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Sample records for enteric protozoa causing

  1. Enteric pathogenic protozoa in homosexual men from San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Ortega, H B; Borchardt, K A; Hamilton, R; Ortega, P; Mahood, J

    1984-01-01

    The prevalence of enteric protozoa was studied in a survey conducted among 150 male homosexual patients in San Francisco. All patients were from a private practice in internal medicine. Each was asked to complete a questionnaire and to submit multiple stool specimens for examination. Of this group, 47% were positive for one or more potentially pathogenic intestinal protozoa; Entamoeba histolytica was found in 36%, Entamoeba hartmanni in 35%, Giardia lamblia in 5%, and Dientamoeba fragilis in 1.3%. Symptoms were unreliable as a diagnostic index of intestinal protozoan infection. Colonization rates could not be correlated with any specific sexual technique. The large number of homosexuals at risk, combined with the potential for difficulties in diagnosis and contact-tracing, indicate the possibility that enteric pathogenic protozoa will cause future health problems in this population. PMID:6087479

  2. Enteric Protozoa in the Developed World: a Public Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Stephanie M.; Stark, Damien; Harkness, John

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Several enteric protozoa cause severe morbidity and mortality in both humans and animals worldwide. In developed settings, enteric protozoa are often ignored as a cause of diarrheal illness due to better hygiene conditions, and as such, very little effort is used toward laboratory diagnosis. Although these protozoa contribute to the high burden of infectious diseases, estimates of their true prevalence are sometimes affected by the lack of sensitive diagnostic techniques to detect them in clinical and environmental specimens. Despite recent advances in the epidemiology, molecular biology, and treatment of protozoan illnesses, gaps in knowledge still exist, requiring further research. There is evidence that climate-related changes will contribute to their burden due to displacement of ecosystems and human and animal populations, increases in atmospheric temperature, flooding and other environmental conditions suitable for transmission, and the need for the reuse of alternative water sources to meet growing population needs. This review discusses the common enteric protozoa from a public health perspective, highlighting their epidemiology, modes of transmission, prevention, and control. It also discusses the potential impact of climate changes on their epidemiology and the issues surrounding waterborne transmission and suggests a multidisciplinary approach to their prevention and control. PMID:22763633

  3. Clinical Significance of Enteric Protozoa in the Immunosuppressed Human Population

    PubMed Central

    Stark, D.; Barratt, J. L. N.; van Hal, S.; Marriott, D.; Harkness, J.; Ellis, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Globally, the number of immunosuppressed people increases each year, with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic continuing to spread unabated in many parts of the world. Immunosuppression may also occur in malnourished persons, patients undergoing chemotherapy for malignancy, and those receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Components of the immune system can be functionally or genetically abnormal as a result of acquired (e.g., caused by HIV infection, lymphoma, or high-dose steroids or other immunosuppressive medications) or congenital illnesses, with more than 120 congenital immunodeficiencies described to date that either affect humoral immunity or compromise T-cell function. All individuals affected by immunosuppression are at risk of infection by opportunistic parasites (such as the microsporidia) as well as those more commonly associated with gastrointestinal disease (such as Giardia). The outcome of infection by enteric protozoan parasites is dependent on absolute CD4+ cell counts, with lower counts being associated with more severe disease, more atypical disease, and a greater risk of disseminated disease. This review summarizes our current state of knowledge on the significance of enteric parasitic protozoa as a cause of disease in immunosuppressed persons and also provides guidance on recent advances in diagnosis and therapy for the control of these important parasites. PMID:19822892

  4. INACTIVATION AND REMOVAL OF ENTERIC PROTOZOA IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Protozoan parasites including Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba can be transmitted through water and cause disease in humans and animals. Control of waterborne infection can be accomplished through a variety of physical and chemical means, resulting in the production of sa...

  5. Enteric protozoa of cats and their zoonotic potential-a field study from Austria.

    PubMed

    Hinney, Barbara; Ederer, Christina; Stengl, Carina; Wilding, Katrin; Štrkolcová, Gabriela; Harl, Josef; Flechl, Eva; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Joachim, Anja

    2015-05-01

    Domestic cats can be infected with a variety of enteric protozoa. Genotyping of protozoan species, especially Giardia as the most common, can improve assessment of their relevance as zoonotic agents. For an overview on the occurrence of feline enteric protozoa, 298 faecal samples of cats from private households, catteries and animal shelters in Austria were collected. All samples were examined by flotation and using a rapid test for Giardia (FASTest). For the detection of Tritrichomonas blagburni, freshly voided faeces (n = 40) were processed using a commercial culturing system (InPouch TF-Feline). Genotyping was done at the β-giardin gene loci (each sample) and triosephosphate isomerase gene loci (positive samples) for Giardia and at the 18S rRNA gene (positive samples) for Cryptosporidium. Thirty-seven samples (12.4%) were positive for Giardia by flotation and/or using a rapid test. Cryptosporidium was present in 1.7%, Cystoisospora in 4.0%, Sarcocystis in 0.3% and T. blagburni in 2.5% of the samples. Genotyping revealed Giardia cati, the potentially zoonotic Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium felis. Most of the infected cats had no diarrhoea. Cats from shelters were significantly more often infected than owned cats (p = 0.01). When comparing Giardia detection methods, the rapid test had a higher sensitivity than flotation. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results were mostly independent from the other two tests. PMID:25762189

  6. First molecular characterization of enteric protozoa and the human pathogenic microsporidian, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, in captive snakes in China.

    PubMed

    Karim, Md Robiul; Yu, Fuchang; Li, Jian; Li, Junqiang; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Rongjun; Rume, Farzana Islam; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Sumei; Ning, Changshen

    2014-08-01

    Enteric protozoa are frequently found in snakes. Nevertheless, few studies regarding genetic characterization of these parasites have been carried out. We describe here the first molecular survey of protozoan pathogens from snakes in China and the first report on Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotyping in snakes in the world. Here, 240 fecal specimens were collected from two species of captive snakes, Naja naja (Indian cobra) and Ptyas mucosus (Oriental rat snake), in Guangxi Province, China, and examined by PCR amplification of the small subunit-ribosomal RNA of enteric protozoa and the internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal RNA of E. bieneusi. Cryptosporidium serpentis was identified in three specimens (2.1%) of Oriental rat snakes. Caryospora was found in 5.4% specimens, including eight from cobras (8.1%) and five from rat snakes (3.6%), and represented six new species-Caryospora sp. SKC-2014a to Caryospora sp. SKC-2014 f. Three new Eimeria species, Eimeria sp. SKE-2014a to Eimeria sp. SKE-2014c, were detected in three specimens (2.1%) from rat snakes. Additionally, Sarcocystis sp. SKS-2014 was detected in one specimen from a cobra. The infection rates of E. bieneusi were 3.0% in cobras and 5.7% in rat snakes. Sequence analysis of 11 PCR products revealed the presence of six E. bieneusi genotypes-two known genotypes (type IV and Henan V) and four new genotypes (CRep-1 to CRep-4). All six E. bieneusi genotypes belonged to the zoonotic group (group 1). This result raised the possibility that E. bieneusi could be present in animals consumed by snakes. This should be taken into consideration to better understand the diversity of the parasite, its transmission through the predator-prey relationship, and public health implications. PMID:24906991

  7. Colonization with the enteric protozoa Blastocystis is associated with increased diversity of human gut bacterial microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Audebert, Christophe; Even, Gaël; Cian, Amandine; Safadi, Dima El; Certad, Gabriela; Delhaes, Laurence; Pereira, Bruno; Nourrisson, Céline; Poirier, Philippe; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Delbac, Frédéric; Morelle, Christelle; Bastien, Patrick; Lachaud, Laurence; Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Botterel, Françoise; Candolfi, Ermanno; Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Morio, Florent; Pomares, Christelle; Rabodonirina, Meja; Loywick, Alexandre; Merlin, Sophie; Viscogliosi, Eric; Chabé, Magali

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in the composition of commensal bacterial populations, a phenomenon known as dysbiosis, are linked to multiple gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, or to infections by diverse enteric pathogens. Blastocystis is one of the most common single-celled eukaryotes detected in human faecal samples. However, the clinical significance of this widespread colonization remains unclear, and its pathogenic potential is controversial. To address the issue of Blastocystis pathogenicity, we investigated the impact of colonization by this protist on the composition of the human gut microbiota. For that purpose, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 48 Blastocystis-colonized patients and 48 Blastocystis-free subjects and performed an Ion Torrent 16S rDNA gene sequencing to decipher the Blastocystis-associated gut microbiota. Here, we report a higher bacterial diversity in faecal microbiota of Blastocystis colonized patients, a higher abundance of Clostridia as well as a lower abundance of Enterobacteriaceae. Our results contribute to suggesting that Blastocystis colonization is usually associated with a healthy gut microbiota, rather than with gut dysbiosis generally observed in metabolic or infectious inflammatory diseases of the lower gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27147260

  8. Colonization with the enteric protozoa Blastocystis is associated with increased diversity of human gut bacterial microbiota.

    PubMed

    Audebert, Christophe; Even, Gaël; Cian, Amandine; Loywick, Alexandre; Merlin, Sophie; Viscogliosi, Eric; Chabé, Magali

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in the composition of commensal bacterial populations, a phenomenon known as dysbiosis, are linked to multiple gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, or to infections by diverse enteric pathogens. Blastocystis is one of the most common single-celled eukaryotes detected in human faecal samples. However, the clinical significance of this widespread colonization remains unclear, and its pathogenic potential is controversial. To address the issue of Blastocystis pathogenicity, we investigated the impact of colonization by this protist on the composition of the human gut microbiota. For that purpose, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 48 Blastocystis-colonized patients and 48 Blastocystis-free subjects and performed an Ion Torrent 16S rDNA gene sequencing to decipher the Blastocystis-associated gut microbiota. Here, we report a higher bacterial diversity in faecal microbiota of Blastocystis colonized patients, a higher abundance of Clostridia as well as a lower abundance of Enterobacteriaceae. Our results contribute to suggesting that Blastocystis colonization is usually associated with a healthy gut microbiota, rather than with gut dysbiosis generally observed in metabolic or infectious inflammatory diseases of the lower gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27147260

  9. Prevalence of enteric protozoa in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men from Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Stark, Damien; Fotedar, Rashmi; van Hal, Sebastian; Beebe, Nigel; Marriott, Deborah; Ellis, John T; Harkness, John

