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Sample records for enrico primo tonasini

  1. Enrico Fermi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chen Ning

    2013-05-01

    Enrico Fermi was, of all the great physicists of the 20th century, among the most respected and admired. He was respected and admired because of his contributions to both theoretical and experimental physics, because of his leadership in discovering for mankind a powerful new source of energy, and above all, because of his personal character. He was always reliable and trustworthy. He had both of his feet on the ground all the time. He had great strength, but never threw his weight around. He did not play to the gallery. He did not practise one-up-manship. He exemplified, I always believe, the perfect Confucian gentleman...

  2. An interview with Enrico Coen.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Catarina

    2016-07-15

    Enrico Coen CBE FRS is a Project Leader at the John Innes Centre in Norwich, UK, who uses a variety of approaches to study patterning and morphogenesis in plants. We met with Enrico at the Spring Meeting of the British Society for Developmental Biology, where he was awarded the Waddington Medal, to ask him more about his career and his passion for art and book-writing. PMID:27436037

  3. Enrico Fermi and the Dolomites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battimelli, Giovanni; de Angelis, Alessandro

    2014-11-01

    Summer vacations in the Dolomites were a tradition among the professors of the Faculty of Mathematical and Physical Sciences at the University of Roma since the end of the XIX century. Beyond the academic walls, people like Tullio Levi-Civita, Federigo Enriques and Ugo Amaldi sr., together with their families, were meeting friends and colleagues in Cortina, San Vito, Dobbiaco, Vigo di Fassa and Selva, enjoying trekking together with scientific discussions. The tradition was transmitted to the next generations, in particular in the first half of the XX century, and the group of via Panisperna was directly connected: Edoardo Amaldi, the son of the mathematician Ugo sr., rented at least during two summers, in 1925 and in 1949, and in the winter of 1960, a house in San Vito di Cadore, and almost every year in the Dolomites; Enrico Fermi was a frequent guest. Many important steps in modern physics, in particular the development of the Fermi-Dirac statistics and the Fermi theory of beta decay, are related to scientific discussions held in the region of the Dolomites.

  4. Enrico: Python package to simplify Fermi-LAT analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, David; Deil, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Enrico analyzes Fermi data. It produces spectra (model fit and flux points), maps and lightcurves for a target by editing a config file and running a python script which executes the Fermi science tool chain.

  5. The GBT Primos Program: 7 Years of Astronomical Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corby, Joanna F.; McGuire, Brett A.; Hollis, Mike; Lovas, Frank J.; Jewell, Philip; Remijan, Anthony

    2014-06-01

    The GBT PRebiotic Interstellar MOlecule Survey (PRIMOS) towards Sgr B2N is the deepest, most complete spectral line survey in the range of 300MHz - 49 GHz. PRIMOS enables astronomers, chemists, and biologists to test theories of molecular formation, the origins of organic chemistry and the molecular complexity and physical and kinematic structure of material in our Galaxy. To date, PRIMOS data have resulted in 14 refereed publications since 2007, demonstrating the power of centimeter wave spectroscopy for detecting new organic species and revealing the significance of non-LTE effects including maser amplification in the cm-wave spectra of organic molecules. The survey has additionally advertised molecular astrophysics in public lectures, summer undergraduate diversity programs, and high school student projects. While the GBT is the only telescope in the world capable of conducting the PRIMOS Survey, PRIMOS data couples with newly available broad-bandwidth telescopes including the Jansky Very Large Array and ALMA. Synergistic observations with ALMA will be necessary to fully characterize the spectra of molecular material and determine excitation mechanisms leading to observed line radiation. This presentation provides an overview of the PRIMOS program, highlights PRIMOS science, and describes how the entire astronomical community can obtain the data for their own research.

  6. LETTERS AND COMMENTS: Enrico Fermi: a great teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Boon Leong

    2002-09-01

    Enrico Fermi was not only a great theoretical and experimental physicist but a great teacher as well. This article highlights Fermi's approaches in both his formal and informal teaching, and as a thesis advisor. The great teacher inspires - William Arthur Ward

  7. Remains to be transmitted: Primo Levi's traumatic dream.

    PubMed

    Blévis, Jean-Jacques

    2004-07-01

    Drawing on the writings of Primo Levi and the psychoanalysis of Jacques Lacan, the author attempts to conceive psychic trauma as a coalescence of traumas, since this is perhaps the only way to prevent a subject from being forced back into identification with the catastrophic event, whatever that may have been. A recurrent dream of Primo Levi's suggests to the author the way that traumas may have coalesced within Levi. The hope would be to restore the entire significance of what remains from that traumatic event to the speech (parole) of the Other, to the speech of every human, even the most helpless, bruised, or destroyed among us. PMID:15287444

  8. 75 FR 20867 - DTE Energy; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DTE Energy; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental Assessment and Finding of No... Operating License No. DPR-9 issued to DTE Energy (DTE or the licensee), for the Enrico Fermi Atomic...

  9. Turinese stereochemistry: Eligio Perucca's enantioselectivity and Primo Levi's asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Kahr, Bart; Bing, Yonghong; Kaminsky, Werner; Viterbo, Davide

    2009-01-01

    A reputation restored: Eligio Perucca (see photo) first observed the enantioselective adsorption of a racemic mixture to a chiral crystal (NaClO(3)) in Turin in 1919. However, this milestone in enantioselective chemistry and chiroptics went unnoticed. Identified previously as a coward who refused in 1941 to supervise the research of the budding stereochemist Primo Levi because of the race laws, Perucca was opposed to the fascist regime. PMID:19266531

  10. Ugo Fano, Enrico Fermi, and spectral line shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Charles W.

    2005-03-01

    Ugo Fano's 1961 paper on spectral line shapes^1 was recently ranked as the third highest in citation impact of all papers published in the entire Physical Review series.^2 In the course of preparing an article for a NIST Centennial volume,^3 I became interested in the history of the results presented in Fano’s seminal paper, and will present my findings in this talk. An amusing sidelight concerns the role played by Enrico Fermi in the development of the famous ``Fano profile'' formula. I had been told this story by Fano when I was his graduate student, but uncertain of my recollection of the details, I did not publish it in his obituary.^4 I later learned that the archives of the Royal Society of London contain Fano's own written version of the tale, which will be presented in this talk. The story sheds light on the nature of Enrico Fermi's interactions with his students, and confirms accounts concerning the way in which he did his theoretical work.^5 ^1 U. Fano,``Effects of Configuration Interaction on Intensities and Phase Shifts,'' Phys. Rev. 124, 1866-1878 (1961)^2 S. Redner, physics/0407137 (2004)^3 http://nvl.nist.gov/pub/nistpubs/sp958-lide/116-119.pdf^4 C. W. Clark, Nature 410, 164 (2001)^5 F. Rasetti, in Collected Papers, vol. I, E. Fermi (University of Chicago Press, 1962), p. 178

  11. History of Bioelectrical Study and the Electrophysiology of the Primo Vascular System

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Hyun; Kim, Eung Hwi; Chang, Ho Jong; Yoon, Seung Zhoo; Yoon, Ji Woong; Cho, Seong-Jin; Ryu, Yeon-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Background. Primo vascular system is a new anatomical structure whose research results have reported the possibility of a new circulatory system similar to the blood vascular system and cells. Electrophysiology, which measures and analyzes bioelectrical signals tissues and cells, is an important research area for investigating the function of tissues and cells. The bioelectrical study of the primo vascular system has been reported by using modern techniques since the early 1960s by Bonghan Kim. This paper reviews the research result of the electrophysiological study of the primo vascular system for the discussion of the circulatory function. We hope it would help to study the electrophysiology of the primo vascular system for researchers. This paper will use the following exchangeable expressions: Kyungrak system = Bonghan system = Bonghan circulatory system = primo vascular system = primo system; Bonghan corpuscle = primo node; Bonghan duct = primo vessel. We think that objective descriptions of reviewed papers are more important than unified expressions when citing the papers. That said, this paper will unify the expressions of the primo vascular system. PMID:23935666

  12. Enrico Fermi - And the Revolutions of Modern Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Dan

    1999-02-01

    In 1938, at the age of 37, Enrico Fermi was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics. That same year he emigrated from Italy to the United States and, in the course of his experiments, discovered nuclear fission--a process which forms the basis of nuclear power and atomic bombs. Soon the brilliant physicist was involved in the top secret race to produce the deadliest weapon on Earth. He created the first self-sustaining chain reaction, devised new methods for purifying plutonium, and eventually participated in the first atomic test. This compelling biography traces Fermis education in Italy, his meteoric career in the scientific world, his escape from fascism to America, and the ingenious experiments he devised and conducted at the University of Rome, Columbia University, and the Los Alamos laboratory. The book also presents a mini-course in quantum and nuclear physics in an accessible, fast-paced narrative that invokes all the dizzying passion of Fermis brilliant discoveries.

  13. Effective isolation of primo vessels in lymph using sound- and ultrasonic-wave stimulation.

    PubMed

    Park, Do-Young; Lee, Hye-Rie; Rho, Min-Suk; Lee, Sang-Suk

    2014-12-01

    The effects of stimulation with sound and ultrasonic waves of a specific bandwidth on the microdissection of primo vessels in lymphatic vessels of rabbit were investigated. The primo vessels stained with alcian-blue dye injected in the lymph nodes were definitely visualized and more easily isolated by sound-wave vibration and ultrasonic stimulation applied to rabbits at various frequencies and intensities. With sound wave at 7 Hz and ultrasonic waves at 2 MHz, the probability of detecting the primo vessels was improved to 90%; however, without wave stimulation the probability of discovering primo vessels was about 50% only. Sound and ultrasonic waves at specific frequency bands should be effective for microdissection of the primo vessels in the abdominal lymph of rabbit. We suggest that oscillation of the primo vessels by sound and ultrasonic waves may be useful to visualize specific primo structure, and wave vibration can be a very supportive process for observation and isolation of the primo vessels of rabbits. PMID:25499563

  14. Atom optics and space physics: A summary of an 'Enrico Fermi' summer school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimondo, Ennio; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.; Schleich, Wolfgang P.

    2008-03-01

    We describe the scientific content of the International School of Physics 'Enrico Fermi' on atom optics and space physics, organized by the Italian Physical Society in Varenna at Lake Como, Italy, 2-13 July 2007.

  15. PRIMO: A Wide Field Prime Focus Infrared Mosaic Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, D.; Bally, J.; Green, J.; Morse, J.; Probst, R.; Green, R.; Joyce, R.; Liang, M.; Arentz, R.; Reitsema, H.; Marriott, J.

    2000-12-01

    We describe a proposal for a major new facility infrared camera for the NOAO 4-m telescopes. With a half-degree field of view at prime focus, a refractive collimator-camera design, and a 1-2.5 um range, PRIMO will enable deep, wide-field infrared surveys. The need for surveys which bridge the five-magnitude gap between 2MASS and 8-10 m spectroscopic sensitivity is well established. PRIMO will enable high-latitude broadband surveys to trace the luminosity and clustering evolution of galaxies, investigations into the composition and history of young stellar populations throughout the total volume of star-forming complexes, narrow-band imaging surveys of star forming regions, and of nebulae formed in late stellar evolutionary stages. The NOAO 4-m telescopes are well suited to this role, and PRIMO will also empower US investment in Gemini and other new generation very large telescopes. By leveraging this instrument with the previous NSF investment in these telescopes, we will provide the US community with a survey facility comparable to the UK VISTA project at a fraction of the latter's cost. This project will be carried out through teaming of an accomplished university group, CU-Boulder, a national center, NOAO, and an aerospace industry partner, Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. Our approach is a new model for developing major ground-based astronomical instruments. The instrument concept has been developed and costed, and we meet our performance goals with a straightforward, low-risk design. The project schedule is aggressive: two years from start of funding to first light.

  16. Enrico Fermi: The First Chain Reactor (with Film) and Pion-Proton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Ron

    2003-01-08

    A twenty minute film will be shown depicting the first nuclear chain reactor at the University of Chicago on December 2, 1942. The film was made of a re-enactment in 1952 and is narrated by Arthur Compton and Enrico Fermi. After the film, Ronald Martin will talk about his experiences on pion-proton scattering with Enrico Fermi at the Chicago synchrocyclotron in the fifties.

  17. Primo Levi's loneliness: psychoanalytic perspectives on suicide-nearness.

    PubMed

    Titelman, David

    2006-07-01

    To elucidate suicide-nearness, the perspectives of the death drive and narcissism are applied to the writings of Primo Levi. Emerging themes are Levi's struggle to maintain his self-regard from his year as a prisoner in Auschwitz and onward, and his observations on xenophobia, violence, and the need for love. The gradual increase of depressive content in Levi's work is noted, as are his identifications with others who succumbed in the Holocaust or took their lives after surviving it. The conflict between the wish for peace and the need for love is seen as impossible to resolve under the threat of extermination and as reemerging in the prevailing sense of loneliness that Levi described. PMID:16924976

  18. 75 FR 24755 - DTE ENERGY; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Low-Level Waste...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... quality of the human environment as documented in Federal Register (FR) notice 75 FR 20867, April 21, 2010... COMMISSION DTE ENERGY; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Low-Level Waste... and holder of Facility Operating License No. DPR-9 issued for Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit...

  19. Primo Vascular System: A Unique Biological System Shifting a Medical Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Chikly, Bruno; Roberts, Paul; Quaghebeur, Jörgen

    2016-01-01

    The primo vascular system has a specific anatomical and immunohistochemical signature that sets it apart from the arteriovenous and lymphatic systems. With immune and endocrine functions, the primo vascular system has been found to play a large role in biological processes, including tissue regeneration, inflammation, and cancer metastases. Although scientifically confirmed in 2002, the original discovery was made in the early 1960s by Bong-Han Kim, a North Korean scientist. It would take nearly 40 years after that discovery for scientists to revisit Kim's research to confirm the early findings. The presence of primo vessels in and around blood and lymph vessels, nerves, viscera, and fascia, as well as in the brain and spinal cord, reveals a common link that could potentially open novel possibilities of integration with cranial, lymphatic, visceral, and fascial approaches in manual medicine. PMID:26745560

  20. Enrico Fermi's Discovery of Neutron-Induced Artificial Radioactivity: Neutrons and Neutron Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Francesco; Leone, Matteo; Robotti, Nadia

    2006-09-01

    We reconstruct and analyze the path leading from James Chadwick’s discovery of the neutron in February 1932 through Frédéric Joliot and Irène Curie’s discovery of artificial radioactivity in January 1934 to Enrico Fermi’s discovery of neutron-induced artificial radioactivity in March 1934. We show, in particular, that Fermi’s innovative construction and use of radon-beryllium neutron sources permitted him to make his discovery.

  1. The primo vascular system as a new anatomical system.

    PubMed

    Stefanov, Miroslav; Potroz, Michael; Kim, Jungdae; Lim, Jake; Cha, Richard; Nam, Min-Ho

    2013-12-01

    Traditional Eastern medicine has had a successful existence for a long time and has provided functional paths for curing disease. However, some scientists do not accept acupuncture, primarily because the meridian system lacks a physical anatomical basis. To date, scientific theories have not been able to explain the functional paths used by traditional Eastern medicine to cure disease. According to Western medicine, no known anatomical foundation exists for the meridians and unknown nervous, circulatory, endocrine, and immune mechanisms mediate the effects of acupuncture. In the early 1960s, only one hypothesis was proposed to explain the anatomical basis of the meridians. By using different experimental approaches during the past 10 years, the number of scientific papers that report the discovery of different anatomical and physiological evidence confirming the existence of an anatomical basis for the meridian system has increased. Morphological science is greatly challenged to offer a new biomedical theory that explains the possible existence of new bodily systems such as the primo vascular system (PVS). The PVS is a previously unknown system that integrates the features of the cardiovascular, nervous, immune, and hormonal systems. It also provides a physical substrate for the acupuncture points and meridians. Announcements of the morphological architectonics and the function of the PVS fundamentally changed the basic understanding of biology and medicine because the PVS is involved in the development and the functions of living organisms. We propose a new vision of the anatomical basis for the PVS and the vital energy-called "Qi"-as an electromagnetic wave that is involved very closely with the DNA in the PVS. DNA provides genetic information and it functions as a store of information that can be obtained from the electromagnetic fields of the environment. The PVS is the communication system between living organisms and the environment, and it lies at the lowest

  2. Conjugate Magnetic Observations in the Polar Environments by PRIMO and AUTUMNX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, P. J.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Raymond, C. A.; Connors, M. G.; Wilson, T. J.; Boteler, D. H.; Rowe, K.; Schofield, I.

    2014-12-01

    While magnetically conjugate observations by ground-based magnetometers are available at both high and low magnetic latitudes, few have been established at auroral latitudes to monitor the hemispheric asymmetry of auroral electric currents and its impact to geospace dynamics. Due to the limitations of global land areas, the only regions where conjugate ground-based magnetic observations can cover the full range of auroral latitudes are between Quebec, Canada and West Antarctica. Funded by the Canadian Space Agency, the AUTUMNX project is currently emplacing 10 ground-based magnetometers in Quebec, Canada, and will provide the magnetic field observations in the Northern Hemisphere. The proposed U.S. Polar Region Interhemispheric Magnetic Observatories (PRIMO) project plans to establish six new ground-based magnetometers in West Antarctica at L-values between 3.9 and 10.1. The instrument is based on the new low-power fluxgate magnetometer system recently developed at UCLA for operation in the polar environments. The PRIMO magnetometers will operate on the power and communications platform well proven by the POLENET project, and the six PRIMO systems will co-locate with existing ANET stations in the region for synergy in logistic support. Focusing on the American longitudinal sector and leveraging infrastructure through international collaborations, PRIMO and AUTUMNX can monitor the intensity and location of auroral electrojets in both hemispheres simultaneously, enabling the first systematic interhemispheric magnetic observations at auroral latitudes.

  3. FindIt@Flinders: User Experiences of the Primo Discovery Search Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Kylie

    2012-01-01

    In September 2011, Flinders University Library launched FindIt@Flinders, the Primo discovery layer search to provide simultaneous results from the Library's collections and subscription databases. This research project was an exploratory case study which aimed to show whether students were finding relevant information for their course learning and…

  4. Primo Levi and the Periodic Table: Teaching Chemistry Using A Literary Text (Excerpt)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osorio, Viktoria Klara Lakatos; Tiedemann, Peter Wilhelm; Porto, Paulo Alves

    2007-01-01

    The excerpts from The Periodic Table book written by Primo Levi is discussed related to chemical concepts. The use of a literary text as a starting point of discussions of chemical concepts has allowed the integration of various topics covered in separate courses of the undergraduate program in chemistry.

  5. Teaching theoretical physics: The cases of Enrico Fermi and Ettore Majorana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gregorio, Alberto; Esposito, Salvatore

    2007-09-01

    We report on theoretical courses by Enrico Fermi and Ettore Majorana, which give evidence of the first appearance and further development of quantum mechanics teaching in Italy. On the basis of original documents, we compare Fermi and Majorana's approaches. A detailed analysis is made of Fermi's course on theoretical physics attended by Majorana in 1927-28. Three (previously unknown) programs on advanced physics courses submitted by Majorana to the University of Rome between 1933 and 1936 and the course he taught in Naples in 1938 complete our analysis. Fermi's phenomenological approach resounded in Majorana, who combined it with a deeper theoretical approach, closer to the contemporary way of presenting quantum mechanics.

  6. Visualization of the primo vascular system afloat in a lymph duct.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Bae, Kyoung-Hee; Kwon, Hee Min; Song, Yoon Kyu; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2014-12-01

    Because of the potential roles of the primo vascular system (PVS) in cancer metastasis, immune function, and regeneration, understanding the molecular biology of the PVS is desirable. The current state of PVS research is comparable to that of lymph research prior to the advent of Lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1). There is very little knowledge of the molecular biology of the PVS due to difficulties in identifying and isolating primo endothelial cells. Present investigations rely on the morphology and the use of differential staining procedures to identify the PVS within tissues, making detailed molecular studies all but impossible. To overcome such difficulties, one may emulate the explosive development of lymph molecular biology. For this purpose, there is a need for a reliable method to obtain PVS specimens to initiate the molecular investigation. One of the most reliable methods is to detect the primo vessels and primo nodes afloat in the lymph flow. The protocols for observation of the PVS in the large lymph ducts in the abdominal cavity and the thoracic cavity were reported earlier. These methods require a laparectomy and skillful techniques. In this work, we present a protocol to identify and harvest PVS specimens from the lymph ducts connecting the inguinal and the axillary nodes, which are located entirely in the skin. Thus, the PVS specimen is more easily obtainable. This method is a stepping-stone toward development of a system to monitor migration of cancer cells in metastasis from a breast tumor to the axillary nodes, where cancer cells use the PVS as a survival rope in hostile lymph flow. PMID:25499568

  7. Gross Morphological Features of the Organ Surface Primo-Vascular System Revealed by Hemacolor Staining

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Yongbaek; Lee, So Yeong

    2013-01-01

    The primo-vascular system (PVS), which consists of primo-vessels (PVs) and primo-nodes (PNs), is a novel thread-like structure identified in many animal species. Various observational methods have been used to clarify its anatomical properties. Here, we used Hemacolor staining to examine the gross morphology of organ-surface PVS in rats. We observed a sinus structure (20–50 μm) with a remarkably low cellularity within PNs and PVs and several lines of ductules (3–5 μm) filled with single cells or granules (~1 μm) in PV. Both sinuses and ductules were linearly aligned along the longitudinal axis of the PVS. Such morphology of the PVS was further confirmed by acridine orange staining. In PN slices, there was a honeycomb-like structure containing the granules with pentagonal lumens (~10 μm). Both PVs and PNs were densely filled with WBCs, RBCs, and putative mast cells (MCs), which were 90.3%, 5.9%, and 3.8% of the cell population, respectively. Granules in putative MCs showed spontaneous vibrating movements. In conclusion, the results show that Hemacolor, a simple and rapid staining system, can reveal the gross morphological features reported previously. Our findings may help to elucidate the structure and function of the PVS in normal and disease states in future studies. PMID:23986781

  8. The Meanings and Prospects of Primo Vascular System from the Viewpoint of Historical Context

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jongwook; Lee, Sanghun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this overview is to evaluate the primo vascular system research in the context of the history of meridian theory and the modern meanings of it. The 12 meridian systems were naturally presupposed in the conventional study of the meridians and acupuncture. But the excavations of Mawang-tui old documents and Sichuan Mianyang wooden puppet revealed the primordial concepts of meridians uncolored by the numerological cosmology of Han era. Further, the meridian map of horse, cow and hawk show another resemblance to the primordial type of meridians. Modern meridian theory has been challenged by the material based scientific theory and the primo vascular theory presents the most radical answer for it. It aims to reveal the anatomical entity of meridians. However, the study of primo vascular system is unexpectedly opening the new horizon of scientific integration of East and West beyond the mere searching for anatomical entity of meridians. Conclusions we have drawn from the historical reviews are, (1) the surface structure of the body reflects the physiopathological changes of inside the body, (2) by stimulating specific sites on the surface, it is possible to acquire therapeutic effects of certain symptoms, and (3) numbers and locations of meridian acupoints are variable among traditional meridian theories. PMID:23762137

  9. Study of Mast Cells and Granules from Primo Nodes Using Scanning Ionic Conductance Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yeong-Yung; Jung, Goo-Eun; Kwon, Hee-Min; Bae, Kyoung-Hee; Cho, Sang-Joon; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2015-12-01

    Acupuncture points have a notable characteristic in that they have a higher density of mast cells (MCs) compared with nonacupoints in the skin, which is consistent with the augmentation of the immune function by acupuncture treatment. The primo vascular system, which was proposed as the anatomical structure of the acupuncture points and meridians, also has a high density of MCs. We isolated the primo nodes from the surfaces of internal abdominal organs, and the harvested primo nodes were stained with toluidine blue. The MCs were easily recognized by their stained color and their characteristic granules. The MCs were classified into four stages according to the degranulation of histamine granules in the MCs. Using conventional optical microscopes details of the degranulation state of MCs in each stage were not observable. However, we were able to investigate the distribution of the granules on the surfaces of the MCs in each stage, and to demonstrate the height profiles and three-dimensional structures of the MCs without disturbance of the cell membrane by using the scanning ion conductance microscopy. PMID:26742911

  10. Enrico Fermi's Discovery of Neutron-Induced Artificial Radioactivity:The Recovery of His First Laboratory Notebook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acocella, Giovanni; Guerra, Francesco; Robotti, Nadia

    . We give a short description of the discovery of the first experimental notebook of Enrico Fermi (1901-1954) on his researches during March and April of 1934 on neutron-induced artificial radioactivity, and we point out its relevance for a proper historical and conceptual understanding of those researches.

  11. Current Research at the University of Chicago Enrico Fermi Institute and James Franck Institute

    ScienceCinema

    Simon Swordy

    2010-01-08

    These talks will give an overview of physics research at the University of Chicago centered in two research institutes. The Enrico Fermi Institute pursues research in some core areas of the physical sciences. These include cosmology, particle physics, theoretical physics, particle astrophysics, and cosmochemistry. The EFI talk will focus on some examples of these activities which together will provide a broad overview of EFI science. Research at the James Franck Institute centers on the intersection between physics, chemistry and materials science, with the aim to unravel the complex connections between structure and dynamics in condensed matter systems. The JFI is also home to the Chicago Materials Research Science and Engineering Center. The JFI talk will provide highlights of current projects by JFI members.

  12. Current Research at the University of Chicago Enrico Fermi Institute and James Franck Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Simon Swordy

    2009-03-04

    These talks will give an overview of physics research at the University of Chicago centered in two research institutes. The Enrico Fermi Institute pursues research in some core areas of the physical sciences. These include cosmology, particle physics, theoretical physics, particle astrophysics, and cosmochemistry. The EFI talk will focus on some examples of these activities which together will provide a broad overview of EFI science. Research at the James Franck Institute centers on the intersection between physics, chemistry and materials science, with the aim to unravel the complex connections between structure and dynamics in condensed matter systems. The JFI is also home to the Chicago Materials Research Science and Engineering Center. The JFI talk will provide highlights of current projects by JFI members.

  13. Enrico Fermi Fast Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Criticality Calculations: Degraded Mode

    SciTech Connect

    D.R. Moscalu; L. Angers; J. Monroe-Rammsey; H.R. Radulesca

    2000-07-21

    The objective of this calculation is to characterize the nuclear criticality safety concerns associated with the codisposal of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Enrico Fermi (EF) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) in a 5-Defense High-Level Waste (5-DHLW) Waste Package (WP) and placed in a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The scope of this calculation is limited to the determination of the effective neutron multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) for the degraded mode internal configurations of the codisposal WP. The results of this calculation and those of Ref. 8 will be used to evaluate criticality issues and support the analysis that will be performed to demonstrate the viability of the codisposal concept for the Monitored Geologic Repository.

  14. The Detection of Interstellar Ethanimine (CH3CHNH) from Observations Taken during the GBT PRIMOS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, Ryan A.; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Steber, Amanda L.; Neill, Justin L.; Muckle, Matthew T.; Harris, Brent J.; Hollis, Jan M.; Jewell, Philip R.; Lattanzi, Valerio; Lovas, Frank J.; Martinez, Oscar, Jr.; McCarthy, Michael C.; Remijan, Anthony J.; Pate, Brooks H.; Corby, Joanna F.

    2013-03-01

    We have performed reaction product screening measurements using broadband rotational spectroscopy to identify rotational transition matches between laboratory spectra and the Green Bank Telescope PRIMOS radio astronomy survey spectra in Sagittarius B2 North (Sgr B2(N)). The broadband rotational spectrum of molecules created in an electrical discharge of CH3CN and H2S contained several frequency matches to unidentified features in the PRIMOS survey that did not have molecular assignments based on standard radio astronomy spectral catalogs. Several of these transitions are assigned to the E- and Z-isomers of ethanimine. Global fits of the rotational spectra of these isomers in the range of 8-130 GHz have been performed for both isomers using previously published mm-wave spectroscopy measurements and the microwave measurements of the current study. Possible interstellar chemistry formation routes for E-ethanimine and Z-ethanimine are discussed. The detection of ethanimine is significant because of its possible role in the formation of alanine—one of the twenty amino acids in the genetic code.

  15. A Novel Technique for Visualizing the Intralymphatic Primo Vascular System by Using Hollow Gold Nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric; Perez-Abadia, Gustavo; Adams, Staci; Zhang, Jin Z; Kang, Kyung A; Maldonado, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    Until recently, the primo vascular system (PVS) has been unnoticed by most anatomists due to the small diameter and translucent features of the threadlike network. These properties make primo vessels (PVs) difficult to visualize for harvest and for further characterization. One particular PVS subtype that is located within the lymphatic vessels (LVs) is of strong interest because with a proper contrast, these long PVs can be visualized through the transparent LV wall and can be harvested to provide sufficient sample material for analysis. The most common method to visualize this PVS subtype utilizes Alcian blue as the contrast agent. This technique is effective, but tedious, and has relatively low repeatability. The purpose of this study was to develop a new technique that allows reliable visualization of the intralymphatic PVS (IL-PVS) in a user-friendly manner. The method was designed to provide optical contrast to the PVS by taking advantage of the porous nature of the PV's external wall and interstitial matrix. Turquoise-green-colored hollow gold nanospheres (HGNs) in the size range of 50-125 nm were found to provide excellent optical contrast for the IL-PVS in rats. The PVS was visualized within 10 minutes after HGN administration at a 95% success rate. PMID:26742913

  16. Hypothesis on the Treatment of Gliomas with Acupuncture at the Primo Node Corresponding to Zusanli (ST 36)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The primo vascular system (PVS) is an anatomical structure that is a network of ducts with fluid flowing in them, which are called primo vessels and correspond to acupuncture meridians, and primo nodes that correspond to acupoints. The PVS' main function is considered to be the maintenance of regenerative homeostasis in human and animal bodies. This system is distributed throughout the bodies of normal animals and develops around and in cancer tissues. This cancer-associated PVS may be a critical metastatic path besides the blood and the lymph vessels. The author of this article proposes a hypothesis on cancer treatment: Injecting anticancer drugs into acupoints according to the pharmacopuncture method can be effective as a result of the flow channels of the PVS. The author considers the acupoint Zusanli (ST 36) and the route of the primo vessels starting from it. This specific PVS route runs along the perineurium of the sciatic nerve, the pia mater, and the arachnoid mater of the spinal cord to the brain. Thus, by injecting a suitable anticancer drug into ST 36, one can deliver the drug into the brain to treat gliomas and other brain tumors. This new drug-delivery method is just one of the new clinical applications that are possible by combining acupuncture and using the PVS. Conclusions: Anticancer drugs for glioma can be injected into the primo node at the acupoint ST 36 to reach the cancer tissue through the PVS in the sciatic nerve, spine, and brain that can avoid the blood–brain barrier. PMID:26155319

  17. The Illness and Death of Enrico Caruso (1873-1921): A Medical Chorus Out of Tune?

    PubMed

    Cascella, Marco

    2016-02-01

    The Italian opera singer Enrico Caruso is considered by many people the most famous opera singer of all time or "The Matchless Singer" for his unique and suggestive vocal timber. Although a man of humble origins, he managed to rise from poverty, thanks to his extraordinary intelligence and determination. From his debut in 1895 in Naples, until December 24, 1920, the tenor had a brilliant career with many performances and over 500 songs in his repertoire. This intense lifestyle went on until 1919, when the fortune that had always accompanied him began to fade and he entered a fast "descending parable." In this study, we analyze Caruso's medical history during his last year of life: Through the study of the newspapers from the period and the statements reported on the tenor's many biographies, we tried to offer a detailed evaluation of the complex pathogenic chain of events that led to his death, impeding him from keeping to alleviate the heart-breaking nostalgia of many emigrants that felt in his singing the warmth of a too distant land. PMID:25877665

  18. Temporal Change of Alcian Blue-Stained Primo Vascular System in Lymph Vessels of Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungdae; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the temporal change of a vascular system now known as the primo vascular system (PVS). We used Alcian blue (AB) dye for imaging the distribution of the PVS in lymphatic vessels. The target lymph vessels were chosen as they are easily accessible from the skin, and long-term observation is possible with intact physiological conditions due to a minimal surgical procedure. AB solution was injected into the inguinal lymph node and the target lymph vessels were located along the superficial epigastric vessels. The imaging system allowed processing for extraction of images showing changes in the AB intensity of the visualized PVS components. This newly developed procedure can be used for further study on various dynamic processes of PVS in lymph vessels. PMID:27526158

  19. Differentiating Blood, Lymph, and Primo Vessels by Residual Time Characteristic of Fluorescent Nanoparticles in a Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungwoo; Lim, Jaekwan; Cha, Jinmyung; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Ryu, Yeon Hee; Kim, SungChul; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent nanoparticles (FNPs) which were injected into a tumor tissue flowed out through the blood and lymph vessels. The FNPs in blood vessels remained only in the order for few minutes while those in lymph vessels remained for a long time disappearing completely in 25 hours. We found a primo vessel inside a lymph vessel near a blood vessel, and FNPs remained in the primo vessel for longer than 25 hours. In addition, we examined in detail the residual time characteristics of lymph vessels because it could be useful in a future study of fluid dynamical comparison of the three conduits. These residual time characteristics of FNPs in the three kinds of vessels may have implications for the dynamics of nanoparticle drugs for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:23662147

  20. 50 Years of Bong-Han Theory and 10 Years of Primo Vascular System

    PubMed Central

    Soh, Kwang-Sup; Kang, Kyung A.; Ryu, Yeon Hee

    2013-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS) was first introduced by Bong-Han Kim via his five research reports. Among these the third report was most extensive and conclusive in terms of the PVS anatomy and physiology relating to the acupuncture meridians. His study results, unfortunately, were not reproduced by other scientists because he did not describe the materials and methods in detail. In 2002, a research team in Seoul National University reinitiated the PVS research, confirmed the existence of PVS in various organs, and discovered new characteristics of PVS. Two important examples are as follows: PVS was found in the adipose tissue and around cancer tissues. In parallel to these new findings, new methods for observing and identifying PVS were developed. Studies on the cell and material content inside the PVS, including the immune function cells and stem cells, are being progressed. In this review, Bong-Han Kim's study results in his third report are summarized, and the new results after him are briefly reviewed. In the last section, the obstacles in finding the PVS in the skin as an anatomical structure of acupuncture meridian are discussed. PMID:23983793

  1. Identification of Primo-Vascular System in Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue Layer of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chae Jeong; Lee, So Yeong; Ryu, Pan Dong

    2015-01-01

    The primo-vascular system (PVS) is a novel network identified in various animal tissues. However, the PVS in subcutaneous tissue has not been well identified. Here, we examined the putative PVS on the surface of abdominal subcutaneous tissue in rats. Hemacolor staining revealed dark blue threadlike structures consisting of nodes and vessels, which were frequently observed bundled with blood vessels. The structure was filled with various immune cells including mast cells and WBCs. In the structure, there were inner spaces (20–60 µm) with low cellularity. Electron microscopy revealed a bundle structure and typical cytology common with the well-established organ surface PVS, which were different from those of the lymphatic vessel. Among several subcutaneous (sc) PVS tissues identified on the rat abdominal space, the most outstanding was the scPVS aligned along the ventral midline. The distribution pattern of nodes and vessels in the scPVS closely resembled that of the conception vessel meridian and its acupoints. In conclusion, our results newly revealed that the PVS is present in the abdominal subcutaneous tissue layer and indicate that the scPVS tissues are closely correlated with acupuncture meridians. Our findings will help to characterize the PVS in the other superficial tissues and its physiological roles. PMID:26379751

  2. Monitoring the primo vascular system in lymphatic vessels by using window chambers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungdae; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Gil, Hyun-Ji; Yoon, Seung Zhoo; Kim, Young-Il; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to develop a window chamber system in the skin of rats and to monitor the primo vascular system (PVS) inside the lymphatic vessels along the superficial epigastric vessels. The PVS in lymphatic vessels has been observed through many experiments under in vivo conditions, but monitoring the in vivo PVS in situ inside lymphatic vessels for a long time is difficult. To overcome the obstacles, we adapted the window chamber system for monitoring the PVS and Alcian blue (AB) staining dye solution for the contrast agent. The lymphatic vessels in the skin on the lateral side of the body, connecting the inguinal lymph nodes to the axillary lymph nodes, were the targets for setting the window system. After AB had been injected into the inguinal lymph nodes with a glass capillary, the morphological changes of the stained PVS were monitored through the window system for up to twenty hours, and the changes in the AB intensity in the PVS were quantified by using image processing. The results and histological images are presented in this study. PMID:27446651

  3. Monitoring the primo vascular system in lymphatic vessels by using window chambers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jungdae; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Gil, Hyun-Ji; Yoon, Seung Zhoo; Kim, Young-Il; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop a window chamber system in the skin of rats and to monitor the primo vascular system (PVS) inside the lymphatic vessels along the superficial epigastric vessels. The PVS in lymphatic vessels has been observed through many experiments under in vivo conditions, but monitoring the in vivo PVS in situ inside lymphatic vessels for a long time is difficult. To overcome the obstacles, we adapted the window chamber system for monitoring the PVS and Alcian blue (AB) staining dye solution for the contrast agent. The lymphatic vessels in the skin on the lateral side of the body, connecting the inguinal lymph nodes to the axillary lymph nodes, were the targets for setting the window system. After AB had been injected into the inguinal lymph nodes with a glass capillary, the morphological changes of the stained PVS were monitored through the window system for up to twenty hours, and the changes in the AB intensity in the PVS were quantified by using image processing. The results and histological images are presented in this study. PMID:27446651

  4. Identification of Primo-Vascular System in Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue Layer of Rats.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Jeong; Lee, So Yeong; Ryu, Pan Dong

    2015-01-01

    The primo-vascular system (PVS) is a novel network identified in various animal tissues. However, the PVS in subcutaneous tissue has not been well identified. Here, we examined the putative PVS on the surface of abdominal subcutaneous tissue in rats. Hemacolor staining revealed dark blue threadlike structures consisting of nodes and vessels, which were frequently observed bundled with blood vessels. The structure was filled with various immune cells including mast cells and WBCs. In the structure, there were inner spaces (20-60 µm) with low cellularity. Electron microscopy revealed a bundle structure and typical cytology common with the well-established organ surface PVS, which were different from those of the lymphatic vessel. Among several subcutaneous (sc) PVS tissues identified on the rat abdominal space, the most outstanding was the scPVS aligned along the ventral midline. The distribution pattern of nodes and vessels in the scPVS closely resembled that of the conception vessel meridian and its acupoints. In conclusion, our results newly revealed that the PVS is present in the abdominal subcutaneous tissue layer and indicate that the scPVS tissues are closely correlated with acupuncture meridians. Our findings will help to characterize the PVS in the other superficial tissues and its physiological roles. PMID:26379751

  5. Ultrastructure of the Subcutaneous Primo-Vascular System in Rat Abdomen.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Jeong; Lee, So Yeong; Ryu, Pan Dong

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we identified the primo-vascular system (PVS), a novel vascular network, in rat subcutaneous tissues. Little is known about the subcutaneous PVS (sc-PVS). Here, we examined the ultrastructure of the sc-PVS in the hypodermis at the rat abdominal midline by electron microscopy. On the surface of sc-PVS, we observed three types of cells: microcells (5-6 μm), large elliptical cells (>20 μm), and erythrocyte (3-4 μm). The inside of the sc-PVS was filled with numerous cells, which can be classified into three major groups: leucocytes, mast cells, and erythrocytes. The dense leucocytes and mast cells were easily noticed. The extracellular matrix of the sc-PVS was mainly composed of extensive fibers (79 ± 6.5 nm) tightly covered by micro- (0.5-1 μm) and nanoparticles (10-100 nm). In conclusion, the ultrastructural features, such as the resident cells on and in the sc-PVS and fiber meshwork covered by particles, indicate that sc-PVS might act as a circulatory channel for the flow and delivery of numerous cells and particles. Our findings will help understand the nature of various sc-PVS beneath-the-skin layers and how they relate to acupuncture meridians. PMID:27526159

  6. Chronological Review on Scientific Findings of Bonghan System and Primo Vascular System.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung A

    2016-01-01

    In 1962, Bonghan Kim in North Korea published a report on a new vascular system in mammals, which he claimed as the acupuncture meridian. He soon named it the Bonghan System. Between 1962 and 1965, he published five reports, with detailed descriptions on the system. Kim also described the self-regenerating nature of a unique cell type Sanals in the system and these cells are now confirmed to be a type of stem cells. According to his findings, the system appears to have vital roles in maintaining mammalian lives. Kim disappeared in around 1965 and the research on this system also completely stopped. In 2002, Kwang-Sup Soh reported re-discovery of the system and, since then, his team has been leading the research on the system. The Soh team has confirmed many of Kim's findings to be valid, although so many of Kim's results are still to be verified. In 2010, the system was renamed the Primo Vascular System (PVS). Soh and researchers trained by Soh have also been reporting new scientific facts on the system. The PVS exists throughout the entire body, including inside the blood and lymphatic vessels. Recent reports revealed more evidence for it to be the acupuncture meridian, where some acupuncture therapies are applied for the blood pressure control. Thus, the PVS is expected to have roles in the oxygen transport in tissues. Many study results also suggest that the PVS may have roles in body homeostasis and regeneration. This article chronologically reviews Kim's scientific findings on the Bonghan System, which were verified by the PVS scientists (after 2000), and also the new findings reported by the PVS scientists. PMID:27526157

  7. THE DETECTION OF INTERSTELLAR ETHANIMINE (CH{sub 3}CHNH) FROM OBSERVATIONS TAKEN DURING THE GBT PRIMOS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, Ryan A.; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Steber, Amanda L.; Neill, Justin L.; Muckle, Matthew T.; Harris, Brent J.; Pate, Brooks H.; Hollis, Jan M.; Jewell, Philip R.; Remijan, Anthony J.; Lattanzi, Valerio; Martinez, Oscar Jr.; McCarthy, Michael C.; Lovas, Frank J.; Corby, Joanna F.

    2013-03-01

    We have performed reaction product screening measurements using broadband rotational spectroscopy to identify rotational transition matches between laboratory spectra and the Green Bank Telescope PRIMOS radio astronomy survey spectra in Sagittarius B2 North (Sgr B2(N)). The broadband rotational spectrum of molecules created in an electrical discharge of CH{sub 3}CN and H{sub 2}S contained several frequency matches to unidentified features in the PRIMOS survey that did not have molecular assignments based on standard radio astronomy spectral catalogs. Several of these transitions are assigned to the E- and Z-isomers of ethanimine. Global fits of the rotational spectra of these isomers in the range of 8-130 GHz have been performed for both isomers using previously published mm-wave spectroscopy measurements and the microwave measurements of the current study. Possible interstellar chemistry formation routes for E-ethanimine and Z-ethanimine are discussed. The detection of ethanimine is significant because of its possible role in the formation of alanine-one of the twenty amino acids in the genetic code.

