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1

Process design Enrich process models with  

E-print Network

Process design · Enrich process models with imposed constraints and instantiate them · Ensure and visualization of constraint violations Semantic Constraints in Adaptive Process-Management-Systems Linh Thao Ly-ulm.de/in/iui-dbis/forschung/projekte/seaflows.html Contact Process evaluation · Use a visual logic-based specification language to model semantic constraints

Ulm, Universität

2

Enriching Business Process Models with Decision Rules  

E-print Network

Enriching Business Process Models with Decision Rules Semra Catalkaya, David Knuplesch, Carolina {semra.catalkaya,david.knuplesch,carolina.chiao,manfred.reichert}@ uni-ulm.de Abstract. Making the right

Ulm, Universität

3

Querying Semantically Enriched Business Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper we present a logic-based approach for querying business process repositories. The proposed solution is based\\u000a on a synergic use of an ontological framework (OPAL) aimed at capturing the semantics of a business scenario, and a business\\u000a process modelling framework (BPAL) to represent the workflow logic. Both frameworks are grounded in logic programming and\\u000a therefore it is possible

Michele Missikoff; Maurizio Proietti; Fabrizio Smith

4

Novel Membranes and Processes for Oxygen Enrichment  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this project is to develop a membrane process that produces air containing 25-35% oxygen, at a cost of $25-40/ton of equivalent pure oxygen (EPO2). Oxygen-enriched air at such a low cost will allow existing air-fueled furnaces to be converted economically to oxygen-enriched furnaces, which in turn will improve the economic and energy efficiency of combustion processes significantly, and reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration from flue gases throughout the U.S. manufacturing industries. During the 12-month Concept Definition project: We identified a series of perfluoropolymers (PFPs) with promising oxygen/nitrogen separation properties, which were successfully made into thin film composite membranes. The membranes showed oxygen permeance as high as 1,200 gpu and oxygen/nitrogen selectivity of 3.0, and the permeance and selectivity were stable over the time period tested (60 days). We successfully scaled up the production of high-flux PFP-based membranes, using MTR's commercial coaters. Two bench-scale spiral-wound modules with countercurrent designs were made and parametric tests were performed to understand the effect of feed flow rate and pressure, permeate pressure and sweep flow rate on the membrane module separation properties. At various operating conditions that modeled potential industrial operating conditions, the module separation properties were similar to the pure-gas separation properties in the membrane stamps. We also identified and synthesized new polymers [including polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and polyimides] with higher oxygen/nitrogen selectivity (3.5-5.0) than the PFPs, and made these polymers into thin film composite membranes. However, these membranes were susceptible to severe aging; pure-gas permeance decreased nearly six-fold within two weeks, making them impractical for industrial applications of oxygen enrichment. We tested the effect of oxygen-enriched air on NO{sub x} emissions using a Bloom baffle burner at GTI. The results are positive and confirm that oxygen-enriched combustion can be carried out without producing higher levels of NOx than normal air firing, if lancing of combustion air is used and the excess air levels are controlled. A simple economic study shows that the membrane processes can produce O{sub 2} at less than $40/ton EPO{sub 2} and an energy cost of 1.1-1.5 MMBtu/ton EPO{sub 2}, which are very favorable compared with conventional technologies such as cryogenics and vacuum pressure swing adsorption processes. The benefits of integrated membrane processes/combustion process trains have been evaluated, and show good savings in process costs and energy consumption, as well as reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. For example, if air containing 30% oxygen is used in natural gas furnaces, the net natural gas savings are an estimated 18% at a burner temperature of 2,500 F, and 32% at a burner temperature of 3,000 F. With a 20% market penetration of membrane-based oxygen-enriched combustion in all combustion processes by 2020, the energy savings would be 414-736 TBtu/y in the U.S. The comparable net cost savings are estimated at $1.2-2.1 billion per year by 2020, calculated as the value of fuel savings subtracted from the cost of oxygen production. The fuel savings of 18%-32% by the membrane/oxygen-enriched combustion corresponds to an 18%-32% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, or 23-40 MM ton/y less CO{sub 2} from natural gas-fired furnaces by 2020. In summary, results from this project (Concept Definition phase) are highly promising and clearly demonstrate that membrane processes can produce oxygen-enriched air in a low cost manner that will lower operating costs and energy consumption in industrial combustion processes. Future work will focus on proof-of-concept bench-scale demonstration in the laboratory.

Lin, Haiqing

2011-11-15

5

Traits de personnalit computationnels Enrichissement de la taxonomie FFM/NEO PI-R avec  

E-print Network

Traits de personnalité computationnels Enrichissement de la taxonomie FFM/NEO PI-R avec des gloses taxonomie NEO PI-R, en relation avec le Modèle des Cinq Facteurs (FFM ­ Five Factor Model). Le processus de dans les positions de l'arborescence définies par la taxonomie FFM/NEO PI-R, une phase de réarrangement

Sansonnet, Jean-Paul

6

Metal enrichment processes in the marine environment  

SciTech Connect

This study discusses metal enrichment in oceanic sediments resulting from remobilization, scavenging, pollution and hydrothermal inputs in the Mississippi River-Gulf of Mexico and Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 26/sup 0/N. Suspended particles collected from the Mississippi River during mean water and suspended-sediment discharge have metal concentrations which vary by <5% for Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn and approx.10% for Mn. The massive sediment load carried by the Mississippi River is rapidly deposited on the Mississippi Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. Aluminum and Fe concentrations in Mississippi Delta sediments are similar to those of average Mississippi River suspended matter throughout the delta. In contrast, the Cu/Al ratio in surficial sediments (0-1 cm) decreases from 4.1 x 10/sup -4/ for average suspended matter to 2.7 x 10/sup -4/ about 45 km from the mouth of Southwest Pass. Copper lost from delta sediments can be traced to the deep Gulf of Mexico where concentrations average 50-70 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ compared with 33 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ for Mississippi River suspended matter. The observed increase in offshore sediments in linked to scavenging of Cu by particles. A similar scenario can be presented for Mn.

Metz, S.

1986-01-01

7

Interstellar Processes Leading to Molecular Deuterium Enrichment and Their Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large deuterium (D) enrichments in meteoritic materials indicate that interstellar organic materials survived incorporation into parent bodies within the forming Solar System. These enrichments are likelier due to one or more of four distinct astrochemical processes. These are (1) low temperature gas phase ion-molecule reactions; (2) low temperature gas-grain reactions; (3) gas phase unimolecular photodissociation, and (4) ultraviolet photolysis in D-enriched ice mantles. Each of these processes should be associated with molecular carriers having, distinct regiochemical signatures (D placement on the product molecules, correlation with specific chemical functionalities, etc.). These processes are reviewed and specific spectroscopic signatures for the detection of these processes in space are identified and described.

Sandford, Scott A.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

8

Process of [sup 196]Hg enrichment  

DOEpatents

A simple rate equation model shows that by increasing the length of the photochemical reactor and/or by increasing the photon intensity in said reactor, the feedstock utilization of [sup 196]Hg will be increased. Two preferred embodiments of the present invention are described, namely (1) long reactors using long photochemical lamps and vapor filters; and (2) quartz reactors with external UV reflecting films. These embodiments have each been constructed and operated, demonstrating the enhanced utilization process dictated by the mathematical model (also provided).

Grossman, M.W.; Mellor, C.E.

1993-04-27

9

Efficiency evaluation of oxygen enrichment in energy conversion processes  

SciTech Connect

The extent to which energy conversion efficiencies can be increased by using oxygen or oxygen-enriched air for combustion was studied. Combustion of most fuels with oxygen instead of air was found to have five advantages: increases combustion temperature and efficiency, improves heat transfer at high temperatures, reduces nitrous oxide emissions, permits a high ration of exhaust gas recirculation and allows combustion of certain materials not combustible in air. The same advantages, although to a lesser degree, are apparent with oxygen-enriched air. The cost-effectiveness of the process must necessarily be improved by about 10% when using oxygen instead of air before such use could become justifiable on purely economic terms. Although such a modest increase appears to be attainable in real situations, this study ascertained that it is not possible to generally assess the economic gains. Rather, each case requires its own evaluation. For certain processes industry has already proven that the use of oxygen leads to more efficient plant operation. Several ideas for essentially new applications are described. Specifically, when oxygen is used with exhaust gas recirculation in external or internal combustion engines. It appears also that the advantages of pulse combustion can be amplified further if oxygen is used. When burning wet fuels with oxygen, direct steam generation becomes possible. Oxygen combustion could also improve processes for in situ gasification of coals, oil shales, peats, and other wet fuels. Enhanced oil recovery by fire flooding methods might also become more effective if oxygen is used. The cold energy contained in liquid oxygen can be substantially recovered in the low end of certain thermodynamic cycles. Further efforts to develop certain schemes for using oxygen for combustion appear to be justified from both the technical and economic viewpoints.

Bomelburg, H.J.

1983-12-01

10

Enrichment of processed pseudogene transcripts in L1-ribonucleoprotein particles.  

PubMed

Long INterspersed Elements (LINE-1s, L1s) are responsible for over one million retrotransposon insertions and 8000 processed pseudogenes (PPs) in the human genome. An active L1 encodes two proteins (ORF1p and ORF2p) that bind with L1 RNA and form L1-ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs). Although it is believed that the RNA-binding property of ORF1p is critical to recruit other mobile RNAs to the RNP, the identity of recruited RNAs is largely unknown. Here, we used crosslinking and immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing to identify RNA components of L1-RNPs. Our results show that in addition to retrotransposed RNAs [L1, Alu and SINE-VNTR-Alu (SVA)], L1-RNPs are enriched with cellular mRNAs, which have PPs in the human genome. Using purified L1-RNPs, we show that PP-source RNAs preferentially serve as ORF2p templates in a reverse transcriptase assay. In addition, we find that exogenous ORF2p binds endogenous ORF1p, allowing reverse transcription of the same PP-source RNAs. These data demonstrate that interaction of a cellular RNA with the L1-RNP is an inside track to PP formation. PMID:23696454

Mandal, Prabhat K; Ewing, Adam D; Hancks, Dustin C; Kazazian, Haig H

2013-09-15

11

NEW ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS OF CADMIUM, LUTETIUM, AND OSMIUM IN THE r-PROCESS ENRICHED STAR BD +17 3248  

E-print Network

NEW ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS OF CADMIUM, LUTETIUM, AND OSMIUM IN THE r-PROCESS ENRICHED STAR BD +17 ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS OF CADMIUM, LUTETIUM, AND OSMIUM IN THE r-PROCESS ENRICHED STAR BD +17 3248, Ian U

Cowan, John

12

Mapping semantically enriched Formal Tropos to business process models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of Semantic Business Process Management (as defined by the SUPER project), there is a current lack of requirements engineering methodologies to acquire correctly semantically annotated business process models. This paper meets this need by extending the existing Formal Tropos specification, originating from early phase requirements engineering, to embed semantic annotations. Furthermore, detailed mappings are proposed to translate

Ken Decreus; Geert Poels

2009-01-01

13

Method for thermal processing alumina-enriched spinel single crystals  

DOEpatents

A process for age-hardening alumina-rich magnesium aluminum spinel to obtain the desired combination of characteristics of hardness, clarity, flexural strength and toughness comprises selection of the time-temperature pair for isothermal heating followed by quenching. The time-temperature pair is selected from the region wherein the precipitate groups have the characteristics sought. The single crystal spinel is isothermally heated and will, if heated long enough pass from its single phase through two pre-precipitates and two metastable precipitates to a stable secondary phase precipitate within the spinel matrix. Quenching is done slowly at first to avoid thermal shock, then rapidly.

Jantzen, Carol M. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01

14

Method for thermal processing alumina-enriched spinel single crystals  

DOEpatents

A process for age-hardening alumina-rich magnesium aluminum spinel to obtain the desired combination of characteristics of hardness, clarity, flexural strength and toughness comprises selection of the time-temperature pair for isothermal heating followed by quenching. The time-temperature pair is selected from the region wherein the precipitate groups have the characteristics sought. The single crystal spinel is isothermally heated and will, if heated long enough pass from its single phase through two pre-precipitates and two metastable precipitates to a stable secondary phase precipitate within the spinel matrix. Quenching is done slowly at first to avoid thermal shock, then rapidly. 12 figs.

Jantzen, C.M.

1995-05-09

15

Environmental Acoustic Enrichment Promotes Recovery from Developmentally Degraded Auditory Cortical Processing  

PubMed Central

It has previously been shown that environmental enrichment can enhance structural plasticity in the brain and thereby improve cognitive and behavioral function. In this study, we reared developmentally noise-exposed rats in an acoustic-enriched environment for ?4 weeks to investigate whether or not enrichment could restore developmentally degraded behavioral and neuronal processing of sound frequency. We found that noise-exposed rats had significantly elevated sound frequency discrimination thresholds compared with age-matched naive rats. Environmental acoustic enrichment nearly restored to normal the behavioral deficit resulting from early disrupted acoustic inputs. Signs of both degraded frequency selectivity of neurons as measured by the bandwidth of frequency tuning curves and decreased long-term potentiation of field potentials recorded in the primary auditory cortex of these noise-exposed rats also were reversed partially. The observed behavioral and physiological effects induced by enrichment were accompanied by recovery of cortical expressions of certain NMDA and GABAA receptor subunits and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. These studies in a rodent model show that environmental acoustic enrichment promotes recovery from early noise-induced auditory cortical dysfunction and indicate a therapeutic potential of this noninvasive approach for normalizing neurological function from pathologies that cause hearing and associated language impairments in older children and adults. PMID:24741032

Zhu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Fang; Hu, Huifang; Sun, Xinde; Kilgard, Michael P.; Merzenich, Michael M.

2014-01-01

16

Environmental acoustic enrichment promotes recovery from developmentally degraded auditory cortical processing.  

PubMed

It has previously been shown that environmental enrichment can enhance structural plasticity in the brain and thereby improve cognitive and behavioral function. In this study, we reared developmentally noise-exposed rats in an acoustic-enriched environment for ?4 weeks to investigate whether or not enrichment could restore developmentally degraded behavioral and neuronal processing of sound frequency. We found that noise-exposed rats had significantly elevated sound frequency discrimination thresholds compared with age-matched naive rats. Environmental acoustic enrichment nearly restored to normal the behavioral deficit resulting from early disrupted acoustic inputs. Signs of both degraded frequency selectivity of neurons as measured by the bandwidth of frequency tuning curves and decreased long-term potentiation of field potentials recorded in the primary auditory cortex of these noise-exposed rats also were reversed partially. The observed behavioral and physiological effects induced by enrichment were accompanied by recovery of cortical expressions of certain NMDA and GABAA receptor subunits and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. These studies in a rodent model show that environmental acoustic enrichment promotes recovery from early noise-induced auditory cortical dysfunction and indicate a therapeutic potential of this noninvasive approach for normalizing neurological function from pathologies that cause hearing and associated language impairments in older children and adults. PMID:24741032

Zhu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Fang; Hu, Huifang; Sun, Xinde; Kilgard, Michael P; Merzenich, Michael M; Zhou, Xiaoming

2014-04-16

17

Assessment of the Interstellar Processes Leading to Deuterium Enrichment in Meteoritic Organics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presence of isotopic anomalies is the most unequivocal demonstration that meteoritic material contains circumstellar or interstellar components. In the case of organic compounds in meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), the most useful isotopic tracer has been deuterium (D). We discuss four processes that are expected to lead to D enrichment in interstellar materials and describe how their unique characteristics can be used to assess their relative importance for the organics in meteorites. These enrichment processes are low temperature gas phase ion-molecule reactions, low temperature gas-grain reactions, gas phase unimolecular photodissociation, and ultraviolet photolysis in D-enriched ice mantles. Each of these processes is expected to be associated with distinct regiochemical signatures (D placement on the product molecules, correlation with specific chemical functionalities, etc.), especially in the molecular population of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We describe these differences and discuss how they may be used to delineate the various interstellar processes that may have contributed to meteoritic D enrichments. We also briefly discuss how these processes may affect the isotopic distributions in C, 0, and N in the same compounds.

Sandford, Scott A.; Bernstein, Max P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

18

Evaluation de quatre milieux d'enrichissement pour la mise en ?vidence des salmonelles aviaires  

PubMed Central

During the course of one natural and two experimental infections with Salmonella the authors evaluated four different enrichment media for the isolation and growth of these organisms. The final results indicate that the utilisation of only one medium is not sufficient. They suggest the addition of M.M. medium to the Sodium Tetrathionate and Selenite broth. The M.S. medium proved to be too inhibiting. PMID:4245787

Malo, Rene; Cousineau, J. Guy

1970-01-01

19

Candidate processes for diluting the {sup 235}U isotope in weapons-capable highly enriched uranium  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating options for rendering its surplus inventories of highly enriched uranium (HEU) incapable of being used to produce nuclear weapons. Weapons-capable HEU was earlier produced by enriching uranium in the fissile {sup 235}U isotope from its natural occurring 0.71 percent isotopic concentration to at least 20 percent isotopic concentration. Now, by diluting its concentration of the fissile {sup 235}U isotope in a uranium blending process, the weapons capability of HEU can be eliminated in a manner that is reversible only through isotope enrichment, and therefore, highly resistant to proliferation. To the extent that can be economically and technically justified, the down-blended uranium product will be made suitable for use as commercial reactor fuel. Such down-blended uranium product can also be disposed of as waste if chemical or isotopic impurities preclude its use as reactor fuel.

Snider, J.D.

1996-02-01

20

Resin-assisted Enrichment of N-terminal Peptides for Characterizing Proteolytic Processing  

SciTech Connect

Proteolytic processing is a ubiquitous, irreversible posttranslational modification that plays an important role in cellular regulation in all living organisms. Herein we report a resin-assisted positive selection method for specifically enriching protein N-terminal peptides to facilitate the characterization of proteolytic processing events by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In this approach, proteins are initially reduced and alkylated and their lysine residues are converted to homoarginines. Then, protein N-termini are selectively converted to reactive thiol groups. We demonstrate that these sequential reactions were achieved with nearly quantitative efficiencies. Thiol-containing N-terminal peptides are then captured (>98% efficiency) by a thiol-affinity resin, a significant improvement over the traditional avidin/biotin enrichment. Application to cell lysates of Aspergillus niger, a filamentous fungus of interest for biomass degradation, enabled the identification of 1672 unique protein N-termini and proteolytic cleavage sites from 690 unique proteins.

Kim, Jong Seo; Dai, Ziyu; Aryal, Uma K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Camp, David G.; Baker, Scott E.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun

2013-06-17

21

Process for protein enrichment of cassava by solid substrate fermentation in rural conditions  

SciTech Connect

An artisanal static process for protein enrichment of cassava by solid-state fermentation, developed in laboratory and tested on pilot units in Burundi (Central Africa), provides enriched cassava containing 10.7% of dry matter protein versus 1% before fermentation. Cassava chips, processed into granules of 2-4-mm diameter, are moistened (40% water content) and steamed. After cooling to 40 degrees C, cassava is mixed with a nutritive solution containing the inoculum (Rhizopus oryzae, strain MUCL 28627) and providing the following per 100 g dry matter: 3.4 g urea, 1.5 g KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/, O.8 g MgSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O, and 22.7 g citric acid. For the fermentation, cassava, with circa 60% moisture content, is spread in a thin layer (2-3 cm thick) on perforated trays and slid into an aerated humidified enclosure. The incubation lasts more or less 65 hours. The production of protein enriched cassava is 3.26 kg dry matter/square m tray. The effects of the variation of the nutritive solution composition and the inoculum conservation period on the protein production are equally discussed. (Refs. 37).

Daubresse, P.; Ntibashirwa, S.; Gheysen, A.; Meyer, J.A.

1987-06-01

22

Processing of low-burnup LEU (low enriched uranium) silicide targets  

SciTech Connect

Currently much of the world's supply of /sup 99m/Tc for medical purposes is produced from ZZMo derived from the fissioning of high enriched uranium (HEU). Substitution of low enriched uranium (LEU) silicide fuel for the HEU alloy and aluminide fuels used in current target designs will allow equivalent ZZMo yields with no change in target geometries. In these studies, targets were irradiated to low burnup (10/sup /minus/5/%) to produce fission products and STZNp at concentrations conveniently measured by gamma spectroscopy. Processing was done by dissolution of LEU targets in acid or base followed by alumina column recovery ZZMo. Acid dissolution is more rapid, but precipitation of silica results in loss of ZZMo. Dissolution of U3Si2--Al targets in base requires more processing steps than the current process for UAl/sub x/--Al fuel. A two-step process of first dissolving the 6061Al cladding and fuel meat aluminum, and then dissolving the U3Si2 fuel particles, has the advantage of eliminating the aluminum from further processing. Loss of ZZMo during the aluminum dissolution is attributed to recoil of ZZMo out of the silicide particles during irradiation. A larger particle size would decrease this ZZMo loss. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Kwok, J.D.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Matos, J.E.

1988-09-01

23

[Enrichment regulation of anammox bacteria in the anammox start-up process].  

PubMed

To study the enrichment regulation of anammox bacteria during the whole start-up process of anammox reaction, two reactors with addition of carries of Spherical Plastic (SP) and Bamboo Charcoal (BC) and one without carrier (CK) were used to start anammox reaction. Then FISH and q-PCR analyses for the growth of all anammox bacteria were conducted during the operational process. The results indicate that the number of anammox bacteria in all reactors increased with time during the whole start-up process, which was consistent with the removal rate of ammonium and nitrite. On day 123 of stable phase, the percent of anammox cells in the sludge of CK, SP and BC accounted for 23.3%, 32.6% and 43.7%, respectively. The number of anammox bacteria 16S rRNA gene copies was (25.64 +/- 2.76) x 10(7), (47.12 +/- 2.76) x 10(7) and (577.99 +/- 27.25) x 10(7) copies g(-1) VSS in the sludge of CK, SP and BC, respectively. Carrier addition could dramatically increase enrichment of anammox bacteria. BC addition significantly increased the anammox bacteria number in the UASB reactor which resulted in the acceleration of the anammox start-up process. In addition, the max specific growth rate and the minimum doubling time were 0.064 d(-1) and 10.8 d in BC reactor. The max specific growth rate of anammox bacteria in BC reactor was 1.78 times and 1.88 times greater than that in CK and SP reactor, respectively. Therefore, the FISH and q-PCR analyses were suitable for determining the enrichment regulation of anammox bacteria during the start-up time, while a bit of differences in results existed between the two analytical methods due to the difference in analysis targets. PMID:25212006

Chen, Chongjun; Zhu, Weijing; Huang, Xiaoxiao; Wu, Weixiang

2014-06-01

24

The s-Process Enrichment of the Globular Clusters M4 and M22  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the enrichment in elements produced by the slow neutron-capture process (s-process) in the globular clusters M4 (NGC 6121) and M22 (NGC 6656). Stars in M4 have homogeneous abundances of Fe and neutron-capture elements, but the entire cluster is enhanced in s-process elements (Sr, Y, Ba, Pb) relative to other clusters with a similar metallicity. In M22, two stellar groups exhibit different abundances of Fe and s-process elements. By subtracting the mean abundances of s-poor from s-rich stars, we derive s-process residuals or empirical s-process distributions for M4 and M22. We find that the s-process distribution in M22 is more weighted toward the heavy s-peak (Ba, La, Ce) and Pb than M4, which has been enriched mostly with light s-peak elements (Sr, Y, Zr). We construct simple chemical evolution models using yields from massive star models that include rotation, which dramatically increases s-process production at low metallicity. We show that our massive star models with rotation rates of up to 50% of the critical (break-up) velocity and changes to the preferred 17O(?, ?)21Ne rate produce insufficient heavy s-elements and Pb to match the empirical distributions. For models that incorporate asymptotic giant branch yields, we find that intermediate-mass yields (with a 22Ne neutron source) alone do not reproduce the light-to-heavy s-element ratios for M4 and M22, and that a small contribution from models with a 13C pocket is required. With our assumption that 13C pockets form for initial masses below a transition range between 3.0 and 3.5 M ?, we match the light-to-heavy s-element ratio in the s-process residual of M22 and predict a minimum enrichment timescale of between 240 and 360 Myr. Our predicted value is consistent with the 300 Myr upper limit age difference between the two groups derived from isochrone fitting.

Shingles, Luke J.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Hirschi, Raphael; Fishlock, Cherie K.; Yong, David; Da Costa, Gary S.; Marino, Anna F.

2014-11-01

25

CONCEPTUAL PROCESS DESCRIPTION FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF LOW-ENRICHED URANIUM-MOLYBDENUM FUEL  

SciTech Connect

The National Nuclear Security Agency Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is tasked with minimizing the use of high-enriched uranium (HEU) worldwide. A key component of that effort is the conversion of research reactors from HEU to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuels. The GTRI Convert Fuel Development program, previously known as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program was initiated in 1978 by the United States Department of Energy to develop the nuclear fuels necessary to enable these conversions. The program cooperates with the research reactors operators to achieve this goal of HEU to LEU conversion without reduction in reactor performance. The programmatic mandate is to complete the conversion of all civilian domestic research reactors by 2014. These reactors include the five domestic high-performance research reactors (HPRR), namely: the High Flux Isotope Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory, the National Bureau of Standards Reactor at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Missouri University Research Reactor at the University of MissouriColumbia, and the MIT Reactor-II at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Characteristics for each of the HPRRs are given in Appendix A. The GTRI Convert Fuel Development program is currently engaged in the development of a novel nuclear fuel that will enable these conversions. The fuel design is based on a monolithic fuel meat (made from a uranium-molybdenum alloy) clad in Al-6061 that has shown excellent performance in irradiation testing. The unique aspects of the fuel design, however, necessitate the development and implementation of new fabrication techniques and, thus, establishment of the infrastructure to ensure adequate fuel fabrication capability. A conceptual fabrication process description and rough estimates of the total facility throughput are described in this document as a basis for establishing preconceptual fabrication facility designs.

Daniel M. Wachs; Curtis R. Clark; Randall J. Dunavant

2008-02-01

26

CONCEPTUAL PROCESS DESCRIPTION FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF LOW-ENRICHED URANIUM-MOLYBDENUM FUEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Nuclear Security Agency Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is tasked with minimizing the use of high-enriched uranium (HEU) worldwide. A key component of that effort is the conversion of research reactors from HEU to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuels. The GTRI Convert Fuel Development program, previously known as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program was initiated

Daniel M. Wachs; Curtis R. Clark; Randall J. Dunavant

2008-01-01

27

Modification of targets and processes for conversion of ⁹⁹Mo production from high- to low-enriched uranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the U.S. nonproliferation effort, we are investigating the conversion of the production of fission-product ⁹⁹Mo from use of high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). Successful conversion from HEU to LEU (<20% ²³⁵U) requires an irradiation target that contains 5 times more uranium but minimizes changes to target geometry and processing. The LEU target being developed uses

G. F. Vandegrift; C. Conner; G. L. Hofman; R. A. Leonard; A. Mutalib; J. Sedlet; D. E. Walker; T. C. Wiencek; J. L. Snelgrove

2000-01-01

28

Goal Annotation of Process Models for Semantic Enrichment of Process Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semantic annotation framework has been proposed to tackle the semantic heterogeneity problem of distributed process models\\u000a in our earlier work. The goal annotation as part of the framework is further developed, in which goal ontology is annotated\\u000a to process models to indicate the objectives or the capability of models. In the paper, we introduce a way to represent goal

Yun Lin; Arne Slvberg

2007-01-01

29

A hybrid process combining oxygen enriched air combustion and membrane separation for post-combustion carbon dioxide capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

For carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), similar to a large majority of industrial processes, the separation (i.e. capture) step dominates the costs of the technological chain. Based on a concept of minimal work of concentration, the evaluation of a tentative capture framework which combines an oxygen enrichment step before combustion and a CO2 capture step from flue gas has

Eric Favre; Roda Bounaceur; Denis Roizard

2009-01-01

30

Reduction of combustion by-products in WTE plants: O2 enrichment of underfire air in the MARTIN SYNCOM process.  

PubMed

The SYNCOM process involves oxygen enrichment of underfire air, recirculation of flue gas and a combustion control system using infrared thermography of the waste layer on the grate. At the demonstration plant in Coburg, operational reliability and plant availability using SYNCOM could be proven under real disposal conditions with a waste throughput of 7 t/h. Oxygen enrichment of the underfire air promotes the destruction of pollutants due to the high oxygen partial pressures and temperatures. This is then reflected in very low residual amounts of organic combustion by-products in the bottom ash and flue gas from the SYNCOM unit. The flue gas concentrations of organic pollutants are reduced, as compared with conventional operation, by over 35% (for CO, total hydrocarbons and PCDD/F) at the boiler outlet. As the flue gas flow is reduced by oxygen enrichment and flue gas recirculation, the resulting reduction in terms of kg of pollutant per Mg of waste is even higher. In the bottom ash, the level of organic residues is reduced, by 45% in the case of loss on ignition and by 55% in the case of TOC and dioxins (I-TE of PCDD/F). This is due to the higher oxygen partial pressures and the fuel bed temperature which is increased by 135 to 1200 degrees C. Other important features of the process include more intense sintering and thus improved immobilization of the bottom ash, as well as reduced flue gas and fly ash flows. PMID:11219678

Gohlke, O; Busch, M

2001-01-01

31

Process for producing enriched uranium having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. % via combination of a gaseous diffusion process and an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to eliminate uranium hexafluoride tails storage  

DOEpatents

An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a .sup.235 U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower .sup.235 U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF.sub.6 tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a .sup.235 U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % .sup.235 U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF.sub.6 ; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF.sub.6 in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 having a .sup.235 U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 ; and converting this low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process.

Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Hayden, Jr., Howard W. (Oakridge, TN)

1995-01-01

32

Full-scale demonstration of the cintichem process for the production of Mo-99 using a low-enriched target.  

SciTech Connect

The irradiation, disassembly, and processing of two full-scale low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets were recently demonstrated by personnel in the BATAN PUSPIPTEK Facilities (Serpong, Indonesia). Targets were fabricated at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, IL, U.S.A.) and shipped to PUSPIPTEK. The processing was done by nearly the same procedure used for the production of {sup 99}Mo from high-enriched uranium (HEU) targets. The BATAN Radioisotope Production Centre produces {sup 99}Mo using the Cintichem process by first dissolving the uranium in an acid cocktail; three proprietary separation steps recover the {sup 99}Mo and purify it from other components of the irradiated uranium. Processing of LEU-metal targets is nearly identical to that used for HEU-oxide targets except (1) a separate dissolver is required and (2) the dissolution cocktail is nitric acid alone rather than a nitric/sulfuric acid mixture. The demonstrations went smoothly except for problems with sampling and gamma analysis to assess product purity. Foils could be removed from targets fabricated from zirconium and/or 304 stainless steel, and processing produced an equivalent yield of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 235}U to that of the HEU target.

Mutalib, A.

1998-10-28

33

Enrichment history of r-process elements shaped by a merger of neutron star pairs  

E-print Network

The origin of r-process elements remains unidentified and still puzzles us. The recent discovery of evidence for the ejection of r-process elements from a short-duration gamma-ray burst singled out neutron star mergers (NSMs) as their origin. In contrast, core-collapse supernovae are ruled out as the main origin of heavy r-process elements (A>110) by recent numerical simulations. However, the properties characterizing NSM events - their rarity and high yield of r-process elements per event - have been claimed to be incompatible with the observed stellar records on r-process elements in the Galaxy. We add to this picture with our results, which show that the observed constant [r-process/H] ratio in faint dwarf galaxies and one star unusually rich in r-process in the Sculptor galaxy agree well with this rarity of NSM events. Furthermore, we found that a large scatter in the abundance ratios of r-process elements to iron in the Galactic halo can be reproduced by a scheme that incorporates an assembly of various ...

Tsujimoto, Takuji

2014-01-01

34

The effects of inquiry-based summer enrichment activities on rising eighth graders' knowledge of science processes, attitude toward science, and perceptions of scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of summer science enrichment on eighth-graders' science process skills knowledge, attitude toward science and perceptions of scientists. A single group pre- and post-test design was used to test participants in a summer science enrichment camp, which took place over a three-week period in the summer of 2000. Participants, all of

Juanita Martin Moore

2001-01-01

35

Enriching psychological assessment using a person-specific analysis of interpersonal processes in daily life.  

PubMed

We present a series of methods and approaches for clinicians interested in tracking their individual patients over time and in the natural settings of their daily lives. The application of person-specific analyses to intensive repeated measurement data can assess some aspects of persons that are distinct from the valuable results obtained from single-occasion assessments. Guided by interpersonal theory, we assess a psychotherapy patient's interpersonal processes as they unfold in his daily life. We highlight specific contexts that change these processes, use an informant report to examine discrepancies in his reported interpersonal processes, and examine how his interpersonal processes differ as a function of varying levels of self-esteem and anger. We advocate for this approach to complement existing psychological assessments and provide a scoring program to facilitate initial implementation. PMID:25038215

Roche, Michael J; Pincus, Aaron L; Rebar, Amanda L; Conroy, David E; Ram, Nilam

2014-10-01

36

Enrichment of the metallic components from waste printed circuit boards by a mechanical separation process using a stamp mill.  

PubMed

Printed circuit boards incorporated in most electrical and electronic equipment contain valuable metals such as Cu, Ni, Au, Ag, Pd, Fe, Sn, and Pb. In order to employ a hydrometallurgical route for the recycling of valuable metals from printed circuit boards, a mechanical pre-treatment step is needed. In this study, the metallic components from waste printed circuit boards have been enriched using a mechanical separation process. Waste printed circuit boards shredded to <10mm were milled using a stamp mill to liberate the various metallic components, and then the milled printed circuit boards were classified into fractions of <0.6, 0.6-1.2, 1.2-2.5, 2.5-5.0, and >5.0mm. The fractions of milled printed circuit boards of size <5.0mm were separated into a light fraction of mostly non-metallic components and a heavy fraction of the metallic components by gravity separation using a zig-zag classifier. The >5.0mm fraction and the heavy fraction were subjected to two-step magnetic separation. Through the first magnetic separation at 700 Gauss, 83% of the nickel and iron, based on the whole printed circuit boards, was recovered in the magnetic fraction, and 92% of the copper was recovered in the non-magnetic fraction. The cumulative recovery of nickel-iron concentrate was increased by a second magnetic separation at 3000 Gauss, but the grade of the concentrate decreased remarkably from 76% to 56%. The cumulative recovery of copper concentrate decreased, but the grade increased slightly from 71.6% to 75.4%. This study has demonstrated the feasibility of the mechanical separation process consisting of milling/size classification/gravity separation/two-step magnetic separation for enriching metallic components such as Cu, Ni, Al, and Fe from waste printed circuit boards. PMID:18835149

Yoo, Jae-Min; Jeong, Jinki; Yoo, Kyoungkeun; Lee, Jae-Chun; Kim, Wonbaek

2009-03-01

37

The lead discrepancy in intrinsically s-process enriched post-AGB stars in the Magellanic Clouds  

E-print Network

Context: Our understanding of the s-process nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars is incomplete. AGB models predict, for example, large overabundances of lead (Pb) compared to other s-process elements in metal-poor low-mass AGB stars. This is indeed observed in some extrinsically enhanced metal-poor stars, but not in all. An extensive study of intrinsically s-process enriched objects is essential for improving our knowledge of the AGB third dredge-up and associated s-process nucleosynthesis. Aims: We compare the spectral abundance analysis of the SMC post-AGB star J004441.04-732136.4 with state-of-the-art AGB model predictions with a main focus on Pb. The low S/N in the Pb line region made the result of our previous study inconclusive. We acquired additional data covering the region of the strongest Pb line. Methods: By carefully complementing re-reduced previous data, with newly acquired UVES optical spectra, we improve the S/N of the spectrum around the strongest Pb line. Therefore, an uppe...

De smedt, K; Kamath, D; Karakas, A I; Siess, L; Goriely, S; Wood, P

2014-01-01

38

Palmitoleic Acid Enrichment of Seabuckthorn (Hippopha rhamnoides L.) Pulp Oil by Crystallization Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seabuckthorn pulp oil was fractionated using a crystallization process with acetone under controlled cooling rate of 0.25C\\/min without agitation at different crystallization temperatures ranging from?15 to 15C. The obtained liquid (LF) and solid (SF) fractions were analyzed for their fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions and their melting profiles were characterized. Fractionation at?15C yielded about 20% of LF where palmitoleic acid

Luis-Felipe Gutirrez; Khaled Belkacemi

2008-01-01

39

A laboratory model of a prebiotic, spontaneous, and continuous enantiomeric enrichment process.  

PubMed

Construction and operation of a laboratory model, which combines the lately discovered enantioenrichment method of the author (2007) with the sun-powered evaporative pumping process of Hsu and Siegenthaler (Sedimentology 12:11-25 1969), is described. The model operated continuously for 120 days before it was intentionally shut down, even though it could have continued. During that time it raised the enantiomeric excess of the test material by a factor of 3.6. Implications of these results on the origin of biohomochirality are discussed. PMID:23344885

Goldberg, Stanley I

2013-02-01

40

NEW ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS OF CADMIUM, LUTETIUM, AND OSMIUM IN THE r-PROCESS ENRICHED STAR BD +17 3248 {sup ,}  

SciTech Connect

We report the detection of Cd I (Z = 48), Lu II (Z = 71), and Os II (Z = 76) in the metal-poor star BD +17 3248. These abundances are derived from an ultraviolet spectrum obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. This is the first detection of these neutron-capture species in a metal-poor star enriched by the r process. We supplement these measurements with new abundances of Mo I, Ru I, and Rh I derived from an optical spectrum obtained with the High Resolution Echelle Spectrograph on Keck. Combined with previous abundance derivations, 32 neutron-capture elements have been detected in BD +17 3248, the most complete neutron-capture abundance pattern in any metal-poor star to date. The light neutron-capture elements (38 {<=} Z {<=} 48) show a more pronounced even-odd effect than expected from current solar system r-process abundance predictions. The age for BD +17 3248 derived from the Th II/Os II chronometer is in better agreement with the age derived from other chronometers than the age derived from Th II/Os I. New Hf II abundance derivations from transitions in the ultraviolet are lower than those derived from transitions in the optical, and the lower Hf abundance is in better agreement with the scaled solar system r-process distribution.

Roederer, Ian U.; Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400 Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Lawler, James E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Cowan, John J. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)], E-mail: iur@astro.as.utexas.edu

2010-05-01

41

Geochemical diversity in S processes mediated by culture-adapted and environmental-enrichments of Acidithiobacillus spp.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupled S speciation and acid generation resulting from S processing associated with five different microbial treatments, all primarily Acidithiobacillus spp. (i.e. autotrophic S-oxidizers) were evaluated in batch laboratory experiments. Microbial treatments included two culture-adapted strains, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, their consortia and two environmental enrichments from a mine tailings lake that were determined to be >95% Acidithiobacillus spp., by whole-cell fluorescent hybridization. Using batch experiments simulating acidic mine waters with no carbon amendments, acid generation, and S speciation associated with the oxidation of three S substrates (thiosulfate, tetrathionate, and elemental S) were evaluated. Aseptic controls showed no observable pH decrease over the experimental time course (1 month) for all three S compounds examined. In contrast, pH decreased in all microbial treatments from starting pH values of 4 to 2 or less for all three S substrates. Results show a non-linear relationship between the pH dynamics of the batch cultures and their corresponding sulfate concentrations, and indicate how known microbial S processing pathways have opposite impacts, ultimately on pH dynamics. Associated geochemical modeling indicated negligible abiogenic processes contributing to the observed results, indicating strong microbial control of acid generation extending over pH ranges from 4 to less than 2. However, the observed acid generation rates and associated S speciation were both microbial treatment and substrate-specific. Results reveal a number of novel insights regarding microbial catalysis of S oxidation: (1) metabolic diversity in S processing, as evidenced by the observed geochemical signatures in S chemical speciation and rates of acid generation amongst phylogenetically similar organisms (to the genus level); (2) consortial impacts differ from those of individual strain members; (3) environmental enrichments of Acidithiobacillus spp. catalyze different S reaction arrays than pure strain Acidithiobacillus spp.; and (4) microbial catalysis of S reactions involves significant disproportionation tied to substantial H + consumption, with the formation of as yet, poorly characterized intermediate S species, most likely polythionates and polysulfane monosulfonic acids that are thought to be involved in microbial S storage mechanisms.

Bernier, Luc; Warren, Lesley A.

2007-12-01

42

New Abundance Determinations of Cadmium, Lutetium, and Osmium in the r-process Enriched Star BD+173248  

E-print Network

We report the detection of Cd I (Z = 48), Lu II (Z = 71), and Os II (Z = 76) in the metal-poor star BD+173248. These abundances are derived from an ultraviolet spectrum obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. This is the first detection of these neutron-capture species in a metal-poor star enriched by the r-process. We supplement these measurements with new abundances of Mo I, Ru I, and Rh I derived from an optical spectrum obtained with the High Resolution Echelle Spectrograph on Keck. Combined with previous abundance derivations, 32 neutron-capture elements have been detected in BD+173248, the most complete neutron-capture abundance pattern in any metal-poor star to date. The light neutron-capture elements (38 <= Z <= 48) show a more pronounced even-odd effect than expected from current Solar system r-process abundance predictions. The age for BD+173248 derived from the Th II/Os II chronometer is in better agreement with the age derived from other chronome...

Roederer, Ian U; Lawler, James E; Cowan, John J

2010-01-01

43

European Journal of Soil Science, April 2011, 62, 305317 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2389.2010.01328.x Biogeochemical processes and arsenic enrichment around  

E-print Network

Biogeochemical processes and arsenic enrichment around rice roots in paddy soil: results from micro-focused X-ray The spatial distribution and speciation of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and arsenic (As) around rice roots grown in an As-affected paddy field in Bangladesh were investigated on soil sampled after rice harvest

44

BLENDING LOW ENRICHED URANIUM WITH DEPLETED URANIUM TO CREATE A SOURCE MATERIAL ORE THAT CAN BE PROCESSED FOR THE RECOVERY OF YELLOWCAKE AT A CONVENTIONAL URANIUM MILL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the United States Department of Energy (DOE) complex, there are a number of streams of low enriched uranium (LEU) that contain various trace contaminants. These surplus nuclear materials require processing in order to meet commercial fuel cycle specifications. To date, they have not been designated as waste for disposal at the DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS). Currently, with no

Stephen M. Schutt; Ron F. Hochstein; David C. Frydenlund; Anthony J. Thompson

2003-01-01

45

The lead discrepancy in intrinsically s-process enriched post-AGB stars in the Magellanic Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Our understanding of the s-process nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars is incomplete. AGB models predict, for example, large overabundances of lead (Pb) compared to other s-process elements in metal-poor low-mass AGB stars. This is indeed observed in some extrinsically enhanced metal-poor stars, but not in all. An extensive study of intrinsically s-process enriched objects is essential for improving our knowledge of the AGB third dredge-up and associated s-process nucleosynthesis. Aims: We compare the spectral abundance analysis of the SMC post-AGB star J004441.04-732136.4 with state-of-the-art AGB model predictions with a main focus on Pb. The low signal-to-noise (S/N) in the Pb line region made the result of our previous study inconclusive. We acquired additional data covering the region of the strongest Pb line. Methods: By carefully complementing re-reduced previous data, with newly acquired UVES optical spectra, we improve the S/N of the spectrum around the strongest Pb line. Therefore, an upper limit for the Pb abundance is estimated from a merged weighted mean spectrum using synthetic spectral modeling. We then compare the abundance results from the combined spectra to predictions of tailored AGB evolutionary models from two independent evolution codes. In addition, we determine upper limits for Pb abundances for three previously studied LMC post-AGB objects. Results: Although theoretical predictions for J004441.04-732136.4 match the s-process distribution up to tungsten (W), the predicted very high Pb abundance is clearly not detected. The three additional LMC post-AGB stars show a similar lack of a very high Pb abundance. Conclusions: From our study, we conclude that none of these low-mass, low-metallicity post-AGB stars of the LMC and SMC are strong Pb producers. This conflicts with current theoretical predictions. Based on observations collected with the Very Large Telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chili) of programme number 084.D-0932 and 088.D-0433.

De Smedt, K.; Van Winckel, H.; Kamath, D.; Karakas, A. I.; Siess, L.; Goriely, S.; Wood, P.

2014-03-01

46

Conceptual Process for the Manufacture of Low-Enriched Uranium\\/Molybdenum Fuel for the High Flux Isotope Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. nonproliferation policy 'to minimize, and to the extent possible, eliminate the use of HEU in civil nuclear programs throughout the world' has resulted in the conversion (or scheduled conversion) of many of the U.S. research reactors from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). A foil fuel appears to offer the best option for using a LEU fuel

J. D. Sease; R. T. Primm; J. H. Miller

2007-01-01

47

Literature review on production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil enriched in bioactive compounds. Potential use of byproducts as alternative sources of polyphenols.  

