et le varus de l'avant pied étaient notés chez 2 cas. La double arthrodèse est l'intervention idéale pour stabiliser et corriger les déformations rencontrées dans le PBVE invétéré, elle assure totalement le verrouillage du couple de torsion. Elle permet outre une correction des diverses déformations et une ré-axation de l'arrière-pied dans les 3 plans de l'espace. PMID:25829977

  17. Sinking of spherical slablets through a non-Newtonian mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crameri, Fabio; Stegman, Dave; Petersen, Robert; Tackley, Paul

    2014-05-01

    -sided subduction. REFERENCES Crameri, F., H. Schmeling, G. J. Golabek, T. Duretz, R. Orendt, S. J. H. Buiter, D. A. May, B. J. P. Kaus, T. V. Gerya, and P. J. Tackley (2012), Geophys. J. Int., 189(1), 38-54. Matsumoto, T., and Y. Tomoda (1983), J. Phys. Earth, 31(3), 183-194. Schmeling, H., A. Babeyko, A. Enns, C. Faccenna, F. Funiciello, T. Gerya, G. Golabek, S. Grigull, B. Kaus, G. Morra, S. Schmalholz, and J. van Hunen (2008), Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 171(1-4), 198-223. Tackley, P. J. (2008), Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 171(1-4), 7-18. Weinberg, R. F. (1993), Tectonophys., 228(3-4), 141-150. Weinberg, R. F., and Y. Podladchikov (1994), J. Geophys. Res., 99(B5), 9543-9559

  18. Catheter ablation in combination with left atrial appendage closure for atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Swaans, Martin J; Alipour, Arash; Rensing, Benno J W M; Post, Martijn C; Boersma, Lucas V A

    2013-01-01

    resembles a small parachute. It consists of a nitinol frame covered by fabric polyethyl terephthalate that prevents emboli, but not blood, from exiting during the healing process. Fixation anchors around the perimeter secure the device in the LAA (Figure 1). To date, the WATCHMAN is the only implanted percutaneous device for which a randomized clinical trial has been reported. In this study, implantation of the WATCHMAN was found to be at least as effective as warfarin in preventing stroke (all-causes) and death (all-causes). This device received the Conformité Européenne (CE) mark for use in the European Union for warfarin eligible patients and in those who have a contraindication to anticoagulation therapy. Given the proven effectiveness of CA to alleviate AF symptoms and the promising data with regard to reduction of thromboembolic events with both CA and WATCHMAN implantation, combining the two procedures is hoped to further reduce the incidence of stroke in high-risk patients while simultaneously relieving symptoms. The combined procedure may eventually enable patients to undergo implantation of the WATCHMAN device without subsequent warfarin treatment, since the CA procedure itself reduces thromboembolic events. This would present an avenue of treatment previously unavailable to patients ineligible for warfarin treatment because of recurrent bleeding or other warfarin-associated problems. The combined procedure is performed under general anesthesia with biplane fluoroscopy and TEE guidance. Catheter ablation is followed by implantation of the WATCHMAN LAA closure device. Data from a non-randomized trial with 10 patients demonstrates that this procedure can be safely performed in patients with a CHADS2 score of greater than 1. Further studies to examine the effectiveness of the combined procedure in reducing symptoms from AF and associated stroke are therefore warranted. PMID:23486416