  8. DETECTION OF E-CYANOMETHANIMINE TOWARD SAGITTARIUS B2(N) IN THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE PRIMOS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Zaleski, Daniel P.; Seifert, Nathan A.; Steber, Amanda L.; Muckle, Matt T.; Loomis, Ryan A.; Vasquez, David; Nyiramahirwe, Jolie; Sciortino, Nicole; Johnson, Kennedy; Pate, Brooks H.; Corby, Joanna F.; Martinez, Oscar Jr.; Crabtree, Kyle N.; McCarthy, Michael C.; Jewell, Philip R.; Remijan, Anthony J.; Hollis, Jan M.; Lovas, Frank J. E-mail: mccarthy@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-03-01

    The detection of E-cyanomethanimine (E-HNCHCN) toward Sagittarius B2(N) is made by comparing the publicly available Green Bank Telescope (GBT) PRIMOS survey spectra to laboratory rotational spectra from a reaction product screening experiment. The experiment uses broadband molecular rotational spectroscopy to monitor the reaction products produced in an electric discharge source using a gas mixture of NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 3}CN. Several transition frequency coincidences between the reaction product screening spectra and previously unassigned interstellar rotational transitions in the PRIMOS survey have been assigned to E-cyanomethanimine. A total of eight molecular rotational transitions of this molecule between 9 and 50 GHz are observed with the GBT. E-cyanomethanimine, often called the HCN dimer, is an important molecule in prebiotic chemistry because it is a chemical intermediate in proposed synthetic routes of adenine, one of the two purine nucleobases found in DNA and RNA. New analyses of the rotational spectra of both E-cyanomethanimine and Z-cyanomethanimine that incorporate previous millimeter-wave measurements are also reported.

  9. Enrico Morselli's Psychology and "Spiritism": psychiatry, psychology and psychical research in Italy in the decades around 1900.

    PubMed

    Brancaccio, Maria Teresa

    2014-12-01

    This paper traces Enrico Morselli's intellectual trajectory from the 1870s to the early 1900s. His interest in phenomena of physical mediumship is considered against the backdrop of the theoretical developments in Italian psychiatry and psychology. A leading positivist psychiatrist and a prolific academic, Morselli was actively involved in the making of Italian experimental psychology. Initially sceptical of psychical research and opposed to its association with the 'new psychology', Morselli subsequently conducted a study of the physical phenomena produced by the medium Eusapia Palladino. He concluded that her phenomena were genuine and represented them as the effects of an unknown bio-psychic force present in all human beings. By contextualizing Morselli's study of physical mediumship within contemporary theoretical and disciplinary discourse, this study elaborates shifts in the interpretations of 'supernormal' phenomena put forward by leading Italian psychiatrists and physiologists. It demonstrates that Morselli's interest in psychical research stems from his efforts to comprehend the determinants of complex psychological phenomena at a time when the dynamic theory of matter in physics, and the emergence of neo-vitalist theories influenced the theoretical debates in psychiatry, psychology and physiology. PMID:25218119

  10. Broadband Screening for Interstellar Species: Additional Laboratory Measurements and Interstellar Detection of Ethanimine (CH3CHNH) in Sgr B2(N) Using GBT PRIMOS Survey Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, Ryan; Zaleski, D.; Steber, A.; Neill, J.; Muckle, M. T.; Harris, B. J.; Seifert, N.; Pate, B.; Lattanzi, V.; Martinez, O.; McCarthy, M. C.; Remijan, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    As the availability of publicly accessible spectral line surveys from radio astronomy increases, new approaches to the identification of molecules in the interstellar medium are possible. We have performed reaction product screening measurements using broadband rotational spectroscopy to identify potential matches in the laboratory and radio astronomy spectra. A broadband spectrum of an electrical discharge of CH3CN and H2S contained several matches to unidentified features in the GBT PRIMOS Survey1 of Sgr B2(N) that did not have molecular assignments in the radio astronomy spectral catalogs. These transitions have been assigned to the E- and Z-isomers of ethanimine (CH3CHNH). The rotational spectrum of the E- and Z-isomers of CH3CHNH have been reported at mm-wave frequencies in 1980 by Lovas et al.2 and then in 1981 by Brown et al.3 The analysis of the rotational spectra of these two isomers has been extended to the microwave frequency region to verify the assignments from the GBT PRIMOS Survey. Combined fits over the range of 8 to 130GHz consisting of data from Lovas et al., broadband CP-FTMW measurements, and cavity double resonance measurements are presented for both isomers. Evidence for the detection of both isomers in Sgr B2(N) is shown along with a discussion of the method of their detection and a brief analysis of possible formation routes. 1. GBT PRIMOS Survey, http://www.cv.nrao.edu aremijan/PRIMOS 2. F.J. Lovas, R.D. Suenram, D.R. Johnson, F.O. Clark, E. Tiemann, J. Chem. Phys., 72, 4964-4972, (1980). 3. R.D. Brown, P.D. Godfrey, D.A. Winkler, Chem. Phys., 59, 243-247, (1981).

  11. Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Da-Un; Han, Jae Won; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Lee, Seung Hwan; Cha, Richard; Chang, Byung-Soo; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2015-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS), floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall. PMID:26379749

  12. Weak maser emission of methyl formate toward Sagittarius B2(N) in the green bank telescope PRIMOS survey

    SciTech Connect

    Faure, A.; Wiesenfeld, L.; Szalewicz, K.

    2014-03-10

    A non-LTE radiative transfer treatment of cis-methyl formate (HCOOCH{sub 3}) rotational lines is presented for the first time using a set of theoretical collisional rate coefficients. These coefficients have been computed in the temperature range 5-30 K by combining coupled-channel scattering calculations with a high accuracy potential energy surface for HCOOCH{sub 3}-He. The results are compared to observations toward the Sagittarius B2(N) molecular cloud using the publicly available PRIMOS survey from the Green Bank Telescope. A total of 49 low-lying transitions of methyl formate, with upper levels below 25 K, are identified. These lines are found to probe a presumably cold (∼30 K), moderately dense (∼10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}), and extended region surrounding Sgr B2(N). The derived column density of ∼4 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup –2} is only a factor of ∼10 larger than the column density of the trans conformer in the same source. Provided that the two conformers have the same spatial distribution, this result suggests that strongly non-equilibrium processes must be involved in their synthesis. Finally, our calculations show that all detected emission lines with a frequency below 30 GHz are (collisionally pumped) weak masers amplifying the continuum of Sgr B2(N). This result demonstrates the importance and generality of non-LTE effects in the rotational spectra of complex organic molecules at centimeter wavelengths.

  13. Laboratory and Tentative Interstellar Detection of Trans-Methyl Formate Using the Publicly Available Green Bank Telescope Primos Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, Justin L.; Muckle, Matt T.; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Steber, Amanda L.; Pate, Brooks H.; Lattanzi, Valerio; Spezzano, Silvia; McCarthy, Michael C.; Remijan, Anthony J.

    2012-08-01

    The rotational spectrum of the higher-energy trans-conformational isomer of methyl formate has been assigned for the first time using several pulsed-jet Fourier transform microwave spectrometers in the 6-60 GHz frequency range. This species has also been sought toward the Sagittarius B2(N) molecular cloud using the publicly available PRIMOS survey from the Green Bank Telescope. We detect seven absorption features in the survey that coincide with laboratory transitions of trans-methyl formate, from which we derive a column density of 3.1 (+2.6, -1.2) × 1013 cm-2 and a rotational temperature of 7.6 ± 1.5 K. This excitation temperature is significantly lower than that of the more stable cis conformer in the same source but is consistent with that of other complex molecular species recently detected in Sgr B2(N). The difference in the rotational temperatures of the two conformers suggests that they have different spatial distributions in this source. As the abundance of trans-methyl formate is far higher than would be expected if the cis and trans conformers are in thermodynamic equilibrium, processes that could preferentially form trans-methyl formate in this region are discussed. We also discuss measurements that could be performed to make this detection more certain. This manuscript demonstrates how publicly available broadband radio astronomical surveys of chemically rich molecular clouds can be used in conjunction with laboratory rotational spectroscopy to search for new molecules in the interstellar medium.

  14. Eduardo Primo Yúfera, founder of Revista de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos and pioneer on food science and technology research in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Gascón, M; Aleixandre-Benavent, R; Gandía-Balaguer, A

    2011-12-01

    Eduardo Primo Yúfera was the founder and director of the Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA, 1957-1974) until he was appointed president of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC). His aim to publicize food science led him to create the Revista de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos in 1961, the forerunner of this journal, Food Science and Technology International, which he directed until 1977. Of his scientific output, 50% has been published in this journal. He is considered to be the promoter and exponent of Food Science and Technology and Chemical Ecology in Spain as well as the instigator of the country's innovation model (R&D and innovation). In his work, he was able to combine basic research excellence and socially relevant applied research to move both science and society forward. He was an example and inspiration to many colleagues and followers. The aim of this study is to highlight the influence and importance of Primo Yúfera in the formation, development and consolidation of the journal Revista de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos, and to appraise his scientific contribution to this journal. PMID:22049157

  15. [Enrico Modigliani and the Institution of maternal assistance: a study of the social factors of illegitimate motherhood during early Twentieth century].

    PubMed

    Fano, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Enrico Modigliani (1877-1931) was an Italian paediatrician of the early Twentieth century whose work anticipated modern concepts of maternal and child health. Convinced of the importance of creating a network of health and social care for children born out-of-wedlock, he began by providing care to single mothers and their babies at his home on Sundays. In 1918, in Rome, he established the Institution for Maternal Assistance, which aim was to provide single mothers with basic health information as well as tools to face their socioeconomic situation. The Opera encouraged breastfeeding and maternal acknowledgement of the child and promoted the establishment of lactation rooms and nurseries within factories. Moreover, women were supported to find a job which was compatible with their situation. In the first five years of activity, over 1,000 unmarried women were assisted; 95% of them acknowledged their children and 52% found a job. The infant mortality rate fell to 11%, which was much lower than the 35% observed at the time among the social classes which Modigliani called the most miserable. This article reviews Modigliani's paper, in which the paediatrician reported the first five years of activity of the Institution of Maternal Assistance and where he largely focused on the social factors surrounding illegitimate motherhood. The paper was structured like a modern scientific report, with photographic documentation and statistical data, and proposed a point of view regarding social inequality which is surprisingly up-to-date. PMID:27436257

  16. FINAL–REPORT NO. 2: INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY SUMMARY AND RESULTS FOR THE ENRICO FERMI ATOMIC POWER PLANT, UNIT 1, NEWPORT, MICHIGAN (DOCKET NO. 50 16; RFTA 10-004)

    SciTech Connect

    Erika Bailey

    2011-07-07

    The Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1 (Fermi 1) was a fast breeder reactor design that was cooled by sodium and operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. On May 10, 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) granted an operating license, DPR-9, to the Power Reactor Development Company (PRDC), a consortium specifically formed to own and operate a nuclear reactor at the Fermi 1 site. The reactor was designed for a maximum capability of 430 megawatts (MW); however, the maximum reactor power with the first core loading (Core A) was 200 MW. The primary system was filled with sodium in December 1960 and criticality was achieved in August 1963.

  17. Formative research on the primo vascular system and acceptance by the korean scientific community: the gap between creative basic science and practical convergence technology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon Gi

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to trace the formative process of primo vascular system (PVS) research over the past decade and to describe the characteristics of the Korean scientific community. By publishing approximately 30 papers in journals ranking in the Science Citation Index (Expanded), the PVS research team actively convinced domestic and international scientists of the anatomical existence of the PVS and its possible application to Korean and Western medicine. In addition, by sharing the PVS observation technique, the team promoted the dissemination and further pursuit of the research. In 2012, however, PVS researchers performed smaller scale research without advancing to a higher level as compared to the early days. The main reasons were found to be the Korean Research and Development policy of supporting creative, small-scale basic research and applied research of Western scientific fields that promised potentially greater success on an extensive scale; the indifference concerning, and the disbelief in, the existence of a new circulatory system were shown by the Western medical community. In addition, the Oriental medical community was apathetic about working with the PVS team. Professors Kwang-Sup Soh and Byung-Cheon Lee were the prime movers of PVS research under difficult conditions. Spurred by their belief in the existence and significance of the PVS, they continued with their research despite insufficient experimental data. The Korean scientific community is not ready to promote the Korea-oriented creative field of the PVS team. PMID:24290796

  18. Are Primo Vessels (PVs) on the Surface of Gastrointestine Involved in Regulation of Gastric Motility Induced by Stimulating Acupoints ST36 or CV12?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Shi, Hong; Shang, Hongyan; Su, Yangshuai; Xin, Juanjuan; He, Wei; Jing, Xianghong; Zhu, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed primo vessels (PVs), which were referred to as Bonhan ducts (BHDs) and a part of circulatory system by Kim, located in different places of the body. The BHDs system was once considered as the anatomical basis of classical acupuncture meridian but not clearly identified by other investigators. In the present study, we tried to address the relationship between PVs and meridians through detecting the modulation of gastric motility by stimulating the PVs on the surface of stomach or intestine, as well as acupoints Zusanli (ST36) and Zhongwan (CV12). The results showed electric stimulation of the PVs had no effect on the gastric motility. While stimulating CV12 inhibited gastric motility significantly in PVs-intact and PVs-cut rats, there is no significant difference between the inhibition rate of the PVS-intact and the PVS-cut rats. Stimulating at ST36 increased gastric motility significantly in both the PVs-intact and the PVs-cut rats, yet there was no significant difference between the facilitation rate of the both groups. Taken together, the PVs on the surface of stomach or intestine did not mediate the regulation of gastric motility induced by stimulating at the acupoints ST36 or CV12. PMID:23091558

  19. Is Clinical Practice Concordant with the Changes in Guidelines for Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation during Primary and Chronic HIV-1 Infection? The ANRS PRIMO and COPANA Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Krastinova, Evguenia; Seng, Remonie; Yeni, Patrick; Viard, Jean-Paul; Vittecoq, Daniel; Lascoux-Combe, Caroline; Fourn, Erwan; Pahlavan, Golriz; Delfraissy, Jean François; Meyer, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Objective Guidelines for initiating HIV treatment are regularly revised. We explored how physicians in France have applied these evolving guidelines for ART initiation over the last decade in two different situations: chronic (CHI) and primary HIV-1 infection (PHI), since specific recommendations for PHI are also provided in France. Methods Data came from the ANRS PRIMO (1267 patients enrolled during PHI in 1996–2010) and COPANA (800 subjects enrolled at HIV diagnosis in 2004–2008) cohorts. We defined as guidelines-inconsistent during PHI and CHI, patients meeting criteria for ART initiation and not treated in the following month and during the next 6 months, respectively. Results ART initiation during PHI dramatically decreased from 91% of patients in 1996–99 to 22% in 2007 and increased to 60% in 2010, following changes in recommendations. In 2007, however, after the CD4 count threshold was raised to 350 cells/mm3 in 2006, only 55% of the patients with CD4≤350 were treated and 66% in 2008. During CHI, ART was more frequently initiated in patients who met the criteria at entry (96%) than during follow-up: 83% when recommendation to treat was 200 and 73% when it was 350 cells/mm3. Independent risk factors for not being treated during CHI despite meeting the criteria were lower viral load, lower educational level, and poorer living conditions. Conclusion HIV ART initiation guidelines are largely followed by practitioners in France. What can still be improved, however, is time to treat when CD4 cell counts reach the threshold to treat. Risk factors for lack of timely treatment highlight the need to understand better how patients’ living conditions and physicians’ perceptions influence the decision to initiate treatment. PMID:23936509

  20. Fermi, Enrico (1901-54)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Italian physicist, created the first controlled chain reaction, founded Argonne National Laboratory. His work on the properties of electrons (spin-half particles like electrons are called fermions after him, and the study of their properties is called Fermi-Dirac statistics) enabled the pressure source in white dwarf stars to be identified, and white dwarf star properties to be calculated by CHAN...

  1. Revised FINAL–REPORT NO. 2: INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY SUMMARY AND RESULTS FOR THE ENRICO FERMI ATOMIC POWER PLANT, UNIT 1, NEWPORT, MICHIGAN (DOCKET NO. 50 16; RFTA 10-004) 2018-SR-02-1

    SciTech Connect

    Erika Bailey

    2011-10-27

    The Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1 (Fermi 1) was a fast breeder reactor design that was cooled by sodium and operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. On May 10, 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) granted an operating license, DPR-9, to the Power Reactor Development Company (PRDC), a consortium specifically formed to own and operate a nuclear reactor at the Fermi 1 site. The reactor was designed for a maximum capability of 430 megawatts (MW); however, the maximum reactor power with the first core loading (Core A) was 200 MW. The primary system was filled with sodium in December 1960 and criticality was achieved in August 1963. The reactor was tested at low power during the first couple years of operation. Power ascension testing above 1 MW commenced in December 1965 immediately following the receipt of a high-power operating license. In October 1966 during power ascension, zirconium plates at the bottom of the reactor vessel became loose and blocked sodium coolant flow to some fuel subassemblies. Two subassemblies started to melt and the reactor was manually shut down. No abnormal releases to the environment occurred. Forty-two months later after the cause had been determined, cleanup completed, and the fuel replaced, Fermi 1 was restarted. However, in November 1972, PRDC made the decision to decommission Fermi 1 as the core was approaching its burn-up limit. The fuel and blanket subassemblies were shipped off-site in 1973. Following that, the secondary sodium system was drained and sent off-site. The radioactive primary sodium was stored on-site in storage tanks and 55 gallon (gal) drums until it was shipped off-site in 1984. The initial decommissioning of Fermi 1 was completed in 1975. Effective January 23, 1976, DPR-9 was transferred to the Detroit Edison Company (DTE) as a 'possession only' license (DTE 2010a). This report details the confirmatory activities performed during the second Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE

  2. La cometa Hyakutake: primo rapporto osservativo.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arisé, F.; Dimai, A.; Guidolin, E.; Milani, G.; Nuzzo, R.; Rosolen, G.; Vanin, G.

    1996-06-01

    The authors relate a first observative report of the apparition of comet Hyakutake (C/1996 B2). The comet was followed from Feb 12, 1996 to Apr 19, 1996 through visual, photographic, and CCD observations.

  3. Girl who wrote to primo levi. The "foreign body" speaks.

    PubMed

    Ceragioli, Giuditta

    2013-12-01

    Through the exposition of a clinical case, the author explores how a sexually abused woman can set up strategies for psychic survival to the feeling of catastrophe and how she can attempt to communicate and share it. The clinical case connects childhood sexual abuse trauma and the trauma of surviving concentration camps. The paper refers to two main achievements of Ferenczi's research: (1) the consequences of the traumatic experience and of the disavowal of it, such as dissociation, fragmentation, psychic agony; and (2) the focus on countertransference as emotional sharing and as receptiveness to the deep, unconscious and unspeakable communications, which can transfer to the psychoanalyst through somatic ways. PMID:24309687

  4. Primo-Vascular System as Presented by Bong Han Kim

    PubMed Central

    Vodyanoy, Vitaly; Pustovyy, Oleg; Globa, Ludmila; Sorokulova, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    In the 1960s Bong Han Kim discovered and characterized a new vascular system. He was able to differentiate it clearly from vascular blood and lymph systems by the use of a variety of methods, which were available to him in the mid-20th century. He gave detailed characterization of the system and created comprehensive diagrams and photographs in his publications. He demonstrated that this system is composed of nodes and vessels, and it was responsible for tissue regeneration. However, he did not disclose in detail his methods. Consequently, his results are relatively obscure from the vantage point of contemporary scientists. The stains that Kim used had been perfected and had been in use for more than 100 years. Therefore, the names of the stains were directed to the explicit protocols for the usage with the particular cells or molecules. Traditionally, it was not normally necessary to describe the method used unless it is significantly deviated from the original method. In this present work, we have been able to disclose staining methods used by Kim. PMID:26379743

  5. Radioactivity induced by neutrons: Enrico Fermi and a thermodynamic approach to radiative capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gregorio, Alberto

    2006-07-01

    When Fermi learned that slow neutrons are much more effective than fast ones in inducing radioactivity, he explained this phenomenon by mentioning the well-known scattering cross section between neutrons and protons. At this early stage, he did not refer to the capture cross section by target nuclei. At the same time a thermodynamic approach to neutron-proton capture was being discussed by physicists: neutron capture was interpretated as the reverse of deuteron photodissociation and detailed balance among neutrons, protons, deuterons, and radiation was invoked. This thermodynamic approach might underlie Fermi's early explanation of the great efficiency of slow neutrons. Fermi repeatedly used a thermodynamic approach that had been used in describing some of the physical properties of conductors by Richardson and had been influential in Fermi's youth.

  6. Establishing Site X: Letter, Arthur H. Compton to Enrico Fermi, September 14, 1942

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Compton, A. H.

    1942-09-01

    This letter from Compton to Fermi describes developments bearing on the establishment of site X (which, as of the letter date, is definitely determined as at the Tennessee Valley) for the construction of a pile and associated pilot plant buildings, describes the situation as of the letter date, and offers counsel as to how to proceed.

  7. Heterogeneity in the antibody response to foot-and-mouth disease primo-vaccinated calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most economically important viral disease of wild and domesticated biungulate species and presents a major constraint to international trade of livestock and their associated products. FMD vaccines are routinely used as effective control tools in large regions wor...

  8. 75 FR 63867 - DTE Energy; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant Unit 1, Exemption From Certain Security Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... possess not more than 15 grams of uranium-235, uranium-233 or plutonium, or any combination thereof, with plutonium activity totaling no more than 2 curies. The licensee is permitted to possess this...

  9. Enrico Fermi Awards Ceremony for Dr. Allen J. Bard and Dr. Andrew Sessler, February 2014 (Presentations, including remarks by Energy Secretary, Dr. Ernest Moniz)

    ScienceCinema

    Moniz, Ernest [U.S. Energy Secretary

    2014-08-22

    The Fermi Award is a Presidential award and is one of the oldest and most prestigious science and technology honors bestowed by the U.S. Government. On February 3, 2014 it was conferred upon two exceptional scientists. The first to be recognized is Dr. Allen J. Bard, 'for international leadership in electrochemical science and technology, for advances in photoelectrochemistry and photocatalytic materials, processes, and devices, and for discovery and development of electrochemical methods including electrogenerated chemiluminescence and scanning electrochemical microscopy.' The other honoree is Dr. Andrew Sessler, 'for advancing accelerators as powerful tools of scientific discovery, for visionary direction of the research enterprise focused on challenges in energy and the environment, and for championing outreach and freedom of scientific inquiry worldwide.' Dr. Patricia Dehmer opened the ceremony, and Dr. Ernest Moniz presented the awards.

  10. Enrico Fermi Awards Ceremony for Dr. Mildred S. Dresselhaus and Dr. Burton Richter, May 2012 (Presentations, including remarks by Energy Secretary, Dr. Steven Chu)

    ScienceCinema

    Chu, Steven (U.S. Energy Secretary)

    2012-06-28

    The Fermi Award is a Presidential award and is one of the oldest and most prestigious science and technology honors bestowed by the U.S. Government. On May 7, 2012 it was conferred upon two exceptional scientists: Dr. Mildred Dresselhaus, 'for her scientific leadership, her major contributions to science and energy policy, her selfless work in science education and the advancement of diversity in the scientific workplace, and her highly original and impactful research,' and Dr. Burton Richter, 'for the breadth of his influence in the multiple disciplines of accelerator physics and particle physics, his profound scientific discoveries, his visionary leadership as SLAC Director, his leadership of science, and his notable contributions in energy and public policy.' Dr. John Holder, Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, opened the ceremony, and Dr. Bill Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science introduced the main speaker, Dr. Steven Chu, U.S. Energy Secretary.

  11. Enrico Fermi Awards Ceremony for Dr. Mildred S. Dresselhaus and Dr. Burton Richter, May 2012 (Presentations, including remarks by Energy Secretary, Dr. Steven Chu)

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Steven

    2012-05-07

    The Fermi Award is a Presidential award and is one of the oldest and most prestigious science and technology honors bestowed by the U.S. Government. On May 7, 2012 it was conferred upon two exceptional scientists: Dr. Mildred Dresselhaus, 'for her scientific leadership, her major contributions to science and energy policy, her selfless work in science education and the advancement of diversity in the scientific workplace, and her highly original and impactful research,' and Dr. Burton Richter, 'for the breadth of his influence in the multiple disciplines of accelerator physics and particle physics, his profound scientific discoveries, his visionary leadership as SLAC Director, his leadership of science, and his notable contributions in energy and public policy.' Dr. John Holder, Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, opened the ceremony, and Dr. Bill Brinkman, Director of DOE's Office of Science introduced the main speaker, Dr. Steven Chu, U.S. Energy Secretary.

  12. The concept of the urine test and specific reaction of the urine in various diseases according to Enrico Cauchi - member of the medical council of Malta (1933).

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Carlo Alberto; Ricciardi, Elisabetta; Visconti, Luca; Lacquaniti, Antonio; Savica, Vincenzo; Santoro, Domenico; Buemi, Michele; Ricciardi, Biagio

    2016-02-01

    The Study of urine from the outset has always aroused the interest of scientists and physicians all over the world, from ancient Greeks and Romans to Hindus , Hulcos in Mexico, Australian native etc. The urine in such case was considered not only as a waste product but also as a therapeutic product. In the late XIX century scientific knowledge had already identified the function of substances that favor the increase of urinary output, and physicians over the centuries have always tried to analyze urine in various ways. In Cauchis work in 1933 all chemistry and pathophysiological knowledge of the time was condensed. Cauchi signed the preface as Member of the medical council of Malta. He was a medical doctor of the early20thcentury, He wrote about the physiopathology of urine ranging from chemical and physical behavior, to the analysis of sediments and the special reactions of the urine in various pathologies. In particular Cauchi emphasizes the main diseases of the time combines the behavior of the reaction of urine as a diagnostic and prognostic instrument, stressing the importance of the urine test and describing the method used for analysis at the time. The analyses of the text in the issue seems to belong to archaic medicine, and it is difficult to think today, that what was presented as very up-to-date- science at that time, took place only 80 years ago. Reading the full original text with today experience we are led to consider the increasing importance that scientific community gave in the past, and still gives to urine test. PMID:26913892

  13. Enrico Fermi Awards Ceremony for Dr. Allen J. Bard and Dr. Andrew Sessler, February 2014 (Presentations, including remarks by Energy Secretary, Dr. Ernest Moniz)

    SciTech Connect

    Moniz, Ernest

    2014-02-03

    The Fermi Award is a Presidential award and is one of the oldest and most prestigious science and technology honors bestowed by the U.S. Government. On February 3, 2014 it was conferred upon two exceptional scientists. The first to be recognized is Dr. Allen J. Bard, 'for international leadership in electrochemical science and technology, for advances in photoelectrochemistry and photocatalytic materials, processes, and devices, and for discovery and development of electrochemical methods including electrogenerated chemiluminescence and scanning electrochemical microscopy.' The other honoree is Dr. Andrew Sessler, 'for advancing accelerators as powerful tools of scientific discovery, for visionary direction of the research enterprise focused on challenges in energy and the environment, and for championing outreach and freedom of scientific inquiry worldwide.' Dr. Patricia Dehmer opened the ceremony, and Dr. Ernest Moniz presented the awards.

  14. Human-factors control-room-design review draft audit report: Detroit Edison Company, Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant--Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, J.W.

    1981-08-12

    A human factors audit of the Fermi-2 control room was conducted April 27 through May 1, 1981. This report contains the audit team findings, organized according to the draft NUREG-0700 guidelines sections. The discrepancies identified during the audit are categorized according to their severity and the required schedule for their resolution.

  15. Veicolarita e linguaggio scientifico--analisi del primo "Progetto italiano per studenti universitari somali" (Languages for Special Purposes and Scientific Usage--An Analysis of the First "Italian Project for Somali University Students").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Antonio

    1979-01-01

    The development of an intensive Italian course for science students attending Somalia's National University is described. The historical background for this project, sponsored by the Italian Government and staffed by Italian teachers, is outlined. Course objectives, methods, and organization are illustrated by samples of instructional materials,…

  16. The first winter solstice observed at the meridian line of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Rome. (Italian Title: Il primo solstizio d'inverno alla meridiana di S. Maria degli Angeli in Roma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, C.

    2014-09-01

    The great meridian line in the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Rome was built in 1701/1702 with the scope to measure the Obliquity of the Earth's orbit in the following eight centuries, upon the will of pope Clement XI. During the winter solstice of 1701 the first measurements of the obliquity have been realized by Francesco Bianchini, the astronomer who designed the meridian line, upgrading the similar instrument realized by Giandomenico Cassini in San Petronio, Bononia. In this paper the accuracy of the data observed by Francesco Bianchini is discussed and compared with up-to-date ephemerides. The modern situation of this historical instrument is also presented.

  17. 78 FR 3470 - DTE Electric Company (Formerly the Detroit Edison Company), Notice of Availability of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for a Combined License for Unit 3 at the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant Site... Combined License (COL) for Enrico Fermi Unit 3.'' The site is located in Monroe County, Michigan. The... conduct the scoping process was published in the Federal Register on December 10, 2008 (73 FR...

  18. Implementing a Discovery Layer: A Rookie's Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, Noah; Leach-Murray, Susan; Parker, Sherri

    2012-01-01

    The year 2011 was the PALNI (Private Academic Library Network of Indiana) consortium's "rookie season" for the implementation of Primo, the 2010 Discovery Layer 500 race winner. In this article, the authors report on their transition to the cloud within Ex Libris Ltd.'s Primo TotalCare environment: their preparation, the steps involved to move to…

  19. 76 FR 66998 - Detroit Edison Company; Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... December 10, 2008 (73 FR 75142). Any interested party may submit comments on the draft EIS for... Combined License for Unit 3 at the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant Site Notice is hereby given that the...

  20. Fermi, Szilard and Trinity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Herbert L.

    1974-01-01

    The final installment of the author's recollections of his work with physicists Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard and others in developing the first controlled nuclear chain reaction and in preparing the test explosion of the first atomic bomb. (GS)

  1. The First Reactor [40th Anniversary Commemorative Edition].

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1982-12-01

    This updated and revised story of the first reactor, or 'pile,' commemorates the 40th anniversary of the first controlled, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction created by mankind. Enrico Fermi and his team of scientists initiated the reaction on December 2, 1941, underneath the West Stands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago. Firsthand accounts of the participants as well as postwar recollections by Enrico and Laura Fermi are included.

  2. The first reactor [40th anniversary commemorative edition

    SciTech Connect

    1982-12-01

    This updated and revised story of the first reactor, or 'pile,' commemorates the 40th anniversary of the first controlled, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction created by mankind. Enrico Fermi and his team of scientists initiated the reaction on December 2, 1941, underneath the West Stands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago. Firsthand accounts of the participants as well as postwar recollections by Enrico and Laura Fermi are included.

  3. When they listen and when they watch: Pianists’ use of nonverbal audio and visual cues during duet performance

    PubMed Central

    Goebl, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal auditory and visual communication helps ensemble musicians predict each other’s intentions and coordinate their actions. When structural characteristics of the music make predicting co-performers’ intentions difficult (e.g., following long pauses or during ritardandi), reliance on incoming auditory and visual signals may change. This study tested whether attention to visual cues during piano–piano and piano–violin duet performance increases in such situations. Pianists performed the secondo part to three duets, synchronizing with recordings of violinists or pianists playing the primo parts. Secondos’ access to incoming audio and visual signals and to their own auditory feedback was manipulated. Synchronization was most successful when primo audio was available, deteriorating when primo audio was removed and only cues from primo visual signals were available. Visual cues were used effectively following long pauses in the music, however, even in the absence of primo audio. Synchronization was unaffected by the removal of secondos’ own auditory feedback. Differences were observed in how successfully piano–piano and piano–violin duos synchronized, but these effects of instrument pairing were not consistent across pieces. Pianists’ success at synchronizing with violinists and other pianists is likely moderated by piece characteristics and individual differences in the clarity of cueing gestures used. PMID:26279610

  4. Observation of a Flowing Duct in the Abdominal Wall by Using Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Kim, Min-Suk; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Young-Jae; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2016-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS) is being established as a circulatory system that corresponds to acupuncture meridians. There have been two critical questions in making the PVS accepted as a novel liquid flowing system. The first one was directly to show the flow of liquid in PVS and the second one was to explain why it was not observed in the conventional histological study of animal tissues. Flow in the PVS in the abdominal cavity was previously verified by injecting Alcian blue into a primo node. However, the tracing of the dye to other subsystems of the PVS has not been done. In the current work we injected fluorescent nanoparticles (FNPs) into a primo node and traced them along a primo vessel which was inside a fat tissue in the abdominal wall. Linea alba is a white middle line in the abdominal skin of a mammal and a band of fat tissue is located in parallel to the linea alba in the parietal side of the abdominal wall of a rat. In this fat band a primo vessel runs parallel to the prominent blood vessels in the fat band and is located just inside the parietal peritoneum. About the second question on the reason why the PVS was not in conventional histological study the current work provided the answer. Histological analysis with hematoxyline and eosine, Masson’s trichrome, and Toluidine blue could not discriminate the primo vessel even when we knew the location of the PVS by the trace of the FNPs. This clearly explains why the PVS is hard to observe in conventional histology: it is not a matter of resolution but the contrast. The PVS has very similar structure to the connective tissues that surround the PVS. In the current work we propose a method to find the PVS: Observation of mast cell distribution with toluidine blue staining and the PN has a high density of mast cells, while the lymph node has low density. PMID:26937963

  5. Observation of a Flowing Duct in the Abdominal Wall by Using Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jang, HyunSuk; Yoon, Joohwan; Gil, HyunJi; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Kim, Min-Suk; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Young-Jae; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2016-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS) is being established as a circulatory system that corresponds to acupuncture meridians. There have been two critical questions in making the PVS accepted as a novel liquid flowing system. The first one was directly to show the flow of liquid in PVS and the second one was to explain why it was not observed in the conventional histological study of animal tissues. Flow in the PVS in the abdominal cavity was previously verified by injecting Alcian blue into a primo node. However, the tracing of the dye to other subsystems of the PVS has not been done. In the current work we injected fluorescent nanoparticles (FNPs) into a primo node and traced them along a primo vessel which was inside a fat tissue in the abdominal wall. Linea alba is a white middle line in the abdominal skin of a mammal and a band of fat tissue is located in parallel to the linea alba in the parietal side of the abdominal wall of a rat. In this fat band a primo vessel runs parallel to the prominent blood vessels in the fat band and is located just inside the parietal peritoneum. About the second question on the reason why the PVS was not in conventional histological study the current work provided the answer. Histological analysis with hematoxyline and eosine, Masson's trichrome, and Toluidine blue could not discriminate the primo vessel even when we knew the location of the PVS by the trace of the FNPs. This clearly explains why the PVS is hard to observe in conventional histology: it is not a matter of resolution but the contrast. The PVS has very similar structure to the connective tissues that surround the PVS. In the current work we propose a method to find the PVS: Observation of mast cell distribution with toluidine blue staining and the PN has a high density of mast cells, while the lymph node has low density. PMID:26937963

  6. Molecular Dynamics Trajectory Compression with a Coarse-Grained Model

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yi-Ming; Gopal, Srinivasa Murthy; Law, Sean M.; Feig, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Molecular dynamics trajectories are very data-intensive thereby limiting sharing and archival of such data. One possible solution is compression of trajectory data. Here, trajectory compression based on conversion to the coarse-grained model PRIMO is proposed. The compressed data is about one third of the original data and fast decompression is possible with an analytical reconstruction procedure from PRIMO to all-atom representations. This protocol largely preserves structural features and to a more limited extent also energetic features of the original trajectory. PMID:22025759

  7. "Where is Everybody?" An Account of Fermi's Question

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Jones, E. M.

    1985-03-01

    Enrico Fermi's famous question, now central to debates about the prevalence of extraterrestrial civilizations, arose during a luncheon conversation with Emil Konopinski, Edward Teller, and Herbert York in the summer of 1950. Fermi's companions on that day have provided accounts of the incident.

  8. The First Reactor, Understanding the Atom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allardice, Corbin; And Others

    This booklet is one of the "Understanding the Atom" Series. Consisting of three sections, it is an account of the development of the first nuclear reactor by a team of scientists led by Enrico Farmi. The first section briefly reviews the early work on nuclear fission and neutron emission, the impact of Einstein's letter to President Roosevelt, the…

  9. Web life: Confused at a Higher Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-08-01

    This two-person blog owes its name to Enrico Fermi, who supposedly informed a visiting lecturer that although he used to be confused about the lecture topic, "having listened to your lecture, I am still confused. But on a higher level".

  10. Recollections of a very junior physicist at Los Alamos, 1944-1946

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Anthony P.

    2008-04-01

    The author came to Los Alamos as a member of the British Mission after two years of making fission cross section measurements at the Cavendish Laboratory. He worked in a group headed by Egon Bretscher in Enrico Fermi's F Division. The talk presents his personal memories and experiences at Los Alamos as compared to his life and work in wartime Britain.

  11. Working with Fermi at Chicago and Los Alamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garwin, Richard L.

    2010-02-01

    I discuss my experience with Enrico Fermi as student and fellow faculty member at Chicago and with him as consultants to the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in 1950-1952. The talk shares observations about this great physicist and exemplary human being. )

  12. 75 FR 76054 - Detroit Edison Company Fermi, Unit 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... described below and in the Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact (75 FR 20867) that was published for the exemption which was granted in May 2010 for Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant Unit... significant effect on the quality of the human environment as documented in Federal Register (FR) notice...

  13. Argonne nuclear pioneers: Chicago Pile 1

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, Harold; Nyer, Warren

    2012-01-01

    On December 2, 1942, 49 scientists, led by Enrico Fermi, made history when Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) went critical and produced the world's first self-sustaining, controlled nuclear chain reaction. Seventy years later, two of the last surviving CP-1 pioneers, Harold Agnew and Warren Nyer, recall that historic day.

  14. Fermi's β-DECAY Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chen Ning

    2013-05-01

    Throughout his lifetime Enrico Fermi (1901-1954) had considered his 1934 β-decay theory as his most important contribution to theoretical physics. E. Segrè (1905-1989) had vividly written about an episode at the inception of that paper:1...

  15. 76 FR 77855 - Detroit Edison Company; Notice of Availability of Errata Sheet for the Draft Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 66998). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's NOA was also published on October 28, 2011 (76 FR 66925). The purpose of this notice is to inform the public of the contents of the errata... Statement for a Combined License for Unit 3 at the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant Site Notice is...

  16. Internet Based Learning: An Introduction and Framework for Higher Education and Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Deanie, Ed.; Hale, Charles, Ed.; Johnson, Charles, Ed.; Farr, Gerald, Ed.

    This contributed volume is designed for junior college faculty, senior college faculty, and business trainers who wish to integrate new Internet technology for learning. Chapters are as follows: (1) "Preparing for Internet-Based Learning" (Deanie French); (2) "Learning To Learn in a WWW-Based Environment" (Betty Collis and Enrico Meeuwsen); (3)…

  17. If Gifted/Learning Disabled Students Have Wisdom, They Have All Things!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jin-Young; Ko, Young-Gun

    2007-01-01

    This study explores how a historical genius with learning disabilities (LD) used his giftedness to surmount his disabilities. This study compared biographical data of a historical genius with LD to geniuses without LD using the posthumous diagnostic methodology. Niels Bohr, J. Robert Oppenheimer, and Enrico Fermi were selected for investigation.…

  18. The First Reactor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    On December 2, 1942, in a racquet court underneath the West Stands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago, a team of scientists led by Enrico Fermi created the first controlled, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. This updated and revised story of the first reactor (or "pile") is based on postwar interviews (as told to Corbin Allardice…

  19. Activation Effect of Fullerene C60 on the Carbon Dioxide Absorption Performance of Amine-Rich Polypropylenimine Dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, Enrico; Barron, Andrew R

    2015-08-24

    Invited for this month's cover are Dr. Enrico Andreoli and Prof. Andrew R. Barron from the Energy Safety Research Institute (ESRI) of Swansea University. The image shows how fullerene C60 can activate amine-rich polymers toward CO2 capture for clean energy production. The Full Paper itself is available at 10.1002/cssc.201500605. PMID:26259624

  20. Argonne nuclear pioneers: Chicago Pile 1

    ScienceCinema

    Agnew, Harold; Nyer, Warren

    2013-04-19

    On December 2, 1942, 49 scientists, led by Enrico Fermi, made history when Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) went critical and produced the world's first self-sustaining, controlled nuclear chain reaction. Seventy years later, two of the last surviving CP-1 pioneers, Harold Agnew and Warren Nyer, recall that historic day.

  1. The First Reactor, 40th Anniversary (rev.)

    SciTech Connect

    Allardice, Corbin; Trapnell, Edward R; Fermi, Enrico; Fermi, Laura; Williams, Robert C

    1982-12-01

    This booklet, an updated version of the original booklet describing the first nuclear reactor, was written in honor of the 40th anniversary of the first reactor or "pile". It is based on firsthand accounts told to Corbin Allardice and Edward R. Trapnell, and includes recollections of Enrico and Laura Fermi.