PubMed

This review describes the olive oil production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) enriched in polyphenol and byproducts generated as sources of antioxidants. EVOO is obtained exclusively by mechanical and physical processes including collecting, washing, and crushing of olives, malaxation of olive paste, centrifugation, storage, and filtration. The effect of each step is discussed to minimize losses of polyphenols from large quantities of wastes. Phenolic compounds including phenolic acids, alcohols, secoiridoids, lignans, and flavonoids are characterized in olive oil mill wastewater, olive pomace, storage byproducts, and filter cake. Different industrial pilot plant processes are developed to recover phenolic compounds from olive oil byproducts with antioxidant and bioactive properties. The technological information compiled in this review will help olive oil producers to improve EVOO quality and establish new processes to obtain valuable extracts enriched in polyphenols from byproducts with food ingredient applications. PMID:23656613

Frankel, Edwin; Bakhouche, Abdelhakim; Lozano-Snchez, Jess; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernndez-Gutirrez, Alberto

2013-06-01

48

Withdrawal assay monitoring at US Enrichment Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) controls two uranium enrichment facilities that produce enriched uranium for both military and commercial use. The process requires both feed and withdrawal operations. The withdrawal process requires both product (enriched uranium) withdrawal stations and tails (depleted uranium) withdrawal stations. A previous prototype system, ``X-330 Tails Cylinder Assay Monitor,`` was developed as a demonstration for

1996-01-01

49

16. VIEW OF THE ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY SYSTEM. ENRICHED URANIUM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. VIEW OF THE ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY SYSTEM. ENRICHED URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESSED RELATIVELY PURE MATERIALS AND SOLUTIONS AND SOLID RESIDUES WITH RELATIVELY LOW URANIUM CONTENT. URANIUM RECOVERY INVOLVED BOTH SLOW AND FAST PROCESSES. (4/4/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

50

Environmental enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practical relevance The clinical application of evidence-based enrichment strategies for the domestic cat housed in a variety of confined environments, ranging from the veterinary cage to the domestic home, is of particular importance - both in relation to providing opportunity for appropriate feline behaviour, and in the prevention and treatment of behavioural and associated health problems (eg, feline lower urinary

Sarah L. H. Ellis

2009-01-01

51

Project ENRICH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project ENRICH was conceived in Beaver County, Pennsylvania, to: (1) identify preschool children with learning disabilities, and (2) to develop a program geared to the remediation of the learning disabilities within a school year, while allowing the child to be enrolled in a regular class situation for the following school year. Through

Gwaley, Elizabeth; And Others

52

In-Situ Measurements of Low Enrichment Uranium Holdup Process Gas Piping at K-25 - Paper for Waste Management Symposia 2010 East Tennessee Technology Park Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final version of a paper submitted to the Waste Management Symposia, Phoenix, 2010, abstract BJC/OR-3280. The primary document from which this paper was condensed is In-Situ Measurement of Low Enrichment Uranium Holdup in Process Gas Piping at K-25 Using NaI/HMS4 Gamma Detection Systems, BJC/OR-3355. This work explores the sufficiency and limitations of the Holdup Measurement System 4 (HJVIS4) software algorithms applied to measurements of low enriched uranium holdup in gaseous diffusion process gas piping. HMS4 has been used extensively during the decommissioning and demolition project of the K-25 building for U-235 holdup quantification. The HMS4 software is an integral part of one of the primary nondestructive assay (NDA) systems which was successfully tested and qualified for holdup deposit quantification in the process gas piping of the K-25 building. The initial qualification focused on the measurement of highly enriched UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} deposits. The purpose of this work was to determine if that qualification could be extended to include the quantification of holdup in UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} deposits of lower enrichment. Sample field data are presented to provide evidence in support of the theoretical foundation. The HMS4 algorithms were investigated in detail and found to sufficiently compensate for UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} source self-attenuation effects, over the range of expected enrichment (4-40%), in the North and East Wings of the K-25 building. The limitations of the HMS4 algorithms were explored for a described set of conditions with respect to area source measurements of low enriched UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} deposits when used in conjunction with a 1 inch by 1/2 inch sodium iodide (NaI) scintillation detector. The theoretical limitations of HMS4, based on the expected conditions in the process gas system of the K-25 building, are related back to the required data quality objectives (DQO) for the NBA measurement system established for the K-25 demolition project. The combined review of the HMS software algorithms and supporting field measurements lead to the conclusion that the majority of process gas pipe measurements are adequately corrected for source self-attenuation using HMS4. While there will be instances where the UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} holdup mass presents an infinitely thick deposit to the NaI-HMS4 system these situations are expected to be infrequent. This work confirms that the HMS4 system can quantify UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} holdup, in its current configuration (deposition, enrichment, and geometry), below the DQO levels for the K-25 building decommissioning and demolition project. For an area measurement of process gas pipe in the K-25 building, if an infinitely thick UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} deposit is identified in the range of enrichment of {approx}4-40%, the holdup quantity exceeds the corresponding DQO established for the K-25 building demolition project.

Rasmussen B.

2010-01-01

53

Synergistic effects of long-term antioxidant diet and behavioral enrichment on beta-amyloid load and non-amyloidogenic processing in aged canines.  

PubMed

A long-term intervention (2.69 years) with an antioxidant diet, behavioral enrichment, or the combined treatment preserved and improved cognitive function in aged canines. Although each intervention alone provided cognitive benefits, the combination treatment was additive. We evaluate the hypothesis that antioxidants, enrichment, or the combination intervention reduces age-related beta-amyloid (Abeta) neuropathology, as one mechanism mediating observed functional improvements. Measures assessed were Abeta neuropathology in plaques, biochemically extractable Abeta(40) and Abeta(42) species, soluble oligomeric forms of Abeta, and various proteins in the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing pathway. The strongest and most consistent effects on Abeta pathology were observed in animals receiving the combined antioxidant and enrichment treatment. Specifically, Abeta plaque load was significantly decreased in several brain regions, soluble Abeta(42) was decreased selectively in the frontal cortex, and a trend for lower Abeta oligomer levels was found in the parietal cortex. Reductions in Abeta may be related to shifted APP processing toward the non-amyloidogenic pathway, because alpha-secretase enzymatic activity was increased in the absence of changes in beta-secretase activity. Although enrichment alone had no significant effects on Abeta, reduced Abeta load and plaque maturation occurred in animals receiving antioxidants as a component of treatment. Abeta measures did not correlate with cognitive performance on any of the six tasks assessed, suggesting that modulation of Abeta alone may be a relatively minor mechanism mediating cognitive benefits of the interventions. Overall, the data indicate that multidomain treatments may be a valuable intervention strategy to reduce neuropathology and improve cognitive function in humans. PMID:20660265

Pop, Viorela; Head, Elizabeth; Hill, Mary-Ann; Gillen, Dan; Berchtold, Nicole C; Muggenburg, Bruce A; Milgram, Norton W; Murphy, M Paul; Cotman, Carl W

2010-07-21

54

Synergistic effects of long-term antioxidant diet and behavioral enrichment on beta-amyloid load and non-amyloidogenic processing in aged canines  

PubMed Central

A long-term intervention (2.69 years) with an antioxidant diet, behavioral enrichment, or the combined treatment preserved and improved cognitive function in aged canines. While each intervention alone provided cognitive benefits, the combination treatment was additive. We evaluate the hypothesis that antioxidants, enrichment, or the combination intervention reduces age-related beta-amyloid (A?) neuropathology, as one mechanism mediating observed functional improvements. Measures assessed were A? neuropathology in plaques, biochemically extractable A?40 and A?42 species, soluble oligomeric forms of A?, and various proteins in the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing pathway. The strongest and most consistent effects on A? pathology were observed in animals receiving the combined antioxidant and enrichment treatment. Specifically, A? plaque load was significantly decreased in several brain regions, soluble A?42 was decreased selectively in the frontal cortex, and a trend for lower A? oligomer levels was found in the parietal cortex. Reductions in A? may be related to shifted APP processing towards the non-amyloidogenic pathway, as alpha-secretase enzymatic activity was increased, in the absence of changes in beta-secretase activity. While enrichment alone had no significant effects on A?, reduced A? load and plaque maturation occurred in animals receiving antioxidants as a component of treatment. AB measures did not correlate with cognitive performance on any of the 6 tasks assessed, suggesting that modulation of AB alone may be a relatively minor mechanism mediating cognitive benefits of the interventions. Overall, the data indicate that multi-domain treatments may be a valuable intervention strategy to reduce neuropathology and improve cognitive function in humans. PMID:20660265

Pop, Viorela; Head, Elizabeth; Hill, Mary-Ann; Gillen, Dan; Berchtold, Nicole C.; Muggenburg, Bruce.A.; Milgram, Norton W.; Murphy, M. Paul; Cotman, Carl W.

2013-01-01

55

Conversion of Methane to Hydrogen in a Reversible Flow Reactor in the Process of Filtration Combustion of Fuel Mixtures Enriched with Oxygen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the process of partial oxidation of methane to syngas in a reversible flow reactor in the process of filtration combustion of fuel mixtures enriched with oxygen in an inert porous medium. Experimental studies have been made of the influence of the volume concentration of oxygen in the initial fuel mixture on the basic parameters of the conversion process the maximum temperature in the combustion wave and the composition of reaction products. Investigations have been carried out for fuel mixtures having different calorific values under the same filtration conditions. It has been shown that the addition of oxygen to the initial methane-air mixture permits increasing considerably the efficiency of the conversion process.

Dmitrenko, Yu. M.; Klyovan, R. A.

2013-11-01

56

Carbon black enriched combustion  

SciTech Connect

A process for combustion of carbon black enriched gaseous hydrocarbon fuels is described comprising: entraining a plurality of carbon black particles in a carrier fluid, forming a carbon black/carrier fluid mixture; injecting said carbon black/carrier fluid mixture through a center nozzle of a fluid injector into a combustion chamber, said fluid injector having an outer nozzle concentrically disposed around said center nozzle forming an annular chamber between said center nozzle and said outer nozzle; injecting at least a first portion of a gaseous hydrocarbon fuel through said annular chamber into said combustion chamber forming a carbon black enriched gaseous hydrocarbon fuel; mixing said carbon black enriched gaseous hydrocarbon fuel with combustion air, forming a fuel/air mixture; and igniting said fuel/air mixture.

Joshi, M.L.; Tester, M.E.

1993-06-29

57

31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process of increasing the concentration of the isotope U235 relative to that of the isotope...

2010-07-01

58

31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process of increasing the concentration of the isotope U235 relative to that of the isotope...

2011-07-01

59

31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process of increasing the concentration of the isotope U235 relative to that of the isotope...

2013-07-01

60

31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process of increasing the concentration of the isotope U235 relative to that of the isotope...

2012-07-01

61

31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.  

...ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process of increasing the concentration of the isotope U235 relative to that of the isotope...

2014-07-01

62

The effects of inquiry-based summer enrichment activities on rising eighth graders' knowledge of science processes, attitude toward science, and perceptions of scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of summer science enrichment on eighth-graders' science process skills knowledge, attitude toward science and perceptions of scientists. A single group pre- and post-test design was used to test participants in a summer science enrichment camp, which took place over a three-week period in the summer of 2000. Participants, all of whom were residents of the Mississippi area known as the Delta, lived on the campus of Mississippi Valley State University for the entire course of the camp. Activities included several guided inquiry-based projects such as water rocket design and solar or battery-powered car design. Participants also took trips to an environmental camp in north Mississippi and to the Stennis Space Center on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Participants worked on their projects in groups, supervised by an undergraduate student "mentor". Participants were encouraged to keep journals of their experiences throughout the camp, and the researcher developed a rubric to evaluate student journals for process knowledge, evidence of planning, reflective thought, and disposition toward science. Tests were used to evaluate student knowledge of process skills, attitude toward science, and perceptions of scientists. On the Test of Integrated Process Skills (Dillashaw & Okey, 1983), the students showed significant improvement overall, but when evaluated separately, males showed significant improvement while females did not. On the Attitude toward Science in School Assessment (Germane, 1988), data indicated that attitude toward science improved significantly for the group as a whole, but upon closer inspection, indicated a significant improvement for the female students only. On Chamber's Draw-a-Scientist Test (1983), analysis of student drawings indicated no significant change in stereotypical images of scientists for the group overall. However, boys' scores indicated a significant improvement when analyzed separately. Journal analysis revealed a need for instruction in their use, but provided an interesting glimpse into students' thoughts. The researcher concluded that summer enrichment camps have potential m terms of helping students improve their science knowledge and their thinking about science. Further research on summer opportunities, inquiry-based instruction, work with mentors, and use of journals is suggested by this work.

Moore, Juanita Martin

63

Preliminary study of sources and processes of enrichment of manganese in water from University of Rhode Island supply wells  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of dissolved manganese have increased from 0.0 to as much as 3.3 mg/liter over a period of years in closely spaced University of Rhode Island supply wells. The wells tap stratified glacial deposits and derive part of their water from infiltration from a nearby river-pond system. The principal sources of the manganese seem to be coatings of oxides and other forms of manganese on granular aquifer materials and organic-rich sediments on the bottom of the pond and river. Chemical analyses of water from an observation well screened from 3 to 5 feet below the pond bottom indicate that infiltration of water through organic-rich sediments on the pond bottom is the likely cause of manganese enrichment in the well supplies. After passing through the organic layer, the water contains concentrations of manganese as high as 1.2 mg/liter. Manganese in water in concentrations that do not cause unpleasant taste is not regarded to be toxicologically significant. However, concentrations in excess of a few tenths of a milligram per liter are undesirable in public supplies and in many industrial supplies. Brown and others (21970) note that waters containing manganese in concentrations less than 0.1 mg/liter seldom prove troublesome, but that those containing more than 0.5 mg/liter may form objectionable deposits on cooked food, laundry, and plumbing fixtures. The U.S. Public health Service (1962) recommends that the concentrations of manganese in drinking and culinary water not exceed 0.05 mg/liter. (Woodard-USGS)

Silvey, William Dudley; Johnston, Herbert E.

1977-01-01

64

Expensive Enrichment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an economic analysis of the nuclear fuel reprocessing industry. It indicates that while environmental safety devices have improved the working conditions, they have also added ever-increasing costs to this necessary process. (MA)

Resnikoff, Marvin

1975-01-01

65

Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of a serpentinite-derived laterite profile from East Sulawesi, Indonesia: Implications for the lateritization process and Ni supergene enrichment in the tropical rainforest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate the lateritization process and supergene Ni enrichment in the tropical rainforest, a well developed laterite profile over the serpentinite in the Kolonodale area of East Sulawesi, Indonesia, has been investigated using field geology methods, mineralogical and geochemical techniques. Three lithostratigraphic horizons over the bedrock are distinguished from bottom to top: the saprolite horizon, the limonite horizon, and the ferruginous cap. In general, the profile is characterized by (1) a depth-related pH ranging from 5.56 to 8.56, with a higher value in the saprolite horizon and a lower value in the ferruginous cap, (2) a highly variable organic matter concentration from 1.11% to 4.82%, showing a increasing trend from bottom to top, (3) a progressive mineral assemblage transition from the silicate mineral dominant (mainly serpentine) to the Fe-oxyhydroxide dominant (mainly goethite), and (4) a typical laterite geochemical pattern with an increase of Fe, Al, Mn, Cr and Ti but a decrease of Mg, Ca, Na and K upward from the bedrock. The highest concentration of Ni (up to 11.53%NiO) occurs in the saprolite horizon, showing nearly 40 times richer compared to the bedrock. The mineral evolution during the lateritization process shows various paths from the primary minerals to altered minerals, which is integrally affected by the nature of the primary minerals and environmental conditions. Garnierite, as a significant ore mineral formed by the secondary precipitation processes in the study profile, is identified as a mixture of talc- and serpentine-like phases. The mass-balance calculation reveals that there are diversified elemental behaviors during the serpentinite lateritization under the rainforest conditions. In particular, Ni, as the ore-forming element in the laterite profile, is associated closely with the pH environment, organic matter concentration and mineral evolution during the lateritization process. The findings of the present study support a four-stage evolutional model for the lateritization process: the ferruginous saprolite development (stage I), the limonite development (stage II), the silicate saprolite and ferruginous cap development (stage III), and the precipitation of secondary minerals (stage IV). Due to this multistage process, there is a progressive Ni-enrichment in the laterite profile.

Fu, Wei; Yang, Jianwen; Yang, Mengli; Pang, Baocheng; Liu, Xijun; Niu, Hujie; Huang, Xiaorong

2014-10-01

66

Progress in developing processes for converting ⁹⁹Mo production from high- to low-enriched uranium1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1998, the emphasis of our activities was focused mainly on target fabrication. Successful conversion requires a reliable irradiation target; the target being developed uses thin foils of uranium metal, which can be removed from the target hardware for dissolution and processing. This paper describes successes in (1) improving our method for heat-treating the uranium foil to produce a random-small

C. Conner; M. W. Liberatore; A. Mutalib; J. Sedlet; D. Walker; G F. Vandegrift

1998-01-01

67

Chemical Looping Gasification of Biomass for Hydrogen Enriched Gas Production with In-Process Carbon-Dioxide Capture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research presents an innovative idea of developing a continuous H2 production process employing fluidized bed technology from agricultural biomass with in-situ CO2 capture and catalyst regeneration. Novelty of the process lies in the generation of relatively pure H2 from biomass with CO2 as a by-product using steam as the gasifying agent. Another unique feature of the process is internal regeneration of the catalyst, fouled in the gasifier. Thus, the technology will serve the twin purpose of regenerating the catalyst, and generation of N2 free H2 and CO2. The work also reports the experimental results conducted in a batch type fluidized bed steam gasifier using CaO as the catalyst. A 71% concentration of H2 and nearly 0 concentration of CO2 were achieved in the product gas when sawdust was used as the feedstock. In a separate test using a circulating fluidized bed reactor as the regenerator, a 40 % regeneration of CaO was also achieved at a calcination temperature of 800C.

Dutta, Animesh; Aeharya, Bishnu; Basu, Prabir

68

Semantic Enrichment for Ontology Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we present a heuristic mapping method and a prototype mapping system that support the process of semi-automatic\\u000a ontology mapping for the purpose of improving semantic interoperability in heterogeneous systems. The approach is based on\\u000a the idea of semantic enrichment, i.e. using instance information of the ontology to enrich the original ontology and calculate\\u000a similarities between concepts in

Xiaomeng Su; Jon Atle Gulla

2004-01-01

69

Nutrient enrichment, phytoplankton algal growth, and estimated rates of instream metabolic processes in the Quinebaug River Basin, Connecticut, 2000-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A consistent and pervasive pattern of nutrient enrichment was substantiated by water-quality sampling in the Quinebaug River and its tributaries in eastern Connecticut during water years 2000 and 2001. Median total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s recently recommended regional ambient water-qual-ity criteria for streams (0.71 and 0.031 milligrams per liter, respectively). Maximum total phosphorus concentrations exceeded 0.1 milligrams per liter at nearly half the sampled locations in the Quinebaug River Basin. Elevated total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations were measured at all stations on the mainstem of the Quinebaug River, the French River, and the Little River. Nutrient enrichment was related to municipal wastewater point sources at the sites on the mainstem of the Quinebaug River and French River, and to agricultural nonpoint nutrient sources in the Little River Basin. Nutrient enrichment and favorable physical factors have resulted in excessive, nuisance algal blooms during summer months, particularly in the numerous impoundments in the Quinebaug River system. Phytoplankton algal density as high as 85,000 cells per milliliter was measured during such nuisance blooms in water years 2000 and 2001. Different hydrologic conditions during the summers of 2000 and 2001 produced very different seston algal populations. Larger amounts of precipitation sustained higher streamflows in the summer of 2000 (than in 2001), which resulted in lower total algal abundance and inhibited the typical algal succession from diatoms to cyanobacteria. Despite this, nearly half of all seston chlorophyll-a concentrations measured during this study exceeded the recommended regional ambient stream-water-quality criterion (3.75 micrograms per liter), and seston chlorophyll-a concentrations as large as 42 micrograms per liter were observed in wastewa-ter-receiving reaches of the Quinebaug River. Estimates of primary productivity and respiration obtained from diel dissolved oxygen monitoring and from light- and dark-bottle dissolved oxygen measurements demonstrated that instream metabolic processes are consistent with a seston-algae dominant system. The highest estimated maximum primary productivity rate was 1.72 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per hour at the Quinebaug River at Jewett City during September 2001. The observed extremes in diel dissolved oxygen concentrations (less than 5 milligrams per liter) and pH (greater than 9) may periodically stress aquatic organisms in the Quinebaug River Basin.

Colombo, Michael J.; Grady, Stephen J.; Todd Trench, Elaine C.

2004-01-01

70

Membrane processes for gas separations: Part I. Removal of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from low-quality natural gas. Part II. Enrichment of krypton in air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I. The objective of this study was to determine the process design characteristics and economics of membrane separation processes for reducing the concentrations of H2S and CO2 in low-quality natural gas containing substantial amounts of the two acid gases to pipeline specifications ( ? 2 mole-% CO2 and ? 4 ppm H2S). The new processes considered the simultaneous use of two different types of polymer membranes for the above application, namely, one with higher CO2/CH4 selectivity and the other with higher H2S/CH4 selectivity. The performance and economics of membrane process configurations comprising one, two, and three permeation stages, with and without recycle streams, were examined and optimized via extensive computer simulations. Most computations assumed as a "base-case", the processing of a medium-size natural gas stream of 35 MMSCFD at 800 psia. The natural gas was taken to contain ? 10 mole-% H2S and ? 40 mole-% CO2. The most economical process configuration was two permeation stages in series, with H2S-selective membranes in the first stage and CO2-selective membranes in the second stage. The most economical process configurations for upgrading natural gas containing either only substantial amounts of H2S or of CO2 were also determined. The sensitivity of the process economics to feed flow rate, feed pressure, membrane module cost, and wellhead cost of natural gas was studied. A comparison of the processing cost of membrane processes with that of conventional gas absorption processes utilizing diethanolamine as solvent was also investigated. II. A membrane process for enrichment of Kr in air was studied experimentally as a technique of improving the accuracy of Kr analysis. "Asymmetric" silicone rubber membranes were found to be most suitable for this application. The study was investigated with a feed gas mixture containing 0.99 mole-% Kr, 20.70 mole-% O2, and 78.30 mole-% N2. The Kr concentration could be increased from 0.99 to 2.23 mole-% in a single membrane stage and further raised to 3.73 mole-% in two stages in cascade. Computer simulations of "cross-flow" model yielded results in general agreement with experimental data.

Hao, Jibin

71

Evaluation of processes controlling the geochemical constituents in deep groundwater in Bangladesh: spatial variability on arsenic and boron enrichment.  

PubMed

Forty-six deep groundwater samples from highly arsenic affected areas in Bangladesh were analyzed in order to evaluate the processes controlling geochemical constituents in the deep aquifer system. Spatial trends of solutes, geochemical modeling and principal component analysis indicate that carbonate dissolution, silicate weathering and ion exchange control the major-ion chemistry. The groundwater is dominantly of Na-Cl type brackish water. Approximately 17% of the examined groundwaters exhibit As concentrations higher than the maximum acceptable limit of 10 microg/L for drinking water. Strong correlation (R(2)=0.67) of Fe with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and positive saturation index of siderite suggests that the reductive dissolution of Fe-oxyhydroxide in presence of organic matter is considered to be the dominant process to release high content of Fe (median 0.31 mg/L) in the deep aquifer. In contrast, As is not correlated with Fe and DOC. Boron concentration in the 26% samples exceeds the standard limit of 500 microg/L, for water intended for human consumption. Negative relationships of B/Cl ratio with Cl and boron with Na/Ca ratio demonstrate the boron in deep groundwater is accompanied by brackish water and cation exchange within the clayey sediments. PMID:20092941

Halim, M A; Majumder, R K; Nessa, S A; Hiroshiro, Y; Sasaki, K; Saha, B B; Saepuloh, A; Jinno, K

2010-08-15

72

Modulation of Hepatitis C Virus RNA Abundance and Virus Release by Dispersion of Processing Bodies and Enrichment of Stress Granules  

PubMed Central

Components of cytoplasmic Processing bodies (P-bodies) and stress granules can be subverted during viral infections to modulate viral gene expression. Because hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA abundance is regulated by P-body components such as microRNA miR-122, Argonaute 2 and RNA helicase RCK/p54, we examined whether HCV infection modulates P-bodies and stress granules during viral infection. It was discovered that HCV infection decreased the number of P-bodies, but induced the formation of stress granules. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that a number of P-body and stress granule proteins co-localized with viral core protein at lipid droplets, the sites for viral RNA packaging. Depletion of selected P-body proteins decreased overall HCV RNA and virion abundance. Depletion of stress granule proteins also decreased overall HCV RNA abundance, but surprisingly enhanced the accumulation of infectious, extracellular virus. These data argue that HCV subverts P-body and stress granule components to aid in viral gene expression at particular sites in the cytoplasm. PMID:23141719

Pager, Cara T.; Schutz, Sylvia; Abraham, Teresa M.; Luo, Guangxiang; Sarnow, Peter

2012-01-01

73

Where does the carbon go? A model-data intercomparison of vegetation carbon allocation and turnover processes at two temperate forest free-air CO2 enrichment sites.  

PubMed

Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (eCO2) has the potential to increase vegetation carbon storage if increased net primary production causes increased long-lived biomass. Model predictions of eCO2 effects on vegetation carbon storage depend on how allocation and turnover processes are represented. We used data from two temperate forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments to evaluate representations of allocation and turnover in 11 ecosystem models. Observed eCO2 effects on allocation were dynamic. Allocation schemes based on functional relationships among biomass fractions that vary with resource availability were best able to capture the general features of the observations. Allocation schemes based on constant fractions or resource limitations performed less well, with some models having unintended outcomes. Few models represent turnover processes mechanistically and there was wide variation in predictions of tissue lifespan. Consequently, models did not perform well at predicting eCO2 effects on vegetation carbon storage. Our recommendations to reduce uncertainty include: use of allocation schemes constrained by biomass fractions; careful testing of allocation schemes; and synthesis of allocation and turnover data in terms of model parameters. Data from intensively studied ecosystem manipulation experiments are invaluable for constraining models and we recommend that such experiments should attempt to fully quantify carbon, water and nutrient budgets. PMID:24844873

De Kauwe, Martin G; Medlyn, Belinda E; Zaehle, Snke; Walker, Anthony P; Dietze, Michael C; Wang, Ying-Ping; Luo, Yiqi; Jain, Atul K; El-Masri, Bassil; Hickler, Thomas; Wrlind, David; Weng, Ensheng; Parton, William J; Thornton, Peter E; Wang, Shusen; Prentice, I Colin; Asao, Shinichi; Smith, Benjamin; McCarthy, Heather R; Iversen, Colleen M; Hanson, Paul J; Warren, Jeffrey M; Oren, Ram; Norby, Richard J

2014-08-01

74

Enrichment techniques employed in phosphoproteomics.  

PubMed

Rapid changes of protein phosphorylation play a crucial role in the regulation of many cellular processes. Being post-translationally modified, phosphoproteins are often present in quite low abundance and tend to co-exist with their unphosphorylated isoform within the cell. To make their identification more practicable, the use of enrichment protocols is often required. The enrichment strategies can be performed either at the level of phosphoproteins or at the level of phosphopeptides. Both approaches have their advantages and disadvantages. Most enriching strategies are based on chemical modifications, affinity chromatography to capture peptides and proteins containing negatively charged phosphate groups onto a positively charged matrix, or immunoprecipitation by phospho-specific antibodies.In this article, the most up-to-date enrichment techniques are discussed, taking into account their optimization, and highlighting their advantages and disadvantages. Moreover, these methods are compared to each other, revealing their complementary nature in providing comprehensive coverage of the phosphoproteome. PMID:22002794

Fla, Jan; Honys, David

2012-09-01

75

Biomass gasification and in-bed contaminants removal: performance of iron enriched olivine and bauxite in a process of steam/O2 gasification.  

PubMed

A modified Olivine, enriched in iron content (10% Fe/Olivine), and a natural bauxite, were tested in the in-bed reduction of tar and alkali halides (NaCl and KCl) released in a process of biomass steam/O(2) gasification. The tests were carried out at an ICBFB bench scale reactor under the operating conditions of: 855-890 C, atmospheric pressure, 0.5 steam/biomass and 0.33 ER ratios. From the use of the two materials, a reduction in the contaminant contents of the fuel gas produced was found. For the alkali halides, a decrease up to 70%(wt) was observed for the potassium concentration, while for sodium, the reduction was found to be quite poor. For the organic content, compared to unmodified Olivine, the chromatographically determined total tar quantity showed a removal efficiency of 38%(wt). Moreover, regarding the particulate content a rough doubling in the fuel gas revealed a certain brittleness of the new bed material. PMID:22705523

Barisano, D; Freda, C; Nanna, F; Fanelli, E; Villone, A

2012-08-01

76

BLENDING LOW ENRICHED URANIUM WITH DEPLETED URANIUM TO CREATE A SOURCE MATERIAL ORE THAT CAN BE PROCESSED FOR THE RECOVERY OF YELLOWCAKE AT A CONVENTIONAL URANIUM MILL  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the United States Department of Energy (DOE) complex, there are a number of streams of low enriched uranium (LEU) that contain various trace contaminants. These surplus nuclear materials require processing in order to meet commercial fuel cycle specifications. To date, they have not been designated as waste for disposal at the DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS). Currently, with no commercial outlet available, the DOE is evaluating treatment and disposal as the ultimate disposition path for these materials. This paper will describe an innovative program that will provide a solution to DOE that will allow disposition of these materials at a cost that will be competitive with treatment and disposal at the NTS, while at the same time recycling the material to recover a valuable energy resource (yellowcake) for reintroduction into the commercial nuclear fuel cycle. International Uranium (USA) Corporation (IUSA) and Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (NFS) have entered into a commercial relationship to pursue the development of this program. The program involves the design of a process and construction of a plant at NFS' site in Erwin, Tennessee, for the blending of contaminated LEU with depleted uranium (DU) to produce a uranium source material ore (USM Ore{trademark}). The USM Ore{trademark} will then be further processed at IUC's White Mesa Mill, located near Blanding, Utah, to produce conventional yellowcake, which can be delivered to conversion facilities, in the same manner as yellowcake that is produced from natural ores or other alternate feed materials. The primary source of feed for the business will be the significant sources of trace contaminated materials within the DOE complex. NFS has developed a dry blending process (DRYSM Process) to blend the surplus LEU material with DU at its Part 70 licensed facility, to produce USM Ore{trademark} with a U235 content within the range of U235 concentrations for source material. By reducing the U235 content to source material levels in this manner, the material will be suitable for processing at a conventional uranium mill under its existing Part 40 license to remove contaminants and enable the product to re-enter the commercial fuel cycle. The tailings from processing the USM Ore{trademark} at the mill will be permanently disposed of in the mill's tailings impoundment as 11e.(2) byproduct material. Blending LEU with DU to make a uranium source material ore that can be returned to the nuclear fuel cycle for processing to produce yellowcake, has never been accomplished before. This program will allow DOE to disposition its surplus LEU and DU in a cost effective manner, and at the same time provide for the recovery of valuable energy resources that would be lost through processing and disposal of the materials. This paper will discuss the nature of the surplus LEU and DU materials, the manner in which the LEU will be blended with DU to form a uranium source material ore, and the legal means by which this blending can be accomplished at a facility licensed under 10 CFR Part 70 to produce ore that can be processed at a conventional uranium mill licensed under 10 CFR Part 40.

Schutt, Stephen M.; Hochstein, Ron F.; Frydenlund, David C.; Thompson, Anthony J.

2003-02-27

77

Semantic enrichment for medical ontologies.  

PubMed

The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) contains two separate but interconnected knowledge structures, the Semantic Network (upper level) and the Metathesaurus (lower level). In this paper, we have attempted to work out better how the use of such a two-level structure in the medical field has led to notable advances in terminologies and ontologies. However, most ontologies and terminologies do not have such a two-level structure. Therefore, we present a method, called semantic enrichment, which generates a two-level ontology from a given one-level terminology and an auxiliary two-level ontology. During semantic enrichment, concepts of the one-level terminology are assigned to semantic types, which are the building blocks of the upper level of the auxiliary two-level ontology. The result of this process is the desired new two-level ontology. We discuss semantic enrichment of two example terminologies and how we approach the implementation of semantic enrichment in the medical domain. This implementation performs a major part of the semantic enrichment process with the medical terminologies, with difficult cases left to a human expert. PMID:16185937

Lee, Yugyung; Geller, James

2006-04-01

78

Petrology and geochemistry of the ultrapotassic rocks from the Sabatini Volcanic District, central Italy: the role of evolutionary processes in the genesis of variably enriched alkaline magmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sabatini Volcanic District (SVD) is a large volcanic field characterised by the lack of any major volcanic center. Its activity, spread over a wide area, started at 0.6 Ma and developed through five main phases, during which several calderas and the Bracciano lake volcano-tectonic depression were formed. All the volcanic rocks belong to the Roman-type ultrapotassic series (HKS), ranging from leucite tephrites to leucite and hayne phonolites. Although the major- and compatible-element contents indicate a single series of evolution, there are differences in the incompatible trace-element abundances. A high-Ba series (HBaS) has been distinguished from a low-Ba series (LBaS), with the former also enriched in all other incompatible elements (e.g., REE, Nb, Zr, Th) except Rb. The HBaS rocks are plagioclase-free, leucite-bearing lavas and were abundantly outpoured from the Bracciano volcanoes during the third and fifth phase of activity. Plagioclase- and phlogopite-bearing rocks constitute the LBaS and were erupted during the other phases generally from smaller and eccentric volcanic centers. The initial 87Sr/ 86Sr values are higher in the HBaS rocks and do not vary significantly with magma evolution (0.71047-0.71080), but cover a wider range in the LBaS rocks (0.70944-0.71038), with the lowest Sr isotope ratios occurring in the least evolved lavas. The higher Ca content in the olivine and Ti and Al IV in the clinopyroxene, and the lower ulvspinel content of the Ti-magnetites of the HBaS rocks suggest an evolution at lower pressure and higher temperature for this magma. The observed petrologic characteristics suggest that the HBaS magma evolved at lower depths by processes of refilling, tapping, fractionation and probably assimilation (RTFA), where the crystallisation rate of clinopyroxene+leuciteolivine dominates over the input rate of the fresh magma. The LBaS magma evolved at slightly higher pressure, in separate and small magma bodies, by fractional crystallisation of clinopyroxene+plagioclasephlogopiteolivine that was often associated with crustal assimilation (AFC). It has been suggested that RTFA processes with high input rate/crystallisation rate ratios could also be responsible for the differentiation between the HBaS and LBaS. The different processes of evolution undergone by the HBaS and LBaS could have been related to the different volumes of magma rising from the source.

Conticelli, Sandro; Francalanci, Lorella; Manetti, Piero; Cioni, Raffaello; Sbrana, Alessandro

1997-01-01

79

Considerations in the development of a process to manufacture low-enriched uranium foil fuel for the high flux isotope reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reference flow sheet is the one of the first planning steps in the development of a manufacturing capacity for low enriched uranium foil fuels and can be used to develop a work structure, a critical path schedule and identify development needs. The reference flow sheet presented is specific to the High Flux Isotope Reactor and is used to estimate

J. D. Sease; R. T. Primm; J. H. Miller

2008-01-01

80

Evolution of the South African mantlea case study of garnet peridotites from the Finsch diamond mine (Kaapvaal craton); Part 2: Multiple depletion and re-enrichment processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recalculated whole rock major-, trace-element and isotope compositions from mineral analyses of Finsch mantle peridotites indicate a complex history of the South African sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SA-SCLM). According to the Lu-Hf whole rock isotopic data last depletion coupled with the final cratonization of the Kaapvaal craton underneath Finsch occurred at ~ 2.6 Ga. The data of this study indicate several depletion and enrichment processes during that early history of Finsch SCLM. Calculated degrees of partial melting using major and rare earth element (REE) compositions show that all depletion episodes together have removed more than 40% of melt from the SA-SCLM. As indicated by elevated Hf concentrations and subchondritic Lu/Hf, many Finsch peridotites were metasomatically overprinted between the last and earlier depletion stages. Silica enrichment, expressed in high modal abundance of orthopyroxene in the majority of the samples likely took place at that early stage. The last coupled melting and re-enrichment event (at ~ 2.6 Ga) resulted in complete re-equilibration of trace element and Hf isotope signatures at the whole rock scale and thus, erased most signs of previous events. After the final depletion and before the final kimberlite eruption, the Finsch mantle suffered from further metasomatic overprints. Metasomatism is expressed in the enrichment of light REE (LREE) and some large ion lithophile elements (e.g. Sr, Rb, Th). Additionally, the Nd isotope signatures of all samples as well as the Hf isotope compositions of some samples were modified. Late enrichment is documented by a modally metasomatized sample that contains rutile and sulfide. This sample is characterized by strong enrichment of high-field-strength elements and LREE and was probably overprinted with a sulfide bearing silico-carbonatitic melt with high contents of Ti, Fe and Ni. This melt likely originated from an enriched mantle that was isolated for a long time during which it developed a very unradiogenic Hf isotope signature, characteristic for this type of metasomatism.

Lazarov, Marina; Brey, Gerhard P.; Weyer, Stefan

2012-12-01

81

Considerations in the development of a process to manufacture low-enriched uranium foil fuel for the high flux isotope reactor  

SciTech Connect

A reference flow sheet is the one of the first planning steps in the development of a manufacturing capacity for low enriched uranium foil fuels and can be used to develop a work structure, a critical path schedule and identify development needs. The reference flow sheet presented is specific to the High Flux Isotope Reactor and is used to estimate the change in HFIR operating cost due to fuel conversion. (author)

Sease, J.D.; Primm, R.T. III [Research Reactors Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6399 (United States)], E-mail: seasejd@ornl.gov; Miller, J.H. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6399 (United States)

2008-07-15

82

Multilevel correlations in the biological phosphorus removal process: From bacterial enrichment to conductivity-based metabolic batch tests and polyphosphatase assays.  

PubMed

Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater relies on the preferential selection of active polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) in the underlying bacterial community continuum. Efficient management of the bacterial resource requires understanding of population dynamics as well as availability of bioanalytical methods for rapid and regular assessment of relative abundances of active PAOs and their glycogen-accumulating competitors (GAO). A systems approach was adopted here toward the investigation of multilevel correlations from the EBPR bioprocess to the bacterial community, metabolic, and enzymatic levels. Two anaerobic-aerobic sequencing-batch reactors were operated to enrich activated sludge in PAOs and GAOs affiliating with "Candidati Accumulibacter and Competibacter phosphates", respectively. Bacterial selection was optimized by dynamic control of the organic loading rate and the anaerobic contact time. The distinct core bacteriomes mainly comprised populations related to the classes Betaproteobacteria, Cytophagia, and Chloroflexi in the PAO enrichment and of Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Sphingobacteria in the GAO enrichment. An anaerobic metabolic batch test based on electrical conductivity evolution and a polyphosphatase enzymatic assay were developed for rapid and low-cost assessment of the active PAO fraction and dephosphatation potential of activated sludge. Linear correlations were obtained between the PAO fraction, biomass specific rate of conductivity increase under anaerobic conditions, and polyphosphate-hydrolyzing activity of PAO/GAO mixtures. The correlations between PAO/GAO ratios, metabolic activities, and conductivity profiles were confirmed by simulations with a mathematical model developed in the aqueous geochemistry software PHREEQC. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 2421-2435. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24975745

Weissbrodt, David G; Maillard, Julien; Brovelli, Alessandro; Chabrelie, Alexandre; May, Jonathan; Holliger, Christof

2014-12-01

83

Enrichment Activities for Geometry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enrichment activities that teach about geometry as they instruct in geometry are given for some significant topics. The facets of geometry included are tessellations, round robin tournaments, geometric theorems on triangles, and connections between geometry and complex numbers. (MNS)

Usiskin, Zalman

1983-01-01

84

Profile of World Uranium Enrichment Programs-2009  

SciTech Connect

It is generally agreed that the most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is acquiring fissile material, either plutonium or highly enriched uranium (HEU). Plutonium is produced in a nuclear reactor, whereas HEU is produced using a uranium enrichment process. Enrichment is also an important step in the civil nuclear fuel cycle, in producing low enriched uranium (LEU) for use as fuel for nuclear reactors to generate electricity. However, the same equipment used to produce LEU for nuclear reactor fuel can also be used to produce HEU for weapons. Safeguards at an enrichment plant are the array of assurances and verification techniques that ensure uranium is not diverted or enriched to HEU. There are several techniques for enriching uranium. The two most prevalent are gaseous diffusion, which uses older technology and requires a lot of energy, and gas centrifuge separation, which uses more advanced technology and is more energy efficient. Gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) provide about 40% of current world enrichment capacity but are being phased out as newer gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) are constructed. Estimates of current and future enrichment capacity are always approximate, due to the constant upgrades, expansions, and shutdowns occurring at enrichment plants, largely determined by economic interests. Currently, the world enrichment capacity is approximately 56 million kilogram separative work units (SWU) per year, with 22.5 million in gaseous diffusion and more than 33 million in gas centrifuge plants. Another 34 million SWU/year of capacity is under construction or planned for the near future, almost entirely using gas centrifuge separation. Other less-efficient techniques have also been used in the past, including electromagnetic and aerodynamic separations, but these are considered obsolete, at least from a commercial perspective. Laser isotope separation shows promise as a possible enrichment technique of the future but has yet to be demonstrated commercially. In the early 1980s, six countries developing gas centrifuge technology (United States, United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Japan, and Australia) along with the International Atomic Energy Agency and the European Atomic Energy Community began developing effective safeguards techniques for GCEPs. This effort was known as the Hexapartite Safeguards Project (HSP). The HSP had the goal of maximizing safeguards effectiveness while minimizing the cost to the operator and inspectorate, and adopted several recommendations, such as the acceptance of limited-frequency unannounced access inspections in cascade halls, and the use of nondestructive assay measurements and tamper-indicating seals. While only the HSP participants initially committed to implementing all the measures of the approach, it has been used as a model for the safeguards applied to GCEPs in additional states. Uranium enrichment capacity has continued to expand on all fronts in the last few years. GCEP capacity is expanding in anticipation of the eventual shutdown of the less-efficient GDPs, the termination of the U.S.-Russia HEU blend-down program slated for 2013, and the possible resurgence of nuclear reactor construction as part of an expected 'Nuclear Renaissance'. Overall, a clear trend in the world profile of uranium enrichment plant operation is the continued movement towards multinational projects driven by commercial and economic interests. Along this vein, the safeguards community is continuing to develop new safeguards techniques and technologies that are not overly burdensome to enrichment plant operators while delivering more effective and efficient results. This report provides a snapshot overview of world enrichment capacity in 2009, including profiles of the uranium enrichment programs of individual states. It is a revision of a 2007 report on the same topic; significant changes in world enrichment programs between the previous and current reports are emphasized. It is based entirely on open-source information, which is dependent on published sources and may theref

Laughter, Mark D [ORNL

2009-04-01

85

An Enriching Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful school-community partnerships in Volusia (Florida) Public Schools are the results of marketing creatively, meeting community members' needs, and bringing the right people together. The 3-year old program now offers students of all ages an expanding list of enrichment classes on many subjects for a nominal fee. (MLH)

Holland, Nancy A.; Burroughs, Jean

2001-01-01

86

Enrichment and Nonhuman Primates: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1998 publication of The Psychological Well-Being of Nonhuman Primates by the National Research Council, and the 1991 implementation of the 1985 Animal Welfare Act Amendment, many formal and informal nonhuman pri- mate enrichment programs have been put into practice. Re- ports of their successes and failures, however, are few. All programs have at least two things in common:

Randall J. Nelson; Timothy D. Mandrell

2005-01-01

87

rado School gifts enrich  

E-print Network

1.0 Color Such class progr the c A gift Foun anyth no co assur wishe Rece desir supp and is Scho there the S Foun beha Thus distin proce distin and p 2.0 BACKGR rado School gifts enrich sroom and la rams, library provided event wil may con cultural c in that so deductib Gift Soli Deposit Issued: Revised ROUND

88

CULTURAL ENRICHMENT PROGRAMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

METHODS BY WHICH CULTURAL ENRICHMENT PROGRAMS CAN HELP TO ELIMINATE JUVENILE DELINQUENCY ARE DISCUSSED. IT IS STRESSED THAT CULTURE IS A SET OF VALUES, RATHER THAN A SERIES OF CONCEPTS. IF CULTURE IS TO BE TRANSMITTED TO STUDENTS, TEACHERS MUST LIVE ITS VALUES. ATTENDING CONCERTS AND PLAYS IS NOT SUFFICIENT. ONLY IN THE BROAD SETTING OF A TOTAL

WASHINGTON, BENNETTA B.

89

Science Student Enrichment Opportunities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document was developed with the intention of increasing California public school students' awareness of and participation in science-related enrichment activities. Some of the activities are intended for participation by individuals, while others are meant for teams of students. These annual events are listed in chronological order for a

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

90

Toxicology Enrichment Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The series contains fact sheets on toxicology, introductory exercises to familiarize students with the study of toxicology and student assignments addressing specific issues in toxicology. The assignments are designed to enrich typical course curricula and give students practice using information from both library and internet sources.

Suzanne Conklin (Rhode Island College;)

2000-01-01

91

Enriching the Catalog  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After decades of costly and time-consuming effort, nearly all libraries have completed the retrospective conversion of their card catalogs to electronic form. However, bibliographic systems still are really not much more than card catalogs on wheels. Enriched content that Amazon.com takes for granted--such as digitized tables of contents, cover

Tennant, Roy

2004-01-01

92

Membrane processes for gas separations: Part I. Removal of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from low-quality natural gas. Part II. Enrichment of krypton in air  

Microsoft Academic Search

I. The objective of this study was to determine the process design characteristics and economics of membrane separation processes for reducing the concentrations of H2S and CO2 in low-quality natural gas containing substantial amounts of the two acid gases to pipeline specifications ( <= 2 mole-% CO2 and <= 4 ppm H2S). The new processes considered the simultaneous use of

Jibin Hao

1998-01-01

93

Centrifuge enrichment plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, control, monitoring, and safety of centrifuge enrichment plants. Power supplies, enrichment plant safeguards, facility design, cascade heater test loops to monitor the enrichment process, inspection strategies, and the socioeconomic effects of centrifuge enrichment plants are examined. Radioactive waste disposal problems are considered. (Contains a minimum of 171 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1993-09-01

94

Centrifuge enrichment plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, control, monitoring, and safety of centrifuge enrichment plants. Power supplies, enrichment plant safeguards, facility design, cascade heater test loops to monitor the enrichment process, inspection strategies, and the socioeconomic effects of centrifuge enrichment plants are examined. Radioactive waste disposal problems are considered. (Contains a minimum of 172 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-03-01

95

Profile of World Uranium Enrichment Programs - 2007  

SciTech Connect

It is generally agreed that the most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is acquiring weapons grade fissile material, either plutonium or highly enriched uranium (HEU). Plutonium is produced in a nuclear reactor, while HEU is produced using a uranium enrichment process. Enrichment is also an important step in the civil nuclear fuel cycle, in producing low enriched uranium (LEU) for use in fuel for nuclear reactors. However, the same equipment used to produce LEU for nuclear fuel can also be used to produce HEU for weapons. Safeguards at an enrichment plant are the array of assurances and verification techniques that ensure uranium is only enriched to LEU, no undeclared LEU is produced, and no uranium is enriched to HEU or secretly diverted. There are several techniques for enriching uranium. The two most prevalent are gaseous diffusion, which uses older technology and requires a lot of energy, and gas centrifuge separation, which uses more advanced technology and is more energy efficient. Gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) provide about 40% of current world enrichment capacity, but are being phased out as newer gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) are constructed. Estimates of current and future enrichment capacity are always approximate, due to the constant upgrades, expansions, and shutdowns occurring at enrichment plants, largely determined by economic interests. Currently, the world enrichment capacity is approximately 53 million kg-separative work units (SWU) per year, with 22 million in gaseous diffusion and 31 million in gas centrifuge plants. Another 23 million SWU/year of capacity are under construction or planned for the near future, almost entirely using gas centrifuge separation. Other less-efficient techniques have also been used in the past, including electromagnetic and aerodynamic separations, but these are considered obsolete, at least from a commercial perspective. Laser isotope separation shows promise as a possible enrichment technique of the future, but has yet to be demonstrated commercially. In the early 1980s, six countries developing gas centrifuge technology (United States, United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Japan, and Australia) along with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) began developing effective safeguards techniques for GCEPs. This effort was known as the Hexapartite Safeguards Project (HSP). The HSP had the goal of maximizing safeguards effectiveness while minimizing the cost to the operator and inspectorate, and adopted several recommendations, such as the acceptance of limited-frequency unannounced access (LFUA) inspections in cascade halls, and the use of nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements and tamper-indicating seals. While only the HSP participants initially committed to implementing all the measures of the approach, it has been used as a model for the safeguards applied to GCEPs in additional states. This report provides a snapshot overview of world enrichment capacity in 2007, including profiles of the uranium enrichment programs of individual states. It is based on open-source information, which is dependent on unclassified sources and may therefore not reflect the most recent developments. In addition, it briefly describes some of the safeguards techniques being used at various enrichment plants, including implementation of HSP recommendations.