    2007-03-01

    A prospective, comparative study of the prevalence of enteric protozoa was determined among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in Sydney, Australia. A total of 1,868 patients submitted stool specimens; 1,246 were from MSM (628 HIV positive and 618 HIV positive) and 622 from non-MSM were examined over a 36-month period. A total of 651 (52.2%) stool specimens from MSM were positive for protozoa compared with 85 (13%) from non-MSM. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar complex, Entamoeba hartmanni, Iodamoeba butschlii, and Enteromonas hominis detected between MSM and non-MSM (P<0.001). The only notable difference between HIV-negative and HIV-positive MSM was that HIV-infected MSM were found to more likely have a Cryptosporidium parvum infection. Entamoeba histolytica was found in 3 patients, E. dispar in 25, and E. moshkovskii in 17, all of whom were MSM. When compared with a control group, MSM were significantly more likely to harbor intestinal protozoa and have multiple parasites present. The results of this study show high rates of enteric parasites persist in MSM and highlight the importance of testing for intestinal parasites in MSM. This is the first report of E. moshkovskii from MSM. PMID:17360882

  10. Culturing Protozoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  11. Novel Receptor Specificity of Avian Gammacoronaviruses That Cause Enteritis

    PubMed Central

    Ambepitiya Wickramasinghe, I. N.; de Vries, R. P.; Weerts, E. A. W. S.; van Beurden, S. J.; Peng, W.; McBride, R.; Ducatez, M.; Guy, J.; Brown, P.; Eterradossi, N.; Gröne, A.; Paulson, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    known, other viruses of the genus Gammacoronavirus, including those causing enteric disease, are hardly studied. In turkey, guineafowl, and quail, coronaviruses have been reported to be the major causative agent of enteric diseases. Specifically, turkey coronavirus outbreaks have been reported in North America, Europe, and Australia for several decades. Recently, a gammacoronavirus was isolated from guineafowl with fulminating disease. To date, it is not clear why these avian coronaviruses are enteropathogenic, whereas other closely related avian coronaviruses like IBV cause respiratory disease. A comprehensive understanding of the tropism and pathogenicity of these viruses explained by their receptor specificity and receptor expression on tissues was therefore needed. Here, we identify a novel glycan receptor for enteric avian coronaviruses, which will further support the development of vaccines. PMID:26063435

  12. Enteritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... with suspected enteric infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... with diarrhea and malabsorption. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  13. Enteric infection meets intestinal function: how bacterial pathogens cause diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, V. K.; Hodges, Kim; Hecht, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Infectious diarrhoea is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. In bacterium-induced diarrhoea, rapid loss of fluids and electrolytes results from inhibition of the normal absorptive function of the intestine as well as the activation of secretory processes. Advances in the past 10 years in the fields of gastrointestinal physiology, innate immunity and enteric bacterial virulence mechanisms highlight the multifactorial nature of infectious diarrhoea. This Review explores the various mechanisms that contribute to loss of fluids and electrolytes following bacterial infections, and attempts to link these events to specific virulence factors and toxins. PMID:19116615

  14. Enteritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... be caused by: An autoimmune condition such as Crohn's disease Certain drugs, including ibuprofen, naproxen sodium, and cocaine ... may need to take antibiotics. People who have Crohn's disease will often need to take anti-inflammatory medicines. ...

  15. [Malaria and intestinal protozoa].

    PubMed

    Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Cuadros-González, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Malaria is life threatening and requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Incidence and mortality are being reduced in endemic areas. Clinical features are unspecific so in imported cases it is vital the history of staying in a malarious area. The first line treatments for Plasmodium falciparum are artemisinin combination therapies, chloroquine in most non-falciparum and intravenous artesunate if any severity criteria. Human infections with intestinal protozoa are distributed worldwide with a high global morbid-mortality. They cause diarrhea and sometimes invasive disease, although most are asymptomatic. In our environment populations at higher risk are children, including adopted abroad, immune-suppressed, travelers, immigrants, people in contact with animals or who engage in oral-anal sex. Diagnostic microscopic examination has low sensitivity improving with antigen detection or molecular methods. Antiparasitic resistances are emerging lately. PMID:26832999

  16. Tick-borne protozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tick-borne protozoa impose a significant health burden on humans and animals throughout the world. The virulence of tick-borne protozoa, and the geographic distribution of their tick vectors and vertebrate hosts remain in flux as they adapt to changing environmental and climatic conditions. Babesios...

  17. DETECTING CCL-RELATED, EMERGING AND REGULATED WATERBORNE HUMAN PROTOZOA FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pathogenic intestinal protozoa (Giardia, Cryptosporidium) are significant etiological agents in the transmission of waterborne disease. Other emerging protozoa are also likely causes of waterborne disease. Toxoplasma gondii has been implicated in causing waterborne disease in N...

  18. [Actinic enteritis as a cause of digestive bleeding of obscure origin].

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Luis; Guevara, Julissa; Aguilar, Victor; Menéndez, Monica; Bravo, Eduar; Guzman Rojas, Patricia; Pichilingue, Catherina; Zegarra, Arturo; Huerta-Mercado, Jorge; Pinto, José; Prochazka, Ricardo; Valenzuela, Vanessa; Bussalleu, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Chronic actinic enteritis is a malfunction of the small bowel, occurring in the 6 months post-radiotherapy, and it can be manifestated as malabsortion, stenosis, fistula formation, local abscesses, perforation and bleeding, We report a case of an elderly patient who presents an episode of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) secondary to actinic enteritis. She is a 64-year- old female patient with the past medical history of cervical cancer who received radiotherapy and brachytherapy. One year after the treatment, the patient presents a chronic episode of melena and symptomatic anemia and 1 week before the admission she had hematochezia. At admission she has hemodynamic instability with a hemoglobin value of 2.7 gr/dl. We did an upper endoscopy, a colonoscopy and abdomino-pelvic tomography without any findings of the bleeding’s source. Reason why an endoscopic capsule was done, showing bleeding areas in the medial and distal small bowel. The patient had another gastrointestinal bleeding requiring a surgery where they decide to do a resection of the small bowel and a right hemicholectomy. The pathology was compatible with actinic enteritis. The patient after the surgery had a torpid evolution, and finally dies. We describe this case and do a review of all the existent data around the world, because is the first case reported in Peru of an actinic enteritis as a cause of OGIB. PMID:27409093

  19. Anthrax lethal toxin disrupts intestinal barrier function and causes systemic infections with enteric bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chen; Fang, Hui; Xie, Tao; Auth, Roger D; Patel, Nayana; Murray, Patrick R; Snoy, Philip J; Frucht, David M

    2012-01-01

    A variety of intestinal pathogens have virulence factors that target mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, including Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) has specific proteolytic activity against the upstream regulators of MAPKs, the MAPK kinases (MKKs). Using a murine model of intoxication, we show that LT causes the dose-dependent disruption of intestinal epithelial integrity, characterized by mucosal erosion, ulceration, and bleeding. This pathology correlates with an LT-dependent blockade of intestinal crypt cell proliferation, accompanied by marked apoptosis in the villus tips. C57BL/6J mice treated with intravenous LT nearly uniformly develop systemic infections with commensal enteric organisms within 72 hours of administration. LT-dependent intestinal pathology depends upon its proteolytic activity and is partially attenuated by co-administration of broad spectrum antibiotics, indicating that it is both a cause and an effect of infection. These findings indicate that targeting of MAPK signaling pathways by anthrax LT compromises the structural integrity of the mucosal layer, serving to undermine the effectiveness of the intestinal barrier. Combined with the well-described immunosuppressive effects of LT, this disruption of the intestinal barrier provides a potential mechanism for host invasion via the enteric route, a common portal of entry during the natural infection cycle of Bacillus anthracis. PMID:22438953

  20. Symbiosis and Rumen Protozoa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Raymond D.

    1970-01-01

    Protozoa inhabiting the rumen of large grazing animals can be used to illustrate symbiotic animal associations. Gives a key to the ciliates most commonly found, several drawings, and a chart relating rumen fauna to the phylogenetic tree of the hosts. (EB)

  1. Identification of Novel Pathogenicity Loci in Clostridium perfringens Strains That Cause Avian Necrotic Enteritis

    PubMed Central

    Parreira, Valeria R.; Marri, Pradeep R.; Rosey, Everett L.; Gong, Joshua; Songer, J. Glenn; Vedantam, Gayatri; Prescott, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Type A Clostridium perfringens causes poultry necrotic enteritis (NE), an enteric disease of considerable economic importance, yet can also exist as a member of the normal intestinal microbiota. A recently discovered pore-forming toxin, NetB, is associated with pathogenesis in most, but not all, NE isolates. This finding suggested that NE-causing strains may possess other virulence gene(s) not present in commensal type A isolates. We used high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies to generate draft genome sequences of seven unrelated C. perfringens poultry NE isolates and one isolate from a healthy bird, and identified additional novel NE-associated genes by comparison with nine publicly available reference genomes. Thirty-one open reading frames (ORFs) were unique to all NE strains and formed the basis for three highly conserved NE-associated loci that we designated NELoc-1 (42 kb), NELoc-2 (11.2 kb) and NELoc-3 (5.6 kb). The largest locus, NELoc-1, consisted of netB and 36 additional genes, including those predicted to encode two leukocidins, an internalin-like protein and a ricin-domain protein. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and Southern blotting revealed that the NE strains each carried 2 to 5 large plasmids, and that NELoc-1 and -3 were localized on distinct plasmids of sizes ∼85 and ∼70 kb, respectively. Sequencing of the regions flanking these loci revealed similarity to previously characterized conjugative plasmids of C. perfringens. These results provide significant insight into the pathogenetic basis of poultry NE and are the first to demonstrate that netB resides in a large, plasmid-encoded locus. Our findings strongly suggest that poultry NE is caused by several novel virulence factors, whose genes are clustered on discrete pathogenicity loci, some of which are plasmid-borne. PMID:20532244

  2. Identification of novel pathogenicity loci in Clostridium perfringens strains that cause avian necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Lepp, Dion; Roxas, Bryan; Parreira, Valeria R; Marri, Pradeep R; Rosey, Everett L; Gong, Joshua; Songer, J Glenn; Vedantam, Gayatri; Prescott, John F

    2010-01-01

    Type A Clostridium perfringens causes poultry necrotic enteritis (NE), an enteric disease of considerable economic importance, yet can also exist as a member of the normal intestinal microbiota. A recently discovered pore-forming toxin, NetB, is associated with pathogenesis in most, but not all, NE isolates. This finding suggested that NE-causing strains may possess other virulence gene(s) not present in commensal type A isolates. We used high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies to generate draft genome sequences of seven unrelated C. perfringens poultry NE isolates and one isolate from a healthy bird, and identified additional novel NE-associated genes by comparison with nine publicly available reference genomes. Thirty-one open reading frames (ORFs) were unique to all NE strains and formed the basis for three highly conserved NE-associated loci that we designated NELoc-1 (42 kb), NELoc-2 (11.2 kb) and NELoc-3 (5.6 kb). The largest locus, NELoc-1, consisted of netB and 36 additional genes, including those predicted to encode two leukocidins, an internalin-like protein and a ricin-domain protein. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and Southern blotting revealed that the NE strains each carried 2 to 5 large plasmids, and that NELoc-1 and -3 were localized on distinct plasmids of sizes approximately 85 and approximately 70 kb, respectively. Sequencing of the regions flanking these loci revealed similarity to previously characterized conjugative plasmids of C. perfringens. These results provide significant insight into the pathogenetic basis of poultry NE and are the first to demonstrate that netB resides in a large, plasmid-encoded locus. Our findings strongly suggest that poultry NE is caused by several novel virulence factors, whose genes are clustered on discrete pathogenicity loci, some of which are plasmid-borne. PMID:20532244