  2. Listening to More Voices: Why Being Heard Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elisha-Primo, Iris; Sandler, Simone; Goldfrad, Keren

    2015-01-01

    This article examines various voices in a triangulated needs analysis project aimed at reevaluating the curriculum of a graduate level EAP program. Previous work (Elisha-Primo, et al., 2010) presented students' voices; this article focuses on department chairpersons and graduate advisors, and graduate EFL instructors with respect to the perceived…

  3. How Many Formative Assessment Angels Can Dance on the Head of a Meta-Analytic Pin: 0.2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Neal; Nash, Brooke

    2012-01-01

    In their critique of Kingston and Nash (2011), Briggs, Ruiz-Primo, Furtak, Shepard, and Yin (2012) make several major points. First, Kingston and Nash's conclusions about the state of research on the efficacy of formative assessment are similar to other researchers, "including some of the authors." Second, their research may be unique in that they…

  4. Evaluation of a Resource Discovery Service: FindIt@Bham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Stephen; Craft, Edward; Dodds, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In autumn 2012, the University of Birmingham launched FindIt@Bham, a Primo-based Resource Discovery Service, after a series of focus groups with students and staff to help determine its initial configuration and customization. This article presents the results from a large-scale online survey and focus groups that were conducted to poll users'…

  5. The mammalian olivocochlear system--a legacy of non-cerebellar research in the Mugnaini lab.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Douglas E

    2015-10-01

    Although the major emphasis of Enrico Mugnaini's research has been on investigations of the cerebellum, a significant amount of work over a relatively short span of time was also done in his lab on a number of other brain systems. These centered on sensory systems. One of these extra-cerebellar systems that he embraced was the auditory system. Portions of the cochlear nucleus, the first synaptic relay station along the central auditory pathways, possess a cerebellar-like circuitry and neurochemistry, and this no doubt lured Enrico into the auditory field. As new tools became available to pursue neuroanatomical research in general, which included a novel antibody to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), Enrico's lab soon branched out into investigating many other brain structures beyond the cerebellum, with an overall goal of producing a map illustrating GAD expression in the brain. In collaboration with long-term colleagues, one of these many non-cerebellar regions he took an interest in was an efferent pathway originating in the superior olive and projecting to the cochlea, the peripheral end organ for hearing. There was a need for a more complete neurochemical map of this olivocochlear efferent system, and armed with new antibodies and well-established tract tracing tools, together we set out to further explore this system. This short review describes the work done with Enrico on the olivocochlear system of rodents, and also continues the story beyond Enrico's lab to reveal how the work done in his lab fits into the larger scheme of current, ongoing research into the olivocochlear system. PMID:25592068

  6. Ideas by Szilard, physics by Fermi

    SciTech Connect

    Lanouette, W.

    1992-12-01

    An excerpt from William Lanouette's book Genius in the shadows: A biography of Leo Szilard, the man behind the bomb (with Bela Silard). This article covers Szilard's life from early 1933, when he first began contemplating fleeing Germany, to the first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction on December 2, 1942, and includes a description of his partnership with Enrico Fermi. Part of a series of articles in this magazine commemorating the 50th anniversary of the first controlled chain reaction.

  7. National Calendar-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matvei, Valeria; Svet, Natalia-Maria; Puscasu, Madlena; Ciobanu, Maria; Netida, Xenia; Pohila, Vlad

    2014-02-01

    The following biographies of scientists were included in the calendar: Fermi Enrico (1901-1954), Gagarin Iury (1934-1938), Kirchhoff Gustav Robert (1824-2009), Kot Mihail V.(1914-1967), Lalescu Traian (1882-1929), Laplace Pierre Simon Marchiz de (1749-1827), Loumiere Louis, Pavlov Mihail (1884-1961), Steklov Vladimir(1864-1926), Ulugbek Mahhomed Taragai (1394-1449). A short presentation of the Harvard University, founded in 1639, has been given also.

  8. 40 years of neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reines, Frederick

    Wolfgang Pauli and Enrico Fermi pioneered the hypothesis and characteristics of the weak interaction and the elementary particle called the neutrino. Since its discovery some forty years ago the neutrino has been shown to be a fundamental constituent of matter with a surprisingly rich, and in very many ways unexpected, set of characteristics ranging from basic roles in the generation of energy in the sun to supernovæ.

  9. John A. Simpson (1916-2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John A. Simpson, recipient of the 2000 William Bowie Medal, died August 31 in Chicago at the age of 83. Dr. Simpson, who became an AGU member in 1957 and a Fellow in 1962, spent most of his professional career with the Enrico Fermi Institute for Nuclear Studies of the University of Chicago, and at that university's department of physics. He was a member of the Solar and Heliospheric Physics subsection of SPA.

  10. A Conversation with Robert F. Christy Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippincott, Sara

    2006-09-01

    Robert F. Christy, Institute Professor of Theoretical Physics Emeritus at Caltech, recalls his childhood in British Columbia; his undergraduate years at the University of British Columbia; his graduate work with J. Robert Oppenheimer at Berkeley; and his work on the Manhattan Project, first with Enrico Fermi at the Metallurgical Laboratory of the University of Chicago and then as a member of the Theoretical Division at Los Alamos.

  11. Scientists condemn space-chief sacking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2008-09-01

    The removal of Italian Space Agency (ASI) president Giovanni Bignami has left astronomers in Italy angry and dismayed. Bignami, himself an astronomer, was dismissed by the recently elected government of Silvio Berlusconi following the mass resignation of the agency's administrative council. He has been replaced by Enrico Saggese of aerospace company Finmeccanica. Critics of the change believe that it will weaken Italy's space-science community and damage its international reputation.

  12. Bernard T. Feld

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Bernard T. Field, 73, died in New York City February 19 of lymphoma. Bernie Field was a physicist whose passion was world peace. Bernie Field assisted Leo Szilard and Enrico Fermi to produce a controlled self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. Later, he became a group leadrer in the atom bomb project. After the war, he dedicated his time to nuclear disarmament, international cooperation, and peaceful conflict resolution.

  13. The reprint of a chapter of Nicolaus Copernicus' principal book by Heinrich Brucaeus, Rostock 1573 (German Title: Der Nachdruck eines Kapitels des Hauptwerkes von Nicolaus Copernicus durch Heinrich Brucaeus, Rostock 1573)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    The book "De motu primo libri tres" of the Rostock professor Heinrich Brucaeus (1530-1593), which appeared in 1573, contains an unmodified reprint of a section of Copernicus` principal work, first book, 14th chapter, exercise 3. This reprint, hitherto unnoticed, is of interest for the reception of Copernicus' work. This article reproduces the text and presents some research on Brucaeus, who was Tycho Brahe's teacher in Rostock. His biography and his scientific achievements are outlined.

  14. Committees and supporting organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-09-01

    Advisory Committee:Organizing Committee: Marcello Baldo (Catania)Takaharu Otsuka (Tokyo), co-chair George Bertsch (Seattle)Michael Urban (Orsay), co-chair Jean-Paul Blaizot (Saclay)Taiichi Yamada (Yokohama) Michel Girod (Bruyères-le-Châtel)Nguyen van Giai (Orsay) Hisashi Horiuchi (Osaka)Shinichiro Fujii (Tokyo) Umberto Lombardo (Catania)Jérôme Margueron (Orsay) Gerd Röpke (Rostock)Kouichi Hagino (Sendai) Hiroyuki Sagawa (Aizu)Yoshiko Kanada-En'yo (Kyoto) Piet Van Isacker (Caen) Enrico Vigezzi (Milano) IPN logo    EFES logo    CNRS logo    ihp logo

  15. ["Del governo tecnico sanitario degli Ospedali" (Italian) ("Hospital governance") by E. Ronzani (1877-1943)- Padua (Italy), 1910].

    PubMed

    Renzulli, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the contents of the first edition of the Italian textbook "Del governo tecnico sanitario degli ospedali" ("Hospital Governance") written by Prof. Enrico Ronzani (1877- 1943) and published in Padua (Italy) in 1910. The textbook contains a a preface by Prof. A. Serafini. Prof. Ronzani, a lecturer in Hygiene and health in 1910, introduced the first university course in "Hygiene and hospital technique" in Italy, in Padua in the academic year 1910-1911. The book focuses principally on the duties and responsibilities inherent in the role of the medical director. PMID:24770366

  16. Politics, Chemistry, and the Discovery of Nuclear Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesner, Emilie; Settle, Frank A., Jr.

    2001-07-01

    The discovery of fission is an interesting scientific saga involving the fundamentals of chemistry and physics. It is played out in the late 1930s on a European stage. Lise Meitner and Otto Hahn head a cast of characters that include scientific notables Fritz Strassmann, Otto Frisch, James Chadwick, Enrico Fermi, Ida Noddack, Irene Curie, and Neils Bohr. The plot includes the scientific method, the interdependence of chemistry and physics, the influence of external politics, and human frailty. The events surrounding this discovery did not allow the scientists involved to receive equal recognition. Fortunately, the passage of time and extensive historical research are restoring equality.

  17. A Conversation with Franco Rasetti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodstein, Judith R.

    Along with Enrico Fermi, Franco Rasetti played a key role in the rebirth of Italian physics in the 1920s and 1930s. In this interview he talks about his experiments at Caltech on the Raman effect in 1928-1929, mountain climbing, his passion for bugs, fossils, and flowers, and doing physics in Florence, Rome, Berlin-Dahlem, and Quebec. Rasetti also reminisces about the Rome school of mathematics and other scientists he has known and worked with in Europe and in North America, including Robert and Glenn Millikan, Lise Meitner, and O. M. Corbino.

  18. Majorana's legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recami, Erasmo

    2010-04-01

    I was delighted to read Salvatore Esposito's review (March pp44-45) of A Brilliant Darkness, João Magueijo's book about the Italian physicist Ettore Majorana. As no less a figure than Enrico Fermi regarded Majorana as the brightest theoretical physicist of his time, I was happy to see that Majorana's name is at last becoming famous outside Italy. The fact is that although most commentaries about Majorana's work appear in English, over the past 50 years nearly everyone who has written about Majorana's life has done so in Italian.

  19. Szilard as an Inventor: accelerators and more

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telegdi, V. L.

    1998-04-01

    In the field of Nuclear physics, Szilard's role as an inventor is well recognized. The very idea of a sustained nuclear chain reaction is credited to him and a joint patent with Enrico Fermi covers all the essential features of the carbon-uranium reactor. His proposals concerning accelerators, covered in applications for patents which never seem to have been issued, have not yet been publicized. He invented the cyclotron, the linear accelerator and the concept of phase stability. These inventions shall be discussed in a historical framework.

  20. Italy flags scientific shortcomings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2008-04-01

    The land that gave us Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo Galilei and Enrico Fermi does not regard science as part of culture, but it must do so if it is to avoid being left behind economically and intellectually. That is the message from a working group of 18 academics, sponsored by the Italian government, to find ways of improving the quantity, quality and public perception of science in the country. The group has now put forward a range of measures to combat what the group's chair, left-wing politician and Siena University law professor Luigi Berlinguer, describes as a "national emergency".

  1. Uranium bombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGroot, Gerard

    2009-11-01

    Enrico Fermi was a brilliant physicist, but he did occasionally get things wrong. In 1934 he famously bombarded a sample of uranium with neutrons. The result was astounding: the experiment had, Fermi concluded, produced element 93, later called neptunium. The German physicist Ida Noddack, however, came to an even more spectacular conclusion, namely that Fermi had split the uranium nucleus to produce lighter elements. Noddack's friend Otto Hahn judged that idea preposterous and advised her to keep quiet, since ridicule could ruin a female physicist. She ignored that advice, and was, indeed, scorned.

  2. The search for astroengineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorminey, Bruce

    2008-04-01

    "If they are out there, where are they?" That is the conundrum famously expressed more than 50 years ago by the Italian-born physicist Enrico Fermi when referring to the possibility that intelligent extraterrestrial civilizations may lie beyond the confines of our solar system. Given the vast age of the universe and its enormous number of Sun-like stars, it seems logical that the Earth is not the only place where intelligent life has evolved. Yet for the past half century, researchers have been actively looking for signs of such extraterrestrial civilizations and thus far have come up empty-handed.

  3. The birth of the nuclear age

    SciTech Connect

    Wattenberg, A. )

    1993-01-01

    Fifty years ago last month Enrico Fermi demonstrated that a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction could be produced and controlled. It was Leo Szilard who sought financial support to develop then-hypothetical processes relating to nuclear chain reactions and Szilard arranged for physicists to perform relevant experiments. This article discusses the historical events leading to the demonstration of the first self-sustaining uranium pile from the viewpoint of a physicist who had joined Fermi's group at Columbia University in January 1942. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Insecticidal Activity and Chemical Composition of the Morinda lucida Essential Oil against Pulse Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Owolabi, Moses S.; Ogundajo, Akintayo L.; Ogunwande, Isiaka A.; Yusuff, Olaniyi K.; Flores-Fernandez, Karen Isabel; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Insecticidal activity of essential oil extracted from Morinda lucida was tested on pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, which is a pest that causes serious damage to several pulses. The insecticidal activity was compared with two pesticides, Phostoxin and Primo-ban-20. 120 mixed sex adult C. maculatus were introduced, along with 30 g of cowpeas. Four concentrations (0.40, 0.20, 0.10, and 0.05 μg/mL) of the M. lucida essential oil, Phostoxin, and Primo-ban-20 were tested. Essential oil chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. M. lucida essential oil showed a high toxicological effect, producing 100% mortality after 72 hours at a dose of 0.20 μg/mL. M. lucida essential oil had a potent insecticidal activity (LC90 = 0.629 μg/mL) compared to both pesticides, Phostoxin (LC90 = 0.652 μg/mL) and Primo-ban-20 (LC90 = 0.726 μg/mL), at 24 h. The main compounds of the essential oil were the oxygenated monoterpenoids, 1,8-cineole (43.4%), and α-terpinyl acetate (14.5%), and the monoterpene hydrocarbons, mostly sabinene (8.2%) and β-pinene (4.0%). Results clearly indicate that M. lucida essential oil can be used as an effective alternative for pulse beetle C. maculatus control, and it could be tested against other pulse beetles affecting Asia and Africa and throughout the world, thereby reducing use of synthetic pesticides. PMID:25143991

  5. Ultrasound and 3D Skin Imaging: Methods to Evaluate Efficacy of Striae Distensae Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bleve, Mariella; Capra, Priscilla; Pavanetto, Franca; Perugini, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Background. Over time, the striae rubra develop into striae alba that appear white, flat, and depressed. It is very important to determine the optimum striae management. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of these therapies, objective measurement tools are necessary. Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate if ultrasonography and PRIMOS can be used to obtain an objective assessment of stretch marks type and stage; furthermore, we aim to apply these techniques to evaluate the efficacy of a topical treatment. Methods. 20 volunteers were enrolled with a two-month study. A marketed cosmetic product was used as the active over one body area. The controlateral area with stretch marks was treated with a “placebo” formulation without active, as a control. The instrumental evaluation was carried out at the beginning of the trial (baseline values or t0), after 1 month (t1), and at the end of the study (t2). Results. PRIMOS was able to measure and document striae distensae maturation; furthermore, ultrasound imaging permitted to visualize and diagnose the striae. Statistical analysis of skin roughness demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of Rp value only in a treated group. In fact, the Rp value represented a maximum peak height in the area selected. These results demonstrated that after two months of treatment only the striae rubra can be treated successfully. Conclusions. This work demonstrated that the 22MHz ultrasound can diagnose stretch marks; PRIMOS device can detect and measure striae distensae type and maturation. Furthermore, the high-frequency ultrasound and the 3D image device, described in this work, can be successfully employed in order to evaluate the efficacy of a topical treatment. PMID:22203840

  6. Characterization of immune responses following homologous reinfection of pigs with European subtype 1 and 3 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains that differ in virulence.

    PubMed

    Weesendorp, Eefke; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert; Nauwynck, Hans J; Popma-De Graaf, Ditta J; Rebel, Johanna M J

    2016-01-15

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes significant economic losses to the pork industry worldwide. Vaccination results often in limited protection. Understanding host immune responses elicited by different PRRSV strains could help to develop more efficacious vaccines. In the current study we characterized immunological responses and viral kinetics in pigs after primo infection and homologous challenge of the highly virulent European subtype 3 strain Lena, and the moderate to low virulent subtype 1 strain LV. Eighteen pigs were infected per strain, and 18 non-infected pigs served as control. Post mortem analysis was performed at days 7, 46 and 60 p.i. At day 46, pigs were challenged with the homologous strain. After the first inoculation, pigs infected with Lena developed fever and clinical symptoms, while this was not observed in pigs infected with LV. Virus titres in serum were about 100-fold higher in pigs infected with Lena than in pigs infected with LV. An inflammatory response was observed in pigs after primo infection with Lena with significantly higher levels of IL-12, IL-1β and TNF-α in the bronchoalveolar lavage. IFN-γ ELISPOT assay showed comparable responses between Lena and LV. Neutralizing antibodies were detected earlier in serum of pigs infected with Lena than in pigs infected with LV. After the challenge, a boost in antibody levels in both groups was observed. Challenge infection resulted in both groups in complete protection and sterile immunity, with no viraemia, clinical symptoms or viral RNA in tissues. In conclusion, although there were clear differences in immunological, clinical and virological responses to the primo infection, there were no differences observed in protection against homologous challenge. PMID:26711030

  7. Ultrasound and 3D Skin Imaging: Methods to Evaluate Efficacy of Striae Distensae Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bleve, Mariella; Capra, Priscilla; Pavanetto, Franca; Perugini, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Background. Over time, the striae rubra develop into striae alba that appear white, flat, and depressed. It is very important to determine the optimum striae management. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of these therapies, objective measurement tools are necessary. Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate if ultrasonography and PRIMOS can be used to obtain an objective assessment of stretch marks type and stage; furthermore, we aim to apply these techniques to evaluate the efficacy of a topical treatment. Methods. 20 volunteers were enrolled with a two-month study. A marketed cosmetic product was used as the active over one body area. The controlateral area with stretch marks was treated with a "placebo" formulation without active, as a control. The instrumental evaluation was carried out at the beginning of the trial (baseline values or t(0)), after 1 month (t(1)), and at the end of the study (t(2)). Results. PRIMOS was able to measure and document striae distensae maturation; furthermore, ultrasound imaging permitted to visualize and diagnose the striae. Statistical analysis of skin roughness demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of Rp value only in a treated group. In fact, the Rp value represented a maximum peak height in the area selected. These results demonstrated that after two months of treatment only the striae rubra can be treated successfully. Conclusions. This work demonstrated that the 22MHz ultrasound can diagnose stretch marks; PRIMOS device can detect and measure striae distensae type and maturation. Furthermore, the high-frequency ultrasound and the 3D image device, described in this work, can be successfully employed in order to evaluate the efficacy of a topical treatment. PMID:22203840

  8. MT3D: a 3 dimensional magnetotelluric modeling program (user's guide and documentation for Rev. 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Nutter, C.; Wannamaker, P.E.

    1980-11-01

    MT3D.REV1 is a non-interactive computer program written in FORTRAN to do 3-dimensional magnetotelluric modeling. A 3-D volume integral equation has been adapted to simulate the MT response of a 3D body in the earth. An integro-difference scheme has been incorporated to increase the accuracy. This is a user's guide for MT3D.REV1 on the University of Utah Research Institute's (UURI) PRIME 400 computer operating under PRIMOS IV, Rev. 17.

  9. The origins of psychology in Italy: Themes and authors that emerge through a content analysis of the Rivista di Filosofia Scientifica [Journal of Scientific Philosophy].

    PubMed

    Bartolucci, Chiara; Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro

    2012-08-01

    This article examines the scientific-cultural context of the second half of the 1800s, during which psychological science emerged in Italy. The article explores the contribution made by the emergence of the primary research traditions of that period, namely, physiological anthropology and phreniatry, by means of a methodology that combines content analysis with a classical historiographical study of the period. Themes and authors deriving from the various disciplines in the human and natural sciences were identified through a content analysis of the Rivista di Filosofia Scientifica [Journal of Scientific Philosophy], a periodical that is representative of Italian positivism. The analysis highlights the epistemological perspective held by scholars who, distancing themselves from the mechanistic reductionism of the proponents of positivism, integrated a naturalistic and evolutionary conceptualization with the neo-Kantian critique. A clearly delineated naturalistic and differential perspective of scientific research that brought about the birth of psychology as an experimental discipline in Italy in the 1900s emerges from the analysis, including psychology and psychopathology as studied by the phreniatrists Gabriele Buccola, Enrico Morselli, and Eugenio Tanzi; Tito Vignoli and Giuseppe Sergi's work in comparative anthropology; Giulio Fano's approach and contribution to physiology; and Enrico Ferri's contribution to criminology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23397915

  10. Mathematical Physics in Italy in the XIX Century: The Theory of Elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capecchi, Danilo

    In the second half of the nineteenth century there was in Italy an important group of mathematicians who focused their attention on mathematical physics. The most prominent of them were Enrico Betti, Eugenio Beltrami, Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro and some others (Vito Volterra, Carlo Somigliana and Tullio Levi Civita) whose activity persevered for many years in the twentieth century. In this article, I will write about the contribution of this group to the theory of elasticity. The best representative writing on continuum mechanics and elasticity as theories of mathematical physics is presented in the book Teoria della elasticità by Enrico Betti. The book is interesting not only for the particular results found but also for its structure which became paradigmatic for the development of subsequent texts on elasticity, not only those in Italian. Betti's interest was concentrated on the mathematical aspects of a physical theory. Physical principles are not discussed; they are only exposed in the most formal way possible. The objective is to arrive, without discussing epistemological or empirical problems, at the formulation and solution of differential equations that rule elasticity, as had become classic in the emerging mathematical physics. Beltrami wrote no complete books on elasticity; however, his contribution to this field was perhaps more original than that of Betti. A similar consideration holds true for Volterra and Somigliana.

  11. Ultrastructure of a Mobile Threadlike Tissue Floating in a Lymph Vessel.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Gil, HyunJi; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Hong-Lim; Kim, Sungchul; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Observations of the primo vascular system (PVS) floating in lymph ducts were reported by various groups. There have been, however, no studies on the ultrastructure of the entire cross section of a primo vessel (PV) inside a lymph vessel with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). In the current study we took the TEM images of a cross section of the PV inside a lymph vessel. We used the Alcian blue staining method for the finding of the target PV in a lymphatic vessel by injecting the dye into the inguinal lymph nodes. The stained PV was harvested together with the lymph vessel and some parts of the specimens were used for studying with optical microscopes. Some other parts were treated according to a standard protocol for TEM. As the results the TEM study revealed the loosely distributed collagen fibers with plenty of empty spaces and the lumens with the endothelial nuclei. It turned out to be very similar to the ultrastructure of the PVs observed on the surfaces of internal organs. It also showed how compactly the PV is surrounded with lymphocytes. In conclusion, the detailed morphological features like the distribution of fibers in the PV were revealed and shown to be similar to another kind of the PV on the surfaces of internal organs. PMID:27034687

  12. Comparison of three web-scale discovery services for health sciences research*

    PubMed Central

    Hanneke, Rosie; O'Brien, Kelly K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative effectiveness of three web-scale discovery (WSD) tools in answering health sciences search queries. Methods Simple keyword searches, based on topics from six health sciences disciplines, were run at multiple real-world implementations of EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS), Ex Libris's Primo, and ProQuest's Summon. Each WSD tool was evaluated in its ability to retrieve relevant results and in its coverage of MEDLINE content. Results All WSD tools returned between 50%–60% relevant results. Primo returned a higher number of duplicate results than the other 2 WSD products. Summon results were more relevant when search terms were automatically mapped to controlled vocabulary. EDS indexed the largest number of MEDLINE citations, followed closely by Summon. Additionally, keyword searches in all 3 WSD tools retrieved relevant material that was not found with precision (Medical Subject Headings) searches in MEDLINE. Conclusions None of the 3 WSD products studied was overwhelmingly more effective in returning relevant results. While difficult to place the figure of 50%–60% relevance in context, it implies a strong likelihood that the average user would be able to find satisfactory sources on the first page of search results using a rudimentary keyword search. The discovery of additional relevant material beyond that retrieved from MEDLINE indicates WSD tools' value as a supplement to traditional resources for health sciences researchers. PMID:27076797

  13. Ultrastructure of a Mobile Threadlike Tissue Floating in a Lymph Vessel

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Gil, HyunJi; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Hong-Lim

    2016-01-01

    Observations of the primo vascular system (PVS) floating in lymph ducts were reported by various groups. There have been, however, no studies on the ultrastructure of the entire cross section of a primo vessel (PV) inside a lymph vessel with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). In the current study we took the TEM images of a cross section of the PV inside a lymph vessel. We used the Alcian blue staining method for the finding of the target PV in a lymphatic vessel by injecting the dye into the inguinal lymph nodes. The stained PV was harvested together with the lymph vessel and some parts of the specimens were used for studying with optical microscopes. Some other parts were treated according to a standard protocol for TEM. As the results the TEM study revealed the loosely distributed collagen fibers with plenty of empty spaces and the lumens with the endothelial nuclei. It turned out to be very similar to the ultrastructure of the PVs observed on the surfaces of internal organs. It also showed how compactly the PV is surrounded with lymphocytes. In conclusion, the detailed morphological features like the distribution of fibers in the PV were revealed and shown to be similar to another kind of the PV on the surfaces of internal organs. PMID:27034687

  14. A novel fibrous duct structure discovered in the brain meninges by using polarized light microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Min-Ho; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Soh, Kwang-Sup; Lim, Jaekwan; Seo, Eunseok; Lim, Jun; Baek, Miok; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-05-01

    We have previously reported the discovery of a novel fibrous structure (NFS) consisting of unidirectionally arranged collagen fibers in the spinal pia mater. Due to its unique structure, it was easily detected using polarized light microscopy. In the current study, we describe the discovery of a similar NFS in the brain meninges of rats by using polarized light microscopy. This NFS is located beneath the superior sagittal sinus. Initially, we systemically analyzed the polarization properties of the NFS. The change in the light intensity of the NFS, with respect to the polarization angle, was eight times greater than that of blood vessels, showing that the collagen fibers are oriented in a particular direction with almost perfect parallelism (0.99). The orientation angle of the polarization ellipse confirmed the orientation of the collagen fibers in the NFS. Histological studies further confirmed that the unidirectionally arranged collagen fibers were responsible for this distinct polarization property. Surprisingly, X-ray microtomography and 3D confocal imaging revealed that the NFS contains within it a duct structure, a putative primo vessel. In conclusion, we report a NFS in the brain meninges, detected by using polarized light microscopy, that provides space for a putative primo vessel, not a blood vessel.

  15. FEMAXI-V benchmarking study on peak temperature and fission gas release prediction of PWR rod fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Suwardi; Dewayatna, W.; Briyatmoko, B.

    2012-06-06

    The present paper reports a study of FEMAXI-V code and related report on code benchmarking. Capabilities of the FEMAXI-V code to predict the thermal and fission gas release have been tested on MOX fuels in LWRs which has been done in SCK{center_dot}CEN and Belgonucleaire by using PRIMO MOX rod BD8 irradiation experiment after V Sobolev as reported O. J. Ott. Base irradiation in the BR3 reactor, the BD8 rod was transported to CEA-Saclay for irradiation in the OSIRIS reactor (ramp power excursion). The irradiation device used for the PRIMO ramps was the ISABELLE 1 loop, installed on a movable structure of the core periphery. The power variations were obtained by inwards/backwards movements of the loop in the core water. The preconditioning phase for rod BD8 occurred at a peak power level of 189 W/cm with a hold time of 27 hours. The subsequent power excursion rate amounted to 77 W/ (cm.min), reaching a terminal peak power level of 395 W/cm that lasted for 20 hours.

  16. Comparison of Two Kinds of Lasers in the Treatment of Acne Scars.

    PubMed

    Reinholz, Markus; Schwaiger, Hannah; Heppt, Markus V; Poetschke, J; Tietze, J; Epple, Andreas; Ruzicka, T; Kaudewitz, P; Gauglitz, Gerd G

    2015-10-01

    Acne scars are common and stigmatizing for the affected patients. Besides surgery, chemical peels, microdermabrasion, and microneedling, the treatment with fractional laser is a standard therapy. The results of reducing acne scars treated either with a fractional Er:YAG (erbium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet [Er:Y3Al5O1]) or a carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) laser at different wavelengths were compared and evaluated in the pilot study presented here. Fourteen patients with severe scars on both cheeks were treated four times in a random split-face approach: on one side with Er:YAG laser and on the contralateral side with CO2 laser following a standardized protocol. Therapeutic success was evaluated through the use of a high-resolution, 3D small-field capture system (PRIMOS), digital photography, and the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) questionnaire. The evaluation was performed by a blinded investigator. Treatment results displayed a higher efficacy of the fractional CO2 laser compared with the Er:YAG laser as displayed by digital photographs. Additionally, objective (high-resolution, 3D small-field capture; PRIMOS) and subjective (POSAS) measuring results correlated positively in certain qualities (color, stiffness, thickness, surface, overall opinion). Using a novel scientific approach, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of different fractional lasers on acne scars using a rater-blinded approach. Compared with an Er:YAG laser, better skin smoothening was achieved by fractional CO2 laser treatment. PMID:26579867

  17. Then and Now: Women Respond to the Manhattan Project - an illustrated talk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermi, M. A., Olivia

    2014-03-01

    I am very much looking forward to visiting you, the family of physicists gathering for your annual APS conference. In different ways, my grandfather Enrico Fermi is a member of both our families. In this sense we are connected and share a common legacy, which I want to explore from the angle of two women inextricably involved with and affected by the Manhattan Project. One from the past and one alive now. These two women, despite a significant temporal and cultural gap share a remarkable number of traits and values. My talk will not offer a particular thesis or finding. Rather it will be about ways of seeing, including questioning unnoticed assumptions and belief systems. My grandmother Laura Fermi, modeled this for me as a youngster. She was at Enrico's side during the Manhattan Project years, yet in the dark about his work. What was it like to live in a climate of intellectually and patriotically charged enthusiasm, with an undercurrent of unspoken dread? Laura, just like most everyone else, discovered the true nature of the effort on the day the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. After the war and after Enrico's untimely death in 1954, in response to all she had experienced, Laura re-invented herself as an author and visionary, pioneering in both the environmental and handgun control movements. Marian Naranjo lives on the Santa Clara Pueblo near Los Alamos. Her ancestors dwelled on the Pajarito Plateau which encompasses the space where Los Alamos National Labs (LANL) is today. Her people, the Pueblo People have used the area's natural resources for ceremonial and survival for uncountable generations. They say, ``We are this place.'' What is it like to live on land one's families have safely occupied for thousands of years, with an undercurrent of dread at the prospect of toxic waste stream products from LANL? Like my grandmother did in her place and time, Marian builds community as an integral part of her environmental and social justice activism. She is

  18. Canister Transfer Facility Criticality Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    J.E. Monroe-Rammsy

    2000-10-13

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the criticality risk in the surface facility for design basis events (DBE) involving Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) standardized canisters (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System [CRWMS] Management and Operating Contractor [M&O] 2000a). Since some of the canisters will be stored in the surface facility before they are loaded in the waste package (WP), this calculation supports the demonstration of concept viability related to the Surface Facility environment. The scope of this calculation is limited to the consideration of three DOE SNF fuels, specifically Enrico Fermi SNF, Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA) SNF, and Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) SNF.

  19. Sufficient condition for the linearization stability of N = 1 supergravity: A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, D.

    1984-11-01

    This paper outlines how the methods developed by Fischer, Marsden, and Moncrief (A. Fischer and J. Marsden, ''Isolated Gravitating Systems in General Relativity,'' (J. Ehlers, Ed.), Proceedings of the International School of Physics Enrico Fermi Course XVII, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1979; A. Fischer, J. Marsden, and V. Moncrief, Ann. Inst. Henri Poincare 33 (1980), 147-194) for general relativity are being used to show that classical N = 1 supergravity, as a non-linear system of partial differential equtions, is linearization stable at any solution which lacks Killing symmetry. It is assumed (for convenience) throughout that the underlying spacetime is topologically ..sigma../sub 0/ x R, where ..sigma../sub 0/ is a compact, spacelike, and boundaryless 3-dimensional hypersurface.

  20. Ettore Majorana: The scientist and the man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recami, Erasmo

    2014-12-01

    Ettore Majorana was the brightest Italian theoretical physicist of the XX century (actually, Enrico Fermi regarded him as the brightest in the world of his time, and compared him to Galileo and Newton), even if to some people Majorana is often known mainly for his mysterious disappearance, in 1938, when he was 31. In this paper, we present a panoramic view of the main scientific articles published by him, as well as their significance. We also briefly outline his life, the biographical data being based on letters, documents, testimonies discovered or collected by the author during more than four decades, and contained since 1986 in Recami's book quoted in the text. Finally, extensive information and comments are added with regard to the scientific manuscripts left unpublished by Majorana. Two pictures complete the paper.

  1. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Julie Langham Grilly, February 3, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Julie Langham Grilly was interviewed by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE) being the widow of Dr. Wright Langham, an investigator of principal interest of the committee. Her extensive experience with research at LANL was also of interest to the committee. Following a brief biographical sketch, Ms. Grilly relates her early postwar experience and her knowledge of Wright Langham`s involvement in animal research at Los Alamos, radiolanthanum tests on monkeys, Eniwetok tissue examinations, research on tritium uptake in humans, plutonium injections, tritium injections, EDTA, and etc. In addition to illuminating her former husband as a researcher and as an individual, she also relates her remembrances of Louis Hempelman, Enrico Fermi, Oppenheimer, Edward Teller, and many others.

  2. Taphophobia and 'life preserving coffins' in the nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Cascella, Marco

    2016-09-01

    In 1891 the Italian psychiatrist Enrico Morselli (1852-1929) described taphophobia, defining it as an extreme condition of claustrophobia due to the fear of being buried alive. This rare psychopathological phenomenon reflects an ancient fear, and its origin is not known. Taphophobia is closely linked to the problem of apparent death and premature burial. In the nineteenth century, scientists and authors paid particular attention to the issue of apparent death, and special devices (safety coffins) were invented to ensure that premature burial was avoided. Nowadays taphophobia is quite a rare psychiatric disorder; different forms of social anxiety disorders are much more widespread. Its modern equivalent could be the fear of organs harvested from a patient who is still alive. PMID:27225418

  3. Numerical study of reactive flow in an over-expanded nozzle: influence of wall temperature and altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, L.; Burtschell, Y.; Zeitoun, D. E.

    Université de Provence, Ecole Polytechnique Universitaire de Marseille, Département Mécanique Energétique, 5, rue Enrico Fermi, 13453 Marseille Cedex, France Abstract. A numerical study of reactive flow in a two dimensional axisymmetric nozzle, which ejects burnt gases out of a combustion chamber is presented. The lower pressure of ejected gases is adapted to higher ambient air by means of an oblique shock. This oblique shock leads to a boundary layer detachment and a fresh air re-circulation between the shear layer and the nozzle wall. In this mixing zone, the air flow oxygen reacts with burnt gases, whose composition is rich in hydrogen, reaction which is strongly exothermic. The increasing temperature may damage nozzle wall and leads to a performance reduction for the engine. The numerical method is based on a finite volume scheme and allows the resolution of Navier-Stokes equations for unsteady, compressible flows, taking into account the chemical reactions.

  4. Fermi's Conundrum: Proliferation and Closed Societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teller, Wendy; Westfall, Catherine

    2007-04-01

    On January 1, 1946 Emily Taft Douglas, a freshman Representative at Large for Illinois, sent a letter to Enrico Fermi. She wanted to know whether, if atomic energy was used for peaceful purposes, it might be possible to clandestinely divert some material for bombs. Douglas first learned about the bomb not quite five months before when Hiroshima was bombed. Even though she was not a scientist she identified a key problem of the nuclear age. Fermi responded with requirements to allow peaceful uses of atomic energy and still outlaw nuclear weapons. First, free interchange of information between people was required, and second, people who reported possible violations had to be protected. Fermi had lived in Mussolini's Italy and worked under the war time secrecy restrictions of the Manhattan Project. He was not optimistic that these conditions could be met. This paper discusses how Douglas came to recognize the proliferation issue and what led Fermi to his solution and his pessimism about its practicality.

  5. The Entrance of Quantum Mechanics in Italy:. from Garbasso to Fermi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, Matteo; Robotti, Nadia

    2006-06-01

    The first steps of quantum mechanics in Italy will be here discussed, through the use of the available archives and printed sources. As it will be shown, this development was closely linked with a spectroscopy tradition of research, whose major protagonists were three physicists working in Tuscany during the first two decades of the century, namely Antonio Garbasso, who worked in Arcetri (Florence) on the theoretical basis of the recently discovered Stark Effect (1913-14); Rita Brunetti, in Arcetri as well, who made use of the quantum theory in order to explain the X-rays emission (1918-20); and, finally, the young Enrico Fermi, who paid attention to the quantum theory since his days at the Scuola Normale Superiore in Pisa (1918-22).

  6. Expanding Advanced Civilizations in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gros, C.

    The 1950 lunch-table remark by Enrico Fermi `Where is everybody' has started intensive scientific and philosophical discussions about what we call nowadays the `Fermi paradox': If there had been ever a single advanced civilization in the cosmological history of our galaxy, dedicated to expansion, it would have had plenty of time to colonize the entire galaxy via exponential growth. No evidence of present or past alien visits to earth are known to us, leading to the standard conclusion that no advanced expanding civilization has ever existed in the milky-way. This conclusion rest fundamentally on the ad-hoc assumption, that any alien civilizations dedicated to expansion at one time would remain dedicated to expansions forever. Considering our limited knowledge about alien civilizations we need however to relax this basic assumption. Here we show that a substantial and stable population of expanding advanced civilization might consequently exist in our galaxy.

  7. Renaissance man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaldi, Ugo

    2008-09-01

    In August 1945, a year after Rome was liberated from the Germans, I was on holiday with my family and a group of young physicists in Italy's Apennine Mountains. We were following a tradition that began in the 1920s whereby the physicists of Enrico Fermi's "Rome group" would always spend their vacations together. But the rest of the group - Franco Rasetti, Emilio Segrè, Bruno Pontecorvo and Fermi himself - had left Italy before the outbreak of the Second World War and of the group known as "i ragazzi di Via Panisperna" (the boys from Panisperna Street), as they were later dubbed by the senior members of the faculty, my father Edoardo Amaldi was the only one still there.

  8. Ettore Majorana centennial and neutrino legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Salvatore

    2007-06-01

    "In the world there are various categories of scientists: people of secondary or tertiary standing, who do their best but do not go very far. There are also those of high standing, who come to discoveries of great importance. But then there are geniuses like Galileo and Newton. Well, Ettore was one of them. Majorana had what no one else in the world has...". In this talk we try to put some light on this quite unusual statement by Enrico Fermi about Ettore Majorana, by exploring mainly personal notes left unpublished by the great sicilian physicist. Some emphasis is given on recent achievements about Majorana as a research scientist as well as a teacher in Theoretical Physics.

  9. The First Man-Made Nuclear Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worth Seagondollar, L.

    2004-10-01

    This talk is part Nuclear Physics, part description of the greatest war-time experience possible for a young graduate student, and part eye-witness description of the 1945 plutonium fission devise explosion in the New Mexico desert. Living and working in the secret Manhattan District laboratory was truly unique. Hearing talks by Nobel Laureates (past & future), participating in nuclear experiments that determined the critical masses for U-235 and Pu-239, having near-catastrophic accidents, working with an armed guard watching you, having Enrico Fermi ask you to come to his office--these are unforgettable memories. There will be a description of 3 days in the New Mexico desert and a description of the early morning nuclear explosion at the Trinity Site and a description of that Site 30 days later.

  10. Teaching Elementary Particle Physics, Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Art

    2011-03-01

    In order to explain certain features of radioactive beta decay, Wolfgang Pauli suggested in 1930 that the nucleus emitted, in addition to a beta particle, another particle of an entirely new type. The hypothesized particle, dubbed the neutrino, would not be discovered experimentally for another 25 years. It's not easy to detect neutrinos, because they respond to neither the EM force nor the strong force. For example, the mean free path (average penetration distance before it interacts) of a typical beta-decay neutrino moving through solid lead is about 1.5 light years! Enrico Fermi argued that neutrinos indicated a new force was at work. During the 1930s, he quickly adapted ideas from the developing new theory of QED to this new force, dubbed the weak force. Fermi's theory was able to predict the half-lives of beta-emitting nuclei and the range of energies of the emitted beta particles.

  11. Enlivening Introductory Physics With SETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Art

    2001-04-01

    The search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), popular for years in astronomy courses, is also an excellent topic in physics literacy courses. Space travel, relativity, scientific methodology, pseudoscience, and physics-related societal topics can all be taught within the SETI context. Fermi's question (see Kuiper and Brin, Extraterrestrial Civilization, AAPT 1989, p. 67) is especially appropriate. Enrico Fermi, speculating in 1950 on the number of technological civilizations in our galaxy, concluded that we should have been visited long ago and many times over. Thus one might ask, paraphrasing Fermi, "Where is everybody?" Fermi concluded that either interstellar travel is impossible, or is always judged not to be worth the effort, or technological civilization doesn't last long enough for it to happen. Whether one agrees with Fermi or not, the great physicist's third suggestion is a sobering perspective on the sustainability of Earth-based civilization.

  12. Fermi Blobs and the Symplectic Camel: A Geometric Picture of Quantum States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gossona, Maurice A. De

    We have explained in previous work the correspondence between the standard squeezed coherent states of quantum mechanics, and quantum blobs, which are the smallest phase space units compatible with the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics and having the symplectic group as a group of symmetries. In this work, we discuss the relation between quantum blobs and a certain level set (which we call "Fermi blob") introduced by Enrico Fermi in 1930. Fermi blobs allows us to extend our previous results not only to the excited states of the generalized harmonic oscillator in n dimensions, but also to arbitrary quadratic Hamiltonians. As is the case for quantum blobs, we can evaluate Fermi blobs using a topological notion, related to the uncertainty principle, the symplectic capacity of a phase space set. The definition of this notion is made possible by Gromov's symplectic non-squeezing theorem, nicknamed the "principle of the symplectic camel".

  13. Remembering Fermi

    SciTech Connect

    Cronin, James

    2005-03-30

    A combination of the discovery of nuclear fission and the circumstances of the 2nd World War brought Enrico Fermi to Chicago, where he led the team that produced the first controlled, self-sustained nuclear chain reaction. Following the war in 1945 Chancellor Hutchins, William Zachariasen, and Walter Bartky convinced Fermi to accept a professorship at the University of Chicago, where the Institute for Nuclear Studies was established. Fermi served as the leading figure in surely the greatest collection of scientists the world has ever seen. Fermi's tenure at Chicago was cut short by his death in 1954. My talk will concentrate on the years 1945-54. Examples of his research notebooks, his speeches, his teaching, and his correspondence will be discussed.