  19. Calculation of ejecta thickness and structural uplift for Lunar and Martian complex crater rims.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Tim; Sturm, Sebastian; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Martian crater, the calculated structural uplift has a value of 215.83 m [9]. For Euler and Bessel crater calculated values for the structural uplift are 310.76 m and 262.8 m, respectively [10]. The structural uplift of the crater rim only by dike injection and plastic deformation in the underlying target material seems unlikely at distances ~1 km beyond the transient crater cavity. Other mechanisms, like reverse faulting, beginning in the excavation stage of crater formation, could be responsible for additional structural uplift of the crater rim. Nevertheless, our results show that structural uplift is a more dominant effect than ejecta emplacement for complex impact craters. References: [1] Melosh H.J. (1989) Oxford monographs on geology and geophysics, 11, Impact cratering: a geologic process. [2] Poelchau M.H. et al. (2009) JGR, 114, E01006. [3] Shoemaker E. M. (1963) The Solar System, 4, 301-336. [4] Settle M., and Head J.W. (1977) Icarus, v. 31, p. 123. [5] Sturm, S. et al. (2014) LPSC 45, #1801. [6] Krüger T. et al. (2014) LPSC 45, #1834. [7] Hiesinger H. et al. (2002) GRL, 29. [8] Enns A.C. (2013) LPSC XLIV, #2751. [9] Steward S. T. and Valiant G. J. (2006) Meteoritics & Planet. Sci., 41, 1509-1537. [10] Pike R. J. (1974) EPSL, 23, 265-274. [11]Turtle, E. et al. (2005) GSA-SP. 384, 1.

  20. Façons d’identifier et de prendre en charge la dyslipidémie athérogène

    PubMed Central

    Bosomworth, N. John

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les données probantes concernant la reconnaissance et la prise en charge de la dyslipidémie athérogène. Sources des données Des études randomisées et des méta-analyses de grande qualité ont été trouvées pour répondre à la plupart des questions. Les lignes directrices nord-américaines et européennes ont été examinées. Parmi celles-ci, les lignes directrices de la Société canadienne de cardiologie étaient les plus congruentes avec les ouvrages scientifiques récents. Message principal La dyslipidémie athérogène se caractérise par de faibles taux de lipoprotéines de haute densité (HDL), de hauts niveaux de triglycérides et un nombre élevé de particules de lipoprotéines de basse densité (LDL). Ce problème est étroitement associé à des maladies cardiovasculaires (MCV) et il n’est pas bien cerné par les scores de risque de Framingham et les dosages des LDL. L’obésité, l’intolérance au glucose, le diabète et le syndrome métabolique deviennent rapidement de plus en plus fréquents et sont souvent associés avec la dyslipidémie athérogène, ce qui affecte le risque à long terme de MCV. Pour la reconnaître en cabinet, il est préférable de recourir au dosage du cholestérol non HDL ou au ratio du cholestérol total par rapport au HDL. La réussite du traitement repose sur l’optimisation du régime alimentaire et de l’activité physique. Parmi les médicaments disponibles, ce sont les statines qui procurent le plus de bienfaits et elles peuvent être titrées en fonction de la tolérance du patient plutôt que selon les valeurs ciblées de LDL, qui ne sont pas appuyées par de solides données probantes. L’ajout de fénofibrate peut être envisagé chez les patients ayant des niveaux élevés de triglycérides et de bas niveaux de HDL qui n’ont pas répondu de façon satisfaisante aux statines ou ne les ont pas tolérées. Conclusion La prévalence grandissante de l’obésité cr

  1. Spontaneous development of arcuate single-sided subduction in global 3-D mantle convection models with a free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crameri, Fabio; Tackley, Paul

    2014-05-01

    plate surface and weak oceanic crust produce single-sided subduction on Earth, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39(3), L03,306. Crameri, F., H. Schmeling, G. J. Golabek, T. Duretz, R. Orendt, S. J. H. Buiter, D. A. May, B. J. P. Kaus, T. V. Gerya, and P. J. Tackley (2012b), A comparison of numerical surface topography calculations in geodynamic modelling: an evaluation of the 'sticky air' method, Geophys. J. Int., 189(1), 38-54. Matsumoto, T., and Y. Tomoda (1983), Numerical simulation of the initiation of subduction at the fracture zone, J. Phys. Earth, 31(3), 183-194. Schmeling, H., A. Babeyko, A. Enns, C. Faccenna, F. Funiciello, T. Gerya, G. Golabek, S. Grigull, B. Kaus, G. Morra, S. Schmalholz, and J. van Hunen (2008), A benchmark comparison of spontaneous subduction models-Towards a free surface, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 171(1-4), 198-223. Tackley, P. J. (2008), Modelling compressible mantle convection with large viscosity contrasts in a three-dimensional spherical shell using the yin-yang grid, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 171(1-4), 7-18.