  3. Epidemiology and Geographical Distribution of Enteric Protozoan Infections in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Stephanie; Caprarelli, Graziella; Merif, Juan; Andresen, David; Hal, Sebastian Van; Stark, Damien; Ellis, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Enteric protozoa are associated with diarrhoeal illnesses in humans; however there are no recent studies on their epidemiology and geographical distribution in Australia. This study describes the epidemiology of enteric protozoa in the state of New South Wales and incorporates spatial analysis to describe their distribution. Design and methods Laboratory and clinical records from four public hospitals in Sydney for 910 patients, who tested positive for enteric protozoa over the period January 2007 - December 2010, were identified, examined and analysed. We selected 580 cases which had residence post code data available, enabling us to examine the geographic distribution of patients, and reviewed the clinical data of 252 patients to examine possible links between protozoa, demographic and clinical features. Results Frequently detected protozoa were Blastocystis spp. (57%), Giardia intestinalis (27%) and Dientamoeba fragilis (12%). The age distribution showed that the prevalence of protozoa decreased with age up to 24 years but increasing with age from 25 years onwards. The geographic provenance of the patients indicates that the majority of cases of Blastocystis (53.1%) are clustered in and around the Sydney City Business District, while pockets of giardiasis were identified in regional/rural areas. The distribution of cases suggests higher risk of protozoan infection may exist for some communities. Conclusions These findings provide useful information for policy makers to design and tailor interventions to target high risk communities. Follow-up investigation into the risk factors for giardiasis in regional/rural areas is needed. Significance for public health This research is significant since it provides the most recent epidemiological update on the common enteric protozoa affecting Australians. It reveals that enteric protozoa cause considerable disease burden in high risk city dwellers, and provides the evidence base for development of targeted

  4. An imported enteric fever caused by a quinolone-resistant Salmonella typhi

    PubMed Central

    Somily, Ali M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that nalidixic acid susceptibility correlates well with the clinical outcome of patients with Salmonella Typhi infection treated with quinolones. We report a case of enteric fever caused by S Typhi in which the isolate was resistant to nalidixic acid, but showed in vitro susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Following treatment with ciprofloxacin, the clinical outcome was not satisfactory and the patient had a relapse. However, after using a higher dose of ciprofloxacin, the patient was cured. We recommend that all Salmonella systemic infections resistant to nalidixic acid with in vitro but decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones be treated with other antibiotics like third-generation cephalosporins or azithromycin. These patients should be closely followed up and observed for further relapse. PMID:20622350

  5. Gastric and enteric phytobezoars caused by ingestion of persimmon in equids.

    PubMed

    Banse, Heidi E; Gilliam, Lyndi L; House, Amanda M; McKenzie, Harold C; Johnson, Philip J; Lopes, Marco A F; Carmichael, Robert J; Groover, Erin S; Lacarrubba, Alison M; Breshears, Melanie A; Brosnahan, Margaret M; Funk, Rebecca; Holbrook, Todd C

    2011-10-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION-13 equids (10 horses, 2 donkeys, and 1 pony) were examined for signs of colic (n = 7), weight loss (6), anorexia (3), and diarrhea (2). Ten equids were evaluated in the fall (September to November). Seven equids had a history of persimmon ingestion. CLINICAL FINDINGS-A diagnosis of phytobezoar caused by persimmon ingestion was made for all equids. Eight equids had gastric persimmon phytobezoars; 5 had enteric persimmon phytobezoars. Gastroscopy or gastroduodenoscopy revealed evidence of persimmon ingestion in 8 of 10 equids in which these procedures were performed. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME-2 of 13 equids were euthanatized prior to treatment. Supportive care was instituted in 11 of 13 equids, including IV administration of fluids (n = 8) and treatment with antimicrobials (5), NSAIDs (5), and gastric acid suppressants (4). Persimmon phytobezoar-specific treatments included dietary modification to a pelleted feed (n = 8); oral or nasogastric administration of cola or diet cola (4), cellulase (2), or mineral oil (2); surgery (4); and intrapersimmon phytobezoar injections with acetylcysteine (1). Medical treatment in 5 of 7 equids resulted in resolution of gastric persimmon phytobezoars. Seven of 8 equids with gastric persimmon phytobezoars and 1 of 5 equids with enteric persimmon phytobezoars survived > 1 year after hospital discharge. CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Historical knowledge of persimmon ingestion in equids with gastrointestinal disease warrants gastroduodenoscopy for evaluation of the presence of persimmon phytobezoars. In equids with gastric persimmon phytobezoars, medical management (including administration of cola or diet cola and dietary modification to a pelleted feed) may allow for persimmon phytobezoar dissolution. PMID:21985354

  6. Evolutionary genetic relationships of clones of Salmonella serovars that cause human typhoid and other enteric fevers.

    PubMed Central

    Selander, R K; Beltran, P; Smith, N H; Helmuth, R; Rubin, F A; Kopecko, D J; Ferris, K; Tall, B D; Cravioto, A; Musser, J M

    1990-01-01

    Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis was employed to measure chromosomal genotypic diversity and evolutionary relationships among 761 isolates of the serovars Salmonella typhi, S. paratyphi A, S. paratyphi B, S. paratyphi C, and S. sendai, which are human-adapted agents of enteric fever, and S. miami and S. java, which are serotypically similar to S. sendai and S. paratyphi B, respectively, but cause gastroenteritis in both humans and animals. To determine the phylogenetic positions of the clones of these forms within the context of the salmonellae of subspecies I, comparative data for 22 other common serovars were utilized. Except for S. paratyphi A and S. sendai, the analysis revealed no close phylogenetic relationships among clones of different human-adapted serovars, which implies convergence in host adaptation and virulence factors. Clones of S. miami are not allied with those of S. sendai or S. paratyphi A, being, instead, closely related to strains of S. panama. Clones of S. paratyphi B and S. java belong to a large phylogenetic complex that includes clones of S. typhimurium, S. heidelberg, S. saintpaul, and S. muenchen. Most strains of S. paratyphi B belong to a globally distributed clone that is highly polymorphic in biotype, bacteriophage type, and several other characters, whereas strains of S. java represent seven diverse lineages. The flagellar monophasic forms of S. java are genotypically more similar to clones of S. typhimurium than to other clones of S. java or S. paratyphi B. Clones of S. paratyphi C are related to those of S. choleraesuis. DNA probing with a segment of the viaB region specific for the Vi capsular antigen genes indicated that the frequent failure of isolates of S. paratyphi C to express Vi antigen is almost entirely attributable to regulatory processes rather than to an absence of the structural determinant genes themselves. Two clones of S. typhisuis are related to those of S. choleraesuis and S. paratyphi C, but a third clone is not

  7. Necrotizing enteritis as a cause of mortality in Laysan albatross, Diomedea immutabilis, chicks on Midway Atoll, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Smith, M.R.; Duncan, R.

    1998-01-01

    A necropsy survey of Laysan albatross, Diomedea immutabilis, chicks on Midway Atoll in June 1993, 1994, and 1995 revealed 54% (21/39), 67% (49/71), and 93% (15/16), respectively, to have enteritis as the most severe pathologic finding. The lesion was limited to the ileum, ceca, and large intestine. We were unable to attribute a single infectious etiology to this lesion. Many birds with enteritis also exhibited renal lesions similar to those encountered in chickens experimentally deprived of water. We propose that enteritis is a significant cause of mortality in Laysan albatross chicks on Midway and that it may be a sequela to dehydration. It is likely that the pathology of dehydration in Laysan albatross differs from that in chickens largely because of diet.

  8. The rise of model protozoa.

    PubMed

    Montagnes, David; Roberts, Emily; Lukeš, Julius; Lowe, Chris

    2012-04-01

    It is timely to evaluate the role of protozoa as model organisms given their diversity, abundance and versatility as well as the economic and ethical pressures placed on animal-based experimentation. We first define the term model organism and then examine through examples why protozoa make good models. Our examples reflect major issues including evolution, ecology, population and community biology, disease, the role of organelles, ageing, space travel, toxicity and teaching. We conclude by recognising that although protozoa may in some cases not completely mimic tissue- or whole-animal-level processes, they are extremely flexible and their use should be embraced. Finally, we offer advice on obtaining emergent model protozoa. PMID:22342867

  9. Galectin-3 causes enteric neuronal loss in mice after left sided permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, a model of stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiaowen; Boza-Serrano, Antonio; Turesson, Michelle Foldschak; Deierborg, Tomas; Ekblad, Eva; Voss, Ulrikke

    2016-01-01

    In addition to brain injury stroke patients often suffer gastrointestinal complications. Neuroimmune interactions involving galectin-3, released from microglia in the brain, mediates the post-stroke pro-inflammatory response. We investigated possible consequences of stroke on the enteric nervous system and the involvement of galectin-3. We show that permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) induces loss of enteric neurons in ileum and colon in galectin-3+/+, but not in galectin-3−/−, mice. In vitro we show that serum from galectin-3+/+, but not from galectin-3−/−, mice subjected to pMCAO, caused loss of C57BL/6J myenteric neurons, while myenteric neurons derived from TLR4−/− mice were unaffected. Further purified galectin-3 (10−6 M) caused loss of cultured C57BL/6J myenteric neurons. Inhibitors of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) or AMP activated kinase (AMPK) counteracted both the purified galectin-3 and the galectin-3+/+ pMCAO serum-induced loss in vitro. Combined we show that stroke (pMCAO) triggers central and peripheral galectin-3 release causing enteric neuronal loss through a TLR4 mediated mechanism involving TAK1 and AMPK. Galectin-3 is suggested a target for treatment of post-stroke complications. PMID:27612206

  10. Galectin-3 causes enteric neuronal loss in mice after left sided permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, a model of stroke.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaowen; Boza-Serrano, Antonio; Turesson, Michelle Foldschak; Deierborg, Tomas; Ekblad, Eva; Voss, Ulrikke