Laughter, Mark D [ORNL

2007-11-01

96

Motif Enrichment Tool  

PubMed Central

The Motif Enrichment Tool (MET) provides an online interface that enables users to find major transcriptional regulators of their gene sets of interest. MET searches the appropriate regulatory region around each gene and identifies which transcription factor DNA-binding specificities (motifs) are statistically overrepresented. Motif enrichment analysis is currently available for many metazoan species including human, mouse, fruit fly, planaria and flowering plants. MET also leverages high-throughput experimental data such as ChIP-seq and DNase-seq from ENCODE and ModENCODE to identify the regulatory targets of a transcription factor with greater precision. The results from MET are produced in real time and are linked to a genome browser for easy follow-up analysis. Use of the web tool is free and open to all, and there is no login requirement. Address: http://veda.cs.uiuc.edu/MET/. PMID:24860165

Blatti, Charles; Sinha, Saurabh

2014-01-01

97

Glycoprotein Enrichment Resin User Manual  

E-print Network

buffer containing either Tris or sorbitol. Specific Enrichment of Glycoproteins Glycoprotein Enrichment Enrichment Resin· Other User Manual (PT4050-1)· Visit our Protein Expression and Purification product pages at www.clontech.com for a current list of products available for protein research. #12;Glycoprotein

Lebendiker, Mario

98

Enriching SDL Specifications with MSCs *  

E-print Network

its semantics, and we illustrate our SDL specification enrichment approach through an exampleEnriching SDL Specifications with MSCs * Ferhat Khendek 1 and Daniel Vincent 2 1 Department to the existing behavior and architecture. In this paper, we address the issue of enriching automatically SDL

Khendek, Ferhat

99

Investigation of how agitation during precipitation, and subsequent processing affects the particle size distribution and separation of ?-lactalbumin enriched whey protein precipitates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, ?-lactalbumin (?-la) rich precipitate particles are formed and aged in a batch stirred-tank from a whey protein concentrate (WPC) dispersion. Precipitation of the proteins occurs during a period of acid-addition followed by an ageing period. This study investigates how stirred-tank impeller agitation and subsequent processing, by means of passing precipitate suspensions through a capillary tube or a

Edmond P Byrne; John J Fitzpatrick

2002-01-01

100

Nurturing brain plasticity: impact of environmental enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental enrichment (EE) is known to profoundly affect the central nervous system (CNS) at the functional, anatomical and molecular level, both during the critical period and during adulthood. Recent studies focusing on the visual system have shown that these effects are associated with the recruitment of previously unsuspected neural plasticity processes. At early stages of brain development, EE triggers a

L Baroncelli; C Braschi; M Spolidoro; T Begenisic; A Sale; L Maffei

2010-01-01

101

Parents as Partners in Art Education Enrichment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author describes a parent art program, how it works, and ways to implement it. She emphasizes the strengths of parent programs as a way to support and enrich existing arts education, not as a replacement. Hansen describes the art kit--the adult's teaching resource--and the basic four-part process: presentation, demonstration, an art activity,

Hansen, Laurie

2008-01-01

102

76 FR 11523 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of Opportunity...construct and operate its proposed Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility (EREF) in Bonneville...AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility), 74 FR...

2011-03-02

103

Enrichment of OBO ontologies.  

PubMed

This paper describes a frame-based integration of the three GO subontologies, the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest ontology, and the Cell Type Ontology in which relationships are modeled in a way that better captures the semantics between biological concepts represented by the terms, rather than between the terms themselves, than previous frame-based efforts. We also describe a methodology for creating suggested enriching assertions by identifying patterns in GO terms, mapping these patterns to new, specific relationships, and matching term substrings to concepts. Using this methodology, a predicted assertion was made for 62% of GO terms that matched one of 31 patterns, and 97% of these predicted assertions were assessed to be valid, resulting in an initial set of over 4000 assertions. Furthermore, this methodology programmatically integrates assertions into an ontology such that each assertion is fully consistent with respect to higher (i.e., more general) relevant class and slot levels. PMID:17011833

Bada, Michael; Hunter, Lawrence

2007-06-01

104

Withdrawal assay monitoring at US Enrichment Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) controls two uranium enrichment facilities that produce enriched uranium for both military and commercial use. The process requires both feed and withdrawal operations. The withdrawal process requires both product (enriched uranium) withdrawal stations and tails (depleted uranium) withdrawal stations. A previous prototype system, ``X-330 Tails Cylinder Assay Monitor,`` was developed as a demonstration for the tails withdrawal station at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The prototype system was done in response to potential problems with the original method for determining the hourly weighted assay averages that are used to calculate the final weighted assay of the cylinder. In the original method the {sup 235}U assay of uranium hexaflouride withdrawn from PORTS cascade into tails cylinders is determined every 5 min by measurements from an in-line assay mass spectrometer. An average value for a 1-h period is then calculated by area control room personnel and assigned to the accumulated weight in the cylinder for the period. A potential problem with this method is that cylinder weight is not automatically recorded as often as the assay. The assay and withdrawal rate can both vary during the given period. This variation results in inaccuracies in the hourly weighted assays that are used to calculate the final weighted assay of the cylinder. Laboratory analysis is considered to be the most accurate method for determining the final cylinder assay; however, the cost and safety considerations of redundant cylinder handling limit the number of cylinders sampled to less than 10%.

Smith, D.E.

1996-01-01

105

Intelligent Information Processing in Semantically Enriched Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquiring information from the Web is a demanding task and currently subject of a world-wide research. In this paper we focus\\u000a on research of methods, and experience with development of software tools designed for retrieval, organization, presentation\\u000a of information in heterogeneous data source spaces such as the Web. We see the Web as a unique evolving and unbounded information\\u000a system.

Pavol Nvrat; Mria Bielikov; Daniela Chud; Viera Rozinajov

2009-01-01

106

Shenandoah elementary science enrichment program  

SciTech Connect

Shenandoah Elementary School is a rural educational facility located in the farmlands of Indiana. The Elementary Science Enrichment Program was established to create a learning atmosphere that encourages scientific thinking and problem-solving. Its inception was founded on the belief that the concepts and process skills inherent in the teaching of science are critical to the early intellectual development of elementary students. The program was established through speaking engagements at the local and state level which resulted in the necessary support to insure its continuation. All students in grades K-5 meet for weekly science activities in our elementary lab to investigate many exciting curricular areas including planaria regeneration, star life cycles, and acid rain telecommunications. This allows for in-depth exploration of the science process skills which culminate in a variety of products including student portfolios, hands-on assessments, simulations and global data communications. These activities are extended through family science and the modeling of science instructional techniques for classroom educators.

Garrett, P. [Shenandoah Elementary School, Middletown, IN (United States)

1994-12-31

107

City model enrichment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination of mobile communication technology with location and orientation aware digital cameras has introduced increasing interest in the exploitation of 3D city models for applications such as augmented reality and automated image captioning. The effectiveness of such applications is, at present, severely limited by the often poor quality of semantic annotation of the 3D models. In this paper, we show how freely available sources of georeferenced Web 2.0 information can be used for automated enrichment of 3D city models. Point referenced names of prominent buildings and landmarks mined from Wikipedia articles and from the OpenStreetMaps digital map and Geonames gazetteer have been matched to the 2D ground plan geometry of a 3D city model. In order to address the ambiguities that arise in the associations between these sources and the city model, we present procedures to merge potentially related buildings and implement fuzzy matching between reference points and building polygons. An experimental evaluation demonstrates the effectiveness of the presented methods.

Smart, Philip D.; Quinn, Jonathan A.; Jones, Christopher B.

108

Uranium enrichment export control guide: Gaseous diffusion  

SciTech Connect

This document was prepared to serve as a guide for export control officials in their interpretation, understanding, and implementation of export laws that relate to the Zangger International Trigger List for gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment process components, equipment, and materials. Particular emphasis is focused on items that are especially designed or prepared since export controls are required for these by States that are party to the International Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.

Not Available

1989-09-01

109

Enriching Ontology for Deep Web Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problems of extracting instances from the Deep Web, enriching a domain specific ontology with those\\u000a instances, and using this ontology to improve Web search. Extending an existing ontology with a large number of instances\\u000a extracted from the Deep Web is an important process for making the ontology more usable for indexing of Deep Web sites. We

Yoo Jung An; Soon Ae Chun; Kuo-chuan Huang; James Geller

2008-01-01

110

ThroopThroop -Jupiter Enrichment Henry Throop  

E-print Network

ThroopThroop - Jupiter Enrichment Henry Throop Department of Space Studies Southwest Research of Jupiter's Atmosphere from a Supernova-Contaminated Molecular Cloud #12;Throop - Jupiter Enrichment #12;Throop - Jupiter Enrichment #12;Throop - Jupiter Enrichment Jupiter:Solar abundances Enriched by 3

Throop, Henry

111

Centrifuge enrichment plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, control, monitoring, and safety of centrifuge enrichment plants. Power supplies, enrichment plant safeguards, facility design, cascade heater test loops to monitor the enrichment process, inspection strategies, and the socioeconomic effects of centrifuge enrichment plants are examined. Radioactive waste disposal problems are briefly considered. (Contains a minimum of 169 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-09-01

112

Development Issues on Linked Data Weblog Enrichment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we describe the issues found during the development of LinkedBlog, a Linked Data extension for WordPress blogs. This extension enables to enrich text-based and video information contained in blog entries with RDF triples that are suitable to be stored, managed and exploited by other web-based applications. The issues have to do with the generality, usability, tracking, depth, security, trustiness and performance of the linked data enrichment process. The presented annotation approach aims at maintaining web-based contents independent from the underlying ontological model, by providing a loosely coupled RDFa-based approach in the linked data application. Finally, we detail how the performance of annotations can be improved through a semantic reasoner.

Ruiz-Rube, Ivn; Cornejo, Carlos M.; Dodero, Juan Manuel; Garca, Vicente M.

113

10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment...G to Part 110Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment...Licensing Authority Note In the plasma separation process, a plasma...

2010-01-01

114

10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment...G to Part 110Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment...Licensing Authority Note In the plasma separation process, a plasma...

2012-01-01

115

10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment...G to Part 110Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment...Licensing Authority Note In the plasma separation process, a plasma...

2011-01-01

116

10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment...G to Part 110Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment...Licensing Authority Note In the plasma separation process, a plasma...

2013-01-01

117

10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...  

...2014-01-01 false Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment...G to Part 110Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment...Licensing Authority Note: In the plasma separation process, a plasma...

2014-01-01

118

Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as metal. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The mission of this Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will be to blend surplus HEU metal and alloy with depleted uranium metal to produce an LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

NONE

1995-07-05

119

Progress in alkaline peroxide dissolution of low-enriched uranium metal and silicide targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports recent progress on two alkaline peroxide dissolution processes: the dissolution of low-enriched uranium metal and silicide (USi) targets. These processes are being developed to substitute low-enriched for high-enriched uranium in targets used for production of fission-product ⁹⁹Mo. Issues that are addressed include (1) dissolution kinetics of silicide targets, (2) ⁹⁹Mo lost during aluminum dissolution, (3) modeling of

L. Chen; D. Dong; B. A. Buchholz; G. F. Vandegrift; D. Wu

1996-01-01

120

Peak fitting applied to low-resolution enrichment measurements  

SciTech Connect

Materials accounting at bulk processing facilities that handle low enriched uranium consists primarily of weight and uranium enrichment measurements. Most low enriched uranium processing facilities draw separate materials balances for each enrichment handled at the facility. The enrichment measurement determines the isotopic abundance of the {sup 235}U, thereby determining the proper strata for the item, while the weight measurement generates the primary accounting value for the item. Enrichment measurements using the passive gamma radiation from uranium were developed for use in US facilities a few decades ago. In the US, the use of low-resolution detectors was favored because they cost less, are lighter and more robust, and don`t require the use of liquid nitrogen. When these techniques were exported to Europe, however, difficulties were encountered. Two of the possible root causes were discovered to be inaccurate knowledge of the container wall thickness and higher levels of minor isotopes of uranium introduced by the use of reactor returns in the enrichment plants. the minor isotopes cause an increase in the Compton continuum under the 185.7 keV assay peak and the observance of interfering 238.6 keV gamma rays. The solution selected to address these problems was to rely on the slower, more costly, high-resolution gamma ray detectors when the low-resolution method failed. Recently, these gamma ray based enrichment measurement techniques have been applied to Russian origin material. The presence of interfering gamma radiation from minor isotopes was confirmed. However, with the advent of fast portable computers, it is now possible to apply more sophisticated analysis techniques to the low-resolution data in the field. Explicit corrections for Compton background, gamma rays from {sup 236}U daughters, and the attenuation caused by thick containers can be part of the least squares fitting routine. Preliminary results from field measurements in Kazakhstan will be discussed.

Bracken, D.; McKown, T.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gunnink, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kartoshov, M.; Kuropatwinski, J.; Raphina, G.; Sokolov, G. [Ulba Metallurgical Facility, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

1998-12-01

121

Nutrient enrichment of natural waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is presented to show the numerous sources of nutrient enrichment of natural waters. Factors affecting soil and water losses and their relationship to water pollution are discussed. The value and use of soil maps in predicting potential areas of water pollution from runoff and erosion is discussed. Small scale maps of the world are used to show how soil

A. A. Klingebiel

1973-01-01

122

Musicals Enrich Middle School Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An enriching fine arts program has long been advocated as an essential element of an effective middle school program. The vocal music program at Pleasant Hill (Missouri) Middle School supports student growth and development beyond the regular classroom. It supports students' existing skills and talents and provides opportunities for them to

Thomas, Douglas D.; North, Rita

2005-01-01

123

Xiaomeng Su Semantic Enrichment for  

E-print Network

Xiaomeng Su Semantic Enrichment for Ontology Mapping Department of Computer and Information Science for sys- tem interoperability. Initiatives like the Semantic Web strive to allow soft- ware agents to locate and integrate data in a more intelligent way via the use of ontologies. The Semantic Web offers

124

Semantic-Enriched Service Discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated techniques and tools are required to effec- tively locate services that fulfil a given user request. To this purpose, the use of semantic descriptions of services has been widely motivated and recommended for auto- mated service discovery under highly dynamic and context- dependent requirements in distributed environments. Our aim in this work is to propose a semantic-enriched frame- work

Devis Bianchini; Valeria De Antonellis; Michele Melchiori; Denise Salvi

2006-01-01

125

Semantically Enriching Folksonomies with FLOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the increasing popularity of folksonomies has lead to a vast quantity of tagged data, resource retrieval in these systems is limited by them being agnostic to the meaning (i.e., semantics) of tags. Our goal is to automatically enrich folksonomy tags (and implicitly the related re- sources) with formal semantics by associating them to relevant concepts dened in online ontologies.

Marta Sabou; Enrico Motta; R. M. Sabou

126

TOWARD AN ENRICHED CULTURAL FUTURE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DEVELOPMENT OF INTEREST IN WORTHWHILE CULTURAL ACTIVITIES HAS BEEN ONE OF IMPORTANT EMPHASES OF THE HIGH HORIZONS PROGRAM. THE CULTURAL ENRICHMENT TEACHER HAS HAD THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR TEACHING MUSIC AND/OR ART IN ADDITION TO CORRELATING CULTURAL ACTIVITIES WITH ALL FACETS OF THE CURRICULUM TO PROVIDE INSPIRATION AND NEW EXPERIENCES AS WELL AS TO

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY.

127

Disposition of excess highly enriched uranium status and update  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the status of the US DOE program charged with the disposition of excess highly enriched uranium (HEU). Approximately 174 metric tonnes of HEU, with varying assays above 20 percent, has been declared excess from US nuclear weapons. A progress report on the identification and characterization of specific batches of excess HEU is provided, and plans for processing it into commercial nuclear fuel or low-level radioactive waste are described. The resultant quantities of low enriched fuel material expected from processing are given, as well as the estimated schedule for introducing the material into the commercial reactor fuel market. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Williams, C.K. III; Arbital, J.G.

1997-09-01

128

DOE hands over uranium enrichment duties to government corporation  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to renew the United States' competitiveness in the world market for uranium enrichment services, the Department of Energy (DOE) is turning over control of its Paducah, KY, and Portsmouth, OH, enrichment facilities to a for-profit organization, the United States Enrichment Corp. (USEC), which was created by last year's Energy Policy Act. William H. Timbers, Jr., a former investment banker who was appointed acting CEO in March, said the Act's mandate will mean more competitive prices for enriched reactor fuel and greater responsiveness to utility customers. As a government corporation, USEC, with current annual revenues estimated at $1.5 billion, will no longer be part of the federal budget appropriations process, but will use business management techniques, set market-based prices for enriched uranium, and pay annual dividends to the US Treasury-its sole stockholder-from earnings. The goal is to finish privatizing the corporation within two years, and to sell its stock to investors for an estimated $1 to $3 billion. USEC's success will depend in part on developing short- and long-term marketing plants to help stanch the flow of enriched-uranium customers to foreign suppliers. (DOE already has received notice from a number of US utilities that they want to be let out of their long-term enrichment contracts as they expire over the next several years).USEC's plans likely will include exploring new joint ventures with other businesses in the nuclear fuel cycle-such as suppliers, fabricators, and converters-and offering a broader range of enrichment services than DOE provided. The corporation will have to be responsive to utilities on an individual basis.

Simpson, J.

1993-07-15

129

Conversion and Blending Facility Highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranium hexafluoride. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) which will have two missions: (1) convert surplus HEU materials to pure HEU UF{sub 6} and a (2) blend the pure HEU UF{sub 6} with diluent UF{sub 6} to produce LWR grade LEU-UF{sub 6}. The primary emphasis of this blending be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The chemical and isotopic concentrations of the blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. The blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry.

NONE

1995-07-05

130

Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as oxide. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials into pure HEU oxide and (2) blend the pure HEU oxide with depleted and natural uranium oxide to produce an LWR grade LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

NONE

1995-07-05

131

Enriching tortoises: assessing color preference.  

PubMed

Environmental enrichment is a principle that is used to enhance the quality of care for nonhuman animals in captivity. To achieve this, it is necessary to understand the animal's needs. This study focused on color preference to provide food stimuli as a source of environmental enrichment for the tortoise, Chelonoidis denticulata. During this study, the stimuli green-, blue-, yellow-, and red-colored bananas and plaster blocks were randomly offered to the tortoises. Analysis of the data showed that the tortoises had a preference for the stimuli dyed with colors red and yellow over the other presented colors. It was possible to conclude that presenting food in different colors stimulated the animals to evaluate their environment and make choices in relation to their color preference. Thus, this experiment introduced an element of choice into their lives, beyond identifying color food preferences for the tortoises. The element of choice is known to be important to animal welfare. PMID:24911428

Passos, Luiza F; Mello, Humberto Espirito Santo; Young, Robert John

2014-01-01

132

The difficult mountain: enriched composition in adjectivenoun phrases  

PubMed Central

When readers need to go beyond the straightforward compositional meaning of a sentence (i.e., when enriched composition is required), costly additional processing is the norm. However, this conclusion is based entirely on research that has looked at enriched composition between two phrases or within the verb phrase (e.g., the verb and its complement in started the book ) where there is a discrepancy between the semantic expectations of the verb and the semantics of the noun. We carried out an eye-tracking experiment investigating enriched composition within a single noun phrase, as in the difficult mountain. As compared with adjectivenoun phrases that allow a straightforward compositional interpretation (the difficult exercise), the coerced phrases were more difficult to process. These results indicate that coercion effects can be found in the absence of a typing violation and within a single noun phrase. PMID:21826403

Pickering, Martin J.; McElree, Brian

2012-01-01

133

Chem# - Semantically Enriched Linked Open Chemical Data  

E-print Network

formats and difficult to discover. Chem# Semantically Enriched Linked Open Chemical Data Sam Adams (sea36@cam.ac.uk), Peter Murray-Rust, Brian Brooks, Jim Downing, Nick Day The Solution: Semantically Enriched Linked Open Chemical Data: browsable...

Adams, Sam; Murray-Rust, Peter; Brooks, Brian; Downing, Jim; Day, Nick

2011-07-05

134

Using Enrichment Clusters for Performance Based Identification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an enrichment cluster approach designed to create highly challenging learning opportunities that allow high potential students to identify themselves. The enrichment clusters focus students' attention on authentic learning applied to real-life problems. Guidelines for enrichment clusters are discussed, along with the teacher

Renzulli, Joseph S.

2000-01-01

135

2014 Parent Handbook Summer Enrichment Program  

E-print Network

child's acceptance to SEP. I look forward to seeing your children for another great summer at SEPSummer Enrichment Program 2014 Parent Handbook #12;Summer Enrichment Program DIRECTOR'S MESSAGE Welcome to the Summer Enrichment Program! We thank you for your interest in sending your children to SEP

Acton, Scott

136

Helping online communities to semantically enrich folksonomies  

E-print Network

Helping online communities to semantically enrich folksonomies Freddy Limpens Edelweiss, INRIA F along the life-cycle of semantically enriched folk- sonomies. 1. INTRODUCTION Our approach aims is to semantically structure folksonomies. This can help navigate within tagged corpora by (1) enriching tag

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

137

Exogenous Semantics Approach to Enriching Logics  

E-print Network

Exogenous Semantics Approach to Enriching Logics Paulo Mateus, Amílcar Sernadas, and Cristina Sernadas Abstract. The exogenous semantics approach to enriching a logic consists in defin- ing each model of the proposed probability logic. 1 Introduction The exogenous semantics approach to enriching a logic consists

Lisboa, Universidade Técnica de

138

Semantic Enrichment of Enterprise Modelling NABILA ZOUGGAR  

E-print Network

Semantic Enrichment of Enterprise Modelling NABILA ZOUGGAR LAPS/GRAI, Université Bordeaux 1 the lack of semantic. So, semantic enrichment of these lan- guages is becoming an essential topic currently developed in LAPS/GRAI at Uni- versity Bordeaux 1 about semantic enrichment of enterprise

Boyer, Edmond

139

Press Release for Semantics Content Enrichment  

E-print Network

Press Release AAAS/ for Semantics Content Enrichment The American Association for the Advancement tools to help them manage today's information glut." TEMIS's solution for Semantic Content Enrichment enrichment , to offer a new, integrated, semantically fueled digital publishing program A global leader

Napp, Nils

140

The Enriched Effect Calculus: Syntax and Semantics  

E-print Network

The Enriched Effect Calculus: Syntax and Semantics Jeff Egger Department of Physics and Atmospheric. February 9, 2012 Abstract This paper introduces the enriched effect calculus, which extends established of imperative features such as state and/or continuations. The enriched effect calculus is implemented

Simpson, Alex

141

EnrichNet: network-based gene set enrichment analysis  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Assessing functional associations between an experimentally derived gene or protein set of interest and a database of known gene/protein sets is a common task in the analysis of large-scale functional genomics data. For this purpose, a frequently used approach is to apply an over-representation-based enrichment analysis. However, this approach has four drawbacks: (i) it can only score functional associations of overlapping gene/proteins sets; (ii) it disregards genes with missing annotations; (iii) it does not take into account the network structure of physical interactions between the gene/protein sets of interest and (iv) tissue-specific gene/protein set associations cannot be recognized. Results: To address these limitations, we introduce an integrative analysis approach and web-application called EnrichNet. It combines a novel graph-based statistic with an interactive sub-network visualization to accomplish two complementary goals: improving the prioritization of putative functional gene/protein set associations by exploiting information from molecular interaction networks and tissue-specific gene expression data and enabling a direct biological interpretation of the results. By using the approach to analyse sets of genes with known involvement in human diseases, new pathway associations are identified, reflecting a dense sub-network of interactions between their corresponding proteins. Availability: EnrichNet is freely available at http://www.enrichnet.org. Contact: Natalio.Krasnogor@nottingham.ac.uk, reinhard.schneider@uni.lu or avalencia@cnio.es Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics Online. PMID:22962466

Glaab, Enrico; Baudot, Anais; Krasnogor, Natalio; Schneider, Reinhard; Valencia, Alfonso

2012-01-01

142

Origins of Enriched and Depleted Mantle Reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationships among plate tectonic circulation, continent formation and mantle heterogeneity have long been addressed through investigations of trace elements and isotopes in oceanic basalts. Various models, some involving recycled ocean crust, others involving mantle metasomatism by low degree peridotite melts, have been called upon to create the enriched signatures observed on ridges and ocean islands. The depleted reservoir, reflected by depleted MORB, is usually considered to complement extraction of continental crust. We propose a scenario that accounts for both enriched and depleted mantle sources, whereby mantle heterogeneity results from secondary processes subsequent to continent removal, caused by redistribution of low degree melts within the mantle by plate recirculation and mantle convection. First, we constructed an average upper mantle (UM) composition based on all data from the global ocean ridge system. The UM chemical composition, which is significantly more enriched than depleted mantle, successfully complements continental crust, in contrast to ``depleted'' mantle, which is too depleted for some elements by at least 50%. More than two thirds of the mantle is implicated by the mass balance. Second, we analyzed mantle heterogeneity in trace element space. Compositional vectors lie at high angles to lines of continent extraction. Trace element systematics are inconsistent with a recycled ocean crust source, but can be quantitatively accounted for by low degree melts of UM compositions. For peridotites, the extent of melting required is lower than 0.5%. We propose an important role for recycled eclogite, which can melt up to 5% and still create the trace element signature. Third, we evaluated isotope variations. Slopes on isotope- isotope plots define the relative parent-daughter fractionations (e.g. [(Rb/Sr)1- (Rb/Sr)2]/ [(Sm/Nd)1-(Sm/Nd)2]). The fractionation factors are constrained to very small ranges to account for the Sr-Nd and Hf-Nd isotope correlations. Very low degree melting in the presence of garnet is required to create mantle heterogeneity. For N. Atlantic and Pacific samples this model accounts roughly for Pb isotopes as well as Sr, Nd and Hf. Both very low F peridotite melting and low F eclogite melting can produce the isotope variations. In contrast, the conventional model of a marble cake mantle consisting of enriched, recycled eclogite accounts for neither the isotope nor the trace element systematics. Low degree melts, created in various tectonic locations at various times, can reflect partial melting of depleted, average, or enriched recycled eclogite, of diverse ages. Particular ocean island compositions are well accounted for by slight variations in the low degree melt component. At very low degree melting, accessory phases may also play an important role in fractionating highly incompatible elements. The ``depleted reservoirs" are created by the extraction of low degree melts from the UM composition. The eclogite residue to low F melt removal is an appealing depleted source, because it combines major element fertility with incompatible element depletion. Therefore we propose a generic three component mantle. The whole of the interactive mantle has an average UM composition. Enriched sources are generated by low degree melt metasomatism; N-MORB sources are created by the complement of low degree melt extraction, and incompatible elements are contained largely in recycled eclogite; exceptionally depleted sources result from residual mantle created by melting at ocean ridges.

Langmuir, C. H.; Goldstein, S. L.; Donnelly, K.; Su, Y. J.

2005-12-01

143

Inhomogeneous chemical enrichment of the universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elemental and isotopic abundances are the fossils of galactic archaeology. The observed [X/Fe]-[Fe/H] relations in the Galactic bulge and disk and the mass-metallicity relation of galaxies are roughly reproduced with chemodynamical simulations of galaxies under the standard ?-CDM picture and standard stellar physics. The observed [Mn/Fe] will put a constraint on the progenitors of Type Ia Supernova, while [(Zn,Co)/Fe] will put a constraint on the fraction of hypernovae. The isotopic ratios such as 17,18O and 25,26Mg may require a refinement of modelling of supernova and asymptotic giant branch stars. The recent observation of the Carbon-rich Damped Lyman ? system can be reproduced only with faint core-collapse supernovae. This suggests that chemical enrichment by the first stars in the first galaxies is driven not by pair-instability supernovae but by core-collapse supernovae (~20-50Msolar). The observed F abundances can be reproduced with the neutrino processes of core-collapse supernovae. As in F, the observations of elemental abundances in small systems may requires further complications of chemical enrichment. In globular clusters the relative contribution from low-mass supernovae is smaller than in the field, while the contribution from massive supernovae is smaller in dwarf spheroidal galaxies than in the solar neighborhood.

Kobayashi, Chiaki

2012-11-01

144

Defining and Building an Enriched Learning and Information Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of an Enriched Learning and Information Environment (ELIE). Highlights include technology-based and theory-based frameworks for defining ELIEs; a socio-technical definition; a conceptual prototype; a participatory design process, including iterative design through rapid prototyping; and design issues for technology

Goodrum, David A.; And Others

1993-01-01

145

Methanogenic degradation of acetone by an enrichment culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anaerobic enrichment culture degraded 1 mol of acetone to 2 mol of methane and 1 mol of carbon dioxide. Two microorganisms were involved in this process, a filament-forming rod similar to Methanotrix sp. and an unknown rod with round to slightly pointed ends. Both organisms formed aggregates up to 300 m in diameter. No fluorescing bacteria were observed indicating

H. Platen; B. Schink

1987-01-01

146

Dynamic Aspects and Semantic Enrichment in Schema Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hard problems of comparison of dynamic aspects in conceptual models are discussed with theoverall intention of supporting interoperability of ISs and IS specifications. A preliminarysolution is proposed using a novel heuristic algorithm of event comparison, and linguisticinstruments as a method of semantic enrichment.The process of event comparison is supported by facilitating identification of incompletecorrespondence assertions at high abstraction level.

Sari Hakkarainen Swedish

1999-01-01

147

Semantic Enrichment: A First Step to Provide Database Interoperability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic enrichment is a process that upgrades the semantics of databases. Usually, thisis done by remodelling database schemas in a higher data model in order to explicitlyexpress semantics that is implicit in the data. We use the ODMG-93 standard for objectorienteddatabase systems to this end. Hence relational database schemas are transformedinto object-oriented ones, thereby making explicit relationships and subtype hierarchies.

Uwe Hohenstein; Volkmar Plesser

1996-01-01

148

ENRICHMENT OF PCBS IN LAKE MICHIGAN SURFACE FILMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The processes of exchange of PCBs and related organics at the surface of large bodies of water such as the Great Lakes are unavoidably linked to the unique properties of surface films. The authors have observed a 3 to 8 fold enrichment of PCB over underlying water in surface film...

149

Progress in alkaline peroxide dissolution of low-enriched uranium metal and silicide targets  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports recent progress on two alkaline peroxide dissolution processes: the dissolution of low-enriched uranium metal and silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) targets. These processes are being developed to substitute low-enriched for high-enriched uranium in targets used for production of fission-product {sup 99}Mo. Issues that are addressed include (1) dissolution kinetics of silicide targets, (2) {sup 99}Mo lost during aluminum dissolution, (3) modeling of hydrogen peroxide consumption, (4) optimization of the uranium foil dissolution process, and (5) selection of uranium foil barrier materials. Future work associated with these two processes is also briefly discussed.

Chen, L.; Dong, D.; Buchholz, B.A.; Vandegrift, G.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.; Wu, D. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

150

Assay of Low-Enriched Uranium using Spontaneous Fission Neutrons  

SciTech Connect

Low-enriched uranium oxide in bulk containers can be assayed for safeguards purposes, using the neutrons from spontaneous fission of 238U as a signature, to complement enrichment and mass measurement. The penetrability of the fast fission neutrons allows the inner portion of bulk samples to register. The measurement may also be useful for measuring moisture content, of significance in process control. The apparatus used can be the same as for neutron correlation counting for Pu assay. The neutron multiplication observed in 238U is of intrinsic interest.

Zucker, M.S.; Fainberg, A.

1980-01-01

151

Environmental enrichment for primates in laboratories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental enrichment is a critical component of Refinement, one of the 3Rs underlying humane experimentation on animals. In this paper I discuss why primates housed in laboratories, which often have constraints of space and study protocols, are a special case for enrichment. I outline a framework for categorising the different types of enrichment, using the marmoset as a case study, and summarise the methods used to determine what animals want/prefer. I briefly review the arguments that enrichment does not negatively affect experimental outcomes. Finally I focus on complexity and novelty, choice and control, the underlying features of enrichment that makes it successful, and how combined with a thorough understanding of natural history we can put effective enrichment into practice in laboratories. Throughout the paper I emphasise the need to evaluate enrichment to ensure it is having the desired effect.

Buchanan-Smith, H. M.

2010-06-01

152

Boron Enrichment in Martian Clay  

PubMed Central

We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J.

2013-01-01

153

Boron enrichment in martian clay.  

PubMed

We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

Stephenson, James D; Hallis, Lydia J; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J

2013-01-01

154

Metal Enrichment in Abell 3571  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present Chandra and XMM spatially resolved spectroscopic analysis of the moderately rich (richness class 2) Bautz-Morgan Type I galaxy cluster Abell 3571 (z = 0.0397). Chandra observations allows us to study the core substructures of this cluster with unprecedented detail. The results are overall consistent with previous ASCA analysis but the metal abundance gradient becomes significantly steeper on very small scales (< 20"). We also find little evidence of cool gas in the core of the cluster. We discuss the results within the framework of current supernovae enrichment models.

Dupke, R. A.; Irwin, J. A.; Bregman, J. N.

2004-08-01

155

Recovery of enriched stable isotopes in radionuclide production  

SciTech Connect

The wide application of radionuclides in different fields of science and industry demanded an increase of their production. One of the ways to increase the radionuclide production on present cyclotrons is the use of the targets from enriched stable isotopes. This allows one to raise the productivity in some cases by two or more times and to increase radionuclidic purity. It should be noted, however, that enriched stable isotopes are very expensive. Therefore it is advisable to use such raw materials more than once. In the last ten years, The authors have used stable isotopes extensively for making of targets. Zinc-67 and zinc-68, cadmium-111 and cadmium-112, nickel-58, silver-109, thallium-203 have been employed for the production of gallium-67, indium-111, cobalt-57, cadmium-109 and thallium-201, respectively. The technique for the recovery of enriched stable isotopes has been developed. In this report the schemes of the recovering processes are presented.

Razbash, A.A.; Sevastyanov, Yu.G.; Polyakov, O.N.; Krasnov, N.N.; Konyakhin, N.A.; Tolstouhov, Yu.V.; Maklachkov, A.G. [Cyclotron Co. Ltd., Obninsk (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31

156

Reading time evidence for enriched composition.  

PubMed

Verbs like 'begin' and 'enjoy' appear to semantically select a complement that expresses an activity or an event (Jackendoff, R. (1997). The architecture of the language faculty. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; Pustejovsky, J. Cognition 41 (1991) 47; Pustejovsky, J. (1995). The generative lexicon. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press). When these verbs occur with a complement that does not directly denote either an activity or an event (e.g. '... began the book' or '... enjoyed the book'), the complement must be type-shifted from an object to an activity to conform to the verb's semantic restrictions. We report an experiment in which self-paced reading times were found to be longer for complements that required type-shifting than for complements that directly matched the semantic restrictions of the matrix verb. This finding is argued to provide on-line evidence for a type of enriched lexical processing posited in recent lexical semantic research. PMID:11062325

McElree, B; Traxler, M J; Pickering, M J; Seely, R E; Jackendoff, R

2001-01-01

157

Defining the needs for gas centrifuge enrichment plants advanced safeguards  

SciTech Connect

Current safeguards approaches used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to verify declared low-enriched (LEU) production, detect undeclared LEU production and detect highly enriched uranium (HEU) production with adequate detection probability using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and {sup 235}U enrichment of declared UF{sub 6} containers used in the process of enrichment at GCEPs. In verifying declared LEU production, the inspectors also take samples for off-site destructive assay (DA) which provide accurate data, with 0.1% to 0.5% measurement uncertainty, on the enrichment of the UF{sub 6} feed, tails, and product. However, taking samples of UF{sub 6} for off-site analysis is a much more labor and resource intensive exercise for the operator and inspector. Furthermore, the operator must ship the samples off-site to the IAEA laboratory which delays the timeliness of results and interruptions to the continuity of knowledge (CofK) of the samples during their storage and transit. This paper contains an analysis of possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems such as process monitoring and possible on-site analysis of DA samples that could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector's measurements and provide more effective and efficient IAEA GCEPs safeguards. We also introduce examples advanced safeguards systems that could be assembled for unattended operation.

Boyer, Brian David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Erpenbeck, Heather H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miller, Karen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ianakiev, Kiril [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marlowe, Johnna B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

158

31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540.306 Section 540...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS...Definitions 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term highly enriched...

2013-07-01

159

31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540.306 Section 540...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS...Definitions 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term highly enriched...

2012-07-01

160

31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). 540.308 Section 540...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS...Definitions 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low enriched...

2011-07-01

161

31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). 540.308 Section 540...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS...Definitions 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low enriched...

2013-07-01

162

31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540.306 Section 540...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS...Definitions 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term highly enriched...

2010-07-01

163

Unattended Environmental Sampling and Laser-based Enrichment Assay for Detection of Undeclared HEU Production in Enrichment Plants  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear power is enjoying rapid growth as government energy policies and public demand shift toward carbon neutral energy production. Accompanying the growth in nuclear power is the requirement for increased nuclear fuel production, including a significant expansion in uranium enrichment capacity. Essential to the success of the nuclear energy renaissance is the development and implementation of sustainable, proliferation-resistant nuclear power generation. Unauthorized production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) remains the primary proliferation concern for modern gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). While to date there has been no indication of declared, safeguarded GCEPs producing HEU, the massive separative work unit (SWU) processing power of modern GCEPs presents a significant latent risk of nuclear breakout and suggests the need for more timely detection of potential facility misuse. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing an unattended safeguards instrument, combining continuous aerosol particulate collection with uranium isotope assay, to provide timely HEU detection within a GCEP. This approach is based on laser vaporization of aerosol particulates, followed by laser spectroscopy to characterize the uranium enrichment level. We demonstrate enrichment assay, with relative isotope abundance uncertainty <5%, on individual micron-sized particles that are trace components within a mixture background particles

Anheier, Norman C.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

2010-04-15

164

Incorporation of (57)Fe-isotopically enriched in apoferritin: formation and characterization of isotopically enriched Fe nanoparticles for metabolic studies.  

PubMed

The use of (57)Fe-isotopically enriched ferritin for the accurate measurement of Fe?:?ferritin ratios is proposed for metabolic studies. Thus, the synthesis of (57)Fe-isotopically enriched ferritin from horse apo-ferritin and isotopically enriched (NH4)2(57)Fe(ii)(SO4)2 (Mohr's salt) is conducted. Size exclusion chromatography on-line with UV-VIS absorption (at 380 nm) is used in order to monitor the loading process of apo-ferritin. These studies revealed that the Fe-incorporation process involves also the formation of protein aggregates (oligomers) showing higher molecular mass than ferritin. A final optimized protocol involving incubation of the synthesized standard with guanidine hydrochloride (pH 3.5) has provided the best conditions for maintaining a stable protein structure without aggregates. Such (57)Fe-isotopically enriched ferritin was characterized and contained an average of 2200 atoms of Fe per mole of ferritin. The evaluation of the Fe-core after saturation with (57)Fe by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has revealed the formation of (57)Fe nanoparticles with a similar diameter to that of the commercial Fe-containing ferritin, confirming the process of Fe uptake, oxidation and mineralization within the protein cavity. The synthesized (57)Fe-ferritin shows great potential as a nanometabolic tracer to study the kinetics of Fe release in the cases of iron metabolic disorders. PMID:25170527

Konz, T; Montes-Bayn, M; Sanz-Medel, A

2014-09-29

165

Pressure swing adsorption cycles for improved solvent vapor enrichment  

SciTech Connect

A pressure swing adsorption (PSA)-solvent vapor recovery (SVR) process simulator was used to investigate new PSA cycle configurations designed for higher solvent vapor enrichment. These cycles were modifications of the four-step Skarstrom cycle used commercially for PSA-SVR and include the addition of a cocurrent blowdown step, and combinations of cocurrent blowdown and continuous/batch reflux steps. The recovery of gasoline vapor from tank filling operations was simulated with n-butane, n-heptane, and nitrogen as representatives of the light and heavy components in gasoline vapor, and carrier gas, respectively. Adding a cocurrent blowdown step increased the solvent vapor enrichment, depending mainly on the step ending pressure, not the step time. Both the continuous and batch reflux steps also increased the solvent vapor enrichment, but at the expense of an increased bed capacity factor. For similar increases in the solvent vapor enrichment, batch reflux led to significantly smaller bed capacity factors compared to continuous reflux and was thus superior for PSA-SVR. Overall PSA-SVR process performance improved markedly by adding cocurrent blowdown and batch reflux steps compared to the conventional four-step cycle.

Liu, Y.; Ritter, J.A.; Kaul, B.K.

2000-03-01

166

Gas-phase UF/sub 6/ enrichment monitor for enrichment plant safeguards  

SciTech Connect

An in-line enrichment monitor is being developed to provide real-time enrichment data for the gas-phase UF/sub 6/ feed stream of an enrichment plant. The nondestructive gamma-ray assay method can be used to determine the enrichment of natural UF/sub 6/ with a relative precision of better than 1% for a wide range of pressures.

Strittmatter, R.B.; Tape, J.W.

1980-03-01

167

Enriching the hot circumgalactic medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simple models of galaxy formation in a cold dark matter universe predict that massive galaxies are surrounded by a hot, quasi-hydrostatic circumgalactic corona of slowly cooling gas, predominantly accreted from the intergalactic medium (IGM). This prediction is borne out by the recent cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of Crain et al., which reproduce observed scaling relations between the X-ray and optical properties of nearby disc galaxies. Such coronae are metal poor, but observations of the X-ray emitting circumgalactic medium (CGM) of local galaxies typically indicate enrichment to near-solar iron abundance, potentially signalling a shortcoming in current models of galaxy formation. We show here that, while the hot CGM of galaxies formed in the simulations is typically metal poor in a mass-weighted sense, its X-ray luminosity-weighted metallicity is often close to solar. This bias arises because the soft X-ray emissivity of a typical 0.1 keV corona is dominated by collisionally excited metal ions that are synthesized in stars and recycled into the hot CGM. We find that these metals are ejected primarily by stars that form in situ to the main progenitor of the galaxy, rather than in satellites or external galaxies. The enrichment of the hot CGM therefore proceeds in an `inside-out' fashion throughout the assembly of the galaxy: metals are transported from the central galaxy by supernova-driven winds and convection over several Gyr, establishing a strong negative radial metallicity gradient. Whilst metal ions synthesized by stars are necessary to produce the X-ray emissivity that enables the hot CGM of isolated galaxies to be detected with current instrumentation, the electrons that collisionally excite them are equally important. Since our simulations indicate that the electron density of hot coronae is dominated by the metal-poor gas accreted from the IGM, we infer that the hot CGM observed via X-ray emission is the outcome of both hierarchical accretion and stellar recycling.

Crain, Robert A.; McCarthy, Ian G.; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom; Frenk, Carlos S.

2013-07-01

168

Utilization of oxygen-enriched air in diesel engines: Fundamental considerations  

SciTech Connect

Utilization of oxygen-enriched air in diesel engines holds potential for low exhaust smoke and particulate emissions. The majority of the oxygen-enriched-air combustion-related studies so far are experimental in nature, where the observed results are understood on an overall basis. This paper deals with the fundamental considerations associated with the oxygen-enriched air-fuel combustion process to enhance understanding of the concept. The increase in adiabatic flame temperature, the composition of exhaust gases at equilibrium, and also the changes in thermodynamic and transport properties due to oxygen-enrichment of standard intake air are computed. The effects of oxygen-enrichment on fuel evaporation rate, ignition delay, and premixed burnt fraction are also evaluated. Appropriate changes in the ignition delay correlation to reflect the effects of oxygen-enrichment are proposed. The notion of oxygen-enrichment of standard intake air as being akin to leaning of the fuel-air mixture is refuted on the basis of the fundamentally different requirements for the oxygen-enriched combustion process.

Lahiri, D.; Mehta, P.S. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India); Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1997-09-01

169

78 FR 30342 - United States Enrichment Corporation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Enrichment Corporation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Compliance (CoC) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The existing CoC (No...Paducah, Kentucky, using the gaseous diffusion process. The USEC requests that...

2013-05-22

170

Enrichment Programs for Intellectually Gifted Pupils.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report of the enrichment phase of California Project Talent is designed to provide guidelines for teachers in other schools. Part 1 contains five chapters on the planning phases of the enrichment program which was operated at the demonstration center of the Los Angeles Unified School District from 1963-1966. Included are rationale for

Hill, Mary Broderick

171

Psychological Reactance in Marital Enrichment Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation was the second in a series of empirical studies on marital enrichment training using the Training in Marital Enrichment (TIME) model. In addition to further study of the TIME model, interest was also directed in the current study to more fully clarifying the nature of change in the model by including a measure of the construct

Oliver, Ronald; And Others

172

Semantic enrichment for improving systems interoperability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall goal addressed in this paper is to improve semantic interoperability in heterogeneous systems by means of establishing mappings between relevant domain ontologies. The mappings are discovered based on the technique of semantic enrichment through extension analysis, i.e. using instance information of the ontology to enrich the original ontology and further to calculate similarities between concepts in two ontologies.

Xiaomeng Su; Sari Hakkarainen; Terje Brasethvik

2004-01-01

173

Exogenous Semantics Approach to Enriching Logics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exogenous semantics approach to enriching a logic consists in defin- ing each model in the enrichment as a set of models in the original logic plus some relevant structure. We illustrate the approach by probabilizing classical propositional logic, including a novel global propositional logic. A model of the probability logic is a probability space where the outcomes are classical

Paulo Mateus; Amlcar Sernadas; Cristina Sernadas

174

After-School Enrichment: Extending Learning Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After-school programs can help show students how academics are relevant to their personal interests, and serve as training grounds for future teachers. This article features LA's BEST After School Enrichment Program whose mission is to provide a safe and supervised after school education, enrichment, and recreation program for children ages 5 to

Sanger, Carla

2011-01-01

175

Student science enrichment training program  

SciTech Connect

This is a report on the Student Science Enrichment Training Program, with special emphasis on chemical and computer science fields. The residential summer session was held at the campus of Claflin College, Orangeburg, SC, for six weeks during 1993 summer, to run concomitantly with the college`s summer school. Fifty participants selected for this program, included high school sophomores, juniors and seniors. The students came from rural South Carolina and adjoining states which, presently, have limited science and computer science facilities. The program focused on high ability minority students, with high potential for science engineering and mathematical careers. The major objective was to increase the pool of well qualified college entering minority students who would elect to go into science, engineering and mathematical careers. The Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics and engineering at Claflin College received major benefits from this program as it helped them to expand the Departments of Chemistry, Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science as a result of additional enrollment. It also established an expanded pool of well qualified minority science and mathematics graduates, which were recruited by the federal agencies and private corporations, visiting Claflin College Campus. Department of Energy`s relationship with Claflin College increased the public awareness of energy related job opportunities in the public and private sectors.

Sandhu, S.S.

1994-08-01

176

Assessment of liquid disposal originated by uranium enrichment at Aramar Experimental Center So PauloBrazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a liquid disposal monitoring originated from uranium enrichment process at Aramar Experimental Center from\\u000a 1990 to 1998. Assessment of uranium, fluorides, ammoniacal nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, and pH measurements were made\\u000a in water samples and compared with results achieved in other countries, as North America and India. The liquid disposal evaluation,\\u000a generated by uranium enrichment process, showed

Marli Gerenutti; Marcos Moiss Gonalves; Sandra Regina Rissato; Jos Martins de Oliveira Jr; Marco Antonio dos Santos Reigota; Mrio Sergio Galhiane

177

Parametric study on the enrichment of immunoglobulin from milk by foam fractionation.  

