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Sample records for enrichment processes enrichissement

  1. Enriching the Web Processing Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosniok, Christoph; Bensmann, Felix; Wössner, Roman; Kohlus, Jörn; Roosmann, Rainer; Heidmann, Carsten; Lehfeldt, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    The OGC Web Processing Service (WPS) provides a standard for implementing geospatial processes in service-oriented networks. In its current version 1.0.0 it allocates the operations GetCapabilities, DescribeProcess and Execute, which can be used to offer custom processes based on single or multiple sub-processes. A large range of ready to use fine granular, fundamental geospatial processes have been developed by the GIS-community in the past. However, modern use cases or whole workflow processes demand specifications of lifecycle management and service orchestration. Orchestrating smaller sub-processes is a task towards interoperability; a comprehensive documentation by using appropriate metadata is also required. Though different approaches were tested in the past, developing complex WPS applications still requires programming skills, knowledge about software libraries in use and a lot of effort for integration. Our toolset RichWPS aims at providing a better overall experience by setting up two major components. The RichWPS ModelBuilder enables the graphics-aided design of workflow processes based on existing local and distributed processes and geospatial services. Once tested by the RichWPS Server, a composition can be deployed for production use on the RichWPS Server. The ModelBuilder obtains necessary processes and services from a directory service, the RichWPS semantic proxy. It manages the lifecycle and is able to visualize results and debugging-information. One aim will be to generate reproducible results; the workflow should be documented by metadata that can be integrated in Spatial Data Infrastructures. The RichWPS Server provides a set of interfaces to the ModelBuilder for, among others, testing composed workflow sequences, estimating their performance and to publish them as common processes. Therefore the server is oriented towards the upcoming WPS 2.0 standard and its ability to transactionally deploy and undeploy processes making use of a WPS

  2. Enrichment of xanthohumol in the brewing process.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Sascha; Zürcher, Achim; Back, Werner

    2005-09-01

    Xanthohumol (XN), a component of hops, is lost in significant quantities in the conventional brewing process. In commercial beers less than 0.2 mg XN/L are found. In order to increase the yield of XN in the brewing process, the parameters of XN recovery were studied. During wort boiling, XN is largely isomerised to isoxanthohumol. Further losses are owing to the precipitation and absorption of XN to yeast cells and haze particles and by filtration. The use of XN-enriched hop products combined with a late hop dosage during wort boiling proved to be effective in increasing the XN content in beer. The yield was further raised by a low-pitching rate and the abnegation of beer stabilisation. The use of dark malts had a positive effect on the XN recovery. Investigations of roasted malt extracts revealed several high-molecular substances that are able to form complexes with XN. These complexes proved to be stable in the brewing process. Depending on the addition of roasted malt or special XN-enriched roasted malt extracts, dark beers with more than 10 mg XN/L were achieved. Results obtained led to a brewing technology that produced on an industrial scale pale wheat beer with more than 1 mg XN/L. PMID:16097021

  3. Novel Membranes and Processes for Oxygen Enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Haiqing

    2011-11-15

    The overall goal of this project is to develop a membrane process that produces air containing 25-35% oxygen, at a cost of $25-40/ton of equivalent pure oxygen (EPO2). Oxygen-enriched air at such a low cost will allow existing air-fueled furnaces to be converted economically to oxygen-enriched furnaces, which in turn will improve the economic and energy efficiency of combustion processes significantly, and reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration from flue gases throughout the U.S. manufacturing industries. During the 12-month Concept Definition project: We identified a series of perfluoropolymers (PFPs) with promising oxygen/nitrogen separation properties, which were successfully made into thin film composite membranes. The membranes showed oxygen permeance as high as 1,200 gpu and oxygen/nitrogen selectivity of 3.0, and the permeance and selectivity were stable over the time period tested (60 days). We successfully scaled up the production of high-flux PFP-based membranes, using MTR's commercial coaters. Two bench-scale spiral-wound modules with countercurrent designs were made and parametric tests were performed to understand the effect of feed flow rate and pressure, permeate pressure and sweep flow rate on the membrane module separation properties. At various operating conditions that modeled potential industrial operating conditions, the module separation properties were similar to the pure-gas separation properties in the membrane stamps. We also identified and synthesized new polymers [including polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and polyimides] with higher oxygen/nitrogen selectivity (3.5-5.0) than the PFPs, and made these polymers into thin film composite membranes. However, these membranes were susceptible to severe aging; pure-gas permeance decreased nearly six-fold within two weeks, making them impractical for industrial applications of oxygen enrichment. We tested the effect of oxygen-enriched air on NO{sub x} emissions using a

  4. Optimization criteria and biological process enrichment in homologous multiprotein modules.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, Luqman; Karp, Richard M

    2013-06-25

    Biological process enrichment is a widely used metric for evaluating the quality of multiprotein modules. In this study, we examine possible optimization criteria for detecting homologous multiprotein modules and quantify their effects on biological process enrichment. We find that modularity, linear density, and module size are the most important criteria considered, complementary to each other, and that graph theoretical attributes account for 36% of the variance in biological process enrichment. Variations in protein interaction similarity within module pairs have only minor effects on biological process enrichment. As random modules increase in size, both biological process enrichment and modularity tend to improve, although modularity does not show this upward trend in modules with size at most 50 proteins. To adjust for these trends, we recommend a size correction based on random sampling of modules when using biological process enrichment or other attributes to evaluate module boundaries. Characteristics of homologous multiprotein modules optimized for each of the optimization criteria are examined. PMID:23757502

  5. Metal enrichment processes in the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, S.

    1986-01-01

    This study discusses metal enrichment in oceanic sediments resulting from remobilization, scavenging, pollution and hydrothermal inputs in the Mississippi River-Gulf of Mexico and Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 26/sup 0/N. Suspended particles collected from the Mississippi River during mean water and suspended-sediment discharge have metal concentrations which vary by <5% for Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn and approx.10% for Mn. The massive sediment load carried by the Mississippi River is rapidly deposited on the Mississippi Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. Aluminum and Fe concentrations in Mississippi Delta sediments are similar to those of average Mississippi River suspended matter throughout the delta. In contrast, the Cu/Al ratio in surficial sediments (0-1 cm) decreases from 4.1 x 10/sup -4/ for average suspended matter to 2.7 x 10/sup -4/ about 45 km from the mouth of Southwest Pass. Copper lost from delta sediments can be traced to the deep Gulf of Mexico where concentrations average 50-70 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ compared with 33 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ for Mississippi River suspended matter. The observed increase in offshore sediments in linked to scavenging of Cu by particles. A similar scenario can be presented for Mn.

  6. Process of .sup.196 Hg enrichment

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; Mellor, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    A simple rate equation model shows that by increasing the length of the photochemical reactor and/or by increasing the photon intensity in said reactor, the feedstock utilization of .sup.196 Hg will be increased. Two preferred embodiments of the present invention are described, namely (1) long reactors using long photochemical lamps and vapor filters; and (2) quartz reactors with external UV reflecting films. These embodiments have each been constructed and operated, demonstrating the enhanced utilization process dictated by the mathematical model (also provided).

  7. Process of [sup 196]Hg enrichment

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.; Mellor, C.E.

    1993-04-27

    A simple rate equation model shows that by increasing the length of the photochemical reactor and/or by increasing the photon intensity in said reactor, the feedstock utilization of [sup 196]Hg will be increased. Two preferred embodiments of the present invention are described, namely (1) long reactors using long photochemical lamps and vapor filters; and (2) quartz reactors with external UV reflecting films. These embodiments have each been constructed and operated, demonstrating the enhanced utilization process dictated by the mathematical model (also provided).

  8. Interstellar Processes Leading to Molecular Deuterium Enrichment and Their Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Large deuterium (D) enrichments in meteoritic materials indicate that interstellar organic materials survived incorporation into parent bodies within the forming Solar System. These enrichments are likelier due to one or more of four distinct astrochemical processes. These are (1) low temperature gas phase ion-molecule reactions; (2) low temperature gas-grain reactions; (3) gas phase unimolecular photodissociation, and (4) ultraviolet photolysis in D-enriched ice mantles. Each of these processes should be associated with molecular carriers having, distinct regiochemical signatures (D placement on the product molecules, correlation with specific chemical functionalities, etc.). These processes are reviewed and specific spectroscopic signatures for the detection of these processes in space are identified and described.

  9. Combined system of monothermal chemical exchange process with electrolysis and thermal diffusion process for enriching tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Kitamoto, A.; Hasegawa, K.; Masui, T.

    1988-09-01

    Monothermal chemical exchange process with electrolysis (wellknown as the CECE process) is an effective method for enriching and removing tritium from tritiated water of low to middle level activity. The thermal diffusion process (ThD) is a low inventory gas phase method for enriching tritium from hydrogen. ThD and CECE process can be combined with each other by hydrogen gas line.

  10. Process for preparing a chemical compound enriched in isotope content. [nitrogen 15-enriched nitric acid

    DOEpatents

    Michaels, E.D.

    1981-02-25

    A process to prepare a chemical enriched in isotope content includes: a chemical exchange reaction between a first and second compound which yields an isotopically enriched first compound and an isotopically depleted second compound; the removal of a portion of the first compound as product and the removal of a portion of the second compound as spent material; the conversion of the remainder of the first compound to the second compound for reflux at the product end of the chemical exchange reaction region; the conversion of the remainder of the second compound to the first compound for reflux at the spent material end of the chemical exchange region; and the cycling of the additional chemicals produced by one conversion reaction to the other conversion reaction, for consumption therein. One of the conversion reactions is an oxidation reaction, and the energy that it yields is used to drive the other conversion reaction, a reduction. The reduction reaction is carried out in a solid polymer electrolyte electrolytic reactor. The overall process is energy efficient and yields no waste by-products. A particular embodiment of the process in the production of nitrogen-15-enriched nitric acid.

  11. Process for preparing a chemical compound enriched in isotope content

    DOEpatents

    Michaels, Edward D.

    1982-01-01

    A process to prepare a chemical enriched in isotope content which includes: (a) A chemical exchange reaction between a first and second compound which yields an isotopically enriched first compound and an isotopically depleted second compound; (b) the removal of a portion of the first compound as product and the removal of a portion of the second compound as spent material; (c) the conversion of the remainder of the first compound to the second compound for reflux at the product end of the chemical exchange reaction region; (d) the conversion of the remainder of the second compound to the first compound for reflux at the spent material end of the chemical exchange region; and the cycling of the additional chemicals produced by one conversion reaction to the other conversion reaction, for consumption therein. One of the conversion reactions is an oxidation reaction, and the energy that it yields is used to drive the other conversion reaction, a reduction. The reduction reaction is carried out in a solid polymer electrolyte electrolytic reactor. The overall process is energy efficient and yields no waste by-products.

  12. On the r-process Enrichment of Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramante, Joseph; Linden, Tim

    2016-07-01

    Recent observations of Reticulum II have uncovered an overabundance of r-process elements compared to similar ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies (UFDs). Because the metallicity and star formation history of Reticulum II appear consistent with all known UFDs, the high r-process abundance of Reticulum II suggests enrichment through a single, rare event, such as a double neutron star (NS) merger. However, we note that this scenario is extremely unlikely, as binary stellar evolution models require significant supernova natal kicks to produce NS–NS or NS–black hole (BH) mergers, and these kicks would efficiently remove compact binary systems from the weak gravitational potentials of UFDs. We examine alternative mechanisms for the production of r-process elements in UFDs, including a novel mechanism wherein NSs in regions of high dark matter (DM) density implode after accumulating a BH-forming mass of DM. We find that r-process proto-material ejection by tidal forces, when a single NS implodes into a BH, can occur at a rate matching the r-process abundance of both Reticulum II and the Milky Way. Remarkably, DM models which collapse a single NS in observed UFDs also solve the missing pulsar problem in the Milky Way Galactic Center. We propose tests specific to DM r-process production which may uncover or rule out this model.

  13. Efficiency evaluation of oxygen enrichment in energy conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bomelburg, H.J.

    1983-12-01

    The extent to which energy conversion efficiencies can be increased by using oxygen or oxygen-enriched air for combustion was studied. Combustion of most fuels with oxygen instead of air was found to have five advantages: increases combustion temperature and efficiency, improves heat transfer at high temperatures, reduces nitrous oxide emissions, permits a high ration of exhaust gas recirculation and allows combustion of certain materials not combustible in air. The same advantages, although to a lesser degree, are apparent with oxygen-enriched air. The cost-effectiveness of the process must necessarily be improved by about 10% when using oxygen instead of air before such use could become justifiable on purely economic terms. Although such a modest increase appears to be attainable in real situations, this study ascertained that it is not possible to generally assess the economic gains. Rather, each case requires its own evaluation. For certain processes industry has already proven that the use of oxygen leads to more efficient plant operation. Several ideas for essentially new applications are described. Specifically, when oxygen is used with exhaust gas recirculation in external or internal combustion engines. It appears also that the advantages of pulse combustion can be amplified further if oxygen is used. When burning wet fuels with oxygen, direct steam generation becomes possible. Oxygen combustion could also improve processes for in situ gasification of coals, oil shales, peats, and other wet fuels. Enhanced oil recovery by fire flooding methods might also become more effective if oxygen is used. The cold energy contained in liquid oxygen can be substantially recovered in the low end of certain thermodynamic cycles. Further efforts to develop certain schemes for using oxygen for combustion appear to be justified from both the technical and economic viewpoints.

  14. Enrichment and Fundamental Optical Processes of Armchair Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haroz, Erik H.

    The armchair variety of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is the only nanotube species that behaves as a metal with no electronic band gap and massless carriers, making them ideally suited to probe fundamental questions of many-body physics of one-dimensional conductors as well as to serve in applications such as highcurrent power transmission cables. However, current methods of nanotube synthesis produce bulk material comprising of a mixture of nanotube lengths, diameters, wrapping angles, and electronic types due to the inability to control the growth process at the nanometer level. As a result, measurements of as-grown SWCNTs produce a superposition of electrical and optical responses from multiple SWCNT species. This thesis demonstrates production of aqueous suspensions composed almost entirely of armchair SWCNTs using a post-synthesis separation method employing density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGU) to separate different SWCNT types based on their mass density and surfactant-specific interactions. Resonant Raman spectroscopy determines the relative abundances of each nanotube species, before and after DGU, by measuring the integrated intensity of the radial breathing mode, the diameter-dependent radial vibration of the SWCNT perpendicular to its main axis, and quantifies the degree of enrichment of bulk nanotube samples to exclusively armchair tubes. Raman spectroscopy of armchair-enriched samples of the G-band mode, which is composed of longitudinal (G-) and circumferential (G+) vibrations oscillating parallel and perpendicular to the tube axis, shows that the G- peak, long-held to be an indicator for the presence of metallic SWCNTs, appears only when electronic resonance with narrow-gap semiconducting SWCNTs occurs and shows only the G+ component in spectra containing only armchair species. Finally, by combining optical absorption measurements with nanotube composition as determined earlier via Raman scattering, peak fitting of absorption spectra

  15. r-Process Elements as Tracers of Enrichment Processes in the Early Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Johannes; Nordström, Birgitta; Hansen, Terese T.

    2016-08-01

    Significant minorities of extremely metal-poor (EMP) halo stars exhibit dramatic excesses of neutron capture elements. The standard scenario for their origin is mass transfer and dilution in binary systems, but requires them to be binaries. If not, these excesses must have been implanted in them from birth by processes that are not included in current models of SN II chemical enrichment. The binary population of such EMP subgroups is a test of this scenario.

  16. Robotic Enrichment Processing of Roche 454 Titanium Emlusion PCR at the DOE Joint Genome Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Matthew; Wilson, Steven; Bauer, Diane; Miller, Don; Duffy-Wei, Kecia; Hammon, Nancy; Lucas, Susan; Pollard, Martin; Cheng, Jan-Fang

    2010-05-28

    Enrichment of emulsion PCR product is the most laborious and pipette-intensive step in the 454 Titanium process, posing the biggest obstacle for production-oriented scale up. The Joint Genome Institute has developed a pair of custom-made robots based on the Microlab Star liquid handling deck manufactured by Hamilton to mediate the complexity and ergonomic demands of the 454 enrichment process. The robot includes a custom built centrifuge, magnetic deck positions, as well as heating and cooling elements. At present processing eight emulsion cup samples in a single 2.5 hour run, these robots are capable of processing up to 24 emulsion cup samples. Sample emulsions are broken using the standard 454 breaking process and transferred from a pair of 50ml conical tubes to a single 2ml tube and loaded on the robot. The robot performs the enrichment protocol and produces beads in 2ml tubes ready for counting. The robot follows the Roche 454 enrichment protocol with slight exceptions to the manner in which it resuspends beads via pipette mixing rather than vortexing and a set number of null bead removal washes. The robotic process is broken down in similar discrete steps: First Melt and Neutralization, Enrichment Primer Annealing, Enrichment Bead Incubation, Null Bead Removal, Second Melt and Neutralization and Sequencing Primer Annealing. Data indicating our improvements in enrichment efficiency and total number of bases per run will also be shown.

  17. s-Process Os isotope enrichment in ureilites by planetary processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goderis, S.; Brandon, A. D.; Mayer, B.; Humayun, M.

    2015-12-01

    Ubiquitous nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies relative to the terrestrial isotopic composition in Mo, Ru, and other elements are known from both bulk chondrites and differentiated meteorites, but Os isotope ratios reported from such meteorites have been found to be indistinguishable from the terrestrial value. The carriers of s- and r-process Os must thus have been homogeneously distributed in the solar nebula. As large Os isotope anomalies are known from acid leachates and residues of primitive chondrites, the constant relative proportions of presolar s- and r-process carriers in such chondrites must have been maintained during nebular processes. It has long been assumed that partial melting of primitive chondrites would homogenize the isotopic heterogeneity carried by presolar grains. Here, ureilites, carbon-rich ultramafic achondrites dominantly composed of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene, are shown to be the first differentiated bulk Solar System materials for which nucleosynthetic Os isotope anomalies have been identified. These anomalies consist of enrichment in s-process Os heterogeneously distributed in different ureilites. Given the observed homogeneity of Os isotopes in all types of primitive chondrites, this Os isotope variability among ureilites must have been caused by selective removal of s-process-poor Os host phases, probably metal, during rapid localized melting on the ureilite parent body. While Mo and Ru isotope anomalies for all meteorites measured so far exhibit s-process deficits relative to the Earth, the opposite holds for the Os isotope anomalies in ureilites reported here. This might indicate that the Earth preferentially accreted olivine-rich restites and inherited a s-process excess relative to smaller meteorite bodies, consistent with Earth's high Mg/Si ratio and enrichment of s-process nuclides in Mo, Ru, and Nd isotopes. Our new Os isotope results imply that caution must be used when applying nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies as provenance

  18. Method for thermal processing alumina-enriched spinel single crystals

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1995-05-09

    A process for age-hardening alumina-rich magnesium aluminum spinel to obtain the desired combination of characteristics of hardness, clarity, flexural strength and toughness comprises selection of the time-temperature pair for isothermal heating followed by quenching. The time-temperature pair is selected from the region wherein the precipitate groups have the characteristics sought. The single crystal spinel is isothermally heated and will, if heated long enough pass from its single phase through two pre-precipitates and two metastable precipitates to a stable secondary phase precipitate within the spinel matrix. Quenching is done slowly at first to avoid thermal shock, then rapidly. 12 figs.

  19. Method for thermal processing alumina-enriched spinel single crystals

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, Carol M.

    1995-01-01

    A process for age-hardening alumina-rich magnesium aluminum spinel to obtain the desired combination of characteristics of hardness, clarity, flexural strength and toughness comprises selection of the time-temperature pair for isothermal heating followed by quenching. The time-temperature pair is selected from the region wherein the precipitate groups have the characteristics sought. The single crystal spinel is isothermally heated and will, if heated long enough pass from its single phase through two pre-precipitates and two metastable precipitates to a stable secondary phase precipitate within the spinel matrix. Quenching is done slowly at first to avoid thermal shock, then rapidly.

  20. Assessment of the Interstellar Processes Leading to Deuterium Enrichment in Meteoritic Organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Bernstein, Max P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The presence of isotopic anomalies is the most unequivocal demonstration that meteoritic material contains circumstellar or interstellar components. In the case of organic compounds in meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), the most useful isotopic tracer has been deuterium (D). We discuss four processes that are expected to lead to D enrichment in interstellar materials and describe how their unique characteristics can be used to assess their relative importance for the organics in meteorites. These enrichment processes are low temperature gas phase ion-molecule reactions, low temperature gas-grain reactions, gas phase unimolecular photodissociation, and ultraviolet photolysis in D-enriched ice mantles. Each of these processes is expected to be associated with distinct regiochemical signatures (D placement on the product molecules, correlation with specific chemical functionalities, etc.), especially in the molecular population of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We describe these differences and discuss how they may be used to delineate the various interstellar processes that may have contributed to meteoritic D enrichments. We also briefly discuss how these processes may affect the isotopic distributions in C, 0, and N in the same compounds.

  1. Fluxes in PHA-storing microbial communities during enrichment and biopolymer accumulation processes.

    PubMed

    Janarthanan, Om Murugan; Laycock, Bronwyn; Montano-Herrera, Liliana; Lu, Yang; Arcos-Hernandez, Monica V; Werker, Alan; Pratt, Steven

    2016-01-25

    The use of mixed microbial cultures for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) is emerging as a viable technology. In this study, 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing was used to analyse fluctuations in populations over a 63-day period within a PHA-storing mixed microbial community enriched on fermented whey permeate. This community was dominated by the genera Flavisolibacter and Zoogloea as well as an unidentified organism belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes. The population was observed to cycle through an increase in Zoogloea followed by a return to a community composition similar to the initial one (highly enriched in Flavisolibacter). It was found that the PHA accumulation capacity of the community was robust to population flux during enrichment and even PHA accumulation, with final polymer composition dependent on the overall proportion of acetic to propionic acids in the feed. This community adaptation suggests that mixed culture PHA production is a robust process. PMID:26257140

  2. Enrichment processes of arsenic in oxidic sedimentary rocks - from geochemical and genetic characterization to potential mobility.

    PubMed

    Banning, Andre; Rüde, Thomas R

    2010-11-01

    Sedimentary marine iron ores of Jurassic age and Tertiary marine sandy sediments containing iron hydroxides concretions have been sampled from boreholes and outcrops in two study areas in Germany to examine iron and arsenic accumulation processes. Samples were analyzed for bulk rock geochemistry (INAA/ICP-OES), quantitative mineralogy (XRD with Rietveld analysis), element distribution (electron microprobe) and arsenic fractionation (sequential extraction). Bulk Jurassic ores contain an average arsenic content of 123 μg g(-1) hosted in mainly goethite ooids which slowly formed in times of condensed sedimentation. Enrichment occurred syndepositionally and is therefore characterized as primary. Iron concretions in Tertiary sediments mainly consist of goethite and yield arsenic up to 1860 μg g(-1). The accumulation process is secondary as it took place in the course of oxidation of the originally reduced marine sediments under terrestrial conditions, leading to element redistribution and local enrichment in the near-surface part. The scale of enrichment was assessed calculating Enrichment Factors, indicating that arsenic accumulation was favoured over other potential contaminants. In spite of higher bulk arsenic contents in the oxidic rocks, the mainly pyrite-hosted As pool within the reduced deeper part of the Tertiary sediments is shown to have a higher potential for remobilization and creation of elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater. PMID:20561664

  3. Olive oil enriched in lycopene from tomato by-product through a co-milling process.

    PubMed

    Bendini, Alessandra; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Valli, Enrico; Barbieri, Sara; Tesini, Federica; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to produce an olive oil (OO) naturally enriched with antioxidants, recovering carotenoids, in particular lycopene, using an industrial by-product of tomato seeds and skin. For this purpose, a technological process in a low-scale industrial plant to co-mill olives and tomato by-product in de-frosted or freeze-dried forms was applied and studied with respect to control samples. Preliminary results obtained from two different experiments were carried out by 40 kg of cultivar Correggiolo olives and 60 kg of olive blends from different cultivars. In both the experiments, the co-milling showed significant enrichment in carotenoids, especially in lycopene (mean values of 5.4 and 7.2 mg/kg oil from defrosted and freeze-dried by-products, respectively). The experimental results demonstrated the possibility to obtain a new functional food naturally enriched in antioxidant compounds, which might be marketed as "OO dressing enriched in lycopene" or "condiment produced using olives and tomato by-product". PMID:26001089

  4. The role of personal and key resources in the family-to-work enrichment process.

    PubMed

    Tement, Sara

    2014-10-01

    Based on the work-home resources model, the aim of the present research was to test a process model of family-to-work enrichment by examining whether self-efficacy (i.e., personal resource) mediates the relationship between support from one's family and work engagement. Further, it was assumed that positive affectivity (i.e., key resource) moderates the relation between family support and self-efficacy. Using an occupationally heterogeneous sample of Slovenian employees (n = 738), we found support for a mediating effect of self-efficacy as well as for the moderating role of positive affectivity. In general, our results broaden the understanding of work-family enrichment processes and provide support for the work-home resources model. In addition, they point to the relevant role of personal and key resources in work-family interactions. PMID:25040786

  5. Resin-assisted Enrichment of N-terminal Peptides for Characterizing Proteolytic Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jong Seo; Dai, Ziyu; Aryal, Uma K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Camp, David G.; Baker, Scott E.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun

    2013-06-17

    Proteolytic processing is a ubiquitous, irreversible posttranslational modification that plays an important role in cellular regulation in all living organisms. Herein we report a resin-assisted positive selection method for specifically enriching protein N-terminal peptides to facilitate the characterization of proteolytic processing events by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In this approach, proteins are initially reduced and alkylated and their lysine residues are converted to homoarginines. Then, protein N-termini are selectively converted to reactive thiol groups. We demonstrate that these sequential reactions were achieved with nearly quantitative efficiencies. Thiol-containing N-terminal peptides are then captured (>98% efficiency) by a thiol-affinity resin, a significant improvement over the traditional avidin/biotin enrichment. Application to cell lysates of Aspergillus niger, a filamentous fungus of interest for biomass degradation, enabled the identification of 1672 unique protein N-termini and proteolytic cleavage sites from 690 unique proteins.

  6. A Comparative Study of Two 47 Tuc Giant Stars with Different s-process Enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, M. J.; Hansen, C. J.; Johnson, C. I.; Pilachowski, C. A.

    2015-07-01

    Here we aim to understand the origin of 47 Tuc’s La-rich star Lee 4710. We report abundances for O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and Eu and present a detailed abundance analysis of two 47 Tuc stars with similar stellar parameters but different slow neutron-capture (s-)process enrichment. Star Lee 4710 has the highest known La abundance ratio in this cluster ([La/Fe] = 1.14), and star Lee 4626 is known to have normal s-process abundances (e.g., [Ba/Eu] < 0). The nucleosynthetic pattern of elements with Z ≳ 56 for star Lee 4710 agrees with the predicted yields of a 1.3{M}⊙ asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star. Therefore, Lee 4710 may have been enriched by mass transfer from a more massive AGB companion, which is compatible with its location far away from the center of this relatively metal-rich ([Fe/H] ˜ -0.7) globular cluster. A further analysis comparing the abundance pattern of Lee 4710 with data available in the literature reveals that nine out of the ˜200 47 Tuc stars previously studied show strong s-process enhancements that point toward later enrichment by more massive AGB stars.

  7. Development of advanced host cell protein enrichment and detection strategies to enable process relevant spike challenge studies.

    PubMed

    Soderquist, Ryan G; Trumbo, Mihaela; Hart, Roger A; Zhang, Qingchun; Flynn, Gregory C

    2015-01-01

    An orthogonal chromatography methodology for the enrichment of host cell protein (HCP) species relative to monoclonal antibody (mAb) products was developed and applied for the successful enrichment of HCP from post-Protein A process pools for seven different mAb products. An advanced two-dimensional liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry platform (2D-LC/MS(E) ) was utilized to demonstrate that the HCP enriched material was representative, in terms of species content, to pre-enriched process pools. The HCP enrichment methodology was scaled up for two different mAb products, and this process relevant enriched HCP material was used to conduct advanced spike challenge studies to demonstrate the utility of the approach for the understanding of (1) quantitative HCP clearance, (2) individual species clearance, and (3) species clearance redundancy across polishing chromatography steps. The combined ability to enrich process relevant HCP, detect individual HCP species with 2D-LC/MS(E) technology, and conduct advanced challenge studies with process relevant material surmounts prior limitations to high integrity process challenge study implementation, and facilitates significant process understanding for development of risk-based control strategies and strategic process design. This also demonstrates implementation of a foundational strategy for conducting spike-challenge studies using process-relevant impurities isolated from processes of interest using orthogonal approaches. PMID:26014278

  8. Process for protein enrichment of cassava by solid substrate fermentation in rural conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Daubresse, P.; Ntibashirwa, S.; Gheysen, A.; Meyer, J.A.

    1987-06-01

    An artisanal static process for protein enrichment of cassava by solid-state fermentation, developed in laboratory and tested on pilot units in Burundi (Central Africa), provides enriched cassava containing 10.7% of dry matter protein versus 1% before fermentation. Cassava chips, processed into granules of 2-4-mm diameter, are moistened (40% water content) and steamed. After cooling to 40 degrees C, cassava is mixed with a nutritive solution containing the inoculum (Rhizopus oryzae, strain MUCL 28627) and providing the following per 100 g dry matter: 3.4 g urea, 1.5 g KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/, O.8 g MgSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O, and 22.7 g citric acid. For the fermentation, cassava, with circa 60% moisture content, is spread in a thin layer (2-3 cm thick) on perforated trays and slid into an aerated humidified enclosure. The incubation lasts more or less 65 hours. The production of protein enriched cassava is 3.26 kg dry matter/square m tray. The effects of the variation of the nutritive solution composition and the inoculum conservation period on the protein production are equally discussed. (Refs. 37).

  9. Creating aging-enriched social work education:a process of curricular and organizational change.

    PubMed

    Hooyman, Nancy; St Peter, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The CSWE Geriatric Enrichment in Social Work Education Project, funded by the John A. Hartford foundation, aimed to change curricula and organizational structure in 67 GeroRich projects so that all students would graduate with foundation knowledge and skills to work effectively with older adults and their families. The emphasis was on change processes to infuse and sustain gerontological competencies and curricular resources in foundation courses. This article presents lessons learned and strategies for engaging faculty, practitioners and students in the curriculum and organizational change process. PMID:17200068

  10. Natural mercury enrichment in a minerogenic fen--evaluation of sources and processes.

    PubMed

    Franzen, C; Kilian, R; Biester, H

    2004-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) records in natural archives such as peat bogs are often used to evaluate anthropogenic or climatic influences on atmospheric Hg deposition. In this context, there is an ongoing discussion about natural sources or processes of Hg enrichment in natural archives. In the present study we estimated Hg fluxes from rock weathering, direct atmospheric deposition and from indirect atmospheric deposition in the catchment of a pristine minerogenic fen (GC2) located in the Magellanic Moorlands, southernmost Chile. The Hg record in the bog covers 11 174 cal. (14)C years and shows Hg concentrations of up to 570 [micro sign]g kg(-1) with an average of 268 [micro sign]g kg(-1). Hg was found to be enriched in the peat by a factor of 81 if compared to the mean Hg concentrations in the rocks of the catchment (3.2 [micro sign]g kg(-1)). Hg and also Pb, Fe, and As were found to be enriched predominately in goethite layers indicating high retention of these elements in the bog by iron oxyhydrates. It could also be demonstrated that the high peat decomposition rates in minerogenic bogs can increase the Hg concentrations in the minerogenic peat by a factor of approximately 2 at the same atmospheric Hg deposition rate if compared to ombrotrophic sites. This study has shown that Hg in minerogenic peat can be naturally enriched especially through the retention by autochthonous formed goethite and can be a solely internal process which does not require increased external Hg fluxes. PMID:15152316

  11. R-process enrichment from a single event in an ancient dwarf galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Alexander P.; Frebel, Anna; Chiti, Anirudh; Simon, Joshua D.

    2016-03-01

    Elements heavier than zinc are synthesized through the rapid (r) and slow (s) neutron-capture processes. The main site of production of the r-process elements (such as europium) has been debated for nearly 60 years. Initial studies of trends in chemical abundances in old Milky Way halo stars suggested that these elements are produced continually, in sites such as core-collapse supernovae. But evidence from the local Universe favours the idea that r-process production occurs mainly during rare events, such as neutron star mergers. The appearance of a plateau of europium abundance in some dwarf spheroidal galaxies has been suggested as evidence for rare r-process enrichment in the early Universe, but only under the assumption that no gas accretes into those dwarf galaxies; gas accretion favours continual r-process enrichment in these systems. Furthermore, the universal r-process pattern has not been cleanly identified in dwarf spheroidals. The smaller, chemically simpler, and more ancient ultrafaint dwarf galaxies assembled shortly after the first stars formed, and are ideal systems with which to study nucleosynthesis events such as the r-process. Reticulum II is one such galaxy. The abundances of non-neutron-capture elements in this galaxy (and others like it) are similar to those in other old stars. Here, we report that seven of the nine brightest stars in Reticulum II, observed with high-resolution spectroscopy, show strong enhancements in heavy neutron-capture elements, with abundances that follow the universal r-process pattern beyond barium. The enhancement seen in this ‘r-process galaxy’ is two to three orders of magnitude higher than that detected in any other ultrafaint dwarf galaxy. This implies that a single, rare event produced the r-process material in Reticulum II. The r-process yield and event rate are incompatible with the source being ordinary core-collapse supernovae, but consistent with other possible sources, such as neutron star mergers.

  12. R-process enrichment from a single event in an ancient dwarf galaxy.

    PubMed

    Ji, Alexander P; Frebel, Anna; Chiti, Anirudh; Simon, Joshua D

    2016-03-31

    Elements heavier than zinc are synthesized through the rapid (r) and slow (s) neutron-capture processes. The main site of production of the r-process elements (such as europium) has been debated for nearly 60 years. Initial studies of trends in chemical abundances in old Milky Way halo stars suggested that these elements are produced continually, in sites such as core-collapse supernovae. But evidence from the local Universe favours the idea that r-process production occurs mainly during rare events, such as neutron star mergers. The appearance of a plateau of europium abundance in some dwarf spheroidal galaxies has been suggested as evidence for rare r-process enrichment in the early Universe, but only under the assumption that no gas accretes into those dwarf galaxies; gas accretion favours continual r-process enrichment in these systems. Furthermore, the universal r-process pattern has not been cleanly identified in dwarf spheroidals. The smaller, chemically simpler, and more ancient ultrafaint dwarf galaxies assembled shortly after the first stars formed, and are ideal systems with which to study nucleosynthesis events such as the r-process. Reticulum II is one such galaxy. The abundances of non-neutron-capture elements in this galaxy (and others like it) are similar to those in other old stars. Here, we report that seven of the nine brightest stars in Reticulum II, observed with high-resolution spectroscopy, show strong enhancements in heavy neutron-capture elements, with abundances that follow the universal r-process pattern beyond barium. The enhancement seen in this 'r-process galaxy' is two to three orders of magnitude higher than that detected in any other ultrafaint dwarf galaxy. This implies that a single, rare event produced the r-process material in Reticulum II. The r-process yield and event rate are incompatible with the source being ordinary core-collapse supernovae, but consistent with other possible sources, such as neutron star mergers. PMID

  13. Reorganization in processing of spectral and temporal input in the rat posterior auditory field induced by environmental enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Jakkamsetti, Vikram; Chang, Kevin Q.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental enrichment induces powerful changes in the adult cerebral cortex. Studies in primary sensory cortex have observed that environmental enrichment modulates neuronal response strength, selectivity, speed of response, and synchronization to rapid sensory input. Other reports suggest that nonprimary sensory fields are more plastic than primary sensory cortex. The consequences of environmental enrichment on information processing in nonprimary sensory cortex have yet to be studied. Here we examine physiological effects of enrichment in the posterior auditory field (PAF), a field distinguished from primary auditory cortex (A1) by wider receptive fields, slower response times, and a greater preference for slowly modulated sounds. Environmental enrichment induced a significant increase in spectral and temporal selectivity in PAF. PAF neurons exhibited narrower receptive fields and responded significantly faster and for a briefer period to sounds after enrichment. Enrichment increased time-locking to rapidly successive sensory input in PAF neurons. Compared with previous enrichment studies in A1, we observe a greater magnitude of reorganization in PAF after environmental enrichment. Along with other reports observing greater reorganization in nonprimary sensory cortex, our results in PAF suggest that nonprimary fields might have a greater capacity for reorganization compared with primary fields. PMID:22131375

  14. The s-process enrichment of the globular clusters M4 and M22

    SciTech Connect

    Shingles, Luke J.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Fishlock, Cherie K.; Yong, David; Da Costa, Gary S.; Marino, Anna F.; Hirschi, Raphael

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the enrichment in elements produced by the slow neutron-capture process (s-process) in the globular clusters M4 (NGC 6121) and M22 (NGC 6656). Stars in M4 have homogeneous abundances of Fe and neutron-capture elements, but the entire cluster is enhanced in s-process elements (Sr, Y, Ba, Pb) relative to other clusters with a similar metallicity. In M22, two stellar groups exhibit different abundances of Fe and s-process elements. By subtracting the mean abundances of s-poor from s-rich stars, we derive s-process residuals or empirical s-process distributions for M4 and M22. We find that the s-process distribution in M22 is more weighted toward the heavy s-peak (Ba, La, Ce) and Pb than M4, which has been enriched mostly with light s-peak elements (Sr, Y, Zr). We construct simple chemical evolution models using yields from massive star models that include rotation, which dramatically increases s-process production at low metallicity. We show that our massive star models with rotation rates of up to 50% of the critical (break-up) velocity and changes to the preferred {sup 17}O(α, γ){sup 21}Ne rate produce insufficient heavy s-elements and Pb to match the empirical distributions. For models that incorporate asymptotic giant branch yields, we find that intermediate-mass yields (with a {sup 22}Ne neutron source) alone do not reproduce the light-to-heavy s-element ratios for M4 and M22, and that a small contribution from models with a {sup 13}C pocket is required. With our assumption that {sup 13}C pockets form for initial masses below a transition range between 3.0 and 3.5 M {sub ☉}, we match the light-to-heavy s-element ratio in the s-process residual of M22 and predict a minimum enrichment timescale of between 240 and 360 Myr. Our predicted value is consistent with the 300 Myr upper limit age difference between the two groups derived from isochrone fitting.

  15. Analysis of civilian processing programs in reduction of excess separated plutonium and high-enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Persiani, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this preliminary investigation is to explore alternatives and strategies aimed at the gradual reduction of the excess inventories of separated plutonium and high-enriched uranium (HEU) in the civilian nuclear power industry. The study attempts to establish a technical and economic basis to assist in the formation of alternative approaches consistent with nonproliferation and safeguards concerns. The analysis addresses several options in reducing the excess separated plutonium and HEU, and the consequences on nonproliferation and safeguards policy assessments resulting from the interacting synergistic effects between fuel cycle processes and isotopic signatures of nuclear materials.

  16. A Monte Carlo Analysis of Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Process Load Cell Data

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, James R; Whitaker, J Michael

    2013-01-01

    As uranium enrichment plants increase in number, capacity, and types of separative technology deployed (e.g., gas centrifuge, laser, etc.), more automated safeguards measures are needed to enable the IAEA to maintain safeguards effectiveness in a fiscally constrained environment. Monitoring load cell data can significantly increase the IAEA s ability to efficiently achieve the fundamental safeguards objective of confirming operations as declared (i.e., no undeclared activities), but care must be taken to fully protect the operator s proprietary and classified information related to operations. Staff at ORNL, LANL, JRC/ISPRA, and University of Glasgow are investigating monitoring the process load cells at feed and withdrawal (F/W) stations to improve international safeguards at enrichment plants. A key question that must be resolved is what is the necessary frequency of recording data from the process F/W stations? Several studies have analyzed data collected at a fixed frequency. This paper contributes to load cell process monitoring research by presenting an analysis of Monte Carlo simulations to determine the expected errors caused by low frequency sampling and its impact on material balance calculations.

  17. A dynamic intron retention program enriched in RNA processing genes regulates gene expression during terminal erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Harold; Parra, Marilyn; Gee, Sherry L.; Mohandas, Narla; Pachter, Lior; Conboy, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Differentiating erythroblasts execute a dynamic alternative splicing program shown here to include extensive and diverse intron retention (IR) events. Cluster analysis revealed hundreds of developmentally-dynamic introns that exhibit increased IR in mature erythroblasts, and are enriched in functions related to RNA processing such as SF3B1 spliceosomal factor. Distinct, developmentally-stable IR clusters are enriched in metal-ion binding functions and include mitoferrin genes SLC25A37 and SLC25A28 that are critical for iron homeostasis. Some IR transcripts are abundant, e.g. comprising ∼50% of highly-expressed SLC25A37 and SF3B1 transcripts in late erythroblasts, and thereby limiting functional mRNA levels. IR transcripts tested were predominantly nuclear-localized. Splice site strength correlated with IR among stable but not dynamic intron clusters, indicating distinct regulation of dynamically-increased IR in late erythroblasts. Retained introns were preferentially associated with alternative exons with premature termination codons (PTCs). High IR was observed in disease-causing genes including SF3B1 and the RNA binding protein FUS. Comparative studies demonstrated that the intron retention program in erythroblasts shares features with other tissues but ultimately is unique to erythropoiesis. We conclude that IR is a multi-dimensional set of processes that post-transcriptionally regulate diverse gene groups during normal erythropoiesis, misregulation of which could be responsible for human disease. PMID:26531823

  18. Multivariate analysis of the heterogeneous geochemical processes controlling arsenic enrichment in a shallow groundwater system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuangbing; Liu, Changrong; Wang, Yanxin; Zhan, Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    The effects of various geochemical processes on arsenic enrichment in a high-arsenic aquifer at Jianghan Plain in Central China were investigated using multivariate models developed from combined adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and multiple linear regression (MLR). The results indicated that the optimum variable group for the AFNIS model consisted of bicarbonate, ammonium, phosphorus, iron, manganese, fluorescence index, pH, and siderite saturation. These data suggest that reductive dissolution of iron/manganese oxides, phosphate-competitive adsorption, pH-dependent desorption, and siderite precipitation could integrally affect arsenic concentration. Analysis of the MLR models indicated that reductive dissolution of iron(III) was primarily responsible for arsenic mobilization in groundwaters with low arsenic concentration. By contrast, for groundwaters with high arsenic concentration (i.e., > 170 μg/L), reductive dissolution of iron oxides approached a dynamic equilibrium. The desorption effects from phosphate-competitive adsorption and the increase in pH exhibited arsenic enrichment superior to that caused by iron(III) reductive dissolution as the groundwater chemistry evolved. The inhibition effect of siderite precipitation on arsenic mobilization was expected to exist in groundwater that was highly saturated with siderite. The results suggest an evolutionary dominance of specific geochemical process over other factors controlling arsenic concentration, which presented a heterogeneous distribution in aquifers. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, to view the supplemental file. PMID:24345245

  19. A dynamic intron retention program enriched in RNA processing genes regulates gene expression during terminal erythropoiesis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pimentel, Harold; Parra, Marilyn; Gee, Sherry L.; Mohandas, Narla; Pachter, Lior; Conboy, John G.

    2015-11-03

    Differentiating erythroblasts execute a dynamic alternative splicing program shown here to include extensive and diverse intron retention (IR) events. Cluster analysis revealed hundreds of developmentallydynamic introns that exhibit increased IR in mature erythroblasts, and are enriched in functions related to RNA processing such as SF3B1 spliceosomal factor. Distinct, developmentally-stable IR clusters are enriched in metal-ion binding functions and include mitoferrin genes SLC25A37 and SLC25A28 that are critical for iron homeostasis. Some IR transcripts are abundant, e.g. comprising ~50% of highly-expressed SLC25A37 and SF3B1 transcripts in late erythroblasts, and thereby limiting functional mRNA levels. IR transcripts tested were predominantly nuclearlocalized. Splicemore » site strength correlated with IR among stable but not dynamic intron clusters, indicating distinct regulation of dynamically-increased IR in late erythroblasts. Retained introns were preferentially associated with alternative exons with premature termination codons (PTCs). High IR was observed in disease-causing genes including SF3B1 and the RNA binding protein FUS. Comparative studies demonstrated that the intron retention program in erythroblasts shares features with other tissues but ultimately is unique to erythropoiesis. Finally, we conclude that IR is a multi-dimensional set of processes that post-transcriptionally regulate diverse gene groups during normal erythropoiesis, misregulation of which could be responsible for human disease.« less

  20. A dynamic intron retention program enriched in RNA processing genes regulates gene expression during terminal erythropoiesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pimentel, Harold; Parra, Marilyn; Gee, Sherry L.; Mohandas, Narla; Pachter, Lior; Conboy, John G.

    2015-11-03

    Differentiating erythroblasts execute a dynamic alternative splicing program shown here to include extensive and diverse intron retention (IR) events. Cluster analysis revealed hundreds of developmentallydynamic introns that exhibit increased IR in mature erythroblasts, and are enriched in functions related to RNA processing such as SF3B1 spliceosomal factor. Distinct, developmentally-stable IR clusters are enriched in metal-ion binding functions and include mitoferrin genes SLC25A37 and SLC25A28 that are critical for iron homeostasis. Some IR transcripts are abundant, e.g. comprising ~50% of highly-expressed SLC25A37 and SF3B1 transcripts in late erythroblasts, and thereby limiting functional mRNA levels. IR transcripts tested were predominantly nuclearlocalized. Splice site strength correlated with IR among stable but not dynamic intron clusters, indicating distinct regulation of dynamically-increased IR in late erythroblasts. Retained introns were preferentially associated with alternative exons with premature termination codons (PTCs). High IR was observed in disease-causing genes including SF3B1 and the RNA binding protein FUS. Comparative studies demonstrated that the intron retention program in erythroblasts shares features with other tissues but ultimately is unique to erythropoiesis. Finally, we conclude that IR is a multi-dimensional set of processes that post-transcriptionally regulate diverse gene groups during normal erythropoiesis, misregulation of which could be responsible for human disease.

  1. A dynamic intron retention program enriched in RNA processing genes regulates gene expression during terminal erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Harold; Parra, Marilyn; Gee, Sherry L; Mohandas, Narla; Pachter, Lior; Conboy, John G

    2016-01-29

    Differentiating erythroblasts execute a dynamic alternative splicing program shown here to include extensive and diverse intron retention (IR) events. Cluster analysis revealed hundreds of developmentally-dynamic introns that exhibit increased IR in mature erythroblasts, and are enriched in functions related to RNA processing such as SF3B1 spliceosomal factor. Distinct, developmentally-stable IR clusters are enriched in metal-ion binding functions and include mitoferrin genes SLC25A37 and SLC25A28 that are critical for iron homeostasis. Some IR transcripts are abundant, e.g. comprising ∼50% of highly-expressed SLC25A37 and SF3B1 transcripts in late erythroblasts, and thereby limiting functional mRNA levels. IR transcripts tested were predominantly nuclear-localized. Splice site strength correlated with IR among stable but not dynamic intron clusters, indicating distinct regulation of dynamically-increased IR in late erythroblasts. Retained introns were preferentially associated with alternative exons with premature termination codons (PTCs). High IR was observed in disease-causing genes including SF3B1 and the RNA binding protein FUS. Comparative studies demonstrated that the intron retention program in erythroblasts shares features with other tissues but ultimately is unique to erythropoiesis. We conclude that IR is a multi-dimensional set of processes that post-transcriptionally regulate diverse gene groups during normal erythropoiesis, misregulation of which could be responsible for human disease. PMID:26531823

  2. Presolar Graphite from AGB Stars: Microstructure and s-Process Enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croat, Thomas K.; Stadermann, Frank J.; Bernatowicz, Thomas J.

    2005-10-01

    Correlated transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry with submicron spatial resolution (NanoSIMS) investigations of the same presolar graphites spherules from the Murchison meteorite were conducted, to link the isotopic anomalies with the mineralogy and chemical composition of the graphite and its internal grains. Refractory carbide grains (especially titanium carbide) are commonly found within the graphite spherules, and most have significant concentrations of Zr, Mo, and Ru in solid solution, elements primarily produced by s-process nucleosynthesis. The effect of chemical fractionation on the Mo/Ti ratio in these carbides is limited, and therefore from this ratio one can infer the degree of s-process enrichment in the gas from which the graphite condensed. The resulting s-process enrichments within carbides are large (~200 times solar on average), showing that most of the carbide-containing graphites formed in the mass outflows of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. NanoSIMS measurements of these graphites also show isotopically light carbon (mostly in the 100<12C/13C<400 range). The enrichment of these presolar graphites in both s-process elements and 12C considerably exceeds that astronomically observed around carbon stars. However, a natural correlation exists between 12C and s-process elements, as both form in the He intershell region of thermally pulsing AGB stars and are dredged up together to the surface. Their observation together suggests that these graphites may have formed in chemically and isotopically inhomogeneous regions around AGB stars, such as high-density knots or jets. As shown in the companion paper, a gas density exceeding that expected for smooth mass outflows is required for graphite of the observed size to condense at all in circumstellar environments, and the spatially inhomogeneous, high-density regions from which they condense may also be incompletely mixed with the surrounding gas. We have greatly expanded

  3. CONCEPTUAL PROCESS DESCRIPTION FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF LOW-ENRICHED URANIUM-MOLYBDENUM FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel M. Wachs; Curtis R. Clark; Randall J. Dunavant

    2008-02-01

    The National Nuclear Security Agency Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is tasked with minimizing the use of high-enriched uranium (HEU) worldwide. A key component of that effort is the conversion of research reactors from HEU to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuels. The GTRI Convert Fuel Development program, previously known as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program was initiated in 1978 by the United States Department of Energy to develop the nuclear fuels necessary to enable these conversions. The program cooperates with the research reactors’ operators to achieve this goal of HEU to LEU conversion without reduction in reactor performance. The programmatic mandate is to complete the conversion of all civilian domestic research reactors by 2014. These reactors include the five domestic high-performance research reactors (HPRR), namely: the High Flux Isotope Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory, the National Bureau of Standards Reactor at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Missouri University Research Reactor at the University of Missouri–Columbia, and the MIT Reactor-II at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Characteristics for each of the HPRRs are given in Appendix A. The GTRI Convert Fuel Development program is currently engaged in the development of a novel nuclear fuel that will enable these conversions. The fuel design is based on a monolithic fuel meat (made from a uranium-molybdenum alloy) clad in Al-6061 that has shown excellent performance in irradiation testing. The unique aspects of the fuel design, however, necessitate the development and implementation of new fabrication techniques and, thus, establishment of the infrastructure to ensure adequate fuel fabrication capability. A conceptual fabrication process description and rough estimates of the total facility throughput are described in this document as a basis for

  4. Process for producing dry, sulfur-free, CH[sub 4]-enriched synthesis or fuel gas

    SciTech Connect

    Child, E.T.; Lafferty, W.L. Jr.; Suggitt, R.M.; Jahnke, F.C.

    1993-08-03

    A process is described for the production of a dry, sulfur-free methane enriched synthesis gas or fuel gas stream comprising: (1) cooling a particulate-free raw synthesis or fuel gas feed stream comprising H[sub 2], CO, CO[sub 2], H[sub 2]O, N[sub 2], H[sub 2]S, COS and with or without methane to a temperature in the range of about 60 F to 130 F and separating out at least a portion of water condensate; (2) mixing together said cooled raw synthesis or fuel gas from (1) and a portion of cryogenic liquefied natural gas (LNG) thereby further cooling the new synthesis or fuel gas to a temperature in the range of about [minus]75 F to 60 F; (3) directly contacting the mixture from (2) in an acid-gas removal zone with liquid acid-gas absorbent solvent thereby absorbing sulfur-containing compounds, water, and at least a portion of the CO[sub 2], and thereby producing acid-gas rich liquid absorbent solvent containing dissolved water and a dry stream of methane enriched synthesis or fuel gas; (4) separating said acid-gas rich liquid absorbent from said dry stream of methane enriched synthesis or fuel gas comprising H[sub 2], CO, CH[sub 4], and substantially no sulfur-containing gas or moisture; (5) regenerating the separated acid-gas rich liquid absorbent solvent to remove the sulfur-containing gas and the dissolved water; and (6) introducing regenerated liquid acid-gas absorbent solvent into said acid gas removal zone.

  5. r-Process Elements in EMP stars: Indicators of Inhomogeneous Early Halo Enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Johannes; Nordström, Birgitta; Thidemann Hansen, Terese

    2015-08-01

    Extremely metal-poor (EMP) halo stars with [Fe/H] below ~ -3 are considered to be fossil records of conditions in the early halo. In the simplest picture where iron is a proxy for overall metallicity and indirectly for time, EMP stars formed before the oldest and most metal-poor Galactic globular clusters. High-resolution spectroscopy with 8m-class telescopes has shown the detailed abundance pattern of these stars to be surprisingly uniform (e.g. Bonifacio+ 2012) and essentially Solar, apart from the α-enhancement typical of SN II nucleosynthesis. A small fraction (~3%) of EMP stars, however, is strongly enhanced in the heaviest (r-process) neutron-capture elements, highlighting that the periodic system of elements was fully populated already this early.These striking departures from the general chemical homogeneity could be produced by local or distant sources. The former case is simple - mass transfer from a binary companion that evolved to produce a highly neutron-rich environment (one or more NS). Alternatively, the r-process elements were formed in a site at interstellar distance and preferentially seeded into the natal clouds of the present-day EMP-r stars. Our long-term, precise monitoring of the radial velocities of a sample of such stars (Hansen+ 2011) disproved the binary hypothesis, which would in fact also fail to explain the existence of r-process poor stars, such as HD 122653. We thus conclude that the chemical enrichment of the early halo was far more complex, patchy and likely anisotropic than assumed in current models of Galactic chemical evolution: The EMP-r stars are not just peculiarities to be ignored, but indicate that a new level of complexity must be invoked. That r-process elements have not (yet) been observed in high-redshift DLA systems is readily explained by their low abundance relative to the lighter species and the rarity of strong enrichment events.

  6. Biomass of Spirulina maxima enriched by biosorption process as a new feed supplement for swine.

    PubMed

    Saeid, A; Chojnacka, K; Korczyński, M; Korniewicz, D; Dobrzański, Z

    2013-04-01

    This paper deals with the new mineral feed additives with Cu produced in a biosorption process from a semi-technical scale. The natural biomass of edible microalga Spirulina sp. was enriched with Cu(II) and then used as a mineral supplement in feeding experiments on swine to assess its nutrition properties. A total of 24 piglets divided into two groups (control and experimental) were used to determine the bioavailability of a new generation of mineral feed additives based on Spirulina maxima. The control group was feed using traditional inorganic supplements of microelements, while the experimental group was fed with the feed containing the biomass of S. maxima enriched with Cu by biosorption. The apparent absorption was 30 % (P < 0.05) higher in the experimental group. No effect on the production results (average daily feed intake, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio) was detected. It was found that copper concentration in feces in the experimental group was 60 % (P < 0.05) lower than in the control group. The new preparation-a dietary supplement with microelements produced by biosorption based on biomass of microalgae S. maxima-is a promising alternative to currently used inorganic salts as the source of nutritionally important microelements. PMID:23482251

  7. Tritium-enrichment via CECE-process with high temperature steam electrolysis (HOT ELLY)

    SciTech Connect

    Keil, W.; Erdle, E.

    1988-09-01

    Aqueous waste which is a by-product of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, is contaminated with tritium in the form of HTO. This waste must be disposed of in a suitable compact manner. In order to minimize waste volume, tritiated water is enriched by several orders of magnitude of its original concentration. This task is accomplished by using the existing combined electrolysis catalytic exchange (CECE)-Process, which is presently in pilot operation with tritium in a German nuclear research facility (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, KfK, FRG). Substantial energy reduction can be achieved by substituting the conventional water electrolysis by high-temperature steam electrolysis (HOT ELLY) for separating tritiated water into its components.

  8. A Search for Gas-Phase Zirconium in s-process Enriched Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Lacy, J. H.; Sellgren, K.; Sterling, N. C.

    2006-12-01

    We report results from a search for the ground-state fine-structure line of triply ionized zirconium (Zr) near 8 microns, for several planetary nebulae known to have enhanced abundances of other light neutron-capture elements. The observations were made with the high spectral resolution mid-IR spectrometer TEXES (Lacy et al. 2002, PASP, 114, 153) on the IRTF. Zr, atomic number Z = 40, is part of the “light s-process” peak of nuclei which are synthesized in the region between the H and He-burning shells within AGB stars and mixed into the stellar envelope by dredge-up processes before expulsion of a planetary nebula. The targets included objects for which we have demonstrated that Ge (Z = 32) is enhanced by up to a factor of 5 (Sterling et al. 2005, ApJ, 625, 368), and Kr (Z = 36) is enhanced by factors of up to 10 (Sterling et al. 2006, submitted; Sterling & Dinerstein, in preparation). According to both evolutionary models and observations of Galactic S-type stars, Zr can be even more highly enriched than Ge or Kr, with enrichment factors of up to 20 30 (Busso et al. 2001, ApJ, 557, 802; Vanture & Wallerstein 2002, ApJ, 564, 397). If Zr is present primarily in gaseous form in these planetary nebulae, our failure to detect the mid-IR Zr line sets constraints on a combination of the initial mass of the progenitor stars and the details of the s-process and convective mixing. An alternate interpretation is that much of the Zr, a highly refractory element, is locked up in dust grains that formed in the AGB star’s atmosphere before or during envelope ejection. This research was supported by NSF grants AST 97-31156 and 04-06809.

  9. Microbial response to a mesoscale iron enrichment in the NE subarctic Pacific: Heterotrophic bacterial processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, Michelle S.; Rivkin, Richard B.; Matthews, Paul; Agawin, Nona S. R.; Li, William K. W.

    2006-10-01

    The response of heterotrophic bacteria to an in situ mesoscale Fe-addition was characterized during the Subarctic Ecosystem Response to Iron Enrichment Study (SERIES), in the high nutrient low chlorophyll region of the Northeast subarctic Pacific, during July 2002. Samples were collected from inside and outside the Fe-enriched patch for the determination of bacterial biomass, and rates of production and growth, and community respiration. The addition of Fe significantly changed the dynamics of the mixed layer heterotrophic bacterial community compared to unfertilized waters. Outside the patch, bacterial dynamics remained relatively constant. Inside the Fe-enriched patch, depth-integrated bacterial biomass decreased 5-fold during the first 12 days after fertilization, after which biomass increased more than 10-fold, to a maximum of 23.3 mg C m -3. Similarly, bacterial production decreased 3-fold over the first 8 days, followed by a 15-fold increase to 5.7 mg C m -3 d -1. Bacterial specific growth rates remained constant for 8 days after the initial Fe-addition and close to values initially observed outside the patch. After day 8, mixed layer specific growth rates inside the patch increased more than 10-fold to a maximum of 1.24 d -1 by day 12, then steadily decreased to 0.22 d -1 by day 16 and remained relatively constant thereafter. Temporal changes in growth were not significantly different inside and outside the patch, suggesting that bacterial growth was not directly limited by Fe availability. The temporal uncoupling of bacterial biomass and production inside the patch, combined with the lack of evidence for direct iron limitation, suggest that inside the patch, bacteria were initially controlled by a combination of moderate bottom-up control, due to the effects of organic substrate limitation of bacterial growth, and strong top-down control, by processes such as microzooplankton bacterivory or viral lysis. Release of bacteria from grazing pressure (around day

  10. Enrichment of anammox from activated sludge and its application in the CANON process.

    PubMed

    Third, K A; Paxman, J; Schmid, M; Strous, M; Jetten, M S M; Cord-Ruwisch, R

    2005-02-01

    A microbial culture capable of actively oxidizing ammonium to dinitrogen gas in the absence of oxygen, using nitrite as the electron acceptor, was enriched from local activated sludge (Western Australia) in <14 weeks. The maximum anaerobic ammonium oxidation (i.e., anammox) activity achieved by the anaerobic culture was 0.26 mmol NH (4) (+) (g biomass)(-1) h(-1) (0.58 kg total-N m(-3) day(-1)). Qualitative FISH analysis (fluorescence in situ hybridization) confirmed the phylogenetic position of the enriched microorganism as belonging to the order Planctomycetales, in which all currently identified anammox strains fall. Preliminary FISH analysis suggests the anammox strain belongs to the same phylogenetic group as the Candidatus 'Brocadia anammoxidans' strain discovered in the Netherlands. However, there are quite a few differences in the target sites for the more specific probes of these organisms and it is therefore likely to represent a new species of anammox bacteria. A small amount of aerobic ammonium-oxidizing biomass was inoculated into the anammox reactor (10% v/v) to initiate completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (the CANON process) in chemostat culture. The culture was always under oxygen limitation and no organic carbon was added. The CANON reactor was operated as an intermittently aerated system with 20 min aerobiosis and 30 min anaerobiosis, during which aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidation were performed in sequential fashion, respectively. Anammox was not inhibited by repeated intermittent exposure to oxygen, allowing sustained, completely autotrophic ammonium removal (0.08 kg N m(-3) day(-1)) for an extended period of time. PMID:15735941

  11. The Problem with Continuity of Knowledge in Enrichment Plant Process Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2009-08-01

    It has been three years since the new Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) Model Safeguards Approach was approved for implementation by the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Department of Safeguards. Among its recommendations are safeguard measures that place greater emphasis on instrumentation in the process area (Cooley 2007). Irrespective of the compelling technologies, an often overlooked impediment to the application of such instrumentation is maintenance of continuity of knowledge on material that has been identified as abnormal. Any instrument purporting to identify problems in the process area should include some means of containing or monitoring that material until International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors can arrive to confirm the discrepancy. If no containment or surveillance is employed in the interim, and no discrepancy or anomaly is subsequently uncovered in storage cylinders, it is unclear what follow-up action inspectors can take. Some CoK measures have been proposed, but they usually involve an array of cameras or host-applied seals—options that may require a backup system of their own.