    2016-01-01

    In addition to brain injury stroke patients often suffer gastrointestinal complications. Neuroimmune interactions involving galectin-3, released from microglia in the brain, mediates the post-stroke pro-inflammatory response. We investigated possible consequences of stroke on the enteric nervous system and the involvement of galectin-3. We show that permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) induces loss of enteric neurons in ileum and colon in galectin-3(+/+), but not in galectin-3(-/-), mice. In vitro we show that serum from galectin-3(+/+), but not from galectin-3(-/-), mice subjected to pMCAO, caused loss of C57BL/6J myenteric neurons, while myenteric neurons derived from TLR4(-/-) mice were unaffected. Further purified galectin-3 (10(-6) M) caused loss of cultured C57BL/6J myenteric neurons. Inhibitors of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) or AMP activated kinase (AMPK) counteracted both the purified galectin-3 and the galectin-3(+/+) pMCAO serum-induced loss in vitro. Combined we show that stroke (pMCAO) triggers central and peripheral galectin-3 release causing enteric neuronal loss through a TLR4 mediated mechanism involving TAK1 and AMPK. Galectin-3 is suggested a target for treatment of post-stroke complications. PMID:27612206

  11. New strain of mouse hepatitis virus as the cause of lethal enteritis in infant mice.

    PubMed Central

    Hierholzer, J C; Broderson, J R; Murphy, F A

    1979-01-01

    A new strain of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) was isolated from pooled gut suspensions from an epizootic of lethal enteritis in newborn mice. Negative-contrast electron microscopy showed an abundance of coronavirus particles in the intestinal contents and intestinal epithelium of moribund mice. We found no other virus in the epizootic. Dams seroconverted to MHV polyvalent antigen and to the agent isolated, but did not develop antibodies to other known mouse pathogens. Virus propagated in NCTC-1469 tissue culture produced enteric disease in suckling mice but not fatal diarrhea; the dams of these mice also developed antibodies to MHV and to the isolates. By complement fixation, single radial hemolysis, and quantal neutralization tests, we found the isolates antigenically most closely related to MHV-S, unilaterally related to MHV-JHM, and more distantly related to MHV-1, MHV-3, MHV-A59, and human coronavirus OC-43. We also studied cross-reactions among the murine and human coronaviruses in detail. Tissues of infected newborn mice were examined by light microscopy, thin-section electron microscopy, and frozen-section indirect immunofluorescence, revealing that viral antigen, virus particles, and pathological changes were limited to the intestinal tract. We have designated our isolates as MHV-S/CDC. Images PMID:222687

  12. Protein trafficking in kinetoplastid protozoa.

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, C; Häusler, T; Blattner, J

    1995-01-01

    The kinetoplastid protozoa infect hosts ranging from invertebrates to plants and mammals, causing diseases of medical and economic importance. They are the earliest-branching organisms in eucaryotic evolution to have either mitochondria or peroxisome-like microbodies. Investigation of their protein trafficking enables us to identify characteristics that have been conserved throughout eucaryotic evolution and also reveals how far variations, or alternative mechanisms, are possible. Protein trafficking in kinetoplastids is in many respects similar to that in higher eucaryotes, including mammals and yeasts. Differences in signal sequence specificities exist, however, for all subcellular locations so far examined in detail--microbodies, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum--with signals being more degenerate, or shorter, than those of their higher eucaryotic counterparts. Some components of the normal array of trafficking mechanisms may be missing in most (if not all) kinetoplastids: examples are clathrin-coated vesicles, recycling receptors, and mannose 6-phosphate-mediated lysosomal targeting. Other aspects and structures are unique to the kinetoplastids or are as yet unexplained. Some of these peculiarities may eventually prove to be weak points that can be used as targets for chemotherapy; others may turn out to be much more widespread than currently suspected. PMID:7565409

  13. [Carriers and excretors of protozoa].

    PubMed

    Eckert, J

    1993-02-01

    Causative agents of intestinal infections in humans are about 10 pathogenic or facultative pathogenic species of protozoa of which Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium parvum and Enterozytozoon bieneusi are discussed. G. lamblia from humans is morphologically indistinguishable from Giardia isolates originating from several species of domestic and wild mammals. Swiss Giardia isolates of human, sheep, cattle and dog origin could be transmitted to Giardia-free rodents and were rather homogenous in biochemical parameters. These data support the hypothesis that zoonotic transmission of Giardia may occur. Routine faecal examinations in Zürich in 1991 revealed 3.61% of Giardia excretors among 5017 examined patients. Of the same group of persons 3.95% excreted E. histolytica. At present it is anticipated that the species E. histolytica consists of invasive and non-invasive strains which can be differentiated by isoenzyme electrophoresis. The confirmation of this assumption could deeply influence the opinion about medical and epidemiological significance of Entamoeba infections. Cryptosporidium parvum is an important cause of diarrhea in HIV-infected patients. Person-to-person, zonnotic and waterborne transmission may play a role. A short review of new data on Enterozytozoon bieneusi and other microsporidia is presented. E. bieneusi appears to be an important causative agent of diarrhea in HIV-infected persons. PMID:8333895

  14. 2013 European Guideline on the management of proctitis, proctocolitis and enteritis caused by sexually transmissible pathogens.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Henry J C; Zingoni, Adele; White, John A; Ross, Jonathan D C; Kreuter, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    Proctitis is defined as an inflammatory syndrome of the distal 10-12 cm of the anal canal, also called the rectum. Infectious proctitis can be sexually transmitted via genital-anal mucosal contact, but some also via mutual masturbation.N. gonorrhoeae,C. trachomatis(including lymphogranuloma venereum), Herpes Simplex Virus andT. pallidumare the most common sexually transmitted anorectal pathogens. Shigellosis can be transferred via oral-anal contact and may lead to proctocolitis or enteritis. Although most studies on these infections have concentrated on men who have sex with men (MSM), a significant proportion of women have anal intercourse and therefore may also be at risk. A presumptive clinical diagnosis of proctitis can be made when there are symptoms and signs, and a definitive diagnosis when the results of laboratory tests are available. The symptoms of proctitis include anorectal itching, pain, cramps (tenesmus) and discharge in and around the anal canal. Asymptomatic proctitis occurs frequently and can only be detected by laboratory tests. The majority of rectal chlamydia and gonococcal infections are asymptomatic. Therefore when there is a history of receptive anal contact, exclusion of anorectal infections is generally indicated as part of standard screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Condom use does not guarantee protection from bacterial and protozoan STIs, which are often spread without penile penetration. PMID:24352129

  15. The Protozoa, A Kingdom By Default?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Will H.; Powell, Martha J.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in the concepts of kingdoms of organisms are substantial and Protozoa is loosely characterized. Presents a case explaining how Protozoa interface with other kingdoms of organisms now recognized. (Contains 55 references.) (ASK)

  16. NetB, a New Toxin That Is Associated with Avian Necrotic Enteritis Caused by Clostridium perfringens

    PubMed Central

    Keyburn, Anthony L; Boyce, John D; Vaz, Paola; Bannam, Trudi L; Ford, Mark E; Parker, Dane; Di Rubbo, Antonio; Rood, Julian I; Moore, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    For over 30 years a phospholipase C enzyme called alpha-toxin was thought to be the key virulence factor in necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens. However, using a gene knockout mutant we have recently shown that alpha-toxin is not essential for pathogenesis. We have now discovered a key virulence determinant. A novel toxin (NetB) was identified in a C. perfringens strain isolated from a chicken suffering from necrotic enteritis (NE). The toxin displayed limited amino acid sequence similarity to several pore forming toxins including beta-toxin from C. perfringens (38% identity) and alpha-toxin from Staphylococcus aureus (31% identity). NetB was only identified in C. perfringens type A strains isolated from chickens suffering NE. Both purified native NetB and recombinant NetB displayed cytotoxic activity against the chicken leghorn male hepatoma cell line LMH; inducing cell rounding and lysis. To determine the role of NetB in NE a netB mutant of a virulent C. perfringens chicken isolate was constructed by homologous recombination, and its virulence assessed in a chicken disease model. The netB mutant was unable to cause disease whereas the wild-type parent strain and the netB mutant complemented with a wild-type netB gene caused significant levels of NE. These data show unequivocally that in this isolate a functional NetB toxin is critical for the ability of C. perfringens to cause NE in chickens. This novel toxin is the first definitive virulence factor to be identified in avian C. perfringens strains capable of causing NE. Furthermore, the netB mutant is the first rationally attenuated strain obtained in an NE-causing isolate of C. perfringens; as such it has considerable vaccine potential. PMID:18266469

  17. Explore the World Using Protozoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, O. Roger, Ed.; Druger, Marvin, Ed.

    This book is a joint publication of the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the Society of Protozoologists and is the result of efforts to find a way in which protozoa research can be used to teach biology. This program puts cutting edge science into the hands of science teachers and enables students to experience a variety of…

  18. Niche metabolism in parasitic protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Ginger, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    Complete or partial genome sequences have recently become available for several medically and evolutionarily important parasitic protozoa. Through the application of bioinformatics complete metabolic repertoires for these parasites can be predicted. For experimentally intractable parasites insight provided by metabolic maps generated in silico has been startling. At its more extreme end, such bioinformatics reckoning facilitated the discovery in some parasites of mitochondria remodelled beyond previous recognition, and the identification of a non-photosynthetic chloroplast relic in malarial parasites. However, for experimentally tractable parasites, mapping of the general metabolic terrain is only a first step in understanding how the parasite modulates its streamlined, yet still often puzzlingly complex, metabolism in order to complete life cycles within host, vector, or environment. This review provides a comparative overview and discussion of metabolic strategies used by several different parasitic protozoa in order to subvert and survive host defences, and illustrates how genomic data contribute to the elucidation of parasite metabolism. PMID:16553311

  19. Diagnosis of enteric fever caused by Salmonella spp. in Vietnam by a monoclonal antibody-based dot-blot ELISA.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, N Q; Tapchaisri, P; Chongsa-nguan, M; Cao, V V; Doan, T T; Sakolvaree, Y; Srimanote, P; Chaicumpa, W