  14. Secrecy and Physicists: Intersections of Science and National Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aftergood, Steven

    2010-02-01

    Physicists have been proponents as well as critics of government secrecy affecting their work. Enrico Fermi once wrote (in Physics Today) that ``Contrary to perhaps what is the most common belief about secrecy, secrecy was not started by generals, was not started by security officers, but was started by physicists.'' Yet Edward Teller, Frederick Seitz and others argued that secrecy in science and technology could profitably be reduced by 90% or more. Secrecy in physics is of course most pronounced in research related to nuclear weapons development. Though this is a longstanding concern it is still not a settled one. Disputes over nuclear weapons-related secrecy continue to resonate today as researchers and authors challenge the boundaries of official disclosure regarding the nuclear weapons enterprise. This paper will survey the current landscape of secrecy in science, and will discuss recent controversies involving publication of nuclear weapons physics, the infrastructure of nuclear research, and the prospects for secrecy reform. )

  15. Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    The Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop - organized by the CERN/EN-STI group on behalf of n_TOF Collaboration - will be held at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) from 30 August to 2 September 2010 inclusive.EFNUDAT website: http://www.efnudat.euTopics of interest include: Data evaluationCross section measurementsExperimental techniquesUncertainties and covariancesFission propertiesCurrent and future facilities  International Advisory Committee: C. Barreau (CENBG, France)T. Belgya (IKI KFKI, Hungary)E. Gonzalez (CIEMAT, Spain)F. Gunsing (CEA, France)F.-J. Hambsch (IRMM, Belgium)A. Junghans (FZD, Germany)R. Nolte (PTB, Germany)S. Pomp (TSL UU, Sweden) Workshop Organizing Committee: Enrico Chiaveri (Chairman)Marco CalvianiSamuel AndriamonjeEric BerthoumieuxCarlos GuerreroRoberto LositoVasilis Vlachoudis Workshop Assistant: Géraldine Jean

  16. Claudio Pellegrini and the World’s First Hard X-ray Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrini, Claudio

    2015-10-20

    President Obama welcomed SLAC's Claudio Pellegrini inside the Oval Office on Tuesday morning as a recipient of the Enrico Fermi Award, one of the highest honors the U.S. government can give to a scientist. Pellegrini, a visiting scientist and consulting professor at SLAC and distinguished professor emeritus at the University of California, Los Angeles, received the award for research that aided in the development of X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) including SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), a DOE Office of Science User Facility that started up in 2009. Here, Pellegrini describes his efforts that contributed to the realization of SLAC’s Linac Coherent Light Source, the world’s first hard X-ray free-electron laser.

  17. Disuse of the musculo-skeletal system in space and on earth.

    PubMed

    Narici, M V; de Boer, M D

    2011-03-01

    Muscle mass and strength are well known to decline in response to actual and simulated microgravity exposure. However, despite the considerable knowledge gained on the physiological changes induced by spaceflight, the mechanisms of muscle atrophy and the effectiveness of in-flight countermeasures still need to be fully elucidated. The present review examines the effects and mechanisms of actual and simulated microgravity on single fibre and whole muscle structural and functional properties, protein metabolism, tendon mechanical properties, neural drive and reflex excitability. The effects of inflight countermeasures are also discussed in the light of recent advances in resistive loading techniques, in combined physical, pharmacological and nutritional interventions as well as in the development of artificial gravity systems. Emphasis has been given to the pioneering work of Pietro Enrico di Prampero in the development of artificial gravity systems and in the progress of knowledge on the limits of human muscular performance in space. PMID:20617334

  18. Developments and performances of cold atom inertial sensors for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landragin, Arnaud

    The techniques of laser cooling combined with atom interferometry make possible the real-ization of high performance inertial sensors like gyroscopes or accelerometers. Their excellent sensitivity and accuracy make these instruments very interesting tools for testing gravity and relativity[1]. Developments in atom interferometry already lead to performances at the level of the state of the art sensors on ground. Moreover, current developments aims to push ground performances[2] and to make these technologies compatible with the space environment[3]. The detailed characterization of these sensors[4] enables an extrapolations of performances in space[5], where they would benefit from much longer interrogation time and higher sensitivity. [1] G. Varoquaux, et al. "How to estimate the differential acceleration in a two-species atom interferometer to test the equivalence principle", New Journal of Physics 11, 113010 (2009). [2] T. Lév`que, et al., "Enhancing the area of a Raman atom interferometer using a versatile double-diffraction technique", Physical Review Letters 103, 080405 (2009). [3] G. Stern, et al., "Light-pulse atom interferometry in microgravity", Eur. Phys. J. D 53, 353-357 (2009). [4] A. Gauguet, et al., "Characterization and limits of a cold atom Sagnac interferometer", Physical Review A 80, 063604, (2009). [5] A. Landragin, and F. Pereira Dos Santos, "Accelerometer using atomic waves for space applications", in Atom Optics and Space Physics, Proceedings of the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi," Course CLXVIII, Varenna, 2007, edited by E. Arimondo, W. Ertmer, E. M. Rasel, and W. P. Schleich (IOS press) p337-350, arXiv:0808.3837v1 (2009).

  19. Immune response in cattle induced by inactivated rabies vaccine adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide either alone or in combination with avridine.

    PubMed

    Côrtes, J A; Rweyemamu, M M; Ito, F H; Umehara, O; Medeiros Neto, R R; De Lucca-Neto, D; Baltazar, M C; Vasconcellos, S A; Vasconcellos, M E

    1993-09-01

    In a comparative study of two commercial baby hamster kidney rabies vaccines produced in Brazil, the authors were able to demonstrate the following: a) both vaccines provoked a high level of antibody response and protection against challenge in cattle b) in primary vaccination, at least, the addition of avridine (a synthetic lipoidal amine) enhances the immune response in terms of the level and persistence of antibody c) over 90% of cattle vaccinated with either vaccine were protected against experimental challenge one year after revaccination, and the antibody response profile indicated that these vaccines were capable of maintaining antibody titres above protective levels for more than two years after revaccination. On the basis of these results, the authors recommend optional revaccination of young animals (i.e. "primo-vaccinates") at six months of age. Thereafter, annual revaccination should be sufficient to ensure high levels of antibody between vaccination cycles. PMID:8219344

  20. Stimulating ethical awareness during training.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch, Henry

    2007-09-01

    This paper argues for a preventative approach to ethical violations through developing and maintaining ethical awareness in training and in the group life of each society. Rather than teaching ethics as a theoretical subject, a method is proposed that encourages direct personal confrontation with ethical dilemmas through the consideration of key examples, in the Talmudic manner. This develops ethical 'muscles' and allows candidates to explore the dilemmas of what Primo Levi called the 'grey zone' where the boundaries between good and bad are unclear. Several illustrations of such ethical dilemmas are described, as used in workshops that the author has run in several societies and developing groups. In this way, ethical awareness becomes part of the group life of the society so that analysts become an ethical resource for each other. PMID:17718757

  1. When the third is dead: memory, mourning, and witnessing in the aftermath of the holocaust.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Samuel

    2009-12-01

    The origins of psychoanalysis, as well as the concerns of our daily endeavors, center on engagement with the fate of the unbearable - be it wish, affect, or experience. In this paper, I explore psychological states and dynamics faced by survivors of genocide and their children in their struggle to sustain life in the midst of unremitting deadliness. Toward this continuous effort, I re-examine Freud's theoretical formulations concerning memory and mourning, elaborate André Green's concept of the 'Dead Mother', and introduce more recent work on the concepts of the 'third' and 'thirdness'. Throughout, my thoughts are informed by our clinical experience with the essential role of witnessing in sustaining life after massive trauma. I bring aspects of all these forms of knowing to reflections about a poem by Primo Levi entitled Unfinished business and to our own never finished business of avoiding denial while living in an age of genocide and under the aura of uncontained destructiveness. PMID:20002819

  2. Persistence of the protective immunity and kinetics of the isotype specific antibody response against the viral nucleocapsid protein after experimental Schmallenberg virus infection of sheep.

    PubMed

    Poskin, Antoine; Verite, Stephanie; Comtet, Loic; Van der Stede, Yves; Cay, Brigitte; De Regge, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an Orthobunyavirus that induces abortion, stillbirths and congenital malformations in ruminants. SBV infection induces a long lasting seroconversion under natural conditions. The persistence of the protective immunity and the isotype specific antibody response upon SBV infection of sheep has however not been studied in detail. Five sheep were kept in BSL3 facilities for more than 16 months and subjected to repeated SBV infections. Blood was regularly sampled and organs were collected at euthanasia. The presence of SBV RNA in serum and organs was measured with quantitative real-time PCR. The appearance and persistence of neutralizing and SBV nucleoprotein (N) isotype specific antibodies was determined with virus neutralization tests (VNT) and ELISAs. The primo SBV infection protected ewes against clinical signs, viraemia and virus replication in organs upon challenge infections more than 15 months later. Production of neutralizing SBV specific antibodies was first detected around 6 days post primo-inoculation with VNT and correlated with the appearance of SBV-N specific IgM antibodies. These IgM antibodies remained present for 2 weeks. SBV-N specific IgG antibodies were first detected between 10 and 21 dpi and reached a plateau at 28 dpi. This plateau remained consistently high and no significant decrease in titre was found over a period of more than 1 year. Similar results were found for the neutralising antibody response. In conclusion, the SBV specific IgM response probably eliminates SBV from the blood and the protective immunity induced by SBV infection protects sheep against reinfection for at least 16 months. PMID:26472116

  3. Interferon-induced transmembrane protein-3 rs12252-C is associated with rapid progression of acute HIV-1 infection in Chinese MSM cohort

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yonghong; Makvandi-Nejad, Shokouh; Qin, Ling; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Tong; Wang, Lili; Repapi, Emmanouela; Taylor, Stephen; McMichael, Andrew; Li, Ning; Dong, Tao; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Background: The interferon-inducible transmembrane protein-3 (IFITM3) is a protein that restricts multiple pathogenic viruses such as influenza virus. The single-nucleotide polymorphism rs12252-C, which is rare in Caucasian populations, but much more common in the Han Chinese population, has been found in much higher homozygous frequency in patients with severe acute influenza. Until now, there has been no study on the effect of this genetic variant on the clinical control of other viral infections. Objectives: To investigate the impact of IFITM3-rs12252 genotypes on primary HIV-1 infection progression in an acute HIV-1-infected cohort in Beijing (PRIMO), China. Design and methods: We identified IFITM3-rs12252 genotypes of 178 acute HIV-1-infected patients and 196 HIV-negative candidates from the PRIMO cohort. HIV-1 viral load and CD4+ T-cell counts were monitored at multiple time points during the first year of infection, and the association between IFITM3-rs12252 genotype and disease progression was evaluated. Results: The current study shows that the IFITM3-rs12252 genetic variant affects the progression of HIV-1 infection, but not the acquisition. A significantly higher frequency of the CC/CT genotypes was found in rapid progressors compared to nonprogressors. Patients with CC/CT genotypes showed an elevated peak viremia level and significantly lower CD4+ T-cell count at multiple time points during the first year of primary infection, and a significantly higher risk of rapid decline of the CD4+ T-cell count to below 350 cells/μl. Conclusion: A novel association between IFITM3 gene polymorphism and rapid disease progression is reported in an acute HIV-1-infected MSM cohort in China. PMID:25784441

  4. Human growth factor and cytokine skin cream for facial skin rejuvenation as assessed by 3D in vivo optical skin imaging.

    PubMed

    Gold, Michael H; Goldman, Mitchel P; Biron, Julie

    2007-10-01

    Growth factors, in addition to their crucial role in cutaneous wound healing, are also beneficial for skin rejuvenation. Due to their multifunctional activities such as promoting skin cell proliferation and stimulating collagen formation, growth factors may participate in skin rejuvenation at various levels. The present placebo-controlled study aimed to further investigate the antiaging effects of a novel skin cream containing a mixture of human growth factors and cytokines, which was obtained through a biotechnology process using cultured human fetal fibroblasts. Aside from clinical assessment of skin wrinkles, the skin surface topography was analyzed by 3D in vivo optical skin imaging using the Phaseshift Rapid in vivo Measurement of Skin (PRIMOS) device. This device allows fast, contact-free, and direct measurement of the skin surface topography in vivo at high resolution. This technique is quantitative and more reliable than a visual assessment of wrinkles using a scoring system, which is subjective and strongly dependent on investigator and assessment conditions. Using the PRIMOS device, which is also regarded as a more accurate method than the commonly used silicon replica technique, skin surface roughness was shown to significantly decrease between 10% and 18% depending on the roughness parameter after 2 months of twice-daily application of the human growth factor and cytokine cream. This was compared to treatment with the placebo formulation resulting in an approximate 10% decrease of 2 roughness parameters, whereas the remaining parameters remained unchanged. We found that topical application of growth factors and cytokines are beneficial in reducing signs of skin aging. PMID:17966179

  5. Cyanomethanimine Isomers in Cold Interstellar Clouds: Insights from Electronic Structure and Kinetic Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazart, Fanny; Latouche, Camille; Skouteris, Dimitrios; Balucani, Nadia; Barone, Vincenzo

    2015-09-01

    New insights into the formation of interstellar cyanomethanimine, a species of great relevance in prebiotic chemistry, are provided by electronic structure and kinetic calculations for the reaction CN + CH2 = NH. This reaction is a facile formation route of Z,E-C-cyanomethanimine, even under the extreme conditions of density and temperature typical of cold interstellar clouds. E-C-cyanomethanimine has been recently identified in Sgr B2(N) in the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) PRIMOS survey by P. Zaleski et al. and no efficient formation routes have been envisaged so far. The rate coefficient expression for the reaction channel leading to the observed isomer E-C-cyanomethanimine is 3.15 × 10-10 × (T/300)0.152 × e(-0.0948/T). According to the present study, the more stable Z-C-cyanomethanimine isomer is formed with a slightly larger yield (4.59 × 10-10 × (T/300)0.153 × e(-0.0871/T). As the detection of E-isomer is favored due to its larger dipole moment, the missing detection of the Z-isomer can be due to the sensitivity limit of the GBT PRIMOS survey and the detection of the Z-isomer should be attempted with more sensitive instrumentation. The CN + CH2 = NH reaction can also play a role in the chemistry of the upper atmosphere of Titan where the cyanomethanimine products can contribute to the buildup of the observed nitrogen-rich organic aerosols that cover the moon.

  6. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombaci, I.; Covello, A.; Marcucci, L. E.; Rosati, S.

    2009-07-01

    Armani Paolo (Università di Trento) Benhar Omar (INFN Roma) Bombaci Ignazio (Università di Pisa) Bonanno Luca (Università di Ferrara) Catara Francesco (Università di Catania) Cò Giampaolo (Università di Lecce) Colonna Maria (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN Catania) Colonna Nicola (INFN Bari) Conti Francesco (Università di Pavia) Coraggio Luigi (INFN Napoli) Covello Aldo (Università di Napoli) Cristoforetti Marco (Technische Universität München, Germania) Cuofano Carmine (Università di Ferrara) Di Toro Massimo (Università di Catania) Drago Alessandro (Università di Ferrara) Faccioli Pietro (Università di Trento) Farina Nicola (INFN Roma) Finelli Paolo (Università di Bologna) Fiorentini Giovanni (Università di Ferrara) Fortunato Lorenzo (Università di Padova) Gambacurta Danilo (Università di Catania) Gandolfi Stefano (Università di Trento) Gargano Angela (INFN Napoli) Giannini Mauro (Università di Genova) Girlanda Luca (INFN Pisa) Giusti Carlotta (INFN Pavia) Illarionov Alexei (SISSA Trieste) Itaco Nunzio (Università di Napoli) Kievsky Alejandro (INFN Pisa) Lanza Edoardo (INFN Catania) Leidemann Winfried (Università di Trento) Lenzi Silvia (Università di Padova) Lipparini Enrico (Università di Trento) Lissia Marcello (Università di Cagliari) Lo Iudice Nicola (Università di Napoli) Maieron Chiara (Università di Lecce) Marcucci Laura Elisa (Università di Pisa) Matera Francesco (Università di Firenze) Millo Raffaele (Università di Trento) Orlandini Giuseppina (Università di Trento) Pacati Franco (Università di Pavia) Pastore Alessandro (Univeristy of Jyväskylä, Finlandia) Pederiva Francesco (Università di Trento) Pisent Gualtiero (Università di Padova) Prete Gianfranco (INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro) Quarati Piero (Politecnico di Torino) Rosati Sergio (Università di Pisa) Salmè Giovanni (INFN Roma) Santopinto Elena (INFN Genova) Traini Marco (Università di Trento) Vigezzi Enrico (INFN Milano) Vitturi Andrea (Universit

  7. [Modello di Management (Mo.Ma) del paziente affetto da schizofrenia: controllo della crisi, mantenimento, prevenzione delle ricadute e recovery con gli antipsicotici LAI].

    PubMed

    Brugnoli, Roberto; Rapinesi, Chiara; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Marcellusi, Andrea; Mennini, Francesco S; De Filippis, Sergio; Carrus, Dario; Ballerini, Andrea; Francomano, Antonio; Ducci, Giuseppe; Del Casale, Antonio; Girardi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. La schizofrenia colpisce circa l'1% della popolazione e rappresenta un grave disturbo mentale con un notevole impatto anche sul funzionamento sociale, lavorativo e sulle attività della vita quotidiana. Le persone con schizofrenia hanno un tasso di mortalità superiore di 2-2,5 rispetto a quello della popolazione generale. La non aderenza ai farmaci antipsicotici è uno dei più importanti fattori di rischio per le ricadute e le ospedalizzazioni, sia nei pazienti con disturbo cronico sia al primo episodio, e conseguentemente contribuisce all'aumento dei costi sanitari. Gli antipsicotici atipici LAI possono migliorare l'aderenza al trattamento contribuendo a diminuire i tassi di ricaduta nei pazienti affetti da schizofrenia fin dall'esordio. Gli obiettivi primari nella gestione dei pazienti schizofrenici sono diretti, non solo alla riduzione dei sintomi nel breve termine, ma anche al mantenimento fisico e della funzionalità mentale, migliorando la qualità della vita e promuovendo il recupero del paziente. Scopo. Proporre un modello integrato, basato sulle evidenze, che fornisca un algoritmo efficace per il recupero del paziente schizofrenico e indagare l'efficacia e la sicurezza degli antipsicotici LAI nel trattamento, nel mantenimento, nella prevenzione delle ricadute e nella recovery dei pazienti affetti da schizofrenia. Metodi. Dopo un'accurata analisi di letteratura abbiamo identificato, raccolto e analizzato gli elementi qualificanti per un'ottimale gestione del paziente schizofrenico, definendo un modello di gestione e selezione delle alternative terapeutiche. Conclusioni. Il modello di gestione della schizofrenia proposto potrebbe consentire un migliore recupero funzionale del paziente grazie alla scelta di iniziare il percorso terapeutico, fin dalle prime fasi del disturbo soprattutto se in giovane età e al primo episodio, con un farmaco atipico LAI. All'interno dei farmaci antipsicotici atipici la formulazione LAI rappresenta una scelta

  8. Scaling of the Specific Heat of Confined ^4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, S.; Gasparini, F. M.

    1997-03-01

    We report measurements of the specific heat of thick helium films confined between two silicon wafers. These films range in thickness from 0.107-0.692μm and possess a high degree of uniformity(S. Mehta, W.Y. Yu, A. Petrou, J. Lipa, D. Bishop and F.M. Gasparini, Czechoslovak J. Phys. 46, 133(1996).). When the data are analyzed to test predictions of correlation-length scaling(M.E. Fisher in Critical Phenomenon, Proc. 51^st) "Enrico Fermi" Summer School, Varenna, Italy, ed. M.S. Green (Academic Press, NY, 1971)., they collapse well for ν=0.6705(L.S. Goldner and G. Ahlers, Phys. Rev. B45, 13129(1992).) both above and below T_λ. We propose an empirical scaling function which has the correct asymptotic behavior. From this we obtain the surface specific heat. We also compare our results with theoretical calculations and earlier experiments. Work supported by NSF DMR9623831.

  9. Exactly self-similar left-sided multifractal measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelbrot, Benoit B.; Evertsz, Carl J. G.; Hayakawa, Yoshinori

    1990-10-01

    We introduce and investigate a family of exactly self-similar nonrandom fractal measures, each having stretched exponentially decreasing minimum probabilities. This implies that τ(q) is not defined for q<0 and that qbottom=0 is a critical value of q. Since the partition function does not scale for all values of q, these measures are not multifractals in the restricted sense due to Frisch and Parisi [in 2 Turbulence and Predictability of Geophysical Flows and Climate Dynamics, Proceedings of the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics, edited by M. Ghil, R. Benzi, and G. Parisi (North-Holland, New York, 1985), p. 84] and to Halsey et al. [Phys. Rev. A 33, 1141 (1986)]. However, they are exactly self-similar, hence are multifractals in a much earlier and more general meaning of this notion [B. Mandelbrot, J. Fluid Mech. 62, 331 (1974)]. We show that in these measures the ``free energy'' τ(q) is singular at q=qbottom, in the sense that τ(q)=-1+cλqλ+c1q+c2q2+O(q3), where 0<λ is a ``critical'' exponent. For λ<=1, the transition in the f(α) is smooth (i.e., of infinite order), while for λ>1, the transition order is >=2. We then use a new sampling method to study problems arising in the study of such transitions in case of undersampling.

  10. [Henri Beckquerel's discovery of radioactivity, and history of nuclear medicine. 100 years in the shadow or on the shoulder of Röntgen].

    PubMed

    Rootwelt, K

    1996-12-10

    In 1896 Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium emitted penetrating rays similar to X-rays. His finding started a series of discoveries that were rewarded with numerous Nobel prizes. Marie and Pierre Curie found that thorium was radioactive too, and discovered and described two new elements, polonium and radium. They also found that radioactive radiation could be separated into alpha, beta and gamma rays. In 1993 their daughter Irene Joliot-Curie and her husband Frederic Joliot managed to produce radioactivity artificially by bombarding atomic nuclei with alpha particles. Enrico Fermi did likewise, but bombarded the nuclei with neutrons. In the cyclotron invented by Ernest Lawrence, radioactive isotopes were produced by proton bombardment. The ability to produce radioisotopes of different elements initiated a variety of tracer studies in biology and medicine. The number of studies increased exponentially when the nuclear reactor in Oak Ridge, US, was opened for radionuclide production in 1946. This article summarises the history of the application of radionuclides in science and medicine internationally and in Norway until now. PMID:9019879

  11. The Discovery of Artificial Radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Francesco; Leone, Matteo; Robotti, Nadia

    2012-03-01

    We reconstruct Frédéric Joliot and Irène Curie's discovery of artificial radioactivity in January 1934 based in part on documents preserved in the Joliot-Curie Archives in Paris, France. We argue that their discovery followed from the convergence of two parallel lines of research, on the neutron and on the positron, that were focused on a well-defined experimental problem, the nuclear transmutation of aluminum and other light elements. We suggest that a key role was played by a suggestion that Francis Perrin made at the seventh Solvay Conference at the end of October 1933, that the alpha-particle bombardment of aluminum produces an intermediate unstable isotope of phosphorus, which then decays by positron emission. We also suggest that a further idea that Perrin published in December 1933, and the pioneering theory of beta decay that Enrico Fermi also first published in December 1933, established a new theoretical framework that stimulated Joliot to resume the researches that he and Curie had interrupted after the Solvay Conference, now for the first time using a Geiger-Müller counter to detect the positrons emitted when he bombarded aluminum with polonium alpha particles.

  12. International scientific cooperation during the 1930s. Bruno Rossi and the development of the status of cosmic rays into a branch of physics.

    PubMed

    Bonolis, Luisa

    2014-07-01

    During the 1920s and 1930s, Italian physicists established strong relationships with scientists from other European countries and the United States. The career of Bruno Rossi, a leading personality in the study of cosmic rays and an Italian pioneer of this field of research, provides a prominent example of this kind of international cooperation. Physics underwent major changes during these turbulent years, and the traditional internationalism of physics assumed a more institutionalized character. Against this backdrop, Rossi's early work was crucial in transforming the study of cosmic rays into a branch of modern physics. His friendly relationships with eminent scientists--notably Enrico Fermi, Walther Bothe, Werner Heisenberg, Hans Bethe, and Homi Bhabha--were instrumental both for the exchange of knowledge about experimental practices and theoretical discussions, and for attracting the attention of physicists such as Arthur Compton, Louis Leprince-Ringuet, Pierre Auger and Patrick Blackett to the problem of cosmic rays. Relying on material from different archives in Europe and the United States, this case study aims to provide a glimpse of the intersection between national and international dimensions during the 1930s, at a time when the study of cosmic rays was still very much in its infancy, strongly interlaced with nuclear physics, and full of uncertain, contradictory, and puzzling results. Nevertheless, as a source of high-energy particles it became a proving ground for testing the validity of the laws of quantum electrodynamics, and made a fundamental contribution to the origins of particle physics. PMID:24908796

  13. Neutron Detection via Bubble Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, David V.; Ely, James H.; Peurrung, Anthony J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Collar, J. I.; Flake, Matthew; Knopf, Michael A.; Pitts, W. K.; Shaver, Mark W.; Sonnenschein, Andrew; Smart, John E.; Todd, Lindsay C.

    2005-10-06

    The results of a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) exploratory research project investigating the feasibility of fast neutron detection using a suitably prepared and operated, pressure-cycled bubble chamber are described. The research was conducted along two parallel paths. Experiments with a slow pressure-release Halon chamber at the Enrico Fermi Institute at the University of Chicago showed clear bubble nucleation sensitivity to an AmBe neutron source and insensitivity to the 662 keV gammas from a 137Cs source. Bubble formation was documented via high-speed (1000 frames/sec) photography, and the acoustic signature of bubble formation was detected using a piezo-electric transducer element mounted on the base of the chamber. The chamber’s neutron sensitivity as a function of working fluid temperature was mapped out. The second research path consisted of the design, fabrication, and testing of a fast pressure-release Freon-134a chamber at PNNL. The project concluded with successful demonstrations of the PNNL chamber’s AmBe neutron source sensitivity and 137Cs gamma insensitivity. The source response tests of the PNNL chamber were documented with high-speed photography.

  14. The fermi paradox is neither Fermi's nor a paradox.

    PubMed

    Gray, Robert H

    2015-03-01

    The so-called Fermi paradox claims that if technological life existed anywhere else, we would see evidence of its visits to Earth--and since we do not, such life does not exist, or some special explanation is needed. Enrico Fermi, however, never published anything on this topic. On the one occasion he is known to have mentioned it, he asked "Where is everybody?"--apparently suggesting that we do not see extraterrestrials on Earth because interstellar travel may not be feasible, but not suggesting that intelligent extraterrestrial life does not exist or suggesting its absence is paradoxical. The claim "they are not here; therefore they do not exist" was first published by Michael Hart, claiming that interstellar travel and colonization of the Galaxy would be inevitable if intelligent extraterrestrial life existed, and taking its absence here as proof that it does not exist anywhere. The Fermi paradox appears to originate in Hart's argument, not Fermi's question. Clarifying the origin of these ideas is important, because the Fermi paradox is seen by some as an authoritative objection to searching for evidence of extraterrestrial intelligence--cited in the U.S. Congress as a reason for killing NASA's SETI program on one occasion. But evidence indicates that it misrepresents Fermi's views, misappropriates his authority, deprives the actual authors of credit, and is not a valid paradox. PMID:25719510

  15. Closing the circle on the splitting of the atom: The environmental legacy of nuclear weapons production in the United States and what the Department of Energy is doing about it

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    In the grand scheme of things we are a little more than halfway through the cycle of splitting the atom for weapons purposes. If we visualize this historic cycle as the full sweep of a clockface, at zero hour we would find the first nuclear chain reaction by Enrico Fermi, followed immediately by the Manhattan Project and the explosion of the first atomic bombs. From two o`clock until five, the United States built and ran a massive industrial complex that produced tens of thousands of nuclear weapons. At half past, the Cold War ended, and the United States shut down most of its nuclear weapons factories. The second half of this cycle involves dealing with the waste and contamination from nuclear weapons production - a task that had, for the most part, been postponed into the indefinite future. That future is now upon us. Dealing with the environmental legacy of the Cold War is in many ways as big a challenge for us today as the building of the atomic bomb was for the Manhattan Project pioneers in the 1940s. Our challenges are political and social as well as technical, and we are meeting those challenges. We are reducing risks, treating wastes, developing new technologies, and building democratic institutions for a constructive debate on our future course.

  16. A Dressed Atom Description of the Bichromatic Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsenko, Leonid; Metcalf, Harold

    2004-05-01

    We have elaborated on the dressed atom description of the bichromatic force initially proposed by Grimm et al(R. Grimm et al., Opt. Lett. 19), 658 (1994).^,(R. Grimm et al., Proceeding of the International School of Physics, ``Enrico Fermi", Course CXXXI, IOS Press, Amsterdam 1996.). We present two completely equivalent Floquet Hamiltonians that mimic the ``atom plus field" system of the dressed atom spectrum. One is best for high velocities and the other for small velocities (kv relative to 2δ, the bichromatic frequency difference). Then we argue that the force arises from the exchange of kinetic energy with the ``atom plus field" system. But transitions between the dressed states must occur by Landau-Zener (LZ) transitions as the atoms pass through exact or small crossings, and calculate these rates from the eigenstates of the Floquet Hamiltonian. We find that some ``anti-crossings" are passed adiabatically and some non-adiabatically, and the criterion is the atomic velocity. We find two LZ velocities that bound the range of the force, thus enabling a description of its velocity range. This is the first time that the observed capture range ± δ/2k has been calculated.

  17. The mole, amount of substance and primary methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, Martin J. T.

    2013-04-01

    This paper is an introduction to the principles developed for the application of metrology to the field of chemistry and particularly to analytical chemistry. It starts with a discussion of the mole, the base unit of the SI that is most relevant to analytical chemistry. The mole has become the subject of particular discussion recently, since the publication of proposals to re-define it along with three other base units of the SI. This discussion has also generated interest in the origin of the term ‘amount of substance’ used as the quantity for which the mole is the unit. This paper reviews the origin of this term and explains why it is not sufficient to replace it with an alternative such as a ‘number of entities’. The paper concludes with some discussion of how the mole is realized through the use of primary methods of measurement. This paper is based on a lecture given at the International School of Physics ‘Enrico Fermi’, Course CLXXXV: Metrology and Physical Constants,held in Varenna on 17-27 July 2012. It will also be published in the proceedings of the school, edited by E Bava, M Kühne and A M Rossi (IOS Press, Amsterdam and SIF, Bologna).

  18. An Investigation Of The Metallicity Dependence Of The Sn Type Ii Mn Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeunjin; Sobeck, J.; Frohlich, C.; Truran, J.

    2010-01-01

    Element abundance trends over the history of our Galaxy serve as important guides in establishing relative contributions from supernovae of Types Ia and II. In particular, spectroscopic studies have revealed a deficiency of manganese (Mn) relative to the abundances of neighboring iron-peak nuclei in metal-poor stars. However, more recent analyses of the observational data have found a constant Mn/Fe abundance ratio over a wide range of metallicity and hence, contradict these previous findings. In this project, we will study the nucleosynthetic yields of Type II supernovae as a function of metallicity by parameterizing the initial properties of the shock. We will compare our results with the two distinct manganese abundance trends identified above. Once we study the metallicity dependency of Type II yields as reflected in observations at lower metallicities, we will explore the constraints this imposes on Type Ia supernova contributions to Mn in different stellar and galactic populations. We acknowledge the financial support by the National Science Foundation for the Frontier Center Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA). C.F. acknowledges an Enrico Fermi Fellowship.

  19. Determining the Appropriate Package and Transportation Methodology for the Detroit Edison, Fermi II Msrs and Associated Components

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, B.

    2007-07-01

    During the spring of 2005, Detroit Edison, Enrico Fermi II Nuclear Power Station (Fermi) decided to disposition two MSRs and associated components scheduled for replacement in the spring of 2006 during the MSR Replacement Outage. Of concern to Fermi was the proper packaging and transportation methodology when dis-positioning a component measuring approximately 110' in length and 13' in diameter and weighing over 300 tons. Upon removal from the Turbine Deck the retired MSRs and associated components were turned over to the Rad Waste Group for packaging and final disposition. Fermi requested quotations from vendors to package, transport, and disposition the MSRs and associated components. However, multiple Vendors informed Fermi that the size and weight of the MSRs were questionable in passing permitting requirements and would require segmentation and volume reduction on site or at a waste processor. Fermi contracted with MHF Logistical Solutions (MHF-LS) based on their ability to receive clearances for shipping the MSRs in one piece via two heavy haul rail conveyances acting as a bolstered load with professionally engineered blocking and bracing configured to support the retired MSRs. (authors)

  20. Multi-wavelength analysis of young pulsars: an overview.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maritz, J. M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Buchner, S. J.

    Young pulsars emit a broad spectrum of radiation that range from radio to gamma ray energies. These pulsars are considered as rotation powered pulsars that spin rapidly and are strongly magnetized. Following the discovery of pulsars nearly four decades ago, the population of known pulsars already reached a number of roughly two thousand. This known population of pulsars includes both millisecond and normal pulsars that were discovered by several telescopes. We analyze both HartRAO radio data and Fermi gamma ray data of the Vela pulsar. We also explore a proposed method of probing the electron column density of the instellar gas through analyzing the gamma ray diffuse data associated with the Fermi two-year observation. This paper serves as an overview of gamma ray and radio timing analysis of bright young pulsars with respect to the use of open source timing analysis tools (Tempo2, Psrchive, Enrico and the Fermi tools). We reason that the multi-wavelength picture of pulsars can help clarify questions regarding the origin of pulsed radiation emission mechanisms in several energy bands, but that radio observations will prove adequate for timing noise analysis, given the accurate and long radio data sets. The process of identifying gravitational waves in timing data, rests on gaining a deeper insight into the timing noise phenomena.

  1. The world deep underground laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettini, A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper is an introduction to a series of coordinated articles of an EPJ Plus Focus Point on underground physics laboratories, written by the directors of the larger ones and by the coordinators of the principal new projects. The paper is largely based on the text of my lecture Perspectives of underground physics, given at the Enrico Fermi Varenna International School, Course CLXXXII (2011), Neutrino physics and astrophysics, reproduced here by permission of the Italian Physical Society. Underground laboratories provide the low radioactive background environment necessary to explore the highest energy scales that cannot be reached with accelerators, by searching for extremely rare phenomena. Experiments range from the direct search of the dark-matter particles that constitute the largest fraction of matter in the Universe, to the exploration of the properties of the neutrinos, the most elusive of the known particles and which might be particle and antiparticle at the same time, to the investigation on why our universe contains only matter and almost no antimatter, and much more.

  2. Adaptive Green-Kubo estimates of transport coefficients from molecular dynamics based on robust error analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Reese E.; Mandadapu, Kranthi K.

    2012-04-01

    We present a rigorous Green-Kubo methodology for calculating transport coefficients based on on-the-fly estimates of: (a) statistical stationarity of the relevant process, and (b) error in the resulting coefficient. The methodology uses time samples efficiently across an ensemble of parallel replicas to yield accurate estimates, which is particularly useful for estimating the thermal conductivity of semi-conductors near their Debye temperatures where the characteristic decay times of the heat flux correlation functions are large. Employing and extending the error analysis of Zwanzig and Ailawadi [Phys. Rev. 182, 280 (1969)], 10.1103/PhysRev.182.280 and Frenkel [in Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi", Course LXXV (North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1980)] to the integral of correlation, we are able to provide tight theoretical bounds for the error in the estimate of the transport coefficient. To demonstrate the performance of the method, four test cases of increasing computational cost and complexity are presented: the viscosity of Ar and water, and the thermal conductivity of Si and GaN. In addition to producing accurate estimates of the transport coefficients for these materials, this work demonstrates precise agreement of the computed variances in the estimates of the correlation and the transport coefficient with the extended theory based on the assumption that fluctuations follow a Gaussian process. The proposed algorithm in conjunction with the extended theory enables the calculation of transport coefficients with the Green-Kubo method accurately and efficiently.

  3. The Sertoli cell: one hundred fifty years of beauty and plasticity.

    PubMed

    França, L R; Hess, R A; Dufour, J M; Hofmann, M C; Griswold, M D

    2016-03-01

    It has been one and a half centuries since Enrico Sertoli published the seminal discovery of the testicular 'nurse cell', not only a key cell in the testis, but indeed one of the most amazing cells in the vertebrate body. In this review, we begin by examining the three phases of morphological research that have occurred in the study of Sertoli cells, because microscopic anatomy was essentially the only scientific discipline available for about the first 75 years after the discovery. Biochemistry and molecular biology then changed all of biological sciences, including our understanding of the functions of Sertoli cells. Immunology and stem cell biology were not even topics of science in 1865, but they have now become major issues in our appreciation of Sertoli cell's role in spermatogenesis. We end with the universal importance and plasticity of function by comparing Sertoli cells in fish, amphibians, and mammals. In these various classes of vertebrates, Sertoli cells have quite different modes of proliferation and epithelial maintenance, cystic vs. tubular formation, yet accomplish essentially the same function but in strikingly different ways. PMID:26846984

  4. Scaling of the Specific Heat of Bounded ^4He Films.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, S.; Gasparini, F. M.

    1998-03-01

    We report new measurements of the specific heat of a thick helium film confined between two silicon wafers(S. Mehta, W.Y. Yu, A. Petrou, J. Lipa, D. Bishop and F.M. Gasparini, Czechoslovak J. Phys. 46, 133(1996).). The latest data are for a 0.048μm thick film, which extend our earlier measurements on similar films(S. Mehta and F.M. Gasparini, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2596(1997).) by a factor of 2. The latest experimental cell has the new oxide pattern, and has allowed us to make measurements into the superfluid region. When these data are analyzed to test predictions of correlation-length scaling(M.E. Fisher in Critical Phenomenon, Proc. 51^st) Enrico Fermi Summer School, Varenna, Italy, ed. M.S. Green (Academic Press, NY, 1971)., they collapse well onto the earlier data for ν=0.6705(L.S. Goldner and G. Ahlers, Phys. Rev. B45, 13129(1992).) both above and below T_λ. Some issues regarding scaling still remain near the heat capacity maximum. The experimental techniques used to obtain these data will also be discussed.

  5. Monte Carlo radiation transport: A revolution in science

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, J.

    1993-04-01

    When Enrico Fermi, Stan Ulam, Nicholas Metropolis, John von Neuman, and Robert Richtmyer invented the Monte Carlo method fifty years ago, little could they imagine the far-flung consequences, the international applications, and the revolution in science epitomized by their abstract mathematical method. The Monte Carlo method is used in a wide variety of fields to solve exact computational models approximately by statistical sampling. It is an alternative to traditional physics modeling methods which solve approximate computational models exactly by deterministic methods. Modern computers and improved methods, such as variance reduction, have enhanced the method to the point of enabling a true predictive capability in areas such as radiation or particle transport. This predictive capability has contributed to a radical change in the way science is done: design and understanding come from computations built upon experiments rather than being limited to experiments, and the computer codes doing the computations have become the repository for physics knowledge. The MCNP Monte Carlo computer code effort at Los Alamos is an example of this revolution. Physicians unfamiliar with physics details can design cancer treatments using physics buried in the MCNP computer code. Hazardous environments and hypothetical accidents can be explored. Many other fields, from underground oil well exploration to aerospace, from physics research to energy production, from safety to bulk materials processing, benefit from MCNP, the Monte Carlo method, and the revolution in science.

  6. 2004 Fellows Citations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-04-01

    AGU congratulates the forty-one distinguished scientists who were selected by a committee of their peers to be AGU Fellows for 2004. This selection was based on the individuals' attainment of acknowledged eminence in a branch of geophysics. The number of Fellows selected annually is limited to no more than 0.1% of the AGU membership: Andrew D. Barry, Enrico Bonatti, Edward V. Bromwell, John P. Burrows, Philip R. Christensen, William B. Curry, Judith Curry, Margaret L. Delaney, Steven R. Emerson, Brian J. Evans, Donald H. Fairfield, Marvin Geller, David Green, William Holt, Roy Hyndman, David E. James, James F. Kasting, Peter Kelemen, Paul J. Kellogg, Michael J. Kirkby, Daniel Loucks, P.M. Mathews, Jean-Paul Montagner, William R. Normark, Gerald R. North, Michael O'Hara, Ronald S. Oremland, Roger A. Pielke, Sr., Joseph Prospero, Karsten Pruess, Edmond C. Roelof, Gary Rottman, Allan Rubin, Ernest H. Rutter, John H. Seinfeld, Sharon Smith, Pieter Tans, John M. Toole, Jean-Pierre Valet, Lionel Wilson, and E. L. Winterer

  7. Neutrino radiation hazards: A paper tiger

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.; Grossman, N.L.; Marshall, E.T.

    1996-09-01

    Neutrinos are present in the natural environment due to terrestrial, solar, and cosmic sources and are also produced at accelerators both incidentally and intentionally as part of physics research programs. Progress in fundamental physics research has led to the creation of beams of neutrinos of ever-increasing intensity and/or energy. The large size and cost associated with these beams attracts, and indeed requires, public interest, support, and some understanding of the `exotic` particles produced, including the neutrinos. Furthermore, the very word neutrino (`little neutral one`, as coined by Enrico Fermi) can lead to public concern due to confusion with `neutron`, a word widely associated with radiological hazards. Adding to such possible concerns is a recent assertion, widely publicized, that neutrinos from astronomical events may have led to the extinction of some biological species. Presented here are methods for conservatively estimating the dose equivalent due to neutrinos as well as an assessment of the possible role of neutrinos in biological extinction processes. It is found that neutrinos produced by the sun and modern particle accelerators produce inconsequential dose equivalent rates. Examining recent calculations concerning neutrinos incident upon the earth due to stellar collapse, it is concluded that it is highly unlikely that these neutrinos caused the mass extinctions of species found in the paleontological record. Neutrino radiation hazards are, then, truly a `paper tiger`. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Tom Bonner Prize Lecture: The Beta Spectrum of Tritium and the Problem of Neutrino Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, R. G. Hamish

    1997-04-01

    Enrico Fermi showed more than 60 years ago that the shape of beta spectra was sensitive to the mass of the unobserved particle, the neutrino, proposed by Wolfgang Pauli. With the discovery of tritium and its small decay energy, increasingly stringent limits were placed on the electron antineutrino mass. A roadblock at about 50 eV, namely the atomic and molecular structure of tritium-containing substances, was surmounted in the 1980s with the development at Los Alamos of methods for high-resolution beta spectroscopy with gases, together with worldwide theoretical work on the structure of diatomic T2 and T^3He^+. It was then possible to reach the very interesting region of cosmological relevance below 20 eV. An unexpected and strange new roadblock has now been encountered in all experiments on T_2. The spectrum near the endpoint is not consistent with theory either with or without neutrino mass. The questions now are, do the experiments all report the same phenomenon, and (if so) is it atomic theory, particle theory, or perhaps cosmology that needs repair?