  12. Program Process, Costs and Consequences: A Comparative Analysis of YCCIP Enrichment, and a Guidebook for the Enrichment of Labor-Intensive Work Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osoro and Associates, Bellingham, WA.

    This document contains (1) a monograph investigating and describing conditions under which it is cost-beneficial to operate an enriched YCCIP (Youth Community Conservation and Improvement Project) design and (2) a guidebook to work project enrichment. The first sections of the monograph focus on the attributes of an enriched YCCIP activity in…

  13. NET-GE: a novel NETwork-based Gene Enrichment for detecting biological processes associated to Mendelian diseases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Enrichment analysis is a widely applied procedure for shedding light on the molecular mechanisms and functions at the basis of phenotypes, for enlarging the dataset of possibly related genes/proteins and for helping interpretation and prioritization of newly determined variations. Several standard and Network-based enrichment methods are available. Both approaches rely on the annotations that characterize the genes/proteins included in the input set; network based ones also include in different ways physical and functional relationships among different genes or proteins that can be extracted from the available biological networks of interactions. Results Here we describe a novel procedure based on the extraction from the STRING interactome of sub-networks connecting proteins that share the same Gene Ontology(GO) terms for Biological Process (BP). Enrichment analysis is performed by mapping the protein set to be analyzed on the sub-networks, and then by collecting the corresponding annotations. We test the ability of our enrichment method in finding annotation terms disregarded by other enrichment methods available. We benchmarked 244 sets of proteins associated to different Mendelian diseases, according to the OMIM web resource. In 143 cases (58%), the network-based procedure extracts GO terms neglected by the standard method, and in 86 cases (35%), some of the newly enriched GO terms are not included in the set of annotations characterizing the input proteins. We present in detail six cases where our network-based enrichment provides an insight into the biological basis of the diseases, outperforming other freely available network-based methods. Conclusions Considering a set of proteins in the context of their interaction network can help in better defining their functions. Our novel method exploits the information contained in the STRING database for building the minimal connecting network containing all the proteins annotated with the same GO term

  14. Process for recovering evolved hydrogen enriched with at least one heavy hydrogen isotope

    DOEpatents

    Tanaka, John; Reilly, Jr., James J.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to a separation means and method for enriching a hydrogen atmosphere with at least one heavy hydrogen isotope by using a solid titaniun alloy hydride. To this end, the titanium alloy hydride containing at least one metal selected from the group consisting of vanadium, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, iron, cobalt and nickel is contacted with a circulating gaseous flow of hydrogen containing at least one heavy hydrogen isotope at a temperature in the range of -20.degree. to +40.degree. C and at a pressure above the dissociation pressure of the hydrided alloy selectively to concentrate at least one of the isotopes of hydrogen in the hydrided metal alloy. The contacting is continued until equilibrium is reached, and then the gaseous flow is isolated while the temperature and pressure of the enriched hydride remain undisturbed selectively to isolate the hydride. Thereafter, the enriched hydrogen is selectively recovered in accordance with the separation factor (S.F.) of the alloy hydride employed.

  15. Local finite element enrichment strategies for 2D contact computations and a corresponding post-processing scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Roger A.

    2013-08-01

    Recently an enriched contact finite element formulation has been developed that substantially increases the accuracy of contact computations while keeping the additional numerical effort at a minimum reported by Sauer (Int J Numer Meth Eng, 87: 593-616, 2011). Two enrich-ment strategies were proposed, one based on local p-refinement using Lagrange interpolation and one based on Hermite interpolation that produces C 1-smoothness on the contact surface. Both classes, which were initially considered for the frictionless Signorini problem, are extended here to friction and contact between deformable bodies. For this, a symmetric contact formulation is used that allows the unbiased treatment of both contact partners. This paper also proposes a post-processing scheme for contact quantities like the contact pressure. The scheme, which provides a more accurate representation than the raw data, is based on an averaging procedure that is inspired by mortar formulations. The properties of the enrichment strategies and the corresponding post-processing scheme are illustrated by several numerical examples considering sliding and peeling contact in the presence of large deformations.

  16. Gene-ontology enrichment analysis in two independent family-based samples highlights biologically plausible processes for autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Anney, Richard J L; Kenny, Elaine M; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Yaspan, Brian L; Parkhomenka, Elena; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Sutcliffe, James; Gill, Michael; Gallagher, Louise; Bailey§, Anthony J; Fernandez, Bridget A; Szatmari§, Peter; Scherer§, Stephen W; Patterson§, Andrew; Marshall, Christian R; Pinto, Dalila; Vincent, John B; Fombonne, Eric; Betancur§, Catalina; Delorme, Richard; Leboyer, Marion; Bourgeron, Thomas; Mantoulan, Carine; Roge, Bernadette; Tauber, Maïté; Freitag§, Christine M; Poustka, Fritz; Duketis, Eftichia; Klauck§, Sabine M; Poustka, Annemarie; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Tsiantis, John; Gallagher§, Louise; Gill§, Michael; Anney, Richard; Bolshakova, Nadia; Brennan, Sean; Hughes, Gillian; McGrath, Jane; Merikangas, Alison; Ennis§, Sean; Green, Andrew; Casey, Jillian P; Conroy, Judith M; Regan, Regina; Shah, Naisha; Maestrini§, Elena; Bacchelli, Elena; Minopoli, Fiorella; Stoppioni, Vera; Battaglia§, Agatino; Igliozzi, Roberta; Parrini, Barbara; Tancredi, Raffaella; Oliveira§, Guiomar; Almeida, Joana; Duque, Frederico; Vicente§, Astrid; Correia, Catarina; Magalhaes, Tiago R; Gillberg, Christopher; Nygren, Gudrun; Jonge, Maretha de; Van Engeland, Herman; Vorstman, Jacob AS; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; Baird, Gillian; Bolton, Patrick F; Rutter, Michael L; Green, Jonathan; Lamb, Janine A; Pickles, Andrew; Parr, Jeremy R; Couteur, Ann Le; Berney, Tom; McConachie, Helen; Wallace, Simon; Coutanche, Marc; Foley, Suzanne; White, Kathy; Monaco§, Anthony P; Holt, Richard; Farrar, Penny; Pagnamenta, Alistair T; Mirza, Ghazala K; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Sousa, Inês; Sykes, Nuala; Wing, Kirsty; Hallmayer§, Joachim; Cantor§, Rita M; Nelson, Stanley F; Geschwind§, Daniel H; Abrahams, Brett S; Volkmar, Fred; Pericak-Vance§, Margaret A; Cuccaro, Michael L; Gilbert, John; Cook§, Edwin H; Guter, Stephen J; Jacob, Suma; Nurnberger Jr§, John I; McDougle, Christopher J; Posey, David J; Lord, Catherine; Corsello, Christina; Hus, Vanessa; Buxbaum§, Joseph D; Kolevzon, Alexander; Soorya, Latha; Parkhomenko, Elena; Leventhal, Bennett L; Dawson, Geraldine; Vieland§, Veronica J; Hakonarson§, Hakon; Glessner, Joseph T; Kim, Cecilia; Wang, Kai; Schellenberg§, Gerard D; Devlin§, Bernie; Klei, Lamburtus; Minshew, Nancy; Sutcliffe§, James S; Haines§, Jonathan L; Lund, Sabata C; Thomson, Susanne; Yaspan, Brian L; Coon§, Hilary; Miller, Judith; McMahon, William M; Munson, Jeff; Estes, Annette; Wijsman§, Ellen M; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Sutcliffe, James; Gill, Michael; Gallagher, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated a range of genes from discrete biological pathways in the aetiology of autism. However, despite the strong influence of genetic factors, association studies have yet to identify statistically robust, replicated major effect genes or SNPs. We apply the principle of the SNP ratio test methodology described by O'Dushlaine et al to over 2100 families from the Autism Genome Project (AGP). Using a two-stage design we examine association enrichment in 5955 unique gene-ontology classifications across four groupings based on two phenotypic and two ancestral classifications. Based on estimates from simulation we identify excess of association enrichment across all analyses. We observe enrichment in association for sets of genes involved in diverse biological processes, including pyruvate metabolism, transcription factor activation, cell-signalling and cell-cycle regulation. Both genes and processes that show enrichment have previously been examined in autistic disorders and offer biologically plausibility to these findings. PMID:21522181

  17. Uranium isotope measurements by quadrupole ICP-MS for process monitoring of enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Policke, T.A.; Bolin, R.N.; Harris, T.L.

    1998-12-31

    Historically, uranium isotopic ratio measurements in the nuclear industry have been performed using Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS); primarily due to the high level of precision that can be achieved. TIMS analysis, however, requires sample purification and intricate sample loading. Quadrupole (low resolution, single detector) inductively coupled plasma--mass spectrometry, Q-ICP-MS, overcomes these disadvantages and is a cost-effective alternative, i.e., in terms of initial capital, maintenance, and operating costs. This paper presents a simple, single standard approach for measuring uranium isotope content in various solid and liquid nuclear materials along with some comparison data of Q-ICP-MS and TIMS. Intensity ratios of {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, and {sup 238}U to total U intensity are produced, providing the enrichment level or percent {sup 235}U. A detailed description of the instrument and data collection parameters are also provided. Optimal precision and accuracy are achieved through the use of a single standard which is closely matched to the enrichment and concentration of the samples. Depending upon the standard chosen, enrichments between depleted and 97% can be quantified. Standard deviations for the major uranium isotopes are typically within 0.02 absolute and at least an order of magnitude lower for the minor U isotope abundances.

  18. Hammond Postulate Mirroring Enables Enantiomeric Enrichment of Phosphorus Compounds via Two Thermodynamically Interconnected Sequential Stereoselective Processes.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Kamalraj V; Nikitin, Kirill V; Gilheany, Declan G

    2015-07-29

    The dynamic resolution of tertiary phosphines and phosphine oxides was monitored by NMR spectroscopy. It was found that the stereoselectivity is set during the formation of the diastereomeric alkoxyphosphonium salts (DAPS), such that their initial diastereomeric excess (de) limits the final enantiomeric excess (ee) of any phosphorus products derived from them. However, (31)P NMR monitoring of the spontaneous thermal decomposition of the DAPS shows consistent diastereomeric self-enrichment, indicating a higher rate constant for decomposition of the minor diastereomer. This crucial observation was confirmed by reductive trapping of the unreacted enriched DAPS with lithium tri-sec-butylborohydride (commercially distributed as L-Selectride reagent) at different time intervals after the start of reaction, which gives progressively higher ee of the phosphine product with time. It is proposed that the Hammond postulate operates for both formation and decomposition of DAPS intermediate so that the lower rate of formation and faster subsequent collapse of the minor isomer are thermodynamically linked. This kinetic enhancement of kinetic resolution furnishes up to 97% ee product. PMID:26186272

  19. Process for producing enriched uranium having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. % via combination of a gaseous diffusion process and an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to eliminate uranium hexafluoride tails storage

    DOEpatents

    Horton, James A.; Hayden, Jr., Howard W.

    1995-01-01

    An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a .sup.235 U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower .sup.235 U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF.sub.6 tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a .sup.235 U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % .sup.235 U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF.sub.6 ; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF.sub.6 in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 having a .sup.235 U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 ; and converting this low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process.

  20. Process for producing enriched uranium having a {sup 235}U content of at least 4 wt. % via combination of a gaseous diffusion process and an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to eliminate uranium hexafluoride tails storage

    DOEpatents

    Horton, J.A.; Hayden, H.W. Jr.

    1995-05-30

    An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a {sup 235}U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower {sup 235}U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF{sub 6} tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a {sup 235} U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % {sup 235} U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF{sub 6}; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF{sub 6} in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a {sup 235}U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6} having a {sup 235}U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6}; and converting this low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6} to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. 4 figs.

  1. Investigation of processes leading to nitrate enrichment in soils in the Kalahari Region, Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwiede, M.; Duijnisveld, W. H. M.; Böttcher, J.

    In Southern Africa elevated nitrate concentrations are observed in mostly uninhabited semi-arid areas. In the Kalahari of Botswana groundwater locally exhibits concentrations up to 600 mg/l. It is assumed, that nitrate found in the groundwater originates mainly from nitrogen input and transformations in the soils. Our investigations in the Kalahari between Serowe and Orapa show that cattle raising is an important source for enhanced nitrate concentrations in the soils (Arenosols). But also in termite mounds very high nitrate stocks were found, and under natural vegetation (acacia trees and shrubs) nitrate concentrations were mostly unexpectedly high. This nitrate enrichment in the soils poses a serious threat to the groundwater quality. However, calculated soil water age distributions in the unsaturated zone clearly show that today’s nitrate pollution of the groundwater below the investigation area could originate from natural sources, but cannot be caused by the current land use for cattle raising.

  2. Conceptual Process for the Manufacture of Low-Enriched Uranium/Molybdenum Fuel for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sease, J.D.; Primm, R.T. III; Miller, J.H.

    2007-09-30

    The U.S. nonproliferation policy 'to minimize, and to the extent possible, eliminate the use of HEU in civil nuclear programs throughout the world' has resulted in the conversion (or scheduled conversion) of many of the U.S. research reactors from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). A foil fuel appears to offer the best option for using a LEU fuel in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) without degrading the performance of the reactor. The purpose of this document is to outline a proposed conceptual fabrication process flow sheet for a new, foil-type, 19.75%-enriched fuel for HFIR. The preparation of the flow sheet allows a better understanding of the costs of infrastructure modifications, operating costs, and implementation schedule issues associated with the fabrication of LEU fuel for HFIR. Preparation of a reference flow sheet is one of the first planning steps needed in the development of a new manufacturing capacity for low enriched fuels for U.S. research and test reactors. The flow sheet can be used to develop a work breakdown structure (WBS), a critical path schedule, and identify development needs. The reference flow sheet presented in this report is specifically for production of LEU foil fuel for the HFIR. The need for an overall reference flow sheet for production of fuel for all High Performance Research Reactors (HPRR) has been identified by the national program office. This report could provide a starting point for the development of such a reference flow sheet for a foil-based fuel for all HPRRs. The reference flow sheet presented is based on processes currently being developed by the national program for the LEU foil fuel when available, processes used historically in the manufacture of other nuclear fuels and materials, and processes used in other manufacturing industries producing a product configuration similar to the form required in manufacturing a foil fuel. The processes in the reference flow sheet are within the

  3. LA-ICP-MS analysis of isolated phosphatic grains indicates selective rare earth element enrichment during reworking and transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, Gerald; Reuter, Markus; Hauzenberger, Christoph A.; Piller, Werner E.

    2016-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are a commonly used proxy to reconstruct water chemistry and oxygen saturation during the formation history of authigenic and biogenic phosphates in marine environments. In the modern ocean REE exhibit a distinct pattern with enrichment of heavy REE and strong depletion in Cerium. Studies of ancient phosphates and carbonates, however, showed that this 'modern' pattern is only rarely present in the geological past. Consequently, the wide range of REE enrichment patterns found in ancient marine phosphates lead to the proposition that water chemistry had to have been radically different in the earth's past. A wealth of studies has already shown that both early and late diagenesis can strongly affect REE signatures in phosphates and severely alter primary marine signals. However, no previous research was conducted on how alteration processes occurring prior to final deposition affect marine phosphates. Herein we present a dataset of multiple LA-ICP-MS measurements of REE signatures in isolated phosphate and carbonate grains deposited in a carbonate ramp setting in the central Mediterranean Sea during the middle Miocene "Monterey event". The phosphates are represented by authigenic, biogenic and detrital grains emplaced in bioclastic grain- to packstones dominated by bryozoan and echinoderm fragments, as well as abundant benthic and planktic foraminifers. The results of 39 grain specific LA-ICP-MS measurements in three discrete rock samples reveals four markedly different REE patterns (normalized to the Post Archean Australian Shale standard) in terms of total enrichment and pattern shape. Analyses of REE diagenesis proxies show that diagenetic alteration affected the samples only to a minor degree. Considering grain shape and REE patterns together indicate that authigenic, detrital and biogenic phosphates have distinct REE patterns irrespective of the sample. Our results show that the observed REE patterns in phosphates only broadly reflect

  4. Improved SERS-Active Nanoparticles with Various Shapes for CTC Detection without Enrichment Process with Supersensitivity and High Specificity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoxia; Xia, Yuanzhi; Huang, Youju; Li, Juan; Ruan, Huimin; Chen, Tianxiang; Luo, Liqiang; Shen, Zheyu; Wu, Aiguo

    2016-08-10

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have received more and more attention in medical biology and clinical practice, especially diagnosis, prognosis, and cancer treatment monitoring. The detection of CTCs within the large number of healthy blood cells is a big challenge due to their rarity, which requires a detection method with supersensitivity and high specificity. In this study, we developed three kinds of new nanoparticles with the function of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based on spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), gold nanorods (AuNRs), and gold nanostars (AuNSs) with similar particle size, similar modifications, and different shapes for CTC detection without an enrichment process from the blood. The nanoparticles possess strong SERS signal due to modification of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) (i.e., Raman reporter molecule), possess excellent specificity due to stabilization of reductive bovine serum albumin (rBSA) to reduce the nonspecific catching or uptake by healthy cells in blood, and possess high sensitivity due to conjugation of folic acid (FA) (i.e., a targeted ligand) to identify CTCs. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the results of detection demonstrate that these nanoparticles could all be utilized for CTC detection without enrichment process from the blood with high specificity, and the AuNS-MBA-rBSA-FA is the best one due to its supersensitivity, whose limit of detection (i.e., 1 cell/mL) is much lower than the currently reported lowest value (5 cells/mL). PMID:27434820

  5. Chemo-dynamical evolution model: Enrichment of r-process elements in the Local Group dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Yutaka; Ishimaru, Yuhri; Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Fujii, Michiko S.; Hidaka, Jun; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2016-08-01

    Neutron star mergers are one of the candidate astrophysical site(s) of r-process. Several chemical evolution studies however pointed out that the observed abundance of r-process is difficult to reproduce by neutron star mergers. In this study, we aim to clarify the enrichment of r-process elements in the Local Group dwarf galaxies. We carry out numerical simulations of galactic chemo-dynamical evolution using an N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, ASURA. We construct a chemo-dynamical evolution model for dwarf galaxies assuming that neutron star mergers are the major source of r-process elements. Our models reproduce the observed dispersion in [Eu/Fe] as a function of [Fe/H] with neutron star mergers with a merger time of 100 Myr. We find that star formation efficiency and metal mixing processes during the first <~ 300 Myr of galaxy evolution are important to reproduce the observations. This study supports that neutron star mergers are a major site of r-process.

  6. $sup 18$O enrichment process in UO$sub 2$F$sub 2$ utilizing laser light

    DOEpatents

    DePoorter, G.L.; Rofer-DePoorter, C.K.

    1975-12-01

    Photochemical reaction induced by laser light is employed to separate oxygen isotopes. A solution containing UO$sub 2$F$sub 2$, HF, H$sub 2$O and a large excess of CH$sub 3$OH is irradiated with laser light of appropriate wavelength to differentially excite the UO$sub 2$$sup 2+$ ions containing $sup 16$O atoms and cause a reaction to proceed in accordance with the reaction 2 UO$sub 2$F$sub 2$ + CH$sub 3$OH + 4 HF $Yields$ 2 UF$sub 4$ down arrow + HCOOH + 3 H$sub 2$O. Irradiation is discontinued when about 10 percent of the UO$sub 2$F$sub 2$ has reacted, the UF$sub 4$ is filtered from the reaction mixture and the residual CH$sub 3$OH and HF plus the product HCOOH and H$sub 2$O are distilled away from the UO$sub 2$F$sub 2$ which is thereby enriched in the $sup 18$O isotope, or the solution containing the UO$sub 2$F$sub 2$ may be photochemically processed again to provide further enrichment in the $sup 18$O isotope.

  7. Deammonification process start-up after enrichment of anammox microorganisms from reject water in a moving-bed biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Zekker, Ivar; Rikmann, Ergo; Tenno, Toomas; Kroon, Kristel; Vabamäe, Priit; Salo, Erik; Loorits, Liis; Rubin, Sergio S C dC; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Tenno, Taavo

    2013-01-01

    Deammonification via intermittent aeration in biofilm process for the treatment of sewage sludge digester supernatant (reject water) was started up using two opposite strategies. Two moving-bed biofilm reactors were operated for 2.5 years at 26 (+/- 0.5 degree C with spiked influent(and hence free ammonia (FA)) addition. In the first start-up strategy, an enrichment of anammox biomass was first established, followed by the development of nitrifying biomass in the system (R1). In contrast, the second strategy aimed at the enrichment of anammox organisms into a nitrifying biofilm (R2). The first strategy was most successful, reaching higher maximum total nitrogen (TN) removal rates over a shorter start-up period. For both reactors, increasing FA spiking frequency and increasing effluent concentrations of the anammox intermediate hydrazine correlated to decreasing aerobic nitrate production (nitritation). The bacterial consortium of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria in the bioreactor was determined via denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing. In addition to a shorter start-up with a better TN removal rate, nitrite oxidizing bacteria (Nitrospira) were outcompeted by spiked ammonium feeding from R1. PMID:24617068

  8. Enriching the Inoculation Construct: The Role of Critical Components in the Process of Resistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfau, Michael; Tusing, Kyle James; Koerner, Ascan F.; Lee, Waipeng; Godbold, Linda C.; Penaloza, Linda J.; Yang, Violet Shu-Huei; Hong, Yah-Huei

    1997-01-01

    Tests effectiveness of inoculation treatments on 790 undergraduate students. Probes relationship between threat and involvement, their role in inoculation, and nature of cognitive processes triggered via inoculation. Suggests inoculation elicits threat, threat contributes to resistance, and resistance is most pronounced for more involved receivers…

  9. Enrichment of the metallic components from waste printed circuit boards by a mechanical separation process using a stamp mill

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Jae-Min; Jeong, Jinki; Yoo, Kyoungkeun; Lee, Jae-chun Kim, Wonbaek

    2009-03-15

    Printed circuit boards incorporated in most electrical and electronic equipment contain valuable metals such as Cu, Ni, Au, Ag, Pd, Fe, Sn, and Pb. In order to employ a hydrometallurgical route for the recycling of valuable metals from printed circuit boards, a mechanical pre-treatment step is needed. In this study, the metallic components from waste printed circuit boards have been enriched using a mechanical separation process. Waste printed circuit boards shredded to <10 mm were milled using a stamp mill to liberate the various metallic components, and then the milled printed circuit boards were classified into fractions of <0.6, 0.6-1.2, 1.2-2.5, 2.5-5.0, and >5.0 mm. The fractions of milled printed circuit boards of size <5.0 mm were separated into a light fraction of mostly non-metallic components and a heavy fraction of the metallic components by gravity separation using a zig-zag classifier. The >5.0 mm fraction and the heavy fraction were subjected to two-step magnetic separation. Through the first magnetic separation at 700 Gauss, 83% of the nickel and iron, based on the whole printed circuit boards, was recovered in the magnetic fraction, and 92% of the copper was recovered in the non-magnetic fraction. The cumulative recovery of nickel-iron concentrate was increased by a second magnetic separation at 3000 Gauss, but the grade of the concentrate decreased remarkably from 76% to 56%. The cumulative recovery of copper concentrate decreased, but the grade increased slightly from 71.6% to 75.4%. This study has demonstrated the feasibility of the mechanical separation process consisting of milling/size classification/gravity separation/two-step magnetic separation for enriching metallic components such as Cu, Ni, Al, and Fe from waste printed circuit boards.

  10. Radiative levitation in carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars with s-process enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrozis, E.; Stancliffe, R. J.

    2016-07-01

    A significant fraction of all metal-poor stars are carbon-rich. Most of these carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars also show enhancement in elements produced mainly by the s-process (CEMP-s stars), and evidence suggests that the origin of these non-standard abundances can be traced to mass transfer from a binary asymptotic giant branch (AGB) companion. Thus, observations of CEMP-s stars are commonly used to infer the nucleosynthesis output of low-metallicity AGB stars. A crucial step in this exercise is understanding what happens to the accreted material after mass transfer ceases. Here we present models of the post-mass-transfer evolution of CEMP-s stars considering the physics of thermohaline mixing and atomic diffusion, including radiative levitation. We find that stars with typical CEMP-s star masses, M ≈ 0.85 M⊙, have very shallow convective envelopes (Menv ≲ 10-7 M⊙). Hence, the surface abundance variations arising from the competition between gravitational settling and radiative levitation should be orders of magnitude larger than observed (e.g. [C/Fe] < -1 or [C/Fe] > +4). Lower-mass stars (M ≈ 0.80 M⊙) retain thicker convective envelopes and thus show variations more in line with observations, but are generally too unevolved (log g > 4) when they reach the age of the Universe. We are therefore unable to reproduce the spread in the observed abundances with these models and conclude that some other physical process must largely suppress atomic diffusion in the outer layers of CEMP-s stars. We demonstrate that this could be achieved by some additional (turbulent) mixing process operating at the base of the convective envelope, as found by other authors. Alternatively, mass-loss rates around 10-13 M⊙yr-1 could also negate most of the abundance variations by eroding the surface layers and forcing the base of the convective envelope to move inwards in mass. Since atomic diffusion cannot have a substantial effect on the surface abundances of CEMP

  11. NEW ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS OF CADMIUM, LUTETIUM, AND OSMIUM IN THE r-PROCESS ENRICHED STAR BD +17 3248 {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Roederer, Ian U.; Sneden, Christopher; Lawler, James E.; Cowan, John J.

    2010-05-01

    We report the detection of Cd I (Z = 48), Lu II (Z = 71), and Os II (Z = 76) in the metal-poor star BD +17 3248. These abundances are derived from an ultraviolet spectrum obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. This is the first detection of these neutron-capture species in a metal-poor star enriched by the r process. We supplement these measurements with new abundances of Mo I, Ru I, and Rh I derived from an optical spectrum obtained with the High Resolution Echelle Spectrograph on Keck. Combined with previous abundance derivations, 32 neutron-capture elements have been detected in BD +17 3248, the most complete neutron-capture abundance pattern in any metal-poor star to date. The light neutron-capture elements (38 {<=} Z {<=} 48) show a more pronounced even-odd effect than expected from current solar system r-process abundance predictions. The age for BD +17 3248 derived from the Th II/Os II chronometer is in better agreement with the age derived from other chronometers than the age derived from Th II/Os I. New Hf II abundance derivations from transitions in the ultraviolet are lower than those derived from transitions in the optical, and the lower Hf abundance is in better agreement with the scaled solar system r-process distribution.

  12. Geochemical diversity in S processes mediated by culture-adapted and environmental-enrichments of Acidithiobacillus spp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, Luc; Warren, Lesley A.

    2007-12-01

    Coupled S speciation and acid generation resulting from S processing associated with five different microbial treatments, all primarily Acidithiobacillus spp. (i.e. autotrophic S-oxidizers) were evaluated in batch laboratory experiments. Microbial treatments included two culture-adapted strains, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, their consortia and two environmental enrichments from a mine tailings lake that were determined to be >95% Acidithiobacillus spp., by whole-cell fluorescent hybridization. Using batch experiments simulating acidic mine waters with no carbon amendments, acid generation, and S speciation associated with the oxidation of three S substrates (thiosulfate, tetrathionate, and elemental S) were evaluated. Aseptic controls showed no observable pH decrease over the experimental time course (1 month) for all three S compounds examined. In contrast, pH decreased in all microbial treatments from starting pH values of 4 to 2 or less for all three S substrates. Results show a non-linear relationship between the pH dynamics of the batch cultures and their corresponding sulfate concentrations, and indicate how known microbial S processing pathways have opposite impacts, ultimately on pH dynamics. Associated geochemical modeling indicated negligible abiogenic processes contributing to the observed results, indicating strong microbial control of acid generation extending over pH ranges from 4 to less than 2. However, the observed acid generation rates and associated S speciation were both microbial treatment and substrate-specific. Results reveal a number of novel insights regarding microbial catalysis of S oxidation: (1) metabolic diversity in S processing, as evidenced by the observed geochemical signatures in S chemical speciation and rates of acid generation amongst phylogenetically similar organisms (to the genus level); (2) consortial impacts differ from those of individual strain members; (3) environmental enrichments

  13. In situ gasification process for producing product gas enriched in carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Capp, John P.; Bissett, Larry A.

    1978-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an in situ coal gasification process wherein the combustion zone within the underground coal bed is fed with air at increasing pressure to increase pressure and temperature in the combustion zone for forcing product gases and water naturally present in the coal bed into the coal bed surrounding the combustion zone. No outflow of combustion products occurs during the build-up of pressure and temperature in the combustion zone. After the coal bed reaches a temperature of about 2000.degree. F and a pressure in the range of about 100-200 psi above pore pressure the airflow is terminated and the outflow of the combustion products from the combustion zone is initiated. The CO.sub.2 containing gaseous products and the water bleed back into the combustion zone to react endothermically with the hot carbon of the combustion zone to produce a burnable gas with a relatively high hydrogen and carbon monoxide content. About 11 to 29 percent of the gas recovered from the combustion zone is carbon monoxide which is considerably better than the 4 to 10 percent carbon monoxide obtained by employing previously known coal gasification techniques.

  14. Code RED (Remediation and Enrichment Days): The Complex Journey of a School and University Partnership's Process to Increase Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Patricia S.; Dockery, Kim; Jamieson, Spencer; Ross, Julie

    2007-01-01

    This study examined a focused remediation and enrichment effort among school and university faculty to affect the mathematics achievement of a group of third-grade students in a Title I elementary school. A total of 87 students participated in the Code RED (Remediation and Enrichment Days) Project. During the Code RED Project, student assessment…

  15. Detailed homogeneous abundance studies of 14 Galactic s-process enriched post-AGB stars: In search of lead (Pb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Smedt, K.; Van Winckel, H.; Kamath, D.; Siess, L.; Goriely, S.; Karakas, A. I.; Manick, R.

    2016-03-01

    Context. This paper is part of a larger project in which we systematically study the chemical abundances of Galactic and extragalactic post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars. The goal at large is to provide improved observational constraints to the models of the complex interplay between the AGB s-process nucleosynthesis and the associated mixing processes. Aims: Lead (Pb) is the final product of the s-process nucleosynthesis and is predicted to have large overabundances with respect to other s-process elements in AGB stars of low metallicities. However, Pb abundance studies of s-process enriched post-AGB stars in the Magellanic Clouds show a discrepancy between observed and predicted Pb abundances. The determined upper limits based on spectral studies are much lower than what is predicted. In this paper, we focus specifically on the Pb abundance of 14 Galactic s-process enhanced post-AGB stars to check whether the same discrepancy is present in the Galaxy as well. Among these 14 objects, two were not yet subject to a detailed abundance study in the literature. We apply the same method to obtain accurate abundances for the 12 others. Our homogeneous abundance results provide the input of detailed spectral synthesis computations in the spectral regions where Pb lines are located. Methods: We used high-resolution UVES and HERMES spectra for detailed spectral abundance studies of our sample of Galactic post-AGB stars. None of the sample stars display clear Pb lines, and we only deduced upper limits of the Pb abundance by using spectrum synthesis in the spectral ranges of the strongest Pb lines. Results: We do not find any clear evidence of Pb overabundances in our sample. The derived upper limits are strongly correlated with the effective temperature of the stars with increasing upper limits for increasing effective temperatures. We obtain stronger Pb constraints on the cooler objects. Moreover, we confirm the s-process enrichment and carbon enhancement of two

  16. Detailed homogeneous abundance studies of 14 Galactic s-process enriched post-AGB stars: In search of lead (Pb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Smedt, K.; Van Winckel, H.; Kamath, D.; Siess, L.; Goriely, S.; Karakas, A. I.; Manick, R.

    2016-03-01

    Context. This paper is part of a larger project in which we systematically study the chemical abundances of Galactic and extragalactic post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars. The goal at large is to provide improved observational constraints to the models of the complex interplay between the AGB s-process nucleosynthesis and the associated mixing processes. Aims: Lead (Pb) is the final product of the s-process nucleosynthesis and is predicted to have large overabundances with respect to other s-process elements in AGB stars of low metallicities. However, Pb abundance studies of s-process enriched post-AGB stars in the Magellanic Clouds show a discrepancy between observed and predicted Pb abundances. The determined upper limits based on spectral studies are much lower than what is predicted. In this paper, we focus specifically on the Pb abundance of 14 Galactic s-process enhanced post-AGB stars to check whether the same discrepancy is present in the Galaxy as well. Among these 14 objects, two were not yet subject to a detailed abundance study in the literature. We apply the same method to obtain accurate abundances for the 12 others. Our homogeneous abundance results provide the input of detailed spectral synthesis computations in the spectral regions where Pb lines are located. Methods: We used high-resolution UVES and HERMES spectra for detailed spectral abundance studies of our sample of Galactic post-AGB stars. None of the sample stars display clear Pb lines, and we only deduced upper limits of the Pb abundance by using spectrum synthesis in the spectral ranges of the strongest Pb lines. Results: We do not find any clear evidence of Pb overabundances in our sample. The derived upper limits are strongly correlated with the effective temperature of the stars with increasing upper limits for increasing effective temperatures. We obtain stronger Pb constraints on the cooler objects. Moreover, we confirm the s-process enrichment and carbon enhancement of two

  17. Expansion and functional properties of extruded snacks enriched with nutrition sources from food processing by-products.

    PubMed

    Korkerd, Sopida; Wanlapa, Sorada; Puttanlek, Chureerat; Uttapap, Dudsadee; Rungsardthong, Vilai

    2016-01-01

    Rich sources of protein and dietary fiber from food processing by-products, defatted soybean meal, germinated brown rice meal, and mango peel fiber, were added to corn grit at 20 % (w/w) to produce fortified extruded snacks. Increase of total dietary fiber from 4.82 % (wb) to 5.92-17.80 % (wb) and protein from 5.03 % (wb) to 5.46-13.34 % were observed. The product indicated high expansion and good acceptance tested by sensory panels. There were 22.33-33.53 and 5.30-11.53 fold increase in the phenolics and antioxidant activity in the enriched snack products. The effects of feed moisture content, screw speed, and barrel temperature on expansion and nutritional properties of the extruded products were investigated by using response surface methodology. Regression equations describing the effect of each variable on the product responses were obtained. The snacks extruded with feed moisture 13-15 % (wb) and extrusion temperature at 160-180 °C indicated the products with high preference in terms of expansion ratio between insoluble dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber balance. The results showed that the by-products could be successfully used for nutritional supplemented expanded snacks. PMID:26787975

  18. Effects of future climate change, CO2 enrichment, and vegetation structure variation on hydrological processes in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, Qiuan; Jiang, Hong; Peng, Changhui; Liu, Jinxun; Fang, Xiuqin; Wei, Xiaohua; Liu, Shirong; Zhou, Guomo

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the relationship between factors (climate change, atmospheric CO2 concentrations enrichment, and vegetation structure) and hydrological processes is important for understanding and predicting the interaction between the hydrosphere and biosphere. The Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) was used to evaluate the effects of climate change, rising CO2, and vegetation structure on hydrological processes in China at the end of the 21st century. Seven simulations were implemented using the assemblage of the IPCC climate and CO2 concentration scenarios, SRES A2 and SRES B1. Analysis results suggest that (1) climate change will have increasing effects on runoff, evapotranspiration (ET), transpiration (T), and transpiration ratio (transpiration/evapotranspiration, T/E) in most hydrological regions of China except in the southernmost regions; (2) elevated CO2 concentrations will have increasing effects on runoff at the national scale, but at the hydrological region scale, the physiology effects induced by elevated CO2 concentration will depend on the vegetation types, climate conditions, and geographical background information with noticeable decreasing effects shown in the arid Inland region of China; (3) leaf area index (LAI) compensation effect and stomatal closure effect are the dominant factors on runoff in the arid Inland region and southern moist hydrological regions, respectively; (4) the magnitudes of climate change (especially the changing precipitation pattern) effects on the water cycle are much larger than those of the elevated CO2 concentration effects; however, increasing CO2 concentration will be one of the most important modifiers to the water cycle; (5) the water resource condition will be improved in northern China but depressed in southernmost China under the IPCC climate change scenarios, SRES A2 and SRES B1.

  19. Literature review on production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil enriched in bioactive compounds. Potential use of byproducts as alternative sources of polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Edwin; Bakhouche, Abdelhakim; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    This review describes the olive oil production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) enriched in polyphenol and byproducts generated as sources of antioxidants. EVOO is obtained exclusively by mechanical and physical processes including collecting, washing, and crushing of olives, malaxation of olive paste, centrifugation, storage, and filtration. The effect of each step is discussed to minimize losses of polyphenols from large quantities of wastes. Phenolic compounds including phenolic acids, alcohols, secoiridoids, lignans, and flavonoids are characterized in olive oil mill wastewater, olive pomace, storage byproducts, and filter cake. Different industrial pilot plant processes are developed to recover phenolic compounds from olive oil byproducts with antioxidant and bioactive properties. The technological information compiled in this review will help olive oil producers to improve EVOO quality and establish new processes to obtain valuable extracts enriched in polyphenols from byproducts with food ingredient applications. PMID:23656613

  20. Enriching distinctive microbial communities from marine sediments via an electrochemical-sulfide-oxidizing process on carbon electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shiue-Lin; Nealson, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    Sulfide is a common product of marine anaerobic respiration, and a potent reactant biologically and geochemically. Here we demonstrate the impact on microbial communities with the removal of sulfide via electrochemical methods. The use of differential pulse voltammetry revealed that the oxidation of soluble sulfide was seen at +30 mV (vs. SHE) at all pH ranges tested (from pH = 4 to 8), while non-ionized sulfide, which dominated at pH = 4 was poorly oxidized via this process. Two mixed cultures (CAT and LA) were enriched from two different marine sediments (from Catalina Island, CAT; from the Port of Los Angeles, LA) in serum bottles using a seawater medium supplemented with lactate, sulfate, and yeast extract, to obtain abundant biomass. Both CAT and LA cultures were inoculated in electrochemical cells (using yeast-extract-free seawater medium as an electrolyte) equipped with carbon-felt electrodes. In both cases, when potentials of +630 or +130 mV (vs. SHE) were applied, currents were consistently higher at +630 then at +130 mV, indicating more sulfide being oxidized at the higher potential. In addition, higher organic-acid and sulfate conversion rates were found at +630 mV with CAT, while no significant differences were found with LA at different potentials. The results of microbial-community analyses revealed a decrease in diversity for both CAT and LA after electrochemical incubation. In addition, some bacteria (e.g., Clostridium and Arcobacter) not well-known to be capable of extracellular electron transfer, were found to be dominant in the electrochemical cells. Thus, even though the different mixed cultures have different tolerances for sulfide, electrochemical-sulfide removal can lead to major population changes. PMID:25741331

  1. 77 FR 33253 - Regulatory Guide 8.24, Revision 2, Health Physics Surveys During Enriched Uranium-235 Processing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ...- 8040 on March 22, 2010 (75 FR 13599). This guide specifies the types and frequencies of surveys that... March 22, 2010, DG-8040 was published with a request for public comments (75 FR 13599). The public... COMMISSION Regulatory Guide 8.24, Revision 2, Health Physics Surveys During Enriched Uranium-235...

  2. Job Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Rick

    1970-01-01

    Job enrichment means giving people more decision-making power, more responsibility, more grasp of the totality of the job, and a sense of their own importance in the company. This article presents evidence of the successful working of this approach (Donnelly Mirrors), and the lack of success with an opposing approach (General Motors). (NL)

  3. Final report on the project entitled: Highly Preheated Combustion Air System with/without Oxygen Enrichment for Metal Processing Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Arvind Atreya

    2007-02-16

    This work develops and demonstrates a laboratory-scale high temperature natural gas furnace that can operate with/without oxygen enrichment to significantly improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions. The laboratory-scale is 5ft in diameter & 8ft tall. This furnace was constructed and tested. This report demonstrates the efficiency and pollutant prevention capabilities of this test furnace. The project also developed optical detection technology to control the furnace output.

  4. In-Situ Measurements of Low Enrichment Uranium Holdup Process Gas Piping at K-25 - Paper for Waste Management Symposia 2010 East Tennessee Technology Park Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen B.

    2010-01-01

    This document is the final version of a paper submitted to the Waste Management Symposia, Phoenix, 2010, abstract BJC/OR-3280. The primary document from which this paper was condensed is In-Situ Measurement of Low Enrichment Uranium Holdup in Process Gas Piping at K-25 Using NaI/HMS4 Gamma Detection Systems, BJC/OR-3355. This work explores the sufficiency and limitations of the Holdup Measurement System 4 (HJVIS4) software algorithms applied to measurements of low enriched uranium holdup in gaseous diffusion process gas piping. HMS4 has been used extensively during the decommissioning and demolition project of the K-25 building for U-235 holdup quantification. The HMS4 software is an integral part of one of the primary nondestructive assay (NDA) systems which was successfully tested and qualified for holdup deposit quantification in the process gas piping of the K-25 building. The initial qualification focused on the measurement of highly enriched UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} deposits. The purpose of this work was to determine if that qualification could be extended to include the quantification of holdup in UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} deposits of lower enrichment. Sample field data are presented to provide evidence in support of the theoretical foundation. The HMS4 algorithms were investigated in detail and found to sufficiently compensate for UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} source self-attenuation effects, over the range of expected enrichment (4-40%), in the North and East Wings of the K-25 building. The limitations of the HMS4 algorithms were explored for a described set of conditions with respect to area source measurements of low enriched UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} deposits when used in conjunction with a 1 inch by 1/2 inch sodium iodide (NaI) scintillation detector. The theoretical limitations of HMS4, based on the expected conditions in the process gas system of the K-25 building, are related back to the required data quality objectives (DQO) for the NBA measurement system established for the K-25

  5. 16. VIEW OF THE ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY SYSTEM. ENRICHED URANIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF THE ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY SYSTEM. ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESSED RELATIVELY PURE MATERIALS AND SOLUTIONS AND SOLID RESIDUES WITH RELATIVELY LOW URANIUM CONTENT. URANIUM RECOVERY INVOLVED BOTH SLOW AND FAST PROCESSES. (4/4/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  6. To Ba or not to Ba: Enrichment in s-process elements in binary systems with WD companions of various masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merle, T.; Jorissen, A.; Van Eck, S.; Masseron, T.; Van Winckel, H.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The enrichment in s-process elements of barium stars is known to be due to pollution by mass transfer from a companion formerly on the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (AGB), now a carbon-oxygen white-dwarf (WD). Aims: We are investigating the relationship between the s-process enrichment in the barium star and the mass of its WD companion. It is expected that helium WDs, which have masses lower than about 0.5 M⊙ and never reached the AGB phase, should not pollute their giant companion with s-process elements. Therefore the companion should never turn into a barium star. Methods: Spectra with a resolution of R ~ 86 000 were obtained with the HERMES spectrograph on the 1.2 m Mercator telescope for a sample of 11 binary systems involving WD companions of various masses. We used standard 1D local thermodynamical equilibrium MARCS model atmospheres coupled with the Turbospectrum radiative-transfer code that is embedded in the BACCHUS pipeline to derive the atmospheric parameters through equivalent widths of Fe i and Fe ii lines. Least-squares minimization between the observed and synthetic line shape was used to derive the detailed chemical abundances of CNO and s-process elements. Results: The abundances of s-process elements for the entire sample of 11 binary stars were derived homogeneously. The sample encompasses all levels of overabundances: from solar [s/ Fe] = 0 to 1.5 dex in the two binary systems with S-star primaries (for which dedicated MARCS model atmospheres were used). The primary components of binary systems with a WD more massive than 0.5 M⊙ are enriched in s-process elements. We also found a trend of increasing [s/Fe] with [C/Fe] or [(C+N)/Fe]. Conclusions: Our results confirm the expectation that binary systems with WD companions less massive than 0.5 M⊙ do not host barium stars.

  7. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process...

  8. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process...

  9. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process...

  10. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process...

  11. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process...

  12. Synergistic effects of long-term antioxidant diet and behavioral enrichment on beta-amyloid load and non-amyloidogenic processing in aged canines.

    PubMed

    Pop, Viorela; Head, Elizabeth; Hill, Mary-Ann; Gillen, Dan; Berchtold, Nicole C; Muggenburg, Bruce A; Milgram, Norton W; Murphy, M Paul; Cotman, Carl W

    2010-07-21

    A long-term intervention (2.69 years) with an antioxidant diet, behavioral enrichment, or the combined treatment preserved and improved cognitive function in aged canines. Although each intervention alone provided cognitive benefits, the combination treatment was additive. We evaluate the hypothesis that antioxidants, enrichment, or the combination intervention reduces age-related beta-amyloid (Abeta) neuropathology, as one mechanism mediating observed functional improvements. Measures assessed were Abeta neuropathology in plaques, biochemically extractable Abeta(40) and Abeta(42) species, soluble oligomeric forms of Abeta, and various proteins in the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing pathway. The strongest and most consistent effects on Abeta pathology were observed in animals receiving the combined antioxidant and enrichment treatment. Specifically, Abeta plaque load was significantly decreased in several brain regions, soluble Abeta(42) was decreased selectively in the frontal cortex, and a trend for lower Abeta oligomer levels was found in the parietal cortex. Reductions in Abeta may be related to shifted APP processing toward the non-amyloidogenic pathway, because alpha-secretase enzymatic activity was increased in the absence of changes in beta-secretase activity. Although enrichment alone had no significant effects on Abeta, reduced Abeta load and plaque maturation occurred in animals receiving antioxidants as a component of treatment. Abeta measures did not correlate with cognitive performance on any of the six tasks assessed, suggesting that modulation of Abeta alone may be a relatively minor mechanism mediating cognitive benefits of the interventions. Overall, the data indicate that multidomain treatments may be a valuable intervention strategy to reduce neuropathology and improve cognitive function in humans. PMID:20660265

  13. Dust dispersal and Pb enrichment at the rare-metal Orlovka-Spokoinoe mining and ore processing site: insights from REE patterns and elemental ratios.

    PubMed

    Dolgopolova, Alla; Weiss, Dominik J; Seltmann, Reimar; Dulski, Peter

    2006-04-30

    Different geological, technogenic and environmental samples from the Orlovka-Spokoinoe Ta-Nb-Sn-W mining site and ore processing complex in Eastern Transbaikalia (Russia), were analysed for Pb, Y, Zr, Hf and rare earth elements (REE) to assess the effect of dust and metal dispersal on the environment within the Orlovka-Spokoinoe mining site. Potential source material analysed included ore-bearing and barren granites, host rocks, tailing pond sediments, and ore concentrates. Lichens and birch leaves were used as receptor samples. The REE enrichment relative to chondrite, the extent of the Eu anomalies, the enrichments of heavy REE (HREE), and Zr/Hf and Yb/Y ratios suggest that tailings, barren granites, and metasedimentary host rocks are the main sources of dust in the studied mining environment. In addition, calculated lead enrichment (relative to host rocks) suggests that the environment is polluted with Pb. Our results clearly demonstrate the potential of REE patterns and elemental ratios as a reliable technique to trace dust and metals sources and dispersal within a confined mining area offering a new tool for environmental assessment studies. PMID:16427193

  14. Effet d'un enrichissement en nickel sur la stabilite mecanique de l'austenite de reversion lorsque soumise a de la fatigue oligocyclique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godin, Stephane

    The effect of nickel enrichment on the mechanical stability of the reversed austenite contained in martensitic stainless steels 13%Cr-4%Ni and 13%Cr-6%Ni was investigated. The main objective of the study was to observe their microstructure and to compare the dynamic behaviour of the reversed austenite. Tempers made at different temperatures showed that the 6% Ni alloy began to form more austenite and at a lower temperature. SEM and TEM analysis were used to see the austenite and measure its chemical composition. It has been observed that it was richer in Ni than the surrounding martensite. This enrichment increased with tempering temperature and caused an impoverishment of the surrounding martensite. The study also showed that the chemical composition of the austenite formed at the peak (maximum) of both alloys was similar. For a same tempering, this suggests Ni can help to form more austenite but this austenite is not necessarily richer in Ni. The analysis also showed that the austenite was predominantly lamellar and located at the interface and/or inside the martensite laths. Low cycle fatigue tests have shown that the austenite of the 6% Ni alloy was the most mechanically stable even if its Ni content was lower than the 4% Ni alloy austenite. This behaviour was explained by a thinner and narrower morphology of this phase. For a different content of Ni and different quantity of austenite, the most mechanically stable one was in the 4% Ni alloy. It turned out that its reversed austenite was thinner and its surrounding martensite was a bit harder than the 6% Ni alloy austenite. The effect of Ni enrichment of an alloy would be beneficial regarding the mechanical stability if a suitable tempering is made. This tempering must form a thin lamellar austenite in a sufficiently hard martensite. More Ni in the austenite would not necessarily raise the mechanical stability. It could contribute but it seems that it is not be the main factor governing the mechanical stability

  15. Effect of sulfidogenesis cycling on the biogeochemical process in arsenic-enriched aquifers in the Lanyang Plain of Taiwan: Evidence from a sulfur isotope study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Yu-Hsuan; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Wang, Pei-Ling; Liao, Chung-Min

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the biogeochemical interactions between arsenic (As) and sulfur (S) in groundwater to understand the natural and anthropogenic influences of S redox processes on As mobilization in the Lanyang Plain, Taiwan. Cl- and the sulfate isotopic composition (δ34S[SO4]) were selected as conservative tracers. River water and saline seawater were considered as end members in the binary mixing model. Thirty-two groundwater samples were divided into four types of groundwater (I, pyrite-oxidation; II, iron- and sulfate-reducing; III, sulfate-reducing; and IV, anthropogenic and others). The binary mixing model coupled with discriminant analysis was applied to yield a classification with 97% correctness, indicating that the DO/ORP values and δ34S[SO4] and Fe2+ concentrations are effective redox-sensitive indicators. Type I groundwater is mostly located in a mountainous recharge area where pyrite oxidation is the major geochemical process. A high 18O enrichment factor (ε[SO4-H2O]) and high 34S enrichment factor (ε34S[FeS2-SO4]) indicate that disproportionation and dissimilatory sulfate reduction are both involved in Type II and Type III groundwater. The process of bacterial sulfate reduction may coprecipitate and sequester As, a mechanism that is unlikely to occur in Type II groundwater. The presence of high As and Fe2+ concentrations and enriched δ34S[SO4] in Type II groundwater suggest that biogeochemical reactions occurred under anaerobic conditions. The reductive dissolution of As-bearing Fe oxyhydroxides together with microbial disproportionation of sulfur explains the substantial correlations among the high As concentration and enriched δ34S[SO4] and Fe2+ concentrations in the iron- and sulfate-reducing zone (Type II). The As concentration in Type III groundwater (sulfate-reducing) is lower than that in Type II groundwater because of bacterial sulfate reduction and coprecipitation with As. Furthermore, the dissolution of sulfate minerals is not the

  16. Melt extraction and enrichment processes in the New Caledonia lherzolites: Evidence from geochemical and Sr-Nd isotope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secchiari, Arianna; Montanini, Alessandra; Bosch, Delphine; Macera, Patrizia; Cluzel, Dominique

    2016-09-01

    The New Caledonia ophiolite (Peridotite Nappe) is dominated by mantle lithologies, composed of forearc-related refractory harzburgites and minor lherzolites in both the spinel and plagioclase facies. In this study, a comprehensive geochemical data set (major, trace elements and Sr-Nd isotopes) is used to constrain the mantle evolution of the lherzolites and their relationships with the basalts from the Poya Terrane, which tectonically underlies the mantle rocks. The majority of the lherzolites are low-strain porphyroclastic tectonites. They likely record an asthenospheric origin followed by re-equilibration at lithospheric conditions, as supported by geothermometric estimates (T = 1100-940 °C and 920-890 °C for porphyroclastic and neoblastic spinel-facies assemblages, respectively). Olivine composition (Fo = 88.5-90.0 mol%), spinel Cr# ([molar 100 • Cr/(Cr + Al)] = 13-17) and relatively high amounts (7-8 vol%) of Al2O3- and Na2O-rich clinopyroxene (up to 0.5 and 6.5 wt.%, respectively) indicate a moderately depleted geochemical signature for the spinel lherzolites. Bulk rock and clinopyroxene rare earth elements (REE) patterns display a typical abyssal-type signature, i.e. steeply plunging LREE accompanied by nearly flat HREE to MREE. Clinopyroxene REE compositions of the spinel lherzolites may be reproduced by small amounts of fractional melting of a garnet lherzolite precursor (~ 4%), followed by 4%-5% melting in the spinel peridotite field. The plagioclase lherzolites show melt impregnation microstructures, Cr- and Ti-rich spinels and incompatible trace element enrichments (REE, Ti, Y, and Zr) in bulk rocks and clinopyroxenes. Impregnation modelling for these elements suggests that the plagioclase lherzolites originated from residual spinel lherzolites by entrapment of highly depleted (non-aggregated) MORB melt fractions in the shallow oceanic lithosphere. Nd isotope compositions of the investigated peridotites are consistent with derivation from an

  17. Preliminary study of sources and processes of enrichment of manganese in water from University of Rhode Island supply wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Silvey, William Dudley; Johnston, Herbert E.

    1977-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved manganese have increased from 0.0 to as much as 3.3 mg/liter over a period of years in closely spaced University of Rhode Island supply wells. The wells tap stratified glacial deposits and derive part of their water from infiltration from a nearby river-pond system. The principal sources of the manganese seem to be coatings of oxides and other forms of manganese on granular aquifer materials and organic-rich sediments on the bottom of the pond and river. Chemical analyses of water from an observation well screened from 3 to 5 feet below the pond bottom indicate that infiltration of water through organic-rich sediments on the pond bottom is the likely cause of manganese enrichment in the well supplies. After passing through the organic layer, the water contains concentrations of manganese as high as 1.2 mg/liter. Manganese in water in concentrations that do not cause unpleasant taste is not regarded to be toxicologically significant. However, concentrations in excess of a few tenths of a milligram per liter are undesirable in public supplies and in many industrial supplies. Brown and others (21970) note that waters containing manganese in concentrations less than 0.1 mg/liter seldom prove troublesome, but that those containing more than 0.5 mg/liter may form objectionable deposits on cooked food, laundry, and plumbing fixtures. The U.S. Public health Service (1962) recommends that the concentrations of manganese in drinking and culinary water not exceed 0.05 mg/liter. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Search for double beta processes in 106Cd with enriched 106CdWO4 crystal scintillator in coincidence with four crystals HPGe detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danevich, F. A.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Brudanin, V. B.; Cappella, F.; Caracciolo, V.; Cerulli, R.; Chernyak, D. M.; D'Angelo, S.; Incicchitti, A.; Laubenstein, M.; Mokina, V. M.; Poda, D. V.; Polischuk, O. G.; Tretyak, V. I.; Tupitsyna, I. A.

    2015-10-01

    A radiopure cadmium tungstate crystal scintillator, enriched in 106Cd (106CdWO4), was used to search for double beta decay processes in 106Cd in coincidence with an ultra-low background set-up containing four high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors in a single cryostat. The experiment has been completed after 13085 h of data taking. New improved limits on most of the double beta processes in 106Cd have been set on the level of 1020-1021 yr. Tn particular, the half-life limit on the two neutrino electron capture with positron emission, T1/2 ≥ 1.8 × 1021 yr, reached the region of theoretical predictions.

  19. Search for double beta processes in {sup 106}Cd with enriched {sup 106}CdWO{sub 4} crystal scintillator in coincidence with four crystals HPGe detector

    SciTech Connect

    Danevich, F. A. Chernyak, D. M.; Mokina, V. M.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; D’Angelo, S.; Brudanin, V. B.; Cappella, F.; Caracciolo, V.; Cerulli, R.; Laubenstein, M.; Incicchitti, A.; Poda, D. V.; Polischuk, O. G.; Tretyak, V. I.; Tupitsyna, I. A.

    2015-10-28

    A radiopure cadmium tungstate crystal scintillator, enriched in {sup 106}Cd ({sup 106}CdWO{sub 4}), was used to search for double beta decay processes in {sup 106}Cd in coincidence with an ultra-low background set-up containing four high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors in a single cryostat. The experiment has been completed after 13085 h of data taking. New improved limits on most of the double beta processes in {sup 106}Cd have been set on the level of 10{sup 20}−10{sup 21} yr. Tn particular, the half-life limit on the two neutrino electron capture with positron emission, T{sub 1/2} ≥ 1.8 × 10{sup 21} yr, reached the region of theoretical predictions.

  20. The effects of inquiry-based summer enrichment activities on rising eighth graders' knowledge of science processes, attitude toward science, and perceptions of scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Juanita Martin

    The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of summer science enrichment on eighth-graders' science process skills knowledge, attitude toward science and perceptions of scientists. A single group pre- and post-test design was used to test participants in a summer science enrichment camp, which took place over a three-week period in the summer of 2000. Participants, all of whom were residents of the Mississippi area known as the Delta, lived on the campus of Mississippi Valley State University for the entire course of the camp. Activities included several guided inquiry-based projects such as water rocket design and solar or battery-powered car design. Participants also took trips to an environmental camp in north Mississippi and to the Stennis Space Center on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Participants worked on their projects in groups, supervised by an undergraduate student "mentor". Participants were encouraged to keep journals of their experiences throughout the camp, and the researcher developed a rubric to evaluate student journals for process knowledge, evidence of planning, reflective thought, and disposition toward science. Tests were used to evaluate student knowledge of process skills, attitude toward science, and perceptions of scientists. On the Test of Integrated Process Skills (Dillashaw & Okey, 1983), the students showed significant improvement overall, but when evaluated separately, males showed significant improvement while females did not. On the Attitude toward Science in School Assessment (Germane, 1988), data indicated that attitude toward science improved significantly for the group as a whole, but upon closer inspection, indicated a significant improvement for the female students only. On Chamber's Draw-a-Scientist Test (1983), analysis of student drawings indicated no significant change in stereotypical images of scientists for the group overall. However, boys' scores indicated a significant improvement when analyzed separately

  1. A Cinchona Alkaloid-Functionalized Mesostructured Silica for Construction of Enriched Chiral β-Trifluoromethyl-β-Hydroxy Ketones over An Epoxidation-Relay Reduction Process.

    PubMed

    Li, Cuibao; Shu, Xiaomin; Li, Liang; Zhang, Genwei; Jin, Ronghua; Cheng, Tanyu; Liu, Guohua

    2016-07-20

    A cinchona alkaloid-functionalized heterogeneous catalyst is prepared through a thiol-ene click reaction of chiral N-(3,5-ditrifluoromethylbenzyl)quininium bromide and a mesostructured silica, which is obtained by co-condensation of 1,2-bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane and 3-(triethoxysilyl)propane-1-thiol. Structural analyses and characterizations disclose its well-defined chiral single-site active center, and electron microscopy images reveal its monodisperse property. As a heterogenous catalyst, it enables an efficient asymmetric epoxidation of achiral β-trifluoromethyl-β,β-disubstituted enones, the obtained chiral products can then be converted easily into enriched chiral β-trifluoromethyl-β-hydroxy ketones through a sequential epoxidation-relay reduction process. Furthermore, such a heterogeneous catalyst can be recovered conveniently and reused in asymmetric epoxidation of 4,4,4-trifluoro-1,3-diphenylbut-2-enone, showing an attractive feature in a practical construction of enriched chiral β-CF3 -substituted molecules. PMID:27305638

  2. Ultrathin (5 nm) SiGe-On-Insulator with high compressive strain (-2 GPa): From fabrication (Ge enrichment process) to in-depth characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glowacki, F.; Le Royer, C.; Morand, Y.; Pédini, J.-M.; Denneulin, T.; Cooper, D.; Barnes, J.-P.; Nguyen, P.; Rouchon, D.; Hartmann, J.-M.; Gourhant, O.; Baylac, E.; Campidelli, Y.; Barge, D.; Bonnin, O.; Schwarzenbach, W.

    2014-07-01

    300 mm ultrathin Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) wafers with SiGe/Si stacks on top were used as pre-structures for the fabrication of 5 nm thick SiGe-On-Insulator (SGOI) substrates obtained by the Ge enrichment technique. Those substrates will be used as the channel of advanced Fully Depleted (FD) p-type Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (pMOSFET). We present in the first part the successful fabrication of 5 nm SGOI wafers. Various characterization techniques are used to investigate the Ge profile and the final strain in the fabricated 5 nm Si0.7Ge0.3 film. Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) clearly show that the Ge content is very homogeneous (xGe = 30 ± 1%) in the SiGe layer. Raman spectroscopy and High Angle Annular Dark Field (HAADF) STEM both confirm that the 5 nm thick SiGe film is compressively strained (-2 GPa). The second part is dedicated to the sensitivity of the Ge enrichment process (based on numerical modelling). We investigate the impact of single and combined fluctuations of the pre-structure parameters (TSi, TSiGe,0, xGe,0) on the final SiGe layer (TSiGe, xGe).