  2. Characterization of the Lower Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) 1a in the Eastern Iberian Chain (Maestrat Basin, E Spain) by Means of Ammonite Biostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Bedmar, J. A.; Company, M.; Bover-Arnal, T.; Delanoy, G.; Martinez, R.; Grauges, A.; Salas, R.

    2008-05-01

    . euglyphus Casey at these levels (Moreno et al., 2007). Thus, these taxa further support the stratigraphic position of these beds into the Deshayesites weissi Zone. Our results imply that OAE1 correlative with the Roloboceras beds in southeastern Spain and at Cassis correspond to the D. weissi Zone, as formerly established (Casey, 1961a, b; Casey et al., 1998; Moreno and Bover, 2007; Moreno et al., 2007). R. Casey, Palaeontology 3, 487-621 (1961a) R. Casey, Palaeontographical Society, London, 119-216 (1961b) R. Casey et al., Cretaceous Research 19, 511-535 (1998) J.A.Moreno and T. Bover, in XXIII Jornadas Sociedad Española de Paleontología, Libro de resúmenes. J. C. Braga, A. Checa and M. Company, Eds (Instituto Geológico y Minero de España y Universidad de Granada (2007) pp. 151-152 J. A. Moreno et al., Geogaceta 42, 75-78 (2007) P. Ropolo et al., Géologie Méditerranéenne 25 (1998), 167-175 (2000)

  3. Impact of cattle grazing on soil and vegetation - a case study in a mountainous region of Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohner, Andreas; Foldal, Cecilie; Jandl, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In mountainous regions of Austria and of many other European countries, climate change may cause a further intensification of grassland management. Therefore, the effects of intensive cattle grazing on selected soil chemical and physical properties, above- and below-ground phytomass, forage quality, plant species composition and plant species richness at the scale of a representative paddock in a mountainous region of Austria were investigated. At the study site (Styrian Enns valley; 675 m a.s.l.), climate is relatively cool and humid, with a mean annual air temperature of 6.7°C and a mean annual precipitation of 970 mm, of which 66% falls during the vegetation period (April-October). The soil is a deep, base-rich Cambisol with a loamy sand texture. The paddock investigated has a total area of about 2 ha and had been grazed by dairy cows (Brown Swiss) five times per grazing season. The stocking density was 4 cows ha-1 during 180 days from early May to the end of October with a grazing time of about 8 hours per day. The strip grazed permanent pasture was manured annually for a long time, mostly with cattle slurry. Vegetation surveys were carried out using the method of Braun-Blanquet. Above- and below-ground phytomass, forage quality and mineral element concentration in the harvestable above-ground plant biomass were determined by using standard methods. During the grazing season surface soil samples (0-10 cm depth) for chemical analyses were collected before each grazing period (5 analyses of composite samples per site). At the beginning and the end of the grazing season also soil samples for physical analyses were taken from the topsoil (0-15 cm depth). Heavy cattle treading led to a substantial soil compaction especially in the 5-10 cm layer and to a deterioration of topsoil structure. The porous crumb structure was replaced by a compact platy structure. The topsoil was enriched with nutrients (mainly nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and boron). The degree of

  4. Flood risk assessment in France: comparison of extreme flood estimation methods (EXTRAFLO project, Task 7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garavaglia, F.; Paquet, E.; Lang, M.; Renard, B.; Arnaud, P.; Aubert, Y.; Carre, J.

