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Sample records for enrichment processes enrichissement

  1. Metal enrichment processes

    E-print Network

    S. Schindler; A. Diaferio

    2008-01-07

    There are many processes that can transport gas from the galaxies to their environment and enrich the environment in this way with metals. These metal enrichment processes have a large influence on the evolution of both the galaxies and their environment. Various processes can contribute to the gas transfer: ram-pressure stripping, galactic winds, AGN outflows, galaxy-galaxy interactions and others. We review their observational evidence, corresponding simulations, their efficiencies, and their time scales as far as they are known to date. It seems that all processes can contribute to the enrichment. There is not a single process that always dominates the enrichment, because the efficiencies of the processes vary strongly with galaxy and environmental properties.

  2. Enriching the Web Processing Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosniok, Christoph; Bensmann, Felix; Wössner, Roman; Kohlus, Jörn; Roosmann, Rainer; Heidmann, Carsten; Lehfeldt, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    The OGC Web Processing Service (WPS) provides a standard for implementing geospatial processes in service-oriented networks. In its current version 1.0.0 it allocates the operations GetCapabilities, DescribeProcess and Execute, which can be used to offer custom processes based on single or multiple sub-processes. A large range of ready to use fine granular, fundamental geospatial processes have been developed by the GIS-community in the past. However, modern use cases or whole workflow processes demand specifications of lifecycle management and service orchestration. Orchestrating smaller sub-processes is a task towards interoperability; a comprehensive documentation by using appropriate metadata is also required. Though different approaches were tested in the past, developing complex WPS applications still requires programming skills, knowledge about software libraries in use and a lot of effort for integration. Our toolset RichWPS aims at providing a better overall experience by setting up two major components. The RichWPS ModelBuilder enables the graphics-aided design of workflow processes based on existing local and distributed processes and geospatial services. Once tested by the RichWPS Server, a composition can be deployed for production use on the RichWPS Server. The ModelBuilder obtains necessary processes and services from a directory service, the RichWPS semantic proxy. It manages the lifecycle and is able to visualize results and debugging-information. One aim will be to generate reproducible results; the workflow should be documented by metadata that can be integrated in Spatial Data Infrastructures. The RichWPS Server provides a set of interfaces to the ModelBuilder for, among others, testing composed workflow sequences, estimating their performance and to publish them as common processes. Therefore the server is oriented towards the upcoming WPS 2.0 standard and its ability to transactionally deploy and undeploy processes making use of a WPS-T interface. In order to deal with the results of these processing workflows, a server side extension enables the RichWPS Server and its clients to use WPS presentation directives (WPS-PD), a content related enhancement for the standardized WPS schema. We identified essential requirements of the components of our toolset by applying two use cases. The first enables the simplified comparison of modeled and measured data, a common task in hydro-engineering to validate the accuracy of a model. An implementation of the workflow includes reading, harmonizing and comparing two datasets in NetCDF-format. 2D Water level data from the German Bight can be chosen, presented and evaluated in a web client with interactive plots. The second use case is motivated by the Marine Strategy Directive (MSD) of the EU, which demands monitoring, action plans and at least an evaluation of the ecological situation in marine environment. Information technics adapted to those of INSPIRE should be used. One of the parameters monitored and evaluated for MSD is the expansion and quality of seagrass fields. With the view towards other evaluation parameters we decompose the complex process of evaluation of seagrass in reusable process steps and implement those packages as configurable WPS.

  3. Novel Membranes and Processes for Oxygen Enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Haiqing

    2011-11-15

    The overall goal of this project is to develop a membrane process that produces air containing 25-35% oxygen, at a cost of $25-40/ton of equivalent pure oxygen (EPO2). Oxygen-enriched air at such a low cost will allow existing air-fueled furnaces to be converted economically to oxygen-enriched furnaces, which in turn will improve the economic and energy efficiency of combustion processes significantly, and reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration from flue gases throughout the U.S. manufacturing industries. During the 12-month Concept Definition project: We identified a series of perfluoropolymers (PFPs) with promising oxygen/nitrogen separation properties, which were successfully made into thin film composite membranes. The membranes showed oxygen permeance as high as 1,200 gpu and oxygen/nitrogen selectivity of 3.0, and the permeance and selectivity were stable over the time period tested (60 days). We successfully scaled up the production of high-flux PFP-based membranes, using MTR's commercial coaters. Two bench-scale spiral-wound modules with countercurrent designs were made and parametric tests were performed to understand the effect of feed flow rate and pressure, permeate pressure and sweep flow rate on the membrane module separation properties. At various operating conditions that modeled potential industrial operating conditions, the module separation properties were similar to the pure-gas separation properties in the membrane stamps. We also identified and synthesized new polymers [including polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and polyimides] with higher oxygen/nitrogen selectivity (3.5-5.0) than the PFPs, and made these polymers into thin film composite membranes. However, these membranes were susceptible to severe aging; pure-gas permeance decreased nearly six-fold within two weeks, making them impractical for industrial applications of oxygen enrichment. We tested the effect of oxygen-enriched air on NO{sub x} emissions using a Bloom baffle burner at GTI. The results are positive and confirm that oxygen-enriched combustion can be carried out without producing higher levels of NOx than normal air firing, if lancing of combustion air is used and the excess air levels are controlled. A simple economic study shows that the membrane processes can produce O{sub 2} at less than $40/ton EPO{sub 2} and an energy cost of 1.1-1.5 MMBtu/ton EPO{sub 2}, which are very favorable compared with conventional technologies such as cryogenics and vacuum pressure swing adsorption processes. The benefits of integrated membrane processes/combustion process trains have been evaluated, and show good savings in process costs and energy consumption, as well as reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. For example, if air containing 30% oxygen is used in natural gas furnaces, the net natural gas savings are an estimated 18% at a burner temperature of 2,500 F, and 32% at a burner temperature of 3,000 F. With a 20% market penetration of membrane-based oxygen-enriched combustion in all combustion processes by 2020, the energy savings would be 414-736 TBtu/y in the U.S. The comparable net cost savings are estimated at $1.2-2.1 billion per year by 2020, calculated as the value of fuel savings subtracted from the cost of oxygen production. The fuel savings of 18%-32% by the membrane/oxygen-enriched combustion corresponds to an 18%-32% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, or 23-40 MM ton/y less CO{sub 2} from natural gas-fired furnaces by 2020. In summary, results from this project (Concept Definition phase) are highly promising and clearly demonstrate that membrane processes can produce oxygen-enriched air in a low cost manner that will lower operating costs and energy consumption in industrial combustion processes. Future work will focus on proof-of-concept bench-scale demonstration in the laboratory.

  4. Enriched Stick Breaking Processes for Functional Data

    PubMed Central

    Scarpa, Bruno; Dunson, David B.

    2013-01-01

    In many applications involving functional data, prior information is available about the proportion of curves having different attributes. It is not straightforward to include such information in existing procedures for functional data analysis. Generalizing the functional Dirichlet process (FDP), we propose a class of stick-breaking priors for distributions of functions. These priors incorporate functional atoms drawn from constrained stochastic processes. The stick-breaking weights are specified to allow user-specified prior probabilities for curve attributes, with hyperpriors accommodating uncertainty. Compared with the FDP, the random distribution is enriched for curves having attributes known to be common. Theoretical properties are considered, methods are developed for posterior computation, and the approach is illustrated using data on temperature curves in menstrual cycles. PMID:24976662

  5. Interstellar Processes Leading to Molecular Deuterium Enrichment and Their Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Large deuterium (D) enrichments in meteoritic materials indicate that interstellar organic materials survived incorporation into parent bodies within the forming Solar System. These enrichments are likelier due to one or more of four distinct astrochemical processes. These are (1) low temperature gas phase ion-molecule reactions; (2) low temperature gas-grain reactions; (3) gas phase unimolecular photodissociation, and (4) ultraviolet photolysis in D-enriched ice mantles. Each of these processes should be associated with molecular carriers having, distinct regiochemical signatures (D placement on the product molecules, correlation with specific chemical functionalities, etc.). These processes are reviewed and specific spectroscopic signatures for the detection of these processes in space are identified and described.

  6. Process of .sup.196 Hg enrichment

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Mellor, Charles E. (Salem, MA)

    1993-01-01

    A simple rate equation model shows that by increasing the length of the photochemical reactor and/or by increasing the photon intensity in said reactor, the feedstock utilization of .sup.196 Hg will be increased. Two preferred embodiments of the present invention are described, namely (1) long reactors using long photochemical lamps and vapor filters; and (2) quartz reactors with external UV reflecting films. These embodiments have each been constructed and operated, demonstrating the enhanced utilization process dictated by the mathematical model (also provided).

  7. Process of [sup 196]Hg enrichment

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.; Mellor, C.E.

    1993-04-27

    A simple rate equation model shows that by increasing the length of the photochemical reactor and/or by increasing the photon intensity in said reactor, the feedstock utilization of [sup 196]Hg will be increased. Two preferred embodiments of the present invention are described, namely (1) long reactors using long photochemical lamps and vapor filters; and (2) quartz reactors with external UV reflecting films. These embodiments have each been constructed and operated, demonstrating the enhanced utilization process dictated by the mathematical model (also provided).

  8. Process for preparing a chemical compound enriched in isotope content. [nitrogen 15-enriched nitric acid

    DOEpatents

    Michaels, E.D.

    1981-02-25

    A process to prepare a chemical enriched in isotope content includes: a chemical exchange reaction between a first and second compound which yields an isotopically enriched first compound and an isotopically depleted second compound; the removal of a portion of the first compound as product and the removal of a portion of the second compound as spent material; the conversion of the remainder of the first compound to the second compound for reflux at the product end of the chemical exchange reaction region; the conversion of the remainder of the second compound to the first compound for reflux at the spent material end of the chemical exchange region; and the cycling of the additional chemicals produced by one conversion reaction to the other conversion reaction, for consumption therein. One of the conversion reactions is an oxidation reaction, and the energy that it yields is used to drive the other conversion reaction, a reduction. The reduction reaction is carried out in a solid polymer electrolyte electrolytic reactor. The overall process is energy efficient and yields no waste by-products. A particular embodiment of the process in the production of nitrogen-15-enriched nitric acid.

  9. Cumulative Effects of Decadal CO2 Enrichment on Forest Soil Microbial Processes and Communities

    E-print Network

    Post, Wilfred M.

    Cumulative Effects of Decadal CO2 Enrichment on Forest Soil Microbial Processes and Communities at the ORNL Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment. ·Differences in hypothesized N mineralization and soil Effects of Decadal CO2 Enrichment on Forest Soil Microbial Processes and Communities Abstract: Increased

  10. Process for preparing a chemical compound enriched in isotope content

    DOEpatents

    Michaels, Edward D. (Spring Valley, OH)

    1982-01-01

    A process to prepare a chemical enriched in isotope content which includes: (a) A chemical exchange reaction between a first and second compound which yields an isotopically enriched first compound and an isotopically depleted second compound; (b) the removal of a portion of the first compound as product and the removal of a portion of the second compound as spent material; (c) the conversion of the remainder of the first compound to the second compound for reflux at the product end of the chemical exchange reaction region; (d) the conversion of the remainder of the second compound to the first compound for reflux at the spent material end of the chemical exchange region; and the cycling of the additional chemicals produced by one conversion reaction to the other conversion reaction, for consumption therein. One of the conversion reactions is an oxidation reaction, and the energy that it yields is used to drive the other conversion reaction, a reduction. The reduction reaction is carried out in a solid polymer electrolyte electrolytic reactor. The overall process is energy efficient and yields no waste by-products.

  11. Efficiency evaluation of oxygen enrichment in energy conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bomelburg, H.J.

    1983-12-01

    The extent to which energy conversion efficiencies can be increased by using oxygen or oxygen-enriched air for combustion was studied. Combustion of most fuels with oxygen instead of air was found to have five advantages: increases combustion temperature and efficiency, improves heat transfer at high temperatures, reduces nitrous oxide emissions, permits a high ration of exhaust gas recirculation and allows combustion of certain materials not combustible in air. The same advantages, although to a lesser degree, are apparent with oxygen-enriched air. The cost-effectiveness of the process must necessarily be improved by about 10% when using oxygen instead of air before such use could become justifiable on purely economic terms. Although such a modest increase appears to be attainable in real situations, this study ascertained that it is not possible to generally assess the economic gains. Rather, each case requires its own evaluation. For certain processes industry has already proven that the use of oxygen leads to more efficient plant operation. Several ideas for essentially new applications are described. Specifically, when oxygen is used with exhaust gas recirculation in external or internal combustion engines. It appears also that the advantages of pulse combustion can be amplified further if oxygen is used. When burning wet fuels with oxygen, direct steam generation becomes possible. Oxygen combustion could also improve processes for in situ gasification of coals, oil shales, peats, and other wet fuels. Enhanced oil recovery by fire flooding methods might also become more effective if oxygen is used. The cold energy contained in liquid oxygen can be substantially recovered in the low end of certain thermodynamic cycles. Further efforts to develop certain schemes for using oxygen for combustion appear to be justified from both the technical and economic viewpoints.

  12. Enrichment and Fundamental Optical Processes of Armchair Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haroz, Erik H.

    The armchair variety of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is the only nanotube species that behaves as a metal with no electronic band gap and massless carriers, making them ideally suited to probe fundamental questions of many-body physics of one-dimensional conductors as well as to serve in applications such as highcurrent power transmission cables. However, current methods of nanotube synthesis produce bulk material comprising of a mixture of nanotube lengths, diameters, wrapping angles, and electronic types due to the inability to control the growth process at the nanometer level. As a result, measurements of as-grown SWCNTs produce a superposition of electrical and optical responses from multiple SWCNT species. This thesis demonstrates production of aqueous suspensions composed almost entirely of armchair SWCNTs using a post-synthesis separation method employing density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGU) to separate different SWCNT types based on their mass density and surfactant-specific interactions. Resonant Raman spectroscopy determines the relative abundances of each nanotube species, before and after DGU, by measuring the integrated intensity of the radial breathing mode, the diameter-dependent radial vibration of the SWCNT perpendicular to its main axis, and quantifies the degree of enrichment of bulk nanotube samples to exclusively armchair tubes. Raman spectroscopy of armchair-enriched samples of the G-band mode, which is composed of longitudinal (G-) and circumferential (G+) vibrations oscillating parallel and perpendicular to the tube axis, shows that the G- peak, long-held to be an indicator for the presence of metallic SWCNTs, appears only when electronic resonance with narrow-gap semiconducting SWCNTs occurs and shows only the G+ component in spectra containing only armchair species. Finally, by combining optical absorption measurements with nanotube composition as determined earlier via Raman scattering, peak fitting of absorption spectra indicates that interband transitions of armchair SWCNTs are strongly excitonic as shown by the highly symmetric peak lineshapes, a property normally attributed to semiconductors. Such lineshapes allow classification of armchair SWCNTs as a unique hybrid class of optical nanomaterial. Combining absorption and Raman scattering measurements establishes a distinct optical signature that describes the fundamental optical processes within armchair SWCNTs and lays the foundation for future studies of many-body photophysics and electrical applications.

  13. Robotic Enrichment Processing of Roche 454 Titanium Emlusion PCR at the DOE Joint Genome Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Matthew; Wilson, Steven; Bauer, Diane; Miller, Don; Duffy-Wei, Kecia; Hammon, Nancy; Lucas, Susan; Pollard, Martin; Cheng, Jan-Fang

    2010-05-28

    Enrichment of emulsion PCR product is the most laborious and pipette-intensive step in the 454 Titanium process, posing the biggest obstacle for production-oriented scale up. The Joint Genome Institute has developed a pair of custom-made robots based on the Microlab Star liquid handling deck manufactured by Hamilton to mediate the complexity and ergonomic demands of the 454 enrichment process. The robot includes a custom built centrifuge, magnetic deck positions, as well as heating and cooling elements. At present processing eight emulsion cup samples in a single 2.5 hour run, these robots are capable of processing up to 24 emulsion cup samples. Sample emulsions are broken using the standard 454 breaking process and transferred from a pair of 50ml conical tubes to a single 2ml tube and loaded on the robot. The robot performs the enrichment protocol and produces beads in 2ml tubes ready for counting. The robot follows the Roche 454 enrichment protocol with slight exceptions to the manner in which it resuspends beads via pipette mixing rather than vortexing and a set number of null bead removal washes. The robotic process is broken down in similar discrete steps: First Melt and Neutralization, Enrichment Primer Annealing, Enrichment Bead Incubation, Null Bead Removal, Second Melt and Neutralization and Sequencing Primer Annealing. Data indicating our improvements in enrichment efficiency and total number of bases per run will also be shown.

  14. NEW ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS OF CADMIUM, LUTETIUM, AND OSMIUM IN THE r-PROCESS ENRICHED STAR BD +17 3248

    E-print Network

    Cowan, John

    NEW ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS OF CADMIUM, LUTETIUM, AND OSMIUM IN THE r-PROCESS ENRICHED STAR BD +17 ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS OF CADMIUM, LUTETIUM, AND OSMIUM IN THE r-PROCESS ENRICHED STAR BD +17 3248, Ian U

  15. s-Process Os isotope enrichment in ureilites by planetary processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goderis, S.; Brandon, A. D.; Mayer, B.; Humayun, M.

    2015-12-01

    Ubiquitous nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies relative to the terrestrial isotopic composition in Mo, Ru, and other elements are known from both bulk chondrites and differentiated meteorites, but Os isotope ratios reported from such meteorites have been found to be indistinguishable from the terrestrial value. The carriers of s- and r-process Os must thus have been homogeneously distributed in the solar nebula. As large Os isotope anomalies are known from acid leachates and residues of primitive chondrites, the constant relative proportions of presolar s- and r-process carriers in such chondrites must have been maintained during nebular processes. It has long been assumed that partial melting of primitive chondrites would homogenize the isotopic heterogeneity carried by presolar grains. Here, ureilites, carbon-rich ultramafic achondrites dominantly composed of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene, are shown to be the first differentiated bulk Solar System materials for which nucleosynthetic Os isotope anomalies have been identified. These anomalies consist of enrichment in s-process Os heterogeneously distributed in different ureilites. Given the observed homogeneity of Os isotopes in all types of primitive chondrites, this Os isotope variability among ureilites must have been caused by selective removal of s-process-poor Os host phases, probably metal, during rapid localized melting on the ureilite parent body. While Mo and Ru isotope anomalies for all meteorites measured so far exhibit s-process deficits relative to the Earth, the opposite holds for the Os isotope anomalies in ureilites reported here. This might indicate that the Earth preferentially accreted olivine-rich restites and inherited a s-process excess relative to smaller meteorite bodies, consistent with Earth's high Mg/Si ratio and enrichment of s-process nuclides in Mo, Ru, and Nd isotopes. Our new Os isotope results imply that caution must be used when applying nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies as provenance indicators between different classes of meteorites.

  16. Method for thermal processing alumina-enriched spinel single crystals

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1995-05-09

    A process for age-hardening alumina-rich magnesium aluminum spinel to obtain the desired combination of characteristics of hardness, clarity, flexural strength and toughness comprises selection of the time-temperature pair for isothermal heating followed by quenching. The time-temperature pair is selected from the region wherein the precipitate groups have the characteristics sought. The single crystal spinel is isothermally heated and will, if heated long enough pass from its single phase through two pre-precipitates and two metastable precipitates to a stable secondary phase precipitate within the spinel matrix. Quenching is done slowly at first to avoid thermal shock, then rapidly. 12 figs.

  17. Method for thermal processing alumina-enriched spinel single crystals

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, Carol M. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01

    A process for age-hardening alumina-rich magnesium aluminum spinel to obtain the desired combination of characteristics of hardness, clarity, flexural strength and toughness comprises selection of the time-temperature pair for isothermal heating followed by quenching. The time-temperature pair is selected from the region wherein the precipitate groups have the characteristics sought. The single crystal spinel is isothermally heated and will, if heated long enough pass from its single phase through two pre-precipitates and two metastable precipitates to a stable secondary phase precipitate within the spinel matrix. Quenching is done slowly at first to avoid thermal shock, then rapidly.

  18. Assessment of the Interstellar Processes Leading to Deuterium Enrichment in Meteoritic Organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Bernstein, Max P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The presence of isotopic anomalies is the most unequivocal demonstration that meteoritic material contains circumstellar or interstellar components. In the case of organic compounds in meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), the most useful isotopic tracer has been deuterium (D). We discuss four processes that are expected to lead to D enrichment in interstellar materials and describe how their unique characteristics can be used to assess their relative importance for the organics in meteorites. These enrichment processes are low temperature gas phase ion-molecule reactions, low temperature gas-grain reactions, gas phase unimolecular photodissociation, and ultraviolet photolysis in D-enriched ice mantles. Each of these processes is expected to be associated with distinct regiochemical signatures (D placement on the product molecules, correlation with specific chemical functionalities, etc.), especially in the molecular population of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We describe these differences and discuss how they may be used to delineate the various interstellar processes that may have contributed to meteoritic D enrichments. We also briefly discuss how these processes may affect the isotopic distributions in C, 0, and N in the same compounds.

  19. Assessment of the interstellar processes leading to deuterium enrichment in meteoritic organics

    E-print Network

    Assessment of the interstellar processes leading to deuterium enrichment in meteoritic organics@mail.arc.nasa.gov (Received 2001 February 13; accepted in revised form 2001 May 4) Meteoritics & Planetary Science 36, 1117­1133 (2001) Available online at http://www.uark.edu/meteor © Meteoritical Society, 2001. Printed in USA. 1117

  20. Fluxes in PHA-storing microbial communities during enrichment and biopolymer accumulation processes.

    PubMed

    Janarthanan, Om Murugan; Laycock, Bronwyn; Montano-Herrera, Liliana; Lu, Yang; Arcos-Hernandez, Monica V; Werker, Alan; Pratt, Steven

    2016-01-25

    The use of mixed microbial cultures for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) is emerging as a viable technology. In this study, 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing was used to analyse fluctuations in populations over a 63-day period within a PHA-storing mixed microbial community enriched on fermented whey permeate. This community was dominated by the genera Flavisolibacter and Zoogloea as well as an unidentified organism belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes. The population was observed to cycle through an increase in Zoogloea followed by a return to a community composition similar to the initial one (highly enriched in Flavisolibacter). It was found that the PHA accumulation capacity of the community was robust to population flux during enrichment and even PHA accumulation, with final polymer composition dependent on the overall proportion of acetic to propionic acids in the feed. This community adaptation suggests that mixed culture PHA production is a robust process. PMID:26257140

  1. Resin-assisted Enrichment of N-terminal Peptides for Characterizing Proteolytic Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jong Seo; Dai, Ziyu; Aryal, Uma K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Camp, David G.; Baker, Scott E.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun

    2013-06-17

    Proteolytic processing is a ubiquitous, irreversible posttranslational modification that plays an important role in cellular regulation in all living organisms. Herein we report a resin-assisted positive selection method for specifically enriching protein N-terminal peptides to facilitate the characterization of proteolytic processing events by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In this approach, proteins are initially reduced and alkylated and their lysine residues are converted to homoarginines. Then, protein N-termini are selectively converted to reactive thiol groups. We demonstrate that these sequential reactions were achieved with nearly quantitative efficiencies. Thiol-containing N-terminal peptides are then captured (>98% efficiency) by a thiol-affinity resin, a significant improvement over the traditional avidin/biotin enrichment. Application to cell lysates of Aspergillus niger, a filamentous fungus of interest for biomass degradation, enabled the identification of 1672 unique protein N-termini and proteolytic cleavage sites from 690 unique proteins.

  2. Process for protein enrichment of cassava by solid substrate fermentation in rural conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Daubresse, P.; Ntibashirwa, S.; Gheysen, A.; Meyer, J.A.

    1987-06-01

    An artisanal static process for protein enrichment of cassava by solid-state fermentation, developed in laboratory and tested on pilot units in Burundi (Central Africa), provides enriched cassava containing 10.7% of dry matter protein versus 1% before fermentation. Cassava chips, processed into granules of 2-4-mm diameter, are moistened (40% water content) and steamed. After cooling to 40 degrees C, cassava is mixed with a nutritive solution containing the inoculum (Rhizopus oryzae, strain MUCL 28627) and providing the following per 100 g dry matter: 3.4 g urea, 1.5 g KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/, O.8 g MgSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O, and 22.7 g citric acid. For the fermentation, cassava, with circa 60% moisture content, is spread in a thin layer (2-3 cm thick) on perforated trays and slid into an aerated humidified enclosure. The incubation lasts more or less 65 hours. The production of protein enriched cassava is 3.26 kg dry matter/square m tray. The effects of the variation of the nutritive solution composition and the inoculum conservation period on the protein production are equally discussed. (Refs. 37).

  3. The s-process enrichment of the globular clusters M4 and M22

    SciTech Connect

    Shingles, Luke J.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Fishlock, Cherie K.; Yong, David; Da Costa, Gary S.; Marino, Anna F.; Hirschi, Raphael

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the enrichment in elements produced by the slow neutron-capture process (s-process) in the globular clusters M4 (NGC 6121) and M22 (NGC 6656). Stars in M4 have homogeneous abundances of Fe and neutron-capture elements, but the entire cluster is enhanced in s-process elements (Sr, Y, Ba, Pb) relative to other clusters with a similar metallicity. In M22, two stellar groups exhibit different abundances of Fe and s-process elements. By subtracting the mean abundances of s-poor from s-rich stars, we derive s-process residuals or empirical s-process distributions for M4 and M22. We find that the s-process distribution in M22 is more weighted toward the heavy s-peak (Ba, La, Ce) and Pb than M4, which has been enriched mostly with light s-peak elements (Sr, Y, Zr). We construct simple chemical evolution models using yields from massive star models that include rotation, which dramatically increases s-process production at low metallicity. We show that our massive star models with rotation rates of up to 50% of the critical (break-up) velocity and changes to the preferred {sup 17}O(?, ?){sup 21}Ne rate produce insufficient heavy s-elements and Pb to match the empirical distributions. For models that incorporate asymptotic giant branch yields, we find that intermediate-mass yields (with a {sup 22}Ne neutron source) alone do not reproduce the light-to-heavy s-element ratios for M4 and M22, and that a small contribution from models with a {sup 13}C pocket is required. With our assumption that {sup 13}C pockets form for initial masses below a transition range between 3.0 and 3.5 M {sub ?}, we match the light-to-heavy s-element ratio in the s-process residual of M22 and predict a minimum enrichment timescale of between 240 and 360 Myr. Our predicted value is consistent with the 300 Myr upper limit age difference between the two groups derived from isochrone fitting.

  4. Analysis of civilian processing programs in reduction of excess separated plutonium and high-enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Persiani, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this preliminary investigation is to explore alternatives and strategies aimed at the gradual reduction of the excess inventories of separated plutonium and high-enriched uranium (HEU) in the civilian nuclear power industry. The study attempts to establish a technical and economic basis to assist in the formation of alternative approaches consistent with nonproliferation and safeguards concerns. The analysis addresses several options in reducing the excess separated plutonium and HEU, and the consequences on nonproliferation and safeguards policy assessments resulting from the interacting synergistic effects between fuel cycle processes and isotopic signatures of nuclear materials.

  5. A Monte Carlo Analysis of Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Process Load Cell Data

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, James R; Whitaker, J Michael

    2013-01-01

    As uranium enrichment plants increase in number, capacity, and types of separative technology deployed (e.g., gas centrifuge, laser, etc.), more automated safeguards measures are needed to enable the IAEA to maintain safeguards effectiveness in a fiscally constrained environment. Monitoring load cell data can significantly increase the IAEA s ability to efficiently achieve the fundamental safeguards objective of confirming operations as declared (i.e., no undeclared activities), but care must be taken to fully protect the operator s proprietary and classified information related to operations. Staff at ORNL, LANL, JRC/ISPRA, and University of Glasgow are investigating monitoring the process load cells at feed and withdrawal (F/W) stations to improve international safeguards at enrichment plants. A key question that must be resolved is what is the necessary frequency of recording data from the process F/W stations? Several studies have analyzed data collected at a fixed frequency. This paper contributes to load cell process monitoring research by presenting an analysis of Monte Carlo simulations to determine the expected errors caused by low frequency sampling and its impact on material balance calculations.

  6. Multi-stage water enrichment processes in the wake of the Farralon slab (UNESCO IGCP 557)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, H.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Gasharova, B.

    2008-12-01

    In this study we supply petrological evidence for a hydrous upwelling beneath the Colorado Plateau in the Western United States. We trace a hydrous upwelling by its signature of multi-stage water enrichment processes in garnet- and Cr-spinel bearing lherzolithes collected from the sample volcano "the Thumb". Multi-stage hydration is witnessed from a depth of 150 km to just below Moho depth by various constraints. We use high-resolution synchrotron based FTIR, to resolve the hydration at 150 km depth (T= 1200°C) by mapping the water content in homogenous olivine crystals, around spinel inclusions and fully embedded cracks from lherzolites samples. We interpret these lherzolites to originate from the lower part of the Farallon slab. These xenoliths are presumably released during break off of the slab. In these samples background hydration in the homogenous olivine is 140 ppm H2O wt but around 2-D defects the water content can rise up to 800 ppm H20 wt. A second set of samples of harzburgitic composition is interpreted to be derived from the subcontinental Mantle (T= 600°C). In these samples hydration is visible through cracks that are serpentinized. From this observation we conclude that hydration causes multi-stage enrichment of the mantle wedge through a process that is dominated by the growth of ubiquitous crack. Our results do not confirm the hypothesis of pervasive hydration through point defect diffusion. Cracks in the mantle are a key element in the subduction zone water cycle.

  7. Enrichment of r-process elements in dwarf spheroidal galaxies in chemo-dynamical evolution model

    E-print Network

    Hirai, Yutaka; Saitoh, Takayuki R; Fujii, Michiko S; Hidaka, Jun; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2015-01-01

    The rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) is a major process to synthesize elements heavier than iron, but the astrophysical site(s) of r-process is not identified yet. Neutron star mergers (NSMs) are suggested to be a major r-process site from nucleosynthesis studies. Previous chemical evolution studies however require unlikely short merger time of NSMs to reproduce the observed large star-to-star scatters in the abundance ratios of r-process elements relative to iron, [Eu/Fe], of extremely metal-poor stars in the Milky Way (MW) halo. This problem can be solved by considering chemical evolution in dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) which would be building blocks of the MW and have lower star formation efficiencies than the MW halo. We demonstrate that enrichment of r-process elements in dSphs by NSMs using an N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. Our high-resolution model reproduces the observed [Eu/Fe] by NSMs with a merger time of 100 Myr when the effect of metal mixing is taken into account. Thi...

  8. CONCEPTUAL PROCESS DESCRIPTION FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF LOW-ENRICHED URANIUM-MOLYBDENUM FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel M. Wachs; Curtis R. Clark; Randall J. Dunavant

    2008-02-01

    The National Nuclear Security Agency Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is tasked with minimizing the use of high-enriched uranium (HEU) worldwide. A key component of that effort is the conversion of research reactors from HEU to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuels. The GTRI Convert Fuel Development program, previously known as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program was initiated in 1978 by the United States Department of Energy to develop the nuclear fuels necessary to enable these conversions. The program cooperates with the research reactors’ operators to achieve this goal of HEU to LEU conversion without reduction in reactor performance. The programmatic mandate is to complete the conversion of all civilian domestic research reactors by 2014. These reactors include the five domestic high-performance research reactors (HPRR), namely: the High Flux Isotope Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory, the National Bureau of Standards Reactor at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Missouri University Research Reactor at the University of Missouri–Columbia, and the MIT Reactor-II at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Characteristics for each of the HPRRs are given in Appendix A. The GTRI Convert Fuel Development program is currently engaged in the development of a novel nuclear fuel that will enable these conversions. The fuel design is based on a monolithic fuel meat (made from a uranium-molybdenum alloy) clad in Al-6061 that has shown excellent performance in irradiation testing. The unique aspects of the fuel design, however, necessitate the development and implementation of new fabrication techniques and, thus, establishment of the infrastructure to ensure adequate fuel fabrication capability. A conceptual fabrication process description and rough estimates of the total facility throughput are described in this document as a basis for establishing preconceptual fabrication facility designs.

  9. r-Process Elements in EMP stars: Indicators of Inhomogeneous Early Halo Enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Johannes; Nordström, Birgitta; Thidemann Hansen, Terese

    2015-08-01

    Extremely metal-poor (EMP) halo stars with [Fe/H] below ~ -3 are considered to be fossil records of conditions in the early halo. In the simplest picture where iron is a proxy for overall metallicity and indirectly for time, EMP stars formed before the oldest and most metal-poor Galactic globular clusters. High-resolution spectroscopy with 8m-class telescopes has shown the detailed abundance pattern of these stars to be surprisingly uniform (e.g. Bonifacio+ 2012) and essentially Solar, apart from the ?-enhancement typical of SN II nucleosynthesis. A small fraction (~3%) of EMP stars, however, is strongly enhanced in the heaviest (r-process) neutron-capture elements, highlighting that the periodic system of elements was fully populated already this early.These striking departures from the general chemical homogeneity could be produced by local or distant sources. The former case is simple - mass transfer from a binary companion that evolved to produce a highly neutron-rich environment (one or more NS). Alternatively, the r-process elements were formed in a site at interstellar distance and preferentially seeded into the natal clouds of the present-day EMP-r stars. Our long-term, precise monitoring of the radial velocities of a sample of such stars (Hansen+ 2011) disproved the binary hypothesis, which would in fact also fail to explain the existence of r-process poor stars, such as HD 122653. We thus conclude that the chemical enrichment of the early halo was far more complex, patchy and likely anisotropic than assumed in current models of Galactic chemical evolution: The EMP-r stars are not just peculiarities to be ignored, but indicate that a new level of complexity must be invoked. That r-process elements have not (yet) been observed in high-redshift DLA systems is readily explained by their low abundance relative to the lighter species and the rarity of strong enrichment events.

  10. s-process enrichment in the planetary nebula NGC 3918. Results from deep echelle spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Rojas, J.; Madonna, S.; Luridiana, V.; Sterling, N. C.; Morisset, C.; Delgado-Inglada, G.; Toribio San Cipriano, L.

    2015-09-01

    The chemical content of the planetary nebula NGC 3918 is investigated through deep, high-resolution (R ˜ 40 000) UVES (Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph) at VLT (Very Large Telescope) spectrophotometric data. We identify and measure more than 750 emission lines, making ours one of the deepest spectra ever taken for a planetary nebula. Among these lines we detect very faint lines of several neutron-capture elements (Se, Kr, Rb, and Xe), which enable us to compute their chemical abundances with unprecedented accuracy, thus constraining the efficiency of the s-process and convective dredge-up in NGC 3918 progenitor star. We find that Kr is strongly enriched in NGC 3918 and that Se is less enriched than Kr, in agreement with the results of previous papers and with predicted s-process nucleosynthesis. We also find that Xe is not as enriched by the s-process in NGC 3918 as is Kr and, therefore, that neutron exposure is typical of modestly subsolar metallicity asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. A clear correlation is found when representing [Kr/O] versus log(C/O) for NGC 3918 and other objects with detection of multiple ions of Kr in optical data, confirming that carbon is brought to the surface of AGB stars along with s-processed material during third dredge-up episodes, as predicted by nucleosynthesis models. We also detect numerous refractory element lines (Ca, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) and a large number of metal recombination lines of C, N, O, and Ne. We compute physical conditions from a large number of diagnostics, which are highly consistent among themselves assuming a three-zone ionization scheme. Thanks to the high ionization of NGC 3918 we detect a large number of recombination lines of multiple ionization stages of C, N, O and Ne. The abundances obtained for these elements by using recently determined state-of-the-art ionization correction factor (ICF) schemes or simply adding ionic abundances are in very good agreement, demonstrating the quality of the recent ICF scheme for high-ionization planetary nebulae.

  11. Enrichment of r-process Elements in Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies in Chemo-dynamical Evolution Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Yutaka; Ishimaru, Yuhri; Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Fujii, Michiko S.; Hidaka, Jun; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2015-11-01

    The rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) is a major process for the synthesis of elements heavier than iron-peak elements, but the astrophysical site(s) of the r-process has not yet been identified. Neutron star mergers (NSMs) are suggested to be a major r-process site according to nucleosynthesis studies. Previous chemical evolution studies, however, required unlikely short merger times of NSMs to reproduce the observed large star-to-star scatters in the abundance ratios of r-process elements to iron: the [Eu/Fe] of extremely metal-poor stars in the Milky Way (MW) halo. This problem can be solved by considering chemical evolution in dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs), which would be building blocks of the MW and have lower star formation efficiencies than the MW halo. We demonstrate the enrichment of r-process elements in dSphs by NSMs using an N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. Our high-resolution model reproduces the observed [Eu/Fe] due to NSMs with a merger time of 100 Myr when the effect of metal mixing is taken into account. This is because metallicity is not correlated with time ?300 Myr from the start of the simulation due to the low star formation efficiency in dSphs. We also confirm that this model is consistent with observed properties of dSphs such as radial profiles and metallicity distribution. The merger time and the Galactic rate of NSMs are suggested to be ?300 Myr and ?10?4 year?1, respectively, which are consistent with the values suggested by population synthesis and nucleosynthesis studies. This study supports the argument that NSMs are the major astrophysical site of the r-process.

  12. The History of R-Process Enrichment in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Sijing; Cooke, Ryan J.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Madau, Piero; Mayer, Lucio; Guedes, Javiera

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the production sites and the enrichment history of r-process elements in the Galaxy, as traced by the [Eu/Fe] ratio, using the high resolution, cosmological zoom-in simulation “Eris.” At z = 0, Eris represents a close analog to the Milky Way, making it the ideal laboratory to understand the chemical evolution of our Galaxy. Eris formally traces the production of oxygen and iron due to supernovae (SNe) Ia and SNe II. We include in post-processing the production of r-process elements from compact binary mergers. Unlike previous studies, we find that the nucleosynthetic products from compact binary mergers can be incorporated into stars of very low metallicity and at early times, even with a minimum delay time of 100 Myr. This conclusion is relatively insensitive to modest variations in the merger rate, minimum delay time, and the delay time distribution. By implementing a first-order prescription for metal mixing, we can further improve the agreement between our model and the data for the chemical evolution of both [?/Fe] and [Eu/Fe]. We argue that compact binary mergers could be the dominant source of r-process nucleosynthesis in the Galaxy.

  13. NET-GE: a novel NETwork-based Gene Enrichment for detecting biological processes associated to Mendelian diseases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Enrichment analysis is a widely applied procedure for shedding light on the molecular mechanisms and functions at the basis of phenotypes, for enlarging the dataset of possibly related genes/proteins and for helping interpretation and prioritization of newly determined variations. Several standard and Network-based enrichment methods are available. Both approaches rely on the annotations that characterize the genes/proteins included in the input set; network based ones also include in different ways physical and functional relationships among different genes or proteins that can be extracted from the available biological networks of interactions. Results Here we describe a novel procedure based on the extraction from the STRING interactome of sub-networks connecting proteins that share the same Gene Ontology(GO) terms for Biological Process (BP). Enrichment analysis is performed by mapping the protein set to be analyzed on the sub-networks, and then by collecting the corresponding annotations. We test the ability of our enrichment method in finding annotation terms disregarded by other enrichment methods available. We benchmarked 244 sets of proteins associated to different Mendelian diseases, according to the OMIM web resource. In 143 cases (58%), the network-based procedure extracts GO terms neglected by the standard method, and in 86 cases (35%), some of the newly enriched GO terms are not included in the set of annotations characterizing the input proteins. We present in detail six cases where our network-based enrichment provides an insight into the biological basis of the diseases, outperforming other freely available network-based methods. Conclusions Considering a set of proteins in the context of their interaction network can help in better defining their functions. Our novel method exploits the information contained in the STRING database for building the minimal connecting network containing all the proteins annotated with the same GO term. The enrichment procedure is performed considering the GO-specific network modules and, when tested on the OMIM-derived benchmark sets, it is able to extract enrichment terms neglected by other methods. Our procedure is effective even when the size of the input protein set is small, requiring at least two input proteins. PMID:26110971

  14. Local finite element enrichment strategies for 2D contact computations and a corresponding post-processing scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Roger A.

    2013-08-01

    Recently an enriched contact finite element formulation has been developed that substantially increases the accuracy of contact computations while keeping the additional numerical effort at a minimum reported by Sauer (Int J Numer Meth Eng, 87: 593-616, 2011). Two enrich-ment strategies were proposed, one based on local p-refinement using Lagrange interpolation and one based on Hermite interpolation that produces C 1-smoothness on the contact surface. Both classes, which were initially considered for the frictionless Signorini problem, are extended here to friction and contact between deformable bodies. For this, a symmetric contact formulation is used that allows the unbiased treatment of both contact partners. This paper also proposes a post-processing scheme for contact quantities like the contact pressure. The scheme, which provides a more accurate representation than the raw data, is based on an averaging procedure that is inspired by mortar formulations. The properties of the enrichment strategies and the corresponding post-processing scheme are illustrated by several numerical examples considering sliding and peeling contact in the presence of large deformations.

  15. Processes involved in sweeping as sample enrichment method in cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography of hydrophobic basic analytes.

    PubMed

    El-Awady, Mohamed; Pyell, Ute

    2014-03-01

    Sweeping is an enrichment method in MEKC, which includes following steps: stacking/destacking of the micelles, sweeping of analyte by the stacked/destacked micelles, destacking/stacking of the swept analyte zone and additional focusing/defocusing due to the retention factor gradient effect (RFGE). In this study, we investigate additional processes, regarding online focusing in cyclodextrin-modified MEKC (CD-MEKC) of hydrophobic basic analytes: dynamic pH junction (sample with pH different from that of BGE) and adsorption of analyte onto the capillary wall within the sample zone. It is demonstrated that the developed method for the assessment of the sweeping efficiency is also applicable to CD-MEKC taking ethylparaben as an example of acidic analytes and desloratadine as an example of basic analytes using different types of ?-cyclodextrin. Our previous results regarding RFGE as an additional focusing/defocusing effect in sweeping-MEKC are confirmed for the case that the apparent distribution coefficient differs for the sample and the BGE due to a different content of the complex-forming agent cyclodextrin and due to a pH difference between the sample and the BGE. Despite being significantly more hydrophobic than ethylparaben, desloratadine shows an unexpectedly low enrichment factor. This enrichment factor is nearly unaffected by the addition of CD to the BGE. This unexpected behavior is attributed to wall adsorption of the protonated hydrophobic basic analyte within the sample zone, which significantly counteracts the sweeping process. This assumption is corroborated by an improvement in the enrichment factor achieved via addition of a dynamic coating agent (triethylamine) to the sample solution. PMID:24338927

  16. Process for producing enriched uranium having a {sup 235}U content of at least 4 wt. % via combination of a gaseous diffusion process and an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to eliminate uranium hexafluoride tails storage

    DOEpatents

    Horton, J.A.; Hayden, H.W. Jr.

    1995-05-30

    An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a {sup 235}U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower {sup 235}U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF{sub 6} tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a {sup 235} U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % {sup 235} U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF{sub 6}; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF{sub 6} in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a {sup 235}U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6} having a {sup 235}U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6}; and converting this low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6} to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. 4 figs.

  17. Process for producing enriched uranium having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. % via combination of a gaseous diffusion process and an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to eliminate uranium hexafluoride tails storage

    DOEpatents

    Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Hayden, Jr., Howard W. (Oakridge, TN)

    1995-01-01

    An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a .sup.235 U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower .sup.235 U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF.sub.6 tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a .sup.235 U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % .sup.235 U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF.sub.6 ; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF.sub.6 in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 having a .sup.235 U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 ; and converting this low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process.

  18. Hammond Postulate Mirroring Enables Enantiomeric Enrichment of Phosphorus Compounds via Two Thermodynamically Interconnected Sequential Stereoselective Processes.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Kamalraj V; Nikitin, Kirill V; Gilheany, Declan G

    2015-07-29

    The dynamic resolution of tertiary phosphines and phosphine oxides was monitored by NMR spectroscopy. It was found that the stereoselectivity is set during the formation of the diastereomeric alkoxyphosphonium salts (DAPS), such that their initial diastereomeric excess (de) limits the final enantiomeric excess (ee) of any phosphorus products derived from them. However, (31)P NMR monitoring of the spontaneous thermal decomposition of the DAPS shows consistent diastereomeric self-enrichment, indicating a higher rate constant for decomposition of the minor diastereomer. This crucial observation was confirmed by reductive trapping of the unreacted enriched DAPS with lithium tri-sec-butylborohydride (commercially distributed as L-Selectride reagent) at different time intervals after the start of reaction, which gives progressively higher ee of the phosphine product with time. It is proposed that the Hammond postulate operates for both formation and decomposition of DAPS intermediate so that the lower rate of formation and faster subsequent collapse of the minor isomer are thermodynamically linked. This kinetic enhancement of kinetic resolution furnishes up to 97% ee product. PMID:26186272

  19. 77 FR 33253 - Regulatory Guide 8.24, Revision 2, Health Physics Surveys During Enriched Uranium-235 Processing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ...Regulatory Guide 8.24, Revision 2, Health Physics Surveys During Enriched Uranium-235...of Regulatory Guide 8.24, ``Health Physics Surveys During Enriched Uranium-235...aspects of an acceptable occupational health physics program that are closely related to...

  20. Deammonification process start-up after enrichment of anammox microorganisms from reject water in a moving-bed biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Zekker, Ivar; Rikmann, Ergo; Tenno, Toomas; Kroon, Kristel; Vabamäe, Priit; Salo, Erik; Loorits, Liis; Rubin, Sergio S C dC; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Tenno, Taavo

    2013-01-01

    Deammonification via intermittent aeration in biofilm process for the treatment of sewage sludge digester supernatant (reject water) was started up using two opposite strategies. Two moving-bed biofilm reactors were operated for 2.5 years at 26 (+/- 0.5 degree C with spiked influent(and hence free ammonia (FA)) addition. In the first start-up strategy, an enrichment of anammox biomass was first established, followed by the development of nitrifying biomass in the system (R1). In contrast, the second strategy aimed at the enrichment of anammox organisms into a nitrifying biofilm (R2). The first strategy was most successful, reaching higher maximum total nitrogen (TN) removal rates over a shorter start-up period. For both reactors, increasing FA spiking frequency and increasing effluent concentrations of the anammox intermediate hydrazine correlated to decreasing aerobic nitrate production (nitritation). The bacterial consortium of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria in the bioreactor was determined via denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing. In addition to a shorter start-up with a better TN removal rate, nitrite oxidizing bacteria (Nitrospira) were outcompeted by spiked ammonium feeding from R1. PMID:24617068

  1. Enrichment of the metallic components from waste printed circuit boards by a mechanical separation process using a stamp mill

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Jae-Min; Jeong, Jinki; Yoo, Kyoungkeun; Lee, Jae-chun Kim, Wonbaek

    2009-03-15

    Printed circuit boards incorporated in most electrical and electronic equipment contain valuable metals such as Cu, Ni, Au, Ag, Pd, Fe, Sn, and Pb. In order to employ a hydrometallurgical route for the recycling of valuable metals from printed circuit boards, a mechanical pre-treatment step is needed. In this study, the metallic components from waste printed circuit boards have been enriched using a mechanical separation process. Waste printed circuit boards shredded to <10 mm were milled using a stamp mill to liberate the various metallic components, and then the milled printed circuit boards were classified into fractions of <0.6, 0.6-1.2, 1.2-2.5, 2.5-5.0, and >5.0 mm. The fractions of milled printed circuit boards of size <5.0 mm were separated into a light fraction of mostly non-metallic components and a heavy fraction of the metallic components by gravity separation using a zig-zag classifier. The >5.0 mm fraction and the heavy fraction were subjected to two-step magnetic separation. Through the first magnetic separation at 700 Gauss, 83% of the nickel and iron, based on the whole printed circuit boards, was recovered in the magnetic fraction, and 92% of the copper was recovered in the non-magnetic fraction. The cumulative recovery of nickel-iron concentrate was increased by a second magnetic separation at 3000 Gauss, but the grade of the concentrate decreased remarkably from 76% to 56%. The cumulative recovery of copper concentrate decreased, but the grade increased slightly from 71.6% to 75.4%. This study has demonstrated the feasibility of the mechanical separation process consisting of milling/size classification/gravity separation/two-step magnetic separation for enriching metallic components such as Cu, Ni, Al, and Fe from waste printed circuit boards.

  2. Galactic r-process enrichment by neutron star mergers in cosmological simulations of a Milky Way-mass galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Voort, Freeke; Quataert, Eliot; Hopkins, Philip F.; Kereš, Dušan; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André

    2015-02-01

    We quantify the stellar abundances of neutron-rich r-process nuclei in cosmological zoom-in simulations of a Milky Way-mass galaxy from the Feedback In Realistic Environments project. The galaxy is enriched with r-process elements by binary neutron star (NS) mergers and with iron and other metals by supernovae. These calculations include key hydrodynamic mixing processes not present in standard semi-analytic chemical evolution models, such as galactic winds and hydrodynamic flows associated with structure formation. We explore a range of models for the rate and delay time of NS mergers, intended to roughly bracket the wide range of models consistent with current observational constraints. We show that NS mergers can produce [r-process/Fe] abundance ratios and scatter that appear reasonably consistent with observational constraints. At low metallicity, [Fe/H] ? -2, we predict there is a wide range of stellar r-process abundance ratios, with both supersolar and subsolar abundances. Low-metallicity stars or stars that are outliers in their r-process abundance ratios are, on average, formed at high redshift and located at large galactocentric radius. Because NS mergers are rare, our results are not fully converged with respect to resolution, particularly at low metallicity. However, the uncertain rate and delay time distribution of NS mergers introduce an uncertainty in the r-process abundances comparable to that due to finite numerical resolution. Overall, our results are consistent with NS mergers being the source of most of the r-process nuclei in the Universe.