  9. EXTERNAL CRITICALITY CALCULATION FOR DOE SNF CODISPOSAL WASTE PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    H. Radulescu

    2002-10-18

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate the potential for criticality for the fissile material that could accumulate in the near-field (invert) and in the far-field (host rock) beneath the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) codisposal waste packages (WPs) as they degrade in the proposed monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The scope of this calculation is limited to the following DOE SNF types: Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), Enrico Fermi, Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Fort St. Vrain, Melt and Dilute, Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, and Training, Research, Isotope, General Atomics reactor (TRIGA). The results of this calculation are intended to be used for estimating the probability of criticality in the near-field and in the far-field. There are no limitations on use of the results of this calculation. The calculation is associated with the waste package design and was developed in accordance with the technical work plan, ''Technical Work Plan for: Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel and Plutonium Disposition Work Packages'' (Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC [BSC], 2002a). This calculation is subject to the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) per the activity evaluation under work package number P6212310Ml in the technical work plan TWP-MGR-MD-0000 10 REV 01 (BSC 2002a).

  10. Conference on Nuclear Energy and Science for the 21st Century: Atoms for Peace Plus Fifty - Washington, D.C., October 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Pfaltzgraff, Robert L

    2006-10-22

    This conference's focus was the peaceful uses of the atom and their implications for nuclear science, energy security, nuclear medicine and national security. The conference also provided the setting for the presentation of the prestigious Enrico Fermi Prize, a Presidential Award which recognizes the contributions of distinguished members of the scientific community for a lifetime of exceptional achievement in the science and technology of nuclear, atomic, molecular, and particle interactions and effects. An impressive group of distinguished speakers addressed various issues that included: the impact and legacy of the Eisenhower Administration’s “Atoms for Peace” concept, the current and future role of nuclear power as an energy source, the challenges of controlling and accounting for existing fissile material, and the horizons of discovery for particle or high-energy physics. The basic goal of the conference was to examine what has been accomplished over the past fifty years as well as to peer into the future to gain insights into what may occur in the fields of nuclear energy, nuclear science, nuclear medicine, and the control of nuclear materials.

  11. The myth of the martians and the golden age of Hungarian science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, George

    1996-07-01

    Enrico Fermi was a man with outstanding talents, he had many interests outside his own particular field. He was credited with asking famous questions. There are long preambles to Fermi's questions like this: — ‘The universe is vast, containing myriads of stars, many of them not unlike our Sun. Many of these stars are likely to have planets circling around them. A fair fraction of these planets will have liquid water on their surface and a gaseous atmosphere. The energy pouring down from a star will cause the synthesis of organic compounds, turning the ocean into a thin, warm soup. These chemicals will join each other to produce a self-reproducing system. The simplest living things will multiply, and evolve by natural selection and become more complicated. And eventually active, thinking creatures will emerge. Civilization, science and technology will follow. Then, yearning for fresh worlds, they will travel to neighboring planets, and later to planets of nearby stars. Eventually they should spread out all over the Galaxy. These highly exceptional and talented people could hardly overlook such a beautiful place as our Earth’. And so Fermi came to his overwhelming question, — ‘If all this has been happening, they should have arrived here by now, so where are they?’ It was Leo Szilard, a man with an impish sense of humor who supplied the perfect reply to Fermi's rhetoric: ‘They are among us’, he said, ‘but they call themselves Hungarians’.

  12. Web-based Gene Pathogenicity Analysis (WGPA): a web platform to interpret gene pathogenicity from personal genome data

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Montana, Juan J.; Rackham, Owen J.L.; Diaz-Diaz, Norberto; Petretto, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Summary: As the volume of patient-specific genome sequences increases the focus of biomedical research is switching from the detection of disease-mutations to their interpretation. To this end a number of techniques have been developed that use mutation data collected within a population to predict whether individual genes are likely to be disease-causing or not. As both sequence data and associated analysis tools proliferate, it becomes increasingly difficult for the community to make sense of these data and their implications. Moreover, no single analysis tool is likely to capture all relevant genomic features that contribute to the gene’s pathogenicity. Here, we introduce Web-based Gene Pathogenicity Analysis (WGPA), a web-based tool to analyze genes impacted by mutations and rank them through the integration of existing prioritization tools, which assess different aspects of gene pathogenicity using population-level sequence data. Additionally, to explore the polygenic contribution of mutations to disease, WGPA implements gene set enrichment analysis to prioritize disease-causing genes and gene interaction networks, therefore providing a comprehensive annotation of personal genomes data in disease. Availability and implementation: wgpa.systems-genetics.net Contact: enrico.petretto@duke-nus.edu.sg Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26490503

  13. Cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplantation: clinical aspects, management and the perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Requião-Moura, Lúcio Roberto; de Matos, Ana Cristina Carvalho; Pacheco-Silva, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus infection is one of most frequent infectious complications after renal transplantation, and can be classified as primo-infection, when the transmission occurs through the graft, or reactivation, when the recipient is cytomegalovirus seropositive. After transplantation, cytomegalovirus can appear as an infection, when the patient presents with evidence of viral replication without symptoms or disease, which has two clinical spectra: typical viral syndrome or invasive disease, which is a less common form. Their effects can be classified as direct, while the disease is developed, or indirect, with an increase of acute rejection and chronic allograft dysfunction risks. Diagnosis must be made based on viremia by one of the standardized methods: antigenemia or PCR, which is more sensitive. The risk factors related to infection after transplantation are the serologic matching (positive donor and negative recipient) and anti-lymphocyte antibody drugs. One of the strategies to reduce risk of disease should be chosen for patients at high risk: preemptive treatment or universal prophylaxis. Recent clinical research has described ganciclovir resistance as an emergent problem in management of cytomegalovirus infection. Two types of mutation that cause resistance were described: UL97 (most frequent) and UL54. Today, sophisticated methods of immunologic monitoring to detect specific T-cell clones against cytomegalovirus are used in clinical practice to improve the management of high-risk patients after renal transplantation. PMID:25993081

  14. In Vitro Development from Leaf Explants of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L). Rhizogenesis and the Effect of Sequential Exposure to Auxin and Cytokinin

    PubMed Central

    Gürel, Ekrem; Wren, M. Jill

    1995-01-01

    Adventitious root development in lamina and midrib-petiole junction expiants of sugar beet cv. Primo was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Primordia developed close to the vascular strands and areas of newly dividing cells (meristematic centres) were seen adjacent to the intrafascicular cambium after 2 d incubation on medium containing 30 mg 1−11-naphthalene acetic acid. Clearly defined primordia were visible at 4 d and the first roots had emerged by 6 d. A minimum of 24 h exposure to NAA was necessary for root induction. Four days on NAA caused twice as many roots to be initiated but more prolonged exposure (5 and 10 d) inhibited root development. Root initiation continued after transfer to medium containing no plant growth regulators, new primordia appearing as the older ones extended as roots. Attempts were made to modify the development of primordia by sequential culture on cytokinin after induction by auxin. Incubation on N6-benzylaminopurine within 48 h of exposure to NAA disrupted the development of primordia and roots but did not induce shoot formation. PMID:21247910

  15. Generation and Molecular Mapping of a Sequence Characterized Amplified Region Marker Linked with the Bct Gene for Resistance to Beet curly top virus in Common Bean.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Richard C; Miklas, Phillip N

    2004-04-01

    ABSTRACT A random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker directly linked (0.0 cM) with a resistance gene was identified in a snap bean recombinant inbred population (Moncayo x Primo) consisting of 94 F(5:7) recombinant inbred lines that had uniform segregation for disease reaction to Beet curly top virus (BCTV) across three field locations. Resistance was conditioned by a single dominant allele tentatively designated Bct. Seven hundred and fifty decamer primers were screened to obtain the linked RAPD marker that was then converted to a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker SAS8.1550. The SCAR mapped within a cluster of resistance genes on linkage group B7 of the core map. A survey of 103 BCTV-resistant and -susceptible snap and dry bean genotypes was conducted using SAS8.1550. Results showed that the SCAR would be highly useful for marker-assisted selection of Bct in snap and dry bean originating from the Andean gene pool. Marker-assisted selection for Bct will expedite the development of BCTV-resistant cultivars and minimize the need for cumbersome pathogen tests. PMID:18944106

  16. Molecules in Sagittarius B2: a line study of the whole 7-mm band with CABB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Paul; Lo, Nadia; Cunningham, Maria; Thorwirth, Sven; Menten, Karl; Schilke, Peter; Belloche, Arnaud; Mueller, Holger S. P.; Walsh, Andrew; Bronfman, Leonardo; Purcell, Cormac; Cordiner, Martin; Remijan, Anthony; Charnley, Steven; Qin, Sheng-Li; Balnozan, Egon

    2013-04-01

    We wish to survey the whole 7-mm band toward the pre-eminent molecular line source in the Galaxy, the Sagittarius B2 (N) Large Molecule Heimat, using the CABB on the ATCA. This is a follow-up program to the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) PRebiotic Interstellar MOlecule Survey (PRIMOS) which is surveying Sgr B2(N-LMH) over the whole frequency range accessible to the GBT. This project also complements ALMA 3-mm observations recently accepted for cycle 1. Complementary single dish and interferometer observations are essential to the understanding of the chemistry of the interstellar medium (ISM), and the ATCA has the spatial resolution to allow us to investigate the variations in the ISM chemistry at small spatial scales to compare with the extended distributions to which the single dish is sensitive. With the CABB, the ATCA now has the bandwidth to make the necessary broad band studies feasible. We were granted 8 hours in the 2011OctS round, and request a further 20 hours this round to extend the frequency coverage.

  17. Neurobiological mechanisms of acupuncture for some common illnesses: a clinician's perspective.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kwokming James

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents some previously proposed neurobiological mechanisms on how acupuncture may work in some clinical applications from a clinician's perspective. For the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions, the proposed mechanisms included microinjury, increased local blood flow, facilitated healing, and analgesia. Acupuncture may trigger a somatic autonomic reflex, thereby affecting the gastric and cardiovascular functions. Acupuncture may also change the levels of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine, thereby affecting the emotional state and craving. This mechanism may form the basis for the treatment of smoking cessation. By affecting other pain-modulating neurotransmitters such as met-enkephalin and substance P along the nociceptive pathway, acupuncture may relieve headache. Acupuncture may affect the hypothalamus pituitary axis and reduce the release of the luteinizing hormone in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome. In addition, two other approaches to the acupuncture mechanism, the fascia connective tissue network and the primo vascular system, are briefly reviewed. Finally, the idea of true versus sham acupuncture points, which are commonly used in clinical trials, is examined because the difference between true and sham points does not exist in the neurobiological model. PMID:24929454

  18. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    PubMed

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Fumagalli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens. PMID:27462985

  19. [The pharmaceutical industry in the industrial chemical group: the National Union of Chemical-Pharmaceutical Laboratories (1919-1936)].

    PubMed

    Nozal, Raúl Rodríquez

    2011-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry associations, as it happened with other businesses, had a significant rise during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and II Republic. The 'Cámara Nacional de Industrias Químicas', in Barcelona, represented the national chemical industry to its ultimate assimilation by the 'Organización Sindical' in 1939. In this association, matters relating to pharmaceutical products -- which we will especially deal with in this work -- were managed by the 'Unión Nacional de Laboratorios Químico-Farmacéuticos', which defended the interests of pharmaceutical companies in the presence of government authorities, using the resources and mechanisms also managed by business pressure groups. The inclusion of industrial pharmacy in the Chemical lobby separated the pharmaceutical industry from traditional exercise and its corporate environment. this created ups and downs, conflicts of interests and finally, love and hate relationships with their colleagues of the pharmacy work placement and, of course, with the association that represented them: the 'Unión Farmacéutica Nacional'. PMID:22372007

  20. [Gregorio Marañón, a pioneer of endocrinology, 50 years after his death].

    PubMed

    Zarate, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    Gregorio Maranon born and dead in Madrid (1887-1960), was a Spanish physician, scientist, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer, considered one of the most brilliant Spanish intellectuals of the 20th century. He was also a Republican and fought the Primo de Rivera dictatorship, though later expressed his disagreement with communism. Maranon participated closely with the process of exile of Alfonso XIII. From a very early age he learned several foreign languages and was an avid reader, hence he became in contact with the intellectual circles of the time and cultivated a close friendship with Perez Galdos, Menendez-Pelayo, Ortega y Gasset, Pio Baroja, Unamuno, Lerroux among several outstanding and eminent figures of the famous Generation of 14. In Medical School he had great teachers such as Santiago Ramon y Cajal, and later he specialized in endocrinology and became professor of the specialty in the Complutense University in Madrid, moreover he founded the Institute of Medical Pathology and the Department of Experimental Endocrinology, henceforth he contributed to establish the relationship between endocrinology and psychology. At the beginning of the instauration of the Republic, Maranon became a member of the constituent assembly and the parliament, but soon became disillusioned of communism and left Spain before the initiation of the Civil War, remaining in France until 1942 when he returned to Spain to reestablish his private practice, and soon the medical teaching at the hospital which now bears his name. Late work about history, poetry was elaborated at his Toledo Cigarral de Menores. PMID:21527976

  1. Chemical Simulations of Prebiotic Molecules: Interstellar Ethanimine Isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Donghui; Herbst, Eric; Corby, Joanna F.; Durr, Allison; Hassel, George

    2016-06-01

    The E- and Z-isomers of ethanimine (CH3CHNH) were recently detected toward the star-forming region Sagittarius (Sgr) B2(N) using the Green Bank Telescope PRIMOS cm-wave spectral data, and imaged by the Australia Telescope Compact Array. Ethanimine is not reported in the hot cores of Sgr B2, but only in gas that absorbs at +64 and +82 km s‑1 in the foreground of continuum emission generated by H ii regions. The ethanimine isomers can serve as precursors of the amino acid alanine and may play important roles in forming biological molecules in the interstellar medium. Here we present a study of the chemistry of ethanimine using a gas-grain simulation based on rate equations, with both isothermal and warm-up conditions. In addition, the density, kinetic temperature, and cosmic ray ionization rate have been varied. For a variety of physical conditions in the warm-up models for Sgr B2(N) and environs, the simulations show reasonable agreement with observationally obtained abundances. Isothermal models of translucent clouds along the same line of sight yield much lower abundances, so that ethanimine would be much more difficult to detect in these sources despite the fact that other complex molecules have been detected there.

  2. THE CM-, MM-, AND SUB-MM-WAVE SPECTRUM OF ALLYL ISOCYANIDE AND RADIOASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS IN ORION KL AND THE SgrB2 LINE SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Haykal, I.; Margulès, L.; Huet, T. R.; Motyienko, R. A.; Écija, P.; Cocinero, E. J.; Basterretxea, F.; Fernández, J. A.; Castaño, F.; Guillemin, J. C.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.

    2013-11-10

    Organic isocyanides have an interesting astrochemistry and some of these molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, rotational spectral data for this class of compounds are still scarce. We provide laboratory spectra of the four-carbon allyl isocyanide covering the full microwave region, thus allowing a potential astrophysical identification in the ISM. We assigned the rotational spectrum of the two cis (synperiplanar) and gauche (anticlinal) conformations of allyl isocyanide in the centimeter-wave region (4-18 GHz), resolved its {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling (NQC) hyperfine structure, and extended the measurements into the millimeter and submillimeter-wave (150-900 GHz) ranges for the title compound. Rotational constants for all the monosubstituted {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N isotopologues are additionally provided. Laboratory observations are supplemented with initial radioastronomical observations. Following analysis of an extensive dataset (>11000 rotational transitions), accurate ground-state molecular parameters are reported for the cis and gauche conformations of the molecule, including rotational constants, NQC parameters, and centrifugal distortion terms up to octic contributions. Molecular parameters have also been obtained for the two first excited states of the cis conformation, with a dataset of more than 3300 lines. The isotopic data allowed determining substitution and effective structures for the title compound. We did not detect allyl isocyanide either in the IRAM 30 m line survey of Orion KL or in the PRIMOS survey toward SgrB2. Nevertheless, we provided an upper limit to its column density in Orion KL.

  3. The Dorello canal: historical development, controversies in microsurgical anatomy, and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Kshettry, Varun R; Lee, Joung H; Ammirati, Mario

    2013-03-01

    Interest in studying the anatomy of the abducent nerve arose from early clinical experience with abducent palsy seen in middle ear infection. Primo Dorello, an Italian anatomist working in Rome in the early 1900s, studied the anatomy of the petroclival region to formulate his own explanation of this pathological entity. His work led to his being credited with the discovery of the canal that bears his name, although this structure had been described 50 years previously by Wenzel Leopold Gruber. Renewed interest in the anatomy of this region arose due to advances in surgical approaches to tumors of the petroclival region and the need to explain the abducent palsies seen in trauma, intracranial hypotension, and aneurysms. The advent of the surgical microscope has allowed more detailed anatomical studies, and numerous articles have been published in the last 2 decades. The current article highlights the historical development of the study of the Dorello canal. A review of the anatomical studies of this structure is provided, followed by a brief overview of clinical considerations. PMID:23451716

  4. Structure and application of an interface program between a geographic-information system and a ground-water flow model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    A computer-program interface between a geographic-information system and a groundwater flow model links two unrelated software systems for use in developing the flow models. The interface program allows the modeler to compile and manage geographic components of a groundwater model within the geographic information system. A significant savings of time and effort is realized in developing, calibrating, and displaying the groundwater flow model. Four major guidelines were followed in developing the interface program: (1) no changes to the groundwater flow model code were to be made; (2) a data structure was to be designed within the geographic information system that follows the same basic data structure as the groundwater flow model; (3) the interface program was to be flexible enough to support all basic data options available within the model; and (4) the interface program was to be as efficient as possible in terms of computer time used and online-storage space needed. Because some programs in the interface are written in control-program language, the interface will run only on a computer with the PRIMOS operating system. (USGS)

  5. Essential Experimental Methods for Identifying Bonghan Systems as a Basis for Korean Medicine: Focusing on Visual Materials from Original Papers and Modern Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hoon-Gi; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Lee, Ki-Bog

    2015-01-01

    In the 1960s, through studies on Korean Medicine, Bonghan Kim proposed the Bonghan systems (BS) as the anatomical reality of the acupuncture meridians based on various experimental data. Since 2002, several groups, mainly led by a team at Seoul National University, who renamed the BS as the primo vascular system (PVS), have published around 70 papers showing biological structures corresponding to the BS. However, it is still difficult for other researchers to find them, especially under the skin, which Bonghan Kim first reported as acupuncture points, due to similar-looking biological tissues, for example, the lymphatic vessels, and such artifacts as blood clots or fascia debris. To solve these drawbacks, we examined the main methods for identifying the BS by comparing the original papers with the modern outcomes in terms of the common physical/chemical characteristics of the BS. In addition, effective methods of staining and microscopic observations discovered by modern teams are synthetically explained using visual materials such as diagrams and photos. Through the essentially organized methods in this review paper, we suggest that one can find the BS under the skin as putative acupuncture points by tracing the intraexternal BS, from which a new Korean Medicine will be born. PMID:26539230

  6. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground

    PubMed Central

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens. PMID:27462985

  7. Risk-Based Approach for Microbiological Food Safety Management in the Dairy Industry: The Case of Listeria monocytogenes in Soft Cheese Made from Pasteurized Milk.

    PubMed

    Tenenhaus-Aziza, Fanny; Daudin, Jean-Jacques; Maffre, Alexandre; Sanaa, Moez

    2014-01-01

    According to Codex Alimentarius Commission recommendations, management options applied at the process production level should be based on good hygiene practices, HACCP system, and new risk management metrics such as the food safety objective. To follow this last recommendation, the use of quantitative microbiological risk assessment is an appealing approach to link new risk-based metrics to management options that may be applied by food operators. Through a specific case study, Listeria monocytogenes in soft cheese made from pasteurized milk, the objective of the present article is to practically show how quantitative risk assessment could be used to direct potential intervention strategies at different food processing steps. Based on many assumptions, the model developed estimates the risk of listeriosis at the moment of consumption taking into account the entire manufacturing process and potential sources of contamination. From pasteurization to consumption, the amplification of a primo-contamination event of the milk, the fresh cheese or the process environment is simulated, over time, space, and between products, accounting for the impact of management options, such as hygienic operations and sampling plans. A sensitivity analysis of the model will help orientating data to be collected prioritarily for the improvement and the validation of the model. What-if scenarios were simulated and allowed for the identification of major parameters contributing to the risk of listeriosis and the optimization of preventive and corrective measures. PMID:23777564

  8. Organisational reporting and learning systems: Innovating inside and outside of the box

    PubMed Central

    Furniss, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Reporting and learning systems are key organisational tools for the management and prevention of clinical risk. However, current approaches, such as incident reporting, are struggling to meet expectations of turning health systems like the UK National Health Service (NHS) into learning organisations. This article aims to open up debate on the potential for novel reporting and learning systems in healthcare, by reflecting on experiences from two recent projects: Proactive Risk Monitoring in Healthcare (PRIMO) and Errordiary in Healthcare. These two approaches demonstrate how paying attention to ordinary, everyday clinical work can derive useful learning and active discussion about clinical risk. We argue that innovations in reporting and learning systems might come from both inside and outside of the box. ‘Inside’ being along traditional paths of controlled organisational innovation. ‘Outside’ in the sense that inspiration comes outside of the healthcare domain, or more extremely, outside official channels through external websites and social media (e.g. patient forums, public review sites, whistleblower blogs and Twitter streams). Reporting routes that bypass official channels could empower staff and patient activism, and turn out to be a driver to challenge organisational processes, assumptions and priorities where the organisation is failing and has become unresponsive. PMID:25999777

  9. La genèse du concept de champ quantique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrigol, O.

    This is a historical study of the roots of a concept which has proved to be essential in modern particle physics : the concept of quantum field. The first steps were accomplished by two young theoreticians : Pascual Jordan quantized the free electromagnetic field in 1925 by means of the formal rules of the just discovered matrix mechanics, and Paul Dirac quantized the whole system charges + field in 1927. Using Dirac's equation for electrons (1928) and Jordan's idea of quantized matter waves (second quantization), Werner Heisenberg and Wolfgang Pauli provided in 1929-1930 an extension of Dirac's radiation theory and the proof of its relativistic invariance. Meanwhile Enrico Fermi discovered independently a more elegant and pedagogical formulation. To appreciate the degree of historical necessity of the quantization of fields, and the value of contemporaneous critics to this approach, it was necessary to investigate some of the history of the old radiation theory. We present the various arguments however provisional or naïve or wrong they could be in retrospect. So we hope to contribute to a more vivid picture of notions which, once deprived of their historical setting, might seem abstruse to the modern user. Nous présentons une étude historique des origines d'un concept devenu essentiel dans la physique moderne des particules : le concept de champ quantique. Deux jeunes théoriciens franchirent les premières étapes : Pascual Jordan quantifia le champ électromagnétique en 1925 grâce aux règles formelles de la mécanique des matrices naissante, et Paul Dirac quantifia le système complet charges + champ en 1927. Au moyen de l'équation de l'électron de Dirac (1928) et de l'idée de Jordan d'ondes de matière quantifiées (deuxième quantification), Werner Heisenberg et Wolfgang Pauli donnèrent en 1929-1930 une extension de la théorie du rayonnement de Dirac et la preuve de son invariance relativiste. Pendant ce temps Enrico Fermi découvrit ind

  10. Don't Cross the (Tidal) Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-09-01

    In a tidal disruption event (TDE), an unfortunate star passes too close to a dormant supermassive black hole (BH) and gets torn apart by tidal forces, feeding the BH for a short time. Oddly, were not finding nearly as many TDEs typically detected due to their distinctive observational signatures as theory says we should. A recent study suggests that we might be missing many of these events, due to the way the streams of shredded stars fall onto the BHs.Signatures of ShreddingWhen a BH tears a star apart, the stars material is stretched out into whats known as a tidal stream. That stream continues on a trajectory around the BH, with roughly half the material eventually falling back on the BH, whipping around it in a series of orbits. Where those orbits intersect each other, the material smashes together and circularizes, forming a disk that then accretes onto the BH.What does a TDE look like? We dont observe anything until after the tidal streams collide and the material begins to accrete onto the BH. At that point we observe a sudden peak in luminosity, which then gradually decreases (scaling roughly as time-5/3) as the tail end of whats left of the star accretes and the BHs food source eventually runs out.So why have we only been observing about a tenth as many TDEs as theory predicts we should see? By studying the structure of tidal streams in TDEs, James Guillochon (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) and Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz (UC Santa Cruz) have found a potential reason and the culprit is general relativity.Dark YearsThe authors run a series of simulations of TDEs around black holes of varying masses and spins to see what form the resulting tidal streams take over time. They find that precession of the tidal stream due to the BHs gravitational effects changes how the stream interacts with itself, and therefore what we observe. Some cases behave like what we expect for whats currently considered a typical TDE but some dont.Example from simulations of a

  11. Decontamination and decommissioning activities photobriefing book FY 1999

    SciTech Connect

    2000-03-08

    The Chicago Pile 5 (CP-5) Reactor, the first reactor built on the Argonne National Laboratory-East site, followed a rich history that had begun in 1942 with Enrico Fermi's original pile built under the west stands at the Stagg Field Stadium of The University of Chicago. CP-5 was a 5-megawatt, heavy water-moderated, enriched uranium-fueled reactor used to produce neutrons for scientific research from 1954--79. The reactor was shut down and defueled in 1979, and placed into a lay-up condition pending funding for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). In 1990, work was initiated on the D and D of the facility in order to alleviate safety and environmental concerns associated with the site due to the deterioration of the building and its associated support systems. A decision was made in early Fiscal Year (FY) 1999 to direct focus and resources to the completion of the CP-5 Reactor D and D Project. An award of contract was made in December 1998 to Duke Engineering and Services (Marlborough, MA), and a D and D crew was on site in March 1999 to begin work, The project is scheduled to be completed in July 2000. The Laboratory has determined that the building housing the CP-5 facility is surplus to the Laboratory's needs and will be a candidate for demolition. In addition to a photographic chronology of FY 1999 activities at the CP-5 Reactor D and D Project, brief descriptions of other FY 1999 activities and of projects planned for the future are provided in this photobriefing book.

  12. Evolving Ideas on the Origin and Evolution of Flowers: New Perspectives in the Genomic Era

    PubMed Central

    Chanderbali, Andre S.; Berger, Brent A.; Howarth, Dianella G.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Soltis, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    The origin of the flower was a key innovation in the history of complex organisms, dramatically altering Earth’s biota. Advances in phylogenetics, developmental genetics, and genomics during the past 25 years have substantially advanced our understanding of the evolution of flowers, yet crucial aspects of floral evolution remain, such as the series of genetic and morphological changes that gave rise to the first flowers; the factors enabling the origin of the pentamerous eudicot flower, which characterizes ∼70% of all extant angiosperm species; and the role of gene and genome duplications in facilitating floral innovations. A key early concept was the ABC model of floral organ specification, developed by Elliott Meyerowitz and Enrico Coen and based on two model systems, Arabidopsis thaliana and Antirrhinum majus. Yet it is now clear that these model systems are highly derived species, whose molecular genetic-developmental organization must be very different from that of ancestral, as well as early, angiosperms. In this article, we will discuss how new research approaches are illuminating the early events in floral evolution and the prospects for further progress. In particular, advancing the next generation of research in floral evolution will require the development of one or more functional model systems from among the basal angiosperms and basal eudicots. More broadly, we urge the development of “model clades” for genomic and evolutionary-developmental analyses, instead of the primary use of single “model organisms.” We predict that new evolutionary models will soon emerge as genetic/genomic models, providing unprecedented new insights into floral evolution. PMID:27053123

  13. Observation of ultralong range Rydberg molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, James

    2009-05-01

    In 1934, Enrico Fermi described the scattering of a low energy electron from a neutral atom by using the ideas of scattering length and pseudopotential. Although the long range potential for an electron-atom interaction is always attractive, Fermi realized that the s-wave scattering length that characterizes the low energy collision can be either positive or negative. For a positive scattering length, the wavefunction of the electron is shifted away from the atom, the electron is repelled; whereas for a negative scattering length, the wavefunction of the electron is shifted to the atom, the electron is attracted. Based on Fermi's approach, Greene and co-workers predicted a novel molecular binding mechanism where a low energy Rydberg electron is scattered from a ground state atom in the case of negative scattering length. In this situation, the interaction between the electron and ground state atom is attractive and results in the formation of bound states of the ground state atom and the Rydberg atom. Molecules bound by electron scattering can have an internuclear separation of several thousand Bohr radii and are very different from molecules formed by 2 Rydberg atoms where the binding is the result of multipolar forces between the atoms alone. In this talk, we present experimental data on the observation of these exotic molecular states for Rb Rydberg atoms in S states for principal quantum numbers n between 34 and 40. The spectroscopic results for the vibrational ground and first excited state of the dimer Rb(5S)-Rb(nS) are presented and the s-wave scattering length for electron-Rb(5S) scattering in the low energy regime where the kinetic energy is less than 100 meV. Finally, we discuss and present data on the lifetimes and decay mechanisms of these molecules in a magnetic trap.

  14. Diffusive Shock Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baring, Matthew

    2003-04-01

    The process of diffusive acceleration of charged particles in shocked plasmas is widely invoked in astrophysics to account for the ubiquitous presence of signatures of non-thermal relativistic electrons and ions in the universe. This statistical energization mechanism, manifested in turbulent media, was first posited by Enrico Fermi in 1949 to explain the observed cosmic ray population, which exhibits an almost power-law distribution in rigidity. The absence of a momentum scale is a key characteristic of diffusive shock acceleration, and astrophysical systems generally only impose scales at the injection (low energy) and loss (high energy) ends of the particle spectrum. The existence of structure in the cosmic ray spectrum (the "knee") at around 3000 TeV has promoted contentions that there are at least two origins for cosmic rays, a galactic one supplying those up to the knee, and perhaps an extragalactic one that can explain even the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) seen at 1-300 EeV. Accounting for the UHECRs with familiar astrophysical sites of acceleration has historically proven difficult due to the need to assume high magnetic fields in order to reduce the shortest diffusive acceleration timescale, the ion gyroperiod, to meaningful values. Yet active galaxies and gamma-ray bursts remain strong and interesting candidate sources for UHECRs, turning the theoretical focus to relativistic shocks. This review summarizes properties of diffusive shock acceleration that are salient to the issue of UHECR generation. These include spectral indices, anisotropies, acceleration efficencies and timescales, as functions of the shock speed and mean field orientation, and also the degree of field turbulence. Astrophysical sites for UHECR production are also critiqued.

  15. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize Talk: The Fermi Pasta Ulam (FPU) Problem and The Birth of Nonlinear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, David K.

    2010-03-01

    In 1953, Enrico Fermi, John Pasta, and Stan Ulam initiated a series of computer studies aimed at exploring how simple, multi-degree of freedom nonlinear mechanical systems obeying reversible deterministic dynamics evolve in time to an equilibrium state describable by statistical mechanics. Their expectation was that this would occur by mixing behavior among the many linear modes. Their intention was then to study more complex nonlinear systems, with the hope of modeling turbulence computationally. The results of this first study of the so-called Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) problem, which were published in 1955 and characterized by Fermi as a ``little discovery,'' showed instead of the expected mixing of linear modes a striking series of (near) recurrences of the initial state and no evidence of equipartition. This work heralded the beginning of both computational physics and (modern) nonlinear science. In particular, the work marked the first systematic study of a nonlinear system by digital computers (``experimental mathematics'') and led directly to the discovery of ``solitons,'' as well as to deep insights into deterministic chaos and statistical mechanics. In this talk, I will review the original FPU studies and show how they led to the understanding of two key paradigms of nonlinear science. Specifically, I will show how a continuum approximation to the original discrete system led to the discovery of ``solitions'' whereas a low-mode approximation led to an early example of ``deterministic chaos.'' I will close with a brief indication of how the recurrence phenomenon observed by behavior by FPU can be reconciled with mixing, equipartition, and statistical mechanics.

  16. Watt balance experiments for the determination of the Planck constant and the redefinition of the kilogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, M.

    2013-02-01

    Since 1889 the international prototype of the kilogram has served as the definition of the unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI). It is the last material artefact to define a base unit of the SI, and it influences several other base units. This situation is no longer acceptable in a time of ever increasing measurement precision. It is therefore planned to redefine the unit of mass by fixing the numerical value of the Planck constant. At the same time three other base units, the ampere, the kelvin and the mole, will be redefined. As a first step, the kilogram redefinition requires a highly accurate determination of the Planck constant in the present SI system, with a relative uncertainty of the order of 1 part in 108. The most promising experiment for this purpose, and for the future realization of the kilogram, is the watt balance. It compares mechanical and electrical power and makes use of two macroscopic quantum effects, thus creating a relationship between a macroscopic mass and the Planck constant. In this paper the background for the choice of the Planck constant for the kilogram redefinition is discussed and the role of the Planck constant in physics is briefly reviewed. The operating principle of watt balance experiments is explained and the existing experiments are reviewed. An overview is given of all presently available experimental determinations of the Planck constant, and it is shown that further investigation is needed before the redefinition of the kilogram can take place. This article is based on a lecture given at the International School of Physics ‘Enrico Fermi’, Course CLXXXV: Metrology and Physical Constants, held in Varenna on 17-27 July 2012. It will also be published in the proceedings of the school, edited by E Bava, M Kühne and A M Rossi (IOS Press, Amsterdam and SIF, Bologna).

  17. PREFACE: 6th European Thermal Sciences Conference (Eurotherm 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Daniel; Le Niliot, Christophe

    2012-11-01

    About EUROTHERM The aim of the EUROTHERM Committee (www.eurothermcommittee.eu) is to promote and foster European cooperation in Thermal Sciences and Heat Transfer by gathering together scientists and engineers working in specialized areas. The Committee consists of members representing and appointed by national bodies in the EU countries. The current President of EUROTHERM is Professor Anton van Steenhoven from the University of Eindhoven (The Netherlands). The Committee organizes and coordinates European scientific events such as the EUROTHERM Seminars (about 4 per year) and the European Thermal Sciences Conference (every 4 years). About the conference This sixth in the series of European Thermal Sciences Conferences (www.eurotherm2012.com) took place in France, in the Conference Centre of Poitiers, Futuroscope. We address special thanks to the 225 reviewers, coming from different European countries, who have evaluated these papers. We also thank the scientific committee, consisting of some EUROTHERM Committee members together with other internationally recognized experts. Their role has been to manage the evaluation of abstracts and the papers selection process as co-coordinators for specific topics. This conference is the joint effort of two laboratories: the PPRIME Institute in Poitiers and the IUSTI laboratory in Marseille. It could not be organized without the efficient help of our secretaries and our technician for the IT support. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 180 articles presented at the conference. Professor Daniel PETIT Chairman, PPRIME Poitiers, France Institut P'(UPR CNRS 3346) ENSMA 1 av. Clément Ader - BP40109 86961 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil France daniel.petit@ensma.fr Professor Christophe LE NILIOT Co-chairman, IUSTI Marseille, France Laboratoire IUSTI UMR CNRS 6595 Technopôle de Chateau-Gombert 5, rue Enrico Fermi 13 453 MARSEILLE CEDEX 13 France christophe.leniliot@polytech.univ-mrs.fr

  18. Discovering superconductors: A path to new science and higher Tc's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geballe, T. H.; Koster, Gertjan

    2005-08-01

    The search for superconductivity in new and unexpected structures has been ongoing since the initial discovery in Leiden over 9 decades ago. Though the successes are few the rewards are great. Our meeting here today is a direct result of Bednorz and Mueller's discovery of cuprate superconductivity [1]. The questions which have arisen as a result of this single discovery have uncovered inadequacies of theory and stimulated new ways of thinking. Understanding the mechanism(s) of high temperature superconductivity is among the foremost challenges of theoretical and experimental research today [2]. Searching for new superconductors has always been a fruitful research enterprise, and as we see, there are new opportunities for doing so today. For more than 4 decades after the initial discovery there was no microscopic theory (the most outstanding theorists from Heisenberg down tried and failed to come up with a satisfactory theory) and the experimental basis for understanding the underlying mechanisms was inadequate. It must have been a surprise for Kamerlingh Onnes, after taking care to use the purest Hg he could obtain in the investigation that led to the discovery of superconductivity, to find that ordinary solder was also superconducting. In 1932 Meissner discovered barely metallic copper sulfide was superconducting, while high conductivity copper itself was not superconducting. These puzzles and others like it suggested that a comprehensive search for new superconductors might reveal a pattern of occurrence that would reveal clues, and prompted John Hulm and Bernd Matthias, with encouragement from Enrico Fermi [3] in 1951 to undertake a full-scale effort to find new superconductors. This was a propitious time for such an undertaking for a number of reasons. Today parallel reasons exist.

  19. Evolving Ideas on the Origin and Evolution of Flowers: New Perspectives in the Genomic Era.

    PubMed

    Chanderbali, Andre S; Berger, Brent A; Howarth, Dianella G; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2016-04-01

    The origin of the flower was a key innovation in the history of complex organisms, dramatically altering Earth's biota. Advances in phylogenetics, developmental genetics, and genomics during the past 25 years have substantially advanced our understanding of the evolution of flowers, yet crucial aspects of floral evolution remain, such as the series of genetic and morphological changes that gave rise to the first flowers; the factors enabling the origin of the pentamerous eudicot flower, which characterizes ∼70% of all extant angiosperm species; and the role of gene and genome duplications in facilitating floral innovations. A key early concept was the ABC model of floral organ specification, developed by Elliott Meyerowitz and Enrico Coen and based on two model systems,Arabidopsis thalianaandAntirrhinum majus Yet it is now clear that these model systems are highly derived species, whose molecular genetic-developmental organization must be very different from that of ancestral, as well as early, angiosperms. In this article, we will discuss how new research approaches are illuminating the early events in floral evolution and the prospects for further progress. In particular, advancing the next generation of research in floral evolution will require the development of one or more functional model systems from among the basal angiosperms and basal eudicots. More broadly, we urge the development of "model clades" for genomic and evolutionary-developmental analyses, instead of the primary use of single "model organisms." We predict that new evolutionary models will soon emerge as genetic/genomic models, providing unprecedented new insights into floral evolution. PMID:27053123

  20. The intelligence paradox; will ET get the metabolic syndrome? Lessons from and for Earth

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mankind is facing an unprecedented health challenge in the current pandemic of obesity and diabetes. We propose that this is the inevitable (and predictable) consequence of the evolution of intelligence, which itself could be an expression of life being an information system driven by entropy. Because of its ability to make life more adaptable and robust, intelligence evolved as an efficient adaptive response to the stresses arising from an ever-changing environment. These adaptive responses are encapsulated by the epiphenomena of “hormesis”, a phenomenon we believe to be central to the evolution of intelligence and essential for the maintenance of optimal physiological function and health. Thus, as intelligence evolved, it would eventually reach a cognitive level with the ability to control its environment through technology and have the ability remove all stressors. In effect, it would act to remove the very hormetic factors that had driven its evolution. Mankind may have reached this point, creating an environmental utopia that has reduced the very stimuli necessary for optimal health and the evolution of intelligence – “the intelligence paradox”. One of the hallmarks of this paradox is of course the rising incidence in obesity, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. This leads to the conclusion that wherever life evolves, here on earth or in another part of the galaxy, the “intelligence paradox” would be the inevitable side-effect of the evolution of intelligence. ET may not need to just “phone home” but may also need to “phone the local gym”. This suggests another possible reason to explain Fermi’s paradox; Enrico Fermi, the famous physicist, suggested in the 1950s that if extra-terrestrial intelligence was so prevalent, which was a common belief at the time, then where was it? Our suggestion is that if advanced life has got going elsewhere in our galaxy, it can’t afford to explore the galaxy because it has to pay its healthcare costs

  1. Gravitational signatures of antiparticles:a cosmic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Dallal, Shawqi

    The gravitational signature of antimatter has received growing interest during the past few decades. Much of the theoretical work in ordinary tensor gravity rules out any difference in the gravitational interaction of matter and antimatter. In field theories the exchange of even-spin bosons, such as the spin-2 graviton or its spin-0 partner, generates attractive forces, while the exchange of odd bosons, such as the photon or the postulated spin-1 graviton generates repulsive forces. The CPT theorem is at the origin of the argument that the exchange of even-spin bosons produces a universally attractive force field. So far, it has been impossible to construct a CPT-violating theory in flat spacetime. However, in curved spacetime, no generalization of the CPT theorem has been unequivocally demonstrated and its validity is open to question. Recently, experiments at the LEAR (Low Energy Accumulating Ring) at CERN have shown a surprising result for a fraction (3%) of antiprotons annihilated by protons of He3 nuclei. The annihilation process was retarded by as much as 10 to the power 8 times the value derived from theoretical calculations of Enrico Fermi and Edward Teller. These results are in good agreement with a formula introduced earlier by certain authors describing the time annihilation of anti-atoms by atoms. The motivation for investigating this problem is that a repulsive field between matter and antimatter may have drastic consequences on certain cosmic issues, such as the early phase of the Big Bang, Hawking radiation, and virtual particle production and annihilation. In the first part of this work we discuss the various theoretical arguments supporting or refuting the gravitational attraction between matter and antimatter, with emphasis on the CPT theorem. In the second part, we address the consequences of certain cosmic issues that arise from this problem. Finally, we propose an experimental test to clarify the nature of matter-antimatter interactions.