    1997-12-01

    Enteric fever caused by Salmonella spp. is prevalent in Vietnam. None of the currently available diagnostic methods meets the ideal criteria on rapidity, simplicity, sensitivity, specificity, cost-effectiveness and practicality for developing areas. In this study, a recently developed monoclonal antibody-based dot-blot ELISA was used in comparison with the hemoculture method and the classical Widal test for diagnosis of salmonellosis in 171 Vietnamese patients presenting with clinical features of enteric fever. Urine samples of 50 healthy counterparts were used as negative controls. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 77 of 171 patients (45%) while 98 and 111 patients were positive by dot-blot ELISA and Widal test, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the ELISA performed on three serial urine samples collected at 2 hour intervals of the 171 patients were 92.2%, 71.3%, 80.7%, 72.4% and 91.8%, respectively when compared with the culture method. The Widal test performed on acute and convalescence serum samples showed 87.0%, 46.8%, 68.4%, 60.4% and 83.3% diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values, respectively when compared with the bacterial culture method. Kappa coefficience revealed very good agreement beyond chance between the MAb-based ELISA and the culture method. The ELISA was not reactive when tested on urine samples of 50 healthy individuals which indicates 100% specificity. The Salmonella antigenuria of the patients as detected by ELISA lasted 10.3+/-3.9 days after initiating antibiotic treatment. The MAb-based dot-blot ELISA is easy to perform. It is rapid, sensitive, specific, inexpensive, and non-invasive and does not require equipment, thus is suitable for developing areas. It can detect acute/recent infection and can be used for evaluation of the efficacy of the treatment. PMID:9579614

  20. August Weismann embraces the protozoa.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Frederick B

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the contents and institutional context of August Weismann's long essay on Amphimixis (1891). Therein he presented detailed discussions of his on-going studies of reduction division and parthenogenesis, but more to the point, he included an elaborate examination of Émile Maupas's two major publications in protozoology. To understand the relevance of this part to the other two, the author briefly reviews highpoints in earlier nineteenth century protozoology and concludes that only in the mid-1870s and 1880s did protozoa add an important dimension to heredity theory. Otto Bütschli and then Maupas provided Weismann with a deeper understanding of how conjugation and fertilization were related but not identical processes. This allowed him to integrate the two into a fuller understanding of evolution by natural selection. PMID:20665093

  1. The Role of Carbohydrates in Infection Strategies of Enteric Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kentaro; Ishiwa, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Enteric pathogens cause considerable public health concerns worldwide including tropical regions. Here, we review the roles of carbohydrates in the infection strategies of various enteric pathogens including viruses, bacteria and protozoa, which infect the epithelial lining of the human and animal intestine. At host cell entry, enteric viruses, including norovirus, recognize mainly histo-blood group antigens. At the initial step of bacterial infections, carbohydrates also function as receptors for attachment. Here, we describe the function of carbohydrates in infection by Salmonella enterica and several bacterial species that produce a variety of fimbrial adhesions. During invasion by enteropathogenic protozoa, apicomplexan parasites utilize sialic acids or sulfated glycans. Carbohydrates serve as receptors for infection by these microbes; however, their usage of carbohydrates varies depending on the microbe. On the surface of the mucosal tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, various carbohydrate moieties are present and play a crucial role in infection, representing the site of infection or route of access for most microbes. During the infection and/or invasion process of the microbes, carbohydrates function as receptors for various microbes, but they can also function as a barrier to infection. One approach to develop effective prophylactic and therapeutic antimicrobial agents is to modify the drug structure. Another approach is to modify the mode of inhibition of infection depending on the individual pathogen by using and mimicking the interactions with carbohydrates. In addition, similarities in mode of infection may also be utilized. Our findings will be useful in the development of new drugs for the treatment of enteric pathogens. PMID:25859152

  2. Rickettsiae, protozoa, and opisthokonta/metazoa.

    PubMed

    Schmutzhard, Erich; Helbok, Raimund

    2014-01-01

    Rhizobiales (formerly named Rickettsiales) cause in rare instances meningitis and meningovasculitis, respectively. In case of history of exposure, infection by Rhizobiales needs to be considered since both diagnosis and therapy may be extremely difficult and pathogen-specific. The same applies to protozoa; in this chapter, Babesia species, free-living amoebae and Entamoeba histolytica infection, including severe meningitis and brain abscess, infection by Trypanosoma species (South American and African trypanosomiasis) are discussed with respect to history, epidemiology, clinical signs, and symptoms as well as differential diagnosis and therapy. Parasitic flatworms and roundworms, potentially able to invade the central nervous system, trematodes (flukes), cestodes (in particular, Cysticercus cellulosae), but also nematodes (in particular, Strongyloides spp. in the immunocompromised) are of worldwide importance. In contrast, filarial worms, Toxocara spp., Trichinella spp., Gnathostoma and Angiostrongylus spp. are seen only in certain geographically confined areas. Even more regionally confined are infestations of the central nervous system by metazoa, in particular, tongue worms (=arthropods) or larvae of flies (=maggots). The aim of this chapter is (1) to alert the neurologist to these infections, and (2) to enable the attending emergency neurologist to take a knowledgeable history, with an emphasis on epidemiology, clinical signs, and symptoms as well as therapeutic management possibilities. PMID:24365428

  3. Human cytochrome c enters murine J774 cells and causes G{sub 1} and G{sub 2}/M cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraoka, Yoshinori; Granja, Ana Teresa; Fialho, Arsenio M.; Schlarb-Ridley, Beatrix G.; Das Gupta, Tapas K.; Chakrabarty, Ananda M.; Yamada, Tohru . E-mail: tohru@uic.edu

    2005-12-16

    Cytochrome c is well known as a carrier of electrons during respiration. Current evidence indicates that cytochrome c also functions as a major component of apoptosomes to induce apoptosis in eukaryotic cells as well as an antioxidant. More recently, a prokaryotic cytochrome c, cytochrome c {sub 551} from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has been shown to enter in mammalian cells such as the murine macrophage-like J774 cells and causes inhibition of cell cycle progression. Much less is known about such functions by mammalian cytochromes c, particularly the human cytochrome c. We now report that similar to P. aeruginosa cytochrome c {sub 551}, the purified human cytochrome c protein can enter J774 cells and induce cell cycle arrest at the G{sub 1} to S phase, as well as at the G{sub 2}/M phase at higher concentrations. Unlike P. aeruginosa cytochrome c {sub 551} which had no effect on the induction of apoptosis, human cytochrome c induces significant apoptosis and cell death in J774 cells, presumably through inhibition of the cell cycle at the G{sub 2}/M phase. When incubated with human breast cancer MCF-7 and normal mammary epithelial cell line MCF-10A1 cells, human cytochrome c entered in both types of cells but induced cell death only in the normal MCF-10A1 cells. The ability of human cytochrome c to enter J774 cells was greatly reduced at 4 deg. C, suggesting energy requirement in the entry process.

  4. Blood protozoa of imported birds.

    PubMed

    Manwell, R D; Rossi, G S

    1975-02-01

    Large numbers of birds, until recently, were brought into the United States each year. Countries of origin were varied, and included those of Australasia, Africa, South America, and the Caribbean islands, as well as other places. With them of course come their parasites, some of which may be potential pathogens to domestic avifauna. In part for this reason, a survey was undertaken of blood parasites of birds from pet shops and importers. So far a total of 1234 birds belonging to 186 species has been examined. Several new species and subspecies of avian Plasmodium have been found in the course of this study, including P. octamerium Manwell, 1968 in a Pintail Whydah, Vidua macoura, from Africa; P paranucleophilum Manwell & Sessler, 1971 in a South American tanager, Tachyphonus sp; and P. nucleophilum toucani Manwell & Sessler 1971 in a Swainson's Toucan, Ramphastos s. swainsonii. Plasmodium huffi Muniz, Soares & Battista is undoubtedly a synonym pro parte for the last. Plasmodium tenue Laveran & Maruliaz, long thought to be a synonym of Plasmodium vaughani Novy & MacNeal, was rediscovered and found to be a valid species. Plasmodium nucleophilum, infrequently seen in the New World, occurred in many Asian and African birds, and especially in starlings. Infections with other species of Plasmodium were common. Haemoproteus was the commonest blood parasite; Leucocytozoon was very rare as was Atoxoplasma (Lankesterella). The 2 families of birds best represented were the Fringillidae and the Psittacidae, but no blood parasites were seen in the latter. It is clear that imported birds are often infected with blood protozoa, some of which are unknown from native birds. PMID:804038

  5. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in Waterborne Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Snelling, W. J.; McKenna, J. P.; Lecky, D. M.; Dooley, J. S. G.

    2005-01-01

    The failure to reduce the Campylobacter contamination of intensively reared poultry may be partially due to Campylobacter resisting disinfection in water after their internalization by waterborne protozoa. Campylobacter jejuni and a variety of waterborne protozoa, including ciliates, flagellates, and alveolates, were detected in the drinking water of intensively reared poultry by a combination of culture and molecular techniques. An in vitro assay showed that C. jejuni remained viable when internalized by Tetrahymena pyriformis and Acanthamoeba castellanii for significantly longer (up to 36 h) than when they were in purely a planktonic state. The internalized Campylobacter were also significantly more resistant to disinfection than planktonic organisms. Collectively, our results strongly suggest that protozoa in broiler drinking water systems can delay the decline of Campylobacter viability and increase Campylobacter disinfection resistance, thus increasing the potential of Campylobacter to colonize broilers. PMID:16151149

  6. [Diagnostic value of a novel nutrient medium for isolation and cultivation of pathogens causing enteric yersiniosis and pseudotuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Saiapina, L V; Anisimova, T I; Sergeeva, G M; Kasina, I V; Shvedun, G P; Khramov, M V

    2000-01-01

    A new nutrient medium for isolation and cultivation of the causative agents of enteric yersiniosis and pseudotuberculosis was found to have advantages over Endo medium in its differentiating and inhibiting properties. This medium permitted the easy differentiation of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis from Y. enterocolitica, as well as from Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. rhinoscleromatis, Hafnia, Enterobacter and Citrobacter by color; from Proteus inconstans by swarming. In addition, weakly swarming of P. vulgaris differed by their light bluish color and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, by the brilliance and size of colonies. Endo medium could be used only for differentiation of E. coli from lactose-negative Yersinia colonies, Klebsiella (by mucous growth) and, to a certain extent, all Proteus species (by swarming). The medium under test and the control medium inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast to Endo medium, the medium under test partially inhibited the growth of K. rhinoscleromatis and the swarming of P. inconstans. The new medium is now introduced into practice. PMID:11210625

  7. Effects of the absence of protozoa from birth or from weaning on the growth and methane production of lambs.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, R S; Bird, S H; Vanselow, B A; Woodgate, R

    2008-12-01

    Merino ewes (n 108) joined to a single sire were allocated into three flocks, with ewes in one flock being chemically defaunated in the second month of gestation. Single lambs born to defaunated ewes (BF lambs) were heavier at birth and at weaning than lambs born to faunated ewes (F lambs). After weaning, all BF and F lambs were individually housed then half of the F lambs were chemically defaunated (DF lambs). In trial 1, BF, DF and F lambs were offered a concentrate-based diet containing either 14 or 19 % protein for a 10-week period. Wool growth rate of BF lambs was 10 % higher than that of DF or F lambs and was increased 9 % by the high-protein diet. While there was no main effect of protozoa treatment on enteric methane production, there was an interaction between protozoa treatment and diet for methane production. BF and DF lambs produced more methane than F lambs when fed the low-protein diet but when fed the high-protein diet, emissions were less than (BF lambs) or not different from (DF lambs) emissions from F lambs. In trial 2, lambs were offered 800 g roughage per d and, again, methane production was not affected by the presence of protozoa in the rumen. The data indicate that while lambs without rumen protozoa have greater protein availability than do faunated ruminants, there is no main effect of rumen protozoa on enteric methane production by lambs fed either a concentrate or roughage diet. PMID:18479584