  3. Paper presented at CIDOC2012 -Enriching Cultural Heritage, Helsinki, Finland, June 1014, 2012. Process-centric Cataloguing of Intangible Cultural Heritage

    E-print Network

    Hyvönen, Eero

    Paper presented at CIDOC2012 - Enriching Cultural Heritage, Helsinki, Finland, June 10­14, 2012. Process-centric Cataloguing of Intangible Cultural Heritage Suvi Kettula1 and Eero Hyvönen2 Espoo City and archives collect and store documentation of processes of intangible cultural heritage (ICH

  4. Enriching psychological assessment using a person-specific analysis of interpersonal processes in daily life.

    PubMed

    Roche, Michael J; Pincus, Aaron L; Rebar, Amanda L; Conroy, David E; Ram, Nilam

    2014-10-01

    We present a series of methods and approaches for clinicians interested in tracking their individual patients over time and in the natural settings of their daily lives. The application of person-specific analyses to intensive repeated measurement data can assess some aspects of persons that are distinct from the valuable results obtained from single-occasion assessments. Guided by interpersonal theory, we assess a psychotherapy patient's interpersonal processes as they unfold in his daily life. We highlight specific contexts that change these processes, use an informant report to examine discrepancies in his reported interpersonal processes, and examine how his interpersonal processes differ as a function of varying levels of self-esteem and anger. We advocate for this approach to complement existing psychological assessments and provide a scoring program to facilitate initial implementation. PMID:25038215

  5. NEW ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS OF CADMIUM, LUTETIUM, AND OSMIUM IN THE r-PROCESS ENRICHED STAR BD +17 3248 {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Roederer, Ian U.; Sneden, Christopher; Lawler, James E.; Cowan, John J.

    2010-05-01

    We report the detection of Cd I (Z = 48), Lu II (Z = 71), and Os II (Z = 76) in the metal-poor star BD +17 3248. These abundances are derived from an ultraviolet spectrum obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. This is the first detection of these neutron-capture species in a metal-poor star enriched by the r process. We supplement these measurements with new abundances of Mo I, Ru I, and Rh I derived from an optical spectrum obtained with the High Resolution Echelle Spectrograph on Keck. Combined with previous abundance derivations, 32 neutron-capture elements have been detected in BD +17 3248, the most complete neutron-capture abundance pattern in any metal-poor star to date. The light neutron-capture elements (38 {<=} Z {<=} 48) show a more pronounced even-odd effect than expected from current solar system r-process abundance predictions. The age for BD +17 3248 derived from the Th II/Os II chronometer is in better agreement with the age derived from other chronometers than the age derived from Th II/Os I. New Hf II abundance derivations from transitions in the ultraviolet are lower than those derived from transitions in the optical, and the lower Hf abundance is in better agreement with the scaled solar system r-process distribution.

  6. A Laboratory Model of a Prebiotic, Spontaneous, and Continuous Enantiomeric Enrichment Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Stanley I.

    2013-02-01

    Construction and operation of a laboratory model, which combines the lately discovered enantioenrichment method of the author (2007) with the sun-powered evaporative pumping process of Hsu and Siegenthaler (Sedimentology 12:11-25 1969), is described. The model operated continuously for 120 days before it was intentionally shut down, even though it could have continued. During that time it raised the enantiomeric excess of the test material by a factor of 3.6. Implications of these results on the origin of biohomochirality are discussed.

  7. Code RED (Remediation and Enrichment Days): The Complex Journey of a School and University Partnership's Process to Increase Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Patricia S.; Dockery, Kim; Jamieson, Spencer; Ross, Julie

    2007-01-01

    This study examined a focused remediation and enrichment effort among school and university faculty to affect the mathematics achievement of a group of third-grade students in a Title I elementary school. A total of 87 students participated in the Code RED (Remediation and Enrichment Days) Project. During the Code RED Project, student assessment…

  8. New Abundance Determinations of Cadmium, Lutetium, and Osmium in the r-process Enriched Star BD+173248

    E-print Network

    Roederer, Ian U; Lawler, James E; Cowan, John J

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of Cd I (Z = 48), Lu II (Z = 71), and Os II (Z = 76) in the metal-poor star BD+173248. These abundances are derived from an ultraviolet spectrum obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. This is the first detection of these neutron-capture species in a metal-poor star enriched by the r-process. We supplement these measurements with new abundances of Mo I, Ru I, and Rh I derived from an optical spectrum obtained with the High Resolution Echelle Spectrograph on Keck. Combined with previous abundance derivations, 32 neutron-capture elements have been detected in BD+173248, the most complete neutron-capture abundance pattern in any metal-poor star to date. The light neutron-capture elements (38 <= Z <= 48) show a more pronounced even-odd effect than expected from current Solar system r-process abundance predictions. The age for BD+173248 derived from the Th II/Os II chronometer is in better agreement with the age derived from other chronome...

  9. Chemo-dynamical evolution model: Enrichment of r-process elements in the Local Group dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Yutaka; Ishimaru, Yuhri; Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Fujii, Michiko S.; Hidaka, Jun; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2015-08-01

    Enrichment of the r-process elements is expected to provide a critical clue to understand the formation history of galactic halos. Recent astronomical high dispersion observations of metal-poor stars have shown large dispersions in relative abundance ratios of r-process elements such as [Eu/Fe] in stars with [Fe/H] < -2.5. Astrophysical site(s) of r-process has, however, not been identified yet. Promising site(s) of r-process are core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) and neutron-star mergers (NSMs). Recent nucleosynthesis studies have shown that r-process elements heavier than 110 of mass number are difficult to synthesize by CCSNe. On the other hand, several studies reported that NSMs can synthesize these elements due to their environment of low electron fraction. Previous chemical evolution model (e.g., Argast et al. 2004) of the Milky Way (MW) halo without dynamical evolution pointed out that the NSMs are difficult to reproduce observed dispersion in [Eu/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] due to their low rate 10-6 - 10-3 yr-1 for a MW size galaxy and the long delay time, t ? 100 Myr. In the present study, we carry out numerical simulations of galactic chemo-dynamical evolution using an N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, ASURA. We construct detailed chemo-dynamical evolution model for dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) assuming that the NSMs are the major source of the r-process elements. Our models successfully reproduce the observed dispersion in [Eu/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] if we set t < 500 Myr with the Galactic NSM rate ~10-4 yr-1. Moreover, our results are consistent with observed metallicity distribution and mass-metallicity relation of dSphs. We then find that the effects of gas mixing processes including metals in the star-forming region of a typical scale of giant molecular clouds ~ 10 - 100 pc play the significant roles in reproducing the measured dispersion in [Eu/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] of the metal-poor stars in dSphs. We also find that the star formation rate of ~ 10-3 M?yr-1 in early epoch (< 1 Gyr) of galactic halo evolution is necessary for this results. This study strongly supports that NSM is a major site of r-process.

  10. European Journal of Soil Science, April 2011, 62, 305317 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2389.2010.01328.x Biogeochemical processes and arsenic enrichment around

    E-print Network

    the mechanistic understanding of the transfer of As from paddy soil into rice plants. Because rice roots aerate Biogeochemical processes and arsenic enrichment around rice roots in paddy soil: results from micro-focused X The spatial distribution and speciation of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and arsenic (As) around rice roots grown

  11. Alkaline peroxide processing of low-enriched uranium targets for {sup 99}Mo production -- Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, D.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1997-06-01

    The recent progress on the alkaline peroxide processing of low-enriched uranium targets for the production of {sup 99}Mo, a parent nuclide of the widely used medical isotope {sup 99m}Tc, is reported. Kinetic studies were undertaken to investigate the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in alkaline solution in contact with a uranium metal surface. It was found that the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide essentially follows the kinetic trend of uranium dissolution and can be classified into two regimes, depending on the hydroxide concentration. In the low-base regime (<0.2 M), both the hydrogen peroxide and hydroxide concentrations affect the rate of peroxide decomposition. In the high-base regime (>0.2 M), the rate of peroxide decomposition is independent of alkali concentration. When the acid/base equilibrium between H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and O{sub 2}H{sup {minus}} is taken into account, the overall rate of hydrogen peroxide disappearance can be described as a 0.25th order reaction with respect to hydrogen peroxide concentration over NaOH concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 5 M. Empirical kinetics models are proposed and discussed.

  12. Effects of future climate change, CO2 enrichment, and vegetation structure variation on hydrological processes in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, Qiuan; Jiang, Hong; Peng, Changhui; Liu, Jinxun; Fang, Xiuqin; Wei, Xiaohua; Liu, Shirong; Zhou, Guomo

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the relationship between factors (climate change, atmospheric CO2 concentrations enrichment, and vegetation structure) and hydrological processes is important for understanding and predicting the interaction between the hydrosphere and biosphere. The Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) was used to evaluate the effects of climate change, rising CO2, and vegetation structure on hydrological processes in China at the end of the 21st century. Seven simulations were implemented using the assemblage of the IPCC climate and CO2 concentration scenarios, SRES A2 and SRES B1. Analysis results suggest that (1) climate change will have increasing effects on runoff, evapotranspiration (ET), transpiration (T), and transpiration ratio (transpiration/evapotranspiration, T/E) in most hydrological regions of China except in the southernmost regions; (2) elevated CO2 concentrations will have increasing effects on runoff at the national scale, but at the hydrological region scale, the physiology effects induced by elevated CO2 concentration will depend on the vegetation types, climate conditions, and geographical background information with noticeable decreasing effects shown in the arid Inland region of China; (3) leaf area index (LAI) compensation effect and stomatal closure effect are the dominant factors on runoff in the arid Inland region and southern moist hydrological regions, respectively; (4) the magnitudes of climate change (especially the changing precipitation pattern) effects on the water cycle are much larger than those of the elevated CO2 concentration effects; however, increasing CO2 concentration will be one of the most important modifiers to the water cycle; (5) the water resource condition will be improved in northern China but depressed in southernmost China under the IPCC climate change scenarios, SRES A2 and SRES B1.

  13. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process...

  14. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process...

  15. 16. VIEW OF THE ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY SYSTEM. ENRICHED URANIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF THE ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY SYSTEM. ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESSED RELATIVELY PURE MATERIALS AND SOLUTIONS AND SOLID RESIDUES WITH RELATIVELY LOW URANIUM CONTENT. URANIUM RECOVERY INVOLVED BOTH SLOW AND FAST PROCESSES. (4/4/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  16. Enriching distinctive microbial communities from marine sediments via an electrochemical-sulfide-oxidizing process on carbon electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shiue-Lin; Nealson, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    Sulfide is a common product of marine anaerobic respiration, and a potent reactant biologically and geochemically. Here we demonstrate the impact on microbial communities with the removal of sulfide via electrochemical methods. The use of differential pulse voltammetry revealed that the oxidation of soluble sulfide was seen at +30 mV (vs. SHE) at all pH ranges tested (from pH = 4 to 8), while non-ionized sulfide, which dominated at pH = 4 was poorly oxidized via this process. Two mixed cultures (CAT and LA) were enriched from two different marine sediments (from Catalina Island, CAT; from the Port of Los Angeles, LA) in serum bottles using a seawater medium supplemented with lactate, sulfate, and yeast extract, to obtain abundant biomass. Both CAT and LA cultures were inoculated in electrochemical cells (using yeast-extract-free seawater medium as an electrolyte) equipped with carbon-felt electrodes. In both cases, when potentials of +630 or +130 mV (vs. SHE) were applied, currents were consistently higher at +630 then at +130 mV, indicating more sulfide being oxidized at the higher potential. In addition, higher organic-acid and sulfate conversion rates were found at +630 mV with CAT, while no significant differences were found with LA at different potentials. The results of microbial-community analyses revealed a decrease in diversity for both CAT and LA after electrochemical incubation. In addition, some bacteria (e.g., Clostridium and Arcobacter) not well-known to be capable of extracellular electron transfer, were found to be dominant in the electrochemical cells. Thus, even though the different mixed cultures have different tolerances for sulfide, electrochemical-sulfide removal can lead to major population changes. PMID:25741331

  17. 77 FR 33253 - Regulatory Guide 8.24, Revision 2, Health Physics Surveys During Enriched Uranium-235 Processing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ...- 8040 on March 22, 2010 (75 FR 13599). This guide specifies the types and frequencies of surveys that... March 22, 2010, DG-8040 was published with a request for public comments (75 FR 13599). The public... COMMISSION Regulatory Guide 8.24, Revision 2, Health Physics Surveys During Enriched Uranium-235...

  18. In-Situ Measurements of Low Enrichment Uranium Holdup Process Gas Piping at K-25 - Paper for Waste Management Symposia 2010 East Tennessee Technology Park Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen B.

    2010-01-01

    This document is the final version of a paper submitted to the Waste Management Symposia, Phoenix, 2010, abstract BJC/OR-3280. The primary document from which this paper was condensed is In-Situ Measurement of Low Enrichment Uranium Holdup in Process Gas Piping at K-25 Using NaI/HMS4 Gamma Detection Systems, BJC/OR-3355. This work explores the sufficiency and limitations of the Holdup Measurement System 4 (HJVIS4) software algorithms applied to measurements of low enriched uranium holdup in gaseous diffusion process gas piping. HMS4 has been used extensively during the decommissioning and demolition project of the K-25 building for U-235 holdup quantification. The HMS4 software is an integral part of one of the primary nondestructive assay (NDA) systems which was successfully tested and qualified for holdup deposit quantification in the process gas piping of the K-25 building. The initial qualification focused on the measurement of highly enriched UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} deposits. The purpose of this work was to determine if that qualification could be extended to include the quantification of holdup in UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} deposits of lower enrichment. Sample field data are presented to provide evidence in support of the theoretical foundation. The HMS4 algorithms were investigated in detail and found to sufficiently compensate for UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} source self-attenuation effects, over the range of expected enrichment (4-40%), in the North and East Wings of the K-25 building. The limitations of the HMS4 algorithms were explored for a described set of conditions with respect to area source measurements of low enriched UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} deposits when used in conjunction with a 1 inch by 1/2 inch sodium iodide (NaI) scintillation detector. The theoretical limitations of HMS4, based on the expected conditions in the process gas system of the K-25 building, are related back to the required data quality objectives (DQO) for the NBA measurement system established for the K-25 demolition project. The combined review of the HMS software algorithms and supporting field measurements lead to the conclusion that the majority of process gas pipe measurements are adequately corrected for source self-attenuation using HMS4. While there will be instances where the UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} holdup mass presents an infinitely thick deposit to the NaI-HMS4 system these situations are expected to be infrequent. This work confirms that the HMS4 system can quantify UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} holdup, in its current configuration (deposition, enrichment, and geometry), below the DQO levels for the K-25 building decommissioning and demolition project. For an area measurement of process gas pipe in the K-25 building, if an infinitely thick UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} deposit is identified in the range of enrichment of {approx}4-40%, the holdup quantity exceeds the corresponding DQO established for the K-25 building demolition project.

  19. Enrichment of Rare Earth Elements during magmatic and post-magmatic processes: a case study from the Loch Loyal Syenite Complex, northern Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, A. S.; Goodenough, K. M.; Hughes, H. S. R.; Roberts, N. M. W.; Gunn, A. G.; Rushton, J.; Lacinska, A.

    2013-10-01

    Concern about security of supply of critical elements used in new technologies, such as the Rare Earth Elements (REE), means that it is increasingly important to understand the processes by which they are enriched in crustal settings. High REE contents are found in syenite-dominated alkaline complexes intruded along the Moine Thrust Zone, a major collisional zone in north-west Scotland. The most northerly of these is the Loch Loyal Syenite Complex, which comprises three separate intrusions. One of these, the Cnoc nan Cuilean intrusion, contains two mappable zones: a Mixed Syenite Zone in which mafic melasyenite is mixed and mingled with leucosyenite and a Massive Leucosyenite Zone. Within the Mixed Syenite Zone, hydrothermal activity is evident in the form of narrow altered veins dominated by biotite and magnetite; these are poorly exposed and their lateral extent is uncertain. The REE mineral allanite is relatively abundant in the melasyenite and is extremely enriched in the biotite-magnetite veins, which have up to 2 % total rare earth oxides in bulk rock analyses. An overall model for development of this intrusion can be divided into three episodes: (1) generation of a Light Rare Earth Element (LREE)-enriched parental magma due to enrichment of the mantle source by subduction of pelagic carbonates; (2) early crystallisation of allanite in melasyenite, due to the saturation of the magma in the LREE; and (3) hydrothermal alteration, in three different episodes identified by petrography and mineral chemistry, generating the intense enrichment of REE in the biotite-magnetite veins. Dating of allanite and titanite in the biotite-magnetite veins gives ages of c. 426 Ma, overlapping with previously published crystallisation ages for zircon in the syenite.

  20. Synergistic effects of long-term antioxidant diet and behavioral enrichment on beta-amyloid load and non-amyloidogenic processing in aged canines

    PubMed Central

    Pop, Viorela; Head, Elizabeth; Hill, Mary-Ann; Gillen, Dan; Berchtold, Nicole C.; Muggenburg, Bruce.A.; Milgram, Norton W.; Murphy, M. Paul; Cotman, Carl W.

    2013-01-01

    A long-term intervention (2.69 years) with an antioxidant diet, behavioral enrichment, or the combined treatment preserved and improved cognitive function in aged canines. While each intervention alone provided cognitive benefits, the combination treatment was additive. We evaluate the hypothesis that antioxidants, enrichment, or the combination intervention reduces age-related beta-amyloid (A?) neuropathology, as one mechanism mediating observed functional improvements. Measures assessed were A? neuropathology in plaques, biochemically extractable A?40 and A?42 species, soluble oligomeric forms of A?, and various proteins in the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing pathway. The strongest and most consistent effects on A? pathology were observed in animals receiving the combined antioxidant and enrichment treatment. Specifically, A? plaque load was significantly decreased in several brain regions, soluble A?42 was decreased selectively in the frontal cortex, and a trend for lower A? oligomer levels was found in the parietal cortex. Reductions in A? may be related to shifted APP processing towards the non-amyloidogenic pathway, as alpha-secretase enzymatic activity was increased, in the absence of changes in beta-secretase activity. While enrichment alone had no significant effects on A?, reduced A? load and plaque maturation occurred in animals receiving antioxidants as a component of treatment. AB measures did not correlate with cognitive performance on any of the 6 tasks assessed, suggesting that modulation of AB alone may be a relatively minor mechanism mediating cognitive benefits of the interventions. Overall, the data indicate that multi-domain treatments may be a valuable intervention strategy to reduce neuropathology and improve cognitive function in humans. PMID:20660265

  1. Final report on the project entitled: Highly Preheated Combustion Air System with/without Oxygen Enrichment for Metal Processing Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Arvind Atreya

    2007-02-16

    This work develops and demonstrates a laboratory-scale high temperature natural gas furnace that can operate with/without oxygen enrichment to significantly improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions. The laboratory-scale is 5ft in diameter & 8ft tall. This furnace was constructed and tested. This report demonstrates the efficiency and pollutant prevention capabilities of this test furnace. The project also developed optical detection technology to control the furnace output.

  2. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process of increasing the concentration of the isotope U235 relative to that of the isotope...

  3. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process of increasing the concentration of the isotope U235 relative to that of the isotope...

  4. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process of increasing the concentration of the isotope U235 relative to that of the isotope...

  5. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process of increasing the concentration of the isotope U235 relative to that of the isotope...

  6. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process of increasing the concentration of the isotope U235 relative to that of the isotope...

  7. Dust dispersal and Pb enrichment at the rare-metal Orlovka-Spokoinoe mining and ore processing site: insights from REE patterns and elemental ratios.

    PubMed

    Dolgopolova, Alla; Weiss, Dominik J; Seltmann, Reimar; Dulski, Peter

    2006-04-30

    Different geological, technogenic and environmental samples from the Orlovka-Spokoinoe Ta-Nb-Sn-W mining site and ore processing complex in Eastern Transbaikalia (Russia), were analysed for Pb, Y, Zr, Hf and rare earth elements (REE) to assess the effect of dust and metal dispersal on the environment within the Orlovka-Spokoinoe mining site. Potential source material analysed included ore-bearing and barren granites, host rocks, tailing pond sediments, and ore concentrates. Lichens and birch leaves were used as receptor samples. The REE enrichment relative to chondrite, the extent of the Eu anomalies, the enrichments of heavy REE (HREE), and Zr/Hf and Yb/Y ratios suggest that tailings, barren granites, and metasedimentary host rocks are the main sources of dust in the studied mining environment. In addition, calculated lead enrichment (relative to host rocks) suggests that the environment is polluted with Pb. Our results clearly demonstrate the potential of REE patterns and elemental ratios as a reliable technique to trace dust and metals sources and dispersal within a confined mining area offering a new tool for environmental assessment studies. PMID:16427193

  8. To Ba or not to Ba: Enrichment in s-process elements in binary systems with WD companions of various masses

    E-print Network

    Merle, T; Van Eck, S; Masseron, T; Van Winckel, H

    2015-01-01

    The enrichment in s-process elements of barium stars is known to be due to pollution by mass transfer from a companion formerly on the thermally-pulsing asymptotic giant branch (AGB), now a carbon-oxygen white-dwarf (WD). This paper investigates the relationship between the s-process enrichment in the barium star and the mass of its WD companion. It is expected that helium WDs, which have masses smaller than about 0.5 Msun and never reached the AGB phase, should not pollute with s-process elements their giant companion, which should thus never turn into a barium star. Spectra with a resolution of R ~ 86000 were obtained with the HERMES spectrograph on the 1.2-m Mercator telescope for a sample of 11 binary systems involving WD companions of various masses. We use standard 1D LTE MARCS model atmospheres coupled with the Turbospectrum radiative-transfer code to derive the atmospheric parameters using equivalent widths of FeI and Fe II lines. The abundances of s-process elements for the entire sample of 11 binary...

  9. Conversion of Methane to Hydrogen in a Reversible Flow Reactor in the Process of Filtration Combustion of Fuel Mixtures Enriched with Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrenko, Yu. M.; Klyovan, R. A.

    2013-11-01

    This paper considers the process of partial oxidation of methane to syngas in a reversible flow reactor in the process of filtration combustion of fuel mixtures enriched with oxygen in an inert porous medium. Experimental studies have been made of the influence of the volume concentration of oxygen in the initial fuel mixture on the basic parameters of the conversion process — the maximum temperature in the combustion wave and the composition of reaction products. Investigations have been carried out for fuel mixtures having different calorific values under the same filtration conditions. It has been shown that the addition of oxygen to the initial methane-air mixture permits increasing considerably the efficiency of the conversion process.

  10. A hybrid enrichment process combining conjugated polymer extraction and silica gel adsorption for high purity semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT).

    PubMed

    Ding, Jianfu; Li, Zhao; Lefebvre, Jacques; Cheng, Fuyong; Dunford, Jeffrey L; Malenfant, Patrick R L; Humes, Jefford; Kroeger, Jens

    2015-10-14

    A novel purification process for the enrichment of sc-SWCNTs that combines selective conjugated polymer extraction (CPE) with selective adsorption using silica gel, termed hybrid-CPE (h-CPE), has been developed, providing a high purity sc-SWCNT material with a significant improvement in process efficiency and yield. Using the h-CPE protocol, a greater than 5 fold improvement in yield can be obtained compared to traditional CPE while obtaining sc-SWCNT with a purity >99.9% as assessed by absorption spectroscopy and Raman mapping. Thin film transistor devices using the h-CPE derived sc-SWCNTs as the semiconductor possess mobility values ranging from 10-30 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and current ON/OFF ratio of 10(4)-10(5) for channel lengths between 2.5 and 20 ?m. PMID:26352590

  11. A hybrid enrichment process combining conjugated polymer extraction and silica gel adsorption for high purity semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jianfu; Li, Zhao; Lefebvre, Jacques; Cheng, Fuyong; Dunford, Jeffrey L.; Malenfant, Patrick R. L.; Humes, Jefford; Kroeger, Jens

    2015-09-01

    A novel purification process for the enrichment of sc-SWCNTs that combines selective conjugated polymer extraction (CPE) with selective adsorption using silica gel, termed hybrid-CPE (h-CPE), has been developed, providing a high purity sc-SWCNT material with a significant improvement in process efficiency and yield. Using the h-CPE protocol, a greater than 5 fold improvement in yield can be obtained compared to traditional CPE while obtaining sc-SWCNT with a purity >99.9% as assessed by absorption spectroscopy and Raman mapping. Thin film transistor devices using the h-CPE derived sc-SWCNTs as the semiconductor possess mobility values ranging from 10-30 cm2 V-1 s-1 and current ON/OFF ratio of 104-105 for channel lengths between 2.5 and 20 ?m.A novel purification process for the enrichment of sc-SWCNTs that combines selective conjugated polymer extraction (CPE) with selective adsorption using silica gel, termed hybrid-CPE (h-CPE), has been developed, providing a high purity sc-SWCNT material with a significant improvement in process efficiency and yield. Using the h-CPE protocol, a greater than 5 fold improvement in yield can be obtained compared to traditional CPE while obtaining sc-SWCNT with a purity >99.9% as assessed by absorption spectroscopy and Raman mapping. Thin film transistor devices using the h-CPE derived sc-SWCNTs as the semiconductor possess mobility values ranging from 10-30 cm2 V-1 s-1 and current ON/OFF ratio of 104-105 for channel lengths between 2.5 and 20 ?m. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04851f

  12. The effects of inquiry-based summer enrichment activities on rising eighth graders' knowledge of science processes, attitude toward science, and perceptions of scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Juanita Martin

    The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of summer science enrichment on eighth-graders' science process skills knowledge, attitude toward science and perceptions of scientists. A single group pre- and post-test design was used to test participants in a summer science enrichment camp, which took place over a three-week period in the summer of 2000. Participants, all of whom were residents of the Mississippi area known as the Delta, lived on the campus of Mississippi Valley State University for the entire course of the camp. Activities included several guided inquiry-based projects such as water rocket design and solar or battery-powered car design. Participants also took trips to an environmental camp in north Mississippi and to the Stennis Space Center on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Participants worked on their projects in groups, supervised by an undergraduate student "mentor". Participants were encouraged to keep journals of their experiences throughout the camp, and the researcher developed a rubric to evaluate student journals for process knowledge, evidence of planning, reflective thought, and disposition toward science. Tests were used to evaluate student knowledge of process skills, attitude toward science, and perceptions of scientists. On the Test of Integrated Process Skills (Dillashaw & Okey, 1983), the students showed significant improvement overall, but when evaluated separately, males showed significant improvement while females did not. On the Attitude toward Science in School Assessment (Germane, 1988), data indicated that attitude toward science improved significantly for the group as a whole, but upon closer inspection, indicated a significant improvement for the female students only. On Chamber's Draw-a-Scientist Test (1983), analysis of student drawings indicated no significant change in stereotypical images of scientists for the group overall. However, boys' scores indicated a significant improvement when analyzed separately. Journal analysis revealed a need for instruction in their use, but provided an interesting glimpse into students' thoughts. The researcher concluded that summer enrichment camps have potential m terms of helping students improve their science knowledge and their thinking about science. Further research on summer opportunities, inquiry-based instruction, work with mentors, and use of journals is suggested by this work.

  13. Preliminary study of sources and processes of enrichment of manganese in water from University of Rhode Island supply wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Silvey, William Dudley; Johnston, Herbert E.

    1977-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved manganese have increased from 0.0 to as much as 3.3 mg/liter over a period of years in closely spaced University of Rhode Island supply wells. The wells tap stratified glacial deposits and derive part of their water from infiltration from a nearby river-pond system. The principal sources of the manganese seem to be coatings of oxides and other forms of manganese on granular aquifer materials and organic-rich sediments on the bottom of the pond and river. Chemical analyses of water from an observation well screened from 3 to 5 feet below the pond bottom indicate that infiltration of water through organic-rich sediments on the pond bottom is the likely cause of manganese enrichment in the well supplies. After passing through the organic layer, the water contains concentrations of manganese as high as 1.2 mg/liter. Manganese in water in concentrations that do not cause unpleasant taste is not regarded to be toxicologically significant. However, concentrations in excess of a few tenths of a milligram per liter are undesirable in public supplies and in many industrial supplies. Brown and others (21970) note that waters containing manganese in concentrations less than 0.1 mg/liter seldom prove troublesome, but that those containing more than 0.5 mg/liter may form objectionable deposits on cooked food, laundry, and plumbing fixtures. The U.S. Public health Service (1962) recommends that the concentrations of manganese in drinking and culinary water not exceed 0.05 mg/liter. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Chromatin enrichment for proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Kustatscher, Georg; Wills, Karen L. H.; Furlan, Cristina; Rappsilber, Juri

    2015-01-01

    During interphase, chromatin hosts fundamental cellular processes, such as gene expression, DNA replication and DNA damage repair. To analyze chromatin on a proteomic scale, we have developed chromatin enrichment for proteomics (ChEP), which is a simple biochemical procedure that enriches interphase chromatin in all its complexity. It enables researchers to take a ‘snapshot’ of chromatin and to isolate and identify even transiently bound factors. In ChEP, cells are fixed with formaldehyde; subsequently, DNA together with all cross-linked proteins is isolated by centrifugation under denaturing conditions. This approach enables the analysis of global chromatin composition and its changes, which is in contrast with existing chromatin enrichment procedures, which either focus on specific chromatin loci (e.g., affinity purification) or are limited in specificity, such as the analysis of the chromatin pellet (i.e., analysis of all insoluble nuclear material). ChEP takes half a day to complete and requires no specialized laboratory skills or equipment. ChEP enables the characterization of chromatin response to drug treatment or physiological processes. Beyond proteomics, ChEP may preclear chromatin for chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses. PMID:25101823

  15. New generation enrichment monitoring technology for gas centrifuge enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ianakiev, Kiril D; Alexandrov, Boian S.; Boyer, Brian D.; Hill, Thomas R.; Macarthur, Duncan W.; Marks, Thomas; Moss, Calvin E.; Sheppard, Gregory A.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2008-06-13

    The continuous enrichment monitor, developed and fielded in the 1990s by the International Atomic Energy Agency, provided a go-no-go capability to distinguish between UF{sub 6} containing low enriched (approximately 4% {sup 235}U) and highly enriched (above 20% {sup 235}U) uranium. This instrument used the 22-keV line from a {sup 109}Cd source as a transmission source to achieve a high sensitivity to the UF{sub 6} gas absorption. The 1.27-yr half-life required that the source be periodically replaced and the instrument recalibrated. The instrument's functionality and accuracy were limited by the fact that measured gas density and gas pressure were treated as confidential facility information. The modern safeguarding of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant producing low-enriched UF{sub 6} product aims toward a more quantitative flow and enrichment monitoring concept that sets new standards for accuracy stability, and confidence. An instrument must be accurate enough to detect the diversion of a significant quantity of material, have virtually zero false alarms, and protect the operator's proprietary process information. We discuss a new concept for advanced gas enrichment assay measurement technology. This design concept eliminates the need for the periodic replacement of a radioactive source as well as the need for maintenance by experts. Some initial experimental results will be presented.

  16. Expensive Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnikoff, Marvin

    1975-01-01

    This article presents an economic analysis of the nuclear fuel reprocessing industry. It indicates that while environmental safety devices have improved the working conditions, they have also added ever-increasing costs to this necessary process. (MA)

  17. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of a serpentinite-derived laterite profile from East Sulawesi, Indonesia: Implications for the lateritization process and Ni supergene enrichment in the tropical rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wei; Yang, Jianwen; Yang, Mengli; Pang, Baocheng; Liu, Xijun; Niu, Hujie; Huang, Xiaorong

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the lateritization process and supergene Ni enrichment in the tropical rainforest, a well developed laterite profile over the serpentinite in the Kolonodale area of East Sulawesi, Indonesia, has been investigated using field geology methods, mineralogical and geochemical techniques. Three lithostratigraphic horizons over the bedrock are distinguished from bottom to top: the saprolite horizon, the limonite horizon, and the ferruginous cap. In general, the profile is characterized by (1) a depth-related pH ranging from 5.56 to 8.56, with a higher value in the saprolite horizon and a lower value in the ferruginous cap, (2) a highly variable organic matter concentration from 1.11% to 4.82%, showing a increasing trend from bottom to top, (3) a progressive mineral assemblage transition from the silicate mineral dominant (mainly serpentine) to the Fe-oxyhydroxide dominant (mainly goethite), and (4) a typical laterite geochemical pattern with an increase of Fe, Al, Mn, Cr and Ti but a decrease of Mg, Ca, Na and K upward from the bedrock. The highest concentration of Ni (up to 11.53%NiO) occurs in the saprolite horizon, showing nearly 40 times richer compared to the bedrock. The mineral evolution during the lateritization process shows various paths from the primary minerals to altered minerals, which is integrally affected by the nature of the primary minerals and environmental conditions. Garnierite, as a significant ore mineral formed by the secondary precipitation processes in the study profile, is identified as a mixture of talc- and serpentine-like phases. The mass-balance calculation reveals that there are diversified elemental behaviors during the serpentinite lateritization under the rainforest conditions. In particular, Ni, as the ore-forming element in the laterite profile, is associated closely with the pH environment, organic matter concentration and mineral evolution during the lateritization process. The findings of the present study support a four-stage evolutional model for the lateritization process: the ferruginous saprolite development (stage I), the limonite development (stage II), the silicate saprolite and ferruginous cap development (stage III), and the precipitation of secondary minerals (stage IV). Due to this multistage process, there is a progressive Ni-enrichment in the laterite profile.

  18. Low-mass supernovae in the early Galactic halo: source of the double r/s-process enriched halo stars?

    E-print Network

    Albert A. Zijlstra

    2003-12-18

    Several stars at the low-metallicity extreme of the Galactic halo ([Fe/H]=-2.5) show strong enhancements of both s-process and r-process elements. The presence of s-process elements in main-sequence stars is explained via mass transfer from an AGB companion star in a binary system. r-Process elements originate in type-II supernovae and also require mass transfer. It is however unclear how pollution by both an AGB star and a supernova could have occured. Here I show that the initial--final-mass relation steepens at low metallicity, due to low mass-loss efficiency. This may cause the degenerate cores of low-Z, high-mass AGB stars to reach the Chandresekhar mass, leading to an Iben & Renzini-type-1.5 supernova. Such supernovae can explain both the enhancement patterns and the metallicity dependence of the double-enhanced halo stars. Reduced mass loss efficiency predicts more massive remnants in metal-poor globular clusters. The evidence for a high M/L population in the cores of globular clusters is briefly discussed.

  19. Nutrient enrichment, phytoplankton algal growth, and estimated rates of instream metabolic processes in the Quinebaug River Basin, Connecticut, 2000-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colombo, Michael J.; Grady, Stephen J.; Todd Trench, Elaine C.

    2004-01-01

    A consistent and pervasive pattern of nutrient enrichment was substantiated by water-quality sampling in the Quinebaug River and its tributaries in eastern Connecticut during water years 2000 and 2001. Median total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s recently recommended regional ambient water-qual-ity criteria for streams (0.71 and 0.031 milligrams per liter, respectively). Maximum total phosphorus concentrations exceeded 0.1 milligrams per liter at nearly half the sampled locations in the Quinebaug River Basin. Elevated total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations were measured at all stations on the mainstem of the Quinebaug River, the French River, and the Little River. Nutrient enrichment was related to municipal wastewater point sources at the sites on the mainstem of the Quinebaug River and French River, and to agricultural nonpoint nutrient sources in the Little River Basin. Nutrient enrichment and favorable physical factors have resulted in excessive, nuisance algal blooms during summer months, particularly in the numerous impoundments in the Quinebaug River system. Phytoplankton algal density as high as 85,000 cells per milliliter was measured during such nuisance blooms in water years 2000 and 2001. Different hydrologic conditions during the summers of 2000 and 2001 produced very different seston algal populations. Larger amounts of precipitation sustained higher streamflows in the summer of 2000 (than in 2001), which resulted in lower total algal abundance and inhibited the typical algal succession from diatoms to cyanobacteria. Despite this, nearly half of all seston chlorophyll-a concentrations measured during this study exceeded the recommended regional ambient stream-water-quality criterion (3.75 micrograms per liter), and seston chlorophyll-a concentrations as large as 42 micrograms per liter were observed in wastewa-ter-receiving reaches of the Quinebaug River. Estimates of primary productivity and respiration obtained from diel dissolved oxygen monitoring and from light- and dark-bottle dissolved oxygen measurements demonstrated that instream metabolic processes are consistent with a seston-algae dominant system. The highest estimated maximum primary productivity rate was 1.72 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per hour at the Quinebaug River at Jewett City during September 2001. The observed extremes in diel dissolved oxygen concentrations (less than 5 milligrams per liter) and pH (greater than 9) may periodically stress aquatic organisms in the Quinebaug River Basin.

  20. Puzzling Origin of CEMP-r/s Stars: An Interpretation of Abundance and Enrichment of s- and r-Process Elements from Asymptotic Giant Branch Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiang; Zhao, Fang; Chen, Yanping; Cui, Wenyuan; Zhang, Bo

    2013-12-01

    CEMP-r/s stars at low metallicity are known as double-enhanced stars that show enhancements of both r-process and s-process elements. The chemical abundances of these very metal-poor stars provide us a lot of information for putting new restraints on models of neutron-capture processes. In this article, we put forward an accreted scenario in which the double enrichment of r-process and s-process elements is caused by a former intermediate-mass Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) companion in a detached binary system. As the AGB superwind is only present at the ultimate phase of AGB stars, there is thus a lot of potential that the degenerate-core mass of an intermediate-mass AGB star reaches the Chandrasekhar limit before the AGB superwind. In these circumstances, both s-process elements produced in the AGB shell and r-process elements synthesized in the subsequent explosion would be sprayed contemporaneously and accreted by its companion. Despite similarity to physical conditions of a core-collapse supernova, a major focus in this scenario is the degenerate C-O core surrounded by an envelope of a former intermediate-mass AGB donor that may collapse and explode. Due to the existence of an outer envelope, r-process nucleosynthesis is expected to occur. Hypothesizing the material-rich europium (Eu) accreted by the secondary via the wind from the supernova to be in proportion to the geometric fraction of the companion with respect to the exploding donor star, we find that the estimated yield of Eu (as representative of r-process elements) per AGB supernova event is about 1 × 10-9 M ? ˜ 5 × 10-9 M ?. Using the yields of Eu, the overabundance of r-process elements in CEMP-r/s stars can be accounted for. The calculated results show that the value of parameter f , standing for efficiency of wind pollution from the AGB supernova, will reach about 104, which means that the enhanced factor is much larger than unity due to the impact of gravity of the donor and the result of the gravitational focusing effect of the companion.

  1. Where does the carbon go? A model–data intercomparison of vegetation carbon allocation and turnover processes at two temperate forest free-air CO2 enrichment sites

    PubMed Central

    De Kauwe, Martin G; Medlyn, Belinda E; Zaehle, Sönke; Walker, Anthony P; Dietze, Michael C; Wang, Ying-Ping; Luo, Yiqi; Jain, Atul K; El-Masri, Bassil; Hickler, Thomas; Wårlind, David; Weng, Ensheng; Parton, William J; Thornton, Peter E; Wang, Shusen; Prentice, I Colin; Asao, Shinichi; Smith, Benjamin; McCarthy, Heather R; Iversen, Colleen M; Hanson, Paul J; Warren, Jeffrey M; Oren, Ram; Norby, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (eCO2) has the potential to increase vegetation carbon storage if increased net primary production causes increased long-lived biomass. Model predictions of eCO2 effects on vegetation carbon storage depend on how allocation and turnover processes are represented. We used data from two temperate forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments to evaluate representations of allocation and turnover in 11 ecosystem models. Observed eCO2 effects on allocation were dynamic. Allocation schemes based on functional relationships among biomass fractions that vary with resource availability were best able to capture the general features of the observations. Allocation schemes based on constant fractions or resource limitations performed less well, with some models having unintended outcomes. Few models represent turnover processes mechanistically and there was wide variation in predictions of tissue lifespan. Consequently, models did not perform well at predicting eCO2 effects on vegetation carbon storage. Our recommendations to reduce uncertainty include: use of allocation schemes constrained by biomass fractions; careful testing of allocation schemes; and synthesis of allocation and turnover data in terms of model parameters. Data from intensively studied ecosystem manipulation experiments are invaluable for constraining models and we recommend that such experiments should attempt to fully quantify carbon, water and nutrient budgets. PMID:24844873

  2. Progress in developing processes for converting {sup 99}Mo production from high- to low-enriched uranium--1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, C.

    1998-10-28

    During 1998, the emphasis of our activities was focused mainly on target fabrication. Successful conversion requires a reliable irradiation target; the target being developed uses thin foils of uranium metal, which can be removed from the target hardware for dissolution and processing. This paper describes successes in (1) improving our method for heat-treating the uranium foil to produce a random-small grain structure, (2) improving electrodeposition of zinc and nickel fission-fragment barriers onto the foil, and (3) showing that these fission fragment barriers should be stable during transport of the targets following irradiation. A method was also developed for quantitatively electrodepositing uranium and plutonium contaminants in the {sup 99}Mo. Progress was also made in broadening international cooperation in our development activities.

  3. Biomass gasification and in-bed contaminants removal: performance of iron enriched olivine and bauxite in a process of steam/O2 gasification.

    PubMed

    Barisano, D; Freda, C; Nanna, F; Fanelli, E; Villone, A

    2012-08-01

    A modified Olivine, enriched in iron content (10% Fe/Olivine), and a natural bauxite, were tested in the in-bed reduction of tar and alkali halides (NaCl and KCl) released in a process of biomass steam/O(2) gasification. The tests were carried out at an ICBFB bench scale reactor under the operating conditions of: 855-890 °C, atmospheric pressure, 0.5 steam/biomass and 0.33 ER ratios. From the use of the two materials, a reduction in the contaminant contents of the fuel gas produced was found. For the alkali halides, a decrease up to 70%(wt) was observed for the potassium concentration, while for sodium, the reduction was found to be quite poor. For the organic content, compared to unmodified Olivine, the chromatographically determined total tar quantity showed a removal efficiency of 38%(wt). Moreover, regarding the particulate content a rough doubling in the fuel gas revealed a certain brittleness of the new bed material. PMID:22705523

  4. Derived enriched uranium market

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-12-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market.

  5. A Mock UF6 Feed and Withdrawal System for Testing Safeguards Monitoring Systems and Strategies Intended for Nuclear Fuel Enrichment and Processing Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Krichinsky, Alan M; Bates, Bruce E; Chesser, Joel B; Koo, Sinsze; Whitaker, J Michael

    2009-12-01

    This report describes an engineering-scale, mock UF6 feed and withdrawal (F&W) system, its operation, and its intended uses. This system has been assembled to provide a test bed for evaluating and demonstrating new methodologies that can be used in remote, unattended, continuous monitoring of nuclear material process operations. These measures are being investigated to provide independent inspectors improved assurance that operations are being conducted within declared parameters, and to increase the overall effectiveness of safeguarding nuclear material. Testing applicable technologies on a mock F&W system, which uses water as a surrogate for UF6, enables thorough and cost-effective investigation of hardware, software, and operational strategies before their direct installation in an industrial nuclear material processing environment. Electronic scales used for continuous load-cell monitoring also are described as part of the basic mock F&W system description. Continuous monitoring components on the mock F&W system are linked to a data aggregation computer by a local network, which also is depicted. Data collection and storage systems are described only briefly in this report. The mock UF{sub 6} F&W system is economical to operate. It uses a simple process involving only a surge tank between feed tanks and product and withdrawal (or waste) tanks. The system uses water as the transfer fluid, thereby avoiding the use of hazardous UF{sub 6}. The system is not tethered to an operating industrial process involving nuclear materials, thereby allowing scenarios (e.g., material diversion) that cannot be conducted otherwise. These features facilitate conducting experiments that yield meaningful results with a minimum of expenditure and quick turnaround time. Technologies demonstrated on the engineering-scale system lead to field trials (described briefly in this report) for determining implementation issues and performance of the monitoring technologies under plant operating conditions. The ultimate use of technologies tested on the engineering-scale test bed is to work with safeguards agencies to install them in operating plants (e.g., enrichment and fuel processing plants), thereby promoting new safeguards measures with minimal impact to operating plants. In addition, this system is useful in identifying features for new plants that can be incorporated as part of 'safeguards by design,' in which load cells and other monitoring technologies are specified to provide outputs for automated monitoring and inspector evaluation.

  6. BLENDING LOW ENRICHED URANIUM WITH DEPLETED URANIUM TO CREATE A SOURCE MATERIAL ORE THAT CAN BE PROCESSED FOR THE RECOVERY OF YELLOWCAKE AT A CONVENTIONAL URANIUM MILL

    SciTech Connect

    Schutt, Stephen M.; Hochstein, Ron F.; Frydenlund, David C.; Thompson, Anthony J.

    2003-02-27

    Throughout the United States Department of Energy (DOE) complex, there are a number of streams of low enriched uranium (LEU) that contain various trace contaminants. These surplus nuclear materials require processing in order to meet commercial fuel cycle specifications. To date, they have not been designated as waste for disposal at the DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS). Currently, with no commercial outlet available, the DOE is evaluating treatment and disposal as the ultimate disposition path for these materials. This paper will describe an innovative program that will provide a solution to DOE that will allow disposition of these materials at a cost that will be competitive with treatment and disposal at the NTS, while at the same time recycling the material to recover a valuable energy resource (yellowcake) for reintroduction into the commercial nuclear fuel cycle. International Uranium (USA) Corporation (IUSA) and Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (NFS) have entered into a commercial relationship to pursue the development of this program. The program involves the design of a process and construction of a plant at NFS' site in Erwin, Tennessee, for the blending of contaminated LEU with depleted uranium (DU) to produce a uranium source material ore (USM Ore{trademark}). The USM Ore{trademark} will then be further processed at IUC's White Mesa Mill, located near Blanding, Utah, to produce conventional yellowcake, which can be delivered to conversion facilities, in the same manner as yellowcake that is produced from natural ores or other alternate feed materials. The primary source of feed for the business will be the significant sources of trace contaminated materials within the DOE complex. NFS has developed a dry blending process (DRYSM Process) to blend the surplus LEU material with DU at its Part 70 licensed facility, to produce USM Ore{trademark} with a U235 content within the range of U235 concentrations for source material. By reducing the U235 content to source material levels in this manner, the material will be suitable for processing at a conventional uranium mill under its existing Part 40 license to remove contaminants and enable the product to re-enter the commercial fuel cycle. The tailings from processing the USM Ore{trademark} at the mill will be permanently disposed of in the mill's tailings impoundment as 11e.(2) byproduct material. Blending LEU with DU to make a uranium source material ore that can be returned to the nuclear fuel cycle for processing to produce yellowcake, has never been accomplished before. This program will allow DOE to disposition its surplus LEU and DU in a cost effective manner, and at the same time provide for the recovery of valuable energy resources that would be lost through processing and disposal of the materials. This paper will discuss the nature of the surplus LEU and DU materials, the manner in which the LEU will be blended with DU to form a uranium source material ore, and the legal means by which this blending can be accomplished at a facility licensed under 10 CFR Part 70 to produce ore that can be processed at a conventional uranium mill licensed under 10 CFR Part 40.

  7. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Dali; Devlin, David; Barbero, Robert S.; Carrera, Martin E.; Colling, Craig W.

    2011-11-29

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  8. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    DOEpatents

    Yang; Dali (Los Alamos, NM); Devlin, David (Santa Fe, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM); Carrera, Martin E. (Naperville, IL); Colling, Craig W. (Warrenville, IL)

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  9. Metal Enrichment in the Intra-Cluster Medium

    E-print Network

    Sabine Schindler

    2006-11-20

    The enrichment of the Intra-Cluster Medium (ICM) with heavy elements is reviewed. There is now good observational evidence for enrichment including abundance ratios and metallicity distributions. Various processes involved in the enrichment process -- ram-pressure stripping, galactic winds, galaxy-galaxy interactions, AGN outflows and intra-cluster supernovae -- are described. Simulations of the ICM evolution taking into account metal enrichment are presented.