  3. Effects of carbon sources on the enrichment of halophilic polyhydroxyalkanoate-storing mixed microbial culture in an aerobic dynamic feeding process

    PubMed Central

    Cui, You-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Lu, Peng-Fei; Peng, Yong-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production serves as a substitute for petroleum-based plastics. Enriching mixed microbial cultures (MMCs) with the capacity to store PHA is a key precursor for low-cost PHA production. This study investigated the impact of carbon types on enrichment outcomes. Three MMCs were separately fed by acetate sodium, glucose, and starch as an enriching carbon source, and were exposed to long-term aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) periods. The PHA production capacity, kinetics and stoichiometry of the enrichments, the PHA composition, and the microbial diversity and community composition were explored to determine carbon and enrichment correlations. After 350-cycle enriching periods under feast-famine (F-F) regimes, the MMCs enriched by acetate sodium and glucose contained a maximum PHA content of 64.7% and 60.5% cell dry weight (CDW). The starch-enriched MMC only had 27.3% CDW of PHA. High-throughput sequencing revealed that non-PHA bacteria survived alongside PHA storing bacteria, even under severe F-F selective pressure. Genus of Pseudomonas and Stappia were the possible PHA accumulating bacteria in acetate-enriched MMC. Genus of Oceanicella, Piscicoccus and Vibrio were found as PHA accumulating bacteria in glucose-enriched MMC. Vibrio genus was the only PHA accumulating bacteria in starch-enriched MMC. The community diversity and composition were regulated by the substrate types. PMID:27485896

  4. Effects of carbon sources on the enrichment of halophilic polyhydroxyalkanoate-storing mixed microbial culture in an aerobic dynamic feeding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, You-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Lu, Peng-Fei; Peng, Yong-Zhen

    2016-08-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production serves as a substitute for petroleum-based plastics. Enriching mixed microbial cultures (MMCs) with the capacity to store PHA is a key precursor for low-cost PHA production. This study investigated the impact of carbon types on enrichment outcomes. Three MMCs were separately fed by acetate sodium, glucose, and starch as an enriching carbon source, and were exposed to long-term aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) periods. The PHA production capacity, kinetics and stoichiometry of the enrichments, the PHA composition, and the microbial diversity and community composition were explored to determine carbon and enrichment correlations. After 350-cycle enriching periods under feast-famine (F-F) regimes, the MMCs enriched by acetate sodium and glucose contained a maximum PHA content of 64.7% and 60.5% cell dry weight (CDW). The starch-enriched MMC only had 27.3% CDW of PHA. High-throughput sequencing revealed that non-PHA bacteria survived alongside PHA storing bacteria, even under severe F-F selective pressure. Genus of Pseudomonas and Stappia were the possible PHA accumulating bacteria in acetate-enriched MMC. Genus of Oceanicella, Piscicoccus and Vibrio were found as PHA accumulating bacteria in glucose-enriched MMC. Vibrio genus was the only PHA accumulating bacteria in starch-enriched MMC. The community diversity and composition were regulated by the substrate types.

  5. Effects of carbon sources on the enrichment of halophilic polyhydroxyalkanoate-storing mixed microbial culture in an aerobic dynamic feeding process.

    PubMed

    Cui, You-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Lu, Peng-Fei; Peng, Yong-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production serves as a substitute for petroleum-based plastics. Enriching mixed microbial cultures (MMCs) with the capacity to store PHA is a key precursor for low-cost PHA production. This study investigated the impact of carbon types on enrichment outcomes. Three MMCs were separately fed by acetate sodium, glucose, and starch as an enriching carbon source, and were exposed to long-term aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) periods. The PHA production capacity, kinetics and stoichiometry of the enrichments, the PHA composition, and the microbial diversity and community composition were explored to determine carbon and enrichment correlations. After 350-cycle enriching periods under feast-famine (F-F) regimes, the MMCs enriched by acetate sodium and glucose contained a maximum PHA content of 64.7% and 60.5% cell dry weight (CDW). The starch-enriched MMC only had 27.3% CDW of PHA. High-throughput sequencing revealed that non-PHA bacteria survived alongside PHA storing bacteria, even under severe F-F selective pressure. Genus of Pseudomonas and Stappia were the possible PHA accumulating bacteria in acetate-enriched MMC. Genus of Oceanicella, Piscicoccus and Vibrio were found as PHA accumulating bacteria in glucose-enriched MMC. Vibrio genus was the only PHA accumulating bacteria in starch-enriched MMC. The community diversity and composition were regulated by the substrate types. PMID:27485896

  6. Expensive Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnikoff, Marvin

    1975-01-01

    This article presents an economic analysis of the nuclear fuel reprocessing industry. It indicates that while environmental safety devices have improved the working conditions, they have also added ever-increasing costs to this necessary process. (MA)

  7. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of a serpentinite-derived laterite profile from East Sulawesi, Indonesia: Implications for the lateritization process and Ni supergene enrichment in the tropical rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wei; Yang, Jianwen; Yang, Mengli; Pang, Baocheng; Liu, Xijun; Niu, Hujie; Huang, Xiaorong

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the lateritization process and supergene Ni enrichment in the tropical rainforest, a well developed laterite profile over the serpentinite in the Kolonodale area of East Sulawesi, Indonesia, has been investigated using field geology methods, mineralogical and geochemical techniques. Three lithostratigraphic horizons over the bedrock are distinguished from bottom to top: the saprolite horizon, the limonite horizon, and the ferruginous cap. In general, the profile is characterized by (1) a depth-related pH ranging from 5.56 to 8.56, with a higher value in the saprolite horizon and a lower value in the ferruginous cap, (2) a highly variable organic matter concentration from 1.11% to 4.82%, showing a increasing trend from bottom to top, (3) a progressive mineral assemblage transition from the silicate mineral dominant (mainly serpentine) to the Fe-oxyhydroxide dominant (mainly goethite), and (4) a typical laterite geochemical pattern with an increase of Fe, Al, Mn, Cr and Ti but a decrease of Mg, Ca, Na and K upward from the bedrock. The highest concentration of Ni (up to 11.53%NiO) occurs in the saprolite horizon, showing nearly 40 times richer compared to the bedrock. The mineral evolution during the lateritization process shows various paths from the primary minerals to altered minerals, which is integrally affected by the nature of the primary minerals and environmental conditions. Garnierite, as a significant ore mineral formed by the secondary precipitation processes in the study profile, is identified as a mixture of talc- and serpentine-like phases. The mass-balance calculation reveals that there are diversified elemental behaviors during the serpentinite lateritization under the rainforest conditions. In particular, Ni, as the ore-forming element in the laterite profile, is associated closely with the pH environment, organic matter concentration and mineral evolution during the lateritization process. The findings of the present study support a

  8. Juvenile psittacine environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Simone-Freilicher, Elisabeth; Rupley, Agnes E

    2015-05-01

    Environmental enrichment is of great import to the emotional, intellectual, and physical development of the juvenile psittacine and their success in the human home environment. Five major types of enrichment include social, occupational, physical, sensory, and nutritional. Occupational enrichment includes exercise and psychological enrichment. Physical enrichment includes the cage and accessories and the external home environment. Sensory enrichment may be visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, or taste oriented. Nutritional enrichment includes variations in appearance, type, and frequency of diet, and treats, novelty, and foraging. Two phases of the preadult period deserve special enrichment considerations: the development of autonomy and puberty. PMID:25902270

  9. Progress in developing processes for converting {sup 99}Mo production from high- to low-enriched uranium--1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, C.

    1998-10-28

    During 1998, the emphasis of our activities was focused mainly on target fabrication. Successful conversion requires a reliable irradiation target; the target being developed uses thin foils of uranium metal, which can be removed from the target hardware for dissolution and processing. This paper describes successes in (1) improving our method for heat-treating the uranium foil to produce a random-small grain structure, (2) improving electrodeposition of zinc and nickel fission-fragment barriers onto the foil, and (3) showing that these fission fragment barriers should be stable during transport of the targets following irradiation. A method was also developed for quantitatively electrodepositing uranium and plutonium contaminants in the {sup 99}Mo. Progress was also made in broadening international cooperation in our development activities.

  10. Nutrient enrichment, phytoplankton algal growth, and estimated rates of instream metabolic processes in the Quinebaug River Basin, Connecticut, 2000-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colombo, Michael J.; Grady, Stephen J.; Todd Trench, Elaine C.

    2004-01-01

    A consistent and pervasive pattern of nutrient enrichment was substantiated by water-quality sampling in the Quinebaug River and its tributaries in eastern Connecticut during water years 2000 and 2001. Median total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s recently recommended regional ambient water-qual-ity criteria for streams (0.71 and 0.031 milligrams per liter, respectively). Maximum total phosphorus concentrations exceeded 0.1 milligrams per liter at nearly half the sampled locations in the Quinebaug River Basin. Elevated total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations were measured at all stations on the mainstem of the Quinebaug River, the French River, and the Little River. Nutrient enrichment was related to municipal wastewater point sources at the sites on the mainstem of the Quinebaug River and French River, and to agricultural nonpoint nutrient sources in the Little River Basin. Nutrient enrichment and favorable physical factors have resulted in excessive, nuisance algal blooms during summer months, particularly in the numerous impoundments in the Quinebaug River system. Phytoplankton algal density as high as 85,000 cells per milliliter was measured during such nuisance blooms in water years 2000 and 2001. Different hydrologic conditions during the summers of 2000 and 2001 produced very different seston algal populations. Larger amounts of precipitation sustained higher streamflows in the summer of 2000 (than in 2001), which resulted in lower total algal abundance and inhibited the typical algal succession from diatoms to cyanobacteria. Despite this, nearly half of all seston chlorophyll-a concentrations measured during this study exceeded the recommended regional ambient stream-water-quality criterion (3.75 micrograms per liter), and seston chlorophyll-a concentrations as large as 42 micrograms per liter were observed in wastewa-ter-receiving reaches of the Quinebaug River. Estimates of primary

  11. Quantification of Listeria monocytogenes in minimally processed leafy vegetables using a combined method based on enrichment and 16S rRNA real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Aparecida de Oliveira, Maria; Abeid Ribeiro, Eliana Guimarães; Morato Bergamini, Alzira Maria; Pereira De Martinis, Elaine Cristina

    2010-02-01

    Modern lifestyle markedly changed eating habits worldwide, with an increasing demand for ready-to-eat foods, such as minimally processed fruits and leafy greens. Packaging and storage conditions of those products may favor the growth of psychrotrophic bacteria, including the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. In this work, minimally processed leafy vegetables samples (n = 162) from retail market from Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, were tested for the presence or absence of Listeria spp. by the immunoassay Listeria Rapid Test, Oxoid. Two L. monocytogenes positive and six artificially contaminated samples of minimally processed leafy vegetables were evaluated by the Most Probable Number (MPN) with detection by classical culture method and also culture method combined with real-time PCR (RTi-PCR) for 16S rRNA genes of L. monocytogenes. Positive MPN enrichment tubes were analyzed by RTi-PCR with primers specific for L. monocytogenes using the commercial preparation ABSOLUTE QPCR SYBR Green Mix (ABgene, UK). Real-time PCR assay presented good exclusivity and inclusivity results and no statistical significant difference was found in comparison with the conventional culture method (p < 0.05). Moreover, RTi-PCR was fast and easy to perform, with MPN results obtained in ca. 48 h for RTi-PCR in comparison to 7 days for conventional method. PMID:19913686

  12. New generation enrichment monitoring technology for gas centrifuge enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ianakiev, Kiril D; Alexandrov, Boian S.; Boyer, Brian D.; Hill, Thomas R.; Macarthur, Duncan W.; Marks, Thomas; Moss, Calvin E.; Sheppard, Gregory A.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2008-06-13

    The continuous enrichment monitor, developed and fielded in the 1990s by the International Atomic Energy Agency, provided a go-no-go capability to distinguish between UF{sub 6} containing low enriched (approximately 4% {sup 235}U) and highly enriched (above 20% {sup 235}U) uranium. This instrument used the 22-keV line from a {sup 109}Cd source as a transmission source to achieve a high sensitivity to the UF{sub 6} gas absorption. The 1.27-yr half-life required that the source be periodically replaced and the instrument recalibrated. The instrument's functionality and accuracy were limited by the fact that measured gas density and gas pressure were treated as confidential facility information. The modern safeguarding of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant producing low-enriched UF{sub 6} product aims toward a more quantitative flow and enrichment monitoring concept that sets new standards for accuracy stability, and confidence. An instrument must be accurate enough to detect the diversion of a significant quantity of material, have virtually zero false alarms, and protect the operator's proprietary process information. We discuss a new concept for advanced gas enrichment assay measurement technology. This design concept eliminates the need for the periodic replacement of a radioactive source as well as the need for maintenance by experts. Some initial experimental results will be presented.

  13. Puzzling Origin of CEMP-r/s Stars: An Interpretation of Abundance and Enrichment of s- and r-Process Elements from Asymptotic Giant Branch Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiang; Zhao, Fang; Chen, Yanping; Cui, Wenyuan; Zhang, Bo

    2013-12-01

    CEMP-r/s stars at low metallicity are known as double-enhanced stars that show enhancements of both r-process and s-process elements. The chemical abundances of these very metal-poor stars provide us a lot of information for putting new restraints on models of neutron-capture processes. In this article, we put forward an accreted scenario in which the double enrichment of r-process and s-process elements is caused by a former intermediate-mass Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) companion in a detached binary system. As the AGB superwind is only present at the ultimate phase of AGB stars, there is thus a lot of potential that the degenerate-core mass of an intermediate-mass AGB star reaches the Chandrasekhar limit before the AGB superwind. In these circumstances, both s-process elements produced in the AGB shell and r-process elements synthesized in the subsequent explosion would be sprayed contemporaneously and accreted by its companion. Despite similarity to physical conditions of a core-collapse supernova, a major focus in this scenario is the degenerate C-O core surrounded by an envelope of a former intermediate-mass AGB donor that may collapse and explode. Due to the existence of an outer envelope, r-process nucleosynthesis is expected to occur. Hypothesizing the material-rich europium (Eu) accreted by the secondary via the wind from the supernova to be in proportion to the geometric fraction of the companion with respect to the exploding donor star, we find that the estimated yield of Eu (as representative of r-process elements) per AGB supernova event is about 1 × 10-9 M ⊙ ˜ 5 × 10-9 M ⊙. Using the yields of Eu, the overabundance of r-process elements in CEMP-r/s stars can be accounted for. The calculated results show that the value of parameter f , standing for efficiency of wind pollution from the AGB supernova, will reach about 104, which means that the enhanced factor is much larger than unity due to the impact of gravity of the donor and the result of

  14. Where does the carbon go? A model–data intercomparison of vegetation carbon allocation and turnover processes at two temperate forest free-air CO2 enrichment sites

    PubMed Central

    De Kauwe, Martin G; Medlyn, Belinda E; Zaehle, Sönke; Walker, Anthony P; Dietze, Michael C; Wang, Ying-Ping; Luo, Yiqi; Jain, Atul K; El-Masri, Bassil; Hickler, Thomas; Wårlind, David; Weng, Ensheng; Parton, William J; Thornton, Peter E; Wang, Shusen; Prentice, I Colin; Asao, Shinichi; Smith, Benjamin; McCarthy, Heather R; Iversen, Colleen M; Hanson, Paul J; Warren, Jeffrey M; Oren, Ram; Norby, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (eCO2) has the potential to increase vegetation carbon storage if increased net primary production causes increased long-lived biomass. Model predictions of eCO2 effects on vegetation carbon storage depend on how allocation and turnover processes are represented. We used data from two temperate forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments to evaluate representations of allocation and turnover in 11 ecosystem models. Observed eCO2 effects on allocation were dynamic. Allocation schemes based on functional relationships among biomass fractions that vary with resource availability were best able to capture the general features of the observations. Allocation schemes based on constant fractions or resource limitations performed less well, with some models having unintended outcomes. Few models represent turnover processes mechanistically and there was wide variation in predictions of tissue lifespan. Consequently, models did not perform well at predicting eCO2 effects on vegetation carbon storage. Our recommendations to reduce uncertainty include: use of allocation schemes constrained by biomass fractions; careful testing of allocation schemes; and synthesis of allocation and turnover data in terms of model parameters. Data from intensively studied ecosystem manipulation experiments are invaluable for constraining models and we recommend that such experiments should attempt to fully quantify carbon, water and nutrient budgets. PMID:24844873

  15. Where does the carbon go? A model-data intercomparison of vegetation carbon allocation and turnover processes at two temperate forest free-air CO2 enrichment sites.

    PubMed

    De Kauwe, Martin G; Medlyn, Belinda E; Zaehle, Sönke; Walker, Anthony P; Dietze, Michael C; Wang, Ying-Ping; Luo, Yiqi; Jain, Atul K; El-Masri, Bassil; Hickler, Thomas; Wårlind, David; Weng, Ensheng; Parton, William J; Thornton, Peter E; Wang, Shusen; Prentice, I Colin; Asao, Shinichi; Smith, Benjamin; McCarthy, Heather R; Iversen, Colleen M; Hanson, Paul J; Warren, Jeffrey M; Oren, Ram; Norby, Richard J

    2014-08-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (eCO2) has the potential to increase vegetation carbon storage if increased net primary production causes increased long-lived biomass. Model predictions of eCO2 effects on vegetation carbon storage depend on how allocation and turnover processes are represented. We used data from two temperate forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments to evaluate representations of allocation and turnover in 11 ecosystem models. Observed eCO2 effects on allocation were dynamic. Allocation schemes based on functional relationships among biomass fractions that vary with resource availability were best able to capture the general features of the observations. Allocation schemes based on constant fractions or resource limitations performed less well, with some models having unintended outcomes. Few models represent turnover processes mechanistically and there was wide variation in predictions of tissue lifespan. Consequently, models did not perform well at predicting eCO2 effects on vegetation carbon storage. Our recommendations to reduce uncertainty include: use of allocation schemes constrained by biomass fractions; careful testing of allocation schemes; and synthesis of allocation and turnover data in terms of model parameters. Data from intensively studied ecosystem manipulation experiments are invaluable for constraining models and we recommend that such experiments should attempt to fully quantify carbon, water and nutrient budgets. PMID:24844873

  16. Fluorine in the rocks and sediments of volcanic areas in central Italy: total content, enrichment and leaching processes and a hypothesis on the vulnerability of the related aquifers.

    PubMed

    De Rita, Donatella; Cremisini, Carlo; Cinnirella, Alessandro; Spaziani, Fabio

    2012-09-01

    Rock, sediment and water samples from areas characterised by hydrothermal alterations in the Sabatini and Vico Volcanic Districts, near Rome and the large city of Viterbo, respectively, were collected and analysed to determine the total fluorine (F) content and to understand the F geochemical background level in the volcanic districts of central Italy. Leaching and alteration processes controlling the high concentration of F in water were also investigated. Fluorine concentrations were directly determined (potentiometrically) by an F selective electrode in water samples, while the procedure for rock samples included preliminary F dissolution through alkaline fusion. F concentrations higher than 800 mg kg(-1) were commonly found in the analysed rocks and sediments; the concentration depended on the lithology and on the distance from the alteration areas. A specific successive sampling campaign was conducted in three areas where the F content in sediments was particularly high; in the same areas, measurements of CO(2) flux were also performed to investigate the possible deep origin of F. To verify the relationships among the high F contents in rocks and sediments, the leaching processes involved and the presence of F in the aquifer, we also collected water samples in the western sector of the Sabatini Volcanic District, where hydrothermal manifestations and mineral springs are common. The data were processed using a GIS system in which the F distribution was combined with morphological and geological observations. The main results of our study are that (1) F concentrations are higher in volcanic and recently formed travertine (especially in hydrothermally altered sediments) than in sedimentary rocks and decrease with distance from hydrothermal alteration areas, (2) F is more easily leached from hydrothermally altered rocks and from travertine and (3) sediments enriched with F may indicate the presence of deep regional fractures that represent direct pathways of

  17. Beyond Job Enrichment to Employment Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werther, William B., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Employment enrichment views the total work environment confronting employees as a system consisting of two overlapping areas: worker-job and worker-organization subsystems. Job enrichment has improved the worker-job subsystem. The focus of this article is on methods of improving the worker-organization relationship. (Author/JB)

  18. A Mock UF6 Feed and Withdrawal System for Testing Safeguards Monitoring Systems and Strategies Intended for Nuclear Fuel Enrichment and Processing Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Krichinsky, Alan M; Bates, Bruce E; Chesser, Joel B; Koo, Sinsze; Whitaker, J Michael

    2009-12-01

    operating conditions. The ultimate use of technologies tested on the engineering-scale test bed is to work with safeguards agencies to install them in operating plants (e.g., enrichment and fuel processing plants), thereby promoting new safeguards measures with minimal impact to operating plants. In addition, this system is useful in identifying features for new plants that can be incorporated as part of 'safeguards by design,' in which load cells and other monitoring technologies are specified to provide outputs for automated monitoring and inspector evaluation.

  19. High-EPA Biomass from Nannochloropsis salina Cultivated in a Flat-Panel Photo-Bioreactor on a Process Water-Enriched Growth Medium

    PubMed Central

    Safafar, Hamed; Hass, Michael Z.; Møller, Per; Holdt, Susan L.; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Nannochloropsis salina was grown on a mixture of standard growth media and pre-gasified industrial process water representing effluent from a local biogas plant. The study aimed to investigate the effects of enriched growth media and cultivation time on nutritional composition of Nannochloropsis salina biomass, with a focus on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Variations in fatty acid composition, lipids, protein, amino acids, tocopherols and pigments were studied and results compared to algae cultivated on F/2 media as reference. Mixed growth media and process water enhanced the nutritional quality of Nannochloropsis salina in laboratory scale when compared to algae cultivated in standard F/2 medium. Data from laboratory scale translated to the large scale using a 4000 L flat panel photo-bioreactor system. The algae growth rate in winter conditions in Denmark was slow, but results revealed that large-scale cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina at these conditions could improve the nutritional properties such as EPA, tocopherol, protein and carotenoids compared to laboratory-scale cultivated microalgae. EPA reached 44.2% ± 2.30% of total fatty acids, and α-tocopherol reached 431 ± 28 µg/g of biomass dry weight after 21 days of cultivation. Variations in chemical compositions of Nannochloropsis salina were studied during the course of cultivation. Nannochloropsis salina can be presented as a good candidate for winter time cultivation in Denmark. The resulting biomass is a rich source of EPA and also a good source of protein (amino acids), tocopherols and carotenoids for potential use in aquaculture feed industry. PMID:27483291

  20. High-EPA Biomass from Nannochloropsis salina Cultivated in a Flat-Panel Photo-Bioreactor on a Process Water-Enriched Growth Medium.

    PubMed

    Safafar, Hamed; Hass, Michael Z; Møller, Per; Holdt, Susan L; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Nannochloropsis salina was grown on a mixture of standard growth media and pre-gasified industrial process water representing effluent from a local biogas plant. The study aimed to investigate the effects of enriched growth media and cultivation time on nutritional composition of Nannochloropsis salina biomass, with a focus on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Variations in fatty acid composition, lipids, protein, amino acids, tocopherols and pigments were studied and results compared to algae cultivated on F/2 media as reference. Mixed growth media and process water enhanced the nutritional quality of Nannochloropsis salina in laboratory scale when compared to algae cultivated in standard F/2 medium. Data from laboratory scale translated to the large scale using a 4000 L flat panel photo-bioreactor system. The algae growth rate in winter conditions in Denmark was slow, but results revealed that large-scale cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina at these conditions could improve the nutritional properties such as EPA, tocopherol, protein and carotenoids compared to laboratory-scale cultivated microalgae. EPA reached 44.2% ± 2.30% of total fatty acids, and α-tocopherol reached 431 ± 28 µg/g of biomass dry weight after 21 days of cultivation. Variations in chemical compositions of Nannochloropsis salina were studied during the course of cultivation. Nannochloropsis salina can be presented as a good candidate for winter time cultivation in Denmark. The resulting biomass is a rich source of EPA and also a good source of protein (amino acids), tocopherols and carotenoids for potential use in aquaculture feed industry. PMID:27483291

  1. Derived enriched uranium market

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-12-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market.

  2. Organizational work-family resources as predictors of job performance and attitudes: the process of work-family conflict and enrichment.

    PubMed

    Odle-Dusseau, Heather N; Britt, Thomas W; Greene-Shortridge, Tiffany M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to test a model where organizational resources (aimed at managing work and family responsibilities) predict job attitudes and supervisor ratings of performance through the mechanisms of work-family conflict and work-family enrichment. Employees (n = 174) at a large metropolitan hospital were surveyed at two time periods regarding perceptions of family supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), family supportive organizational perceptions (FSOP), bidirectional work-family conflict, bidirectional work-family enrichment, and job attitudes. Supervisors were also asked to provide performance ratings at Time 2. Results revealed FSSB at Time 1 predicted job satisfaction, organizational commitment and intention to leave, as well as supervisor ratings of performance, at Time 2. In addition, both work-family enrichment and family-work enrichment were found to mediate relationships between FSSB and various organizational outcomes, while work-family conflict was not a significant mediator. Results support further testing of supervisor behaviors specific to family support, as well models that include bidirectional work-family enrichment as the mechanism by which work-family resources predict employee and organizational outcomes. PMID:22149204

  3. Semantic enrichment for medical ontologies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yugyung; Geller, James

    2006-04-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) contains two separate but interconnected knowledge structures, the Semantic Network (upper level) and the Metathesaurus (lower level). In this paper, we have attempted to work out better how the use of such a two-level structure in the medical field has led to notable advances in terminologies and ontologies. However, most ontologies and terminologies do not have such a two-level structure. Therefore, we present a method, called semantic enrichment, which generates a two-level ontology from a given one-level terminology and an auxiliary two-level ontology. During semantic enrichment, concepts of the one-level terminology are assigned to semantic types, which are the building blocks of the upper level of the auxiliary two-level ontology. The result of this process is the desired new two-level ontology. We discuss semantic enrichment of two example terminologies and how we approach the implementation of semantic enrichment in the medical domain. This implementation performs a major part of the semantic enrichment process with the medical terminologies, with difficult cases left to a human expert. PMID:16185937

  4. Co-expression of glutathione S-transferase with methionine aminopeptidase: a system of producing enriched N-terminal processed proteins in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, D D; Liu, L F; Kuan, I C; Lin, L Y; Tam, T C; Tam, M F

    1999-01-01

    We describe here an Escherichia coli expression system that produces recombinant proteins enriched in the N-terminal processed form, by using glutathione S-transferase cGSTM1-1 and rGSTT1-1 as models, where c and r refer to chick and rat respectively. Approximately 90% of the cGSTM1-1 or rGSTT1-1 overexpressed in E. coli under the control of a phoA promoter retained the initiator methionine residue that was absent from the mature isoenzymes isolated from tissues. The amount of initiator methionine was decreased to 40% of the expressed cGSTM1-1 when the isoenzyme was co-expressed with an exogenous methionine aminopeptidase gene under the control of a separate phoA promoter. The recombinant proteins expressed were mainly methionine aminopeptidase. The yield of cGSTM1-1 was decreased to 10% of that expressed in the absence of the exogenous methionine aminopeptidase gene. By replacing the phoA with its natural promoter, the expression of methionine aminopeptidase decreased drastically. The yield of the co-expressed cGSTM1-1 was approx. 60% of that in the absence of the exogenous methionine aminopeptidase gene; approx. 65% of the initiator methionine residues were removed from the enzyme. Under similar conditions, N-terminal processing was observed in approx. 70% of the recombinant rGSTT1-1 expressed. By increasing the concentration of phosphate in the growth medium, the amount of initiator methionine on cGSTM1-1 was decreased to 14% of the overexpressed isoenzymes, whereas no further improvement could be observed for rGSTT1-1. The initiator methionine residue does not affect the enzymic activities of either cGSTM1-1 or rGSTT1-1. However, the epoxidase activity and the 4-nitrobenzyl chloride-conjugating activity of the purified recombinant rGSTT1-1 are markedly higher that those reported recently for the same isoenzyme isolated from rat livers. PMID:10024508

  5. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Yang; Dali; Devlin, David; Barbero, Robert S.; Carrera, Martin E.; Colling, Craig W.

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  6. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Dali; Devlin, David; Barbero, Robert S.; Carrera, Martin E.; Colling, Craig W.

    2011-11-29

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  7. Marriage and Family Enrichment--A New Field?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, David

    1979-01-01

    Examines the enrichment process to determine if marriage and family enrichment constitute a new field in education and counseling. Results suggest that progressive improvement in quality of education and counseling for marriage and family may unite the field as they merge into enrichment. The process is defined with its relevant programs. (BEF)

  8. Multilevel correlations in the biological phosphorus removal process: From bacterial enrichment to conductivity-based metabolic batch tests and polyphosphatase assays.

    PubMed

    Weissbrodt, David G; Maillard, Julien; Brovelli, Alessandro; Chabrelie, Alexandre; May, Jonathan; Holliger, Christof

    2014-12-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater relies on the preferential selection of active polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) in the underlying bacterial community continuum. Efficient management of the bacterial resource requires understanding of population dynamics as well as availability of bioanalytical methods for rapid and regular assessment of relative abundances of active PAOs and their glycogen-accumulating competitors (GAO). A systems approach was adopted here toward the investigation of multilevel correlations from the EBPR bioprocess to the bacterial community, metabolic, and enzymatic levels. Two anaerobic-aerobic sequencing-batch reactors were operated to enrich activated sludge in PAOs and GAOs affiliating with "Candidati Accumulibacter and Competibacter phosphates", respectively. Bacterial selection was optimized by dynamic control of the organic loading rate and the anaerobic contact time. The distinct core bacteriomes mainly comprised populations related to the classes Betaproteobacteria, Cytophagia, and Chloroflexi in the PAO enrichment and of Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Sphingobacteria in the GAO enrichment. An anaerobic metabolic batch test based on electrical conductivity evolution and a polyphosphatase enzymatic assay were developed for rapid and low-cost assessment of the active PAO fraction and dephosphatation potential of activated sludge. Linear correlations were obtained between the PAO fraction, biomass specific rate of conductivity increase under anaerobic conditions, and polyphosphate-hydrolyzing activity of PAO/GAO mixtures. The correlations between PAO/GAO ratios, metabolic activities, and conductivity profiles were confirmed by simulations with a mathematical model developed in the aqueous geochemistry software PHREEQC. PMID:24975745

  9. Enrichment through Creative Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Claire S.

    The CREST (Creative Resources Enriching Student Talents) Project, an enrichment approach for elementary gifted, talented, and creative students, is described. The project is explained to incorporate an interdisciplinary approach to instruction in art and science using resources within the community. Chapter 1 outlines the project philosophy,…

  10. Multiple episodes of partial melting, depletion, metasomatism and enrichment processes recorded in the heterogeneous upper mantle sequence of the Neotethyan Eldivan ophiolite, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uysal, Ibrahim; Ersoy, E. Yalçın; Dilek, Yildirim; Kapsiotis, Argyrios; Sarıfakıoğlu, Ender

    2016-03-01

    The Eldivan ophiolite along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone in north-central Anatolia represents a remnant of the Neotethyan oceanic lithosphere. Its upper mantle peridotites include three lithologically and compositionally distinct units: clinopyroxene (cpx)-harzburgite and lherzolite (Group-1), depleted harzburgite (Group-2), and dunite (Group-3). Relics of primary olivine and pyroxene occur in the less refractory harzburgites, and fresh chromian spinel (Cr-spinel) is ubiquitous in all peridotites. The Eldivan peridotites reflect a petrogenetic history evolving from relatively fertile (lherzolite and cpx-harzburgite) toward more depleted (dunite) compositions through time, as indicated by (i) a progressive decrease in the modal cpx distribution, (ii) a progressive increase in the Cr#s [Cr / (Cr + Al)] of Cr-spinel (0.15-0.78), and (iii) an increased depletion in the whole-rock abundances of some magmaphile major oxides (Al2O3, CaO, SiO2 and TiO2) and incompatible trace elements (Zn, Sc, V and Y). The primitive mantle-normalized REE patterns of the Group-1 and some of the Group-2 peridotites display LREE depletions. Higher YbN and lower SmN/YbN ratios of these rocks are compatible with their formation after relatively low degrees (9-25%) of open-system dynamic melting (OSDM) of a Depleted Mid-ocean ridge Mantle (DMM) source, which was then fluxed with small volumes of oceanic mantle-derived melt [fluxing ratio (β): 0.7-1.2%]. Accessory Cr-spinel compositions (Cr# = 015-0.53) of these rocks are consistent with their origin as residual peridotites beneath a mid-ocean ridge axis. Part of the Group-2 harzburgites exhibit lower YbN and higher SmN/YbN ratios, LREE-enriched REE patterns, and higher Cr-spinel Cr#s ranging between 0.54 and 0.61. Trace element compositions of these peridotites can be modeled by approximately 15% OSDM of a previously 17% depleted DMM, which was then fluxed (β: 0.4%) with subduction-influenced melt. The Group-3 dunite samples contain

  11. Magma Differentiation Processes That Develop an "Enriched" Signature in the Izu Bonin Rear Arc: Evidence from Drilling at IODP Site U1437

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heywood, L. J.; DeBari, S. M.; Schindlbeck, J. C.; Escobar-Burciaga, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Izu Bonin rear arc represents a unique laboratory to study the development of continental crust precursors at an intraoceanic subduction zone., Volcanic output in the Izu Bonin rear arc is compositionally distinct from the Izu Bonin main volcanic front, with med- to high-K and LREE-enrichment similar to the average composition of the continental crust. Drilling at IODP Expedition 350 Site U1437 in the Izu Bonin rear arc obtained volcaniclastic material that was deposited from at least 13.5 Ma to present. IODP Expedition 350 represents the first drilling mission in the Izu Bonin rear arc region. This study presents fresh glass and mineral compositions (obtained via EMP and LA-ICP-MS) from unaltered tephra layers in mud/mudstone (Lithostratigraphic Unit I) and lapillistone (Lithostratigraphic Unit II) <4.5 Ma to examine the geochemical signature of Izu Bonin rear arc magmas. Unit II samples are coarse-grained tephras that are mainly rhyolitic in composition (72.1-77.5 wt. % SiO2, 3.2-3.9 wt. % K2O and average Mg# 24) and LREE-enriched. These rear-arc rhyolites have an average La/Sm of 2.6 with flat HREEs, average Th/La of 0.15, and Zr/Y of 4.86. Rear-arc rhyolite trace element signature is distinct from felsic eruptive products from the Izu Bonin main volcanic front, which have lower La/Sm and Th/La as well as significantly lower incompatible element concentrations. Rear arc rhyolites have similar trace element ratios to rhyolites from the adjacent but younger backarc knolls and actively-extending rift regions, but the latter is typified by lower K2O, as well as a smaller degree of enrichment in incompatible elements. Given these unique characteristics, we explore models for felsic magma formation and intracrustal differentiation in the Izu Bonin rear arc.

  12. Transition from ultra-enriched to ultra-depleted primary MORB melts in a single volcanic suite (Macquarie Island, SW Pacific): Implications for mantle source, melting process and plumbing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husen, Anika; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Everard, John L.; Kamenetsky, Maya B.

    2016-07-01

    Compositional diversity of basalts forming the oceanic floor is attributed to a variety of factors such as mantle heterogeneities, melting conditions, mixing of individual melt batches, as well as fractionation and assimilation processes during magma ascent and emplacement. In this study the compositional range and origin of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) is approached by petrological, mineralogical and geochemical studies of the Miocene Macquarie Island ophiolite, an uplifted part of the Macquarie Ridge at the boundary between the Australian and Pacific plates. In this study, earlier results on the enriched to ultra-enriched (La/Sm 1.4-7.9), isotopically homogeneous basaltic glasses are complemented by the compositions of olivine-phyric rocks, principal phenocrystic minerals and Cr-spinel hosted melt inclusions. Studied olivine, clinopyroxene and Cr-spinel phenocrysts are among the most primitive known for MORB (85-91 mol% forsterite in olivine, 81-91 Mg# in clinopyroxene, and 66-77 Mg# and 34-60 Cr# in spinel) and represent primary and near-primary compositions of their parental melts. Geochemical characteristics of the liquids parental to clinopyroxene (La/Sm 0.8-6.3) and Cr-spinel (La/Sm 0.4-5) partly overlap with those of the basaltic glasses, but also strongly advocate the role of depleted to ultra-depleted primary melts in the origin of the Macquarie Island porphyritic rocks. The trace element composition of olivine phenocrysts and the systematics of rare-earth elements in glasses, melt inclusions, and clinopyroxene provide evidence for a peridotitic composition of the source mantle. Our data supports the mechanism of fractional "dynamic" melting of a single mantle peridotite producing individual partial melt batches with continuously changing compositions from ultra-enriched towards ultra-depleted. The incipient enriched melt batches, represented by basaltic glasses in this study, may erupt without significant modification, whereas consecutively derived

  13. Conversion of Molybdenum-99 production process to low enriched uranium: Neutronic and thermal hydraulic analyses of HEU and LEU target plates for irradiation in Pakistan Research Reactor-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtaq, Ahmad; Iqbal, Masood; Bokhari, Ishtiaq Hussain; Mahmood, Tayyab; Muhammad, Atta

    2012-09-01

    Technetium-99m, the daughter product of Molybdenum-99 is the most widely needed radionuclide for diagnostic studies in Pakistan. Molybdenum-99 Production Facility has been established at PINSTECH. Highly enriched uranium (93% 235U) U/Al alloy targets have been irradiated in Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1) for the generation of fission Mo-99, while basic dissolution technique is used for separation of Mo-99 from target matrix activity. In line with the international objective of minimizing and eventually eliminating the use of HEU in civil commerce, national and international efforts have been underway to shift the production of medical isotopes from HEU to LEU (LEU; <20% 235U enrichment) targets. To achieve the equivalent amount of 99Mo with LEU targets, approximately 5 times uranium is needed. LEU aluminum uranium dispersion target has been developed, which may replace existing HEU aluminum/uranium alloy targets for production of 99Mo using basic dissolution technique. Neutronic and thermal hydraulic calculations were performed for safe irradiation of targets in the core of PARR-1.

  14. The geochemistry of primitive volcanic rocks of the Ankaratra volcanic complex, and source enrichment processes in the genesis of the Cenozoic magmatism in Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melluso, L.; Cucciniello, C.; le Roex, A. P.; Morra, V.

    2016-07-01

    The Ankaratra volcanic complex in central Madagascar consists of lava flows, domes, scoria cones, tuff rings and maars of Cenozoic age that are scattered over 3800 km2. The mafic rocks include olivine-leucite-nephelinites, basanites, alkali basalts and hawaiites, and tholeiitic basalts. Primitive samples have high Mg# (>60), high Cr and Ni concentrations; their mantle-normalized patterns peak at Nb and Ba, have troughs at K, and smoothly decrease towards the least incompatible elements. The Ankaratra mafic rocks show small variation in Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions (e.g., 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70377-0.70446, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51273-0.51280, 206Pb/204Pb = 18.25-18.87). These isotopic values differ markedly from those of Cenozoic mafic lavas of northern Madagascar and the Comoro archipelago, typical Indian Ocean MORB and oceanic basalt end-members. The patterns of olivine nephelinitic magmas can be obtained through 3-10% partial melting of a mantle source that was enriched by a Ca-rich alkaline melt, and that contained garnet, carbonates and phlogopite. The patterns of tholeiitic basalts can be obtained after 10-12% partial melting of a source enriched with lower amounts of the same alkaline melt, in the spinel- (and possibly amphibole-) facies mantle, hence in volumes where carbonate is not a factor. The significant isotopic change from the northernmost volcanic rocks of Madagascar and those in the central part of the island implicates a distinct source heterogeneity, and ultimately assess the role of the continental lithospheric mantle as source region. The source of at least some volcanic rocks of the still active Comoro archipelago may have suffered the same time-integrated geochemical and isotopic evolution as that of the northern Madagascar volcanic rocks.

  15. A Novel Process for the Synthesis of Highly Pure n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA)-Enriched Triglycerides by Combined Transesterification and Ethanolysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Daoming; Wang, Weifei; Qin, Xiaoli; Li, Xingxing; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-08-31

    In this study, a novel two-step enzymatic reaction was developed for the synthesis of highly pure triacylglycerols (TAGs) with a high content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Glyceride mixtures were primarily synthesized by Novozym 435-catalyzed transesterification of glycerol and DHA/EPA-rich ethyl esters (EEs), followed by removal of partial glycerides, for the first time, by immobilized mono- and diacylglycerol lipase SMG1-F278N-catalyzed ethanolysis. TAG yield as high as 98.66% was achieved under the optimized conditions, and highly pure (98.75%) n-3 PUFA-enriched TAGs with 88.44% of n-3 PUFA was obtained after molecular distillation at lower temperature (140 °C). In addition, the EEs produced during ethanolysis had a FA composition similar to that of the original EEs, making them feasible for cyclic utilization. This was the first study reporting removal of partial glycerides by ethanolysis. Through ethanolysis, a higher purity product could be easily obtained at a relatively low temperature compared with the conventional high-temperature molecular distillation. PMID:27540752

  16. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Heinonen, Olli

    2014-05-09

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  17. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Olli

    2014-05-01

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  18. Processing and interpretation of ASTER TIR data for mapping of rare-metal-enriched albite granitoids in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboelkhair, Hatem; Ninomiya, Yoshiki; Watanabe, Yasushi; Sato, Isao

    2010-08-01

    ASTER level 1B (radiance at the sensor) TIR-bands and level 2B04 (surface emissivity) data were analyzed to detect four of 14 rare-metal-enriched albite granite, which are classified as I-type magnetite-series (G3 type) granites in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt. Analysis of the shapes of laboratory emissivity spectrum of albite granite samples measured by portable emission spectrometer and albite mineral spectra from ASTER spectral library at the website of JPL of NASA showed that, albite granite samples has a higher emissivity in bands 12, 13 and 14 than in bands 10 and 11. To identify and map this type of granite, Quartz Index, as well as band ratios, band ratio combination and band combinations were used, based on the shapes of the analyzed emissivity spectrum of albite granite samples and albite mineral. The Quartz Index (QI) was high for quartz-rich/feldspar poor rocks and was low for K-feldspar or gypsum-rich rocks. Albite rich granites were detected as dark pixels in the QI image. The proposed band ratio b12/b11 clearly identified the albite granite bodies as dark regions. False color images of band combination of 14:12:10 and 12:13:11 in R:G:B clearly mapped the albite granite bodies as light brownish yellow and light greenish regions respectively. A new ASTER colored composite band ratio combination b12/b13:b11/b12:b14/b13 as R:G:B is applied successfully for mapping albite granite in the study area. This new combination clearly separated albite granite as pinkish magenta color. An ASTER scene covering the study area acquired on a different date was used to determine the effect of atmospheric and surface temperature conditions on the ratio and the mathematical band operation. The results indicated no significance differences.

  19. Science Student Enrichment Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This document was developed with the intention of increasing California public school students' awareness of and participation in science-related enrichment activities. Some of the activities are intended for participation by individuals, while others are meant for teams of students. These annual events are listed in chronological order for a…

  20. Job Enrichment in Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fourman, Louis S.; Jones, Jo

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with 10 participants in Ohio State University's job enrichment program for midcareer extension agents found that 5 returned to their same jobs after the experience but only 2 felt challenged/renewed. Part-time participation while working made it difficult to balance responsibilities. More information and a structured orientation were…

  1. Designing job enrichment projects.

    PubMed

    Clakeley, G L

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a management strategy for a job satisfaction program utilized in a large occupational therapy department. The goal of the program is to retain satisfied, productive employees and reduce attrition of therapists and assistants. The use of job enrichment projects for occupational therapy assistants will be presented with brief descriptions of two projects. PMID:23944880

  2. Enrichments in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Paul W.

    1969-01-01

    Emphasizes the need for enrichment materials in addition to laboratory and textbook work, particularly for interested and able students. Discusses the use of filmstrips, loop films, Innovations to Inquiry, BSCS pamphlets, newspapers, magazines and scientific periodicals, television, field trips, library resources, and programed units. (EB)

  3. Enriching the Catalog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2004-01-01

    After decades of costly and time-consuming effort, nearly all libraries have completed the retrospective conversion of their card catalogs to electronic form. However, bibliographic systems still are really not much more than card catalogs on wheels. Enriched content that Amazon.com takes for granted--such as digitized tables of contents, cover…

  4. Enriching Number Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Nancy K.

    2011-01-01

    Exploring number systems of other cultures can be an enjoyable learning experience that enriches students' knowledge of numbers and number systems in important ways. It helps students deepen mental computation fluency, knowledge of place value, and equivalent representations for numbers. This article describes how the author designed her…

  5. Teaching Mathematical Modelling: Demonstrating Enrichment and Elaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a series of models to illustrate one of the fundamental processes of model building--that of enrichment and elaboration. The paper describes how a problem context is given which allows a series of models to be developed from a simple initial model using a queuing theory framework. The process encourages students to think about the…

  6. Profile of World Uranium Enrichment Programs - 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Laughter, Mark D

    2007-11-01

    It is generally agreed that the most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is acquiring weapons grade fissile material, either plutonium or highly enriched uranium (HEU). Plutonium is produced in a nuclear reactor, while HEU is produced using a uranium enrichment process. Enrichment is also an important step in the civil nuclear fuel cycle, in producing low enriched uranium (LEU) for use in fuel for nuclear reactors. However, the same equipment used to produce LEU for nuclear fuel can also be used to produce HEU for weapons. Safeguards at an enrichment plant are the array of assurances and verification techniques that ensure uranium is only enriched to LEU, no undeclared LEU is produced, and no uranium is enriched to HEU or secretly diverted. There are several techniques for enriching uranium. The two most prevalent are gaseous diffusion, which uses older technology and requires a lot of energy, and gas centrifuge separation, which uses more advanced technology and is more energy efficient. Gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) provide about 40% of current world enrichment capacity, but are being phased out as newer gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) are constructed. Estimates of current and future enrichment capacity are always approximate, due to the constant upgrades, expansions, and shutdowns occurring at enrichment plants, largely determined by economic interests. Currently, the world enrichment capacity is approximately 53 million kg-separative work units (SWU) per year, with 22 million in gaseous diffusion and 31 million in gas centrifuge plants. Another 23 million SWU/year of capacity are under construction or planned for the near future, almost entirely using gas centrifuge separation. Other less-efficient techniques have also been used in the past, including electromagnetic and aerodynamic separations, but these are considered obsolete, at least from a commercial perspective. Laser isotope separation shows promise as a possible enrichment technique

  7. A Miscellany of Etceteras: An "In-Process" Collection of Interdisciplinary Units and Enrichment Lessons. New York and the World Project 1991-92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Hazel Sara, Ed.

    These curriculum pieces, developed by teachers involved in the New York and the World Program, vary from single lessons to full units and indicate new approaches that all teachers can use in determining what to teach and how to teach it. The first section provides an overview of an interdisciplinary model along with steps in the process. The next…

  8. Enrichment Strategies in Phosphoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The comprehensive study of the phosphoproteome is heavily dependent on appropriate enrichment strategies that are most often, but not exclusively, carried out on the peptide level. In this chapter, I give an overview of the most widely used techniques. In addition to dedicated antibodies, phosphopeptides are enriched by their selective interaction with metals in the form of chelated metal ions or metal oxides. The negative charge of the phosphate group is also exploited in a variety of chromatographic fractionation methods that include different types of ion exchange chromatography, hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC), and electrostatic repulsion HILIC (ERLIC) chromatography. Selected examples from the literature will demonstrate how a combination of these techniques with current high-performance mass spectrometry enables the identification of thousands of phosphorylation sites from various sample types. PMID:26584921

  9. Stable isotope enrichment in stratospheric nitrous oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Rahn, T.; Wahlen, M.

    1997-12-05

    Nitrous oxide is a greenhouse gas that also plays a role in the cycling of stratospheric ozone. Air samples from the lower stratosphere exhibit {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O enrichment in nitrous oxide, which can be accounted for with a simple model describing an irreversible destruction process. The observed enrichments are quite large and incompatible with those determined for the main stratospheric nitrous oxide loss processes of photolysis and reaction with excited atomic oxygen. Thus, although no stratospheric source needs to be invoked, the data indicate that present understanding of stratospheric nitrous oxide chemistry is incomplete. 21 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. U. S. forms uranium enrichment corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Seltzer, R.

    1993-07-12

    After almost 40 years of operation, the federal government is withdrawing from the uranium enrichment business. On July 1, the Department of Energy turned over to a new government-owned entity--the US Enrichment Corp. (USEC)--both the DOE enrichment plants at Paducah, Ky., and Portsmouth, Ohio, and domestic and international marketing of enriched uranium from them. Pushed by the inability of DOE's enrichment operations to meet foreign competition, Congress established USEC under the National Energy Policy Act of 1992, envisioning the new corporation as the first step to full privatization. With gross revenues of $1.5 billion in fiscal 1992, USEC would rank 275th on the Fortune 500 list of top US companies. USEC will lease from DOE the Paducah and Portsmouth facilities, built in the early 1950s, which use the gaseous diffusion process for uranium enrichment. USEC's stock is held by the US Treasury, to which it will pay annual dividends. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, which has operated Paducah since 1984 and Portsmouth since 1986 for DOE, will continue to operate both plants for USEC. Closing one of the two facilities will be studied, especially in light of a 40% world surplus of capacity over demand. USEC also will consider other nuclear-fuel-related ventures. USEC will produce only low-enriched uranium, not weapons-grade material. Indeed, USEC will implement a contract now being completed under which the US will purchase weapons-grade uranium from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons and convert it into low-enriched uranium for power reactor fuel.

  11. Centrifuge enrichment plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, control, monitoring, and safety of centrifuge enrichment plants. Power supplies, enrichment plant safeguards, facility design, cascade heater test loops to monitor the enrichment process, inspection strategies, and the socioeconomic effects of centrifuge enrichment plants are examined. Radioactive waste disposal problems are considered. (Contains a minimum of 172 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Centrifuge enrichment plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, control, monitoring, and safety of centrifuge enrichment plants. Power supplies, enrichment plant safeguards, facility design, cascade heater test loops to monitor the enrichment process, inspection strategies, and the socioeconomic effects of centrifuge enrichment plants are examined. Radioactive waste disposal problems are considered. (Contains a minimum of 171 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Enriching M. sternomandibularis with alpha-tocopherol by dietary means does not protect against the lipid oxidation caused by high-pressure processing.

    PubMed

    Tume, R K; Sikes, A L; Smith, S B

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that elevating the concentration of alpha-tocopherol in beef muscle tissue by dietary means would increase lipid stability following high-pressure processing. Beef M. sternomandibularis was obtained from cattle that had medium (4.92 microg/g) and high (7.30 microg/g) concentrations of alpha-tocopherol. Post-rigor, paired muscles samples were subjected to pressures of 0.1 (atmospheric), 200 or 800 MPa for 20 min at approximately 60 degrees C. Following high-pressure processing, measurements were made immediately (d 0) or on samples stored in the dark for 6 d at 4 degrees C (d 6). Intramuscular lipid was similar for each group (4.02% vs. 4.26%, respectively; P=0.78), but lipid from the medium alpha-tocopherol muscle was more saturated and less monounsaturated than muscle from the high alpha-tocopherol group. High-pressure processing at 800 MPa and 60 degrees C did not reduce the amount of alpha-tocopherol but significantly reduced the concentration of linoleic acid (18:2n-6) in muscle from both production groups of cattle. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances increased linearly with treatment pressure only in d 6 samples (day x pressure interaction P=0.0001) and were higher overall (P=0.02) in the high alpha-tocopherol muscle than in the medium alpha-tocopherol muscle. At d 6, lipid peroxides were decreased (P=0.007) by high-pressure treatment and were higher (P<0.0001) in the high alpha-tocopherol group than in the medium alpha-tocopherol group. Therefore, muscle from the high alpha-tocopherol cattle in this study had a greater accumulation of lipid peroxides by d 6, making the muscle from those cattle more susceptible to oxidation. PMID:20374755

  14. The role of binaries in the enrichment of the early Galactic halo. I. r-process-enhanced metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, T. T.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Beers, T. C.; Yoon, J.; Buchhave, L. A.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The detailed chemical composition of most metal-poor halo stars has been found to be highly uniform, but a minority of stars exhibit dramatic enhancements in their abundances of heavy neutron-capture elements and/or of carbon. The key question for Galactic chemical evolution models is whether these peculiarities reflect the composition of the natal clouds, or if they are due to later (post-birth) mass transfer of chemically processed material from a binary companion. If the former case applies, the observed excess of certain elements was implanted within selected clouds in the early ISM from a production site at interstellar distances. Aims: Our aim is to determine the frequency and orbital properties of binaries among these chemically peculiar stars. This information provides the basis for deciding whether local mass transfer from a binary companion is necessary and sufficient to explain their unusual compositions. This paper discusses our study of a sample of 17 moderately (r-I) and highly (r-II) r-process-element enhanced VMP and EMP stars. Methods: High-resolution, low signal-to-noise spectra of the stars were obtained at roughly monthly intervals over eight years with the FIES spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope. From these spectra, radial velocities with an accuracy of ~100 m s-1 were determined by cross-correlation against an optimized template. Results: Fourteen of the programme stars exhibit no significant radial-velocity variation over this temporal window, while three are binaries with orbits of typical eccentricity for their periods, resulting in a normal binary frequency of ~18 ± 6% for the sample. Conclusions: Our results confirm our preliminary conclusion from 2011, based on partial data, that the chemical peculiarity of the r-I and r-II stars is not caused by any putative binary companions. Instead, it was imprinted on the natal molecular clouds of these stars by an external, distant source. Models of the ISM in early galaxies

  15. Clogging the enrichment bypass

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The issue that has come to be known as the bypass is the latest dispute in the continuing saga of uranium trade between the United States and the Commonwealth of Indepenent States. Bypass deals now being conducted by US utilities have drawn heavy criticism from the US Department of Commerce but are perfectly legal under the terms of the Suspension Agreements. Urged on by the United States Enrichment Corporation, the US DOC intends to stop, or at least severely restrict, bypass deals. Using a recent agreement with Kazakhstan as a case study, this article reviews the implications of such bypass deals.

  16. Validation of MCNP4a for highly enriched uranium using the Battelle process safety and risk management IBM RS/6000 workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Negron, S.B.; Lee, B.L. Jr.; Tayloe, R.W. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    This document has been prepared to allow use of the Radiation Shielding and Information Center (RSIC) release of MCNP4a, which has been installed on the Battelle Process Safety and Risk Management (PSRM) IBM RS/6000 workstation, for production calculations for the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). This hardware/software configuration is under the configuration control plan listed in Reference 1. The first portion of this document outlines basic information with regard to validation of MCNP4a using the supplied cross sections and the additional MCNPDAT cross sections. A basic discussion of MCNP is provided, along with discussions of the validation database in general. A description of the statistical analysis then follows. The results of this validation indicate that the software and data libraries examined may be used with confidence for criticality calculations at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). When the validation results are treated as a single group, there is a 95% confidence that 99.9% of future calculations of similar critical systems will have a calculated k{sub eff} > 0.95. Based on this result, the Battelle PSRM Nuclear Safety Group has adopted the calculational acceptance criteria that a calculated k{sub eff} + 2{sigma}, {le} 0.95 is safely subcritical. The conclusion of this document is that MCNP4a and all associated cross section libraries installed on the PSRM IBM RS/6000 are acceptable for use in performing production criticality safety calculations for the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant.

  17. Isolation and characterization of a hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial enrichment from total petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sediments: potential candidates for bioaugmentation in bio-based processes.

    PubMed

    Di Gregorio, Simona; Siracusa, Giovanna; Becarelli, Simone; Mariotti, Lorenzo; Gentini, Alessandro; Lorenzi, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Seven hydrocarbonoclastic new bacterial isolates were isolated from dredged sediments of a river estuary in Italy. The sediments were contaminated by shipyard activities since decades, mainly ascribable to the exploitation of diesel oil as the fuel for recreational and commercial navigation of watercrafts. The bacterial isolates were able to utilize diesel oil as sole carbon source. Their metabolic capacities were evaluated by GC-MS analysis, with reference to the depletion of both the normal and branched alkanes, the nC18 fatty acid methyl ester and the unresolved complex mixture of organic compounds. They were taxonomically identified as different species of Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas spp. by the combination of amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and repetitive sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) analysis. The metabolic activities of interest were analyzed both in relation to the single bacterial strains and to the combination of the latter as a multibacterial species system. After 6 days of incubation in mineral medium with diesel oil as sole carbon source, the Stenotrophomonas sp. M1 strain depleted 43-46 % of Cn-alkane from C28 up to C30, 70 % of the nC18 fatty acid methyl ester and the 46 % of the unresolved complex mixture of organic compounds. On the other hand, the Pseudomonas sp. NM1 strain depleted the 76 % of the nC18 fatty acid methyl ester, the 50 % of the unresolved complex mixture of organic compounds. The bacterial multispecies system was able to completely deplete Cn-alkane from C28 up to C30 and to deplete the 95 % of the unresolved complex mixture of organic compounds. The isolates, either as single strains and as a bacterial multispecies system, were proposed as candidates for bioaugmentation in bio-based processes for the decontamination of dredged sediments. PMID:26755178

  18. Drama in English: An Enriching Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geffen, Mitzi

    1998-01-01

    Examines the rationale behind using musical drama in English-as-a-Second-Language classes, explaining that it is an enjoyable experience that enriches students' English while they are relaxed, working as a team, and having fun with their imaginations. The article explains the process of putting on a play and evaluates the effect such a project had…

  19. KEA: kinase enrichment analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lachmann, Alexander; Ma'ayan, Avi

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Multivariate experiments applied to mammalian cells often produce lists of proteins/genes altered under treatment versus control conditions. Such lists can be projected onto prior knowledge of kinase–substrate interactions to infer the list of kinases associated with a specific protein list. By computing how the proportion of kinases, associated with a specific list of proteins/genes, deviates from an expected distribution, we can rank kinases and kinase families based on the likelihood that these kinases are functionally associated with regulating the cell under specific experimental conditions. Such analysis can assist in producing hypotheses that can explain how the kinome is involved in the maintenance of different cellular states and can be manipulated to modulate cells towards a desired phenotype. Summary: Kinase enrichment analysis (KEA) is a web-based tool with an underlying database providing users with the ability to link lists of mammalian proteins/genes with the kinases that phosphorylate them. The system draws from several available kinase–substrate databases to compute kinase enrichment probability based on the distribution of kinase–substrate proportions in the background kinase–substrate database compared with kinases found to be associated with an input list of genes/proteins. Availability: The KEA system is freely available at http://amp.pharm.mssm.edu/lib/kea.jsp Contact: avi.maayan@mssm.edu PMID:19176546

  20. Detection of uranium enrichment activities using environmental monitoring techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.L.; Carter, J.A.; Smith, D.H.; Walker, R.L.

    1993-03-30

    Uranium enrichment processes have the capability of producing weapons-grade material in the form of highly enriched uranium. Thus, detection of undeclared uranium enrichment activities is an international safeguards concern. The uranium separation technologies currently in use employ UF{sub 6} gas as a separation medium, and trace quantities of enriched uranium are inevitably released to the environment from these facilities. The isotopic content of uranium in the vegetation, soil, and water near the plant site will be altered by these releases and can provide a signature for detecting the presence of enriched uranium activities. This paper discusses environmental sampling and analytical procedures that have been used for the detection of uranium enrichment facilities and possible safeguards applications of these techniques.

  1. Overview of enrichment plant safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Swindle, D.W. Jr.; Wheeler, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship of enrichment plant safeguards to US nonproliferation objectives and to the operation and management of enrichment facilities is reviewed. During the review, the major components of both domestic and international safeguards systems for enrichment plants are discussed. In discussing domestic safeguards systems, examples of the technology currently in use to support nuclear materials accountability are described including the measurement methods, procedures and equipment used for weighing, sampling, chemical and isotopic analyses and nondestructive assay techniques. Also discussed is how the information obtained as part of the nuclear material accountancy task is useful to enrichment plant operations. International material accountancy verification and containment/surveillance concepts for enrichment plants are discussed, and the technologies presently being developed for international safeguards in enrichment plants are identified and the current development status is reported.

  2. Thermal breeder fuel enrichment zoning

    DOEpatents

    Capossela, Harry J.; Dwyer, Joseph R.; Luce, Robert G.; McCoy, Daniel F.; Merriman, Floyd C.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of a thermal breeder reactor having regions of higher than average moderator concentration are disclosed. The fuel modules of the reactor core contain at least two different types of fuel elements, a high enrichment fuel element and a low enrichment fuel element. The two types of fuel elements are arranged in the fuel module with the low enrichment fuel elements located between the high moderator regions and the high enrichment fuel elements. Preferably, shim rods made of a fertile material are provided in selective regions for controlling the reactivity of the reactor by movement of the shim rods into and out of the reactor core. The moderation of neutrons adjacent the high enrichment fuel elements is preferably minimized as by reducing the spacing of the high enrichment fuel elements and/or using a moderator having a reduced moderating effect.

  3. Chemical abundance study of two strongly s-process enriched post-AGB stars in the LMC: J051213.81-693537.1 and J051848.86-700246.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Smedt, K.; Van Winckel, H.; Kamath, D.; Wood, P. R.