    2013-12-01

    of five watersheds located in the South of France. References : O. CAYLA : Probability calculation of design floods abd inflows - SPEED. Waterpower 1995, San Francisco, California 1995 CFGB : Design flood determination by the gradex method. Bulletin du Comité Français des Grands Barrages News 96, 18th congress CIGB-ICOLD n2, nov:108, 1994. F. GARAVAGLIA et al. : Introducing a rainfall compound distribution model based on weather patterns subsampling. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 14, 951-964, 2010. J. LAVABRE et al. : SHYREG : une méthode pour l'estimation régionale des débits de crue. application aux régions méditerranéennes françaises. Ingénierie EAT, 97-111, 2003. M. MARGOUM : Estimation des crues rares et extrêmes : le modèle AGREGEE. Conceptions et remières validations. PhD, Ecole des Mines de Paris, 1992. R. NAULET et al. : Flood frequency analysis on the Ardèche river using French documentary sources from the two last centuries. Journal of Hydrology, 313:58-78, 2005. E. PAQUET et al. : The SCHADEX method: A semi-continuous rainfall-runoff simulation for extreme flood estimation, Journal of Hydrology, 495, 23-37, 2013.

  5. Wind Resource Assessment in Complex Terrain with a High-Resolution Numerical Weather Prediction Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Karin; Serafin, Stefano; Grubišić, Vanda; Dorninger, Manfred; Zauner, Rudolf; Fink, Martin

    2014-05-01

    A crucial step in planning new wind farms is the estimation of the amount of wind energy that can be harvested in possible target sites. Wind resource assessment traditionally entails deployment of masts equipped for wind speed measurements at several heights for a reasonably long period of time. Simplified linear models of atmospheric flow are then used for a spatial extrapolation of point measurements to a wide area. While linear models have been successfully applied in the wind resource assessment in plains and offshore, their reliability in complex terrain is generally poor. This represents a major limitation to wind resource assessment in Austria, where high-altitude locations are being considered for new plant sites, given the higher frequency of sustained winds at such sites. The limitations of linear models stem from two key assumptions in their formulation, the neutral stratification and attached boundary-layer flow, both of which often break down in complex terrain. Consequently, an accurate modeling of near-surface flow over mountains requires the adoption of a NWP model with high horizontal and vertical resolution. This study explores the wind potential of a site in Styria in the North-Eastern Alps. The WRF model is used for simulations with a maximum horizontal resolution of 800 m. Three nested computational domains are defined, with the innermost one encompassing a stretch of the relatively broad Enns Valley, flanked by the main crest of the Alps in the south and the Nördliche Kalkalpen of similar height in the north. In addition to the simulation results, we use data from fourteen 10-m wind measurement sites (of which 7 are located within valleys and 5 near mountain tops) and from 2 masts with anemometers at several heights (at hillside locations) in an area of 1600 km2 around the target site. The potential for wind energy production is assessed using the mean wind speed and turbulence intensity at hub height. The capacity factor is also evaluated

  6. Effects of water extraction in a vulnerable phreatic aquifer: Consequences for groundwater contamination by pesticides, Sint-Jansteen area, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaus, Irina