  10. Petrology and geochemistry of the ultrapotassic rocks from the Sabatini Volcanic District, central Italy: the role of evolutionary processes in the genesis of variably enriched alkaline magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conticelli, Sandro; Francalanci, Lorella; Manetti, Piero; Cioni, Raffaello; Sbrana, Alessandro

    1997-01-01

    The Sabatini Volcanic District (SVD) is a large volcanic field characterised by the lack of any major volcanic center. Its activity, spread over a wide area, started at 0.6 Ma and developed through five main phases, during which several calderas and the Bracciano lake volcano-tectonic depression were formed. All the volcanic rocks belong to the Roman-type ultrapotassic series (HKS), ranging from leucite tephrites to leucite and haüyne phonolites. Although the major- and compatible-element contents indicate a single series of evolution, there are differences in the incompatible trace-element abundances. A high-Ba series (HBaS) has been distinguished from a low-Ba series (LBaS), with the former also enriched in all other incompatible elements (e.g., REE, Nb, Zr, Th) except Rb. The HBaS rocks are plagioclase-free, leucite-bearing lavas and were abundantly outpoured from the Bracciano volcanoes during the third and fifth phase of activity. Plagioclase- and phlogopite-bearing rocks constitute the LBaS and were erupted during the other phases generally from smaller and eccentric volcanic centers. The initial 87Sr/ 86Sr values are higher in the HBaS rocks and do not vary significantly with magma evolution (0.71047-0.71080), but cover a wider range in the LBaS rocks (0.70944-0.71038), with the lowest Sr isotope ratios occurring in the least evolved lavas. The higher Ca content in the olivine and Ti and Al IV in the clinopyroxene, and the lower ulvöspinel content of the Ti-magnetites of the HBaS rocks suggest an evolution at lower pressure and higher temperature for this magma. The observed petrologic characteristics suggest that the HBaS magma evolved at lower depths by processes of refilling, tapping, fractionation and probably assimilation (RTFA), where the crystallisation rate of clinopyroxene+leucite±olivine dominates over the input rate of the fresh magma. The LBaS magma evolved at slightly higher pressure, in separate and small magma bodies, by fractional crystallisation of clinopyroxene+plagioclase±phlogopite±olivine that was often associated with crustal assimilation (AFC). It has been suggested that RTFA processes with high input rate/crystallisation rate ratios could also be responsible for the differentiation between the HBaS and LBaS. The different processes of evolution undergone by the HBaS and LBaS could have been related to the different volumes of magma rising from the source.

  11. Organizational work-family resources as predictors of job performance and attitudes: the process of work-family conflict and enrichment.

    PubMed

    Odle-Dusseau, Heather N; Britt, Thomas W; Greene-Shortridge, Tiffany M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to test a model where organizational resources (aimed at managing work and family responsibilities) predict job attitudes and supervisor ratings of performance through the mechanisms of work-family conflict and work-family enrichment. Employees (n = 174) at a large metropolitan hospital were surveyed at two time periods regarding perceptions of family supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), family supportive organizational perceptions (FSOP), bidirectional work-family conflict, bidirectional work-family enrichment, and job attitudes. Supervisors were also asked to provide performance ratings at Time 2. Results revealed FSSB at Time 1 predicted job satisfaction, organizational commitment and intention to leave, as well as supervisor ratings of performance, at Time 2. In addition, both work-family enrichment and family-work enrichment were found to mediate relationships between FSSB and various organizational outcomes, while work-family conflict was not a significant mediator. Results support further testing of supervisor behaviors specific to family support, as well models that include bidirectional work-family enrichment as the mechanism by which work-family resources predict employee and organizational outcomes. PMID:22149204

  12. Enrichment of intergalactic matter.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, J.; Siluk, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    The primordial gas out of which the Galaxy condensed may have been significantly enriched in heavy elements. A specific mechanism of enrichment is described, in which quasi-stellar sources eject enriched matter into the intergalactic medium. This matter is recycled through successive generations of these sources, and is progressively enriched. The enriched intergalactic matter is accreted by the protogalaxy and we find, for rates of mass ejection by quasi-stellar sources equal to about one solar mass per year in heavy elements, that this mechanism can account for the heavy-element abundances in the oldest Population II stars. Expressions are given for the degree of enrichment of the intergalactic gas as a function of redshift, and we show that our hypothesis implies that the present density of intergalactic gas must be at least a factor 3 larger than the mean density in galaxies at the present epoch.

  13. Stochastic self-enrichment, pre-enrichment, and the formation of globular clusters

    E-print Network

    Bailin, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    We develop a model for stochastic pre-enrichment and self-enrichment in globular clusters (GCs) during their formation process. GCs beginning their formation have an initial metallicity determined by the pre-enrichment of their surrounding protocloud, but can also undergo internal self-enrichment during formation. Stochastic variations in metallicity arise because of the finite numbers of supernova. We construct an analytic formulation of the combined effects of pre-enrichment and self-enrichment and use Monte Carlo models to verify that the model accurately encapsulates the mean metallicity and metallicity spread among real GCs. The predicted metallicity spread due to self-enrichment alone, a robust prediction of the model, is much smaller than the observed spread among real GCs. This result rules out self-enrichment as a significant contributor to the metal content in most GCs, leaving pre-enrichment as the viable alternative. Self-enrichment can, however, be important for clusters with masses well above 10...

  14. Multilevel correlations in the biological phosphorus removal process: From bacterial enrichment to conductivity-based metabolic batch tests and polyphosphatase assays.

    PubMed

    Weissbrodt, David G; Maillard, Julien; Brovelli, Alessandro; Chabrelie, Alexandre; May, Jonathan; Holliger, Christof

    2014-12-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater relies on the preferential selection of active polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) in the underlying bacterial community continuum. Efficient management of the bacterial resource requires understanding of population dynamics as well as availability of bioanalytical methods for rapid and regular assessment of relative abundances of active PAOs and their glycogen-accumulating competitors (GAO). A systems approach was adopted here toward the investigation of multilevel correlations from the EBPR bioprocess to the bacterial community, metabolic, and enzymatic levels. Two anaerobic-aerobic sequencing-batch reactors were operated to enrich activated sludge in PAOs and GAOs affiliating with "Candidati Accumulibacter and Competibacter phosphates", respectively. Bacterial selection was optimized by dynamic control of the organic loading rate and the anaerobic contact time. The distinct core bacteriomes mainly comprised populations related to the classes Betaproteobacteria, Cytophagia, and Chloroflexi in the PAO enrichment and of Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Sphingobacteria in the GAO enrichment. An anaerobic metabolic batch test based on electrical conductivity evolution and a polyphosphatase enzymatic assay were developed for rapid and low-cost assessment of the active PAO fraction and dephosphatation potential of activated sludge. Linear correlations were obtained between the PAO fraction, biomass specific rate of conductivity increase under anaerobic conditions, and polyphosphate-hydrolyzing activity of PAO/GAO mixtures. The correlations between PAO/GAO ratios, metabolic activities, and conductivity profiles were confirmed by simulations with a mathematical model developed in the aqueous geochemistry software PHREEQC. PMID:24975745

  15. DOE enrichment plants-safeguards means business

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, R.

    1987-01-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., is a full service enrichment plant. Its long enriching cascade can process uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) feeds at almost any {sup 235}U level and can produce UF{sub 6} over the complete spectrum from depleted to very highly enriched uranium. The DOE uranium enrichment program is a government-owned enterprise operating as a business. The operating concerns of the DOE uranium enrichment plants and their safeguards programs have evolved together over the past three decades, and that evolution will likely continue. As the risk associated with possession, processing, and shipment of strategic nuclear material increased, the protection and control of it increased; as the value of the product grew with time, better ways were found to measure and conserve it. In each of these areas, safeguards objectives and the business requirements of the plant are complementary, and the progress made in one area has been reflected by progress in the other. The plant's material control and accountability program has become crucial to such business requirements as quantifying the enriched uranium (separative work units) produced in each monthly period and convincing financial auditors that the multibillion dollar enriched uranium assets located at the Portsmouth plant are properly stated.

  16. Glycoprotein Enrichment Resin User Manual

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    Glycoprotein Enrichment Resin User Manual Cat. No. 635647 PT4050-1 (PR912675) Published 14 January Laboratories, Inc. Version No. PR912675 ATakara Bio Company 2 Glycoprotein Enrichment Resin User Manual I.................................................................................................4 IV. Glycoprotein Enrichment

  17. Enrichment in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Jean S.

    1985-01-01

    The Cairo (Egypt) American College, offers a program for academically able elementary students based on a broad enrichment philosophy model and selective pullout classes. A resource teacher describes her experiences with the program and its students. (CL)

  18. Conversion of Molybdenum-99 production process to low enriched uranium: Neutronic and thermal hydraulic analyses of HEU and LEU target plates for irradiation in Pakistan Research Reactor-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtaq, Ahmad; Iqbal, Masood; Bokhari, Ishtiaq Hussain; Mahmood, Tayyab; Muhammad, Atta

    2012-09-01

    Technetium-99m, the daughter product of Molybdenum-99 is the most widely needed radionuclide for diagnostic studies in Pakistan. Molybdenum-99 Production Facility has been established at PINSTECH. Highly enriched uranium (93% 235U) U/Al alloy targets have been irradiated in Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1) for the generation of fission Mo-99, while basic dissolution technique is used for separation of Mo-99 from target matrix activity. In line with the international objective of minimizing and eventually eliminating the use of HEU in civil commerce, national and international efforts have been underway to shift the production of medical isotopes from HEU to LEU (LEU; <20% 235U enrichment) targets. To achieve the equivalent amount of 99Mo with LEU targets, approximately 5 times uranium is needed. LEU aluminum uranium dispersion target has been developed, which may replace existing HEU aluminum/uranium alloy targets for production of 99Mo using basic dissolution technique. Neutronic and thermal hydraulic calculations were performed for safe irradiation of targets in the core of PARR-1.

  19. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Heinonen, Olli

    2014-05-09

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  20. Xiaomeng Su Semantic Enrichment for

    E-print Network

    Xiaomeng Su Semantic Enrichment for Ontology Mapping Department of Computer and Information Science phases: enrichment phase and map- ping phase. The enrichment phase is based on analysis of the extension of the enrichment phase are ontologies with feature vector as en- richment structure. The mapping phase takes

  1. Teaching Mathematical Modelling: Demonstrating Enrichment and Elaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a series of models to illustrate one of the fundamental processes of model building--that of enrichment and elaboration. The paper describes how a problem context is given which allows a series of models to be developed from a simple initial model using a queuing theory framework. The process encourages students to think about the…

  2. Enriching the Catalog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2004-01-01

    After decades of costly and time-consuming effort, nearly all libraries have completed the retrospective conversion of their card catalogs to electronic form. However, bibliographic systems still are really not much more than card catalogs on wheels. Enriched content that Amazon.com takes for granted--such as digitized tables of contents, cover…

  3. Science Student Enrichment Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This document was developed with the intention of increasing California public school students' awareness of and participation in science-related enrichment activities. Some of the activities are intended for participation by individuals, while others are meant for teams of students. These annual events are listed in chronological order for a…

  4. Professional Development Personal Enrichment

    E-print Network

    Lennard, William N.

    WCS.UWO.CA Professional Development Personal Enrichment Post-Degree Programs Corporate Training:00pm $565.00 CULTURE, ARTS AND RELIGION Discover the arts, a new culture or religion. These courses, so that you not only learn French, but live the language and the culture. One week programs

  5. EDUCATIONAL ENRICHMENT PROGRAM - 1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FUNK, JOHN H.

    THE EDUCATIONAL ENRICHMENT PROGRAM - 1964 WAS A COOPERATIVE UNDERTAKING OF SIX INDEPENDENT SCHOOLS IN OR NEAR BOSTON AND A NUMBER OF INTERESTED ORGANIZATIONS THAT OFFERED THE USE OF THEIR FACILITIES AND PERSONNEL TO AN URBAN COMMUNITY DURING THE NONSCHOOL MONTHS. THE AIM OF THE PROGRAM WAS TO OFFER CHALLENGING AND EXPLORATORY STUDY WHICH COULD…

  6. Weakly enriched higher categories

    E-print Network

    Haugseng, Rune

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to begin to lay the foundations for a theory of enriched [infinity]categories. We introduce a definition of such objects, based on a non-symmetric version of Lurie's theory of [infinity]-operads. ...

  7. Enriching Number Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Nancy K.

    2011-01-01

    Exploring number systems of other cultures can be an enjoyable learning experience that enriches students' knowledge of numbers and number systems in important ways. It helps students deepen mental computation fluency, knowledge of place value, and equivalent representations for numbers. This article describes how the author designed her…

  8. Motif enrichment tool.

    PubMed

    Blatti, Charles; Sinha, Saurabh

    2014-07-01

    The Motif Enrichment Tool (MET) provides an online interface that enables users to find major transcriptional regulators of their gene sets of interest. MET searches the appropriate regulatory region around each gene and identifies which transcription factor DNA-binding specificities (motifs) are statistically overrepresented. Motif enrichment analysis is currently available for many metazoan species including human, mouse, fruit fly, planaria and flowering plants. MET also leverages high-throughput experimental data such as ChIP-seq and DNase-seq from ENCODE and ModENCODE to identify the regulatory targets of a transcription factor with greater precision. The results from MET are produced in real time and are linked to a genome browser for easy follow-up analysis. Use of the web tool is free and open to all, and there is no login requirement. ADDRESS: http://veda.cs.uiuc.edu/MET/. PMID:24860165

  9. Motif Enrichment Tool

    PubMed Central

    Blatti, Charles; Sinha, Saurabh

    2014-01-01

    The Motif Enrichment Tool (MET) provides an online interface that enables users to find major transcriptional regulators of their gene sets of interest. MET searches the appropriate regulatory region around each gene and identifies which transcription factor DNA-binding specificities (motifs) are statistically overrepresented. Motif enrichment analysis is currently available for many metazoan species including human, mouse, fruit fly, planaria and flowering plants. MET also leverages high-throughput experimental data such as ChIP-seq and DNase-seq from ENCODE and ModENCODE to identify the regulatory targets of a transcription factor with greater precision. The results from MET are produced in real time and are linked to a genome browser for easy follow-up analysis. Use of the web tool is free and open to all, and there is no login requirement. Address: http://veda.cs.uiuc.edu/MET/. PMID:24860165

  10. Freshman Enrichment Program 2015 Application

    E-print Network

    Selmic, Sandra

    Freshman Enrichment Program 2015 Application Name) _________________________ I hereby apply for the 2015 Freshmen Enrichment Program. I will be notified by e-mail as to whether to: COES Freshmen Enrichment Program Attn.: Undergraduate Studies Office P.O. Box 10348 Ruston, LA

  11. Using the Web for Social Studies Enrichment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoach, D. Betsy

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the benefits of using the Internet to enrich the social studies curriculum and the need to teach students to evaluate every Web site they visit according to three criteria: reliability, authorship, and purpose. Questions are listed to aid students in this evaluation process, along with Web sites. (CR)

  12. Parents as Partners in Art Education Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    The author describes a parent art program, how it works, and ways to implement it. She emphasizes the strengths of parent programs as a way to support and enrich existing arts education, not as a replacement. Hansen describes the art kit--the adult's teaching resource--and the basic four-part process: presentation, demonstration, an art activity,…

  13. Ferret wellness management and environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Harris, Laurel M

    2015-05-01

    The domestic ferret is a commonly kept companion animal. Knowledge of proper husbandry of companion ferrets and their common disease processes by veterinarians assists pet owners in providing the healthiest environment possible. Attentiveness to the environmental needs of pet ferrets results in physically and psychologically healthy animals and a positive, enriched relationship with owners. PMID:25902271

  14. 76 FR 11523 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ...AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of Opportunity...construct and operate its proposed Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility (EREF) in Bonneville...AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility), 74 FR...

  15. Fractal aspects in O2 enriched combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, J. W. G.; Santos, A. A. B.; Guarieiro, L. L. N.; Moret, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we investigate the self-affinity of time series of thermal radiation from two fuels, natural gas (NG) and acetylene (AC), enriched with oxygen at 21%, 23% and 25% concentrations during the combustion process. We used the detrended fluctuation analysis method to evaluate the burning process of these fuels. We found a well-defined self-affine aspect for these gases in this dynamic process. Using the proposed method, we were able to characterize the time series of NG as a sub-diffusive process and the time series of AC as a process with persistent self-affinity.

  16. The role of binaries in the enrichment of the early Galactic halo. I. r-process-enhanced metal-poor stars

    E-print Network

    Hansen, T T; Nordstrøm, B; Beers, T C; Yoon, J; Buchhave, L A

    2015-01-01

    The detailed chemical composition of most metal-poor halo stars has been found to be highly uniform, but a minority of stars exhibit dramatic enhancements in their abundances of heavy neutron-capture elements and/or of carbon. The key question for Galactic chemical evolution models is whether these peculiarities reflect the composition of the natal clouds, or if they are due to later mass transfer of processed material from a binary companion. If the former case applies, the observed excess of certain elements was implanted within selected clouds in the early ISM from a production site at interstellar distances. Our aim is to determine the frequency and orbital properties of binaries among these chemically peculiar stars. This information provides the basis for deciding whether mass transfer from a binary companion is necessary and sufficient to explain their unusual compositions. This paper discusses our study of a sample of 17 moderately (r-I) and highly (r-II) r-process-element enhanced VMP and EMP stars. ...

  17. Sensitive method for the determination of lipophilic marine biotoxins in extracts of mussels and processed shellfish by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based on enrichment by solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    These, Anja; Scholz, Jana; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika

    2009-05-22

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for the enrichment and clean-up of lipophilic marine biotoxins from extracts of different species of bivalve molluscs and processed shellfish products was developed. Okadaic acid (OA), pectenotoxin2 (PTX2), azaspiracid1 (AZA1) and yessotoxin (YTX) were determined by LC-MS/MS in hydrolyzed and non-hydrolyzed extracts. Applying a concentration factor of 10 the limit of quantification for the four toxins was determined to be 1 microg/kg. An organized in-house ring trial proved transferability of the method protocol and satisfactory results for all four toxins with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5-12%. The precision of the whole method including LC-MS detection was determined by processing seven independent extractions analyzed in independent sequences. RSD ranged between 12% and 24%. This SPE method was tested within a concentration range corresponding to the range of the current European Union regulatory limits (up to 160 microg/kg for the OA group), but it would also be applicable to a lower microg/kg range which is important in view of a possible decrease of regulatory limits as proposed by a working group of the European Food Safety Authority. The potential of SPE as a cleaning tool to cope with matrix effects in LC-MS/MS was studied and compared to liquid-liquid portioning. PMID:19362722

  18. Thermal breeder fuel enrichment zoning

    DOEpatents

    Capossela, Harry J. (Schenectady, NY); Dwyer, Joseph R. (Albany, NY); Luce, Robert G. (Schenectady, NY); McCoy, Daniel F. (Latham, NY); Merriman, Floyd C. (Rotterdam, NY)

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of a thermal breeder reactor having regions of higher than average moderator concentration are disclosed. The fuel modules of the reactor core contain at least two different types of fuel elements, a high enrichment fuel element and a low enrichment fuel element. The two types of fuel elements are arranged in the fuel module with the low enrichment fuel elements located between the high moderator regions and the high enrichment fuel elements. Preferably, shim rods made of a fertile material are provided in selective regions for controlling the reactivity of the reactor by movement of the shim rods into and out of the reactor core. The moderation of neutrons adjacent the high enrichment fuel elements is preferably minimized as by reducing the spacing of the high enrichment fuel elements and/or using a moderator having a reduced moderating effect.

  19. The role of binaries in the enrichment of the early Galactic halo. I. r-process-enhanced metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, T. T.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Beers, T. C.; Yoon, J.; Buchhave, L. A.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The detailed chemical composition of most metal-poor halo stars has been found to be highly uniform, but a minority of stars exhibit dramatic enhancements in their abundances of heavy neutron-capture elements and/or of carbon. The key question for Galactic chemical evolution models is whether these peculiarities reflect the composition of the natal clouds, or if they are due to later (post-birth) mass transfer of chemically processed material from a binary companion. If the former case applies, the observed excess of certain elements was implanted within selected clouds in the early ISM from a production site at interstellar distances. Aims: Our aim is to determine the frequency and orbital properties of binaries among these chemically peculiar stars. This information provides the basis for deciding whether local mass transfer from a binary companion is necessary and sufficient to explain their unusual compositions. This paper discusses our study of a sample of 17 moderately (r-I) and highly (r-II) r-process-element enhanced VMP and EMP stars. Methods: High-resolution, low signal-to-noise spectra of the stars were obtained at roughly monthly intervals over eight years with the FIES spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope. From these spectra, radial velocities with an accuracy of ~100 m s-1 were determined by cross-correlation against an optimized template. Results: Fourteen of the programme stars exhibit no significant radial-velocity variation over this temporal window, while three are binaries with orbits of typical eccentricity for their periods, resulting in a normal binary frequency of ~18 ± 6% for the sample. Conclusions: Our results confirm our preliminary conclusion from 2011, based on partial data, that the chemical peculiarity of the r-I and r-II stars is not caused by any putative binary companions. Instead, it was imprinted on the natal molecular clouds of these stars by an external, distant source. Models of the ISM in early galaxies should account for such mechanisms. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. [Pesticide pollution of groundwater and drinking water by the processes of artificial groundwater enrichment or coastal filtration: underrated sources of contamination].

    PubMed

    Mathys, W

    1994-12-01

    The research objective of this study is to monitor the degree of pesticide pollution in public drinking waters and to characterise the pathways by which these substances get into potable waters. Public drinking waters, raw waters, ground waters, and surface waters in an area with intensive agriculture were analysed for pesticides and nitrate during the years 1987-1992. The monitoring reveals that only potable waters of water works using the process of artificial ground water recharge are polluted by pesticides. The very influence of surface water on the degree of pesticide contamination can be shown up to the wells. Wells that are influenced by bank filtration or infiltration contain significantly (P < 0.001) higher amounts and a greater number of substances than pure ground water wells. Most often triazines and phenylureas are analysed. Among the tested water works the artificial ground water recharge is the main factor for the input of pesticides into the aquifer and the drinking water. Percolation experiments, and parallel seasonal changes of pesticides and nitrate in raw and infiltration water document a high mobility during the subsoil passage and an easy vulnerability of the aquifer. There is no correlation between pesticides and nitrate. So nitrates are not suited as an indicator for pesticide pollution. Almost all tested surface waters, including channels, contain pesticides in highly varying concentrations during the whole year and are thus always a possible source for an input into the recharged ground water. In addition to agricultural runoffs a remarkable contamination of rivers with the herbicide diuron caused by municipal waste waters can be observed in the summer. Because of insufficient elimination of herbicides like triazines and phenylureas during bank filtration or infiltration and because of the high loads of surface waters with pesticides a minimisation of pesticide losses within the whole catchment area, especially of runoffs into surface waters, and the abstention from the use of slowly degradable herbicides in cities, on railways or in private gardens are inevitable. At the present time, however, a protection of ground and public drinking water from pesticide contamination can only be achieved by treating surface or ground waters with activated carbon. PMID:7748439

  1. Oxygen-enriched air for MHD power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, R. W., Jr.; Cutting, J. C.; Burkhart, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Cryogenic air-separation process cycle variations and compression schemes are examined. They are designed to minimize net system power required to supply pressurized, oxygen-enriched air to the combustor of an MHD power plant with a coal input of 2000 MWt. Power requirements and capital costs for oxygen production and enriched air compression for enrichment levels from 13 to 50% are determined. The results are presented as curves from which total compression power requirements can be estimated for any desired enrichment level at any delivery pressure. It is found that oxygen enrichment and recuperative heating of MHD combustor air to 1400 F yields near-term power plant efficiencies in excess of 45%. A minimum power compression system requires 167 MW to supply 330 lb of oxygen per second and costs roughly 100 million dollars. Preliminary studies show MHD/steam power plants to be competitive with plants using high-temperature air preheaters burning gas.

  2. High-purity enrichment of 84Sr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, J. G.

    1999-12-01

    High-purity 84Sr (i.e., >99 at%) is an important tool in many areas of basic and applied research, in particular for spikes used in isotopic dilution/mass spectrometer investigations in geochemistry, cosmochemistry, and paleoclimate-age studies. In nature, the 84Sr abundance is only 0.56%; however, it can be enriched to the specified requirements by using a high-resolution separator, such as the 180°-sector separator, or by completing two passes through a high-production, lower-resolution machine, such as the calutron. The latter option was used for this enrichment to produce ˜1 g of strontium with a final 84Sr concentration of 99.64%. Three innage runs were made, vaporizing a total of ˜17 g of metal feed that had been pre-enriched in the calutron to ˜70% 84Sr. A partial recovery, followed by recycle of the unresolved feed, was made after the second innage run. A process efficiency of 8.44% was achieved, and 4.33 g of the unresolved feed material was recovered. A modified ion-source unit using materials compatible with strontium and the use of krypton as mass markers to aid in operations are described. Standard contamination analyses were performed to evaluate the enrichment and to compare measured results with predicted product purity.

  3. Chemical abundance study of two strongly s-process enriched post-AGB stars in the LMC: J051213.81-693537.1 and J051848.86-700246.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Smedt, K.; Van Winckel, H.; Kamath, D.; Wood, P. R.

    2015-11-01

    Context. This paper is part of a larger project in which we systematically study the chemical abundances of extra-galactic post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars. The aim of our programme is to derive chemical abundances of stars covering a large range in luminosity and metallicity with the ultimate goal of testing, constraining, and improving our knowledge of the poorly understood AGB phase, especially the third dredge-up mixing processes and associated s-process nucleosynthesis. Aims: Post-AGB photospheres are dominated by atomic lines and indicate the effects of internal chemical enrichment processes over the entire stellar lifetime. In this paper, we study two carefully selected post-AGB stars: J051213.81-693537.1 and J051848.86-700246.9 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Both objects show signs of s-process enhancement. The combination of favourable atmospheric parameters for detailed abundance studies and their known distances (and hence luminosities and initial masses) make these objects ideal probes of the AGB third dredge-up and s-process nucleosynthesis in that they provide observational constraints for theoretical AGB models. Methods: We use high-resolution optical UVES spectra to determine accurate stellar parameters and subsequently perform detailed elemental abundance studies of post-AGB stars. Additionally, we use available photometric data covering optical and IR bands to construct spectral energy distributions for reddening and luminosity determinations. We then estimate initial masses from theoretical post-AGB tracks. Results: We obtained accurate atmospheric parameters for J051213.81-693537.1 (Teff = 5875 ± 125 K, log g = 1.00 ± 0.25 dex, [Fe/H] = -0.56 ± 0.16 dex) and J051848.86-700246.9 (Teff = 6000 ± 125 K, log g = 0.50 ± 0.25 dex, [Fe/H] = -1.06 ± 0.17 dex). Both stars show extreme s-process enrichment associated with relatively low C/O ratios of 1.26 ± 0.40 and 1.29 ± 0.30 for J051213-693537.1 and J051848-700246.9, respectively. We could only derive upper limits of the lead (Pb) abundance. These upper limits show a possible very slight Pb overabundance with respect to heavy s-elements for J051213-693537.1, while J051848-700246.9 shows an upper limit of the Pb abundance similar to [hs/Fe]. A comparison with theoretical post-AGB evolutionary tracks in the HR-diagram reveals that both stars have low initial masses between 1.0 and 1.5 M?. Conclusions: This study adds to the results obtained so far on a very limited number of s-process enriched stars in the Magellanic Clouds. With the addition of the two stars in this study, we find an increasing discrepancy between observed and predicted Pb abundances towards lower metallicities of the studied s-process rich post-AGB stars in the Magellanic Clouds. The more metal-rich J051213-693537.1 fits the theoretical Pb abundance predictions well, while the five other objects with [Fe/H] < 1, including J051848-700246.9, have much lower Pb overabundances than predicted. In all objects found so far, including the objects in this study, the C/O ratio is very moderate because of the enhancement of O as well as C. We find that all s-process rich stars in the LMC and SMC studied so far, cluster in the same region of the HR-diagram and are associated with low-mass stars with a low metallicity on average. We corroborate the published lack of correlation between the metallicity and the neutron irradiation, while the neutron exposure ([hs/ls]) is strongly correlated with the third dredge-up efficiency ([s/Fe]). These correlations seem to hold in our Galaxy as well as in the Magellanic Clouds. Based on observations collected with the Very Large Telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chili) of programme number 088.D-0433.Atomic data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/583/A56

  4. TAFFEL: Independent Enrichment Analysis of gene sets

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A major challenge in genomic research is identifying significant biological processes and generating new hypotheses from large gene sets. Gene sets often consist of multiple separate biological pathways, controlled by distinct regulatory mechanisms. Many of these pathways and the associated regulatory mechanisms might be obscured by a large number of other significant processes and thus not identified as significant by standard gene set enrichment analysis tools. Results We present a novel method called Independent Enrichment Analysis (IEA) and software TAFFEL that eases the task by clustering genes to subgroups using Gene Ontology categories and transcription regulators. IEA indicates transcriptional regulators putatively controlling biological functions in studied condition. Conclusions We demonstrate that the developed method and TAFFEL tool give new insight to the analysis of differentially expressed genes and can generate novel hypotheses. Our comparison to other popular methods showed that the IEA method implemented in TAFFEL can find important biological phenomena, which are not reported by other methods. PMID:21592412

  5. Shenandoah elementary science enrichment program

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, P.

    1994-12-31

    Shenandoah Elementary School is a rural educational facility located in the farmlands of Indiana. The Elementary Science Enrichment Program was established to create a learning atmosphere that encourages scientific thinking and problem-solving. Its inception was founded on the belief that the concepts and process skills inherent in the teaching of science are critical to the early intellectual development of elementary students. The program was established through speaking engagements at the local and state level which resulted in the necessary support to insure its continuation. All students in grades K-5 meet for weekly science activities in our elementary lab to investigate many exciting curricular areas including planaria regeneration, star life cycles, and acid rain telecommunications. This allows for in-depth exploration of the science process skills which culminate in a variety of products including student portfolios, hands-on assessments, simulations and global data communications. These activities are extended through family science and the modeling of science instructional techniques for classroom educators.

  6. High Accuracy U-235 Enrichment Verification Station for Low Enriched Uranium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lillard, C. R.; Hayward, J. P.; Williamson, M. R.

    2012-06-07

    The Y-12 National Security Complex is playing a role in the U.S. High Performance Research Reactor (USHPRR) Conversion program sponsored by the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Global Threat Reduction. The USHPRR program has a goal of converting remaining U.S. reactors that continue to use highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The USHPRR program is currently developing a LEU Uranium-Molybdenum (U-Mo) monolithic fuel for use in the U.S. high performance research reactors.Y-12 is supporting both the fuel development and fuel fabrication efforts by fabricating low enriched U-Mo foils from its own source material for irradiation experiments and for optimizing the fabrication process in support of scaling up the process to a commercial production scale. Once the new fuel is qualified, Y-12 will produce and ship U-Mo coupons with verified 19.75% +0.2% - 0.3% U-235 enrichment to be fabricated into fuel elements for the USHPRRs. Considering this small enrichment tolerance and the transition into HEU being set strictly at 20% U-235, a characterization system with a measurement uncertainty of less than or equal to 0.1% in enrichment is desired to support customer requirements and minimize production costs. Typical uncertainty for most available characterization systems today is approximately 1-5%; therefore, a specialized system must be developed which results in a reduced measurement uncertainty. A potential system using a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector has been procured, and tests have been conducted to verify its capabilities with regards to the requirements. Using four U-Mo enrichment standards fabricated with complete isotopic and chemical characterization, infinite thickness and peak-ratio enrichment measurement methods have been considered for use. As a result of inhomogeneity within the U-Mo samples, FRAM, an isotopic analysis software, has been selected for initial testing. A systematic approach towards observing effects on FRAM's enrichment analysis has been conducted with regards to count and dead time.

  7. Uranium enrichment export control guide: Gaseous diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This document was prepared to serve as a guide for export control officials in their interpretation, understanding, and implementation of export laws that relate to the Zangger International Trigger List for gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment process components, equipment, and materials. Particular emphasis is focused on items that are especially designed or prepared since export controls are required for these by States that are party to the International Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.

  8. PROPULSE 980: A Hydrogen Peroxide Enrichment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boxwell, Robert; Bromley, G.; Wanger, Robert; Pauls, Dan; Maynard, Bryon; McNeal, Curtis; Dumbacher, D. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The PROPULSE 980 unit is a transportable processing plant that enriches aerospace grade hydrogen peroxide from 90% to 98% final concentration. The unit was developed by Degussa-H Is, in cooperation with Orbital, NASA Marshall Space Center, and NASA Stennis Space Center. The system is a self-contained unit that houses all of the process equipment, instrumentation and controls to perform the concentration operation nearly autonomously. It is designed to produce non-bulk quantities of 98% hydrogen peroxide. The enrichment unit design also maintains system, personnel and environmental safety during all aspects of the enrichment process and final product storage. As part of the Propulse 980 checkout and final buyoff, it will be disassembled at the Degussa-H Is Corporation plant in Theodore, AL, transported to the Stennis Space Center, reassembled and subjected to a series of checkout tests to verify design objectives have been met. This paper will summarize the basic project elements and provide an update on the present status of the project.

  9. 76 FR 387 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ...AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility) December 17, 2010...enrichment facility--denoted as the Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility (EREF)--in Bonneville...www.nrc.gov/materials/fuel-cycle-fac/arevanc.html. These and...

  10. Subject Metadata Enrichment using Statistical Topic Models

    E-print Network

    Smyth, Padhraic

    Subject Metadata Enrichment using Statistical Topic Models David Newman Department of Computer and variable quality subject metadata. Having uniform, consistent and enriched subject metadata allows users demonstrate how statistical topic models are useful for subject metadata enrichment. We describe some

  11. Environmental enrichment for aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Mike

    2015-05-01

    Aquatic animals are the most popular pets in the United States based on the number of owned pets. They are popular display animals and are increasingly used in research settings. Enrichment of captive animals is an important element of zoo and laboratory medicine. The importance of enrichment for aquatic animals has been slower in implementation. For a long time, there was debate over whether or not fish were able to experience pain or form long-term memories. As that debate has reduced and the consciousness of more aquatic animals is accepted, the need to discuss enrichment for these animals has increased. PMID:25902273

  12. Nutraceutical enriched Indian traditional chikki.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Chetana; Pamisetty, Aruna; Reddy, Sunki Reddy Yella

    2015-08-01

    Chikki or peanut brittle, a traditional sweet snack was chosen as vehicle for enrichment with added natural nutraceuticals through herbs. The formulation and process for preparation of chikki with added herbs like ashwagandha (Withania somenifera), tulasi (Ocimumsanctum L.) and ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi S.) were standardized. The polyphenol content of chikki with added herbs ranged 0.29-0.46 g/100 g. Among the herbs, ajwain showed more potent antioxidant activity followed by tulasi, whereas ashwagandha and product prepared with it showed the least activity. Total carotenoid contents of chikki with added herbs ranged between 1.5 and 4.3 mg/100 g. Storage studies showed that chikki prepared with tulasi and ajwain were sensorily acceptable up to 90 days, while rancid notes were observed in control and chikki with added ashwagandha at the end of 30 days. Thus chikki with added herbs in addition to containing natural nutraceuticals like polyphenols and carotenoids had improved storage stability compared to control. PMID:26243935

  13. Development Issues on Linked Data Weblog Enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Rube, Iván; Cornejo, Carlos M.; Dodero, Juan Manuel; García, Vicente M.

    In this paper, we describe the issues found during the development of LinkedBlog, a Linked Data extension for WordPress blogs. This extension enables to enrich text-based and video information contained in blog entries with RDF triples that are suitable to be stored, managed and exploited by other web-based applications. The issues have to do with the generality, usability, tracking, depth, security, trustiness and performance of the linked data enrichment process. The presented annotation approach aims at maintaining web-based contents independent from the underlying ontological model, by providing a loosely coupled RDFa-based approach in the linked data application. Finally, we detail how the performance of annotations can be improved through a semantic reasoner.

  14. High-purity, isotopically enriched bulk silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Ager III, J.W.; Beeman, J.W.; Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.; Sharp, I.D.; Liao, C.; Yang, A.; Thewalt, M.L.W.; Riemann, H.

    2004-11-17

    The synthesis and characterization of dislocation-free, undoped, single crystals of Si enriched in all 3 stable isotopes is reported: {sup 28}Si (99.92%), {sup 29}Si (91.37%), and {sup 30}Si (89.8%). A silane-based process compatible with the relatively small amounts of isotopically enriched precursors that are practically available was used. The silane is decomposed to silicon on a graphite starter rod heated to 700-750 C in a recirculating flow reactor. A typical run produces 35 gm of polycrystalline Si at a growth rates of 5 {micro}m/min and conversion efficiency >95%. Single crystals are grown by the floating zone method and characterized by electrical and optical measurements. Concentrations of shallow dopants (P and B) are as low as mid-10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}. Concentrations of C and O lie below 10{sup 16} and 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}, respectively.

  15. Evaporation of Enriched Uranium Solutions Containing Organophosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A.

    1999-03-18

    The Savannah River Site has enriched uranium (EU) solution which has been stored for almost 10 years since being purified in the second uranium cycle of the H area solvent extraction process. The preliminary SRTC data, in conjunction with information in the literature, is promising. However, very few experiments have been run, and none of the results have been confirmed with repeat tests. As a result, it is believed that insufficient data exists at this time to warrant Separations making any process or program changes based on the information contained in this report. When this data is confirmed in future testing, recommendations will be presented.

  16. Fifth Ward Enrichment Program Mission

    E-print Network

    Aazhang, Behnaam

    Fifth Ward Enrichment Program Mission: To empower boys to become, mentor, and case-manage a maximum of 200 boys at five school sites. The School with teenage boys. Address: 4014 Market Street, Suite W145 Houston, Texas

  17. A Robust Infrastructure Design for Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Unattended Online Enrichment Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Younkin, James R; Rowe, Nathan C; Garner, James R

    2012-01-01

    An online enrichment monitor (OLEM) is being developed to continuously measure the relative isotopic composition of UF6 in the unit header pipes of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP). From a safeguards perspective, OLEM will provide early detection of a facility being misused for production of highly enriched uranium. OLEM may also reduce the number of samples collected for destructive assay and if coupled with load cell monitoring can provide isotope mass balance verification. The OLEM design includes power and network connections for continuous monitoring of the UF6 enrichment and state of health of the instrument. Monitoring the enrichment on all header pipes at a typical GCEP could require OLEM detectors on each of the product, tails, and feed header pipes. If there are eight process units, up to 24 detectors may be required at a modern GCEP. Distant locations, harsh industrial environments, and safeguards continuity of knowledge requirements all place certain demands on the network robustness and power reliability. This paper describes the infrastructure and architecture of an OLEM system based on OLEM collection nodes on the unit header pipes and power and network support nodes for groupings of the collection nodes. A redundant, self-healing communications network, distributed backup power, and a secure communications methodology. Two candidate technologies being considered for secure communications are the Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control Unified Architecture cross-platform, service-oriented architecture model for process control communications and the emerging IAEA Real-time And INtegrated STream-Oriented Remote Monitoring (RAINSTORM) framework to provide the common secure communication infrastructure for remote, unattended monitoring systems. The proposed infrastructure design offers modular, commercial components, plug-and-play extensibility for GCEP deployments, and is intended to meet the guidelines and requirements for unattended and remotely monitored safeguards systems.

  18. Dissolution of oxygen-enriched Zircaloy-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskarsson, M.; Ahlberg, E.; Pettersson, K.

    2001-10-01

    When metal is removed from oxidised Zircaloy specimens in order to study the morphology of the oxide at the metal-oxide interface needle-like features are frequently observed. Since similar features are not observed in cross-section TEM examinations it has been questioned whether or not the needles are a result of the dissolution process. In particular it has been proposed that reprecipitation of oxide may take place when the metal is enriched with oxygen. In the present work oxygen-enriched Zircaloy has been dissolved and the resulting structures examined. The results indicate that the needles are in fact artefacts of the specimen preparation procedure. However, there are no significant differences between oxygen-enriched and normal Zircaloy below an oxide layer grown in steam at about 400 °C. In view of the differences between the needle structure observed after metal removal with bromine or by electropolishing and removal by HF-HNO 3 pickling solution it is speculated that the needles consist of a hydrous zirconium oxide which is unstable in the pickling solution.

  19. Feedback and metal enrichment in cosmological SPH simulations I. A model for chemical enrichment

    E-print Network

    C. Scannapieco; P. B. Tissera; S. D. M. White; V. Springel

    2006-07-10

    We discuss a model for treating chemical enrichment by SNII and SNIa explosions in simulations of cosmological structure formation. Our model includes metal-dependent radiative cooling and star formation in dense collapsed gas clumps. Metals are returned into the diffuse interstellar medium by star particles using a local SPH smoothing kernel. A variety of chemical abundance patterns in enriched gas arise in our treatment owing to the different yields and lifetimes of SNII and SNIa progenitor stars. In the case of SNII chemical production, we adopt metal-dependent yields. Because of the sensitive dependence of cooling rates on metallicity, enrichment of galactic haloes with metals can in principle significantly alter subsequent gas infall and the build up of the stellar components. Indeed, in simulations of isolated galaxies we find that a consistent treatment of metal-dependent cooling produces 25% more stars outside the central region than simulations with a primordial cooling function. In the highly-enriched central regions, the evolution of baryons is however not affected by metal cooling, because here the gas is always dense enough to cool. A similar situation is found in cosmological simulations because we include no strong feedback processes which could spread metals over large distances and mix them into unenriched diffuse gas. We demonstrate this explicitly with test simulations which adopt super-solar cooling functions leading to large changes both in the stellar mass and in the metal distributions. We also find that the impact of metallicity on the star formation histories of galaxies may depend on their particular evolutionary history. Our results hence emphasise the importance of feedback processes for interpreting the cosmic metal enrichment.

  20. Professional Development Personal Enrichment

    E-print Network

    Lennard, William N.

    $415.00 CMPR6209 Social Media Fundamentals Oct 5 & 6 9:00am - 4:00pm $460.00 CMPR6201 Crisis-Neutral Mediation Oct 28 - 30 9:00am - 4:00pm $755.00 ADRN6206 Facilitation Processes Nov 25 - 27 9:00am - 5:00pm

  1. Observational Tests of Intergalactic Enrichment Models

    E-print Network

    Anthony Aguirre; Joop Schaye

    2005-04-19

    We summarize recent results assessing the carbon and silicon abundances of the intergalactic medium (IGM) using the `pixel optical depth' technique. We briefly discuss the implications of these results for models of intergalactic enrichment, focusing on distinguishing `early' z >> 4 enrichment by the first generations of stars and objects from `late' enrichment by 2 intergalactic enrichment at z > 2.

  2. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as metal. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    The mission of this Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will be to blend surplus HEU metal and alloy with depleted uranium metal to produce an LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  3. Enantiomeric enrichment on the prebiotic Earth.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Stanley I

    2007-02-01

    Evaporation of an aqueous solution of a chiral, nonracemic (partially resolved) amino acid or hydroxy acid from a clay or silica surface is shown to produce crystals in six cases that possess increased concentrations of the more abundant enantiomer. The increases range from a factor of 1.2 as the low to a high greater than 6-fold above the near 8% enantiomeric excess starting levels. This newly discovered enantiomeric enrichment process is presented in the context of it having been a possible instrument in the attainment of levels of configurational homogeneity sufficient for the emergence of life on Earth. PMID:16821095

  4. 75 FR 52996 - Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ...ASLBP No. 10-899-02-ML-BD01] Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and...Board) in the above-captioned Areva Enrichment Services proceeding is hereby...

  5. Enrichment Tours in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Jean

    1980-01-01

    Enrichment tours designed to heighten interest and enhance the breadth and depth of learning a lifetime sport are encouraged. A tour of the Florida Keys and Bahama Islands for sailing and diving taken by students from Mankato State University is described. (JMF)

  6. Anisotropic Outflows and IGM Enrichment

    E-print Network

    Hugo Martel; Matthew M. Pieri; Cedric Grenon

    2006-11-17

    We have designed an analytical model for the evolution of anisotropic galactic outflows. These outflows follow the path of least resistance, and thus travel preferentially into low-density regions, away from cosmological structures where galaxies form. We show that anisotropic outflows can significantly enrich low-density systems with metals.

  7. Musicals Enrich Middle School Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Douglas D.; North, Rita

    2005-01-01

    An enriching fine arts program has long been advocated as an essential element of an effective middle school program. The vocal music program at Pleasant Hill (Missouri) Middle School supports student growth and development beyond the regular classroom. It supports students' existing skills and talents and provides opportunities for them to…

  8. TOWARD AN ENRICHED CULTURAL FUTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY.

    DEVELOPMENT OF INTEREST IN WORTHWHILE CULTURAL ACTIVITIES HAS BEEN ONE OF IMPORTANT EMPHASES OF THE HIGH HORIZONS PROGRAM. THE CULTURAL ENRICHMENT TEACHER HAS HAD THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR TEACHING MUSIC AND/OR ART IN ADDITION TO CORRELATING CULTURAL ACTIVITIES WITH ALL FACETS OF THE CURRICULUM TO PROVIDE INSPIRATION AND NEW EXPERIENCES AS WELL AS TO…

  9. Day Care Center Enrichment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Dept. of Welfare, Charleston.

    This guide to a West Virginia Department of Welfare project for upgrading the quality of day care centers throughout the state presents samples of the forms used in the program, accompanied by a brief description of the program's format, requirements and procedures. The Day Care Center Enrichment Program provides a monetary incentive for…

  10. Chalcophile and platinum-group element distribution in the Ultramafic series of the Stillwater Complex, MT, USA—implications for processes enriching chromite layers in Os, Ir, Ru, and Rh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Sarah-Jane; Pagé, P.; Prichard, H. M.; Zientek, M. L.; Fisher, P. C.

    2015-05-01

    All of the rocks from the Ultramafic series of the Stillwater Complex are enriched in PGE relative to most mafic magmas. Furthermore, the chromite layers are particularly enriched in IPGE (Os, Ir, and Ru) and Rh. This enrichment appears to be a common characteristic of ultramafic rocks from many types of settings, layered intrusions, ophiolites, and zoned complexes. We have carried out a petrological, mineralogical, and geochemical study to assess how the enrichment occurred in the case of the Stillwater Complex and applied our results to the chromite layers of the Bushveld and Great Dyke complexes. The minerals that now host the PGE are laurite and fine-grained intergrowths of pentlandite, millerite, and chalcopyrite. The laurite occurs as inclusions in chromite, and mass balance calculations indicate that it hosts most of the Os, Ir, and Ru. The sulfide minerals occur both as inclusions in chromite and as interstitial grains. The sulfides host much of the Pd and Rh. The IPGE and Rh correlate with Cr but not with S or Se, indicating that these elements were not collected by a sulfide liquid. Palladium, Cu, and Se correlate with each other, but not with S. The low S/Se (<1500) of the whole rock and magnetite rims around the sulfides indicate some S has been lost from the rocks. We conclude that to account for all observations, the IPGE and Rh were originally collected by chromite, and subsequently, small quantities of base metal sulfide liquid was added to the chromite layers from the overlying magma. The IPGE and Rh in the chromite diffused from the chromite into the base metal sulfides and converted some of the sulfides to laurite.

  11. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as oxide. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials into pure HEU oxide and (2) blend the pure HEU oxide with depleted and natural uranium oxide to produce an LWR grade LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  12. Conversion and Blending Facility Highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranium hexafluoride. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    This report describes the Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) which will have two missions: (1) convert surplus HEU materials to pure HEU UF{sub 6} and a (2) blend the pure HEU UF{sub 6} with diluent UF{sub 6} to produce LWR grade LEU-UF{sub 6}. The primary emphasis of this blending be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The chemical and isotopic concentrations of the blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. The blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry.

  13. Deuterium Enrichment of PAHs by VUV Irradiation of Interstellar Ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Gillette, J. Seb; Zare, Richard N.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory results demonstrate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) rapidly exchange their hydrogen atoms with those of nearby molecules when they are frozen into low-temperature ices and exposed to vacuum ultraviolet radiation. As a result, PAHs quickly become deuterium-enriched when VUV irradiated in D-containing ices. This mechanism has important consequences for several astrophysical issues owing to the ubiquitous nature of PAHs in the interstellar medium. For example, this process may explain the deuterium enrichments found in PAHs in meteorites and interplanetary dust particles. These results also provide general predictions about the molecular siting of the deuterium on aromatic materials in meteorites if this process produced a significant fraction of their D-enrichment.

  14. Production of Mo-99 using low-enriched uranium silicide

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, J. C.; Srinivasan, B.; Vicek, M.; Vandegrift, G. F.

    1994-09-01

    Over the last several years, uranium silicide fuels have been under development as low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets for Mo-99. The use of LEU silicide is aimed at replacing the UAl{sub x} alloy in the highly-enriched uranium dissolution process. A process to recover Mo-99 from low-enriched uranium silicide is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The uranium silicide is dissolved in alkaline hydrogen peroxide. Experiments performed to determine the optimum dissolution procedure are discussed, and the results of dissolving a portion of a high-burnup (>40%) U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} miniplate are presented. Future work related to Mo-99 separation and waste disposal are also discussed.

  15. Progress in alkaline peroxide dissolution of low-enriched uranium metal and silicide targets

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Dong, D.; Buchholz, B.A.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Wu, D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reports recent progress on two alkaline peroxide dissolution processes: the dissolution of low-enriched uranium metal and silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) targets. These processes are being developed to substitute low-enriched for high-enriched uranium in targets used for production of fission-product {sup 99}Mo. Issues that are addressed include (1) dissolution kinetics of silicide targets, (2) {sup 99}Mo lost during aluminum dissolution, (3) modeling of hydrogen peroxide consumption, (4) optimization of the uranium foil dissolution process, and (5) selection of uranium foil barrier materials. Future work associated with these two processes is also briefly discussed.

  16. SHORT COMMUNICATION Chiral Enrichment of Serine

    E-print Network

    Clemmer, David E.

    SHORT COMMUNICATION Chiral Enrichment of Serine via Formation, Dissociation, and Soft University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA Chiral enrichment of serine is achieved in experiments that involve of chirally-enriched octameric cluster ions and their dissociation, viz. Ser1 3 Ser8 3 Ser1, allows serine

  17. Query Enrichment for Web-Query Classification

    E-print Network

    Yang, Qiang

    Query Enrichment for Web-Query Classification DOU SHEN and RONG PAN Hong Kong University of Science, we present a new technique called query enrichment, which takes a short query and maps an enrichment of the queries. Our technique was applied to the ACM Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining

  18. Cold start fuel enrichment circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Staerzi, R.E.; Radtke, N.H.; Hummel, L.S.