  2. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-07-01

    Alba Paolo (Università di Torino) Becattini Francesco (Università di Firenze) Bombaci Ignazio (Università di Pisa) Bonaccorso Angela (INFN Pisa) Colonna Maria (INFN-LNS Catania) Coraggio Luigi (INFN Napoli) Covello Aldo (Università di Napoli) Di Toro Massimo (Università di Catania) De Angelis Giacomo (INFN-LNL Legnaro) Gargano Angela (INFN Napoli) Gattobigio Mario (INLN, Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, France) Gensini Paolo (INFN Lecce) Giannini Mauro (Università di Genova) Girlanda Luca (Università del Salento) Giusti Carlotta (Università di Pavia) Greco Vincenzo (Università di Catania) Grossi Eduardo (Università di Firenze) Itaco Nunzio (Università di Napoli) Kievsky Alejandro (INFN Pisa) Lanza Edoardo (INFN Catania) Lavagno Andrea (Politecnico di Torino) Logoteta Domenico (Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal) Lo Iudice Nicola (Università di Napoli) Lombardo Maria Paola (INFN-LNF Frascati) Lo Meo Sergio (ENEA Bologna) Mannarelli Massimo (INFN-LNGS Assergi) Marcucci Laura Elisa (Università di Pisa) Matera Francesco (Università di Firenze) Orlandini Giuseppina (Università di Trento) Pacati Franco (Università di Pavia) Pederiva Francesco (Università di Trento) Pirrone Sara (INFN Catania) Puglisi Armando (Università di Catania) Radici Marco (INFN Pavia) Rinaldi Matteo (Università di Perugia) Roggero Alessandro (Università di Trento) Rolando Valentina (Università di Ferrara) Rosati Sergio (Università di Pisa) Ruggieri Marco (Università di Catania) Salmè Gianni (INFN Roma) Santopinto Elena (INFN Genova) Scopetta Sergio (Università di Perugia) Taiuti Mauro (Università di Genova) Vigezzi Enrico (INFN Milano) Viviani Michele (INFN Pisa) Vorabbi Matteo (Università di Pavia)

  3. The intelligence paradox; will ET get the metabolic syndrome? Lessons from and for Earth.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Alistair V W; Guy, Geoffrey W; Bell, Jimmy D

    2014-01-01

    Mankind is facing an unprecedented health challenge in the current pandemic of obesity and diabetes. We propose that this is the inevitable (and predictable) consequence of the evolution of intelligence, which itself could be an expression of life being an information system driven by entropy. Because of its ability to make life more adaptable and robust, intelligence evolved as an efficient adaptive response to the stresses arising from an ever-changing environment. These adaptive responses are encapsulated by the epiphenomena of "hormesis", a phenomenon we believe to be central to the evolution of intelligence and essential for the maintenance of optimal physiological function and health. Thus, as intelligence evolved, it would eventually reach a cognitive level with the ability to control its environment through technology and have the ability remove all stressors. In effect, it would act to remove the very hormetic factors that had driven its evolution. Mankind may have reached this point, creating an environmental utopia that has reduced the very stimuli necessary for optimal health and the evolution of intelligence - "the intelligence paradox". One of the hallmarks of this paradox is of course the rising incidence in obesity, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. This leads to the conclusion that wherever life evolves, here on earth or in another part of the galaxy, the "intelligence paradox" would be the inevitable side-effect of the evolution of intelligence. ET may not need to just "phone home" but may also need to "phone the local gym". This suggests another possible reason to explain Fermi's paradox; Enrico Fermi, the famous physicist, suggested in the 1950s that if extra-terrestrial intelligence was so prevalent, which was a common belief at the time, then where was it? Our suggestion is that if advanced life has got going elsewhere in our galaxy, it can't afford to explore the galaxy because it has to pay its healthcare costs. PMID:25089149

  4. Safe and Effective Deactivation of Metallic Sodium Filled Scrap and Cold Traps From Sodium-cooled Nuclear Reactor D and D - 12176

    SciTech Connect

    Nester, Dean; Crocker, Ben; Smart, Bill

    2012-07-01

    As part of the Plateau Remediation Project at US Department of Energy's Hanford, Washington site, CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) contracted with IMPACT Services, LLC to receive and deactivate approximately 28 cubic meters of sodium metal contaminated debris from two sodium-cooled research reactors (Enrico Fermi Unit 1 and the Fast Flux Test Facility) which had been stored at Hanford for over 25 years. CHPRC found an off-site team composed of IMPACT Services and Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc., with the facilities and technological capabilities to safely and effectively perform deactivation of this sodium metal contaminated debris. IMPACT Services provided the licensed fixed facility and the logistical support required to receive, store, and manage the waste materials before treatment, and the characterization, manifesting, and return shipping of the cleaned material after treatment. They also provided a recycle outlet for the liquid sodium hydroxide byproduct resulting from removal of the sodium from reactor parts. Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc. mobilized their patented AMANDA unit to the IMPACT Services site and operated the unit to perform the sodium removal process. Approximately 816 Kg of metallic sodium were removed and converted to sodium hydroxide, and the project was accomplished in 107 days, from receipt of the first shipment at the IMPACT Services facility to the last outgoing shipment of deactivated scrap metal. There were no safety incidents of any kind during the performance of this project. The AMANDA process has been demonstrated in this project to be both safe and effective for deactivation of sodium and NaK. It has also been used in other venues to treat other highly reactive alkali metals, such as lithium (Li), potassium (K), NaK and Cesium (Cs). (authors)

  5. Astronomers Unveiling Life's Cosmic Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-02-01

    Processes that laid the foundation for life on Earth -- star and planet formation and the production of complex organic molecules in interstellar space -- are yielding their secrets to astronomers armed with powerful new research tools, and even better tools soon will be available. Astronomers described three important developments at a symposium on the "Cosmic Cradle of Life" at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Chicago, IL. Chemistry Cycle The Cosmic Chemistry Cycle CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Full Size Image Files Chemical Cycle Graphic (above image, JPEG, 129K) Graphic With Text Blocks (JPEG, 165K) High-Res TIFF (44.2M) High-Res TIFF With Text Blocks (44.2M) In one development, a team of astrochemists released a major new resource for seeking complex interstellar molecules that are the precursors to life. The chemical data released by Anthony Remijan of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and his university colleagues is part of the Prebiotic Interstellar Molecule Survey, or PRIMOS, a project studying a star-forming region near the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. PRIMOS is an effort of the National Science Foundation's Center for Chemistry of the Universe, started at the University of Virginia (UVa) in October 2008, and led by UVa Professor Brooks H. Pate. The data, produced by the NSF's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia, came from more than 45 individual observations totalling more than nine GigaBytes of data and over 1.4 million individual frequency channels. Scientists can search the GBT data for specific radio frequencies, called spectral lines -- telltale "fingerprints" -- naturally emitted by molecules in interstellar space. "We've identified more than 720 spectral lines in this collection, and about 240 of those are from unknown molecules," Remijan said. He added, "We're making available to all scientists the best collection of data below 50 GHz ever produced for

  6. Comparison of antibody responses after vaccination with two inactivated rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Minke, J M; Bouvet, J; Cliquet, F; Wasniewski, M; Guiot, A L; Lemaitre, L; Cariou, C; Cozette, V; Vergne, L; Guigal, P M

    2009-01-13

    Thirty laboratory dogs were randomly assigned to two groups (A and B) of 15 dogs and subcutaneously vaccinated with a single dose of one of two commercially available monovalent inactivated rabies vaccines: RABISIN (Merial, France) (group A) and NOBIVAC Rabies (Intervet International) (group B). Rabies antibodies were measured over a period of 4 months using the fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) test. The two vaccines performed differently in terms of magnitude and persistence of rabies antibodies titers in dogs. Two weeks after vaccination, average rabies antibody titers peaked at 2.53 IU/mL (range, 0.17-13.77 IU/mL) and 1.26 IU/mL (range, 0.50-4.56 IU/mL) in groups A and B dogs, respectively. The average FAVN antibody titres against rabies on D28, D56, D84, D112 and D120 were significantly higher in group A than in group B. Although all dogs from group B serologically responded to vaccination, the proportion of dogs with antibody titres >or=0.5 IU/mL dropped significantly after D28 and was statistically significantly lower on D56, D84 and D112 compared to group A dogs. In conclusion, in the context of international trade, the choice of the vaccine and the timing of blood tests are critical factors in achieving successful serological test results after rabies vaccination. RABISIN induces high and sustained antibody titres against rabies, increasing the flexibility for the time of blood sampling after primo-vaccination. PMID:18757142

  7. Early and late B cell immune responses in lethal and self-cured rodent malaria.

    PubMed

    Azcárate, Isabel G; Marín-García, Patricia; Pérez-Benavente, Susana; Diez, Amalia; Puyet, Antonio; Bautista, José M

    2015-05-01

    ICR mice have heterogeneous susceptibility to lethal Plasmodium yoelii yoelii 17XL from the first days of experimental infection as evidenced by the different parasitemia levels and clinical outcomes. This mouse model has revealed specific immune responses on peripheral blood correlating with the infection fate of the animals. To search for immune-markers linked to parasitemia we examined B lymphocytes in organs of the immune system as key effectors of rodent immunity against malaria. To determine changes in immune cellularity fostered by the different prognostic parasitemia we examined B cell subsets in low (<15%) and high (>50%) parasitized mice during the first days of the infection. In the case of surviving mice, we studied the preservation of memory immune response 500 days after the primary P. yoelii challenge. Correlating with the parasitemia level, it was observed an increase in total cellularity of spleen during the first week of infection which remained after 16 months of the infection in surviving animals. B cell subsets were also modified across the different infection fates. Subpopulation as follicular B cells and B-1 cells proportions behaved differently depending on the parasitemia kinetics. In addition, peritoneal cavity cells proliferated in response to high parasitemia. More significantly, P. yoelii -specific memory B cells remained in the spleen 500 days after the primo-infection. This study demonstrates that B cell kinetics is influenced by the different parasitemia courses which are naturally developed within a same strain of untreated mice. We show that high levels of parasitemia at the beginning of infection promote an extremely fast and exacerbate response of several cell populations in spleen and peritoneal cavity that, in addition, do not follow the kinetics observed in peripheral blood. Furthermore, our results describe the longest persistence of memory B cells long time upon a single malaria infection in mice. PMID:25466589

  8. Characterization of homologous and heterologous adaptive immune responses in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Ivan; Gimeno, Mariona; Darwich, Laila; Navarro, Nuria; Kuzemtseva, Liudmila; López, Sergio; Galindo, Ivan; Segalés, Joaquim; Martín, Margarita; Pujols, Joan; Mateu, Enric

    2012-01-01

    The present study characterized the homologous and heterologous immune response in type-I porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. Two experiments were conducted: in experiment 1, eight pigs were inoculated with PRRSV strain 3262 and 84 days post-inoculation (dpi) they were challenged with either strain 3262 or strain 3267 and followed for the next 14 days (98 dpi). In experiment 2, eight pigs were inoculated with strain 3267 and challenged at 84 dpi as above. Clinical course, viremia, humoral response (neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, NA) and virus-specific IFN-γ responses (ELISPOT) were evaluated all throughout the study. Serum levels of IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and TGF-β were determined (ELISA) after the second challenge. In experiment 1 primo-inoculation with strain 3262 induced viremia of ≤ 28 days, low titres of homologous NA but strong IFN-γ responses. In contrast, strain 3267 induced longer viremias (up to 56 days), higher NA titres (≤ 6 log2) and lower IFN-γ responses. Inoculation with 3267 produced higher serum IL-8 levels. After the re-challenge at 84 dpi, pigs in experiment 1 developed mostly a one week viremia regardless of the strain used. In experiment 2, neither the homologous nor the heterologous challenge resulted in detectable viremia although PRRSV was present in tonsils of some animals. Homologous re-inoculation with 3267 produced elevated TGF-β levels in serum for 7-14 days but this did not occur with the heterologous re-inoculation. In conclusion, inoculation with different PRRSV strains result in different virological and immunological outcomes and in different degrees of homologous and heterologous protection. PMID:22515169

  9. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chikungunya Virus Infection in Mayotte, Indian Ocean, 2005-2006: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sissoko, Daouda; Moendandze, Amrat; Malvy, Denis; Giry, Claude; Ezzedine, Khaled; Solet, Jean Louis; Pierre, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Background Since 2006, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has re-emerged as an important pathogen of global concern. However, individual and household factors associated with the acquisition and the magnitude of clinically silent CHIKV infections remain poorly understood. In this present study, we aimed to investigate the seroprevalence, estimate the proportion of symptomatic illness and identify the risk factors for CHIKV infection in the primo-exposed population of Mayotte. Methods/ Principal Findings We conducted a household-based cross sectional serosurvey in Mayotte in November and December 2006 using complex multistage cluster sampling. To produce the results representative of the island population aged 2 years or older, sample data were adjusted with sample weights. Explanatory and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between CHIKV infection seropositivity (presence of IgM and/or IgG to CHIKV by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay) and risk factors. A total of 1154 individuals were analyzed. The overall seroprevalence of CHIKV infection was 37·2% (95% CI = 33·9–40·5), 318 (72·3%) of the seropositive participants reported symptoms consistent with a CHIKV infection during the epidemic period. Risk factors for CHIKV seropositivity among adults (aged 15 years and older) were male gender, low socioeconomic index, schooling ≤6 years and living in makeshift housing. Conclusions Our findings indicate that roughly one out of four CHIKV infections is asymptomatic. Conditions associated with poverty may be considered as critical in CHIKV acquisition. Thus, these conditions should be taken into account in the development of future prevention strategies of CHIKV disease. PMID:18725980

  10. A deletion in exon 9 of the LIPH gene is responsible for the rex hair coat phenotype in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Diribarne, Mathieu; Mata, Xavier; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Vaiman, Anne; Auvinet, Gérard; Bouet, Stéphan; Deretz, Séverine; Cribiu, Edmond-Paul; de Rochambeau, Hubert; Allain, Daniel; Guérin, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    The fur of common rabbits is constituted of 3 types of hair differing in length and diameter while that of rex animals is essentially made up of amazingly soft down-hair. Rex short hair coat phenotypes in rabbits were shown to be controlled by three distinct loci. We focused on the "r1" mutation which segregates at a simple autosomal-recessive locus in our rabbit strains. A positional candidate gene approach was used to identify the rex gene and the corresponding mutation. The gene was primo-localized within a 40 cM region on rabbit chromosome 14 by genome scanning families of 187 rabbits in an experimental mating scheme. Then, fine mapping refined the region to 0.5 cM (Z = 78) by genotyping an additional 359 offspring for 94 microsatellites present or newly generated within the first defined interval. Comparative mapping pointed out a candidate gene in this 700 kb region, namely LIPH (Lipase Member H). In humans, several mutations in this major gene cause alopecia, hair loss phenotypes. The rabbit gene structure was established and a deletion of a single nucleotide was found in LIPH exon 9 of rex rabbits (1362delA). This mutation results in a frameshift and introduces a premature stop codon potentially shortening the protein by 19 amino acids. The association between this deletion and the rex phenotype was complete, as determined by its presence in our rabbit families and among a panel of 60 rex and its absence in all 60 non-rex rabbits. This strongly suggests that this deletion, in a homozygous state, is responsible for the rex phenotype in rabbits. PMID:21552526

  11. LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS AND TENTATIVE ASTRONOMICAL IDENTIFICATION OF H{sub 2}NCO{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, H.; Pearson, J. C.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Lattanzi, V.; McCarthy, M. C.

    2013-11-20

    The rotational spectrum of H{sub 2}NCO{sup +}, the ground-state isomer of protonated HNCO, has been measured in a molecular beam in the centimeter band with a Fourier transform microwave spectrometer and in a low-pressure laboratory discharge in absorption in the millimeter band. Spectroscopic constants, including the nitrogen-14 hyperfine coupling constant, derived from 30 a-type transitions between 20 and 367 GHz with J ≤ 18 and K{sub a} ≤ 3 allow the principal rotational transitions to be calculated to 1 km s{sup –1} or better in equivalent radial velocity well into the far IR. Two low-lying rotational transitions of H{sub 2}NCO{sup +} in the centimeter band (0{sub 0,} {sub 0}-1{sub 0,} {sub 1} and 1{sub 1,} {sub 0}-2{sub 1,} {sub 1}) were tentatively identified in absorption in the PRIMOS spectral line survey of Sgr B2(N) with the Green Bank Telescope. The lines of H{sub 2}NCO{sup +} arise in a region of the Sgr B2(N) halo whose density is low (n < 1 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}). The derived column density of (6-14) × 10{sup 11} cm{sup –2} implies that the fractional abundance is ∼10{sup –12}. Owing to the ubiquity of HNCO in galactic molecular clouds, H{sub 2}NCO{sup +} is a good candidate for detection in sources spanning a wide range of physical conditions.

  12. A study of the activity and effectiveness of recombinant fibroblast growth factor (Q40P/S47I/H93G rFGF-1) in anti-aging treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pasikowska, Monika; Szczepanik, Barbara; Mlosek, Krzysztof; Malinowska, Sylwia; Dębowska, Renata M.; Eris, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) is a powerful mitogen involved in the stimulation of DNA synthesis and the proliferation of a wide variety of cell types. Fibroblast growth factor 1 was genetically modified to improve its thermal stability and resistance to protease degradation without losing its biological activity. Aim To study the impact of Q40P/S47I/H93G rFGF-1 on skin cells, its penetration through the skin and the evaluation of the rFGF-1-cosmetic product properties. Material and methods In vitro studies included the examination of primary fibroblast and keratinocyte viability after the incubation with rFGF-1. The penetration abilities of rFGF-1 in various formulations and carrier systems were examined ex vivo by the Raman spectroscopy. In vivo studies – HF Ultrasound and 3D Imaging System – were used to evaluate the anti-aging properties of creams containing rFGF-1. Results In vitro studies demonstrated that rFGF-1 strongly enhanced the viability of the treated cells. The Raman Spectroscopy analysis indicated that rFGF-1 encapsulated in lipid spheres penetrate through the stratum corneum to the depth of 60 µm, and added to the o/w formulation – could penetrate to a depth of 90 µm. The results obtained from Primos revealed the reduction of the volume and the depth of the wrinkles. Changes in the skin structure in the analyzed areas were evaluated by HF Ultrasonography. Conclusions Recombinant FGF-1 strongly stimulated fibroblast and keratinocyte proliferation. However, the transition of this protein through the SC required an appropriate carrier system – lipid spheres. All tests – in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo – have proved that rFGF-1 is a substance with a potentially wide spectrum of use. PMID:26985176

  13. Meningococco B: controllo di due focolai epidemici mediante vaccinazione

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Riassunto La problematica di un efficace approccio vaccinale nei confronti del Meningococco B (MenB) è stata superata identificando con la metodica della "reverse vaccinology" alcuni antigeni capaci di indurre una risposta verso la maggior parte dei ceppi di MenB circolanti nel mondo. Il nuovo vaccino MenB a 4 componenti (4CMenB) è stato autorizzato in Europa, Australia e Canada, ed è entrato nei calendari di immunizzazione pediatrica internazionali: Australia, Canada, UK. In Italia, le prime regioni che hanno raccomandato la vaccinazione contro il MenB sono state Basilicata e Puglia. La gestione di epidemie/focolai epidemici richiede la messa in atto di una risposta rapida da parte delle autorità sanitarie nei confronti di una emergenza sanitaria ad elevato impatto, anche emotivo, sulla popolazione, come recentemente dimostrato in due università americane. Alla dichiarazione di focolaio epidemico in atto, in entrambi i contesti si è attivata una procedura per l'uso del vaccino 4CMenB non ancora autorizzato negli USA. È stato così possibile organizzare gli interventi di profilassi attiva nei due campus universitari, adottando il primo impiego su larga scala del nuovo vaccino 4CMenB e conseguendo, in tempi relativamente brevi, elevati tassi di copertura vaccinale. A fronte di circa 14000 studenti immunizzati con almeno una dose, non è stata segnalata alcuna problematica di eventi avversi conseguenti all'immunizzazione; ad oggi non si sono verificati casi nei soggetti che hanno ricevuto il vaccino. Come conseguenza dei due focolai descritti, è oggi in corso la valutazione da parte dell'FDA per l'estensione dell'uso del vaccino 4CMenB negli Stati Uniti negli adolescenti e giovani adulti. PMID:25916017

  14. [I costi farmacologici della terapia di conversione con farmaci biologici nel carcinoma del colon-retto con metastasi epatiche].

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Jacopo; Bonetti, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Riassunto. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare i costi dei farmaci (con particolare riferimento alle terapie con farmaci biologici) utilizzati nella terapia di conversione in una popolazione non selezionata di pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato, al fine di ottenere una resezione epatica R0. In questa rassegna sono stati selezionati i report completi e gli aggiornamenti di tutti gli studi clinici randomizzati (di fase II e fase III) che confrontassero almeno 2 regimi di terapia con farmaci biologici in prima linea in pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato di malattia. I costi dei farmaci sono stati ricavati dalla nostra Farmacia Ospedaliera e sono espressi in euro (€). Il nostro studio inizia con la valutazione di 683 abstract. 48 tria sono stati considerati adeguati per una successiva analisi. Una valutazione più approfondita ha portato all'esclusione di 37 trial, lasciando alla valutazione finale 11 studi clinici randomizzati (3 trial di fase II, per un totale di 522 pazienti, e 8 studi di fase III, per un totale di 7191 pazienti). I costi dei farmaci utilizzati nella terapia di conversione aumentano con la sostituzione del 5-fluorouracile con la capecitabina e, in misura maggiore, con l'introduzione degli agenti biologici. In questo lavoro sono presentati due punti chiave. Primo, i costi degli agenti farmacologici utilizzati nei regimi di prima linea a base di agenti biologici più comunemente utilizzati nel trattamento del carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato sono molto variabili. Secondo, i dati di efficacia dei regimi pubblicati, in termini di tassi di resezione, dipendono dalla selezione dei pazienti, dalle caratteristiche del tumore e dal tipo di schema di terapia. PMID:27571559

  15. Characterization of homologous and heterologous adaptive immune responses in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The present study characterized the homologous and heterologous immune response in type-I porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. Two experiments were conducted: in experiment 1, eight pigs were inoculated with PRRSV strain 3262 and 84 days post-inoculation (dpi) they were challenged with either strain 3262 or strain 3267 and followed for the next 14 days (98 dpi). In experiment 2, eight pigs were inoculated with strain 3267 and challenged at 84 dpi as above. Clinical course, viremia, humoral response (neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, NA) and virus-specific IFN-γ responses (ELISPOT) were evaluated all throughout the study. Serum levels of IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and TGF-β were determined (ELISA) after the second challenge. In experiment 1 primo-inoculation with strain 3262 induced viremia of ≤ 28 days, low titres of homologous NA but strong IFN-γ responses. In contrast, strain 3267 induced longer viremias (up to 56 days), higher NA titres (≤ 6 log2) and lower IFN-γ responses. Inoculation with 3267 produced higher serum IL-8 levels. After the re-challenge at 84 dpi, pigs in experiment 1 developed mostly a one week viremia regardless of the strain used. In experiment 2, neither the homologous nor the heterologous challenge resulted in detectable viremia although PRRSV was present in tonsils of some animals. Homologous re-inoculation with 3267 produced elevated TGF-β levels in serum for 7–14 days but this did not occur with the heterologous re-inoculation. In conclusion, inoculation with different PRRSV strains result in different virological and immunological outcomes and in different degrees of homologous and heterologous protection. PMID:22515169

  16. Autovaccination Confers Protection against Devriesea agamarum Associated Septicemia but Not Dermatitis in Bearded Dragons (Pogona vitticeps)

    PubMed Central

    Deforce, Dieter; Blooi, Mark; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Bullaert, Evelien; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2014-01-01

    Devrieseasis caused by Devriesea agamarum is a highly prevalent disease in captive desert lizards, resulting in severe dermatitis and in some cases mass mortality. In this study, we assessed the contribution of autovaccination to devrieseasis control by evaluating the capacity of 5 different formalin-inactivated D. agamarum vaccines to induce a humoral immune response in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). Each vaccine contained one of the following adjuvants: CpG, incomplete Freund's, Ribi, aluminium hydroxide, or curdlan. Lizards were administrated one of the vaccines through subcutaneous injection and booster vaccination was given 3 weeks after primo-vaccination. An indirect ELISA was developed and used to monitor lizard serological responses. Localized adverse effects following subcutaneous immunization were observed in all but the Ribi adjuvanted vaccine group. Following homologous experimental challenge, the incomplete Freund's as well as the Ribi vaccine were observed to confer protection in bearded dragons against the development of D. agamarum associated septicemia but not against dermatitis. Subsequently, two-dimensional gelelectrophoresis followed by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry was conducted with serum obtained from 3 lizards that showed seroconversion after immunisation with the Ribi vaccine. Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and aldo-keto reductase of D. agamarum reacted with serum from the latter lizards. Based on the demonstrated seroconversion and partial protection against D. agamarum associated disease following the use of formalin-inactivated vaccines as well as the identification of target antigens in Ribi vaccinated bearded dragons, this study provides promising information towards the development of a vaccination strategy to control devrieseasis in captive lizard collections. PMID:25479609

  17. Autovaccination confers protection against Devriesea agamarum associated septicemia but not dermatitis in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Van Steendam, Katleen; Deforce, Dieter; Blooi, Mark; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Bullaert, Evelien; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An

    2014-01-01

    Devrieseasis caused by Devriesea agamarum is a highly prevalent disease in captive desert lizards, resulting in severe dermatitis and in some cases mass mortality. In this study, we assessed the contribution of autovaccination to devrieseasis control by evaluating the capacity of 5 different formalin-inactivated D. agamarum vaccines to induce a humoral immune response in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). Each vaccine contained one of the following adjuvants: CpG, incomplete Freund's, Ribi, aluminium hydroxide, or curdlan. Lizards were administrated one of the vaccines through subcutaneous injection and booster vaccination was given 3 weeks after primo-vaccination. An indirect ELISA was developed and used to monitor lizard serological responses. Localized adverse effects following subcutaneous immunization were observed in all but the Ribi adjuvanted vaccine group. Following homologous experimental challenge, the incomplete Freund's as well as the Ribi vaccine were observed to confer protection in bearded dragons against the development of D. agamarum associated septicemia but not against dermatitis. Subsequently, two-dimensional gelelectrophoresis followed by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry was conducted with serum obtained from 3 lizards that showed seroconversion after immunisation with the Ribi vaccine. Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and aldo-keto reductase of D. agamarum reacted with serum from the latter lizards. Based on the demonstrated seroconversion and partial protection against D. agamarum associated disease following the use of formalin-inactivated vaccines as well as the identification of target antigens in Ribi vaccinated bearded dragons, this study provides promising information towards the development of a vaccination strategy to control devrieseasis in captive lizard collections. PMID:25479609

  18. Impact of a trace element supplementation programme on health and performance of cross-breed (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) dairy cattle under tropical farming conditions: a double-blinded randomized field trial.

    PubMed

    Dermauw, V; Dierenfeld, E; Du Laing, G; Buyse, J; Brochier, B; Van Gucht, S; Duchateau, L; Janssens, G P J

    2015-06-01

    Small-scale urban dairy farms (n = 16) in and around Jimma, Ethiopia with cross-bred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) cows were enrolled in a double-blinded intervention study to investigate the effect of a trace element supplementation programme on trace element status and milk concentrations as well as performance [body condition score (BCS), milk yield, leptin], milk composition, antioxidant status (ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)], blood biochemistry, serum proteins and immune response (antibody titre upon rabies vaccination). The farms were allocated to a (1) placebo or (2) Cu, Zn, Se, Co and I supplementation treatment for 150 d. On days 0 and 120, four lactating cows per farm were sampled for milk and plasma, and on day 150 for serum, following primo-vaccination. Cu deficiency was present in 17% and marginal Se deficiency in 30% of initially sampled cows, while no Zn shortage was detected. Over 120 days, trace element supplementation caused a bigger increase in plasma Se and Cu concentrations, but also a larger decrease of plasma Fe concentrations. A larger increase in milk Se concentrations was observed in the supplemented group, whereas none of the other elements were affected. BCS decreased more over time in the supplemented group. None of the other parameters of performance and antioxidant status nor milk composition or blood biochemistry was affected by treatment. Antibody response to rabies vaccination did not differ between groups, whereas α1-globulins tended to be lower and β-globulins tended to be higher in the supplemented group. In conclusion, despite improved Cu and Se status and Se concentrations in milk, cows on tropical urban dairy farms did not seem to benefit from trace element supplementation, with respect to the parameters investigated. PMID:24990384

  19. Recent Clinical Trials of Pharmacologic Cardiovascular Interventions in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: An Update.

    PubMed

    Nataatmadja, Melissa; Cho, Yeoungjee; Fahim, Magid; Johnson, David W

    2016-01-01

    As a consequence of both traditional and non-traditional risk factors, cardiovascular disease is over-represented, and the leading cause of mortality, among patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Whilst recommendations for reducing cardiovascular risk in the general population exist, their applicability to the CKD population is questionable due to the exclusion of CKD patients from the majority of contemporary cardiovascular interventional studies. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the literature regarding pharmacologic cardiovascular interventions in patients with CKD, with an emphasis on studies published since our 2008 review. Interventions discussed include erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (TREAT, U.S. Normal Hematocrit, CHOIR, CREATE, Palmer meta-analysis); statins (SHARP, AURORA, PPP, 4D, ALERT); Fibrates (VA-HIT); Folic Acid (ASFAST, US FOLIC acid trial, HOST); Antihypertensive Agents, Including Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, Beta-blockers and Combination therapy (Cice et al, FOSDIAL, Agarwal et al, ONTARGET); sevelamer (DCOR); Cinacalcet (ADVANCE, EVOLVE, Cunningham meta-analysis); Anti-oxidants (SPACE, HOPE, ATIC); Aspirin (HOT study re-analysis); vitamin D analogues (PRIMO); and multidisciplinary intervention (LANDMARK). Unfortunately, there remains a paucity of evidence in this area and a large number of methodologically poor quality studies with negative results. It is possible that these interventions do not have the same positive effect in CKD patients due to differences in the pathogenesis driving cardiovascular disease burden, such as altered bone metabolism and calcific vascular disease. Further well-designed studies with appropriately selected study populations and patient level outcomes are required. Until such time, physicians must consider on an individual patient basis the appropriateness of these interventions. PMID:26497837

  20. Three-year duration of immunity for feline herpesvirus and calicivirus evaluated in a controlled vaccination-challenge laboratory trial.

    PubMed

    Jas, Dominique; Frances-Duvert, Valérie; Vernes, Delphine; Guigal, Pierre-Michel; Poulet, Hervé

    2015-05-15

    Feline vaccination guidelines recommend less frequent boosters for the core vaccines (rhinotracheitis, calicivirosis and infectious panleucopenia). Most guidelines recommend boosters at 3-yearly intervals after a basic vaccination including primary vaccination and revaccination one year later. The objective of this study was to assess the duration of immunity induced by PUREVAX(®) RCPCh FeLV, a non-adjuvanted vaccine against feline rhinotracheitis, calicivirosis, infectious panleucopenia, chlamydiosis and leukemia. After primary vaccination followed by revaccination one year later with a vaccine formulated at minimum dose, the cats were kept in a confined environment and challenged 3 years later with a virulent heterologous strain of feline calicivirus (FCV) and subsequently a virulent strain of feline herpesvirus (FHV). Clinical signs and viral excretion were recorded for two weeks after each viral inoculation. Contemporary unvaccinated cats and new animals added at the time of challenge were used as controls. The vaccination regimen induced a stable and long-lasting humoral response. Vaccination resulted in a significant reduction in the severity of the disease after FHV challenge and in the frequency of cats showing a severe calicivirosis (defined as a combination of systemic clinical symptoms and oronasal ulcers). As opposed to the significant reduction of excretion observed a few weeks after primo-vaccination or even one year after vaccination for FCV, viral shedding was not reduced 3 years after revaccination. This study showed that primary vaccination and revaccination one year later with PUREVAX(®) RCPCh FeLV was able to induce 3-year duration of immunity against FCV and FHV. The results and conclusion of this study are consistent with current vaccination guidelines and will allow the veterinarian to adapt the vaccination regimen to the way of life of the cat. PMID:25824128

  1. Risk of rabies introduction by non-commercial movement of pets.

    PubMed

    Have, P; Alban, L; Berndtsson, L T; Cliquet, F; Hostnik, P; Rodeia, S C; Sanaa, M

    2008-01-01

    In response to a Commission request, EFSA has carried out a quantitative assessment of the risk of rabies introduction into the UK, Ireland, Sweden, and Malta due to the movement of pets incubating rabies at the time of movement. The risk that a pet is incubating rabies at the time of first vaccination is equal to the prevalence of rabies-incubating pets in the population of origin. Following induction of protective immunity by vaccination, animals already incubating rabies will still develop clinical disease as a function of time after vaccination (termed type A risk). A waiting period will reduce this risk. Afew animals may not be protected after single-shot primary vaccination. Such animals may become infected during the waiting period after vaccination. The risk of becoming infected after the first vaccination (termed type B risk) depends on the prevalence and efficiency of vaccination. Serological testing can be used to identify non-immune pets (depending on test specificity) and will therefore reduce this risk accordingly. The type A and B risks were modelled as a function of the waiting period after vaccination and fitted to a non-linear model incorporating vaccination efficiency and test specificity. The model can be used to quantify the risk of moving pets from rabies infected areas and also to investigate the effect of different control measures. In quantitative terms, the type A risk constitutes by far the major risk. Therefore, a waiting period (defined as the time spent between vaccination and pet movement to the destined country) is the major effective measure to mitigate the risk of rabies introduction due to an animal being infected before primo-vaccination. Serological testing will only add significantly to risk reduction when waiting periods exceed 100 days. Within the EU, the rabies prevalence in most countries is so low that the risk can be considered negligible. However, for some countries the risk is non-negligible. PMID:18634478

  2. An Ionospheric Metric Study Using Operational Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojka, J. J.; Schunk, R. W.; Thompson, D. C.; Scherliess, L.; Harris, T. J.

    2006-12-01

    One of the outstanding challenges in upgrading ionospheric operational models is quantifying their improvement. This challenge is not necessarily an absolute accuracy one, but rather answering the question, "Is the newest operational model an improvement over its predecessor under operational scenarios?" There are few documented cases where ionospheric models are compared either with each other or against "ground truth". For example a CEDAR workshop team, PRIMO, spent almost a decade carrying out a models comparison with ionosonde and incoherent scatter radar measurements from the Millstone Hill, Massachusetts location [Anderson et al.,1998]. The result of this study was that all models were different and specific conditions could be found when each was the "best" model. Similarly, a National Space Weather Metrics ionospheric challenge was held and results were presented at a National Space Weather meeting. The results were again found to be open to interpretation, and issues with the value of the specific metrics were raised (Fuller-Rowell, private communication, 2003). Hence, unlike the tropospheric weather community, who have established metrics and exercised them on new models over many decades to quantify improvement, the ionospheric community has not yet settled on a metric of both scientific and operational value. We report on a study in which metrics were used to compare various forms of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI), the Ionospheric Forecast Model (IFM), and the Utah State University Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements Model (USU-GAIM) models. The ground truth for this study was a group of 11 ionosonde data sets taken between 20 March and 19 April 2004. The metric parameter was the ionosphere's critical frequency. The metric was referenced to the IRI. Hence, the study addressed the specific question what improvement does IFM and USU-GAIM have over IRI. Both strengths (improvements) and weaknesses of these models are discussed

  3. a Look at Nitrile Chemistry in SGR B2(N) Using the Combined Power of the GBT and the VLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steber, Amanda; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Seifert, Nathan A.; Neill, Justin; Muckle, Matt; Pate, Brooks; Corby, Joanna F.; Remijan, Anthony

    2014-06-01

    Nitriles form the most prolific family of molecules known in the ISM, and laboratory work shows that radical-driven chemistry can account for the formation of a diverse set of nitrile and imine molecules. Broadband reaction screening of nitrile chemistry in a pulsed discharge nozzle coupled to a chirped-pulse Fourier transform rotational spectrometer has enabled detections of several new interstellar species including E- and Z-ethanimine and E-cyanomethanimine. The detections were made by direct comparisons of laboratory broadband rotational spectra with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) PRebiotic Interstellar MOlecule Survery (PRIMOS) survey towards Sgr B2(N), the most chemically complex interstellar region known. In order to probe nitrile chemistry in Sgr B2, we targeted low energy rotational transitions in the 18-21 GHz range of several nitriles with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at ˜1 arcsecond resolution. The data indicate that most nitriles and nitrile derivatives are co-spatial with shell shaped continuum features thought to be expanding ionization fronts. The CH2CN radical and imine species in particular are NOT associated with the hot core known as the "Large Molecule Heimat", where most large organic molecules are thought to reside. This result suggests radical driven nitrile chemistry may be promoted by near-UV radiation in moderate density regions of molecular clouds, and the data will be useful for evaluating possible formation mechanisms. R.A. Loomis et al. Ap. J. L., 765, (L9), 2013. D.P. Zaleski et al. Ap. J. L., 765, (L10), 2013.

  4. Find a hotter place! A history of nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celnikier, Ludwik Marian

    1. The Vacuum, the Universe, and things that go "pop" in the night. 1.1. The discovery of the vacuum. 1.2. The rise and fall of the vacuum. 1.3. The vacuum reborn. 1.4. The transmutation of the vacuum. 1.5. The tribulations of a simple oscillator. 1.6. The ther, nouveau régime. 1.7. The unbearable heaviness of the vacuum -- 2. Eleven quadrillion six hundred thousand billion tonnes of coal per second. 2.1. The eternal triangle. 2.2. Cracks in the celestial sphere. 2.3. The rebirth of atoms -- 3. Fin de Siècle, Fin du Monde. 3.1. The atoms of chemistry. 3.2. The atoms of heat. 3.3. Chemical analysis without chemistry. 3.4. Temperature measurement without a thermometer. 3.5. A bagful of loose ends. 3.6. Thermodynamics: the 19th century astronomer's best friend. 3.7. The death of the Universe -- 4. A mystery wrapped in an enigma. 4.1. The mystery. 4.2. The enigma -- 5. The rise of the new physics. 5.1. Almost, but not quite, the alchemist's dream. 5.2. Light magic. 5.3. To catch a beam of light. 5.4. A locked room mystery . . . solved. 5.5. Of what is the Universe made? -- 6. The chicken and the egg. 6.1. Balancing acts. 6.2. Neutrons to the rescue? 6.3. Cosmology to the rescue? -- 7. The best of times and the worst of times. 7.1. Theories to end all theories. 7.2. Thermonuclear leggo. 7.3. And yet they shine. 7.4. The inflationary economy of stars. 7.5. To see the World in a grain of sand -- 8. A tale of two theories and one dogma. 8.1. Fiat lux? 8.2. Continuous creation? 8.3. Cosmic cooking pots. 8.4. Death of a travelling dogma -- 9. Relics of a bygone age. 9.1. One man's noise is another man's Nobel prize. 9.2. Clues about the distant past. 9.3. Genesis, according to Gamow -- 10. Cosmic ash. 10.1. "The fault, dear Enrico, is not in our stars, but in your neutrinos". 10.2. Things that go bump in the night. 10.3. "I come not to bury Caesar, but to praise him". 10.4. Most of our Universe is missing -- Epilogue-the mysterious universe -- A personal chronology of 20th

  5. Criticality Model

    SciTech Connect

    A. Alsaed

    2004-09-14

    The ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003) presents the methodology for evaluating potential criticality situations in the monitored geologic repository. As stated in the referenced Topical Report, the detailed methodology for performing the disposal criticality analyses will be documented in model reports. Many of the models developed in support of the Topical Report differ from the definition of models as given in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management procedure AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models'', in that they are procedural, rather than mathematical. These model reports document the detailed methodology necessary to implement the approach presented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report and provide calculations utilizing the methodology. Thus, the governing procedure for this type of report is AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses''. The ''Criticality Model'' is of this latter type, providing a process evaluating the criticality potential of in-package and external configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to layout the process for calculating the criticality potential for various in-package and external configurations and to calculate lower-bound tolerance limit (LBTL) values and determine range of applicability (ROA) parameters. The LBTL calculations and the ROA determinations are performed using selected benchmark experiments that are applicable to various waste forms and various in-package and external configurations. The waste forms considered in this calculation are pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA), Enrico Fermi, Shippingport pressurized water reactor, Shippingport light water breeder reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, Melt and Dilute, and Fort Saint Vrain Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The scope of this analysis is to document the criticality computational method. The criticality

  6. CP-1 70th Anniversary Symposium

    ScienceCinema

    Len Koch; Harold Agnew

    2013-06-05

    Dr. Harold Agnew, retired director of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one of 49 people present on December 2, 1942 when the world?s first man-made controlled nuclear chain reaction was achieved with the CP-1 reactor, and Dr. Len Koch, one of Argonne?s earliest staff members and a designer of EBR-I, the first liquid metal-cooled fast reactor, spoke about their early work during ?The Dawn of the Nuclear Age?, a Director?s Special Symposium held as one of the events to commemorate the 70th anniversary year of CP-1 achieving criticality. The symposium was moderated by Dr. Charles Till, a retired Argonne associate laboratory director who led Argonne?s nuclear engineering programs throughout the 1980?s and ?90?s. Dr. Agnew painted a vivid picture of the challenges and rewards of working in Enrico Fermi?s group under strict security conditions and the complete faith all in the group had in Fermi?s analyses. He stated that no one ever doubted that CP-1 would achieve criticality, and when the moment came, those present acknowledged the accomplishment with little more than a subdued toast of chianti from a bottle provided by reactor physicist Eugene Wigner. This experimental work on nuclear reactors was continued in the Chicago area and led first by Fermi and then Walter Zinn, another member of Fermi?s CP-1 group, resulting in the formal establishment of Argonne National Laboratory on July 1, 1946. Dr. Koch described how much he enjoyed working at Argonne through the 1950?s and ?60?s and contributing to many of the research ?firsts? that Argonne achieved in the nuclear energy field and led to the foundation of the commercial nuclear power generation industry. His reminiscences about all that was achieved with EBR-I and how that work then led into Argonne?s design, building, and operation of EBR-II as a full demonstration of a fast reactor power plant brought Argonne?s nuclear energy legacy to life for everyone in the auditorium. These engaging presentations prompted a

  7. Radioiodine: the classic theranostic agent.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Edward B

    2012-05-01

    Radioiodine has the distinction of being the first theranostic agent in our armamentarium. Millennia were required to discover that the agent in orally administered seaweed and its extracts, which had been shown to cure neck swelling due to thyromegaly, was iodine, first demonstrated to be a new element in 1813. Treatment of goiter with iodine began at once, but its prophylactic value to prevent a common form of goiter took another century. After Enrico Fermi produced the first radioiodine, (128)I, in 1934, active experimentation in the United States and France delineated the crucial role of iodine in thyroid metabolism and disease. (130)I and (131)I were first employed to treat thyrotoxicosis by 1941, and thyroid cancer in 1943. After World War II, (131)I became widely available at a reasonable price for diagnostic testing and therapy. The rectilinear scanner of Cassen and Curtis (Science 1949;110:94-95), and a dedicated gamma camera invented by Anger (Nature 1952;170:200-201), finally permitted the diagnostic imaging of thyroid disease, with (131)I again the radioisotope of choice, although there were short-lived attempts to employ (125)I and (132)I for this purpose. (123)I was first produced in 1949 but did not become widely available until about 1982, 10 years after a production technique eliminated high-energy (124)I contamination. I continues to be the radioiodine of choice for the diagnosis of benign thyroid disease, whereas (123)I and (131)I are employed in the staging and detection of functioning thyroid cancer. (124)I, a positron emitter, can produce excellent anatomically correlated images employing positron emission tomography/computed tomography equipment and has the potential to enhance heretofore imperfect dosimetric studies in determining the appropriate administered activity to ablate/treat thyroid cancer. Issues of acceptable measuring error in thyroid cancer dosimetry and the role in (131)I therapy of tumor heterogeneity, tumor hypoxia, and

  8. High -Tc superlight bipolarons in novel superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Sasha

    2003-03-01

    Over the last decade, several competing models of high-temperature superconductivity (HTSC) have been proposed, none of which have succeeded to explain high values of the superconducting critical temperature Tc without adjustable parameters. Most of the proposed models are based on the short-range electron-electron correlations or/and on a short-range electron-phonon interaction. However, in the cuprates the screening is poor due to the low carrier density, layered crystal structure, and high ionicity of the lattice. Here we develop further a model of HTSC, which explicitly takes into account the long-range origin of both types of interaction [1]. The long-range electron-phonon (Froehlich) interaction binds carriers into real space pairs-small bipolarons with surprisingly low mass but sufficient binding energy, while the long-range Coulomb repulsion keeps them from forming larger clusters. We analytically solve this multi-polaron "Froelich-Coulomb" model of oxides for a zigzag ladder and a perovskite layer [2]. The model numerically explains high Tc values in the cuprates without any fitting parameters. It describes other key features of the cuprates such as the isotope effect on the effective mass, pseudogap, the normal state diamagnetism, anomalous upper critical field, and spectral functions measured in tunnelling and photoemission. We argue that strong coupling of carriers with high-frequency phonons and low Fermi energies is the cause of high critical temperatures of novel superconductors. [1] A.S. Alexandrov, in Models and Phenomenology for Conventional and High-temperature Superconductivity (Course CXXXVI of the International School of Physics`Enrico Fermi'), eds. G. Iadonisi, J.R. Schrieffer and M.L. Chiofalo, (IOS Press, Amsterdam), p. 309 (1998). [2] A.S. Alexandrov and P.E. Kornilovitch, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14 (2002) 5337. * Mailing address: Department of Physics, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, United Kingdom; E-mail: a

  9. Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Dilute Gas; the First 70 Years and Some Recent Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornell, E. A.; Wieman, C. E.