  8. Efficacy of avilamycin for the prevention of necrotic enteritis caused by a pathogenic strain of Clostridium perfringens in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Marie Anne; McMillan, Ewen; Bagg, Randal; Vessie, Gord; Zocche, Alexandre; Thompson, Michelle

    2016-06-01

    The efficacy of avilamycin for the prevention of necrotic enteritis (NE) was investigated in a 35-day floor pen study of 2200 broiler cockerels using a Clostridium perfringens (Cp) feed inoculum challenge model. Treatments consisted of (1) nonmedicated, nonchallenged; (2) nonmedicated, challenged; (3) avilamycin at 15 ppm, challenged; (4) avilamycin at 30 ppm, challenged. Avilamycin was administered in the feed from day 7 to day 30 of the study. Challenge inoculum was administered on day 14 and delivered approximately 10(9) CFU Cp/bird. NE mortality rates from day 14-35 were significantly (P < 0.0001) lower in birds treated with avilamycin at 15 and 30 ppm when compared to nonmedicated, challenged birds. Treatment with avilamycin also resulted in a significant reduction in ileal Cp count on day 21 (P < 0.0001) and NE lesion scores on day 17 (P < 0.006) when compared to nonmedicated, challenged birds. The performance of birds treated with avilamycin was also improved when compared to nonmedicated, challenged birds. Cockerels that received either 15 or 30 ppm avilamycin had a significantly (P < 0.0001) increased body weight on day 35 and average daily gain from days 0-35 than nonmedicated, challenged birds. Furthermore, birds treated with avilamycin had an improved feed conversion rate from days 0-35 compared to both nonmedicated, nonchallenged birds and nonmedicated, challenged birds. This study confirms that avilamycin is effective at controlling mortality related to NE in growing broiler chickens. PMID:26981841

  9. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa among Saudi Patients with Chronic Renal Failure: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Hawash, Yousry A.; Dorgham, Laila Sh.; Amir, El-Amir M.; Sharaf, Osama F.

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that chronic renal failure (CRF) predisposes patients to infection with intestinal protozoa. We tested this hypothesis with a matched case-control study to determine the prevalence of these protozoa and their diarrhea associated symptoms among 50 patients with CRF (cases) from Taif, western Saudi Arabia. Fifty diarrheal patients without CRF were recruited in the study as controls. Participants were interviewed by a structured questionnaire and stool samples were collected. Samples were thoroughly examined with microscopy and three coproantigens detection kits. Enteric protozoa were detected in 21 cases and 14 controls. Blastocystis spp. were the most predominant parasite (16% in cases versus 8% in controls), followed by Giardia duodenalis (10% in cases versus 12% in controls) and Cryptosporidium spp. (10% in cases versus 6% in controls). Cyclospora cayetanensis was identified in two cases, while Entamoeba histolytica was described in one case and one control. Intestinal parasitism was positively associated with the male gender, urban residence, and travel history. Clinical symptoms of nausea/vomiting and abdominal pain were significantly varied between the parasitized cases and controls (P value ≤ 0.05). Given the results, we recommend screening all diarrheal feces for intestinal protozoa in the study's population, particularly those with CRF. PMID:26491455

  10. Vaccines for viral and bacterial pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis: Part I: Overview, vaccines for enteric viruses and Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    O’Ryan, Miguel; Vidal, Roberto; del Canto, Felipe; Salazar, Juan Carlos; Montero, David

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to develop vaccines for prevention of acute diarrhea have been going on for more than 40 y with partial success. The myriad of pathogens, more than 20, that have been identified as a cause of acute diarrhea throughout the years pose a significant challenge for selecting and further developing the most relevant vaccine candidates. Based on pathogen distribution as identified in epidemiological studies performed mostly in low-resource countries, rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, Shigella, diarrheogenic E. coli and V. cholerae are predominant, and thus the main targets for vaccine development and implementation. Vaccination against norovirus is most relevant in middle/high-income countries and possibly in resource-deprived countries, pending a more precise characterization of disease impact. Only a few licensed vaccines are currently available, of which rotavirus vaccines have been the most outstanding in demonstrating a significant impact in a short time period. This is a comprehensive review, divided into 2 articles, of nearly 50 vaccine candidates against the most relevant viral and bacterial pathogens that cause acute gastroenteritis. In order to facilitate reading, sections for each pathogen are organized as follows: i) a discussion of the main epidemiological and pathogenic features; and ii) a discussion of vaccines based on their stage of development, moving from current licensed vaccines to vaccines in advanced stage of development (in phase IIb or III trials) to vaccines in early stages of clinical development (in phase I/II) or preclinical development in animal models. In this first article we discuss rotavirus, norovirus and Vibrio cholerae. In the following article we will discuss Shigella, Salmonella (non-typhoidal), diarrheogenic E. coli (enterotoxigenic and enterohemorragic), and Campylobacter jejuni. PMID:25715048

  11. Protozoacidal Trojan-Horse: Use of a Ligand-Lytic Peptide for Selective Destruction of Symbiotic Protozoa within Termite Guts

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Amit; Delatte, Jennifer; Foil, Lane; Husseneder, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    For novel biotechnology-based termite control, we developed a cellulose bait containing freeze-dried genetically engineered yeast which expresses a protozoacidal lytic peptide attached to a protozoa-recognizing ligand. The yeast acts as a ‘Trojan-Horse’ that kills the cellulose-digesting protozoa in the termite gut, which leads to the death of termites, presumably due to inefficient cellulose digestion. The ligand targets the lytic peptide specifically to protozoa, thereby increasing its protozoacidal efficiency while protecting non-target organisms. After ingestion of the bait, the yeast propagates in the termite's gut and is spread throughout the termite colony via social interactions. This novel paratransgenesis-based strategy could be a good supplement for current termite control using fortified biological control agents in addition to chemical insecticides. Moreover, this ligand-lytic peptide system could be used for drug development to selectively target disease-causing protozoa in humans or other vertebrates. PMID:25198727

  12. Protozoa interaction with aquatic invertebrate: interest for watercourses biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Palos Ladeiro, M; Bigot, A; Aubert, D; Hohweyer, J; Favennec, L; Villena, I; Geffard, A

    2013-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Giardia duodenalis are human waterborne protozoa. These worldwide parasites had been detected in various watercourses as recreational, surface, drinking, river, and seawater. As of today, water protozoa detection was based on large water filtration and on sample concentration. Another tool like aquatic invertebrate parasitism could be used for sanitary and environmental biomonitoring. In fact, organisms like filter feeders could already filtrate and concentrate protozoa directly in their tissues in proportion to ambient concentration. So molluscan shellfish can be used as a bioindicator of protozoa contamination level in a site since they were sedentary. Nevertheless, only a few researches had focused on nonspecific parasitism like protozoa infection on aquatic invertebrates. Objectives of this review are twofold: Firstly, an overview of protozoa in worldwide water was presented. Secondly, current knowledge of protozoa parasitism on aquatic invertebrates was detailed and the lack of data of their biological impact was pointed out. PMID:23001759

  13. Entering Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Ann; Sedorkin, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a short story of the authors, who show how they have "entered research", that is, entered the earliest conception of research and the early formation of research collaboration. As the authors worked together, they realised they had common concerns and life experiences. Each proudly identifies as working class Australian, each…

  14. Epigenetic Regulation of Virulence Gene Expression in Parasitic Protozoa.

    PubMed

    Duraisingh, Manoj T; Horn, David

    2016-05-11

    Protozoan parasites colonize numerous metazoan hosts and insect vectors through their life cycles, with the need to respond quickly and reversibly while encountering diverse and often hostile ecological niches. To succeed, parasites must also persist within individuals until transmission between hosts is achieved. Several parasitic protozoa cause a huge burden of disease in humans and livestock, and here we focus on the parasites that cause malaria and African trypanosomiasis. Efforts to understand how these pathogens adapt to survive in varied host environments, cause disease, and transmit between hosts have revealed a wealth of epigenetic phenomena. Epigenetic switching mechanisms appear to be ideally suited for the regulation of clonal antigenic variation underlying successful parasitism. We review the molecular players and complex mechanistic layers that mediate the epigenetic regulation of virulence gene expression. Understanding epigenetic processes will aid the development of antiparasitic therapeutics. PMID:27173931

  15. Interactions between food-borne pathogens and protozoa isolated from lettuce and spinach.

    PubMed

    Gourabathini, Poornima; Brandl, Maria T; Redding, Katherine S; Gunderson, John H; Berk, Sharon G

    2008-04-01

    The survival of Salmonella enterica was recently shown to increase when the bacteria were sequestered in expelled food vacuoles (vesicles) of Tetrahymena. Because fresh produce is increasingly linked to outbreaks of enteric illness, the present investigation aimed to determine the prevalence of protozoa on spinach and lettuce and to examine their interactions with S. enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. Glaucoma sp., Colpoda steinii, and Acanthamoeba palestinensis were cultured from store-bought spinach and lettuce and used in our study. A strain of Tetrahymena pyriformis previously isolated from spinach and a soil-borne Tetrahymena sp. were also used. Washed protozoa were allowed to graze on green fluorescent protein- or red fluorescent protein-labeled enteric pathogens. Significant differences in interactions among the various protist-enteric pathogen combinations were observed. Vesicles were produced by Glaucoma with all of the bacterial strains, although L. monocytogenes resulted in the smallest number per ciliate. Vesicle production was observed also during grazing of Tetrahymena on E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica but not during grazing on L. monocytogenes, in vitro and on leaves. All vesicles contained intact fluorescing bacteria. In contrast, C. steinii and the amoeba did not produce vesicles from any of the enteric pathogens, nor were pathogens trapped within their cysts. Studies of the fate of E. coli O157:H7 in expelled vesicles revealed that by 4 h after addition of spinach extract, the bacteria multiplied and escaped the vesicles. The presence of protozoa on leafy vegetables and their sequestration of enteric bacteria in vesicles indicate that they may play an important role in the ecology of human pathogens on produce. PMID:18310421