    1988-08-16

    A cold start and knock prevention circuit is described having an output node providing a fuel enrichment signal for an internal combustion engine, comprising in combination: transducer means sensing audio signals indicative of engine combustion and occurring within a combustion chamber of the engine and converting the audio signals into an electrical output voltage including a portion representing background noise and a portion representing detonation; means for adjust the amplitude of the transducer output voltage; means sampling the portion of the transducer output voltage representing background noise and controlling the adjusting means to decrease the amplitude of the transducer output voltage for increased sensed background noise and to increase the amplitude of the transducer output voltage for decreased sensed background noise; detonation threshold means responsive to a predetermined increase in the amplitude of the portion of the transducer output voltage representing detonation above the amplitude of the portion of the transducer output voltage representing background noise, and outputting a fuel enrichment signal to the output node; a thermistor connected to the output node and sensing engine temperature; a voltage source biasing the thermistor such that the voltage across the thermistor varies with engine temperature and provides an output fuel enrichment signal at the output node.

  19. Implementing Enrichment Clusters in Elementary Schools: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiddyment, Gail E.

    2014-01-01

    Enrichment clusters offer a way for schools to encourage a high level of learning as students and adults work together to develop a product, service, or performance by applying advanced knowledge and authentic processes to real-world problems. This study utilized a qualitative research design to examine the perceptions and experiences of two…

  20. Guanidyl-functionalized graphene as a bifunctional adsorbent for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin-Nan; Li, Li-Ping; Jin, Liang; Bai, Yu; Liu, Hu-Wei

    2014-09-28

    Guanidyl-functionalized graphene (GFG) was designed and synthesized. By simple modulation of the loading buffer this novel bifunctional adsorbent provides two enriching functions, one for global phosphopeptides, and the other for multiphosphopeptides with consecutive phosphorylated residues. GFG provides a promising perspective for consecutive phosphorylated peptide enrichment in phosphor-proteomic research and related biological process studies. PMID:25072805

  1. Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Experiment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Richard J. Norby

    E-print Network

    Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) project is to understand how the eastern deciduous forest and related processes in a 12-year FACE experiment in a deciduous Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum) forest will be affected by CO2 enrichment of the atmosphere and the feed- backs from the forest to the atmosphere

  2. The paradox of enrichment in phytoplankton by induced competitive interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tubay, Jerrold M.; Ito, Hiromu; Uehara, Takashi; Kakishima, Satoshi; Morita, Satoru; Togashi, Tatsuya; Tainaka, Kei-ichi; Niraula, Mohan P.; Casareto, Beatriz E.; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Yoshimura, Jin

    2013-01-01

    The biodiversity loss of phytoplankton with eutrophication has been reported in many aquatic ecosystems, e.g., water pollution and red tides. This phenomenon seems similar, but different from the paradox of enrichment via trophic interactions, e.g., predator-prey systems. We here propose the paradox of enrichment by induced competitive interactions using multiple contact process (a lattice Lotka-Volterra competition model). Simulation results demonstrate how eutrophication invokes more competitions in a competitive ecosystem resulting in the loss of phytoplankton diversity in ecological time. The paradox is enhanced under local interactions, indicating that the limited dispersal of phytoplankton reduces interspecific competition greatly. Thus, the paradox of enrichment appears when eutrophication destroys an ecosystem either by elevated interspecific competition within a trophic level and/or destabilization by trophic interactions. Unless eutrophication due to human activities is ceased, the world's aquatic ecosystems will be at risk. PMID:24089056

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of carboxymethyl chitosan for glycopeptide enrichment.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Edward D; Perreault, Hélène

    2015-09-01

    Glycans are known to be involved in a variety of biological processes throughout human physiology. Mass spectrometry has demonstrated itself as powerful analytical tool for quantitative and structural characterization of glycans. Studying these molecules at the glycopeptide level however, offers distinct advantages, namely the ability to characterize both the glycan and peptide fragments simultaneously, and moreover the ability to assign site specific heterogeneity. In light of this, peptides often dominate the spectrum and hinder the ionization efficiency of glycopeptides. For this reason, enrichment protocols prior to downstream MS analysis need to be developed. Here, we discuss the synthesis and use of carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCH) to enrich glycopeptides from a 12 protein mixture for MS analysis. This protocol was compared to a commercially available glycopeptide enrichment kit offered by EMD Millipore through the use of tandem mass tags (TMT) for relative quantification. Using this approach, we identified 98 unique N-linked glycopeptides and observed, that CMCH was able to enrich more sialylation than the commercial kit. In addition, we observed a trend based on TMT reporter ratios with respect to increasing sialylation. This corroborated that this stationary phase was exhibiting a mixed-mode enrichment through both hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and weak anion exchange (WAX) principles. PMID:26388377

  4. Nucleosynthesis in helium-enriched asymptotic giant branch models: Implications for heavy element enrichment in ? Centauri

    SciTech Connect

    Karakas, Amanda I.; Marino, Anna F.; Nataf, David M.

    2014-03-20

    We investigate the effect of helium enrichment on the evolution and nucleosynthesis of low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of 1.7 M {sub ?} and 2.36 M {sub ?} with a metallicity of Z = 0.0006 ([Fe/H] ?–1.4). We calculate evolutionary sequences with the primordial helium abundance (Y = 0.24) and with helium-enriched compositions (Y = 0.30, 0.35, 0.40). For comparison, we calculate models of the same mass but at a lower metallicity Z = 0.0003 ([Fe/H] ?–1.8) with Y = 0.24. Post-processing nucleosynthesis calculations are performed on each of the evolutionary sequences to determine the production of elements from hydrogen to bismuth. Elemental surface abundance predictions and stellar yields are presented for each model. The models with enriched helium have shorter main sequence and AGB lifetimes, and they enter the AGB with a more massive hydrogen-exhausted core than the primordial helium model. The main consequences are as follows: (1) low-mass AGB models with enhanced helium will evolve more than twice as fast, giving them the chance to contribute sooner to the chemical evolution of the forming globular clusters, and (2) the stellar yields will be strongly reduced relative to their primordial helium counterparts. An increase of ?Y = 0.10 at a given mass decreases the yields of carbon by up to ?60% and of fluorine by up to 80%; it also decreases the yields of the s-process elements barium and lanthanum by ?45%. While the yields of first s-process peak elements strontium, yttrium, and zirconium decrease by up to 50%, the yields of rubidium either do not change or increase.

  5. Environmental enrichment for primates in laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan-Smith, H. M.

    2010-06-01

    Environmental enrichment is a critical component of Refinement, one of the 3Rs underlying humane experimentation on animals. In this paper I discuss why primates housed in laboratories, which often have constraints of space and study protocols, are a special case for enrichment. I outline a framework for categorising the different types of enrichment, using the marmoset as a case study, and summarise the methods used to determine what animals want/prefer. I briefly review the arguments that enrichment does not negatively affect experimental outcomes. Finally I focus on complexity and novelty, choice and control, the underlying features of enrichment that makes it successful, and how combined with a thorough understanding of natural history we can put effective enrichment into practice in laboratories. Throughout the paper I emphasise the need to evaluate enrichment to ensure it is having the desired effect.

  6. Defining the needs for gas centrifuge enrichment plants advanced safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian David; Erpenbeck, Heather H; Miller, Karen A; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Ianakiev, Kiril; Marlow, Johnna B

    2010-04-05

    Current safeguards approaches used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to verify declared low-enriched (LEU) production, detect undeclared LEU production and detect highly enriched uranium (HEU) production with adequate detection probability using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and {sup 235}U enrichment of declared UF{sub 6} containers used in the process of enrichment at GCEPs. In verifying declared LEU production, the inspectors also take samples for off-site destructive assay (DA) which provide accurate data, with 0.1% to 0.5% measurement uncertainty, on the enrichment of the UF{sub 6} feed, tails, and product. However, taking samples of UF{sub 6} for off-site analysis is a much more labor and resource intensive exercise for the operator and inspector. Furthermore, the operator must ship the samples off-site to the IAEA laboratory which delays the timeliness of results and interruptions to the continuity of knowledge (CofK) of the samples during their storage and transit. This paper contains an analysis of possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems such as process monitoring and possible on-site analysis of DA samples that could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector's measurements and provide more effective and efficient IAEA GCEPs safeguards. We also introduce examples advanced safeguards systems that could be assembled for unattended operation.

  7. Super enrichments of Fe-group nuclei in solar flares and their association with large He-3 enrichments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anglin, J. D.; Dietrich, W. F.; Simpson, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Data on solar flares and perodic particle intensity enhancements in the energy range from 1 to 20 MeV/n are examined. It is found that: (1) Fe/He-4 ratios range from about 1 to 1000 times the solar ratio of 0.0004; (2) these high ratios mitigate against extended storage and large amounts of nuclear processing; (3) the CNO/He-4 ratio has a much smaller range of variability and a mean value of 0.02; (4) large He-3 and Fe enrichments are strongly associated, but not on a one-to-one basis; (5) large Fe enhancements sometimes occur without correspondingly large He-3 enrichments; and (6) none of the models so far advanced adequately explains the observed He-3 and heavy-nucleus enrichments.

  8. Unattended Environmental Sampling and Laser-based Enrichment Assay for Detection of Undeclared HEU Production in Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

    2010-04-15

    Nuclear power is enjoying rapid growth as government energy policies and public demand shift toward carbon neutral energy production. Accompanying the growth in nuclear power is the requirement for increased nuclear fuel production, including a significant expansion in uranium enrichment capacity. Essential to the success of the nuclear energy renaissance is the development and implementation of sustainable, proliferation-resistant nuclear power generation. Unauthorized production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) remains the primary proliferation concern for modern gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). While to date there has been no indication of declared, safeguarded GCEPs producing HEU, the massive separative work unit (SWU) processing power of modern GCEPs presents a significant latent risk of nuclear breakout and suggests the need for more timely detection of potential facility misuse. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing an unattended safeguards instrument, combining continuous aerosol particulate collection with uranium isotope assay, to provide timely HEU detection within a GCEP. This approach is based on laser vaporization of aerosol particulates, followed by laser spectroscopy to characterize the uranium enrichment level. We demonstrate enrichment assay, with relative isotope abundance uncertainty <5%, on individual micron-sized particles that are trace components within a mixture ‘background’ particles

  9. Chronometer studies with initial galactic enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thielemann, F.-K.; Truran, J. W.

    The long-lived actinide chronometers Th-232/U-238 and U-235/U-238 have been used to determine the galactic age. Emphasis is put on constraints for the nucleosynthesis production function from galactic evolution models and astronomical observation. The short-lived pairs I-129/I-127 and Pu-244/U-238 were not included because of large uncertainties in the meteoritic ratios of the first and the r-process production ratios of the latter. The results strongly depend on the amount of initial enrichment and vary between 12.6-24.6 Gyr. The inclusion of the Re-187/Os-187 pair within the same framework shows the existence of consistent solutions, but the intrinsic uncertainties in the Re/Os pair cannot lead to a more precise age determination. Thus, at present, nucleocosmochronology cannot provide smaller uncertainties than the analysis of globular cluster ages or determinations of the Hubble constant.

  10. Boron enrichment in martian clay.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, James D; Hallis, Lydia J; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  11. Boron Enrichment in Martian Clay

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  12. 76 FR 34103 - In the Matter of Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ...enrichment facility--denoted as the Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility (EREF)--in Bonneville...Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility), 74 FR 38,052...www.nrc.gov/materials/fuel-cycle-fac/arevanc.html. These and...

  13. Reproducible Automated Phosphopeptide Enrichment Using Magnetic TiO 2 and Ti-IMAC

    E-print Network

    Tape, Christopher

    Reproducible, comprehensive phosphopeptide enrichment is essential for studying phosphorylation-regulated processes. Here, we describe the application of hyper-porous magnetic TiO2 and Ti-IMAC microspheres for uniform ...

  14. Gas-phase UF/sub 6/ enrichment monitor for enrichment plant safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Strittmatter, R.B.; Tape, J.W.

    1980-03-01

    An in-line enrichment monitor is being developed to provide real-time enrichment data for the gas-phase UF/sub 6/ feed stream of an enrichment plant. The nondestructive gamma-ray assay method can be used to determine the enrichment of natural UF/sub 6/ with a relative precision of better than 1% for a wide range of pressures.

  15. 76 FR 387 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... Contention Preparation; In the Matter of ( ), 74 FR 38052, 38054 (July 30, 2009) (CLI-09-15, 70 NRC 1, 7-8... Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility... Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility (EREF)--in Bonneville County, Idaho; and (2) the receipt, possession,...

  16. Enrichment Assay Methods Development for the Integrated Cylinder Verification System

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Leon E.; Misner, Alex C.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Curtis, Michael M.

    2009-10-22

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility's entire product-cylinder inventory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a concept to automate the verification of enrichment plant cylinders to enable 100 percent product-cylinder verification and potentially, mass-balance calculations on the facility as a whole (by also measuring feed and tails cylinders). The Integrated Cylinder Verification System (ICVS) could be located at key measurement points to positively identify each cylinder, measure its mass and enrichment, store the collected data in a secure database, and maintain continuity of knowledge on measured cylinders until IAEA inspector arrival. The three main objectives of this FY09 project are summarized here and described in more detail in the report: (1) Develop a preliminary design for a prototype NDA system, (2) Refine PNNL's MCNP models of the NDA system, and (3) Procure and test key pulse-processing components. Progress against these tasks to date, and next steps, are discussed.

  17. Proteome-wide enrichment of proteins modified by lysine methylation

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Scott M; Moore, Kaitlyn E; Green, Erin M; Martín, Glòria Mas; Gozani, Or

    2015-01-01

    We present a protocol for using the triple malignant brain tumor domains of L3MBTL1 (3×MBT), which bind to mono- and di-methylated lysine with minimal sequence specificity, in order to enrich for such methylated lysine from cell lysates. Cells in culture are grown with amino acids containing light or heavy stable isotopic labels. Methylated proteins are enriched by incubating cell lysates with 3×MBT, or with the binding-null D355N mutant as a negative control. Quantitative liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are then used to identify proteins that are specifically enriched by 3×MBT pull-down. The addition of a third isotopic label allows the comparison of protein lysine methylation between different biological conditions. Unlike most approaches, our strategy does not require a prior hypothesis of candidate methylated proteins, and it recognizes a wider range of methylated proteins than any available method using antibodies. Cells are prepared by growing in isotopic labeling medium for about 7 d; the process of enriching methylated proteins takes 3 d and analysis by LC-MS/MS takes another 1–2 d. PMID:24309976

  18. Substrate versatility of polyhydroxyalkanoate producing glycerol grown bacterial enrichment culture.

    PubMed

    Moralejo-Gárate, Helena; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Mosquera-Corral, Anuska; Campos, José Luis; Palmeiro-Sánchez, Tania; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2014-12-01

    Waste-based polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production by bacterial enrichments generally follows a three step strategy in which first the wastewater is converted into a volatile fatty acid rich stream that is subsequently used as substrate in a selector and biopolymer production units. In this work, a bacterial community with high biopolymer production capacity was enriched using glycerol, a non-fermented substrate. The substrate versatility and PHA production capacity of this community was studied using glucose, lactate, acetate and xylitol as substrate. Except for xylitol, very high PHA producing capacities were obtained. The PHA accumulation was comparable or even higher than with glycerol as substrate. This is the first study that established a high PHA content (?70 wt%) with glucose as substrate in a microbial enrichment culture. The results presented in this study support the development of replacing pure culture based PHA production by bacterial enrichment cultures. A process where mixtures of substrates can be easily handled and the acidification step can potentially be avoided is described. PMID:25213684

  19. After-School Enrichment: Extending Learning Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Carla

    2011-01-01

    After-school programs can help show students how academics are relevant to their personal interests, and serve as training grounds for future teachers. This article features LA's BEST After School Enrichment Program whose mission is to provide a safe and supervised after school education, enrichment, and recreation program for children ages 5 to…

  20. 21 CFR 137.305 - Enriched farina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched farina. 137.305 Section 137.305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.305 Enriched...

  1. Status of stable isotope enrichment, products, and services at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott Aaron, W.; Tracy, Joe G.; Collins, Emory D.

    1997-02-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been supplying enriched stable and radioactive isotopes to the research, medical, and industrial communities for over 50 y. Very significant changes have occurred in this effort over the past several years, and, while many of these changes have had a negative impact on the availability of enriched isotopes, more recent developments are actually improving the situation for both the users and the producers of enriched isotopes. ORNL is still a major producer and distributor of radioisotopes, but future isotope enrichment operations to be conducted at the Isotope Enrichment Facility (IEF) will be limited to stable isotopes. Among the positive changes in the enriched stable isotope area are a well-functioning, long-term contract program, which offers stability and pricing advantages; the resumption of calutron operations; the adoption of prorated conversion charges, which greatly improves the pricing of isotopes to small users; ISO 9002 registration of the IEF's quality management system; and a much more customer-oriented business philosophy. Efforts are also being made to restore and improve upon the extensive chemical and physical form processing capablities that once existed in the enriched stable isotope program. Innovative ideas are being pursued in both technical and administrative areas to encourage the beneficial use of enriched stable isotopes and the development of related technologies.

  2. Mortality among uranium enrichment workers

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.P.; Bloom, T.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted on workers at the Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment facility in Pike County, Ohio, in response to a request from the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Local 3-689 for information on long-term health effects. Primary hazards included inhalation exposure to uranyl fluoride containing uranium-235 and uranium-234, technetium-99 compounds, and hydrogen-fluoride. Uranium-238 presented a nephrotoxic hazard. Statistically significant mortality deficits based on U.S. death rates were found for all causes, accidents, violence, and diseases of nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems. Standardized mortality rates were 85 and 54 for all malignant neoplasms and for other genitourinary diseases, respectively. Deaths from stomach cancer and lymphatic/hematopoietic cancers were insignificantly increased. A subcohort selected for greatest potential uranium exposure has reduced deaths from these malignancies. Insignificantly increased stomach cancer mortality was found after 15 years employment and after 15 years latency. Routine urinalysis data suggested low internal uranium exposures.

  3. Metal enrichment in galactic winds

    E-print Network

    Yohan Dubois; Romain Teyssier

    2006-11-14

    Observations give evidences of the presence of metals in the intergalactic medium (IGM). The stars responsible for transforming hydrogen and helium into more complex atoms do not form outside the galaxies in the standard scenario of galaxy formation. Supernovae-driven winds and their associated feedback was proposed as a possible solution to explain such enrichment of the IGM. It turned out that a proper modelling of supernovae explosions within a turbulent interstellar medium (ISM) is a difficult task. Recent advances have been obtained using a multiphase approach to solve for the thermal state of the ISM, plus some additional recipes to account for the kinetic effect of supernovae on the galactic gas. We briefly describe here our implementation of supernovae feedback within the RAMSES code, and apply it to the formation and evolution of isolated galaxies of various masses and angular momenta. We have explored under what conditions a galactic wind can develop, if one considers only a quiescent mode of star formation. We have also characterized the distribution and evolution of metallicity in the gas outflow spreading in the IGM.

  4. Student science enrichment training program

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, S.S.

    1994-08-01

    This is a report on the Student Science Enrichment Training Program, with special emphasis on chemical and computer science fields. The residential summer session was held at the campus of Claflin College, Orangeburg, SC, for six weeks during 1993 summer, to run concomitantly with the college`s summer school. Fifty participants selected for this program, included high school sophomores, juniors and seniors. The students came from rural South Carolina and adjoining states which, presently, have limited science and computer science facilities. The program focused on high ability minority students, with high potential for science engineering and mathematical careers. The major objective was to increase the pool of well qualified college entering minority students who would elect to go into science, engineering and mathematical careers. The Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics and engineering at Claflin College received major benefits from this program as it helped them to expand the Departments of Chemistry, Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science as a result of additional enrollment. It also established an expanded pool of well qualified minority science and mathematics graduates, which were recruited by the federal agencies and private corporations, visiting Claflin College Campus. Department of Energy`s relationship with Claflin College increased the public awareness of energy related job opportunities in the public and private sectors.

  5. Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond

    2006-07-01

    Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications by Jeff Eerkens (University of Missouri), Jay Kunze (Idaho State University), and Leonard Bond (Idaho National Laboratory) The principal isotope enrichment business in the world is the enrichment of uranium for commercial power reactor fuels. However, there are a number of other needs for separated isotopes. Some examples are: 1) Pure isotopic targets for irradiation to produce medical radioisotopes. 2) Pure isotopes for semiconductors. 3) Low neutron capture isotopes for various uses in nuclear reactors. 4) Isotopes for industrial tracer/identification applications. Examples of interest to medicine are targets to produce radio-isotopes such as S-33, Mo-98, Mo-100, W-186, Sn-112; while for MRI diagnostics, the non-radioactive Xe-129 isotope is wanted. For super-semiconductor applications some desired industrial isotopes are Si-28, Ga-69, Ge-74, Se-80, Te-128, etc. An example of a low cross section isotope for use in reactors is Zn-68 as a corrosion inhibitor material in nuclear reactor primary systems. Neutron activation of Ar isotopes is of interest in industrial tracer and diagnostic applications (e.g. oil-logging). . In the past few years there has been a sufficient supply of isotopes in common demand, because of huge Russian stockpiles produced with old electromagnetic and centrifuge separators previously used for uranium enrichment. Production of specialized isotopes in the USA has been largely accomplished using old ”calutrons” (electromagnetic separators) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These methods of separating isotopes are rather energy inefficient. Use of lasers for isotope separation has been considered for many decades. None of the proposed methods have attained sufficient proof of principal status to be economically attractive to pursue commercially. Some of the authors have succeeded in separating sulfur isotopes using a rather new and different method, known as condensation repression. In this scheme a gas, of the selected isotopes for enrichment, is irradiated with a laser at a particular wavelength that would excite only one of the isotopes. The entire gas is subject to low temperatures sufficient to cause condensation on a cold surface. Those molecules in the gas that the laser excited are not as likely to condense as are the unexcited molecules. Hence the gas drawn out of the system will be enriched in the isotope that was excited by the laser. We have evaluated the relative energy required in this process if applied on a commercial scale. We estimate the energy required for laser isotope enrichment is about 20% of that required in centrifuge separations, and 2% of that required by use of "calutrons".

  6. 76 FR 9054 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement for the AREVA Enrichment Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...Enrichment Services LLC Proposed Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility in Bonneville County...Enrichment Services LLC (AES) Proposed Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility (EREF). On December...Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility), 74 FR....

  7. Glycoprotein enrichment method using a selective magnetic nano-probe platform (MNP) functionalized with lectins.

    PubMed

    Cova, Marta; Oliveira-Silva, Rui; Ferreira, José Alexandre; Ferreira, Rita; Amado, Francisco; Daniel-da-Silva, Ana Luísa; Vitorino, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) have increasingly become a research field of incredible importance to fully understand the regulation of biological processes in health and disease. Among PTMs, glycosylation is one of the most studied for which contributed the development and improvement of enrichment techniques. Nowadays, glycoprotein enrichment methods are based on lectin affinity, covalent interactions, and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Nonetheless, the nanotechnology era has fetched new methods to enrich glycoproteins from complex samples as human biological fluids. For instance, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are being used as an interesting enrichment approach allowing a better characterization of glycoproteins and glycopeptides.In this chapter, we describe an enrichment method based on MNPs functionalized with lectins (Concavalin A, wheat germ agglutinin, and Maackia amurensis lectin) to enrich specific sets of glycoproteins from biological fluids. Moreover, it is proposed a bioinformatic strategy to deal with data retrieved from mass spectrometry analysis of enriched samples aiming the identification of relevant biological processes modulated by a given stimuli and, ultimately, of new biomarkers for disease screening/management. PMID:25384741

  8. Efficiency of foam fractionation for the enrichment of nonpolar compounds from aqueous extracts of plant materials.

    PubMed

    Backleh-Sohrt, Marlène; Ekici, Perihan; Leupold, Guenter; Parlar, Harun

    2005-09-01

    Biologically active compounds from several useful plants were enriched using foam fractionation, a separatory method belonging to the adsorptive bubble separation (ABS). Nonpolar humulones (1-6) from Pilsener beer, curcuminoids (7-9) from turmeric, and carotenoids (16 and 17) from carrot juice were enriched fast and quantitatively, depending on the process parameters, whereas more polar compounds such as catechins from green tea (11, 12, 14, and 15) and naringin (18) and hesperidin (19) from orange and grapefruit juices could not be enriched. PMID:16180819

  9. Ultra low-level tritium measurement using electrolytic enrichment and LSC.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Uwe; Taylor, Claude B

    2009-06-01

    We describe an advanced methodology for low-level tritium measurement in regard to calibration, electrolytic tritium enrichment, liquid scintillation counting (LSC) measurement, and prevention of sample contamination. Details are given on enrichment parameters and electrode processes for optimisation of enrichment reproducibility and on optimisation of LSC stability. Intercomparison results demonstrate high accuracy of the tritium measurement system. The use of accurate tritium data for groundwater dating in the southern hemisphere is demonstrated with data from several groundwater systems of New Zealand. PMID:20183224

  10. Unattended Monitoring of HEU Production in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants using Automated Aerosol Collection and Laser-based Enrichment Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

    2010-08-11

    Nuclear power is enjoying rapid growth as government energy policies and public demand shift toward low carbon energy production. Pivotal to the global nuclear power renaissance is the development and deployment of robust safeguards instrumentation that allows the limited resources of the IAEA to keep pace with the expansion of the nuclear fuel cycle. Undeclared production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) remains a primary proliferation concern for modern gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs), due to their massive separative work unit (SWU) processing power and comparably short cascade equilibrium timescale. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing an unattended safeguards instrument, combining continuous aerosol particulate collection with uranium isotope assay, to provide timely detection of HEU production within a GCEP. This approach is based on laser vaporization of aerosol particulates, followed by laser spectroscopy to characterize the uranium enrichment level. Our prior investigation demonstrated single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range and relative isotope ratio uncertainty better than 10% using gadolinium as a surrogate for uranium. In this paper we present measurement results on standard samples containing traces of depleted, natural, and low enriched uranium, as well as measurements on aerodynamic size uranium particles mixed in background materials (e.g., dust, minerals, soils). Improvements and optimizations in the detection electronics, signal timing, calibration, and laser alignment have lead to significant improvements in detection sensitivity and enrichment accuracy, contributing to an overall reduction in the false alarm probability. The sample substrate media was also found to play a significant role in facilitating laser-induced vaporization and the production of energetic plasma conditions, resulting in ablation optimization and further improvements in the isotope abundance sensitivity.

  11. 33 CFR 154.2107 - Inerting, enriching, and diluting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...protected from any potential internal or external ignition...inerting or enriching system may not be operated at... (m) An enriching system may use a base loading...in a vapor collection system if— (1) The flow rate of enriching...

  12. 31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low enriched uranium or LEU means uranium enriched to less than twenty (20) percent in the isotope...

  13. 31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low enriched uranium or LEU means uranium enriched to less than twenty (20) percent in the isotope...

  14. 31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low enriched uranium or LEU means uranium enriched to less than twenty (20) percent in the isotope...

  15. 31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term highly enriched uranium or HEU means uranium enriched to twenty (20) percent or greater in the isotope...

  16. MHD performance calculations with oxygen enrichment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, C. C. P.; Staiger, P. J.; Seikel, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    The impact of oxygen enrichment of the combustion air on the generator and overall plant performance was studied for the ECAS-scale MHD/steam plants. A channel optimization technique is described and the results of generator performance calculations using this technique are presented. Performance maps were generated to assess the impact of various generator parameters. Directly and separately preheated plant performance with varying O2 enrichment was calculated. The optimal level of enrichment was a function of plant type and preheat temperature. The sensitivity of overall plant performance to critical channel assumptions and oxygen plant performance characteristics was also examined.

  17. Metal enrichment of the CGM through outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Galactic outflows enrich the circumgalactic medium through the redistribution of metals from the disks of galaxies. We examine the history of this enrichment by analyzing the outflows of twenty high-resolution simulated galaxies spanning two and a half orders of magnitude in halo mass. These simulations match many observed trends, including the mass-metallicity relation. By tracking particles in the simulations, we follow the removal and reaccretion of metals between redshift 3.5 and 0. We also determine the enrichment of the outflowing gas compared to the local interstellar media. Finally we compare the redshift zero metal census to observed values.

  18. Method for isotope enrichment by photoinduced chemiionization

    DOEpatents

    Dubrin, James W. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Isotope enrichment, particularly .sup.235 U enrichment, is achieved by irradiating an isotopically mixed vapor feed with radiant energy at a wavelength or wavelengths chosen to selectively excite the species containing a desired isotope to a predetermined energy level. The vapor feed if simultaneously reacted with an atomic or molecular reactant species capable of preferentially transforming the excited species into an ionic product by a chemiionization reaction. The ionic product, enriched in the desired isotope, is electrostatically or electromagnetically extracted from the reaction system.

  19. Silver surface enrichment in ancient coins studied by micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ager, F. J.; Moreno-Suárez, A. I.; Scrivano, S.; Ortega-Feliu, I.; Gómez-Tubío, B.; Respaldiza, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    The surface enrichment of archeological silver-copper alloys, either intentional or due to corrosion processes, has been known for many years. The most used non-destructive techniques, such as particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) are surface techniques, with penetration depths typically ranging from a few microns to a few tens of microns. Therefore, these techniques could produce results which are not representative of the bulk composition of the alloy. In order to gain insight into the silver enrichment process and the effects on the data obtained with these techniques, a set of silver roman denarii were cross sectioned and analyzed at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores micro-PIXE facility. Elemental maps show silver surface enriched layers up to 250 ?m thick. Besides, silver-enriched surface layers are not found for alloys with 96-98 wt.% Ag.

  20. The chemical enrichment of the ICM from hydrodynamical simulations

    E-print Network

    S. Borgani; D. Fabjan; L. Tornatore; S. Schindler; K. Dolag; A. Diaferio

    2008-01-07

    The study of the metal enrichment of the intra-cluster and inter-galactic media (ICM and IGM) represents a direct means to reconstruct the past history of star formation, the role of feedback processes and the gas-dynamical processes which determine the evolution of the cosmic baryons. In this paper we review the approaches that have been followed so far to model the enrichment of the ICM in a cosmological context. While our presentation will be focused on the role played by hydrodynamical simulations, we will also discuss other approaches based on semi-analytical models of galaxy formation, also critically discussing pros and cons of the different methods. We will first review the concept of the model of chemical evolution to be implemented in any chemo-dynamical description. We will emphasise how the predictions of this model critically depend on the choice of the stellar initial mass function, on the stellar life-times and on the stellar yields. We will then overview the comparisons presented so far between X-ray observations of the ICM enrichment and model predictions. We will show how the most recent chemo-dynamical models are able to capture the basic features of the observed metal content of the ICM and its evolution. We will conclude by highlighting the open questions in this study and the direction of improvements for cosmological chemo-dynamical models of the next generation.

  1. Measurement of uranium enrichment for gaseous uranium at low pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Close, D.A.; Pratt, J.C.; Atwater, H.F.; Malanify, J.J.; Nixon, K.V.; Speir, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray fluoresence determines the amount of total uranium present in gaseous UF/sub 6/ inside cascade header pipes of a uranium centrifuge enrichment facility. A highly collimated source, highly collimated detector, and a very rigid, reproducible geometry are required. Two measurements of the 185.7-keV gamma ray from /sup 235/U using two collimators determine the amount of /sup 235/U present only in the gas phase. The ratio of the gas-only /sup 235/U signal to the total uranium gas-only signal is directly proportional to the enrichment of the process UF/sub 6/ gas. This measurement technique is independent of the deposit that forms on a surface in contact with UF/sub 6/. This measurement technique is independent of the pressure of the gaseous UF/sub 6/. This technique has the required sensitivity to determine whether the process gas is of uranium enrichment less than or equal to 20% or >20%. 6 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Root growth and development in response to CO2 enrichment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Frank P., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A non-destructive technique (minirhizotron observation tubes) was used to assess the effects of CO2 enrichment on root growth and development in experimental plots in a scrub oak-palmetto community at the Kennedy Space Center. Potential effects of CO2 enrichment on plants have a global significance in light of concerns over increasing CO2 concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere. The study at Kennedy Space Center focused on aboveground physiological responses (photosynthetic efficiency and water use efficiency), effects on process rates (litter decomposition and nutrient turnover), and belowground responses of the plants. Belowground dynamics are an exceptionally important component of total plant response but are frequently ignored due to methodological difficulties. Most methods used to examine root growth and development are destructive and, therefore, severely compromise results. Minirhizotrons allow nondestructive observation and quantification of the same soil volume and roots through time. Root length density and root phenology were evaluated for CO2 effects with this nondestructive technique.

  3. 75 FR 10525 - In the Matter of: AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility) and All Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ...NRC-2009-0187] In the Matter of: AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility) and All Other Persons Who Seek...Program (Effective Immediately) I AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (AES), has applied to...

  4. 77 FR 14838 - General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC, Commercial Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ...NRC-2009-0157] General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC, Commercial Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment Facility, Wilmington...a license to General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC (GLE or the applicant) to...

  5. ENABLING ACCESS TO SOUND ARCHIVES THROUGH INTEGRATION, ENRICHMENT AND RETRIEVAL

    E-print Network

    Reiss, Josh

    ENABLING ACCESS TO SOUND ARCHIVES THROUGH INTEGRATION, ENRICHMENT AND RETRIEVAL Ivan Damnjanovic or professional, regardless of the material involved. Furthermore, it enriches the access experience enabling

  6. 21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2330 Enriched culture medium. (a) Identification. An enriched...

  7. 21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2330 Enriched culture medium. (a) Identification. An enriched...

  8. 21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2330 Enriched culture medium. (a) Identification. An enriched...

  9. 21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2330 Enriched culture medium. (a) Identification. An enriched...

  10. 21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2330 Enriched culture medium. (a) Identification. An enriched...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant... Appendix G to Part 110—Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note—In the plasma separation process, a plasma of uranium...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant... Appendix G to Part 110—Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note—In the plasma separation process, a plasma of uranium...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant... Appendix G to Part 110—Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note—In the plasma separation process, a plasma of uranium...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant... Appendix G to Part 110—Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note—In the plasma separation process, a plasma of uranium...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant... Appendix G to Part 110—Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note: In the plasma separation process, a plasma of uranium...

  16. Unpalatable prey resolves the paradox of enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Genkai-Kato, M.; Yamamura, N.

    1999-01-01

    Enrichment is an increasingly serious trend in natural ecosystems. A theoretical model of a predator–prey system with a natural assumption of satiation in predation predicts that enrichment causes the populations to fluctuate to stochastic extinction. However, this 'paradox of enrichment' does not always occur in experimental and natural communities. Here we present a theoretical model that describes a novel mechanism for resolving the paradox in the case of a predator with optimal selective feeding. Specifically, a less profitable but edible (thus `unpalatable') prey species sharply reduces the amplitude of population oscillations and firmly prevents the minimum abundances of species from falling below certain values. The presence of such an unpalatable prey thus guarantees the robustness of the system against enrichment.

  17. A Guide to Job Enrichment and Redesign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, J. Barton; Eberle, Ted

    1990-01-01

    Describes job design alternatives--job enrichment, the job characteristics model, Japanese style management, and quality-of-worklife approaches. Focuses on the problems that human resources professionals may encounter when attempting to implement these approaches. (Author/JOW)

  18. Chemoselective probes for metabolite enrichment and profiling

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    of human cancer cells treated with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Understanding the metabolic that support cancer10. Still, general methods to enrich other classes of small-molecules (for example, polar

  19. Stable Isotope Enrichment Capabilities at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Egle, Brian; Aaron, W Scott; Hart, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the US Department of Energy Nuclear Physics Program have built a high-resolution Electromagnetic Isotope Separator (EMIS) as a prototype for reestablishing a US based enrichment capability for stable isotopes. ORNL has over 60 years of experience providing enriched stable isotopes and related technical services to the international accelerator target community, as well as medical, research, industrial, national security, and other communities. ORNL is investigating the combined use of electromagnetic and gas centrifuge isotope separation technologies to provide research quantities (milligram to several kilograms) of enriched stable isotopes. In preparation for implementing a larger scale production facility, a 10 mA high-resolution EMIS prototype has been built and tested. Initial testing of the device has simultaneously collected greater than 98% enriched samples of all the molybdenum isotopes from natural abundance feedstock.

  20. Enriching text with images and colored light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekulovski, Dragan; Geleijnse, Gijs; Kater, Bram; Korst, Jan; Pauws, Steffen; Clout, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    We present an unsupervised method to enrich textual applications with relevant images and colors. The images are collected by querying large image repositories and subsequently the colors are computed using image processing. A prototype system based on this method is presented where the method is applied to song lyrics. In combination with a lyrics synchronization algorithm the system produces a rich multimedia experience. In order to identify terms within the text that may be associated with images and colors, we select noun phrases using a part of speech tagger. Large image repositories are queried with these terms. Per term representative colors are extracted using the collected images. Hereto, we either use a histogram-based or a mean shift-based algorithm. The representative color extraction uses the non-uniform distribution of the colors found in the large repositories. The images that are ranked best by the search engine are displayed on a screen, while the extracted representative colors are rendered on controllable lighting devices in the living room. We evaluate our method by comparing the computed colors to standard color representations of a set of English color terms. A second evaluation focuses on the distance in color between a queried term in English and its translation in a foreign language. Based on results from three sets of terms, a measure of suitability of a term for color extraction based on KL Divergence is proposed. Finally, we compare the performance of the algorithm using either the automatically indexed repository of Google Images and the manually annotated Flickr.com. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that using the presented method we can compute the relevant color for a term using a large image repository and image processing.

  1. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranyl nitrate hexahydrate. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials to pure HEU uranyl nitrate (UNH) and (2) blend pure HEU UNH with depleted and natural UNH to produce HEU UNH crystals. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU Will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  2. Reversal of cocaine addiction by environmental enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Solinas, Marcello; Chauvet, Claudia; Thiriet, Nathalie; El Rawas, Rana; Jaber, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Environmental conditions can dramatically influence the behavioral and neurochemical effects of drugs of abuse. For example, stress increases the reinforcing effects of drugs and plays an important role in determining the vulnerability to develop drug addiction. On the other hand, positive conditions, such as environmental enrichment, can reduce the reinforcing effects of psychostimulants and may provide protection against the development of drug addiction. However, whether environmental enrichment can be used to “treat” drug addiction has not been investigated. In this study, we first exposed mice to drugs and induced addiction-related behaviors and only afterward exposed them to enriched environments. We found that 30 days of environmental enrichment completely eliminates behavioral sensitization and conditioned place preference to cocaine. In addition, housing mice in enriched environments after the development of conditioned place preference prevents cocaine-induced reinstatement of conditioned place preference and reduces activation of the brain circuitry involved in cocaine-induced reinstatement. Altogether, these results demonstrate that environmental enrichment can eliminate already established addiction-related behaviors in mice and suggest that environmental stimulation may be a fundamental factor in facilitating abstinence and preventing relapse to cocaine addiction. PMID:18955698

  3. Carbon dioxide enrichment of greenhouse crops

    SciTech Connect

    Enoch, H.Z.; Kimball, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains the following on these major topics of physiology, yield and economics: Fixation of Inorganic Carbon in Plant Cells. Effects of CO/sub 2/ Enrichment on Photosynthesis of C/sub 3/ Plants. Effects of CO/sub 2/ Concentration on Photosynthesis and Respiration of C/sub 4/ and CAM Plants. Effects of CO/sub 2/ Concentration on Composition, Anatomy, and Morphology of Plants. Stimulation of Growth and Yield Under Environmental Restraints. Woody Plant Reactions to CO/sub 2/ Enrichment. Influence of the CO/sub 2/ Content of the Ambient Air on Stomatal Conductance and CO/sub 2/ Concentration in Leaves. Influence of Elevated CO/sub 2/ on Crop Yield. Fertilization of Carnations and Some Other Flower Crops. CO/sub 2/ Enrichment for Greenhouse Rose Production. CO/sub 2/ Enrichment of Tomato Crops. CO/sub 2/ Enrichment Duration and Heating Credit as Determined by Climate. Economics of CO/sub 2/ Enrichment in Greenhouses. Units Conversion. Currency Exchange Rates.

  4. Test the effects of nutrient enrichment on organic carbon storage in western Pacific oligotrophic gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    liu, J.; Jiao, N.; Tang, K.

    2013-12-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that enrichment of nitrate and phosphate would decrease storage of organic carbon in the ocean (Jiao et al., 2011), we conducted a series of in-situ incubation experiments in the western Pacific Ocean. Five treatments were employed: organic carbon (glucose or algal exudation organic matter (EOM)) and macronutrient (nitrate and phosphate) were added alone or in combination with each other. The final concentration of organic carbon and macronutrient in treatments were 10 ?M/C/kg, 1.5 ?M/N/kg and 0.15 ?M/P/ respectively higher than those in controls. Total dissolved organic matter (TOC) concentration, bacterial abundance, and nitrate and phosphate concentration were monitored during the incubation processes. The results showed that the utilization of TOC and bacterial community growth rate were enhanced by inorganic nutrients enrichment treatments during the initial 48 hours incubation, regardless of glucose enrichment or not. Until the end of 14 days incubation, the percentage of remaining additional organic carbon was significant higher in the glucose enrichment treatments and EOM enrichment treatments (40.64% and 55.05%, respectively), compared to the combination of glucose and inorganic nutrients enrichment treatment (4.52%). These results suggest that inorganic nutrients enrichment condition may be adverse to short-term scale carbon storage, presumably due to the nutrient-stimulated bacterial metabolism and respiration, which is consistent to the hypothesis.

  5. IPAD: the Integrated Pathway Analysis Database for Systematic Enrichment Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies and Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) generate millions of reads and hundreds of datasets, and there is an urgent need for a better way to accurately interpret and distill such large amounts of data. Extensive pathway and network analysis allow for the discovery of highly significant pathways from a set of disease vs. healthy samples in the NGS and GWAS. Knowledge of activation of these processes will lead to elucidation of the complex biological pathways affected by drug treatment, to patient stratification studies of new and existing drug treatments, and to understanding the underlying anti-cancer drug effects. There are approximately 141 biological human pathway resources as of Jan 2012 according to the Pathguide database. However, most currently available resources do not contain disease, drug or organ specificity information such as disease-pathway, drug-pathway, and organ-pathway associations. Systematically integrating pathway, disease, drug and organ specificity together becomes increasingly crucial for understanding the interrelationships between signaling, metabolic and regulatory pathway, drug action, disease susceptibility, and organ specificity from high-throughput omics data (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics). Results We designed the Integrated Pathway Analysis Database for Systematic Enrichment Analysis (IPAD, http://bioinfo.hsc.unt.edu/ipad), defining inter-association between pathway, disease, drug and organ specificity, based on six criteria: 1) comprehensive pathway coverage; 2) gene/protein to pathway/disease/drug/organ association; 3) inter-association between pathway, disease, drug, and organ; 4) multiple and quantitative measurement of enrichment and inter-association; 5) assessment of enrichment and inter-association analysis with the context of the existing biological knowledge and a "gold standard" constructed from reputable and reliable sources; and 6) cross-linking of multiple available data sources. IPAD is a comprehensive database covering about 22,498 genes, 25,469 proteins, 1956 pathways, 6704 diseases, 5615 drugs, and 52 organs integrated from databases including the BioCarta, KEGG, NCI-Nature curated, Reactome, CTD, PharmGKB, DrugBank, PharmGKB, and HOMER. The database has a web-based user interface that allows users to perform enrichment analysis from genes/proteins/molecules and inter-association analysis from a pathway, disease, drug, and organ. Moreover, the quality of the database was validated with the context of the existing biological knowledge and a "gold standard" constructed from reputable and reliable sources. Two case studies were also presented to demonstrate: 1) self-validation of enrichment analysis and inter-association analysis on brain-specific markers, and 2) identification of previously undiscovered components by the enrichment analysis from a prostate cancer study. Conclusions IPAD is a new resource for analyzing, identifying, and validating pathway, disease, drug, organ specificity and their inter-associations. The statistical method we developed for enrichment and similarity measurement and the two criteria we described for setting the threshold parameters can be extended to other enrichment applications. Enriched pathways, diseases, drugs, organs and their inter-associations can be searched, displayed, and downloaded from our online user interface. The current IPAD database can help users address a wide range of biological pathway related, disease susceptibility related, drug target related and organ specificity related questions in human disease studies. PMID:23046449

  6. Lower Metal Enrichment of Virialized Gas in Minihalos

    E-print Network

    Renyue Cen; Mario A. Riquelme

    2007-04-26

    We differentiate between the metal enrichment of the gas in virialized minihalos and that of the intergalactic medium at high redshift, pertinent to cosmological reionization, with the initial expectation that gas in the high density regions within formed dark matter halos may be more robust thus resistant to mixing with lower density intergalactic medium. Using detailed hydrodynamic simulations of gas clouds in minihalos subject to destructive processes associated with the encompassing intergalactic shocks carrying metal-enriched gas, we find, as an example, that, for realistic shocks of velocities of 10-100km/s, more than (90%,65%) of the high density gas with rho>500 rhob inside a minihalo virialized at z=10 of mass (10^7,10^6)Msun remains at a metallicity lower than 3% of that of the intergalactic medium by redshift z=6. It may be expected that the high density gas in minihalos becomes fuel for subsequent star formation, when they are incorporated into larger halos where efficient atomic cooling can induce gas condensation hence star formation. Since minihalos virialize at high redshift when the universe is not expected to have been significantly reionized, the implication is that gas in virialized minihalos may provide an abundant reservoir of primordial gas to possibly allow for the formation of Population-III metal-free stars to extend to much lower redshift than otherwise expected based on the enrichment of intergalactic medium.

  7. Community-aware user profile enrichment in folksonomy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Haoran; Li, Qing; Mao, Xudong; Li, Xiaodong; Cai, Yi; Rao, Yanghui

    2014-10-01

    In the era of big data, collaborative tagging (a.k.a. folksonomy) systems have proliferated as a consequence of the growth of Web 2.0 communities. Constructing user profiles from folksonomy systems is useful for many applications such as personalized search and recommender systems. The identification of latent user communities is one way to better understand and meet user needs. The behavior of users is highly influenced by the behavior of their neighbors or community members, and this can be utilized in constructing user profiles. However, conventional user profiling techniques often encounter data sparsity problems as data from a single user is insufficient to build a powerful profile. Hence, in this paper we propose a method of enriching user profiles based on latent user communities in folksonomy data. Specifically, the proposed approach contains four sub-processes: (i) tag-based user profiles are extracted from a folksonomy tripartite graph; (ii) a multi-faceted folksonomy graph is constructed by integrating tag and image affinity subgraphs with the folksonomy tripartite graph; (iii) random walk distance is used to unify various relationships and measure user similarities; (iv) a novel prototype-based clustering method based on user similarities is used to identify user communities, which are further used to enrich the extracted user profiles. To evaluate the proposed method, we conducted experiments using a public dataset, the results of which show that our approach outperforms previous ones in user profile enrichment. PMID:24907893

  8. [Psychoeducational intervention in high ability: intellectual functioning and extracurricular enrichment].

    PubMed

    Sastre-Riba, Sylvia

    2014-02-24

    The 'new paradigm' defines the high intellectual ability as a potential that should crystallize progressively throughout development. Its main feature is a high intellectual initial multidimensional potential, which is transformed so that, being a person with high intellectual ability is the result of a developmental process from a neurobiological substrate and the incidence of variables (psychosocial and education) which determines its manifestation more or less stable and optimal to excellence. It is interesting to know the effectiveness of psychoeducational intervention of the extracurricular enrichment programs and their effects on the expression of differential functioning and the optimization of the management of cognitive resources that lead to excellence. An extracurricular enrichment program is described and evaluated through: 1) the stability of the intellectual measures; 2) the satisfaction level of participants and families. Participants are 58 high ability students on the enrichment program and 25 parents. Intellectual profiles are obtained on T1-T2 and calculated their stability by regression analysis, the CSA and CSA-P questionnaires were applied in order to know the participants and families' satisfaction measure. Results show the basic stability of intellectual profiles with five cases of instability among the 58 profiles obtained, and a high satisfaction with the results obtained in the domain of cognitive and personal management among the participants. PMID:25252674

  9. Enrichment Determination of Uranium in Shielded Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Crye, Jason Michael; Hall, Howard L; McConchie, Seth M; Mihalczo, John T; Pena, Kirsten E

    2011-01-01

    The determination of the enrichment of uranium is required in many safeguards and security applications. Typical methods of determining the enrichment rely on detecting the 186 keV gamma ray emitted by {sup 235}U. In some applications, the uranium is surrounded by external shields, and removal of the shields is undesirable. In these situations, methods relying on the detection of the 186 keV gamma fail because the gamma ray is shielded easily. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has previously measured the enrichment of shielded uranium metal using active neutron interrogation. The method consists of measuring the time distribution of fast neutrons from induced fissions with large plastic scintillator detectors. To determine the enrichment, the measurements are compared to a calibration surface that is created from Monte Carlo simulations where the enrichment in the models is varied. In previous measurements, the geometry was always known. ORNL is extending this method to situations where the geometry and materials present are not known in advance. In the new method, the interrogating neutrons are both time and directionally tagged, and an array of small plastic scintillators measures the uncollided interrogating neutrons. Therefore, the attenuation through the item along many different paths is known. By applying image reconstruction techniques, an image of the item is created which shows the position-dependent attenuation. The image permits estimating the geometry and materials present, and these estimates are used as input for the Monte Carlo simulations. As before, simulations predict the time distribution of induced fission neutrons for different enrichments. Matching the measured time distribution to the closest prediction from the simulations provides an estimate of the enrichment. This presentation discusses the method and provides results from recent simulations that show the importance of knowing the geometry and materials from the imaging system.