    2015-11-01

    Context. This paper is part of a larger project in which we systematically study the chemical abundances of extra-galactic post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars. The aim of our programme is to derive chemical abundances of stars covering a large range in luminosity and metallicity with the ultimate goal of testing, constraining, and improving our knowledge of the poorly understood AGB phase, especially the third dredge-up mixing processes and associated s-process nucleosynthesis. Aims: Post-AGB photospheres are dominated by atomic lines and indicate the effects of internal chemical enrichment processes over the entire stellar lifetime. In this paper, we study two carefully selected post-AGB stars: J051213.81-693537.1 and J051848.86-700246.9 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Both objects show signs of s-process enhancement. The combination of favourable atmospheric parameters for detailed abundance studies and their known distances (and hence luminosities and initial masses) make these objects ideal probes of the AGB third dredge-up and s-process nucleosynthesis in that they provide observational constraints for theoretical AGB models. Methods: We use high-resolution optical UVES spectra to determine accurate stellar parameters and subsequently perform detailed elemental abundance studies of post-AGB stars. Additionally, we use available photometric data covering optical and IR bands to construct spectral energy distributions for reddening and luminosity determinations. We then estimate initial masses from theoretical post-AGB tracks. Results: We obtained accurate atmospheric parameters for J051213.81-693537.1 (Teff = 5875 ± 125 K, log g = 1.00 ± 0.25 dex, [Fe/H] = -0.56 ± 0.16 dex) and J051848.86-700246.9 (Teff = 6000 ± 125 K, log g = 0.50 ± 0.25 dex, [Fe/H] = -1.06 ± 0.17 dex). Both stars show extreme s-process enrichment associated with relatively low C/O ratios of 1.26 ± 0.40 and 1.29 ± 0.30 for J051213-693537.1 and J051848

  4. Profile of World Uranium Enrichment Programs-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Laughter, Mark D

    2009-04-01

    It is generally agreed that the most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is acquiring fissile material, either plutonium or highly enriched uranium (HEU). Plutonium is produced in a nuclear reactor, whereas HEU is produced using a uranium enrichment process. Enrichment is also an important step in the civil nuclear fuel cycle, in producing low enriched uranium (LEU) for use as fuel for nuclear reactors to generate electricity. However, the same equipment used to produce LEU for nuclear reactor fuel can also be used to produce HEU for weapons. Safeguards at an enrichment plant are the array of assurances and verification techniques that ensure uranium is not diverted or enriched to HEU. There are several techniques for enriching uranium. The two most prevalent are gaseous diffusion, which uses older technology and requires a lot of energy, and gas centrifuge separation, which uses more advanced technology and is more energy efficient. Gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) provide about 40% of current world enrichment capacity but are being phased out as newer gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) are constructed. Estimates of current and future enrichment capacity are always approximate, due to the constant upgrades, expansions, and shutdowns occurring at enrichment plants, largely determined by economic interests. Currently, the world enrichment capacity is approximately 56 million kilogram separative work units (SWU) per year, with 22.5 million in gaseous diffusion and more than 33 million in gas centrifuge plants. Another 34 million SWU/year of capacity is under construction or planned for the near future, almost entirely using gas centrifuge separation. Other less-efficient techniques have also been used in the past, including electromagnetic and aerodynamic separations, but these are considered obsolete, at least from a commercial perspective. Laser isotope separation shows promise as a possible enrichment technique of the future but has yet to be

  5. City model enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, Philip D.; Quinn, Jonathan A.; Jones, Christopher B.

    The combination of mobile communication technology with location and orientation aware digital cameras has introduced increasing interest in the exploitation of 3D city models for applications such as augmented reality and automated image captioning. The effectiveness of such applications is, at present, severely limited by the often poor quality of semantic annotation of the 3D models. In this paper, we show how freely available sources of georeferenced Web 2.0 information can be used for automated enrichment of 3D city models. Point referenced names of prominent buildings and landmarks mined from Wikipedia articles and from the OpenStreetMaps digital map and Geonames gazetteer have been matched to the 2D ground plan geometry of a 3D city model. In order to address the ambiguities that arise in the associations between these sources and the city model, we present procedures to merge potentially related buildings and implement fuzzy matching between reference points and building polygons. An experimental evaluation demonstrates the effectiveness of the presented methods.

  6. Work Enrichment for Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Charles; Untawale, Mercedes

    1983-01-01

    Explores important quality of work life strategy--job redesign--and discusses job enlargement and job enrichment. A case study of academic library personnel demonstrates how introduction of automated systems at University of California, Berkeley led to restructuring and enrichment of jobs. References and list of selected resources are appended.…

  7. Shenandoah elementary science enrichment program

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, P.

    1994-12-31

    Shenandoah Elementary School is a rural educational facility located in the farmlands of Indiana. The Elementary Science Enrichment Program was established to create a learning atmosphere that encourages scientific thinking and problem-solving. Its inception was founded on the belief that the concepts and process skills inherent in the teaching of science are critical to the early intellectual development of elementary students. The program was established through speaking engagements at the local and state level which resulted in the necessary support to insure its continuation. All students in grades K-5 meet for weekly science activities in our elementary lab to investigate many exciting curricular areas including planaria regeneration, star life cycles, and acid rain telecommunications. This allows for in-depth exploration of the science process skills which culminate in a variety of products including student portfolios, hands-on assessments, simulations and global data communications. These activities are extended through family science and the modeling of science instructional techniques for classroom educators.

  8. Enrichment of DNRA bacteria in a continuous culture.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Eveline M; van Dongen, Udo; Abbas, Ben; van Loosdrecht, Mark Cm

    2015-10-01

    Denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are competing microbial nitrate-reduction processes. The occurrence of DNRA has been shown to be effected qualitatively by various parameters in the environment. A more quantitative understanding can be obtained using enrichment cultures in a laboratory reactor, yet no successful DNRA enrichment culture has been described. We showed that a stable DNRA-dominated enrichment culture can be obtained in a chemostat system. The enrichment was based on the hypothesis that nitrate limitation is the dominant factor in selecting for DNRA. First, a conventional denitrifying culture was enriched from activated sludge, with acetate and nitrate as substrates. Next, the acetate concentration in the medium was increased to obtain nitrate-limiting conditions. As a result, conversions shifted from denitrification to DNRA. In this selection of a DNRA culture, two important factors were the nitrate limitation and a relatively low dilution rate (0.026 h(-1)). The culture was a highly enriched population of Deltaproteobacteria most closely related to Geobacter lovleyi, based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing (97% similarity). We established a stable and reproducible cultivation method for the enrichment of DNRA bacteria in a continuously operated reactor system. This enrichment method allows to further investigate the DNRA process and address the factors for competition between DNRA and denitrification, or other N-conversion pathways. PMID:25909972

  9. Hydrogen-enriched fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Roser, R.

    1998-08-01

    NRG Technologies, Inc. is attempting to develop hardware and infrastructure that will allow mixtures of hydrogen and conventional fuels to become viable alternatives to conventional fuels alone. This commercialization can be successful if the authors are able to achieve exhaust emission levels of less than 0.03 g/kw-hr NOx and CO; and 0.15 g/kw-hr NMHC at full engine power without the use of exhaust catalysts. The major barriers to achieving these goals are that the lean burn regimes required to meet exhaust emissions goals reduce engine output substantially and tend to exhibit higher-than-normal total hydrocarbon emissions. Also, hydrogen addition to conventional fuels increases fuel cost, and reduces both vehicle range and engine output power. Maintaining low emissions during transient driving cycles has not been demonstrated. A three year test plan has been developed to perform the investigations into the issues described above. During this initial year of funding research has progressed in the following areas: (a) a cost effective single-cylinder research platform was constructed; (b) exhaust gas speciation was performed to characterize the nature of hydrocarbon emissions from hydrogen-enriched natural gas fuels; (c) three H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} fuel compositions were analyzed using spark timing and equivalence ratio sweeping procedures and finally; (d) a full size pick-up truck platform was converted to run on HCNG fuels. The testing performed in year one of the three year plan represents a baseline from which to assess options for overcoming the stated barriers to success.

  10. Centrifuge enrichment plants. January 1970-October 1988 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-October 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the design, control, monitoring, and safety of centrifuge enrichment plants. Power supplies, enrichment plant safeguards, facility design, cascade heater test loops to monitor the enrichment process, inspection strategies, and the socio-economic effects of centrifuge enrichment plants are examined. Radioactive waste disposal problems are briefly considered. (Contains 151 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  11. Uranium enrichment export control guide: Gaseous diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This document was prepared to serve as a guide for export control officials in their interpretation, understanding, and implementation of export laws that relate to the Zangger International Trigger List for gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment process components, equipment, and materials. Particular emphasis is focused on items that are especially designed or prepared since export controls are required for these by States that are party to the International Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.

  12. High Accuracy U-235 Enrichment Verification Station for Low Enriched Uranium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lillard, C. R.; Hayward, J. P.; Williamson, M. R.

    2012-06-07

    The Y-12 National Security Complex is playing a role in the U.S. High Performance Research Reactor (USHPRR) Conversion program sponsored by the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Global Threat Reduction. The USHPRR program has a goal of converting remaining U.S. reactors that continue to use highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The USHPRR program is currently developing a LEU Uranium-Molybdenum (U-Mo) monolithic fuel for use in the U.S. high performance research reactors.Y-12 is supporting both the fuel development and fuel fabrication efforts by fabricating low enriched U-Mo foils from its own source material for irradiation experiments and for optimizing the fabrication process in support of scaling up the process to a commercial production scale. Once the new fuel is qualified, Y-12 will produce and ship U-Mo coupons with verified 19.75% +0.2% - 0.3% U-235 enrichment to be fabricated into fuel elements for the USHPRRs. Considering this small enrichment tolerance and the transition into HEU being set strictly at 20% U-235, a characterization system with a measurement uncertainty of less than or equal to 0.1% in enrichment is desired to support customer requirements and minimize production costs. Typical uncertainty for most available characterization systems today is approximately 1-5%; therefore, a specialized system must be developed which results in a reduced measurement uncertainty. A potential system using a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector has been procured, and tests have been conducted to verify its capabilities with regards to the requirements. Using four U-Mo enrichment standards fabricated with complete isotopic and chemical characterization, infinite thickness and peak-ratio enrichment measurement methods have been considered for use. As a result of inhomogeneity within the U-Mo samples, FRAM, an isotopic analysis software, has been selected for initial testing. A systematic approach

  13. PROPULSE 980: A Hydrogen Peroxide Enrichment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boxwell, Robert; Bromley, G.; Wanger, Robert; Pauls, Dan; Maynard, Bryon; McNeal, Curtis; Dumbacher, D. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The PROPULSE 980 unit is a transportable processing plant that enriches aerospace grade hydrogen peroxide from 90% to 98% final concentration. The unit was developed by Degussa-H Is, in cooperation with Orbital, NASA Marshall Space Center, and NASA Stennis Space Center. The system is a self-contained unit that houses all of the process equipment, instrumentation and controls to perform the concentration operation nearly autonomously. It is designed to produce non-bulk quantities of 98% hydrogen peroxide. The enrichment unit design also maintains system, personnel and environmental safety during all aspects of the enrichment process and final product storage. As part of the Propulse 980 checkout and final buyoff, it will be disassembled at the Degussa-H Is Corporation plant in Theodore, AL, transported to the Stennis Space Center, reassembled and subjected to a series of checkout tests to verify design objectives have been met. This paper will summarize the basic project elements and provide an update on the present status of the project.

  14. Oxygen-enriched air for MHD power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, R. W., Jr.; Cutting, J. C.; Burkhart, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Cryogenic air-separation process cycle variations and compression schemes are examined. They are designed to minimize net system power required to supply pressurized, oxygen-enriched air to the combustor of an MHD power plant with a coal input of 2000 MWt. Power requirements and capital costs for oxygen production and enriched air compression for enrichment levels from 13 to 50% are determined. The results are presented as curves from which total compression power requirements can be estimated for any desired enrichment level at any delivery pressure. It is found that oxygen enrichment and recuperative heating of MHD combustor air to 1400 F yields near-term power plant efficiencies in excess of 45%. A minimum power compression system requires 167 MW to supply 330 lb of oxygen per second and costs roughly 100 million dollars. Preliminary studies show MHD/steam power plants to be competitive with plants using high-temperature air preheaters burning gas.

  15. Nutraceutical enriched Indian traditional chikki.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Chetana; Pamisetty, Aruna; Reddy, Sunki Reddy Yella

    2015-08-01

    Chikki or peanut brittle, a traditional sweet snack was chosen as vehicle for enrichment with added natural nutraceuticals through herbs. The formulation and process for preparation of chikki with added herbs like ashwagandha (Withania somenifera), tulasi (Ocimumsanctum L.) and ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi S.) were standardized. The polyphenol content of chikki with added herbs ranged 0.29-0.46 g/100 g. Among the herbs, ajwain showed more potent antioxidant activity followed by tulasi, whereas ashwagandha and product prepared with it showed the least activity. Total carotenoid contents of chikki with added herbs ranged between 1.5 and 4.3 mg/100 g. Storage studies showed that chikki prepared with tulasi and ajwain were sensorily acceptable up to 90 days, while rancid notes were observed in control and chikki with added ashwagandha at the end of 30 days. Thus chikki with added herbs in addition to containing natural nutraceuticals like polyphenols and carotenoids had improved storage stability compared to control. PMID:26243935

  16. Centrifuge enrichment plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, control, monitoring, and safety of centrifuge enrichment plants. Power supplies, enrichment plant safeguards, facility design, cascade heater test loops to monitor the enrichment process, inspection strategies, and the socioeconomic effects of centrifuge enrichment plants are examined. Radioactive waste disposal problems are briefly considered. (Contains a minimum of 169 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. High-purity, isotopically enriched bulk silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Ager III, J.W.; Beeman, J.W.; Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.; Sharp, I.D.; Liao, C.; Yang, A.; Thewalt, M.L.W.; Riemann, H.

    2004-11-17

    The synthesis and characterization of dislocation-free, undoped, single crystals of Si enriched in all 3 stable isotopes is reported: {sup 28}Si (99.92%), {sup 29}Si (91.37%), and {sup 30}Si (89.8%). A silane-based process compatible with the relatively small amounts of isotopically enriched precursors that are practically available was used. The silane is decomposed to silicon on a graphite starter rod heated to 700-750 C in a recirculating flow reactor. A typical run produces 35 gm of polycrystalline Si at a growth rates of 5 {micro}m/min and conversion efficiency >95%. Single crystals are grown by the floating zone method and characterized by electrical and optical measurements. Concentrations of shallow dopants (P and B) are as low as mid-10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}. Concentrations of C and O lie below 10{sup 16} and 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}, respectively.

  18. Development Issues on Linked Data Weblog Enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Rube, Iván; Cornejo, Carlos M.; Dodero, Juan Manuel; García, Vicente M.

    In this paper, we describe the issues found during the development of LinkedBlog, a Linked Data extension for WordPress blogs. This extension enables to enrich text-based and video information contained in blog entries with RDF triples that are suitable to be stored, managed and exploited by other web-based applications. The issues have to do with the generality, usability, tracking, depth, security, trustiness and performance of the linked data enrichment process. The presented annotation approach aims at maintaining web-based contents independent from the underlying ontological model, by providing a loosely coupled RDFa-based approach in the linked data application. Finally, we detail how the performance of annotations can be improved through a semantic reasoner.

  19. Tank 41H bounding uranium enrichment. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cavin, W.S.

    1994-09-30

    The intent of this document is to combine data from salt samples and historical process information to bound the uranium (U-235) enrichment which could be expected in the upper portion of the salt in Tank 41H. This bounding enrichment will be used in another document to establish a nuclear safety basis for initial salt removal operations. Any number of mixing scenarios could have been examined for the components which fed the evaporator during the formation of the last five feet of salt. The scenario presented was designed to be conservative, while still incorporating process knowledge and available data where possible. In the scenario, the lowest enrichment seen in any feed material was for the L4 feed which was evaporated to form the top part of the salt in Tank 41H. The lowest enrichment of 17% is still higher than the 16% (95% confidence) maximum enrichment actually found at the salt surface (from sample results). This leads to the conclusion that the uranium enrichment of the material (L1) which was being fed to the evaporate when the last five feet began to form, was lower than 22%. The conservatism used in this analysis, combined with the available sample data are believed to provide a defensible basis for establishing an upper bounding enrichment of 22% for the top five feet of salt.

  20. Neuroprotective effects of cognitive enrichment.

    PubMed

    Milgram, Norton W; Siwak-Tapp, Christina T; Araujo, Joseph; Head, Elizabeth

    2006-08-01

    Cognitive enrichment early in life, as indicated by level of education, complexity of work environment or nature of leisure activities, appears to protect against the development of age-associated cognitive decline and also dementia. These effects are more robust for measures of crystallized intelligence than for measures of fluid intelligence and depend on the ability of the brain to compensate for pathological changes associated with aging. This compensatory ability is referred to as cognitive reserve. The cognitive reserve hypothesis suggests that cognitive enrichment promotes utilization of available functions. Alternatively, late life cognitive changes in cognition may be linked to a factor, such as cholinergic dysfunction, that is also present early in life and contributes to the reduced levels of early life cognitive enrichment. Beneficial effects of environmental enrichment early in life have also been observed in rodents and primates. Research with rodents indicates that these changes have structural correlates, which likely include increased synapses in specific brain regions. Dogs also show age-dependent cognitive decline, and both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies indicate that this decline can be attenuated by cognitive enrichment. Furthermore, cognitive enrichment has differential effects, improving some functions more than others. From a neurobiological perspective, behavioral enrichment in the dog may act to promote neurogenesis later in life. This can be distinguished from nutritional interventions with antioxidants, which appear to attenuate the development of neuropathology. These results suggest that a combination of behavioral and nutritional or pharmacological interventions may be optimal for reducing the rate of age-dependent cognitive decline. PMID:16949888

  1. A Robust Infrastructure Design for Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Unattended Online Enrichment Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Younkin, James R; Rowe, Nathan C; Garner, James R

    2012-01-01

    An online enrichment monitor (OLEM) is being developed to continuously measure the relative isotopic composition of UF6 in the unit header pipes of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP). From a safeguards perspective, OLEM will provide early detection of a facility being misused for production of highly enriched uranium. OLEM may also reduce the number of samples collected for destructive assay and if coupled with load cell monitoring can provide isotope mass balance verification. The OLEM design includes power and network connections for continuous monitoring of the UF6 enrichment and state of health of the instrument. Monitoring the enrichment on all header pipes at a typical GCEP could require OLEM detectors on each of the product, tails, and feed header pipes. If there are eight process units, up to 24 detectors may be required at a modern GCEP. Distant locations, harsh industrial environments, and safeguards continuity of knowledge requirements all place certain demands on the network robustness and power reliability. This paper describes the infrastructure and architecture of an OLEM system based on OLEM collection nodes on the unit header pipes and power and network support nodes for groupings of the collection nodes. A redundant, self-healing communications network, distributed backup power, and a secure communications methodology. Two candidate technologies being considered for secure communications are the Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control Unified Architecture cross-platform, service-oriented architecture model for process control communications and the emerging IAEA Real-time And INtegrated STream-Oriented Remote Monitoring (RAINSTORM) framework to provide the common secure communication infrastructure for remote, unattended monitoring systems. The proposed infrastructure design offers modular, commercial components, plug-and-play extensibility for GCEP deployments, and is intended to meet the guidelines and requirements for unattended

  2. Deuterium enrichment of interstellar dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ankan; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Majumdar, Liton; Sahu, Dipen

    2016-07-01

    High abundance of some abundant and simple interstellar species could be explained by considering the chemistry that occurs on interstellar dusts. Because of its simplicity, the rate equation method is widely used to study the surface chemistry. However, because the recombination efficiency for the formation of any surface species is highly dependent on various physical and chemical parameters, the Monte Carlo method is best suited for addressing the randomness of the processes. We carry out Monte-Carlo simulation to study deuterium enrichment of interstellar grain mantle under various physical conditions. Based on the physical properties, various types of clouds are considered. We find that in diffuse cloud regions, very strong radiation fields persists and hardly a few layers of surface species are formed. In translucent cloud regions with a moderate radiation field, significant number of layers would be produced and surface coverage is mainly dominated by photo-dissociation products such as, C, CH_3, CH_2D, OH and OD. In the intermediate dense cloud regions (having number density of total hydrogen nuclei in all forms ˜2 × 10^4 cm^{-3}), water and methanol along with their deuterated derivatives are efficiently formed. For much higher density regions (˜10^6 cm^{-3}), water and methanol productions are suppressed but surface coverage of CO, CO_2, O_2, O_3 are dramatically increased. We find a very high degree of fractionation of water and methanol. Observational results support a high fractionation of methanol but surprisingly water fractionation is found to be low. This is in contradiction with our model results indicating alternative routes for de-fractionation of water.

  3. Dissolution of oxygen-enriched Zircaloy-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskarsson, M.; Ahlberg, E.; Pettersson, K.

    2001-10-01

    When metal is removed from oxidised Zircaloy specimens in order to study the morphology of the oxide at the metal-oxide interface needle-like features are frequently observed. Since similar features are not observed in cross-section TEM examinations it has been questioned whether or not the needles are a result of the dissolution process. In particular it has been proposed that reprecipitation of oxide may take place when the metal is enriched with oxygen. In the present work oxygen-enriched Zircaloy has been dissolved and the resulting structures examined. The results indicate that the needles are in fact artefacts of the specimen preparation procedure. However, there are no significant differences between oxygen-enriched and normal Zircaloy below an oxide layer grown in steam at about 400 °C. In view of the differences between the needle structure observed after metal removal with bromine or by electropolishing and removal by HF-HNO 3 pickling solution it is speculated that the needles consist of a hydrous zirconium oxide which is unstable in the pickling solution.

  4. Chalcophile and platinum-group element distribution in the Ultramafic series of the Stillwater Complex, MT, USA—implications for processes enriching chromite layers in Os, Ir, Ru, and Rh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Sarah-Jane; Pagé, P.; Prichard, H. M.; Zientek, M. L.; Fisher, P. C.

    2016-01-01

    All of the rocks from the Ultramafic series of the Stillwater Complex are enriched in PGE relative to most mafic magmas. Furthermore, the chromite layers are particularly enriched in IPGE (Os, Ir, and Ru) and Rh. This enrichment appears to be a common characteristic of ultramafic rocks from many types of settings, layered intrusions, ophiolites, and zoned complexes. We have carried out a petrological, mineralogical, and geochemical study to assess how the enrichment occurred in the case of the Stillwater Complex and applied our results to the chromite layers of the Bushveld and Great Dyke complexes. The minerals that now host the PGE are laurite and fine-grained intergrowths of pentlandite, millerite, and chalcopyrite. The laurite occurs as inclusions in chromite, and mass balance calculations indicate that it hosts most of the Os, Ir, and Ru. The sulfide minerals occur both as inclusions in chromite and as interstitial grains. The sulfides host much of the Pd and Rh. The IPGE and Rh correlate with Cr but not with S or Se, indicating that these elements were not collected by a sulfide liquid. Palladium, Cu, and Se correlate with each other, but not with S. The low S/Se (<1500) of the whole rock and magnetite rims around the sulfides indicate some S has been lost from the rocks. We conclude that to account for all observations, the IPGE and Rh were originally collected by chromite, and subsequently, small quantities of base metal sulfide liquid was added to the chromite layers from the overlying magma. The IPGE and Rh in the chromite diffused from the chromite into the base metal sulfides and converted some of the sulfides to laurite.

  5. Tank 41H bounding uranium enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Cavin, W.S.

    1994-07-12

    The intent of this document is to combine data from salt samples and historical process information to bound the uranium (U-235) enrichment which could be expected in the upper portion of the salt in Tank 41H. This bounding enrichment will be used in another document to establish a nuclear safety basis for initial salt removal operations. During the processing period of interest (4/82-4/87), waste was fed to the 2H Evaporator from Tank 43H, and the evaporator bottoms were sent to Tank 41H where the bottoms were allowed to cool (resulting in the formation of salt deposits in the tank). As Tank 41H was filled with concentrate, the supernate left after salt formation was recycled back to Tank 43H and reprocessed through the evaporator along with any additional waste which had been added to Tank 43H. As Tank 41 H filled with salt, this recycle took place with increasing frequency because it took less time to fill the decreased volume with evaporator concentrate. By determining which of the sampled waste tanks were receiving fresh waste from the canyons at the time the tanks were sampled (from published transfer records), it was possible to deduce which samples were likely representative of fresh canyon waste. The processing that was being carried out in the Separation canyons when these tanks were sampled, should be comparable to the processing while Tank 41H was being filled.

  6. The design of an automated electrolytic enrichment apparatus for tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J.L.

    1994-12-01

    The Radiation Analytical Sciences Section at Laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory performs analysis of low-level tritium concentrations in various natural water samples from the Tri-Valley Area, DOE Nevada Test Site, Site 300 in Tracy, CA, and other various places around the world. Low levels of tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, which is pre-concentrated in the RAS laboratory using an electrolytic enrichment apparatus. Later these enriched waters are analyzed by liquid scintillation counting to determine the activity of tritium. The enrichment procedure and the subsequent purification process by vacuum distillation are currently undertaken manually, hence being highly labor-intensive. The whole process typically takes about 2 to 3 weeks to complete a batch of 30 samples, with a dedicated personnel operating the process. The goal is to automate the entire process, specifically having the operation PC-LabVIEW{trademark} controlled with real-time monitoring capability. My involvement was in the design and fabrication of a prototypical automated electrolytic enrichment cell. Work will be done on optimizing the electrolytic process by assessing the different parameters of the enrichment procedure. Hardware and software development have also been an integral component of this project.

  7. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as metal. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    The mission of this Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will be to blend surplus HEU metal and alloy with depleted uranium metal to produce an LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  8. SOLUBLE POISONS FOR SLIGHTLY ENRICHED URANIUM SYSTEMS

    DOEpatents

    Ketzlach, N.

    1957-05-01

    A study of B and Th poisoning of slightly enriched U/sup 235/ hetcrogeneous and homogencous systems has been made. This study indicates large processing plant capacity increases are possible by the incorporation of soluble neutron poisons. A tabulation of other readily available neutron poisons together with their poisoning effects has been made. The importance of being able to remove the ncutron poisons when desired as well as having them present under all conditions where nuclear safety is dependent upon them has also been presented. (auth)

  9. Day Care Center Enrichment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Dept. of Welfare, Charleston.

    This guide to a West Virginia Department of Welfare project for upgrading the quality of day care centers throughout the state presents samples of the forms used in the program, accompanied by a brief description of the program's format, requirements and procedures. The Day Care Center Enrichment Program provides a monetary incentive for…

  10. An Optically Stimulated Luminescence Uranium Enrichment Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Steven D.; Tanner, Jennifer E.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Conrady, Matthew M.; Benz, Jacob M.; Greenfield, Bryce A.

    2010-08-11

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has pioneered the use of Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) technology for use in personnel dosimetry and high dose radiation processing dosimetry. PNNL has developed and patented an alumina-based OSL dosimeter that is being used by the majority of medical X-ray and imaging technicians worldwide. PNNL has conceived of using OSL technology to passively measure the level of UF6 enrichment by attaching the prototype OSL monitor to pipes containing UF6 gas within an enrichment facility. The prototype OSL UF6 monitor utilizes a two-element approach with the first element open and unfiltered to measure both the low energy and high energy gammas from the UF6, while the second element utilizes a 3-mm thick tungsten filter to eliminate the low energy gammas and pass only the high energy gammas from the UF6. By placing a control monitor in the room away from the UF6 pipes and other ionizing radiation sources, the control readings can be subtracted from the UF6 pipe monitor measurements. The ratio of the shielded to the unshielded net measurements provides a means to estimate the level of uranium enrichment. PNNL has replaced the commercially available MicroStar alumina-based dosimeter elements with a composite of polyethylene plastic, high-Z glass powder, and BaFBr:Eu OSL phosphor powder at various concentrations. The high-Z glass was added in an attempt to raise the average “Z” of the composite dosimeter and increase the response. Additionally, since BaFBr:Eu OSL phosphor is optimally excited and emits light at different wavelengths compared to alumina, the commercially available MicroStar reader was modified for reading BaFBr:Eu in a parallel effort to increase reader sensitivity. PNNL will present the design and performance of our novel OSL uranium enrichment monitor based on a combination of laboratory and UF6 test loop measurements. PNNL will also report on the optimization effort to achieve the highest possible

  11. Conversion and Blending Facility Highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranium hexafluoride. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    This report describes the Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) which will have two missions: (1) convert surplus HEU materials to pure HEU UF{sub 6} and a (2) blend the pure HEU UF{sub 6} with diluent UF{sub 6} to produce LWR grade LEU-UF{sub 6}. The primary emphasis of this blending be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The chemical and isotopic concentrations of the blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. The blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry.

  12. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as oxide. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials into pure HEU oxide and (2) blend the pure HEU oxide with depleted and natural uranium oxide to produce an LWR grade LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  13. Disposition of excess highly enriched uranium status and update

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.K. III; Arbital, J.G.

    1997-09-01

    This paper presents the status of the US DOE program charged with the disposition of excess highly enriched uranium (HEU). Approximately 174 metric tonnes of HEU, with varying assays above 20 percent, has been declared excess from US nuclear weapons. A progress report on the identification and characterization of specific batches of excess HEU is provided, and plans for processing it into commercial nuclear fuel or low-level radioactive waste are described. The resultant quantities of low enriched fuel material expected from processing are given, as well as the estimated schedule for introducing the material into the commercial reactor fuel market. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Student Science Enrichment Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, S.S.

    1990-12-31

    Funds are requested for the science enrichment training program (emphasis on chemistry and computer science), which will be held at Claflin College during the 1990 and 1991 summers, concomitant with summer school. The thirty participants will include high school students and some college freshmen; the students will come from rural South Carolina schools with limited science and computer facilities. Focus will be on high ability minority students.

  15. Nitrogen enrichment regulates calcium sources in forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hynicka, Justin D.; Pett-Ridge, Julie C; Perakis, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a key nutrient that shapes cycles of other essential elements in forests, including calcium (Ca). When N availability exceeds ecosystem demands, excess N can stimulate Ca leaching and deplete Ca from soils. Over the long term, these processes may alter the proportion of available Ca that is derived from atmospheric deposition vs. bedrock weathering, which has fundamental consequences for ecosystem properties and nutrient supply. We evaluated how landscape variation in soil N, reflecting long-term legacies of biological N fixation, influenced plant and soil Ca availability and ecosystem Ca sources across 22 temperate forests in Oregon. We also examined interactions between soil N and bedrock Ca using soil N gradients on contrasting basaltic vs. sedimentary bedrock that differed 17-fold in underlying Ca content. We found that low-N forests on Ca-rich basaltic bedrock relied strongly on Ca from weathering, but that soil N enrichment depleted readily weatherable mineral Ca and shifted forest reliance toward atmospheric Ca. Forests on Ca-poor sedimentary bedrock relied more consistently on atmospheric Ca across all levels of soil N enrichment. The broad importance of atmospheric Ca was unexpected given active regional uplift and erosion that are thought to rejuvenate weathering supply of soil minerals. Despite different Ca sources to forests on basaltic vs. sedimentary bedrock, we observed consistent declines in plant and soil Ca availability with increasing N, regardless of the Ca content of underlying bedrock. Thus, traditional measures of Ca availability in foliage and soil exchangeable pools may poorly reflect long-term Ca sources that sustain soil fertility. We conclude that long-term soil N enrichment can deplete available Ca and cause forests to rely increasingly on Ca from atmospheric deposition, which may limit ecosystem Ca supply in an increasingly N-rich world.

  16. Measurements of Low-Enriched Uranium Holdup.

    SciTech Connect

    Belian, A. P.; Reilly, T. D.; Russo, P. A.; Tobin, S. J.

    2005-01-01

    A recent effort determined uranium holdup at a large fuel fabrication facility abroad where low enriched ({approx} 3%) uranium (LEU) oxide feeds the pellet manufacturing process. Measurements taken with both high- and low-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry systems include extensive data for the ventilation and vacuum systems. Equipment dimensions and the corresponding holdup deposit masses are large for LEU. Because deposits are infinitely thick to the 186 keV gamma ray in many locations in an LEU environment, measurements of both the 186 and 1001 keV gamma-rays were required, and self-attenuation was significant at 1001 keV in many cases. These wide-dynamic-range measruements used short count times, portable scintillator detectors, and portable MCAs. Because equipment is elevated above floor levels, most measurements were made with detectors mounted on extended telescoping poles. One of the main goals of this effort was to demonstrate and validate methods for measurement and quantitative analysis of LEU holdup using low-resolution detectors and the Generalized Geometry Holdup (GGH) techniques. The current GGH approach is applied elsewhere for holdup measurements of plutonium and high-enriched uranium. The recent experience is directly applicable to holdup measruements at LEU facilities such as the Paducah and Portmouth gaseous diffusion enrichment plants and elsewhere, including LEU sites where D and D is active. This report discusses the measurement methodology, calibration of the measurement equipment, measurement control, analysis of the data, and the global and local assay results including random and systematic uncertainties. It includes field-validation exercises (multiple calibrated systems that perform measruements on the same extended equipment) as well as quantitative validation results obtained on reference materials assembled to emulate the deposits in an extended vacuum line that was also measured by these techniques. The paper examines the differences

  17. Job Enrichment and the Mentally Retarded Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jerry L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The effect of job enrichment on the production rate of 14 mentally retarded adult workers was evaluated. Job enrichment led to increases in standard rates of production for high IQ Ss and lower rates for low IQ Ss. (Author)

  18. Deuterium Enrichment of PAHs by VUV Irradiation of Interstellar Ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Gillette, J. Seb; Zare, Richard N.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory results demonstrate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) rapidly exchange their hydrogen atoms with those of nearby molecules when they are frozen into low-temperature ices and exposed to vacuum ultraviolet radiation. As a result, PAHs quickly become deuterium-enriched when VUV irradiated in D-containing ices. This mechanism has important consequences for several astrophysical issues owing to the ubiquitous nature of PAHs in the interstellar medium. For example, this process may explain the deuterium enrichments found in PAHs in meteorites and interplanetary dust particles. These results also provide general predictions about the molecular siting of the deuterium on aromatic materials in meteorites if this process produced a significant fraction of their D-enrichment.

  19. Enrichment of phosphorylated peptides and proteins by selective precipitation methods.

    PubMed

    Rainer, Matthias; Bonn, Günther K

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most prominent post-translational modifications involved in the regulation of cellular processes. Fundamental understanding of biological processes requires appropriate bioanalytical methods for selectively enriching phosphorylated peptides and proteins. Most of the commonly applied enrichment approaches include chromatographic materials including Fe(3+)-immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography or metal oxides. In the last years, the introduction of several non-chromatographic isolation technologies has increasingly attracted the interest of many scientists. Such approaches are based on the selective precipitation of phosphorylated peptides and proteins by applying various metal cations. The excellent performance of precipitation-based enrichment methods can be explained by the absence of any stationary phase, resin or sorbent, which usually leads to unspecific binding. This review provides an overview of recently published methods for the selective precipitation of phosphorylated peptides and proteins. PMID:25587840

  20. Production of Mo-99 using low-enriched uranium silicide

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, J. C.; Srinivasan, B.; Vicek, M.; Vandegrift, G. F.

    1994-09-01

    Over the last several years, uranium silicide fuels have been under development as low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets for Mo-99. The use of LEU silicide is aimed at replacing the UAl{sub x} alloy in the highly-enriched uranium dissolution process. A process to recover Mo-99 from low-enriched uranium silicide is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The uranium silicide is dissolved in alkaline hydrogen peroxide. Experiments performed to determine the optimum dissolution procedure are discussed, and the results of dissolving a portion of a high-burnup (>40%) U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} miniplate are presented. Future work related to Mo-99 separation and waste disposal are also discussed.

  1. The difficult mountain: enriched composition in adjective–noun phrases

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Martin J.; McElree, Brian

    2012-01-01

    When readers need to go beyond the straightforward compositional meaning of a sentence (i.e., when enriched composition is required), costly additional processing is the norm. However, this conclusion is based entirely on research that has looked at enriched composition between two phrases or within the verb phrase (e.g., the verb and its complement in … started the book …) where there is a discrepancy between the semantic expectations of the verb and the semantics of the noun. We carried out an eye-tracking experiment investigating enriched composition within a single noun phrase, as in the difficult mountain. As compared with adjective–noun phrases that allow a straightforward compositional interpretation (the difficult exercise), the coerced phrases were more difficult to process. These results indicate that coercion effects can be found in the absence of a typing violation and within a single noun phrase. PMID:21826403

  2. Perspectives on Job Enrichment and Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suojanen, Waino W., Ed.; And Others

    The book of reading focuses on the state of job enrichment in the United States today, as well as some of its international implications. Featured in the book are 20 selected working papers analyzing the development and use of job enrichment in various types of organizations, union response to job enrichment, and its outlook for the future. The…

  3. Enriching Music and Language Arts Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flohr, John W.

    2006-01-01

    The article focuses on enriching music and language arts experiences of students. Music can enrich literature and language arts, poetry, theater arts, transitions, science, and math, as well as help meet special learner needs. A well-understood example of enrichment is the alphabet song. A music or classroom teacher using the alphabet song helps…

  4. Enabling Enrichment Analysis with the Human Disease Ontology

    PubMed Central

    LePendu, Paea; Musen, Mark A.; Shah, Nigam H.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced statistical methods used to analyze high-throughput data such as gene-expression assays result in long lists of “significant genes.” One way to gain insight into the significance of altered expression levels is to determine whether Gene Ontology (GO) terms associated with a particular biological process, molecular function, or cellular component are over- or under-represented in the set of genes deemed significant. This process, referred to as enrichment analysis, profiles a gene-set, and is widely used to make sense of the results of high-throughput experiments. Our goal is to develop and apply general enrichment analysis methods to profile other sets of interest, such as patient cohorts from the electronic medical record, using a variety of ontologies including SNOMED CT, MedDRA, RxNorm, and others. Although it is possible to perform enrichment analysis using ontologies other than the GO, a key pre-requisite is the availability of a background set of annotations to enable the enrichment calculation. In the case of the GO, this background set is provided by the Gene Ontology Annotations. In the current work, we describe: (i) a general method that uses hand-curated GO annotations as a starting point for creating background datasets for enrichment analysis using other ontologies; and (ii) a gene–disease background annotation set—that enables disease-based enrichment—to demonstrate feasibility of our method. PMID:21550421

  5. Boron Enrichment in Martian Clay

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  6. Boron enrichment in martian clay.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, James D; Hallis, Lydia J; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  7. Environmental enrichment for primates in laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan-Smith, H. M.

    2010-06-01

    Environmental enrichment is a critical component of Refinement, one of the 3Rs underlying humane experimentation on animals. In this paper I discuss why primates housed in laboratories, which often have constraints of space and study protocols, are a special case for enrichment. I outline a framework for categorising the different types of enrichment, using the marmoset as a case study, and summarise the methods used to determine what animals want/prefer. I briefly review the arguments that enrichment does not negatively affect experimental outcomes. Finally I focus on complexity and novelty, choice and control, the underlying features of enrichment that makes it successful, and how combined with a thorough understanding of natural history we can put effective enrichment into practice in laboratories. Throughout the paper I emphasise the need to evaluate enrichment to ensure it is having the desired effect.

  8. Implementing Enrichment Clusters in Elementary Schools: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiddyment, Gail E.

    2014-01-01

    Enrichment clusters offer a way for schools to encourage a high level of learning as students and adults work together to develop a product, service, or performance by applying advanced knowledge and authentic processes to real-world problems. This study utilized a qualitative research design to examine the perceptions and experiences of two…

  9. An Enriched Writers' Workshop for Beginning Writers with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturm, Janet M.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes comprehensive, high-quality writing instruction for students with developmental disabilities. The Enriched Writers' Workshop combines differentiated writing process instruction with social communication instruction and cognitive strategy instruction for students with complex writing needs across a wide range of ages. It…

  10. Student Views on Learning Environments Enriched by Video Clips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosterelioglu, Ilker

    2016-01-01

    This study intended to identify student views regarding the enrichment of instructional process via video clips based on the goals of the class. The study was conducted in Educational Psychology classes at Amasya University Faculty of Education during the 2012-2013 academic year. The study was implemented on students in the Classroom Teaching and…

  11. Phytoalexin-enriched functional foods.

    PubMed

    Boue, Stephen M; Cleveland, Thomas E; Carter-Wientjes, Carol; Shih, Betty Y; Bhatnagar, Deepak; McLachlan, John M; Burow, Matthew E

    2009-04-01

    Functional foods have been a developing area of food science research for the past decade. Many foods are derived from plants that naturally contain compounds beneficial to human health and can often prevent certain diseases. Plants containing phytochemicals with potent anticancer and antioxidant activities have spurred development of many new functional foods. This has led to the creation of functional foods to target health problems such as obesity and inflammation. More recent research into the use of plant phytoalexins as nutritional components has opened up a new area of food science. Phytoalexins are produced by plants in response to stress, fungal attack, or elicitor treatment and are often antifungal or antibacterial compounds. Although phytoalexins have been investigated for their possible role in plant defense, until recently they have gone unexplored as nutritional components in human foods. These underutilized plant compounds may possess key beneficial properties including antioxidant activity, anti-inflammation activity, cholesterol-lowering ability, and even anticancer activity. For these reasons, phytoalexin-enriched foods would be classified as functional foods. These phytoalexin-enriched functional foods would benefit the consumer by providing "health-enhanced" food choices and would also benefit many underutilized crops that may produce phytoalexins that may not have been considered to be beneficial health-promoting foods. PMID:19334749

  12. Assay of Low-Enriched Uranium using Spontaneous Fission Neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Zucker, M.S.; Fainberg, A.

    1980-01-01

    Low-enriched uranium oxide in bulk containers can be assayed for safeguards purposes, using the neutrons from spontaneous fission of 238U as a signature, to complement enrichment and mass measurement. The penetrability of the fast fission neutrons allows the inner portion of bulk samples to register. The measurement may also be useful for measuring moisture content, of significance in process control. The apparatus used can be the same as for neutron correlation counting for Pu assay. The neutron multiplication observed in 238U is of intrinsic interest.

  13. Gadolinium enrichment technology at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynam, Christopher A.; Comaskey, Brian J.; Conway, John; Eggert, Jon; Glaser, Joseph; Ng, Edmund W.; Paisner, Jeffrey A.; Solarz, Richard W.; Worden, Earl F.

    1993-05-01

    A method based on polarization selectivity and three step laser photoionization is presented for separation of the odd isotopes of gadolinium. Measurements of the spectroscopic parameters needed to quantify the excitation pathway are discussed. Model results are presented for the efficiency of photoionization. The vapor properties of electron beam vaporized gadolinium are presented which show dramatic cooling during the expansion of the hot dense vapor into a vacuum. This results in a significant increase in the efficiency of conversion of natural feed into enriched product in the AVLIS process. Production of enriched gadolinium for use in commercial power reactors appears to be economically viable using technology in use at LLNL.

  14. The paradox of enrichment in phytoplankton by induced competitive interactions.

    PubMed

    Tubay, Jerrold M; Ito, Hiromu; Uehara, Takashi; Kakishima, Satoshi; Morita, Satoru; Togashi, Tatsuya; Tainaka, Kei-ichi; Niraula, Mohan P; Casareto, Beatriz E; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Yoshimura, Jin

    2013-01-01

    The biodiversity loss of phytoplankton with eutrophication has been reported in many aquatic ecosystems, e.g., water pollution and red tides. This phenomenon seems similar, but different from the paradox of enrichment via trophic interactions, e.g., predator-prey systems. We here propose the paradox of enrichment by induced competitive interactions using multiple contact process (a lattice Lotka-Volterra competition model). Simulation results demonstrate how eutrophication invokes more competitions in a competitive ecosystem resulting in the loss of phytoplankton diversity in ecological time. The paradox is enhanced under local interactions, indicating that the limited dispersal of phytoplankton reduces interspecific competition greatly. Thus, the paradox of enrichment appears when eutrophication destroys an ecosystem either by elevated interspecific competition within a trophic level and/or destabilization by trophic interactions. Unless eutrophication due to human activities is ceased, the world's aquatic ecosystems will be at risk. PMID:24089056

  15. Increasing the performance of tritium analysis by electrolytic enrichment.

    PubMed

    Groning, M; Auer, R; Brummer, D; Jaklitsch, M; Sambandam, C; Tanweer, A; Tatzber, H

    2009-06-01

    Several improvements are described for the existing tritium enrichment system at the Isotope Hydrology Laboratory of the International Atomic Energy Agency for processing natural water samples. The improvements include a simple method for pretreatment of electrolytic cells to ensure a high tritium separation factor, an improved design of the exhaust system for explosive gases, and a vacuum distillation line for faster initial preparation of water samples for electrolytic enrichment and for tritium analysis. Achievements included the reduction of variation of individual enrichment parameters of all cells to less than 1% and an improvement of 50% of the stability of the background mean. It resulted in an improved detection limit of less than 0.4 TU (at 2s), important for application of tritium measurements in the future at low concentration levels, and resulted in measurement precisions of+/-0.2 TU and+/-0.15 TU for liquid scintillation counting and for gas proportional counting, respectively. PMID:20183225

  16. Quantitative Comparison of Large-Scale DNA Enrichment Sequencing Data.

    PubMed

    Lienhard, Matthias; Chavez, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    DNA enrichment followed by sequencing (DNA-IP seq) is a versatile tool in molecular biology with a wide variety of applications. Computational analysis of differential DNA enrichment between conditions is important for identifying epigenetic alterations in disease compared to healthy controls and for revealing dynamic epigenetic modifications throughout normal and distorted cell differentiation and development. We present a protocol for genome-wide comparative analysis of DNA-IP sequencing data to identify statistically significant differential sequencing coverage between two conditions by considering variation across replicates. The protocol provides a detailed description for the comparative analysis of DNA-IP sequencing data including basic data processing, quality controls, and identification of differential enrichment using the Bioconductor package "MEDIPS". PMID:27008016

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of carboxymethyl chitosan for glycopeptide enrichment.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Edward D; Perreault, Hélène

    2015-09-01

    Glycans are known to be involved in a variety of biological processes throughout human physiology. Mass spectrometry has demonstrated itself as powerful analytical tool for quantitative and structural characterization of glycans. Studying these molecules at the glycopeptide level however, offers distinct advantages, namely the ability to characterize both the glycan and peptide fragments simultaneously, and moreover the ability to assign site specific heterogeneity. In light of this, peptides often dominate the spectrum and hinder the ionization efficiency of glycopeptides. For this reason, enrichment protocols prior to downstream MS analysis need to be developed. Here, we discuss the synthesis and use of carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCH) to enrich glycopeptides from a 12 protein mixture for MS analysis. This protocol was compared to a commercially available glycopeptide enrichment kit offered by EMD Millipore through the use of tandem mass tags (TMT) for relative quantification. Using this approach, we identified 98 unique N-linked glycopeptides and observed, that CMCH was able to enrich more sialylation than the commercial kit. In addition, we observed a trend based on TMT reporter ratios with respect to increasing sialylation. This corroborated that this stationary phase was exhibiting a mixed-mode enrichment through both hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and weak anion exchange (WAX) principles. PMID:26388377

  18. Survival of indicator organisms during enrichment on tetrachloroethene.

    PubMed

    Skramstad, J D; Hurst, C J; Novak, P J

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory study was performed as the basis for a full-scale bioaugmentation project at a site contaminated with chlorinated ethenes. The objectives of this study were to 1) develop a protocol to enrich for a tetrachloroethene (PCE)-dechlorinating culture from waste activated sludge and anaerobic digester biosolids and 2) monitor the survival of fecal coliform bacteria and bacteriophage, which model enteric viruses, during the enrichment process. A culture was enriched in 8 days with the ability to degrade 6-microM PCE to cis-dichloroethene. Using the enrichment protocol in two identical experiments, significant inactivation of fecal coliform bacteria (2 log) and somatic coliphage (0.33 log) was observed in one of the experiments; no inactivation occurred in the second experiment. The number of F-specific coliphage decreased in both experiments (0.87 and 1.26 log inactivation). Despite the decrease in some of the coliform and bacteriophage numbers, the quantity of organisms and phage particles present after enrichment was still high (approximately 7.5 x 10(5) most probable number/L, 6.9 x 10(6) plaque-forming units (PFU)/L, and 3.3 x 10(5) PFU/L, for fecal coliform bacteria, somatic coliphage, and F-specific coliphage, respectively). This may be cause for concern, depending on the current and future groundwater use at or near a site undergoing bioaugmentation with cultures derived from waste activated sludge and anaerobic digester biosolids. PMID:12934830

  19. Involvement of glycosphingolipid-enriched lipid rafts in inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Iwabuchi, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are membrane components consisting of hydrophobic ceramide and hydrophilic sugar moieties. GSLs cluster with cholesterol in cell membranes to form GSL-enriched lipid rafts. Biochemical analyses have demonstrated that GSL-enriched lipid rafts contain several kinds of transducer molecules, including Src family kinases. Among the GSLs, lactosylceramide (LacCer, CDw17) can bind to various microorganisms, is highly expressed on the plasma membranes of human phagocytes, and forms lipid rafts containing the Src family tyrosine kinase Lyn. LacCer-enriched lipid rafts mediate immunological and inflammatory reactions, including superoxide generation, chemotaxis, and non-opsonic phagocytosis. Therefore, LacCer-enriched membrane microdomains are thought to function as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) expressed on microorganisms. LacCer also serves as a signal transduction molecule for functions mediated by CD11b/CD18-integrin (αM/β2-integrin, CR3, Mac-1), as well as being associated with several key cellular processes. LacCer recruits PCKα/ε and phospholipase A2 to stimulate PECAM-1 expression in human monocytes and their adhesion to endothelial cells, as well as regulating β1-integrin clustering and endocytosis on cell surfaces. This review describes the organizational and inflammation-related functions of LacCer-enriched lipid rafts. PMID:25553454

  20. Defining the needs for gas centrifuge enrichment plants advanced safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian David; Erpenbeck, Heather H; Miller, Karen A; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Ianakiev, Kiril; Marlow, Johnna B

    2010-04-05

    Current safeguards approaches used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to verify declared low-enriched (LEU) production, detect undeclared LEU production and detect highly enriched uranium (HEU) production with adequate detection probability using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and {sup 235}U enrichment of declared UF{sub 6} containers used in the process of enrichment at GCEPs. In verifying declared LEU production, the inspectors also take samples for off-site destructive assay (DA) which provide accurate data, with 0.1% to 0.5% measurement uncertainty, on the enrichment of the UF{sub 6} feed, tails, and product. However, taking samples of UF{sub 6} for off-site analysis is a much more labor and resource intensive exercise for the operator and inspector. Furthermore, the operator must ship the samples off-site to the IAEA laboratory which delays the timeliness of results and interruptions to the continuity of knowledge (CofK) of the samples during their storage and transit. This paper contains an analysis of possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems such as process monitoring and possible on-site analysis of DA samples that could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector's measurements and provide more effective and efficient IAEA GCEPs safeguards. We also introduce examples advanced safeguards systems that could be assembled for unattended operation.

  1. First measurements of charge carrier density and mobility of in-situ enriched 28Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanayaka, A. N.; Dwyer, K. J.; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Stewart, M. D., Jr.; Pomeroy, J. M.

    Magnetotransport in top gated Hall bar devices is investigated to characterize the electrical properties of in-situ enriched 28Si. Isotopically enriched 28Si is an ideal candidate for quantum information processing devices as the elimination of unpaired nuclear spins improves the fidelity of the quantum information. Using mass filtered ion beam deposition we, in-situ, enrich and deposit epitaxial 28Si, achieving several orders of magnitude better enrichment compared to other techniques. In order to explore the electrical properties and optimize the growth conditions of in-situ enriched 28Si we perform magnetotransport measurements on top gated Hall bar devices at temperatures ranging from 300 K to cryogenic temperatures and at moderate magnetic fields. Here, we report on the charge carrier density and mobility extracted from such experiments, and will be compared among different growth conditions of in-situ enriched 28Si.

  2. Bacterial community succession during the enrichment of chemolithoautotrophic arsenite oxidizing bacteria at high arsenic concentrations.

    PubMed

    Le Nguyen, Ai; Sato, Akiko; Inoue, Daisuke; Sei, Kazunari; Soda, Satoshi; Ike, Michihiko

    2012-01-01

    To generate cost-effective technologies for the removal of arsenic from water, we developed an enrichment culture of chemolithoautotrophic arsenite oxidizing bacteria (CAOs) that could effectively oxidize widely ranging concentrations of As(III) to As(V). In addition, we attempted to elucidate the enrichment process and characterize the microbial composition of the enrichment culture. A CAOs enrichment culture capable of stably oxidizing As(lII) to As(V) was successfully constructed through repeated batch cultivation for more than 700 days, during which time the initial As(III) concentrations were increased in a stepwise manner from 1 to 10-12 mmol/L. As(III) oxidation activity of the enrichment culture gradually improved, and 10-12 mmol/L As(III) was almost completely oxidized within four days. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that the dominant bacteria in the enrichment culture varied drastically during the enrichment process depending on the As(III) concentration. Isolation and characterization of bacteria in the enrichment culture revealed that the presence of multiple CAOs with various As(III) oxidation abilities enabled the culture to adapt to a wide range of As(III) concentrations. The CAOs enrichment culture constructed here may be useful for pretreatment of water from which arsenic is being removed. PMID:23534210

  3. Unattended Environmental Sampling and Laser-based Enrichment Assay for Detection of Undeclared HEU Production in Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

    2010-04-15

    Nuclear power is enjoying rapid growth as government energy policies and public demand shift toward carbon neutral energy production. Accompanying the growth in nuclear power is the requirement for increased nuclear fuel production, including a significant expansion in uranium enrichment capacity. Essential to the success of the nuclear energy renaissance is the development and implementation of sustainable, proliferation-resistant nuclear power generation. Unauthorized production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) remains the primary proliferation concern for modern gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). While to date there has been no indication of declared, safeguarded GCEPs producing HEU, the massive separative work unit (SWU) processing power of modern GCEPs presents a significant latent risk of nuclear breakout and suggests the need for more timely detection of potential facility misuse. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing an unattended safeguards instrument, combining continuous aerosol particulate collection with uranium isotope assay, to provide timely HEU detection within a GCEP. This approach is based on laser vaporization of aerosol particulates, followed by laser spectroscopy to characterize the uranium enrichment level. We demonstrate enrichment assay, with relative isotope abundance uncertainty <5%, on individual micron-sized particles that are trace components within a mixture ‘background’ particles

  4. IPNS enriched uranium booster target

    SciTech Connect

    Schulke, A.W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Since startup in 1981, IPNS has operated on a fully depleted /sup 238/U target. With the booster as in the present system, high energy protons accelerated to 450 MeV by the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron are directed at the target and by mechanisms of spallation and fission of the uranium, produce fast neutrons. The neutrons from the target pass into adjacent moderator where they slow down to energies useful for spectroscopy. The target cooling systems and monitoring systems have operated very reliably and safely during this period. To provide higher neutron intensity, we have developed plans for an enriched uranium (booster) target. HETC-VIM calculations indicate that the target will produce approx.90 kW of heat, with a nominal x5 gain (k/sub eff/ = 0.80). The neutron beam intensity gain will be a factor of approx.3. Thermal-hydraulic and heat transport calculations indicate that approx.1/2 in. thick /sup 235/U discs are subject to about the same temperatures as the present /sup 238/U 1 in. thick discs. The coolant will be light demineralized water (H/sub 2/O) and the coolant flow rate must be doubled. The broadening of the fast neutron pulse width should not seriously affect the neutron scattering experiments. Delayed neutrons will appear at a level about 3% of the total (currently approx.0.5%). This may affect backgrounds in some experiments, so that we are assessing measures to control and correct for this (e.g., beam tube choppers). Safety analyses and neutronic calculations are nearing completion. Construction of the /sup 235/U discs at the ORNL Y-12 facility is scheduled to begin late 1985. The completion of the booster target and operation are scheduled for late 1986. No enriched uranium target assembly operating at the projected power level now exists in the world. This effort thus represents an important technological experiment as well as being a ''flux enhancer''.

  5. Protein Chips for Detection of Salmonella spp. from Enrichment Culture

    PubMed Central

    Poltronieri, Palmiro; Cimaglia, Fabio; De Lorenzis, Enrico; Chiesa, Maurizio; Mezzolla, Valeria; Reca, Ida Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Food pathogens are the cause of foodborne epidemics, therefore there is a need to detect the pathogens in food productions rapidly. A pre-enrichment culture followed by selective agar plating are standard detection methods. Molecular methods such as qPCR have provided a first rapid protocol for detection of pathogens within 24 h of enrichment culture. Biosensors also may provide a rapid tool to individuate a source of Salmonella contamination at early times of pre-enrichment culture. Forty mL of Salmonella spp. enrichment culture were processed by immunoseparation using the Pathatrix, as in AFNOR validated qPCR protocols. The Salmonella biosensor combined with immunoseparation showed a limit of detection of 100 bacteria/40 mL, with a 400 fold increase to previous results. qPCR analysis requires processing of bead-bound bacteria with lysis buffer and DNA clean up, with a limit of detection of 2 cfu/50 μL. Finally, a protein chip was developed and tested in screening and identification of 5 common pathogen species, Salmonella spp., E. coli, S. aureus, Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. The protein chip, with high specificity in species identification, is proposed to be integrated into a Lab-on-Chip system, for rapid and reproducible screening of Salmonella spp. and other pathogen species contaminating food productions. PMID:27110786

  6. Protein Chips for Detection of Salmonella spp. from Enrichment Culture.

    PubMed

    Poltronieri, Palmiro; Cimaglia, Fabio; De Lorenzis, Enrico; Chiesa, Maurizio; Mezzolla, Valeria; Reca, Ida Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Food pathogens are the cause of foodborne epidemics, therefore there is a need to detect the pathogens in food productions rapidly. A pre-enrichment culture followed by selective agar plating are standard detection methods. Molecular methods such as qPCR have provided a first rapid protocol for detection of pathogens within 24 h of enrichment culture. Biosensors also may provide a rapid tool to individuate a source of Salmonella contamination at early times of pre-enrichment culture. Forty mL of Salmonella spp. enrichment culture were processed by immunoseparation using the Pathatrix, as in AFNOR validated qPCR protocols. The Salmonella biosensor combined with immunoseparation showed a limit of detection of 100 bacteria/40 mL, with a 400 fold increase to previous results. qPCR analysis requires processing of bead-bound bacteria with lysis buffer and DNA clean up, with a limit of detection of 2 cfu/50 μL. Finally, a protein chip was developed and tested in screening and identification of 5 common pathogen species, Salmonella spp., E. coli, S. aureus, Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. The protein chip, with high specificity in species identification, is proposed to be integrated into a Lab-on-Chip system, for rapid and reproducible screening of Salmonella spp. and other pathogen species contaminating food productions. PMID:27110786

  7. Mortality among uranium enrichment workers

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.P.; Bloom, T.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted on workers at the Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment facility in Pike County, Ohio, in response to a request from the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Local 3-689 for information on long-term health effects. Primary hazards included inhalation exposure to uranyl fluoride containing uranium-235 and uranium-234, technetium-99 compounds, and hydrogen-fluoride. Uranium-238 presented a nephrotoxic hazard. Statistically significant mortality deficits based on U.S. death rates were found for all causes, accidents, violence, and diseases of nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems. Standardized mortality rates were 85 and 54 for all malignant neoplasms and for other genitourinary diseases, respectively. Deaths from stomach cancer and lymphatic/hematopoietic cancers were insignificantly increased. A subcohort selected for greatest potential uranium exposure has reduced deaths from these malignancies. Insignificantly increased stomach cancer mortality was found after 15 years employment and after 15 years latency. Routine urinalysis data suggested low internal uranium exposures.

  8. Student science enrichment training program

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, S.S.

    1994-08-01

    This is a report on the Student Science Enrichment Training Program, with special emphasis on chemical and computer science fields. The residential summer session was held at the campus of Claflin College, Orangeburg, SC, for six weeks during 1993 summer, to run concomitantly with the college`s summer school. Fifty participants selected for this program, included high school sophomores, juniors and seniors. The students came from rural South Carolina and adjoining states which, presently, have limited science and computer science facilities. The program focused on high ability minority students, with high potential for science engineering and mathematical careers. The major objective was to increase the pool of well qualified college entering minority students who would elect to go into science, engineering and mathematical careers. The Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics and engineering at Claflin College received major benefits from this program as it helped them to expand the Departments of Chemistry, Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science as a result of additional enrollment. It also established an expanded pool of well qualified minority science and mathematics graduates, which were recruited by the federal agencies and private corporations, visiting Claflin College Campus. Department of Energy`s relationship with Claflin College increased the public awareness of energy related job opportunities in the public and private sectors.