  16. Kingdom protozoa and its 18 phyla.

    PubMed Central

    Cavalier-Smith, T

    1993-01-01

    The demarcation of protist kingdoms is reviewed, a complete revised classification down to the level of subclass is provided for the kingdoms Protozoa, Archezoa, and Chromista, and the phylogenetic basis of the revised classification is outlined. Removal of Archezoa because of their ancestral absence of mitochondria, peroxisomes, and Golgi dictyosomes makes the kingdom Protozoa much more homogeneous: they all either have mitochondria and peroxisomes or have secondarily lost them. Predominantly phagotrophic, Protozoa are distinguished from the mainly photosynthetic kingdom Chromista (Chlorarachniophyta, Cryptista, Heterokonta, and Haptophyta) by the absence of epiciliary retronemes (rigid thrust-reversing tubular ciliary hairs) and by the lack of two additional membranes outside their chloroplast envelopes. The kingdom Protozoa has two subkingdoms: Adictyozoa, without Golgi dictyosomes, containing only the phylum Percolozoa (flagellates and amoeboflagellates); and Dictyozoa, made up of 17 phyla with Golgi dictyosomes. Dictyozoa are divided into two branches: (i) Parabasalia, a single phylum with hydrogenosomes and 70S ribosomes but no mitochondria, Golgi dictyosomes associated with striated roots, and a kinetid of four or five cilia; and (ii) Bikonta (16 unicellular or plasmodial phyla with mitochondria and bikinetids and in which Golgi dictyosomes are not associated with striated ciliary roots), which are divided into two infrakingdoms: Euglenozoa (flagellates with discoid mitochondrial cristae and trans-splicing of miniexons for all nuclear genes) and Neozoa (15 phyla of more advanced protozoa with tubular or flat [usually nondiscoid] mitochondrial cristae and cis-spliced spliceosomal introns). Neozoa are divided into seven parvkingdoms: (i) Ciliomyxa (three predominantly ciliated phyla with tubular mitochondrial cristae but no cortical alveoli, i.e., Opalozoa [flagellates with tubular cristae], Mycetozoa [slime molds], and Choanozoa [choanoflagellates, with

  17. Kingdom protozoa and its 18 phyla.

    PubMed

    Cavalier-Smith, T

    1993-12-01

    The demarcation of protist kingdoms is reviewed, a complete revised classification down to the level of subclass is provided for the kingdoms Protozoa, Archezoa, and Chromista, and the phylogenetic basis of the revised classification is outlined. Removal of Archezoa because of their ancestral absence of mitochondria, peroxisomes, and Golgi dictyosomes makes the kingdom Protozoa much more homogeneous: they all either have mitochondria and peroxisomes or have secondarily lost them. Predominantly phagotrophic, Protozoa are distinguished from the mainly photosynthetic kingdom Chromista (Chlorarachniophyta, Cryptista, Heterokonta, and Haptophyta) by the absence of epiciliary retronemes (rigid thrust-reversing tubular ciliary hairs) and by the lack of two additional membranes outside their chloroplast envelopes. The kingdom Protozoa has two subkingdoms: Adictyozoa, without Golgi dictyosomes, containing only the phylum Percolozoa (flagellates and amoeboflagellates); and Dictyozoa, made up of 17 phyla with Golgi dictyosomes. Dictyozoa are divided into two branches: (i) Parabasalia, a single phylum with hydrogenosomes and 70S ribosomes but no mitochondria, Golgi dictyosomes associated with striated roots, and a kinetid of four or five cilia; and (ii) Bikonta (16 unicellular or plasmodial phyla with mitochondria and bikinetids and in which Golgi dictyosomes are not associated with striated ciliary roots), which are divided into two infrakingdoms: Euglenozoa (flagellates with discoid mitochondrial cristae and trans-splicing of miniexons for all nuclear genes) and Neozoa (15 phyla of more advanced protozoa with tubular or flat [usually nondiscoid] mitochondrial cristae and cis-spliced spliceosomal introns). Neozoa are divided into seven parvkingdoms: (i) Ciliomyxa (three predominantly ciliated phyla with tubular mitochondrial cristae but no cortical alveoli, i.e., Opalozoa [flagellates with tubular cristae], Mycetozoa [slime molds], and Choanozoa [choanoflagellates, with

  18. Enteric duplication cyst as a leading point for ileoileal intussusception in an adult: A rare cause of complete small intestinal obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qahtani, Hamad Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Duplication of alimentary tract (DAT) presenting as an ileoileal intussusception is a very rare clinical entity. Herein, a case of an ileoileal intussusception due to DAT is presented. A 32-year-old woman was hospitalized due to diffuse, intermittent abdominal pain, vomiting and constipation for 3 d associated with abdominal distention. Plain abdominal X-ray revealed dilated small bowel. Abdominal computed tomography showed grossly dilated small bowel with “sausage” and “doughnut” signs of small bowel intussusception. She underwent laparotomy, with findings of ileoileal intussusception due to a cystic lesion adjacent to the mesenteric side. Resection of the cystic lesion along with the affected segment of intestine, with an end to end anastomosis was performed. The histopathology was consistent with enteric duplication cyst. This case highlights the DAT, although, an uncommon cause of adult ileoileal intussusception should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intussusception in adults, particularly when the leading point is a cystic lesion. PMID:27358681

  19. The Role of Ciliate Protozoa in the Rumen

    PubMed Central

    Newbold, Charles J.; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Belanche, Alejandro; Ramos-Morales, Eva; McEwan, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    First described in 1843, Rumen protozoa with their striking appearance were assumed to be important for the welfare of their host. However, despite contributing up to 50% of the bio-mass in the rumen, the role of protozoa in rumen microbial ecosystem remains unclear. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA libraries generated from the rumen of cattle, sheep, and goats has revealed an unexpected diversity of ciliated protozoa although variation in gene copy number between species makes it difficult to obtain absolute quantification. Despite repeated attempts it has proven impossible to maintain rumen protozoa in axenic culture. Thus it has been difficult to establish conclusively a role of ciliate protozoa in rumen fiber degradation. The development of techniques to clone and express ciliate genes in λ phage, together with bioinformatic indices to confirm the ciliate origin of the genes has allowed the isolation and characterization of fibrolytic genes from rumen protozoa. Elimination of the ciliate protozoa increases microbial protein supply by up to 30% and reduces methane production by up to 11%. Our recent findings suggest that holotrich protozoa play a disproportionate role in supporting methanogenesis whilst the small Entodinium are responsible for much of the bacterial protein turnover. As yet no method to control protozoa in the rumen that is safe and practically applicable has been developed, however a range of plant extract capable of controlling if not completely eliminating rumen protozoa have been described. PMID:26635774

  20. Tuberculous Enteritis

    PubMed Central

    Hill, George S.; Tabrisky, Joseph; Peter, Michael E.

    1976-01-01

    Tuberculous enteritis occurs in about 2 percent of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Although it is uncommon in the United States, tuberculous enteritis should be considered in any patient with active pulmonary tuberculosis and abdominal complaints. Eight cases of T. enteritis have been treated at Harbor General Hospital in the last 25 years. Associated pulmonary disease was shown radiologically to be present in seven of eight patients. Findings on contrast studies of the gastrointestinal tract showed disease in six of six patients examined. In five patients, surgical operation was required for diagnosis or complications. Resection of diseased bowel with primary anastomosis was done in five patients. Although medical therapy is the mainstay in the treatment of both pulmonary and intestinal tuberculosis, one staged resection of diseased bowel with primary anastomosis is the procedure of choice for complications such as obstruction, hemorrhage or perforation. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:936600

  1. Drug Targets and Mechanisms of Resistance in the Anaerobic Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Upcroft, Peter; Upcroft, Jacqueline A.

    2001-01-01

    The anaerobic protozoa Giardia duodenalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Entamoeba histolytica infect up to a billion people each year. G. duodenalis and E. histolytica are primarily pathogens of the intestinal tract, although E. histolytica can form abscesses and invade other organs, where it can be fatal if left untreated. T. vaginalis infection is a sexually transmitted infection causing vaginitis and acute inflammatory disease of the genital mucosa. T. vaginalis has also been reported in the urinary tract, fallopian tubes, and pelvis and can cause pneumonia, bronchitis, and oral lesions. Respiratory infections can be acquired perinatally. T. vaginalis infections have been associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight, and increased mortality as well as predisposing to human immunodeficiency virus infection, AIDS, and cervical cancer. All three organisms lack mitochondria and are susceptible to the nitroimidazole metronidazole because of similar low-redox-potential anaerobic metabolic pathways. Resistance to metronidazole and other drugs has been observed clinically and in the laboratory. Laboratory studies have identified the enzyme that activates metronidazole, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, to its nitroso form and distinct mechanisms of decreasing drug susceptibility that are induced in each organism. Although the nitroimidazoles have been the drug family of choice for treating the anaerobic protozoa, G. duodenalis is less susceptible to other antiparasitic drugs, such as furazolidone, albendazole, and quinacrine. Resistance has been demonstrated for each agent, and the mechanism of resistance has been investigated. Metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis is well documented, and the principal mechanisms have been defined. Bypass metabolism, such as alternative oxidoreductases, have been discovered in both organisms. Aerobic versus anaerobic resistance in T. vaginalis is discussed. Mechanisms of metronidazole resistance in E. histolytica have recently

  2. Current laboratory diagnosis of opportunistic enteric parasites in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    De, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Opportunistic enteric parasitic infections are encountered in 30-60% of HIV seropositive patients in developed countries and in 90% of patients in developing countries. Once the CD4+ cell count drops below 200 cells/μl, patients are considered to have developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), with the risk of an AIDS-defining illness or opportunistic infection significantly increasing. Opportunistic enteric parasites encountered in these patients are Cryptosporidium, Isospora, Cyclospora, and microsporidia; as well as those more commonly associated with gastrointestinal disease, for example, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, and also rarely Balantidium coli. In view of AIDS explosion in India, opportunistic enteric parasites are becoming increasingly important and it has to be identified properly. Apart from wet mounts, concentration methods for stool samples and special staining techniques for identification of these parasites, commercially available fecal immunoassays are widely available for the majority of enteric protozoa. Molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, flow cytometry, and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), have also come in the pipeline for early diagnosis of these infections. Proper disposal of the feces to prevent contamination of the soil and water, boiling/filtering drinking water along with improved personal hygiene might go a long way in preventing these enteric parasitic infections. PMID:23961436

  3. Radiation enteritis

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, P.H.; Jenrette, J.M. III; Garvin, A.J.