    Pesticides are a potential threat to the quality of extracted groundwater when the water-supply area is used for agricultural activities. This problem is discussed for the water-supply area of Sint-Jansteen, The Netherlands, where measured pesticide concentrations in the extracted water regularly exceed EU limits (0.1μg/L). Groundwater samples taken from the aquifer within the water-supply area show low contamination, but samples taken from the extracted water occasionally contain pesticides, making the water inadequate for drinking-water purposes. The more intense contamination of the extracted water is caused by the change in the natural groundwater flow pattern near the extraction wells. In this area, pesticide use cannot be avoided easily, and an approach is given to differentiate pesticide use in the area according to expected travel time toward the wells and the chemical characteristics of the pesticides. A groundwater flow model for the area is developed and the effects of groundwater extraction on the natural flow pattern are evaluated. Using particle tracking, the travel-time zones are determined. Combining these results and the degradation behavior of certain pesticides led to an optimal scheme to integrate agricultural activities and groundwater extraction in the area. This is illustrated for five different types of pesticides (atrazine, simazine, bentazone, MCPA, and mecoprop). Résumé Les pesticides sont une menace potentielle pour la qualité de l'eau souterraine prélevée lorsque la zone de captage est soumise à des activités agricoles. Ce problème est discuté dans le cas de la zone de captage de Sint-Jansteen (Pays-Bas), où les concentrations mesurées en pesticides dans les eaux pompées dépassent régulièrement les normes européennes (0,1μg/L). Les échantillons d'eau souterraine prélevés dans l'aquifère dans la zone de captage montrent une faible contamination, mais les échantillons d'eau pompée contiennent occasionnellement des

  7. History of NAMES Conferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, Lev

    2013-03-01

    Franco-Russian NAMES Seminars are held for the purpose of reviewing and discussing actual developments in the field of materials science by researchers from Russia and from the Lorraine Region of France. In more precise terms, as set down by the organizers of the seminar (the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys and the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine), the mission of the seminars is as follows: the development of scientific and academic contacts, giving a new impulse to joint fundamental research and technology transfer the development and consolidation of scientific, technical and business collaboration between the regions of Russia and Lorraine through direct contact between the universities, institutes and companies involved The first Seminar took place on 27-29 October 2004, at the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (on the premises of the Ecole Européenne d'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux, Nancy, France). The number, variety and quality of the oral presentations given and posters exhibited at the first Seminar were of high international standard. 30 oral presentations were given and 72 posters were presented by 19 participants from five universities and three institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences participants from 11 laboratories of three universities from the Lorraine region three industrial companies, including the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company—EADS, and ANVAR (Agence Nationale de Valorisation de la Recherche) From 2005 onwards, it was decided to organize the Seminar every other year. The second Seminar convened on the occasion of the 75th Anniversary of the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys on 10-12 November 2005 in Moscow, Russia. The seminar demonstrated the efficiency of the scientific partnership founded between the research groups of Russia and France during the first Seminar. High productivity of the Franco-Russian scientific cooperation on the basis of the Research-Educational Franco

  8. Effects of water extraction in a vulnerable phreatic aquifer: Consequences for groundwater contamination by pesticides, Sint-Jansteen area, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaus, Irina

    Pesticides are a potential threat to the quality of extracted groundwater when the water-supply area is used for agricultural activities. This problem is discussed for the water-supply area of Sint-Jansteen, The Netherlands, where measured pesticide concentrations in the extracted water regularly exceed EU limits (0.1μg/L). Groundwater samples taken from the aquifer within the water-supply area show low contamination, but samples taken from the extracted water occasionally contain pesticides, making the water inadequate for drinking-water purposes. The more intense contamination of the extracted water is caused by the change in the natural groundwater flow pattern near the extraction wells. In this area, pesticide use cannot be avoided easily, and an approach is given to differentiate pesticide use in the area according to expected travel time toward the wells and the chemical characteristics of the pesticides. A groundwater flow model for the area is developed and the effects of groundwater extraction on the natural flow pattern are evaluated. Using particle tracking, the travel-time zones are determined. Combining these results and the degradation behavior of certain pesticides led to an optimal scheme to integrate agricultural activities and groundwater extraction in the area. This is illustrated for five different types of pesticides (atrazine, simazine, bentazone, MCPA, and mecoprop). Résumé Les pesticides sont une menace potentielle pour la qualité de l'eau souterraine prélevée lorsque la zone de captage est soumise à des activités agricoles. Ce problème est discuté dans le cas de la zone de captage de Sint-Jansteen (Pays-Bas), où les concentrations mesurées en pesticides dans les eaux pompées dépassent régulièrement les normes européennes (0,1μg/L). Les échantillons d'eau souterraine prélevés dans l'aquifère dans la zone de captage montrent une faible contamination, mais les échantillons d'eau pompée contiennent occasionnellement des