  10. Osteogenic ability of bone marrow stem cells intraoperatively enriched by a novel matrix

    PubMed Central

    YE, QING; CHEN, KAINING; HUANG, WU; HE, YUNSONG; NONG, MINGSHAN; LI, CHUNXIANG; LIANG, TIANSEN

    2015-01-01

    Poly-L-lysine (PLL) is commonly used as an adhibiting agent due to its good viscosity, and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is a common enriched matrix for selective cell retention technology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to use PLL to coat the surface and interspaces of DBM to form a novel type of enriched matrix [DBM coated with PLL (PLL-DBM)], in order to effectively improve the enrichment effects of bone marrow stem cells and enhance their osteogenic ability. Electron microscope scanning and the infrared spectrum were used to observe the structure of PLL-DBM and the optimal conditions for the combination of PLL and DBM. Enriching effects on bone marrow nucleated cells (NCs) and platelets (PLTs) were detected with an automated hematology analyzer. The osteogenesis of the following four groups was assessed with a grafting bone model in a goat spinal transverse process: IA, tissue engineered bone (TEB) fabricated following enrichment of bone marrow with PLL-DBM; IB, autogenous iliac bone; IIC, TEB fabricated following enrichment of bone marrow with DBM; IID, blank DBM. The goats were sacrificed in one batch at week 16 after the surgery and the fusion specimens were examined using X-ray and three-dimensional computed tomography (CT). In addition, the CT value was determined and the histology and biomechanics were analyzed in order to evaluate the osteogenic ability. The results showed that PLL and DBM combined well and that PLL-DBM exhibited a natural mesh pore structure. The fold enrichment of NCs and PLTs with PLL-DBM was significantly higher than that with DBM. The fusion effects of the IA and IB groups were similar and significantly enhanced compared with those of the IIC and IID groups. The results confirmed that PLL-DBM is an ideal enriched matrix for bone marrow stem cells, and TEB rapidly fabricated by PLL-DBM intraoperatively enriched bone marrow stem cells exhibits an improved osteogenic ability. PMID:25452771

  11. Hydrogen enrichment of synthetic fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jay, C. G.

    1978-01-01

    Synthetic gas may be produced at lower cost and higher efficiency by using outside source of hydrogen. Method is compatible with same temperatures and pressures as shift reaction. Process increases efficiency by using less coal and water to provide equal amount of synthetic gas.

  12. Enrichment of heavy nuclei in He-3-rich flares. [Imp-7 observed solar events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurford, G. J.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Vogt, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    IMP-7 observations of five solar-flare particle events characterized by He-3 enrichment are reported which show that such events are also enriched in nuclei with charges (Z) of at least 6. The ratio of these nuclei to H-1 at approximately 3 MeV/nucleon was found to be enriched by about 10 to 100 times, while the ratio with respect to He-4 was enriched by about 3 to 30 times. It is suggested that the simultaneous enhancement of He-3 and the heavier nuclei as well as the absence of H-2 and H-3 during the observed events may be partly due to a preferential acceleration process which depends on the ratio of the square of the charge to the atomic weight of the nuclei.

  13. Origin of middle rare earth element enrichment in acid mine drainage-impacted areas.

    PubMed

    Grawunder, Anja; Merten, Dirk; Büchel, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The commonly observed enrichment of middle rare earth elements (MREE) in water sampled in acid mine drainage (AMD)-impacted areas was found to be the result of preferential release from the widespread mineral pyrite (FeS2). Three different mining-impacted sites in Europe were sampled for water, and various pyrite samples were used in batch experiments with diluted sulphuric acid simulating AMD-impacted water with high sulphate concentration and high acidity. All water samples independent on their origin from groundwater, creek water or lake water as well as on the surrounding rock types showed MREE enrichment. Also the pyrite samples showed MREE enrichment in the respective acidic leachate but not always in their total contents indicating a process-controlled release. It is discussed that most probably complexation to sulphite (SO3 (2-)) or another intermediate S-species during pyrite oxidation is the reason for the MREE enrichment in the normalized REE patterns. PMID:24385183

  14. 21 CFR 136.115 - Enriched bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched bread, rolls, and buns. 136.115 Section... § 136.115 Enriched bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods enriched bread, enriched rolls, and... label statement of ingredients prescribed for bread, rolls or buns by § 136.110, except that: (1)...

  15. 21 CFR 136.115 - Enriched bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched bread, rolls, and buns. 136.115 Section... § 136.115 Enriched bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods enriched bread, enriched rolls, and... label statement of ingredients prescribed for bread, rolls or buns by § 136.110, except that: (1)...

  16. 21 CFR 136.115 - Enriched bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched bread, rolls, and buns. 136.115 Section... § 136.115 Enriched bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods enriched bread, enriched rolls, and... label statement of ingredients prescribed for bread, rolls or buns by § 136.110, except that: (1)...

  17. 21 CFR 136.115 - Enriched bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched bread, rolls, and buns. 136.115 Section... § 136.115 Enriched bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods enriched bread, enriched rolls, and... label statement of ingredients prescribed for bread, rolls or buns by § 136.110, except that: (1)...

  18. 21 CFR 136.115 - Enriched bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched bread, rolls, and buns. 136.115 Section... § 136.115 Enriched bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods enriched bread, enriched rolls, and... label statement of ingredients prescribed for bread, rolls or buns by § 136.110, except that: (1)...

  19. Frustration and perseveration in stereotypic captive animals: is a taste of enrichment worse than none at all?

    PubMed

    Latham, Naomi; Mason, Georgia

    2010-07-29

    Stereotypic behaviours are common in animals in impoverished housing, arising from two complementary processes: (1) thwarted attempts to perform motivated behaviours; (2) forebrain dysfunction impeding normal behavioural inhibition. When enriched animals are moved to impoverished housing, they are sometimes protected against developing stereotypic behaviour, but in other cases become even more stereotypic than animals housed lifelong without enrichment. Negative contrast-induced frustration must occur in both scenarios. We hypothesise that sustained behavioural responses to this frustration are prevented in the former by normalised forebrain function, but exacerbated in the latter by forebrain dysfunction. ICRCD-1 mice reared in enriched or standard cages were re-caged at 3 months to standard conditions. Here, previously-enriched mice became far more stereotypic than mice reared from birth in such conditions. To investigate the role of frustration, we assessed both corticosterone output and motivation (break-point) to regain enrichments. We also assessed perseveration via extinction learning. As predicted, previously-enriched mice were as perseverative as standard-raised mice, and frustration seemed to play a causal role in their exacerbated stereotypic behaviour. Previously-enriched mice showed higher motivations to access enrichments, and only in this group did these correlate with corticosterone levels after re-caging; furthermore only in previously-enriched mice did corticosterone responses to re-caging predict stereotypic behaviour 30 days later (males only). All results need replicating and further investigation. However, they suggest for the first time that individual risk factors related to the HPA axis predict stereotypic behaviour following enrichment-removal, and that previously-enriched mice have lasting motivational differences from standard-raised mice, suggesting sustained behavioural effects related to the frustration of enrichment-loss. PMID:20230861

  20. Comparison of analytical values for enrichment nutrients in selected grain products to federal enrichment standards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enriched grain products are required to have iron, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and folic acid added at specified levels (minimum and maximum) according to the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). To provide up-to-date values for the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, enriche...

  1. 75 FR 52996 - Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR 2.313(c) and 2.321(b), the Atomic Safety and Licensing...

  2. Linking nutrient enrichment, sediment erodibility and biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, B.; Mahon, R.; Sojka, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Sediment movement in coastal lagoons affects nutrient flux and primary producer growth. Previous research has shown that sediment erodibility is affected by biofilm concentration and that growth of benthic organisms, which produce biofilm, is affected by nutrient enrichment. However, researchers have not examined possible links between nutrient addition and sediment erodibility. We manipulated nutrient levels in the water column of 16 microcosms filled with homogenized sediment from a shallow coastal lagoon and artificial seawater to determine the effects on biofilm growth, measured through chlorophyll a and colloidal carbohydrate concentrations. Erosion tests using a Gust microcosm were conducted to determine the relationship between sediment erodibility and biofilm concentration. Results show that carbohydrate levels decreased with increasing nutrient enrichment and were unrelated to chlorophyll concentrations and erodibility. The nutrient levels did not predictably affect the chlorophyll levels, with lower chlorophyll concentrations in the control and medium enrichment treatments than the low and high enrichment treatments. Controls on biofilm growth are still unclear and the assumed relationship between carbohydrates and erodibility may be invalid. Understanding how biofilms respond to nutrient enrichment and subsequent effects on sediment erodibility is essential for protecting and restoring shallow coastal systems.

  3. The enriched chromium neutrino source for GALLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, F.X.; Hahn, R.L.

    1991-01-18

    The preparation and study of an intense source of neutrinos in the form of neutron irradiated materials which are enriched in Cr-50 for use in the GALLEX solar neutrino experiment are discussed. Chromyl fluoride gas is enriched in the Cr-50 isotope by gas centrifugation and subsequently converted to a very stable form of chromium oxide. The results of neutron activation analyses of such chromium samples indicate low levels of any long-lived activities, but show that short-lived activities, in particular Na-24, may be of concern. These results show that irradiating chromium oxide enriched in Cr-50 is preferable to irradiating either natural chromium or argon gas as a means of producing a neutrino source to calibrate the GALLEX detector. These results of the impurity level analysis of the enriched chromyl fluoride gas and its conversion to the oxide are also of interest to work in progress by other members of the Collaboration investigating an alternative conversion of the enriched gas to chromium metal. 35 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. 77 FR 13367 - General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC, Proposed Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Preparation, 75 FR 1819 (January 13, 2010). Documents related to this notice are available on the NRC's GE... General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC, Proposed Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment Facility... Laser Enrichment, LLC (GLE) Uranium Enrichment Facility. On June 26, 2009, GLE submitted a...

  5. 77 FR 14838 - General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC, Commercial Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC, Commercial Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment Facility... considering the issuance of a license to General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC (GLE or the applicant) to authorize construction of a laser-based uranium enrichment facility and possession and use...

  6. 76 FR 34103 - In the Matter of Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... Facility), 74 FR 38,052, 38,054 (July 30, 2009) (CLI-09-15, 70 NRC 1, 7-8 (2009)). \\2\\ After conducting a... Atomic Safety and Licensing Board In the Matter of Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment... operation of a gas centrifuge uranium enrichment facility--denoted as the Eagle Rock Enrichment...

  7. Nutrient enrichment increases mortality of mangroves.

    PubMed

    Lovelock, Catherine E; Ball, Marilyn C; Martin, Katherine C; C Feller, Ilka

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients. PMID:19440554

  8. Sulfur enrichment of atmospheric minerals and spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamane, Yaacov; Dzubay, Thomas G.; Ward, Rachel

    Atmospheric particles were analysed by electron microscopy to obtain direct evidence for S-enrichment in minerals and spores in the 0.5 to 10-?m diameter range. The particles were collected at Research Triangle Park, NC, U.S.A. for 2 weeks during summer 1988, using dichtomous samplers that were modified for use with electron microscopy. One of the samplers was equipped with an annular denuder that removed acidic gases upstream of the filters to avoid artifact reactions on the filter between gases and particles. A comparison of X-ray spectra for atmospheric particles and locally collected soil and mushroom spores revealed significant S-enrichment of atmospheric silicates and spores. It was concluded that the S-enrichments were caused by atmospheric reactions and not by sampling artifact.

  9. Nutrient Enrichment Increases Mortality of Mangroves

    PubMed Central

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Ball, Marilyn C.; Martin, Katherine C.; C. Feller, Ilka

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients. PMID:19440554

  10. Inhomogeneous chemical enrichment in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki

    2015-08-01

    In a galaxy, chemical enrichment takes place in an inhomogeneous fashion, and the Galactic Halo is one of the places where the inhomogeneous effects are imprinted and can be constrained from observations. I show this using my chemodynamical simulations of Milky Way type galaxies. The scatter in the elemental abundances is originated from radial migration, merging/accretion of satellite galaxies, local variation of star formation and chemical enrichment, and intrinsic variation of nucleosynthesis yields. In the simulated galaxies, there is no strong age-metallicity relations. This means that the most metal poor stars are not always the oldest stars, and can be formed in chemically unevolved clouds at later times. The long-lifetime sources of chemical enrichment such as asymptotic giant blanch stars or neutron star mergers can contribute the abundance patterns of extremely metal-poor stars, which are in good agreement with observations.

  11. Fire extinguishment in oxygen enriched atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, A. F.; Rappaport, M. W.

    1973-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art of fire suppression and extinguishment techniques in oxygen enriched atmosphere is reviewed. Four classes of extinguishment action are considered: cooling, separation of reactants, dilution or removal of fuel, and use of chemically reactive agents. Current practice seems to show preference for very fast acting water spray applications to all interior surfaces of earth-based chambers. In space, reliance has been placed on fire prevention methods through the removal of ignition sources and use of nonflammable materials. Recommendations are made for further work related to fire suppression and extinguishment in oxygen enriched atmospheres, and an extensive bibliography is appended.

  12. Enrichment Rescues Contextual Discrimination Deficit Associated With Immediate Shock

    PubMed Central

    Clemenson, Gregory D.; Lee, Star W.; Deng, Wei; Barrera, Vanessa R.; Iwamoto, Kei S.; Fanselow, Michael S.; Gage, Fred H.

    2015-01-01

    Adult animals continue to modify their behavior throughout life, a process that is highly influenced by past experiences. To shape behavior, specific mechanisms of neural plasticity to learn, remember, and recall information are required. One of the most robust examples of adult plasticity in the brain occurs in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, through the process of adult neurogenesis. Adult neurogenesis is strongly upregulated by external factors such as voluntary wheel running (RUN) and environmental enrichment (EE); however, the functional differences between these two factors remain unclear. Although both manipulations result in increased neurogenesis, RUN dramatically increases the proliferation of newborn cells and EE promotes their survival. We hypothesize that the method by which these newborn neurons are induced influences their functional role. Furthermore, we examine how EE-induced neurons may be primed to encode and recognize features of novel environments due to their previous enrichment experience. Here, we gave mice a challenging contextual fear-conditioning (FC) procedure to tease out the behavioral differences between RUN-induced neurogenesis and EE-induced neurogenesis. Despite the robust increases in neurogenesis seen in the RUN mice, we found that only EE mice were able to discriminate between similar contexts in this task, indicating that EE mice might use a different cognitive strategy when processing contextual information. Furthermore, we showed that this improvement was dependent on EE-induced neurogenesis, suggesting a fundamental functional difference between RUN-induced neurogenesis and EE-induced neurogenesis. PMID:25330953

  13. Semantic enrichment of multi-intelligence data within a net-centric environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Richard D.; Lashine, Larry; Jenkins, Don

    2009-04-01

    The challenges of predictive battlespace awareness and transformation of TCPED to TPPU processes in a netcentric environment are numerous and complex. One of these challenges is how to post the information with the right metadata so that it can be effectively discovered and used in an ad hoc manner. We have been working on the development of a semantic enrichment capability that provides concept and relationship extraction and automatic metadata tagging of multi-INT sensor data. Specifically, this process maps multi-source data to concepts and relationships specified within a semantic model (ontology). We are using semantic enrichment for development of data fusion services to support Army and Air Force programs. This paper presents an example of using the semantic enrichment architecture for concept and relationship extraction from USMTF data. The process of semantic enrichment adds semantic metadata tags to the original data enabling advanced correlation and fusion. A geospatial user interface leverages the semantically-enriched data to provide powerful search, correlation, and fusion capabilities.

  14. STEM enrichment programs and graduate school matriculation: the role of science identity salience

    PubMed Central

    Serpe, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    Improving the state of science education in the United States has become a national priority. One response to this problem has been the implementation of STEM enrichment programs designed to increase the number of students that enter graduate programs in science. Current research indicates enrichment programs have positive effects for student performance, degree completion, interest in science and graduate enrollment. Moreover, research suggests that beyond improving performance in STEM, and providing access to research experience and faculty mentoring, enrichment programs may also increase the degree to which students identify as scientists. However, researchers investigating the role of science identity on student outcomes have focused primarily on subjective outcomes, leaving a critical question of whether science identity also influences objective outcomes such as whether students attend graduate school. Using identity theory, this study addresses this issue by investigating science identity as a mechanism linking enrichment program participation to matriculation into graduate science programs. Quantitative results from a panel study of 694 students indicate that science identity salience, along with research experience and college GPA, mediate the effect of enrichment program participation on graduate school matriculation. Further, results indicate that although the social psychological process by which science identity salience develops operates independently from student GPA, science identity amplifies the effect of achievement on graduate school matriculation. These results indicate that policies seeking to increase the efficacy of enrichment programs and increase representation in STEM graduate programs should be sensitive to the social and academic aspects of STEM education. PMID:24578606

  15. Conversion and Evaluation of the University of Massachusetts Lowell Research Reactor From High-Enriched To Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Leo M. Bobek

    2003-11-19

    The process for converting the University of Massachusetts Lowell Research Reactor (UMLRR) from high-enrichment uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel began in 1988. Several years of design reviews, computational modeling, and thermal hydraulic analyses resulted in a preliminary reference core design and configuration based on 20 standard, MTR-type, flat-plate, 19.75% enriched, uranium silicide (u3Si2) fuel elements. A final safety analysis for the fuel conversion was submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1993. The NRC made two additional requests for additional information and supplements were submitted in 1994 and 1997. The new UMLRR Reactor Supervisor initiated an effort to change the LEU reference core configuration to eliminate a complicated control rod modification needed for the smaller core.

  16. Implementing the Schoolwide Enrichment Model in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza Fleith, Denise; Soriano de Alencar, Eunice M. L.

    2010-01-01

    The Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) has been one of the most widely used models in the education of the gifted in Brazil. It has inspired the political and pedagogical project of the Centers of Activities of High Abilities/Giftedness recently implemented in 27 Brazilian states by the Ministry of Education. In this article, our experience in…

  17. Press Release for Semantics Content Enrichment

    E-print Network

    Napp, Nils

    Press Release AAAS/ for Semantics Content Enrichment The American Association for the Advancement, and TEMIS, leading Enterprise, to offer a new, integrated, semantically fueled digital publishing A global of the digital assets under the AAAS umbrella. "We wanted a flexible and portable semantics solution that could

  18. The Partnership on Work Enrichment and Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haar, Diane; Raggi, Mindi

    2009-01-01

    The Partnership on Work Enrichment and Readiness (POWER's) unique and innovative curriculum recruits and sustains nontraditional students interested in preparing for employment or continued studies in an institution of higher education. The program specifically targets persons in mental health recovery. Students attend college during a regular…

  19. Starbursts and their contribution to metal enrichment

    E-print Network

    Kunth Daniel

    2007-04-28

    I review the properties of starburst galaxies, compare the properties of the local ones with more distant starburts and examine their role in the metal enrichment of the interstellar medium and the intergalactic-intracluster medium. Metallicity is not an arrow of time and contrary to current belief metal rich galaxies can also be found at high redshift.

  20. Metacognitive Enrichment for Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyre, Steven H.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research was conducted to explore how introducing metacognitive enrichment into courses containing implicit or explicit critical thinking goals would affect the students' personal epistemological maturity. At the beginning of a fall semester at a moderate sized community college in the southeastern United States, 733 students were divided…

  1. Projects To Enrich School Mathematics. Level 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Leroy, Ed.

    This is a series of research projects that can be used for enrichment of the high school mathematics curriculum. It is suggested that the topics are either not found in the standard curriculum or represent a more indepth study of standard topics. The areas considered are: applications of the microcomputer in mathematics; the fourth dimension and…

  2. Can Enrichment Help the Academically Retarded?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Norman C.; Knight, Octavia B.

    1965-01-01

    An instructional enrichment program in a Murfreesboro, N.C., school was designed to help academically retarded students in grades 3 to 8 (I.Q. 72-85). The participating students, who were retarded from 1 to 5 years, were grouped homogeneously to receive individual and small group instruction, and were encouraged to develop good listening and study…

  3. Mesoscale Iron Enrichment Experiments 19932005: Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Buesseler, Ken

    in major nutrient-rich waters is limited by iron deficiency" (2). The candidate mechanism of Martin (1, 2Mesoscale Iron Enrichment Experiments 1993­2005: Synthesis and Future Directions P. W. Boyd,1 * T. Watson2 Since the mid-1980s, our understanding of nutrient limitation of oceanic primary production has

  4. CUE (CULTURE, UNDERSTANDING, ENRICHMENT)--SOCIAL STUDIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION IS A TEACHING GUIDE TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR INTEGRATING CAREFULLY SELECTED AUDIOVISUAL ITEMS INTO EXISTING NINTH-GRADE CURRICULUMS IN SOCIAL STUDIES. IT IS ONE OF FIVE GUIDES PREPARED FOR USE IN PROJECT CUE. AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING AND ENRICHMENT IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS OF HIGH…

  5. CUE (CULTURE, UNDERSTANDING, ENRICHMENT)--SCIENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION IS A TEACHING GUIDE TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR INTEGRATING CAREFULLY SELECTED AUDIOVISUAL ITEMS INTO EXISTING NINTH-GRADE CURRICULUMS IN SCIENCE. IT IS ONE OF FIVE GUIDES PREPARED FOR USE IN PROJECT CUE, AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING AND ENRICHMENT IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS OF HIGH SCHOOLS. THE…

  6. ParentSource: A Practice in Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Community-based parenting education programs have a unique role to play in the promotion of infant mental health. In contrast to classes that seek to accelerate child development, the author describes enrichment programs that promote parent-child bonding and healthy social and emotional development. The ParentSource program was developed on the…

  7. Projects To Enrich School Mathematics. Level 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Leroy, Ed.

    This is a series of research projects that can be used for enrichment of the middle school mathematics curriculum. It is suggested that the topics are either not found in the standard curriculum or represent a more indepth study of standard topics. The areas considered are: microcomputer programs; divisibility; magic squares; pentominoes; the…

  8. The Effects of Early Language Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William; Ogston, Karen; Roberts, Gloria; Swenson, Amy

    2006-01-01

    Over two decades, six studies evaluated the effects of a home-based early language program on the development of 101 infants. Parents engaged in enrichment activities with their infants over a one-year period that began when the infants were between three and 13 months of age. Participants from families with varied levels of education were…

  9. Enriching a Child's Literacy Environment (ECLE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ethna R.

    The Enriching a Child's Literacy Environment (ECLE) program was designed to establish a model for teaching parents, teachers, and other care providers how to develop the oral language, thinking abilities and motor skills of young children (ages six months to three years). ECLE trainers instruct the parents or other care providers by first modeling…

  10. Using Synchronous Technology to Enrich Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Charles Xiaoxue; Jaeger, David; Liu, Jinxia; Guo, Xiaoning; Xie, Nan

    2013-01-01

    To explore the potential applications of synchronous technology to enrich student learning, faculty members from an American regional state university and a Chinese regional university collaborated to find appropriate ways to integrate synchronous technology (e.g., Adobe Connect) into an educational technology program in the American university…

  11. Phosphopeptide Enrichment by Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Thingholm, Tine E; Larsen, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) has been the method of choice for phosphopeptide enrichment prior to mass spectrometric analysis for many years and it is still used extensively in many laboratories. Using the affinity of negatively charged phosphate groups towards positively charged metal ions such as Fe(3+), Ga(3+), Al(3+), Zr(4+), and Ti(4+) has made it possible to enrich phosphorylated peptides from peptide samples. However, the selectivity of most of the metal ions is limited, when working with highly complex samples, e.g., whole-cell extracts, resulting in contamination from nonspecific binding of non-phosphorylated peptides. This problem is mainly caused by highly acidic peptides that also share high binding affinity towards these metal ions. By lowering the pH of the loading buffer nonspecific binding can be reduced significantly, however with the risk of reducing specific binding capacity. After binding, the enriched phosphopeptides are released from the metal ions using alkaline buffers of pH 10-11, EDTA, or phosphate-containing buffers.Here we describe a protocol for IMAC using Fe(3+) for phosphopeptide enrichment. The principles are illustrated on a semi-complex peptide mixture. PMID:26584922

  12. Method for laser induced isotope enrichment

    DOEpatents

    Pronko, Peter P.; Vanrompay, Paul A.; Zhang, Zhiyu

    2004-09-07

    Methods for separating isotopes or chemical species of an element and causing enrichment of a desired isotope or chemical species of an element utilizing laser ablation plasmas to modify or fabricate a material containing such isotopes or chemical species are provided. This invention may be used for a wide variety of materials which contain elements having different isotopes or chemical species.

  13. Chemical enrichment in the early Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Torgny

    2009-03-01

    The chemical enrichment by the first sources of light in the universe ultimately set the stage for the subsequent evolution of the Milky Way system. The oldest and, usually, the most-metal poor stars are our ‘near-field’ link to this ancient epoch as they, apart from tracing the chemical enrichment itself, also indirectly hold information on, e.g., the conditions for star formation and feed-back effects in the early universe. In particular, I will discuss the possible origins of the relatively large number of carbon enhanced metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo. Furthermore, I will argue that the apparent absence of the chemical signature of so-called pair-instability supernovae (PISNe), which are a natural consequence of current theoretical models for primordial star formation at the highest masses, may arise from a subtle observational selection effect. Whereas most surveys traditionally focus on the most metal-poor stars, early PISN enrichment is predicted to ‘overshoot’, reaching enrichment levels of [Ca/H] ~ -2.5 that would be missed by current searches.

  14. On Feuerstein's Instrumental Enrichment: A Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Hur, Meir, Ed.

    On the premise that all children can learn, Reuven Feuerstein developed a classroom curriculum designed to build the cognitive functions of students diagnosed by others as incapable of learning. His program, Instrumental Enrichment (IE), provides students with the concepts, skills, strategies, operations, and techniques necessary to become…

  15. Research Related to the Enrichment Triad Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubbins, E. Jean, Ed.

    This report highlights four research studies related to the Enrichment Triad Model, which encourages problem finding and problem solving in gifted students. The first study, "Academic Underachievement among the Gifted: Reversing School Failure" by Linda J. Emerick, identified six factors which influenced the reversal of the underachievement…

  16. University of Virginia Saturday Enrichment Program

    E-print Network

    Huang, Wei

    and Summer Enrichment Program PO Box 400264 Charlottesville, VA 22904-4264 Email: curry, instructing you to check your child's electronic account at SEP. If your child has been accepted, you child's class will be held. SECURING YOUR CHILD'S SLOT AND PAYMENT To guarantee your child's slot, you

  17. Oxygen Enrichment in the Process and Chemical Industries 

    E-print Network

    Milne, R. T.

    1984-01-01

    Intermediates Produced by Air Oxidation: ? Adipic Acid ? Acetaldehyde ? Acetic Acid ? Acrylonitrile ? Acrylic Acid ? Acetone ? Ethylene Oxide ? Formaldehyde ? Maleic Anhydride ? Phenol ? Phthallic Anhydride ? Propylene Oxide TABLE 1 \\-Jith...

  18. A Resolution of the Paradox of Enrichment

    E-print Network

    Z. C. Feng; Y. Charles Li

    2013-03-11

    The paradox of enrichment was observed by M. Rosenzweig in a class of predator-prey models. Two of the parameters in the models are crucial for the paradox. These two parameters are the prey's carrying capacity and prey's half-saturation for predation. Intuitively, increasing the carrying capacity due to enrichment of the prey's environment should lead to a more stable predator-prey system. Analytically, it turns out that increasing the carrying capacity always leads to an unstable predator-prey system that is susceptible to extinction from environmental random perturbations. This is the so-called paradox of enrichment. Our resolution here rests upon a closer investigation on a dimensionless number $H$ formed from the carrying capacity and the prey's half-saturation. By recasting the models into dimensionless forms, the models are in fact governed by a few dimensionless numbers including $H$. The effects of the two parameters: carrying capacity and half-saturation are incorporated into the number $H$. In fact, increasing the carrying capacity is equivalent (i.e. has the same effect on $H$) to decreasing the half-saturation which implies more aggressive predation. Since there is no paradox between more aggressive predation and instability of the predator-prey system, the paradox of enrichment is resolved. We also further explore spatially dependent models for which the phase space is infinite dimensional. The spatially independent limit cycle which is generated by a Hopf bifurcation from an unstable steady state, is linearly stable in the infinite dimensional phase space. Numerical simulations indicate that the basin of attraction of the limit cycle is riddled. This shows that spatial perturbations can sometimes (neither always nor never) remove the paradox of enrichment near the limit cycle!

  19. THE FIRST GALAXIES: CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT, MIXING, AND STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Greif, Thomas H.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Bromm, Volker

    2010-06-10

    Using three-dimensional cosmological simulations, we study the assembly process of one of the first galaxies, with a total mass of {approx}10{sup 8} M {sub sun}, collapsing at z {approx_equal} 10. Our main goal is to trace the transport of the heavy chemical elements produced and dispersed by a pair-instability supernova exploding in one of the minihalo progenitors. To this extent, we incorporate an efficient algorithm into our smoothed particle hydrodynamics code that approximately models turbulent mixing as a diffusion process. We study this mixing with and without the radiative feedback from Population III (Pop III) stars that subsequently form in neighboring minihalos. Our simulations allow us to constrain the initial conditions for second-generation star formation, within the first galaxy itself, and inside of minihalos that virialize after the supernova explosion. We find that most minihalos remain unscathed by ionizing radiation or the supernova remnant, while some are substantially photoheated and enriched to supercritical levels, likely resulting in the formation of low-mass Pop III or even Population II (Pop II) stars. At the center of the newly formed galaxy, {approx}10{sup 5} M {sub sun} of cold, dense gas uniformly enriched to {approx}10{sup -3} Z {sub sun} is in a state of collapse, suggesting that a cluster of Pop II stars will form. The first galaxies, as may be detected by the James Webb Space Telescope, would therefore already contain stellar populations familiar from lower redshifts.

  20. Axi-symmetrical flow reactor for .sup.196 Hg photochemical enrichment

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved photochemical reactor useful for the isotopic enrichment of a predetermined isotope of mercury, especially, .sup.196 Hg. Specifically, two axi-symmetrical flow reactors were constructed according to the teachings of the present invention. These reactors improve the mixing of the reactants during the photochemical enrichment process, affording higher yields of the desired .sup.196 Hg product. Measurements of the variation of yield (Y) and enrichment factor (E) along the flow axis of these reactors indicates very substantial improvement in process uniformity compared to previously used photochemical reactor systems. In one preferred embodiment of the present invention, the photoreactor system was built such that the reactor chamber was removable from the system without disturbing the location of either the photochemical lamp or the filter employed therewith.

  1. Measurements of uranium holdup in an operating gaseous diffusion enrichment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Augustson, R.H.; Walton, R.B.; Harris, R.; Harbarger, W.; Hicks, J.; Timmons, G.; Shissler, D.; Tayloe, R.; Jones, S.; Fields, L.

    1983-01-01

    Holdup of nuclear material in process equipment is one of the major sources of uncertainty in materials balances, particularly for high-throughput facilities with large equipment and extensive piping, such as gaseous diffusion uranium-enrichment plants. Locating and measuring the holdup while the plant is operating is a challenging problem because of background from the process material and the neighboring equipment. This paper reports NDA measurements performed at the Goodyear Atomic Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth, Ohio, on enrichment equipment at the higher enrichment and (>10% /sup 235/U isotopic abundance) of the cascade. Both neutron and gamma-ray measurements were made to locate anomalously large deposits in converters and compressors and, within the limitations of the techniques, to quantify the amount of the deposit.

  2. Criteria for the safe storage of enriched uranium at the Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, S.O.

    1995-07-01

    Uranium storage practices at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities have evolved over a period spanning five decades of programmatic work in support of the nuclear deterrent mission. During this period, the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee has served as the principal enriched uranium facility for fabrication, chemical processing, metallurgical processing and storage. Recent curtailment of new nuclear weapons production and stockpile reduction has created significant amounts of enriched uranium available as a strategic resource which must be properly and safely stored. This standard specifies criteria associated with the safe storage of enriched uranium at the Y-12 Plant. Because programmatic needs, compliance regulations and desirable materials of construction change with time, it is recommended that these standards be reviewed and amended periodically to ensure that they continue to serve their intended purpose.

  3. Axi-symmetrical flow reactor for [sup 196]Hg photochemical enrichment

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.

    1991-04-30

    The present invention is directed to an improved photochemical reactor useful for the isotopic enrichment of a predetermined isotope of mercury, especially, [sup 196]Hg. Specifically, two axi-symmetrical flow reactors were constructed according to the teachings of the present invention. These reactors improve the mixing of the reactants during the photochemical enrichment process, affording higher yields of the desired [sup 196]Hg product. Measurements of the variation of yield (Y) and enrichment factor (E) along the flow axis of these reactors indicates very substantial improvement in process uniformity compared to previously used photochemical reactor systems. In one preferred embodiment of the present invention, the photoreactor system was built such that the reactor chamber was removable from the system without disturbing the location of either the photochemical lamp or the filter employed therewith. 10 figures.

  4. Analysis of the effectiveness of gas centrifuge enrichment plants advanced safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian David; Erpenbeck, Heather H; Miller, Karen A; Swinjoe, Martyn T; Ianakiev, Kiril D; Marlow, Johnna B

    2010-01-01

    Current safeguards approaches used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to verify declared low-enriched uranium (LEU) production, detect undeclared LEU production and detect highly enriched uranium (HEU) production with adequate detection probability using non destructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and 235U enrichment of declared UF6 containers used in the process of enrichment at GCEPs. This paper contains an analysis of possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems including process monitoring and possible on-site destructive assay (DA) of samples that could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector's measurements. These improvements could reduce the difference between the operator's and inspector's measurements providing more effective and efficient IAEA GCEPs safeguards. We also explore how a few advanced safeguards systems could be assembled for unattended operation. The analysis will focus on how unannounced inspections (UIs), and the concept of information-driven inspections (IDS) can affect probability of detection of the diversion of nuclear materials when coupled to new GCEPs safeguards regimes augmented with unattended systems.

  5. Gas centrifuge enrichment plants inspection frequency and remote monitoring issues for advanced safeguards implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian David; Erpenbeck, Heather H; Miller, Karen A; Ianakiev, Kiril D; Reimold, Benjamin A; Ward, Steven L; Howell, John

    2010-09-13

    Current safeguards approaches used by the IAEA at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to verify declared low enriched uranium (LEU) production, detect undeclared LEU production and detect high enriched uranium (BEU) production with adequate probability using non destructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and {sup 235}U enrichment of declared cylinders of uranium hexafluoride that are used in the process of enrichment at GCEPs. This paper contains an analysis of how possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems including process monitoring and possible on-site destructive analysis (DA) of samples could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector's measurements providing more effective and efficient IAEA GCEPs safeguards. We have also studied a few advanced safeguards systems that could be assembled for unattended operation and the level of performance needed from these systems to provide more effective safeguards. The analysis also considers how short notice random inspections, unannounced inspections (UIs), and the concept of information-driven inspections can affect probability of detection of the diversion of nuclear material when coupled to new GCEPs safeguards regimes augmented with unattended systems. We also explore the effects of system failures and operator tampering on meeting safeguards goals for quantity and timeliness and the measures needed to recover from such failures and anomalies.

  6. Flight Opportunities for Science Teacher EnRichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, D.; Devore, E.; Gillespie, C., Jr.; Hull, G.

    1994-12-01

    The Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) is NASA's unique stratospheric infrared observatory. Science on board the KAO involves many disciplines and technologies. NASA Astrophysics Division supports a pre-college teacher program to provide Flight Opportunities for Science Teacher EnRichment (FOSTER). To date, forty-five teachers are participating, and the program is designed to nation-wide to serve fifty teachers per year on board the KAO. FOSTER is a pilot program for K-12 educational outreach for NASA's future Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) which will directly involve more than one-hundred teachers each year in airborne astronomical research missions. FOSTER aims to enrich precollege teachers' experiences and understanding of science, mathematics and technology. Teachers meet at NASA Ames Research Center for summer workshops on astronomy and contemporary astrophysics, and to prepare for flights. Further, teachers receive Internet training and support to create a FOSTER teacher network across the country, and to sustain communication with the airborne astronomy community. Each research flight of the KAO is a microcosm of the scientific method. Flying teachers obtain first-hand, real-time experiences of the scientific process: its excitement, hardships, challenges, discoveries, teamwork, and educational value. The FOSTER experience gives teachers pride and a sense of special achievement. They bring the excitement and adventure of doing first-class science to their students and communities. Flight Opportunities for Science Teacher EnRichment is funded by a NASA's Astrophysics Division grant, NAGW 3291, and supported by the SETI Institute and NASA Ames Research Center.

  7. 21 CFR 139.135 - Enriched vegetable macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...enriched macaroni product containing the prescribed amount of spinach and made in units not conforming in shape and size to the requirements for macaroni, spaghetti, or vermicelli is “Enriched spinach macaroni product”. [42 FR 14409, Mar. 15, 1977,...

  8. 21 CFR 139.135 - Enriched vegetable macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...enriched macaroni product containing the prescribed amount of spinach and made in units not conforming in shape and size to the requirements for macaroni, spaghetti, or vermicelli is “Enriched spinach macaroni product”. [42 FR 14409, Mar. 15, 1977,...

  9. 21 CFR 139.135 - Enriched vegetable macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...enriched macaroni product containing the prescribed amount of spinach and made in units not conforming in shape and size to the requirements for macaroni, spaghetti, or vermicelli is “Enriched spinach macaroni product”. [42 FR 14409, Mar. 15, 1977,...

  10. Indiana University Bloomington College of Arts & Sciences Professional Enrichment Program

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    Indiana University Bloomington College of Arts & Sciences Professional Enrichment Program Summer://college.indiana.edu/graduate/postBA . #12;College of Arts & Sciences Professional Enrichment Program Summer Courses for English Teachers

  11. IU JIM HOLLAND SUMMER ENRICHMENT PROGRAM PARENT/GUARDIAN FORM

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    IU JIM HOLLAND SUMMER ENRICHMENT PROGRAM PARENT/GUARDIAN FORM Please fill in PDF, print, and sign for participation in the Jim Holland Summer Enrichment Program on the Indiana University Bloomington campus. To help

  12. Primordial enrichment of the first galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, John H.; Turk, Matthew J.; Norman, Michael L.; Abel, Tom

    We present an adaptive mesh refinement radiation hydrodynamics simulation that follows the transition from Population III to Population II star formation. A top-heavy initial mass function for the Population III stars is considered, resulting in a plausible distribution of pair-instability supernovae and associated metal enrichment. We find that the gas fraction recovers from 5 percent to nearly the cosmic fraction in halos with merger histories rich in halos above 107 Ms . A single pair-instability supernova is sufficient to enrich the host halo to a metallicity floor of 10-3 Z_? and to transition to Population II star formation. We find that stellar metallicities do not necessarily trace stellar ages, as mergers of halos with established stellar populations can create superpositions of t-Z evolutionary tracks.

  13. A meta-analysis of the effects of nutrient enrichment on litter decomposition in streams.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Verónica; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Koricheva, Julia; Gulis, Vladislav; Chauvet, Eric; Graça, Manuel A S

    2014-06-17

    The trophic state of many streams is likely to deteriorate in the future due to the continuing increase in human-induced nutrient availability. Therefore, it is of fundamental importance to understand how nutrient enrichment affects plant litter decomposition, a key ecosystem-level process in forest streams. Here, we present a meta-analysis of 99 studies published between 1970 and 2012 that reported the effects of nutrient enrichment on litter decomposition in running waters. When considering the entire database, which consisted of 840 case studies, nutrient enrichment stimulated litter decomposition rate by approximately 50%. The stimulation was higher when the background nutrient concentrations were low and the magnitude of the nutrient enrichment was high, suggesting that oligotrophic streams are most vulnerable to nutrient enrichment. The magnitude of the nutrient-enrichment effect on litter decomposition was higher in the laboratory than in the field experiments, suggesting that laboratory experiments overestimate the effect and their results should be interpreted with caution. Among field experiments, effects of nutrient enrichment were smaller in the correlative than in the manipulative experiments since in the former the effects of nutrient enrichment on litter decomposition were likely confounded by other environmental factors, e.g. pollutants other than nutrients commonly found in streams impacted by human activity. However, primary studies addressing the effect of multiple stressors on litter decomposition are still few and thus it was not possible to consider the interaction between factors in this review. In field manipulative experiments, the effect of nutrient enrichment on litter decomposition depended on the scale at which the nutrients were added: stream reach?>?streamside channel?>?litter bag. This may have resulted from a more uniform and continuous exposure of microbes and detritivores to nutrient enrichment at the stream-reach scale. By contrast, nutrient enrichment at the litter-bag scale, often by using diffusing substrates, does not provide uniform controllable nutrient release at either temporal or spatial scales, suggesting that this approach should be abandoned. In field manipulative experiments, the addition of both nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) resulted in stronger stimulation of litter decomposition than the addition of N or P alone, suggesting that there might be nutrient co-limitation of decomposition in streams. The magnitude of the nutrient-enrichment effect on litter decomposition was higher for wood than for leaves, and for low-quality than for high-quality leaves. The effect of nutrient enrichment on litter decomposition may also depend on climate. The tendency for larger effect size in colder regions suggests that patterns of biogeography of invertebrate decomposers may be modulating the effect of nutrient enrichment on litter decomposition. Although studies in temperate environments were overrepresented in our database, our meta-analysis suggests that the effect of nutrient enrichment might be strongest in cold oligotrophic streams that depend on low-quality plant litter inputs. PMID:24935280

  14. 31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). 540.308... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low...

  15. 31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540.306... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term highly...

  16. Predation, Enrichment, and Phytoplankton Community Structure Michael Lynch; Joseph Shapiro

    E-print Network

    Lynch, Michael

    Predation, Enrichment, and Phytoplankton Community Structure Michael Lynch; Joseph Shapiro@jstor.org. http://www.jstor.org Thu Aug 30 11:57:16 2007 #12;Predation, enrichment, and phytoplankton community and enrichment to the Pleasant Pond phytoplankton community was examined through a series of enclosure

  17. Eects of nutrient enrichment on predatorprey metapopulation dynamics

    E-print Network

    Holyoak, Marcel

    Eects of nutrient enrichment on predator±prey metapopulation dynamics MARCEL HOLYOAK Department. In certain predator±prey models, enrichment of nutrients produces large ampli- tude population oscillations that can cause extinctions; this eect has been termed the `paradox of enrichment'. Metapopulation models

  18. Data Enrichment using Web APIs Karthik Gomadam1

    E-print Network

    Miller, John A.

    Data Enrichment using Web APIs Karthik Gomadam1 , Peter Z. Yeh1 , Kunal Verma1 , John A. Miller2 1 detection, many businesses are seeking to enrich their internal data records with data from these data-trivial task to ef- fectively select which sources to use for a particu- lar enrichment task. The old model

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Nutrient enrichment alters dynamics in experimental

    E-print Network

    Molofsky, Jane

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Nutrient enrichment alters dynamics in experimental plant populations Jane). The continued enrichment of ecosystems by agricultural runoff can cause profound changes in plant community composition, but less well-known is whether these enriched systems will also have altered population dynamics

  20. Targeted Enrichment: Maximizing Orthologous Gene Comparisons across Deep Evolutionary Time

    E-print Network

    Hillis, David

    Targeted Enrichment: Maximizing Orthologous Gene Comparisons across Deep Evolutionary Time Shannon a single species to test the limits of hybridization-based enrichment of hundreds of exons across frog species that diverged up to 250 million years ago. Enrichment success for a given species depends greatly

  1. Research Report Sensory experience determines enrichment-induced plasticity

    E-print Network

    Kilgard, Michael P.

    Research Report Sensory experience determines enrichment-induced plasticity in rat auditory cortex in an enriched environment increases response strength and paired-pulse depression in the auditory cortex.L., Kilgard, M.P., 2004. Environmental enrichment improves response strength, threshold, selectivity

  2. Evaluating mechanisms of nutrient depletion and 13 C enrichment

    E-print Network

    Sigman, Daniel M.

    Evaluating mechanisms of nutrient depletion and 13 C enrichment in the intermediate-depth Atlantic to evaluate competing hypotheses for the cause of observed nutrient depletion and 13 C enrichment isotopic equilibration at low temperatures (i.e., 13C enrichment). Although this export adds nutrients

  3. Lysbet Murray, Assistant Director Office of Academic Enrichment

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Lysbet Murray, Assistant Director Office of Academic Enrichment ACADEMIC CULTURE IN THE U.S. #12) · Office of Academic Enrichment · UD Libraries · Writing Center · Math Tutorial Lab · Counseling Center 10@udel.edu Office of Academic Enrichment 148-150 S. College Ave. 11 #12;

  4. IU JIM HOLLAND SUMMER ENRICHMENT PROGRAM TEACHER RECOMMENDATION FORM

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    IU JIM HOLLAND SUMMER ENRICHMENT PROGRAM TEACHER RECOMMENDATION FORM (Please fill in PDF documents for participation in the Jim Holland Summer Enrichment Program on the Indiana University Bloomington campus of Biology Attn: Jim Holland Summer Enrichment Program Selection Committee 1001 East Third Street / Jordan

  5. Enrichment of Armchair Carbon Nanotubes via Density Gradient

    E-print Network

    Natelson, Douglas

    Enrichment of Armchair Carbon Nanotubes via Density Gradient Ultracentrifugation: Raman both semiconducting and metallic nanotubes are produced. Here, we use a metallic nanotube enrichment first introduced by Arnold and co-workers7,8 to create metallic-enriched nanotube samples. Using

  6. 21 CFR 139.122 - Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.122... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.122 Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the enriched macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed...

  7. 21 CFR 139.122 - Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.122... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.122 Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the enriched macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed...

  8. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food and...Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms...

  9. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food and...Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms...

  10. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food and...Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms...

  11. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food and...Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms...

  12. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food and...Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms...

  13. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§...

  14. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§...

  15. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§...

  16. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§...

  17. 21 CFR 139.122 - Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.122... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.122 Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the enriched macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed...

  18. 21 CFR 139.122 - Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.122... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.122 Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the enriched macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed...

  19. 31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540...) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term...

  20. 31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). 540.308... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low...

  1. 75 FR 21680 - GE-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ...10-901-03-ML-BD01] GE-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC; Establishment of Atomic...following proceeding: GE-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC (GLE Commercial Facility...the application of GE-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC for a license to...

  2. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§...

  3. Turkey liver - a chromium enriched food source

    SciTech Connect

    Polansky, M.M.; Bryden, N.A.; Richards, M.; Anderson, R.A.

    1986-03-01

    There are presently no known foods for humans that are particularly good sources of chromium. As a means of obtaining Cr enriched foods, turkeys were fed diets containing various levels of supplemental chromium. Four groups of 6-month old turkey hens were fed either the basal diet for laying hens or this diet supplemented with 25, 100 or 200 ..mu..g of chromium as chromium chloride per g of diet. Liver Cr concentration of the turkeys sacrificed after 1 week increased from 7 ng/g (wet wt) while consuming the basal diet to 15, 48 and 68 ng/g, respectively, while consuming the diets with supplemental chromium. Comparable values for the turkeys sacrificed after 5 weeks were 2, 43, 170 and 325 ng/g. Similar trends but higher chromium values were observed for kidney samples. The chromium contents of the dark and white meat and eggs were not altered significantly. Chromium concentrations of the pancreas, gizzard and heart increased marginally; final chromium concentrations were less than 23 ng/g even after 5 weeks on the highest level of supplemental chromium. Chromium content of spleen and lungs was approximately 2-fold higher than that of the pancreas, gizzard or heart. Therefore, turkey liver is a food source suitable for Cr enrichment while the eggs, dark and white meat and other edible parts do not appear to be enriched following chromium supplementation.

  4. Enriched $^{82}$Se for the LUCIFER experiment

    E-print Network

    Beeman, J W; Benetti, P; Cardani, L; Casali, N; Chiesa, D; Clemenza, M; Dafinei, I; Di Domizio, S; Ferroni, F; Gironi, L; Giuliani, A; Gotti, C; Laubenstein, M; Maino, M; Nagorny, S; Nisi, S; Nones, C; Orio, F; Pagnanini, L; Pattavina, L; Pessina, G; Piperno, G; Pirro, S; Previtali, E; Rusconi, C; Schäffner, K; Tomei, C; Vignati, M

    2015-01-01

    The LUCIFER project aims at deploying the first array of enriched scintillating bolometers for the investigation of neutrinoless double-beta decay of $^{82}$Se. The matrix which embeds the source is an array of ZnSe crystals, where enriched $^{82}$Se is used as decay isotope. The radiopurity of the initial components employed for manufacturing crystals, that can be operated as bolometers, is crucial for achieving a null background level in the region of interest for double-beta decay investigations. In this work, we evaluated the radioactive content in 2.5 kg of 96.3% enriched $^{82}$Se metal, measured with a high-purity germanium detector at the Gran Sasso deep underground laboratory. The limits on internal contaminations of primordial decay chain elements of $^{232}$Th, $^{238}$U and $^{235}$U are respectively: $<$61 $\\mu$Bq/kg, $<$110 $\\mu$Bq/kg and $<$74 $\\mu$Bq/kg at 90% C.L.. The extremely low-background conditions in which the measurement was carried out and the high radiopurity of the $^{82}$...