PubMed

Foam fractionation is a promising method for separation and concentration of biochemicals. It is simple, easily scalable, inexpensive, and environment friendly. Foam fractionation thus represents an alternative to the traditional methods used for immunoglobulin enrichment. However, little, if any, literature exists documenting the utilization of foam fractionation in the enrichment of immunoglobulins. Milk were utilized as an immunoglobulin source to serve as examples of a real system in this study. The investigation examined the effects of varying five different process parameters: the initial pH value, the initial concentration of immunoglobulin, the nitrogen flow rate, the column height, and the foaming time. Experimental results demonstrated that immunoglobulin could effectively be enriched from milk by foam fractionation. The maximum enrichment ratio with pretreatment (using pH 4.6 precipitation) was 6.30 along with a more than 92 % recovery for IgG and an enrichment ratio of 5.1 with 85 % recovery for IgM. PMID:23709288

Chen, Yen-Chih; Parlar, Harun

2013-08-01

178

Comparison of alcohol shock enrichment and selective enrichment for the isolation of Clostridium difficile.  

PubMed Central

Two enrichment methods were compared for their ability to recover Clostridium difficile from stool samples. One method used selective enrichment in an antibiotic-containing broth followed by detection with a latex particle agglutination (LPA) reagent. The other used enrichment in a non-selective broth following treatment of the specimen with alcohol. With clinical specimens enrichment culture was significantly more successful at detecting C. difficile than direct plating. Alcohol shock enrichment was twice as effective as direct culture, while selective broth enrichment was three times more effective. The use of LPA for screening selective enrichment broths for C. difficile should prove a cost-effective measure as only positive broths (about 20%) require subculture for confirmation. PMID:3315708

Riley, T. V.; Brazier, J. S.; Hassan, H.; Williams, K.; Phillips, K. D.

1987-01-01

179

Method for isotope enrichment by photoinduced chemiionization  

DOEpatents

Isotope enrichment, particularly .sup.235 U enrichment, is achieved by irradiating an isotopically mixed vapor feed with radiant energy at a wavelength or wavelengths chosen to selectively excite the species containing a desired isotope to a predetermined energy level. The vapor feed if simultaneously reacted with an atomic or molecular reactant species capable of preferentially transforming the excited species into an ionic product by a chemiionization reaction. The ionic product, enriched in the desired isotope, is electrostatically or electromagnetically extracted from the reaction system.

Dubrin, James W. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1985-01-01

180

Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications  

SciTech Connect

Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications by Jeff Eerkens (University of Missouri), Jay Kunze (Idaho State University), and Leonard Bond (Idaho National Laboratory) The principal isotope enrichment business in the world is the enrichment of uranium for commercial power reactor fuels. However, there are a number of other needs for separated isotopes. Some examples are: 1) Pure isotopic targets for irradiation to produce medical radioisotopes. 2) Pure isotopes for semiconductors. 3) Low neutron capture isotopes for various uses in nuclear reactors. 4) Isotopes for industrial tracer/identification applications. Examples of interest to medicine are targets to produce radio-isotopes such as S-33, Mo-98, Mo-100, W-186, Sn-112; while for MRI diagnostics, the non-radioactive Xe-129 isotope is wanted. For super-semiconductor applications some desired industrial isotopes are Si-28, Ga-69, Ge-74, Se-80, Te-128, etc. An example of a low cross section isotope for use in reactors is Zn-68 as a corrosion inhibitor material in nuclear reactor primary systems. Neutron activation of Ar isotopes is of interest in industrial tracer and diagnostic applications (e.g. oil-logging). . In the past few years there has been a sufficient supply of isotopes in common demand, because of huge Russian stockpiles produced with old electromagnetic and centrifuge separators previously used for uranium enrichment. Production of specialized isotopes in the USA has been largely accomplished using old calutrons (electromagnetic separators) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These methods of separating isotopes are rather energy inefficient. Use of lasers for isotope separation has been considered for many decades. None of the proposed methods have attained sufficient proof of principal status to be economically attractive to pursue commercially. Some of the authors have succeeded in separating sulfur isotopes using a rather new and different method, known as condensation repression. In this scheme a gas, of the selected isotopes for enrichment, is irradiated with a laser at a particular wavelength that would excite only one of the isotopes. The entire gas is subject to low temperatures sufficient to cause condensation on a cold surface. Those molecules in the gas that the laser excited are not as likely to condense as are the unexcited molecules. Hence the gas drawn out of the system will be enriched in the isotope that was excited by the laser. We have evaluated the relative energy required in this process if applied on a commercial scale. We estimate the energy required for laser isotope enrichment is about 20% of that required in centrifuge separations, and 2% of that required by use of "calutrons".

Leonard Bond

2006-07-01

181

Unattended Monitoring of HEU Production in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants using Automated Aerosol Collection and Laser-based Enrichment Assay  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear power is enjoying rapid growth as government energy policies and public demand shift toward low carbon energy production. Pivotal to the global nuclear power renaissance is the development and deployment of robust safeguards instrumentation that allows the limited resources of the IAEA to keep pace with the expansion of the nuclear fuel cycle. Undeclared production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) remains a primary proliferation concern for modern gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs), due to their massive separative work unit (SWU) processing power and comparably short cascade equilibrium timescale. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing an unattended safeguards instrument, combining continuous aerosol particulate collection with uranium isotope assay, to provide timely detection of HEU production within a GCEP. This approach is based on laser vaporization of aerosol particulates, followed by laser spectroscopy to characterize the uranium enrichment level. Our prior investigation demonstrated single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range and relative isotope ratio uncertainty better than 10% using gadolinium as a surrogate for uranium. In this paper we present measurement results on standard samples containing traces of depleted, natural, and low enriched uranium, as well as measurements on aerodynamic size uranium particles mixed in background materials (e.g., dust, minerals, soils). Improvements and optimizations in the detection electronics, signal timing, calibration, and laser alignment have lead to significant improvements in detection sensitivity and enrichment accuracy, contributing to an overall reduction in the false alarm probability. The sample substrate media was also found to play a significant role in facilitating laser-induced vaporization and the production of energetic plasma conditions, resulting in ablation optimization and further improvements in the isotope abundance sensitivity.

Anheier, Norman C.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

2010-08-11

182

Enhancing the Ontological Knowledge through Ontology Population and Enrichment  

E-print Network

semantics are oriented to humans rather than to machines. The enrichment of the Web with semanticEnhancing the Ontological Knowledge through Ontology Population and Enrichment Alexandros G an incremental ontology maintenance methodology which exploits ontology population and enrichment methods

Paliouras, George

183

31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).  

...AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low enriched uranium or LEU means uranium enriched to less than twenty (20) percent in the isotope...

2014-07-01

184

31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low enriched uranium or LEU means uranium enriched to less than twenty (20) percent in the isotope...

2012-07-01

185

31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).  

...ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term highly enriched uranium or HEU means uranium enriched to twenty (20) percent or greater in the isotope...

2014-07-01

186

31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term highly enriched uranium or HEU means uranium enriched to twenty (20) percent or greater in the isotope...

2011-07-01

187

31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low enriched uranium or LEU means uranium enriched to less than twenty (20) percent in the isotope...

2010-07-01

188

Stable Isotope Enrichment Capabilities at ORNL  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the US Department of Energy Nuclear Physics Program have built a high-resolution Electromagnetic Isotope Separator (EMIS) as a prototype for reestablishing a US based enrichment capability for stable isotopes. ORNL has over 60 years of experience providing enriched stable isotopes and related technical services to the international accelerator target community, as well as medical, research, industrial, national security, and other communities. ORNL is investigating the combined use of electromagnetic and gas centrifuge isotope separation technologies to provide research quantities (milligram to several kilograms) of enriched stable isotopes. In preparation for implementing a larger scale production facility, a 10 mA high-resolution EMIS prototype has been built and tested. Initial testing of the device has simultaneously collected greater than 98% enriched samples of all the molybdenum isotopes from natural abundance feedstock.

Egle, Brian [ORNL; Aaron, W Scott [ORNL; Hart, Kevin J [ORNL

2013-01-01

189

High School Enrichment Program 2014 APPLICATION FORM  

E-print Network

High School Enrichment Program 2014 APPLICATION FORM PART A ­ TO BE COMPLETED BY STUDENT Name)____________________________ ________________________________ Name of School that _______________________________________________________________________ be accepted for registration. School Division/District Name

Martin, Jeff

190

Management's Ecstasy and Disparity Over Job Enrichment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case study analyzing job enrichment schemes and manager expectations of increased productivity is presented. It was found that it was the managers' expectations of increased productivity, not the reorganization of work, that led to higher productivity. (EC)

King, Albert S.

1976-01-01

191

Measurement of uranium enrichment for gaseous uranium at low pressure  

SciTech Connect

X-ray fluoresence determines the amount of total uranium present in gaseous UF/sub 6/ inside cascade header pipes of a uranium centrifuge enrichment facility. A highly collimated source, highly collimated detector, and a very rigid, reproducible geometry are required. Two measurements of the 185.7-keV gamma ray from /sup 235/U using two collimators determine the amount of /sup 235/U present only in the gas phase. The ratio of the gas-only /sup 235/U signal to the total uranium gas-only signal is directly proportional to the enrichment of the process UF/sub 6/ gas. This measurement technique is independent of the deposit that forms on a surface in contact with UF/sub 6/. This measurement technique is independent of the pressure of the gaseous UF/sub 6/. This technique has the required sensitivity to determine whether the process gas is of uranium enrichment less than or equal to 20% or >20%. 6 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Close, D.A.; Pratt, J.C.; Atwater, H.F.; Malanify, J.J.; Nixon, K.V.; Speir, L.G.

1985-01-01

192

Imbibition flooding with CO?-enriched water  

E-print Network

IMBIBITION FLOODING WITH CO, - ENRICHED WATER A Thesis by STEVEN GEORGE GRAPE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1990... Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering IMBIBITION FLOODING WITH CO, - ENRICHED WATER A Thesis by STEVEN GEORGE GRAPE Approved as to style and content by: S. W. Poston ( Chair of Committee ) Ching H. Wu ( Member ) R. R. Berg ( e ber) Larry D...

Grape, Steven George

2012-06-07

193

Using Social Media for Ontology Enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In order to support informal learning, we complement the formal knowledge represented by ontologies developed by domain experts\\u000a with the informal knowledge emerging from social tagging. To this end, we have developed an ontology enrichment pipeline that\\u000a can automatically enrich a domain ontology using: data extracted by a crawler from social media applications, similarity measures,\\u000a the DBpedia knowledge base, a

Paola Monachesi; Thomas Markus

2010-01-01

194

Browsing and Visualizing Semantically Enriched Information Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing an approach to organizing bookmarks and other information resources by annotating them with metadata in the form of synsets taken from WordNet. This paper shows how a collection of annotated bookmarks can be semantically enriched by adding hyper-\\/hyponym relations from WordNet. It then illustrates how the semantically enriched bookmark collection can be browsed and visualized using the

Csaba Veres; Kristian Johansen; Andreas L. Opdahl

2010-01-01

195

Enrichment strategies for nitrile-hydrolysing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of enrichments with different nitriles as sole source of nitrogen was performed in order to obtain a relationship\\u000a between the selective nitrogen source and (i) the enzyme systems that are synthesized by the isolates and (ii) the enzyme\\u000a specificities for the utilization of the nitriles. Bacteria were enriched with 2-phenylpropionitrile, 2-(2-methoxyphenyl)propionitrile,\\u000a 2-phenylbutyronitrile, ibuprofen nitrile, naproxen nitrile, ketoprofen nitrile,

N. Layh; B. Hirrlinger; A. Stolz; H.-J. Knackmuss

1997-01-01

196

A Clumpy Model for Self-Enrichment in Globular Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hubble observations have demonstrated that globular clusters {GCs} are not the simple stellar populations once believed, but have internal subpopulations with slightly different ages, metallicities, and detailed abundances. High-mass GCs also exhibit a mass-metallicity relation that indicates that they are at least partly self-enriched by heavy elements produced by their own massive stars. We propose to extend our previous model for GC self-enrichment, which has proven very effective at understanding the mass-metallicity relation but which assumes no internal subpopulations, to include the effects of clumpiness in the protocluster cloud. This will allow us to predict how internal variation in a GC depends on other GC properties, and determine how much of the internal variation is due to internal processes rather than inhomogeneities in the protocluster cloud.

Bailin, Jeremy

2014-10-01

197

Root growth and development in response to CO2 enrichment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A non-destructive technique (minirhizotron observation tubes) was used to assess the effects of CO2 enrichment on root growth and development in experimental plots in a scrub oak-palmetto community at the Kennedy Space Center. Potential effects of CO2 enrichment on plants have a global significance in light of concerns over increasing CO2 concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere. The study at Kennedy Space Center focused on aboveground physiological responses (photosynthetic efficiency and water use efficiency), effects on process rates (litter decomposition and nutrient turnover), and belowground responses of the plants. Belowground dynamics are an exceptionally important component of total plant response but are frequently ignored due to methodological difficulties. Most methods used to examine root growth and development are destructive and, therefore, severely compromise results. Minirhizotrons allow nondestructive observation and quantification of the same soil volume and roots through time. Root length density and root phenology were evaluated for CO2 effects with this nondestructive technique.

Day, Frank P., Jr.

1994-01-01

198

Co-enriching microflora associated with culture based methods to detect Salmonella from tomato phyllosphere.  

PubMed

The ability to detect a specific organism from a complex environment is vitally important to many fields of public health, including food safety. For example, tomatoes have been implicated numerous times as vehicles of foodborne outbreaks due to strains of Salmonella but few studies have ever recovered Salmonella from a tomato phyllosphere environment. Precision of culturing techniques that target agents associated with outbreaks depend on numerous factors. One important factor to better understand is which species co-enrich during enrichment procedures and how microbial dynamics may impede or enhance detection of target pathogens. We used a shotgun sequence approach to describe taxa associated with samples pre-enrichment and throughout the enrichment steps of the Bacteriological Analytical Manual's (BAM) protocol for detection of Salmonella from environmental tomato samples. Recent work has shown that during efforts to enrich Salmonella (Proteobacteria) from tomato field samples, Firmicute genera are also co-enriched and at least one co-enriching Firmicute genus (Paenibacillus sp.) can inhibit and even kills strains of Salmonella. Here we provide a baseline description of microflora that co-culture during detection efforts and the utility of a bioinformatic approach to detect specific taxa from metagenomic sequence data. We observed that uncultured samples clustered together with distinct taxonomic profiles relative to the three cultured treatments (Universal Pre-enrichment broth (UPB), Tetrathionate (TT), and Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV)). There was little consistency among samples exposed to the same culturing medias, suggesting significant microbial differences in starting matrices or stochasticity associated with enrichment processes. Interestingly, Paenibacillus sp. (Salmonella inhibitor) was significantly enriched from uncultured to cultured (UPB) samples. Also of interest was the sequence based identification of a number of sequences as Salmonella despite indication by all media, that samples were culture negative for Salmonella. Our results substantiate the nascent utility of metagenomic methods to improve both biological and bioinformatic pathogen detection methods. PMID:24039862

Ottesen, Andrea R; Gonzalez, Antonio; Bell, Rebecca; Arce, Caroline; Rideout, Steven; Allard, Marc; Evans, Peter; Strain, Errol; Musser, Steven; Knight, Rob; Brown, Eric; Pettengill, James B

2013-01-01

199

Community response to enrichment is highly sensitive to model structure  

PubMed Central

Biologists use mathematical functions to model, understand and predict nature. For most biological processes, however, the exact analytical form is not known. This is also true for one of the most basic life processes: the uptake of food or resources. We show that the use of several nearly indistinguishable functions, which can serve as phenomenological descriptors of resource uptake, may lead to alarmingly different dynamical behaviour in a simple community model. More specifically, we demonstrate that the degree of resource enrichment needed to destabilize the community dynamics depends critically on the mathematical nature of the uptake function. PMID:17148115

Fussmann, Gregor F; Blasius, Bernd

2004-01-01

200

Silver surface enrichment in ancient coins studied by micro-PIXE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface enrichment of archeological silver-copper alloys, either intentional or due to corrosion processes, has been known for many years. The most used non-destructive techniques, such as particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) are surface techniques, with penetration depths typically ranging from a few microns to a few tens of microns. Therefore, these techniques could produce results which are not representative of the bulk composition of the alloy. In order to gain insight into the silver enrichment process and the effects on the data obtained with these techniques, a set of silver roman denarii were cross sectioned and analyzed at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores micro-PIXE facility. Elemental maps show silver surface enriched layers up to 250 ?m thick. Besides, silver-enriched surface layers are not found for alloys with 96-98 wt.% Ag.

Ager, F. J.; Moreno-Surez, A. I.; Scrivano, S.; Ortega-Feliu, I.; Gmez-Tubo, B.; Respaldiza, M. A.

2013-07-01

201

Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranyl nitrate hexahydrate. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials to pure HEU uranyl nitrate (UNH) and (2) blend pure HEU UNH with depleted and natural UNH to produce HEU UNH crystals. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU Will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

NONE

1995-07-05

202

Enrichment Determination of Uranium in Shielded Configurations  

SciTech Connect

The determination of the enrichment of uranium is required in many safeguards and security applications. Typical methods of determining the enrichment rely on detecting the 186 keV gamma ray emitted by {sup 235}U. In some applications, the uranium is surrounded by external shields, and removal of the shields is undesirable. In these situations, methods relying on the detection of the 186 keV gamma fail because the gamma ray is shielded easily. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has previously measured the enrichment of shielded uranium metal using active neutron interrogation. The method consists of measuring the time distribution of fast neutrons from induced fissions with large plastic scintillator detectors. To determine the enrichment, the measurements are compared to a calibration surface that is created from Monte Carlo simulations where the enrichment in the models is varied. In previous measurements, the geometry was always known. ORNL is extending this method to situations where the geometry and materials present are not known in advance. In the new method, the interrogating neutrons are both time and directionally tagged, and an array of small plastic scintillators measures the uncollided interrogating neutrons. Therefore, the attenuation through the item along many different paths is known. By applying image reconstruction techniques, an image of the item is created which shows the position-dependent attenuation. The image permits estimating the geometry and materials present, and these estimates are used as input for the Monte Carlo simulations. As before, simulations predict the time distribution of induced fission neutrons for different enrichments. Matching the measured time distribution to the closest prediction from the simulations provides an estimate of the enrichment. This presentation discusses the method and provides results from recent simulations that show the importance of knowing the geometry and materials from the imaging system.

Crye, Jason Michael [ORNL] [ORNL; Hall, Howard L [ORNL] [ORNL; McConchie, Seth M [ORNL] [ORNL; Mihalczo, John T [ORNL] [ORNL; Pena, Kirsten E [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

203

IPAD: the Integrated Pathway Analysis Database for Systematic Enrichment Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies and Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) generate millions of reads and hundreds of datasets, and there is an urgent need for a better way to accurately interpret and distill such large amounts of data. Extensive pathway and network analysis allow for the discovery of highly significant pathways from a set of disease vs. healthy samples in the NGS and GWAS. Knowledge of activation of these processes will lead to elucidation of the complex biological pathways affected by drug treatment, to patient stratification studies of new and existing drug treatments, and to understanding the underlying anti-cancer drug effects. There are approximately 141 biological human pathway resources as of Jan 2012 according to the Pathguide database. However, most currently available resources do not contain disease, drug or organ specificity information such as disease-pathway, drug-pathway, and organ-pathway associations. Systematically integrating pathway, disease, drug and organ specificity together becomes increasingly crucial for understanding the interrelationships between signaling, metabolic and regulatory pathway, drug action, disease susceptibility, and organ specificity from high-throughput omics data (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics). Results We designed the Integrated Pathway Analysis Database for Systematic Enrichment Analysis (IPAD, http://bioinfo.hsc.unt.edu/ipad), defining inter-association between pathway, disease, drug and organ specificity, based on six criteria: 1) comprehensive pathway coverage; 2) gene/protein to pathway/disease/drug/organ association; 3) inter-association between pathway, disease, drug, and organ; 4) multiple and quantitative measurement of enrichment and inter-association; 5) assessment of enrichment and inter-association analysis with the context of the existing biological knowledge and a "gold standard" constructed from reputable and reliable sources; and 6) cross-linking of multiple available data sources. IPAD is a comprehensive database covering about 22,498 genes, 25,469 proteins, 1956 pathways, 6704 diseases, 5615 drugs, and 52 organs integrated from databases including the BioCarta, KEGG, NCI-Nature curated, Reactome, CTD, PharmGKB, DrugBank, PharmGKB, and HOMER. The database has a web-based user interface that allows users to perform enrichment analysis from genes/proteins/molecules and inter-association analysis from a pathway, disease, drug, and organ. Moreover, the quality of the database was validated with the context of the existing biological knowledge and a "gold standard" constructed from reputable and reliable sources. Two case studies were also presented to demonstrate: 1) self-validation of enrichment analysis and inter-association analysis on brain-specific markers, and 2) identification of previously undiscovered components by the enrichment analysis from a prostate cancer study. Conclusions IPAD is a new resource for analyzing, identifying, and validating pathway, disease, drug, organ specificity and their inter-associations. The statistical method we developed for enrichment and similarity measurement and the two criteria we described for setting the threshold parameters can be extended to other enrichment applications. Enriched pathways, diseases, drugs, organs and their inter-associations can be searched, displayed, and downloaded from our online user interface. The current IPAD database can help users address a wide range of biological pathway related, disease susceptibility related, drug target related and organ specificity related questions in human disease studies. PMID:23046449

2012-01-01

204

Enrichment analysis applied to disease prognosis.  

PubMed

: Enrichment analysis is well established in the field of transcriptomics, where it is used to identify relevant biological features that characterize a set of genes obtained in an experiment.This article proposes the application of enrichment analysis as a first step in a disease prognosis methodology, in particular of diseases with a strong genetic component. With this analysis the objective is to identify clinical and biological features that characterize groups of patients with a common disease, and that can be used to distinguish between groups of patients associated with disease-related events. Data mining methodologies can then be used to exploit those features, and assist medical doctors in the evaluation of the patients in respect to their predisposition for a specific event.In this work the disease hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is used as a case-study, as a first test to assess the feasibility of the application of an enrichment analysis to disease prognosis. To perform this assessment, two groups of patients have been considered: patients that have suffered a sudden cardiac death episode and patients that have not.The results presented were obtained with genetic data and the Gene Ontology, in two enrichment analyses: an enrichment profiling aiming at characterizing a group of patients (e.g. that suffered a disease-related event) based on their mutations; and a differential enrichment aiming at identifying differentiating features between a sub-group of patients and all the patients with the disease. These analyses correspond to an adaptation of the standard enrichment analysis, since multiple sets of genes are being considered, one for each patient.The preliminary results are promising, as the sets of terms obtained reflect the current knowledge about the gene functions commonly altered in HCM patients, thus allowing their characterization. Nevertheless, some factors need to be taken into consideration before the full potential of the enrichment analysis in the prognosis methodology can be evaluated. One of such factors is the need to test the enrichment analysis with clinical data, in addition to genetic data, since both types of data are expected to be necessary for prognosis purposes. PMID:24103636

Machado, Catia M; Freitas, Ana T; Couto, Francisco M

2013-01-01

205

Simultaneous enrichment of denitrifying methanotrophs and anammox bacteria.  

PubMed

Interaction between denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) processes may play an important role in global carbon and nitrogen cycles. In this study, a coculture of denitrifying methanotrophs (DAMO archaea and DAMO bacteria) and anammox bacteria, initially sourced from the environment, was enriched with a supply of methane, nitrate, and ammonium. After a 4.5-month enrichment, simultaneous oxidation of methane and ammonium and reduction of nitrate were observed. The highest rate of nitrate reduction in the suspended DAMO culture was 4.84mmol/L/day, and simultaneously, the highest ammonium removal rate was 4.07mmol/L/day. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed the coexistence of DAMO archaea, DAMO bacteria, and anammox bacteria. The development of anammox bacteria might reduce the enrichment time of DAMO microorganisms and promote the activity of DAMO archaea. The activity of the reactor fluctuated during the long-term operation, which might be caused by the formation of microbial clusters whereby DAMO archaea grew in aggregates that were surrounded by anammox and DAMO bacteria. This study is the first to demonstrate that it is feasible to establish a coculture of DAMO archaea, DAMO bacteria, and anammox bacteria from environmental inocula. PMID:25056292

Ding, Zhao-Wei; Ding, Jing; Fu, Liang; Zhang, Fang; Zeng, Raymond J

2014-12-01

206

REDUCTION OF NOx EMISSION FROM COAL COMBUSTION THROUGH OXYGEN ENRICHMENT  

SciTech Connect

BOC Process Gas Solutions and Western Research Institute (WRI) conducted a pilot-scale test program to evaluate the impact of oxygen enrichment on the emissions characteristics of pulverized coal. The combustion test facility (CTF) at WRI was used to assess the viability of the technique and determine the quantities of oxygen required for NOx reduction from coal fired boiler. In addition to the experimental work, a series of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were made of the CTF under comparable conditions. A series of oxygen enrichment test was performed using the CTF. In these tests, oxygen was injected into one of the following streams: (1) the primary air (PA), (2) the secondary air (SA), and (3) the combined primary and secondary air. Emission data were collected from all tests, and compared with the corresponding data from the baseline cases. A key test parameter was the burner stoichiometry ratio. A series of CFD simulation models were devised to mimic the initial experiments in which secondary air was enriched with oxygen. The results from these models were compared against the experimental data. Experimental evidence indicated that oxygen enrichment does appear to be able to reduce NOx levels from coal combustion, especially when operated at low over fire air (OFA) levels. The reductions observed however are significantly smaller than that reported by others (7-8% vs. 25-50%), questioning the economic viability of the technique. This technique may find favor with fuels that are difficult to burn or stabilize at high OFA and produce excessive LOI. While CFD simulation appears to predict NO amounts in the correct order of magnitude and the correct trend with staging, it is sensitive to thermal conditions and an accurate thermal prediction is essential. Furthermore, without development, Fluent's fuel-NO model cannot account for a solution sensitive fuel-N distribution between volatiles and char and thus cannot predict the trends seen in the experiment.

Western Research Institute

2006-07-01

207

Availability of enriched isotopic materials used for accelerator targets Present and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of a broad spectrum of highly enriched stable isotopes is vitally important for the fabrication of nuclear targets for basic and applied research. The present separation effort at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is insufficient to maintain equilibrium for the stable isotope inventory. The current technology that is being applied in the electromagnetic isotope separation process to minimize the stable isotope depletion rate is discussed. Three alternative separation processes, gas centrifugation, plasma cyclotron resonance separation, and laser separation, are evaluated as candidates to augment the present stable isotopes separation facility. The applicability of each process to the isotopic enrichment of the calutron feed material and to the selective production of isotopes is determined. The process energy demands are compared to those of the existing facilities. The isotopic enrichment of the feed material prior to a first pass through the calutrons can result in significant savings in energy and cost.

Tracy, J. G.; Terry, J. W.

1985-05-01

208

Osteogenic ability of bone marrow stem cells intraoperatively enriched by a novel matrix  

PubMed Central

Poly-L-lysine (PLL) is commonly used as an adhibiting agent due to its good viscosity, and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is a common enriched matrix for selective cell retention technology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to use PLL to coat the surface and interspaces of DBM to form a novel type of enriched matrix [DBM coated with PLL (PLL-DBM)], in order to effectively improve the enrichment effects of bone marrow stem cells and enhance their osteogenic ability. Electron microscope scanning and the infrared spectrum were used to observe the structure of PLL-DBM and the optimal conditions for the combination of PLL and DBM. Enriching effects on bone marrow nucleated cells (NCs) and platelets (PLTs) were detected with an automated hematology analyzer. The osteogenesis of the following four groups was assessed with a grafting bone model in a goat spinal transverse process: IA, tissue engineered bone (TEB) fabricated following enrichment of bone marrow with PLL-DBM; IB, autogenous iliac bone; IIC, TEB fabricated following enrichment of bone marrow with DBM; IID, blank DBM. The goats were sacrificed in one batch at week 16 after the surgery and the fusion specimens were examined using X-ray and three-dimensional computed tomography (CT). In addition, the CT value was determined and the histology and biomechanics were analyzed in order to evaluate the osteogenic ability. The results showed that PLL and DBM combined well and that PLL-DBM exhibited a natural mesh pore structure. The fold enrichment of NCs and PLTs with PLL-DBM was significantly higher than that with DBM. The fusion effects of the IA and IB groups were similar and significantly enhanced compared with those of the IIC and IID groups. The results confirmed that PLL-DBM is an ideal enriched matrix for bone marrow stem cells, and TEB rapidly fabricated by PLL-DBM intraoperatively enriched bone marrow stem cells exhibits an improved osteogenic ability.

YE, QING; CHEN, KAINING; HUANG, WU; HE, YUNSONG; NONG, MINGSHAN; LI, CHUNXIANG; LIANG, TIANSEN

2015-01-01

209

Cost analyses of uranium enrichment by laser isotope separation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probability of the selective two-step photoionisation of 235U atoms by laser and ultraviolet radiations is estimated from the rate equations for uranium atoms with two isotopes with three levels. The population of 235U ions is obtained by linearising the rate equations. We have calculated the ion production rates for three cases in which the laser and ultraviolet powers are

Norihiko Ozaki; Kimio Yamada; Manabu Yamamoto; Shunsuke Tomiyama; Kiichi Ueyanagi

1976-01-01

210

Oxygen Enrichment in the Process and Chemical Industries  

E-print Network

an air oxidation step (Table 1). Some Organic Intermediates Produced by Air Oxidation: ? Adipic Acid ? Acetaldehyde ? Acetic Acid ? Acrylonitrile ? Acrylic Acid ? Acetone ? Ethylene Oxide ? Formaldehyde ? Maleic Anhydride ? Phenol... an air oxidation step (Table 1). Some Organic Intermediates Produced by Air Oxidation: ? Adipic Acid ? Acetaldehyde ? Acetic Acid ? Acrylonitrile ? Acrylic Acid ? Acetone ? Ethylene Oxide ? Formaldehyde ? Maleic Anhydride ? Phenol...

Milne, R. T.

1984-01-01

211

Fire extinguishment in oxygen enriched atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current state-of-the-art of fire suppression and extinguishment techniques in oxygen enriched atmosphere is reviewed. Four classes of extinguishment action are considered: cooling, separation of reactants, dilution or removal of fuel, and use of chemically reactive agents. Current practice seems to show preference for very fast acting water spray applications to all interior surfaces of earth-based chambers. In space, reliance has been placed on fire prevention methods through the removal of ignition sources and use of nonflammable materials. Recommendations are made for further work related to fire suppression and extinguishment in oxygen enriched atmospheres, and an extensive bibliography is appended.

Robertson, A. F.; Rappaport, M. W.

1973-01-01

212

Effect of electromagnetic stirring on the enrichment of primary silicon from Al-Si melt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of electromagnetic stirring on the enrichment of primary silicon from Al-Si melt during the process of electromagnetic separation was investigated. It is shown that the enrichment of primary silicon in Al-Si melt strongly depends on the melt flowing and viscosity gradient. The efficient enrichment of primary silicon was achieved by implementing a high current intensity, which induced a high intense melt flowing. Also, the remaining primary Si in Al-Si alloy could be precipitated by gradually decreasing the current intensity. Additionally, the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) results show that Si purification is attributed with the enrichment of primary silicon. In this work, the impurity content in primary silicon is 43.3 ppmw, which is much smaller than 777.6 ppmw in metallurgical silicon. Therefore, a potential low-cost technology would be provided for the Si purification.

Yu, Wenzhou; Ma, Wenhui; Lv, Guoqiang; Xue, Haiyang; Li, Shaoyuan; Dai, Yongnian

2014-11-01

213

Sound enrichment for the relief of tinnitus in dependence of sound environment classification  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A sound enrichment system for provision of tinnitus relief, the sound enrichment system includes a noise generator, an environment classifier that is configured to determine a classification of an ambient sound environment of the sound enrichment system, a processing system for adjusting a noise signal based at least in part on the classification, wherein the noise signal is obtained using the noise generator, and an output transducer for conversion of the adjusted noise signal to an acoustic signal for presentation to a user. A method of providing a noise enriched sound signal for provision of relief of tinnitus includes obtaining a noise signal, adjusting the noise signal based at least in part on a sound environment classification, generating an acoustic noise signal from the adjusted noise signal, and presenting the acoustic noise signal to a tinnitus suffering person.

2014-08-12

214

Origin of middle rare earth element enrichment in acid mine drainage-impacted areas.  

PubMed

The commonly observed enrichment of middle rare earth elements (MREE) in water sampled in acid mine drainage (AMD)-impacted areas was found to be the result of preferential release from the widespread mineral pyrite (FeS2). Three different mining-impacted sites in Europe were sampled for water, and various pyrite samples were used in batch experiments with diluted sulphuric acid simulating AMD-impacted water with high sulphate concentration and high acidity. All water samples independent on their origin from groundwater, creek water or lake water as well as on the surrounding rock types showed MREE enrichment. Also the pyrite samples showed MREE enrichment in the respective acidic leachate but not always in their total contents indicating a process-controlled release. It is discussed that most probably complexation to sulphite (SO3 (2-)) or another intermediate S-species during pyrite oxidation is the reason for the MREE enrichment in the normalized REE patterns. PMID:24385183

Grawunder, Anja; Merten, Dirk; Bchel, Georg

2014-06-01

215

Enzymatic enrichment of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis cell extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

An industrially available preparation of astaxanthin (Ax) from Haematococcus pluvialis contained 41.6 wt% acylglycerols and 24.9 wt% FFA in addition to 14.6 wt% Ax, which was a mixture of free and FA ester forms\\u000a (free Ax\\/Ax monoesters\\/Ax diesters=4.9?80.3?14.8, by mol). Enrichment of Ax by a two-step process was attempted. The first\\u000a step was hydrolysis of acylglycerols with Candida rugosa lipase:

Toshihiro Nagao; Tadashi Fukami; Yoshiharu Horita; Sadao Komemushi; Akio Sugihara; Yuji Shimada

2003-01-01

216

CUE (CULTURE, UNDERSTANDING, ENRICHMENT)--SCIENCE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS PUBLICATION IS A TEACHING GUIDE TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR INTEGRATING CAREFULLY SELECTED AUDIOVISUAL ITEMS INTO EXISTING NINTH-GRADE CURRICULUMS IN SCIENCE. IT IS ONE OF FIVE GUIDES PREPARED FOR USE IN PROJECT CUE, AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING AND ENRICHMENT IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS OF HIGH SCHOOLS. THE

BROWN, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

217

Retrieving Web Images to Enrich Music Representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Audiovisual media which integrates visual media with audio to enrich music representation, such as music video (MV) or music slideshow, is now more welcome than only audio. In this paper, we proposed a novel approach to automatically retrieve web images appropriately suitable to a given music song. In this approach, an imageability measurement is first proposed to select those meaningful

Zhi-Kun Wangt; Rui Cai; Lei Zhang; Yu Zheng; Jian-min Li

2007-01-01

218

American Indian Enrichment Activities. Mini-Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on American Indians, this annotated bibliography covers a variety of resources for enriching multicultural education in the elementary classroom and includes limited information about Mexican Americans, Blacks, and other cultural groups. Each of the 26 entries provides a descriptive annotation and indicates where the material can be

Kosnick, Sally

219

Enriched oil recovery using carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single cell protein plant is operated to produce high density cell growth and a substantially pure stream of generally high pressure carbon dioxide for further use, for example, in enhanced oil recovery operations. The plant employs an air separator producing substantially pure streams of oxygen and nitrogen. The oxygen stream is used to enrich a carrier fluid and used

Hitzman

1981-01-01

220

ENRICHMENT OF HEAVY WATER BY THERMAL DIFFUSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equations of the best wire angle of inclination for the maximum separation, maximum output and minimum column height for enrichment of heavy water in a concentric-tube wired thermal diffusion column have been derived. Considerable improvements in performance were obtained by employing the wired column instead of using the open column (without wire). It was also found that the wire inclination

HO-MING YEH

1998-01-01

221

Document Ranking Using an Enriched Thesaurus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study funded by the Commission of the European Community that applied document retrieval algorithms to the "Excerpta Medica" database using the EMTREE thesaurus. Nonhierarchical relations were added to enrich the thesaurus, and document ranking is discussed in terms of the conceptual distance between the documents and the query. (20

Rada, Roy; And Others

1991-01-01

222

On Feuerstein's Instrumental Enrichment: A Collection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the premise that all children can learn, Reuven Feuerstein developed a classroom curriculum designed to build the cognitive functions of students diagnosed by others as incapable of learning. His program, Instrumental Enrichment (IE), provides students with the concepts, skills, strategies, operations, and techniques necessary to become

Ben-Hur, Meir, Ed.

223

The many uses of classification: Enriched thesauri  

E-print Network

's Health Mental Health Midwifery News and Media Nursing Nutrition Organizations Pet Health@ PharmacyThe many uses of classification: Enriched thesauri as knowledge sources Dagobert Soergel College ... Education College and University, K-12 ... Entertainment Cool Links, Movies, Humor, Music ... Government

Soergel, Dagobert

224

Enriching Science and Math through Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study reviewed the collaborative efforts of university engineers, teacher educators, and middle school teachers to advance sixth- and seventh-grade students' learning through a series of project-based engineering activities. This two-year project enriched regular school curricula by introducing real-world applications of science and

Redmond, Adrienne; Thomas, Julie; High, Karen; Scott, Margaret; Jordan, Pat; Dockers, Jean

2011-01-01

225

Recommendations based on semantically enriched museum collections  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the CHIP demonstrator 1 for providing personalized access to digital museum col- lections. It consists of three main components: Art Recommender, Tour Wizard, and Mobile Tour Guide. Based on the semantically enriched Rijksmuseum Amsterdam 2 collection, we show how Semantic Web technologies can be deployed to (partially) solve three important challenges for recommender systems applied in an

Yiwen Wang; Natalia Stash; Lora Aroyo; Peter Gorgels; Lloyd Rutledge; Guus Schreiber

2008-01-01

226

Semantic Enrichment in Ontologies for Matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matching (or mapping) between heterogeneous on- tologies becomes crucial for interoperability in dis- tributed and intelligent environments. Although many e! orts in ontology mapping have already been conducted, most of them rely heavily on the mean- ing of entity names rather than the semantics de- fined in ontologies. In order to deal with seman- tic heterogeneity, we enrich the semantics

Nwe Ni Tun; Satoshi Tojo

2006-01-01

227

DOE and the United States enrichment market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have exerted a predominant influence in the uranium enrichment services industry since 1969, when it began to sell its services to private industry under a Requirement-Type Contract (RTC). After almost 25 years of providing these services to utilities throughout the world, DOE is now preparing to hand over responsibility to the

Rutkowski

1993-01-01

228

Biodiesel Lab Exercise with Hydrogen Enrichment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Biodiesel Lab Exercise with Hydrogen Enrichment" is part of the 2012 SEET Energy Webinar series of presentations, created as an instructional material project during ATEEC/CSM's Sustainable Energy Education and Training (SEET) Workshop for high school and community college energy technology instructors. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

2013-07-19

229

Implementing the Schoolwide Enrichment Model in Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) has been one of the most widely used models in the education of the gifted in Brazil. It has inspired the political and pedagogical project of the Centers of Activities of High Abilities/Giftedness recently implemented in 27 Brazilian states by the Ministry of Education. In this article, our experience in

de Souza Fleith, Denise; Soriano de Alencar, Eunice M. L.

2010-01-01

230

Using Synchronous Technology to Enrich Student Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explore the potential applications of synchronous technology to enrich student learning, faculty members from an American regional state university and a Chinese regional university collaborated to find appropriate ways to integrate synchronous technology (e.g., Adobe Connect) into an educational technology program in the American university

Wang, Charles Xiaoxue; Jaeger, David; Liu, Jinxia; Guo, Xiaoning; Xie, Nan

2013-01-01

231

Projects To Enrich School Mathematics. Level 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a series of research projects that can be used for enrichment of the middle school mathematics curriculum. It is suggested that the topics are either not found in the standard curriculum or represent a more indepth study of standard topics. The areas considered are: microcomputer programs; divisibility; magic squares; pentominoes; the

Sachs, Leroy, Ed.

232

The Student Experience of Online Mathematics Enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following concerns about the falling number of mathematics majors at University level, consideration has being given in a number of countries to enhancing provision for those school pupils who show the potential to study mathematics at University. Prevalent amongst this provision are enrichment opportunities and material designed to provide a wider picture of mathematics. This paper reports findings from a

Keith Jones; Helen Simons

233

Vegetation and soil sampling for detection of enrichment facilities  

SciTech Connect

The concept of being able to detect clandestine nuclear operations rests on the fact that they invariably lose material characteristic of the process to the environment. This material can be collected and characterized using highly sensitive analytical techniques. The extent to which these signatures penetrate the environment depends on the type of process and the care taken at the facility to control losses. An enrichment facility that uses UF{sub 6}, a gas, will tend to lose more than a reactor because gases are harder to contain then solids. Any nuclear facility, like industrial processes everywhere, loses some characteristic material to the environment. The issues involved in acquiring environmental samples from around nuclear facilities are discussed, with the primary application being safeguards. Sampling plans, sample acquisition, analytical techniques, and data interpretation are described.

Smith, D.H.

1994-06-01

234

Intellectual enrichment is linked to cerebral efficiency in multiple sclerosis: functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence for cognitive reserve.  

PubMed

The cognitive reserve hypothesis helps to explain the incomplete relationship between brain disease and cognitive status in people with neurologic diseases, including Alzheimer's; disease and multiple sclerosis. Lifetime intellectual enrichment (estimated with education or vocabulary knowledge) lessens the negative impact of brain disease on cognition, such that people with greater enrichment are able to withstand more severe neuropathology before suffering cognitive impairment or dementia. The current research is the first to investigate directly the relationship between intellectual enrichment and an index of cerebral activity (the blood oxygen level dependent signal) in a neurologic sample. Multiple sclerosis patients completed a vocabulary-based estimate of lifetime intellectual enrichment. Disease severity was estimated with brain atrophy. Cognitive status was measured with the Symbol Digit Modalities Test. Cerebral activity (functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygen level dependent signal) and behavioural performance (accuracy, reaction time) were recorded during the visual N-Back working memory task (three levels of demand: 0-, 1-, 2-Back). All patients produced perfect/nearly perfect accuracy during lower demands (0- and 1-Back), and reaction time was unrelated to intellectual enrichment; however, voxelwise partial correlations controlling for brain atrophy revealed strong positive correlations between intellectual enrichment and cerebral activity within the brain's; default network (e.g. anterior and posterior cingulate corticies), indicating that patients with greater enrichment were able to maintain resting state activity during cognitive processing better. In turn, intellectual enrichment was negatively associated with prefrontal recruitment, suggesting that patients with lesser enrichment required more cerebral resources to perform the same cognitive task as patients with greater enrichment. This same pattern of enrichment-related cerebral activity was observed when cognitive demands increased (2-Back), and intellectual enrichment was negatively associated with reaction time. Principle components analysis revealed a single cognitive reserve network across tasks (greater default network, lesser prefrontal recruitment). Expression of this network almost fully mediated the positive relationship between intellectual enrichment and cognitive status (Symbol Digit Modalities Test). Also, expression of this network was positively associated with brain atrophy when controlling for cognitive status, indicating that patients with greater expression of this network can withstand more severe brain disease before exhibiting cognition similar to patients with lesser network expression. Of note, similar functional magnetic resonance imaging research with healthy adults has not found an association between intelligence and cerebral efficiency. The unique relationship between intellectual enrichment and cerebral efficiency in neurologic patients is consistent with the cognitive reserve hypothesis, which does not posit that enrichment leads to gains in neurocognitive functioning per se; rather, enrichment protects against neurocognitive decline secondarily to disease. PMID:20008455

Sumowski, James F; Wylie, Glenn R; Deluca, John; Chiaravalloti, Nancy

2010-02-01

235

Conversion and Evaluation of the University of Massachusetts Lowell Research Reactor From High-Enriched To Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel  

SciTech Connect

The process for converting the University of Massachusetts Lowell Research Reactor (UMLRR) from high-enrichment uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel began in 1988. Several years of design reviews, computational modeling, and thermal hydraulic analyses resulted in a preliminary reference core design and configuration based on 20 standard, MTR-type, flat-plate, 19.75% enriched, uranium silicide (u3Si2) fuel elements. A final safety analysis for the fuel conversion was submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1993. The NRC made two additional requests for additional information and supplements were submitted in 1994 and 1997. The new UMLRR Reactor Supervisor initiated an effort to change the LEU reference core configuration to eliminate a complicated control rod modification needed for the smaller core.

Leo M. Bobek

2003-11-19

236

Universitat Augsburg Patterns for Semantic Business Process  

E-print Network

Business Process Management (SBPM) ­ with semantically enriched business process models as one of its main. But they all have in common, that semantically enriched business process models are the key to all the futureUniversit¨at Augsburg Patterns for Semantic Business Process Modeling Christian Seitz Report 2008

Bauer, Bernhard

237

Reproducible Automated Phosphopeptide Enrichment Using Magnetic TiO2 and Ti-IMAC  

PubMed Central

Reproducible, comprehensive phosphopeptide enrichment is essential for studying phosphorylation-regulated processes. Here, we describe the application of hyper-porous magnetic TiO2 and Ti-IMAC microspheres for uniform automated phosphopeptide enrichment. Combining magnetic microspheres with a magnetic particle-handling robot enables rapid (45 min), reproducible (r2 ? 0.80) and high-fidelity (>90% purity) phosphopeptide purification in a 96-well format. Automated phosphopeptide enrichment demonstrates reproducible synthetic phosphopeptide recovery across 2 orders of magnitude, well-to-well quantitative reproducibility indistinguishable to internal SILAC standards, and robust plate-to-plate reproducibility across 5 days of independent enrichments. As a result, automated phosphopeptide enrichment enables statistical analysis of label-free phosphoproteomic samples in a high-throughput manner. This technique uses commercially available, off-the-shelf components and can be easily adopted by any laboratory interested in phosphoproteomic analysis. We provide a free downloadable automated phosphopeptide enrichment program to facilitate uniform interlaboratory collaboration and exchange of phosphoproteomic data sets. PMID:25233145

2014-01-01

238

Tracking wind-dispersed seeds using (15) N-isotope enrichment.  