  9. The Black-Scholes option pricing problem in mathematical finance: generalization and extensions for a large class of stochastic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Sornette, Didier

    1994-06-01

    The ability to price risks and devise optimal investment strategies in thé présence of an uncertain "random" market is thé cornerstone of modern finance theory. We first consider thé simplest such problem of a so-called "European call option" initially solved by Black and Scholes using Ito stochastic calculus for markets modelled by a log-Brownien stochastic process. A simple and powerful formalism is presented which allows us to generalize thé analysis to a large class of stochastic processes, such as ARCH, jump or Lévy processes. We also address thé case of correlated Gaussian processes, which is shown to be a good description of three différent market indices (MATIF, CAC40, FTSE100). Our main result is thé introduction of thé concept of an optimal strategy in the sense of (functional) minimization of the risk with respect to the portfolio. If the risk may be made to vanish for particular continuous uncorrelated 'quasiGaussian' stochastic processes (including Black and Scholes model), this is no longer the case for more general stochastic processes. The value of the residual risk is obtained and suggests the concept of risk-corrected option prices. In the presence of very large deviations such as in Lévy processes, new criteria for rational fixing of the option prices are discussed. We also apply our method to other types of options, `Asian', `American', and discuss new possibilities (`doubledecker'...). The inclusion of transaction costs leads to the appearance of a natural characteristic trading time scale. L'aptitude à quantifier le coût du risque et à définir une stratégie optimale de gestion de portefeuille dans un marché aléatoire constitue la base de la théorie moderne de la finance. Nous considérons d'abord le problème le plus simple de ce type, à savoir celui de l'option d'achat `européenne', qui a été résolu par Black et Scholes à l'aide du calcul stochastique d'Ito appliqué aux marchés modélisés par un processus Log

  10. Contemporary attitudes and their ideological representation in Flanders (Belgium), Poland, and the Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Hiel, Alain Van; Kossowska, Malgorzata

    2007-02-01

    'un modèle idéologique d'extrême droite à deux dimensions culturelle et économique ainsi que les relations entre ces dimensions et les attitudes envers les enjeux politiques récents. Les opinions sur l'environnementalisme, sur la guerre contre le terrorisme et sur l'élargissement de l'Union Européenne (UE) ont été sélectionnés comme étant des attitudes contemporaines représentatives. Les présentes questions de recherche ont été examinées dans un échantillon flamand (N = 176), polonais (N = 93) et ukrainien (N = 93). Les résultats ont révélé que deux dimensions sont sous-jacentes au spectre idéologique dans tous les échantillons: une de ces dimensions réfère au conservatisme culturel et à l'autoritarisme d'extrême droite (RWA en anglais) et l'autre réfère au conservatisme économique et à la théorie de la dominance sociale (SDO en anglais). Même si la validité de la différentiation entre ces dimensions idéologiques a été amplement illustrée dans les études sur les échantillons occidentaux, la réplication de ces dimensions dans les anciens pays communistes ajoute à leur validité et à leur généralisabilité parce que ces pays ont une culture et une histoire politique spécifique. Cependant, d'importantes différences trans-culturelles en ce qui concerne la représentation des attitudes contemporaines dans cet espace idéologique à deux dimensions ont également été obtenues. Tandis que la guerre contre le terrorisme a été liée significativement à la dimension culturelle d'extrême droite dans tous les échantillons, les relations pour l'environnementalisme et les attitudes envers l'élargissement de l'UE variaient selon les échantillons. Ces différences trans-culturelles ont été expliquées en termes de degré de saillance du sujet (relations non significatives versus significatives dans le cas de l'environnementalisme) et des soucis pragmatiques quant aux profits et aux coûts (dans le cas de l