  5. The effects of auditory enrichment on gorillas.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Lindsey; Margulis, Susan W

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that auditory enrichment can reduce stereotypic behaviors in captive animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of three different types of auditory enrichment-naturalistic sounds, classical music, and rock music-in reducing stereotypic behavior displayed by Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Three gorillas (one adult male, two adult females) were observed at the Buffalo Zoo for a total of 24 hr per music trial. A control observation period, during which no sounds were presented, was also included. Each music trial consisted of a total of three weeks with a 1-week control period in between each music type. The results reveal a decrease in stereotypic behaviors from the control period to naturalistic sounds. The naturalistic sounds also affected patterns of several other behaviors including locomotion. In contrast, stereotypy increased in the presence of classical and rock music. These results suggest that auditory enrichment, which is not commonly used in zoos in a systematic way, can be easily utilized by keepers to help decrease stereotypic behavior, but the nature of the stimulus, as well as the differential responses of individual animals, need to be considered. PMID:24715297

  6. Enriching Earthdata by Improving Content Curation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagwell, R.; Wong, M. M.; Murphy, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    Since the launch of Earthdata in the later part of 2011, there has been an emphasis on improving the user experience and providing more enriched content to the user, ultimately with the focus to bring the "pixels to the people" or to ensure that a user clicks the fewest amount of times to get to the data, tools, or information which they seek. Earthdata was founded to be a single source of information for Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) components and services as a conglomeration between over 15 different websites. With an increased focus on access to Earth science data, the recognition is now on transforming Earthdata from a static website to one that is a dynamic, data-driven site full of enriched content.In the near future, Earthdata will have a number of components that will drive the access to the data, such as Earthdata Search, the Common Metadata Repository (CMR), and a redesign of the Earthdata website. The focus on content curation will be to leverage the use of these components to provide an enriched content environment and a better overall user experience, with an emphasis on Earthdata being "powered by EOSDIS" components and services.

  7. Oxalic acid complexes: promising draw solutes for forward osmosis (FO) in protein enrichment.

    PubMed

    Ge, Qingchun; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-03-21

    Highly soluble oxalic acid complexes (OACs) were synthesized through a one-pot reaction. The OACs exhibit excellent performance as draw solutes in FO processes with high water fluxes and negligible reverse solute fluxes. Efficient protein enrichment was achieved. The diluted OACs can be recycled via nanofiltration and are promising as draw solutes. PMID:25697506

  8. Phosphate recovery as concentrated solution from treated wastewater by a PAO-enriched biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Kodera, Hiroya; Hatamoto, Masashi; Abe, Kenichi; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Ozaki, Noriatsu; Ohashi, Akiyoshi

    2013-04-15

    Phosphorus recovery from wastewaters and its recycling are of importance for sustaining agricultural production. During the conventional enhanced biological phosphorus removal process, phosphorus is removed by withdrawing excess sludge from wastewater. However, excess sludge disposal is costly and energy intensive. A proposed novel process for phosphorus recovery from sewage treatment will result in no excess sludge if a polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) enrichment biofilm can be applied to effluents containing phosphate. This process allows the recovery of phosphate as phosphate-concentrated solutions by controlling PAOs to absorb and release phosphate. A reactor consisting of a modified trickling filter with a synthetic substrate (5 mg P L?¹) was operated to form a PAO-enriched biofilm. As a result of the enrichment, the concentration of phosphate of >100 mg P L?¹ was successfully achieved. During this experiment, no sludge withdrawal was carried out over the duration of the operation of 255 days. To highlight the new process, the principle of enriching PAOs on biofilm and concentrating phosphate from treated sewage is explained, and a discussion on phosphate recovery performance is given. PMID:23415245

  9. Original article Effects of soil enrichment, watering and seedling age on establishment

    E-print Network

    Herrera, Carlos M.

    of restoration of a burned area in Southern Spain, we evaluate the efficiency of watering and enrichment- tolerant plants are key in the development of successional processes since, through nurse effects (Maestre, many studies propose the use the nurse plants in the restoration of Mediterranean vegetation (Gómez

  10. Automatically Grounding Semantically-enriched Conceptual Models to Concrete Web Services

    E-print Network

    Gal, Avigdor

    Automatically Grounding Semantically-enriched Conceptual Models to Concrete Web Services Eran Toch semantic Web services. We envision a world in which a designer defines a "virtual" Web service as part of a business process, while requiring the system to seek actual Web services that match the specifi- cations

  11. Undergraduate Fellowships Undergraduates who participate in special educational enrichment and research training programs during

    E-print Network

    1 Undergraduate Fellowships Undergraduates who participate in special educational enrichment funds through the Fellowship Disbursement Process (Payroll ST) if there is no work requirement as a student wage (for enrolled VT students) or emergency hire (non-VT students). Undergraduate fellowships

  12. Salmonella Recovery Following Immersion Chilling for Matched Neck Skin and Whole Carcass Enrichment Sampling Methodologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence and serogroups of Salmonella recovered following immersion chilling were determined for both neck skin and the matching whole carcass enriched samples. Commercially processed and eviscerated broiler carcasses were immersion chilled in ice and tap water for 40 min. Following immersio...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT INCREASES RESPONSE STRENGTH AND PAIRED-PULSE DEPRESSION OF AUDITORY CORTEX NEURONS

    E-print Network

    Kilgard, Michael P.

    ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT INCREASES RESPONSE STRENGTH AND PAIRED-PULSE DEPRESSION OF AUDITORY CORTEX to sensory stimuli interfere with the brain's ability to develop and learn properly. Sensory processing disorders are common, for example, among individuals with autism, dyslexia, language impairment, attention

  14. Enrichment of Bibliographic Records of Online Catalogs through OCR and SGML Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peis, Eduardo; Fernandez-Molina, J. Carlos

    1998-01-01

    Presents research on using scanner technology to capture the contents pages of collective monographs, extract bibliographic information, and process this information with a standardized language, such as SGML, for tagging electronic documents. Results confirmed the feasibility of developing a system to automatically enrich records in online…

  15. Assignment of congested NMR spectra: Carbonyl backbone enrichment via the Entner Doudoroff pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldbourt, Amir; Day, Loren A.; McDermott, Ann E.

    2007-12-01

    In NMR spectra of complex proteins, sparse isotope enrichment can be important, in that the removal of many 13C- 13C homonuclear J-couplings can narrow the lines and thereby facilitate the process of spectral assignment and structure elucidation. We present a simple scheme for selective yet extensive isotopic enrichment applicable for production of proteins in organisms utilizing the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) metabolic pathway. An enrichment scheme so derived is demonstrated in the context of a magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR (MAS SSNMR) study of Pf1 bacteriophage, the host of which is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, strain K (PAK), an organism that uses the ED pathway for glucose catabolism. The intact and infectious Pf1 phage in this study was produced by infected PAK cells grown on a minimal medium containing 1- 13C D-glucose ( 13C in position 1) as the sole carbon source, as well as 15NH 4Cl as the only nitrogen source. The 37 MDa Pf1 phage consists of about 93% major coat protein, 1% minor coat proteins, and 6% single-stranded, circular DNA. As a consequence of this composition and the enrichment scheme, the resonances in the MAS SSNMR spectra of the Pf1 sample were almost exclusively due to carbonyl carbons in the major coat protein. Moreover, 3D heteronuclear NCOCX correlation experiments also show that the amino acids leucine, serine, glycine, and tyrosine were not isotopically enriched in their carbonyl positions (although most other amino acids were), which is as expected based upon considerations of the ED metabolic pathway. 3D NCOCX NMR data and 2D 15N- 15N data provided strong verification of many previous assignments of 15N amide and 13C carbonyl shifts in this highly congested spectrum; both the semi-selective enrichment patterns and the narrowed linewidths allowed for greater certainty in the assignments as compared with use of uniformly enriched samples alone.

  16. Modeling of UF{sub 6} enrichment with gas centrifuges for nuclear safeguards activities

    SciTech Connect

    Mercurio, G.; Peerani, P.; Richir, P.; Janssens, W.; Eklund, G.

    2012-09-26

    The physical modeling of uranium isotopes ({sup 235}U, {sup 238}U) separation process by centrifugation of is a key aspect for predicting the nuclear fuel enrichment plant performances under surveillance by the Nuclear Safeguards Authorities. In this paper are illustrated some aspects of the modeling of fast centrifuges for UF{sub 6} gas enrichment and of a typical cascade enrichment plant with the Theoretical Centrifuge and Cascade Simulator (TCCS). The background theory for reproducing the flow field characteristics of a centrifuge is derived from the work of Cohen where the separation parameters are calculated using the solution of a differential enrichment equation. In our case we chose to solve the hydrodynamic equations for the motion of a compressible fluid in a centrifugal field using the Berman - Olander vertical velocity radial distribution and the solution was obtained using the Matlab software tool. The importance of a correct estimation of the centrifuge separation parameters at different flow regimes, lies in the possibility to estimate in a reliable way the U enrichment plant performances, once the separation external parameters are set (feed flow rate and feed, product and tails assays). Using the separation parameters of a single centrifuge allow to determine the performances of an entire cascade and, for this purpose; the software Simulink was used. The outputs of the calculation are the concentrations (assays) and the flow rates of the enriched (product) and depleted (tails) gas mixture. These models represent a valid additional tool, in order to verify the compliance of the U enrichment plant operator declarations with the 'on site' inspectors' measurements.

  17. Modeling of UF6 enrichment with gas centrifuges for nuclear safeguards activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercurio, G.; Peerani, P.; Richir, P.; Janssens, W.; Eklund, G.

    2012-09-01

    The physical modeling of uranium isotopes (235U, 238U) separation process by centrifugation of is a key aspect for predicting the nuclear fuel enrichment plant performances under surveillance by the Nuclear Safeguards Authorities. In this paper are illustrated some aspects of the modeling of fast centrifuges for UF6 gas enrichment and of a typical cascade enrichment plant with the Theoretical Centrifuge and Cascade Simulator (TCCS). The background theory for reproducing the flow field characteristics of a centrifuge is derived from the work of Cohen [1] where the separation parameters are calculated using the solution of a differential enrichment equation. In our case we chose to solve the hydrodynamic equations for the motion of a compressible fluid in a centrifugal field using the Berman - Olander vertical velocity radial distribution [2] and the solution was obtained using the Matlab software tool [3]. The importance of a correct estimation of the centrifuge separation parameters at different flow regimes, lies in the possibility to estimate in a reliable way the U enrichment plant performances, once the separation external parameters are set (feed flow rate and feed, product and tails assays)[4]. Using the separation parameters of a single centrifuge allow to determine the performances of an entire cascade and, for this purpose; the software Simulink [3] was used. The outputs of the calculation are the concentrations (assays) and the flow rates of the enriched (product) and depleted (tails) gas mixture. These models represent a valid additional tool, in order to verify the compliance of the U enrichment plant operator declarations with the "on site" inspectors' measurements.

  18. Enrichments of Cellulolytic Communities from Diverse Natural Sources Using a Novel Selection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Evan Joel

    In order to ensure a sustainable future and curb carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels, it is imperative to develop a cost-competitive manufacturing process for an alternative liquid fuel with low life cycle greenhouse gas emissions. A potential route towards this sustainable future is the large-scale production of fuels derived from plant biomass, biofuels. A major step for the biological conversion of biomass to fuel is the solubilization and utilization of cellulose. However, lignocellulose is a recalcitrant material, and has evolved to resist microbial degradation. Studying cellulolytic communities from nature can reveal the mechanisms by which organisms can utilize lignocellulose, and also reveal the conditions that facilitate the fastest possible rates of cellulose utilization. This thesis used an Automated Repetitive Batch (ARB) system to perform enrichments of cellulolytic communities to test if cellulolytic communities from diverse sources could be reproducibly enriched for rapid cellulose utilization. This thesis first developed a robust method for reproducibly enriching cellulolytic communities in the ARB system with a single environmental source. Using this method, this research then investigated if cellulolytic communities could be enriched for rapid cellulose utilization from different inoculum sources. In all reproducible enrichments, this thesis then confirmed the use of carbon dioxide as a real time proxy for cellulose utilization based on end product analysis. This thesis showed that the ARB system could yield cellulolytic communities capable of rapid cellulose utilization from diverse environmental sources, and laid a strong foundation for determining whether or not these different sources can be enriched to yield functionally similar cellulolytic communities. The work from this thesis also suggests that fermentation conditions, rather than source material, play a more important role in determining enriched community performance.

  19. Fissile Flow and Enrichment Monitor for GCEP Advanced Safeguards Application

    SciTech Connect

    March-Leuba, Jose A; Uckan, Taner

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents experimental data that demonstrate a concept for a {sup 235}U flow and enrichment monitor (FEMO) based on passive measurements of process equipment in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). The primary goal of the FEMO is to prevent, without using pipe penetrations or active interrogation with external sources, the production and diversion of undeclared nuclear material. This FEMO concept utilizes: (1) calibrated measurements of {sup 235}U density in cascade headers, and (2) measurements of pump inlet pressure and volumetric flow rate, which are correlated to the electrical power consumed by the GCEP pumps that transport UF{sub 6} from the cascade to the condensation cylinders. The {sup 235}U density is measured by counting 186 keV emissions using a NaI gamma detector located upstream of the pump. The pump inlet pressure and volumetric flow rate are determined using a correlation that is a function of the measured pump operational parameters (e.g., electric power consumption and rotational frequency) and the pumping configuration. The concept has been demonstrated in a low-pressure flow loop at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  20. Towards ontology personalization to enrich social conversations on AAC systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancilla V., Daniela; Sastoque H., Sebastian; Iregui G., Marcela

    2015-01-01

    Communication is one of the essential needs of human beings. Augmentative and Alternative Communication Systems (AAC) seek to help in the generation of oral and written language to people with physical disorders that limit their natural communication. These systems present significant challenges such as: the composition of consistent messages according to syntactic and semantic rules, the improvement of message production times, the application to social contexts and, consequently, the incorporation of user-specific information. This work presents an original ontology personalization approach for an AAC instant messaging system incorporating personalized information to improve the efficacy and efficiency of the message production. This proposal is based on a projection of a general ontology into a more specific one, avoiding storage redundancy and data coupling, representing a big opportunity to enrich communication capabilities of current AAC systems. The evaluation was performed for a study case based on an AAC system for assistance in composing messages. The results show that adding user-specific information allows generation of enriched phrases, so improving the accuracy of the message, facilitating the communication process.

  1. Paradox of enrichment: A fractional differential approach with memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Sourav; Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi; Pal, Joydeep; N'Guérékata, Gaston M.; Chattopadhyay, Joydev

    2013-09-01

    The paradox of enrichment (PoE) proposed by Rosenzweig [M. Rosenzweig, The paradox of enrichment, Science 171 (1971) 385-387] is still a fundamental problem in ecology. Most of the solutions have been proposed at an individual species level of organization and solutions at community level are lacking. Knowledge of how learning and memory modify behavioral responses to species is a key factor in making a crucial link between species and community levels. PoE resolution via these two organizational levels can be interpreted as a microscopic- and macroscopic-level solution. Fractional derivatives provide an excellent tool for describing this memory and the hereditary properties of various materials and processes. The derivatives can be physically interpreted via two time scales that are considered simultaneously: the ideal, equably flowing homogeneous local time, and the cosmic (inhomogeneous) non-local time. Several mechanisms and theories have been proposed to resolve the PoE problem, but a universally accepted theory is still lacking because most studies have focused on local effects and ignored non-local effects, which capture memory. Here we formulate the fractional counterpart of the Rosenzweig model and analyze the stability behavior of a system. We conclude that there is a threshold for the memory effect parameter beyond which the Rosenzweig model is stable and may be used as a potential agent to resolve PoE from a new perspective via fractional differential equations.

  2. A Resolution of the Paradox of Enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Z. C.; Li, Y. Charles

    2015-06-01

    The paradox of enrichment was observed by Rosenzweig [1971] in a class of predator-prey models. Two of the parameters in the models are crucial for the paradox. These two parameters are the prey's carrying capacity and prey's half-saturation for predation. Intuitively, increasing the carrying capacity due to enrichment of the prey's environment should lead to a more stable predator-prey system. Analytically, it turns out that increasing the carrying capacity always leads to an unstable predator-prey system that is susceptible to extinction from environmental random perturbations. This is the so-called paradox of enrichment. Our resolution here rests upon a closer investigation on a dimensionless number H formed from the carrying capacity and the prey's half-saturation. By recasting the models into dimensionless forms, the models are in fact governed by a few dimensionless numbers including H. The effects of the two parameters: carrying capacity and half-saturation are incorporated into the number H. In fact, increasing the carrying capacity is equivalent (i.e. has the same effect on H) to decreasing the half-saturation which implies more aggressive predation. Since there is no paradox between more aggressive predation and instability of the predator-prey system, the paradox of enrichment is resolved. The so-called instability of the predator-prey system is characterized by the existence of a stable limit cycle in the phase plane, which gets closer and closer to the predator axis and prey axis. Due to random environmental perturbations, this can lead to extinction. We also further explore spatially dependent models for which the phase space is infinite-dimensional. The spatially independent limit cycle which is generated by a Hopf bifurcation from an unstable steady state, is linearly stable in the infinite-dimensional phase space. Numerical simulations indicate that the basin of attraction of the limit cycle is riddled. This shows that spatial perturbations can sometimes (neither always nor never) remove the paradox of enrichment near the limit cycle!

  3. 75 FR 10525 - In the Matter of: AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility) and All Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of: AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility) and All Other... the Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility in accordance with Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations...

  4. Enriched biodiversity data as a resource and service

    PubMed Central

    Balech, Bachir; Beard, Niall; Blissett, Matthew; Brenninkmeijer, Christian; van Dooren, Tom; Eades, David; Gosline, George; Groom, Quentin John; Hamann, Thomas D.; Hettling, Hannes; Hoehndorf, Robert; Holleman, Ayco; Hovenkamp, Peter; Kelbert, Patricia; King, David; Kirkup, Don; Lammers, Youri; DeMeulemeester, Thibaut; Mietchen, Daniel; Miller, Jeremy A.; Mounce, Ross; Nicolson, Nicola; Page, Rod; Pawlik, Aleksandra; Pereira, Serrano; Penev, Lyubomir; Richards, Kevin; Sautter, Guido; Shorthouse, David Peter; Tähtinen, Marko; Weiland, Claus; Williams, Alan R.; Sierra, Soraya

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Recent years have seen a surge in projects that produce large volumes of structured, machine-readable biodiversity data. To make these data amenable to processing by generic, open source “data enrichment” workflows, they are increasingly being represented in a variety of standards-compliant interchange formats. Here, we report on an initiative in which software developers and taxonomists came together to address the challenges and highlight the opportunities in the enrichment of such biodiversity data by engaging in intensive, collaborative software development: The Biodiversity Data Enrichment Hackathon. Results: The hackathon brought together 37 participants (including developers and taxonomists, i.e. scientific professionals that gather, identify, name and classify species) from 10 countries: Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the UK, and the US. The participants brought expertise in processing structured data, text mining, development of ontologies, digital identification keys, geographic information systems, niche modeling, natural language processing, provenance annotation, semantic integration, taxonomic name resolution, web service interfaces, workflow tools and visualisation. Most use cases and exemplar data were provided by taxonomists. One goal of the meeting was to facilitate re-use and enhancement of biodiversity knowledge by a broad range of stakeholders, such as taxonomists, systematists, ecologists, niche modelers, informaticians and ontologists. The suggested use cases resulted in nine breakout groups addressing three main themes: i) mobilising heritage biodiversity knowledge; ii) formalising and linking concepts; and iii) addressing interoperability between service platforms. Another goal was to further foster a community of experts in biodiversity informatics and to build human links between research projects and institutions, in response to recent calls to further such integration in this research domain. Conclusions: Beyond deriving prototype solutions for each use case, areas of inadequacy were discussed and are being pursued further. It was striking how many possible applications for biodiversity data there were and how quickly solutions could be put together when the normal constraints to collaboration were broken down for a week. Conversely, mobilising biodiversity knowledge from their silos in heritage literature and natural history collections will continue to require formalisation of the concepts (and the links between them) that define the research domain, as well as increased interoperability between the software platforms that operate on these concepts. PMID:25057255

  5. Enriching semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining in big data applications

    PubMed Central

    Weichselbraun, A.; Gindl, S.; Scharl, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for contextualizing and enriching large semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining with a focus on Web intelligence platforms and other high-throughput big data applications. The method is not only applicable to traditional sentiment lexicons, but also to more comprehensive, multi-dimensional affective resources such as SenticNet. It comprises the following steps: (i) identify ambiguous sentiment terms, (ii) provide context information extracted from a domain-specific training corpus, and (iii) ground this contextual information to structured background knowledge sources such as ConceptNet and WordNet. A quantitative evaluation shows a significant improvement when using an enriched version of SenticNet for polarity classification. Crowdsourced gold standard data in conjunction with a qualitative evaluation sheds light on the strengths and weaknesses of the concept grounding, and on the quality of the enrichment process. PMID:25431524

  6. Enriching semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining in big data applications.

    PubMed

    Weichselbraun, A; Gindl, S; Scharl, A

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a novel method for contextualizing and enriching large semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining with a focus on Web intelligence platforms and other high-throughput big data applications. The method is not only applicable to traditional sentiment lexicons, but also to more comprehensive, multi-dimensional affective resources such as SenticNet. It comprises the following steps: (i) identify ambiguous sentiment terms, (ii) provide context information extracted from a domain-specific training corpus, and (iii) ground this contextual information to structured background knowledge sources such as ConceptNet and WordNet. A quantitative evaluation shows a significant improvement when using an enriched version of SenticNet for polarity classification. Crowdsourced gold standard data in conjunction with a qualitative evaluation sheds light on the strengths and weaknesses of the concept grounding, and on the quality of the enrichment process. PMID:25431524

  7. Application of atomic vapor laser isotope separation to the enrichment of mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, J.K.; Erbert, G.V.; Paisner, J.A.; Chen, H.L.; Chiba, Z.; Beeler, R.G.; Combs, R.; Mostek, S.D.

    1986-09-01

    Workers at GTE/Sylvania have shown that the efficiency of fluorescent lighting may be markedly improved using mercury that has been enriched in the /sup 196/Hg isotope. A 5% improvement in the efficiency of fluorescent lighting in the United States could provide a savings of approx. 1 billion dollars in the corresponding reduction of electrical power consumption. We will discuss the results of recent work done at our laboratory to develop a process for enriching mercury. The discussion will center around the results of spectroscopic measurements of excited state lifetimes, photoionization cross sections and isotope shifts. In addition, we will discuss the mercury separator and supporting laser mesurements of the flow properties of mercury vapor. We will describe the laser system which will provide the photoionization and finally discuss the economic details of producing enriched mercury at a cost that would be attractive to the lighting industry.

  8. Unconventional approaches to isolation and enrichment of functional microbial consortium--a review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duu-Jong; Show, Kuan-Yeow; Wang, Aijie

    2013-05-01

    Studies on how different functional strains interact in a microflora may include isolation of pure strains using conventional plating technique and then mix a few of the isolates before observing their growth in specific medium. As isolating pure strains that take part in the key function of industrial effluent purification via conventional method is impractical, convenient alternative approaches to screen essential microbial group that maintains desired function of a mixed population is desired. Such approaches can be employed to allow the selection and enrichment of so-called functional consortium with user-defined attributes for specific functions. This manuscript provides a review of various approaches to isolation and enrichment of microbial functional consortium in several biological processes. Consideration for the isolation and enrichment approaches and their applications are delineated. Challenges to the applications and further work are also outlined. PMID:23566469

  9. Measurement of the enrichment of uranium in the pipework of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, T.W.; Lees, E.W.; Close, D.; Nixon, K.V.; Pratt, J.C.; Strittmatter, R.

    1985-01-01

    The US and UK have been separately working on the development of a NDA instrument to determine the enrichment of gaseous UF/sub 6/ at low pressures in cascade header pipework in line with the conclusions of the Hexapartite Safeguards Project viz. the instrument is capable of making a ''go/no go'' decision of whether the enrichment is less than/greater than 20%. Recently, there has been a series of very useful technical exchanges of ideas and information between the two countries. This has led to a technical formulation for such an instrumentation based on ..gamma..-ray spectrometry which, although plant-specific in certain features, nevertheless is based on the same physical principles. Experimental results from commercially operating enrichment plants are very encouraging and indicate that a complete measurement including set up time on the pipe should be attainable in about 30 minutes when measuring pipes of diameter around 110 mm. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Validation of Flow Cytometry and Magnetic Bead-Based Methods to Enrich CNS Single Cell Suspensions for Quiescent Microglia.

    PubMed

    Volden, T A; Reyelts, C D; Hoke, T A; Arikkath, J; Bonasera, S J

    2015-12-01

    Microglia are resident mononuclear phagocytes within the CNS parenchyma that intimately interact with neurons and astrocytes to remodel synapses and extracellular matrix. We briefly review studies elucidating the molecular pathways that underlie microglial surveillance, activation, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis; we additionally place these studies in a clinical context. We describe and validate an inexpensive and simple approach to obtain enriched single cell suspensions of quiescent parenchymal and perivascular microglia from the mouse cerebellum and hypothalamus. Following preparation of regional CNS single cell suspensions, we remove myelin debris, and then perform two serial enrichment steps for cells expressing surface CD11b. Myelin depletion and CD11b enrichment are both accomplished using antigen-specific magnetic beads in an automated cell separation system. Flow cytometry of the resultant suspensions shows a significant enrichment for CD11b(+)/CD45(+) cells (perivascular microglia) and CD11b(+)/CD45(-) cells (parenchymal microglia) compared to starting suspensions. Of note, cells from these enriched suspensions minimally express Aif1 (aka Iba1), suggesting that the enrichment process does not evoke significant microglial activation. However, these cells readily respond to a functional challenge (LPS) with significant changes in the expression of molecules specifically associated with microglia. We conclude that methods employing a combination of magnetic-bead based sorting and flow cytometry produce suspensions highly enriched for microglia that are appropriate for a variety of molecular and cellular assays. PMID:26260923

  11. Selective Recovery of Enriched Uranium from Inorganic Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, R. T.

    2003-02-26

    Uranium as U(IV) and U(VI) can be selectively recovered from liquids and sludge containing metal precipitates, inorganic salts, sand and silt fines, debris, other contaminants, and slimes, which are very difficult to de-water. Chemical processes such as fuel manufacturing and uranium mining generate enriched and natural uranium-bearing wastes. This patented Framatome ANP (FANP) uranium recovery process reduces uranium losses, significantly offsets waste disposal costs, produces a solid waste that meets mixed-waste disposal requirements, and does not generate metal-contaminated liquids. At the head end of the process is a floating dredge that retrieves liquids, sludge, and slimes in the form of a slurry directly from the floor of a lined surface impoundment (lagoon). The slurry is transferred to and mixed in a feed tank with a turbine mixer and re-circulated to further break down the particles and enhance dissolution of uranium. This process uses direct steam injection and sodium hypochlorite addition to oxidize and dissolves any U(IV). Cellulose is added as a non-reactive filter aid to help filter slimes by giving body to the slurry. The slurry is pumped into a large recessed-chamber filter press then de-watered by a pressure cycle-controlled double-diaphragm pump. U(VI) captured in the filtrate from this process is then precipitated by conversion to U(IV) in another Framatome ANP-patented process which uses a strong reducing agent to crystallize and settle the U(IV) product. The product is then dewatered in a small filter press. To-date, over 3,000 Kgs of U at 3% U-235 enrichment were recovered from a 8100 m2 hypalon-lined surface impoundment which contained about 10,220 m3 of liquids and about 757 m3 of sludge. A total of 2,175 drums (0.208 m3 or 55 gallon each) of solid mixed-wastes have been packaged, shipped, and disposed. In addition, 9463 m3 of low-U liquids at <0.001 KgU/m3 were also further processed and disposed.

  12. 75 FR 62895 - Notice of Availability of Safety Evaluation Report; AREVA Enrichment Services LLC, Eagle Rock...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ...AREVA Enrichment Services LLC, Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility, Bonneville County...Senior Project Manager, Advanced Fuel Cycle, Enrichment, and Uranium Conversion...proposed facility is known as the Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility (EREF) and...

  13. Modeling Profiles and Signatures of Enrichments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A.; Qualls, C.; Lucas, S. G.; Lombari, G.; Appenzeller, O.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic and geochemical enrichment of soils and living matter have been well documented 1, 2, 3.Here we report on geochemical, anthropogenic and biological enrichments with heavy metals in Modern Peru and compared this to Modern and ancient data from New Mexico, USA. We established a signature derived from the quantities of 25 metals in various biological, fossil and soil materials. We also speculate that human adaptation to mercury toxicity may occur in remarkably short time spans during the Holocene. We found mercury concentrations in Modern pigeon feathers and llama wool from free foraging birds and animals in Albuquerque, NM, ranging from 0.006 to 0.019 mg/Kg of tissue. The values for Modern Peru ranged from 22.0 to 556 mg/Kg for the same tissues. We discovered, in 64 million-year-old fossilized plants from New Mexico (Paleocene Nacimiento Formation, San Juan Basin), a mercury concentration of 1.11 mg/Kg of fossil, whereas Modern plant material from the Rio Grande Basin in New Mexico contained no mercury. Profiling of metal content of these samples suggests that mercury is a proxy for anthropogenic rather than geochemical enrichment in the localities we examined. We found no overt signs of mercury toxicity in contemporaneous inhabitants of Huancavelica4, Peru; one of the ten most mercury-polluted places in the world and the mercury concentration in their hair is well below modern admissible levels. However, assessment of their annual scalp hair growth-rate showed marked reduction in growth (~ 5cm/yr) versus ~ 16cm/year for normal scalp hair from other continents4. This is consistent with a toxic effect of heavy metals on human metabolism and especially autonomic nervous system function in Huancavelica, Peru. Contemporaneous anthropogenic activities are known to increase heavy metal content in the biosphere with potentially toxic effects on humans. However, signs of human evolutionary adaptation to such toxins might already be evident in Peru4.

  14. Robotic design for an automated uranium solution enrichment system

    SciTech Connect

    Horley, E.C.; Beugelsdijk, T.; Biddle, R.S.; Bronisz, L.E.; Hansen, W.J.; Li, T.K.; Sampson, T.E.; Walton, G.

    1990-01-01

    A method to automate solution enrichment analysis by gamma-ray spectroscopy is being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Both passive and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses will be remotely performed to determine the amounts of {sup 235}U and total uranium in sample containers. A commercial laboratory robot will be used to process up to 40 batch and 8 priority samples in an unattended mode. Samples will be read by a bar-code reader to determine measurement requirements, then assayed by either or both of the gamma-ray and XRF instruments. The robot will be responsible for moving the sample containers and operating all shield doors and shutters. In addition to reducing hardware complexity, this feature will also allow manual operation of the instruments if the robot fails. This automated system will reduce personnel radiation exposure and increase the reliability and repeatability of the measurements.

  15. Galaxy formation and chemical enrichment using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamine, Kentaro

    2014-05-01

    Structure formation in the Universe is inherently a nonlinear physical process, and the field of computational cosmology aims to study its time evolution throughout the history of the Universe as self-consistently as possible. Cosmological hydrodynamic simulations have gone through two major revolutions over the last two decades, and now starting to go through the third one via more frequent usage of zoom-in technique. In the first part of this article, I briefly review the history of computational cosmology. In the second part, I discuss the results of recent work on the feedback effects and chemical enrichment, which is one of the main topics of this OMEG12 conference. Finally, I describe the new steps that the numerical community is taking; namely the numerical simulation comparison projects such as the AGORA project.

  16. Case study: enrichment of ancient mitochondrial DNA by hybridization capture.

    PubMed

    Horn, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    In ancient DNA studies focusing on estimating population histories, genetic markers are sequenced from a large number of samples belonging to the same species. Targeting loci of interest using traditional PCR can be time-consuming, in particular when samples are not well preserved and multiple overlapping fragments are required. Here, I describe the process of generating DNA libraries from ancient DNA (aDNA) extracts for high-throughput sequencing. I use a serial in-solution DNA hybridization approach with subsequent bead capture to enrich libraries for the target locus, in this case the mitochondrial control region of ancient beavers (Castor fiber). The resulting sequencing reads are run through quality control filters to obtain reliable consensus sequences. Using these sequences, I construct a phylogenetic tree, which agrees with previously published data regarding phylogeographic relationships among beavers. PMID:22237536

  17. Active interrogation of highly enriched uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairrow, Nannette Lea

    Safeguarding special nuclear material (SNM) in the Department of Energy Complex is vital to the national security of the United States. Active and passive nondestructive assays are used to confirm the presence of SNM in various configurations ranging from waste to nuclear weapons. Confirmation measurements for nuclear weapons are more challenging because the design complicates the detection of a distinct signal for highly enriched uranium. The emphasis of this dissertation was to investigate a new nondestructive assay technique that provides an independent and distinct signal to confirm the presence of highly enriched uranium (HEU). Once completed and tested this assay method could be applied to confirmation measurements of nuclear weapons. The new system uses a 14-MeV neutron source for interrogation and records the arrival time of neutrons between the pulses with a high efficiency detection system. The data is then analyzed by the Feynman reduced variance method. The analysis determined the amount of correlation in the data and provided a unique signature of correlated fission neutrons. Measurements of HEU spheres were conducted at Los Alamos with the new system. Then, Monte Carlo calculations were performed to verify hypothesis made about the behavior of the neutrons in the experiment. Comparisons of calculated counting rates by the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) were made with the experimental data to confirm that the measured response reflected the desired behavior of neutron interactions in the highly enriched uranium. In addition, MCNP calculations of the delayed neutron build-up were compared with the measured data. Based on the results obtained from this dissertation, this measurement method has the potential to be expanded to include mass determinations of highly enriched uranium. Although many safeguards techniques exist for measuring special nuclear material, the number of assays that can be used to confirm HEU in shielded systems is limited. These assays also rely on secondary characteristics of the material to be measured. A review of the nondestructive techniques with potential applications for nuclear weapons confirmatory measurements were evaluated with summaries of the pros and cons involved in implementing the methods at production type facilities.

  18. Simulations of Cosmic Chemical Enrichment with Hypernova

    E-print Network

    Chiaki Kobayashi

    2006-11-27

    We simulate cosmic chemical enrichment with a hydrodynamical model including supernova and hypernova feedback. We find that the majority of stars in present-day massive galaxies formed in much smaller galaxies at high redshifts, despite their late assembly times. The hypernova feedback drives galactic outflows efficiently in low mass galaxies, and these winds eject heavy elements into the intergalactic medium. The ejected baryon fraction is larger for less massive galaxies, correlates well with stellar metallicity. The observed mass-metallicity relation is well reproduced as a result of the mass-dependent galactic winds. We also predict the cosmic supernova and gamma-ray burst rate histories.

  19. Hydrogen-enrichment-concept preliminary evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ecklund, E. E.

    1975-01-01

    A hydrogen-enriched fuels concept for automobiles is described and evaluated in terms of fuel consumption and engine exhaust emissions through multicylinder (V-8) automotive engine/hydrogen generator tests, single cylinder research engine (CFR) tests, and hydrogen-generator characterization tests. Analytical predictions are made of the fuel consumption and NO/sub x/ emissions which would result from anticipated engine improvements. The hydrogen-gas generator, which was tested to quantify its thermodynamic input-output relationships was used for integrated testing of the V-8 engine and generator.

  20. Active interrogation of highly enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, C. E.; Hollas, C. L.; Myers, W. L.

    2004-01-01

    Active interrogation techniques provide reliable detection of highly enriched uranium (HEU) even when passive detection is difficult. We use 50-Hz pulsed beams of bremsstrahlung photons from a 10-MeV linac or 14-MeV neutrons from a neutron generator for interrogation, thus activating the HEU. Detection of neutrons between pulses is a positive indicator of the presence of fissionable material. We detect the neutrons with three neutron detector designs based on {sup 3}He tubes. This report shows examples of the responses in these three detectors, for unshielded and shielded kilogram quantities of HEU, in containers as large as cargo containers.

  1. Flight opportunities for science teacher enrichment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devore, Edna; Gillespie, Carlton, Jr.; Hull, Garth; Koch, David

    1995-01-01

    NASA Astrophysics Division supports a pre-college teacher program to provide Flight Opportunities for Science Teacher EnRichment (FOSTER). To date, forty-five teachers are participating, and the program will expand nation-wide to serve fifty teachers per year on board the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. In the future, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) will bring more than one-hundred teachers per year on board for astronomical research mission. FOSTER is supported by a grant to the SETI Institute from the NASA Astrophysics Division, NAGW-3291.

  2. Surplus Highly Enriched Uranium Disposition Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide upper level guidance for the program that will downblend surplus highly enriched uranium for use as commercial nuclear reactor fuel or low-level radioactive waste. The intent of this document is to outline the overall mission and program objectives. The document is also intended to provide a general basis for integration of disposition efforts among all applicable sites. This plan provides background information, establishes the scope of disposition activities, provides an approach to the mission and objectives, identifies programmatic assumptions, defines major roles, provides summary level schedules and milestones, and addresses budget requirements.

  3. Rare-earth elements enrichment of Pacific seafloor sediments: the view from volcanic islands of Polynesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melleton, Jérémie; Tuduri, Johann; Pourret, Olivier; Bailly, Laurent; Gisbert, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are key metals for «green» technologies such as energy saving lamps or permanent magnets used in, e.g., wind turbines, hard disk drives, portable phone or electric or hybrid vehicles. Since several years, world demand for these metals is therefore drastically increasing. The quasi-monopolistic position of China, which produces around 95 % of global REEs production, generates risks for the industries that depend on a secure supply of REEs. In response, countries are developing and diversifying their supply sources, with new mining projects located outside China and efforts in the area of REEs recycling. Most of these projects focus on deposits related to carbonatites and alkaline-peralkaline magmatism, which are generally enriched in light REEs (LREEs) compared to the heavy REEs (HREEs)-enriched deposits of the ion-adsorption types, located in southern China. However, a recent study revealed new valuable resources corresponding to seafloor sediments located in the south-eastern and north-central Pacific. The deep-sea mud described by these authors show a higher HREE/LREE ratio than ion-adsorption deposits, a feature which significantly increases their economic interest. The authors suggest mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal activity as an explanation to this anomalous enrichment. However, several contributions have documented considerable REEs enrichment in basalts and peridotitic xenoliths from French Polynesia. Several arguments have been exposed in favour of a supergene origin, with a short migration, suggesting that REEs were collected from weathered basalts. The Tahaa volcanic island (Sous-le-Vent Island, Society Archipelago, French Polynesia) is the first location where such enrichment has been described. New petrographic and mineralogical investigations confirm a supergene mobilization of this abnormal occurrence. REE-bearing minerals (mainly phosphates of the rhabdophane group) are primarily located within basalt vesicles but also in crack that cross-cut the calcite filling the vesicles or the volcanic glass. They are also closely associated with Ni-Mg bearing phyllosilicates, which appear to nucleate from alteration of olivine and clinopyroxenes. Further investigations are done to evidence and confirm an anterior magmatic enrichment. On the basis of these observations, we believe that the anomalous enrichment observed in seafloor sediments could derive from abnormally-rich provinces corresponding to aerial basaltic formations from oceanic islands primarily enriched during weathering processes (Melleton et al., 2014). Melleton et al. (2014). Rare-earth elements enrichment of Pacific sea-floor sediments: the view from volcanic islands of Polynesia. In preparation.

  4. The Art of Schoolwide Enrichment: A Resource Guidebook for Teachers, Enrichment Specialists, and Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Nora G.; Webb, Michele

    2007-01-01

    In this companion to "Opening Doors", Friedman and Webb provide more helpful, hand-on tips for bringing SEM to life in your school. Readers learn, step-by-step, how to create a schedule that includes a weekly E-Slot for enrichment learning experiences as well as ideas for injecting interest-based experiences into the E-Slot, regular curriculum,…

  5. Protein and ligand preparation: parameters, protocols, and influence on virtual screening enrichments.

    PubMed

    Sastry, G Madhavi; Adzhigirey, Matvey; Day, Tyler; Annabhimoju, Ramakrishna; Sherman, Woody

    2013-03-01

    Structure-based virtual screening plays an important role in drug discovery and complements other screening approaches. In general, protein crystal structures are prepared prior to docking in order to add hydrogen atoms, optimize hydrogen bonds, remove atomic clashes, and perform other operations that are not part of the x-ray crystal structure refinement process. In addition, ligands must be prepared to create 3-dimensional geometries, assign proper bond orders, and generate accessible tautomer and ionization states prior to virtual screening. While the prerequisite for proper system preparation is generally accepted in the field, an extensive study of the preparation steps and their effect on virtual screening enrichments has not been performed. In this work, we systematically explore each of the steps involved in preparing a system for virtual screening. We first explore a large number of parameters using the Glide validation set of 36 crystal structures and 1,000 decoys. We then apply a subset of protocols to the DUD database. We show that database enrichment is improved with proper preparation and that neglecting certain steps of the preparation process produces a systematic degradation in enrichments, which can be large for some targets. We provide examples illustrating the structural changes introduced by the preparation that impact database enrichment. While the work presented here was performed with the Protein Preparation Wizard and Glide, the insights and guidance are expected to be generalizable to structure-based virtual screening with other docking methods. PMID:23579614

  6. Cenozoic magmatism in the South China Basin: Decompression melting and implications of an enriched mantle source

    SciTech Connect

    Flower, M.F.J.; Kan Tu; Ming Zhang ); Guanghong Xie )

    1990-06-01

    A widespread eposide of interplate volcanism followed the cessation of seafloor spreading in the South China Basin (SCB), affecting the South China Sea, and fringing areas of southern China and Indochina. Geochemical data for basalts from South China Sea islands and seamounts, Hainan Island, and Taiwan define an enriched (Dupal-like) mantle domain yielding oceanic island basalt (OIB) suites with {Delta}7/4Pb = 2-13, {Delta}8/4Pb = 45-73, {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr > {approximately}0.70325, Th/Ta > 2, and Th/Ba > 0.02. Opening of the SCB resulted from disaggregation of the South China block in response to the Indo-Eurasian collision, a process involving at least one seafloor spreading episode, terminated by collision of microcontinents with the Philippines and Borneo. The lack of precursive flood basalt suggests that active mantle upwelling was not involved and that melting was a passive effect of lithosphere stretching. However, while mantle decompression at ambient stretching factors ({approximately}1.7-2.5) appears to permit melting on the observed scale, the enriched source may preclude such a simple mantle dynamic. Three alternatives are considered: (1) passive melting of a mature metasomatised boundary layer, (2) active melting of thermally eroded subcontinental lithosphere (deep enrichment) or metasomatised boundary layer (shallow enrichment), and (3) relict diapirs of pre-SCB and/or Java trench subduction slabs (intermediate/deep enrichment). These models are evaluated in terms of chemical and isotopic mass balances associated with the generation and movement of small melt fractions in depleted, nondepleted, and enriched mantle.

  7. Differential response of high-elevation planktonic bacterial community structure and metabolism to experimental nutrient enrichment.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Craig E; Carlson, Craig A

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment of high-elevation freshwater ecosystems by atmospheric deposition is increasing worldwide, and bacteria are a key conduit for the metabolism of organic matter in these oligotrophic environments. We conducted two distinct in situ microcosm experiments in a high-elevation lake (Emerald Lake, Sierra Nevada, California, USA) to evaluate responses in bacterioplankton growth, carbon utilization, and community structure to short-term enrichment by nitrate and phosphate. The first experiment, conducted just following ice-off, employed dark dilution culture to directly assess the impact of nutrients on bacterioplankton growth and consumption of terrigenous dissolved organic matter during snowmelt. The second experiment, conducted in transparent microcosms during autumn overturn, examined how bacterioplankton in unmanipulated microbial communities responded to nutrients concomitant with increasing phytoplankton-derived organic matter. In both experiments, phosphate enrichment (but not nitrate) caused significant increases in bacterioplankton growth, changed particulate organic stoichiometry, and induced shifts in bacterial community composition, including consistent declines in the relative abundance of Actinobacteria. The dark dilution culture showed a significant increase in dissolved organic carbon removal in response to phosphate enrichment. In transparent microcosms nutrient enrichment had no effect on concentrations of chlorophyll, carbon, or the fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter, suggesting that bacterioplankton responses were independent of phytoplankton responses. These results demonstrate that bacterioplankton communities in unproductive high-elevation habitats can rapidly alter their taxonomic composition and metabolism in response to short-term phosphate enrichment. Our results reinforce the key role that phosphorus plays in oligotrophic lake ecosystems, clarify the nature of bacterioplankton nutrient limitation, and emphasize that evaluation of eutrophication in these habitats should incorporate heterotrophic microbial communities and processes. PMID:21483836

  8. Biomineralization of strontianite(SrCO3) by aerobic microorganisms enriched from rhodoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, S.; Roh, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The transport and fate of trace metals and radionuclides in natural environments are controlled by physical, chemical, and microbiological processes. Especially, microbially induced precipitation of carbonates has drawn much attention in recent decades because of its numerous implications such as atmospheric CO2 fixation through mineral carbonation and solid phase capture of inorganic contaminants. The objectives of this study were to investigate the potential for microbially induced precipitation of strontianite (SrCO3) using microorganisms enriched from rhodoliths and to identify mineralogical characteristics of the precipitates of strontianite. Carbonate forming microorganisms were enriched from rhodoliths, which were sampled at Seogwang-ri coast in the western part of Wu Island, Jeju-do, Korea. Microorganisms enriched from rhodoliths were aerobically cultured at 25? in D-1 media containing 30 mM Sr-acetate, and the microorganisms were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene DGGE analysis to confirm microbial diversity. Mineralogical characteristics of the carbonate minerals precipitated by the enriched microorganisms were determined by XRD, TEM-EDS, and SEM-EDS analyses. A 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed the enriched microorganisms contained carbonate forming microorganisms such as Proteus mirailis. The enriched microorganisms precipitated carbonate minerals using D-1 media containing 30 mM Sr-acetate and mineralogy of the precipitate was strontianite (SrCO3). SEM/TEM-EDS analyses showed that the strontianite formed by the microorganisms had a spherical shape and consisted of mainly Sr, O and C. TEM-EDS analyses showed that the strontianite formed by the microorganisms had a rhombohedron shape and consisted of mainly Sr, O and C. These results indicate that the microorganisms induce precipitation of strontianite (SrCO3) on the cell walls and EPS via the accumulation of Sr ions on the cells. Therefore, microbial precipitation of carbonate minerals may play one of important roles in immobilization of metals and radionuclides in natural environments.

  9. Differential Response of High-Elevation Planktonic Bacterial Community Structure and Metabolism to Experimental Nutrient Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Craig E.; Carlson, Craig A.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment of high-elevation freshwater ecosystems by atmospheric deposition is increasing worldwide, and bacteria are a key conduit for the metabolism of organic matter in these oligotrophic environments. We conducted two distinct in situ microcosm experiments in a high-elevation lake (Emerald Lake, Sierra Nevada, California, USA) to evaluate responses in bacterioplankton growth, carbon utilization, and community structure to short-term enrichment by nitrate and phosphate. The first experiment, conducted just following ice-off, employed dark dilution culture to directly assess the impact of nutrients on bacterioplankton growth and consumption of terrigenous dissolved organic matter during snowmelt. The second experiment, conducted in transparent microcosms during autumn overturn, examined how bacterioplankton in unmanipulated microbial communities responded to nutrients concomitant with increasing phytoplankton-derived organic matter. In both experiments, phosphate enrichment (but not nitrate) caused significant increases in bacterioplankton growth, changed particulate organic stoichiometry, and induced shifts in bacterial community composition, including consistent declines in the relative abundance of Actinobacteria. The dark dilution culture showed a significant increase in dissolved organic carbon removal in response to phosphate enrichment. In transparent microcosms nutrient enrichment had no effect on concentrations of chlorophyll, carbon, or the fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter, suggesting that bacterioplankton responses were independent of phytoplankton responses. These results demonstrate that bacterioplankton communities in unproductive high-elevation habitats can rapidly alter their taxonomic composition and metabolism in response to short-term phosphate enrichment. Our results reinforce the key role that phosphorus plays in oligotrophic lake ecosystems, clarify the nature of bacterioplankton nutrient limitation, and emphasize that evaluation of eutrophication in these habitats should incorporate heterotrophic microbial communities and processes. PMID:21483836

  10. Food webs of two intermittently open estuaries receiving 15N-enriched sewage effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadwen, Wade L.; Arthington, Angela H.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signatures were used to assess the response of food webs to sewage effluent discharged into two small intermittently open estuaries in northern New South Wales, Australia. One of these systems, Tallows Creek, has a history of direct sewage inputs, whilst the other, Belongil Creek, receives wastewater via an extensive wetland treatment system. The food webs of both systems were driven by algal sources of carbon, reflecting high autotrophic productivity in response to the nutrients entering the system from sewage effluent. All aquatic biota collected from Tallows Creek had significantly enriched ?15N signatures relative to their conspecifics from Belongil Creek, indicating that sewage nitrogen had been assimilated and transferred throughout the Tallows Creek food web. These ?15N values were higher than those reported from studies in permanently open estuaries receiving sewage effluent. We suggest that these enriched signatures and the transfer of nitrogen throughout the entire food web reflect differences in hydrology and associated nitrogen cycling processes between permanently open and intermittently open estuaries. Although all organisms in Tallows Creek were generally 15N-enriched, isotopically light (less 15N-enriched) individuals of estuary perchlet ( Ambassis marianus) and sea mullet ( Mugil cephalus) were also collected. These individuals were most likely recent immigrants into Tallows Creek, as this system had only recently been opened to the ocean. This isotopic discrimination between resident (enriched) and immigrant (significantly less enriched) individuals can provide information on fish movement patterns and the role of heavily polluted intermittently open estuaries in supporting commercially and recreationally valuable estuarine species.