  9. Simple Enrichment System for Hydrogen Producers ▿

    PubMed Central

    Tolvanen, Katariina E. S.; Mangayil, Rahul K.; Karp, Matti T.; Santala, Ville P.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a simple enrichment system where gas pressure produced by microbes performs functions that are normally done by labor. The system was tested with Escherichia coli strains with different hydrogen production and growth capabilities. The results show that the system can enrich the best hydrogen producer. PMID:21531834

  10. Inoculation Stress Hypothesis of Environmental Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Crofton, Elizabeth J.; Zhang, Yafang; Green, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    One hallmark of psychiatric conditions is the vast continuum of individual differences in susceptibility vs. resilience resulting from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The environmental enrichment paradigm is an animal model that is useful for studying a range of psychiatric conditions, including protective phenotypes in addiction and depression models. The major question is how environmental enrichment, a non-drug and non-surgical manipulation, can produce such robust individual differences in such a wide range of behaviors. This paper draws from a variety of published sources to outline a coherent hypothesis of inoculation stress as a factor producing the protective enrichment phenotypes. The basic tenet suggests that chronic mild stress from living in a complex environment and interacting non-aggressively with conspecifics can inoculate enriched rats against subsequent stressors and/or drugs of abuse. This paper reviews the enrichment phenotypes, mulls the fundamental nature of environmental enrichment vs. isolation, discusses the most appropriate control for environmental enrichment, and challenges the idea that cortisol/corticosterone equals stress. The intent of the inoculation stress hypothesis of environmental enrichment is to provide a scaffold with which to build testable hypotheses for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying these protective phenotypes and thus provide new therapeutic targets to treat psychiatric/neurological conditions. PMID:25449533

  11. Psychological Reactance in Marital Enrichment Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Ronald; And Others

    This investigation was the second in a series of empirical studies on marital enrichment training using the Training in Marital Enrichment (TIME) model. In addition to further study of the TIME model, interest was also directed in the current study to more fully clarifying the nature of change in the model by including a measure of the construct…

  12. Enrichment Monitor for 235U Fuel Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    2001-08-22

    This report describes the performance of this prototype y-monitor of 235 Uranium enrichment. In this proposed method y-rates associated with 235U and 232U are correlated with enrichment. Instrumentation for appraising fuel tubes with this method has been assembled and tested.

  13. The paradox of enrichment in metaecosystems.

    PubMed

    Gounand, Isabelle; Mouquet, Nicolas; Canard, Elsa; Guichard, Frédéric; Hauzy, Céline; Gravel, Dominique

    2014-12-01

    The paradox of enrichment has been studied almost exclusively within communities or metacommunities, without explicit nutrient dynamics. Yet local recycling of materials from enriched ecosystems may affect the stability of connected ecosystems. Here we study the effect of nutrient, detritus, producer, and consumer spatial flows-combined with changes in regional enrichment-on the stability of a metaecosystem model. We considered both spatially homogeneous and heterogeneous enrichment. We found that nutrient and detritus spatial flows are destabilizing, whereas producer or consumer spatial flows are either neutral or stabilizing. We noticed that detritus spatial flows have only a weak impact on stability. Our study reveals that heterogeneity no longer stabilizes well-connected systems when accounting for explicit representation of nutrient dynamics. We also found that intermediate consumer diffusion could lead to multiple equilibria in strongly enriched metaecosystems. Stability can emerge from a top-down control allowing the storage of materials into inorganic form, a mechanism never documented before. In conclusion, local enrichment can be stabilized if spatial flows are strong enough to efficiently redistribute the local excess of enrichment to unfertile ecosystems. However, high regional enrichment can be dampened only by intermediate consumer diffusion rates. PMID:25438175

  14. After-School Enrichment: Extending Learning Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Carla

    2011-01-01

    After-school programs can help show students how academics are relevant to their personal interests, and serve as training grounds for future teachers. This article features LA's BEST After School Enrichment Program whose mission is to provide a safe and supervised after school education, enrichment, and recreation program for children ages 5 to…

  15. 76 FR 387 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... Contention Preparation; In the Matter of ( ), 74 FR 38052, 38054 (July 30, 2009) (CLI-09-15, 70 NRC 1, 7-8... COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility... Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility (EREF)--in Bonneville County, Idaho; and (2) the receipt, possession,...

  16. Utilization of oxygen-enriched air in diesel engines: Fundamental considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Lahiri, D.; Mehta, P.S.; Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.

    1997-09-01

    Utilization of oxygen-enriched air in diesel engines holds potential for low exhaust smoke and particulate emissions. The majority of the oxygen-enriched-air combustion-related studies so far are experimental in nature, where the observed results are understood on an overall basis. This paper deals with the fundamental considerations associated with the oxygen-enriched air-fuel combustion process to enhance understanding of the concept. The increase in adiabatic flame temperature, the composition of exhaust gases at equilibrium, and also the changes in thermodynamic and transport properties due to oxygen-enrichment of standard intake air are computed. The effects of oxygen-enrichment on fuel evaporation rate, ignition delay, and premixed burnt fraction are also evaluated. Appropriate changes in the ignition delay correlation to reflect the effects of oxygen-enrichment are proposed. The notion of oxygen-enrichment of standard intake air as being akin to leaning of the fuel-air mixture is refuted on the basis of the fundamentally different requirements for the oxygen-enriched combustion process.

  17. Coupling of ultrasound-assisted extraction and expanded bed adsorption for simplified medicinal plant processing and its theoretical model: extraction and enrichment of ginsenosides from Radix Ginseng as a case study.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jianing; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Hongyang; Wang, Yuerong; Wu, Shikun; Hu, Ping

    2013-02-01

    A high-efficient and environmental-friendly method for the preparation of ginsenosides from Radix Ginseng using the method of coupling of ultrasound-assisted extraction with expanded bed adsorption is described. Based on the optimal extraction conditions screened by surface response methodology, ginsenosides were extracted and adsorbed, then eluted by the two-step elution protocol. The comparison results between the coupling of ultrasound-assisted extraction with expanded bed adsorption method and conventional method showed that the former was better than the latter in both process efficiency and greenness. The process efficiency and energy efficiency of the coupling of ultrasound-assisted extraction with expanded bed adsorption method rapidly increased by 1.4-fold and 18.5-fold of the conventional method, while the environmental cost and CO(2) emission of the conventional method were 12.9-fold and 17.0-fold of the new method. Furthermore, the theoretical model for the extraction of targets was derived. The results revealed that the theoretical model suitably described the process of preparing ginsenosides by the coupling of ultrasound-assisted extraction with expanded bed adsorption system. PMID:23341270

  18. Substrate versatility of polyhydroxyalkanoate producing glycerol grown bacterial enrichment culture.

    PubMed

    Moralejo-Gárate, Helena; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Mosquera-Corral, Anuska; Campos, José Luis; Palmeiro-Sánchez, Tania; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2014-12-01

    Waste-based polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production by bacterial enrichments generally follows a three step strategy in which first the wastewater is converted into a volatile fatty acid rich stream that is subsequently used as substrate in a selector and biopolymer production units. In this work, a bacterial community with high biopolymer production capacity was enriched using glycerol, a non-fermented substrate. The substrate versatility and PHA production capacity of this community was studied using glucose, lactate, acetate and xylitol as substrate. Except for xylitol, very high PHA producing capacities were obtained. The PHA accumulation was comparable or even higher than with glycerol as substrate. This is the first study that established a high PHA content (≈70 wt%) with glucose as substrate in a microbial enrichment culture. The results presented in this study support the development of replacing pure culture based PHA production by bacterial enrichment cultures. A process where mixtures of substrates can be easily handled and the acidification step can potentially be avoided is described. PMID:25213684

  19. Enrichment Assay Methods Development for the Integrated Cylinder Verification System

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Leon E.; Misner, Alex C.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Curtis, Michael M.

    2009-10-22

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility's entire product-cylinder inventory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a concept to automate the verification of enrichment plant cylinders to enable 100 percent product-cylinder verification and potentially, mass-balance calculations on the facility as a whole (by also measuring feed and tails cylinders). The Integrated Cylinder Verification System (ICVS) could be located at key measurement points to positively identify each cylinder, measure its mass and enrichment, store the collected data in a secure database, and maintain continuity of knowledge on measured cylinders until IAEA inspector arrival. The three main objectives of this FY09 project are summarized here and described in more detail in the report: (1) Develop a preliminary design for a prototype NDA system, (2) Refine PNNL's MCNP models of the NDA system, and (3) Procure and test key pulse-processing components. Progress against these tasks to date, and next steps, are discussed.

  20. Proteome-wide enrichment of proteins modified by lysine methylation

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Scott M; Moore, Kaitlyn E; Green, Erin M; Martín, Glòria Mas; Gozani, Or

    2015-01-01

    We present a protocol for using the triple malignant brain tumor domains of L3MBTL1 (3×MBT), which bind to mono- and di-methylated lysine with minimal sequence specificity, in order to enrich for such methylated lysine from cell lysates. Cells in culture are grown with amino acids containing light or heavy stable isotopic labels. Methylated proteins are enriched by incubating cell lysates with 3×MBT, or with the binding-null D355N mutant as a negative control. Quantitative liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are then used to identify proteins that are specifically enriched by 3×MBT pull-down. The addition of a third isotopic label allows the comparison of protein lysine methylation between different biological conditions. Unlike most approaches, our strategy does not require a prior hypothesis of candidate methylated proteins, and it recognizes a wider range of methylated proteins than any available method using antibodies. Cells are prepared by growing in isotopic labeling medium for about 7 d; the process of enriching methylated proteins takes 3 d and analysis by LC-MS/MS takes another 1–2 d. PMID:24309976

  1. Negative Enrichment of Target Cells by Microfluidic Affinity Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Gao, Yan; Pappas, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    A three-dimensional microfluidic channel was developed for high purity cell separations. This system featured high capture affinity using multiple vertical inlets to an affinity surface. In cell separations, positive selection (capture of the target cell) is usually employed. Negative enrichment, the capture of non-target cells and elution of target cells, has distinct advantages over positive selection. In negative enrichment, target cells are not labeled, and are not subjected to strenuous elution conditions or dilution. As a result, negative enrichment systems are amenable to multi-step processes in microfluidic systems. In previous work, we reported cell capture enhancement effects at vertical inlets to the affinity surface. In this study, we designed a chip that has multiple vertical and horizontal channels, forming a three-dimensional separation system. Enrichment of target cells showed separation purities of 92-96%, compared with straight-channel systems (77% purity). A parallelized chip was also developed for increased sample throughput. A two-channel showed similar separation purity with twice the sample flow rate. This microfluidic system, featuring high separation purity, ease of fabrication and use, is suitable for cell separations when subsequent analysis of target cells is required. PMID:21939198

  2. Interaction modes and approaches to glycopeptide and glycoprotein enrichment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Chun; Su, Wan-Chih; Huang, Bao-Yu; Chen, Yu-Ju; Tai, Hwan-Ching; Obena, Rofeamor P

    2014-02-21

    Protein glycosylation has received increased attention for its critical role in cell biology and diseases. Developing new methodologies to discern phenotype-dependent glycosylation will not only elucidate the mechanistic aspects of cell signaling cascades but also accelerate biomarker discovery for disease diagnosis or prognosis. In the analytical pipeline, enrichment at either the protein or peptide level is the most critical prerequisite for analyzing heterogeneous glycan composition, linkage, site occupancy and carrier proteins. Because the critical factor for choosing a suitable enrichment method is primarily a particular technique's selectivity and affinity towards target glycoproteins/glycopeptides, it is important to fully understand the working principles for the different approaches. For mechanistic insight into the enrichment protocol, we focused on the fundamental chemical and physical processes for the commonly used approaches based on: (a) glycan/peptide physicochemical properties (hydrophilic interactions, chelation/coordination chemistry) and (b) glycan-specific recognition (lectin-based affinity, covalent bond formation by hydrazide/boronic acid). Various interaction modes, such as hydrogen bonding, van der Waals interaction, multivalency, and metal- or water-mediated stabilization, are discussed in detail. In addition, we will review the design of and modifications to such methods, hyphenated approaches, and glycoproteomic applications. Finally, we will outline challenges to existing strategies and offer novel proposals for glycoproteome enrichment. PMID:24336240

  3. Nutritional enrichment of bakery products by supplementation with nonwheat flours.

    PubMed

    Chavan, J K; Kadam, S S

    1993-01-01

    Bakery products are important ready-to-eat processed foods. The nutritional quality of these products is low because of the inferior nutritional composition of wheat grain per se. This is further accentuated with the use of refined flours in their preparations. Nutritional composition of these products can be improved by using quality wheat for milling, increased extraction rates, air classification of flours to obtain protein-rich nonwheat flours and their products. The flours and protein products of legumes, oilseeds, other cereals, tubers, corn gluten and germ, and rice bran can be used effectively as vegetable protein sources for nutritional enrichment of the bakery products. In this article, recent literature concerning the nutritional composition of major bakery products, sources of vegetable proteins for product enrichment, and modifications in conventional processing methods to maintain the rheological and sensory properties of supplemented bakery products are reviewed critically. PMID:8484866

  4. Enrichment of Acinetobacter spp. from food samples.

    PubMed

    Carvalheira, Ana; Ferreira, Vânia; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the role of foods in the chain of transmission of acinetobacters and the occurrence of different Acinetobacter spp. in foods. Currently, there is no standard procedure to recover acinetobacters from food in order to gain insight into the food-related ecology and epidemiology of acinetobacters. This study aimed to assess whether enrichment in Dijkshoorn enrichment medium followed by plating in CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter medium is a useful method for the isolation of Acinetobacter spp. from foods. Recovery of six Acinetobacter species from food spiked with these organisms was compared for two selective enrichment media (Baumann's enrichment and Dijkshoorn's enrichment). Significantly (p < 0.01) higher cell counts were obtained in Dijkshoorn's enrichment. Next, the Dijkshoorn's enrichment followed by direct plating on CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter was applied to detect Acinetobacter spp. in different foods. Fourteen different presumptive acinetobacters were recovered and assumed to represent nine different strains on the basis of REP-PCR typing. Eight of these strains were identified by rpoB gene analysis as belonging to the species Acinetobacter johnsonii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter guillouiae and Acinetobacter gandensis. It was not possible to identify the species level of one strain which may suggests that it represents a distinct species. PMID:26742623

  5. Production of a phenolic antioxidant enriched cranberry juice by electrodialysis with filtration membrane.

    PubMed

    Bazinet, Laurent; Cossec, Céline; Gaudreau, Hélène; Desjardins, Yves

    2009-11-11

    The fruit of the American cranberry is known for its benefits on human health and its nutraceutical potential. The enrichment of cranberry products with functional phytochemicals may improve their functionality for enhancing health benefits, but this enrichment may be difficult due to the commercial rarity and difficulty of purification of anthocyanins and other phytochemicals from natural sources. The aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of the production of a cranberry juice enriched with natural phenolic antioxidant compounds using an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane stacked in an electrodialysis (ED) cell. Total concentrations of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins increased by 34.8% and 52.9%, respectively, in cranberry juice treated with the EDUF system. Moreover, an 18% increase of the antioxidant capacity of the enriched cranberry juice was obtained by the EDUF treatments. The EDUF process might be used for natural enrichment of cranberry juice with antioxidant phenolics. PMID:19886681

  6. Development of the affinity materials for phosphorylated proteins/peptides enrichment in phosphoproteomics analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Lv, Nan; Bi, Wen-Zhi; Zhang, Ji-Lin; Ni, Jia-Zuan

    2015-04-29

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is a key event in numerous biological processes. Mass spectrometry (MS) is the most powerful analysis tool in modern phosphoproteomics. However, the direct MS analysis of phosphorylated proteins/peptides is still a big challenge because of the low abundance and insufficient ionization of phosphorylated proteins/peptides as well as the suppression effects of nontargets. Enrichment of phosphorylated proteins/peptides by affinity materials from complex biosamples is the most widely used strategy to enhance the MS detection. The demand of efficiently enriching phosphorylated proteins/peptides has spawned diverse affinity materials based on different enrichment principles (e.g., electronic attraction, chelating). In this review, we summarize the recent development of various affinity materials for phosphorylated proteins/peptides enrichment. We will highlight the design and fabrication of these affinity materials, discuss the enrichment mechanisms involved in different affinity materials, and suggest the future challenges and research directions in this field. PMID:25845677

  7. Method for isotope enrichment by photoinduced chemiionization

    DOEpatents

    Dubrin, James W.

    1985-01-01

    Isotope enrichment, particularly .sup.235 U enrichment, is achieved by irradiating an isotopically mixed vapor feed with radiant energy at a wavelength or wavelengths chosen to selectively excite the species containing a desired isotope to a predetermined energy level. The vapor feed if simultaneously reacted with an atomic or molecular reactant species capable of preferentially transforming the excited species into an ionic product by a chemiionization reaction. The ionic product, enriched in the desired isotope, is electrostatically or electromagnetically extracted from the reaction system.

  8. MHD performance calculations with oxygen enrichment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, C. C. P.; Staiger, P. J.; Seikel, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    The impact of oxygen enrichment of the combustion air on the generator and overall plant performance was studied for the ECAS-scale MHD/steam plants. A channel optimization technique is described and the results of generator performance calculations using this technique are presented. Performance maps were generated to assess the impact of various generator parameters. Directly and separately preheated plant performance with varying O2 enrichment was calculated. The optimal level of enrichment was a function of plant type and preheat temperature. The sensitivity of overall plant performance to critical channel assumptions and oxygen plant performance characteristics was also examined.

  9. Uranium enrichment and nuclear-weapon proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Krass, Allan S.; Boskma, Peter; Elzen, Boeli; Smit, Wim A

    1983-01-01

    The authors review state-of-the-art enrichment technology, and evaluate the impact of this technology on the proliferation problem. They place the technological development into the context of the economic and institutional environment that has evolved around the enrichment industry, and suggest some measures which might be taken to reduce the proliferation dangers inherent in the industry. They specifically note the world excess of supply over demand which, coupled with the refusal of a number of countries with enrichment capability to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty, intensifies the weapons risk. 336 references, 52 figures, 20 tables.

  10. Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard Bond

    2006-07-01

    repression. In this scheme a gas, of the selected isotopes for enrichment, is irradiated with a laser at a particular wavelength that would excite only one of the isotopes. The entire gas is subject to low temperatures sufficient to cause condensation on a cold surface. Those molecules in the gas that the laser excited are not as likely to condense as are the unexcited molecules. Hence the gas drawn out of the system will be enriched in the isotope that was excited by the laser. We have evaluated the relative energy required in this process if applied on a commercial scale. We estimate the energy required for laser isotope enrichment is about 20% of that required in centrifuge separations, and 2% of that required by use of "calutrons".

  11. Status of stable isotope enrichment, products, and services at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott Aaron, W.; Tracy, Joe G.; Collins, Emory D.

    1997-02-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been supplying enriched stable and radioactive isotopes to the research, medical, and industrial communities for over 50 y. Very significant changes have occurred in this effort over the past several years, and, while many of these changes have had a negative impact on the availability of enriched isotopes, more recent developments are actually improving the situation for both the users and the producers of enriched isotopes. ORNL is still a major producer and distributor of radioisotopes, but future isotope enrichment operations to be conducted at the Isotope Enrichment Facility (IEF) will be limited to stable isotopes. Among the positive changes in the enriched stable isotope area are a well-functioning, long-term contract program, which offers stability and pricing advantages; the resumption of calutron operations; the adoption of prorated conversion charges, which greatly improves the pricing of isotopes to small users; ISO 9002 registration of the IEF's quality management system; and a much more customer-oriented business philosophy. Efforts are also being made to restore and improve upon the extensive chemical and physical form processing capablities that once existed in the enriched stable isotope program. Innovative ideas are being pursued in both technical and administrative areas to encourage the beneficial use of enriched stable isotopes and the development of related technologies.

  12. Management's Ecstasy and Disparity Over Job Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Albert S.

    1976-01-01

    A case study analyzing job enrichment schemes and manager expectations of increased productivity is presented. It was found that it was the managers' expectations of increased productivity, not the reorganization of work, that led to higher productivity. (EC)

  13. Job Enrichment: How to Avoid the Pitfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tregoe, Benjamin B., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    While many job enrichment programs fail, a program called Analytical Trouble Shooting has been successful in training people to increase their problem-solving capabilities and to communicate readily with persons in other areas and on different levels. (AG)

  14. A Guide to Job Enrichment and Redesign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, J. Barton; Eberle, Ted

    1990-01-01

    Describes job design alternatives--job enrichment, the job characteristics model, Japanese style management, and quality-of-worklife approaches. Focuses on the problems that human resources professionals may encounter when attempting to implement these approaches. (Author/JOW)

  15. Stable Isotope Enrichment Capabilities at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Egle, Brian; Aaron, W Scott; Hart, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the US Department of Energy Nuclear Physics Program have built a high-resolution Electromagnetic Isotope Separator (EMIS) as a prototype for reestablishing a US based enrichment capability for stable isotopes. ORNL has over 60 years of experience providing enriched stable isotopes and related technical services to the international accelerator target community, as well as medical, research, industrial, national security, and other communities. ORNL is investigating the combined use of electromagnetic and gas centrifuge isotope separation technologies to provide research quantities (milligram to several kilograms) of enriched stable isotopes. In preparation for implementing a larger scale production facility, a 10 mA high-resolution EMIS prototype has been built and tested. Initial testing of the device has simultaneously collected greater than 98% enriched samples of all the molybdenum isotopes from natural abundance feedstock.

  16. Unattended Monitoring of HEU Production in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants using Automated Aerosol Collection and Laser-based Enrichment Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

    2010-08-11

    Nuclear power is enjoying rapid growth as government energy policies and public demand shift toward low carbon energy production. Pivotal to the global nuclear power renaissance is the development and deployment of robust safeguards instrumentation that allows the limited resources of the IAEA to keep pace with the expansion of the nuclear fuel cycle. Undeclared production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) remains a primary proliferation concern for modern gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs), due to their massive separative work unit (SWU) processing power and comparably short cascade equilibrium timescale. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing an unattended safeguards instrument, combining continuous aerosol particulate collection with uranium isotope assay, to provide timely detection of HEU production within a GCEP. This approach is based on laser vaporization of aerosol particulates, followed by laser spectroscopy to characterize the uranium enrichment level. Our prior investigation demonstrated single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range and relative isotope ratio uncertainty better than 10% using gadolinium as a surrogate for uranium. In this paper we present measurement results on standard samples containing traces of depleted, natural, and low enriched uranium, as well as measurements on aerodynamic size uranium particles mixed in background materials (e.g., dust, minerals, soils). Improvements and optimizations in the detection electronics, signal timing, calibration, and laser alignment have lead to significant improvements in detection sensitivity and enrichment accuracy, contributing to an overall reduction in the false alarm probability. The sample substrate media was also found to play a significant role in facilitating laser-induced vaporization and the production of energetic plasma conditions, resulting in ablation optimization and further improvements in the isotope abundance sensitivity.

  17. Enriching text with images and colored light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekulovski, Dragan; Geleijnse, Gijs; Kater, Bram; Korst, Jan; Pauws, Steffen; Clout, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    We present an unsupervised method to enrich textual applications with relevant images and colors. The images are collected by querying large image repositories and subsequently the colors are computed using image processing. A prototype system based on this method is presented where the method is applied to song lyrics. In combination with a lyrics synchronization algorithm the system produces a rich multimedia experience. In order to identify terms within the text that may be associated with images and colors, we select noun phrases using a part of speech tagger. Large image repositories are queried with these terms. Per term representative colors are extracted using the collected images. Hereto, we either use a histogram-based or a mean shift-based algorithm. The representative color extraction uses the non-uniform distribution of the colors found in the large repositories. The images that are ranked best by the search engine are displayed on a screen, while the extracted representative colors are rendered on controllable lighting devices in the living room. We evaluate our method by comparing the computed colors to standard color representations of a set of English color terms. A second evaluation focuses on the distance in color between a queried term in English and its translation in a foreign language. Based on results from three sets of terms, a measure of suitability of a term for color extraction based on KL Divergence is proposed. Finally, we compare the performance of the algorithm using either the automatically indexed repository of Google Images and the manually annotated Flickr.com. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that using the presented method we can compute the relevant color for a term using a large image repository and image processing.

  18. A resolution of the paradox of enrichment.

    PubMed

    Mougi, Akihiko; Nishimura, Kinya

    2007-09-01

    Theoretical studies have shown a paradoxical destabilizing response of predator-prey ecosystems to enrichment, but there is the gap between the intuitive view of nature and this theoretical prediction. We studied a minimal predator-prey system (a two predator-two prey system) in which the paradox of enrichment pattern can vanish; the destabilization with enrichment is reversed, leading to stabilization (a decrease in the amplitude of oscillation of population densities). For resolution of the paradox, two conditions must be met: (1) the same prey species must be preferred as a dietary item by both predator species, creating the potential for high exploitative competition between the predator species, and (2), while both predators are assumed to select their diet in accordance with optimal diet utilization theory, one predator must be a specialist and the other a generalist. In this system, the presence of a less profitable prey species can cause the increase in population oscillation amplitudes associated with increasing enrichment to be suppressed via the optimal diet utilization of the generalist predator. The resulting stabilization is explained by the mitigating effect of the less profitable prey showing better population growth with increasing enrichment on the destabilization underlying the specialist predator and prey relation, thus resolving the paradox of enrichment. PMID:17543997

  19. Microfluidic droplet enrichment for targeted sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Eastburn, Dennis J.; Huang, Yong; Pellegrino, Maurizio; Sciambi, Adam; Ptáček, Louis J.; Abate, Adam R.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted sequence enrichment enables better identification of genetic variation by providing increased sequencing coverage for genomic regions of interest. Here, we report the development of a new target enrichment technology that is highly differentiated from other approaches currently in use. Our method, MESA (Microfluidic droplet Enrichment for Sequence Analysis), isolates genomic DNA fragments in microfluidic droplets and performs TaqMan PCR reactions to identify droplets containing a desired target sequence. The TaqMan positive droplets are subsequently recovered via dielectrophoretic sorting, and the TaqMan amplicons are removed enzymatically prior to sequencing. We demonstrated the utility of this approach by generating an average 31.6-fold sequence enrichment across 250 kb of targeted genomic DNA from five unique genomic loci. Significantly, this enrichment enabled a more comprehensive identification of genetic polymorphisms within the targeted loci. MESA requires low amounts of input DNA, minimal prior locus sequence information and enriches the target region without PCR bias or artifacts. These features make it well suited for the study of genetic variation in a number of research and diagnostic applications. PMID:25873629

  20. Enriching Social Studies with Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Alan

    1990-01-01

    Describes how an interview project used in conjunction with a primary sources based curriculum enhanced history learning. Students were involved in gaining information from community citizens. Outlines the procedures involved in the interviewing process and discusses the benefits to students including increased content acquisition, skills, and…

  1. Process

    SciTech Connect

    Geenen, P.V.; Bennis, J.

    1989-04-04

    A process is described for minimizing the cracking tendency and uncontrolled dimensional change, and improving the strength of a rammed plastic refractory reactor liner comprising phosphate-bonded silicon carbide or phosphate-bonded alumina. It consists of heating the reactor liner placed or mounted in a reactor, prior to its first use, from ambient temperature up to a temperature of from about 490/sup 0/C to about 510/sup 0/C, the heating being carried out by heating the liner at a rate to produce a temperature increase of the liner not greater than about 6/sup 0/C per hour.

  2. Root growth and development in response to CO2 enrichment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Frank P., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A non-destructive technique (minirhizotron observation tubes) was used to assess the effects of CO2 enrichment on root growth and development in experimental plots in a scrub oak-palmetto community at the Kennedy Space Center. Potential effects of CO2 enrichment on plants have a global significance in light of concerns over increasing CO2 concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere. The study at Kennedy Space Center focused on aboveground physiological responses (photosynthetic efficiency and water use efficiency), effects on process rates (litter decomposition and nutrient turnover), and belowground responses of the plants. Belowground dynamics are an exceptionally important component of total plant response but are frequently ignored due to methodological difficulties. Most methods used to examine root growth and development are destructive and, therefore, severely compromise results. Minirhizotrons allow nondestructive observation and quantification of the same soil volume and roots through time. Root length density and root phenology were evaluated for CO2 effects with this nondestructive technique.

  3. The Proteome of Cholesteryl-Ester-Enriched Versus Triacylglycerol-Enriched Lipid Droplets

    PubMed Central

    Khor, Victor K.; Ahrends, Robert; Lin, Ye; Shen, Wen-Jun; Adams, Christopher M.; Roseman, Ann Nomoto; Cortez, Yuan; Teruel, Mary N.; Azhar, Salman; Kraemer, Fredric B.

    2014-01-01

    Within cells, lipids are stored in the form of lipid droplets (LDs), consisting of a neutral lipid core, surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer and an outer layer of protein. LDs typically accumulate either triacylglycerol (TAG) and diacylglycerol or cholesteryl ester (CE), depending on the type of tissue. Recently, there has been an increased interest in the proteins that surround LDs. LD proteins have been found to be quite diverse, from structural proteins to metabolic enzymes, proteins involved in vesicular transport, and proteins that may play a role in LD formation. Previous proteomics analyses have focused on TAG-enriched LDs, whereas CE-enriched LDs have been largely ignored. Our study has compared the LD proteins from CE-enriched LDs to TAG-enriched LDs in steroidogenic cells. In primary rat granulosa cells loaded with either HDL to produce CE-enriched LDs or fatty acids to produce TAG-enriched LDs, 61 proteins were found to be elevated in CE-enriched LDs and 40 proteins elevated in TAG-enriched LDs with 278 proteins in similar amounts. Protein expression was further validated by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry (MS). SRM verified expression of 25 of 27 peptides that were previously detected by tandem mass tagging MS. Several proteins were confirmed to be elevated in CE-enriched LDs by SRM including the intermediate filament vimentin. This study is the first to compare the proteins found on CE-enriched LDs with TAG-enriched LDs and constitutes the first step in creating a better understanding of the proteins found on CE-enriched LDs in steroidogenic cells. PMID:25111084

  4. 21 CFR 139.115 - Enriched macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.115 Enriched macaroni products. (a) Description. Enriched macaroni...

  5. Co-Enriching Microflora Associated with Culture Based Methods to Detect Salmonella from Tomato Phyllosphere

    PubMed Central

    Ottesen, Andrea R.; Gonzalez, Antonio; Bell, Rebecca; Arce, Caroline; Rideout, Steven; Allard, Marc; Evans, Peter; Strain, Errol; Musser, Steven; Knight, Rob; Brown, Eric; Pettengill, James B.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to detect a specific organism from a complex environment is vitally important to many fields of public health, including food safety. For example, tomatoes have been implicated numerous times as vehicles of foodborne outbreaks due to strains of Salmonella but few studies have ever recovered Salmonella from a tomato phyllosphere environment. Precision of culturing techniques that target agents associated with outbreaks depend on numerous factors. One important factor to better understand is which species co-enrich during enrichment procedures and how microbial dynamics may impede or enhance detection of target pathogens. We used a shotgun sequence approach to describe taxa associated with samples pre-enrichment and throughout the enrichment steps of the Bacteriological Analytical Manual's (BAM) protocol for detection of Salmonella from environmental tomato samples. Recent work has shown that during efforts to enrich Salmonella (Proteobacteria) from tomato field samples, Firmicute genera are also co-enriched and at least one co-enriching Firmicute genus (Paenibacillus sp.) can inhibit and even kills strains of Salmonella. Here we provide a baseline description of microflora that co-culture during detection efforts and the utility of a bioinformatic approach to detect specific taxa from metagenomic sequence data. We observed that uncultured samples clustered together with distinct taxonomic profiles relative to the three cultured treatments (Universal Pre-enrichment broth (UPB), Tetrathionate (TT), and Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV)). There was little consistency among samples exposed to the same culturing medias, suggesting significant microbial differences in starting matrices or stochasticity associated with enrichment processes. Interestingly, Paenibacillus sp. (Salmonella inhibitor) was significantly enriched from uncultured to cultured (UPB) samples. Also of interest was the sequence based identification of a number of sequences as Salmonella despite

  6. Enrichment Determination of Uranium in Shielded Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Crye, Jason Michael; Hall, Howard L; McConchie, Seth M; Mihalczo, John T; Pena, Kirsten E

    2011-01-01

    The determination of the enrichment of uranium is required in many safeguards and security applications. Typical methods of determining the enrichment rely on detecting the 186 keV gamma ray emitted by {sup 235}U. In some applications, the uranium is surrounded by external shields, and removal of the shields is undesirable. In these situations, methods relying on the detection of the 186 keV gamma fail because the gamma ray is shielded easily. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has previously measured the enrichment of shielded uranium metal using active neutron interrogation. The method consists of measuring the time distribution of fast neutrons from induced fissions with large plastic scintillator detectors. To determine the enrichment, the measurements are compared to a calibration surface that is created from Monte Carlo simulations where the enrichment in the models is varied. In previous measurements, the geometry was always known. ORNL is extending this method to situations where the geometry and materials present are not known in advance. In the new method, the interrogating neutrons are both time and directionally tagged, and an array of small plastic scintillators measures the uncollided interrogating neutrons. Therefore, the attenuation through the item along many different paths is known. By applying image reconstruction techniques, an image of the item is created which shows the position-dependent attenuation. The image permits estimating the geometry and materials present, and these estimates are used as input for the Monte Carlo simulations. As before, simulations predict the time distribution of induced fission neutrons for different enrichments. Matching the measured time distribution to the closest prediction from the simulations provides an estimate of the enrichment. This presentation discusses the method and provides results from recent simulations that show the importance of knowing the geometry and materials from the imaging system.

  7. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranyl nitrate hexahydrate. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials to pure HEU uranyl nitrate (UNH) and (2) blend pure HEU UNH with depleted and natural UNH to produce HEU UNH crystals. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU Will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  8. Training the Assessors: Process Can Enrich Management Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchett, JoAnn H.

    1986-01-01

    A principal and assessor for an Alabama school system describes the professional benefits of her experience with the NASSP Assessment Center Project: peer interaction, informal exchanges, and close personal contact with five other practicing administrators. (TE)

  9. Enrichment of denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidizing microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shihu; Zeng, Raymond J; Burow, Luke C; Lant, Paul; Keller, Jurg; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2009-10-01

    The microorganisms responsible for anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to denitrification have not been clearly elucidated. Three recent publications suggested it can be achieved by a denitrifying bacterium with or without the involvement of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea. A key factor limiting the progress in this research field is the shortage of enrichment cultures performing denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO). In this study, DAMO cultures were enriched from mixed inoculum including sediment from a freshwater lake, anaerobic digester sludge and return activated sludge from a sewage treatment plant. Two reactors, operated at 35°C and at 22°C, respectively, showed simultaneous methane oxidation and nitrate reduction after several months of operation. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from the 35°C enrichment showed the presence of an archaeon closely related to other DAMO archaea and a dominated bacterium belonging to the yet uncultivated NC10 phylum. This culture preferred nitrite to nitrate as the electron acceptor. The present study suggests that the archaea are rather methanotrophs than methanogens. The highest denitrification rate achieved was 2.35 mmol NO3 (-) -N gVSS(-1)  day(-1) . The culture enriched at 22°C contained the same NC10 bacterium observed in the culture enriched at 35°C but no archaea. PMID:23765890

  10. The enriched chromium neutrino source for GALLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, F.X.; Hahn, R.L.

    1991-01-18

    The preparation and study of an intense source of neutrinos in the form of neutron irradiated materials which are enriched in Cr-50 for use in the GALLEX solar neutrino experiment are discussed. Chromyl fluoride gas is enriched in the Cr-50 isotope by gas centrifugation and subsequently converted to a very stable form of chromium oxide. The results of neutron activation analyses of such chromium samples indicate low levels of any long-lived activities, but show that short-lived activities, in particular Na-24, may be of concern. These results show that irradiating chromium oxide enriched in Cr-50 is preferable to irradiating either natural chromium or argon gas as a means of producing a neutrino source to calibrate the GALLEX detector. These results of the impurity level analysis of the enriched chromyl fluoride gas and its conversion to the oxide are also of interest to work in progress by other members of the Collaboration investigating an alternative conversion of the enriched gas to chromium metal. 35 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Anti-craving effects of environmental enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Kenneth J.; Sanabria, Federico; Pentkowski, Nathan S.; Neisewander, Janet L.

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that environmental enrichment in rats may reduce cocaine-seeking behaviour elicited by cocaine-priming injections and by cocaine-associated cues. Rats trained to self-administer cocaine while housed in isolated conditions were then assigned to live in isolation or an enriched environment for 21 d of forced abstinence. Subsequently, extinction and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behaviour (operant responses without cocaine available) were assessed. Expt 1 showed that enrichment resulted in less cocaine-seeking behaviour during extinction and cue-elicited reinstatement compared to continued isolation housing, but had no effect on cocaine-primed reinstatement. A subsequent experiment, which included a pair-housed group to control for potential isolation stress, again demonstrated that enrichment attenuated cocaine seeking during extinction, but not cocaine-primed reinstatement, relative to both isolation and pair-housed conditions. The findings suggest that enrichment reduces the impact of cocaine-associated environmental stimuli, and hence it may be a useful intervention for attenuating cue-elicited craving in humans. PMID:19691875

  12. Anti-craving effects of environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Kenneth J; Sanabria, Federico; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Neisewander, Janet L

    2009-10-01

    We hypothesized that environmental enrichment in rats may reduce cocaine-seeking behaviour elicited by cocaine-priming injections and by cocaine-associated cues. Rats trained to self-administer cocaine while housed in isolated conditions were then assigned to live in isolation or an enriched environment for 21 d of forced abstinence. Subsequently, extinction and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behaviour (operant responses without cocaine available) were assessed. Expt 1 showed that enrichment resulted in less cocaine-seeking behaviour during extinction and cue-elicited reinstatement compared to continued isolation housing, but had no effect on cocaine-primed reinstatement. A subsequent experiment, which included a pair-housed group to control for potential isolation stress, again demonstrated that enrichment attenuated cocaine seeking during extinction, but not cocaine-primed reinstatement, relative to both isolation and pair-housed conditions. The findings suggest that enrichment reduces the impact of cocaine-associated environmental stimuli, and hence it may be a useful intervention for attenuating cue-elicited craving in humans. PMID:19691875

  13. Comparison of analytical values for enrichment nutrients in selected grain products to federal enrichment standards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enriched grain products are required to have iron, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and folic acid added at specified levels (minimum and maximum) according to the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). To provide up-to-date values for the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, enriche...

  14. 75 FR 52996 - Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... COMMISSION Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR 2.313(c) and 2.321(b), the Atomic Safety and Licensing... 2010. E. Roy Hawkens, Chief Administrative Judge, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel. BILLING...

  15. 76 FR 11523 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ..., ID, 76 FR 9054 (Feb. 16, 2011). In accord with Atomic Energy Act (AEA) section 274l, 42 U.S.C. Sec... Rock Enrichment Facility), 74 FR 38,052, 38,055 (Jul. 30, 2009) (CLI-09- 15, 70 NRC 1, 10-11 (2009... of Enrichment Facility Licensing Proceeding), 75 FR 63,213 (Oct. 14, 2010), which was the subject...

  16. Enrich: software for analysis of protein function by enrichment and depletion of variants

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Douglas M.; Araya, Carlos L.; Gerard, Wayne; Fields, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Measuring the consequences of mutation in proteins is critical to understanding their function. These measurements are essential in such applications as protein engineering, drug development, protein design and genome sequence analysis. Recently, high-throughput sequencing has been coupled to assays of protein activity, enabling the analysis of large numbers of mutations in parallel. We present Enrich, a tool for analyzing such deep mutational scanning data. Enrich identifies all unique variants (mutants) of a protein in high-throughput sequencing datasets and can correct for sequencing errors using overlapping paired-end reads. Enrich uses the frequency of each variant before and after selection to calculate an enrichment ratio, which is used to estimate fitness. Enrich provides an interactive interface to guide users. It generates user-accessible output for downstream analyses as well as several visualizations of the effects of mutation on function, thereby allowing the user to rapidly quantify and comprehend sequence–function relationships. Availability and Implementation: Enrich is implemented in Python and is available under a FreeBSD license at http://depts.washington.edu/sfields/software/enrich/. Enrich includes detailed documentation as well as a small example dataset. Contact: dfowler@uw.edu; fields@uw.edu Supplementary Information: Supplementary data is available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22006916

  17. [Psychoeducational intervention in high ability: intellectual functioning and extracurricular enrichment].

    PubMed

    Sastre-Riba, Sylvia

    2014-02-24

    The 'new paradigm' defines the high intellectual ability as a potential that should crystallize progressively throughout development. Its main feature is a high intellectual initial multidimensional potential, which is transformed so that, being a person with high intellectual ability is the result of a developmental process from a neurobiological substrate and the incidence of variables (psychosocial and education) which determines its manifestation more or less stable and optimal to excellence. It is interesting to know the effectiveness of psychoeducational intervention of the extracurricular enrichment programs and their effects on the expression of differential functioning and the optimization of the management of cognitive resources that lead to excellence. An extracurricular enrichment program is described and evaluated through: 1) the stability of the intellectual measures; 2) the satisfaction level of participants and families. Participants are 58 high ability students on the enrichment program and 25 parents. Intellectual profiles are obtained on T1-T2 and calculated their stability by regression analysis, the CSA and CSA-P questionnaires were applied in order to know the participants and families' satisfaction measure. Results show the basic stability of intellectual profiles with five cases of instability among the 58 profiles obtained, and a high satisfaction with the results obtained in the domain of cognitive and personal management among the participants. PMID:25252674

  18. Enriched boundary layers for heterogeneous reaction in stirred microfluidic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirtland, Joseph; Stroock, Abraham

    2008-11-01

    The rate of transport of a scalar from a fluid stream to a reactive surface depends on both the character of the flow and the scalar concentration profile incident on the surface. Uniaxial flows tend to form thick regions of low concentration near the reactive surface, leading to decreased rates of scalar transport. For irreversible reactions, this effect can be mitigated through efficient mixing of the bulk. This ensures that the average concentration is incident on the reactive surface, and that concentration boundary layers are kept thin. Coupled reversible reactions, such as those occurring at the electrodes of an electrochemical cell, can complicate the analysis of such a system. In a stirred microfluidic electrochemical cell, depletion of the reactant of the forward reaction implies enrichment of the reactant of the reverse reaction. This enriched fluid can bypass the well mixed bulk, leading to increased scaling of the overall transport process with the Péclet number Pe, even in cases of efficient bulk mixing. We present numerical and experimental results in several such flows and discuss situations where this enrichment can be beneficial (amplification in sensors) or detrimental (quantitative concentration measurement). J. Kirtland, G. McGraw, A. Stroock. Physics of Fluids 18, 073602 (2006).

  19. Application of polyimide membranes for biogas purification and enrichment.

    PubMed

    Harasimowicz, M; Orluk, P; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G; Chmielewski, A G

    2007-06-18

    Biogas is a clean environment friendly fuel that is produced by bacterial conversion of organic matter under anaerobic (oxygen-free) conditions. Raw biogas contains about 55-65% methane (CH(4)), 30-45% carbon dioxide (CO(2)), traces of hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) and fractions of water vapour. Pure methane has a calorific value of 9100 kcal/m(3) at 15.5 degrees C and 1 atm; the calorific value of biogas varies from 4800 to 6900 kcal/m(3). To achieve the standard composition of the biogas and calorific value of 5500 kcal/m(3) the treatment techniques like absorption or membrane separation should be applied. In the paper the results of the tests of the CH(4) enrichment in simulated biogas mixture consisted of methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide were presented. It was showed that using the capillary module with polyimide membranes it was possible to achieve the enrichment of CH(4) from the concentrations of 55-85% up to 91-94.4%. The membrane material was resistant to the small concentrations of sour gases and assured the reduction of H(2)S and water vapour concentrations, as well. The required enrichment was achieved in the single module, however to prevent CH(4) losses the multistage or hybrid systems should be used to improve process efficiency. PMID:17324508

  20. Community-aware user profile enrichment in folksonomy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Haoran; Li, Qing; Mao, Xudong; Li, Xiaodong; Cai, Yi; Rao, Yanghui

    2014-10-01

    In the era of big data, collaborative tagging (a.k.a. folksonomy) systems have proliferated as a consequence of the growth of Web 2.0 communities. Constructing user profiles from folksonomy systems is useful for many applications such as personalized search and recommender systems. The identification of latent user communities is one way to better understand and meet user needs. The behavior of users is highly influenced by the behavior of their neighbors or community members, and this can be utilized in constructing user profiles. However, conventional user profiling techniques often encounter data sparsity problems as data from a single user is insufficient to build a powerful profile. Hence, in this paper we propose a method of enriching user profiles based on latent user communities in folksonomy data. Specifically, the proposed approach contains four sub-processes: (i) tag-based user profiles are extracted from a folksonomy tripartite graph; (ii) a multi-faceted folksonomy graph is constructed by integrating tag and image affinity subgraphs with the folksonomy tripartite graph; (iii) random walk distance is used to unify various relationships and measure user similarities; (iv) a novel prototype-based clustering method based on user similarities is used to identify user communities, which are further used to enrich the extracted user profiles. To evaluate the proposed method, we conducted experiments using a public dataset, the results of which show that our approach outperforms previous ones in user profile enrichment. PMID:24907893

  1. Uranium enrichment management review: summary of analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    In May 1980, the Assistant Secretary for Resource Applications within the Department of Energy requested that a group of experienced business executives be assembled to review the operation, financing, and management of the uranium enrichment enterprise as a basis for advising the Secretary of Energy. After extensive investigation, analysis, and discussion, the review group presented its findings and recommendations in a report on December 2, 1980. The following pages contain background material on which that final report was based. This report is arranged in chapters that parallel those of the uranium enrichment management review final report - chapters that contain summaries of the review group's discussion and analyses in six areas: management of operations and construction; long-range planning; marketing of enrichment services; financial management; research and development; and general management. Further information, in-depth analysis, and discussion of suggested alternative management practices are provided in five appendices.

  2. Nutrient Enrichment Increases Mortality of Mangroves

    PubMed Central

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Ball, Marilyn C.; Martin, Katherine C.; C. Feller, Ilka

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients. PMID:19440554

  3. REDUCTION OF NOx EMISSION FROM COAL COMBUSTION THROUGH OXYGEN ENRICHMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Western Research Institute

    2006-07-01

    BOC Process Gas Solutions and Western Research Institute (WRI) conducted a pilot-scale test program to evaluate the impact of oxygen enrichment on the emissions characteristics of pulverized coal. The combustion test facility (CTF) at WRI was used to assess the viability of the technique and determine the quantities of oxygen required for NOx reduction from coal fired boiler. In addition to the experimental work, a series of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were made of the CTF under comparable conditions. A series of oxygen enrichment test was performed using the CTF. In these tests, oxygen was injected into one of the following streams: (1) the primary air (PA), (2) the secondary air (SA), and (3) the combined primary and secondary air. Emission data were collected from all tests, and compared with the corresponding data from the baseline cases. A key test parameter was the burner stoichiometry ratio. A series of CFD simulation models were devised to mimic the initial experiments in which secondary air was enriched with oxygen. The results from these models were compared against the experimental data. Experimental evidence indicated that oxygen enrichment does appear to be able to reduce NOx levels from coal combustion, especially when operated at low over fire air (OFA) levels. The reductions observed however are significantly smaller than that reported by others (7-8% vs. 25-50%), questioning the economic viability of the technique. This technique may find favor with fuels that are difficult to burn or stabilize at high OFA and produce excessive LOI. While CFD simulation appears to predict NO amounts in the correct order of magnitude and the correct trend with staging, it is sensitive to thermal conditions and an accurate thermal prediction is essential. Furthermore, without development, Fluent's fuel-NO model cannot account for a solution sensitive fuel-N distribution between volatiles and char and thus cannot predict the trends seen in the

  4. Fire extinguishment in oxygen enriched atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, A. F.; Rappaport, M. W.

    1973-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art of fire suppression and extinguishment techniques in oxygen enriched atmosphere is reviewed. Four classes of extinguishment action are considered: cooling, separation of reactants, dilution or removal of fuel, and use of chemically reactive agents. Current practice seems to show preference for very fast acting water spray applications to all interior surfaces of earth-based chambers. In space, reliance has been placed on fire prevention methods through the removal of ignition sources and use of nonflammable materials. Recommendations are made for further work related to fire suppression and extinguishment in oxygen enriched atmospheres, and an extensive bibliography is appended.

  5. 77 FR 13367 - General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC, Proposed Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Preparation, 75 FR 1819 (January 13, 2010). Documents related to this notice are available on the NRC's GE... COMMISSION General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC, Proposed Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...- Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC (GLE) Uranium Enrichment Facility. On June 26, 2009, GLE submitted...

  6. 77 FR 14838 - General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC, Commercial Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... COMMISSION General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC, Commercial Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment... considering the issuance of a license to General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC (GLE or the applicant) to authorize construction of a laser-based uranium enrichment facility and possession and use...

  7. Osteogenic ability of bone marrow stem cells intraoperatively enriched by a novel matrix

    PubMed Central

    YE, QING; CHEN, KAINING; HUANG, WU; HE, YUNSONG; NONG, MINGSHAN; LI, CHUNXIANG; LIANG, TIANSEN

    2015-01-01

    Poly-L-lysine (PLL) is commonly used as an adhibiting agent due to its good viscosity, and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is a common enriched matrix for selective cell retention technology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to use PLL to coat the surface and interspaces of DBM to form a novel type of enriched matrix [DBM coated with PLL (PLL-DBM)], in order to effectively improve the enrichment effects of bone marrow stem cells and enhance their osteogenic ability. Electron microscope scanning and the infrared spectrum were used to observe the structure of PLL-DBM and the optimal conditions for the combination of PLL and DBM. Enriching effects on bone marrow nucleated cells (NCs) and platelets (PLTs) were detected with an automated hematology analyzer. The osteogenesis of the following four groups was assessed with a grafting bone model in a goat spinal transverse process: IA, tissue engineered bone (TEB) fabricated following enrichment of bone marrow with PLL-DBM; IB, autogenous iliac bone; IIC, TEB fabricated following enrichment of bone marrow with DBM; IID, blank DBM. The goats were sacrificed in one batch at week 16 after the surgery and the fusion specimens were examined using X-ray and three-dimensional computed tomography (CT). In addition, the CT value was determined and the histology and biomechanics were analyzed in order to evaluate the osteogenic ability. The results showed that PLL and DBM combined well and that PLL-DBM exhibited a natural mesh pore structure. The fold enrichment of NCs and PLTs with PLL-DBM was significantly higher than that with DBM. The fusion effects of the IA and IB groups were similar and significantly enhanced compared with those of the IIC and IID groups. The results confirmed that PLL-DBM is an ideal enriched matrix for bone marrow stem cells, and TEB rapidly fabricated by PLL-DBM intraoperatively enriched bone marrow stem cells exhibits an improved osteogenic ability. PMID:25452771

  8. Difficulties in using 234u/238u ratios to detect enriched or depleted uranium.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Robert L

    2008-03-01

    Uranium that is highly enriched in U (HEU) is also often also enriched in U because it too is a lower-mass isotope than U and thus its concentration would be preferentially increased in any mass-sensitive enrichment process. Thus the ratio U/U might be regarded as a surrogate for U/U-the usual measure of enrichment. For this reason it has been suggested that U/U measurements be used to detect contamination by HEU. The purpose of this Note is to point out that, because of alpha-recoil effects, U/U varies widely in natural systems, and for this reason it would not be a dependable indicator of the presence of HEU. The same variations would cause U/U ratios to be doubtful indicators of depleted uranium. PMID:18301103

  9. Enrichment of heavy nuclei in He-3-rich flares. [Imp-7 observed solar events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurford, G. J.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Vogt, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    IMP-7 observations of five solar-flare particle events characterized by He-3 enrichment are reported which show that such events are also enriched in nuclei with charges (Z) of at least 6. The ratio of these nuclei to H-1 at approximately 3 MeV/nucleon was found to be enriched by about 10 to 100 times, while the ratio with respect to He-4 was enriched by about 3 to 30 times. It is suggested that the simultaneous enhancement of He-3 and the heavier nuclei as well as the absence of H-2 and H-3 during the observed events may be partly due to a preferential acceleration process which depends on the ratio of the square of the charge to the atomic weight of the nuclei.

  10. Carbon-enriched calcium carbide and its potential use

    SciTech Connect

    Ivakhnyuk, G.K.; Samonin, V.V.; Fedorov, N.F.; Vladimirov, V.A.; Stepanova, L.V.; Kas'yanova, O.M.

    1987-10-10

    The authors comparatively assess the feasibility of a variety of carbonaceous materials--lean coal, specialty coke, coal coke, semicoke, and coke residue from shale production--as raw materials for the production and carburization of calcium carbide and subsequently assess the value of the calcium carbide produced as a raw material in the production of graphite. They determine that calcium carbide enriched by their process is characterized by a high carbon content having the graphite structure and that the use of carburized calcium carbide allows for a significant increase in the output of graphite during low-temperature reaction of the carbide with magnesium chloride.

  11. CUE (CULTURE, UNDERSTANDING, ENRICHMENT)--HOME ECONOMICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION IS A TEACHING GUIDE TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR INTEGRATING CAREFULLY SELECTED AUDIOVISUAL ITEMS INTO EXISTING NINTH-GRADE CURRICULUMS IN HOME ECONOMICS. IT IS ONE OF FIVE GUIDES PREPARED FOR USE IN PROJECT CUE, AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING AND ENRICHMENT IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS OF HIGH…

  12. Computer Enrichment Handbook [and] Supplement A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Bonnie Roe, Ed.; And Others

    This handbook contains computer-related, classroom-tested ideas that were contributed by business education teachers and administrators to fuse computer information into computer and noncomputer courses. An alphabetical listing of contributors identifies the category/categories in which their enrichment idea can be found. The contributions are…

  13. Projects To Enrich School Mathematics. Level 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Leroy, Ed.

    This is a series of research projects that can be used for enrichment of the high school mathematics curriculum. It is suggested that the topics are either not found in the standard curriculum or represent a more indepth study of standard topics. The areas considered are: applications of the microcomputer in mathematics; the fourth dimension and…

  14. ParentSource: A Practice in Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Community-based parenting education programs have a unique role to play in the promotion of infant mental health. In contrast to classes that seek to accelerate child development, the author describes enrichment programs that promote parent-child bonding and healthy social and emotional development. The ParentSource program was developed on the…

  15. Enriched Students Program: Nova Scotia, Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aylward, Margaret

    1987-01-01

    The Russell C. Gordon Elementary School (Nova Scotia, Canada) offers the Enriched Students Program (ESP) for academically gifted students. ESP goals include: fostering and developing individual interests of students; initiating higher level thinking skills; strengthening task commitment; stimulating creativity; promoting leadership qualities; and…

  16. American Indian Enrichment Activities. Mini-Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosnick, Sally

    Focusing on American Indians, this annotated bibliography covers a variety of resources for enriching multicultural education in the elementary classroom and includes limited information about Mexican Americans, Blacks, and other cultural groups. Each of the 26 entries provides a descriptive annotation and indicates where the material can be…

  17. CUE (CULTURE, UNDERSTANDING, ENRICHMENT)--SCIENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION IS A TEACHING GUIDE TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR INTEGRATING CAREFULLY SELECTED AUDIOVISUAL ITEMS INTO EXISTING NINTH-GRADE CURRICULUMS IN SCIENCE. IT IS ONE OF FIVE GUIDES PREPARED FOR USE IN PROJECT CUE, AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING AND ENRICHMENT IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS OF HIGH SCHOOLS. THE…

  18. Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Safeguards System Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Elayat, H A; O'Connell, W J; Boyer, B D

    2006-06-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in developing tools and methods for potential U.S. use in designing and evaluating safeguards systems used in enrichment facilities. This research focuses on analyzing the effectiveness of the safeguards in protecting against the range of safeguards concerns for enrichment plants, including diversion of attractive material and unauthorized modes of use. We developed an Extend simulation model for a generic medium-sized centrifuge enrichment plant. We modeled the material flow in normal operation, plant operational upset modes, and selected diversion scenarios, for selected safeguards systems. Simulation modeling is used to analyze both authorized and unauthorized use of a plant and the flow of safeguards information. Simulation tracks the movement of materials and isotopes, identifies the signatures of unauthorized use, tracks the flow and compilation of safeguards data, and evaluates the effectiveness of the safeguards system in detecting misuse signatures. The simulation model developed could be of use to the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA, enabling the IAEA to observe and draw conclusions that uranium enrichment facilities are being used only within authorized limits for peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It will evaluate improved approaches to nonproliferation concerns, facilitating deployment of enhanced and cost-effective safeguards systems for an important part of the nuclear power fuel cycle.

  19. The Partnership on Work Enrichment and Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haar, Diane; Raggi, Mindi

    2009-01-01

    The Partnership on Work Enrichment and Readiness (POWER's) unique and innovative curriculum recruits and sustains nontraditional students interested in preparing for employment or continued studies in an institution of higher education. The program specifically targets persons in mental health recovery. Students attend college during a regular…

  20. Creating Enrichment Trips for Your Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Robert M.; Parker, James L. F.

    The paper describes "enrichment trips" in which disadvantaged handicapped students travel to various parts of the country to broaden students' awareness. Students had to earn their way through regular attendance, appropriate school behavior, academic achievement, and active participation in fund raising for the trip. Students and teachers worked…

  1. The Effects of Early Language Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William; Ogston, Karen; Roberts, Gloria; Swenson, Amy

    2006-01-01

    Over two decades, six studies evaluated the effects of a home-based early language program on the development of 101 infants. Parents engaged in enrichment activities with their infants over a one-year period that began when the infants were between three and 13 months of age. Participants from families with varied levels of education were…

  2. Method for laser induced isotope enrichment

    DOEpatents

    Pronko, Peter P.; Vanrompay, Paul A.; Zhang, Zhiyu

    2004-09-07

    Methods for separating isotopes or chemical species of an element and causing enrichment of a desired isotope or chemical species of an element utilizing laser ablation plasmas to modify or fabricate a material containing such isotopes or chemical species are provided. This invention may be used for a wide variety of materials which contain elements having different isotopes or chemical species.

  3. Projects To Enrich School Mathematics. Level 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Leroy, Ed.

    This is a series of research projects that can be used for enrichment of the middle school mathematics curriculum. It is suggested that the topics are either not found in the standard curriculum or represent a more indepth study of standard topics. The areas considered are: microcomputer programs; divisibility; magic squares; pentominoes; the…

  4. How to Enrich Geometry Using String Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Victoria

    This book presents activities developed for grades 6-10 in creating string designs on polygons and polyhedra. They are designed for use as enrichment materials, each having step-by-step instructions and are arranged from easiest to most difficult, and marked accordingly. The pages are punched and perforated. Many activities are followed by related…

  5. Enriched Career Search [and] Description of Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willings, David

    Some problems encountered by gifted students in career counseling are discussed and a program, Enriched Career Search, is suggested for alleviating those problems. Noted among career search problems related to the gifted are career tests that are not geared to the multi-talented student's unconventional career aspirations and rejection of careers…

  6. Implementing the Schoolwide Enrichment Model in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza Fleith, Denise; Soriano de Alencar, Eunice M. L.

    2010-01-01

    The Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) has been one of the most widely used models in the education of the gifted in Brazil. It has inspired the political and pedagogical project of the Centers of Activities of High Abilities/Giftedness recently implemented in 27 Brazilian states by the Ministry of Education. In this article, our experience in…

  7. On Feuerstein's Instrumental Enrichment: A Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Hur, Meir, Ed.

    On the premise that all children can learn, Reuven Feuerstein developed a classroom curriculum designed to build the cognitive functions of students diagnosed by others as incapable of learning. His program, Instrumental Enrichment (IE), provides students with the concepts, skills, strategies, operations, and techniques necessary to become…

  8. Phosphopeptide Enrichment by Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Thingholm, Tine E; Larsen, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) has been the method of choice for phosphopeptide enrichment prior to mass spectrometric analysis for many years and it is still used extensively in many laboratories. Using the affinity of negatively charged phosphate groups towards positively charged metal ions such as Fe(3+), Ga(3+), Al(3+), Zr(4+), and Ti(4+) has made it possible to enrich phosphorylated peptides from peptide samples. However, the selectivity of most of the metal ions is limited, when working with highly complex samples, e.g., whole-cell extracts, resulting in contamination from nonspecific binding of non-phosphorylated peptides. This problem is mainly caused by highly acidic peptides that also share high binding affinity towards these metal ions. By lowering the pH of the loading buffer nonspecific binding can be reduced significantly, however with the risk of reducing specific binding capacity. After binding, the enriched phosphopeptides are released from the metal ions using alkaline buffers of pH 10-11, EDTA, or phosphate-containing buffers. Here we describe a protocol for IMAC using Fe(3+) for phosphopeptide enrichment. The principles are illustrated on a semi-complex peptide mixture. PMID:26584922

  9. Enrichment as a Part of Gifted Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldorf, Dale

    1984-01-01

    The program outlined in the article indicates how enrichment and gifted education can be combined to maximize the learning experiences and opportunities for bright and gifted learners. Four examples of pilot programs are offered, including one on water management in an urban wilderness park. (Author/CL)

  10. CUE (CULTURE, UNDERSTANDING, ENRICHMENT)--INDUSTRIAL ARTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION IS A TEACHING GUIDE TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR INTEGRATING CAREFULLY SELECTED AUDIOVISUAL ITEMS INTO EXISTING NINTH-GRADE CURRICULUMS IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS. IT IS ONE OF FIVE GUIDES PREPARED FOR USE IN PROJECT CUE, AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING AND ENRICHMENT IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS OF HIGH…

  11. Optimized construction of microsatellite-enriched libraries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The construction of simple sequence repeat (SSR) libraries is an indispensable tool to search for molecular markers as complete genome sequences are still not available for the majority of species of interest. Numerous protocols are available in the literature for the construction of SSR-enriched l...

  12. Nucleosynthesis in helium-enriched asymptotic giant branch models: Implications for heavy element enrichment in ω Centauri

    SciTech Connect

    Karakas, Amanda I.; Marino, Anna F.; Nataf, David M.