PubMed

Seed dispersal influences a wide range of ecological processes. However, measuring dispersal patterns, particularly long-distance dispersal, has been a difficult task. Marking bird-dispersed seeds with stable (15) N isotopes has been shown to be a user-friendly method to trace seed dispersal. In this study, we determined whether (15) N urea solution could be used to enrich seeds of two common wind-dispersed plants, Eupatorium glaucescens (Asteraceae) and Sericocarpus tortifolius (Asteraceae). We further tested if the water type (distilled versus tap) in (15) N urea solutions influences the level and variability of enrichment of plant seeds, and if increasing spraying frequency per se increases enrichment. Because droughts may lower seed set or kill plants, we wanted to investigate if the additional use of an externally applied anti-transpirant affects the intake of externally applied (15) N into seeds. The results demonstrate that (15) N enrichment of seeds can facilitate dispersal experiments with wind-dispersed plants. The use of distilled water in (15) N urea solutions did not increase (15) N enrichment compared to tap water. Further, enrichment was more efficient at lower spray frequencies. Both the use of tap water and low frequencies could lower time, effort and project costs. The results suggest that species can be protected from drought using an anti-transpirant without decreasing the incorporation of (15) N into seeds. PMID:25174806

Forster, C; Herrmann, J D

2014-11-01

239

Reproducible Automated Phosphopeptide Enrichment Using Magnetic TiO2 and Ti-IMAC.  

PubMed

Reproducible, comprehensive phosphopeptide enrichment is essential for studying phosphorylation-regulated processes. Here, we describe the application of hyper-porous magnetic TiO2 and Ti-IMAC microspheres for uniform automated phosphopeptide enrichment. Combining magnetic microspheres with a magnetic particle-handling robot enables rapid (45 min), reproducible (r2 ? 0.80) and high-fidelity (>90% purity) phosphopeptide purification in a 96-well format. Automated phosphopeptide enrichment demonstrates reproducible synthetic phosphopeptide recovery across 2 orders of magnitude, "well-to-well" quantitative reproducibility indistinguishable to internal SILAC standards, and robust "plate-to-plate" reproducibility across 5 days of independent enrichments. As a result, automated phosphopeptide enrichment enables statistical analysis of label-free phosphoproteomic samples in a high-throughput manner. This technique uses commercially available, off-the-shelf components and can be easily adopted by any laboratory interested in phosphoproteomic analysis. We provide a free downloadable automated phosphopeptide enrichment program to facilitate uniform interlaboratory collaboration and exchange of phosphoproteomic data sets. PMID:25233145

Tape, Christopher J; Worboys, Jonathan D; Sinclair, John; Gourlay, Robert; Vogt, Janis; McMahon, Kelly M; Trost, Matthias; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Lamont, Douglas J; Jrgensen, Claus

2014-10-21

240

Semantic enrichment of multi-intelligence data within a net-centric environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The challenges of predictive battlespace awareness and transformation of TCPED to TPPU processes in a netcentric environment are numerous and complex. One of these challenges is how to post the information with the right metadata so that it can be effectively discovered and used in an ad hoc manner. We have been working on the development of a semantic enrichment capability that provides concept and relationship extraction and automatic metadata tagging of multi-INT sensor data. Specifically, this process maps multi-source data to concepts and relationships specified within a semantic model (ontology). We are using semantic enrichment for development of data fusion services to support Army and Air Force programs. This paper presents an example of using the semantic enrichment architecture for concept and relationship extraction from USMTF data. The process of semantic enrichment adds semantic metadata tags to the original data enabling advanced correlation and fusion. A geospatial user interface leverages the semantically-enriched data to provide powerful search, correlation, and fusion capabilities.

Hull, Richard D.; Lashine, Larry; Jenkins, Don

2009-04-01

241

The use of management by objectives in medical education enrichment programs.  

PubMed

Since numerous medical education enrichment programs have been established throughout the United States, their effectiveness must eventually be evaluated. It is difficult to evaluate the goals of these programs. The programs do have goals, yet most program managers do not have a simple tool for transforming these broad statements into measurable performance standards. No program can be properly prepared for evaluation unless a goal clarification process is initiated. The authors maintain that "management by objectives" is an appropriate process for refining a program's goals and enables the enrichment programs to be fairly evaluated. PMID:7143402

Murphy, J W; Redden, R

1982-12-01

242

Enriched Pyrite ?34S Signals in Modern Tropical Deltaic Muds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biogeochemical cycling of sulfur is one of the primary processes that regulate the Earth's surface redox conditions. In this study, we examine the abundance and sulfur isotopic composition (?34S) of pyrite through a series of cores collected from different water depths from the Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea. Physically undisturbed cores from deep water (depths up to 50 m) show relatively smooth ?34Spyr profiles with small scatter between adjacent samples within a core. In these cores, ?34Spyr gets gradually enriched from ~ -32 in the upper section to ~ -25 in the lower section. On the other hand, the ?34Spyr profiles in cores from shallow water depths (8 - 18 m) present larger scatter (up to 35) and unusually enriched ?34Spyr values (up to +36) are observed. These disparate results can be understood by combining a Rayleigh distillation model to explain elevated 34S values under closed-system conditions, together with the impact of episodic reworking of sediments, which enhances the stratigraphic variability of sulfide isotopic signals. Such different ?34Spyr patterns (both in their mean values and the degree of variability) between shallow water and deep water depositional environments, if preserved in the geologic record, could result in disparate interpretations. Understanding how modern depositional and diagenetic environments impact sulfur cycling processes gives us new insights when interpreting ancient sulfur isotope records.

Gao, J.; Fike, D. A.; Aller, R. C.

2013-12-01

243

THE MAGIC WAND: ENRICHING SHARED STORYBOOK READING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the 'Magic Wand', a system that works next to existing physical books and adds an extra dimension (i.e. sound) to shared storybook reading for adults and children by providing a simple and intuitive interaction. The 'Magic Wand': 1) enriches the shared book-reading experience by adding supporting sounds, 2) provides a low-tech and accessible way of identifying sounds

Chris Heger; Andrs Lucero

244

Oxygen Enriched Combustion System Performance Study  

E-print Network

}ched combustlon systems are technically, envlronmentally and economically feasible and offer significant energy savings and/or productivity improvement, and then to verify the performance of selected systems in research furnaces. Tests of several commercial... for 35 - 100 percent oxygen. The absolute levels of the NO x emissions also depended on the furnace temperature. INTRODUCTION Oxygen enriched combustion has been found to have significant energy saving potential in industrial furnace applications...

Chen, S. L.; Kwan, Y.; Abele, A. R.; Silver, L. S.; Kobayashi, H.

245

Axi-symmetrical flow reactor for [sup 196]Hg photochemical enrichment  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to an improved photochemical reactor useful for the isotopic enrichment of a predetermined isotope of mercury, especially, [sup 196]Hg. Specifically, two axi-symmetrical flow reactors were constructed according to the teachings of the present invention. These reactors improve the mixing of the reactants during the photochemical enrichment process, affording higher yields of the desired [sup 196]Hg product. Measurements of the variation of yield (Y) and enrichment factor (E) along the flow axis of these reactors indicates very substantial improvement in process uniformity compared to previously used photochemical reactor systems. In one preferred embodiment of the present invention, the photoreactor system was built such that the reactor chamber was removable from the system without disturbing the location of either the photochemical lamp or the filter employed therewith. 10 figures.

Grossman, M.W.

1991-04-30

246

Measurements of uranium holdup in an operating gaseous diffusion enrichment plant  

SciTech Connect

Holdup of nuclear material in process equipment is one of the major sources of uncertainty in materials balances, particularly for high-throughput facilities with large equipment and extensive piping, such as gaseous diffusion uranium-enrichment plants. Locating and measuring the holdup while the plant is operating is a challenging problem because of background from the process material and the neighboring equipment. This paper reports NDA measurements performed at the Goodyear Atomic Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth, Ohio, on enrichment equipment at the higher enrichment and (>10% /sup 235/U isotopic abundance) of the cascade. Both neutron and gamma-ray measurements were made to locate anomalously large deposits in converters and compressors and, within the limitations of the techniques, to quantify the amount of the deposit.

Augustson, R.H.; Walton, R.B.; Harris, R.; Harbarger, W.; Hicks, J.; Timmons, G.; Shissler, D.; Tayloe, R.; Jones, S.; Fields, L.

1983-01-01

247

Criteria for the safe storage of enriched uranium at the Y-12 Plant  

SciTech Connect

Uranium storage practices at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities have evolved over a period spanning five decades of programmatic work in support of the nuclear deterrent mission. During this period, the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee has served as the principal enriched uranium facility for fabrication, chemical processing, metallurgical processing and storage. Recent curtailment of new nuclear weapons production and stockpile reduction has created significant amounts of enriched uranium available as a strategic resource which must be properly and safely stored. This standard specifies criteria associated with the safe storage of enriched uranium at the Y-12 Plant. Because programmatic needs, compliance regulations and desirable materials of construction change with time, it is recommended that these standards be reviewed and amended periodically to ensure that they continue to serve their intended purpose.

Cox, S.O.

1995-07-01

248

Axi-symmetrical flow reactor for .sup.196 Hg photochemical enrichment  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to an improved photochemical reactor useful for the isotopic enrichment of a predetermined isotope of mercury, especially, .sup.196 Hg. Specifically, two axi-symmetrical flow reactors were constructed according to the teachings of the present invention. These reactors improve the mixing of the reactants during the photochemical enrichment process, affording higher yields of the desired .sup.196 Hg product. Measurements of the variation of yield (Y) and enrichment factor (E) along the flow axis of these reactors indicates very substantial improvement in process uniformity compared to previously used photochemical reactor systems. In one preferred embodiment of the present invention, the photoreactor system was built such that the reactor chamber was removable from the system without disturbing the location of either the photochemical lamp or the filter employed therewith.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA)

1991-01-01

249

Flight Opportunities for Science Teacher EnRichment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) is NASA's unique stratospheric infrared observatory. Science on board the KAO involves many disciplines and technologies. NASA Astrophysics Division supports a pre-college teacher program to provide Flight Opportunities for Science Teacher EnRichment (FOSTER). To date, forty-five teachers are participating, and the program is designed to nation-wide to serve fifty teachers per year on board the KAO. FOSTER is a pilot program for K-12 educational outreach for NASA's future Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) which will directly involve more than one-hundred teachers each year in airborne astronomical research missions. FOSTER aims to enrich precollege teachers' experiences and understanding of science, mathematics and technology. Teachers meet at NASA Ames Research Center for summer workshops on astronomy and contemporary astrophysics, and to prepare for flights. Further, teachers receive Internet training and support to create a FOSTER teacher network across the country, and to sustain communication with the airborne astronomy community. Each research flight of the KAO is a microcosm of the scientific method. Flying teachers obtain first-hand, real-time experiences of the scientific process: its excitement, hardships, challenges, discoveries, teamwork, and educational value. The FOSTER experience gives teachers pride and a sense of special achievement. They bring the excitement and adventure of doing first-class science to their students and communities. Flight Opportunities for Science Teacher EnRichment is funded by a NASA's Astrophysics Division grant, NAGW 3291, and supported by the SETI Institute and NASA Ames Research Center.

Koch, D.; Devore, E.; Gillespie, C., Jr.; Hull, G.

1994-12-01

250

33 CFR 154.824 - Inerting, enriching, and diluting systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Inerting, enriching, and diluting systems. 154.824 Section 154.824 Navigation...HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Vapor Control Systems 154.824 Inerting, enriching, and diluting systems. (a) A vapor control system...

2013-07-01

251

33 CFR 154.824 - Inerting, enriching, and diluting systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Inerting, enriching, and diluting systems. 154.824 Section 154.824 Navigation...HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Vapor Control Systems 154.824 Inerting, enriching, and diluting systems. (a) A vapor control system...

2010-07-01

252

33 CFR 154.824 - Inerting, enriching, and diluting systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Inerting, enriching, and diluting systems. 154.824 Section 154.824 Navigation...HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Vapor Control Systems 154.824 Inerting, enriching, and diluting systems. (a) A vapor control system...

2012-07-01

253

The Economics of Oxygen Enriched Air Production Via Membranes  

E-print Network

Oxygen enriched air combustion is a recognized approach to energy conservation. Conventional methods of producing oxygen enriched air: Pressure Swing Adsorption and Cryogenics, are energy-intensive and expensive. In this paper the economics of using...

Gollan, A.; Kleper, M. H.

1984-01-01

254

Nutrient enrichment of the subarctic Pacific Ocean pycnocline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the end of the global thermohaline circulation, the subarctic Pacific is the richest nutrient repository in the world oceans. Trends towards lower oxygen and higher nutrients in waters below the surface layer (the pycnocline) have been observed in recent decades. We assess these trends using data from four programs and suggest the enrichment of pycnocline nitrate (200 Gmol y-1) is essential in keeping supply to the surface ocean constant, despite increasing upper ocean stratification. A nitrate budget helps identify possible vertical processes that could account for nutrient redistribution. We hypothesize that warming and oxygen loss in the deeper pycnocline, arising from ice loss in the Okhotsk Sea, have initiated a largely vertical redistribution of nutrients due to compression of vertical migrator habitat and/or changes in dissolution of sinking particulates. Coupled climate-ecosystem models will need to incorporate these processes to more fully understand projected changes in the subarctic Pacific.

Whitney, Frank A.; Bograd, Steven J.; Ono, Tsuneo

2013-05-01

255

Enrichment Factors of Perfluoroalkyl Anionic Surfactants at the Air/water Interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The refractory, water-bound perfluoro-n-alkyl carboxylate (n-PFC-) and sulfonate (n- PFS-) surfactants reach remote locations hydrologically unconnected to their sources via hitherto unknown processes. Here we quantify the enrichment of these anions in microdroplets produced by aerosolization of 1 M aqueous surfactant solutions at pH 7 using sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry. Relative enrichment factors fsteeply increase from n= 1 to 3, level off at f(n-PFS-) ~ 2.3 f(n-PFC-) ~ 190 f(Br-) (n ? 8), and display even-odd effects. The preferential enrichment of n-PFS- over n-PFC- reflects a larger headgroup. The hyperbolic, rather than the predicted linear ln fvs. ndependence suggests the onset of conformational restrictions to interfacial enrichment above n ~ 3. Marine aerosols produced from contaminated ocean surface waters are thus expected to be highly enriched in PFC-s/PFS-s. The monotonic accumulation of 8-PFS- and PFC-s in East and, less pronouncedly, in West Greenland biomarkers is therefore consistent with the deposition of marine aerosol drawn from contaminated North American Current waters and transported westward by predominant easterlies. The analogous trend for PFC-s in Canadian Arctic biota vis-a-vis the rapid decline of 8-PFS- after 2000 suggest that the fresher Labrador Sea does not sustain a similar process over this region.

Hoffmann, M. R.; Colussi, A. J.; Cheng, J.

2009-04-01

256

Optimum operating conditions for a laser uranium enrichment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operating conditions of the laser uranium enrichment plant to obtain cheaper enriched uranium are optimised by using the standard optimisation procedure. A simple kinetic model is given to obtain the ion production rate as a function of the laser energy density, ultraviolet light energy density, atomic density and depth and height of the reaction region. The unit cost of enriched

Kimio Yamada; Norihiko Ozaki; Manabu Yamamoto; Kiichi Ueyanagi

1977-01-01

257

Data Enrichment using Web APIs Karthik Gomadam1  

E-print Network

. In this paper, we present the data enrichment framework, a tool that uses data mining and other semantic- tasks of data enrichment. The framework uses a combi- nation of data mining and semantic technologiesData Enrichment using Web APIs Karthik Gomadam1 , Peter Z. Yeh1 , Kunal Verma1 , John A. Miller2 1

Miller, John A.

258

An enriched knowledge model for formal ontological analysis  

E-print Network

analysis and it results from enriching the usual conceptual model with semantic information which precisely structure. Moreover, this enriched semantics facilitates the development of reasoning mechanismsAn enriched knowledge model for formal ontological analysis Valentina A.M. Tamma & Trevor Bench

Atkinson, Katie

259

Metadata Enrichment Services for the Europeana Digital Library  

E-print Network

to the digital object itself. Enriching the semantics of a MR has thus a beneficial effect on the entire spec to enrich the semantics of its own MRs prior to contributing them to Europeana. Different CPs are thusMetadata Enrichment Services for the Europeana Digital Library Giacomo Berardi1 , Andrea Esuli1

Sebastiani, Fabrizio

260

PAH Degradation and Bioaugmentation by a Marine Methanotrophic Enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanotrophic bacteria were enriched from marine sediments and screened for their ability to biotransform polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Characterization of the methanotrophic enrichment showed that it was dominated by a Type I methanotroph, although significant amounts of 18:1 fatty acids were detected, suggesting the presence of Type II methanotrophs in marine systems. The methanotrophic enrichment degraded phenanthrene, anthracene, and fluorene

Karl J. Rockne; H. David Stensel; Russell P. Herwig; Stuart E. Strand

1998-01-01

261

Public perceptions of behavioral enrichment: Assumptions gone awry  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 Brookfield Zoo, Brookfield, Illinois More and more, zoos are integrating behavioral enrichment programs into their management routines. Given the newness of such programs on an official level, however, there are an increasing number of enrichment decisions based on as- sumption. Enrichment is typically not provided on exhibit, especially for exhib- its considered to be more naturalistic, because it is

M. E. McPhee; J. S. Foster; M. Sevenich; C. D. Saunders

1998-01-01

262

Preparation and characterization of carbon-enriched coal fly ash.  

PubMed

Carbon-enriched fractions have been obtained from two coal fly ash (FA) samples. The FA came from two pulverized-coal fired power stations (Lada and Escucha, Spain) and were collected from baghouse filters. Sieving was used to obtain carbon-enriched fractions, which were further subjected to two beneficiation processes: acid demineralization using HCl and HF, and oil agglomeration using soya oil-water. Yield in weight after sieving, unburned carbon content, and several physicochemical characteristics of the obtained fractions were used to compare the performance of the beneficiation methods. Low carbon concentration was obtained by sieving, particularly in the case of Escucha FA. However, after acid demineralization or oil agglomeration, fractions containing unburned carbon in a range of 63% to 68% were obtained. These fractions showed differences in mineral phase composition and distribution depending on the FA and on the beneficiation method used. The textural properties of the obtained fractions varied as a function of their carbon content and the beneficiation method used. However, no significant differences in morphology of the carbonaceous particles were found. PMID:17826888

Rubio, B; Izquierdo, M T; Mayoral, M C; Bona, M T; Martnez-Tarazona, R M

2008-09-01

263

Paradox of enrichment: A fractional differential approach with memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paradox of enrichment (PoE) proposed by Rosenzweig [M. Rosenzweig, The paradox of enrichment, Science 171 (1971) 385-387] is still a fundamental problem in ecology. Most of the solutions have been proposed at an individual species level of organization and solutions at community level are lacking. Knowledge of how learning and memory modify behavioral responses to species is a key factor in making a crucial link between species and community levels. PoE resolution via these two organizational levels can be interpreted as a microscopic- and macroscopic-level solution. Fractional derivatives provide an excellent tool for describing this memory and the hereditary properties of various materials and processes. The derivatives can be physically interpreted via two time scales that are considered simultaneously: the ideal, equably flowing homogeneous local time, and the cosmic (inhomogeneous) non-local time. Several mechanisms and theories have been proposed to resolve the PoE problem, but a universally accepted theory is still lacking because most studies have focused on local effects and ignored non-local effects, which capture memory. Here we formulate the fractional counterpart of the Rosenzweig model and analyze the stability behavior of a system. We conclude that there is a threshold for the memory effect parameter beyond which the Rosenzweig model is stable and may be used as a potential agent to resolve PoE from a new perspective via fractional differential equations.

Rana, Sourav; Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi; Pal, Joydeep; N'Gurkata, Gaston M.; Chattopadhyay, Joydev

2013-09-01

264

Genesis of gypsum enriched soils in north-west Isfahan, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of gypsum-enriched soils in Isfahan and neighboring provinces occur on alluvial fans, dissected flood plains (old dissected alluvium)and piedmont plains. Herein we investigate the processes of formation and alteration of gypsic horizons and their pedofeatures. We described and sampled representative pedons on a transect from the mountain to the piedmont plain. In the study area, different gypsic pedofeatures have

Norair Toomanian; Ahmad Jalalian; Mostafa Karimian Eghbal

2001-01-01

265

Automatically Grounding Semantically-enriched Conceptual Models to Concrete Web Services  

E-print Network

Automatically Grounding Semantically-enriched Conceptual Models to Concrete Web Services Eran Toch semantic Web services. We envision a world in which a designer defines a "virtual" Web service as part of a business process, while requiring the system to seek actual Web services that match the specifi- cations

Gal, Avigdor

266

Surface Analysis of Stratospheric Particles with TOF-SIMS: Bromine Enrichments Due to Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile element enrichments compared to CI abundances in stratospheric interplanetary dust particles especially for Br have been interpreted as due to atmospheric contamination processes [1] or, less substantiated, as being indicative for a new type of chondritic material [2, 3]. Although only little is known about the actual Br concentration in the stratosphere, it is well accepted that halogens play

T. Stephan; D. Rost; E. K. Jessberger

1995-01-01

267

Trace element evolution in the Phlegrean Fields (Central Italy): fractional crystallization and selective enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace element analysis of Phlegrean Fields volcanic products shows that they belong to a homogeneous series whose evolution is due mainly to fractional crystallization. However quantitative modelling of crystal fractionation using measured mineral\\/groundmass and computed bulk distribution coefficients singles out K, Sb, Cl and F as elements which are selectively enriched in the differentiation process with respect to proven hygromagmaphile

Benoit Villemant; CNRS UA

1988-01-01

268

Oxidative weathering chemical migration under variably saturated conditions and supergene copper enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport of oxygen gas from the land surface through an unsaturated zone has a strong influence on oxidative weathering processes. Oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS), one of the most common naturally occurring minerals, is the primary source of acid drainage from mines and waste rock piles. Here we present a detailed numerical model of supergene copper enrichment

Tianfu Xu; K. Pruess; G. Brimhall

1999-01-01

269

Building Learning Communities for Research Collaboration and Cross-Cultural Enrichment in Science Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GLOBE program has provided opportunities for environmental science research and education collaborations among scientists, teachers and K-12 students, and for cross-cultural enrichment nationally and abroad. In Alaska, GLOBE has also provided funding leverage in some cases, and a base for several other science education programs that share a common goal of increasing student interest, understanding, process skills and achievement

E. B. Sparrow

2003-01-01

270

Enrichment and Purification of Total Chlorogenic Acids from Tobacco Waste Extract with Macroporous Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, an evaluation was conducted on the performance and separation characteristics of nine macroporous resins for the enrichment and purification of total chlorogenic acids from tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum L.) waste extracts. Based on the results, XAD-4 offered higher adsorption and desorption capacities for total chlorogenic acids than other resins. To optimize the separation process of total chlorogenic

Zhao Hui; Wang Jun; Jia Jing; Liu Ji; Ling Xiuquan; Lu Dingqiang

2010-01-01

271

iweightings: Enhancing Structure-based Ontology Alignment by Enriching Models with Importance Weighting  

E-print Network

of relationships among concepts conducted by ontology engineers during the ontology development process. Our in distributed and open systems as, for instance, the Semantic Web. Moreover, ontology engineers may followiweightings: Enhancing Structure-based Ontology Alignment by Enriching Models with Importance

272

Odour enrichment increases adult-born dopaminergic neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb.  

PubMed

The olfactory bulb (OB) is the first brain region involved in the processing of olfactory information. In adult mice, the OB is highly plastic, undergoing cellular/molecular dynamic changes that are modulated by sensory experience. Odour deprivation induces down-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in OB dopaminergic interneurons located in the glomerular layer (GL), resulting in decreased dopamine in the OB. Although the effect of sensory deprivation is well established, little is known about the influence of odour enrichment on dopaminergic cells. Here we report that prolonged odour enrichment on C57BL/6J strain mice selectively increases TH-immunopositive cells in the GL by nearly 20%. Following odour enrichment on TH-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice, in which GFP identified both mature TH-positive cells and putative immature dopaminergic cells expressing TH mRNA but not TH protein, we found a similar 20% increase in GFP-expressing cells, with no changes in the ratio between TH-positive and TH-negative cells. These data suggest that enriched conditions induce an expansion in the whole dopaminergic lineage. Accordingly, by using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine injections to label adult-generated cells in the GL of TH-GFP mice, we found an increase in the percentage of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-positive dopaminergic cells in enriched compared with control conditions, whereas no differences were found for calretinin- and calbindin-positive subtypes. Strikingly, the fraction of newborn cells among the dopaminergic population doubled in enriched conditions. On the whole, our results demonstrate that odour enrichment drives increased integration of adult-generated dopaminergic cells that could be critical to adapt the OB circuits to the environmental incoming information. PMID:25216299

Bonzano, Sara; Bovetti, Serena; Fasolo, Aldo; Peretto, Paolo; De Marchis, Silvia

2014-11-01

273

Enrichments of Cellulolytic Communities from Diverse Natural Sources Using a Novel Selection System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to ensure a sustainable future and curb carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels, it is imperative to develop a cost-competitive manufacturing process for an alternative liquid fuel with low life cycle greenhouse gas emissions. A potential route towards this sustainable future is the large-scale production of fuels derived from plant biomass, biofuels. A major step for the biological conversion of biomass to fuel is the solubilization and utilization of cellulose. However, lignocellulose is a recalcitrant material, and has evolved to resist microbial degradation. Studying cellulolytic communities from nature can reveal the mechanisms by which organisms can utilize lignocellulose, and also reveal the conditions that facilitate the fastest possible rates of cellulose utilization. This thesis used an Automated Repetitive Batch (ARB) system to perform enrichments of cellulolytic communities to test if cellulolytic communities from diverse sources could be reproducibly enriched for rapid cellulose utilization. This thesis first developed a robust method for reproducibly enriching cellulolytic communities in the ARB system with a single environmental source. Using this method, this research then investigated if cellulolytic communities could be enriched for rapid cellulose utilization from different inoculum sources. In all reproducible enrichments, this thesis then confirmed the use of carbon dioxide as a real time proxy for cellulose utilization based on end product analysis. This thesis showed that the ARB system could yield cellulolytic communities capable of rapid cellulose utilization from diverse environmental sources, and laid a strong foundation for determining whether or not these different sources can be enriched to yield functionally similar cellulolytic communities. The work from this thesis also suggests that fermentation conditions, rather than source material, play a more important role in determining enriched community performance.

Ludwig, Evan Joel

274

Surplus Highly Enriched Uranium Disposition Program plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide upper level guidance for the program that will downblend surplus highly enriched uranium for use as commercial nuclear reactor fuel or low-level radioactive waste. The intent of this document is to outline the overall mission and program objectives. The document is also intended to provide a general basis for integration of disposition efforts among all applicable sites. This plan provides background information, establishes the scope of disposition activities, provides an approach to the mission and objectives, identifies programmatic assumptions, defines major roles, provides summary level schedules and milestones, and addresses budget requirements.

NONE

1996-10-01

275

SRP thorium processing experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the five separate thorium processing campaigns conducted at SRP, thorium was processed in equipment and facilities which had been converted in 1959 to recover highly enriched uranium. Two different flowsheets were used and a total of approximately 240 tons of thorium and 580 kg of uranium was processed. In the first two campaigns (initial campaigns), uranium was recovered with

Orth

1978-01-01

276

Selective Recovery of Enriched Uranium from Inorganic Wastes  

SciTech Connect

Uranium as U(IV) and U(VI) can be selectively recovered from liquids and sludge containing metal precipitates, inorganic salts, sand and silt fines, debris, other contaminants, and slimes, which are very difficult to de-water. Chemical processes such as fuel manufacturing and uranium mining generate enriched and natural uranium-bearing wastes. This patented Framatome ANP (FANP) uranium recovery process reduces uranium losses, significantly offsets waste disposal costs, produces a solid waste that meets mixed-waste disposal requirements, and does not generate metal-contaminated liquids. At the head end of the process is a floating dredge that retrieves liquids, sludge, and slimes in the form of a slurry directly from the floor of a lined surface impoundment (lagoon). The slurry is transferred to and mixed in a feed tank with a turbine mixer and re-circulated to further break down the particles and enhance dissolution of uranium. This process uses direct steam injection and sodium hypochlorite addition to oxidize and dissolves any U(IV). Cellulose is added as a non-reactive filter aid to help filter slimes by giving body to the slurry. The slurry is pumped into a large recessed-chamber filter press then de-watered by a pressure cycle-controlled double-diaphragm pump. U(VI) captured in the filtrate from this process is then precipitated by conversion to U(IV) in another Framatome ANP-patented process which uses a strong reducing agent to crystallize and settle the U(IV) product. The product is then dewatered in a small filter press. To-date, over 3,000 Kgs of U at 3% U-235 enrichment were recovered from a 8100 m2 hypalon-lined surface impoundment which contained about 10,220 m3 of liquids and about 757 m3 of sludge. A total of 2,175 drums (0.208 m3 or 55 gallon each) of solid mixed-wastes have been packaged, shipped, and disposed. In addition, 9463 m3 of low-U liquids at <0.001 KgU/m3 were also further processed and disposed.

Kimura, R. T.

2003-02-26

277

Enriching semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining in big data applications  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a novel method for contextualizing and enriching large semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining with a focus on Web intelligence platforms and other high-throughput big data applications. The method is not only applicable to traditional sentiment lexicons, but also to more comprehensive, multi-dimensional affective resources such as SenticNet. It comprises the following steps: (i) identify ambiguous sentiment terms, (ii) provide context information extracted from a domain-specific training corpus, and (iii) ground this contextual information to structured background knowledge sources such as ConceptNet and WordNet. A quantitative evaluation shows a significant improvement when using an enriched version of SenticNet for polarity classification. Crowdsourced gold standard data in conjunction with a qualitative evaluation sheds light on the strengths and weaknesses of the concept grounding, and on the quality of the enrichment process.

Weichselbraun, A.; Gindl, S.; Scharl, A.

2014-01-01

278

Enrichment method of sulfated glycopeptides by a sulfate emerging and ion exchange chromatography.  

PubMed

Sulfated glycoproteins are of growing importance for biomarker discovery, as well as for investigating molecular recognition processes. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful technique for the characterization of glycans and glycoproteins. However, characterization and detection of sulfated glycopeptides by MS is difficult because of the low abundance and low ionization efficiency of these molecules. To overcome this problem, we developed a novel enrichment procedure for sulfated glycopeptides. The procedure consists of anion exchange chromatography and a sulfate emerging (SE) method which controls the net charge of peptides by utilizing limited proteolyzes and modification with acetohydrazide. Using this procedure, we are able to enrich and characterize the sulfated glycopeptides of bovine luteinizing hormone (bLH). Furthermore, we demonstrate the enrichment and detection of sulfated glycopeptides from a complex mixture comprising human serum spiked with bLH at a concentration of 0.1%. PMID:19572564

Toyoda, Masaaki; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Kameyama, Akihiko

2009-08-01

279

Enhancement of cognitive function in models of brain disease through environmental enrichment and physical activity.  

PubMed

This review will provide an overview of the non-drug based approaches that have been demonstrated to enhance cognitive function of the compromised brain, primarily focussed on the two most widely adopted paradigms of environmental enrichment and enhanced physical exercise. Environmental enrichment involves the generation of novelty and complexity in animal housing conditions which facilitates enhanced sensory and cognitive stimulation as well as physical activity. In a wide variety of animal models of brain disorders, environmental enrichment and exercise have been found to have beneficial effects, including cognitive enhancement, delayed disease onset, enhanced cellular plasticity and associated molecular processes. Potential cellular and molecular mechanisms will also be discussed, which have relevance for the future development of 'enviromimetics', drugs which could mimic or enhance the beneficial effects of environmental stimulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. PMID:22766390

Pang, Terence Y C; Hannan, Anthony J

2013-01-01

280

Galaxy formation and chemical enrichment using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structure formation in the Universe is inherently a nonlinear physical process, and the field of computational cosmology aims to study its time evolution throughout the history of the Universe as self-consistently as possible. Cosmological hydrodynamic simulations have gone through two major revolutions over the last two decades, and now starting to go through the third one via more frequent usage of zoom-in technique. In the first part of this article, I briefly review the history of computational cosmology. In the second part, I discuss the results of recent work on the feedback effects and chemical enrichment, which is one of the main topics of this OMEG12 conference. Finally, I describe the new steps that the numerical community is taking; namely the numerical simulation comparison projects such as the AGORA project.

Nagamine, Kentaro

2014-05-01

281

Systems approach used in the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant  

SciTech Connect

A requirement exists for effective and efficient transfer of technical knowledge from the design engineering team to the production work force. Performance-Based Training (PBT) is a systematic approach to the design, development, and implementation of technical training. This approach has been successfully used by the US Armed Forces, industry, and other organizations. The advantages of the PBT approach are: cost-effectiveness (lowest life-cycle training cost), learning effectiveness, reduced implementation time, and ease of administration. The PBT process comprises five distinctive and rigorous phases: Analysis of Job Performance, Design of Instructional Strategy, Development of Training Materials and Instructional Media, Validation of Materials and Media, and Implementation of the Instructional Program. Examples from the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) are used to illustrate the application of PBT.

Rooks, W.A. Jr.

1982-01-01

282

Affinity enrichment of bovine lactoferrin in whey.  

PubMed

Bovine lactoferrin was enriched in various whey samples by affinity chromatography using immobilized gangliosides. Bovine gangliosides were isolated from fresh buttermilk using a combination of ultrafiltration and organic extraction. Isolated gangliosides were covalently immobilized onto controlled-pore glass beads. The immobilized matrix contained 66 micrograms of gangliosides per gram of beads. After loading the matrix with reconstituted whey protein isolate (WPI) or whey protein concentrate (WPC), the matrix was washed with sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7) followed by sodium acetate buffer (pH 4) before elution of lactoferrin with 1 M NaCl in sodium acetate buffer. From the intensities of the protein bands in SDS-PAGE, lactoferrin constituted a minimum of 40% of the total protein in the salt eluted sample. WPI, pretrated by heating and ultrafiltration, showed the highest lactoferrin purity among protein sources, while WPI (10% wt/vol) showed the highest recovery. These results show that immobilized gangliosides can be used to enrich the lactoferrin content of whey. PMID:11513089

Walsh, M K; Nam, S H

2001-08-01

283

Bioencapsulation strategy and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) enrichment in Artemia franciscana nauplii by using marine trash fish Odonus niger liver oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the maximum accumulation of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in Artemia franciscana nauplii through bioencapsulation process, five different concentrations (0 - 4%) of emulsified Odonus niger liver oil were prepared. The prepared emulsions were used to enrich A. franciscana at different time intervals of 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. After the enrichment period, the fatty acid composition

G. Immanuel; T. Citarasu; V. Sivaram; V. Selva Shankar; A. Palavesam

284

Feedback and metal enrichment in cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations - I. A model for chemical enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss a model for treating chemical enrichment by Type II and Type Ia super- nova (SNII and SNIa) explosions in simulations of cosmological structure formation. Our model includes metal-dependent radiative cooling and star formation in dense collapsed gas clumps. Metals are returned into the diffuse interstellar medium by star particles using a local smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) smoothing kernel.

C. Scannapieco; P. B. Tissera; S. D. M. White; V. Springel

2005-01-01

285

Enrichment of microbial cultures able to degrade 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol: a comparison between batch and continuous methods.  

PubMed

Microbial cultures able to degrade xenobiotic compounds are the key element for biological treatment of waste effluents and are obtained from enrichment processes. In this study, two common enrichment methods, suspension batch and immobilized continuous, were compared. The main selection factor was the presence of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) as the single carbon source. Both methods have successfully enriched microbial consortia able to degrade 1,3-DCP. When tested in batch culture, the degradation rates of 1,3-DCP by the two consortia were different, with the consortia obtained by batch enrichment presenting slightly higher rates. A preliminary morphological and biochemical analysis of the predominant colonial types present in each degrading consortia revealed the presence of different constituting strains. Three bacterial isolates capable of degrading 1,3-DCP as single strains were obtained from the batch enrichments. These strains were classified by 16S rRNA analysis as belonging to the Rhizobiaceae group. Degradation rates of 1,3-DCP were lower when single species were used, reaching 45 mg 1(-1) d(-1), as compared to 74 mg 1(-1) d(-1) of the consortia enriched on the batch method. Mutualistic interactions may explain the better performance of the enriched consortia. PMID:12498218

Bastos, Filipe; Bessa, Jos; Pacheco, Catarina C; De Marco, Paolo; Castro, Paula M L; Silva, Manuel; Jorge, Ruben Ferreira

2002-01-01

286

Gender-Dependent Effects of Enriched Environment and Social Isolation in Ischemic Retinal Lesion in Adult Rats  

PubMed Central

Exposure to an enriched environment has been shown to have many positive effects on brain structure and function. Numerous studies have proven that enriched environment can reduce the lesion induced by toxic and traumatic injuries. Impoverished environment, on the other hand, can have deleterious effects on the outcome of neuronal injuries. We have previously shown that enriched conditions have protective effects in retinal injury in newborn rats. It is well-known that the efficacy of neuroprotective strategies can depend on age and gender. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to examine the effects of environmental enrichment and social isolation in retinal ischemia. We used bilateral common carotid artery occlusion to induce retinal hypoperfusion in adult Wistar rats of both genders. Groups were housed in standard, enriched or impoverished conditions. Impoverished environment was induced by social isolation. Retinas were processed for histological analysis after two weeks of survival. In the present study, we show that (1) enriched environment has protective effects in adult ischemic retinal lesion, while (2) impoverished environment further increases the degree of ischemic injury, and (3) that these environmental effects are gender-dependent: females are less responsive to the positive effects of environmental enrichment and more vulnerable to retinal ischemia in social isolation. In summary, our present study shows that the effects of both positive and negative environmental stimuli are gender-dependent in ischemic retinal lesions. PMID:23921682

Kiss, Peter; Szabadfi, Krisztina; Horvath, Gabor; Tamas, Andrea; Farkas, Jozsef; Gabriel, Robert; Reglodi, Dora

2013-01-01

287

Rare-earth elements enrichment of Pacific seafloor sediments: the view from volcanic islands of Polynesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare-earth elements (REEs) are key metals for green technologies such as energy saving lamps or permanent magnets used in, e.g., wind turbines, hard disk drives, portable phone or electric or hybrid vehicles. Since several years, world demand for these metals is therefore drastically increasing. The quasi-monopolistic position of China, which produces around 95 % of global REEs production, generates risks for the industries that depend on a secure supply of REEs. In response, countries are developing and diversifying their supply sources, with new mining projects located outside China and efforts in the area of REEs recycling. Most of these projects focus on deposits related to carbonatites and alkaline-peralkaline magmatism, which are generally enriched in light REEs (LREEs) compared to the heavy REEs (HREEs)-enriched deposits of the ion-adsorption types, located in southern China. However, a recent study revealed new valuable resources corresponding to seafloor sediments located in the south-eastern and north-central Pacific. The deep-sea mud described by these authors show a higher HREE/LREE ratio than ion-adsorption deposits, a feature which significantly increases their economic interest. The authors suggest mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal activity as an explanation to this anomalous enrichment. However, several contributions have documented considerable REEs enrichment in basalts and peridotitic xenoliths from French Polynesia. Several arguments have been exposed in favour of a supergene origin, with a short migration, suggesting that REEs were collected from weathered basalts. The Tahaa volcanic island (Sous-le-Vent Island, Society Archipelago, French Polynesia) is the first location where such enrichment has been described. New petrographic and mineralogical investigations confirm a supergene mobilization of this abnormal occurrence. REE-bearing minerals (mainly phosphates of the rhabdophane group) are primarily located within basalt vesicles but also in crack that cross-cut the calcite filling the vesicles or the volcanic glass. They are also closely associated with Ni-Mg bearing phyllosilicates, which appear to nucleate from alteration of olivine and clinopyroxenes. Further investigations are done to evidence and confirm an anterior magmatic enrichment. On the basis of these observations, we believe that the anomalous enrichment observed in seafloor sediments could derive from abnormally-rich provinces corresponding to aerial basaltic formations from oceanic islands primarily enriched during weathering processes (Melleton et al., 2014). Melleton et al. (2014). Rare-earth elements enrichment of Pacific sea-floor sediments: the view from volcanic islands of Polynesia. In preparation.

Melleton, Jrmie; Tuduri, Johann; Pourret, Olivier; Bailly, Laurent; Gisbert, Thierry

2014-05-01

288

Assuaging Nuclear Energy Risks: The Angarsk International Uranium Enrichment Center  

SciTech Connect

The recent nuclear renaissance has motivated many countries, especially developing nations, to plan and build nuclear power reactors. However, domestic low enriched uranium demands may trigger nations to construct indigenous enrichment facilities, which could be redirected to fabricate high enriched uranium for nuclear weapons. The potential advantages of establishing multinational uranium enrichment sites are numerous including increased low enrichment uranium access with decreased nuclear proliferation risks. While multinational nuclear initiatives have been discussed, Russia is the first nation to actualize this concept with their Angarsk International Uranium Enrichment Center (IUEC). This paper provides an overview of the historical and modern context of the multinational nuclear fuel cycle as well as the evolution of Russia's IUEC, which exemplifies how international fuel cycle cooperation is an alternative to domestic facilities.

Myers, Astasia [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA and MonAme Scientific Research Center, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

2011-06-28

289

Detection of symmetry-enriched topological phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topologically ordered systems in the presence of symmetries can exhibit new structures which are referred to as symmetry-enriched topological (SET) phases. We introduce simple methods to detect certain SET orders directly from a complete set of topologically degenerate ground-state wave functions. In particular, we first show how to directly determine the characteristic symmetry fractionalization of the quasiparticles from the reduced density matrix of the minimally entangled states. Second, we show how a simple generalization of a nonlocal order parameter can be measured to detect SET phases. The usefulness of the proposed approach is demonstrated by examining two concrete model states which exhibit SET phases: (i) a spin-1 model on the honeycomb lattice and (ii) the resonating valence bond (RVB) state on a kagome lattice. We conclude that the spin-1 model and the RVB state are in the same SET phases.

Huang, Ching-Yu; Chen, Xie; Pollmann, Frank

2014-07-01

290

Mineralization of Trichloroethylene by Heterotrophic Enrichment Cultures  

PubMed Central

Microbial consortia capable of aerobically degrading more than 99% of exogenous trichloroethylene (TCE) (50 mg/liter) were collected from TCE-contaminated subsurface sediments and grown in enrichment cultures. TCE at concentrations greater than 300 mg/liter was not degraded, nor was TCE used by the consortia as a sole energy source. Energy sources which permitted growth included tryptone-yeast extract, methanol, methane, and propane. The optimum temperature range for growth and subsequent TCE consumption was 22 to 37C, and the pH optimum was 7.0 to 8.1. Utilization of TCE occurred only after apparent microbial growth had ceased. The major end products recovered were hydrochloric acid and carbon dioxide. Minor products included dichloroethylene, vinylidine chloride, and, possibly, chloroform. PMID:16347682

Fliermans, C. B.; Phelps, T. J.; Ringelberg, D.; Mikell, A. T.; White, D. C.

1988-01-01

291

Enriched Storable Oxidizers for Rocket Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The name "enriched storable oxidizers" (ESOs) has been coined for a family of optimized mixtures of between two and four oxidizer fluids. For most applications, the constituents of these mixtures would be nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2); in some applications, the mixtures might include inhibited red fuming nitric acid [IRFN (which consists of red fuming nitric acid to which some hydrogen fluoride is added to reduce its corrosive effect]. The optimum proportions of these constituents would be different for different applications. ESOs were originally proposed for use in spacecraft and launch-rocket propulsion systems: ESOs could be especially useful in advanced spacecraft propulsion systems that could operate in multiple modes. ESOs might also be useful in special terrestrial applications that could include ramjet and scramjet aircraft engines.

Sackheim, R. L.; Herdy, J. R., Jr.

2010-01-01

292

Ultraheavy Element Enrichment in Impulsive Solar Flares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle acceleration by cascading Alfvn wave turbulence was suggested as being responsible for energetic particle populations in 3He-rich solar flares. In particular, it was noted that the damping of the turbulence by the tail of the particle distribution in rigidity naturally leads to the dramatic enhancement of a pre-accelerated speciesas 3He is posited to beand superheavy elements. The subsequent detection of large enrichment of ultraheavies, relative to iron, has apparently confirmed this prediction, lending support to the original idea. It is shown here that this picture could be somewhat sharpened by progress in understanding the three-dimensional geometrical details of cascading Alfvn turbulence. The mechanism may be relevant in other astrophysical environments where the source of turbulence is nonmagnetic, such as clusters of galaxies.

Eichler, David

2014-10-01

293

Uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund  

SciTech Connect

One of the most challenging issues facing the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management is the cleanup of the three gaseous diffusion plants. In October 1992, Congress passed the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and established the Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund to accomplish this task. This mission is being undertaken in an environmentally and financially responsible way by: devising cost-effective technical solutions; producing realistic life-cycle cost estimates, based on practical assumptions and thorough analysis; generating coherent long-term plans which are based on risk assessments, land use, and input from stakeholders; and, showing near-term progress in the cleanup of the gaseous diffusion facilities at Oak Ridge.

NONE

1994-12-31

294

Food webs of two intermittently open estuaries receiving 15N-enriched sewage effluent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signatures were used to assess the response of food webs to sewage effluent discharged into two small intermittently open estuaries in northern New South Wales, Australia. One of these systems, Tallows Creek, has a history of direct sewage inputs, whilst the other, Belongil Creek, receives wastewater via an extensive wetland treatment system. The food webs of both systems were driven by algal sources of carbon, reflecting high autotrophic productivity in response to the nutrients entering the system from sewage effluent. All aquatic biota collected from Tallows Creek had significantly enriched ?15N signatures relative to their conspecifics from Belongil Creek, indicating that sewage nitrogen had been assimilated and transferred throughout the Tallows Creek food web. These ?15N values were higher than those reported from studies in permanently open estuaries receiving sewage effluent. We suggest that these enriched signatures and the transfer of nitrogen throughout the entire food web reflect differences in hydrology and associated nitrogen cycling processes between permanently open and intermittently open estuaries. Although all organisms in Tallows Creek were generally 15N-enriched, isotopically light (less 15N-enriched) individuals of estuary perchlet ( Ambassis marianus) and sea mullet ( Mugil cephalus) were also collected. These individuals were most likely recent immigrants into Tallows Creek, as this system had only recently been opened to the ocean. This isotopic discrimination between resident (enriched) and immigrant (significantly less enriched) individuals can provide information on fish movement patterns and the role of heavily polluted intermittently open estuaries in supporting commercially and recreationally valuable estuarine species.

Hadwen, Wade L.; Arthington, Angela H.