  11. Assuaging Nuclear Energy Risks: The Angarsk International Uranium Enrichment Center

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Astasia

    2011-06-28

    The recent nuclear renaissance has motivated many countries, especially developing nations, to plan and build nuclear power reactors. However, domestic low enriched uranium demands may trigger nations to construct indigenous enrichment facilities, which could be redirected to fabricate high enriched uranium for nuclear weapons. The potential advantages of establishing multinational uranium enrichment sites are numerous including increased low enrichment uranium access with decreased nuclear proliferation risks. While multinational nuclear initiatives have been discussed, Russia is the first nation to actualize this concept with their Angarsk International Uranium Enrichment Center (IUEC). This paper provides an overview of the historical and modern context of the multinational nuclear fuel cycle as well as the evolution of Russia's IUEC, which exemplifies how international fuel cycle cooperation is an alternative to domestic facilities.

  12. The Effect of Cyanobacterial Biomass Enrichment by Centrifugation and GF/C Filtration on Subsequent Microcystin Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Shelley; Puddick, Jonathan; Wood, Susanna A.; Dietrich, Daniel R.; Hamilton, David P.; Prinsep, Michele R.

    2015-01-01

    Microcystins are cyclic peptides produced by multiple cyanobacterial genera. After accumulation in the liver of animals they inhibit eukaryotic serine/threonine protein phosphatases, causing liver disease or death. Accurate detection/quantification of microcystins is essential to ensure safe water resources and to enable research on this toxin. Previous methodological comparisons have focused on detection and extraction techniques, but have not investigated the commonly used biomass enrichment steps. These enrichment steps could modulate toxin production as recent studies have demonstrated that high cyanobacterial cell densities cause increased microcystin levels. In this study, three microcystin-producing strains were processed using no cell enrichment steps (by direct freezing at three temperatures) and with biomass enrichment (by centrifugation or GF/C filtration). After extraction, microcystins were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All processing methods tested, except GF/C filtration, resulted in comparable microcystin quotas for all strains. The low yields observed for the filtration samples were caused by adsorption of arginine-containing microcystins to the GF/C filters. Whilst biomass enrichment did not affect microcystin metabolism over the time-frame of normal sample processing, problems associated with GF/C filtration were identified. The most widely applicable processing method was direct freezing of samples as it could be utilized in both field and laboratory environments. PMID:25763766

  13. Transfer, pathways, enrichment, and discharge of 137Cs and 90Sr in the pulp industry.

    PubMed

    Krosshavn, M; Skipperud, L; Lien, H N; Salbu, B

    1996-09-01

    Natural and artificial radionuclides are transferred from terrestrial ecosystems via the forest industry to coastal sea water. The material processed, i.e., wood, fresh water, and bark, have low levels of radionuclides, but large amounts of raw materials are processed annually. Thus the annual flux of radionuclides is substantial. The purpose of this investigation was to study transfer, redistribution, enrichment, and discharges of 137Cs and 90Sr in pulp industry employing the sulphate process. 137Cs and 90Sr were measured by means of Ge-detectors and a low level liquid scintillation spectrometer, respectively. 137Cs was highly enriched in the recovering process for sodium, while 90Sr was enriched in the recovering system for calcium compared to concentration levels in raw materials. The concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr in bark were almost ten times the concentration level in conifer wood. No 137Cs or 90Sr could be identified in atmospheric discharges from the combustion processes. The products contained very low levels of these radionuclides. Only 5% of the annual input of 137Cs and 90Sr were found in the products. Discharges of radionuclides from this particular pulp production plant is nearly 40% of the annual 137Cs and 90Sr input. The contribution of 137Cs and 90Sr to coastal seawater is probably of minor importance providing that wood or fresh water from highly contaminated areas are not utilized. PMID:8698574

  14. Effect of phase behavior on bypassing in enriched gas floods

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, J.E.; Bhogeswara, R.; Mohanty, K.K. )

    1994-05-01

    Enriched gas floods incorporate a complex interaction of heterogeneity, fingering, multiphase flow, and phase behavior. Experiments and simulations indicate that the optimum solvent enrichment in high-viscosity-ratio secondary gas floods can be below minimum miscibility enrichment (MME). The compositional path and resulting mobility profile in multidimensional multiple-contact miscible (MCM) or immiscible floods are different from their 1D counterparts for high-viscosity-ratio floods in heterogeneous media.

  15. Effects of nutrient enrichment on mangrove leaf litter decomposition.

    PubMed

    Keuskamp, Joost A; Hefting, Mariet M; Dingemans, Bas J J; Verhoeven, Jos T A; Feller, Ilka C

    2015-03-01

    Nutrient enrichment of mangroves, a common phenomenon along densely populated coastlines, may negatively affect mangrove ecosystems by modifying internal carbon and nutrient cycling. The decomposition of litter exerts a strong influence on these processes and is potentially modified by eutrophication. This study describes effects of N and P enrichment on litter decomposition rate and mineralisation/immobilisation patterns. By making use of reciprocal litter transplantation experiments among fertiliser treatments, it was tested if nutrient addition primarily acts on the primary producers (i.e. changes in litter quantity and quality) or on the microbial decomposers (i.e. changes in nutrient limitation for decomposition). Measurements were done in two mangrove forests where primary production was either limited by N or by P, which had been subject to at least 5 years of experimental N and P fertilisation. Results of this study indicated that decomposers were always N-limited regardless of the limitation of the primary producers. This leads to a differential nutrient limitation between decomposers and primary producers in sites where mangrove production was P-limited. In these sites, fertilisation with P caused litter quality to change, resulting in a higher decomposition rate. This study shows that direct effects of fertilisation on decomposition through an effect on decomposer nutrient availability might be non-significant, while the indirect effects through modifying litter quality might be quite substantial in mangroves. Our results show no indication that eutrophication increases decomposition without stimulating primary production. Therefore we do not expect a decline in carbon sequestration as a result of eutrophication of mangrove ecosystems. PMID:25497680

  16. Assessment for Effective Intervention: Enrichment Science Academic Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasson, Irit; Cohen, Donita

    2012-11-01

    Israel suffers from a growing problem of socio-economic gaps between those who live in the center of the country and residents of outlying areas. As a result, there is a low level of accessibility to higher education among the peripheral population. The goal of the Sidney Warren Science Education Center for Youth at Tel-Hai College is to strengthen the potential of middle and high school students and encourage them to pursue higher education, with an emphasis on majoring in science and technology. This study investigated the implementation and evaluation of the enrichment science academic program, as an example of informal learning environment, with an emphasis on physics studies. About 500 students conducted feedback survey after participating in science activities in four domains: biology, chemistry, physics, and computer science. Results indicated high level of satisfaction among the students. No differences were found with respect to gender excluding in physics with a positive attitudes advantage among boys. In order to get a deeper understanding of this finding, about 70 additional students conducted special questionnaires, both 1 week before the physics enrichment day and at the end of that day. Questionnaires were intended to assess both their attitudes toward physics and their knowledge and conceptions of the physical concept "pressure." We found that the activity moderately improved boys' attitudes toward physics, but that girls displayed decreased interest in and lower self-efficacy toward physics. Research results were used to the improvement of the instructional design of the physics activity demonstrating internal evaluation process for effective intervention.

  17. Odor enrichment sculpts the abundance of olfactory bulb mitral cells.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Melissa Cavallin; Biju, K C; Hoffman, Joshua; Fadool, Debra Ann

    2013-04-29

    Mitral cells are the primary output cell from the olfactory bulb conveying olfactory sensory information to higher cortical areas. Gene-targeted deletion of the Shaker potassium channel Kv1.3 alters voltage-dependence and inactivation kinetics of mitral cell current properties, which contribute to the "Super-smeller" phenotype observed in Kv1.3-null mice. The goal of the current study was to determine if morphology and density are influenced by mitral cell excitability, olfactory environment, and stage of development. Wildtype (WT) and Kv1.3-null (KO) mice were exposed to a single odorant (peppermint or citralva) for 30 days. Under unstimulated conditions, postnatal day 20 KO mice had more mitral cells than their WT counterparts, but no difference in cell size. Odor-enrichment with peppermint, an olfactory and trigeminal stimulus, decreased the number of mitral cells in three month and one year old mice of both genotypes. Mitral cell density was most sensitive to odor-stimulation in three month WT mice. Enrichment at the same age with citralva, a purely olfactory stimulus, decreased cell density regardless of genotype. There were no significant changes in cell body shape in response to citralva exposure, but the cell area was greater in WT mice and selectively greater in the ventral region of the OB in KO mice. This suggests that trigeminal or olfactory stimulation may modify mitral cell area and density while not impacting cell body shape. Mitral cell density can therefore be modulated by the voltage and sensory environment to alter information processing or olfactory perception. PMID:23485739

  18. Detection of symmetry-enriched topological phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ching-Yu; Chen, Xie; Pollmann, Frank

    2014-07-01

    Topologically ordered systems in the presence of symmetries can exhibit new structures which are referred to as symmetry-enriched topological (SET) phases. We introduce simple methods to detect certain SET orders directly from a complete set of topologically degenerate ground-state wave functions. In particular, we first show how to directly determine the characteristic symmetry fractionalization of the quasiparticles from the reduced density matrix of the minimally entangled states. Second, we show how a simple generalization of a nonlocal order parameter can be measured to detect SET phases. The usefulness of the proposed approach is demonstrated by examining two concrete model states which exhibit SET phases: (i) a spin-1 model on the honeycomb lattice and (ii) the resonating valence bond (RVB) state on a kagome lattice. We conclude that the spin-1 model and the RVB state are in the same SET phases.

  19. Enriched Storable Oxidizers for Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sackheim, R. L.; Herdy, J. R., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The name "enriched storable oxidizers" (ESOs) has been coined for a family of optimized mixtures of between two and four oxidizer fluids. For most applications, the constituents of these mixtures would be nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2); in some applications, the mixtures might include inhibited red fuming nitric acid [IRFN (which consists of red fuming nitric acid to which some hydrogen fluoride is added to reduce its corrosive effect]. The optimum proportions of these constituents would be different for different applications. ESOs were originally proposed for use in spacecraft and launch-rocket propulsion systems: ESOs could be especially useful in advanced spacecraft propulsion systems that could operate in multiple modes. ESOs might also be useful in special terrestrial applications that could include ramjet and scramjet aircraft engines.

  20. Ultraheavy element enrichment in impulsive solar flares

    SciTech Connect

    Eichler, David

    2014-10-10

    Particle acceleration by cascading Alfvén wave turbulence was suggested as being responsible for energetic particle populations in {sup 3}He-rich solar flares. In particular, it was noted that the damping of the turbulence by the tail of the particle distribution in rigidity naturally leads to the dramatic enhancement of a pre-accelerated species—as {sup 3}He is posited to be—and superheavy elements. The subsequent detection of large enrichment of ultraheavies, relative to iron, has apparently confirmed this prediction, lending support to the original idea. It is shown here that this picture could be somewhat sharpened by progress in understanding the three-dimensional geometrical details of cascading Alfvén turbulence. The mechanism may be relevant in other astrophysical environments where the source of turbulence is nonmagnetic, such as clusters of galaxies.

  1. Enrichment of chemical libraries docked to protein conformational ensembles and application to aldehyde dehydrogenase 2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Buchman, Cameron D; Li, Liwei; Hurley, Thomas D; Meroueh, Samy O

    2014-07-28

    Molecular recognition is a complex process that involves a large ensemble of structures of the receptor and ligand. Yet, most structure-based virtual screening is carried out on a single structure typically from X-ray crystallography. Explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations offer an opportunity to sample multiple conformational states of a protein. Here we evaluate our recently developed scoring method SVMSP in its ability to enrich chemical libraries docked to MD structures of seven proteins from the Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD). SVMSP is a target-specific rescoring method that combines machine learning with statistical potentials. We find that enrichment power as measured by the area under the ROC curve (ROC-AUC) is not affected by increasing the number of MD structures. Among individual MD snapshots, many exhibited enrichment that was significantly better than the crystal structure, but no correlation between enrichment and structural deviation from crystal structure was found. We followed an innovative approach by training SVMSP scoring models using MD structures (SVMSPMD). The resulting models were applied to two difficult cases (p38 and CDK2) for which enrichment was not better than random. We found remarkable increase in enrichment power, particularly for p38, where the ROC-AUC increased by 0.30 to 0.85. Finally, we explored approaches for a priori identification of MD snapshots with high enrichment power from an MD simulation in the absence of active compounds. We found that the use of randomly selected compounds docked to the target of interest using SVMSP led to notable enrichment for EGFR and Src MD snapshots. SVMSP rescoring of protein-compound MD structures was applied for the search of small-molecule inhibitors of the mitochondrial enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2). Rank-ordering of a commercial library of 50?000 compounds docked to MD structures of ALDH2 led to five small-molecule inhibitors. Four compounds had IC50s below 5 ?M. These compounds serve as leads for the design and synthesis of more potent and selective ALDH2 inhibitors. PMID:24856086

  2. Permeation of iodide from iodine-enriched yeast through porcine intestine.

    PubMed

    Ryszka, Florian; Doli?ska, Barbara; Zieli?ski, Micha?; Chyra, Dagmara; Dobrza?ski, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a common phenomenon, threatening the whole global human population. Recommended daily intake of iodine is 150 ?g for adults and 250 ?g for pregnant and breastfeeding women. About 50% of human population can be at risk of moderate iodine deficiency. Due to this fact, increased iodine supplementation is recommended, through intake of iodized mineral water and salt iodization. The aim of this study was to investigate permeation and absorption of iodide from iodine bioplex (experimental group) in comparison with potassium iodide (controls). Permeation and absorption processes were investigated in vitro using a porcine intestine. The experimental model was based on a standard Franz diffusion cell (FD-Cell). The iodine bioplex was produced using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and whey powder: iodine content - 388 ?g/g, total protein - 28.5%, total fat - 0.9%., glutamic acid - 41.2%, asparaginic acid - 29.4%, lysine - 24.8%; purchased from: F.Z.N.P. Biochefa, Sosnowiec, Poland. Potassium iodide was used as controls, at 388 ?g iodine concentration, which was the same as in iodine-enriched yeast bioplex. A statistically significant increase in iodide permeation was observed for iodine-enriched yeast bioplex in comparison with controls - potassium iodide. After 5h the total amount of permeated iodide from iodine-enriched yeast bioplex was 85%, which is ~ 2-fold higher than controls - 37%. Iodide absorption was by contrast statistically significantly higher in controls - 7.3%, in comparison with 4.5% in experimental group with iodine-enriched yeast bioplex. Presented results show that iodide permeation process dominates over absorption in case of iodine-enriched yeast bioplex. PMID:24364046

  3. Conversion of crude oil to methane by a microbial consortium enriched from oil reservoir production waters

    PubMed Central

    Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina; Gieg, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    The methanogenic biodegradation of crude oil is an important process occurring in petroleum reservoirs and other oil-containing environments such as contaminated aquifers. In this process, syntrophic bacteria degrade hydrocarbon substrates to products such as acetate, and/or H2 and CO2 that are then used by methanogens to produce methane in a thermodynamically dependent manner. We enriched a methanogenic crude oil-degrading consortium from production waters sampled from a low temperature heavy oil reservoir. Alkylsuccinates indicative of fumarate addition to C5 and C6 n-alkanes were identified in the culture (above levels found in controls), corresponding to the detection of an alkyl succinate synthase encoding gene (assA/masA) in the culture. In addition, the enrichment culture was tested for its ability to produce methane from residual oil in a sandstone-packed column system simulating a mature field. Methane production rates of up to 5.8 ?mol CH4/g of oil/day were measured in the column system. Amounts of produced methane were in relatively good agreement with hydrocarbon loss showing depletion of more than 50% of saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons. Microbial community analysis revealed that the enrichment culture was dominated by members of the genus Smithella, Methanosaeta, and Methanoculleus. However, a shift in microbial community occurred following incubation of the enrichment in the sandstone columns. Here, Methanobacterium sp. were most abundant, as were bacterial members of the genus Pseudomonas and other known biofilm forming organisms. Our findings show that microorganisms enriched from petroleum reservoir waters can bioconvert crude oil components to methane both planktonically and in sandstone-packed columns as test systems. Further, the results suggest that different organisms may contribute to oil biodegradation within different phases (e.g., planktonic vs. sessile) within a subsurface crude oil reservoir. PMID:24829563

  4. Chemical Self-Enrichment of HII Regions by the Wolf-Rayet Phase of an 85 Msun star

    E-print Network

    Danica Kröger; Gerhard Hensler; Tim Freyer

    2006-03-08

    It is clear from stellar evolution and from observations of WR stars that massive stars are releasing metal-enriched gas through their stellar winds in the Wolf-Rayet phase. Although HII region spectra serve as diagnostics to determine the present-day chemical composition of the interstellar medium, it is far from being understood to what extent the HII gas is already contaminated by chemically processed stellar wind. Therefore, we analyzed our models of radiative and wind bubbles of an isolated 85 Msun star with solar metallicity (Kr\\"oger et al. 2006) with respect to the chemical enrichment of the circumstellar HII region. Plausibly, the hot stellar wind bubble (SWB) is enriched with 14N during the WN phase and even much higher with 12C and 16O during the WC phase of the star. During the short period that the 85 Msun star spends in the WC stage enriched SWB material mixes with warm HII gas of solar abundances and thus enhances the metallicity in the HII region. However, at the end of the stellar lifetime the mass ratios of the traced elements N and O in the warm ionized gas are insignificantly higher than solar, whereas an enrichment of 22 % above solar is found for C. Important issues from the presented study comprise a steeper radial gradient of C than O and a decreasing effect of self-enrichment for metal-poor galaxies.

  5. Continuing Effects of Early Enrichment in Adult Life: The Turkish Early Enrichment Project 22 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagitcibasi, Cigdem; Sunar, Diane; Bekman, Sevda; Baydar, Nazli; Cemalcilar, Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    Long-term studies of early intervention, spanning over decades, are scarce in the United States and nonexistent in the rest of the world. The Turkish Early Enrichment Project (TEEP) is the only non-U.S. example to date. This paper reports a new follow-up assessment of the long-term outcomes of TEEP, an intervention carried out in 1983-1985 with…

  6. Detection of illicit HEU production in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants using neutron counting techniques on product cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Corey R; Geist, William H

    2010-01-01

    Innovative and novel safeguards approaches are needed for nuclear energy to meet global energy needs without the threat of nuclear weapons proliferation. Part of these efforts will include creating verification techniques that can monitor uranium enrichment facilities for illicit production of highly-enriched uranium (HEU). Passive nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques will be critical in preventing illicit HEU production because NDA offers the possibility of continuous and unattended monitoring capabilities with limited impact on facility operations. Gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEP) are commonly used to produce low-enriched uranium (LEU) for reactor fuel. In a GCEP, gaseous UF{sub 6} spins at high velocities in centrifuges to separate the molecules containing {sup 238}U from those containing the lighter {sup 235}U. Unfortunately, the process for creating LEU is inherently the same as HEU, creating a proliferation concern. Insuring that GCEPs are producing declared enrichments poses many difficult challenges. In a GCEP, large cascade halls operating thousands of centrifuges work together to enrich the uranium which makes effective monitoring of the cascade hall economically prohibitive and invasive to plant operations. However, the enriched uranium exiting the cascade hall fills product cylinders where the UF{sub 6} gas sublimes and condenses for easier storage and transportation. These product cylinders hold large quantities of enriched uranium, offering a strong signal for NDA measurement. Neutrons have a large penetrability through materials making their use advantageous compared to gamma techniques where the signal is easily attenuated. One proposed technique for detecting HEU production in a GCEP is using neutron coincidence counting at the product cylinder take off stations. This paper discusses findings from Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code simulations that examine the feasibility of such a detector.

  7. ENRICHED STABLE ISOTOPE TARGET PREPARATION AT THE OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Aaron, W Scott; Zevenbergen, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1960s the Department of Energy (DOE) Isotope Program, through the Isotope Development Group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has been developing and supplying, among other things, enriched stable isotope targets for nuclear research around the world. This group also maintains and distributes the DOE inventory of enriched stable isotopes. Chemical and pyrochemical techniques are used to prepare enriched stable isotopes from this inventory in the desired chemical form. Metallurgical, ceramic, or vacuum processing methods are then used to prepare the isotopes in a wide range of physical forms from thin films, foils, and coatings to large fabricated shapes to meet the needs of experimenters. Significant characterization capabilities are also available to assist in the preparation and evaluation of these custom materials. This work is part of the DOE Isotope Program, which recently transferred to the Office of Nuclear Physics, DOE Office of Science, resulting in a stronger emphasis on enabling R&D. This presentation will focus on the custom preparation of enriched stable isotope targets and other research materials.

  8. Macrozoobenthic community structure in two Portuguese estuaries: Relationship with organic enrichment and nutrient gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucha, Ana Paula; Costa, Maria Helena

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this work consists in the study of the structural and functional aspects of the macrozoobenthic communities and their relationships with the organic enrichment and nutrient gradients in water and sediment. The study was carried out in two coastal ecosystems under strong anthropogenic pressure: the Sado estuary and the Aveiro Lagoon. Samples were collected at four stations between October 1994 and April 1995. The results obtained allowed us to state that spatial variability, both horizontal and vertical, was higher than the temporal variability. This was due to local hydrodynamism, organic load and granulometric structure of the sediment. Comparing the community structure at the different stations, it was possible to observe the existence of disturbance cases not directly related to organic enrichment gradients. The interpretation of the functional role of the macrozoobenthic communities at the water-sediment interface was based on the trophodynamic group classification. This approach allowed us to state that the sensitivity of different groups to organic enrichment, confirming the role of burrower subsurface-deposit feeders as opportunists associated with organic enrichment and, on the other hand, the influence of certain trophodynamic groups in the nutrient transfer processes, particularly the association between tube-builder omnivores and burrower carnivore and nitrate content in interstitial water.

  9. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory materials in inventory natural and enriched uranium management and storage costs

    SciTech Connect

    Nebeker, R.L.

    1995-11-01

    On July 13, 1994, the Office of Environmental Management (EM) was requested to develop a planning process that would result in management policies for dealing with nuclear materials in inventory. In response to this request, EM launched the Materials In Inventory (MIN) Initiative. A Headquarters Working Group was established to develop the broad policy framework for developing MIN management policies. MIN activities cover essentially all nuclear materials within the DOE complex, including such items as spent nuclear fuel, depleted uranium, plutonium, natural and enriched uranium, and other materials. In August 1995, a report discussing the natural and enriched uranium portion of the Initiative for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was published. That report, `Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Materials-in-Inventory, Natural and Enriched Uranium`.` identified MIN under the control of Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company at the INEL. Later, additional information related to the costs associated with the storage of MIN materials was requested to supplement this report. This report provides the cost information for storing, disposing, or consolidating the natural and enriched uranium portion of the MIN materials at the INEL. The information consists of eight specific tables which detail present management costs and estimated costs of future activities.

  10. Photochemical enrichment of deuterium in Titan's atmosphere: new insights from Cassini-Huygens

    E-print Network

    D. Cordier; O. Mousis; I. J. Lunine; A. Moudens; V. Vuitton

    2008-10-20

    Cassini-Huygens data are used to re-examine the potential sources of the D/H enhancement over solar, measured in methane, in Titan's atmosphere. Assuming that the system is closed with respect to carbon, the use of constraints from the Huygens probe for the determination of the current mass of atmospheric methane and the most up-to-date determination of D/H from Cassini/CIRS infrared spectra allow us to show that photochemical enrichment of deuterium is not sufficient to be the sole mechanism yielding the measured D/H value. A possible fractionation between CH3D and CH4 during the escape process may slightly enhance the deuterium enrichment, but is not sufficient to explain the observed D/H value over the range of escape values proposed in the literature. Hence, alternative mechanisms such as a primordial deuterium enrichment must be combined with the photochemical enrichment in Titan's atmosphere in order to explain its current D/H value.

  11. Proteomic Characterisation of the Salt Gland-Enriched Tissues of the Mangrove Tree Species Avicennia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wee-Kee; Lim, Teck-Kwang; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Kumar, Prakash; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    Plant salt glands are nature’s desalination devices that harbour potentially useful information pertaining to salt and water transport during secretion. As part of the program toward deciphering secretion mechanisms in salt glands, we used shotgun proteomics to compare the protein profiles of salt gland-enriched (isolated epidermal peels) and salt gland-deprived (mesophyll) tissues of the mangrove species Avicennia officinalis. The purpose of the work is to identify proteins that are present in the salt gland-enriched tissues. An average of 2189 and 977 proteins were identified from the epidermal peel and mesophyll tissues, respectively. Among these, 2188 proteins were identified in salt gland-enriched tissues and a total of 1032 selected proteins were categorized by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. This paper reports for the first time the proteomic analysis of salt gland-enriched tissues of a mangrove tree species. Candidate proteins that may play a role in the desalination process of the mangrove salt glands and their potential localization were identified. Information obtained from this study paves the way for future proteomic research aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying secretion in plant salt glands. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000771. PMID:26193361

  12. Enrichment Factors (EF) on Superficial Sediments of Santos Estuarine System, Southeasthern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B. S. M.; Salaroli, A. B.; Mahiques, M.; Figueira, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Baixada Santista, located at southeastern Brazilian coast, hosts the largest harbor of South America, it is also the third most heavily populated region in São Paulo state. Many industries and domestic sewage have been contaminating the environment with heavy metals and arsenic since industrial revolution. This has been a major concern worldwide due to its toxicity and persistence. Levels of metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, Sc, V) and As were determinated on 180 samples of surface sediments, by acid digestion and quantified by ICP-OES to assess enrichment factors in order to know the anthropogenic contribution of the investigated elements. The levels of metals indicated absence of contamination, but a higher enrichment of As (approximately 9.5) near Bertioga city. Ni and Cr had values between 0.5 - 2.0, Cu and Zn between 0.6 - 4.0 and 0.9 - 7.5 for Pb. Despite As, all others metals showed higher enrichment in Santos - São Vicente Estuary, especially near Cubatão. The analysis of the enrichment factor of As indicate that these values could be due to natural processes of weathering and sedimentation, meanwhile the other metals could be from antropogenic sources, since thoses values were found near industrial area.

  13. A glass full of optimism: enrichment effects on cognitive bias in a rat model of depression.

    PubMed

    Richter, Sophie Helene; Schick, Anita; Hoyer, Carolin; Lankisch, Katja; Gass, Peter; Vollmayr, Barbara

    2012-09-01

    Investigations of cognitive biases in animals are conceptually and translationally valuable because they contribute to animal welfare research and help to extend and refine our understanding of human emotional disorders, where biased information processing is a critical causal and maintenance factor. We employed the "learned helplessness" genetic rat model of depression in studying cognitive bias and its modification by environmental manipulations. Using a spatial judgment task, responses to ambiguous spatial cues were assessed before and after environmental enrichment to test whether this manipulation would cause an optimistic shift in emotional state. Twenty-four congenitally helpless and nonhelpless male rats were trained to discriminate two different locations, "rewarded" versus "aversive." After successful acquisition of this spatial discrimination, cognitive bias was probed by measuring responses to three ambiguous locations. Latencies to "reach" and to actively "choose" a goal pot were recorded alongside exploratory behaviors. An overall strain difference was observed, with helpless rats displaying longer "reach" latencies than nonhelpless rats. This implies a "pessimistic" response bias in helpless rats, underscoring their depressive-like phenotype. No strain differences were observed regarding other behavioral measures. Half of the animals were then transferred to enriched cages and retested. Environmental enrichment resulted in reduced "choose" latencies in both rat strains, associating enrichment with more optimistic interpretations of ambiguous cues. Our results emphasize the suitability of cognitive bias measurement for animal emotion assessment. They extend the methodological repertoire for characterizing complex phenotypes and bear implications for animal welfare research and for the use of animal models in preclinical research. PMID:22644760

  14. An integrated microfluidic platform for negative selection and enrichment of cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wen-Yi; Tsai, Sung-Chi; Hsieh, Kuangwen; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2015-08-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs), tumor cells that disseminate from primary tumors to the bloodstream, have recently emerged as promising indicators for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. However, the technical difficulties in isolating and detecting rare CTCs have limited the widespread applicability of this method to date. In this work, a new integrated microfluidic system integrating micromixers and micropumps capable of performing ‘negative selection and enrichment’ of CTCs was developed. By using anti-human CD45 antibodies-coated magnetic beads, leukocytes were effectively removed by applying an external magnetic force, leaving behind an enriched target cell population. The on-chip CTC recovery rate was experimentally found to be 70???±???5% after a single round of negative selection and enrichment. Meanwhile, CD45 depletion efficiency was 83.99???±???1.00% and could be improved to 99.84???±???0.04% after three consecutive rounds of depletion. Notably, on-chip negative selection and enrichment was 58% faster and the repeated depletion could be processed automatically. These promising results suggested the developed microfluidic chip is potentiated for a standardized CTC isolation platform. Preliminary results of the current paper were presented at Micro TAS 2014, San Antonio, Texas, USA, October 26-30, 2014.

  15. Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine wastes and surrounding geologically enriched terrains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gustin, M.S.; Coolbaugh, M.F.; Engle, M.A.; Fitzgerald, B.C.; Keislar, R.E.; Lindberg, S.E.; Nacht, D.M.; Quashnick, J.; Rytuba, J.J.; Sladek, C.; Zhang, H.; Zehner, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    Waste rock and ore associated with Hg, precious and base metal mining, and their surrounding host rocks are typically enriched in mercury relative to natural background concentrations (<0.1 ??g Hg g-1). Mercury fluxes to the atmosphere from mineralized areas can range from background rates (0-15 ng m-2 h-1) to tens of thousands of ng m-2 h-1. Mercury enriched substrate constitutes a long-term source of mercury to the global atmospheric mercury pool. Mercury emissions from substrate are influenced by light, temperature, precipitation, and substrate mercury concentration, and occur during the day and night. Light-enhanced emissions are driven by two processes: desorption of elemental mercury accumulated at the soil:air interface, and photo reduction of mercury containing phases. To determine the need for and effectiveness of regulatory controls on short-lived anthropogenic point sources the contribution of mercury from geologic non-point sources to the atmospheric mercury pool needs to be quantified. The atmospheric mercury contribution from small areas of mining disturbance with relatively high mercury concentrations are, in general, less than that from surrounding large areas of low levels of mercury enrichment. In the arid to semi-arid west-ern United States volatilization is the primary means by which mercury is released from enriched sites.

  16. HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM BLEND DOWN PROGRAM AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE PRESENT AND FUTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Magoulas, V; Charles Goergen, C; Ronald Oprea, R

    2008-06-05

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) entered into an Interagency Agreement to transfer approximately 40 metric tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) to TVA for conversion to fuel for the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant. Savannah River Site (SRS) inventories included a significant amount of this material, which resulted from processing spent fuel and surplus materials. The HEU is blended with natural uranium (NU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) with a 4.95% 235U isotopic content and shipped as solution to the TVA vendor. The HEU Blend Down Project provided the upgrades needed to achieve the product throughput and purity required and provided loading facilities. The first blending to low enriched uranium (LEU) took place in March 2003 with the initial shipment to the TVA vendor in July 2003. The SRS Shipments have continued on a regular schedule without any major issues for the past 5 years and are due to complete in September 2008. The HEU Blend program is now looking to continue its success by dispositioning an additional approximately 21 MTU of HEU material as part of the SRS Enriched Uranium Disposition Project.

  17. Establishing Specifications for Low Enriched Uranium Fuel Operations Conducted Outside the High Flux Isotope Reactor Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkston, Daniel; Primm, Trent; Renfro, David G; Sease, John D

    2010-10-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has funded staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study the conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from the current, high enriched uranium fuel to low enriched uranium fuel. The LEU fuel form is a metal alloy that has never been used in HFIR or any HFIR-like reactor. This report provides documentation of a process for the creation of a fuel specification that will meet all applicable regulations and guidelines to which UT-Battelle, LLC (UTB) the operating contractor for ORNL - must adhere. This process will allow UTB to purchase LEU fuel for HFIR and be assured of the quality of the fuel being procured.

  18. Enrichment of By-Product Materials from Steel Pickling Acid Regeneration Plants (TRP 9942)

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Swan, Delta Ferrites LLC

    2009-09-30

    A new process for manufacturing an enriched, iron-based product (strontium hexaferrite) in existing steel pickling acid regeneration facilities was evaluated. Process enhancements and equipment additions were made to an existing acid regeneration plant to develop and demonstrate (via pilot scale testing and partial-capacity production trials) the viability of a patented method to produce strontium-based compounds that, when mixed with steel pickling acid and roasted, would result in a strontium hexaferrite powder precursor which could then be subjected to further heat treatment in an atmosphere that promotes rapid, relatively low-temperature formation of discrete strontium hexaferrite magnetic domains yielding an enriched iron-based product, strontium hexaferrite, that can be used in manufacturing hard ferrite magnets.

  19. Enriched Video Semantic Metadata: Authorization, Integration, and Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mu, Xiangming; Marchionini, Gary

    2003-01-01

    Presents an enriched video metadata framework including video authorization using the Video Annotation and Summarization Tool (VAST)-a video metadata authorization system that integrates both semantic and visual metadata-- metadata integration, and user level applications. Results demonstrated that the enriched metadata were seamlessly…

  20. SINGLE ION TRAPPING FOR THE ENRICHED XENON OBSERVATORY

    E-print Network

    Gratta, Giorgio

    SINGLE ION TRAPPING FOR THE ENRICHED XENON OBSERVATORY A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT. The Enriched Xenon Observatory for neutrinoless double beta decay (EXO) will search for the rare decays of xenon to determine the absolute value of the neutrino mass. The experiment uses a novel technique

  1. Arts Enrichment and School Readiness for Children at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eleanor D.; Benedett, Barbara; Armistead, M. Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Arts enrichment provides varied channels for acquiring school readiness skills and may offer important educational opportunities for students from diverse backgrounds and with diverse needs. Study 1 examined achievement within an arts enrichment preschool that served low-income children. Results indicated that students practiced school readiness…

  2. Schoolwide Enrichment Model: Challenging All Children to Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes how the components of the Schoolwide Enrichment Model were used to dramatically reduce the achievement gap in a school with a high at-risk student population. The theories of enrichment and instructional differentiation replaced an existing remedial paradigm and a strength-based methodology was embraced by the school…

  3. Anisotropic Outflows and Enrichment of the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Matthew M. Pieri; Hugo Martel; Cedric Grenon

    2006-11-17

    We have developed an analytical model for the evolution of anisotropic galactic outflows. These outflows follow the path of least resistance, and thus travel preferentially into low-density regions, away from cosmological structures where galaxies form. We show that anisotropic outflows can significantly enrich low-density systems, while reducing the enrichment of overdense regions.

  4. 21 CFR 139.165 - Enriched vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched vegetable noodle products. 139.165 Section...Noodle Products § 139.165 Enriched vegetable noodle products. (a) Each...as hereinafter provided, contains a vegetable ingredient in compliance with the...

  5. 21 CFR 139.135 - Enriched vegetable macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched vegetable macaroni products. 139.135 Section...Noodle Products § 139.135 Enriched vegetable macaroni products. (a) Each...products by § 139.115 and contains a vegetable ingredient in compliance with the...

  6. 21 CFR 139.135 - Enriched vegetable macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched vegetable macaroni products. 139.135 Section...Noodle Products § 139.135 Enriched vegetable macaroni products. (a) Each...products by § 139.115 and contains a vegetable ingredient in compliance with the...

  7. 21 CFR 139.165 - Enriched vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched vegetable noodle products. 139.165 Section...Noodle Products § 139.165 Enriched vegetable noodle products. (a) Each...as hereinafter provided, contains a vegetable ingredient in compliance with the...

  8. 21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched culture medium. 866.2330 Section 866.2330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2330 Enriched...

  9. 21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched culture medium. 866.2330 Section 866.2330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2330 Enriched...

  10. 21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched culture medium. 866.2330 Section 866.2330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2330 Enriched...

  11. 21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched culture medium. 866.2330 Section 866.2330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2330 Enriched...

  12. 21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched culture medium. 866.2330 Section 866.2330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2330 Enriched...

  13. LES of a Hydrogen-Enriched Lean Turbulent Premixed Flame

    E-print Network

    Groth, Clinton P. T.

    of hydrogen-enriched hydrocarbon fuels in practical pre- mixed combustion devices has been limited) to the prediction of H2-enriched lean methane-air turbulent premixed combustion is considered. A presumed conditional mo- ment (PCM) subfilter-scale combustion model is coupled with the flame prolongation

  14. 21 CFR 139.155 - Enriched noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched noodle products. 139.155 Section 139.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.155 Enriched...

  15. 21 CFR 139.115 - Enriched macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched macaroni products. 139.115 Section 139.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.115 Enriched...

  16. 21 CFR 139.165 - Enriched vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched vegetable noodle products. 139.165... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.165 Enriched vegetable noodle products. (a) Each of the noodle...

  17. SureSelectXT Target Enrichment System for

    E-print Network

    Richardson, David

    SureSelectXT Target Enrichment System for Illumina Paired-End Sequencing Library Illumina Hi;SureSelectXT Target Enrichment System Kit for Illumina Multiplexed Sequencing Notices © Agilent understood and met. Acknowledgement Oligonucleotide sequences © 2006, 2008, and 2011 Illumina, Inc. All

  18. Metadata Enrichment Services for the Europeana Digital Library

    E-print Network

    Sebastiani, Fabrizio

    Metadata Enrichment Services for the Europeana Digital Library Giacomo Berardi1 , Andrea Esuli1 a metadata enrichment system for the Eu- ropeana digital library. The system allows different institutions Introduction Europeana1 is a digital library that acts as an aggregator of thousands of collec- tions

  19. Intermediate Vapor Expansion Distillation and Nested Enrichment Cascade Distillation 

    E-print Network

    Erickson, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    EXPANSION DISTILLATION AND NESTED ENRICHMENT CASCADE DISTILLATION D.. C. Erickson Energy Concepts Company Annapolis, Maryland ABSTRACT Although it is known that incorporating an intermediate reboiler or reflux condenser in a distillation ~olumn..., the expander is more efficient and less costly than the compressor which achieves comparable improvement in distillation efficiency. With the "nested enrichment" technique, the increased efficiency is obtained without requiring either compressors...

  20. Opting for Assets to Enrich Pre-School Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eloff, I.; de Wet, A.

    2009-01-01

    This research entailed an ethnographic study that sought assets and resources to enrich pre-school learning in a community challenged by poverty. The aim of this research was to identify personal and environmental assets that could be used to enrich pre-school learning within this context--instead of focusing on needs and deficiencies. The assets…

  1. 21 CFR 139.115 - Enriched macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...also contain as an optional ingredient partly defatted wheat germ but the amount thereof does not exceed 5 percent of the weight...use of dried yeast, dried torula yeast, partly defatted wheat germ, enriched farina, or enriched flour, or through the...

  2. 21 CFR 139.155 - Enriched noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...also contain as an optional ingredient partly defatted wheat germ, but the amount thereof does not exceed 5 percent of the weight...use of dried yeast, dried torula yeast, partly defatted wheat germ, enriched farina, or enriched flour, or through the...

  3. 21 CFR 139.115 - Enriched macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...also contain as an optional ingredient partly defatted wheat germ but the amount thereof does not exceed 5 percent of the weight...use of dried yeast, dried torula yeast, partly defatted wheat germ, enriched farina, or enriched flour, or through the...

  4. 21 CFR 139.155 - Enriched noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...also contain as an optional ingredient partly defatted wheat germ, but the amount thereof does not exceed 5 percent of the weight...use of dried yeast, dried torula yeast, partly defatted wheat germ, enriched farina, or enriched flour, or through the...

  5. 21 CFR 139.115 - Enriched macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...also contain as an optional ingredient partly defatted wheat germ but the amount thereof does not exceed 5 percent of the weight...use of dried yeast, dried torula yeast, partly defatted wheat germ, enriched farina, or enriched flour, or through the...

  6. Nucleosynthesis in Stars and the Chemical Enrichment of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Tominaga, Nozomu

    2013-08-01

    After the Big Bang, production of heavy elements in the early Universe takes place starting from the formation of the first stars, their evolution, and explosion. The first supernova explosions have strong dynamical, thermal, and chemical feedback on the formation of subsequent stars and evolution of galaxies. However, the nature of the Universe's first stars and supernova explosions has not been well clarified. The signature of the nucleosynthesis yields of the first stars can be seen in the elemental abundance patterns observed in extremely metal-poor stars. Interestingly, those patterns show some peculiarities relative to the solar abundance pattern, which should provide important clues to understanding the nature of early generations of stars. We thus review the recent results of the nucleosynthesis yields of mainly massive stars for a wide range of stellar masses, metallicities, and explosion energies. We also provide yields tables and examine how those yields are affected by some hydrodynamical effects during supernova explosions, namely, explosion energies from those of hypernovae to faint supernovae, mixing and fallback of processed materials, asphericity, etc. Those parameters in the supernova nucleosynthesis models are constrained from observational data of supernovae and metal-poor stars. Nucleosynthesis yields are then applied to the chemical evolution model of our Galaxy and other types of galaxies to discuss how the chemical enrichment process occurred during evolution.

  7. Formation and Preservation of the Depleted and Enriched Shergottite Isotopic Reservoirs in a Convecting Martian Mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Walter S.; Jones, John H.

    2015-01-01

    There is compelling isotopic and crater density evidence for geologically recent volcanism on Mars, in the last 100-200 million years and possibly in the last 50 million years. This volcanism is due to adiabatic decompression melting and thus requires some type of present-day convective upwelling in the martian mantle. On the other hand, martian meteorites preserve evidence for at least 3 distinct radiogenic isotopic reservoirs. Anomalies in short-lived isotopic systems (Sm-146, Nd-142, Hf-182, W-182) require that these reservoirs must have developed in the first 50 to 100 million years of Solar System history. The long-term preservation of chemically distinct reservoirs has sometimes been interpreted as evidence for the absence of mantle convection and convective mixing on Mars for most of martian history, a conclusion which is at odds with the evidence for young volcanism. This apparent paradox can be resolved by recognizing that a variety of processes, including both inefficient mantle mixing and geographic separation of isotopic reservoirs, may preserve isotopic heterogeneity on Mars in an actively convecting mantle. Here, we focus on the formation and preservation of the depleted and enriched isotopic and trace element reservoirs in the shergottites. In particular, we explore the possible roles of processes such as chemical diffusion and metasomatism in dikes and magma chambers for creating the isotopically enriched shergottites. We also consider processes that may preserve the enriched reservoir against convective mixing for most of martian history.

  8. Effect of Enrichment Medium on Real-time Detection of Salmonella enterica from Lettuce and Tomato Enrichment Cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    vThree commonly used enrichment broths for detection of Salmonella (Buffered Peptone Water – BPW, Tryptic Soy Broth – TSB, and Universal Preenrichment Broth – UPB) were compared for use in real time SYBR Green PCR detection of Salmonella introduced into enrichment cultures made from store bought let...

  9. ORIGIN OF LITHIUM ENRICHMENT IN K GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Yerra Bharat; Reddy, Bacham E.; Lambert, David L.

    2011-03-20

    In this Letter, we report on a low-resolution spectroscopic survey for Li-rich K giants among 2000 low-mass (M {<=} 3 M{sub sun}) giants spanning the luminosity range from below to above the luminosity of the clump. Fifteen new Li-rich giants including four super Li-rich K giants (log {epsilon}(Li) {>=}3.2) were discovered. A significant finding is that there is a concentration of Li-rich K giants at the luminosity of the clump or red horizontal branch. This new finding is partly a consequence of the fact that our low-resolution survey is the first large survey to include giants well below and above the red giant branch (RGB) bump and clump locations in the H-R diagram. Origin of the lithium enrichment may be plausibly attributed to the conversion of {sup 3}He via {sup 7}Be to {sup 7}Li by the Cameron-Fowler mechanism but the location for the onset of the conversion is uncertain. Two possible opportunities to effect this conversion are discussed: the bump in the first ascent of the RGB and the He-core flash at the tip of the RGB. The finite luminosity spread of the Li-rich giants serves to reject the idea that Li enhancement is, in general, a consequence of a giant swallowing a large planet.

  10. Deuterium enrichment of the interstellar grain mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ankan; Sahu, Dipen; Majumdar, Liton; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2016-01-01

    We carry out Monte Carlo simulation to study deuterium enrichments of interstellar grain mantles under various physical conditions. Based on the physical properties, various types of clouds are considered. We find that in diffuse cloud regions, very strong radiation fields persists and hardly a few layers of surface species are formed. In translucent cloud regions with a moderate radiation field, significant number of layers would be produced and surface coverage is mainly dominated by photo-dissociation products such as, C, CH3, CH2D, OH and OD. In the intermediate dense cloud regions (having number density of total hydrogen nuclei in all forms ˜2 × 104 cm-3), water and methanol along with their deuterated derivatives are efficiently formed. For much higher density regions (˜106 cm-3), water and methanol productions are suppressed but surface coverages of CO, CO2, O2 and O3 are dramatically increased. We find a very high degree of fractionation of water and methanol. Observational results support a high fractionation of methanol but surprisingly water fractionation is found to be low. This is in contradiction with our model results indicating alternative routes for de-fractionation of water. Effects of various types of energy barriers are also studied. Moreover, we allow grain mantles to interact with various charged particles (such as H+, Fe+, S+ and C+) to study the stopping power and projected range of these charged particles on various target ices.

  11. Deuterium enrichment of the interstellar grain mantle

    E-print Network

    Das, Ankan; Chakrabarti, Sandip K

    2015-01-01

    We carry out Monte-Carlo simulation to study deuterium enrichment of interstellar grain mantles under various physical conditions. Based on the physical properties, various types of clouds are considered. We find that in diffuse cloud regions, very strong radiation fields persists and hardly a few layers of surface species are formed. In translucent cloud regions with a moderate radiation field, significant number of layers would be produced and surface coverage is mainly dominated by photo-dissociation products such as, C,CH_3,CH_2D,OH and OD. In the intermediate dense cloud regions (having number density of total hydrogen nuclei in all forms ~ 2 x 10^4 cm^-3), water and methanol along with their deuterated derivatives are efficiently formed. For much higher density regions (~ 10^6 cm^-3), water and methanol productions are suppressed but surface coverage of CO,CO_2,O_2,O_3 are dramatically increased. We find a very high degree of fractionation of water and methanol. Observational results support a high frac...

  12. Identification, selection, and enrichment of cardiomyocyte precursors.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Bianca Ferrarini; Gomes, Walter José; Han, Sang Won

    2013-01-01

    The large-scale production of cardiomyocytes is a key step in the development of cell therapy and tissue engineering to treat cardiovascular diseases, particularly those caused by ischemia. The main objective of this study was to establish a procedure for the efficient production of cardiomyocytes by reprogramming mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue. First, lentiviral vectors expressing neoR and GFP under the control of promoters expressed specifically during cardiomyogenesis were constructed to monitor cell reprogramming into precardiomyocytes and to select cells for amplification and characterization. Cellular reprogramming was performed using 5'-azacytidine followed by electroporation with plasmid pOKS2a, which expressed Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4. Under these conditions, GFP expression began only after transfection with pOKS2a, and less than 0.015% of cells were GFP(+). These GFP(+) cells were selected for G418 resistance to find molecular markers of cardiomyocytes by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. Both genetic and protein markers of cardiomyocytes were present in the selected cells, with some variations among them. Cell doubling time did not change after selection. Together, these results indicate that enrichment with vectors expressing GFP and neoR under cardiomyocyte-specific promoters can produce large numbers of cardiomyocyte precursors (CMPs), which can then be differentiated terminally for cell therapy and tissue engineering. PMID:23853770

  13. Transportable calorimeter measurements of highly enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Rudy, C.; Bracken, D.S.; Staples, P.; Carrillo, L.

    1997-11-01

    A sensitive calorimeter has been combined with a small temperature-controlled water bath to compose a transportable system that is capable of measuring multikilogram quantities of highly enriched uranium (HEU). The sample chamber size, 5 in. in diameter by 10 in. high, is large enough to hold sufficient HEU metal or high-grade scrap to provide a measurable thermal signal. Calorimetric measurements performed on well-characterized material indicate that the thermal power generated by 93% {sup 235}U samples with 1.0% {sup 234}U can be measured with a precision of about 1% (1 sigma) for 4-kg samples. The transportable system consists of a twin-bridge calorimeter installed inside a 55-gal. stainless steel drum filled with water with heating and cooling supplied by a removable thermoelectric module attached to the side. Isotopic measurements using high-resolution gamma-ray measurements of the HEU samples and analysis with the FRAM code were used to determine the isotopic ratios and specific power of the samples. This information was used to transform the measured thermal power into grams of HEU. Because no physical standards are required, this system could be used for the verification of plutonium, {sup 238}Pu heat sources, or large quantities of metal or other high-grade matrix forms of HEU.