    Bose-Einstein condensation, or BEC, has a long and rich history dating from the early 1920s. In this article we will trace briefly over this history and some of the developments in physics that made possible our successful pursuit of BEC in a gas. We will then discuss what was involved in this quest. In this discussion we will go beyond the usual technical description to try and address certain questions that we now hear frequently, but are not covered in our past research papers. These are questions along the lines of ``How did you get the idea and decide to pursue it? Did you know it was going to work? How long did it take you and why?'' We will review some of our favorites from among the experiments we have carried out with BEC. There will then be a brief encore on why we are optimistic that BEC can be created with nearly any species of magnetically trappable atom. Throughout this article we will try to explain what makes BEC in a dilute gas so interesting, unique, and experimentally challenging. This article is our ``Nobel Lecture'' and as such takes a relatively personal approach to the story of the development of experimental Bose-Einstein condensation. For a somewhat more scholarly treatment of the history, the interested reader is referred to E. A. Cornell, J. R. Ensher and C. E. Wieman, ``Experiments in dilute atomic Bose-Einstein condensation in Bose-Einstein Condensation in Atomic Gases, Proceedings of the International School of Physics ``Enrico Fermi'' Course CXL'' (M. Inguscio, S. Stringari and C. E. Wieman, Eds., Italian Physical Society, 1999), pp. 15-66, which is also available as cond-mat/9903109. For a reasonably complete technical review of the three years of explosive progress that immediately followed the first observation of BEC, we recommend reading the above article in combination with the corresponding review from Ketterle, cond-mat/9904034.

  10. Equilibrium statistical-thermal models in high-energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser

    2014-05-01

    We review some recent highlights from the applications of statistical-thermal models to different experimental measurements and lattice QCD thermodynamics that have been made during the last decade. We start with a short review of the historical milestones on the path of constructing statistical-thermal models for heavy-ion physics. We discovered that Heinz Koppe formulated in 1948, an almost complete recipe for the statistical-thermal models. In 1950, Enrico Fermi generalized this statistical approach, in which he started with a general cross-section formula and inserted into it, the simplifying assumptions about the matrix element of the interaction process that likely reflects many features of the high-energy reactions dominated by density in the phase space of final states. In 1964, Hagedorn systematically analyzed the high-energy phenomena using all tools of statistical physics and introduced the concept of limiting temperature based on the statistical bootstrap model. It turns to be quite often that many-particle systems can be studied with the help of statistical-thermal methods. The analysis of yield multiplicities in high-energy collisions gives an overwhelming evidence for the chemical equilibrium in the final state. The strange particles might be an exception, as they are suppressed at lower beam energies. However, their relative yields fulfill statistical equilibrium, as well. We review the equilibrium statistical-thermal models for particle production, fluctuations and collective flow in heavy-ion experiments. We also review their reproduction of the lattice QCD thermodynamics at vanishing and finite chemical potential. During the last decade, five conditions have been suggested to describe the universal behavior of the chemical freeze-out parameters. The higher order moments of multiplicity have been discussed. They offer deep insights about particle production and to critical fluctuations. Therefore, we use them to describe the freeze-out parameters

  11. CP-1 70th Anniversary Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Len Koch; Harold Agnew

    2012-07-11

    Dr. Harold Agnew, retired director of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one of 49 people present on December 2, 1942 when the world’s first man-made controlled nuclear chain reaction was achieved with the CP-1 reactor, and Dr. Len Koch, one of Argonne’s earliest staff members and a designer of EBR-I, the first liquid metal-cooled fast reactor, spoke about their early work during “The Dawn of the Nuclear Age”, a Director’s Special Symposium held as one of the events to commemorate the 70th anniversary year of CP-1 achieving criticality. The symposium was moderated by Dr. Charles Till, a retired Argonne associate laboratory director who led Argonne’s nuclear engineering programs throughout the 1980’s and ‘90’s. Dr. Agnew painted a vivid picture of the challenges and rewards of working in Enrico Fermi’s group under strict security conditions and the complete faith all in the group had in Fermi’s analyses. He stated that no one ever doubted that CP-1 would achieve criticality, and when the moment came, those present acknowledged the accomplishment with little more than a subdued toast of chianti from a bottle provided by reactor physicist Eugene Wigner. This experimental work on nuclear reactors was continued in the Chicago area and led first by Fermi and then Walter Zinn, another member of Fermi’s CP-1 group, resulting in the formal establishment of Argonne National Laboratory on July 1, 1946. Dr. Koch described how much he enjoyed working at Argonne through the 1950’s and ‘60’s and contributing to many of the research “firsts” that Argonne achieved in the nuclear energy field and led to the foundation of the commercial nuclear power generation industry. His reminiscences about all that was achieved with EBR-I and how that work then led into Argonne’s design, building, and operation of EBR-II as a full demonstration of a fast reactor power plant brought Argonne’s nuclear energy legacy to life for everyone in the auditorium. These

  12. The Blackholic energy and the canonical Gamma-Ray Burst IV: the ``long,'' ``genuine short'' and ``fake-disguised short'' GRBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffini, Remo; Aksenov, Alexey G.; Bernardini, Maria Grazia; Bianco, Carlo Luciano; Caito, Letizia; Chardonnet, Pascal; Dainotti, Maria Giovanna; de Barros, Gustavo; Guida, Roberto; Izzo, Luca; Patricelli, Barbara; Lemos, Luis Juracy Rangel; Rotondo, Michael; Hernandez, Jorge Armando Rueda; Vereshchagin, Gregory; Xue, She-Sheng

    2009-05-01

    We report some recent developments in the understanding of GRBs based on the theoretical framework of the ``fireshell'' model, already presented in the last three editions of the ``Brazilian School of Cosmology and Gravitation.'' After recalling the basic features of the ``fireshell model,'' we emphasize the following novel results: 1) the interpretation of the X-ray flares in GRB afterglows as due to the interaction of the optically thin fireshell with isolated clouds in the CircumBurst Medium (CBM) 2) an interpretation as ``fake-disguised'' short GRBs of the GRBs belonging to the class identified by Norris & Bonnell; we present two prototypes, GRB 970228 and GRB 060614; both these cases are consistent with an origin from the final coalescence of a binary system in the halo of their host galaxies with particularly low CBM density ncbm~10-3 particles/cm3 3) the first attempt to study a genuine short GRB with the analysis of GRB 050509B, that reveals indeed still an open question; 4) the interpretation of the GRB-SN association in the case of GRB 060218 via the ``induced gravitational collapse'' process; 5) a first attempt to understand the nature of the ``Amati relation,'' a phenomenological correlation between the isotropic-equivalent radiated energy of the prompt emission Eiso with the cosmological rest-frame νFν spectrum peak energy Ep,i. In addition, recent progress on the thermalization of the electron-positron plasma close to their formation phase, as well as the structure of the electrodynamics of Kerr-Newman Black Holes are presented. An outlook for possible explanation of high-energy phenomena in GRBs to be expected from the AGILE and the Fermi satellites are discussed. As an example of high energy process, the work by Enrico Fermi dealing with ultrarelativistic collisions is examined. It is clear that all the GRB physics points to the existence of overcritical electrodynamical fields. In this sense we present some progresses on a unified approach to

  13. Subsystem Quantum Mechanics and its Applications to Crystalline Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Pengfei

    this subject. Having listened to your lecture, I am still confused, but on a higher level.--Enrico Fermi.

  14. Investigation of EM Emissions by the Electrodynamic Tether, Inclusive of an Observational Program (EMET)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    closely co-ordinated during the mission. Dr. Enrico Lorenzini of SAO served as the eyes, ears, and brain of EMET in the Science Operations Area and PI table during the mission, whenever the PI was absent during the round-the-clock mission operations. The Rice University final report to SAO, which is included as an Appendix, contains details of the remote sites, means of communication, sensors, etc., as well as the affiliations of personnel involved in the data-gathering effort.

  15. The Many Worlds of Leo Szilard: Physicist, Peacemaker, Provocateur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanouette, William

    2014-03-01

    Best known for being the first to conceive and patent the nuclear chain reaction in the 1930s, Leo Szilard should also be remembered for other insights in both physics and biology, and for historical initiatives to control the A-bomb he helped create. In physics, Szilard applied entropy to data in a seminal 1929 paper that laid the basis for ``information theory.'' Szilard co-designed an electromagnetic refrigerator pump with Einstein in the 1920s, in 1939 he co-designed the first nuclear reactor with Enrico Fermi, and he later thought up and named the nuclear ``breeder'' reactor. Biologist Francois Jacob called Szilard an ``intellectual bumblebee'' for the many novel ideas he shared, including one that earned Jacob and others the Nobel Prize. James D. Watson said that for intellectual stimulation he liked being around Szilard because ``Leo got excited about something before it was true.'' A political activist, Szilard proposed and drafted the 1939 letter Einstein sent to President Franklin Roosevelt that warned of German A-bomb work and led to the Manhattan Project - where Szilard was ``Chief Physicist.'' Yet Szilard then worked tirelessly to curb nuclear weapons, organizing a scientists' petition to President Truman and lobbying Congress for civilian control of the atom. Szilard loved dreaming up new institutions. He helped to create the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, and founded the Council for a Livable World - the first political action committee for arms control. In biology, Szilard proposed the European Molecular Biology Organization modeled on CERN, and helped create the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, where he was one of the first fellows. Shy, witty, and eccentric, Szilard wrote a political satire in 1960 that predicted when the US-Soviet nuclear arms race would end in the late 1980s. Another satire, ``My Trial as a War Criminal'' about scientists' responsibilities for weapons of mass destruction, is credited with prompting

  16. Perspective of an Artist Inspired by Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanborn, Jim

    2010-02-01

    Institution in Washington DC. This was the first time uranium had been fissioned using a particle accelerator and it was demonstrated for an audience including, Enrico Fermi, Niels Bohr and Merle Tuve. )

  17. Comets, Meteors, and Eclipses: Art and Science in Early Renaissance Italy (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, R. J. M.; Pasachoff, J. M.

    1999-09-01

    We discuss several topics relating artists and their works with actual astronomical events in early Renaissance Italy to reveal the revolutionary advances made in both astronomy and naturalistic painting. Padua, where Galileo would eventually hold a chair at the University, was already by the fourteenth century (trecento) a renowned center for mathematics and nascent astronomy (which was separating from astrology). It is no wonder that when Enrico Scrovegni commissioned the famous Florentine artist Giotto di Bondone to decorate his lavish family chapel (c. 1303) that in the scene of the Adoration of the Magi Giotto painted a flaming comet in lieu of the traditional Star of Bethlehem. Moreover, he painted an historical apparition he recently had observed with a great understanding of its scientific structure: Halley's Comet of 1301 (since Olson's first publication of this idea in Scientific American we have expanded the argument in several articles and talks). While we do not know the identity of the artist's theological advisor, we discuss the possibility that Pietro d'Abano, the Paduan medical doctor and ``astronomer" who wrote on comets, might have been influential. We also compare Giotto's blazing comet with two others painted by the artist's shop in San Francesco at Assisi (before 1316) and account for the differences. In addition, we tackle the question how Giotto's pupil, Taddeo Gaddi, who is documented as having been partially blinded by lengthy unprotected observation of the partial phase of an annular solar eclipse, reflects his observations in his frescoes in Santa Croce, Florence (1328-30). Giotto also influenced the Sienese painter Pietro Lorenzetti, two of whose Passion cycle frescoes at Assisi (1316-20), contain dazzling meteor showers that hold important symbolic meanings in the cyle's argument but more importantly reveal that the artist observed astronomical phenomena, such as the ``radiant" effect, which was first recorded by Alexander von Humboldt

  18. Reality check in the project management of EU funding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chenbo

    2015-04-01

    A talk addressing workload, focuses, impacts and outcomes of project management (hereinafter PM) Two FP7 projects serve as objects for investigation. In the Earth Science sector NACLIM is a large scale collaborative project with 18 partners from North and West Europe. NACLIM aims at investigating and quantifying the predictability of the North Atlantic/Arctic sea surface temperature, sea ice variability and change on seasonal to decadal time scales which have a crucial impact on weather and climate in Europe. PRIMO from Political Science is a global PhD program funded by Marie Curie ITN instrument with 11 partners from Europe, Eurasia and BRICS countries focusing on the rise of regional powers and its impact on international politics at large. Although the two projects are granted by different FP7 funding instruments, stem from different cultural backgrounds and have different goals, the inherent processes and the key focus of the PM are quite alike. Only the operational management is at some point distinguished from one another. From the administrative point of view, understanding of both EU requirements and the country-specific regulations is essential; it also helps us identifying the grey area in order to carry out the projects more efficiently. The talk will focus on our observation of the day-to-day PM flows - primarily the project implementation - with few particular cases: transparency issues, e.g. priority settings of non-research stakeholders including the conflict in the human resources field, End-User integration, gender issues rising up during a monitoring visit and ethical aspects in field research. Through a brief comparison of both projects we summarize a range of dos and don'ts, an "acting instead of reacting" line of action, and the conclusion to a systematic overall management instead of exclusively project controlling. In a nutshell , the talk aims at providing the audience a summary of the observation in management methodologies and toolkits

  19. Amount and Percentage of Current Societal Assets in Areas on Kaua'i, Hawai'i, within the 1992 Hurricane 'Iniki Storm-Surge Inundation Zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    The Pacific Risk Management 'Ohana (PRiMO) is a network of partners and stakeholders involved in the development, delivery, and communication of risk management-related information, products, and services across the Pacific Ocean (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Pacific Services Center, 2008). One PRiMO-related project is the NOAA National Climatic Data Center's Integrated Data and Environmental Applications (IDEA) Center's Pacific Region Integrated Climatology Information Products (PRICIP) initiative, which seeks to improve the understanding of patterns and trends of storm frequency and intensity ('storminess') within the Pacific region and to develop a suite of integrated information products that can be used by emergency managers, mitigation planners, government agencies, and other decision-makers (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Integrated Data and Environmental Applications Center, 2008a). One of the PRICIP information products is a historical storm 'event anatomy', which includes a summary of sector-specific socioeconomic impacts associated with a particular event, as well as information about the event and its climatological context. The intent of an event anatomy is to convey the causes of an extreme storm event and the associated impacts in a format that users can understand. The event anatomies also are intended to familiarize users with the in-place and remotely sensed products typically employed to track and forecast weather and climate. The first event anatomy developed as a prototype and hosted on the PRICIP portal is for Hurricane 'Iniki (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Integrated Data and Environmental Applications Center, 2008b), a Category 3-4 hurricane that made landfall on the south coast of Kaua'i Island on September 11, 1992, with estimated maximum sustained winds of more than 140 mph and gusts as high as 175 mph. Storm-surge inundation occurred on the southern and northeastern coast of Kaua

  20. Gruber, Gradenigo, Dorello, and Vail: key personalities in the historical evolution and modern-day understanding of Dorello's canal.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Renuka K; Reddy, Rohit K; Jyung, Robert W; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Liu, James K

    2016-01-01

    A century ago an ambitious young anatomist in Rome, Primo Dorello, who sought to understand the cause of abducent nerve palsy that often occurred in patients with severe middle ear infections, conducted intricate studies on the intracranial course of the nerve. In his findings, he identified that the abducent nerve passes through a narrow sinus near the apex of the petrous bone, which formed an osteofibrous canal. Dorello suggested that in this enclosed region the abducent nerve may be particularly vulnerable to compression due to the vascular edema accompanying the infection. Although his work was widely appreciated, it was not well received by all. Interestingly, Giuseppe Gradenigo, one of the most prominent Italian otologists of the early 20th century, who was known for his work on a triad of symptoms (Gradenigo's syndrome) that accompanies petrous apicitis, a result of severe middle ear infections, was obstinate in his criticism of Dorello's findings. Thus a scientific duel began, with a series of correspondence between these two academics-one who was relatively new to the otological community (Dorello) and one who was well reputed in that community (Gradenigo). The disagreement ultimately ebbed in 1909, when Dorello published a report in response to Gradenigo's criticisms and convinced Gradenigo to change his views. Today Dorello's canal is widely recognized as a key landmark in skull base surgery of the petroclival region and holds clinical significance due to its relation to the abducent nerve and surrounding vascular structures. Yet, although academics such as Dorello and Gradenigo are recognized for their work on the canal, it is important not to forget the others throughout history who have contributed to the modern-day understanding of this anatomical structure. In fact, although the level of anatomical detail found in Dorello's work was previously unmatched, the first description of the canal was made by the experienced Austrian anatomist Wenzel Leopold

  1. Calorimetria nucleare in collisioni tra ioni pesanti ad energie intermedie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spezzi, L.

    2002-07-01

    Nel presente lavoro di tesi ci si e' occupati di uno studio sistematico di misure di temperatura ed energia di eccitazione in sistemi nucleari formati in reazioni tra ioni pesanti ad energie intermedie. La temperatura a stata misurata tramite due diversi metodi: rapporto tra le rese di isotopi che differiscono di uno stesso numero di nucleoni ( d/t-3He/4He , 3He/4He -6Li/7Li) - temperatura isotopica -, e rapporto tra le popolazioni degli stati eccitati in frammenti instabili (5Li e 6Li) che decadono in particelle leggere in coincidenza - temperatura di emissione. Le misure in esame sono state effettuate presso i Laboratori Nazionali del Sud per i sistemi 93Nb+93Nb, 93Nb+116,124Sn, 116,120Sn+116,124Sn e 116Sn+93Nb ad energie comprese tra 17 e 40 A MeV. L'apparato di rivelazione era costituito da un odoscopio ad alta granularite (96 telescopi Si (50micron)-Si(300micron)-CsI(Tl) ) e basse soglie di rivelazione, utilizzato sia per identificare risonanze in frammenti eccitati che per misure di rese di isotopi di frammenti con 2<=Z<=6, e dal multirivelatore FIASCO che, grazie alla misura contemporanea di posizione e tempo di volo dei frammenti provenienti dal proiettile (PLF - Projectile Like Fragments) e dal bersaglio (TLF - Target Like Fragment), e' stato utilizzato per misurare direttamente l'energia di eccitazione del sistema in studio. Analisi precedenti, condotte nell'ambito di varie collaborazioni, hanno messo in evidenza la possible esistenza di una transizione di fase liquido-gas del primo ordine nella materia nucleare. In tale contesto, ci siamo occupati di una verifica della curva calorica nucleare, ovvero della correlazione esistente fra temperatura ed energia di eccitazione del sistema, indagando, nel contempo, sulla sua dipendenza dalla massa del sistema che si frammenta. Si e' effettuato, inoltre, un confronto fra i due diversi metodi di misura della temperatura (temperatura isotopica e di emissione): l'andamento plateau-like della curva calorica e' stato

  2. Coordinating Post-Tsunami Field Surveys in the us

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, L. S.; Chiesa, C.; Dunbar, P. K.; Huart, J.; Richards, K.; Shulters, M.; Stein, A.; Tamura, G.; Wilson, R. I.; Young, E.

    2011-12-01

    Post-tsunami scientific field surveys are critical for improving the understanding of tsunamis and developing tools and programs to mitigate their effects. After a destructive tsunami, international, national, and local tsunami scientists need to gather information, much of which is perishable or degrades significantly with time. An influx of researchers can put stress on countries already overwhelmed by humanitarian response to the disaster and by the demands of emergency management and other support agencies. In the United States, in addition to university research scientists, government agencies such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Geologic Survey (USGS), and state/territorial emergency management agencies and geological surveys endeavor to collect physical and social science data to better understand the physics of tsunamis and the impact they have on coastal communities and ecosystems. After a Presidential Major Disaster Declaration, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Joint Field Office works with state/territory emergency management agencies to coordinate response to disasters. In the short-term, the collection and immediate sharing of data enable decision-making that better organizes and deploys often-limited resources to the areas most critically in need of response; and in the long-term, improves recovery planning that will mitigate the losses from the next tsunami. Recent tsunamis have emphasized the need for improved coordination of data collection among scientists and federal, state, and local emergency managers. Improved coordination will ensure data collection efforts are carried out in a safe, secure, efficient, and timely manner. To improve coordination of activities that will better integrate the scientific investigations with government response, the US National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program and Pacific Risk Management 'Ohana (PRiMO) are working together to develop a consistent framework for

  3. Analysis of current and temperature data collected in the channel of Sardinia during the SALTO and MFSPP experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rougier, G.; Millot, C.; Chretien, E.; Gervais, T.; Fuda, J.-L.; Sammari, C.

    2003-04-01

    The SALTO experiment was conducted from July 1999 to April 2000 to study the intermediate and deep circulation in the channel of Sardinia. Five moorings were aligned from southeast (M1) to northwest (M5) along one of the XBT lines monitored twice monthly during the MFSPP experiment. They were set about 10 miles apart over isobaths of 1000-2000 m, and they were equipped with 12 current meters at 500 and 900 m (M1, M5), 1000 and 1400 m (M2, M4), 500, 1000, 1400 and 1900 m (M3). The time series were first qualified according to the analysis of the tidal components, which have amplitudes ranging from a few mm/s to about 1 cm/s there (Albérola et al., 1995). Consistently with the current time series collected in 1993-1994 during the PRIMO-1 experiment (Bouzinac et al., 1999), the mean circulation on the Sardinian side (M4, M5) was a few cm/s alongslope from the Tyrrhenian subbasin. The mean circulation in the middle of the channel (M3), which was low and erratic close to the bottom in 1993-1994, was now significant (a few cm/s) and directed eastwards, roughly along the channel axis there. The mean circulation on the Tunisian side (M1, M2), which was never measured before, was low at M1 and significant (a few cm/s) at M2, but strangely south-southeastwards, i.e. perpendicular to the slope. The overall temperature distribution was consistent with that previously described by Bouzinac et al. (1999) and by Sammari et al. (1999). Since the sole significant circulation of water of Atlantic origin is eastwards along Tunisia, isotherms in a 200-300 m surface layer are sloping down southwards there. Since waters at intermediate and greater depths are relatively warm (resp. cool) on the Sardinian side (resp. Tunisian side), all isotherms below about 500 m are sloping up southwards. Mean differences of about 0.4 °C between one side of the channel and the other are permanently encountered at depths ranging from about 500 to 1500 m. However, the variability is much larger on the

  4. Space Sciences and Idealism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, M.

    Erwin Schrodinger suggested that " Scientific knowledge forms part of the idealistic background of human life", which exalted man from a nude and savage state to true humanity [Science and Humanism, Cambridge, 1961, p9]. Modern space sciences an space exploration are a brilliant demonstration of the validity of Schrodinger's thesis on Idealism. Moreover, Schrodingers thesis could be considered also as a basic principle for the New Educational Space Philosophical Project "TIMAEUS"."TIMAEUS" is not only an attempt to to start a new dialogue between Science, the Humanities and Religion; but also it is an origin of the cultural innovations of our so strange of globilisation. TIMAEUS, thus, can reveal Idealism as something more fundamental , more refined, more developed than is now accepted by the scientific community and the piblic. TIMAEUS has a significant cultural agenda, connected with the high orbital performance of the synthetic arts, combining a knowledge of the truly spiritual as well as the universal. In particular, classical ballet as a synthetic art can be a new and powerful perfector and re-creator of the real human, real idealistic, real complex culture in orbit. As is well known, Carlo Blasis, the most important dance theorist of the 19t h .century, made probably the first attempts to use the scientific ideas of Leonardo da Vinci and Isaac Newton for the understanding of the gravitational nature of balance and allegro in ballet. In particular Blasis's idea of the limited use of the legs in classical dance realised by the gifted pupils of Enrico Cecchetti - M.Fokine, A.Pavlova and V.Nijinsky, with thinkable purity and elegance of style. V.Nijinsky in his remarkable animation of the dance of two dimensional creatures of a Euclidean flat world (L'Apres Midi d'un Faune,1912) discovered that true classical dance has some gravitational limits. For example, Nijinsky's Faunes and Nymphs mut use running on the heels (In accordance with "Partitura" 1916); they

  5. Argonne National Laboratory institutional plan FY 2002 - FY 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Beggs, S. D.

    2001-11-29

    The national laboratory system provides a unique resource for addressing the national needs inherent in the mission of the Department of Energy. Argonne, which grew out of Enrico Fermi's pioneering work on the development of nuclear power, was the first national laboratory and, in many ways, has set the standard for those that followed. As the Laboratory's new director, I am pleased to present the Argonne National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2002 through FY 2007 on behalf of the extraordinary group of scientists, engineers, technicians, administrators, and others who are responsible for the Laboratory's distinguished record of achievement. Like our sister DOE laboratories, Argonne uses a multifaceted approach to advance U.S. R and D priorities. First, we assemble interdisciplinary teams of scientists and engineers to address complex problems. For example, our initiative in Functional Genomics will bring together biologists, computer scientists, environmental scientists, and staff of the Advanced Photon Source to develop complete maps of cellular function. Second, we cultivate specific core competencies in science and technology; this Institutional Plan discusses the many ways in which our core competencies support DOE's four mission areas. Third, we serve the scientific community by designing, building, and operating world-class user facilities, such as the Advanced Photon Source, the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, and the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System. This Plan summarizes the visions, missions, and strategic plans for the Laboratory's existing major user facilities, and it explains our approach to the planned Rare Isotope Accelerator. Fourth, we help develop the next generation of scientists and engineers through educational programs, many of which involve bright young people in research. This Plan summarizes our vision, objectives, and strategies in the education area, and it gives statistics on student and faculty participation. Finally, we

  6. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, R. P.

    1981-04-01

    In July 1976, some thirty young scientists and their lecturers were privileged to participate in a conference on "Metrology and the Fundamental Constants" at Varenna, this being the 68th course in the "Enrico Fermi International School of Physics". Now, at last, we are all privileged to share in that experience—to a large degree—with the appearance of the Proceedings, published last summer under the auspices of the Italian Physical Society. This rather massive volume (800 pages) places in one's hands a summary of the "state of the art" in the greater part of physical metrology. It is not, however, a metrology handbook, designed to assist the unskilled in making trustworthy measurements. It summarizes, via the lectures of internationally-recognized experts, the most recent attempts to realize with enhanced accuracy the basic units of measurement and, in so doing, it presents the subject of measurement science as the central (or all-pervasive) topic in physics itself. Clearly demonstrated is the progress from discovery to "understanding" of physical phenomena which is made possible through the historical alternation of observation and measurement. The volume includes informative reviews of the fundamentals of this fundamental science, namely, the concepts of quantities and units (Allisy); systems of units and the Système International, SI. (Terrien); international aspects of metrology and standards (Terrien); practical considerations in a hierarchy of standards (Terrien); materials problems affecting metrology (Ferro Milone and Sourdo) and statistical methods (Allisy). These discussions alone, being brought together in one place, are of particular usefulness. The remaining, and major, part of the book is taken up by authoritative and generally very readable discussions of measurement topics, for the most part separately focused on one of the base units. For these one cannot help noticing nor refrain from recording a measure of imbalance: some quantities (for

  7. “The Marshall Rosenbluth International Summer School – 2007: Plasma Thermonuclear Fusion and Plasma Astrophysics – 2007”

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan, Vladislav Alexander

    2007-10-01

    plasma instabilities, together with pioneering works of A. Sakharov, I. Tamm, L. Spitzer, Jr., L. A. Artsimovich, and others, led to the design of the TOKAMAK, the principal configuration used for contemporary magnetic fusion experiments. In addition to his research achievements, he has made significant administrative contributions as a scientific advisor in the fields of energy policy and national defense. He is the founder and the first director of The Institute for Fusion Studies at Austin, Texas. M. N. Rosenbluth has been the recipient of the E. O. Lawrence Memorial Award (1964),the Albert Einstein Award (1967),the James Clerk Maxwell prize in Plasma Physics(1976),and the Enrico Fermi Award (1986). M. N. Rosenbluth had been Science Advisor for the INSTITUTE for ADVANCED PHYSICS STUDIES (presently a division of The Stefan University) since 1989. He is the editor-in-chief of the FSRC, (Frontier Science Research Conferences) Book: "NEW IDEAS in TOKAMAK CONFINEMENT" Published by the American Institute of Physics (August 1994) in the Research Trends in Physics Series founded and edited by V. Alexander Stefan in 1989. M. N. Rosenbluth was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, a Professor Emeritus at the University of California, San Diego, and a Senior Scientist at General Atomics, San Diego.

  8. Studies of oxidative stress mechanisms using a morphine / ascorbate animal model and novel N-stearoyl cerebroside and laurate sensors.

    PubMed

    Broderick, P A

    2008-01-01

    The field of oxidative stress, free radicals, cellular defense and antioxidants is a burgeoning field of research. An important biomarker of oxidative stress is ascorbate and alterations in ascorbate have been shown to be a reliable measure of oxidative stress mechanisms. The purpose of this pharmacological study was to assess changes in ascorbate in a morphine/ascorbate animal model using novel sensors which selectively detect electrochemical signals for ascorbate, dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT). Studies were also performed to show reversal of morphine-induced effects by the opioid antagonist, naloxone. In vivo studies were modeled after (Enrico et al. 1997, 1998) in which the oxidative biomarker, ascorbate, was reported to compensate for free radicals produced by morphine-induced increases in DA and 5-HT. In vivo studies consisted of inserting the Laurate sensor in ventrolateral nucleus accumbens (vlNAcc), in anesthetized male, Sprague-Dawley rats. In separate studies, laboratory rats were injected with (1) ascorbate, (5-35 mg/kg, ip) or (2) dehydroascorbate (DHA) (20-100 mg/kg, ip). In another study, (3) morphine sulfate (10-20 mg/kg, sc) was injected followed by a single injection of naloxone (5 mg/kg, ip) in the same animal. Results showed that in vlNAcc, (1) neither ascorbate nor DHA injections produced ascorbate release, (2) morphine significantly increased DA and 5-HT release, but did not alter ascorbate release, and (3) naloxone significantly reversed the increased DA and 5-HT release produced by morphine. Moreover, the sensors, N-stearoyl cerebroside and laurate were studied in vitro, in separate studies, in order to assess selective and separate electrochemical detection of ascorbate, DA and 5-HT, neuromolecules involved in oxidative stress mechanisms. In vitro studies consisted of pretreatment of each sensor with a solution of phosphotidylethanolamine (PEA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) which simulates the lipid/protein composition of brain. Each

  9. Structure of multi-component/multi-Yukawa mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, L.; Arias, M.

    2006-09-01

    Recent small angle scattering experiments reveal new peaks in the structure function S(k) of colloidal systems (Liu et al 2005 J. Chem. Phys. 122 044507), in a region that was inaccessible with older instruments. It has been increasingly evident that a single (or double) Yukawa MSA-closure cannot account for these observations, and three or more terms are needed. On the other hand the MSA is not sufficiently accurate (Broccio et al 2005 Preprint); more accurate theories such as the HNC have been tried. But while the MSA is asymptotically exact at high densities (Rosenfield and Blum 1986 J. Chem. Phys. 85 1556), it does not satisfy the low density asymptotics. This has been corrected in the soft MSA (Blum et al 1972 J. Chem. Phys. 56 5197, Narten et al 1974 J. Chem. Phys. 60 3378) by adding exponential type terms. The results compared to experiment and simulation for liquid sodium by Rahman and Paskin (as shown in Blum et al 1972 J. Chem. Phys. 56 5197) are remarkably good. We use here a general closure of the Ornstein-Zernike equation, which is not necessarily the MSA closure (Blum and Hernando 2001 Condensed Matter Theories vol 16 ed Hernandez and Clark (New York: Nova) p 411). \\begin{equation} \\fl c_{ij}(r)=\\sum_{n=1}^{M}{\\cal{K}}_{ij}^{(n)}\\rme^{-z_{n}r}/r\\tqs {\\cal{K}}_{ij}^{(n)}=K^{(n)}\\delta_{i}^{(n)}\\delta_{j}^{(n)}\\tqs r\\geq \\sigma_{ij} \\label{eq1} \\end{equation} with the boundary condition for gij(r) = 0 for r<=σij. This general closure of the Ornstein-Zernike equation will go well beyond the MSA since it has been tested by Monte Carlo simulation for tetrahedral water (Blum et al 1999 Physica A 265 396), toroidal ion channels (Enriquez and Blum 2005 Mol. Phys. 103 3201) and polyelectrolytes (Blum and Bernard 2004 Proc. Int. School of Physics Enrico Fermi, Course CLV vol 155, ed Mallamace and Stanley (Amsterdam: IOS Press) p 335). For this closure we get for the Laplace transform of the pair correlation function an explicitly symmetric result

  10. Addressing solar modulation and long-term uncertainties in scaling secondary cosmic rays for in situ cosmogenic nuclide applications [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifton, Nathaniel A.; Bieber, John W.; Clem, John M.; Duldig, Marc L.; Evenson, Paul; Humble, John E.; Pyle, Roger

    2005-10-01

    Solar modulation affects the secondary cosmic rays responsible for in situ cosmogenic nuclide (CN) production the most at the high geomagnetic latitudes to which CN production rates are traditionally referenced. While this has long been recognized (e.g., D. Lal, B. Peters, Cosmic ray produced radioactivity on the Earth, in: K. Sitte (Ed.), Handbuch Der Physik XLVI/2, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1967, pp. 551-612 and D. Lal, Theoretically expected variations in the terrestrial cosmic ray production rates of isotopes, in: G.C. Castagnoli (Ed.), Proceedings of the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics 95, Italian Physical Society, Varenna 1988, pp. 216-233), these variations can lead to potentially significant scaling model uncertainties that have not been addressed in detail. These uncertainties include the long-term (millennial-scale) average solar modulation level to which secondary cosmic rays should be referenced, and short-term fluctuations in cosmic ray intensity measurements used to derive published secondary cosmic ray scaling models. We have developed new scaling models for spallogenic nucleons, slow-muon capture and fast-muon interactions that specifically address these uncertainties. Our spallogenic nucleon scaling model, which includes data from portions of 5 solar cycles, explicitly incorporates a measure of solar modulation ( S), and our fast- and slow-muon scaling models (based on more limited data) account for solar modulation effects through increased uncertainties. These models improve on previously published models by better sampling the observed variability in measured cosmic ray intensities as a function of geomagnetic latitude, altitude, and solar activity. Furthermore, placing the spallogenic nucleon data in a consistent time-space framework allows for a more realistic assessment of uncertainties in our model than in earlier ones. We demonstrate here that our models reasonably account for the effects of solar modulation on measured

  11. Sharpening Up Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    , MAD project manager Enrico Marchetti and Sébastien Tordo from the MAD team tracked two of Jupiter's largest moons, Europa and Io - one on each side of the planet - to provide a good correction across the full disc of the planet. "It was the most challenging observation we performed with MAD, because we had to track with high accuracy two moons moving at different speeds, while simultaneously chasing Jupiter," says Marchetti. With this unique series of images, the team found a major alteration in the brightness of the equatorial haze, which lies in a 16 000-kilometre wide belt over Jupiter's equator [2]. More sunlight reflecting off upper atmospheric haze means that the amount of haze has increased, or that it has moved up to higher altitudes. "The brightest portion had shifted south by more than 6000 kilometres," explains team member Mike Wong. This conclusion came after comparison with images taken in 2005 by Wong and colleague Imke de Pater using the Hubble Space Telescope. The Hubble images, taken at infrared wavelengths very close to those used for the VLT study, show more haze in the northern half of the bright Equatorial Zone, while the 2008 VLT images show a clear shift to the south. "The change we see in the haze could be related to big changes in cloud patterns associated with last year's planet-wide upheaval, but we need to look at more data to narrow down precisely when the changes occurred," declares Wong.

  12. Andy Sessler: The Full Life of an Accelerator Physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Je; Budnitz, Robert J.; Winick, Herman

    2015-02-01

    interest in promoting the human rights of scientists, Andy was instrumental in initiating the American Physical Society's Committee on International Freedom of Scientists and in raising funds to endow the APS Andrei Sakharov Prize. He and Moishe Pripstein cofounded Scientists for Sakharov, Orlov, and Sharansky; the group's protests along with those of other groups led to the release of the three Soviet dissidents. More importantly, Andy's voice and example became a major force in helping call the world's attention to the plight of scientists trapped in places where their human rights and their ability to do science were severely compromised. Andy received many honors, including the AEC's Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award in 1970, the APS's Dwight Nicholson Medal in 1994, and the Enrico Fermi Award from the US Department of Energy in 2014.

  13. Andy Sessler: The Full Life of an Accelerator Physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Je; Budnitz, Robert J.; Winick, Herman

    lifelong interest in promoting the human rights of scientists, Andy was instrumental in initiating the American Physical Society's Committee on International Freedom of Scientists and in raising funds to endow the APS Andrei Sakharov Prize. He and Moishe Pripstein cofounded Scientists for Sakharov, Orlov, and Sharansky; the group's protests along with those of other groups led to the release of the three Soviet dissidents. More importantly, Andy's voice and example became a major force in helping call the world's attention to the plight of scientists trapped in places where their human rights and their ability to do science were severely compromised. Andy received many honors, including the AEC's Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award in 1970, the APS's Dwight Nicholson Medal in 1994, and the Enrico Fermi Award from the US Department of Energy in 2014.

  14. Introduction and Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelova, Maia; Zakrzewski, Wojciech; Hussin, Véronique; Piette, Bernard

    2011-03-01

    This volume contains contributions to the XXVIIIth International Colloquium on Group-Theoretical Methods in Physics, the GROUP 28 conference, which took place in Newcastle upon Tyne from 26-30 July 2010. All plenary and contributed papers have undergone an independent review; as a result of this review and the decisions of the Editorial Board most but not all of the contributions were accepted. The volume is organised as follows: it starts with notes in memory of Marcos Moshinsky, followed by contributions related to the Wigner Medal and Hermann Weyl prize. Then the invited talks at the plenary sessions and the public lecture are published followed by contributions in the parallel and poster sessions in alphabetical order. The Editors:Maia Angelova, Wojciech Zakrzewski, Véronique Hussin and Bernard Piette International Advisory Committee Michael BaakeUniversity of Bielefeld, Germany Gerald DunneUniversity of Connecticut, USA J F (Frank) GomesUNESP, Sao Paolo, Brazil Peter HanggiUniversity of Augsburg, Germany Jeffrey C LagariasUniversity of Michigan, USA Michael MackeyMcGill University, Canada Nicholas MantonCambridge University, UK Alexei MorozovITEP, Moscow, Russia Valery RubakovINR, Moscow, Russia Barry SandersUniversity of Calgary, Canada Allan SolomonOpen University, Milton Keynes, UK Christoph SchweigertUniversity of Hamburg, Germany Standing Committee Twareque AliConcordia University, Canada Luis BoyaSalamanca University, Spain Enrico CeleghiniFirenze University, Italy Vladimir DobrevBulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria Heinz-Dietrich DoebnerHonorary Member, Clausthal University, Germany Jean-Pierre GazeauChairman, Paris Diderot University, France Mo-Lin GeNankai University. China Gerald GoldinRutgers University, USA Francesco IachelloYale University, USA Joris Van der JeugtGhent University, Belgium Richard KernerPierre et Marie Curie University, France Piotr KielanowskiCINVESTAV, Mexico Alan KosteleckyIndiana University, USA Mariano del Olmo

  15. Nonobservable nature of the nuclear shell structure: Meaning, illustrations, and consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duguet, T.; Hergert, H.; Holt, J. D.; Somà, V.