    2014-03-20

    We investigate the effect of helium enrichment on the evolution and nucleosynthesis of low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of 1.7 M {sub ☉} and 2.36 M {sub ☉} with a metallicity of Z = 0.0006 ([Fe/H] ≈–1.4). We calculate evolutionary sequences with the primordial helium abundance (Y = 0.24) and with helium-enriched compositions (Y = 0.30, 0.35, 0.40). For comparison, we calculate models of the same mass but at a lower metallicity Z = 0.0003 ([Fe/H] ≈–1.8) with Y = 0.24. Post-processing nucleosynthesis calculations are performed on each of the evolutionary sequences to determine the production of elements from hydrogen to bismuth. Elemental surface abundance predictions and stellar yields are presented for each model. The models with enriched helium have shorter main sequence and AGB lifetimes, and they enter the AGB with a more massive hydrogen-exhausted core than the primordial helium model. The main consequences are as follows: (1) low-mass AGB models with enhanced helium will evolve more than twice as fast, giving them the chance to contribute sooner to the chemical evolution of the forming globular clusters, and (2) the stellar yields will be strongly reduced relative to their primordial helium counterparts. An increase of ΔY = 0.10 at a given mass decreases the yields of carbon by up to ≈60% and of fluorine by up to 80%; it also decreases the yields of the s-process elements barium and lanthanum by ≈45%. While the yields of first s-process peak elements strontium, yttrium, and zirconium decrease by up to 50%, the yields of rubidium either do not change or increase.

  13. Ozonolysis of nonmethane hydrocarbons as a source of the observed mass independent oxygen isotope enrichment in tropospheric CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RöCkmann, Thomas; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Neeb, Peter; Crutzen, Paul J.

    1998-01-01

    Combined 17O and 18O measurements of tropospheric CO from two northern hemisphere (NH) sites reveal systematically enhanced 17O levels, confirming the existence of significant mass independent oxygen isotope enrichment in this important trace gas. When CO levels increase in the NH winter, the mass independent enrichment decreases proportionally. A possible source of this rare isotope effect in CO is transfer of the mass independent enrichment from O3 to the CO pool via ozonolysis of unsaturated hydrocarbons such as isoprene and terpenes. Laboratory ozonolysis experiments indeed confirm that this process is a potentially important source of mass independently enriched CO. The extra 17O enrichment found in ozonolysis-derived CO is similar to the mass independent fractionation measured on ozone. If ozonolysis is the only source of mass independent enrichment in CO, it is estimated that about 10% of all CO in middle to high latitude winter, at ground level, originates from the ozonolysis of unsaturated hydrocarbons. While the laboratory experiments prove that ozonolysis is a source of mass independent enrichment in CO, a further problem unfolds. Because tropospheric O3 is strongly enriched in 18O as well, this enrichment is also transferred to the CO inventory. When 10% of the CO inventory has the strong 18O enrichment, the measured low 18O abundance of atmospheric CO requires for compensation the existence of a strongly 18O depleted CO source, or a selective isotopic modification due to isotope fractionation. No such source has been identified to date, and thus ozonolysis may not be the only source of mass independent fractionation in atmospheric CO. Because the mass independent isotopic enrichment is by its nature indestructible by common (i.e., mass dependent) fractionation processes, it is an ideal tracer.

  14. Conversion and Evaluation of the University of Massachusetts Lowell Research Reactor From High-Enriched To Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Leo M. Bobek

    2003-11-19

    The process for converting the University of Massachusetts Lowell Research Reactor (UMLRR) from high-enrichment uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel began in 1988. Several years of design reviews, computational modeling, and thermal hydraulic analyses resulted in a preliminary reference core design and configuration based on 20 standard, MTR-type, flat-plate, 19.75% enriched, uranium silicide (u3Si2) fuel elements. A final safety analysis for the fuel conversion was submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1993. The NRC made two additional requests for additional information and supplements were submitted in 1994 and 1997. The new UMLRR Reactor Supervisor initiated an effort to change the LEU reference core configuration to eliminate a complicated control rod modification needed for the smaller core.

  15. THE FIRST GALAXIES: CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT, MIXING, AND STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Greif, Thomas H.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Bromm, Volker

    2010-06-10

    Using three-dimensional cosmological simulations, we study the assembly process of one of the first galaxies, with a total mass of {approx}10{sup 8} M {sub sun}, collapsing at z {approx_equal} 10. Our main goal is to trace the transport of the heavy chemical elements produced and dispersed by a pair-instability supernova exploding in one of the minihalo progenitors. To this extent, we incorporate an efficient algorithm into our smoothed particle hydrodynamics code that approximately models turbulent mixing as a diffusion process. We study this mixing with and without the radiative feedback from Population III (Pop III) stars that subsequently form in neighboring minihalos. Our simulations allow us to constrain the initial conditions for second-generation star formation, within the first galaxy itself, and inside of minihalos that virialize after the supernova explosion. We find that most minihalos remain unscathed by ionizing radiation or the supernova remnant, while some are substantially photoheated and enriched to supercritical levels, likely resulting in the formation of low-mass Pop III or even Population II (Pop II) stars. At the center of the newly formed galaxy, {approx}10{sup 5} M {sub sun} of cold, dense gas uniformly enriched to {approx}10{sup -3} Z {sub sun} is in a state of collapse, suggesting that a cluster of Pop II stars will form. The first galaxies, as may be detected by the James Webb Space Telescope, would therefore already contain stellar populations familiar from lower redshifts.

  16. STEM enrichment programs and graduate school matriculation: the role of science identity salience

    PubMed Central

    Serpe, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    Improving the state of science education in the United States has become a national priority. One response to this problem has been the implementation of STEM enrichment programs designed to increase the number of students that enter graduate programs in science. Current research indicates enrichment programs have positive effects for student performance, degree completion, interest in science and graduate enrollment. Moreover, research suggests that beyond improving performance in STEM, and providing access to research experience and faculty mentoring, enrichment programs may also increase the degree to which students identify as scientists. However, researchers investigating the role of science identity on student outcomes have focused primarily on subjective outcomes, leaving a critical question of whether science identity also influences objective outcomes such as whether students attend graduate school. Using identity theory, this study addresses this issue by investigating science identity as a mechanism linking enrichment program participation to matriculation into graduate science programs. Quantitative results from a panel study of 694 students indicate that science identity salience, along with research experience and college GPA, mediate the effect of enrichment program participation on graduate school matriculation. Further, results indicate that although the social psychological process by which science identity salience develops operates independently from student GPA, science identity amplifies the effect of achievement on graduate school matriculation. These results indicate that policies seeking to increase the efficacy of enrichment programs and increase representation in STEM graduate programs should be sensitive to the social and academic aspects of STEM education. PMID:24578606

  17. STEM enrichment programs and graduate school matriculation: the role of science identity salience.

    PubMed

    Merolla, David M; Serpe, Richard T

    2013-12-01

    Improving the state of science education in the United States has become a national priority. One response to this problem has been the implementation of STEM enrichment programs designed to increase the number of students that enter graduate programs in science. Current research indicates enrichment programs have positive effects for student performance, degree completion, interest in science and graduate enrollment. Moreover, research suggests that beyond improving performance in STEM, and providing access to research experience and faculty mentoring, enrichment programs may also increase the degree to which students identify as scientists. However, researchers investigating the role of science identity on student outcomes have focused primarily on subjective outcomes, leaving a critical question of whether science identity also influences objective outcomes such as whether students attend graduate school. Using identity theory, this study addresses this issue by investigating science identity as a mechanism linking enrichment program participation to matriculation into graduate science programs. Quantitative results from a panel study of 694 students indicate that science identity salience, along with research experience and college GPA, mediate the effect of enrichment program participation on graduate school matriculation. Further, results indicate that although the social psychological process by which science identity salience develops operates independently from student GPA, science identity amplifies the effect of achievement on graduate school matriculation. These results indicate that policies seeking to increase the efficacy of enrichment programs and increase representation in STEM graduate programs should be sensitive to the social and academic aspects of STEM education. PMID:24578606

  18. REEF: searching REgionally Enriched Features in genomes

    PubMed Central

    Coppe, Alessandro; Danieli, Gian Antonio; Bortoluzzi, Stefania

    2006-01-01

    Background In Eukaryotic genomes, different features including genes are not uniformly distributed. The integration of annotation information and genomic position of functional DNA elements in the Eukaryotic genomes opened the way to test novel hypotheses of higher order genome organization and regulation of expression. Results REEF is a new tool, aimed at identifying genomic regions enriched in specific features, such as a class or group of genes homogeneous for expression and/or functional characteristics. The method for the calculation of local feature enrichment uses test statistic based on the Hypergeometric Distribution applied genome-wide by using a sliding window approach and adopting the False Discovery Rate for controlling multiplicity. REEF software, source code and documentation are freely available at . Conclusion REEF can aid to shed light on the role of organization of specific genomic regions in the determination of their functional role. PMID:17042935

  19. Simulating Isotope Enrichment by Gaseous Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Cameron

    2015-04-01

    A desktop-computer simulation of isotope enrichment by gaseous diffusion has been developed. The simulation incorporates two non-interacting point-mass species whose members pass through a cascade of cells containing porous membranes and retain constant speeds as they reflect off the walls of the cells and the spaces between holes in the membranes. A particular feature is periodic forward recycling of enriched material to cells further along the cascade along with simultaneous return of depleted material to preceding cells. The number of particles, the mass ratio, the initial fractional abundance of the lighter species, and the time between recycling operations can be chosen by the user. The simulation is simple enough to be understood on the basis of two-dimensional kinematics, and demonstrates that the fractional abundance of the lighter-isotope species increases along the cascade. The logic of the simulation will be described and results of some typical runs will be presented and discussed.

  20. Enrichment behavior and transport mechanism of soil-bound PAHs during rainfall-runoff events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, X.; Zheng, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) transported by surface runoff result in nonpoint source pollution and jeopardize aquatic ecosystems. The transport mechanism of PAHs during rainfall-runoff events has been rarely studied regarding pervious areas. An experimental system was set up to simulate the runoff pollution process on PAHs-contaminated soil. The enrichment behavior of soil-bound PAHs was investigated. The results show that soil organic matters (SOM), rather than clay particles, seem to be the main carrier of PAHs. The enrichment is highly conditioned on runoff and erosion processes, and its magnitude varies among PAH compounds. It is not feasible to build a simple and universal relationship between enrichment ratio and sediment discharge following the traditional enrichment theory. To estimate the flux of PAHs from pervious areas, soil erosion process has to be clearly understood, and both organic carbon content and composition of SOM should be factored into the calculation.To further explore the effect of different soil organic matters on the enrichment behavior, Organic petrology analysis can be applied. Schematic diagram of the experimental setup

  1. Metal Enrichment in the Reionization Epoch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrara, Andrea

    Heavy elements are important constituents of the Universe predominantly produced by massive stars during their evolution. Massive stars are also considered to be primary sources of the ionizing radiation required to power cosmic reionization. Therefore, an intimate link between metal and ionizing photon production must exist. In this chapter, I elaborate on this concept, outlining the basic ingredients necessary to model metal enrichment and interpret experimental data. I conclude with a brief overview of recent theoretical and observational progresses in the field.

  2. [Enriched and functional foodstuffs: similarities and differences].

    PubMed

    Mazo, V K; Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Zilova, I S

    2012-01-01

    A comparison of fortified and functional foods on such parameters as destination, food group, the principles of enrichment with vitamins and/or macro- and micronutrients, doses and forms of vitamins and minerals, hygienic regulations of micronutrients usage and content in the final product, regulatory and technical documentation, duration of application, effectiveness, labeling, information for consumers has been carried out. Insufficiency and the need to improve the regulatory framework for functional foods are noted. PMID:22642167

  3. Environmental monitoring for detection of uranium enrichment operations: Comparison of LEU and HEU facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hembree, D.M. Jr.; Carter, J.A.; Ross, H.H.

    1995-03-01

    In 1994, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an ambitious program of worldwide field trials to evaluate the utility of environmental monitoring for safeguards. Part of this program involved two extensive United States field trials conducted at the large uranium enrichment facilities. The Paducah operation involves a large low-enriched uranium (LEU) gaseous diffusion plant while the Portsmouth facilities include a large gaseous diffusion plant that has produced both LEU and high-enriched uranium (HEU) as well as an LEU centrifuge facility. As a result of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, management of the uranium enrichment operations was assumed by the US Enrichment Corporation (USEC). The facilities are operated under contract by Martin Marietta Utility Services. Martin Marietta Energy Systems manages the environmental restoration and waste management programs at Portsmouth and Paducah for DOE. These field trials were conducted. Samples included swipes from inside and outside process buildings, vegetation and soil samples taken from locations up to 8 km from main sites, and hydrologic samples taken on the sites and at varying distances from the sites. Analytical results from bulk analysis were obtained using high abundance sensitivity thermal ionization mm spectrometers (TIMS). Uranium isotopics altered from the normal background percentages were found for all the sample types listed above, even on vegetation 5 km from one of the enrichment facilities. The results from these field trials demonstrate that dilution by natural background uranium does not remove from environmental samples the distinctive signatures that are characteristic of enrichment operations. Data from swipe samples taken within the enrichment facilities were particularly revealing. Particulate analysis of these swipes provided a detailed ``history`` of both facilities, including the assays of the end product and tails for both facilities.

  4. Enriching Earthdata by Improving Content Curation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagwell, R.; Wong, M. M.; Murphy, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    Since the launch of Earthdata in the later part of 2011, there has been an emphasis on improving the user experience and providing more enriched content to the user, ultimately with the focus to bring the "pixels to the people" or to ensure that a user clicks the fewest amount of times to get to the data, tools, or information which they seek. Earthdata was founded to be a single source of information for Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) components and services as a conglomeration between over 15 different websites. With an increased focus on access to Earth science data, the recognition is now on transforming Earthdata from a static website to one that is a dynamic, data-driven site full of enriched content.In the near future, Earthdata will have a number of components that will drive the access to the data, such as Earthdata Search, the Common Metadata Repository (CMR), and a redesign of the Earthdata website. The focus on content curation will be to leverage the use of these components to provide an enriched content environment and a better overall user experience, with an emphasis on Earthdata being "powered by EOSDIS" components and services.

  5. Turkey liver - a chromium enriched food source

    SciTech Connect

    Polansky, M.M.; Bryden, N.A.; Richards, M.; Anderson, R.A.

    1986-03-01

    There are presently no known foods for humans that are particularly good sources of chromium. As a means of obtaining Cr enriched foods, turkeys were fed diets containing various levels of supplemental chromium. Four groups of 6-month old turkey hens were fed either the basal diet for laying hens or this diet supplemented with 25, 100 or 200 ..mu..g of chromium as chromium chloride per g of diet. Liver Cr concentration of the turkeys sacrificed after 1 week increased from 7 ng/g (wet wt) while consuming the basal diet to 15, 48 and 68 ng/g, respectively, while consuming the diets with supplemental chromium. Comparable values for the turkeys sacrificed after 5 weeks were 2, 43, 170 and 325 ng/g. Similar trends but higher chromium values were observed for kidney samples. The chromium contents of the dark and white meat and eggs were not altered significantly. Chromium concentrations of the pancreas, gizzard and heart increased marginally; final chromium concentrations were less than 23 ng/g even after 5 weeks on the highest level of supplemental chromium. Chromium content of spleen and lungs was approximately 2-fold higher than that of the pancreas, gizzard or heart. Therefore, turkey liver is a food source suitable for Cr enrichment while the eggs, dark and white meat and other edible parts do not appear to be enriched following chromium supplementation.

  6. Supply of enriched uranium for research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, H.

    1997-08-01

    Since the RERTR-meeting In Newport/USA in 1990 the author delivered a series of papers in connection with the fuel cycle for research reactors dealing with its front-end. In these papers the author underlined the need for unified specifications for enriched uranium metal suitable for the production of fuel elements and made proposals with regard to the re-use of in Europe reprocessed highly enriched uranium. With regard to the fuel cycle of research reactors the research reactor community was since 1989 more concentrating on the problems of its back-end since the USA stopped the acceptance of spent research reactor fuel on December 31, 1988. Now, since it is apparent that these back-end problem have been solved by AEA`s ability to reprocess and the preparedness of the USA to again accept physically spent research reactor fuel the author is focusing with this paper again on the front-end of the fuel cycle on the question whether there is at all a safe supply of low and high enriched uranium for research reactors in the future.

  7. The effects of auditory enrichment on gorillas.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Lindsey; Margulis, Susan W

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that auditory enrichment can reduce stereotypic behaviors in captive animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of three different types of auditory enrichment-naturalistic sounds, classical music, and rock music-in reducing stereotypic behavior displayed by Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Three gorillas (one adult male, two adult females) were observed at the Buffalo Zoo for a total of 24 hr per music trial. A control observation period, during which no sounds were presented, was also included. Each music trial consisted of a total of three weeks with a 1-week control period in between each music type. The results reveal a decrease in stereotypic behaviors from the control period to naturalistic sounds. The naturalistic sounds also affected patterns of several other behaviors including locomotion. In contrast, stereotypy increased in the presence of classical and rock music. These results suggest that auditory enrichment, which is not commonly used in zoos in a systematic way, can be easily utilized by keepers to help decrease stereotypic behavior, but the nature of the stimulus, as well as the differential responses of individual animals, need to be considered. PMID:24715297

  8. Inhomogeneous chemical enrichment in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki

    2016-08-01

    In a galaxy, chemical enrichment takes place in an inhomogeneous fashion, and the Galactic Halo is one of the places where the inhomogeneous effects are imprinted and can be constrained from observations. I show this using my chemodynamical simulations of Milky Way type galaxies. The scatter in the elemental abundances originate from radial migration, merging/accretion of satellite galaxies, local variation of star formation and chemical enrichment, and intrinsic variation of nucleosynthesis yields. In the simulated galaxies, there is no strong age-metallicity relation. This means that the most metal-poor stars are not always the oldest stars, and can be formed in chemically unevolved clouds at later times. The long-lifetime sources of chemical enrichment such as asymptotic giant branch stars or neutron star mergers can contribute at low metallicities. The intrinsic variation of yields are important in the early Universe or metal-poor systems such as in the Galactic halo. The carbon enhancement of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars can be best explained by faint supernovae, the low [α/Fe] ratios in some EMP stars naturally arise from low-mass (~ 13 - 15M ⊙) supernovae, and finally, the [α/Fe] knee in dwarf spheroidal galaxies can be produced by subclasses of Type Ia supernovae such as SN 2002cx-like objects and sub-Chandrasekhar mass explosions.

  9. Flight Opportunities for Science Teacher EnRichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, D.; Devore, E.; Gillespie, C., Jr.; Hull, G.

    1994-12-01

    The Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) is NASA's unique stratospheric infrared observatory. Science on board the KAO involves many disciplines and technologies. NASA Astrophysics Division supports a pre-college teacher program to provide Flight Opportunities for Science Teacher EnRichment (FOSTER). To date, forty-five teachers are participating, and the program is designed to nation-wide to serve fifty teachers per year on board the KAO. FOSTER is a pilot program for K-12 educational outreach for NASA's future Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) which will directly involve more than one-hundred teachers each year in airborne astronomical research missions. FOSTER aims to enrich precollege teachers' experiences and understanding of science, mathematics and technology. Teachers meet at NASA Ames Research Center for summer workshops on astronomy and contemporary astrophysics, and to prepare for flights. Further, teachers receive Internet training and support to create a FOSTER teacher network across the country, and to sustain communication with the airborne astronomy community. Each research flight of the KAO is a microcosm of the scientific method. Flying teachers obtain first-hand, real-time experiences of the scientific process: its excitement, hardships, challenges, discoveries, teamwork, and educational value. The FOSTER experience gives teachers pride and a sense of special achievement. They bring the excitement and adventure of doing first-class science to their students and communities. Flight Opportunities for Science Teacher EnRichment is funded by a NASA's Astrophysics Division grant, NAGW 3291, and supported by the SETI Institute and NASA Ames Research Center.

  10. A Resolution of the Paradox of Enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Z. C.; Li, Y. Charles

    2015-06-01

    The paradox of enrichment was observed by Rosenzweig [1971] in a class of predator-prey models. Two of the parameters in the models are crucial for the paradox. These two parameters are the prey's carrying capacity and prey's half-saturation for predation. Intuitively, increasing the carrying capacity due to enrichment of the prey's environment should lead to a more stable predator-prey system. Analytically, it turns out that increasing the carrying capacity always leads to an unstable predator-prey system that is susceptible to extinction from environmental random perturbations. This is the so-called paradox of enrichment. Our resolution here rests upon a closer investigation on a dimensionless number H formed from the carrying capacity and the prey's half-saturation. By recasting the models into dimensionless forms, the models are in fact governed by a few dimensionless numbers including H. The effects of the two parameters: carrying capacity and half-saturation are incorporated into the number H. In fact, increasing the carrying capacity is equivalent (i.e. has the same effect on H) to decreasing the half-saturation which implies more aggressive predation. Since there is no paradox between more aggressive predation and instability of the predator-prey system, the paradox of enrichment is resolved. The so-called instability of the predator-prey system is characterized by the existence of a stable limit cycle in the phase plane, which gets closer and closer to the predator axis and prey axis. Due to random environmental perturbations, this can lead to extinction. We also further explore spatially dependent models for which the phase space is infinite-dimensional. The spatially independent limit cycle which is generated by a Hopf bifurcation from an unstable steady state, is linearly stable in the infinite-dimensional phase space. Numerical simulations indicate that the basin of attraction of the limit cycle is riddled. This shows that spatial perturbations can

  11. Measurements of uranium holdup in an operating gaseous diffusion enrichment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Augustson, R.H.; Walton, R.B.; Harris, R.; Harbarger, W.; Hicks, J.; Timmons, G.; Shissler, D.; Tayloe, R.; Jones, S.; Fields, L.

    1983-01-01

    Holdup of nuclear material in process equipment is one of the major sources of uncertainty in materials balances, particularly for high-throughput facilities with large equipment and extensive piping, such as gaseous diffusion uranium-enrichment plants. Locating and measuring the holdup while the plant is operating is a challenging problem because of background from the process material and the neighboring equipment. This paper reports NDA measurements performed at the Goodyear Atomic Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth, Ohio, on enrichment equipment at the higher enrichment and (>10% /sup 235/U isotopic abundance) of the cascade. Both neutron and gamma-ray measurements were made to locate anomalously large deposits in converters and compressors and, within the limitations of the techniques, to quantify the amount of the deposit.

  12. Criteria for the safe storage of enriched uranium at the Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, S.O.

    1995-07-01

    Uranium storage practices at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities have evolved over a period spanning five decades of programmatic work in support of the nuclear deterrent mission. During this period, the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee has served as the principal enriched uranium facility for fabrication, chemical processing, metallurgical processing and storage. Recent curtailment of new nuclear weapons production and stockpile reduction has created significant amounts of enriched uranium available as a strategic resource which must be properly and safely stored. This standard specifies criteria associated with the safe storage of enriched uranium at the Y-12 Plant. Because programmatic needs, compliance regulations and desirable materials of construction change with time, it is recommended that these standards be reviewed and amended periodically to ensure that they continue to serve their intended purpose.

  13. Axi-symmetrical flow reactor for [sup 196]Hg photochemical enrichment

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.

    1991-04-30

    The present invention is directed to an improved photochemical reactor useful for the isotopic enrichment of a predetermined isotope of mercury, especially, [sup 196]Hg. Specifically, two axi-symmetrical flow reactors were constructed according to the teachings of the present invention. These reactors improve the mixing of the reactants during the photochemical enrichment process, affording higher yields of the desired [sup 196]Hg product. Measurements of the variation of yield (Y) and enrichment factor (E) along the flow axis of these reactors indicates very substantial improvement in process uniformity compared to previously used photochemical reactor systems. In one preferred embodiment of the present invention, the photoreactor system was built such that the reactor chamber was removable from the system without disturbing the location of either the photochemical lamp or the filter employed therewith. 10 figures.

  14. Proteolytic Digestion and TiO2 Phosphopeptide Enrichment Microreactor for Fast MS Identification of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jingren; Lazar, Iulia M

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of phosphorylation state(s) of a protein is best accomplished by using isolated or enriched phosphoprotein samples or their corresponding phosphopeptides. The process is typically time-consuming as, often, a combination of analytical approaches must be used. To facilitate throughput in the study of phosphoproteins, a microreactor that enables a novel strategy for performing fast proteolytic digestion and selective phosphopeptide enrichment was developed. The microreactor was fabricated using 100 μm i.d. fused-silica capillaries packed with 1-2 mm beds of C18 and/or TiO2 particles. Proteolytic digestion-only, phosphopeptide enrichment-only, and sequential proteolytic digestion/phosphopeptide enrichment microreactors were developed and tested with standard protein mixtures. The protein samples were adsorbed on the C18 particles, quickly digested with a proteolytic enzyme infused over the adsorbed proteins, and further eluted onto the TiO2 microreactor for enrichment in phosphopeptides. A number of parameters were optimized to speed up the digestion and enrichments processes, including microreactor dimensions, sample concentrations, digestion time, flow rates, buffer compositions, and pH. The effective time for the steps of proteolytic digestion and enrichment was less than 5 min. For simple samples, such as standard protein mixtures, this approach provided equivalent or better results than conventional bench-top methods, in terms of both enzymatic digestion and selectivity. Analysis times and reagent costs were reduced ~10- to 15-fold. Preliminary analysis of cell extracts and recombinant proteins indicated the feasibility of integration of these microreactors in more advanced workflows amenable for handling real-world biological samples. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:26883530

  15. Proteolytic Digestion and TiO2 Phosphopeptide Enrichment Microreactor for Fast MS Identification of Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jingren; Lazar, Iulia M.

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of phosphorylation state(s) of a protein is best accomplished by using isolated or enriched phosphoprotein samples or their corresponding phosphopeptides. The process is typically time-consuming as, often, a combination of analytical approaches must be used. To facilitate throughput in the study of phosphoproteins, a microreactor that enables a novel strategy for performing fast proteolytic digestion and selective phosphopeptide enrichment was developed. The microreactor was fabricated using 100 μm i.d. fused-silica capillaries packed with 1-2 mm beds of C18 and/or TiO2 particles. Proteolytic digestion-only, phosphopeptide enrichment-only, and sequential proteolytic digestion/phosphopeptide enrichment microreactors were developed and tested with standard protein mixtures. The protein samples were adsorbed on the C18 particles, quickly digested with a proteolytic enzyme infused over the adsorbed proteins, and further eluted onto the TiO2 microreactor for enrichment in phosphopeptides. A number of parameters were optimized to speed up the digestion and enrichments processes, including microreactor dimensions, sample concentrations, digestion time, flow rates, buffer compositions, and pH. The effective time for the steps of proteolytic digestion and enrichment was less than 5 min. For simple samples, such as standard protein mixtures, this approach provided equivalent or better results than conventional bench-top methods, in terms of both enzymatic digestion and selectivity. Analysis times and reagent costs were reduced ~10- to 15-fold. Preliminary analysis of cell extracts and recombinant proteins indicated the feasibility of integration of these microreactors in more advanced workflows amenable for handling real-world biological samples.

  16. 21 CFR 137.185 - Enriched self-rising flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched self-rising flour. 137.185 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.185 Enriched self-rising flour. Enriched self-rising flour... of ingredients, prescribed for self-rising flour by § 137.180, except that: (a) It contains in...

  17. 21 CFR 137.185 - Enriched self-rising flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched self-rising flour. 137.185 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.185 Enriched self-rising flour. Enriched self-rising flour... of ingredients, prescribed for self-rising flour by § 137.180, except that: (a) It contains in...

  18. 21 CFR 137.185 - Enriched self-rising flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched self-rising flour. 137.185 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.185 Enriched self-rising flour. Enriched self-rising flour... of ingredients, prescribed for self-rising flour by § 137.180, except that: (a) It contains in...

  19. 21 CFR 137.185 - Enriched self-rising flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched self-rising flour. 137.185 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.185 Enriched self-rising flour. Enriched self-rising flour... of ingredients, prescribed for self-rising flour by § 137.180, except that: (a) It contains in...

  20. 21 CFR 139.122 - Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.122... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.122 Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the enriched macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed...

  1. 21 CFR 139.122 - Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.122... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.122 Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the enriched macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed...

  2. 21 CFR 139.155 - Enriched noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched noodle products. 139.155 Section 139.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.155 Enriched noodle products. (a) Enriched noodle products are the class of...

  3. 31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540.306... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term highly...

  4. 31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). 540.308... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low...

  5. 31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). 540.308... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low...

  6. 31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540.306... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term highly...

  7. 31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). 540.308... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low...

  8. 31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540.306... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term highly...

  9. 31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540...) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term...

  10. 31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). 540.308... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low...

  11. 31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). 540.308... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low...

  12. 31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540.306... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term highly...

  13. Analysis of the effectiveness of gas centrifuge enrichment plants advanced safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian David; Erpenbeck, Heather H; Miller, Karen A; Swinjoe, Martyn T; Ianakiev, Kiril D; Marlow, Johnna B

    2010-01-01

    Current safeguards approaches used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to verify declared low-enriched uranium (LEU) production, detect undeclared LEU production and detect highly enriched uranium (HEU) production with adequate detection probability using non destructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and 235U enrichment of declared UF6 containers used in the process of enrichment at GCEPs. This paper contains an analysis of possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems including process monitoring and possible on-site destructive assay (DA) of samples that could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector's measurements. These improvements could reduce the difference between the operator's and inspector's measurements providing more effective and efficient IAEA GCEPs safeguards. We also explore how a few advanced safeguards systems could be assembled for unattended operation. The analysis will focus on how unannounced inspections (UIs), and the concept of information-driven inspections (IDS) can affect probability of detection of the diversion of nuclear materials when coupled to new GCEPs safeguards regimes augmented with unattended systems.

  14. Gas centrifuge enrichment plants inspection frequency and remote monitoring issues for advanced safeguards implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian David; Erpenbeck, Heather H; Miller, Karen A; Ianakiev, Kiril D; Reimold, Benjamin A; Ward, Steven L; Howell, John

    2010-09-13

    Current safeguards approaches used by the IAEA at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to verify declared low enriched uranium (LEU) production, detect undeclared LEU production and detect high enriched uranium (BEU) production with adequate probability using non destructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and {sup 235}U enrichment of declared cylinders of uranium hexafluoride that are used in the process of enrichment at GCEPs. This paper contains an analysis of how possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems including process monitoring and possible on-site destructive analysis (DA) of samples could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector's measurements providing more effective and efficient IAEA GCEPs safeguards. We have also studied a few advanced safeguards systems that could be assembled for unattended operation and the level of performance needed from these systems to provide more effective safeguards. The analysis also considers how short notice random inspections, unannounced inspections (UIs), and the concept of information-driven inspections can affect probability of detection of the diversion of nuclear material when coupled to new GCEPs safeguards regimes augmented with unattended systems. We also explore the effects of system failures and operator tampering on meeting safeguards goals for quantity and timeliness and the measures needed to recover from such failures and anomalies.

  15. Chemical enrichment of galaxy clusters from hydrodynamical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornatore, L.; Borgani, S.; Dolag, K.; Matteucci, F.

    2007-12-01

    We present cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters aimed at studying the process of metal enrichment of the intra-cluster medium (ICM). These simulations have been performed by implementing a detailed model of chemical evolution in the TREE-PM+SPMGADGET-2 code. This model allows us to follow the metal release from Type II supernovae (SNII), Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars by properly accounting for the lifetimes of stars of different mass, as well as to change the stellar initial mass function (IMF), the lifetime function and the stellar yields. As such, our implementation of chemical evolution represents a powerful instrument to follow the cosmic history of metal production. The simulations presented here have been performed with the twofold aim of checking numerical effects, as well as the impact of changing the model of chemical evolution and the efficiency of stellar feedback. In general, we find that the distribution of metals produced by SNII is more clumpy than for the product of low-mass stars, as a consequence of the different time-scales over which they are released. Using a standard Salpeter IMF produces a radial profile of iron abundance which is in fairly good agreement with observations available out to ~=0.6R500. This result holds almost independent of the numerical scheme adopted to distribute metals around star-forming regions. The mean age of enrichment of the ICM corresponds to redshift z ~ 0.5, which progressively increases outside the virial region. Increasing resolution, we improve the description of a diffuse high-redshift enrichment of the inter-galactic medium (IGM). This turns into a progressively more efficient enrichment of the cluster outskirts, while having a smaller impact at R <~ 0.5R500. As for the effect of the model of chemical evolution, we find that changing the IMF has the strongest impact. Using an IMF, which is top-heavier than the Salpeter one, provides a larger iron

  16. Fissile Flow and Enrichment Monitor for GCEP Advanced Safeguards Application

    SciTech Connect

    March-Leuba, Jose A; Uckan, Taner

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents experimental data that demonstrate a concept for a {sup 235}U flow and enrichment monitor (FEMO) based on passive measurements of process equipment in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). The primary goal of the FEMO is to prevent, without using pipe penetrations or active interrogation with external sources, the production and diversion of undeclared nuclear material. This FEMO concept utilizes: (1) calibrated measurements of {sup 235}U density in cascade headers, and (2) measurements of pump inlet pressure and volumetric flow rate, which are correlated to the electrical power consumed by the GCEP pumps that transport UF{sub 6} from the cascade to the condensation cylinders. The {sup 235}U density is measured by counting 186 keV emissions using a NaI gamma detector located upstream of the pump. The pump inlet pressure and volumetric flow rate are determined using a correlation that is a function of the measured pump operational parameters (e.g., electric power consumption and rotational frequency) and the pumping configuration. The concept has been demonstrated in a low-pressure flow loop at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  17. Isotopically Enriched Films and Nanostructures by Ultrafast Pulsed Laser Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Pronko

    2004-12-13

    This project involved a systematic study to apply newly discovered isotopic enrichment effects in laser ablation plumes to the fabrication of isotopically engineered thin films, superlattices, and nanostructures. The approach to this program involved using ultrafast lasers as a method for generating ablated plasmas that have preferentially structured isotopic content in the body of the ablation plasma plumes. In examining these results we have attempted to interpret the observations in terms of a plasma centrifuge process that is driven by the internal electro-magnetic fields of the plasma itself. The research plan involved studying the following phenomena in regard to the ablation plume and the isotopic mass distribution within it: (1) Test basic equations of steady state centrifugal motion in the ablation plasma. (2) Investigate angular distribution of ions in the ablation plasmas. (3) Examine interactions of plasma ions with self-generated magnetic fields. (3) Investigate ion to neutral ratios in the ablation plasmas. (5) Test concepts of plasma pumping. (6) Fabricate isotopically enriched nanostructures.

  18. Towards ontology personalization to enrich social conversations on AAC systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancilla V., Daniela; Sastoque H., Sebastian; Iregui G., Marcela

    2015-01-01

    Communication is one of the essential needs of human beings. Augmentative and Alternative Communication Systems (AAC) seek to help in the generation of oral and written language to people with physical disorders that limit their natural communication. These systems present significant challenges such as: the composition of consistent messages according to syntactic and semantic rules, the improvement of message production times, the application to social contexts and, consequently, the incorporation of user-specific information. This work presents an original ontology personalization approach for an AAC instant messaging system incorporating personalized information to improve the efficacy and efficiency of the message production. This proposal is based on a projection of a general ontology into a more specific one, avoiding storage redundancy and data coupling, representing a big opportunity to enrich communication capabilities of current AAC systems. The evaluation was performed for a study case based on an AAC system for assistance in composing messages. The results show that adding user-specific information allows generation of enriched phrases, so improving the accuracy of the message, facilitating the communication process.

  19. Paradox of enrichment: A fractional differential approach with memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Sourav; Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi; Pal, Joydeep; N'Guérékata, Gaston M.; Chattopadhyay, Joydev

    2013-09-01

    The paradox of enrichment (PoE) proposed by Rosenzweig [M. Rosenzweig, The paradox of enrichment, Science 171 (1971) 385-387] is still a fundamental problem in ecology. Most of the solutions have been proposed at an individual species level of organization and solutions at community level are lacking. Knowledge of how learning and memory modify behavioral responses to species is a key factor in making a crucial link between species and community levels. PoE resolution via these two organizational levels can be interpreted as a microscopic- and macroscopic-level solution. Fractional derivatives provide an excellent tool for describing this memory and the hereditary properties of various materials and processes. The derivatives can be physically interpreted via two time scales that are considered simultaneously: the ideal, equably flowing homogeneous local time, and the cosmic (inhomogeneous) non-local time. Several mechanisms and theories have been proposed to resolve the PoE problem, but a universally accepted theory is still lacking because most studies have focused on local effects and ignored non-local effects, which capture memory. Here we formulate the fractional counterpart of the Rosenzweig model and analyze the stability behavior of a system. We conclude that there is a threshold for the memory effect parameter beyond which the Rosenzweig model is stable and may be used as a potential agent to resolve PoE from a new perspective via fractional differential equations.

  20. Enriching and improving the quality of linked data with GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaniak, Adam; Kaczmarek, Iwona; Strzelecki, Marek; Lukowicz, Jaromar; Jankowski, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Standardization of methods for data exchange in GIS has along history predating the creation of World Wide Web. The advent of World Wide Web brought the emergence of new solutions for data exchange and sharing including; more recently, standards proposed by the W3C for data exchange involving Semantic Web technologies and linked data. Despite the growing interest in integration, GIS and linked data are still two separate paradigms for describing and publishing spatial data on the Web. At the same time, both paradigms offer complementary ways of representing real world phenomena and means of analysis using different processing functions. The complementarity of linked data and GIS can be leveraged to synergize both paradigms resulting in richer data content and more powerful inferencing. The article presents an approach aimed at integrating linked data with GIS. The approach relies on the use of GIS tools for integration, verification and enrichment of linked data. The GIS tools are employed to enrich linked data by furnishing access to collection of data resources, defining relationship between data resources, and subsequently facilitating GIS data integration with linked data. The proposed approach is demonstrated with examples using data from DBpedia, OSM, and tools developed by the authors for standard GIS software.

  1. Enriched domain detector: a program for detection of wide genomic enrichment domains robust against local variations

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Eivind; Oldenburg, Anja R.; Collas, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear lamins contact the genome at the nuclear periphery through large domains and are involved in chromatin organization. Among broad peak calling algorithms available to date, none are suited for mapping lamin–genome interactions genome wide. We disclose a novel algorithm, enriched domain detector (EDD), for analysis of broad enrichment domains from chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-seq data. EDD enables discovery of genomic domains interacting with broadly distributed proteins, such as A- and B-type lamins affinity isolated by ChIP. The advantages of EDD over existing broad peak callers are sensitivity to domain width rather than enrichment strength at a particular site, and robustness against local variations. PMID:24782521

  2. 75 FR 10525 - In the Matter of: AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility) and All Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility) and All Other... Immediately) I AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (AES), has applied to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission... February 2010. For the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Michael F. Weber, Director, Office of...

  3. 76 FR 34103 - In the Matter of Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... Facility), 74 FR 38,052, 38,054 (July 30, 2009) (CLI-09-15, 70 NRC 1, 7-8 (2009)). \\2\\ After conducting a... COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board In the Matter of Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock... operation of a gas centrifuge uranium enrichment facility--denoted as the Eagle Rock Enrichment...

  4. Modeling Profiles and Signatures of Enrichments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A.; Qualls, C.; Lucas, S. G.; Lombari, G.; Appenzeller, O.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic and geochemical enrichment of soils and living matter have been well documented 1, 2, 3.Here we report on geochemical, anthropogenic and biological enrichments with heavy metals in Modern Peru and compared this to Modern and ancient data from New Mexico, USA. We established a signature derived from the quantities of 25 metals in various biological, fossil and soil materials. We also speculate that human adaptation to mercury toxicity may occur in remarkably short time spans during the Holocene. We found mercury concentrations in Modern pigeon feathers and llama wool from free foraging birds and animals in Albuquerque, NM, ranging from 0.006 to 0.019 mg/Kg of tissue. The values for Modern Peru ranged from 22.0 to 556 mg/Kg for the same tissues. We discovered, in 64 million-year-old fossilized plants from New Mexico (Paleocene Nacimiento Formation, San Juan Basin), a mercury concentration of 1.11 mg/Kg of fossil, whereas Modern plant material from the Rio Grande Basin in New Mexico contained no mercury. Profiling of metal content of these samples suggests that mercury is a proxy for anthropogenic rather than geochemical enrichment in the localities we examined. We found no overt signs of mercury toxicity in contemporaneous inhabitants of Huancavelica4, Peru; one of the ten most mercury-polluted places in the world and the mercury concentration in their hair is well below modern admissible levels. However, assessment of their annual scalp hair growth-rate showed marked reduction in growth (~ 5cm/yr) versus ~ 16cm/year for normal scalp hair from other continents4. This is consistent with a toxic effect of heavy metals on human metabolism and especially autonomic nervous system function in Huancavelica, Peru. Contemporaneous anthropogenic activities are known to increase heavy metal content in the biosphere with potentially toxic effects on humans. However, signs of human evolutionary adaptation to such toxins might already be evident in Peru4.

  5. Possibility of nuclear pumped laser experiment using low enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Obara, Toru; Takezawa, Hiroki

    2012-06-06

    Possibility to perform experiments for nuclear pumped laser oscillation by using low enriched uranium is investigated. Kinetic analyses are performed for two types of reactor design, one is using highly enriched uranium and the other is using low enriched uranium. The reactor design is based on the experiment reactor in IPPE. The results show the oscillation of nuclear pumped laser in the case of low enriched uranium reactor is also possible. The use of low enriched uranium in the experiment will make experiment easier.

  6. Active interrogation of highly enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, C. E.; Hollas, C. L.; Myers, W. L.

    2004-01-01

    Active interrogation techniques provide reliable detection of highly enriched uranium (HEU) even when passive detection is difficult. We use 50-Hz pulsed beams of bremsstrahlung photons from a 10-MeV linac or 14-MeV neutrons from a neutron generator for interrogation, thus activating the HEU. Detection of neutrons between pulses is a positive indicator of the presence of fissionable material. We detect the neutrons with three neutron detector designs based on {sup 3}He tubes. This report shows examples of the responses in these three detectors, for unshielded and shielded kilogram quantities of HEU, in containers as large as cargo containers.

  7. Active interrogation of highly enriched uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairrow, Nannette Lea

    Safeguarding special nuclear material (SNM) in the Department of Energy Complex is vital to the national security of the United States. Active and passive nondestructive assays are used to confirm the presence of SNM in various configurations ranging from waste to nuclear weapons. Confirmation measurements for nuclear weapons are more challenging because the design complicates the detection of a distinct signal for highly enriched uranium. The emphasis of this dissertation was to investigate a new nondestructive assay technique that provides an independent and distinct signal to confirm the presence of highly enriched uranium (HEU). Once completed and tested this assay method could be applied to confirmation measurements of nuclear weapons. The new system uses a 14-MeV neutron source for interrogation and records the arrival time of neutrons between the pulses with a high efficiency detection system. The data is then analyzed by the Feynman reduced variance method. The analysis determined the amount of correlation in the data and provided a unique signature of correlated fission neutrons. Measurements of HEU spheres were conducted at Los Alamos with the new system. Then, Monte Carlo calculations were performed to verify hypothesis made about the behavior of the neutrons in the experiment. Comparisons of calculated counting rates by the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) were made with the experimental data to confirm that the measured response reflected the desired behavior of neutron interactions in the highly enriched uranium. In addition, MCNP calculations of the delayed neutron build-up were compared with the measured data. Based on the results obtained from this dissertation, this measurement method has the potential to be expanded to include mass determinations of highly enriched uranium. Although many safeguards techniques exist for measuring special nuclear material, the number of assays that can be used to confirm HEU in shielded systems is

  8. Flight opportunities for science teacher enrichment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devore, Edna; Gillespie, Carlton, Jr.; Hull, Garth; Koch, David

    1995-01-01

    NASA Astrophysics Division supports a pre-college teacher program to provide Flight Opportunities for Science Teacher EnRichment (FOSTER). To date, forty-five teachers are participating, and the program will expand nation-wide to serve fifty teachers per year on board the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. In the future, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) will bring more than one-hundred teachers per year on board for astronomical research mission. FOSTER is supported by a grant to the SETI Institute from the NASA Astrophysics Division, NAGW-3291.

  9. Mineralization of trichloroethylene by heterotrophic enrichment cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, T.J.; Ringelberg, D.; Mikell, A.T.; White, D.C. |; Fliermans, C.B.

    1988-12-31

    Microbial consortia capable of aerobically degrading greater than 99% of 50 mg/l exogenous trichloroethylene (TCE) have been enriched from TCE contaminated subsurface sediments. Concentrations of TCE greater than 300 mg/l were not degraded nor was TCE used as a sole energy source. Successful electron donors for growth included tryptone-yeast extract, methanol, methane or propane. The optimum temperature for growth was 22--37 C and the ph optimum was 7.0--8.1. Utilization of TCE occurred only after apparent microbial growth had ceased. The major end products recovered were hydrochloric acid and carbon dioxide. Minor products included dichloroethylene, vinylidine chloride and possibly chloroform.

  10. Surplus Highly Enriched Uranium Disposition Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide upper level guidance for the program that will downblend surplus highly enriched uranium for use as commercial nuclear reactor fuel or low-level radioactive waste. The intent of this document is to outline the overall mission and program objectives. The document is also intended to provide a general basis for integration of disposition efforts among all applicable sites. This plan provides background information, establishes the scope of disposition activities, provides an approach to the mission and objectives, identifies programmatic assumptions, defines major roles, provides summary level schedules and milestones, and addresses budget requirements.

  11. Hydrogen-enrichment-concept preliminary evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ecklund, E. E.

    1975-01-01

    A hydrogen-enriched fuels concept for automobiles is described and evaluated in terms of fuel consumption and engine exhaust emissions through multicylinder (V-8) automotive engine/hydrogen generator tests, single cylinder research engine (CFR) tests, and hydrogen-generator characterization tests. Analytical predictions are made of the fuel consumption and NO/sub x/ emissions which would result from anticipated engine improvements. The hydrogen-gas generator, which was tested to quantify its thermodynamic input-output relationships was used for integrated testing of the V-8 engine and generator.

  12. History-Enriched Spaces for Shared Encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konomi, Shin'ichi; Sezaki, Kaoru; Kitsuregawa, Masaru

    We discuss "history-enriched spaces" that use historical data to support shared encounters. We first examine our experiences with DeaiExplorer, a social network display that uses RFID and a historical database to support social interactions at academic conferences. This leads to our discussions on three complementary approaches to addressing the issues of supporting social encounters: (1) embedding historical data in embodied interactions, (2) designing for weakly involved interactions such as social navigation, and (3) designing for privacy. Finally, we briefly describe a preliminary prototype of a proxemics-based awareness tool that considers these approaches.

  13. Quality Assessment and Physicochemical Characteristics of Bran Enriched Chapattis

    PubMed Central

    Dar, B. N.; Sharma, Savita; Singh, Baljit; Kaur, Gurkirat

    2014-01-01

    Cereal brans singly and in combination were blended at varying levels (5 and 10%) for development of Chapattis. Cereal bran enriched Chapattis were assessed for quality and physicochemical characteristics. On the basis of quality assessment, 10% enrichment level for Chapatti was the best. Moisture content, water activity, and free fatty acids remained stable during the study period. Quality assessment and physicochemical characteristics of bran enriched Chapattis carried out revealed that dough handling and puffing of bran enriched Chapattis prepared by 5 and 10% level of bran supplementation did not vary significantly. All types of bran enriched Chapattis except rice bran enriched Chapattis showed nonsticky behavior during dough handling. Bran enriched Chapattis exhibited full puffing character during preparation. The sensory attributes showed that both 5 and 10% bran supplemented Chapattis were acceptable. PMID:26904644

  14. The historical record of metal enrichment in two Florida estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.R.; Smith, R.G. ); Calder, F.D.; Schropp, S.J. ); Windom H.L. )

    1993-12-01

    Historical profiles of metal accumulation have been generated for the lower St. Johns River and Hillsborough Bay, Florida, in cores representing approximately 50 yr of sediment and metal accumulation. These profiles demonstrate that Cd, Pb, and Zn are enriched in these Florida estuarine sediments. Pb enrichment has decreased since the mid 1970s because of reduced use of leaded gasoline. In the St. Johns River, most metals exhibit a trend of increasing enrichment with time. Cd enrichment significantly decreased between 1970 and 1975 as a result of reduced discharges into the river and control of aquatic vegetation. In Hillsborough Bay, enrichment factors for most metals are relatively high and show little change downcore. Cr, Cu, and Ni border on enrichment and Pb, Cd, and Zn are enriched. The results of this study are consistent with other studies of surficial-sediment metal concentration in other Florida estuaries. 39 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Enrichment of Bibliographic Records of Online Catalogs through OCR and SGML Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peis, Eduardo; Fernandez-Molina, J. Carlos

    1998-01-01

    Presents research on using scanner technology to capture the contents pages of collective monographs, extract bibliographic information, and process this information with a standardized language, such as SGML, for tagging electronic documents. Results confirmed the feasibility of developing a system to automatically enrich records in online…

  16. twzPEA: A Topology and Working Zone Based Pathway Enrichment Analysis Framework

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sensitive detection of involvement and adaptation of key signaling, regulatory, and metabolic pathways holds the key to deciphering molecular mechanisms such as those in the biomass-to-biofuel conversion process in yeast. Typical gene set enrichment analyses often do not use topology information in...

  17. Salmonella Recovery Following Immersion Chilling for Matched Neck Skin and Whole Carcass Enrichment Sampling Methodologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence and serogroups of Salmonella recovered following immersion chilling were determined for both neck skin and the matching whole carcass enriched samples. Commercially processed and eviscerated broiler carcasses were immersion chilled in ice and tap water for 40 min. Following immersio...

  18. Ice-Enriched Loess and the Formation of Periglacial Terrain in Mid-Utopia Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soare, R. J.; Conway, S. J.; Pearce, G. D.; Costard, F.

    2012-03-01

    Landforms suggestive of periglacial processes are commonplace in mid-Utopia Planitia, Mars. They form syngenetically in ground-ice comprised of loess transported by katabatic wind from the NPLDs and enriched by ice through the thaw-freeze cycling of obliquity-driven precipitation.

  19. Modeling of UF6 enrichment with gas centrifuges for nuclear safeguards activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercurio, G.; Peerani, P.; Richir, P.; Janssens, W.; Eklund, G.

    2012-09-01

    The physical modeling of uranium isotopes (235U, 238U) separation process by centrifugation of is a key aspect for predicting the nuclear fuel enrichment plant performances under surveillance by the Nuclear Safeguards Authorities. In this paper are illustrated some aspects of the modeling of fast centrifuges for UF6 gas enrichment and of a typical cascade enrichment plant with the Theoretical Centrifuge and Cascade Simulator (TCCS). The background theory for reproducing the flow field characteristics of a centrifuge is derived from the work of Cohen [1] where the separation parameters are calculated using the solution of a differential enrichment equation. In our case we chose to solve the hydrodynamic equations for the motion of a compressible fluid in a centrifugal field using the Berman - Olander vertical velocity radial distribution [2] and the solution was obtained using the Matlab software tool [3]. The importance of a correct estimation of the centrifuge separation parameters at different flow regimes, lies in the possibility to estimate in a reliable way the U enrichment plant performances, once the separation external parameters are set (feed flow rate and feed, product and tails assays)[4]. Using the separation parameters of a single centrifuge allow to determine the performances of an entire cascade and, for this purpose; the software Simulink [3] was used. The outputs of the calculation are the concentrations (assays) and the flow rates of the enriched (product) and depleted (tails) gas mixture. These models represent a valid additional tool, in order to verify the compliance of the U enrichment plant operator declarations with the "on site" inspectors' measurements.

  20. Enrichments of Cellulolytic Communities from Diverse Natural Sources Using a Novel Selection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Evan Joel

    In order to ensure a sustainable future and curb carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels, it is imperative to develop a cost-competitive manufacturing process for an alternative liquid fuel with low life cycle greenhouse gas emissions. A potential route towards this sustainable future is the large-scale production of fuels derived from plant biomass, biofuels. A major step for the biological conversion of biomass to fuel is the solubilization and utilization of cellulose. However, lignocellulose is a recalcitrant material, and has evolved to resist microbial degradation. Studying cellulolytic communities from nature can reveal the mechanisms by which organisms can utilize lignocellulose, and also reveal the conditions that facilitate the fastest possible rates of cellulose utilization. This thesis used an Automated Repetitive Batch (ARB) system to perform enrichments of cellulolytic communities to test if cellulolytic communities from diverse sources could be reproducibly enriched for rapid cellulose utilization. This thesis first developed a robust method for reproducibly enriching cellulolytic communities in the ARB system with a single environmental source. Using this method, this research then investigated if cellulolytic communities could be enriched for rapid cellulose utilization from different inoculum sources. In all reproducible enrichments, this thesis then confirmed the use of carbon dioxide as a real time proxy for cellulose utilization based on end product analysis. This thesis showed that the ARB system could yield cellulolytic communities capable of rapid cellulose utilization from diverse environmental sources, and laid a strong foundation for determining whether or not these different sources can be enriched to yield functionally similar cellulolytic communities. The work from this thesis also suggests that fermentation conditions, rather than source material, play a more important role in determining enriched community

  1. Modeling of UF{sub 6} enrichment with gas centrifuges for nuclear safeguards activities

    SciTech Connect

    Mercurio, G.; Peerani, P.; Richir, P.; Janssens, W.; Eklund, G.

    2012-09-26

    The physical modeling of uranium isotopes ({sup 235}U, {sup 238}U) separation process by centrifugation of is a key aspect for predicting the nuclear fuel enrichment plant performances under surveillance by the Nuclear Safeguards Authorities. In this paper are illustrated some aspects of the modeling of fast centrifuges for UF{sub 6} gas enrichment and of a typical cascade enrichment plant with the Theoretical Centrifuge and Cascade Simulator (TCCS). The background theory for reproducing the flow field characteristics of a centrifuge is derived from the work of Cohen where the separation parameters are calculated using the solution of a differential enrichment equation. In our case we chose to solve the hydrodynamic equations for the motion of a compressible fluid in a centrifugal field using the Berman - Olander vertical velocity radial distribution and the solution was obtained using the Matlab software tool. The importance of a correct estimation of the centrifuge separation parameters at different flow regimes, lies in the possibility to estimate in a reliable way the U enrichment plant performances, once the separation external parameters are set (feed flow rate and feed, product and tails assays). Using the separation parameters of a single centrifuge allow to determine the performances of an entire cascade and, for this purpose; the software Simulink was used. The outputs of the calculation are the concentrations (assays) and the flow rates of the enriched (product) and depleted (tails) gas mixture. These models represent a valid additional tool, in order to verify the compliance of the U enrichment plant operator declarations with the 'on site' inspectors' measurements.

  2. Odour enrichment increases adult-born dopaminergic neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Bonzano, Sara; Bovetti, Serena; Fasolo, Aldo; Peretto, Paolo; De Marchis, Silvia

    2014-11-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) is the first brain region involved in the processing of olfactory information. In adult mice, the OB is highly plastic, undergoing cellular/molecular dynamic changes that are modulated by sensory experience. Odour deprivation induces down-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in OB dopaminergic interneurons located in the glomerular layer (GL), resulting in decreased dopamine in the OB. Although the effect of sensory deprivation is well established, little is known about the influence of odour enrichment on dopaminergic cells. Here we report that prolonged odour enrichment on C57BL/6J strain mice selectively increases TH-immunopositive cells in the GL by nearly 20%. Following odour enrichment on TH-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice, in which GFP identified both mature TH-positive cells and putative immature dopaminergic cells expressing TH mRNA but not TH protein, we found a similar 20% increase in GFP-expressing cells, with no changes in the ratio between TH-positive and TH-negative cells. These data suggest that enriched conditions induce an expansion in the whole dopaminergic lineage. Accordingly, by using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine injections to label adult-generated cells in the GL of TH-GFP mice, we found an increase in the percentage of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-positive dopaminergic cells in enriched compared with control conditions, whereas no differences were found for calretinin- and calbindin-positive subtypes. Strikingly, the fraction of newborn cells among the dopaminergic population doubled in enriched conditions. On the whole, our results demonstrate that odour enrichment drives increased integration of adult-generated dopaminergic cells that could be critical to adapt the OB circuits to the environmental incoming information. PMID:25216299

  3. Selective Recovery of Enriched Uranium from Inorganic Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, R. T.

    2003-02-26

    Uranium as U(IV) and U(VI) can be selectively recovered from liquids and sludge containing metal precipitates, inorganic salts, sand and silt fines, debris, other contaminants, and slimes, which are very difficult to de-water. Chemical processes such as fuel manufacturing and uranium mining generate enriched and natural uranium-bearing wastes. This patented Framatome ANP (FANP) uranium recovery process reduces uranium losses, significantly offsets waste disposal costs, produces a solid waste that meets mixed-waste disposal requirements, and does not generate metal-contaminated liquids. At the head end of the process is a floating dredge that retrieves liquids, sludge, and slimes in the form of a slurry directly from the floor of a lined surface impoundment (lagoon). The slurry is transferred to and mixed in a feed tank with a turbine mixer and re-circulated to further break down the particles and enhance dissolution of uranium. This process uses direct steam injection and sodium hypochlorite addition to oxidize and dissolves any U(IV). Cellulose is added as a non-reactive filter aid to help filter slimes by giving body to the slurry. The slurry is pumped into a large recessed-chamber filter press then de-watered by a pressure cycle-controlled double-diaphragm pump. U(VI) captured in the filtrate from this process is then precipitated by conversion to U(IV) in another Framatome ANP-patented process which uses a strong reducing agent to crystallize and settle the U(IV) product. The product is then dewatered in a small filter press. To-date, over 3,000 Kgs of U at 3% U-235 enrichment were recovered from a 8100 m2 hypalon-lined surface impoundment which contained about 10,220 m3 of liquids and about 757 m3 of sludge. A total of 2,175 drums (0.208 m3 or 55 gallon each) of solid mixed-wastes have been packaged, shipped, and disposed. In addition, 9463 m3 of low-U liquids at <0.001 KgU/m3 were also further processed and disposed.

  4. Physicochemical properties of cookies enriched with xylooligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Ayyappan, P; Abirami, A; Anbuvahini, N A; Tamil Kumaran, P S; Naresh, M; Malathi, D; Antony, Usha

    2016-07-01

    The growing commercial importance of xylooligosaccharides is based on their beneficial health properties, particularly their ability to stimulate the growth and activity of intestinal bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species. Xylooligosaccharides are less sweet, acid, and heat stable, with low recommended levels of intake compared to other oligosaccharides. In view of the consumer demand for foods with low sugar, low fat, and high fiber contents, they are suitable for incorporation into bakery products. In this study, we have developed wheat-based cookies incorporated with xylooligosaccharides at 5%, 10%, and 15% levels. The nutritive value and physicochemical properties of the cookies changed with xylooligosaccharides incorporation; both crude fiber and dietary fiber contents increased by 14% and 35%, respectively, in the enriched cookies. The moisture levels increased with increase in the percentage of xylooligosaccharides incorporated. Cookies with 5% xylooligosaccharides were found most acceptable, although the color was slightly darker compared to the control, while cookies with 10% and 15% xylooligosaccharides were softer and darker and therefore less acceptable. Enrichment with xylooligosaccharides at 5% provided a product stable for 21 days at room temperature (25 ± 2℃). The storage stability of cookies with higher levels of xylooligosaccharides was less than the 5% xylooligosaccharides cookies and control. The retention of the prebiotic xylooligosaccharides in the products was relatively high (74%). PMID:26644158

  5. Recent advances in enrichment and separation strategies for mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chenxi; Zhong, Xuefei; Li, Lingjun

    2016-01-01

    Due to the significance of protein phosphorylation in various biological processes and signaling events, new analytical techniques for enhanced phosphoproteomics have been rapidly introduced in recent years. The combinatorial use of the phospho-specific enrichment techniques and prefractionation methods prior to MS analysis enables comprehensive profiling of the phosphoproteome and facilitates deciphering the critical roles that phosphorylation plays in signaling pathways in various biological systems. This review places special emphasis on the recent five-year (2009–2013) advances for enrichment and separation techniques that have been utilized for phosphopeptides prior to MS analysis. PMID:24687451

  6. Successful brain aging: plasticity, environmental enrichment, and lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Aging is a physiological process that can develop without the appearance of concurrent diseases. However, very frequently, older people suffer from memory loss and an accelerated cognitive decline. Studies of the neurobiology of aging are beginning to decipher the mechanisms underlying not only the physiology of aging of the brain but also the mechanisms that make people more vulnerable to cognitive dysfunction and neurodegenerative diseases. Today we know that the aging brain retains a considerable functional plasticity, and that this plasticity is positively promoted by genes activated by different lifestyle factors. In this article some of these lifestyle factors and their mechanisms of action are reviewed, including environmental enrichment and the importance of food intake and some nutrients. Aerobic physical exercise and reduction of chronic stress are also briefly reviewed. It is proposed that lifestyle factors are powerful instruments to promote healthy and successful aging of the brain and delay the appearance of age-related cognitive deficits in elderly people. PMID:23576888

  7. Systems approach used in the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Rooks, W.A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A requirement exists for effective and efficient transfer of technical knowledge from the design engineering team to the production work force. Performance-Based Training (PBT) is a systematic approach to the design, development, and implementation of technical training. This approach has been successfully used by the US Armed Forces, industry, and other organizations. The advantages of the PBT approach are: cost-effectiveness (lowest life-cycle training cost), learning effectiveness, reduced implementation time, and ease of administration. The PBT process comprises five distinctive and rigorous phases: Analysis of Job Performance, Design of Instructional Strategy, Development of Training Materials and Instructional Media, Validation of Materials and Media, and Implementation of the Instructional Program. Examples from the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) are used to illustrate the application of PBT.