2007-01-01

295

A Method for Selective Enrichment and Analysis of Nitrotyrosine-Containing Peptides in Complex Proteome Samples  

SciTech Connect

Elevated levels of protein tyrosine nitration have been found in various neurodegenerative diseases and aging related pathologies; however, the lack of an efficient enrichment method has prevented the analysis of this important low level protein modification. We have developed an efficient method for specific enrichment of nitrotyrosine containing peptides that permits nitrotyrosine peptides and specific nitration sites to be unambiguously identified with LC-MS/MS. The method is based on the derivatization of nitrotyrosine into free sulfhydryl groups followed by high efficiency enrichment of sulfhydryl-containing peptides with thiopropyl sepharose beads. The derivatization process starts with acetylation with acetic anhydride to block all primary amines, followed by reduction of nitrotyrosine to aminotyrosine, then derivatization of aminotyrosine with N-Succinimidyl S-Acetylthioacetate (SATA), and finally deprotecting of S-acetyl on SATA to form free sulfhydryl groups. This method was evaluated using nitrotyrosine containing peptides, in-vitro nitrated human histone 1.2, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). 91% and 62% of the identified peptides from enriched histone and BSA samples were nitrotyrosine derivatized peptides, respectively, suggesting relative high specificity of the enrichment method. The application of this method to in-vitro nitrated mouse brain homogenate resulted in 35% of identified peptides containing nitrotyrosine (compared to only 5.9% observed from the global analysis of unenriched sample), and a total of 150 unique nitrated peptides covering 102 proteins were identified with a false discovery rate estimated at 3.3% from duplicate LC-MS/MS analyses of a single enriched sample.

Zhang, Qibin; Qian, Weijun; Knyushko, Tanya V.; Clauss, Therese RW; Purvine, Samuel O.; Moore, Ronald J.; Sacksteder, Colette A.; Chin, Mark H.; Smith, Desmond J.; Camp, David G.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Smith, Richard D.

2007-06-01

296

Nutrient enrichment and the role of salt marshes in the Tagus estuary (Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eutrophication is one of the most common impacts of nutrient enrichment on coastal ecosystems. Since there is a wide ecosystem response variety in scale, intensity and impact to nutrient enrichment, the loading required to produce eutrophication symptoms to each system is also variable. In estuaries and coastal zones salt marsh primary producers have received less attention, mainly because salt marsh dominated systems are considered less sensitive to nutrient enrichment and, for that reason, their response is slower and more difficult to quantify. Salt marshes have been considered as major attenuators of the effects of nitrogen enrichment in several coastal systems, and are indicated as a measure of the system susceptibility to nutrient enrichment. The main goal of the present work is to discuss the role of salt marsh vegetation in the nutrient dynamics of coastal systems and in the nutrient enrichment process. For these purposes salt marsh vegetation growth in the Tagus estuary is described through a mathematical model which includes the simulation of the nutrient dynamics through the sediment-water interface and the uptake kinetics by the vascular plants. An analysis of the role of salt marsh vegetation on the nutrient dynamics of the Tagus estuary is carried out through the discussion of the model results and comparison with data obtained for other primary producers in the system. The results indicate that C 4 salt marsh plants have the highest productivity, followed by seaweeds. The total net production of salt marsh plants and is about 12,600 ton C yr -1, accounting for 25% of the total primary production within the system.

Simas, T. C.; Ferreira, J. G.

2007-11-01

297

Environmental enrichment influences neuronal stem cells in the adult crayfish brain  

PubMed Central

New neurons are incorporated throughout life into the brains of many vertebrate and non-vertebrate species. This process of adult neurogenesis is regulated by a variety of external and endogenous factors, including environmental enrichment, which increases the production of neurons in juvenile mice and crayfish. The primary goal of the present study was to exploit the spatial separation of the neuronal precursor cell lineage in crayfish to determine which generation(s) of precursors is altered by environmental conditions. Further, in crayfish, an intimate relationship between the 1st generation neuronal precursors (stem cells) and cells circulating in the hemolymph has been proposed (Zhang et al., 2009). Therefore, a second goal was to assess whether environmental enrichment alters the numbers or types of cells circulating in the hemolymph. We find that neurogenesis in the brains of sexually differentiated procambarid crayfish is enhanced by environmental enrichment as previously demonstrated by Sandeman and Sandeman (2000) in young, sexually undifferentiated Cherax destructor. We also show that environmental enrichment increases the cell cycle rate of neuronal stem cells. While there was no effect of environment on the overall numbers of cells circulating in the hemolymph, enrichment resulted in increased expression of glutamine synthetase, a marker of the neuronal stem cells, in a small percentage of circulating cells; there was little or no expression of this enzyme in hemolymph cells extracted from deprived animals. Thus, environmental enrichment influences the rate of neuronal stem cell division in adult crayfish, as well as the composition of cells circulating in the hemolymph. PMID:21485010

Ayub, Neishay; Benton, Jeanne L.; Zhang, Yi; Beltz, Barbara S.

2011-01-01

298

Fast determination of trace dimethyl fumarate in milk with near infrared spectroscopy following fluidized bed enrichment.  

PubMed

Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been proved to be a powerful analytical tool in different fields. However, because of the low sensitivity in near infrared region, it is a significant challenge to detect trace analytes with normal NIRS technique. A novel enrichment technique called fluidized bed enrichment has been developed recently to improve sensitivity of NIRS which allows a large volume solution to pass through within a short time. In this paper, fluidized bed enrichment method was applied in the determination of trace dimethyl fumarate in milk. Macroporous styrene resin HZ-816 was used as adsorbent material, and 1 L solution of dimethyl fumarate was run to pass through the material for concentration. The milk sample was pretreated to remove interference matters such as protein, fat, and then passed through the material for enrichment; after that, diffuse reflection NIR spectra were measured for the analyte concentrated on the material directly without any elution process. The enrichment and spectral measurement procedures were easy to operate. NIR spectra in 900-1,700 nm were collected for dimethyl fumarate solutions in the concentration range of 0.506-5.060 ?g/mL and then used for multivariate calibration with partial least squares (PLS) regression. Spectral pretreatment methods such as multiplicative scatter correction, first derivative, second derivative, and their combinations were carried out to select the optimal PLS model. Root mean square error of cross-validation calculated by leave-one-out cross-validation is 0.430 ?g/mL with ten PLS factors. Ten samples in an independent test set were predicted by the model with the mean relative error of 5.33%. From the results shown in this work, it can be concluded that the NIR technique coupled with on-line enrichment method can be expanded for the determination of trace analytes, and its applications in real liquid samples like milk and juice may also be feasible. PMID:23052880

Xie, Ya-Jie; Wang, Zhuan; Hu, Wan-Peng; Xu, Song

2012-12-01

299

Differential Response of High-Elevation Planktonic Bacterial Community Structure and Metabolism to Experimental Nutrient Enrichment  

PubMed Central

Nutrient enrichment of high-elevation freshwater ecosystems by atmospheric deposition is increasing worldwide, and bacteria are a key conduit for the metabolism of organic matter in these oligotrophic environments. We conducted two distinct in situ microcosm experiments in a high-elevation lake (Emerald Lake, Sierra Nevada, California, USA) to evaluate responses in bacterioplankton growth, carbon utilization, and community structure to short-term enrichment by nitrate and phosphate. The first experiment, conducted just following ice-off, employed dark dilution culture to directly assess the impact of nutrients on bacterioplankton growth and consumption of terrigenous dissolved organic matter during snowmelt. The second experiment, conducted in transparent microcosms during autumn overturn, examined how bacterioplankton in unmanipulated microbial communities responded to nutrients concomitant with increasing phytoplankton-derived organic matter. In both experiments, phosphate enrichment (but not nitrate) caused significant increases in bacterioplankton growth, changed particulate organic stoichiometry, and induced shifts in bacterial community composition, including consistent declines in the relative abundance of Actinobacteria. The dark dilution culture showed a significant increase in dissolved organic carbon removal in response to phosphate enrichment. In transparent microcosms nutrient enrichment had no effect on concentrations of chlorophyll, carbon, or the fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter, suggesting that bacterioplankton responses were independent of phytoplankton responses. These results demonstrate that bacterioplankton communities in unproductive high-elevation habitats can rapidly alter their taxonomic composition and metabolism in response to short-term phosphate enrichment. Our results reinforce the key role that phosphorus plays in oligotrophic lake ecosystems, clarify the nature of bacterioplankton nutrient limitation, and emphasize that evaluation of eutrophication in these habitats should incorporate heterotrophic microbial communities and processes. PMID:21483836

Nelson, Craig E.; Carlson, Craig A.

2011-01-01

300

Biomineralization of strontianite(SrCO3) by aerobic microorganisms enriched from rhodoliths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport and fate of trace metals and radionuclides in natural environments are controlled by physical, chemical, and microbiological processes. Especially, microbially induced precipitation of carbonates has drawn much attention in recent decades because of its numerous implications such as atmospheric CO2 fixation through mineral carbonation and solid phase capture of inorganic contaminants. The objectives of this study were to investigate the potential for microbially induced precipitation of strontianite (SrCO3) using microorganisms enriched from rhodoliths and to identify mineralogical characteristics of the precipitates of strontianite. Carbonate forming microorganisms were enriched from rhodoliths, which were sampled at Seogwang-ri coast in the western part of Wu Island, Jeju-do, Korea. Microorganisms enriched from rhodoliths were aerobically cultured at 25? in D-1 media containing 30 mM Sr-acetate, and the microorganisms were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene DGGE analysis to confirm microbial diversity. Mineralogical characteristics of the carbonate minerals precipitated by the enriched microorganisms were determined by XRD, TEM-EDS, and SEM-EDS analyses. A 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed the enriched microorganisms contained carbonate forming microorganisms such as Proteus mirailis. The enriched microorganisms precipitated carbonate minerals using D-1 media containing 30 mM Sr-acetate and mineralogy of the precipitate was strontianite (SrCO3). SEM/TEM-EDS analyses showed that the strontianite formed by the microorganisms had a spherical shape and consisted of mainly Sr, O and C. TEM-EDS analyses showed that the strontianite formed by the microorganisms had a rhombohedron shape and consisted of mainly Sr, O and C. These results indicate that the microorganisms induce precipitation of strontianite (SrCO3) on the cell walls and EPS via the accumulation of Sr ions on the cells. Therefore, microbial precipitation of carbonate minerals may play one of important roles in immobilization of metals and radionuclides in natural environments.

Kang, S.; Roh, Y.

2012-12-01

301

Cenozoic magmatism in the South China Basin: Decompression melting and implications of an enriched mantle source  

SciTech Connect

A widespread eposide of interplate volcanism followed the cessation of seafloor spreading in the South China Basin (SCB), affecting the South China Sea, and fringing areas of southern China and Indochina. Geochemical data for basalts from South China Sea islands and seamounts, Hainan Island, and Taiwan define an enriched (Dupal-like) mantle domain yielding oceanic island basalt (OIB) suites with {Delta}7/4Pb = 2-13, {Delta}8/4Pb = 45-73, {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr > {approximately}0.70325, Th/Ta > 2, and Th/Ba > 0.02. Opening of the SCB resulted from disaggregation of the South China block in response to the Indo-Eurasian collision, a process involving at least one seafloor spreading episode, terminated by collision of microcontinents with the Philippines and Borneo. The lack of precursive flood basalt suggests that active mantle upwelling was not involved and that melting was a passive effect of lithosphere stretching. However, while mantle decompression at ambient stretching factors ({approximately}1.7-2.5) appears to permit melting on the observed scale, the enriched source may preclude such a simple mantle dynamic. Three alternatives are considered: (1) passive melting of a mature metasomatised boundary layer, (2) active melting of thermally eroded subcontinental lithosphere (deep enrichment) or metasomatised boundary layer (shallow enrichment), and (3) relict diapirs of pre-SCB and/or Java trench subduction slabs (intermediate/deep enrichment). These models are evaluated in terms of chemical and isotopic mass balances associated with the generation and movement of small melt fractions in depleted, nondepleted, and enriched mantle.

Flower, M.F.J.; Kan Tu; Ming Zhang (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago (USA)); Guanghong Xie (Institute of Geochemistry, Guangzhou (China))

1990-06-01

302

Environmental enrichment does not impact on tumor growth in mice  

PubMed Central

The effect of environmental enrichment (EE) on a variety of physiologic and disease processes has been studied in laboratory mice. During EE, a large group of mice are housed in larger cages than the standard cage and are given toys and equipment, enabling more social contact, and providing a greater surface area per mouse, and a more stimulating environment. Studies have been performed into the effect of EE on neurogenesis, brain injury, cognitive capacity, memory, learning, neuronal pathways, diseases such as Alzheimers, anxiety, social defeat, emotionality, depression, drug addiction, alopecia, and stereotypies. In the cancer field, three papers have reported effects on mice injected with tumors and housed in enriched environments compared with those housed in standard conditions. One paper reported a significant decrease in tumor growth in mice in EE housing. We attempted to replicate this finding in our animal facility, because the implications of repeating this finding would have profound implications for how we house all our mice in our studies on cancer. We were unable to reproduce the results in the paper in which B16F10 subcutaneous tumors of mice housed in EE conditions were smaller than those of mice housed in standard conditions. The differences in results could have been due to the different growth rate of the B16F10 cultures from the different laboratories, the microbiota of the mice housed in the two animal facilities, variations in noise and handling between the two facilities, food composition, the chemical composition of the cages or the detergents used for cleaning, or a variety of other reasons. EE alone does not appear to consistently result in decreased tumor growth, but other factors would appear to be able to counteract or inhibit the effects of EE on cancer progression. PMID:24555065

Kershaw, Michael H

2013-01-01

303

Evaluation of elemental enrichments in surface sediments off southwestern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface slices of 20 sediment cores, off southwestern Taiwan, and bed sediment of River Kaoping were measured for major and trace elements (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Si, Ti, V, and Zn) to evaluate the geochemical processes responsible for their distribution, including elemental contamination. Major element/Al ratio and mean grain size indicate quartz-dominated, coarse grained sediments that likely derived from sedimentary rocks of Taiwan and upper crust of Yangtze Craton. Bi-plot of SiO2 versus Fe2O{3/T} suggests the possible iron enrichment in sediments of slag dumping sites. Highest concentrations of Cr, Mn, P, S, and Zn found in sediments of dumping sites support this. Correlation analysis shows dual associations, detrital and organic carbon, for Cr, P, S, and V with the latter association typical for sediments in dumping sites. Normalization of trace elements to Al indicates high enrichment factors (>2) for As, Cd, Pb, and Zn, revealing contamination. Factor analysis extracted four geochemical associations with the principal factor accounted for 25.1% of the total variance and identifies the combined effects of dumped iron and steel slag-induced C-S-Fe relationship owing to authigenic precipitation of Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides and/or metal sulfides, and organic matter complexation of Fe, Mn, Ca, Cr, P, and V. Factors 2, 3, and 4 reveal detrital association (Ti, Al, Ni, Pb, Cu, and V), effect of sea salt (Cl, Mg, Na, and K) and anthropogenic component (As and Zn)-carbonate link, respectively, in the investigated sediments.

Chen, Chen-Tung; Kandasamy, Selvaraj

2008-05-01

304

Odor enrichment sculpts the abundance of olfactory bulb mitral cells.  

PubMed

Mitral cells are the primary output cell from the olfactory bulb conveying olfactory sensory information to higher cortical areas. Gene-targeted deletion of the Shaker potassium channel Kv1.3 alters voltage-dependence and inactivation kinetics of mitral cell current properties, which contribute to the "Super-smeller" phenotype observed in Kv1.3-null mice. The goal of the current study was to determine if morphology and density are influenced by mitral cell excitability, olfactory environment, and stage of development. Wildtype (WT) and Kv1.3-null (KO) mice were exposed to a single odorant (peppermint or citralva) for 30 days. Under unstimulated conditions, postnatal day 20 KO mice had more mitral cells than their WT counterparts, but no difference in cell size. Odor-enrichment with peppermint, an olfactory and trigeminal stimulus, decreased the number of mitral cells in three month and one year old mice of both genotypes. Mitral cell density was most sensitive to odor-stimulation in three month WT mice. Enrichment at the same age with citralva, a purely olfactory stimulus, decreased cell density regardless of genotype. There were no significant changes in cell body shape in response to citralva exposure, but the cell area was greater in WT mice and selectively greater in the ventral region of the OB in KO mice. This suggests that trigeminal or olfactory stimulation may modify mitral cell area and density while not impacting cell body shape. Mitral cell density can therefore be modulated by the voltage and sensory environment to alter information processing or olfactory perception. PMID:23485739

Johnson, Melissa Cavallin; Biju, K C; Hoffman, Joshua; Fadool, Debra Ann

2013-04-29

305

Odor Enrichment Sculpts the Abundance of Olfactory Bulb Mitral Cells  

PubMed Central

Mitral cells are the primary output cell from the olfactory bulb conveying olfactory sensory information to higher cortical areas. Gene-targeted deletion of the Shaker potassium channel Kv1.3 alters voltage-dependence and inactivation kinetics of mitral cell current properties, which contribute to the Super-smeller phenotype observed in Kv1.3-null mice. The goal of the current study was to determine if morphology and density are influenced by mitral cell excitability, olfactory environment, and stage of development. Wildtype (WT) and Kv1.3-null (KO) mice were exposed to a single odorant (peppermint or citralva) for 30 days. Under unstimulated conditions, postnatal day 20 KO mice had more mitral cells than their WT counterparts, but no difference in cell size. Odor-enrichment with peppermint, an olfactory and trigeminal stimulus, decreased the number of mitral cells in three month and one year old mice of both genotypes. Mitral cell density was most sensitive to odor-stimulation in three month WT mice. Enrichment at the same age with citralva, a purely olfactory stimulus, decreased cell density regardless of genotype. There were no significant changes in cell body shape in response to citralva exposure, but the cell area was greater in WT mice and selectively greater in the ventral region of the OB in KO mice. This suggests that trigeminal or olfactory stimulation may modify mitral cell area and density while not impacting cell body shape. Mitral cell density can therefore be modulated by the voltage and sensory environment to alter information processing or olfactory perception. PMID:23485739

Johnson, Melissa Cavallin; Biju, K.C.; Hoffman, Joshua; Fadool, Debra Ann

2013-01-01

306

A highly efficient and visualized method for glycan enrichment by self-assembling pyrene derivative functionalized free graphene oxide.  

PubMed

Protein glycosylation plays key roles in many biological processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, and cell-cell recognition. Therefore, global structure profiling of glycans is very important for investigating the biological significance and roles of glycans in disease occurrence and development. Mass spectrometry (MS) is currently the most powerful technique for structure analysis of oligosaccharides, but the limited availability of glycan/glycoproteins from natural sources restricts the wide adoption of this technique in large-scale glycan profiling. Though various enrichment methods have been developed, most methods relay on the weak physical affinity between glycans and adsorbents that yields insufficient enrichment efficiency. Furthermore, the lack of monitoring the extent/completeness of enrichment may lead to incomplete enrichment unless repeated sample loading and prolonged incubation are adopted, which limits sample handling throughput. Here, we report a rapid, highly efficient, and visualized approach for glycan enrichment using 1-pyrenebutyryl chloride functionalized free graphene oxide (PCGO). In this approach, glycan capturing is achieved by reversible covalent bond formation between the hydroxyl groups of glycans and the acyl chloride groups on graphene oxide (GO) introduced by ?-? stacking of 1-pyrenebutyryl chloride on the GO surface. The multiple hydroxyl groups of glycans lead to cross-linking and self-assembly of free PCGO sheets into visible aggregation within 30 s, therefore achieving simple visual monitoring of the enrichment process. Improved enrichment efficiency is achieved by the large specific surface area of free PCGO and heavy functionalization of highly active 1-pyrenebutyryl chloride. Application of this method in enrichment of standard oligosaccharides or N-glycans released from glycoproteins results in remarkably increased MS signal intensity (approximately 50 times), S/N, and number of glycoform identified. PMID:23347252

Zhang, Wanjun; Han, Huanhuan; Bai, Haihong; Tong, Wei; Zhang, Yangjun; Ying, Wantao; Qin, Weijie; Qian, Xiaohong

2013-03-01

307

Effect of environmental conditions on sulfate reduction with methane as electron donor by an Eckemfrde Bay enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate reduction (SR) coupled to anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is meditated by marine microorganisms and forms an important process in the global sulfur and carbon cycle. In this research, the possibility to use this process for the removal and recovery of sulfur and metal compounds from waste streams was investigated. A membrane bioreactor was used to enrich for a

Roel J. W. Meulepas; Christian G. Jagersma; Ahmad F. Khadem; Cees J. N. Buisman; Alfons J. M. Stams; Piet N. L. Lens

2009-01-01

308

Effect of enrichment medium on real-time detection of Salmonella enterica from lettuce and tomato enrichment cultures.  

PubMed

Three enrichment broths commonly used for detection of Salmonella (buffered peptone water [BPW], tryptic soy broth [TSB], and universal preenrichment broth [UPB]) were compared for use in real-time SYBR Green PCR detection of Salmonella introduced into enrichment cultures made from store-bought lettuce and tomatoes. The produce served as a source of normal plant microbiota to measure how well DNA-based detection methods for Salmonella work in a suspension of plant-associated bacteria that may be closely related to Salmonella. A qualitative assessment of the background microbiota that grew in the three enrichment broths cultures from tomato and lettuce samples revealed that different bacteria predominated in the different broths. Results obtained with five produce-related outbreak Salmonella strains and PCR primers directed toward three different Salmonella genes suggest that the ability to detect Salmonella from these enrichment cultures by real-time PCR was 10 to 1,000 times better with TSB enrichment cultures. Detection levels were similar between the different enrichment media when an immunomagnetic separation method was used; however, the immunological technique did not enhance detection from TSB enrichment cultures. Detection could be affected by the medium and by the background microbiota. An immunomagnetic separation method may be useful in BPW and UPB enrichment cultures but not in TSB enrichment cultures. PMID:20537259

Gorski, Lisa; Liang, Anita S

2010-06-01

309

Arsenic Enrichment in Surface Water and Soil in Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corresponding author: yan.zheng@qc.cuny.edu The average soil arsenic concentration was reported to be 18.7 mg/kg based on a survey of 205 samples in Tibet. This is considerably higher than the commonly cited crustal background value of 10 mg/kg of As for soil, and is unlikely due to anthropogenic pollution. To investigate the origin of this geochemical anomaly in soil arsenic, water (n=80), stream sediment (n=69), soil (n=79), rock (n=58) samples were collected from the Yarlung Zangbo (upstream of Brahmaputra) River drainage and Shiquan (upstream of Indus) River drainage basins in June of 2008. Arsenic enrichment is pronounced in the Shiquan River drainage. The average arsenic concentration in soil, stream sediment and stream water is 3423 mg/kg (n=33, range <12-84 mg/kg), 35 mg/kg (n=37, range <14-197 mg/kg) and 569 g/L (n=39, range 2-252 g/L), respectively. In the Yarlung Zangbo River drainage, the average arsenic concentration in soil, stream sediment and stream water is 2835 mg/kg (n=23, range <12-152 mg/kg), 227 mg/kg (n=28, range <14-44 mg/kg) and 1116 g/L (n=30, range 2 -83 g/L), respectively. The average concentration of arsenic in upstream water of Yarlung Zangbo River is 3828 g/L (n=5), and is much higher than the value of 53 g/L (n=23) downstream. The high background concentration of arsenic in soil of this area may be associated to the broad distribution of ophiolite melange and meta-sedimentary sequences containing shale, phyllite and schist that may be rich in arsenic. However, the maximum concentration of arsenic in rock is only 356mg/kg in metamorphic breccia. About 91% of the rock samples are lower than the limit of detection of XRF (15 mg/kg). Thus, it is more likely that soil As enrichment result from the weathering process of rocks under cold and arid plateau conditions. Whether this soil As anomaly in Tibetan Plateau affects the down stream flood plain sedimentary As content or not requires further study. Other types water sampled also show As enrichment. Two hot spring waters contain 5985 g/L and 3842 g/L arsenic. A dug well (about 2m depth) is found to contain 195 g/L As. The average arsenic concentration of salt lake water is 19473619 g/L (n=8, range 40-10626 g/L ), but a fresh water lake has only 21 g/L arsenic. Arsenic enrichment in water samples from the Shiquan River and the upstream of the Yarlung Zangbo River is not only associated with higher concentrations of arsenic in soils and rocks but also associated to the salt lake and hot spring in these drainages.

Li, S.; Wang, M.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, Y.

2008-12-01

310

Controllability in Environmental Enrichment for Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study considers the use of nonsocial environmental enrichment by captive chim- panzees at the Primate Foundation of Arizona. The goal was to determine whether a relationship existed between controllability of enrichment items by captive chimpan- zees and frequency of use. The study measured controllability, the ability of nonhu- man animals to alter aspects of their environment by the potential

Elaine N. Videan; Jo Fritz; Melanie L. Schwandt; Heather F. Smith; Sue Howell

2005-01-01

311

Surface enrichment and trace-element uptake during crystal growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption or enrichment of trace elements in the near-surface or interfacial regions of minerals has been documented in systems ranging from low-temperature aqueous environments to magmas. Under static conditions, this surface enrichment results from chemical equilibrium between the host medium of the crystal and the surface layer, which may exhibit diversity or flexibility in the types of atomic sites present.

E. Bruce Watson

1996-01-01

312

Overview of reduced enrichment fuels: Development, testing, and specification  

SciTech Connect

The US Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program was established in 1978 to provide the technical means to operate research and test reactors with low enrichment uranium (LEU) fuels without significant penalty in experiment performance, operation costs, component modifications, or safety characteristics. This paper discusses relevant developments in fuel developments. 9 refs., 1 tab.

Snelgrove, J.L.

1987-01-01

313

RERTR program progress in qualifying reduced-enrichment fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to provide the technical means for reducing the enrichment of uranium used to fuel research and test reactors, the US Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program has been engaged in the development and testing of higher-uranium-density fuels than had been used previously. The main characteristics to be considered in evaluating the performance of a fuel are

Snelgrove

1982-01-01

314

Chest wall thickness measurements for enriched uranium: An alternative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human Monitoring Laboratory has developed a technique to determine the chest wall thickness of an individual using information from the spectrum produced by internally deposited radionuclides. The technique has been investigated both theoretically and practically using phoswich detectors and the Lawrence Livermore Torso Phantom. The phantom was used with lung sets containing homogeneously distributed 93% enriched uranium, 20% enriched uranium,

Gary H. Kramer; Mirela Puscalau

1994-01-01

315

Semantic enrichment of journal articles using chemical named entity recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the semantic enrichment of journal articles with chemical structures and biomedi- cal ontology terms using Oscar, a program for chemical named entity recognition (NER). We describe how Oscar works and how it can been adapted for general NER. We discuss its imple- mentation in a real publishing workflow and pos- sible applications for enriched articles.

Colin R. Batchelor; Peter T. Corbett

2007-01-01

316

Model Formulation j An Enriched Unified Medical Language System Semantic  

E-print Network

Model Formulation j An Enriched Unified Medical Language System Semantic Network with a Multiple the Enriched Semantic Network (ESN), exhibits a DAG-structured hierarchy. A partition of the ESN containing 19. CIMINO, MD A b s t r a c t Objective: The Unified Medical Language System's (UMLS's) Semantic Network

Cimino, James J.

317

Iron bioavailability from super enriched breads in weanling mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bread made from starch, unenriched, enriched, super-enriched and whole wheat flour was fed to male weanling mice for 21 days to explore the effect on iron utilization using liver, blood iron status and iron balance as parameters of evaluation. The results indicated that iron retentions, blood hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and liver iron concentration numerically tended to be greater in

C. D. Ricketts; C. Kies

1994-01-01

318

Responses of C 4 grasses to atmospheric CO 2 enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth and photosynethetic responses to atmospheric CO2 enrichment of 4 species of C4 grasses grown at two levels of irradiance were studied. We sought to determine whether CO2 enrichment would yield proportionally greater growth enhancement in the C4 grasses when they were grown at low irradiance than when grown at high irradiance. The species studied were Echinochloa crusgalli, Digitaria

Nasser Sionit; David T. Patterson

1984-01-01

319

Enriching Intrusion Alerts Through Multi-Host Causality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current intrusion detection systems point out suspicious states or events but do not show how the suspicious state or events relate to other states or events in the system. We show how to enrich an IDS alert with information about how those alerts causally lead to or result from other events in the system. By enriching IDS alerts with this

Samuel T. King; Zhuoqing Morley Mao; Dominic G. Lucchetti; Peter M. Chen

2005-01-01

320

Degradation of p-xylene by a denitrifying enrichment culture.  

PubMed Central

Microbial cultures enriched from a diesel fuel-contaminated aquifer were able to grow on p-xylene under denitrifying conditions. The oxidation of p-xylene to CO2 was coupled to the reduction of NO3-. The enrichment cultures also grew on toluene and m-xylene, but they did not degrade benzene, ethylbenzene, and o-xylene. PMID:7487052

Hner, A; Hhener, P; Zeyer, J

1995-01-01

321

Influence of Enriched Environment on Viral Encephalitis Outcomes: Behavioral and Neuropathological Changes in Albino Swiss Mice  

PubMed Central

An enriched environment has previously been described as enhancing natural killer cell activity of recognizing and killing virally infected cells. However, the effects of environmental enrichment on behavioral changes in relation to virus clearance and the neuropathology of encephalitis have not been studied in detail. We tested the hypothesis that environmental enrichment leads to less CNS neuroinvasion and/or more rapid viral clearance in association with T cells without neuronal damage. Stereology-based estimates of activated microglia perineuronal nets and neurons in CA3 were correlated with behavioral changes in the Piry rhabdovirus model of encephalitis in the albino Swiss mouse. Two-month-old female mice maintained in impoverished (IE) or enriched environments (EE) for 3 months were behaviorally tested. After the tests, an equal volume of Piry virus (IEPy, EEPy)-infected or normal brain homogenates were nasally instilled. Eight days post-instillation (dpi), when behavioral changes became apparent, brains were fixed and processed to detect viral antigens, activated microglia, perineuronal nets, and T lymphocytes by immuno- or histochemical reactions. At 20 or 40 dpi, the remaining animals were behaviorally tested and processed for the same markers. In IEPy mice, burrowing activity decreased and recovered earlier (810 dpi) than open field (2040 dpi) but remained unaltered in the EEPy group. EEPy mice presented higher T-cell infiltration, less CNS cell infection by the virus and/or faster virus clearance, less microgliosis, and less damage to the extracellular matrix than IEPy. In both EEPy and IEPy animals, CA3 neuronal number remained unaltered. The results suggest that an enriched environment promotes a more effective immune response to clear CNS virus and not at the cost of CNS damage. PMID:21264301

Bento-Torres, Joao; Trevia, Nonata; de Almeida Lins, Nara Alves; Passos, Aline; Santos, Zaire; Diniz, Jose Antonio Picanco; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando; Cunningham, Colm; Perry, Victor Hugh; Picanco Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

2011-01-01

322

Transportable calorimeter measurements of highly enriched uranium  

SciTech Connect

A sensitive calorimeter has been combined with a small temperature-controlled water bath to compose a transportable system that is capable of measuring multikilogram quantities of highly enriched uranium (HEU). The sample chamber size, 5 in. in diameter by 10 in. high, is large enough to hold sufficient HEU metal or high-grade scrap to provide a measurable thermal signal. Calorimetric measurements performed on well-characterized material indicate that the thermal power generated by 93% {sup 235}U samples with 1.0% {sup 234}U can be measured with a precision of about 1% (1 sigma) for 4-kg samples. The transportable system consists of a twin-bridge calorimeter installed inside a 55-gal. stainless steel drum filled with water with heating and cooling supplied by a removable thermoelectric module attached to the side. Isotopic measurements using high-resolution gamma-ray measurements of the HEU samples and analysis with the FRAM code were used to determine the isotopic ratios and specific power of the samples. This information was used to transform the measured thermal power into grams of HEU. Because no physical standards are required, this system could be used for the verification of plutonium, {sup 238}Pu heat sources, or large quantities of metal or other high-grade matrix forms of HEU.

Rudy, C.; Bracken, D.S.; Staples, P.; Carrillo, L.

1997-11-01

323

Adaptive enrichment designs for clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Modern medicine has graduated from broad spectrum treatments to targeted therapeutics. New drugs recognize the recently discovered heterogeneity of many diseases previously considered to be fairly homogeneous. These treatments attack specific genetic pathways which are only dysregulated in some smaller subset of patients with the disease. Often this subset is only rudimentarily understood until well into large-scale clinical trials. As such, standard practice has been to enroll a broad range of patients and run post hoc subset analysis to determine those who may particularly benefit. This unnecessarily exposes many patients to hazardous side effects, and may vastly decrease the efficiency of the trial (especially if only a small subset of patients benefit). In this manuscript, we propose a class of adaptive enrichment designs that allow the eligibility criteria of a trial to be adaptively updated during the trial, restricting entry to patients likely to benefit from the new treatment. We show that our designs both preserve the type 1 error, and in a variety of cases provide a substantial increase in power. PMID:23525452

Simon, Noah; Simon, Richard

2013-01-01

324

Identification, selection, and enrichment of cardiomyocyte precursors.  

PubMed

The large-scale production of cardiomyocytes is a key step in the development of cell therapy and tissue engineering to treat cardiovascular diseases, particularly those caused by ischemia. The main objective of this study was to establish a procedure for the efficient production of cardiomyocytes by reprogramming mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue. First, lentiviral vectors expressing neoR and GFP under the control of promoters expressed specifically during cardiomyogenesis were constructed to monitor cell reprogramming into precardiomyocytes and to select cells for amplification and characterization. Cellular reprogramming was performed using 5'-azacytidine followed by electroporation with plasmid pOKS2a, which expressed Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4. Under these conditions, GFP expression began only after transfection with pOKS2a, and less than 0.015% of cells were GFP(+). These GFP(+) cells were selected for G418 resistance to find molecular markers of cardiomyocytes by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. Both genetic and protein markers of cardiomyocytes were present in the selected cells, with some variations among them. Cell doubling time did not change after selection. Together, these results indicate that enrichment with vectors expressing GFP and neoR under cardiomyocyte-specific promoters can produce large numbers of cardiomyocyte precursors (CMPs), which can then be differentiated terminally for cell therapy and tissue engineering. PMID:23853770

Zanetti, Bianca Ferrarini; Gomes, Walter Jos; Han, Sang Won

2013-01-01

325

Stable isotope enrichment using a plasma centrifuge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary goal of the Department of Energy's Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications Program (Isotope Program) within the Office of Nuclear Physics (NP) is to produce isotopes that are in short supply in the U.S. and of which there exists no or insufficient domestic commercial production capability. A vacuum arc plasma centrifuge is a rigid rotor column of metal plasma in which centrifugal forces re-distribute ions radially according to their mass/charge ratio. Early work demonstrated rotation at 2 million rpm and separation of various stable isotopes. The spinning plasma column had a Gaussian flux profile, peaked on the rigid rotor axis. This work adopts a more efficient approach, with the plasma created as a hollow column, wherein the flux is concentrated at larger radii where the centrifugal action is highest. By tailoring the vacuum arc discharge geometry, the rotation rate can also be increased to 10 million rpm. Data from Cu, Al and other metal plasmas will be presented and discussed in light of enriched stable isotopes needed for research and medicine.

Krishnan, Mahadevan; Bures, Brian; Madden, Robert

2012-10-01

326

Opportunistic pathogens enriched in showerhead biofilms  

PubMed Central

The environments we humans encounter daily are sources of exposure to diverse microbial communities, some of potential concern to human health. In this study, we used culture-independent technology to investigate the microbial composition of biofilms inside showerheads as ecological assemblages in the human indoor environment. Showers are an important interface for human interaction with microbes through inhalation of aerosols, and showerhead waters have been implicated in disease. Although opportunistic pathogens commonly are cultured from shower facilities, there is little knowledge of either their prevalence or the nature of other microorganisms that may be delivered during shower usage. To determine the composition of showerhead biofilms and waters, we analyzed rRNA gene sequences from 45 showerhead sites around the United States. We find that variable and complex, but specific, microbial assemblages occur inside showerheads. Particularly striking was the finding that sequences representative of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and other opportunistic human pathogens are enriched to high levels in many showerhead biofilms, >100-fold above background water contents. We conclude that showerheads may present a significant potential exposure to aerosolized microbes, including documented opportunistic pathogens. The health risk associated with showerhead microbiota needs investigation in persons with compromised immune or pulmonary systems. PMID:19805310

Feazel, Leah M.; Baumgartner, Laura K.; Peterson, Kristen L.; Frank, Daniel N.; Harris, J. Kirk; Pace, Norman R.

2009-01-01

327

Regenerative principles enrich cardiac rehabilitation practice.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular morbidity imposes a high degree of disability and mortality, with limited therapeutic options available in end-stage disease. Integral to standard of care, cardiac rehabilitation aims on improving quality-of-life and prolonging survival. The recent advent of regenerative technologies paves the way for a transformative era in rehabilitation medicine whereby, beyond controlling risk factors and disease progression, the prospect of curative solutions is increasingly tangible. To date, the spectrum of clinical experience in cardiac regenerative medicine relies on stem cell-based therapies delivered to the diseased myocardium either acutely/subacutely, after a coronary event, or in the setting of chronic heart failure. Application of autologous/allogeneic stem cell platforms has established safety and feasibility, with encouraging signals of efficacy. Newer protocols aim to purify cell populations in an attempt to eliminate nonregenerative and enrich for regenerative cell types before use. Most advanced technologies have been developed to isolate resident cell populations directly from the heart or, alternatively, condition cells from noncardiac sources to attain a disease-targeted lineage-specified phenotype for optimized outcome. Because a multiplicity of cell-based technologies has undergone phase I/II evaluation, pivotal trials are currently underway in larger patient populations. Translation of regenerative principles into clinical practice will increasingly involve rehabilitation providers across the continuum of patient care. Regenerative rehabilitation is thus an emerging multidisciplinary field, full of opportunities and ready to be explored. PMID:25313663

Behfar, Atta; Terzic, Andre; Perez-Terzic, Carmen M

2014-11-01

328

Idaho National Engineering Laboratory materials in inventory natural and enriched uranium management and storage costs  

SciTech Connect

On July 13, 1994, the Office of Environmental Management (EM) was requested to develop a planning process that would result in management policies for dealing with nuclear materials in inventory. In response to this request, EM launched the Materials In Inventory (MIN) Initiative. A Headquarters Working Group was established to develop the broad policy framework for developing MIN management policies. MIN activities cover essentially all nuclear materials within the DOE complex, including such items as spent nuclear fuel, depleted uranium, plutonium, natural and enriched uranium, and other materials. In August 1995, a report discussing the natural and enriched uranium portion of the Initiative for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was published. That report, `Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Materials-in-Inventory, Natural and Enriched Uranium`.` identified MIN under the control of Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company at the INEL. Later, additional information related to the costs associated with the storage of MIN materials was requested to supplement this report. This report provides the cost information for storing, disposing, or consolidating the natural and enriched uranium portion of the MIN materials at the INEL. The information consists of eight specific tables which detail present management costs and estimated costs of future activities.

Nebeker, R.L.

1995-11-01

329

HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM BLEND DOWN PROGRAM AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE PRESENT AND FUTURE  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) entered into an Interagency Agreement to transfer approximately 40 metric tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) to TVA for conversion to fuel for the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant. Savannah River Site (SRS) inventories included a significant amount of this material, which resulted from processing spent fuel and surplus materials. The HEU is blended with natural uranium (NU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) with a 4.95% 235U isotopic content and shipped as solution to the TVA vendor. The HEU Blend Down Project provided the upgrades needed to achieve the product throughput and purity required and provided loading facilities. The first blending to low enriched uranium (LEU) took place in March 2003 with the initial shipment to the TVA vendor in July 2003. The SRS Shipments have continued on a regular schedule without any major issues for the past 5 years and are due to complete in September 2008. The HEU Blend program is now looking to continue its success by dispositioning an additional approximately 21 MTU of HEU material as part of the SRS Enriched Uranium Disposition Project.

Magoulas, V; Charles Goergen, C; Ronald Oprea, R

2008-06-05

330

A glass full of optimism: enrichment effects on cognitive bias in a rat model of depression.  

PubMed

Investigations of cognitive biases in animals are conceptually and translationally valuable because they contribute to animal welfare research and help to extend and refine our understanding of human emotional disorders, where biased information processing is a critical causal and maintenance factor. We employed the "learned helplessness" genetic rat model of depression in studying cognitive bias and its modification by environmental manipulations. Using a spatial judgment task, responses to ambiguous spatial cues were assessed before and after environmental enrichment to test whether this manipulation would cause an optimistic shift in emotional state. Twenty-four congenitally helpless and nonhelpless male rats were trained to discriminate two different locations, "rewarded" versus "aversive." After successful acquisition of this spatial discrimination, cognitive bias was probed by measuring responses to three ambiguous locations. Latencies to "reach" and to actively "choose" a goal pot were recorded alongside exploratory behaviors. An overall strain difference was observed, with helpless rats displaying longer "reach" latencies than nonhelpless rats. This implies a "pessimistic" response bias in helpless rats, underscoring their depressive-like phenotype. No strain differences were observed regarding other behavioral measures. Half of the animals were then transferred to enriched cages and retested. Environmental enrichment resulted in reduced "choose" latencies in both rat strains, associating enrichment with more optimistic interpretations of ambiguous cues. Our results emphasize the suitability of cognitive bias measurement for animal emotion assessment. They extend the methodological repertoire for characterizing complex phenotypes and bear implications for animal welfare research and for the use of animal models in preclinical research. PMID:22644760

Richter, Sophie Helene; Schick, Anita; Hoyer, Carolin; Lankisch, Katja; Gass, Peter; Vollmayr, Barbara

2012-09-01

331

Preparation of titanium-grafted magnetic mesoporous silica for the enrichment of endogenous serum phosphopeptides.  

PubMed

As one of the most important post-translational modifications, reversible phosphorylation of protein plays crucial roles in a large number of biological processes. Moreover, endogenous phosphopeptides are also associated with certain human diseases. An efficient enrichment and separation method is the premise for successful identification and quantification of phosphopeptides. In this work, titanium grafted magnetic mesoporous silica (Fe3O4@Ti-mSiO2) was developed and applied for the enrichment of endogenous phosphopeptides. Fe3O4@Ti-mSiO2 particles were prepared by grafting titanocene dichloride on the inner walls of magnetic mesoporous silica and then being calcined to remove cyclopentadienyl ligand. The physicochemical properties of the prepared materials were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). For selective enrichment of phosphopeptides, the prepared Fe3O4@Ti-mSiO2 particles were applied for tryptic digests of ?-casein, mixtures of ?-casein and bovine serum albumin (BSA), and low-fat milk. Finally, Fe3O4@Ti-mSiO2 was successfully applied for the enrichment of endogenous phosphopeptides from human serum. PMID:24090595

Li, Xiao-Shui; Pan, Ya-Ni; Zhao, Yong; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Guo, Lin; Feng, Yu-Qi

2013-11-01

332

Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine wastes and surrounding geologically enriched terrains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Waste rock and ore associated with Hg, precious and base metal mining, and their surrounding host rocks are typically enriched in mercury relative to natural background concentrations (<0.1 ??g Hg g-1). Mercury fluxes to the atmosphere from mineralized areas can range from background rates (0-15 ng m-2 h-1) to tens of thousands of ng m-2 h-1. Mercury enriched substrate constitutes a long-term source of mercury to the global atmospheric mercury pool. Mercury emissions from substrate are influenced by light, temperature, precipitation, and substrate mercury concentration, and occur during the day and night. Light-enhanced emissions are driven by two processes: desorption of elemental mercury accumulated at the soil:air interface, and photo reduction of mercury containing phases. To determine the need for and effectiveness of regulatory controls on short-lived anthropogenic point sources the contribution of mercury from geologic non-point sources to the atmospheric mercury pool needs to be quantified. The atmospheric mercury contribution from small areas of mining disturbance with relatively high mercury concentrations are, in general, less than that from surrounding large areas of low levels of mercury enrichment. In the arid to semi-arid west-ern United States volatilization is the primary means by which mercury is released from enriched sites.

Gustin, M. S.; Coolbaugh, M. F.; Engle, M. A.; Fitzgerald, B. C.; Keislar, R. E.; Lindberg, S. E.; Nacht, D. M.; Quashnick, J.; Rytuba, J. J.; Sladek, C.; Zhang, H.; Zehner, R. E.

2003-01-01

333

ENRICHED STABLE ISOTOPE TARGET PREPARATION AT THE OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY  

SciTech Connect

Since the 1960s the Department of Energy (DOE) Isotope Program, through the Isotope Development Group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has been developing and supplying, among other things, enriched stable isotope targets for nuclear research around the world. This group also maintains and distributes the DOE inventory of enriched stable isotopes. Chemical and pyrochemical techniques are used to prepare enriched stable isotopes from this inventory in the desired chemical form. Metallurgical, ceramic, or vacuum processing methods are then used to prepare the isotopes in a wide range of physical forms from thin films, foils, and coatings to large fabricated shapes to meet the needs of experimenters. Significant characterization capabilities are also available to assist in the preparation and evaluation of these custom materials. This work is part of the DOE Isotope Program, which recently transferred to the Office of Nuclear Physics, DOE Office of Science, resulting in a stronger emphasis on enabling R&D. This presentation will focus on the custom preparation of enriched stable isotope targets and other research materials.

Aaron, W Scott [ORNL] [ORNL; Zevenbergen, Lee [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

334

Establishing Specifications for Low Enriched Uranium Fuel Operations Conducted Outside the High Flux Isotope Reactor Site  

SciTech Connect

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has funded staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study the conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from the current, high enriched uranium fuel to low enriched uranium fuel. The LEU fuel form is a metal alloy that has never been used in HFIR or any HFIR-like reactor. This report provides documentation of a process for the creation of a fuel specification that will meet all applicable regulations and guidelines to which UT-Battelle, LLC (UTB) the operating contractor for ORNL - must adhere. This process will allow UTB to purchase LEU fuel for HFIR and be assured of the quality of the fuel being procured.

Pinkston, Daniel [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL; Renfro, David G [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL

2010-10-01

335

Enrichment of By-Product Materials from Steel Pickling Acid Regeneration Plants (TRP 9942)  

SciTech Connect

A new process for manufacturing an enriched, iron-based product (strontium hexaferrite) in existing steel pickling acid regeneration facilities was evaluated. Process enhancements and equipment additions were made to an existing acid regeneration plant to develop and demonstrate (via pilot scale testing and partial-capacity production trials) the viability of a patented method to produce strontium-based compounds that, when mixed with steel pickling acid and roasted, would result in a strontium hexaferrite powder precursor which could then be subjected to further heat treatment in an atmosphere that promotes rapid, relatively low-temperature formation of discrete strontium hexaferrite magnetic domains yielding an enriched iron-based product, strontium hexaferrite, that can be used in manufacturing hard ferrite magnets.