    2015-09-01

    Background: The concept of single-nucleon shells constitutes a basic pillar of our understanding of nuclear structure. Effective single-particle energies (ESPEs) introduced by French [Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi," Course XXXVI, Varenna 1965, edited by C. Bloch (Academic Press, New York, 1966)] and Baranger [Nucl. Phys. A 149, 225 (1970), 10.1016/0375-9474(70)90692-5] represent the most appropriate tool to relate many-body observables to a single-nucleon shell structure. As briefly discussed in Duguet and Hagen [Phys. Rev. C 85, 034330 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevC.85.034330], the dependence of ESPEs on one-nucleon transfer probability matrices makes them purely theoretical quantities that "run" with the nonobservable resolution scale λ employed in the calculation. Purpose: Given that ESPEs provide a way to interpret the many-body problem in terms of simpler theoretical ingredients, the goal is to specify the terms, i.e., the exact sense and conditions, in which this interpretation can be conducted meaningfully. Methods: While the nuclear shell structure is both scale and scheme dependent, the present study focuses on the former. A detailed discussion is provided to illustrate the scale (in)dependence of observables and nonobservables and the reasons why ESPEs, i.e., the shell structure, belong to the latter category. State-of-the-art multireference in-medium similarity renormalization group and self-consistent Gorkov Green's function many-body calculations are employed to corroborate the formal analysis. This is done by comparing the behavior of several observables and of nonobservable ESPEs (and spectroscopic factors) under (quasi) unitary similarity renormalization group transformations of the Hamiltonian parametrized by the resolution scale λ . Results: The formal proofs are confirmed by the results of ab initio many-body calculations in their current stage of implementation. In practice, the unitarity of the similarity

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of TrueBeam flattening-filter-free beams using Varian phase-space files: Comparison with experimental data

    SciTech Connect

    Belosi, Maria F.; Fogliata, Antonella E-mail: afc@iosi.ch; Cozzi, Luca; Clivio, Alessandro; Nicolini, Giorgia; Vanetti, Eugenio; Rodriguez, Miguel; Sempau, Josep; Krauss, Harald; Khamphan, Catherine; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Puxeu, Josep; Fedele, David; Mancosu, Pietro; Brualla, Lorenzo

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Phase-space files for Monte Carlo simulation of the Varian TrueBeam beams have been made available by Varian. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the distributed phase-space files for flattening filter free (FFF) beams, against experimental measurements from ten TrueBeam Linacs. Methods: The phase-space files have been used as input in PRIMO, a recently released Monte Carlo program based on thePENELOPE code. Simulations of 6 and 10 MV FFF were computed in a virtual water phantom for field sizes 3 × 3, 6 × 6, and 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} using 1 × 1 × 1 mm{sup 3} voxels and for 20 × 20 and 40 × 40 cm{sup 2} with 2 × 2 × 2 mm{sup 3} voxels. The particles contained in the initial phase-space files were transported downstream to a plane just above the phantom surface, where a subsequent phase-space file was tallied. Particles were transported downstream this second phase-space file to the water phantom. Experimental data consisted of depth doses and profiles at five different depths acquired at SSD = 100 cm (seven datasets) and SSD = 90 cm (three datasets). Simulations and experimental data were compared in terms of dose difference. Gamma analysis was also performed using 1%, 1 mm and 2%, 2 mm criteria of dose-difference and distance-to-agreement, respectively. Additionally, the parameters characterizing the dose profiles of unflattened beams were evaluated for both measurements and simulations. Results: Analysis of depth dose curves showed that dose differences increased with increasing field size and depth; this effect might be partly motivated due to an underestimation of the primary beam energy used to compute the phase-space files. Average dose differences reached 1% for the largest field size. Lateral profiles presented dose differences well within 1% for fields up to 20 × 20 cm{sup 2}, while the discrepancy increased toward 2% in the 40 × 40 cm{sup 2} cases. Gamma analysis resulted in an agreement of 100% when a 2%, 2 mm criterion

  17. Immiscible Fe- and Si-rich silicate melts in plagioclase from the Baima mafic intrusion (SW China): Implications for the origin of bi-modal igneous suites in large igneous provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ping-Ping; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Ren, Zhongyuan; Wang, Christina Yan; Wang, Kun

    2016-09-01

    The Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) in SW China is characterized by voluminous high-Ti and low-Ti basalts and spatially associated Fe-Ti oxide-bearing mafic-ultramafic and syenitic/granitic intrusions. The Baima layered mafic intrusion in the central part of the ELIP is surrounded by syenitic and granitic rocks and contains a Lower Zone of interlayered Fe-Ti oxide ores, troctolites and clinopyroxenites and an Upper Zone of isotropic olivine gabbros and gabbros (UZa) and apatite gabbros and Fe-Ti-P oxide ores (UZb). Polycrystalline mineral inclusions, for the first time, were observed in primocryst plagioclase from the basal part of the UZa through to the top of the UZb and consist mostly of clinopyroxene, plagioclase, magnetite, ilmenite and apatite with minor orthopyroxene, sulfide and hornblende. These minerals are commonly anhedral and form irregular shapes. Daughter plagioclase usually crystallizes on the walls of host primocryst plagioclase and has An contents typically 3-6 An% lower than the host plagioclase. Daughter clinopyroxene has similar Mg# but lower TiO2 and Al2O3 contents than primocryst clinopyroxene. These polycrystalline mineral inclusions are considered to crystallize from melts contemporaneous with host plagioclase. The compositional differences between daughter and primocryst minerals can be attributed to equilibrium crystallization in a closed system of the trapped melt inclusions in contrast to fractional crystallization and possible magma replenishment in an open system typical for primo-cumulates of large layered intrusions. Heated and homogenized melt inclusions have variable SiO2 (33-52 wt%), CaO (7-20 wt%), TiO2 (0.1-12 wt%), FeOt (5-20 wt%), P2O5 (0.2-10 wt%) and K2O (0-2.2 wt%). The large ranges of melt compositions are interpreted to result from heterogeneous trapping of different proportions of immiscible Si-rich and Fe-Ti-rich silicate liquids, together with entrapment of various microphenocrysts. The separation of micrometer

  18. Introduzione Nuove tecnologie in urologia.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Giampaolo

    2011-03-30

    emergenti (LESS e NOTES), poco è riportato in letteratura. Altri robot esistono nel mondo urologico che si stanno sviluppando e miniaturizzando (nanotecnologia), questi avranno una maggiore indipendenza nell'esecuzione di alcune manovre chirurgiche. Chirurgia computer assistita Il primo realizzato è stato PAKY, da allora il laboratorio di "urobotica", diretto dall'Ing. Dan Stoianovici, ha sviluppato nuovi prototipi di robot controllati mediante TAC o risonanza magnetica. Con questa tecnologia si programma l'intervento sulla base dell'"imaging" preoperatorio ed il robot esegue autonomamente biopsie ed altri interventi. Oggi sono molti i laboratori di ingegneria-urologica che lavorano nella realizzazione di altri robot (Probot, Acubot, Mr-Bot, Pneu-Step) dedicati all'Image-Guided System (IGS). Realtà virtuale Avanzati sistemi di computer grafica affiancati alle nuove ricostruzioni tridimensionali di TAC e RM, riescono a creare filmati dell'anatomia interna dei pazienti, in particolare degli organi cavi. Con la realtà virtuale si possono assistere tutte le manovre endoscopiche, migliorando notevolmente l'accuratezza della diagnosi delle patologie urologiche. A questo punto il passaggio al "Tissue Navigation System" è automatico, usato da alcuni anni con successo da neurochirurghi e cardiochirurghi. Alcuni recenti studi vengono dalla Cleveland Clinic Fondation (I. Gill), che lo utilizza per assistere interventi di laparoscopia ed endoscopia urologica. I risultati sono entusiasmanti: precisione millimetrica nel rispetto dei margini oncologici, delle strutture neuro-vascolari e linfonodali. Questi sistemi di navigazione abbattono la lunga "learning curve" delle metodiche endoscopiche, riducendo il tempo operatorio ed il rischio di complicanze chirurgiche. PMID:21452158

  19. Impact of explosive eruption scenarios at Vesuvius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccaro, G.; Cacace, F.; Spence, R. J. S.; Baxter, P. J.

    2008-12-01

    In the paper the first attempt at the definition of a model to assess the impact of a range of different volcanic hazards on the building structures is presented. This theoretical approach has been achieved within the activities of the EXPLORIS Project supported by the EU. A time history for Sub-Plinian I eruptive scenario of the Vesuvius is assumed by taking advantage of interpretation of historical reports of volcanic crises of the past [Carafa, G. 1632. In opusculum de novissima Vesuvij conflagratione, epistola isagogica, 2 a ed. Napoli, Naples; Mascolo, G.B., 1634. De incendio Vesuvii excitato xvij. Kal. Ianuar. anno trigesimo primo sæculi Decimiseptimi libri X. Cum Chronologia superiorum incendiorum; & Ephemeride ultimi. Napoli; Varrone, S., 1634. Vesuviani incendii historiae libri tres. Napoli], numerical simulations [Neri, A., Esposti Ongaro, T., Macedonio, G., Gidaspow, D., 2003. Multiparticle simulation of collapsing volcanic columns and pyroclastic flows. J. Geophys. Res. Lett. 108, 2202. doi:10.1029/2001 JB000508; Macedonio, G., Costa, A., Longo, A., 2005. HAZMAP: a computer model for volcanic ash fallout and assessment of subsequent hazard. Comput. Geosci. 31,837-845; Costa, A., Macedonio, G., Folch, A., 2006. A three-dimensional Eulerian model for transport and deposition of volcanic ashes. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 241,634-647] and experts' elicitations [Aspinall, W.P., 2006. Structured elicitation of expert judgment for probabilistic hazard and risk assessment in volcanic eruptions. In: Mader, H.M. Coles, S.G. Connor, C.B. Connor, L.J. (Eds), Statistics in Volcanology. Geological Society of London on behalf of IAVCEI, pp.15-30; Woo, G., 1999. The Mathematics of Natural Catastrophes. Imperial College Press, London] from which the impact on the building structures is derived. This is achieved by an original definition of vulnerability functions for multi-hazard input and a dynamic cumulative damage model. Factors affecting the variability of the final

  20. PREFACE: DICE 2012 : Spacetime Matter Quantum Mechanics - from the Planck scale to emergent phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diósi, Lajos; Elze, Hans-Thomas; Fronzoni, Leone; Halliwell, Jonathan; Prati, Enrico; Vitiello, Giuseppe; Yearsley, James

    2013-06-01

    during the conference. The papers submitted in the wake of the conference have been edited by L Diósi, H-T Elze, L Fronzoni, J J Halliwell, E Prati, G Vitiello and J Yearsley. The proceedings follow essentially the order of presentation during the conference, separating, however, invited lectures and contributed papers6. In the name of all participants, we would like to thank S Toms with her collaborators at IOP Publishing (Bristol) for friendly advice and most valuable immediate help during the editing process and, especially, for their continuing efforts to make the Journal of Physics: Conference Series available to all. Budapest, Pisa, London, Milano, Salerno, Cambridge, April 2013 Lajos Diósi, Hans-Thomas Elze, Leone Fronzoni, Jonathan Halliwell, Enrico Prati, Giuseppe Vitiello and James Yearsley 1 Decoherence and Entropy in Complex Systems ed H-T Elze Lecture Notes in Physics 633 (Berlin: Springer, 2004) 2 Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Decoherence, Information, Complexity and Entropy - DICE 2004 ed H-T Elze Braz. Journ. Phys. 35 A & 2B (2005) pp 205-529 free access at: www.sbfisica.org.br/bjp 3 Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Decoherence, Information, Complexity and Entropy - DICE 2006 eds H-T Elze, L Diósi and G Vitiello Journal of Physics: Conference Series 67 (2007); free access at: www.iop.org/EJ/toc/1742-6596/67/1 4 Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Decoherence, Information, Complexity and Entropy - DICE 2008> eds H-T Elze, L Diósi, L Fronzoni, J J Halliwell and G Vitiello Journal of Physics: Conference Series 174 (2009); free access at: http://www.iop.org/EJ/toc/1742-6596/174/1 5 Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Decoherence, Information, Complexity and Entropy - DICE 2010 eds H-T Elze, L Diósi, L Fronzoni, J J Halliwell, E Prati, G Vitiello and J Yearsley Journal of Physics: Conference Series 306 (2011); free access at: http://iopscience.iop.org/1742-6596/306/1 6 We regret that

  1. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    Mohab Abou ZeidVrije Universiteit, Brussel Joke AdamKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Nikolas AkerblomMax-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Luis Fernando Alday Utrecht University Stelios Alexandris University of Patras Antonio Amariti Università di Milano-Bicocca Nicola Ambrosetti Université de Neuchâtel Pascal Anastasopoulos Università di Roma Tor Vergata Laura Andrianopoli Enrico Fermi Center Carlo Angelantonj Università di Torino Lilia Anguelova Queen Mary, University of London Daniel AreanUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Gleb ArutyunovUtrecht University Spyros Avramis NTU Athens—University of Patras Ioannis Bakas University of Patras Subrata Bal Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies Igor Bandos Valencia University Jessica Barrett University of Iceland Marco Baumgartl Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Jacopo Bechi Università di Firenze James Bedford Queen Mary, University of London Jorge Bellorin Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Francesco Benini SISSA, Trieste Eric Bergshoeff Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Gaetano BertoldiUniversity of Wales, Swansea Adel Bilal Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Matthias Blau Université de Neuchâtel Johannes BroedelUniversität Hannover Felix Brümmer Universität Heidelberg Julio Cesar Bueno de Andrade São Paulo State University—UNESP Cliff Burgess McMaster University Agostino Butti Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Marco Caldarelli Universitat de Barcelona Pablo G Camara Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Joan Camps Universitat de Barcelona Felipe Canoura FernandezUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Luigi Cappiello Università di Napoli Federico II Luca Carlevaro École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Roberto Casero Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Claudio Caviezel Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Alessio Celi Universitat de Barcelona Anna

  2. PREFACE: Fourteenth International Symposium on Laser-Aided Plasma Diagnostics (LAPD14)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudicotti, L.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2010-04-01

    . Döbele (1993 - 1999) K. Muraoka (1999 - 2003) A. J. H. Donné (2003 - ) LOCAL ORGANIZERS: Leonardo Giudicotti, Consorzio RFX and Padova University (Chairman) Roberto Pasqualotto, Consorzio RFX Margherita Basso, Consorzio RFX Santolo De Benedictis, Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas, CNR Paolo Innocente, Consorzio RFX Alberto Alfier, Consorzio RFX Enrico Scek Osman, Consorzio RFX PREVIOUS LAPD MEETINGS 1983- Fukuoka, Japan: K. Muraoka (Organizer) 1985- Oxford, U.K.: D. Evans (Organizer) 1987- Lake Arrowhead, USA: N. C. Luhmann, Jr. (Organizer) 1989- Fukuoka, Japan: K. Muraoka (Organizer) 1991- Bad Honnef, Germany: F. Döbele (Organizer) 1993- Bar Harbor, USA: P. Woskov (Organizer) 1995- Fukuoka, Japan: K. Muraoka (Organizer) 1997- Doorwerth, Netherlands: A. J. H. Donné (Organizer) 1999- Lake Tahoe, USA: N. C. Luhmann, Jr. (Organizer) 2001- Fukuoka, Japan: K. Muraoka (Organizer) 2003- Les Houches, France: N. Sadeghi (Organizer) 2005- Snowbird, USA: N. C. Luhmann, Jr. (Organizer) 2007- Takayama, Japan: K. Kawahata (Organizer) 2009- Castelbrando, Italy: L. Giudicotti (Organizer)

  3. Supernova Explosions Stay In Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-12-01

    remnants. This type of supernova is thought to be caused by a thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf, and is often used by astronomers as "standard candles" for measuring cosmic distances. On the other hand, the remnants tied to the "core-collapse" supernova explosions were distinctly more asymmetric. This type of supernova occurs when a very massive, young star collapses onto itself and then explodes. "If we can link supernova remnants with the type of explosion", said co-author Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz, also of University of California, Santa Cruz, "then we can use that information in theoretical models to really help us nail down the details of how the supernovas went off." Models of core-collapse supernovas must include a way to reproduce the asymmetries measured in this work and models of Type Ia supernovas must produce the symmetric, circular remnants that have been observed. Out of the 17 supernova remnants sampled, ten were classified as the core-collapse variety, while the remaining seven of them were classified as Type Ia. One of these, a remnant known as SNR 0548-70.4, was a bit of an "oddball". This one was considered a Type Ia based on its chemical abundances, but Lopez finds it has the asymmetry of a core-collapse remnant. "We do have one mysterious object, but we think that is probably a Type Ia with an unusual orientation to our line of sight," said Lopez. "But we'll definitely be looking at that one again." While the supernova remnants in the Lopez sample were taken from the Milky Way and its close neighbor, it is possible this technique could be extended to remnants at even greater distances. For example, large, bright supernova remnants in the galaxy M33 could be included in future studies to determine the types of supernova that generated them. The paper describing these results appeared in the November 20 issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science

  4. PREFACE: 5th International Workshop DICE2010: Space-Time-Matter - Current Issues in Quantum Mechanics and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diósi, Lajos; Elze, Hans-Thomas; Fronzoni, Leone; Halliwell, Jonathan; Prati, Enrico; Vitiello, Giuseppe; Yearsley, James

    2011-07-01

    Fronzoni, J J Halliwell, E Prati, G Vitiello and J Yearsley. The proceedings essentially follow the order of presentation during the conference program, however, divided into Invited Lectures and Contributed Papers. (We regret that lectures by D Bouwmeester, G G Guerreschi, G C Ghirardi and C Kiefer could not be reproduced here, partly for copyright reasons.) In the name of all the participants, we would like to thank S Toms and G Douglas, and their collaborators at IOP Publishing (Bristol) for their friendly advice and most valuable and immediate help during the editing process and, especially, for their continuing efforts to make the Journal of Physics: Conference Series available to all. Budapest, Pisa, London, Milano and Salerno, May 2011 Lajos Diósi, Hans-Thomas Elze, Leone Fronzoni, Jonathan Halliwell, Enrico Prati, Guiseppe Vitiello and James Yearsley [1] Elze H-T (ed) 2004 Decoherence and Entropy in Complex Systems Lecture Notes in Physics 633 (Berlin: Springer) [2] Elze H-T (ed) 2005 Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Decoherence, Information, Complexity and Entropy - DICE 2004 Braz. Journ. Phys. 35 2A and B pp 205-529free access at: www.sbfisica.org.br/bjp[3] Elze H-T, Diósi L, Fronzoni L, Halliwell J J and Vitiello (eds) 2007 Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Decoherence, Information, Complexity and Entropy - DICE 2006 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 67free access at: www.iop.org/EJ/toc/1742-6596/67/1[4] Elze H-T, Diósi L, Fronzoni L, Halliwell J J and G Vitiello (eds) 2009 Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Decoherence, Information, Complexity and Entropy - DICE 2008 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 174free access at: www.iop.org/EJ/toc/1742-6596/67/1

  5. Acceptabilité du test VIH proposé aux nourrissons dans les services pédiatriques, en Côte d'Ivoire, Significations pour la couverture du diagnostic pédiatrique

    PubMed Central

    Oga, Maxime; Brou, Hermann; Dago-Akribi, Hortense; Coffie, Patrick; Amani-Bossé, Clarisse; Ékouévi, Didier; Yapo, Vincent; Menan, Hervé; Ndondoki, Camille; Timité-Konan, M.; Leroy, Valériane

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Problème: Le dépistage VIH chez les enfants a rarement été au centre des préoccupations des chercheurs. Quand le dépistage pédiatrique a retenu l'attention, cela a été pour éclairer seulement sur les performances diagnostiques en ignorant même que le test pédiatrique comme bien d'autres peut s'accepter ou se refuser. Cet article met au cœur de son analyse les raisons qui peuvent expliquer qu'on accepte ou qu'on refuse de faire dépister son enfant. Objectif: Etudier chez les parents, les mères, les facteurs explicatifs de l'acceptabilité du test VIH des nourrissons de moins de six mois. Méthodes: Entretien semi-directif à passages répétés avec les parents de nourrissons de moins de six mois dans les formations sanitaires pour la pesée/vaccination et les consultations pédiatriques avec proposition systématique d'un test VIH pour leur nourrisson. Résultats: Nous retenons que la réalisation effective du test pédiatrique du VIH chez le nourrisson repose sur trois éléments. Primo, le personnel de santé par son discours (qui dénote de ses connaissances et perceptions même sur l'infection) orienté vers les mères influence leur acceptation ou non du test. Secundo, la mère qui par ses connaissances et perceptions même sur le VIH, dont le statut particulier, l'impression de bien-être chez elle et son enfant influence toute réalisation du test pédiatrique VIH. Tertio, l'environnement conjugal de la mère, particulièrement caractérisé par les rapports au sein du couple, sur la facilité de parler du test VIH et sa réalisation chez les deux parents ou chez la mère seulement sont autant de facteurs qui influencent la réalisation effective du dépistage du VIH chez l'enfant. Le principe préventif du VIH, et le désir de faire tester l'enfant ne suffisent pas à eux seuls pour aboutir à sa réalisation effective, selon certaines mères confrontées au refus du conjoint. A l'opposé, les autres mères refusant la r

  6. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    Mohab Abou ZeidVrije Universiteit, Brussel Joke AdamKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Nikolas AkerblomMax-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Luis Fernando Alday Utrecht University Stelios Alexandris University of Patras Antonio Amariti Università di Milano-Bicocca Nicola Ambrosetti Université de Neuchâtel Pascal Anastasopoulos Università di Roma Tor Vergata Laura Andrianopoli Enrico Fermi Center Carlo Angelantonj Università di Torino Lilia Anguelova Queen Mary, University of London Daniel AreanUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Gleb ArutyunovUtrecht University Spyros Avramis NTU Athens—University of Patras Ioannis Bakas University of Patras Subrata Bal Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies Igor Bandos Valencia University Jessica Barrett University of Iceland Marco Baumgartl Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Jacopo Bechi Università di Firenze James Bedford Queen Mary, University of London Jorge Bellorin Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Francesco Benini SISSA, Trieste Eric Bergshoeff Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Gaetano BertoldiUniversity of Wales, Swansea Adel Bilal Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Matthias Blau Université de Neuchâtel Johannes BroedelUniversität Hannover Felix Brümmer Universität Heidelberg Julio Cesar Bueno de Andrade São Paulo State University—UNESP Cliff Burgess McMaster University Agostino Butti Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Marco Caldarelli Universitat de Barcelona Pablo G Camara Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Joan Camps Universitat de Barcelona Felipe Canoura FernandezUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Luigi Cappiello Università di Napoli Federico II Luca Carlevaro École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Roberto Casero Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Claudio Caviezel Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Alessio Celi Universitat de Barcelona Anna

  7. PREFACE: Particles and Fields: Classical and Quantum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asorey, M.; Clemente-Gallardo, J.; Marmo, G.

    2007-07-01

    BERETTA, Gian Paolo: Università di Brescia, Italy BHAMATHI, Gopalakrishnan: University of Texas at Austin, USA BOYA, Luis Joaquín: Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain CARIÑENA, José F.: Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain CELEGHINI, Enrico: Università di Firenze & INFN, Italy CHRUSCINSKI, Dariusz: Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, Poland CIRILO-LOMBARDO, Diego: Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics (JINR-Dubna), Russia CLEMENTE-GALLARDO, Jesus: BIFI-Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain DE LUCAS, Javier: Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain FALCETO, Fernando: Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain GINOCCHIO, Joseph: Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA GORINI, Vittorio: Universitá' dell' Insubria, Como, Italy INDURAIN, Javier: Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain KLAUDER, John: University of Florida, USA KOSSAKOWSKI, Andrzej: Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, Poland MARMO, Giuseppe: Università di Napoli Federico II, Italy MORANDI, Giuseppe: Universitá di Bologna-Italy MUKUNDA, Narasimhaiengar: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India MUÑOZ-CASTAÑEDA, Jose M.: University of Zaragoza, Spain NAIR, RANJIT: Centre for Philosophy & Foundations of Science, New Delhi, India NILSSON, Jan S: University of Gothenburg, Sweden OKUBO, Susumu: University of Rochester, USA PASCAZIO, Saverio: Universitá di Bari, Italy RIVERA HERNÁNDEZ, Rayito: Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France RODRIGUEZ, Cesar: University of Texas - Austin, USA SCOLARICI, Giuseppe: Universitá del Salento, Lecce, Italy SEGUI, Antonio

  8. New Adaptive Optics Technique Demonstrated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    Enrico Marchetti, the MAD Project Manager. "The system behaviour was very stable and the acquisition and closed loop operations were fast and smooth." ESO PR Photo 19d/07 ESO PR Photo 19d/07 AO Strehl Maps After routine checks on the closed loop stability and preliminary scans of the system parameters, the telescope was pointed to Omega Centauri, a very crowded area in the sky, and an optimal test case for extracting accurate measurements on AO correction performance with good spatial resolution on the FoV. Three 11 magnitude stars within a circle of ~1.5 arcmin diameter were selected as the baseline for wavefront sensing and the MCAO loop was closed successfully. Omega Centauri will be observed for several nights more, in order to test the AO correction in different seeing conditions. "This is a tremendous achievement that opens new perspectives in the era of extremely large telescopes," said Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General. " "I am very proud of the ESO staff and wish to congratulate all involved for their prowess," she added. The MAD images perfectly show the validity of the concept. The image quality was almost uniform over the whole field of view and beautifully corrected for some of the atmospheric turbulence. More Information The Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) Demonstrator MAD was built by ESO in collaboration with the Astronomical Observatories of Arcetri and Padova (Italy) and the Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal), as a pathfinder for 2nd generation VLT instrumentation and the European Extremely Large Telescope project. The MCAO technique is based on probing the atmospheric turbulence on a large volume of atmosphere by means of several wavefront sensors (WFS), which point at different locations in the observed field of view, and by means of several deformable mirrors - optically conjugated at different altitudes on the atmosphere above the telescope - which correct for the atmospheric disturbance. The signals provided

  9. a Passage to the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    Brussel, Campus Ofenplein, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels, Tel. 0032-2-6293469, Fax 0032-9-3623976, E-mail csterken@is1.vub.ac.be Denmark: Mr. B. F. Joergensen, Tycho Brahe Planetariet, Gl. Kongevej 10, DK-1610 Copenhagen V, Tel. 0045-33-144888, Fax 0045-33-142888, E-mail tycho@inet.uni-c.dk Finland: Mr. M. Hotakainen, Taehtitieteellinen Yhdistys Ursa, Laivanvarustajankatu 9C 54, FIN-00140 Helsinki, Tel. 00358-0-174048, Fax 00358-0-657728 France: Mr. B. Pellequer, Geospace d'Aniane, Boite Postale 22, F-34150 Aniane, Tel. 0033-6-7034949, Fax 0033-6-7752864 Germany: Dr. K.-H. Lotze, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena, Germany, Tel. +49-3641-635904/636654, Fax +49-3641-636728 Greece: Dr. D. Simopoulos, Eugenides Foundation, Astronomy Department, 387 Sygrou Avenue, Palaio Faliro, GR-175 64 Athens, Tel. 0030-1-941-1181, Fax 0030-1-941-7372 Ireland: Dr. I. Elliot, Dunsink Observatory (Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), Castleknock, Dublin 15, Tel. 00353-1- 838-7911/7959, Fax 00353-1-8387090, E-mail ie@dunsink.dias.ie Italy: Dr. B. Monsignori Fossi, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Tel. 0039-55-2752246, Fax 0039-55-220039, E-mail bmonsignori@arcetri.astro.it The Netherlands: Dr. M. Drummen, Stichting `De Koepel', Zonnenburg 2, NL-3512 NL Utrecht, Tel. 0031-30-311360, Fax 0031-30-342852, E-mail dekoepel@knoware.nl Spain: Dr. A. Sanchez/Dr. T. Fernandez, Planetario de Madrid, Parque Tierno Galvan, E-28045 Madrid, Tel. 0034-1-4673578, Fax 0034-1-4681154, E-mail tfc@vilspa.esa.es Sweden: Dr. K. Loden, Stockholms Observatorium, S-133 36 Saltsjoebaden, Tel. 0046-8-164454, Fax 0046-8-7174719, E-mail lodenk@astro.su.se United Kingdom: Dr. A. M. Cohen, c/o The Association for Astronomy Education, 9 Hurst Lane, Bollington, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 5LN, England Notes: [1] See ESO Press Releases 08/93 of 5 November 1993 and 17/94

  10. The general circulation in the eastern Algerian subbasin inferred from the ELISA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubertin, E.; Millot, C.; Taupier-Letage, I.; Albérola, C.; Robin, S.; Font, J.

    2003-04-01

    relationships with both the bathymetry and the AE's dynamics are under study Albérola C., S. Rousseau, C. Millot, M. Astraldi, J. Font, J. Garcia-Lafuente, G.P. Gasparini, U. Send and A. Vangriesheim, 1995. Tidal currents in the interior of the Western Mediterranean Sea. Oceanol. Acta, 18, 2, 273-284. Bouzinac C., J. Font and C. Millot, 1999. Hydrology and currents observed in the channel of Sardinia during the PRIMO-1 experiment from November 1993 to October 1994. J. Mar. Systems, 20, 1-4, 333-355. Fuda J.-L., C. Millot, I. Taupier-Letage, U. Send and J.M. Bocognano, 2000. XBT monitoring of a meridian section across the Western Mediterranean Sea. Deep-Sea Res., I 47, 2191-2218. Millot C., 1994. Models and data: a synergetic approach in the western Mediterranean Sea. Erice School Proceedings,"Ocean Processes in Climate Dynamics: Global and Mediterranean Examples", P. Malanotte-Rizzoli and A.R. Robinson eds, 407-425. Millot C., I. Taupier-Letage and M. Benzohra, 1997. Circulation off Algeria inferred from the Médiprod-5 current meters. Deep-Sea Res., 44, 9-10, 1467-1495. Obaton D., C. Millot, G. Chabert D'Hières and I. Taupier-Letage, 2000. The Algerian Current: comparisons between in situ and laboratory measurements. Deep-Sea Res., I 47, 2159-2190. Puillat I., I.Taupier-Letage and C. Millot. Algerian eddies lifetimes can near 3 years, 2002. Journal of Marine Syst., 31, 4, 245-259. Ruiz S., J. Font, M.Emelianov, J. Isern-Fontanet, C. Millot and I. Taupier-Letage, 2002. Deep structure of an open sea eddy in the Algerian Basin. J. Mar. Sys., 33-34, 179-195. Testor P., 2002. Etude lagrangienne de circulations tourbillonnaires de subméso et méso échelle en Méditerranée occidentale sur la base d'observations et de simulations numériques : phénoménologie et interaction avec la circulation générale. Thèse de Doctorat d'Université, Paris 6.

  11. The Dark Side of Nature: the Crime was Almost Perfect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Klose (Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Germany), Jean-Baptiste Marquette (Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, France), Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz (Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, USA), Paul M. Vreeswijk (ESO and Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile), and Ralph A. M. Wijers (Astronomical Institute 'Anton Pannekoek', University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands).

  12. PREFACE: Proceedings of the International School and Workshop 'Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 2006' (University of Rome Tor Vergata and the Catholic University of Rome, 6 9 November 2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, Stefano

    2007-10-01

    adsorption) aimed to enhance promonocytic cells adhesion and spatial confinement, and micro-patterning of polymer surfaces (by controlled ion irradiation on stripes of given dimensions) to obtain alignment and controlled positioning of adherent fibroblasts. The first may be important for biosensing, the latter in preparing cell-based integrated circuits, hence having an impact both in biomedicine, particularly in regenerative medicine (including tissue engineering), and in BioMEMS applications. Enrico Sabbioni (European Commission, DG JRC, Italy) introduced the topic of nanotoxicological research, emphasizing the urgent need for a safe, integrated and responsible European strategy for nanotechnology. Lina Ghibelli (University of Rome Tor Vergata) starting from the concern about possible harmful effect of nanotubes on health, which appears justified also because of the knowledge that nanotubes react with important classes of biological molecules, such as DNA and peptides, demonstrated a deep effect of multiwall carbon nanotubes on cell viability and differentiation, providing evidence that the mechanisms involved include alteration of the cell cycle, redox alterations and mitochondrial and cytoskeletal alterations. Cellular interactions with engineered nanoparticles are dependent on many variables, some inherent to the nanoparticle (size, shape, surface reactivity, degradation, agglomeration/dispersal, and charge) and some due to the inherent properties of the cells or tissues responding to the nanoparticle (cell type; cell surface interactions with the nanoparticle; whether cellular membranes have pores that allow or block passage of nanoparticles, cellular enzyme degradation of the outer protective surface revealing a toxic nanoparticle core; cellular storage of nanoparticles or degradation products (bioaccumulation), within the cell ultimately causing the cell's death). Functionalization and shorter exposure times increased biocompatibility; however, nanoparticle size and

  13. Obituary: Gerald Frederick Tape, 1915-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Robert E.

    2007-12-01

    few years later, he returned to IAEA as a member of its Scientific Advisory Committee. In the early seventies he became a member of the President's Scientific Advisory Committee (PSAC) and also a member and chair of the Defense Science Board (DSB). For many years he was a member and chair of The Nuclear Intelligence Panel (NIP) of the Central Intelligence Agency. Continuing to serve his country, Jerry soon accepted membership on The General Advisory Committee (GAC) of the Energy Research and Development Administration and in his later years worked as a consultant for the Defense Nuclear Safety Board. Jerry did not limit himself to serving government institutions and agencies. For more than thirty years he was a Director of Science Service Inc., the organization that so successfully operated the annual Science Talent Search that challenged and energized science-oriented youths around the nation. His long association with the program reflected the great pleasure he found in the annual opportunity to interact with these exceptional young budding scientists. The list goes on: the Advisory Council of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the University of Chicago Board of Governors for Argonne National Lab, and the Atomic Industrial Forum. Each of these efforts, and others, can be described both as a labor of love and as a fulfillment of a sense of duty. These contributions did not go unnoticed or unappreciated. Jerry's life was adorned with a stream of accolades, citations, and awards. A short listing will illuminate the respect he commanded for a broad range of achievements: Army-Navy Certificate of Achievement, Meritorious Civilian Service Medal from the Secretary of Defense, Department of Defense Medal for Public Service, Henry DeWolf Smyth Nuclear Statesman Award, Distinguished Public Service Award NSF, Distinguished Associate Award DOE, Enrico Fermi Award DOE, Fellow of the American Physical Society, and Member of the National Academy of Engineering.

  14. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    Università di Napoli Federico II Elena Méndez Escobar University of Edinburgh Iulian Negru University of Craiova Emil NissimovInstitute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia Teake NutmaCentre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Niels Obers Niels Bohr Institute, København Olof Ohlsson SaxUppsala University Rodrigo OleaIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano Domenico OrlandoUniversité de Neuchâtel Marta Orselli Niels Bohr Institute, København Tomas OrtinInstituto de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Yaron OzTel Aviv University Enrico PajerLudwig-Maximilians-Universität, München Angel Paredes GalanUtrecht University Sara PasquettiUniversité de Neuchâtel Silvia PenatiUniversità di Milano-Bicocca Jan PerzKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Igor PesandoUniversità di Torino Tassos PetkouUniversity of Crete Marios PetropoulosCenter de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Franco PezzellaIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli Moises Picon PonceUniversity of Padova Marco PirroneUniversità di Milano-Bicocca Andrea PrinslooUniversity of Cape Town Joris RaeymaekersKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Alfonso RamalloUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Carlo Alberto RattiUniversità di Milano-Bicocca Marco RauchPhysikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn Ronald Reid-EdwardsUniversity of Hamburg Patricia RitterUniversity of Edinburgh Peter RoenneDESY, Hamburg Jan RosseelUniversità di Torino Clement RuefService de Physique Théorique, CEA Saclay Felix RustMax-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Thomas RyttovNiels Bohr Institute, København and CERN, Geneva Agustin Sabio VeraCERN, Geneva Christian SaemannTrinity College, Dublin Houman Safaai SISSA, Trieste Henning SamtlebenÉcole Normale Supérieure, Lyon Alberto SantambrogioIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano Silviu Constantin SararuUniversity of Craiova Ricardo SchiappaCERN, Geneva Ionut Romeo SchiopuChalmers University, G

  15. EDITORIAL: Focus on Molecular Electronics FOCUS ON MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Elke; Reineker, Peter

    2008-06-01

    . The differences are ascribed to the amount of charge transfer into C60 upon adsorption on different surfaces. In summary, in the field of molecular electronics new materials and structures are developed and investigated, both with respect to a basic understanding of the materials and their compositions and with respect to possible applications in electronics. While in the field of molecular electronics on the microscale the techniques are well established, they still need to be refined in the field of nano-molecular electronics. Nevertheless, both subfields share some of the most challenging questions: e.g. the problems of charge and energy transport, of excitations and the formation of new quasi-particles. Another question is the role of vibrational degrees of freedom, where on the one hand one has to cope with the unavoidable effect of heat dissipation. On the other hand, vibrational excitations are intimately connected to the individual molecule under study and thus offer the possibility to be used in functional devices based on intrinsic molecular properties. This Focus Issue represents a snapshot of the state of the art of this emerging field in the first half of 2008. We expect that the fast development which the research has undergone in recent years will even speed up in the near future. References [1] Pope M and Sweenberg Ch E 1999 Electronic Processes in Organic Crystals and Polymers 2nd edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press) [2] Silinsh E A and Capek V 1994 Organic Molecular Crystals (New York: AIP Press) [3] Agranovich V M and La Rocca G C 2002 Organic Nanostructures: Science and Applications, Proc. Int. School of Physics 'Enrico Fermi', Course CXLIX (Amsterdam: IOS Press) [4] Schwoerer M and Wolf H C 2007 Organic Molecular Solids (Weinheim: Wiley-VCH) [5] Cuniberti G, Fagas G and Richter K (ed) 2005 Introducing Molecular Electronics, Lecture Notes in Physics (Berlin: Springer) [6] Reed M and Lee T 2003 Molecular Nanoelectronics (Stevenson Ranch, CA

  16. SINFONI Opens with Upbeat Chords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    the massive black hole at the Galactic Centre, with crucial information on the nature of the individual stars and their motions (Appendix C), * images and spectra of the heavily dust-obscured, active centre of the Circinus galaxy, one of the closest active galaxies, showing ordered rotation in this area and distinct broad and narrow components of the spectral line of Ca7+-ions (Appendix D), * images and spectra of the less obscured central area of NGC 7469, a more distant active galaxy, with spectral lines of molecular hydrogen and carbon monoxide showing a very different distribution of these species (Appendix E), * images and spectra of the Infrared Luminous Galaxy (ULIRG) NGC 6240, a typical galaxy merger, displaying important differences between the two nuclei (Appendix F), and * images and spectra of the young starforming galaxies BX 404/405, casting more light on the formation of disks in spiral galaxies (Appendix G) The SINFONI Teams ESO PR Photo 24g/04 ESO PR Photo 24g/04 Members of the SINFONI Adaptive Optics Commissioning Team [Preview - JPEG: 646 x 400 pix - 198k] [Normal - JPEG: 1291 x 800 pix - 618k] ESO PR Photo 24h/04 ESO PR Photo 24h/04 Members of the SPIFFI Commissioning Team [Preview - JPEG: 491 x 400 pix - 193k] [Normal - JPEG: 982 x 800 pix - 482k] Captions: ESO PR Photo 24g/04 Members of the SINFONI Adaptice Optics Commissioning Team in the VLT Control Room in the night between June 7 - 8, 2004. From left to right and top to bottom: Thomas Szeifert, Sebastien Tordo, Stefan Stroebele, Jerome Paufique, Chris Lidman, Robert Donaldson, Enrico Fedrigo, Markus Kissler Patig, Norbert Hubin, Henri Bonnet. ESO PR Photo 24h/04: Members of the SPIFFI Commissioning Team on August 17. From left to right, Roberto Abuter, Frank Eisenhauer, Andrea Gilbert and Matthew Horrobin. The first SINFONI results have been greeted with enthusiasm, in particular by the team of astronomers and engineers from the consortium of German and Dutch institutes and ESO who worked on

  17. Sharper and Deeper Views with MACAO-VLTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    this, indicating that guide stars of this magnitude are feasible during future observations. ESO PR Photo 12g/03 ESO PR Photo 12g/03 [Preview - JPEG: 528 x 400 pix - 48k [Normal - JPEG: 1055 x 800 pix - 542k] Captions : PR Photo 12g/03 shows some of the MACAO-VLTI commissioning team members in the VLT Control Room at the moment of "First Light" during the night between April 18-19, 2003. Sitting: Markus Kasper, Enrico Fedrigo - Standing: Robin Arsenault, Sebastien Tordo, Christophe Dupuy, Toomas Erm, Jason Spyromilio, Rob Donaldson (all from ESO). PR Photos 12b-c/03 show the first image in the infrared K-band (wavelength 2.2 µm) of a star (visual magnitude 10) obtained without and with image corrections by means of adaptive optics. PR Photo 12d/03 displays one of the best images obtained with MACAO-VLTI during the early tests. It shows a Strehl ratio (measure of light concentration) that fulfills the specifications according to which MACAO-VLTI was built. This enormous improvement when using AO techniques is clearly demonstrated in PR Photo 12e/03 , with the uncorrected image profile (left) hardly visible when compared to the corrected profile (right). PR Photo 11f/03 demonstrates the correction capabilities of MACAO-VLTI when using a faint guide star. Tests using different spectral types showed that the limiting visual magnitude varies between 16 for early-type B-stars and about 18 for late-type M-stars. Astronomical Objects seen at the Diffraction Limit The following examples of MACAO-VLTI observations of two well-known astronomical objects were obtained in order to provisionally evaluate the research opportunities now opening with MACAO-VLTI. They may well be compared with space-based images. The Galactic Center ESO PR Photo 12h/03 ESO PR Photo 12h/03 [Preview - JPEG: 693 x 400 pix - 46k [Normal - JPEG: 1386 x 800 pix - 403k] Caption : PR Photo 12h/03 shows a 90-second K-band exposure of the central 6 x 13 arcsec 2 around the Galactic Center obtained by MACAO

  18. UVES Analyses the Universe: A First Portfolio of Most Promising Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-04-01

    holes are present at the centres of most galaxies and that they constitute the hidden engines of the observable phenomena related to the Active Galactic Nuclei . But which fraction of galaxies do possess such holes and what is the distribution of masses and the relation to the other galaxy parameters, as the mass of the bulge, the total mass? This is another fertile research field to which ESO's new spectrograph can provide very valuable contributions. An UVES spectrum was obtained of the nucleus of the spiral galaxy NGC 7782 , which is located in the southern constellation Pisces (The Fishes) at a distance of about 250 million light-years (74.8 Mpc). It unveils the presence of a central gaseous component that revolves around a mass concentration at the centre of the galaxy. The two-dimensional shape of the spectral emission lines, cf. PR Photo 09e/00 , provides detailed information about the gas velocities (ordinate) at a given position in the galaxy (abscissa). At the high spatial and velocity resolution achievable with UVES , it is possible put constraints on the mass of the central supermassive black hole in this galaxy. The upper limit is estimated at 50 million solar masses, a relatively small value for such an object. With the achievable accuracy, UVES would certainly be able to detect and measure even less massive black holes. This observation illustrates how the high-resolution capabilities of UVES , combined with the large light-collecting power of the VLT, makes it a prime instrument to extend demographic studies of super-massive black holes in galaxies, for instance in order to better define the relation between their mass and those of the spheroidal components of the host galaxy. This relation offers strong clues to galaxy formation and evolution. An extensive discussion of these results will be given in a research paper by Francesco Bertola , Michele Cappellari , Enrico Corsini , Alessandro Pizzella and Marc Sarzi (University of Padova, Italy) and Jos