  8. Robotic design for an automated uranium solution enrichment system

    SciTech Connect

    Horley, E.C.; Beugelsdijk, T.; Biddle, R.S.; Bronisz, L.E.; Hansen, W.J.; Li, T.K.; Sampson, T.E.; Walton, G.

    1990-01-01

    A method to automate solution enrichment analysis by gamma-ray spectroscopy is being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Both passive and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses will be remotely performed to determine the amounts of {sup 235}U and total uranium in sample containers. A commercial laboratory robot will be used to process up to 40 batch and 8 priority samples in an unattended mode. Samples will be read by a bar-code reader to determine measurement requirements, then assayed by either or both of the gamma-ray and XRF instruments. The robot will be responsible for moving the sample containers and operating all shield doors and shutters. In addition to reducing hardware complexity, this feature will also allow manual operation of the instruments if the robot fails. This automated system will reduce personnel radiation exposure and increase the reliability and repeatability of the measurements.

  9. Microbial community composition in sediments resists perturbation by nutrient enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Jennifer L; Ward, Bess B; Morrison, Hilary G; Hobbie, John E; Valiela, Ivan; Deegan, Linda A; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2011-01-01

    Functional redundancy in bacterial communities is expected to allow microbial assemblages to survive perturbation by allowing continuity in function despite compositional changes in communities. Recent evidence suggests, however, that microbial communities change both composition and function as a result of disturbance. We present evidence for a third response: resistance. We examined microbial community response to perturbation caused by nutrient enrichment in salt marsh sediments using deep pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and functional gene microarrays targeting the nirS gene. Composition of the microbial community, as demonstrated by both genes, was unaffected by significant variations in external nutrient supply in our sampling locations, despite demonstrable and diverse nutrient-induced changes in many aspects of marsh ecology. The lack of response to external forcing demonstrates a remarkable uncoupling between microbial composition and ecosystem-level biogeochemical processes and suggests that sediment microbial communities are able to resist some forms of perturbation. PMID:21412346

  10. Enriching semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining in big data applications.

    PubMed

    Weichselbraun, A; Gindl, S; Scharl, A

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a novel method for contextualizing and enriching large semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining with a focus on Web intelligence platforms and other high-throughput big data applications. The method is not only applicable to traditional sentiment lexicons, but also to more comprehensive, multi-dimensional affective resources such as SenticNet. It comprises the following steps: (i) identify ambiguous sentiment terms, (ii) provide context information extracted from a domain-specific training corpus, and (iii) ground this contextual information to structured background knowledge sources such as ConceptNet and WordNet. A quantitative evaluation shows a significant improvement when using an enriched version of SenticNet for polarity classification. Crowdsourced gold standard data in conjunction with a qualitative evaluation sheds light on the strengths and weaknesses of the concept grounding, and on the quality of the enrichment process. PMID:25431524

  11. Enriching semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining in big data applications

    PubMed Central

    Weichselbraun, A.; Gindl, S.; Scharl, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for contextualizing and enriching large semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining with a focus on Web intelligence platforms and other high-throughput big data applications. The method is not only applicable to traditional sentiment lexicons, but also to more comprehensive, multi-dimensional affective resources such as SenticNet. It comprises the following steps: (i) identify ambiguous sentiment terms, (ii) provide context information extracted from a domain-specific training corpus, and (iii) ground this contextual information to structured background knowledge sources such as ConceptNet and WordNet. A quantitative evaluation shows a significant improvement when using an enriched version of SenticNet for polarity classification. Crowdsourced gold standard data in conjunction with a qualitative evaluation sheds light on the strengths and weaknesses of the concept grounding, and on the quality of the enrichment process. PMID:25431524

  12. Enrichment of boron-10 by inverse-frontal chromatography using quaternized 4-vinylpyridine-divinylbenzene anion-exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    Mardan, A.

    1997-08-01

    In order to enrich {sup 10}B, 40 meter band migration of boric acid-mannitol with hydrochloric acid solution was performed by inverse frontal chromatography on a porous, 25% crosslinked, 38% quaternized 4-vinylpyridine-divinylbenzene resin. The maximum enrichment (R{sub L}) of {sup 10}B was 94.15%. The overall process parameters, namely slope coefficient (k) and separation coefficient (e), were found to be 0.1282 cm{sup {minus}1} and 0.02967, respectively.

  13. CHEERS: The Chemical Enrichment RGS Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Plaa, J.; Mernier, F.; Kaastra, J.; Pinto, C.; Werner, N.; Cheers Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The Chemical Enrichment RGS Sample (CHEERS) is aimed to be a sample of the most optimal clusters of galaxies for observation with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) aboard XMM-Newton. It consists of 1.6 Ms of deep cluster observations of 11 objects obtained through a very large program and archival observations of 33 clusters and groups. The main goal is to measure chemical abundances in the hot Intra-Cluster Medium (ICM) of clusters to provide constraints on chemical evolution models. Especially the origin and evolution of type Ia supernovae is still poorly known and X-ray observations could contribute to constrain models regarding the SNIa explosion mechanism. With this sample of deep XMM-Newton observations, also other topics can be addressed. Within the CHEERS collaboration, we also study the turbulence and thermal properties of the hot ICM in the clusters. In this talk, we discuss the aims and the first results of the CHEERS project.

  14. Ultraheavy element enrichment in impulsive solar flares

    SciTech Connect

    Eichler, David

    2014-10-10

    Particle acceleration by cascading Alfvén wave turbulence was suggested as being responsible for energetic particle populations in {sup 3}He-rich solar flares. In particular, it was noted that the damping of the turbulence by the tail of the particle distribution in rigidity naturally leads to the dramatic enhancement of a pre-accelerated species—as {sup 3}He is posited to be—and superheavy elements. The subsequent detection of large enrichment of ultraheavies, relative to iron, has apparently confirmed this prediction, lending support to the original idea. It is shown here that this picture could be somewhat sharpened by progress in understanding the three-dimensional geometrical details of cascading Alfvén turbulence. The mechanism may be relevant in other astrophysical environments where the source of turbulence is nonmagnetic, such as clusters of galaxies.

  15. Uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    One of the most challenging issues facing the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management is the cleanup of the three gaseous diffusion plants. In October 1992, Congress passed the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and established the Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund to accomplish this task. This mission is being undertaken in an environmentally and financially responsible way by: devising cost-effective technical solutions; producing realistic life-cycle cost estimates, based on practical assumptions and thorough analysis; generating coherent long-term plans which are based on risk assessments, land use, and input from stakeholders; and, showing near-term progress in the cleanup of the gaseous diffusion facilities at Oak Ridge.

  16. Surface enrichment driven by polymer topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicane, Giuseppe; Megnidio-Tchoukouegno, Mireille; Mola, Genene T.; Tsige, Mesfin

    2016-05-01

    We report a molecular dynamics simulation study of free-standing films of a blend of linear and cyclic polymer chains. We find that the composition of linear chains at the interface is enhanced relative to their bulk value for short chains but is depleted for long chains. Our findings are in agreement with recent experimental evidence reported for blends of short linear and cyclic polystyrene chains and highlight the genuine surface behavior in the short chain-length regime where theoretical predictions are more difficult. We highlight surface enrichment at low-energy surfaces as the result of competition between different entropic and enthalpic contributions to the interfacial free energy of the system.

  17. Nursing satisfaction and job enrichment in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Havva; Bahcecik, Nefise; Baumann, Steven L

    2006-10-01

    Survey research was conducted with the aim of better understanding nurses' perceptions of organizational factors which relate to their job satisfaction and motivation in Turkey. Nurses (N = 290) who were employed at a training and research hospital, part of the Turkish Republic Ministry of Health, were included. The questionnaire used was developed for this study based on Hackman and Oldman's job enrichment theory. The results showed that only one third of the nurse leaders and one in five of the staff nurses reported being satisfied with their job. The participants saw the five core job dimensions of Hackman and Oldman's work design model: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback as important for nurses. Nursing was described by the participants as hard and challenging, but they also found it meaningful and said that it gave them the opportunity to use their skills and abilities. PMID:16982725

  18. Gene set enrichment; a problem of pathways

    PubMed Central

    Meaburn, Emma L.; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.

    2010-01-01

    Gene Set Enrichment (GSE) is a computational technique which determines whether a priori defined set of genes show statistically significant differential expression between two phenotypes. Currently, the gene sets used for GSE are derived from annotation or pathway databases, which often contain computationally based and unrepresentative data. Here, we propose a novel approach for the generation of comprehensive and biologically derived gene sets, deriving sets through the application of machine learning techniques to gene expression data. These gene sets can be produced for specific tissues, developmental stages or environments. They provide a powerful and functionally meaningful way in which to mine genomewide association and next generation sequencing data in order to identify disease-associated variants and pathways. PMID:20861160

  19. Acoustically enriching, large-depth aquatic sampler.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Jonas; Ogden, Sam; Johansson, Linda; Hjort, Klas; Thornell, Greger

    2012-05-01

    In marine biology, it is useful to collect water samples when exploring the distribution and diversity of microbial communities in underwater environments. In order to provide, e.g., a miniaturized submersible explorer with the capability of collecting microorganisms, a compact sample enrichment system has been developed. The sampler is 30 mm long, 15 mm wide, and just a few millimetres thick. Integrated in a multilayer steel, polyimide and glass construction is a microfluidic channel with piezoelectric transducers, where microorganism and particle samples are collected and enriched, using acoustic radiation forces for gentle and labelless trapping. High-pressure, latchable valves, using paraffin as the actuation material, at each end of the microfluidic channel keep the collected sample pristine. A funnel structure raised above the surface of the device directs water into the microfluidic channel as the vehicle propels itself or when there is a flow across its hull. The valves proved leak proof to a pressure of 2.1 MPa for 19 hours and momentary pressures of 12.5 MPa, corresponding to an ocean depth of more than 1200 metres. By reactivating the latching mechanism, small leakages through the valves could be remedied, which could thus increase the leak-less operational time. Fluorescent particles, 1.9 μm in diameter, were successfully trapped in the microfluidic channel at flow rates up to 15 μl min(-1), corresponding to an 18.5 cm s(-1) external flow rate of the sampler. In addition, liquid-suspended GFP-marked yeast cells were successfully trapped. PMID:22422039

  20. Effects of N and P enrichment on competition between phytoplankton and benthic algae in shallow lakes: a mesocosm study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiufeng; Mei, Xueying; Gulati, Ramesh D; Liu, Zhengwen

    2015-03-01

    Competition for resources between coexisting phytoplankton and benthic algae, but with different habitats and roles in functioning of lake ecosystems, profoundly affects dynamics of shallow lakes in the process of eutrophication. An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that combined enrichment with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) would be a greater benefit to phytoplankton than benthic algae. The growth of phytoplankton and benthic algae was measured as chlorophyll a (Chl a) in 12 shallow aquatic mesocosms supplemented with N, P, or both. We found that enrichment with N enhanced growth of benthic algae, but not phytoplankton. P enrichment had a negative effect on benthic algal growth, and no effect on the growth of phytoplankton. N+P enrichment had a negative effect on benthic algae, but enhanced the growth of phytoplankton, thus reducing the proportion of benthic algae contributing to the combined biomass of these two groups of primary producers. Thus, combined N+P enrichment is more favorable to phytoplankton in competition with benthic algae than enrichment with either N or P alone. Our study indicates that combined enrichment with N+P promotes the dominance of phytoplankton over benthic algae, with consequences for the trophic dynamics of shallow lake ecosystems. PMID:25304240

  1. Continuous enrichment culturing of thermophiles under sulfate and nitrate-reducing conditions and at deep-sea hydrostatic pressures.

    PubMed

    Houghton, J L; Seyfried, W E; Banta, A B; Reysenbach, A-L

    2007-03-01

    A continuous culture bioreactor was developed to enrich for nitrate and sulfate reducing thermophiles under in situ deep-sea pressures. The ultimate objective of this experimental design was to be able to study microbial activities at chemical and physical conditions relevant to seafloor hydrothermal vents. Sulfide, sulfate and oxide minerals from sampled seafloor vent-chimney structures [East Pacific Rise (9 degrees 46'N)] served as source mineral and microbial inoculum for enrichment culturing using nitrate and sulfate-enriched media at 70 and 90 degrees C and 250 bars. Changes in microbial diversity during the continuous reaction flow were monitored using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. Time series changes in fluid chemistry were also monitored throughout the experiment to assess the feedback between mineral-fluid reaction and metabolic processes. Data indicate a shift from the dominance of epsilon Proteobacteria in the initial inoculum to the several Aquificales-like phylotypes in nitrate-reducing enrichment media and Thermodesulfobacteriales in the sulfate-reducing enrichment media. Methanogens were detected in the original sulfide sample and grew in selected sulfate-enriched experiments. Microbial interactions with anhydrite and pyrrhotite in the chimney material resulted in measurable changes in fluid chemistry despite a fluid residence time only 75 min in the reactor. Changes in temperature rather than source material resulted in greater differences in microbial enrichments and mediated geochemical reactions. PMID:17221162

  2. Rare-earth elements enrichment of Pacific seafloor sediments: the view from volcanic islands of Polynesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melleton, Jérémie; Tuduri, Johann; Pourret, Olivier; Bailly, Laurent; Gisbert, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    crack that cross-cut the calcite filling the vesicles or the volcanic glass. They are also closely associated with Ni-Mg bearing phyllosilicates, which appear to nucleate from alteration of olivine and clinopyroxenes. Further investigations are done to evidence and confirm an anterior magmatic enrichment. On the basis of these observations, we believe that the anomalous enrichment observed in seafloor sediments could derive from abnormally-rich provinces corresponding to aerial basaltic formations from oceanic islands primarily enriched during weathering processes (Melleton et al., 2014). Melleton et al. (2014). Rare-earth elements enrichment of Pacific sea-floor sediments: the view from volcanic islands of Polynesia. In preparation.

  3. Assuaging Nuclear Energy Risks: The Angarsk International Uranium Enrichment Center

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Astasia

    2011-06-28

    The recent nuclear renaissance has motivated many countries, especially developing nations, to plan and build nuclear power reactors. However, domestic low enriched uranium demands may trigger nations to construct indigenous enrichment facilities, which could be redirected to fabricate high enriched uranium for nuclear weapons. The potential advantages of establishing multinational uranium enrichment sites are numerous including increased low enrichment uranium access with decreased nuclear proliferation risks. While multinational nuclear initiatives have been discussed, Russia is the first nation to actualize this concept with their Angarsk International Uranium Enrichment Center (IUEC). This paper provides an overview of the historical and modern context of the multinational nuclear fuel cycle as well as the evolution of Russia's IUEC, which exemplifies how international fuel cycle cooperation is an alternative to domestic facilities.

  4. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§...

  5. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§...

  6. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§...

  7. Confronting the Paradox of Enrichment to the Metacommunity Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hauzy, Céline; Nadin, Grégoire; Canard, Elsa; Gounand, Isabelle; Mouquet, Nicolas; Ebenman, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Resource enrichment can potentially destabilize predator-prey dynamics. This phenomenon historically referred as the "paradox of enrichment" has mostly been explored in spatially homogenous environments. However, many predator-prey communities exchange organisms within spatially heterogeneous networks called metacommunities. This heterogeneity can result from uneven distribution of resources among communities and thus can lead to the spreading of local enrichment within metacommunities. Here, we adapted the original Rosenzweig-MacArthur predator-prey model, built to study the paradox of enrichment, to investigate the effect of regional enrichment and of its spatial distribution on predator-prey dynamics in metacommunities. We found that the potential for destabilization was depending on the connectivity among communities and the spatial distribution of enrichment. In one hand, we found that at low dispersal regional enrichment led to the destabilization of predator-prey dynamics. This destabilizing effect was more pronounced when the enrichment was uneven among communities. In the other hand, we found that high dispersal could stabilize the predator-prey dynamics when the enrichment was spatially heterogeneous. Our results illustrate that the destabilizing effect of enrichment can be dampened when the spatial scale of resource enrichment is lower than that of organismss movements (heterogeneous enrichment). From a conservation perspective, our results illustrate that spatial heterogeneity could decrease the regional extinction risk of species involved in specialized trophic interactions. From the perspective of biological control, our results show that the heterogeneous distribution of pest resource could favor or dampen outbreaks of pests and of their natural enemies, depending on the spatial scale of heterogeneity. PMID:24358242

  8. Confronting the paradox of enrichment to the metacommunity perspective.

    PubMed

    Hauzy, Céline; Nadin, Grégoire; Canard, Elsa; Gounand, Isabelle; Mouquet, Nicolas; Ebenman, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Resource enrichment can potentially destabilize predator-prey dynamics. This phenomenon historically referred as the "paradox of enrichment" has mostly been explored in spatially homogenous environments. However, many predator-prey communities exchange organisms within spatially heterogeneous networks called metacommunities. This heterogeneity can result from uneven distribution of resources among communities and thus can lead to the spreading of local enrichment within metacommunities. Here, we adapted the original Rosenzweig-MacArthur predator-prey model, built to study the paradox of enrichment, to investigate the effect of regional enrichment and of its spatial distribution on predator-prey dynamics in metacommunities. We found that the potential for destabilization was depending on the connectivity among communities and the spatial distribution of enrichment. In one hand, we found that at low dispersal regional enrichment led to the destabilization of predator-prey dynamics. This destabilizing effect was more pronounced when the enrichment was uneven among communities. In the other hand, we found that high dispersal could stabilize the predator-prey dynamics when the enrichment was spatially heterogeneous. Our results illustrate that the destabilizing effect of enrichment can be dampened when the spatial scale of resource enrichment is lower than that of organismss movements (heterogeneous enrichment). From a conservation perspective, our results illustrate that spatial heterogeneity could decrease the regional extinction risk of species involved in specialized trophic interactions. From the perspective of biological control, our results show that the heterogeneous distribution of pest resource could favor or dampen outbreaks of pests and of their natural enemies, depending on the spatial scale of heterogeneity. PMID:24358242

  9. New Measures to Safeguard Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, Jr., James; Garner, James R; Whitaker, Michael; Lockwood, Dunbar; Gilligan, Kimberly V; Younkin, James R; Hooper, David A; Henkel, James J; Krichinsky, Alan M

    2011-01-01

    As Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants (GCEPs) increase in separative work unit (SWU) capacity, the current International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) model safeguards approach needs to be strengthened. New measures to increase the effectiveness of the safeguards approach are being investigated that will be mutually beneficial to the facility operators and the IAEA. One of the key concepts being studied for application at future GCEPs is embracing joint use equipment for process monitoring of load cells at feed and withdrawal (F/W) stations. A mock F/W system was built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to generate and collect F/W data from an analogous system. The ORNL system has been used to collect data representing several realistic normal process and off-normal (including diversion) scenarios. Emphasis is placed on the novelty of the analysis of data from the sensors as well as the ability to build information out of raw data, which facilitates a more effective and efficient verification process. This paper will provide a progress report on recent accomplishments and next steps.

  10. Thermal enrichment and speciation of copper in rice husk ashes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Ling; Hu, Ming-Jan; Peng, Yen-Hsun

    2010-12-15

    Copper(II) was considerably enriched in the residual ash via thermal treatment of copper-sorbed rice husk at 700-1100°C for 2h, and the copper speciation was quantitatively determined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy. After the thermal process, the resulting ash only represents by weight 18.7-26.4% of the pre-heated samples. Copper content in the ashes is >7% which is far above the required minimum copper content in copper ores for the copper smelting sector, 0.5%. Crystalline SiO(2) is observed only in the ash generated at 1100°C, with more copper in this ash being available for leaching in acidic solution. It is suggested that this is due to the considerable dissimilarity in crystalline structure between copper compounds and crystalline SiO(2). No chemical reaction between copper and SiO(2) is observed in any ash. In fact, we suggest that the SiO(2) crystalline phase repels copper during the thermal process; this would make it easy to extract copper from the ashes. For copper speciation in the ashes, CuO merely represents 0-12% of the total copper, while Cu(2)O and Cu(0) represent 34-42% and 46-63%, respectively. The lower copper oxidation state would be beneficial for the copper smelting process due to less usage of coke. PMID:20869164

  11. Quality assurance in the enriched uranium operations NDA facility

    SciTech Connect

    May, P.K.; Ceo, R.N.

    1997-11-01

    The Nondestructive Analysis (NDA) Facility at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has characterized process wastes for Enriched Uranium Operations since 1978. Since that time, over 50,000 items have been analyzed. Analysis results are used to determine whether or not recovery of uranium from process wastes is economically feasible. Our instrument complement includes one large segmented gamma scanner (SGS), two smaller SGS, two solution assay systems (SAS), and Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC). The large SGS is used for analyzing High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters ant 208-L drums filled with combustible contaminated waste. The smaller SGS are used to analyze 4-L containers of ash and leached residues. The SAS are used to analyze 125 ml bottles of aqueous or organic waste solutions that may contain uranium. The gamma-based NDA techniques are used to identify which process wastes can be discarded, and which must be recycled. The AWCC is used to analyze high-density materials which are not amenable to gamma-ray analysis. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  12. Specific Enrichment of Phosphoproteins Using Functionalized Multivalent Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Leekyoung; Ayaz-Guner, Serife; Gregorich, Zachery R.; Cai, Wenxuan; Valeja, Santosh G.; Jin, Song; Ge, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of protein phosphorylation remains a significant challenge due to the low abundance of phosphoproteins and the low stoichiometry of phosphorylation, which requires effective enrichment of phosphoproteins. Here we have developed superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) whose surface is functionalized by multivalent ligand molecules that specifically bind to the phosphate groups on any phosphoproteins. These NPs enrich phosphoproteins from complex cell and tissue lysates with high specificity as confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis with a phosphoprotein-specific stain and mass spectrometry analysis of the enriched phosphoproteins. This method enables universal and effective capture, enrichment, and detection of intact phosphoproteins towards a comprehensive analysis of the phosphoproteome. PMID:25655481

  13. Assessment for Effective Intervention: Enrichment Science Academic Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasson, Irit; Cohen, Donita

    2012-11-01

    Israel suffers from a growing problem of socio-economic gaps between those who live in the center of the country and residents of outlying areas. As a result, there is a low level of accessibility to higher education among the peripheral population. The goal of the Sidney Warren Science Education Center for Youth at Tel-Hai College is to strengthen the potential of middle and high school students and encourage them to pursue higher education, with an emphasis on majoring in science and technology. This study investigated the implementation and evaluation of the enrichment science academic program, as an example of informal learning environment, with an emphasis on physics studies. About 500 students conducted feedback survey after participating in science activities in four domains: biology, chemistry, physics, and computer science. Results indicated high level of satisfaction among the students. No differences were found with respect to gender excluding in physics with a positive attitudes advantage among boys. In order to get a deeper understanding of this finding, about 70 additional students conducted special questionnaires, both 1 week before the physics enrichment day and at the end of that day. Questionnaires were intended to assess both their attitudes toward physics and their knowledge and conceptions of the physical concept "pressure." We found that the activity moderately improved boys' attitudes toward physics, but that girls displayed decreased interest in and lower self-efficacy toward physics. Research results were used to the improvement of the instructional design of the physics activity demonstrating internal evaluation process for effective intervention.

  14. Odor Enrichment Sculpts the Abundance of Olfactory Bulb Mitral Cells

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Melissa Cavallin; Biju, K.C.; Hoffman, Joshua; Fadool, Debra Ann

    2013-01-01

    Mitral cells are the primary output cell from the olfactory bulb conveying olfactory sensory information to higher cortical areas. Gene-targeted deletion of the Shaker potassium channel Kv1.3 alters voltage-dependence and inactivation kinetics of mitral cell current properties, which contribute to the “Super-smeller” phenotype observed in Kv1.3-null mice. The goal of the current study was to determine if morphology and density are influenced by mitral cell excitability, olfactory environment, and stage of development. Wildtype (WT) and Kv1.3-null (KO) mice were exposed to a single odorant (peppermint or citralva) for 30 days. Under unstimulated conditions, postnatal day 20 KO mice had more mitral cells than their WT counterparts, but no difference in cell size. Odor-enrichment with peppermint, an olfactory and trigeminal stimulus, decreased the number of mitral cells in three month and one year old mice of both genotypes. Mitral cell density was most sensitive to odor-stimulation in three month WT mice. Enrichment at the same age with citralva, a purely olfactory stimulus, decreased cell density regardless of genotype. There were no significant changes in cell body shape in response to citralva exposure, but the cell area was greater in WT mice and selectively greater in the ventral region of the OB in KO mice. This suggests that trigeminal or olfactory stimulation may modify mitral cell area and density while not impacting cell body shape. Mitral cell density can therefore be modulated by the voltage and sensory environment to alter information processing or olfactory perception. PMID:23485739

  15. Effects of nutrient enrichment on mangrove leaf litter decomposition.

    PubMed

    Keuskamp, Joost A; Hefting, Mariet M; Dingemans, Bas J J; Verhoeven, Jos T A; Feller, Ilka C

    2015-03-01

    Nutrient enrichment of mangroves, a common phenomenon along densely populated coastlines, may negatively affect mangrove ecosystems by modifying internal carbon and nutrient cycling. The decomposition of litter exerts a strong influence on these processes and is potentially modified by eutrophication. This study describes effects of N and P enrichment on litter decomposition rate and mineralisation/immobilisation patterns. By making use of reciprocal litter transplantation experiments among fertiliser treatments, it was tested if nutrient addition primarily acts on the primary producers (i.e. changes in litter quantity and quality) or on the microbial decomposers (i.e. changes in nutrient limitation for decomposition). Measurements were done in two mangrove forests where primary production was either limited by N or by P, which had been subject to at least 5 years of experimental N and P fertilisation. Results of this study indicated that decomposers were always N-limited regardless of the limitation of the primary producers. This leads to a differential nutrient limitation between decomposers and primary producers in sites where mangrove production was P-limited. In these sites, fertilisation with P caused litter quality to change, resulting in a higher decomposition rate. This study shows that direct effects of fertilisation on decomposition through an effect on decomposer nutrient availability might be non-significant, while the indirect effects through modifying litter quality might be quite substantial in mangroves. Our results show no indication that eutrophication increases decomposition without stimulating primary production. Therefore we do not expect a decline in carbon sequestration as a result of eutrophication of mangrove ecosystems. PMID:25497680

  16. A Method for Selective Enrichment and Analysis of Nitrotyrosine-Containing Peptides in Complex Proteome Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qibin; Qian, Weijun; Knyushko, Tanya V.; Clauss, Therese RW; Purvine, Samuel O.; Moore, Ronald J.; Sacksteder, Colette A.; Chin, Mark H.; Smith, Desmond J.; Camp, David G.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Smith, Richard D.

    2007-06-01

    Elevated levels of protein tyrosine nitration have been found in various neurodegenerative diseases and aging related pathologies; however, the lack of an efficient enrichment method has prevented the analysis of this important low level protein modification. We have developed an efficient method for specific enrichment of nitrotyrosine containing peptides that permits nitrotyrosine peptides and specific nitration sites to be unambiguously identified with LC-MS/MS. The method is based on the derivatization of nitrotyrosine into free sulfhydryl groups followed by high efficiency enrichment of sulfhydryl-containing peptides with thiopropyl sepharose beads. The derivatization process starts with acetylation with acetic anhydride to block all primary amines, followed by reduction of nitrotyrosine to aminotyrosine, then derivatization of aminotyrosine with N-Succinimidyl S-Acetylthioacetate (SATA), and finally deprotecting of S-acetyl on SATA to form free sulfhydryl groups. This method was evaluated using nitrotyrosine containing peptides, in-vitro nitrated human histone 1.2, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). 91% and 62% of the identified peptides from enriched histone and BSA samples were nitrotyrosine derivatized peptides, respectively, suggesting relative high specificity of the enrichment method. The application of this method to in-vitro nitrated mouse brain homogenate resulted in 35% of identified peptides containing nitrotyrosine (compared to only 5.9% observed from the global analysis of unenriched sample), and a total of 150 unique nitrated peptides covering 102 proteins were identified with a false discovery rate estimated at 3.3% from duplicate LC-MS/MS analyses of a single enriched sample.

  17. Environmental enrichment influences neuronal stem cells in the adult crayfish brain

    PubMed Central

    Ayub, Neishay; Benton, Jeanne L.; Zhang, Yi; Beltz, Barbara S.

    2011-01-01

    New neurons are incorporated throughout life into the brains of many vertebrate and non-vertebrate species. This process of adult neurogenesis is regulated by a variety of external and endogenous factors, including environmental enrichment, which increases the production of neurons in juvenile mice and crayfish. The primary goal of the present study was to exploit the spatial separation of the neuronal precursor cell lineage in crayfish to determine which generation(s) of precursors is altered by environmental conditions. Further, in crayfish, an intimate relationship between the 1st generation neuronal precursors (stem cells) and cells circulating in the hemolymph has been proposed (Zhang et al., 2009). Therefore, a second goal was to assess whether environmental enrichment alters the numbers or types of cells circulating in the hemolymph. We find that neurogenesis in the brains of sexually differentiated procambarid crayfish is enhanced by environmental enrichment as previously demonstrated by Sandeman and Sandeman (2000) in young, sexually undifferentiated Cherax destructor. We also show that environmental enrichment increases the cell cycle rate of neuronal stem cells. While there was no effect of environment on the overall numbers of cells circulating in the hemolymph, enrichment resulted in increased expression of glutamine synthetase, a marker of the neuronal stem cells, in a small percentage of circulating cells; there was little or no expression of this enzyme in hemolymph cells extracted from deprived animals. Thus, environmental enrichment influences the rate of neuronal stem cell division in adult crayfish, as well as the composition of cells circulating in the hemolymph. PMID:21485010

  18. Biomineralization of strontianite(SrCO3) by aerobic microorganisms enriched from rhodoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, S.; Roh, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The transport and fate of trace metals and radionuclides in natural environments are controlled by physical, chemical, and microbiological processes. Especially, microbially induced precipitation of carbonates has drawn much attention in recent decades because of its numerous implications such as atmospheric CO2 fixation through mineral carbonation and solid phase capture of inorganic contaminants. The objectives of this study were to investigate the potential for microbially induced precipitation of strontianite (SrCO3) using microorganisms enriched from rhodoliths and to identify mineralogical characteristics of the precipitates of strontianite. Carbonate forming microorganisms were enriched from rhodoliths, which were sampled at Seogwang-ri coast in the western part of Wu Island, Jeju-do, Korea. Microorganisms enriched from rhodoliths were aerobically cultured at 25Ć in D-1 media containing 30 mM Sr-acetate, and the microorganisms were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene DGGE analysis to confirm microbial diversity. Mineralogical characteristics of the carbonate minerals precipitated by the enriched microorganisms were determined by XRD, TEM-EDS, and SEM-EDS analyses. A 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed the enriched microorganisms contained carbonate forming microorganisms such as Proteus mirailis. The enriched microorganisms precipitated carbonate minerals using D-1 media containing 30 mM Sr-acetate and mineralogy of the precipitate was strontianite (SrCO3). SEM/TEM-EDS analyses showed that the strontianite formed by the microorganisms had a spherical shape and consisted of mainly Sr, O and C. TEM-EDS analyses showed that the strontianite formed by the microorganisms had a rhombohedron shape and consisted of mainly Sr, O and C. These results indicate that the microorganisms induce precipitation of strontianite (SrCO3) on the cell walls and EPS via the accumulation of Sr ions on the cells. Therefore, microbial precipitation of carbonate minerals may play one of important

  19. Cenozoic magmatism in the South China Basin: Decompression melting and implications of an enriched mantle source

    SciTech Connect

    Flower, M.F.J.; Kan Tu; Ming Zhang ); Guanghong Xie )

    1990-06-01

    A widespread eposide of interplate volcanism followed the cessation of seafloor spreading in the South China Basin (SCB), affecting the South China Sea, and fringing areas of southern China and Indochina. Geochemical data for basalts from South China Sea islands and seamounts, Hainan Island, and Taiwan define an enriched (Dupal-like) mantle domain yielding oceanic island basalt (OIB) suites with {Delta}7/4Pb = 2-13, {Delta}8/4Pb = 45-73, {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr > {approximately}0.70325, Th/Ta > 2, and Th/Ba > 0.02. Opening of the SCB resulted from disaggregation of the South China block in response to the Indo-Eurasian collision, a process involving at least one seafloor spreading episode, terminated by collision of microcontinents with the Philippines and Borneo. The lack of precursive flood basalt suggests that active mantle upwelling was not involved and that melting was a passive effect of lithosphere stretching. However, while mantle decompression at ambient stretching factors ({approximately}1.7-2.5) appears to permit melting on the observed scale, the enriched source may preclude such a simple mantle dynamic. Three alternatives are considered: (1) passive melting of a mature metasomatised boundary layer, (2) active melting of thermally eroded subcontinental lithosphere (deep enrichment) or metasomatised boundary layer (shallow enrichment), and (3) relict diapirs of pre-SCB and/or Java trench subduction slabs (intermediate/deep enrichment). These models are evaluated in terms of chemical and isotopic mass balances associated with the generation and movement of small melt fractions in depleted, nondepleted, and enriched mantle.

  20. Isotope Enrichment Detection by Laser Ablation - Dual Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

    2009-07-01

    The rapid global expansion of nuclear energy is motivating the expedited development of new safeguards technology to mitigate potential proliferation threats arising from monitoring gaps within the uranium enrichment process. Current onsite enrichment level monitoring methods are limited by poor sensitivity and accuracy performance. Offsite analysis has better performance, but this approach requires onsite hand sampling followed by time-consuming and costly post analysis. These limitations make it extremely difficult to implement comprehensive safeguards accounting measures that can effectively counter enrichment facility misuse. In addition, uranium enrichment by modern centrifugation leads to a significant proliferation threat, since the centrifuge cascades can quickly produce a significant quantity of highly enriched uranium (HEU). The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing an engineered safeguards approach having continuous aerosol particulate collection and uranium isotope analysis to provide timely detection of HEU production in a low enriched uranium facility. This approach is based on laser vaporization of aerosol particulate samples, followed by wavelength tuned laser diode spectroscopy, to characterize the 235U/238U isotopic ratio by subtle differences in atomic absorption wavelengths arising from differences in each isotope’s nuclear mass, volume, and spin (hyperfine structure for 235U). Environmental sampling media is introduced into a small, reduced pressure chamber, where a focused pulsed laser vaporizes a 10 to 20-µm sample diameter. The ejected plasma forms a plume of atomic vapor. A plume for a sample containing uranium has atoms of the 235U and 238U isotopes present. Tunable diode lasers are directed through the plume to selectively excite each isotope and their presence is detected by monitoring absorbance signals on a shot-to-shot basis. Single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range and abundance uncertainty

  1. Differential response of high-elevation planktonic bacterial community structure and metabolism to experimental nutrient enrichment.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Craig E; Carlson, Craig A

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment of high-elevation freshwater ecosystems by atmospheric deposition is increasing worldwide, and bacteria are a key conduit for the metabolism of organic matter in these oligotrophic environments. We conducted two distinct in situ microcosm experiments in a high-elevation lake (Emerald Lake, Sierra Nevada, California, USA) to evaluate responses in bacterioplankton growth, carbon utilization, and community structure to short-term enrichment by nitrate and phosphate. The first experiment, conducted just following ice-off, employed dark dilution culture to directly assess the impact of nutrients on bacterioplankton growth and consumption of terrigenous dissolved organic matter during snowmelt. The second experiment, conducted in transparent microcosms during autumn overturn, examined how bacterioplankton in unmanipulated microbial communities responded to nutrients concomitant with increasing phytoplankton-derived organic matter. In both experiments, phosphate enrichment (but not nitrate) caused significant increases in bacterioplankton growth, changed particulate organic stoichiometry, and induced shifts in bacterial community composition, including consistent declines in the relative abundance of Actinobacteria. The dark dilution culture showed a significant increase in dissolved organic carbon removal in response to phosphate enrichment. In transparent microcosms nutrient enrichment had no effect on concentrations of chlorophyll, carbon, or the fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter, suggesting that bacterioplankton responses were independent of phytoplankton responses. These results demonstrate that bacterioplankton communities in unproductive high-elevation habitats can rapidly alter their taxonomic composition and metabolism in response to short-term phosphate enrichment. Our results reinforce the key role that phosphorus plays in oligotrophic lake ecosystems, clarify the nature of bacterioplankton nutrient limitation, and

  2. Food webs of two intermittently open estuaries receiving 15N-enriched sewage effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadwen, Wade L.; Arthington, Angela H.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signatures were used to assess the response of food webs to sewage effluent discharged into two small intermittently open estuaries in northern New South Wales, Australia. One of these systems, Tallows Creek, has a history of direct sewage inputs, whilst the other, Belongil Creek, receives wastewater via an extensive wetland treatment system. The food webs of both systems were driven by algal sources of carbon, reflecting high autotrophic productivity in response to the nutrients entering the system from sewage effluent. All aquatic biota collected from Tallows Creek had significantly enriched δ15N signatures relative to their conspecifics from Belongil Creek, indicating that sewage nitrogen had been assimilated and transferred throughout the Tallows Creek food web. These δ15N values were higher than those reported from studies in permanently open estuaries receiving sewage effluent. We suggest that these enriched signatures and the transfer of nitrogen throughout the entire food web reflect differences in hydrology and associated nitrogen cycling processes between permanently open and intermittently open estuaries. Although all organisms in Tallows Creek were generally 15N-enriched, isotopically light (less 15N-enriched) individuals of estuary perchlet ( Ambassis marianus) and sea mullet ( Mugil cephalus) were also collected. These individuals were most likely recent immigrants into Tallows Creek, as this system had only recently been opened to the ocean. This isotopic discrimination between resident (enriched) and immigrant (significantly less enriched) individuals can provide information on fish movement patterns and the role of heavily polluted intermittently open estuaries in supporting commercially and recreationally valuable estuarine species.

  3. Enriched biodiversity data as a resource and service

    PubMed Central

    Balech, Bachir; Beard, Niall; Blissett, Matthew; Brenninkmeijer, Christian; van Dooren, Tom; Eades, David; Gosline, George; Groom, Quentin John; Hamann, Thomas D.; Hettling, Hannes; Hoehndorf, Robert; Holleman, Ayco; Hovenkamp, Peter; Kelbert, Patricia; King, David; Kirkup, Don; Lammers, Youri; DeMeulemeester, Thibaut; Mietchen, Daniel; Miller, Jeremy A.; Mounce, Ross; Nicolson, Nicola; Page, Rod; Pawlik, Aleksandra; Pereira, Serrano; Penev, Lyubomir; Richards, Kevin; Sautter, Guido; Shorthouse, David Peter; Tähtinen, Marko; Weiland, Claus; Williams, Alan R.; Sierra, Soraya

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Recent years have seen a surge in projects that produce large volumes of structured, machine-readable biodiversity data. To make these data amenable to processing by generic, open source “data enrichment” workflows, they are increasingly being represented in a variety of standards-compliant interchange formats. Here, we report on an initiative in which software developers and taxonomists came together to address the challenges and highlight the opportunities in the enrichment of such biodiversity data by engaging in intensive, collaborative software development: The Biodiversity Data Enrichment Hackathon. Results: The hackathon brought together 37 participants (including developers and taxonomists, i.e. scientific professionals that gather, identify, name and classify species) from 10 countries: Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the UK, and the US. The participants brought expertise in processing structured data, text mining, development of ontologies, digital identification keys, geographic information systems, niche modeling, natural language processing, provenance annotation, semantic integration, taxonomic name resolution, web service interfaces, workflow tools and visualisation. Most use cases and exemplar data were provided by taxonomists. One goal of the meeting was to facilitate re-use and enhancement of biodiversity knowledge by a broad range of stakeholders, such as taxonomists, systematists, ecologists, niche modelers, informaticians and ontologists. The suggested use cases resulted in nine breakout groups addressing three main themes: i) mobilising heritage biodiversity knowledge; ii) formalising and linking concepts; and iii) addressing interoperability between service platforms. Another goal was to further foster a community of experts in biodiversity informatics and to build human links between research projects and institutions, in response to recent calls to further such

  4. Arsenic Enrichment in Surface Water and Soil in Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Wang, M.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Corresponding author: yan.zheng@qc.cuny.edu The average soil arsenic concentration was reported to be 18.7 mg/kg based on a survey of 205 samples in Tibet. This is considerably higher than the commonly cited crustal background value of 10 mg/kg of As for soil, and is unlikely due to anthropogenic pollution. To investigate the origin of this geochemical anomaly in soil arsenic, water (n=80), stream sediment (n=69), soil (n=79), rock (n=58) samples were collected from the Yarlung Zangbo (upstream of Brahmaputra) River drainage and Shiquan (upstream of Indus) River drainage basins in June of 2008. Arsenic enrichment is pronounced in the Shiquan River drainage. The average arsenic concentration in soil, stream sediment and stream water is 34±23 mg/kg (n=33, range <12-84 mg/kg), 35± mg/kg (n=37, range <14-197 mg/kg) and 5±69 g/L (n=39, range 2-252 g/L), respectively. In the Yarlung Zangbo River drainage, the average arsenic concentration in soil, stream sediment and stream water is 28±35 mg/kg (n=23, range <12-152 mg/kg), 22±7 mg/kg (n=28, range <14-44 mg/kg) and 11±16 g/L (n=30, range 2 -83 g/L), respectively. The average concentration of arsenic in upstream water of Yarlung Zangbo River is 38±28 g/L (n=5), and is much higher than the value of 5±3 g/L (n=23) downstream. The high background concentration of arsenic in soil of this area may be associated to the broad distribution of ophiolite melange and meta-sedimentary sequences containing shale, phyllite and schist that may be rich in arsenic. However, the maximum concentration of arsenic in rock is only 35±6mg/kg in metamorphic breccia. About 91% of the rock samples are lower than the limit of detection of XRF (15 mg/kg). Thus, it is more likely that soil As enrichment result from the weathering process of rocks under cold and arid plateau conditions. Whether this soil As anomaly in Tibetan Plateau affects the down stream flood plain sedimentary As content or not requires further study. Other types water

  5. Enriching screening libraries with bioactive fragment space.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Zhao, Hongtao

    2016-08-01

    By deconvoluting 238,073 bioactive molecules in the ChEMBL library into extended Murcko ring systems, we identified a set of 2245 ring systems present in at least 10 molecules. These ring systems belong to 2221 clusters by ECFP4 fingerprints with a minimum intracluster similarity of 0.8. Their overlap with ring systems in commercial libraries was further quantified. Our findings suggest that success of a small fragment library is driven by the convergence of effective coverage of bioactive ring systems (e.g., 10% coverage by 1000 fragments vs. 40% by 2million HTS compounds), high enrichment of bioactive ring systems, and low molecular complexity enhancing the probability of a match with the protein targets. Reconciling with the previous studies, bioactive ring systems are underrepresented in screening libraries. As such, we propose a library of virtual fragments with key functionalities via fragmentation of bioactive molecules. Its utility is exemplified by a prospective application on protein kinase CK2, resulting in the discovery of a series of novel inhibitors with the most potent compound having an IC50 of 0.5μM and a ligand efficiency of 0.41kcal/mol per heavy atom. PMID:27311891

  6. EASI--enrichment of alternatively spliced isoforms.

    PubMed

    Venables, Julian P; Burn, John

    2006-01-01

    Alternative splicing produces more than one protein from the majority of genes and the rarer forms can have dominant functions. Instability of alternative transcripts can also hinder the study of regulation of gene expression by alternative splicing. To investigate the true extent of alternative splicing we have developed a simple method of enriching alternatively spliced isoforms (EASI) from PCRs using beads charged with Thermus aquaticus single-stranded DNA-binding protein (T.Aq ssb). This directly purifies the single-stranded regions of heteroduplexes between alternative splices formed in the PCR, enabling direct sequencing of all the rare alternative splice forms of any gene. As a proof of principle the alternative transcripts of three tumour suppressor genes, TP53, MLH1 and MSH2, were isolated from testis cDNA. These contain missing exons, cryptic splice sites or include completely novel exons. EASI beads are stable for months in the fridge and can be easily combined with standard protocols to speed the cloning of novel transcripts. PMID:16951290

  7. Deuterium enrichment of the interstellar grain mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ankan; Sahu, Dipen; Majumdar, Liton; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2016-01-01

    We carry out Monte Carlo simulation to study deuterium enrichments of interstellar grain mantles under various physical conditions. Based on the physical properties, various types of clouds are considered. We find that in diffuse cloud regions, very strong radiation fields persists and hardly a few layers of surface species are formed. In translucent cloud regions with a moderate radiation field, significant number of layers would be produced and surface coverage is mainly dominated by photo-dissociation products such as, C, CH3, CH2D, OH and OD. In the intermediate dense cloud regions (having number density of total hydrogen nuclei in all forms ˜2 × 104 cm-3), water and methanol along with their deuterated derivatives are efficiently formed. For much higher density regions (˜106 cm-3), water and methanol productions are suppressed but surface coverages of CO, CO2, O2 and O3 are dramatically increased. We find a very high degree of fractionation of water and methanol. Observational results support a high fractionation of methanol but surprisingly water fractionation is found to be low. This is in contradiction with our model results indicating alternative routes for de-fractionation of water. Effects of various types of energy barriers are also studied. Moreover, we allow grain mantles to interact with various charged particles (such as H+, Fe+, S+ and C+) to study the stopping power and projected range of these charged particles on various target ices.

  8. The effect of cyanobacterial biomass enrichment by centrifugation and GF/C filtration on subsequent microcystin measurement.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Shelley; Puddick, Jonathan; Wood, Susanna A; Dietrich, Daniel R; Hamilton, David P; Prinsep, Michele R

    2015-03-01

    Microcystins are cyclic peptides produced by multiple cyanobacterial genera. After accumulation in the liver of animals they inhibit eukaryotic serine/threonine protein phosphatases, causing liver disease or death. Accurate detection/quantification of microcystins is essential to ensure safe water resources and to enable research on this toxin. Previous methodological comparisons have focused on detection and extraction techniques, but have not investigated the commonly used biomass enrichment steps. These enrichment steps could modulate toxin production as recent studies have demonstrated that high cyanobacterial cell densities cause increased microcystin levels. In this study, three microcystin-producing strains were processed using no cell enrichment steps (by direct freezing at three temperatures) and with biomass enrichment (by centrifugation or GF/C filtration). After extraction, microcystins were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All processing methods tested, except GF/C filtration, resulted in comparable microcystin quotas for all strains. The low yields observed for the filtration samples were caused by adsorption of arginine-containing microcystins to the GF/C filters. Whilst biomass enrichment did not affect microcystin metabolism over the time-frame of normal sample processing, problems associated with GF/C filtration were identified. The most widely applicable processing method was direct freezing of samples as it could be utilized in both field and laboratory environments. PMID:25763766

  9. 21 CFR 139.165 - Enriched vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched vegetable noodle products. 139.165 Section 139.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.165 Enriched vegetable noodle products. (a) Each of the noodle...

  10. 21 CFR 139.135 - Enriched vegetable macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched vegetable macaroni products. 139.135 Section 139.135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.135 Enriched vegetable macaroni products. (a) Each of the...

  11. Enrichment and activation of smectite-poor clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarceviča, Inese; Kostjukovs, Juris; Actiņš, Andris

    2011-06-01

    A new method of smectite clay enrichment has been developed. The method is based on dispersing clay in a phosphate solution and sequential coagulation. The product of enrichment is characterized with X-ray powder diffraction, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry. Sorption of methylene blue and hexadecylpyridinium bromide on raw and purified clays was studied.

  12. 21 CFR 139.165 - Enriched vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched vegetable noodle products. 139.165... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.165 Enriched vegetable noodle products. (a) Each of the noodle...

  13. 21 CFR 139.165 - Enriched vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched vegetable noodle products. 139.165... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.165 Enriched vegetable noodle products. (a) Each of the noodle...

  14. 21 CFR 139.165 - Enriched vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched vegetable noodle products. 139.165... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.165 Enriched vegetable noodle products. (a) Each of the noodle...

  15. 21 CFR 139.165 - Enriched vegetable noodle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched vegetable noodle products. 139.165... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.165 Enriched vegetable noodle products. (a) Each of the noodle...

  16. Schoolwide Enrichment Model: Challenging All Children to Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes how the components of the Schoolwide Enrichment Model were used to dramatically reduce the achievement gap in a school with a high at-risk student population. The theories of enrichment and instructional differentiation replaced an existing remedial paradigm and a strength-based methodology was embraced by the school…

  17. Enrichment Materials in Home Economics for Gifted and Talented Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock. Div. of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Designed to provide the home economics teacher with a resource of enrichment materials for gifted/talented students, this manual consists of information to assist home economics teachers and students in designing enrichment materials to supplement classroom learning and suggested learning activities in five home economics areas. Part 1 of the…

  18. Enriched Video Semantic Metadata: Authorization, Integration, and Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mu, Xiangming; Marchionini, Gary

    2003-01-01

    Presents an enriched video metadata framework including video authorization using the Video Annotation and Summarization Tool (VAST)-a video metadata authorization system that integrates both semantic and visual metadata-- metadata integration, and user level applications. Results demonstrated that the enriched metadata were seamlessly…

  19. Functional properties of pasta enriched with variable cereal brans.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurkirat; Sharma, Savita; Nagi, H P S; Dar, Basharat N

    2012-08-01

    To explore the potentiality of cereal brans for preparation of fiber enriched pasta, various cereal brans (Wheat, Rice, Barley and Oat) were added at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 per cent to durum wheat semolina. The effect of cereal bran enrichment on the colour, cooking, sensory quality and shelf life of enriched pasta was assessed at ambient temperature. Pasta prepared with added fiber at 25 per cent level had the highest protein and dietary fiber content as compared to control. Enrichment with variable fiber sources improved the brightness of pasta, as colour of pasta enhanced significantly. Addition of cereal brans resulted an increase in the water absorption and cooking losses of pasta. This effect was dependent on the level and type of cereal brans. Significant correlation (r = 0.80) was obtained between water absorption and volume expansion in all types of bran enriched pasta. At 25 per cent level of supplementation, maximum solids were leached into cooking water. Bran enriched pasta required less cooking time for complete gelatinization of starch. Increasing level of cereal brans had significantly affected the overall acceptability of enriched pasta. Cooking quality of pasta remained constant during storage. Non significant effect of storage was found on water activity, free fatty acids. Enriched pasta (15 per cent level of wheat, rice and oat bran and 10 per cent barley bran) was highly acceptable upto 4 months of storage with respect to quality. PMID:23904655

  20. Overview of reduced enrichment fuels: Development, testing, and specification

    SciTech Connect

    Snelgrove, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The US Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program was established in 1978 to provide the technical means to operate research and test reactors with low enrichment uranium (LEU) fuels without significant penalty in experiment performance, operation costs, component modifications, or safety characteristics. This paper discusses relevant developments in fuel developments. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  1. 21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched culture medium. 866.2330 Section 866.2330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2330 Enriched...

  2. 21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched culture medium. 866.2330 Section 866.2330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2330 Enriched...

  3. 21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched culture medium. 866.2330 Section 866.2330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2330 Enriched...

  4. 21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched culture medium. 866.2330 Section 866.2330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2330 Enriched...

  5. 21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched culture medium. 866.2330 Section 866.2330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2330 Enriched...

  6. Environmental enrichment of laboratory animals used in regulatory toxicology studies.

    PubMed

    Dean, S W

    1999-10-01

    There is a wealth of information in the published literature which describes a multitude of approaches to enriching the environment of laboratory animals. This paper attempts to review the various methods of enrichment through social contact, enhancement of the environment and diet, and improvements in husbandry. It attempts to place the various enrichment initiatives within the context of a laboratory which conducts regulatory toxicology, describes some of the experiences in the author's own laboratory and attempts to highlight those ideas which might prove practical to implement in the future. The aim is to demonstrate that a creative approach to environmental enrichment is indeed compatible with regulatory toxicology. It is hoped that this will encourage those responsible for the care and welfare of animals in such a laboratory to challenge historical practices and include environmental enrichment as a fundamental necessity of study design. PMID:10778780

  7. Stability and bioaccessibility of anthocyanins in bakery products enriched with anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Karakaya, Sibel; Simsek, Sebnem; Eker, Alper Tolga; Pineda-Vadillo, Carlos; Dupont, Didier; Perez, Beatriz; Viadel, Blanca; Sanz-Buenhombre, Marisa; Rodriguez, Alberto Guadarrama; Kertész, Zsófia; Hegyi, Adrienn; Bordoni, Alessandra; El, Sedef Nehir

    2016-08-10

    Anthocyanins, water soluble polyphenols, have been associated with several beneficial health effects. The aim of this study was to determine how the baking process and food matrix affect anthocyanin stability and bioaccessibility in bakery products in order to develop functional foods. Three well known regularly consumed bakery products (buns, breadsticks and biscuits) were enriched with anthocyanin (AC) isolated from grape skin alone or in combination with docosahexaenoic acid (AC + DHA) to reveal knowledge on AC as active ingredients in real food systems rather than pure compounds. Anthocyanin amounts added to the formulations of buns, breadsticks and biscuits were 34 mg per 100 g, 40 mg per 100 g and 37 mg per 100 g, respectively. The effect of processing, storage and the food matrix on AC stability and bioaccessibility was investigated. In addition, the sensory properties of bakery products were evaluated. Breadsticks enriched with AC and AC + DHA received the lowest scores in the pre-screening sensory test. Therefore breadsticks were excluded from further analysis. AC retentions, which were monitored by determination of malvidin 3-O-glucoside, in the bun and biscuit after baking were 95.9% (13.6 mg per 100 g) and 98.6% (15.2 mg per 100 g), respectively. Biscuits and buns enriched only with AC showed significantly higher anthocyanin bioaccessibilities (57.26% and 57.30%, respectively) than the same ones enriched with AC + DHA. AC stability in enriched products stored for 21 days was significantly lower than in products stored for 7 days (p < 0.05). However, this loss can be accepted as negligible since more than 70% of AC was retained in all the products. PMID:27415853

  8. Photoablative dilution with pre-enrichment for the clonal isolation of rare cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zordan, Michael D.; Leary, James F.

    2009-02-01

    The clonal isolation of rare cells, especially cancer and stem cells, in a population is important to cell biology. We have demonstrated that the Laser-Enabled Analysis and Processing (LEAP, Cyntellect Inc., San Diego, CA) instrument can be used to efficiently produce clones by photoablative dilution. The LEAP instrument performs automated fluorescence imaging and real-time image analysis to classify cells. The instrument also features a pulsed laser that gives it the ability to purify a sample by eliminating unwanted cells via laser ablation or UV-induced apoptosis. In photoablative dilution, rare cells are deposited into a multiwell plate at 10 cells per well. Then one cell is chosen to clone, and the other cells present in the well are eliminated by laser ablation. We have successfully used LEAP to produce single cell clones in 95% of wells (originally containing 5+/-2.1 cells/well). While photoablative dilution is a very effective way of producing clonal cultures, it has a fundamental limitation in the low number of cells that can be processed. This can be overcome by performing a pre-enrichment to increase the frequency of the rare cells to be cloned. Another enrichment strategy is flow cytometry based cell sorting. Flow sorting can provide greater than 104 fold enrichment and cells can be sorted directly into a multiwell plate. With pre-enrichment, photoablative dilution can be used to clonally isolate rare cells. This is especially important in cases where the total number of potentially rare cells recovered by first stage enrichment sorting is only 10-200 cells. Such a situation which would normally preclude second pass sorting for purity by the high-throughput first stage cell separation technology.

  9. Conversion of crude oil to methane by a microbial consortium enriched from oil reservoir production waters

    PubMed Central

    Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina; Gieg, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    The methanogenic biodegradation of crude oil is an important process occurring in petroleum reservoirs and other oil-containing environments such as contaminated aquifers. In this process, syntrophic bacteria degrade hydrocarbon substrates to products such as acetate, and/or H2 and CO2 that are then used by methanogens to produce methane in a thermodynamically dependent manner. We enriched a methanogenic crude oil-degrading consortium from production waters sampled from a low temperature heavy oil reservoir. Alkylsuccinates indicative of fumarate addition to C5 and C6 n-alkanes were identified in the culture (above levels found in controls), corresponding to the detection of an alkyl succinate synthase encoding gene (assA/masA) in the culture. In addition, the enrichment culture was tested for its ability to produce methane from residual oil in a sandstone-packed column system simulating a mature field. Methane production rates of up to 5.8 μmol CH4/g of oil/day were measured in the column system. Amounts of produced methane were in relatively good agreement with hydrocarbon loss showing depletion of more than 50% of saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons. Microbial community analysis revealed that the enrichment culture was dominated by members of the genus Smithella, Methanosaeta, and Methanoculleus. However, a shift in microbial community occurred following incubation of the enrichment in the sandstone columns. Here, Methanobacterium sp. were most abundant, as were bacterial members of the genus Pseudomonas and other known biofilm forming organisms. Our findings show that microorganisms enriched from petroleum reservoir waters can bioconvert crude oil components to methane both planktonically and in sandstone-packed columns as test systems. Further, the results suggest that different organisms may contribute to oil biodegradation within different phases (e.g., planktonic vs. sessile) within a subsurface crude oil reservoir. PMID:24829563

  10. Effect of Enrichment Medium on Real-time Detection of Salmonella enterica from Lettuce and Tomato Enrichment Cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    vThree commonly used enrichment broths for detection of Salmonella (Buffered Peptone Water – BPW, Tryptic Soy Broth – TSB, and Universal Preenrichment Broth – UPB) were compared for use in real time SYBR Green PCR detection of Salmonella introduced into enrichment cultures made from store bought let...

  11. Anammox enrichment from different conventional sludges.

    PubMed

    Chamchoi, Nutchanat; Nitisoravut, Suwanchai

    2007-02-01

    Three sets of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were used for Anammox enrichment from conventional sludges including upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, activated sludge, and anaerobic digestion sludge. After four months of operation, the Anammox activity occurred in all reactors allowing continuous removal of ammonium and nitrite. The morphology of the cultivated Anammox sludge was observed using scanning electron microscope. The photographs showed that the obtained culture was mostly spherical in shape, presumably Anammox culture. There were also filamentous-like bacteria co-existing in the system. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis using 16S rRNA targeting oligonucleotide probes PLA46 and Amx820 showed that the dominant population developed in all SBRs was hybridized with both PLA46 and Amx820 gene probes. It means that the cultivated biomass in all SBRs was classified in the group of Planctomycetales bacteria with respect to the anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans and Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis. Numerous time sequences were tested in this experiment. The shortest workable reaction time was found in the range from 5 to 7 h. Good quiescence of sludge was obtained at 30 min of settle period followed by a discharge period of 15 min. A long-term performance showed a near perfect removal of nitrite based on the influent NO2(-)-N concentration of 50-70 mg l(-1). The maximum ammonia removal efficiency was 80% with the influent NH4(+)-N concentration of 40-60 mg l(-1). It is, therefore, concluded that Anammox cultivation from conventional sludges was highly possible under control environment within four months. PMID:17207839

  12. Production, characterization and operation of Ge enriched BEGe detectors in GERDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Andreotti, E.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Domula, A.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Misiaszek, M.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Palioselitis, D.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pessina, G.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Schönert, S.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Strecker, H.; Ur, C. A.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wilsenach, H.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2015-02-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array ( Gerda) at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS) searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay () of Ge. Germanium detectors made of material with an enriched Ge fraction act simultaneously as sources and detectors for this decay. During Phase I of theexperiment mainly refurbished semi-coaxial Ge detectors from former experiments were used. For the upcoming Phase II, 30 new Ge enriched detectors of broad energy germanium (BEGe)-type were produced. A subgroup of these detectors has already been deployed in Gerda during Phase I. The present paper reviews the complete production chain of these BEGe detectors including isotopic enrichment, purification, crystal growth and diode production. The efforts in optimizing the mass yield and in minimizing the exposure of the Ge enriched germanium to cosmic radiation during processing are described. Furthermore, characterization measurements in vacuum cryostats of the first subgroup of seven BEGe detectors and their long-term behavior in liquid argon are discussed. The detector performance fulfills the requirements needed for the physics goals of Gerda Phase II.