Lu Swan, Delta Ferrites LLC

2009-09-30

336

Transport of Newly Synthesized Sterol to the Sterol-Enriched Plasma Membrane Occurs via Nonvesicular Equilibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism by which newly synthesized sterols are transported from their site of synthesis, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), to the sterol-enriched plasma membrane (PM) is not fully understood. Studies in mammalian cells suggest that newly synthesized cholesterol is transported to the PM in Golgi- bypassing vesicles and\\/or via a nonvesicular process. Using the yeast Saccharomyces cereVisiae as a model system,

Nikola A. Baumann; David P. Sullivan; Henna Ohvo-Rekil; Cedric Simonot; Anita Pottekat; Zachary Klaassen; Christopher T. Beh; Anant K. Menon

2005-01-01

337

Environmental Enrichment does not Reduce the Rewarding and Neurotoxic Effects of Methamphetamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abuse of amphetamine analogues, such as methamphetamine (METH), represents an important health problem because of their powerful\\u000a addictive and neurotoxic effects. Abuse of METH induces dopamine neuron terminals loss and cell death in the striatum similar\\u000a to what is found in other neurodegenerative processes. Exposing mice and rats to enriched environments (EE) has been shown\\u000a to produce significant protective effects

Nathalie Thiriet; Benjamin Gennequin; Virginie Lardeux; Claudia Chauvet; Mickael Decressac; Thierry Janet; Mohamed Jaber; Marcello Solinas

2011-01-01

338

Flow induced surface enrichment of poly(ethylene-block-ethylene oxide) on polypropylene by capillary rheometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we prepared polypropylene (PP) blends with commercially available amphiphilic diblock copolymer poly(ethylene- block-ethylene oxide) (P(E- b-EO)). Selective surface enrichment of the diblock copolymer used was observed only on the PP blend extrudates which were prepared using capillary rheometer with different wall shear rates showing that flow processes play an enormous role in surface migration.

zen, Ilhan; Rustal, Claude; Dirnberger, Klaus; Fritz, Hans-Gerhard; Eisenbach, Claus Dieter

2011-03-01

339

A Framework for Enriched, Controlled On-line Discussion Forums for e-Government Policymaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper motivates and proposes a framework for enriched on-line dis- cussion forums for e-government policy-making, where pro and con state- ments for positions are structured, recorded, represented, and evaluated. The framework builds on current technologies for multi-threaded discus- sion lists by integrating modes, natural language processing, ontologies, and formal argumentation frameworks. With modes other than the stan- dard \\\\reply

Adam Wyner; Tom van Engers

2010-01-01

340

Environmental Enrichment for Primates: Annotated Database on Environmental Enrichment and Refinement of Husbandry for Nonhuman Primates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Animal Welfare Institute, a nonprofit organization founded "to reduce the sum total of pain and fear inflicted on animals by humans," offers this frequently updated bibliographic database for information on all aspects of environmental enrichment for nonhuman primates. Search results include a list of relevant references with complete bibliographic information, brief summaries of each entry, Web links to full-text documents where available, and a keyword index for easily finding related sources. Users may also browse the entire contents of the database alphabetically. Primatologists and animal handlers alike should find this comprehensive database particularly useful.

2008-08-29

341

Environmental Enrichment for Primates: Annotated Database on Environmental Enrichment and Refinement of Husbandry for Nonhuman Primates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Animal Welfare Institute, a nonprofit organization founded "to reduce the sum total of pain and fear inflicted on animals by humans," offers this frequently updated bibliographic database for information on all aspects of environmental enrichment for nonhuman primates. Search results include a list of relevant references with complete bibliographic information, brief summaries of each entry, Web links to full-text documents where available, and a keyword index for easily finding related sources. Users may also browse the entire contents of the database alphabetically. Primatologists and animal handlers alike should find this comprehensive database particularly useful.

1998-01-01

342

Effects of cognitive enrichment on behavioural and physiological reactions of pigs.  

PubMed

Cognitive enrichment, a special form of environmental enrichment, addresses the cognitive abilities of animals in captivity. Through cognitive interaction with the environment, the animals regain a certain control over their environment, and essential resources, such as food or water, act as a reward for successful coping. It is assumed that this process has important implications for animal welfare, especially in the intensive housing systems of farm animals. This study investigates the effects of cognitive enrichment on welfare-relevant behaviour (agonistic interactions and behavioural reactivity in a repeated open-field test) and autonomic control (heart rate variability during feeding, resting and in a repeated open-field test) in domestic pigs. A total of forty-eight pigs, Sus scrofa, were housed in groups of four. In six replicates, an experimental group was compared with a conventionally fed control group. The pigs in the experimental group were confronted with a cognitive challenge that was integrated into their familiar housing environment. Pigs were rewarded with food after they successfully mastered the discrimination of an individual acoustical signal followed by an operant task. The pigs in both groups reacted with sympathetic arousal to feeding announcement (increased heart rate (HR)). During feeding, the experimental pigs' HR decreased, and heart rate variability (HRV) increased, while the control pigs' HR stayed highly elevated and HRV decreased. These results are supported by a considerably larger number of agonistic interactions during feeding in the control group. During resting, the basal HRV of the experimental pigs increased (during operant conditioning) compared to the control. In the repeated open-field test, the experimental pigs displayed less locomotion and elimination as well as more contact with the wall and an unknown object compared to the control group. We conclude that cognitive enrichment leads to relaxed feeding and evokes longer lasting positive emotions. Moreover, the pigs displayed more explorative and less fearful behaviour in stressful situations. These findings support the use of cognitive enrichment to improve animal welfare. PMID:23680428

Zebunke, Manuela; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan

2013-06-13

343

Functioning of a Shallow-Water Sediment System during Experimental Warming and Nutrient Enrichment  

PubMed Central

Effects of warming and nutrient enrichment on intact unvegetated shallow-water sediment were investigated for 5 weeks in the autumn under simulated natural field conditions, with a main focus on trophic state and benthic nitrogen cycling. In a flow-through system, sediment was exposed to either seawater at ambient temperature or seawater heated 4C above ambient, with either natural or nutrient enriched water. Sedimentwater fluxes of oxygen and inorganic nutrients, nitrogen mineralization, and denitrification were measured. Warming resulted in an earlier shift to net heterotrophy due to increased community respiration; primary production was not affected by temperature but (slightly) by nutrient enrichment. The heterotrophic state was, however, not further strengthened by warming, but was rather weakened, probably because increased mineralization induced a shortage of labile organic matter. Climate-related warming of seawater during autumn could therefore, in contrast to previous predictions, induce shorter but more intensive heterotrophic periods in shallow-water sediments, followed by longer autotrophic periods. Increased nitrogen mineralization and subsequent effluxes of ammonium during warming suggested a preferential response of organisms driving nitrogen mineralization when compared to sinks of ammonium such as nitrification and algal assimilation. Warming and nutrient enrichment resulted in non-additive effects on nitrogen mineralization and denitrification (synergism), as well as on benthic fluxes of phosphate (antagonism). The mode of interaction appears to be related to the trophic level of the organisms that are the main drivers of the affected processes. Despite the weak response of benthic microalgae to both warming and nutrient enrichment, the assimilation of nitrogen by microalgae was similar in magnitude to rates of nitrogen mineralization. This implies a sustained filter function and retention capacity of nutrients by the sediment. PMID:23240032

Alsterberg, Christian; Sundback, Kristina; Hulth, Stefan

2012-01-01

344

Irradiation performance of low-enriched uranium fuel elements  

SciTech Connect

The status of the testing and evaluation of full-sized experimental low- and medium-enriched uranium fuel elements in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor is presented. Medium-enriched elements containing oxide and aluminide have been completely evaluated at burnups up to 75%. A low-enriched U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/ element has been evaluated at 41% burnup. Other silicide and oxide elements have completed irradiation satisfactorily to burnups of 75% and are now being evaluated. All results to date confirm the expected good performance of these elements in the medium power research reactor environment.

Copeland, G.L.; Hofman, G.L.; Snelgrove, J.L.

1984-10-14

345

Low-enriched uranium holdup measurements in Kazakhstan  

SciTech Connect

Quantification of the residual nuclear material remaining in process equipment has long been a challenge to those who work with nuclear material accounting systems. Fortunately, nuclear material has spontaneous radiation emissions that can be measured. If gamma-ray measurements can be made, it is easy to determine what isotope a deposit contains. Unfortunately, it can be quite difficult to relate this measured signal to an estimate of the mass of the nuclear deposit. Typically, the measurement expert must work with incomplete or inadequate information to determine a quantitative result. Simplified analysis models, the distribution of the nuclear material, any intervening attenuation, background(s), and the source-to-detector distance(s) can have significant impacts on the quantitative result. This presentation discusses the application of a generalized-geometry holdup model to the low-enriched uranium fuel pellet fabrication plant in Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan. Preliminary results will be presented. Software tools have been developed to assist the facility operators in performing and documenting the measurements. Operator feedback has been used to improve the user interfaces.

Barham, M.A.; Ceo, R.N.; Smith, S.E. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)] [and others

1998-12-31

346

A flax fibre proteome: identification of proteins enriched in bast fibres  

PubMed Central

Background Bast fibres from the phloem tissues of flax are scientifically interesting and economically useful due in part to a dynamic system of secondary cell wall deposition. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of cell wall development in flax, we extracted proteins from individually dissected phloem fibres (i.e. individual cells) at an early stage of secondary cell wall development, and compared these extracts to protein extracts from surrounding, non-fibre cells of the cortex, using fluorescent (DiGE) labels and 2D-gel electrophoresis, with identities assigned to some proteins by mass spectrometry. Results The abundance of many proteins in fibres was notably different from the surrounding non-fibre cells of the cortex, with approximately 13% of the 1,850 detectable spots being significantly (> 1.5 fold, p ? 0.05) enriched in fibres. Following mass spectrometry, we assigned identity to 114 spots, of which 51 were significantly enriched in fibres. We observed that a K+ channel subunit, annexins, porins, secretory pathway components, ?-amylase, ?-galactosidase and pectin and galactan biosynthetic enzymes were among the most highly enriched proteins detected in developing flax fibres, with many of these proteins showing electrophoretic patterns consistent with post-translational modifications. Conclusion The fibre-enriched proteins we identified are consistent with the dynamic process of secondary wall deposition previously suggested by histological and biochemical analyses, and particularly the importance of galactans and the secretory pathway in this process. The apparent abundance of ?-amylase suggests that starch may be an unappreciated source of materials for cell wall biogenesis in flax bast fibres. Furthermore, our observations confirm previous reports that correlate accumulation proteins such as annexins, and specific heat shock proteins with secondary cell wall deposition. PMID:18447950

Hotte, Naomi SC; Deyholos, Michael K

2008-01-01

347

Extracting semantically enriched events from biomedical literature  

PubMed Central

Background Research into event-based text mining from the biomedical literature has been growing in popularity to facilitate the development of advanced biomedical text mining systems. Such technology permits advanced search, which goes beyond document or sentence-based retrieval. However, existing event-based systems typically ignore additional information within the textual context of events that can determine, amongst other things, whether an event represents a fact, hypothesis, experimental result or analysis of results, whether it describes new or previously reported knowledge, and whether it is speculated or negated. We refer to such contextual information as meta-knowledge. The automatic recognition of such information can permit the training of systems allowing finer-grained searching of events according to the meta-knowledge that is associated with them. Results Based on a corpus of 1,000 MEDLINE abstracts, fully manually annotated with both events and associated meta-knowledge, we have constructed a machine learning-based system that automatically assigns meta-knowledge information to events. This system has been integrated into EventMine, a state-of-the-art event extraction system, in order to create a more advanced system (EventMine-MK) that not only extracts events from text automatically, but also assigns five different types of meta-knowledge to these events. The meta-knowledge assignment module of EventMine-MK performs with macro-averaged F-scores in the range of 57-87% on the BioNLP09 Shared Task corpus. EventMine-MK has been evaluated on the BioNLP09 Shared Task subtask of detecting negated and speculated events. Our results show that EventMine-MK can outperform other state-of-the-art systems that participated in this task. Conclusions We have constructed the first practical system that extracts both events and associated, detailed meta-knowledge information from biomedical literature. The automatically assigned meta-knowledge information can be used to refine search systems, in order to provide an extra search layer beyond entities and assertions, dealing with phenomena such as rhetorical intent, speculations, contradictions and negations. This finer grained search functionality can assist in several important tasks, e.g., database curation (by locating new experimental knowledge) and pathway enrichment (by providing information for inference). To allow easy integration into text mining systems, EventMine-MK is provided as a UIMA component that can be used in the interoperable text mining infrastructure, U-Compare. PMID:22621266

2012-01-01

348

Chemical Enrichment and Physical Conditions in IZw18*  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-metallicity star-forming dwarf galaxies are prime targets to understand the chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium. The H I region contains the bulk of the mass in blue compact dwarfs, and it provides important constraints on the dispersal and mixing of heavy elements released by successive star-formation episodes. The metallicity of the H I region is also a critical parameter to investigate the future star-formation history, as metals provide most of the gas cooling that will facilitate and sustain star formation. Aims. Our primary objective is to study the enrichment of the H I region and the interplay between star-formation history and metallicity evolution. Our secondary obje ctive is to constrain the spatial- and time-scales over which the HI and H II regions are enriched, and the mass range of stars responsible for the heavy element production. Finally, we aim to examine the gas heating and cooling mechanisms in the H I region. Methods. We observed the most metal-poor star-forming galaxy in the Local Universe, I Zw 18, with the Cosmic Origin Spectrograph onboard Hubble. The abundances in the neutral gas are derived from far-ultraviolet absorption-lines (H I, CIII, CIIi*, N I, OI,...) and are compared to the abundances in the H II region. Models are constructed to calculate the ionization structure and the thermal processes. We investigate the gas cooling in the HIi region through physical diagnostics drawn from the fine-structure level of C+. Results. We find that H I region abundances are lower by a factor of approx 2 as compared to the H II region. There is no differential depletion on dust between the H I and H II region. Using sulfur as a metallicity tracer, we calculate a metallicity of 1/46 Z(solar) (vs. 1/31 Z(solar) in the H II region). From the study of the C/O, [O/Fe], and N/O abundance ratios, we propose that C, N, O, and Fe are mainly produced in massive stars. We argue that the H I envelope may contain pockets of pristine gas with a metallicity essentially null. Finally, we derive the physical conditions in the H I region by investigating the C II* absorption line. The cooling rate derived from C II* is consistent with collisions with H(sup 0) atoms in the diffuse neutral gas. We calculate the star-formation rate from the CII* cooling rate assuming that photoelectric effect on dust is the dominant gas heating mechanism. Our determination is in good agreement with the values in the literature if we assume a low dust-to-gas ratio (approx 2000 times lower than the Milky Way value).

Lebouteiller, V.; Heap, S.; Hubeny, I.; Kunth, D.

2013-01-01

349

75 FR 62895 - Notice of Availability of Safety Evaluation Report; AREVA Enrichment Services LLC, Eagle Rock...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Safety Evaluation Report; AREVA Enrichment Services LLC, Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility, Bonneville County, ID; NUREG-1951...special nuclear material. This proposed facility is known as the Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility (EREF) and will be located in...

2010-10-13

350

10 CFR 140.13b - Amount of liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Amount of liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities. 140.13b ...Amount of liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities. Each holder...under Parts 40 or 70 of this chapter for a uranium enrichment facility that...

2012-01-01

351

10 CFR 40.33 - Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility. 40.33 Section...40.33 Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility. (a) The...of the construction and operation of a uranium enrichment facility. The...

2012-01-01

352

10 CFR 40.33 - Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility. 40.33 Section...40.33 Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility. (a) The...of the construction and operation of a uranium enrichment facility. The...

2011-01-01

353

10 CFR 140.13b - Amount of liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Amount of liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities. 140.13b ...Amount of liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities. Each holder...under Parts 40 or 70 of this chapter for a uranium enrichment facility that...

2011-01-01

354

10 CFR 40.33 - Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility. 40.33 Section...40.33 Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility. (a) The...of the construction and operation of a uranium enrichment facility. The...

2013-01-01

355

10 CFR 40.33 - Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility.  

... false Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility. 40.33 Section...40.33 Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility. (a) The...of the construction and operation of a uranium enrichment facility. The...

2014-01-01

356

10 CFR 140.13b - Amount of liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Amount of liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities. 140.13b ...Amount of liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities. Each holder...under Parts 40 or 70 of this chapter for a uranium enrichment facility that...

2010-01-01

357

10 CFR 140.13b - Amount of liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Amount of liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities. 140.13b ...Amount of liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities. Each holder...under Parts 40 or 70 of this chapter for a uranium enrichment facility that...

2013-01-01

358

77 FR 19642 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-427-818] Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of Antidumping...antidumping duty order on low enriched uranium (LEU) from France on February 10, 2012...1\\ See Low Enriched Uranium from France: Preliminary Results of...

2012-04-02

359

77 FR 1059 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-427-818] Low Enriched Uranium From France: Initiation of Antidumping...antidumping duty order on low enriched uranium (LEU) from France with respect to Eurodif...See Letter from AREVA, ``Low Enriched Uranium from France,'' dated December...

2012-01-09

360

10 CFR 40.33 - Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility. 40.33 Section...40.33 Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility. (a) The...of the construction and operation of a uranium enrichment facility. The...

2010-01-01

361

10 CFR 140.13b - Amount of liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities.  

...Amount of liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities. 140.13b ...Amount of liability insurance required for uranium enrichment facilities. Each holder...under Parts 40 or 70 of this chapter for a uranium enrichment facility that...

2014-01-01

362

Behavioral Effects of Enrichment and Nicotine in Female Sprague Dawley Rats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three experiments examined effects of environmental enrichment and nicotine on body weight, food consumption, and activity in 52 female Sprague Dawley rats. Rats were housed in physically, socially, or super (social and physical) enriched or non-enriched ...

C. A. Rose

2009-01-01

363

78 FR 66779 - United States Enrichment Corporation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Including On-Site Leased...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Enrichment Corporation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers...Enrichment Corporation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, including on-site leased workers...Enrichment Corporation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, including on-site leased...

2013-11-06

364

Brief exposure to an enriched environment improves performance on the Morris water task and increases hippocampal cytosolic protein kinase C activity in young rats.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine whether brief exposure to an enriched environment around the time of weaning would affect learning and memory processes in young rats. In addition, this study sought to determine if experience in an enriched environment would alter hippocampal protein kinase C (PKC) which is thought to be a possible neural substrate that underlies learning and memory processes. Animals were either reared in an enriched environment or standard laboratory cages starting at 15 days old. After 6 (21 days old) or 12 (27 days old) days subjects were either tested in the Morris water task, or had the hippocampus removed for biochemical analysis of PKC activity. Morris water task results showed that compared to laboratory reared controls, the performance of subjects reared in the enriched environment for 12 days, but not 6 days, was improved. In addition, 12 days of exposure to the enriched environment, but not 6 days, produced more cytosolic hippocampal PKC activity. The particulate fraction appeared not to be affected by rearing in the enriched environment. Brief exposure to an enriched environment around weaning, therefore, both improved Morris water task performance and increased hippocampal PKC activity. These outcomes suggest that performance in the Morris water task and hippocampal PKC may be functionally related. PMID:1472287

Paylor, R; Morrison, S K; Rudy, J W; Waltrip, L T; Wehner, J M

1992-11-30

365

Isotope Enrichment by Laser Stimulation Causing Condensation Repression  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur isotopes in SF{sub 6} molecules have been enriched, in a laboratory experiment, using tuned laser radiation to excite a particular sulfur isotopic molecule and inhibit its condensation on the cooled annulus inside of the chamber. The evidence of enrichment was determined by examining the residual gas with a Fourier Transform infrared Spectrometer. The enrichment was observed during a transient experiment in which the temperature of the condensing surface was gradually decreased, and gas pressure of the SF{sub 6} molecules was in the range of 8 Torr (0.01 atmospheres). These results show that excitation to a single excited level can create differential rates of condensation so as to achieve an enrichment factor of approximately 2.0 in a single stage. (authors)

Kunze, Jay F.; Islam, K.T.S.; Nieschmidt, Ernest [Idaho State University, 921 South 8th Avenue, Pocatello, Idaho 83209 (United States)

2002-07-01

366

21 CFR 137.160 - Enriched bromated flour.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Enriched bromated flour. 137.160 Section 137.160 ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products 137.160...

2011-04-01

367

21 CFR 137.160 - Enriched bromated flour.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Enriched bromated flour. 137.160 Section 137.160 ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products 137.160...

2010-04-01

368

21 CFR 137.160 - Enriched bromated flour.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Enriched bromated flour. 137.160 Section 137.160 ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products 137.160...

2012-04-01

369

21 CFR 137.160 - Enriched bromated flour.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Enriched bromated flour. 137.160 Section 137.160 ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products 137.160...

2013-04-01

370

21 CFR 137.160 - Enriched bromated flour.  

...2014-04-01 false Enriched bromated flour. 137.160 Section 137.160 ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products 137.160...

2014-04-01

371

ALCHEMIST (Adjuvant Lung Cancer Enrichment Marker Identification and Sequencing Trials)  

Cancer.gov

August 2014 ALCHEMIST (Adjuvant Lung Cancer Enrichment Marker Identification and Sequencing Trials) 3 Integrated Trials Testing Targeted Therapy in Early Stage Lung Cancer Part of NCIs Precision Medicine Effort in Cancer NCI National Clinical

372

Looking North into Lab Metallurgy Testing Area and Enrichment Motor ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking North into Lab Metallurgy Testing Area and Enrichment Motor within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

373

Selective enrichment of glycopeptides/phosphopeptides using porous titania microspheres.  

PubMed

Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) microspheres synthesized by sol-gel method showed high affinity to glycopeptides and were successfully used for simultaneous enrichment of glycopeptides and phosphopeptides. PMID:20442969

Yan, Jingyu; Li, Xiuling; Yu, Long; Jin, Yu; Zhang, Xiuli; Xue, Xingya; Ke, Yanxiong; Liang, Xinmiao

2010-08-14

374

RERTR 2009 (Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Global Threat Reduction in cooperation with the China Atomic Energy Authority and International Atomic Energy Agency hosted the 'RERTR 2009 International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors.' The meeting was organized by Argonne National Laboratory, China Institute of Atomic Energy and Idaho National Laboratory and was held in Beijing, China from November 1-5, 2009. This was the 31st annual meeting in a series on the same general subject regarding the conversion of reactors within the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI). The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program develops technology necessary to enable the conversion of civilian facilities using high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuels and targets.

Totev, T.; Stevens, J.; Kim, Y. S.; Hofman, G.; Matos, J.; Hanan, N.; Garner, P.; Dionne, B.; Olson, A.; Feldman, E.; Dunn, F.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Atomic Research Center; Inst. of Nuclear Physics; LLNL; INL; Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst.; Comisi?n Nacional de Energ?a At?mica; Nuclear Reactor Lab.; Inst. of Atomic Energy-Poland; AECL-Canada; Hungarian Academy of Sciences KFKI Atomic Energy Research Inst.; Japan Atomic Energy Agency; Nuclear Power Inst. of China; Kyoto Univ. Research Reactor Inst.

2010-03-01

375

Assessing the demand for phytosterol-enriched products  

E-print Network

in the categories of margarine, orange juice and yogurt. The objectives of this study are (1) to estimate price and expenditure elasticities for phytosterol-enriched brands and comparative non-phytosterol brands, (2) to identify cannibalization effects with a...

Yuan, Yan

2009-05-15

376

The Secondary Level Enrichment Triad Model: Excellence without Elitism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The gifted education model described here provides elective "talent pool" classes--within the standard class schedule--that integrate enrichment activities with the academic curriculum in any given subject area. (MCG)

Reis, Sally M.; Renzulli, Joseph S.

1985-01-01

377

Single Ion Trapping for the Enriched Xenon Observatory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the last decade, a variety of neutrino oscillation experiments have established that there is a mass difference between neutrino flavors, without determining the absolute neutrino mass scale. The Enriched Xenon Observatory for neutrinoless double beta ...

S. J. Waldman

2006-01-01

378

Reproducing kernel element method Part III: Generalized enrichment and applications  

E-print Network

Reproducing kernel element method Part III: Generalized enrichment and applications Hongsheng Lu finite element methods, the construction proposed here has more flexibility and only needs minimal degrees of freedom. The optimal element with high reproducing capacity and overall minimal degrees

Li, Shaofan

379

Semantic Annotation for Process Models  

E-print Network

- proach to enrich and reconcile semantics of process models -- a kind of semi-structured artifactYun Lin Semantic Annotation for Process Models: Facilitating Process Knowledge Management via Semantic Interoperability Department of Computer and Information Science Norwegian University of Science

Langseth, Helge

380

Degradation of p-xylene by a denitrifying enrichment culture  

SciTech Connect

Microbial cultures enriched from a diesel fuel-contaminated aquifer were able to grow on p-xylene under denitrifying conditions. The oxidation of p-xylene to CO{sub 2} was coupled to the reduction of NO{sub 3}{sup -}. The enrichment cultures also grew on toluene and m-xylene, but they did not degrade benzene, ethylbenzene, and o-xylene. 37 refs., 4 figs.

Haener, A.; Hoehener, P.; Zeyer, J. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Schlieren (Switzerland)

1995-08-01

381

Enrichment of fungi and degradation of styrene in biofilters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Experiments were set up in order to enrich styrene-degrading fungi in biofilters under conditions representative for industrial off-gas treatment. From the support materials tested, polyurethane and perlite proved to be most suitable for enrichment of styrene-degrading fungi. The biofilter with perlite completely degraded styrene when amounts ranging between 290 and 675 mg\\/m in the influent gas were present. An

Huub H. J. Cox; Jos H. M. Houtman; Hans J. Doddema; Wim Harder

1993-01-01

382

Enrichment options for African painted dogs (Lycaon pictus).  

PubMed

Best practices for carnivore enrichment encourage the diversity of species-typical behaviors, increased activity, and reduced stereotypic behavior; ideally considering the life-history and behavior of each species. African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), or painted dogs, are social carnivores that have large home ranges and complex pack dynamics (e.g., variation in group size, relatedness, etc.). As there are relatively few studies on painted dog enrichment, the goal of this study was to compile a list of enrichment options used by institutions participating in the species survival plan (SSP). Representatives were asked to describe social groups (n?=?45), enclosures (n?=?21), enrichment practices (options, delivery frequency, perceived success), and overall best practices. Respondents (61%, n?=?23) reported using options for all six enrichment categories recommended by the Canid Taxon Advisory Group: environmental enrichment devices, habitat, sensory, food, behavioral, and social. Perceived success was significantly higher for the food category, followed by the sensory and behavioral categories. All respondents reported delivering enrichment at least multiple times a month, and most reported multiple times per week. Enclosure size did not differ significantly for mixed-sex groups (n?=?28) compared to single-sex groups (n?=?17). We discuss respondents' suggestions for best practices and the need to record data to compare perceived success with actual behavioral effects, controlling for variation in group size and composition. Overall, respondents recommended a flexible approach, since not all painted dogs and groups respond in the same way to the enrichment options. Zoo Biol. 33:475-480, 2014. 2014 Wiley Periodicals Inc. PMID:25138282

Cloutier, Tammy L; Packard, Jane M

2014-09-01

383

Context-Driven Semantic Enrichment of Italian News Archive  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Semantic enrichment of textual data is the operation of linking mentions with the entities they refer to, and the subsequent enrichment of such\\u000a entities with the background knowledge about them available in one or more knowledge bases (or in the entire web). Information\\u000a about the context in which a mention occurs, (e.g., information about the time, the topic, and the

Andrei Tamilin; Bernardo Magnini; Luciano Serafini; Christian Girardi; Mathew Joseph; Roberto Zanoli

2010-01-01

384

Enrichment and Training Improve Cognition in Rats with Cortical Malformations  

PubMed Central

Children with malformations of cortical development (MCD) frequently have associated cognitive impairments which reduce quality of life. We hypothesized that cognitive deficits associated with MCD can be improved with environmental manipulation or additional training. The E17 methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) exposure model bears many anatomical hallmarks seen in human MCDs as well as similar behavioral and cognitive deficits. We divided control and MAM exposed Sprague-Dawley rats into enriched and non-enriched groups and tested performance in the Morris water maze. Another group similarly divided underwent sociability testing and also underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans pre and post enrichment. A third group of control and MAM rats without enrichment were trained until they reached criterion on the place avoidance task. MAM rats had impaired performance on spatial tasks and enrichment improved performance of both control and MAM animals. Although MAM rats did not have a deficit in sociability they showed similar improvement with enrichment as controls. MRI revealed a whole brain volume decrease with MAM exposure, and an increase in both MAM and control enriched volumes in comparison to non-enriched animals. In the place avoidance task, MAM rats required approximately 3 times as long to reach criterion as control animals, but with additional training were able to reach control performance. Environmental manipulation and additional training can improve cognition in a rodent MCD model. We therefore suggest that patients with MCD may benefit from appropriate alterations in educational strategies, social interaction and environment. These factors should be considered in therapeutic strategies. PMID:24358362

Jenks, Kyle R.; Lucas, Marcella M.; Duffy, Ben A.; Robbins, Ashlee A.; Gimi, Barjor; Barry, Jeremy M.; Scott, Rod C.

2013-01-01

385

Functionalized periodic mesoporous organosilicas for enhanced and selective peptide enrichment.  

PubMed

The analysis of peptides by the mass spectrometry (MS) technique is important in modern life science. The enrichment of peptides can increase the detection efficiency and is sometimes indispensable for collecting the information on proteins with low-abundance. Herein, we first report that functionalized periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) materials have a superior peptide enrichment property. It is demonstrated that the PMO materials with an organo-bridged (-CH(2)-) hybrid wall composition display a highly enhanced peptide enrichment ability compared to the pure silica material (SBA-15) with similar mesostructured parameters and morphology. More importantly, by surface modification of PMO with amino groups (denoted NH(2)-PMO), PMO and NH(2)-PMO with opposite charged surfaces (-25.2 and +39.0 mV, respectively) show selective affinities for positively and negatively charged peptides, respectively. By directly adding PMO, NH(2)-PMO as well as pure silica materials to the peptides solution with a low concentration (1-2 fmol/microL), 36 and 28 peptides can be detected from the BSA digestion in the presence of PMO and NH(2)-PMO, respectively, while only 6 and 4 are monitored in the case of SBA-15 enrichment and from solution without enrichment, respectively. Moreover, 69.4% (25 of 36) of enriched peptides by PMO have pI > or = 6 and 80% (21 of 28) of enriched peptides by NH(2)-PMO possess pI < or = 6. Combining the results from the NH(2)-PMO and PMO enrichment together, 51 peptides can be identified with a MOWSE score of 333. It is also noted that similar conclusions can also be obtained from the peptides solution originated from other proteins. This might be an important contribution to the understanding of the interaction between peptides and porous hosts, and the proposed method is promising for the development of both material science and biotechnology. PMID:20095532

Wan, Jingjing; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yunhua; Yang, Pengyuan; Liu, Baohong; Yu, Chengzhong

2010-05-18

386

Radiological health aspects of commercial uranium conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication  

SciTech Connect

Detailed information concerning occupational exposures, health physics practices, and regulatory procedures at commercial conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication facilities is given. Sites visits were the primary source of information, which is divided into four sections. The first section discusses health physics practices that are common to the conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication phases of the commercial uranium industry. The next three sections review process descriptions, radiological health practices, and regulatory procedures for the three phases. Nonradiological exposures are considered only as they influence the interpretation of the health effects of radiological exposures. The review of regulatory procedures indicates the types of exposure evaluation records being kept on uranium workers and the responsibility for maintaining the records.

Stoetzel, G.A.; Hoenes, G.R.; Cummings, F.M.; McCormack, W.D.

1982-11-01

387

Modification-specific proteomics: Strategies for characterization of post-translational modifications using enrichment techniques  

PubMed Central

More than 300 different types of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) have been described, many of which are known to have pivotal roles in cellular physiology and disease. Nevertheless, only a handful of PTMs have been extensively investigated at the proteome level. Knowledge of protein substrates and their PTM sites is key to dissection of PTM-mediated cellular processes. The past several years have seen a tremendous progress in developing MS-based proteomics technologies for global PTM analysis, including numerous studies of yeast and other microbes. Modification-specific enrichment techniques combined with advanced MS/MS methods and computational data analysis have revealed a surprisingly large extent of PTMs in proteins, including multi-site, cooperative modifications in individual proteins. We review some of the current strategies employed for enrichment and detection of PTMs in modification-specific proteomics. PMID:19743430

Zhao, Yingming; Jensen, Ole N.

2010-01-01

388

Did Very Massive Stars Pre-enrich and Reionize the Universe?  

E-print Network

Recent studies of heavy r-process elements in low [Fe/H] halo stars have suggested that an initial population of metal-free very massive stars (VMSs) may be required to provide early Fe enrichment without coproducing heavy r nuclei. We find similar abundance trends in alpha-elements (which should be copiously produced by VMSs), but not in other elements such as carbon (which should not), in agreement with this hypothesis. We then combine the corresponding level of prompt initial enrichment with models of VMS nucleosynthetic yields and spectra to estimate the corresponding ionizing fluxes. The result suggests that there may have been enough VMS activity to reionize the universe. The unusually hard spectrum of VMSs would imply a different reionization history from canonical models. HeII could have been reionized at high redshift, only to recombine as a subsequent generation of stars formed with a ``normal'' initial mass function.

S. Peng Oh; Kenneth M. Nollett; Piero Madau; G. J. Wasserburg

2001-09-23

389

An Enriched Constitutive Model for Fracture Propagation Analysis using the Material Point Method  

E-print Network

We develop a novel constitutive modeling approach for the analysis of fracture propagation in quasi-brittle materials using the Material Point Method. The kinematics of constitutive models is enriched with an additional mode of localized deformation to take into account the strain discontinuity once cracking has occurred. The crack details therefore can be stored at material point level and there is no need to enrich the kinematics of finite elements to capture the localization caused by fracturing processes. This enhancement also removes the drawback of classical smeared crack approach in producing unphysical snapping back constitutive responses when the spatial resolution is not fine enough. All these facilitate the implementation of the new approach in the Material Point Method for analysis of large scale problems. Numerical examples of fracture propagation are used to demonstrate the effectiveness and potentials of the new approach.

Giang Dinh Nguyen

2013-11-15

390

Conversion and standardization of university reactor fuels using low-enrichment uranium: Plans and schedules  

SciTech Connect

The highly-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel used in twenty United States university reactors can be viewed as contributing to the risk of theft or diversion of weapons-useable material. To minimize this risk, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued its final rule on ''Limiting the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Domestically Licensed Research and Test Reactors,'' in February 1986. This paper describes the plans and schedules developed by the US Department of Energy to coordinate an orderly transition from HEU to LEU fuel in most of these reactors. An important element in the planning process has been the desire to standardize the LEU fuels used in US university reactors and to enhance the performance and utilization of a number of these reactors. The program is estimated to cost about $10 million and to last about five years.

Young, H.H.; Brown, K.R.; Matos, J.E.

1986-01-01

391

Semantic enrichment of building and construction knowledge sources using a domain ontology for classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper introduces a new conceptual framework for representation of knowledge sources (whether they are web pages or documents), where each knowledge source is semantically represented (within its domain of use) by a Semantic Vector (SV), which is enriched using the classical vector space model approach extended with ontological support, employing ontology concepts and their relations in the enrichment process. The test domain for the assessment of the approach is the Building and Construction, using an appropriate available Ontology. Preliminary results were collected using a clustering algorithm for document classification where documents were assigned into a pre-defined set of categories. Such results indicate that the proposed approach does improve the precision and recall of classifications.

Costa, Ruben; Lima, Celson; Sarraipa, Joo; Jardim-Gonalves, Ricardo

2013-10-01

392

Measles Virus Structural Components Are Enriched into Lipid Raft Microdomains: a Potential Cellular Location for Virus Assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of measles virus (MV) assembly and subsequent budding is thought to occur in localized regions of the plasma membrane, to favor specific incorporation of viral components, and to facilitate the exclusion of host proteins. We demonstrate that during the course of virus replication, a significant proportion of MV structural proteins were selectively enriched in the detergent-resistant glycosphingolipids and

SERGE N. MANIE; SYLVAIN DEBREYNE; SEVERINE VINCENT; DENIS GERLIER

2000-01-01

393

Pasta Naturally Enriched with Isoflavone Aglycons from Soy Germ Reduces Serum Lipids and Improves Markers of Cardiovascular Risk1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies of soy and cholesterol have tested foods made from purified soy proteins containing mainly isoflavone glycosides. Fermented soy foods have mainly isoflavone aglycons and account for a high proportion of the soy protein sourceinAsia,wherethereisaninverserelationshipbetweensoyintakeandserumcholesterol.Theaimofthisstudywasto compare a novel soy germ pasta, naturally enriched in isoflavone aglycons as a result of the manufacturing process, with conventional pasta for effects on

Carlo Clerici; Kenneth D. R. Setchell; Pier Maria Battezzati; Matteo Pirro; Vittorio Giuliano; Stefania Asciutti; Danilo Castellani; Elisabetta Nardi; Giuseppe Sabatino; Stefano Orlandi; Monia Baldoni; Olivia Morelli; Elmo Mannarino; Antonio Morelli

394

Long-term nutrient enrichment decouples predator and prey production  

PubMed Central

Increased nutrient mobilization by human activities represents one of the greatest threats to global ecosystems, but its effects on ecosystem productivity can differ depending on food web structure. When this structure facilitates efficient energy transfers to higher trophic levels, evidence from previous large-scale enrichments suggests that nutrients can stimulate the production of multiple trophic levels. Here we report results from a 5-year continuous nutrient enrichment of a forested stream that increased primary consumer production, but not predator production. Because of strong positive correlations between predator and prey production (evidence of highly efficient trophic transfers) under reference conditions, we originally predicted that nutrient enrichment would stimulate energy flow to higher trophic levels. However, enrichment decoupled this strong positive correlation and produced a nonlinear relationship between predator and prey production. By increasing the dominance of large-bodied predator-resistant prey, nutrient enrichment truncated energy flow to predators and reduced food web efficiency. This unexpected decline in food web efficiency indicates that nutrient enrichment, a ubiquitous threat to aquatic ecosystems, may have unforeseen and unpredictable effects on ecosystem structure and productivity. PMID:20018677

Davis, John M.; Rosemond, Amy D.; Eggert, Susan L.; Cross, Wyatt F.; Wallace, J. Bruce

2009-01-01

395

Detection of Listeria spp. using ACTERO listeria enrichment media.  

PubMed

ACTERO Listeria Enrichment Media (ACTERO Listeria) is a selective medium developed for a single-step recovery and enrichment of Listeria spp. from environmental samples. Robustness testing of the ACTERO Listeria medium demonstrated good performance when minor changes were introduced to the incubation temperature and time. All 54 Listeria strains tested, representing the most frequently isolated Listeria species from food (L. monocytogenes, L. ivanovii, L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri, and L. grayi), were successfully enriched in ACTERO Listeria. None of the 30 nontarget strains tested in the exclusivity study was recovered after incubation in ACTERO Listeria. Recovery of Listeria was consistent across three independently produced lots of the ACTERO Listeria, and the prepared medium was stable for 45 days when stored at 4 degrees C in the dark. Matrix studies performed with environmental sponge samples from plastic and stainless steel surfaces demonstrated similar recovery of Listeria spp. in a single-step enrichment using ACTERO Listeria from plastic, and significantly better recovery from stainless steel surfaces when compared to the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service reference method. The results of this study prove that ACTERO Listeria Enrichment Media can be effectively used in replacement of the two-step enrichment suggested by the reference method without affecting the recovery of Listeria spp. from environmental samples. PMID:25145148

Claveau, David; Olishevskyy, Sergiy; Giuffre, Michael; Martinez, Gabriela

2014-01-01

396

Integrated microscale analysis system for targeted liquid chromatography mass spectrometry proteomics on limited amounts of enriched cell populations.  

PubMed

Limited samples, such as those that are in vivo sourced via biopsy, are closely representative of biological systems and contain valuable information for drug discovery. However, these precious samples are often heterogeneous and require cellular prefractionation prior to proteomic analysis to isolate specific subpopulations of interest. Enriched cells from in vivo samples are often very limited (<10(4) cells) and pose a significant challenge to proteomic nanoliquid chromatography mass spectrometry (nanoLCMS) sample preparation. To enable the streamlined analysis of these limited samples, we have developed an online cell enrichment, microscale sample preparation, nanoLCMS proteomics workflow by integrating fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), focused ultrasonication, microfluidics, immobilized trypsin digestion, and nanoLCMS. To assess the performance of the online FACS-Chip-LCMS workflow, 5000 fluorescent labeled cells were enriched from a 5% heterogeneous cell population and processed for LCMS proteomics in less than 2 h. Within these 5000 enriched cells, 30 peptides corresponding to 17 proteins spanning more than 4 orders of magnitude of cellular abundance were quantified using a QExactive MS. The results from the online FACS-Chip-LCMS workflow starting from 5000 enriched cells were directly compared to results from a traditional macroscale sample preparation workflow starting from 2.0 10(6) cells. The microscale FACS-Chip-LCMS workflow demonstrated high cellular enrichment efficiency and high peptide recovery across the wide dynamic range of targeted peptides. Overall the microscale FACS-Chip-LCMS workflow has shown effectiveness in efficiently preparing limited amounts of FACS enriched cells in an online manner for proteomic LCMS. PMID:24083476

Martin, Jeffrey G; Rejtar, Tomas; Martin, Stephen A

2013-11-19

397

Experimental evidence of nitrogen control on pCO2 in phosphorus-enriched humic and clear coastal lagoon waters  

PubMed Central

Natural and human-induced controls on carbon dioxide (CO2) in tropical waters may be very dynamic (over time and among or within ecosystems) considering the potential role of warmer temperatures intensifying metabolic responses and playing a direct role on the balance between photosynthesis and respiration. The high magnitude of biological processes at low latitudes following eutrophication by nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs into coastal lagoons waters may be a relevant component of the carbon cycle, showing controls on partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) that are still poorly understood. Here we assessed the strength of N control on pCO2 in P-enriched humic and clear coastal lagoons waters, using four experimental treatments in microcosms: control (no additional nutrients) and three levels of N additions coupled to P enrichments. In humic coastal lagoons waters, a persistent CO2 supersaturation was reported in controls and all nutrient-enriched treatments, ranging from 24- to 4-fold the atmospheric equilibrium value. However, both humic and clear coastal lagoons waters only showed significant decreases in pCO2 in relation to the controlled microcosms in the two treatments with higher N addition levels. Additionally, clear coastal lagoons water microcosms showed a shift from CO2 sources to CO2 sinks, in relation to the atmosphere. Only in the two more N-enriched treatments did pCO2 substantially decrease, from 650 atm in controls and less N-enriched treatments to 10 atm in more N-enriched microcosms. Humic substrates and N inputs can modulate pCO2 even in P-enriched coastal lagoons waters, thereby being important drivers on CO2 outgassing from inland waters. PMID:23390422

Peixoto, Roberta B.; Marotta, Humberto; Enrich-Prast, Alex

2013-01-01

398

Size and time-resolved roadside enrichment of atmospheric particulate pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Size and time-resolved roadside enrichments of atmospheric particulate pollutants in PM10 were detected and quantified in a Mediterranean urban environment (Barcelona, Spain). Simultaneous data from one urban background (UB), one traffic (T) and one heavy traffic (HT) location were analysed, and roadside PM10 enrichments (RE) in a number of elements arising from vehicular emissions were calculated. Tracers of primary traffic emissions (EC, Fe, Ba, Cu, Sb, Cr, Sn) showed the largest REs (>70%). Other traffic tracers (Zr, Cd) showed lower but still consistent REs (25-40%), similar to those obtained for mineral matter resulting from road dust resuspension (Ca, La, Ce, Ti, Ga, Sr, 30-40%). The sum of primary and secondary organic carbon showed a RE of 41%, with contributions of secondary OC (SOC) to total OC ranging from 46% at the HT site, 63% at the T site, and 78% in the UB. Finally, other trace elements (As, Co, Bi) showed unexpected but consistent roadside enrichments (23% up to 69%), suggesting a link to traffic emissions even though the emission process is unclear. Hourly-resolved PM speciation data proved to be a highly resourceful tool to determine the source origin of atmospheric pollutants in urban environments. At the HT site, up to 62% of fine Mn was attributable to industrial plumes, whereas coarse Mn levels were mainly attributed to traffic. Similarly, even though Zn showed on average no roadside enrichment and thus was classified as industrial, the hourly-resolved data proved that at least 15% of coarse Zn may be attributed to road traffic emissions. In addition, our results indicate that secondary nitrate formation occurs within the city-scale, even in the absence of long atmospheric residence times or long-range atmospheric transport processes.

Amato, F.; Viana, M.; Richard, A.; Furger, M.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Nava, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Reche, C.; Moreno, T.; Pandolfi, M.; Pey, J.

2011-01-01

399

Size and time-resolved roadside enrichment of atmospheric particulate pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Size and time-resolved roadside enrichments of atmospheric particulate pollutants in PM10 were detected and quantified in a Mediterranean urban environment (Barcelona, Spain). Simultaneous data from one urban background (UB), one traffic (T) and one heavy traffic (HT) location were analysed, and roadside PM10 enrichments (RE) in a number of elements arising from vehicular emissions were calculated. Tracers of primary traffic emissions (EC, Fe, Ba, Cu, Sb, Cr, Sn) showed the largest REs (>70%). Other traffic tracers (Zr, Cd) showed lower but still consistent REs (25-40%), similar to those obtained for mineral matter resulting from road dust resuspension (Ca, La, Ce, Ti, Ga, Sr, 30-40%). The sum of primary and secondary organic carbon showed a RE of 41%, with contributions of secondary OC (SOC) to total OC ranging from 46% at the HT site, 63% at the T site, and 78% in the UB. Finally, other trace elements (As, Co, Bi) showed unexpected but consistent roadside enrichments (23% up to 69%), suggesting a link to traffic emissions even though the emission process is unclear. Hourly-resolved PM speciation data proved to be a highly resourceful tool to determine the source origin of atmospheric pollutants in urban environments. At the HT site, up to 62% of fine Mn was attributable to industrial plumes, whereas coarse Mn levels were mainly attributed to traffic. Similarly, even though Zn showed on average no roadside enrichment and thus was classified as industrial, the hourly-resolved data proved that at least 15% of coarse Zn may be attributed to road traffic emissions. In addition, our results indicate that secondary nitrate formation occurs within the city-scale, even in the absence of long atmospheric residence times or long-range atmospheric transport processes. Characteristic tracer ratios of road traffic emissions were identified: Cu/Sb = 6.8-8.0, Cu/Sn = 4.7-5.4 and Sn/Sb = 1.5.

Amato, F.; Viana, M.; Richard, A.; Furger, M.; Prvt, A. S. H.; Nava, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Bukowiecki, N.; Alastuey, A.; Reche, C.; Moreno, T.; Pandolfi, M.; Pey, J.; Querol, X.

2011-03-01

400

PREPARING THE HIGH FLUX ISOTOPE REACTOR FOR CONVERSION TO LOW ENRICHED URANIUM FUEL ? RETURN TO 100 MW  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel as a replacement for the current, high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has been under study since 2006. Reactor performance studies have been completed for conceptual plate designs and show that maintaining reactor performance while converting to LEU fuel requires returning the reactor power to 100 MW from 85 MW. The analyses required to up-rate the reactor power and the methods to perform these analyses are discussed. Comments regarding the regulatory approval process are provided along with a conceptual schedule.

Smith, Kevin Arthur [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL

2009-01-01

401

The oxygen isotope enrichment of leaf-exported assimilates--does it always reflect lamina leaf water enrichment?  