  14. Enzymatic synthesis of extremely pure triacylglycerols enriched in conjugated linoleic acids.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Wang, Weifei; Xu, Yang; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2013-01-01

    This work was objectively targeted to synthesize extremely pure triacylglycerols (TAG) enriched in conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) for medical and dietetic purposes. Extremely pure CLA-enriched TAG was successfully synthesized by using the multi-step process: TAG was primarily synthesized by lipase-catalyzed esterification of CLA and glycerol and then the lower glycerides [monoacylglycerol (MAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG)] in the esterification mixtures was hydrolyzed to free fatty acids (FFAs) by a mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase (lipase SMG1), finally, the FFAs were further separated from TAG by low temperature (150 °C) molecular distillation. The operation parameters for the lipase SMG1-catalyzed hydrolysis were optimized using response surface methodology based on the central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The operation parameters included water content, pH and reaction temperature and all of these three parameters showed significant effects on the hydrolysis of lower glycerides. The optimal conditions were obtained with a water content of 66.4% (w/w, with respect to oil mass), pH at 5.7 and 1 h of reaction time at 19.6 °C. Under these conditions, the content of lower glycerides in the reaction mixture decreased from 45.2% to 0.3% and the purity of CLA-enriched TAG reached 99.7%. Further purification of TAG was accomplished by molecular distillation and the final CLA-enriched TAG product yielded 99.8% of TAG. These extremely pure CLA-enriched TAG would be used for in vivo studies in animals and humans in order to get speci?c information concerning CLA metabolism. PMID:23945644

  15. Enrichment Assay Methods for a UF6 Cylinder Verification Station

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Leon E.; Jordan, David V.; Misner, Alex C.; Mace, Emily K.; Orton, Christopher R.

    2010-11-30

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility’s entire cylinder inventory. These enrichment assay methods interrogate only a small fraction of the total cylinder volume, and are time-consuming and expensive to execute for inspectors. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing an unattended measurement system capable of automated enrichment measurements over the full volume of Type 30B and Type 48 cylinders. This Integrated Cylinder Verification System (ICVS) could be located at key measurement points to positively identify each cylinder, measure its mass and enrichment, store the collected data in a secure database, and maintain continuity of knowledge on measured cylinders until IAEA inspector arrival. The focus of this paper is the development of nondestructive assay (NDA) methods that combine “traditional” enrichment signatures (e.g. 185-keV emission from U-235) and more-penetrating “non-traditional” signatures (e.g. high-energy neutron-induced gamma rays spawned primarily from U-234 alpha emission) collected by medium-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers (i.e. sodium iodide or lanthanum bromide). The potential of these NDA methods for the automated assay of feed, tail and product cylinders is explored through MCNP modeling and with field measurements on a cylinder population ranging from 0.2% to 5% in U-235 enrichment.

  16. 75 FR 16869 - Areva Enrichment Services, LLC; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ...ASLBP No. 10-899-02-ML-BD01] Areva Enrichment Services, LLC; Establishment of Atomic...preside over the following proceeding: Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility) This Board is being...

  17. 75 FR 44817 - Notice of Availability of Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility Inspection Reports Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ...Notice of Availability of Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility Inspection Reports...Louisiana Energy Services, National Enrichment Facility, Eunice, NM Prior to the...Ty Naquin, Project Manager, Uranium Enrichment Branch, Division of Fuel Cycle...

  18. 77 FR 18272 - Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ...70-3103; NRC-2010-0264] Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility Inspection Reports...Louisiana Energy Services LLC, National Enrichment Facility, Eunice, NM, Prior to the...Energy Services (LES), LLC, National enrichment Facility in Eunice, New Mexico,...

  19. 10 CFR 70.23a - Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility. 70.23a Section 70...23a Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility. The Commission will...construction and operation of a uranium enrichment facility. The Commission will...

  20. 10 CFR 140.13b - Amount of liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities. 140.13b Section 140...liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities. Each holder of a license...40 or 70 of this chapter for a uranium enrichment facility that involves the...

  1. SUMMER SCIENCE OUTREACH EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IU JIM HOLLAND SUMMER ENRICHMENT PROGRAM: COUNSELOR

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    SUMMER SCIENCE OUTREACH EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IU JIM HOLLAND SUMMER ENRICHMENT PROGRAM: COUNSELOR The Indiana University Jim Holland Summer Enrichment Program (SEP) is seeking counselors to join our staff ENRICHMENT PROGRAM COUNSELOR APPLICATION Name

  2. LETTER Low biodiversity state persists two decades after cessation of nutrient enrichment

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    LETTER Low biodiversity state persists two decades after cessation of nutrient enrichment Forest nutrient enrichment frequently decreases biodiversity, it remains unclear whether such biodiversity losses concentrations. Our results suggest that chronic nutrient enrichment created an alternative low-diversity state

  3. 10 CFR 40.33 - Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility. 40.33 Section 40... Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility. (a) The Commission...construction and operation of a uranium enrichment facility. The Commission will...

  4. 10 CFR 40.33 - Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility. 40.33 Section 40... Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility. (a) The Commission...construction and operation of a uranium enrichment facility. The Commission will...

  5. 77 FR 65729 - Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ...70-3103; NRC-2010-0264] Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility Inspection Reports...Louisiana Energy Services LLC, National Enrichment Facility, Eunice, NM, Prior to the...Energy Services (LES), LLC, National Enrichment Facility in Eunice, New Mexico,...

  6. SUMMER SCIENCE OUTREACH EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IU JIM HOLLAND SUMMER ENRICHMENT PROGRAM: TEACHER

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    SUMMER SCIENCE OUTREACH EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IU JIM HOLLAND SUMMER ENRICHMENT PROGRAM: TEACHER The Indiana University Jim Holland Summer Enrichment Program (SEP) is seeking science educators to join our UNIVERSITY JIM HOLLAND SUMMER ENRICHMENT PROGRAM TEACHER APPLICATION Name ______________________________________________________________________________

  7. 10 CFR 140.13b - Amount of liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities. 140.13b Section 140...liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities. Each holder of a license...40 or 70 of this chapter for a uranium enrichment facility that involves the...

  8. 10 CFR 70.23a - Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility. 70.23a Section 70...23a Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility. The Commission will...construction and operation of a uranium enrichment facility. The Commission will...

  9. 10 CFR 140.13b - Amount of liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities. 140.13b Section 140...liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities. Each holder of a license...40 or 70 of this chapter for a uranium enrichment facility that involves the...

  10. 10 CFR 140.13b - Amount of liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities. 140.13b Section 140...liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities. Each holder of a license...40 or 70 of this chapter for a uranium enrichment facility that involves the...

  11. 10 CFR 40.33 - Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility. 40.33 Section 40... Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility. (a) The Commission...construction and operation of a uranium enrichment facility. The Commission will...

  12. 10 CFR 40.33 - Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility. 40.33 Section 40... Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility. (a) The Commission...construction and operation of a uranium enrichment facility. The Commission will...

  13. 10 CFR 140.13b - Amount of liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities. 140.13b Section 140...liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities. Each holder of a license...40 or 70 of this chapter for a uranium enrichment facility that involves the...

  14. 10 CFR 70.23a - Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility. 70.23a Section 70...23a Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility. The Commission will...construction and operation of a uranium enrichment facility. The Commission will...

  15. 10 CFR 70.23a - Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility. 70.23a Section 70...23a Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility. The Commission will...construction and operation of a uranium enrichment facility. The Commission will...

  16. ObjectOriented Modeling of Meta Information for Semantic Schema Enrichment

    E-print Network

    Kriegel, Hans-Peter

    Object­Oriented Modeling of Meta Information for Semantic Schema Enrichment and (Semi Information for Semantic Schema Enrichment and (Semi­)Automatic Schema Transformation Daniel A. Keim, Hans: interoperability, federated databases, global conceptual schema, schema transformation, schema enrichment, trans

  17. 10 CFR 70.23a - Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility. 70.23a Section 70...23a Hearing required for uranium enrichment facility. The Commission will...construction and operation of a uranium enrichment facility. The Commission will...

  18. 10 CFR 40.33 - Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility. 40.33 Section 40... Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility. (a) The Commission...construction and operation of a uranium enrichment facility. The Commission will...

  19. 76 FR 67765 - Notice of Availability of Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility's Inspection Reports Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ...Notice of Availability of Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility's Inspection Reports...Louisiana Energy Services, National Enrichment Facility, Eunice, NM, Prior to the...Chapman, Project Manager, Uranium Enrichment Branch, Division of Fuel Cycle...

  20. 78 FR 66779 - United States Enrichment Corporation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ...Enrichment Corporation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers...Enrichment Corporation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, including on-site leased workers...Enrichment Corporation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, including on-site leased...

  1. The Economics of Oxygen Enriched Air Production Via Membranes 

    E-print Network

    Gollan, A.; Kleper, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    thermo dynamics and kinetics can be made. It is of note that additional energy savings can accrue from use of the simultaneously generated nitrogen enriched reject stream as an inert blanket 1n some industries. The amount of natural gas which can.... The oxygen depleted (nitrogen enriched) stream exits the cartridge as the reject stream, while the oxygen enriched stream is termed the permeate. The conversion, y, is defined as the ratio of permeate flow to feed flow. For the 307. conversion case shown...

  2. Enrichissement d'ontologies grce l'annotation smantique de pages web

    E-print Network

    Winckler, Marco Antonio Alba

    des informations pour trouver des indices linguistiques de relations séman- tiques. Une première'aide du noyau d'ontologie pour identifier de nouveaux concepts et des spécialisations de relations qui linguistiques. Dans un processus dual, quand les ontologies sont utilisées pour l'annotation sémantique de

  3. Biotechnological production of vitamin B2-enriched bread and pasta.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Menga, Valeria; Digesu, Anna Maria; De Vita, Pasquale; van Sinderen, Douwe; Cattivelli, Luigi; Fares, Clara; Spano, Giuseppe

    2011-07-27

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were obtained from durum wheat flour samples and screened for roseoflavin-resistant variants to isolate natural riboflavin-overproducing strains. Two riboflavin-overproducing strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated as described above were used for the preparation of bread (by means of sourdough fermentation) and pasta (using a prefermentation step) to enhance their vitamin B2 content. Pasta was produced from a monovarietal semolina obtained from the durum wheat cultivar PR22D89 and, for experimental purposes, from a commercial remilled semolina. Several samples were collected during the pasta-making process (dough, extruded, dried, and cooked pasta) and tested for their riboflavin content by a high-performance liquid chromatography method. The applied approaches resulted in a considerable increase of vitamin B2 content (about 2- and 3-fold increases in pasta and bread, respectively), thus representing a convenient and efficient food-grade biotechnological application for the production of vitamin B2-enriched bread and pasta. This methodology may be extended to a wide range of cereal-based foods, feed, and beverages. Additionally, this work exemplifies the production of a functional food by a novel biotechnological exploitation of LAB in pasta-making. PMID:21678896

  4. Enrichment by supernovae in globular clusters with multiple populations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Woo; Kang, Young-Woon; Lee, Jina; Lee, Young-Wook

    2009-11-26

    The most massive globular cluster in the Milky Way, omega Centauri, is thought to be the remaining core of a disrupted dwarf galaxy, as expected within the model of hierarchical merging. It contains several stellar populations having different heavy elemental abundances supplied by supernovae-a process known as metal enrichment. Although M 22 appears to be similar to omega Cen, other peculiar globular clusters do not. Therefore omega Cen and M 22 are viewed as exceptional, and the presence of chemical inhomogeneities in other clusters is seen as 'pollution' from the intermediate-mass asymptotic-giant-branch stars expected in normal globular clusters. Here we report Ca abundances for seven globular clusters and compare them to omega Cen. Calcium and other heavy elements can only be supplied through numerous supernovae explosions of massive stars in these stellar systems, but the gravitational potentials of the present-day clusters cannot preserve most of the ejecta from such explosions. We conclude that these globular clusters, like omega Cen, are most probably the relics of more massive primeval dwarf galaxies that merged and disrupted to form the proto-Galaxy. PMID:19940919

  5. Enriching rice with Zn and Fe while minimizing Cd risk.

    PubMed

    Slamet-Loedin, Inez H; Johnson-Beebout, Sarah E; Impa, Somayanda; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Enriching iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) content in rice grains, while minimizing cadmium (Cd) levels, is important for human health and nutrition. Natural genetic variation in rice grain Zn enables Zn-biofortification through conventional breeding, but limited natural Fe variation has led to a need for genetic modification approaches, including over-expressing genes responsible for Fe storage, chelators, and transporters. Generally, Cd uptake and allocation is associated with divalent metal cations (including Fe and Zn) transporters, but the details of this process are still unknown in rice. In addition to genetic variation, metal uptake is sometimes limited by its bioavailability in the soil. The availability of Fe, Zn, and Cd for plant uptake varies widely depending on soil redox potential. The typical practice of flooding rice increases Fe while decreasing Zn and Cd availability. On the other hand, moderate soil drying improves Zn uptake but also increases Cd and decreases Fe uptake. Use of Zn- or Fe-containing fertilizers complements breeding efforts by providing sufficient metals for plant uptake. In addition, the timing of nitrogen fertilization has also been shown to affect metal accumulation in grains. The purpose of this mini-review is to identify knowledge gaps and prioritize strategies for improving the nutritional value and safety of rice. PMID:25814994

  6. Enriching rice with Zn and Fe while minimizing Cd risk

    PubMed Central

    Slamet-Loedin, Inez H.; Johnson-Beebout, Sarah E.; Impa, Somayanda; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Enriching iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) content in rice grains, while minimizing cadmium (Cd) levels, is important for human health and nutrition. Natural genetic variation in rice grain Zn enables Zn-biofortification through conventional breeding, but limited natural Fe variation has led to a need for genetic modification approaches, including over-expressing genes responsible for Fe storage, chelators, and transporters. Generally, Cd uptake and allocation is associated with divalent metal cations (including Fe and Zn) transporters, but the details of this process are still unknown in rice. In addition to genetic variation, metal uptake is sometimes limited by its bioavailability in the soil. The availability of Fe, Zn, and Cd for plant uptake varies widely depending on soil redox potential. The typical practice of flooding rice increases Fe while decreasing Zn and Cd availability. On the other hand, moderate soil drying improves Zn uptake but also increases Cd and decreases Fe uptake. Use of Zn- or Fe-containing fertilizers complements breeding efforts by providing sufficient metals for plant uptake. In addition, the timing of nitrogen fertilization has also been shown to affect metal accumulation in grains. The purpose of this mini-review is to identify knowledge gaps and prioritize strategies for improving the nutritional value and safety of rice. PMID:25814994

  7. Evidence for oxygen enrichment in Galactic planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peimbert, Manuel; Delgado-Inglada, Gloria; Rodríguez, Mónica; Stasinska, Grazyna; Morisset, Christophe

    2015-08-01

    The oxygen abundance in planetary nebulae (PNe) is traditionally used as a proxy of the interstellar medium metallicity at the time the PN progenitor stars were born. However, the nucleosynthesis processes occurring in AGB stars can alter the initial abundance of oxygen in the outer layers of the star that are ejected as a PN. Since these changes are more efficient at low metallicities, it is generally assumed that the abundance of oxygen is not significantly altered in PNe located at environments where the metallicity is close to solar or higher, such as the solar neighborhood or the Galactic bulge.We present here our recent analysis of a group of 20 Galactic PNe belonging to the bulge, the halo and the solar neighborhood. These objects have high quality optical and infrared spectra that allow us to calculate reliable chemical abundances and to classify them as objects with either carbon-rich or oxygen-rich dust. We find that all but one of the PNe with carbon-rich dust show evidence of oxygen self enrichment even at near-solar metallicities. Our study indicates that oxygen is not always a reliable indicator of the original metallicity; other elements, such as chlorine and argon, should be used instead.

  8. Staged Inertial Microfluidic Focusing for Complex Fluid Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Reece, Amy E.; Kaastrup, Kaja; Sikes, Hadley D.; Oakey, John

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic inertial focusing reliably and passively aligns small particles and cells through a combination of competing inertial fluid forces. The equilibrium behavior of inertially focused particles in straight channels has been extensively characterized and has been shown to be a strong function of channel size, geometry and particle size. We demonstrate that channels of varying geometry may be combined to produce a staged device capable of high throughput particle and cell concentration and efficient single pass complex fluid enrichment. Straight and asymmetrically curved microchannels were combined in series to accelerate focusing dynamics and improve concentration efficiency. We have investigated single and multiple pass concentration efficiency and results indicate that these devices are appropriate for routine cell handling operations, including buffer exchange. We demonstrate the utility of these devices by performing a ubiquitous fluorescence staining assay on-chip while sacrificing very little sample or processing time relative to centrifugation. Staged concentration is particularly desirable for point of care settings in which more conventional instrumentation is impractical or cost-prohibitive. PMID:26185618

  9. Prevalence of Salmonella Following Immersion Chilling for Matched Neck Skin, Whole Carcass Rinse, and Whole Carcass Enrichment Sampling Methodologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella prevalence and the serogroups recovered following immersion chilling were determined for matched enriched neck skin, whole carcass rinse, and whole carcass samples. Commercially processed and eviscerated broiler carcasses were chilled in ice/tap water 40 min with or without 20 ppm free c...

  10. Freeze concentration for enrichment of nutrients in yellow water from no-mix toilets.

    PubMed

    Gulyas, H; Bruhn, P; Furmanska, M; Hartrampf, K; Kot, K; Lüttenberg, B; Mahmood, Z; Stelmaszewska, K; Otterpohl, R

    2004-01-01

    Separately collected urine ("yellow water") can be utilized as fertilizer. In order to decrease storage volumes and energy consumption for yellow water transport to fields, enrichment of nutrients in yellow water has to be considered. Laboratory-scale batch freeze concentration of yellow water has been tested in ice-front freezing apparatus: a stirred vessel and a falling film freeze concentrator (coolant temperatures: -6 to -16 degrees C). With progressing enrichment of the liquid concentrate, the frozen ice was increasingly contaminated with yellow water constituents (ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, TOC, and salts determined as conductivity). The higher the initial salinity of the yellow water and the lower the mechanical agitation of the liquid phase contacting the growing ice front, the more the frozen ice was contaminated. The results indicate, that in ice-front freezing devices multistage processes are necessary, i.e. the melted ice phase has to be purified (and the concentrates must be further enriched) in a second or even in a third stage. Energy consumption of this process is very high. However, technical scale suspension freeze concentration is reasonable in centralized ecological sanitation schemes if the population exceeds 0.5 million and distance of yellow water transportation to fields is more than 80 km. PMID:15536991

  11. The Future of Data-Enriched Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thille, Candace; Schneider, Emily; Kizilcec, René F.; Piech, Christopher; Halawa, Sherif A.; Greene, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    The article addresses the question of how the assessment process with large-scale data derived from online learning environments will be different from the assessment process without it. Following an explanation of big data and how it is different from previously available learner data, we describe three notable features that characterize…

  12. Realities of verifying the absence of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in gas centrifuge enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Swindle, D.W.

    1990-03-01

    Over a two and one-half year period beginning in 1981, representatives of six countries (United States, United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany, Australia, The Netherlands, and Japan) and the inspectorate organizations of the International Atomic Energy Agency and EURATOM developed and agreed to a technically sound approach for verifying the absence of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in gas centrifuge enrichment plants. This effort, known as the Hexapartite Safeguards Project (HSP), led to the first international concensus on techniques and requirements for effective verification of the absence of weapons-grade nuclear materials production. Since that agreement, research and development has continued on the radiation detection technology-based technique that technically confirms the HSP goal is achievable. However, the realities of achieving the HSP goal of effective technical verification have not yet been fully attained. Issues such as design and operating conditions unique to each gas centrifuge plant, concern about the potential for sensitive technology disclosures, and on-site support requirements have hindered full implementation and operator support of the HSP agreement. In future arms control treaties that may limit or monitor fissile material production, the negotiators must recognize and account for the realities and practicalities in verifying the absence of HEU production. This paper will describe the experiences and realities of trying to achieve the goal of developing and implementing an effective approach for verifying the absence of HEU production. 3 figs.

  13. Improving green enrichment of virgin olive oil by oregano. Effects on antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Peñalvo, Gregorio Castañeda; Robledo, Virginia Rodríguez; Callado, Carolina Sánchez-Carnerero; Santander-Ortega, M J; Castro-Vázquez, L; Victoria Lozano, M; Arroyo-Jiménez, M M

    2016-04-15

    This work is about improvement of a maceration method in order to achieve a green process for the enrichment of virgin olive oil (VOO) with natural antioxidants, specifically from oregano leaves. This goal was accomplished after evaluating different mechanical methods, i.e. magnetic stirring, sonication, vertical stirring and sonication in combination with vertical stirring, for promoting the extraction of the antioxidants from oregano. The results obtained indicated that the best extraction procedure was vertical stirring at 1000r.p.m. for 3h. Therefore, these conditions were selected to enrich VOO with phenolic acids (mainly rosmarinic acid) and endogenous antioxidants (o-coumaric and vanillic acids), and further determine their stability at room temperature or under temperature stress (50°C) during 45days. Quantitative analysis of rosmarinic, o-coumaric and vanillic acids was carried out by an off-line, solid phase extraction, capillary zone, electrophoresis method combined with diode-array detector (SPE-CE-DAD). PMID:26616982

  14. PREPARING THE HIGH FLUX ISOTOPE REACTOR FOR CONVERSION TO LOW ENRICHED URANIUM FUEL ? RETURN TO 100 MW

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Kevin Arthur; Primm, Trent

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel as a replacement for the current, high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has been under study since 2006. Reactor performance studies have been completed for conceptual plate designs and show that maintaining reactor performance while converting to LEU fuel requires returning the reactor power to 100 MW from 85 MW. The analyses required to up-rate the reactor power and the methods to perform these analyses are discussed. Comments regarding the regulatory approval process are provided along with a conceptual schedule.

  15. The balance model of oxygen enrichment of atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The study of turnover of carbon and oxygen is an important line of scientific investigation. This line takes on special significance in conditions of soil degradation, which leads to the excess content of carbon dioxide and, as result, decrease of oxygen in the atmosphere. The aim of this article is a statement the balance model of oxygen enrichment of atmospheric air (ratio O/C) depending on consumption and assimilation by plants of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the value of the oxidation-reduction potential (Eh). Basis of model was the following: green vascular plants are facultative heterotrophic organisms with symbiotic digestion and nutrition. According to the trophology viewpoint, the plant consumption of organic compounds broadens greatly a notion about the plant nutrition and ways of its regulation. In particular, beside the main known cycle of carbon: plant - litter - humus - carbon dioxide - plant, there is the second carbon cycle (turnover of organic compounds): plant - litter - humus - DOM - plant. The biogeochemical meaning of consumption of organic compounds by plants is that plants build the structural and functional blocks of biological macromolecules in their bodies. It provides receiving of a certain "energy payoff" by plants, which leads to increase of plant biomass by both an inclusion of allochthonous organic molecules in plant tissues, and positive effect of organic compounds on plant metabolic processes. One more of powerful ecological consequence of a heterotrophic nutrition of green plants is oxygen enrichment of atmospheric air. As the organic molecules in the second biological cycle of carbon are built in plants without considerable chemical change, the atmospheric air is enriched on that amount of oxygen, which would be required on oxidation of the organic molecules absorbed by plants, in result. It was accepted that: plant-soil system was climax, the plant community was grassy, initial contents of carbon in phytomass was accepted as 1, annually from 60 to 100 % of the plant litter could arrive to the soil; coefficients of humification of both plant litter and DOM were 0.1 (10 %); DOM is formed as a result of hydrolytic destruction of plant litter, newly formed humic substances (HS) and humus; coefficient of possible absorption of DOM by plants - 0.1 (10 %); it was considered that all organic compounds affiliated into DOM had positive physiological effect on green plants; it was accepted that 1 % DOM absorbed by plants increases phytomass on 10 % (for example, at the expense of photosynthesis acceleration); Eh value was changed from 300 to 800 mV; depending on Eh (i) the coefficient of plant litter oxidation was in the range from 0.75 (75 %) to 0.8 (90 %), coefficient of oxidation of DOM and newly formed HS - from 0.85 (85 %) to 0.9 (90 %), and coefficient of humus oxidation from 0 (0 %) to 0.05 (5 %), and (ii) coefficient of hydrolytic destruction of plant litter and newly formed HS was in the range from 0.12 (12 %) to 0.07 (7 %), and coefficient of humus hydrolytic destruction from 0,05 (5 %) to 0 (0 %), accordingly; all dependences were quasilinear. The following conclusions have been made based on the modeling: (i) both phytomass and oxygen content in atmospheric air were increased with increase of DOM part absorbed by green vascular plants; (ii) the abundance of humus was increased with increase of DOM consumption by green plant (on 5 % at all Eh values) too; (iii) the increase of Eh with 300 to 800 mV led to reduction of oxygen in atmospheric air and to quadruple decrease of the abundance of humus.

  16. Chemical Enrichment and Physical Conditions in IZw18*

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebouteiller, V.; Heap, S.; Hubeny, I.; Kunth, D.

    2013-01-01

    Low-metallicity star-forming dwarf galaxies are prime targets to understand the chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium. The H I region contains the bulk of the mass in blue compact dwarfs, and it provides important constraints on the dispersal and mixing of heavy elements released by successive star-formation episodes. The metallicity of the H I region is also a critical parameter to investigate the future star-formation history, as metals provide most of the gas cooling that will facilitate and sustain star formation. Aims. Our primary objective is to study the enrichment of the H I region and the interplay between star-formation history and metallicity evolution. Our secondary obje ctive is to constrain the spatial- and time-scales over which the HI and H II regions are enriched, and the mass range of stars responsible for the heavy element production. Finally, we aim to examine the gas heating and cooling mechanisms in the H I region. Methods. We observed the most metal-poor star-forming galaxy in the Local Universe, I Zw 18, with the Cosmic Origin Spectrograph onboard Hubble. The abundances in the neutral gas are derived from far-ultraviolet absorption-lines (H I, CIII, CIIi*, N I, OI,...) and are compared to the abundances in the H II region. Models are constructed to calculate the ionization structure and the thermal processes. We investigate the gas cooling in the HIi region through physical diagnostics drawn from the fine-structure level of C+. Results. We find that H I region abundances are lower by a factor of approx 2 as compared to the H II region. There is no differential depletion on dust between the H I and H II region. Using sulfur as a metallicity tracer, we calculate a metallicity of 1/46 Z(solar) (vs. 1/31 Z(solar) in the H II region). From the study of the C/O, [O/Fe], and N/O abundance ratios, we propose that C, N, O, and Fe are mainly produced in massive stars. We argue that the H I envelope may contain pockets of pristine gas with a metallicity essentially null. Finally, we derive the physical conditions in the H I region by investigating the C II* absorption line. The cooling rate derived from C II* is consistent with collisions with H(sup 0) atoms in the diffuse neutral gas. We calculate the star-formation rate from the CII* cooling rate assuming that photoelectric effect on dust is the dominant gas heating mechanism. Our determination is in good agreement with the values in the literature if we assume a low dust-to-gas ratio (approx 2000 times lower than the Milky Way value).

  17. Chemical enrichment and physical conditions in I Zw 18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebouteiller, V.; Heap, S.; Hubeny, I.; Kunth, D.

    2013-05-01

    Context. Low-metallicity star-forming dwarf galaxies are prime targets to understand the chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium. The H i region contains the bulk of the mass in blue compact dwarfs, and it provides important constraints on the dispersal and mixing of heavy elements released by successive star-formation episodes. The metallicity of the H i region is also a critical parameter to investigate the future star-formation history, as metals provide most of the gas cooling that will facilitate and sustain star formation. Aims: Our primary objective is to study the enrichment of the H i region and the interplay between star-formation history and metallicity evolution. Our secondary objective is to constrain the spatial- and time-scales over which the H i and H ii regions are enriched, and the mass range of stars responsible for the heavy element production. Finally, we aim to examine the gas heating and cooling mechanisms in the H i region. Methods: We observed the most metal-poor star-forming galaxy in the Local Universe, I Zw 18, with the Cosmic Origin Spectrograph onboard Hubble. The abundances in the neutral gas are derived from far-ultraviolet absorption-lines (H i, C ii, C ii*, N i, O i, ...) and are compared to the abundances in the H ii region. Models are constructed to calculate the ionization structure and the thermal processes. We investigate the gas cooling in the H i region through physical diagnostics drawn from the fine-structure level of C+. Results: We find that H i region abundances are lower by a factor of ~2 as compared to the H ii region. There is no differential depletion on dust between the H i and H ii region. Using sulfur as a metallicity tracer, we calculate a metallicity of 1/46 Z? (vs. 1/31 Z? in the H ii region). From the study of the C/O, [O/Fe], and N/O abundance ratios, we propose that C, N, O, and Fe are mainly produced in massive stars. We argue that the H i envelope may contain pockets of pristine gas with a metallicity essentially null. Finally, we derive the physical conditions in the H i region by investigating the C ii* absorption line. The cooling rate derived from C ii* is consistent with collisions with H0 atoms in the diffuse neutral gas. We calculate the star-formation rate from the C ii* cooling rate assuming that photoelectric effect on dust is the dominant gas heating mechanism. Our determination is in good agreement with the values in the literature if we assume a low dust-to-gas ratio (~2000 times lower than the Milky Way value). Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. 78 FR 23312 - Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services, National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... Enrichment Facility, Eunice, New Mexico, Prior to the Commencement of Operations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Energy Services (LES), LLC, National Enrichment Facility in Eunice, New Mexico, and has authorized...

  19. Environmental enrichment: evidence for an unexpected therapeutic influence.

    PubMed

    Kotloski, Robert J; Sutula, Thomas P

    2015-02-01

    Environmental enrichment produces wide-ranging effects in the brain at molecular, cellular, network, and behavioral levels. The changes in neuronal plasticity are driven by changes in neurotransmitters, neurotrophic factors, neuronal morphology, neurogenesis, network properties of the brain, and behavioral correlates of learning and memory. Exposure to an enriched environment has also demonstrated intriguing possibilities for treatment of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. The effect of environmental enrichment in epilepsy, a neurodegenerative disorder with pathological neuronal plasticity, is of considerable interest. Recent reports of the effect of environmental enrichment in the Bassoon mutant mouse, a genetic model of early onset epilepsy, provides a significant addition to the literature in this area. PMID:25483395

  20. RERTR 2009 (Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors)

    SciTech Connect

    Totev, T.; Stevens, J.; Kim, Y. S.; Hofman, G.; Matos, J.; Hanan, N.; Garner, P.; Dionne, B.; Olson, A.; Feldman, E.; Dunn, F.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Atomic Research Center; Inst. of Nuclear Physics; LLNL; INL; Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst.; Comisi?n Nacional de Energ?a At?mica; Nuclear Reactor Lab.; Inst. of Atomic Energy-Poland; AECL-Canada; Hungarian Academy of Sciences KFKI Atomic Energy Research Inst.; Japan Atomic Energy Agency; Nuclear Power Inst. of China; Kyoto Univ. Research Reactor Inst.

    2010-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Global Threat Reduction in cooperation with the China Atomic Energy Authority and International Atomic Energy Agency hosted the 'RERTR 2009 International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors.' The meeting was organized by Argonne National Laboratory, China Institute of Atomic Energy and Idaho National Laboratory and was held in Beijing, China from November 1-5, 2009. This was the 31st annual meeting in a series on the same general subject regarding the conversion of reactors within the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI). The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program develops technology necessary to enable the conversion of civilian facilities using high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuels and targets.

  1. 33 CFR 154.824 - Inerting, enriching, and diluting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...k)(2) of this section; (2) When hydrocarbon analyzers are used, the lower hydrocarbon concentration reading controls the enriching...1) of this section; and (3) When hydrocarbon analyzers are used, the higher...

  2. The uranium cylinder assay system for enrichment plant safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Karen A; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Marlow, Johnna B; Menlove, Howard O; Rael, Carlos D; Iwamoto, Tomonori; Tamura, Takayuki; Aiuchi, Syun

    2010-01-01

    Safeguarding sensitive fuel cycle technology such as uranium enrichment is a critical component in preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. A useful tool for the nuclear materials accountancy of such a plant would be an instrument that measured the uranium content of UF{sub 6} cylinders. The Uranium Cylinder Assay System (UCAS) was designed for Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) for use in the Rokkasho Enrichment Plant in Japan for this purpose. It uses total neutron counting to determine uranium mass in UF{sub 6} cylinders given a known enrichment. This paper describes the design of UCAS, which includes features to allow for unattended operation. It can be used on 30B and 48Y cylinders to measure depleted, natural, and enriched uranium. It can also be used to assess the amount of uranium in decommissioned equipment and waste containers. Experimental measurements have been carried out in the laboratory and these are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo modeling results.

  3. Looking North into Lab Metallurgy Testing Area and Enrichment Motor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking North into Lab Metallurgy Testing Area and Enrichment Motor within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  4. 21 CFR 139.155 - Enriched noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... this section through the use of dried yeast, dried torula yeast, partly defatted wheat germ, enriched... only in the quantity reasonably necessary to effect an intimate and uniform distribution of...

  5. 21 CFR 139.135 - Enriched vegetable macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... macaroni product containing the prescribed amount of spinach and made in units not conforming in shape and size to the requirements for macaroni, spaghetti, or vermicelli is “Enriched spinach macaroni product”....

  6. 21 CFR 139.135 - Enriched vegetable macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... macaroni product containing the prescribed amount of spinach and made in units not conforming in shape and size to the requirements for macaroni, spaghetti, or vermicelli is “Enriched spinach macaroni product”....

  7. 21 CFR 139.135 - Enriched vegetable macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... macaroni product containing the prescribed amount of spinach and made in units not conforming in shape and size to the requirements for macaroni, spaghetti, or vermicelli is “Enriched spinach macaroni product”....

  8. 21 CFR 139.135 - Enriched vegetable macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... macaroni product containing the prescribed amount of spinach and made in units not conforming in shape and size to the requirements for macaroni, spaghetti, or vermicelli is “Enriched spinach macaroni product”....

  9. 21 CFR 139.135 - Enriched vegetable macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... macaroni product containing the prescribed amount of spinach and made in units not conforming in shape and size to the requirements for macaroni, spaghetti, or vermicelli is “Enriched spinach macaroni product”....

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT REDUCES THE MNEMONIC AND NEURAL BENEFITS OF ESTROGEN

    PubMed Central

    GRESACK, J. E.; FRICK, K. M.

    2006-01-01

    The degree to which memory is enhanced by estrogen replacement in postmenopausal women may depend on environmental factors such as education. The present study utilized an animal model of environmental enrichment to determine whether environmental factors influence the mnemonic and neural response to estrogen. Female mice were raised in standard (SC) or enriched (EC) conditions from weaning until adulthood (7 months). All mice were ovariectomized at 10 weeks, and tested in object recognition and water-escape motivated radial arm maze (WRAM) tasks at 6 months. Each day at the completion of training, mice received injections of 0.1 mg/kg cyclodextrin-encapsulated 17-?-estradiol (E2), 0.2 mg/kg E2, or cyclodextrin vehicle (VEH). At the completion of behavioral testing, hippocampal levels of the presynaptic protein synaptophysin and of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured. Enrichment effects were evident in VEH-treated mice; relative to SC-VEH females, EC-VEH females committed fewer working memory errors in the WRAM and exhibited increased hippocampal synaptophysin levels. Estrogen effects depended on environmental conditions. E2 (0.2 mg/kg) improved object memory only in SC females. The same dose improved working memory in SC females, but somewhat impaired working memory in EC females. Furthermore, both doses reduced hippocampal synaptophysin levels in EC, but not SC, females. In contrast, E2 reduced hippocampal BDNF levels in SC, but not EC, females. This study is the first to compare the effects of estrogen on memory and hippocampal function in enriched and non-enriched female mice. The results suggest that: (1) estrogen benefits object and working memory more in mice raised in non-enriched environments than in those raised in enriched environments, and (2) the changes induced by estrogen and/or enrichment may be associated with alterations in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. PMID:15381276

  11. Atmospheric pressure fluctuations and oxygen enrichment in waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzeja, R.J.; Weber, A.H.

    1993-07-01

    During In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) processing radiolytic decomposition of tetraphenylborate and water can produce benzene and hydrogen, which, given sufficiently high oxygen concentrations, can deflagrate. To prevent accumulations of benzene and hydrogen and avoid deflagration, continuous nitrogen purging is maintained. If the nitrogen purging is interrupted by, for example, a power failure, outside air will begin to seep into the tank through vent holes and cracks. Eventually a flammable mixture of benzene, hydrogen, and oxygen will occur (deflagration). However, this process is slow under steady-state conditions (constant pressure) and mechanisms to increase the exchange rate with the outside atmosphere must be considered. The most important mechanism of this kind is from atmospheric pressure fluctuations in which an increase in atmospheric pressure forces air into the tank which then mixes with the hydrogen-benzene mixture. The subsequent decrease in atmospheric pressure causes venting from the tank of the mixture -- the net effect being an increase in the tank`s oxygen concentration. Thus, enrichment occurs when the atmospheric pressure increases but not when the pressure decreases. Moreover, this natural atmospheric {open_quotes}pumping{close_quotes} is only important if the pressure fluctuations take place on a time scale longer than the characteristic mixing time scale (CMT) of the tank. If pressure fluctuations have a significantly higher frequency than the CMT, outside air will be forced into the tank and then out again before any significant mixing can occur. The CMT is not known for certain, but is estimated to be between 8 and 24 hours. The purpose of this report is to analyze yearly pressure fluctuations for a five year period to determine their statistical properties over 8 and 24-hour periods. The analysis also includes a special breakdown into summer and winter seasons and an analysis of 15-minute data from the SRTC Climatology Site.

  12. Extracting semantically enriched events from biomedical literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research into event-based text mining from the biomedical literature has been growing in popularity to facilitate the development of advanced biomedical text mining systems. Such technology permits advanced search, which goes beyond document or sentence-based retrieval. However, existing event-based systems typically ignore additional information within the textual context of events that can determine, amongst other things, whether an event represents a fact, hypothesis, experimental result or analysis of results, whether it describes new or previously reported knowledge, and whether it is speculated or negated. We refer to such contextual information as meta-knowledge. The automatic recognition of such information can permit the training of systems allowing finer-grained searching of events according to the meta-knowledge that is associated with them. Results Based on a corpus of 1,000 MEDLINE abstracts, fully manually annotated with both events and associated meta-knowledge, we have constructed a machine learning-based system that automatically assigns meta-knowledge information to events. This system has been integrated into EventMine, a state-of-the-art event extraction system, in order to create a more advanced system (EventMine-MK) that not only extracts events from text automatically, but also assigns five different types of meta-knowledge to these events. The meta-knowledge assignment module of EventMine-MK performs with macro-averaged F-scores in the range of 57-87% on the BioNLP’09 Shared Task corpus. EventMine-MK has been evaluated on the BioNLP’09 Shared Task subtask of detecting negated and speculated events. Our results show that EventMine-MK can outperform other state-of-the-art systems that participated in this task. Conclusions We have constructed the first practical system that extracts both events and associated, detailed meta-knowledge information from biomedical literature. The automatically assigned meta-knowledge information can be used to refine search systems, in order to provide an extra search layer beyond entities and assertions, dealing with phenomena such as rhetorical intent, speculations, contradictions and negations. This finer grained search functionality can assist in several important tasks, e.g., database curation (by locating new experimental knowledge) and pathway enrichment (by providing information for inference). To allow easy integration into text mining systems, EventMine-MK is provided as a UIMA component that can be used in the interoperable text mining infrastructure, U-Compare. PMID:22621266

  13. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) gene in golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus fed Artemia nauplii with different enrichments.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qibin; Zheng, Panlong; Ma, Zhenhua; Li, Tao; Jiang, Shigui; Qin, Jian G

    2015-12-01

    The retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are involved in the skeletal development and other biological process such as blood vessel formation and metabolism. Partial sequences of RXR? and ? genes were obtained, and their expressions were quantified on golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus at 28 days post hatching (DPH) to explore the molecular response to nutritional manipulation in fish larvae. As live food, Artemia nauplii were separately enriched with Nannochloropsis and Algamac 3080 and non-enriched Artemia nauplii (control) for fish feeding. The expressions of RXRs were detected in the embryos and fish larvae at early stages, suggesting that the skeletal development in golden pompano initiated before yolk re-sorption completion. Fish fed non-enriched Artemia nauplii ended up with higher jaw malformation. The highest specific growth rate was obtained when fish were fed with the Artemia nauplii enriched with Algamac 3080, and the lowest growth rate was observed when fish were fed with unenriched Artemia nauplii. The highest survival was obtained when fish were fed with non-enriched or Nannochloropsis-enriched Artemia nauplii. This study indicates that the use of enriched formula for Artemia nauplii can significantly affect the expression levels of RXRs and jaw malformation of golden pompano larvae, but there is no clear correlation between RXRs expressions and malformation rates when fish are subjected to nutrient challenge. PMID:26159320

  14. Examination of the conversion of the U.S. submarine fleet from highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium

    E-print Network

    McCord, Cameron (Cameron Liam)

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear reactors used by the U.S. Navy for submarine propulsion are currently fueled by highly enriched uranium (HEU), but HEU brings administrative and political challenges. This issue has been studied by the Navy ...

  15. 77 FR 13367 - General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC, Proposed Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ...Proposed Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment Facility, Wilmington, NC AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final environmental...cultural resources, visual and scenic resources, air quality, geology and soils, water resources, ecological resources,...

  16. Impact of the use of low or medium enriched uranium on the masses of space nuclear reactor power systems

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    The design process for determining the mass increase for the substitution of low-enriched uranium (LEU) for high-enriched uranium (HEU) in space nuclear reactor systems is an optimization process which must simultaneously consider several variables. This process becomes more complex whenever the reactor core operates on an in-core thermionic power conversion, in which the fissioning of the nuclear fuel is used to directly heat thermionic emitters, with the subsequent elimination of external power conversion equipment. The increased complexity of the optimization process for this type of system is reflected in the work reported herein, where considerably more information has been developed for the moderated in-core thermionic reactors.

  17. Subfilter Scale Modelling for Large Eddy Simulation of Lean Hydrogen-Enriched Turbulent Premixed Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez Perez, Francisco Emanuel

    Hydrogen (H2) enrichment of hydrocarbon fuels in lean premixed systems is desirable since it can lead to a progressive reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions, while paving the way towards pure hydrogen combustion. In recent decades, large-eddy simulation (LES) has emerged as a promising tool to computationally describe and represent turbulent combustion processes. However, a considerable complication of LES for turbulent premixed combustion is that chemical reactions occur in a thin reacting layer at small scales which cannot be entirely resolved on computational grids and need to be modelled. In this thesis, subfilter-scale (SFS) modelling for LES of lean H 2-enriched methane-air turbulent premixed combustion was investigated. Two- and three-dimensional fully-compressible LES solvers for a thermally perfect reactive mixture of gases were developed and systematically validated. Two modelling strategies for the chemistry-turbulence interaction were pursued: the artificially thickened flame model with a power-law SFS wrinkling approach and the presumed conditional moment (PCM) coupled with the flame prolongation of intrinsic low-dimensional manifold (FPI) chemistry tabulation technique. Freely propagating and Bunsen-type flames corresponding to stoichiometric and lean premixed mixtures were considered. Validation of the LES solvers was carried out by comparing predicted solutions with experimental data and other published numerical results. Head-to-head comparisons of different SFS approaches, including a transported flame surface density (FSD) model, allowed to identify weaknesses and strengths of the various models. Based on the predictive capabilities of the models examined, the PCM-FPI model was selected for the study of hydrogen-enrichment of methane. A new progress of reaction variable was proposed to account for NO. The importance of transporting species with different diffusion coefficients was demonstrated, in particular for H2. The proposed approach was applied to a Bunsen-type configuration, reproducing key features observed in the experiments: the enriched flame was shorter, which is attributed to a faster consumption of the blended fuel; and the enriched flame displayed a broader two-dimensional curvature probability density function. Furthermore, reduced levels of carbon dioxide (CO2), increased levels of nitrogen monoxide (NO), and a slight increase in the carbon monoxide (CO) levels in areas of fully burned gas were predicted for the enriched flame.

  18. Surface reactions of iron - enriched smectites: adsorption and transformation of hydroxy fatty acids and phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polubesova, Tamara; Olshansky, Yaniv; Eldad, Shay; Chefetz, Benny

    2014-05-01

    Iron-enriched smectites play an important role in adsorption and transformation of soil organic components. Soil organo-clay complexes, and in particular humin contain hydroxy fatty acids, which are derived from plant biopolymer cutin. Phenolic acids belong to another major group of organic acids detected in soil. They participate in various soil processes, and are of concern due to their allelopathic activity. We studied the reactivity of iron-enriched smectites (Fe(III)-montmorillonite and nontronite) toward both groups of acids. We used fatty acids- 9(10),16-dihydroxypalmitic acid (diHPA), isolated from curtin, and 9,10,16-trihydroxypalmitic acid (triHPA); the following phenolic acids were used: ferulic, p-coumaric, syringic, and vanillic. Adsorption of both groups of acids was measured. The FTIR spectra of fatty acid-mineral complexes indicated inner-sphere complexation of fatty acids with iron-enriched smectites (versus outer-sphere complexation with Ca(II)-montmorillonite). The LC-MS results demonstrated enhanced esterification of fatty acids on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces (as compared to Ca(II)-montmorillonite). This study suggests that fatty acids can be esterified on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces, which results in the formation of stable organo-mineral complexes. These complexes may serve as a model for the study of natural soil organo-clay complexes and humin. The reaction of phenolic acids with Fe(III)-montmorillonite demonstrated their oxidative transformation by the mineral surfaces, which was affected by molecular structure of acids. The following order of their transformation was obtained: ferulic >syringic >p-coumaric >vanillic. The LC-MS analysis demonstrated the presence of dimers, trimers, and tetramers of ferulic acid on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite. Oxidation and transformation of ferulic acid were more intense on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite as compared to Fe(III) in solution due to stronger complexation on the Fe(III)-motnomrillonite surface. Our study demonstrate the importance of iron-enriched minerals for the abiotic formation of humic materials and for the transformation of aromatic (phenolic) pollutants.

  19. Bacterioplankton responses to iron enrichment during the SAGE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuparinen, J.; Hall, J.; Ellwood, M.; Safi, K.; Peloquin, J.; Katz, D.

    2011-03-01

    We studied the microbial food web in the upper 100 m of the water column in iron-limited sub-Antarctic HNLC waters south-east of New Zealand in the SAGE experiment in 2004, with focus on bacterioplankton. Samples were collected daily from inside and outside the iron enriched patch. Short term enrichment experiments were conducted on board in 4 L polycarbonate bottles with water outside the iron enriched patch to study single and combined effects of micronutrient additions on microbial food web. Low bacterial growth was recorded in the study area with community turnover times of 50 h or more during the study period. Measurements of bacterial standing stocks and production rates in the study show minor responses to the large scale iron enrichment, with increase in rates and stocks after the first enrichment and at the end of the study period after the third iron enrichment when solar radiation increased and wind mixing decreased. The average daily bacterial production rates were 31.5 and 33.7 mgCm -2 d -1 for the OUT and IN stations, respectively; thus overall there was not a significant difference between the control and the iron-enriched patch. In the bottle experiments bacterial thymidine incorporation showed responses to single iron and silicic acid enrichments and a major growth response to the combined iron and sucrose enrichments. Phytoplankton chlorophyll- a showed clear stimulation by single additions of iron and silicic acid and silicic acid enhanced the iron impact. Cobalt additions had no effect on bacteria growth and a negative effect on phytoplankton growth. Low bacterial in situ growth rates and the enrichment experiments suggest that bacteria are co-limited by iron and carbon, and that bacterial iron uptake is dependent on carbon supply by the food web. With the high iron quota (?mol Fe mol C -1) bacteria may scavenge considerable amounts of the excess iron, and thus influence the relative importance of the microbial food web as a carbon sink.

  20. Amazon capims (floating grassmats): A source of sup 13 C enriched methane to the troposphere

    SciTech Connect

    Chanton, J. ); Crill, P. ); Martens, C. ); Bartlett, K.

    1989-08-01

    The {sup 13}C isotope composition of methane emitted to the troposphere from Amazon capims (floating grassmats) ranged from {minus}36.9 to {minus}48.0{per thousand} averaging {minus}44.4 {plus minus} 4.2{per thousand}. All pools of methane associated with the grassmats were {sup 13}C enriched; methane withdrawn from plant stems ranged from {minus}39 to {minus}49{per thousand} while bubbles stirred from the root mat averaged {minus}41.4{per thousand}. As the CH{sub 4} flux from these habitats makes up some 40% of the total flux from the Amazon flooplain, CH{sub 4} emissions form the region as a whole must be enriched in the heavy carbon isotope. Methane withdrawn from the stems of five genera of rooted macrophysics ranging in latitude from the Florida Everglades to the Alaskan Arctic exhibited {sup 13}C enrichment relative to the sedimentary methane bubble reservoir. Several hypotheses based upon isotopic fractionation by methane transport, oxidation and production processes are proposed to explain this phenomenon.