  13. Proteomic Characterisation of the Salt Gland-Enriched Tissues of the Mangrove Tree Species Avicennia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wee-Kee; Lim, Teck-Kwang; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Kumar, Prakash; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    Plant salt glands are nature's desalination devices that harbour potentially useful information pertaining to salt and water transport during secretion. As part of the program toward deciphering secretion mechanisms in salt glands, we used shotgun proteomics to compare the protein profiles of salt gland-enriched (isolated epidermal peels) and salt gland-deprived (mesophyll) tissues of the mangrove species Avicennia officinalis. The purpose of the work is to identify proteins that are present in the salt gland-enriched tissues. An average of 2189 and 977 proteins were identified from the epidermal peel and mesophyll tissues, respectively. Among these, 2188 proteins were identified in salt gland-enriched tissues and a total of 1032 selected proteins were categorized by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. This paper reports for the first time the proteomic analysis of salt gland-enriched tissues of a mangrove tree species. Candidate proteins that may play a role in the desalination process of the mangrove salt glands and their potential localization were identified. Information obtained from this study paves the way for future proteomic research aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying secretion in plant salt glands. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000771. PMID:26193361

  14. Discontinuous pH gradient-mediated separation of TiO2-enriched phosphopeptides

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Soo; Maudsley, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Global profiling of phosphoproteomes has proven a great challenge due to the relatively low stoichiometry of protein phosphorylation and poor ionization efficiency in mass spectrometers. Effective, physiologically-relevant, phosphoproteome research relies on the efficient phosphopeptide enrichment from complex samples. Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and titanium dioxide chromatography (TOC) can greatly assist selective phosphopeptide enrichment. However, the complexity of resultant enriched samples is often still high, suggesting that further separation of enriched phosphopeptides is required. We have developed a pH-gradient elution technique for enhanced phosphopeptide identification in conjunction with TOC. Using this process, we have demonstrated its superiority to the traditional ‘one-pot’ strategies for differential protein identification. Our technique generated a highly specific separation of phosphopeptides by an applied pH-gradient between 9.2 and 11.3. The most efficient elution range for high-resolution phosphopeptide separation was between pH 9.2 and 9.4. High-resolution separation of multiply-phosphorylated peptides was primarily achieved using elution ranges > pH 9.4. Investigation of phosphopeptide sequences identified in each pH fraction indicated that phosphopeptides with phosphorylated residues proximal to acidic residues, including glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and other phosphorylated residues, were preferentially eluted at higher pH values. PMID:20946866

  15. Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine wastes and surrounding geologically enriched terrains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gustin, M.S.; Coolbaugh, M.F.; Engle, M.A.; Fitzgerald, B.C.; Keislar, R.E.; Lindberg, S.E.; Nacht, D.M.; Quashnick, J.; Rytuba, J.J.; Sladek, C.; Zhang, H.; Zehner, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    Waste rock and ore associated with Hg, precious and base metal mining, and their surrounding host rocks are typically enriched in mercury relative to natural background concentrations (<0.1 ??g Hg g-1). Mercury fluxes to the atmosphere from mineralized areas can range from background rates (0-15 ng m-2 h-1) to tens of thousands of ng m-2 h-1. Mercury enriched substrate constitutes a long-term source of mercury to the global atmospheric mercury pool. Mercury emissions from substrate are influenced by light, temperature, precipitation, and substrate mercury concentration, and occur during the day and night. Light-enhanced emissions are driven by two processes: desorption of elemental mercury accumulated at the soil:air interface, and photo reduction of mercury containing phases. To determine the need for and effectiveness of regulatory controls on short-lived anthropogenic point sources the contribution of mercury from geologic non-point sources to the atmospheric mercury pool needs to be quantified. The atmospheric mercury contribution from small areas of mining disturbance with relatively high mercury concentrations are, in general, less than that from surrounding large areas of low levels of mercury enrichment. In the arid to semi-arid west-ern United States volatilization is the primary means by which mercury is released from enriched sites.

  16. Enrichment of denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria from Taihu sediments by a membrane biofilm bioreactor at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shenghui; Wu, Qing; Lei, Ting; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia

    2016-03-01

    Denitrification coupled to anaerobic methane oxidation is a recently discovered process performed by bacteria affiliated to the NC10 phylum. These microorganisms could play important roles in the energy-efficient way of anaerobic wastewater treatment where residual dissolved methane might be removed at the expense of nitrate or nitrite. The difficulty to enrich these microorganisms due to a slow growth rate, especially at low temperatures, limited its application in engineering field. In this study, an NC10 bacteria community was enriched from Taihu sediments by a membrane biofilm bioreactor at ambient temperature of 10-25 °C. After 13 months enrichment, the maximum denitrification rate of the enriched culture reached 0.54 mM day(-1) for nitrate and 1.06 mM day(-1) for nitrite. Anaerobic methane oxidation coupled denitrification was estimated from the (13)C-labeled CO2 ((13)CO2) production during batch incubations with (13)CH4. Furthermore, analysis of 16S rRNA genes clone library confirmed the presence of NC10 phylum bacteria and fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that NC10 bacteria dominated the reactor. All of the results indicated the NC10 bacteria community was competitive in terms of treating nitrate-contaminated water or wastewater under natural conditions. PMID:26578374

  17. Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine wastes and surrounding geologically enriched terrains

    SciTech Connect

    Gustin, Mae S.; Coolbaugh, M. F.; Engle, M. A.; Fitzgerald, B. C.; Keislar, R. E.; Lindberg, Steven Eric; Nacht, D. M.; Quashnick, J.; Rytuba, J. J.; Sladek, C.; Zhang, Hong; Zehner, R. E.

    2003-01-01

    Waste rock and ore associated with Hg, precious and base metal mining, and their surrounding host rocks are typically enriched in mercury relative to natural background concentrations (<0.1 {micro}g Hg g{sup -1}). Mercury fluxes to the atmosphere from mineralized areas can range from background rates (0-15 ng m{sup -2} h{sup -1}) to tens of thousands of ng m{sup -2} h{sup -1}. Mercury enriched substrate constitutes a long-term source of mercury to the global atmospheric mercury pool. Mercury emissions from substrate are influenced by light, temperature, precipitation, and substrate mercury concentration, and occur during the day and night. Light-enhanced emissions are driven by two processes: desorption of elemental mercury accumulated at the soil:air interface, and photo reduction of mercury containing phases. To determine the need for and effectiveness of regulatory controls on short-lived anthropogenic point sources the contribution of mercury from geologic non-point sources to the atmospheric mercury pool needs to be quantified. The atmospheric mercury contribution from small areas of mining disturbance with relatively high mercury concentrations are, in general, less than that from surrounding large areas of low levels of mercury enrichment. In the arid to semi-arid western United States volatilization is the primary means by which mercury is released from enriched sites.

  18. Enrichment Factors (EF) on Superficial Sediments of Santos Estuarine System, Southeasthern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B. S. M.; Salaroli, A. B.; Mahiques, M.; Figueira, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Baixada Santista, located at southeastern Brazilian coast, hosts the largest harbor of South America, it is also the third most heavily populated region in São Paulo state. Many industries and domestic sewage have been contaminating the environment with heavy metals and arsenic since industrial revolution. This has been a major concern worldwide due to its toxicity and persistence. Levels of metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, Sc, V) and As were determinated on 180 samples of surface sediments, by acid digestion and quantified by ICP-OES to assess enrichment factors in order to know the anthropogenic contribution of the investigated elements. The levels of metals indicated absence of contamination, but a higher enrichment of As (approximately 9.5) near Bertioga city. Ni and Cr had values between 0.5 - 2.0, Cu and Zn between 0.6 - 4.0 and 0.9 - 7.5 for Pb. Despite As, all others metals showed higher enrichment in Santos - São Vicente Estuary, especially near Cubatão. The analysis of the enrichment factor of As indicate that these values could be due to natural processes of weathering and sedimentation, meanwhile the other metals could be from antropogenic sources, since thoses values were found near industrial area.

  19. HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM BLEND DOWN PROGRAM AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE PRESENT AND FUTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Magoulas, V; Charles Goergen, C; Ronald Oprea, R

    2008-06-05

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) entered into an Interagency Agreement to transfer approximately 40 metric tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) to TVA for conversion to fuel for the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant. Savannah River Site (SRS) inventories included a significant amount of this material, which resulted from processing spent fuel and surplus materials. The HEU is blended with natural uranium (NU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) with a 4.95% 235U isotopic content and shipped as solution to the TVA vendor. The HEU Blend Down Project provided the upgrades needed to achieve the product throughput and purity required and provided loading facilities. The first blending to low enriched uranium (LEU) took place in March 2003 with the initial shipment to the TVA vendor in July 2003. The SRS Shipments have continued on a regular schedule without any major issues for the past 5 years and are due to complete in September 2008. The HEU Blend program is now looking to continue its success by dispositioning an additional approximately 21 MTU of HEU material as part of the SRS Enriched Uranium Disposition Project.

  20. Proteomic Characterisation of the Salt Gland-Enriched Tissues of the Mangrove Tree Species Avicennia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wee-Kee; Lim, Teck-Kwang; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Kumar, Prakash; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    Plant salt glands are nature’s desalination devices that harbour potentially useful information pertaining to salt and water transport during secretion. As part of the program toward deciphering secretion mechanisms in salt glands, we used shotgun proteomics to compare the protein profiles of salt gland-enriched (isolated epidermal peels) and salt gland-deprived (mesophyll) tissues of the mangrove species Avicennia officinalis. The purpose of the work is to identify proteins that are present in the salt gland-enriched tissues. An average of 2189 and 977 proteins were identified from the epidermal peel and mesophyll tissues, respectively. Among these, 2188 proteins were identified in salt gland-enriched tissues and a total of 1032 selected proteins were categorized by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. This paper reports for the first time the proteomic analysis of salt gland-enriched tissues of a mangrove tree species. Candidate proteins that may play a role in the desalination process of the mangrove salt glands and their potential localization were identified. Information obtained from this study paves the way for future proteomic research aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying secretion in plant salt glands. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000771. PMID:26193361

  1. On 7LI Enrichment by Low-Mass Metal-Poor Red Giant Branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Reza, Ramiro; da Silva, Licio; Drake, Natalia A.; Terra, Marco A.

    2000-06-01

    First-ascent red giants with strong and very strong Li lines have just been discovered in globular clusters. Using the stellar internal prompt 7Li enrichment-mass-loss scenario, we explore the possibility of 7Li enrichment in the interstellar matter of the globular cluster M3 produced by these Li-rich giants. We found that enrichment as large as 70% or more compared to the initial 7Li content of M3 can be obtained during the entire life of this cluster. However, because M3 will cross into the Galactic plane several times, the new 7Li will be very probably removed by ram pressure into the disk. Globular clusters appear then as possible new sources of 7Li in the Galactic disk. It is also suggested that the known Na/Al variations in stars of globular clusters could be somehow related to the 7Li variations and that the cool bottom process mixing mechanism acting in the case of 7Li could also play a role in the case of Na and Al surface enrichments.

  2. Macrozoobenthic community structure in two Portuguese estuaries: Relationship with organic enrichment and nutrient gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucha, Ana Paula; Costa, Maria Helena

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this work consists in the study of the structural and functional aspects of the macrozoobenthic communities and their relationships with the organic enrichment and nutrient gradients in water and sediment. The study was carried out in two coastal ecosystems under strong anthropogenic pressure: the Sado estuary and the Aveiro Lagoon. Samples were collected at four stations between October 1994 and April 1995. The results obtained allowed us to state that spatial variability, both horizontal and vertical, was higher than the temporal variability. This was due to local hydrodynamism, organic load and granulometric structure of the sediment. Comparing the community structure at the different stations, it was possible to observe the existence of disturbance cases not directly related to organic enrichment gradients. The interpretation of the functional role of the macrozoobenthic communities at the water-sediment interface was based on the trophodynamic group classification. This approach allowed us to state that the sensitivity of different groups to organic enrichment, confirming the role of burrower subsurface-deposit feeders as opportunists associated with organic enrichment and, on the other hand, the influence of certain trophodynamic groups in the nutrient transfer processes, particularly the association between tube-builder omnivores and burrower carnivore and nitrate content in interstitial water.

  3. The mechanism of solute-enriched clusters formation in neutron-irradiated pressure vessel steels: The case of Fe-Cu model alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbotin, A. V.; Panyukov, S. V.

    2016-08-01

    Mechanism of solute-enriched clusters formation in neutron-irradiated pressure vessel steels is proposed and developed in case of Fe-Cu model alloys. The suggested solute-drag mechanism is analogous to the well-known zone-refining process. We show that the obtained results are in good agreement with available experimental data on the parameters of clusters enriched with the alloying elements. Our model explains why the formation of solute-enriched clusters does not happen in austenitic stainless steels with fcc lattice structure. It also allows to quantify the method of evaluation of neutron irradiation dose for the process of RPV steels hardening.

  4. Enrichment of By-Product Materials from Steel Pickling Acid Regeneration Plants (TRP 9942)

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Swan, Delta Ferrites LLC

    2009-09-30

    A new process for manufacturing an enriched, iron-based product (strontium hexaferrite) in existing steel pickling acid regeneration facilities was evaluated. Process enhancements and equipment additions were made to an existing acid regeneration plant to develop and demonstrate (via pilot scale testing and partial-capacity production trials) the viability of a patented method to produce strontium-based compounds that, when mixed with steel pickling acid and roasted, would result in a strontium hexaferrite powder precursor which could then be subjected to further heat treatment in an atmosphere that promotes rapid, relatively low-temperature formation of discrete strontium hexaferrite magnetic domains yielding an enriched iron-based product, strontium hexaferrite, that can be used in manufacturing hard ferrite magnets.

  5. Establishing Specifications for Low Enriched Uranium Fuel Operations Conducted Outside the High Flux Isotope Reactor Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkston, Daniel; Primm, Trent; Renfro, David G; Sease, John D

    2010-10-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has funded staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study the conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from the current, high enriched uranium fuel to low enriched uranium fuel. The LEU fuel form is a metal alloy that has never been used in HFIR or any HFIR-like reactor. This report provides documentation of a process for the creation of a fuel specification that will meet all applicable regulations and guidelines to which UT-Battelle, LLC (UTB) the operating contractor for ORNL - must adhere. This process will allow UTB to purchase LEU fuel for HFIR and be assured of the quality of the fuel being procured.

  6. Air-Xe enrichments in Elk Hills oil field gases: role of water in migration and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torgersen, T.; Kennedy, B. M.

    1999-04-01

    Hydrocarbons from the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve (NPR#1), Bakersfield, CA, are enriched in heavy noble gases. The 132Xe/ 36Ar ratios are as high as ˜576 times the ratio in air and represent the largest relative Xe-enrichments ever observed in terrestrial fluids. The Xe isotopic composition is indistinguishable from air. We show that these samples cannot be explained by equilibration of oil with air saturated water and secondary enrichment via a Rayleigh distillation gas stripping process. Based on laboratory studies of others with potential petroleum source rocks, we believe the source of this enriched heavy noble gas component was adsorbed air initially trapped in/on the source rocks that was expelled and mixed with the hydrocarbons during expulsion and primary migration. Kr and Xe enrichments decrease with increasing 36Ar concentration. We propose a model in which an initial Kr-Xe-enriched hydrocarbon becomes diluted with noble gases extracted from air saturated groundwater during expulsion, migration, and storage. The model generates an integrated water/hydrocarbon ratio for the production fluid which indicates a minimal role for water in hydrocarbon expulsion and migration. The results are interpreted to provide time/geometrical constraints on the mechanisms by which hydrocarbons can migrate as a separate phase.

  7. Relative Contributions of Leaf-associated Microorganisms to Leaf Litter Breakdown in a Nutrient-enriched Headwater Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tant, C. J.; Rosemond, A. D.; Taylor, N.; Conners, D. E.; Suberkropp, K.

    2005-05-01

    Litter decomposition in streams occurs as a function of microbial and invertebrate processing, as well as abiotic factors. Abiotic factors, such as streamwater nutrient concentrations, may change the relative importance of groups of microorganisms, as well as invertebrates, to leaf breakdown. We plan to quantify the relative contributions of bacteria, fungi, and invertebrate processing on decaying leaves in a reference and treatment stream (experimentally enriched with N & P for 4.5 yrs) at the Coweeta Long Term Ecological Research site in North Carolina, USA. Leaf packs of maple or rhododendron leaves were periodically retrieved to determine decay rates. Microbial activity was measured as respiration, fungal biomass was determined by measuring ergosterol concentration, and bacterial biomass was determined by epifluorescence microscopy. Breakdown rates were dramatically faster in the nutrient enriched stream than the reference stream, associated with greater microbial activity and presumably, invertebrate feeding. Based on whole-system response by microorganisms, we predict that nutrient enrichment will lead to greater contributions of fungi, relative to bacteria, to leaf breakdown. Our results show that enrichment can fundamentally alter the rate of organic matter breakdown in streams, and will test whether enrichment also changes the relative roles of groups of organisms contributing to breakdown processes.

  8. The use of isotopically enriched tin tracers to follow the transformation of organotin compounds in landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Kelly; Zuliani, Tea; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila

    2014-04-15

    Landfill leachates are an important pool of organotin compounds (OTCs). Several studies have been performed on the occurrence of OTCs in landfill leachates, but only a few of them report degradation and biomethylation processes by bacteria. In the present study transformation of OTCs in landfill leachate was investigated under simulated landfill conditions over a time span of six months. The degradation and biomethylation processes of OTCs were followed by the use of isotopically enriched tin tracers, namely (117)Sn-enriched tributyltin (TBT), (119)Sn-enriched dibutyltin (DBT), (117)Sn-enriched SnCl2, (117)Sn-enriched SnCl4 and a (119)Sn-enriched butyltin mix containing TBT, DBT and monobutyltin (MBT). Transformation of OTCs in spiked leachates was followed at m/z of the enriched spikes and at m/z 120, which allowed simultaneous observation of the transformation of OTCs in the leachate itself and of the added spike. In parallel, these processes were also monitored in a non-spiked leachate sample at m/z 120. Quantification of OTCs was performed by gas chromatography - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-MS). To discriminate the biotic and abiotic transformations of OTCs and inorganic tin species, sterilization of leachate was also performed and data compared to non-sterilized samples. During the course of the experiment the microbial degradation of TBT was clearly manifested in Sn-enriched spiked leachate samples, while abiotic pathway of degradation was observed for DBT. Biomethylation process was also observed in the leachate spiked with Sn-enriched Sn(2+) or Sn(4+), in concentrations close to those found for total tin in landfill leachates. Monomethyltin (MMeT) was formed first. Stepwise alkylation resulted in dimethyltin (DMeT) and trimethyltin (TMeT) species formation. Hydrolysis of Sn(2+) and Sn(4+) species was found to be a limiting factor which controlled the extent of methyltin formation. The results of the present investigation importantly

  9. Assessment of liquid disposal originated by uranium enrichment at Aramar Experimental Center São Paulo--Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gerenutti, Marli; Gonçalves, Marcos Moisés; Rissato, Sandra Regina; de Oliveira, José Martins; dos Santos Reigota, Marco Antonio; Galhiane, Mário Sergio

    2012-07-01

    This work presents a liquid disposal monitoring originated from uranium enrichment process at Aramar Experimental Center from 1990 to 1998. Assessment of uranium, fluorides, ammoniacal nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, and pH measurements were made in water samples and compared with results achieved in other countries, as North America and India. The liquid disposal evaluation, generated by uranium enrichment process, showed low levels, considering most parameters established by Federal and State Legislation, aiming environmental pollution control. However, uranium levels were above the limits established by Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente, Environment Protection Agency and mainly by the World Health Organization. PMID:21814717

  10. Detection of illicit HEU production in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants using neutron counting techniques on product cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Corey R; Geist, William H

    2010-01-01

    Innovative and novel safeguards approaches are needed for nuclear energy to meet global energy needs without the threat of nuclear weapons proliferation. Part of these efforts will include creating verification techniques that can monitor uranium enrichment facilities for illicit production of highly-enriched uranium (HEU). Passive nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques will be critical in preventing illicit HEU production because NDA offers the possibility of continuous and unattended monitoring capabilities with limited impact on facility operations. Gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEP) are commonly used to produce low-enriched uranium (LEU) for reactor fuel. In a GCEP, gaseous UF{sub 6} spins at high velocities in centrifuges to separate the molecules containing {sup 238}U from those containing the lighter {sup 235}U. Unfortunately, the process for creating LEU is inherently the same as HEU, creating a proliferation concern. Insuring that GCEPs are producing declared enrichments poses many difficult challenges. In a GCEP, large cascade halls operating thousands of centrifuges work together to enrich the uranium which makes effective monitoring of the cascade hall economically prohibitive and invasive to plant operations. However, the enriched uranium exiting the cascade hall fills product cylinders where the UF{sub 6} gas sublimes and condenses for easier storage and transportation. These product cylinders hold large quantities of enriched uranium, offering a strong signal for NDA measurement. Neutrons have a large penetrability through materials making their use advantageous compared to gamma techniques where the signal is easily attenuated. One proposed technique for detecting HEU production in a GCEP is using neutron coincidence counting at the product cylinder take off stations. This paper discusses findings from Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code simulations that examine the feasibility of such a detector.

  11. The Future of Data-Enriched Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thille, Candace; Schneider, Emily; Kizilcec, René F.; Piech, Christopher; Halawa, Sherif A.; Greene, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    The article addresses the question of how the assessment process with large-scale data derived from online learning environments will be different from the assessment process without it. Following an explanation of big data and how it is different from previously available learner data, we describe three notable features that characterize…

  12. Polymer-Enriched 3D Graphene Foams for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun Kit; Xiong, Gordon Minru; Zhu, Minmin; Özyilmaz, Barbaros; Castro Neto, Antonio Helio; Tan, Nguan Soon; Choong, Cleo

    2015-04-22

    Graphene foams (GFs) are versatile nanoplatforms for biomedical applications because of their excellent physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. However, the brittleness and inflexibility of pristine GF (pGF) are some of the important factors restricting their widespread application. Here, a chemical-vapor-deposition-assisted method was used to synthesize 3D GFs, which were subsequently spin-coated with polymer to produce polymer-enriched 3D GFs with high conductivity and flexibility. Compared to pGF, both poly(vinylidene fluoride)-enriched GF (PVDF/GF) and polycaprolactone-enriched GF (PCL/GF) scaffolds showed improved flexibility and handleability. Despite the presence of the polymers, the polymer-enriched 3D GF scaffolds retained high levels of electrical conductivity because of the presence of microcracks that allowed for the flow of electrons through the material. In addition, polymer enrichment of GF led to an enhancement in the formation of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) compounds when the scaffolds were exposed to simulated body fluid. Between the two polymers tested, PCL enrichment of GF resulted in a higher in vitro mineralization nucleation rate because the oxygen-containing functional group of PCL had a higher affinity for Ca-P deposition and formation compared to the polar carbon-fluorine (C-F) bond in PVDF. Taken together, our current findings are a stepping stone toward future applications of polymer-enriched 3D GFs in the treatment of bone defects as well as other biomedical applications. PMID:25822669

  13. Immunomagnetic separation can enrich fixed solid tumors for epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Yaremko, M. L.; Kelemen, P. R.; Kutza, C.; Barker, D.; Westbrook, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    Immunomagnetic separation is a highly specific technique for the enrichment or isolation of cells from a variety of fresh tissues and microorganisms or molecules from suspensions. Because new techniques for molecular analysis of solid tumors are now applicable to fixed tissue but sometimes require or benefit from enrichment for tumor cells, we tested the efficacy of immunomagnetic separation for enriching fixed solid tumors for malignant epithelial cells. We applied it to two different tumors and fixation methods to separate neoplastic from non-neoplastic cells in primary colorectal cancers and metastatic breast cancers, and were able to enrich to a high degree of purity. Immunomagnetic separation was effective in unembedded fixed tissue as well as fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. The magnetically separated cells were amenable to fluorescence in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction amplification of their DNA with minimal additional manipulation. The high degree of enrichment achieved before amplification contributed to interpretation of loss of heterozygosity in metastatic breast cancers, and simplified fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis because only neoplastic cells were hybridized and counted. Immunomagnetic separation is effective for the enrichment of fixed solid tumors, can be performed with widely available commercial antibodies, and requires little specialized instrumentation. It can contribute to interpretation of results in situations where enrichment by other methods is difficult or not possible. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8546231

  14. Principal Angle Enrichment Analysis (PAEA): Dimensionally Reduced Multivariate Gene Set Enrichment Analysis Tool

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Neil R.; Szymkiewicz, Maciej; Wang, Zichen; Monteiro, Caroline D.; Jones, Matthew R.; Ma’ayan, Avi

    2016-01-01

    Gene set analysis of differential expression, which identifies collectively differentially expressed gene sets, has become an important tool for biology. The power of this approach lies in its reduction of the dimensionality of the statistical problem and its incorporation of biological interpretation by construction. Many approaches to gene set analysis have been proposed, but benchmarking their performance in the setting of real biological data is difficult due to the lack of a gold standard. In a previously published work we proposed a geometrical approach to differential expression which performed highly in benchmarking tests and compared well to the most popular methods of differential gene expression. As reported, this approach has a natural extension to gene set analysis which we call Principal Angle Enrichment Analysis (PAEA). PAEA employs dimensionality reduction and a multivariate approach for gene set enrichment analysis. However, the performance of this method has not been assessed nor its implementation as a web-based tool. Here we describe new benchmarking protocols for gene set analysis methods and find that PAEA performs highly. The PAEA method is implemented as a user-friendly web-based tool, which contains 70 gene set libraries and is freely available to the community. PMID:26848405

  15. Network enrichment analysis: extension of gene-set enrichment analysis to gene networks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gene-set enrichment analyses (GEA or GSEA) are commonly used for biological characterization of an experimental gene-set. This is done by finding known functional categories, such as pathways or Gene Ontology terms, that are over-represented in the experimental set; the assessment is based on an overlap statistic. Rich biological information in terms of gene interaction network is now widely available, but this topological information is not used by GEA, so there is a need for methods that exploit this type of information in high-throughput data analysis. Results We developed a method of network enrichment analysis (NEA) that extends the overlap statistic in GEA to network links between genes in the experimental set and those in the functional categories. For the crucial step in statistical inference, we developed a fast network randomization algorithm in order to obtain the distribution of any network statistic under the null hypothesis of no association between an experimental gene-set and a functional category. We illustrate the NEA method using gene and protein expression data from a lung cancer study. Conclusions The results indicate that the NEA method is more powerful than the traditional GEA, primarily because the relationships between gene sets were more strongly captured by network connectivity rather than by simple overlaps. PMID:22966941

  16. Realities of verifying the absence of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in gas centrifuge enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Swindle, D.W.

    1990-03-01

    Over a two and one-half year period beginning in 1981, representatives of six countries (United States, United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany, Australia, The Netherlands, and Japan) and the inspectorate organizations of the International Atomic Energy Agency and EURATOM developed and agreed to a technically sound approach for verifying the absence of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in gas centrifuge enrichment plants. This effort, known as the Hexapartite Safeguards Project (HSP), led to the first international concensus on techniques and requirements for effective verification of the absence of weapons-grade nuclear materials production. Since that agreement, research and development has continued on the radiation detection technology-based technique that technically confirms the HSP goal is achievable. However, the realities of achieving the HSP goal of effective technical verification have not yet been fully attained. Issues such as design and operating conditions unique to each gas centrifuge plant, concern about the potential for sensitive technology disclosures, and on-site support requirements have hindered full implementation and operator support of the HSP agreement. In future arms control treaties that may limit or monitor fissile material production, the negotiators must recognize and account for the realities and practicalities in verifying the absence of HEU production. This paper will describe the experiences and realities of trying to achieve the goal of developing and implementing an effective approach for verifying the absence of HEU production. 3 figs.

  17. Salt enrichment of municipal sewage: New prevention approaches in Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Baruch; Avnimelech, Yoram; Juanico, Marcelo

    1996-07-01

    Wastewater irrigation is an environmentally sound wastewater disposal practice, but sewage is more saline than the supplied fresh water and the salts are recycled together with the water. Salts have negative environmental effects on crops, soils, and groundwater. There are no inexpensive ways to remove the salts once they enter sewage, and the prevention of sewage salt enrichment is the most immediately available solution. The body of initiatives presently structured by the Ministry of the Environment of Israel are herein described, with the aim to contribute to the search for a long-term solution of salinity problems in arid countries. The new initiatives are based on: (1) search for new technologies to reduce salt consumption and discharge into sewage; (2) different technologies to cope with different situations; (3) raising the awareness of the public and industry on the environmental implications of salinity pollution; and (4) an elastic legal approach expressed through new state-of-the-art regulations. The main contributor to the salinity of sewage in Israel is the watersoftening process followed by the meat koshering process. Some of the adopted technical solutions are: the discharge of the brine into the sea, the substitution of sodium by potassium salts in the ion-exchangers, the construction of centralized systems for the supply of soft water in industrial areas, the precipitation of Ca and Mg in the effluents from ion-exchangers and recycling of the NaCI solution, a reduction of the discharge of salts by the meat koshering process, and new membrane technology for salt recovery.

  18. Formation and Preservation of the Depleted and Enriched Shergottite Isotopic Reservoirs in a Convecting Martian Mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Walter S.; Jones, John H.

    2015-01-01

    There is compelling isotopic and crater density evidence for geologically recent volcanism on Mars, in the last 100-200 million years and possibly in the last 50 million years. This volcanism is due to adiabatic decompression melting and thus requires some type of present-day convective upwelling in the martian mantle. On the other hand, martian meteorites preserve evidence for at least 3 distinct radiogenic isotopic reservoirs. Anomalies in short-lived isotopic systems (Sm-146, Nd-142, Hf-182, W-182) require that these reservoirs must have developed in the first 50 to 100 million years of Solar System history. The long-term preservation of chemically distinct reservoirs has sometimes been interpreted as evidence for the absence of mantle convection and convective mixing on Mars for most of martian history, a conclusion which is at odds with the evidence for young volcanism. This apparent paradox can be resolved by recognizing that a variety of processes, including both inefficient mantle mixing and geographic separation of isotopic reservoirs, may preserve isotopic heterogeneity on Mars in an actively convecting mantle. Here, we focus on the formation and preservation of the depleted and enriched isotopic and trace element reservoirs in the shergottites. In particular, we explore the possible roles of processes such as chemical diffusion and metasomatism in dikes and magma chambers for creating the isotopically enriched shergottites. We also consider processes that may preserve the enriched reservoir against convective mixing for most of martian history.

  19. Extracting semantically enriched events from biomedical literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    can be used to refine search systems, in order to provide an extra search layer beyond entities and assertions, dealing with phenomena such as rhetorical intent, speculations, contradictions and negations. This finer grained search functionality can assist in several important tasks, e.g., database curation (by locating new experimental knowledge) and pathway enrichment (by providing information for inference). To allow easy integration into text mining systems, EventMine-MK is provided as a UIMA component that can be used in the interoperable text mining infrastructure, U-Compare. PMID:22621266

  20. A Distributed Network for Social Cognition Enriched for Oxytocin Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mitre, Mariela; Marlin, Bianca J.; Schiavo, Jennifer K.; Morina, Egzona; Norden, Samantha E.; Hackett, Troy A.; Aoki, Chiye J.

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin is a neuropeptide important for social behaviors such as maternal care and parent–infant bonding. It is believed that oxytocin receptor signaling in the brain is critical for these behaviors, but it is unknown precisely when and where oxytocin receptors are expressed or which neural circuits are directly sensitive to oxytocin. To overcome this challenge, we generated specific antibodies to the mouse oxytocin receptor and examined receptor expression throughout the brain. We identified a distributed network of female mouse brain regions for maternal behaviors that are especially enriched for oxytocin receptors, including the piriform cortex, the left auditory cortex, and CA2 of the hippocampus. Electron microscopic analysis of the cerebral cortex revealed that oxytocin receptors were mainly expressed at synapses, as well as on axons and glial processes. Functionally, oxytocin transiently reduced synaptic inhibition in multiple brain regions and enabled long-term synaptic plasticity in the auditory cortex. Thus modulation of inhibition may be a general mechanism by which oxytocin can act throughout the brain to regulate parental behaviors and social cognition. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Oxytocin is an important peptide hormone involved in maternal behavior and social cognition, but it has been unclear what elements of neural circuits express oxytocin receptors due to the paucity of suitable antibodies. Here, we developed new antibodies to the mouse oxytocin receptor. Oxytocin receptors were found in discrete brain regions and at cortical synapses for modulating excitatory-inhibitory balance and plasticity. These antibodies should be useful for future studies of oxytocin and social behavior. PMID:26911697

  1. Porphyry copper enrichment linked to excess aluminium in plagioclase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, B. J.; Herrington, R. J.; Morris, A.

    2016-03-01

    Porphyry copper deposits provide around 75%, 50% and 20% of world copper, molybdenum and gold, respectively. The deposits are mainly centred on calc-alkaline porphyry magmatic systems in subduction zone settings. Although calc-alkaline magmas are relatively common, large porphyry copper deposits are extremely rare and increasingly difficult to discover. Here, we compile existing geochemical data for magmatic plagioclase, a dominant mineral in calc-alkaline rocks, from fertile (porphyry-associated) and barren magmatic systems worldwide, barren examples having no associated porphyry deposit. We show that plagioclase from fertile systems is distinct in containing `excess’ aluminium. This signature is clearly demonstrated in a case study carried out on plagioclase from the fertile La Paloma and Los Sulfatos copper porphyry systems in Chile. Further, the presence of concentric zones of high excess aluminium suggests its incorporation as a result of magmatic processes. As excess aluminium has been linked to high melt water contents, the concentric zones may record injections of hydrous fluid or fluid-rich melts into the sub-porphyry magma chamber. We propose that excess aluminium may exclude copper from plagioclase, so enriching the remaining melts. Furthermore, this chemical signature can be used as an exploration indicator for copper porphyry deposits.

  2. Biotechnological production of vitamin B2-enriched bread and pasta.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Menga, Valeria; Digesu, Anna Maria; De Vita, Pasquale; van Sinderen, Douwe; Cattivelli, Luigi; Fares, Clara; Spano, Giuseppe

    2011-07-27

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were obtained from durum wheat flour samples and screened for roseoflavin-resistant variants to isolate natural riboflavin-overproducing strains. Two riboflavin-overproducing strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated as described above were used for the preparation of bread (by means of sourdough fermentation) and pasta (using a prefermentation step) to enhance their vitamin B2 content. Pasta was produced from a monovarietal semolina obtained from the durum wheat cultivar PR22D89 and, for experimental purposes, from a commercial remilled semolina. Several samples were collected during the pasta-making process (dough, extruded, dried, and cooked pasta) and tested for their riboflavin content by a high-performance liquid chromatography method. The applied approaches resulted in a considerable increase of vitamin B2 content (about 2- and 3-fold increases in pasta and bread, respectively), thus representing a convenient and efficient food-grade biotechnological application for the production of vitamin B2-enriched bread and pasta. This methodology may be extended to a wide range of cereal-based foods, feed, and beverages. Additionally, this work exemplifies the production of a functional food by a novel biotechnological exploitation of LAB in pasta-making. PMID:21678896

  3. Enriching rice with Zn and Fe while minimizing Cd risk

    PubMed Central

    Slamet-Loedin, Inez H.; Johnson-Beebout, Sarah E.; Impa, Somayanda; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Enriching iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) content in rice grains, while minimizing cadmium (Cd) levels, is important for human health and nutrition. Natural genetic variation in rice grain Zn enables Zn-biofortification through conventional breeding, but limited natural Fe variation has led to a need for genetic modification approaches, including over-expressing genes responsible for Fe storage, chelators, and transporters. Generally, Cd uptake and allocation is associated with divalent metal cations (including Fe and Zn) transporters, but the details of this process are still unknown in rice. In addition to genetic variation, metal uptake is sometimes limited by its bioavailability in the soil. The availability of Fe, Zn, and Cd for plant uptake varies widely depending on soil redox potential. The typical practice of flooding rice increases Fe while decreasing Zn and Cd availability. On the other hand, moderate soil drying improves Zn uptake but also increases Cd and decreases Fe uptake. Use of Zn- or Fe-containing fertilizers complements breeding efforts by providing sufficient metals for plant uptake. In addition, the timing of nitrogen fertilization has also been shown to affect metal accumulation in grains. The purpose of this mini-review is to identify knowledge gaps and prioritize strategies for improving the nutritional value and safety of rice. PMID:25814994

  4. Staged Inertial Microfluidic Focusing for Complex Fluid Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Reece, Amy E.; Kaastrup, Kaja; Sikes, Hadley D.; Oakey, John

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic inertial focusing reliably and passively aligns small particles and cells through a combination of competing inertial fluid forces. The equilibrium behavior of inertially focused particles in straight channels has been extensively characterized and has been shown to be a strong function of channel size, geometry and particle size. We demonstrate that channels of varying geometry may be combined to produce a staged device capable of high throughput particle and cell concentration and efficient single pass complex fluid enrichment. Straight and asymmetrically curved microchannels were combined in series to accelerate focusing dynamics and improve concentration efficiency. We have investigated single and multiple pass concentration efficiency and results indicate that these devices are appropriate for routine cell handling operations, including buffer exchange. We demonstrate the utility of these devices by performing a ubiquitous fluorescence staining assay on-chip while sacrificing very little sample or processing time relative to centrifugation. Staged concentration is particularly desirable for point of care settings in which more conventional instrumentation is impractical or cost-prohibitive. PMID:26185618

  5. Enrichment Ratio and Aggregate Stability Dynamics in Intensely Managed Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wacha, K.; Papanicolaou, T.; Filley, T. R.; Hou, T.; Abban, B. K.; Wilson, C. G.; Boys, J.

    2015-12-01

    Challenges in understanding the soil carbon dynamics within intensely managed landscapes (IMLs), found throughout much the US Midwest, is highly complex due to the presence of heterogeneous landscape features and properties, as well as a mosaic of physical and biogeochemical processes occurring at different time scales. In addition, rainfall events exacerbate the effects of tillage by the impact of raindrops, which break down aggregates that encase carbon and dislodge and entrain soil particles and aggregates along the downslope. The redistribution of soil and carbon can have huge implications on biogeochemical cycling and overall carbon budgeting. In this study, we provide some rare field data on the mechanisms impacting aggregate stability, enrichment ratio values to estimate fluxes of carbon, as well as lignin chemistry to see influences on oxidation/mineralization rates. Rainfall simulation experiments were conducted within agricultural fields. Experiments were performed on the midslope (eroding) and toeslope (depositional) sections of representative hillslopes, under a variety of land managements, including row crop (conventional and conservation) and restored grasslands. Sensors were utilized to capture the evolution of soil moisture, temperature, microbial respiration pulses, and discharge rates to identify pseudo-steady state conditions. Samples collected at the weir outlet were tested for sediment concentrations and size fractions, as well as carbon and lignin fluxes. Preliminary findings show that conservation management practices have higher aggregate stability and decreased mass fluxes of carbon in the downslope than conventional tillage techniques.

  6. A Distributed Network for Social Cognition Enriched for Oxytocin Receptors.

    PubMed

    Mitre, Mariela; Marlin, Bianca J; Schiavo, Jennifer K; Morina, Egzona; Norden, Samantha E; Hackett, Troy A; Aoki, Chiye J; Chao, Moses V; Froemke, Robert C

    2016-02-24

    Oxytocin is a neuropeptide important for social behaviors such as maternal care and parent-infant bonding. It is believed that oxytocin receptor signaling in the brain is critical for these behaviors, but it is unknown precisely when and where oxytocin receptors are expressed or which neural circuits are directly sensitive to oxytocin. To overcome this challenge, we generated specific antibodies to the mouse oxytocin receptor and examined receptor expression throughout the brain. We identified a distributed network of female mouse brain regions for maternal behaviors that are especially enriched for oxytocin receptors, including the piriform cortex, the left auditory cortex, and CA2 of the hippocampus. Electron microscopic analysis of the cerebral cortex revealed that oxytocin receptors were mainly expressed at synapses, as well as on axons and glial processes. Functionally, oxytocin transiently reduced synaptic inhibition in multiple brain regions and enabled long-term synaptic plasticity in the auditory cortex. Thus modulation of inhibition may be a general mechanism by which oxytocin can act throughout the brain to regulate parental behaviors and social cognition. PMID:26911697

  7. Mimicking nature: Phosphopeptide enrichment using combinatorial libraries of affinity ligands.

    PubMed

    Batalha, Iris L; Zhou, Houjiang; Lilley, Kathryn; Lowe, Christopher R; Roque, Ana C A

    2016-07-29

    Phosphorylation is a reversible post-translational modification of proteins that controls a plethora of cellular processes and triggers specific physiological responses, for which there is a need to develop tools to characterize phosphorylated targets efficiently. Here, a combinatorial library of triazine-based synthetic ligands comprising 64 small molecules has been rationally designed, synthesized and screened for the enrichment of phosphorylated peptides. The lead candidate (coined A8A3), composed of histidine and phenylalanine mimetic components, showed high binding capacity and selectivity for binding mono- and multi-phosphorylated peptides at pH 3. Ligand A8A3 was coupled onto both cross-linked agarose and magnetic nanoparticles, presenting higher binding capacities (100-fold higher) when immobilized on the magnetic support. The magnetic adsorbent was further screened against a tryptic digest of two phosphorylated proteins (α- and β-caseins) and one non-phosphorylated protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA). The MALDI-TOF mass spectra of the eluted peptides allowed the identification of nine phosphopeptides, comprising both mono- and multi-phosphorylated peptides. PMID:27345211

  8. Enriching rice with Zn and Fe while minimizing Cd risk.

    PubMed

    Slamet-Loedin, Inez H; Johnson-Beebout, Sarah E; Impa, Somayanda; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Enriching iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) content in rice grains, while minimizing cadmium (Cd) levels, is important for human health and nutrition. Natural genetic variation in rice grain Zn enables Zn-biofortification through conventional breeding, but limited natural Fe variation has led to a need for genetic modification approaches, including over-expressing genes responsible for Fe storage, chelators, and transporters. Generally, Cd uptake and allocation is associated with divalent metal cations (including Fe and Zn) transporters, but the details of this process are still unknown in rice. In addition to genetic variation, metal uptake is sometimes limited by its bioavailability in the soil. The availability of Fe, Zn, and Cd for plant uptake varies widely depending on soil redox potential. The typical practice of flooding rice increases Fe while decreasing Zn and Cd availability. On the other hand, moderate soil drying improves Zn uptake but also increases Cd and decreases Fe uptake. Use of Zn- or Fe-containing fertilizers complements breeding efforts by providing sufficient metals for plant uptake. In addition, the timing of nitrogen fertilization has also been shown to affect metal accumulation in grains. The purpose of this mini-review is to identify knowledge gaps and prioritize strategies for improving the nutritional value and safety of rice. PMID:25814994

  9. Enrichment by supernovae in globular clusters with multiple populations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Woo; Kang, Young-Woon; Lee, Jina; Lee, Young-Wook

    2009-11-26

    The most massive globular cluster in the Milky Way, omega Centauri, is thought to be the remaining core of a disrupted dwarf galaxy, as expected within the model of hierarchical merging. It contains several stellar populations having different heavy elemental abundances supplied by supernovae-a process known as metal enrichment. Although M 22 appears to be similar to omega Cen, other peculiar globular clusters do not. Therefore omega Cen and M 22 are viewed as exceptional, and the presence of chemical inhomogeneities in other clusters is seen as 'pollution' from the intermediate-mass asymptotic-giant-branch stars expected in normal globular clusters. Here we report Ca abundances for seven globular clusters and compare them to omega Cen. Calcium and other heavy elements can only be supplied through numerous supernovae explosions of massive stars in these stellar systems, but the gravitational potentials of the present-day clusters cannot preserve most of the ejecta from such explosions. We conclude that these globular clusters, like omega Cen, are most probably the relics of more massive primeval dwarf galaxies that merged and disrupted to form the proto-Galaxy. PMID:19940919

  10. Enzymatic synthesis of extremely pure triacylglycerols enriched in conjugated linoleic acids.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Wang, Weifei; Xu, Yang; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2013-01-01

    This work was objectively targeted to synthesize extremely pure triacylglycerols (TAG) enriched in conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) for medical and dietetic purposes. Extremely pure CLA-enriched TAG was successfully synthesized by using the multi-step process: TAG was primarily synthesized by lipase-catalyzed esterification of CLA and glycerol and then the lower glycerides [monoacylglycerol (MAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG)] in the esterification mixtures was hydrolyzed to free fatty acids (FFAs) by a mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase (lipase SMG1), finally, the FFAs were further separated from TAG by low temperature (150 °C) molecular distillation. The operation parameters for the lipase SMG1-catalyzed hydrolysis were optimized using response surface methodology based on the central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The operation parameters included water content, pH and reaction temperature and all of these three parameters showed significant effects on the hydrolysis of lower glycerides. The optimal conditions were obtained with a water content of 66.4% (w/w, with respect to oil mass), pH at 5.7 and 1 h of reaction time at 19.6 °C. Under these conditions, the content of lower glycerides in the reaction mixture decreased from 45.2% to 0.3% and the purity of CLA-enriched TAG reached 99.7%. Further purification of TAG was accomplished by molecular distillation and the final CLA-enriched TAG product yielded 99.8% of TAG. These extremely pure CLA-enriched TAG would be used for in vivo studies in animals and humans in order to get specific information concerning CLA metabolism. PMID:23945644

  11. Functioning of a Shallow-Water Sediment System during Experimental Warming and Nutrient Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Alsterberg, Christian; Sundbäck, Kristina; Hulth, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Effects of warming and nutrient enrichment on intact unvegetated shallow-water sediment were investigated for 5 weeks in the autumn under simulated natural field conditions, with a main focus on trophic state and benthic nitrogen cycling. In a flow-through system, sediment was exposed to either seawater at ambient temperature or seawater heated 4°C above ambient, with either natural or nutrient enriched water. Sediment–water fluxes of oxygen and inorganic nutrients, nitrogen mineralization, and denitrification were measured. Warming resulted in an earlier shift to net heterotrophy due to increased community respiration; primary production was not affected by temperature but (slightly) by nutrient enrichment. The heterotrophic state was, however, not further strengthened by warming, but was rather weakened, probably because increased mineralization induced a shortage of labile organic matter. Climate-related warming of seawater during autumn could therefore, in contrast to previous predictions, induce shorter but more intensive heterotrophic periods in shallow-water sediments, followed by longer autotrophic periods. Increased nitrogen mineralization and subsequent effluxes of ammonium during warming suggested a preferential response of organisms driving nitrogen mineralization when compared to sinks of ammonium such as nitrification and algal assimilation. Warming and nutrient enrichment resulted in non-additive effects on nitrogen mineralization and denitrification (synergism), as well as on benthic fluxes of phosphate (antagonism). The mode of interaction appears to be related to the trophic level of the organisms that are the main drivers of the affected processes. Despite the weak response of benthic microalgae to both warming and nutrient enrichment, the assimilation of nitrogen by microalgae was similar in magnitude to rates of nitrogen mineralization. This implies a sustained filter function and retention capacity of nutrients by the sediment. PMID

  12. Functioning of a shallow-water sediment system during experimental warming and nutrient enrichment.

    PubMed

    Alsterberg, Christian; Sundbäck, Kristina; Hulth, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Effects of warming and nutrient enrichment on intact unvegetated shallow-water sediment were investigated for 5 weeks in the autumn under simulated natural field conditions, with a main focus on trophic state and benthic nitrogen cycling. In a flow-through system, sediment was exposed to either seawater at ambient temperature or seawater heated 4°C above ambient, with either natural or nutrient enriched water. Sediment-water fluxes of oxygen and inorganic nutrients, nitrogen mineralization, and denitrification were measured. Warming resulted in an earlier shift to net heterotrophy due to increased community respiration; primary production was not affected by temperature but (slightly) by nutrient enrichment. The heterotrophic state was, however, not further strengthened by warming, but was rather weakened, probably because increased mineralization induced a shortage of labile organic matter. Climate-related warming of seawater during autumn could therefore, in contrast to previous predictions, induce shorter but more intensive heterotrophic periods in shallow-water sediments, followed by longer autotrophic periods. Increased nitrogen mineralization and subsequent effluxes of ammonium during warming suggested a preferential response of organisms driving nitrogen mineralization when compared to sinks of ammonium such as nitrification and algal assimilation. Warming and nutrient enrichment resulted in non-additive effects on nitrogen mineralization and denitrification (synergism), as well as on benthic fluxes of phosphate (antagonism). The mode of interaction appears to be related to the trophic level of the organisms that are the main drivers of the affected processes. Despite the weak response of benthic microalgae to both warming and nutrient enrichment, the assimilation of nitrogen by microalgae was similar in magnitude to rates of nitrogen mineralization. This implies a sustained filter function and retention capacity of nutrients by the sediment. PMID:23240032

  13. Effects of cognitive enrichment on behavioural and physiological reactions of pigs.

    PubMed

    Zebunke, Manuela; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan

    2013-06-13

    Cognitive enrichment, a special form of environmental enrichment, addresses the cognitive abilities of animals in captivity. Through cognitive interaction with the environment, the animals regain a certain control over their environment, and essential resources, such as food or water, act as a reward for successful coping. It is assumed that this process has important implications for animal welfare, especially in the intensive housing systems of farm animals. This study investigates the effects of cognitive enrichment on welfare-relevant behaviour (agonistic interactions and behavioural reactivity in a repeated open-field test) and autonomic control (heart rate variability during feeding, resting and in a repeated open-field test) in domestic pigs. A total of forty-eight pigs, Sus scrofa, were housed in groups of four. In six replicates, an experimental group was compared with a conventionally fed control group. The pigs in the experimental group were confronted with a cognitive challenge that was integrated into their familiar housing environment. Pigs were rewarded with food after they successfully mastered the discrimination of an individual acoustical signal followed by an operant task. The pigs in both groups reacted with sympathetic arousal to feeding announcement (increased heart rate (HR)). During feeding, the experimental pigs' HR decreased, and heart rate variability (HRV) increased, while the control pigs' HR stayed highly elevated and HRV decreased. These results are supported by a considerably larger number of agonistic interactions during feeding in the control group. During resting, the basal HRV of the experimental pigs increased (during operant conditioning) compared to the control. In the repeated open-field test, the experimental pigs displayed less locomotion and elimination as well as more contact with the wall and an unknown object compared to the control group. We conclude that cognitive enrichment leads to relaxed feeding and evokes longer

  14. Review of remediation practices regarding cadmium-enriched farmland soil with particular reference to China.

    PubMed

    Tang, X; Li, Q; Wu, M; Lin, L; Scholz, M

    2016-10-01

    Cadmium-enrichment of farmland soil greatly threatens the sustainable use of soil resources and the safe cultivation of grain. This review paper briefly introduces the status of farmland soil as well as grain, which are both often polluted by cadmium (Cd) in China, and illustrates the major sources of Cd contaminants in farmland soil. In order to meet soil environmental quality standards and farmland environmental quality evaluation standards for edible agricultural products, Cd-enriched farmland soil is frequently remediated with the following prevailing techniques: dig and fill, electro-kinetic remediation, chemical elution, stabilisation and solidification, phytoremediation, field management and combined remediation. Most remediation techniques are still at the stage of small-scale trial experiments in China and few techniques are assessed in field trials. After comparing the technical and economical applicability among different Cd-enriched farmland soil remediation techniques, a novel ecological and hydraulic remediation technique has been proposed, which integrated the advantages of chemical elution, solidification and stabilisation, phytoremediation and field management. The ecological and hydraulic remediation concept is based on existing irrigation and drainage facilities, ecological ditches (ponds) and agronomic measures, which mainly detoxify the Cd-enriched soil during the interim period of crop cultivation, and guarantee the grain safety during its growth period. This technique may shift the challenge from soil to water treatment, and thus greatly enhances the remediation efficiency and shortens the remediation duration. Moreover, the proposed ecological and hydraulic remediation method matches well with the practical choice of cultivation while remediation for Cd-enriched soil in China, which has negligible impacts on the normal crop cultivation process, and thus shows great potential for large area applications. PMID:27562701

  15. Enrichment of large-diameter semiconducting SWCNTs by polyfluorene extraction for high network density thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jianfu; Li, Zhao; Lefebvre, Jacques; Cheng, Fuyong; Dubey, Girjesh; Zou, Shan; Finnie, Paul; Hrdina, Amy; Scoles, Ludmila; Lopinski, Gregory P.; Kingston, Christopher T.; Simard, Benoit; Malenfant, Patrick R. L.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study on the use of 9,9-dialkylfluorene homopolymers (PFs) for large-diameter semiconducting (sc-) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) enrichment is the focus of this report. The enrichment is based on a simple three-step extraction process: (1) dispersion of as-produced SWCNTs in a PF solution; (2) centrifugation at a low speed to separate the enriched sc-tubes; (3) filtration to collect the enriched sc-SWCNTs and remove excess polymer. The effect of the extraction conditions on the purity and yield including molecular weight and alkyl side-chain length of the polymers, SWCNT concentration, and polymer/SWCNT ratio have been examined. It was observed that PFs with alkyl chain lengths of C10, C12, C14, and C18, all have an excellent capability to enrich laser-ablation sc-SWCNTs when their molecular weight is larger than ~10 000 Da. More detailed studies were therefore carried out with the C12 polymer, poly(9,9-di-n-dodecylfluorene), PFDD. It was found that a high polymer/SWCNT ratio leads to an enhanced yield but a reduced sc-purity. A ratio of 0.5-1.0 gives an excellent sc-purity and a yield of 5-10% in a single extraction as assessed by UV-vis-NIR absorption spectra. The yield can also be promoted by multiple extractions while maintaining high sc-purity. Mechanistic experiments involving time-lapse dispersion studies reveal that m-SWCNTs have a lower propensity to be dispersed, yielding a sc-SWCNT enriched material in the supernatant. Dispersion stability studies with partially enriched sc-SWCNT material further reveal that m-SWCNTs : PFDD complexes will re-aggregate faster than sc-SWCNTs : PFDD complexes, providing further sc-SWCNT enrichment. This result confirms that the enrichment was due to the much tighter bundles in raw materials and the more rapid bundling in dispersion of the m-SWCNTs. The sc-purity is also confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) mapping. The latter shows that the enriched sc-SWCNT sample has

  16. The balance model of oxygen enrichment of atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The study of turnover of carbon and oxygen is an important line of scientific investigation. This line takes on special significance in conditions of soil degradation, which leads to the excess content of carbon dioxide and, as result, decrease of oxygen in the atmosphere. The aim of this article is a statement the balance model of oxygen enrichment of atmospheric air (ratio O/C) depending on consumption and assimilation by plants of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the value of the oxidation-reduction potential (Eh). Basis of model was the following: green vascular plants are facultative heterotrophic organisms with symbiotic digestion and nutrition. According to the trophology viewpoint, the plant consumption of organic compounds broadens greatly a notion about the plant nutrition and ways of its regulation. In particular, beside the main known cycle of carbon: plant - litter - humus - carbon dioxide - plant, there is the second carbon cycle (turnover of organic compounds): plant - litter - humus - DOM - plant. The biogeochemical meaning of consumption of organic compounds by plants is that plants build the structural and functional blocks of biological macromolecules in their bodies. It provides receiving of a certain "energy payoff" by plants, which leads to increase of plant biomass by both an inclusion of allochthonous organic molecules in plant tissues, and positive effect of organic compounds on plant metabolic processes. One more of powerful ecological consequence of a heterotrophic nutrition of green plants is oxygen enrichment of atmospheric air. As the organic molecules in the second biological cycle of carbon are built in plants without considerable chemical change, the atmospheric air is enriched on that amount of oxygen, which would be required on oxidation of the organic molecules absorbed by plants, in result. It was accepted that: plant-soil system was climax, the plant community was grassy, initial contents of carbon in phytomass was accepted

  17. Chemical Enrichment and Physical Conditions in IZw18*

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebouteiller, V.; Heap, S.; Hubeny, I.; Kunth, D.

    2013-01-01

    Low-metallicity star-forming dwarf galaxies are prime targets to understand the chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium. The H I region contains the bulk of the mass in blue compact dwarfs, and it provides important constraints on the dispersal and mixing of heavy elements released by successive star-formation episodes. The metallicity of the H I region is also a critical parameter to investigate the future star-formation history, as metals provide most of the gas cooling that will facilitate and sustain star formation. Aims. Our primary objective is to study the enrichment of the H I region and the interplay between star-formation history and metallicity evolution. Our secondary obje ctive is to constrain the spatial- and time-scales over which the HI and H II regions are enriched, and the mass range of stars responsible for the heavy element production. Finally, we aim to examine the gas heating and cooling mechanisms in the H I region. Methods. We observed the most metal-poor star-forming galaxy in the Local Universe, I Zw 18, with the Cosmic Origin Spectrograph onboard Hubble. The abundances in the neutral gas are derived from far-ultraviolet absorption-lines (H I, CIII, CIIi*, N I, OI,...) and are compared to the abundances in the H II region. Models are constructed to calculate the ionization structure and the thermal processes. We investigate the gas cooling in the HIi region through physical diagnostics drawn from the fine-structure level of C+. Results. We find that H I region abundances are lower by a factor of approx 2 as compared to the H II region. There is no differential depletion on dust between the H I and H II region. Using sulfur as a metallicity tracer, we calculate a metallicity of 1/46 Z(solar) (vs. 1/31 Z(solar) in the H II region). From the study of the C/O, [O/Fe], and N/O abundance ratios, we propose that C, N, O, and Fe are mainly produced in massive stars. We argue that the H I envelope may contain pockets of pristine gas with a

  18. Chemical enrichment and physical conditions in I Zw 18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebouteiller, V.; Heap, S.; Hubeny, I.; Kunth, D.

    2013-05-01

    Context. Low-metallicity star-forming dwarf galaxies are prime targets to understand the chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium. The H i region contains the bulk of the mass in blue compact dwarfs, and it provides important constraints on the dispersal and mixing of heavy elements released by successive star-formation episodes. The metallicity of the H i region is also a critical parameter to investigate the future star-formation history, as metals provide most of the gas cooling that will facilitate and sustain star formation. Aims: Our primary objective is to study the enrichment of the H i region and the interplay between star-formation history and metallicity evolution. Our secondary objective is to constrain the spatial- and time-scales over which the H i and H ii regions are enriched, and the mass range of stars responsible for the heavy element production. Finally, we aim to examine the gas heating and cooling mechanisms in the H i region. Methods: We observed the most metal-poor star-forming galaxy in the Local Universe, I Zw 18, with the Cosmic Origin Spectrograph onboard Hubble. The abundances in the neutral gas are derived from far-ultraviolet absorption-lines (H i, C ii, C ii*, N i, O i, ...) and are compared to the abundances in the H ii region. Models are constructed to calculate the ionization structure and the thermal processes. We investigate the gas cooling in the H i region through physical diagnostics drawn from the fine-structure level of C+. Results: We find that H i region abundances are lower by a factor of ~2 as compared to the H ii region. There is no differential depletion on dust between the H i and H ii region. Using sulfur as a metallicity tracer, we calculate a metallicity of 1/46 Z⊙ (vs. 1/31 Z⊙ in the H ii region). From the study of the C/O, [O/Fe], and N/O abundance ratios, we propose that C, N, O, and Fe are mainly produced in massive stars. We argue that the H i envelope may contain pockets of pristine gas with a

  19. Assessing model sensitivity and uncertainty across multiple Free-Air CO2 Enrichment experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowdery, E.; Dietze, M.

    2015-12-01

    As atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide levels continue to increase, it is critical that terrestrial ecosystem models can accurately predict ecological responses to the changing environment. Current predictions of net primary productivity (NPP) in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations are highly variable and contain a considerable amount of uncertainty. It is necessary that we understand which factors are driving this uncertainty. The Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments have equipped us with a rich data source that can be used to calibrate and validate these model predictions. To identify and evaluate the assumptions causing inter-model differences we performed model sensitivity and uncertainty analysis across ambient and elevated CO2 treatments using the Data Assimilation Linked Ecosystem Carbon (DALEC) model and the Ecosystem Demography Model (ED2), two process-based models ranging from low to high complexity respectively. These modeled process responses were compared to experimental data from the Kennedy Space Center Open Top Chamber Experiment, the Nevada Desert Free Air CO2 Enrichment Facility, the Rhinelander FACE experiment, the Wyoming Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment Experiment, the Duke Forest Face experiment and the Oak Ridge Experiment on CO2 Enrichment. By leveraging data access proxy and data tilling services provided by the BrownDog data curation project alongside analysis modules available in the Predictive Ecosystem Analyzer (PEcAn), we produced automated, repeatable benchmarking workflows that are generalized to incorporate different sites and ecological models. Combining the observed patterns of uncertainty between the two models with results of the recent FACE-model data synthesis project (FACE-MDS) can help identify which processes need further study and additional data constraints. These findings can be used to inform future experimental design and in turn can provide informative starting point for data assimilation.

  20. Nutrient Enrichment and Food Web Composition Affect Ecosystem Metabolism in an Experimental Seagrass Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Spivak, Amanda C.; Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Duffy, J. Emmett; Richardson, J. Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background Food web composition and resource levels can influence ecosystem properties such as productivity and elemental cycles. In particular, herbivores occupy a central place in food webs as the species richness and composition of this trophic level may simultaneously influence the transmission of resource and predator effects to higher and lower trophic levels, respectively. Yet, these interactions are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an experimental seagrass mesocosm system, we factorially manipulated water column nutrient concentrations, food chain length, and diversity of crustacean grazers to address two questions: (1) Does food web composition modulate the effects of nutrient enrichment on plant and grazer biomasses and stoichiometry? (2) Do ecosystem fluxes of dissolved oxygen and nutrients more closely reflect above-ground biomass and community structure or sediment processes? Nutrient enrichment and grazer presence generally had strong effects on biomass accumulation, stoichiometry, and ecosystem fluxes, whereas predator effects were weaker or absent. Nutrient enrichment had little effect on producer biomass or net ecosystem production but strongly increased seagrass nutrient content, ecosystem flux rates, and grazer secondary production, suggesting that enhanced production was efficiently transferred from producers to herbivores. Gross ecosystem production (oxygen evolution) correlated positively with above-ground plant biomass, whereas inorganic nutrient fluxes were unrelated to plant or grazer biomasses, suggesting dominance by sediment microbial processes. Finally, grazer richness significantly stabilized ecosystem processes, as predators decreased ecosystem production and respiration only in the zero- and one- species grazer treatments. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our results indicate that consumer presence and species composition strongly influence ecosystem responses to nutrient enrichment, and that increasing