PubMed

The oxygen stable isotope composition of plant organic matter (OM) (particularly of wood and cellulose in the tree ring archive) is valuable in studies of plant-climate interaction, but there is a lack of information on the transfer of the isotope signal from the leaf to heterotrophic tissues. We studied the oxygen isotopic composition and its enrichment above source water of leaf water over diel courses in five tree species covering a broad range of life forms. We tracked the transfer of the isotopic signal to leaf water-soluble OM and further to phloem-transported OM. Observed leaf water evaporative enrichment was consistent with values predicted from mechanistic models taking into account nonsteady-state conditions. While leaf water-soluble OM showed the expected (18)O enrichment in all species, phloem sugars were less enriched than expected from leaf water enrichment in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), European larch (Larix decidua) and Alpine ash (Eucalyptus delegatensis). Oxygen atom exchange with nonenriched water during phloem loading and transport, as well as a significant contribution of assimilates from bark photosynthesis, can explain these phloem (18)O enrichment patterns. Our results indicate species-specific uncoupling between the leaf water and the OM oxygen isotope signal, which is important for the interpretation of tree ring data. PMID:23763637

Gessler, Arthur; Brandes, Elke; Keitel, Claudia; Boda, Sonja; Kayler, Zachary E; Granier, Andr; Barbour, Margaret; Farquhar, Graham D; Treydte, Kerstin

2013-10-01

402

[Characteristics and mechanism of 2,4,6-TCP degradation by the "Fe0/enriched-bacteria" system].  

PubMed

The synergistic mechanism of 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol (TCP) degradation using a combination of Fe0 and anaerobic dechlorinating bacteria with batch processing was investigated. Experimental results showed that under the conditions of pH 7.0, Fe0 5 g x L(-1) and 2,4,6-TCP 30 mg x L(-1), the growth and interface enrichment of enriched-bacteria could be promoted by Fe0, the cell mass (expressed by D600) of Fe0/enriched-bacteria was about 1.7 times as high as that of the individual predominant groups of dechlorinating bacteria. After 96 h reaction, large amount of bacteria attached to the iron surface, with short rod or coccus-like morphology. The pH value of the system was maintained at 7.8, which could be beneficial to the reductive dechlorination reaction and the growth of the enriched-bacteria. The major pathway of 2,4,6-TCP degradation in the Fe0/enriched-bacteria system was 2,4,6-TCP to 2,4-DCP and then to 4-CP. PMID:23213899

Dai, You-zhi; Guo, Li-li; Shi, Lei; Liu, Zhi-yong; Gao, Bao-chai

2012-08-01

403

Contrasting resource limitations of marine primary producers: implications for competitive interactions under enriched CO2 and nutrient regimes.  

PubMed

Primary producers rarely exist under their ideal conditions, with key processes often limited by resource availability. As human activities modify environmental conditions, and therefore resource availability, some species may be released from these limitations while others are not, potentially disrupting community structure. In order to examine the limitations experienced by algal functional groups that characterise alternate community structures (i.e. turf-forming algae and canopy-forming kelp), we exposed these groups to contemporary and enriched levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nutrients. Turfs responded to the individual enrichment of both CO2 and nutrients, with the greatest shift in the biomass and carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratios observed under their combined enrichment. In contrast, kelp responded to enriched nutrients, but not enriched CO2. We hypothesise that the differing limitations reflect the contrasting physiologies of these functional groups, specifically their methods of C acquisition, such as the possession and/or efficiency of a carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM). Importantly, our results reveal that these functional groups, whose interactions structure entire communities, experience distinct resource limitations, with some potentially limited by a single type of resource (i.e. kelp by nutrients), while others may be co-limited (i.e. turf by CO2 and nutrients). Consequently, the identification of how alternate conditions modify resource availability and limitations may facilitate anticipation of the future sustainability of major ecosystem components and the communities they support. PMID:23111809

Falkenberg, Laura J; Russell, Bayden D; Connell, Sean D

2013-06-01

404

Alterations of neocortical pyramidal cell phenotype in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome: effects of environmental enrichment.  

PubMed

Mental retardation in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) is thought to result from anomalous development and function of the brain; however, the underlying neuropathological processes have yet to be determined. Early implementation of special care programs result in limited, and temporary, cognitive improvements in DS individuals. In the present study, we investigated the possible neural correlates of these limited improvements. More specifically, we studied cortical pyramidal cells in the frontal cortex of Ts65Dn mice, a partial trisomy of murine chromosome 16 (MMU16) model characterized by cognitive deficits, hyperactivity, behavioral disruption and reduced attention levels similar to those observed in DS, and their control littermates. Animals were raised either in a standard or in an enriched environment. Environmental enrichment had a marked effect on pyramidal cell structure in control animals. Pyramidal cells in environmentally enriched control animals were significantly more branched and more spinous than non-enriched controls. However, environmental enrichment had little effect on pyramidal cell structure in Ts65Dn mice. As each dendritic spine receives at least one excitatory input, differences in the number of spines found in the dendritic arbors of pyramidal cells in the two groups reflect differences in the number of excitatory inputs they receive and, consequently, complexity in cortical circuitry. The present results suggest that behavioral deficits demonstrated in the Ts65Dn model could be attributed to abnormal circuit development. PMID:12816891

Dierssen, M; Benavides-Piccione, R; Martnez-Cu, C; Estivill, X; Flrez, J; Elston, G N; DeFelipe, J

2003-07-01

405

Generalized Modeling of Enrichment Cascades That Include Minor Isotopes  

SciTech Connect

The monitoring of enrichment operations may require innovative analysis to allow for imperfect or missing data. The presence of minor isotopes may help or hurt - they can complicate a calculation or provide additional data to corroborate a calculation. However, they must be considered in a rigorous analysis, especially in cases involving reuse. This study considers matched-abundanceratio cascades that involve at least three isotopes and allows generalized input that does not require all feed assays or the enrichment factor to be specified. Calculations are based on the equations developed for the MSTAR code but are generalized to allow input of various combinations of assays, flows, and other cascade properties. Traditional cascade models have required specification of the enrichment factor, all feed assays, and the product and waste assays of the primary enriched component. The calculation would then produce the numbers of stages in the enriching and stripping sections and the remaining assays in waste and product streams. In cases where the enrichment factor or feed assays were not known, analysis was difficult or impossible. However, if other quantities are known (e.g., additional assays in waste or product streams), a reliable calculation is still possible with the new code, but such nonstandard input may introduce additional numerical difficulties into the calculation. Thus, the minimum input requirements for a stable solution are discussed, and a sample problem with a non-unique solution is described. Both heuristic and mathematically required guidelines are given to assist the application of cascade modeling to situations involving such non-standard input. As a result, this work provides both a calculational tool and specific guidance for evaluation of enrichment cascades in which traditional input data are either flawed or unknown. It is useful for cases involving minor isotopes, especially if the minor isotope assays are desired (or required) to be important contributors to the overall analysis.

Weber, Charles F [ORNL

2012-01-01

406

Impact of the use of low or medium enriched uranium on the masses of space nuclear reactor power systems  

SciTech Connect

The design process for determining the mass increase for the substitution of low-enriched uranium (LEU) for high-enriched uranium (HEU) in space nuclear reactor systems is an optimization process which must simultaneously consider several variables. This process becomes more complex whenever the reactor core operates on an in-core thermionic power conversion, in which the fissioning of the nuclear fuel is used to directly heat thermionic emitters, with the subsequent elimination of external power conversion equipment. The increased complexity of the optimization process for this type of system is reflected in the work reported herein, where considerably more information has been developed for the moderated in-core thermionic reactors.

NONE

1994-12-01

407

Semantically enriched data for effective sensor data fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data fusion plays a major role in assisting decision makers by providing them with an improved situational awareness so that informed decisions could be made about the events that occur in the field. This involves combining a multitude of sensor modalities such that the resulting output is better (i.e., more accurate, complete, dependable etc.) than what it would have been if the data streams (hereinafter referred to as 'feeds') from the resources are taken individually. However, these feeds lack any context-related information (e.g., detected event, event classification, relationships to other events, etc.). This hinders the fusion process and may result in creating an incorrect picture about the situation. Thus, results in false alarms, waste valuable time/resources. In this paper, we propose an approach that enriches feeds with semantic attributes so that these feeds have proper meaning. This will assist underlying applications to present analysts with correct feeds for a particular event for fusion. We argue annotated stored feeds will assist in easy retrieval of historical data that may be related to the current fusion. We use a subset of Web Ontology Language (OWL), OWL-DL to present a lightweight and efficient knowledge layer for feeds annotation and use rules to capture crucial domain concepts. We discuss a solution architecture and provide a proof-of-concept tool to evaluate the proposed approach. We discuss the importance of such an approach with a set of user cases and show how a tool like the one proposed could assist analysts, planners to make better informed decisions.

de Mel, Geeth; Pham, Tien; Damarla, Thyagaraju; Vasconcelos, Wamberto; Norman, Tim

2011-06-01

408

Regional ecotoxicological hazards associated with anthropogenic enrichment of heavy metals.  

PubMed

Regional geochemical data of heavy metals are commonly used for environmental risk assessment and management. Often these data are based on so-called total concentrations, whereas the exposure to the mobile or reactive fraction of these elements finally determines whether the exposed ecosystem is at risk and to which extent. The objective of our research was to develop a wider applicable method for quantitative hazard assessment of soil metal contamination attributable to the activity of man, based on and illustrated with data from the Netherlands. Since chemical availability (0.43M HNO3 extractable concentrations) of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn appeared strongly related to the estimated anthropogenic enrichment, we used these concentrations to assess the hazard of human-induced enrichment of these metals. We expressed the enrichment hazard using the toxic pressure concept, which estimates the fraction of biological species (varying between 0 and 1) potentially affected due to the level of exposure to single metals or their local mixtures. This is done using logistic (enrichment) concentration/response models parameterized with ecotoxicological effect data from toxicity tests and mixture models. Hazards varied from very low toxic pressures (lower than 0.01) to (most often) toxic pressure less than 0.05, whereby the latter relates to the so-called 95%-protection criterion used in some soil protection legislations. In rare cases, the toxic pressure exceeded the value of 0.05, to an upper limit of 0.054 for Cd. The rank order of metal enrichment hazards suggests that Cd enrichment induces the largest hazard increase. There are limited (rank order) differences in enrichment hazards between soil types. Comparing the judgement of soils based on soil screening levels and based on toxic pressure of anthropogenic Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn enrichments, the soil screening values appear to more conservative. This exemplifies the use of soil screening values as a method to note regulatory concern, but not always indicating an actual hazard or risk. When screening values are exceeded, refined hazard insights can be obtained, as illustrated in this paper. This provides a more refined insight in the ecotoxic implications of human-induced metal enrichments in soils, as refined basis for risk management decisions. PMID:21424771

Spijker, J; Mol, G; Posthuma, L

2011-08-01

409

Recovery of three arctic stream reaches from experimental nutrient enrichment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Nutrient enrichment and resulting eutrophication is a widespread anthropogenic influence on freshwater ecosystems, but recovery from nutrient enrichment is poorly understood, especially in stream environments. We examined multi-year patterns in community recovery from experimental low-concentration nutrient enrichment (N + P or P only) in three reaches of two Arctic tundra streams (Kuparuk River and Oksrukuyik Creek) on the North Slope of Alaska (U.S.A.). 2. Rates of recovery varied among community components and depended on duration of enrichment (2-13 consecutive growing seasons). Biomass of epilithic algae returned to reference levels rapidly (within 2 years), regardless of nutrients added or enrichment duration. Aquatic bryophyte cover, which increased greatly in the Kuparuk River only after long-term enrichment (8 years), took 8 years of recovery to approach reference levels, after storms had scoured most remnant moss in the recovering reach. 3. Multi-year persistence of bryophytes in the Kuparuk River appeared to prevent recovery of insect populations that had either been positively (e.g. the mayfly Ephemerella, most chironomid midge taxa) or negatively (e.g. the tube-building chironomid Orthocladius rivulorum) affected by this shift in dominant primary producer. These lags in recovery (of >3 years) were probably driven by the persistent effect of bryophytes on physical benthic habitat. 4. Summer growth rates of Arctic grayling (both adults and young-of-year) in Oksrukuyik Creek (fertilised for 6 years with no bryophyte colonisation), which were consistently increased by nutrient addition, returned to reference rates within 1-2 years. 5. Rates of recovery of these virtually pristine Arctic stream ecosystems from low-level nutrient enrichment appeared to be controlled largely by duration of enrichment, mediated through physical habitat shifts caused by eventual bryophyte colonisation, and subsequent physical disturbance that removed bryophytes. Nutrient enrichment of oligotrophic Arctic stream ecosystems caused by climate change or local anthropogenic activity may have dramatic and persistent consequences if it results in the colonisation of long-lived primary producers that alter physical habitat. ?? 2007 The Authors.

Benstead, J.P.; Green, A.C.; Deegan, L.A.; Peterson, B.J.; Slavik, K.; Bowden, W.B.; Hershey, A.E.

2007-01-01

410

[The accreditation, source of knowledge and enrichment].  

PubMed

On the way for the accreditation which should lead us until 2020, we wish to share some reflections stemming from the daily practice concerning the compulsory quality approach for everyone. Several themes as training and skills evaluation, external quality controls, risk management and action plans have a great relevance and are a matter of public concern. Their consideration contributes not only to the reassurance of processes but also to knowledge improvement. In the following paragraphs we will present an overview of these themes which are all key elements for project management. PMID:24736149

Klein, Jean-Paul

2014-01-01

411

Safety Evaluation Report for the Claiborne Enrichment Center, Homer, Louisiana (Docket No. 70-3070)  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff review and safety evaluation of the Louisiana Energy Services, L.P. (LES, the applicant) application for a license to possess and use byproduct, source, and special nuclear material and to enrich natural uranium to a maximum of 5 percent U-235 by the gas centrifuge process. The plant, to be known as the Claiborne Enrichment Center (CEC), would be constructed near the town of Homer in Claiborne Parish, Louisiana. At full production in a given year, the plant will receive approximately 4,700 tonnes of feed UF{sub 6} and produce 870 tonnes of low-enriched UF{sub 6}, and 3,830 tonnes of depleted UF{sub 6} tails. Facility construction, operation, and decommissioning are expected to last 5, 30, and 7 years, respectively. The objective of the review is to evaluate the potential adverse impacts of operation of the facility on worker and public health and safety under both normal operating and accident conditions. The review also considers the management organization, administrative programs, and financial qualifications provided to assure safe design and operation of the facility. The NRC staff concludes that the applicant`s descriptions, specifications, and analyses provide an adequate basis for safety review of facility operations and that construction and operation of the facility does not pose an undue risk to public health and safety.

Not Available

1994-01-01

412

GeneCodis3: a non-redundant and modular enrichment analysis tool for functional genomics  

PubMed Central

Since its first release in 2007, GeneCodis has become a valuable tool to functionally interpret results from experimental techniques in genomics. This web-based application integrates different sources of information to finding groups of genes with similar biological meaning. This process, known as enrichment analysis, is essential in the interpretation of high-throughput experiments. The frequent feedbacks and the natural evolution of genomics and bioinformatics have allowed the growth of the tool and the development of this third release. In this version, a special effort has been made to remove noisy and redundant output from the enrichment results with the inclusion of a recently reported algorithm that summarizes significantly enriched terms and generates functionally coherent modules of genes and terms. A new comparative analysis has been added to allow the differential analysis of gene sets. To expand the scope of the application, new sources of biological information have been included, such as genetic diseases, drugsgenes interactions and Pubmed information among others. Finally, the graphic section has been renewed with the inclusion of new interactive graphics and filtering options. The application is freely available at http://genecodis.cnb.csic.es. PMID:22573175

Tabas-Madrid, Daniel; Nogales-Cadenas, Ruben; Pascual-Montano, Alberto

2012-01-01

413

Perspectives on Intracluster Enrichment and the Stellar Initial Mass Function in Elliptical Galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The amount of metals in the Intracluster Medium (ICM) in rich galaxy clusters exceeds that expected based on the observed stellar population by a large factor. We quantify this discrepancy--which we term the "cluster elemental abundance paradox"--and investigate the required properties of the ICM-enriching population. The necessary enhancement in metal enrichment may, in principle, originate in the observed stellar population if a larger fraction of stars in the supernova-progenitor mass range form from an initial mass function (IMF) that is either bottom-light or top-heavy, with the latter in some conflict with observed ICM abundance ratios. Other alternatives that imply more modest revisions to the IMF, mass return and remnant fractions, and primordial fraction, posit an increase in the fraction of 3-8 solar mass stars that explode as SNIa or assume that there are more stars than conventionally thought--although the latter implies a high star formation efficiency. We discuss the feasibility of these various solutions and the implications for the diversity of star formation, the process of elliptical galaxy formation, and the nature of this hidden source of ICM metal enrichment in light of recent evidence of an elliptical galaxy IMF that, because it is skewed to low masses, deepens the paradox.

Lowenstein, Michael

2013-01-01

414

Retroviruses Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Murine Leukemia Virus Are Enriched in Phosphoinositides?  

PubMed Central

Retroviruses acquire a lipid envelope during budding from the membrane of their hosts. Therefore, the composition of this envelope can provide important information about the budding process and its location. Here, we present mass spectrometry analysis of the lipid content of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and murine leukemia virus (MLV). The results of this comprehensive survey found that the overall lipid content of these viruses mostly matched that of the plasma membrane, which was considerably different from the total lipid content of the cells. However, several lipids are enriched in comparison to the composition of the plasma membrane: (i) cholesterol, ceramide, and GM3; and (ii) phosphoinositides, phosphorylated derivatives of phosphatidylinositol. Interestingly, microvesicles, which are similar in size to viruses and are also released from the cell periphery, lack phosphoinositides, suggesting a different budding mechanism/location for these particles than for retroviruses. One phosphoinositide, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], has been implicated in membrane binding by HIV Gag. Consistent with this observation, we found that PI(4,5)P2 was enriched in HIV-1 and that depleting this molecule in cells reduced HIV-1 budding. Analysis of mutant virions mapped the enrichment of PI(4,5)P2 to the matrix domain of HIV Gag. Overall, these results suggest that HIV-1 and other retroviruses bud from cholesterol-rich regions of the plasma membrane and exploit matrix/PI(4,5)P2 interactions for particle release from cells. PMID:18799574

Chan, Robin; Uchil, Pradeep D.; Jin, Jing; Shui, Guanghou; Ott, David E.; Mothes, Walther; Wenk, Markus R.

2008-01-01

415

Amazon capims (floating grassmats): A source of sup 13 C enriched methane to the troposphere  

SciTech Connect

The {sup 13}C isotope composition of methane emitted to the troposphere from Amazon capims (floating grassmats) ranged from {minus}36.9 to {minus}48.0{per thousand} averaging {minus}44.4 {plus minus} 4.2{per thousand}. All pools of methane associated with the grassmats were {sup 13}C enriched; methane withdrawn from plant stems ranged from {minus}39 to {minus}49{per thousand} while bubbles stirred from the root mat averaged {minus}41.4{per thousand}. As the CH{sub 4} flux from these habitats makes up some 40% of the total flux from the Amazon flooplain, CH{sub 4} emissions form the region as a whole must be enriched in the heavy carbon isotope. Methane withdrawn from the stems of five genera of rooted macrophysics ranging in latitude from the Florida Everglades to the Alaskan Arctic exhibited {sup 13}C enrichment relative to the sedimentary methane bubble reservoir. Several hypotheses based upon isotopic fractionation by methane transport, oxidation and production processes are proposed to explain this phenomenon.

Chanton, J. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA)); Crill, P. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham (USA)); Martens, C. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA)); Bartlett, K.

1989-08-01

416

Enriching plant microbiota for a metagenomic library construction.  

PubMed

Plant microbiota (the microorganisms that live in any associations with plant tissues) represents a rather unexplored area of metagenomic research compared with soils and oceans. Constructing a metagenomic library for plant microbiota is technically challenging. Using all the biomass without pre-enrichment could lead to vast proportions of the host plant DNA in the metagenomic library, doubtless obliterating the microbial contribution. Therefore, the first and essential step is to enrich for the constituent microorganisms from plant tissues. Here, a strong enrichment for plant microbiota was achieved by coupling SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) with NaCl, creating a predominantly microbial metagenomic library that contains 88% bacterial inserts. 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed that the metagenomic DNA of enrichments originates from very diverse microorganisms. At least 74 distinct ribotypes (at a 97% threshold) from seven different bacterial phyla were identified and mainly distributed among Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Additionally, a simplified version of Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) was developed for a quick and efficient assessment of the enriching procedures. This work opens further insight into the great biotechnical potential of plant microbiota, holding more potential for drug discovery through a metagenomic strategy, and paving the way for recovery and biochemical characterization of functional gene repertoire from plant microbiota. PMID:18631363

Wang, Hao-Xin; Geng, Zhao-Liang; Zeng, Ying; Shen, Yue-Mao

2008-10-01

417

Heavy Ozone Enrichments from ATMOS Infrared Solar Spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vertical enrichment profiles of stratospheric O-16O-16O-18 and O-16O-18O-16 (hereafter referred to as (668)O3 and (686)O3 respectively) have been derived from space-based solar occultation spectra recorded at 0.01 cm(exp-1) resolution by the ATMOS (Atmospheric Trace MOlecule Spectroscopy) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The observations, made during the Spacelab 3 and ATLAS-1, -2, and -3 shuttle missions, cover polar, mid-latitude and tropical regions between 26 to 2.6 mb inclusive (approximately 25 to 41 km). Average enrichments, weighted by molecular (48)O3 density, of (15 +/- 6)% were found for (668)O3 and (10 +/- 7)% for (686)O3. Defining the mixing ratio of (50)O3 as the sum of those for (668)O3 and (686)O3, an enrichment of (13 plus or minus 5)% was found for (50)O3 (1 sigma standard deviation). No latitudinal or vertical gradients were found outside this standard deviation. From a series of ground-based measurements by the ATMOS instrument at Table Mountain, California (34.4 deg N), an average total column (668)O3 enrichment of (17 +/- 4)% (1 sigma standard deviation) was determined, with no significant seasonal variation discernable. Possible biases in the spectral intensities that affect the determination of absolute enrichments are discussed.

Irion, F. W.; Gunson, M. R.; Rinsland, C. P.; Yung, Y. L.; Abrams, M. C.; Chang, A. Y.; Goldman, A.

1996-01-01

418

Enrichment and characterization of anaerobic TNT-degrading bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Three media constitutions were used to enrich for mixed cultures capable of degrading 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) under strictly anaerobic conditions. The media were derived from a mineral salts solution buffered to pH 7 with CO{sub 2}/bicarbonate and all contained TNT. The cultures were enriched in the TNT mineral salts medium or the TNT mineral salts medium supplemented with glucose, yeast extract, or ammonia in various combinations. Inocula were obtained from a treated soil, previously contaminated with dinoseb and then treated using anaerobic procedures, or from a bench-top aqueous culture, maintained with an extract from a munitions-contaminated soil for more than 4 years. Several cultures reduced TNT, producing 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene and 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene as the major products. The cultures were unable to effectively remove TNT when cross-transferred to the media they were not enriched on, suggesting that different media had enriched different subcultures form the original inoculum. The treated soil provided the most successful inoculum. Two media were chosen for further studies. Medium 1 contained TNT and glucose and produced a culture that might have used TNT as a nitrogen source. Medium 2, containing TNT and yeast extract, enriched cultures that degraded TNT, accumulating small amounts of p-cresol during the degradation.

Roberts, D.J.; Pendharkar, S. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1995-12-31

419

Target enrichment using parallel nanoliter quantitative PCR amplification  

PubMed Central

Background Next generation targeted resequencing is replacing Sanger sequencing at high pace in routine genetic diagnosis. The need for well validated, high quality enrichment platforms to complement the bench-top next generation sequencing devices is high. Results We used the WaferGen Smartchip platform to perform highly parallelized PCR based target enrichment for a set of known cancer genes in a well characterized set of cancer cell lines from the NCI60 panel. Optimization of PCR assay design and cycling conditions resulted in a high enrichment efficiency. We provide proof of a high mutation rediscovery rate and have included technical replicates to enable SNP calling validation demonstrating the high reproducibility of our enrichment platform. Conclusions Here we present our custom developed quantitative PCR based target enrichment platform. Using highly parallel nanoliter singleplex PCR reactions makes this a flexible and efficient platform. The high mutation validation rate shows this platforms promise as a targeted resequencing method for multi-gene routine sequencing diagnostics. PMID:24612714

2014-01-01

420

A short and valid measure of work-family enrichment.  

PubMed

The stream of research concerning work-family enrichment has generated a significant body of research because it plays an important role in occupational health (Masuda, McNall, Allen, & Nicklin, 2012). work-family enrichment has been defined as "the extent to which experiences in one role improve the quality of life in the other role" (Greenhaus & Powell, 2006, p. 73). Within work-family enrichment, there are two directions: work to family and family to work. Carlson, Kacmar, Wayne, and Grzywacz (2006) developed an 18-item scale to measure this construct. Although the scale has been shown to be both reliable and valid, it also requires work-family researchers to include a proportionally large number of items to capture this construct in a study. The goal of the current study was to isolate a subset of the items in this measure that produces results similar to the full version thereby providing a more streamlined scale for researchers. Using a five-sample study that follows the scale reduction procedures offered by Stanton, Sinar, Balzer, and Smith (2002), we provide evidence that scales containing only three items for each direction of enrichment produce results equivalent to the full scale with respect to reliability and discriminant, convergent, and predictive validity. Reducing the original scale by two thirds, without losing explanatory power, allows scholars to measure enrichment in the work and family domains more efficiently, which should help minimize survey time, lower refusal rates, and generate less missing data. PMID:24447219

Kacmar, K Michele; Crawford, Wayne S; Carlson, Dawn S; Ferguson, Merideth; Whitten, Dwayne

2014-01-01

421

Selective enrichment media bias the types of Salmonella enterica strains isolated from mixed strain cultures and complex enrichment broths.  

PubMed

For foodborne outbreak investigations it can be difficult to isolate the relevant strain from food and/or environmental sources. If the sample is contaminated by more than one strain of the pathogen the relevant strain might be missed. In this study mixed cultures of Salmonella enterica were grown in one set of standard enrichment media to see if culture bias patterns emerged. Nineteen strains representing four serogroups and ten serotypes were compared in four-strain mixtures in Salmonella-only and in cattle fecal culture enrichment backgrounds using Salmonella enrichment media. One or more strain(s) emerged as dominant in each mixture. No serotype was most fit, but strains of serogroups C2 and E were more likely to dominate enrichment culture mixtures than strains of serogroups B or C1. Different versions of Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) medium gave different patterns of strain dominance in both Salmonella-only and fecal enrichment culture backgrounds. The fittest strains belonged to serogroups C1, C2, and E, and included strains of S. Infantis, S. Thompson S. Newport, S. 6,8:d:-, and S. Give. Strains of serogroup B, which included serotypes often seen in outbreaks such as S. Typhimurium, S. Saintpaul, and S. Schwarzengrund were less likely to emerge as dominant strains in the mixtures when using standard RV as part of the enrichment. Using a more nutrient-rich version of RV as part of the protocol led to a different pattern of strains emerging, however some were still present in very low numbers in the resulting population. These results indicate that outbreak investigations of food and/or other environmental samples should include multiple enrichment protocols to ensure isolation of target strains of Salmonella. PMID:22496847

Gorski, Lisa

2012-01-01

422

Automated UF6 Cylinder Enrichment Assay: Status of the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA) Project: POTAS Phase II  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) intends to automate the UF6 cylinder nondestructive assay (NDA) verification currently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at enrichment plants. PNNL is proposing the installation of a portal monitor at a key measurement point to positively identify each cylinder, measure its mass and enrichment, store the data along with operator inputs in a secure database, and maintain continuity of knowledge on measured cylinders until inspector arrival. This report summarizes the status of the research and development of an enrichment assay methodology supporting the cylinder verification concept. The enrichment assay approach exploits a hybrid of two passively-detected ionizing-radiation signatures: the traditional enrichment meter signature (186-keV photon peak area) and a non-traditional signature, manifested in the high-energy (3 to 8 MeV) gamma-ray continuum, generated by neutron emission from UF6. PNNL has designed, fabricated, and field-tested several prototype assay sensor packages in an effort to demonstrate proof-of-principle for the hybrid assay approach, quantify the expected assay precision for various categories of cylinder contents, and assess the potential for unsupervised deployment of the technology in a portal-monitor form factor. We refer to recent sensor-package prototypes as the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA). The report provides an overview of the assay signatures and summarizes the results of several HEVA field measurement campaigns on populations of Type 30B UF6 cylinders containing low-enriched uranium (LEU), natural uranium (NU), and depleted uranium (DU). Approaches to performance optimization of the assay technique via radiation transport modeling are briefly described, as are spectroscopic and data-analysis algorithms.

Jordan, David V.; Orton, Christopher R.; Mace, Emily K.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Smith, Leon E.

2012-06-01

423

Peptide Level Immunoaffinity Enrichment Enhances Ubiquitination Site Identification on Individual Proteins  

PubMed Central

Ubiquitination is a process that involves the covalent attachment of the 76-residue ubiquitin protein through its C-terminal di-glycine (GG) to lysine (K) residues on substrate proteins. This post-translational modification elicits a wide range of functional consequences including targeting proteins for proteasomal degradation, altering subcellular trafficking events, and facilitating protein-protein interactions. A number of methods exist for identifying the sites of ubiquitination on proteins of interest, including site-directed mutagenesis and affinity-purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS). Recent publications have also highlighted the use of peptide-level immunoaffinity enrichment of K-GG modified peptides from whole cell lysates for global characterization of ubiquitination sites. Here we investigated the utility of this technique for focused mapping of ubiquitination sites on individual proteins. For a series of membrane-associated and cytoplasmic substrates including erbB-2 (HER2), Dishevelled-2 (DVL2), and T cell receptor ? (TCR?), we observed that K-GG peptide immunoaffinity enrichment consistently yielded additional ubiquitination sites beyond those identified in protein level AP-MS experiments. To assess this quantitatively, SILAC-labeled lysates were prepared and used to compare the abundances of individual K-GG peptides from samples prepared in parallel. Consistently, K-GG peptide immunoaffinity enrichment yielded greater than fourfold higher levels of modified peptides than AP-MS approaches. Using this approach, we went on to characterize inducible ubiquitination on multiple members of the T-cell receptor complex that are functionally affected by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Together, these data demonstrate the utility of immunoaffinity peptide enrichment for single protein ubiquitination site analysis and provide insights into the ubiquitination of HER2, DVL2, and proteins in the T-cell receptor complex. PMID:24142993

Anania, Veronica G.; Pham, Victoria C.; Huang, XiaoDong; Masselot, Alexandre; Lill, Jennie R.; Kirkpatrick, Donald S.

2014-01-01

424

Herbivore responses to nutrient enrichment and landscape heterogeneity in a mangrove ecosystem.  

PubMed

Complex gradients in forest structure across the landscape of offshore mangrove islands in Belize are associated with nutrient deficiency and flooding. While nutrient availability can affect many ecological processes, here we investigate how N and P enrichment interact with forest structure in three distinct zones (fringe, transition, dwarf) to alter patterns of herbivory as a function of folivory, loss of yield, and tissue mining. The effects of nutrient addition and zone varied by functional feeding group or specific herbivore. Folivory ranged from 0 to 0.4% leaf area damaged per month, but rates did not vary by either nutrient enrichment or zone. Leaf lifetime damage ranged from 3 to 10% of the total leaf area and was caused primarily by the omnivorous tree crab Aratus pisonii. We detected two distinct spatial scales of response by A. pisonii that were unrelated to nutrient treatment, i.e., most feeding damage occurred in the fringe zone and crabs fed primarily on the oldest leaves in the canopy. Loss of yield caused by the bud moth Ecdytolopha sp. varied by zone but not by nutrient treatment. A periderm-mining Marmara sp. responded positively to nutrient enrichment and closely mirrored the growth response by Rhizophora mangle across the tree height gradient. In contrast, a leaf-mining Marmara sp. was controlled by parasitoids and predators that killed >89% of its larvae. Thus, nutrient availability altered patterns of herbivory of some but not all mangrove herbivores. These findings support the hypothesis that landscape heterogeneity of the biotic and abiotic environment has species-specific effects on community structure and trophic interactions. Predicting how herbivores respond to nutrient over-enrichment in mangrove ecosystems also requires an assessment of habitat heterogeneity coupled with feeding strategies and species-specific behavior measured on multiple scales of response. PMID:17566784

Feller, Ilka C; Chamberlain, Anne

2007-09-01

425

Is the Donggou Porphyry Mo deposit in East Qinling Mo Belt, China Highly Enriched in Fluorine?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Donggou porphyry Mo deposit is the third largest Mo producer after the Jinduicheng and Nannihu deposits in the East Qinling Molybdenum Belt (EQMB), China. Surrounded by a series of hydrothermal vein type deposits (Pb, Zn, Cu and Ag) (Mao et al., 2008, 2009), the deposit has a current proven reserve of 0.717 million tons of molybdenum metal with an average grading of 0.12%. The previous published data show that the Cretaceous Donggou molybdenum deposit and the genetically related porphyry stock formed around the same time period; the alumina saturation index diagram suggests that these intrusions belong to metaluminous to weak peralumnious granitiods; REE chondrite patter of the Donggou porphyry stock shows that they are more enriched in light incompatible elements than the heavy incompatible elements, indicating obvious fractionation between the light incompatible elements and heavy incompatible elements, and moderate to strong Eu anomaly; the trace elements spider diagram demonstrates that the Donggou porphyry stock are enriched in Large-ion lithophile elements (Rb, K, U, Th etc.) and High field strength elements (Zr, Nb, Ta etc.), but depleted in Sr, Ba and P. Three main stages were determined during the mineralization: Early (Pre-molybdenum) Mineralization, Molybdenum Mineralization, and Post-molybdenum Mineralization. Accompanied by hydrothermal biotite alteration activities, the thin and discontinuous K-feldspar-Quartz veins characterize the early molybdenite-barren stages. The molybdenum mineralization stage has two mineralization processes, separated by molybdenite-barren, apatite-rich veins. Microphotographic study shows that the mineralization stage was enriched in fluorine, which is reflected by abundance of fluorite in the Mo-bearing veins and in molybdenite-barren blue apatite veins. Following the molybdenum-bearing stage and apatite-rich veins, K-feldspar-Chlorite-Quartz-Pyrite veins occur, indicating the end of the entire mineralization. The occurrence of fluorine in early K-feldspar veins, two mineralization stages, and molybdenite-barren apatite vein suggests that the Donggou deposit is enriched in fluorine.

Xiao, Ping; Friehauf, Kurt; Wang, Wei; Yang, Guoliang; Yun, Long

2013-04-01

426

PERSPECTIVES ON INTRACLUSTER ENRICHMENT AND THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION IN ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

Stars formed in galaxy cluster potential wells must be responsible for the high level of enrichment measured in the intracluster medium (ICM); however, there is increasing tension between this truism and the parsimonious assumption that the stars in the generally old population studied optically in cluster galaxies emerged from the same formation sites at the same epochs. We construct a phenomenological cluster enrichment model to demonstrate that ICM elemental abundances are underestimated by a factor >2 for standard assumptions about the stellar population-a discrepancy we call the ''cluster elemental abundance paradox''. Recent evidence of an elliptical galaxy initial mass function (IMF) skewed to low masses deepens the paradox. We quantify the adjustments to the star formation efficiency and IMF, and Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) production efficiency, required to resolve this while being consistent with the observed ICM abundance pattern. The necessary enhancement in metal enrichment may, in principle, originate in the observed stellar population if a larger fraction of stars in the supernova-progenitor mass range form from an IMF that is either bottom-light or top-heavy, with the latter in some conflict with observed ICM abundance ratios. Other alternatives that imply more modest revisions to the IMF, mass return and remnant fractions, and primordial fraction, posit an increase in the fraction of 3-8 M{sub Sun} stars that explode as SNIa or assume that there are more stars than conventionally thought-although the latter implies a high star formation efficiency. We discuss the feasibility of these various solutions and the implications for the diversity of star formation in the universe, the process of elliptical galaxy formation, and the origin of this ''hidden'' source of ICM metal enrichment.

Loewenstein, Michael, E-mail: Michael.Loewenstein.1@nasa.gov [Also at CRESST and X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

2013-08-10

427

Multilayer interparticle linking hybrid MOF-199 for noninvasive enrichment and analysis of plant hormone ethylene.  

PubMed

Ethylene, an important plant hormone, is of utmost importance during many developmental processes of plants. However, the efficient enrichment and analysis of trace ethylene still remains a challenge. A simple and mild multilayer interparticle linking strategy was proposed to fabricate a novel hybrid MOF-199 enrichment coating. Strong chemical interparticle linkages throughout the coating improved the durability and reproducibility of hybrid MOF-199 coating dramatically. This coating performed a significant extraction superiority of ethylene over commonly used commercial coatings, attributed to the multiple interactions including "molecular sieving effect", hydrogen bonding, open metal site interaction, and ?-? affinity. The hybridization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with MOF-199 further improved the enrichment capability and also acted as a hydrophobic "shield" to prevent the open metal sites of MOF-199 from being occupied by water molecules, which effectively improved the moisture-resistant property of MOF-199/CNTs coating. Finally, this novel enrichment method was successfully applied for the noninvasive analysis of trace ethylene, methanol, and ethanol from fruit samples with relatively high humidity. The low detection limit was 0.016 ?g/L for ethylene. It was satisfactory that trace ethylene could be actually detected from fruit samples by this noninvasive method. Good recoveries of spiked grape, wampee, blueberry, and durian husk samples were obtained in the range of 90.0-114%, 79.4-88.6%, 78.5-86.8%, and 85.2-105% with the corresponding relative standard deviations of 4.8-9.8%, 6.9-8.9%, 3.8-8.1%, and 9.3-10.5% (n = 3), respectively. PMID:24576104

Zhang, Zhuomin; Huang, Yichun; Ding, Weiwei; Li, Gongke

2014-04-01

428

Zirconium arsenate-modified magnetic nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and application to the enrichment of phosphopeptides.  

PubMed

Phosphorylation, one of the most important post-translational modifications of protein, plays a crucial role in a large number of biological processes. Large-scale identification of protein phosphorylation by mass spectrometry is still a challenging task because of the low abundance of phosphopeptides and sub-stoichiometry of phosphorylation. In this work, a novel strategy based on the specific affinity of zirconium arsenate to the phosphate group has been developed for the effective enrichment of phosphopeptides. Zirconium arsenate-modified magnetic nanoparticles (ZrAs-Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2)) were prepared by covalent immobilization of zirconium arsenate on Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2) magnetic nanoparticles under mild conditions, and characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The prepared ZrAs-Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2) was applied for the selective enrichment of phosphopeptides from the digestion mixture of phosphoproteins and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Our results demonstrated that the ZrAs-Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2) magnetic nanoparticles possess higher selectivity for phosphopeptides and better capture capability towards multiply-phosphorylated peptides than commercial zirconium dioxide (ZrO(2)), which has been widely employed for the enrichment of phosphopeptides. In addition, endogenous phosphopeptides from human serum can be effectively captured by ZrAs-Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2) magnetic nanoparticles. It is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, in which the zirconium arsenate-modified magnetic nanoparticles were successfully applied to the enrichment of phosphopeptides, which offers the potential application of this new material in phosphoproteomics study. PMID:22182930

Li, Xiao-Shui; Xu, Li-Dan; Zhu, Gang-Tian; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

2012-02-21

429

A semantic enrichment of data tables applied to food risk assessment  

E-print Network

A semantic enrichment of data tables applied to food risk assessment H´el`ene Gagliardi, Ollivier data in scientific articles. These tables are semantically enriched and we want this enrichment, ambiguities or possible interpretation errors. In this paper, we present this semantic enrichment step. 2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

430

Optogalvanic isotope enrichment of Cu ions in Cu-Ne positive column discharges  

E-print Network

Optogalvanic isotope enrichment of Cu ions in Cu-Ne positive column discharges M. J. Kushner The isotopic enrichment of copper ions in a positive column Cu-Ne discharge using optogalvanic excitation the 63-amu isotope of copper is enriched relative to the neutral abundance. Enrichment as large as 10

Kushner, Mark

431

Low enrichment fuel conversion for Iowa State University  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the UTR-10 reactor at Iowa State University which went critical on low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel on August 14, 1991. However, subsequent to the criticality experiments the fuel plates started to discolor. In addition, roll pins used to lift the fuel assemblies were discovered to be cracked. It was determined that these problems were due to chemical agents in the primary coolant water. The roll pins were replaced by solid stainless steel pins. The primary coolant was replaced and the reactor is currently in operation. Surveillance specimens will be used to monitor any possible future discoloration. The high enriched fuel (HEU) is being prepared for eventual shipment to a high enriched fuel receiving facility.

Rohach, A.F.

1992-08-01

432

Soil cadmium enrichment: Allocation and plant physiological manifestations.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd) in soil is enriched through several leaky management agricultural practices and natural resources. Cd enriched soil is inevitable cause of nutritional stress besides Cd induced toxicity symptoms and physiological malfunctions. Redox signals shift toward oxidative stress which accelerates cellular damage and elicits defense mechanism at the cost of growth. Plants get enriched with this toxic, abundant and undesirable element through 'mineral uptake system' non-specifically. Different components and pathways have been marked cooperating in cellular sequestration and systemic localization of Cd, escaped from avoidance and efflux. Cd induced metabolic alteration led to electron leakage as ROS, reduced photosynthesis and carbon fixation. Compromised primary metabolism negatively feedbacks the plant growth, result into loss of potential crop yield. PMID:23961213

Irfan, Mohd; Hayat, Shamsul; Ahmad, Aqil; Alyemeni, Mohammed Nasser

2013-01-01

433

A method for the semantic enrichment of clinical trial data.  

PubMed

Clinical trial data have historically been implemented using relational databases. While this has expedited the dissemination of data among partners, it has hindered on the ability to swiftly query the data by relying on monolithic tables. This paper outlines a project that investigates the semantic enrichment of a large-scale longitudinal clinical trial, the AIBL study, by reusing entities from existing ontologies. The implication of the semantic enrichment of the AIBL study is that it is possible to query the data more effectively and efficiently. We are now able to implement our model and focus on an end-to-end data capture and analysis pipeline to query and visualise clinical trial data. The main contribution of this paper is a discussion of the methodology to semantically enrich clinical trial data using entities from existing ontologies. PMID:22797028

Leroux, Hugo; McBride, Simon; Lefort, Laurent; Kemp, Madonna; Gibson, Simon

2012-01-01

434

Biomedical research applications of electromagnetically separated enriched stable isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current and projected annual requirements through 1985 for stable isotopes enriched by electromagnetic separation methods were reviewed for applications in various types of biomedical research: (1) medical radiosiotope production, labeled compounds, and potential radio-pharmaceuticals; (2) nutrition, food science, and pharmacology: (3) metallobiochemistry and environmental toxicology; (4) nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance, and moessbauer spectroscopy in biochemical, biophysical, and biomedical research; and (5) miscellaneous advances in radioactive and nonradioactive tracer technology. Radioisotopes available from commercial sources or routinely used in clinical nuclear medicine were excluded. Current requirements for enriched stable isotopes in biomedical research are not being satisfied. Severe shortages exist for Mg 26, Ca 43, Zn 70, Se 76, Se 77, Se 78, Pd 102, Cd 111, Cd 113, and Os 190. Many interesting and potentially important investigations in biomedical research require small quantities of specific elements at high isotopic enrichments.

Lambrecht, R. M.

435

Tritium Enrichment in the Hydration Sphere of Humic Substances  

SciTech Connect

Humic and fulvic acid can be combined under the term 'humic substances' and are natural substances with a complex structure. The structural details are not known, however, due to the functional groups present in these compounds the formation of hydrogen bonds is easily attained. Several humic substances were investigated for their potential use as compounds, which are applicable for tritium enrichment from aqueous solution. For comparison a simple compound, malonic acid, representing only few functional groups was investigated. The experiments were performed using a cryosublimation apparatus, which was run well below equilibrium vapor pressure to avoid any isotope fractionation of HTO and H{sub 2}O. A higher enrichment factor was found for natural humic acid compared to fulvic acid, however, no enrichment could be found for a synthetic humic acid and malonic acid. Interpretation of the results is difficult since no detailed information on the chemical structure of humic substances is known.

Wierczinski, Birgit; Muellen, Guenther; Tuerler, Andreas

2005-07-15

436

External Photoevaporation of the Solar Nebula: Jupiter's Noble Gas Enrichments  

E-print Network

We present a model explaining elemental enrichments in Jupiter's atmosphere, particularly the noble gases Ar, Kr, and Xe. While He, Ne and O are depleted, seven other elements show similar enrichments ($\\sim$3 times solar, relative to H). Being volatile, Ar is difficult to fractionate from ${\\rm H}_{2}$. We argue that external photoevaporation by far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from nearby massive stars removed ${\\rm H}_{2}$, He, and Ne from the solar nebula, but Ar and other species were retained because photoevaporation occurred at large heliocentric distances where temperatures were cold enough ($\\lt 30$ K) to trap them in amorphous water ice. As the solar nebula lost H it became relatively and uniformly enriched in other species. Our model improves on the similar model of Guillot \\& Hueso (2006). We recognize that cold temperatures alone do not trap volatiles; continuous water vapor production also is necessary. We demonstrate that FUV fluxes that photoevaporated the disk generated sufficient water va...

Monga, Nikhil

2014-01-01

437

COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON MITOCHONDRIA ISOLATED FROM NEURON-ENRICHED AND GLIA-ENRICHED FRACTIONS OF RABBIT AND BEEF BRAIN  

PubMed Central

Fractions enriched in neuronal and glial cells were obtained from dispersions of whole beef brain and rabbit cerebral cortex by large-scale density gradient centrifugation procedures. The fractions were characterized by appropriate microscopic observation. Mitochondria were then isolated from these fractions by differential centrifugation of their homogenates. The two different types of mitochondria were characterized with respect to certain enzyme activities, respiratory rate, rate of protein synthesis, and their buoyant density in sucrose gradients. The mitochondria from the neuron-enriched fraction were distinguished by a higher rate of incorporation of amino acids into protein, higher cytochrome oxidase activity, and a higher buoyant density in sucrose density gradients. Mitochondria from the glia-enriched fraction showed relatively high monoamine oxidase and Na+- and K+-stimulated ATPase activities. The rates of oxidation of various substrates and the acceptor control ratios did not differ appreciably between the two types of mitochondria. The difference in the buoyant density of mitochondria isolated from the neuron-enriched and glia-enriched cell fractions was utilized in attempts to separate neuronal and glial mitochondria from the mixed mitochondria obtained from whole brain homogenates in shallow sucrose gradients. The appearance of two peaks of cytochrome oxidase, monoamine oxidase, and protein concentration in such gradients shows the potential feasibility of such an approach. PMID:5513605

Hamberger, Anders; Blomstrand, Christian; Lehninger, Albert L.

1970-01-01

438

Formation of magnetite-enriched zones in and offshore of a mesotidal estuarine lagoon: An environmental magnetic study of Tauranga Harbour and Bay of Plenty, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic iron minerals are widespread and indicative sediment constituents in estuarine, coastal and shelf systems. We combine environmental