    1987-09-01

    As the population receiving radiation therapy grows, so does the incidence of chronic radiation enteritis. A review of the pathology of chronic radiation enteritis reveals fibrosis, endarteritis, edema, fragility, perforation, and partial obstruction. Conservative management of patients with this disease is common. Because the obstruction is only partial, decompression is easily achieved with nasogastric suction and parenteral support. The patient is then often discharged on a liquid-to-soft diet. This therapeutic strategy does nothing for the underlying pathology. The problem, sooner or later, will return with the patient further depleted by the chronic radiation enteritis. We think surgical intervention is appropriate when the diagnosis of chronic radiation enteritis is assumed. The surgery in relation to this disease is high risk with a 30% mortality and 100% expensive morbidity. Early intervention seems to decrease these figures. All anastomoses, if possible, should be outside the irradiated area. Trapped pelvic loops of intestine should be left in place and a bypass procedure with decompressing enterostomies accomplished. The surgery should be performed by a surgeon with extensive experience with all kinds of bowel obstruction as well as experience in performing surgery in radiated tissue.

  4. Enteric viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characteristic clinical signs associated with viral enteritis in young poultry include diarrhea, anorexia, litter eating, ruffled feathers, and poor growth. Intestines may have lesions; intestines are typically dilated and are filled with fluid and gaseous contents. The sequela to clinical disease...

  5. Idiopathic Focal Eosinophilic Enteritis (IFEE), an Emerging Cause of Abdominal Pain in Horses: The Effect of Age, Time and Geographical Location on Risk

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Debra C.; Costain, Deborah A.; Sherlock, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background Idiopathic focal eosinophilic enteritis (IFEE) is an emerging cause of abdominal pain (colic) in horses that frequently requires surgical intervention to prevent death. The epidemiology of IFEE is poorly understood and it is difficult to diagnose pre-operatively. The aetiology of this condition and methods of possible prevention are currently unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate temporal and spatial heterogeneity in IFEE risk and to ascertain the effect of horse age on risk. Methodology/Principal Findings A retrospective, nested case-control study was undertaken using data from 85 IFEE cases and 848 randomly selected controls admitted to a UK equine hospital for exploratory laparotomy to investigate the cause of colic over a 10-year period. Generalised additive models (GAMs) were used to quantify temporal and age effects on the odds of IFEE and to provide mapped estimates of ‘residual’ risk over the study region. The relative risk of IFEE increased over the study period (p = 0.001) and a seasonal pattern was evident (p<0.01) with greatest risk of IFEE being identified between the months of July and November. IFEE risk decreased with increasing age (p<0.001) with younger (0–5 years old) horses being at greatest risk. The mapped surface estimate exhibited significantly atypical sub-regions (p<0.001) with increased IFEE risk in horses residing in the North-West of the study region. Conclusions/Significance IFEE was found to exhibit both spatial and temporal variation in risk and is more likely to occur in younger horses. This information may help to identify horses at increased risk of IFEE, provide clues about the aetiology of this condition and to identify areas that require further research. PMID:25463382

  6. Natural cysteine protease inhibitors in protozoa: Fifteen years of the chagasin family.

    PubMed

    Costa, Tatiana F R; Lima, Ana Paula C A

    2016-03-01

    Chagasin-type inhibitors comprise natural inhibitors of papain-like cysteine proteases that are distributed among Protist, Bacteria and Archaea. Chagasin was identified in the pathogenic protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi as an approximately 11 kDa protein that is a tight-binding and highly thermostable inhibitor of papain, cysteine cathepsins and endogenous parasite cysteine proteases. It displays an Imunoglobulin-like fold with three exposed loops to one side of the molecule, where amino acid residues present in conserved motifs at the tips of each loop contact target proteases. Differently from cystatins, the loop 2 of chagasin enters the active-site cleft, making direct contact with the catalytic residues, while loops 4 and 6 embrace the enzyme from the sides. Orthologues of chagasin are named Inhibitors of Cysteine Peptidases (ICP), and share conserved overall tri-dimensional structure and mode of binding to proteases. ICPs are tentatively distributed in three families: in family I42 are grouped chagasin-type inhibitors that share conserved residues at the exposed loops; family I71 contains Plasmodium ICPs, which are large proteins having a chagasin-like domain at the C-terminus, with lower similarity to chagasin in the conserved motif at loop 2; family I81 contains Toxoplasma ICP. Recombinant ICPs tested so far can inactivate protozoa cathepsin-like proteases and their mammalian counterparts. Studies on their biological roles were carried out in a few species, mainly using transgenic protozoa, and the conclusions vary. However, in all cases, alterations in the levels of expression of chagasin/ICPs led to substantial changes in one or more steps of parasite biology, with higher incidence in influencing their interaction with the hosts. We will cover most of the findings on chagasin/ICP structural and functional properties and overview the current knowledge on their roles in protozoa. PMID:26546840

  7. Detection of intestinal protozoa in the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    McHardy, Ian H; Wu, Max; Shimizu-Cohen, Robyn; Couturier, Marc Roger; Humphries, Romney M

    2014-03-01

    Despite recent advances in diagnostic technology, microscopic examination of stool specimens remains central to the diagnosis of most pathogenic intestinal protozoa. Microscopy is, however, labor-intensive and requires a skilled technologist. New, highly sensitive diagnostic methods have been developed for protozoa endemic to developed countries, including Giardia lamblia (syn. G. intestinalis/G. duodenalis) and Cryptosporidium spp., using technologies that, if expanded, could effectively complement or even replace microscopic approaches. To date, the scope of such novel technologies is limited and may not include common protozoa such as Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica, or Cyclospora cayetanensis. This minireview describes canonical approaches for the detection of pathogenic intestinal protozoa, while highlighting recent developments and FDA-approved tools for clinical diagnosis of common intestinal protozoa. PMID:24197877

  8. Detection of Intestinal Protozoa in the Clinical Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    McHardy, Ian H.; Wu, Max; Shimizu-Cohen, Robyn; Couturier, Marc Roger

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent advances in diagnostic technology, microscopic examination of stool specimens remains central to the diagnosis of most pathogenic intestinal protozoa. Microscopy is, however, labor-intensive and requires a skilled technologist. New, highly sensitive diagnostic methods have been developed for protozoa endemic to developed countries, including Giardia lamblia (syn. G. intestinalis/G. duodenalis) and Cryptosporidium spp., using technologies that, if expanded, could effectively complement or even replace microscopic approaches. To date, the scope of such novel technologies is limited and may not include common protozoa such as Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica, or Cyclospora cayetanensis. This minireview describes canonical approaches for the detection of pathogenic intestinal protozoa, while highlighting recent developments and FDA-approved tools for clinical diagnosis of common intestinal protozoa. PMID:24197877

  9. Two parvoviruses that cause different diseases in mink have different transcription patterns: transcription analysis of mink enteritis virus and Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in the same cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Storgaard, T; Oleksiewicz, M; Bloom, M E; Ching, B; Alexandersen, S

    1997-01-01

    The two parvoviruses of mink cause very different diseases. Mink enteritis virus (MEV) is associated with rapid, high-level viral replication and acute disease. In contrast, infection with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) is associated with persistent, low-level viral replication and chronic severe immune dysregulation. In the present report, we have compared viral transcription in synchronized CRFK cells infected with either MEV or ADV using a nonradioactive RNase protection assay. The overall level of viral transcription was 20-fold higher in MEV- than in ADV-infected cells. Furthermore, MEV mRNA encoding structural proteins (MEV mRNA R3) was dominant throughout the infectious cycle, comprising approximately 80% of the total viral transcription products. In marked contrast, in ADV-infected cells, transcripts encoding nonstructural proteins (ADV mRNA R1 and R2) comprised more than 84% of the total transcripts at all times after infection, whereas ADV mRNA R3 comprised less than 16%. Thus, the ADV mRNA coding for structural proteins (ADV mRNA R3) was present at a level at least 100-fold lower than the corresponding MEV mRNA R3. These findings paralleled previous biochemical studies analyzing in vitro activities of the ADV and MEV promoters (J. Christensen, T. Storgaard, B. Viuff, B. Aasted, and S. Alexandersen, J. Virol. 67:1877-1886, 1993). The overall low levels of ADV mRNA and the paucity of the mRNA coding for ADV structural proteins may reflect an adaptation of the virus for low-level restricted infection. PMID:9188563

  10. Blood protozoa of free-living birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.

    1969-01-01

    Blood protozoa were first reported from wild birds in 1884. Since then numerous surveys throughout the world have demonstrated their presence in a wide variety of hosts and localities with continuing designations of new species. Taxonomic determinations include parasites in the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Babesia, Lankesterella and Trypanosoma. Transmission of Plasmodium by mosquitoes was demonstrated with a bird parasite before these insects were proven as vectors of human malaria. All the genera under consideration require an insect vector to complete their life-cycles and susceptible vectors have been demonstrated. Most experimental work on the blood protozoa of birds has been carried on with captive birds. An extensive volume of research has been conducted on Plasmodium because of its close similarity to malaria in man. Field studies that would provide information on the epizootiology of occurrence of these parasites in wild populations have been very limited, mainly confined to single blood film surveys. Such data are inadequate to provide an understanding of true prevalence or incidence or of factual knowledge of their impact on the wild population. Mechanisms for procuring such information are available in some cases and can be developed to fit other situations. Isodiagnosis, inoculation of blood from wild birds into susceptible captive hosts, has revealed a prevalence of over 60 % for Plasmodium in situations where microscope examination of single peripheral blood preparations yielded less than 1 %. Culture of bone marrow collected by biopsy demonstrates high prevalence of trypanosomes even when none are evident from microscopic examination of blood. Often preparations of tissues collected at necropsy reveal Leucocytozoon and Lankesterella when examination of peripheral blood gave no indication of infection. Methods developed by bird ringers provide techniques for obtaining repeat examinations of free-living birds that can yield further

  11. Extraction-Free, Filter-Based Template Preparation for Rapid and Sensitive PCR Detection of Pathogenic Parasitic Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Orlandi, Palmer A.; Lampel, Keith A.

    2000-01-01

    Within the last several years, the protozoan parasites Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium parvum, and microsporidia have become recognized as important, rapidly emerging human pathogens in immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. Since the early 1990s, many of the reported outbreaks of enteric illness caused by these microorganisms have been attributed to food- and water-borne contamination. Many inherent obstacles affect the success of current surveillance and detection methods used to monitor and control levels of contamination by these pathogens. Unlike methods that incorporate preenrichment for easier and unambiguous identification of bacterial pathogens, similar methods for the detection of parasitic protozoa either are not currently available or cannot be performed in a timely manner. We have developed an extraction-free, filter-based protocol to prepare DNA templates for use in PCR to identify C. cayetanensis and C. parvum oocysts and microsporidia spores. This method requires only minimal preparation to partially purify and concentrate isolates prior to filter application. DNA template preparation is rapid, efficient, and reproducible. As few as 3 to 10 parasites could be detected by PCR from direct application to the filters. In studies, as few 10 to 50 Encephalitozoon intestinalis spores could be detected when seeded in a 100-μl stool sample and 10 to 30 C. cayetanensis oocysts could be detected per 100 g of fresh raspberries. This protocol can easily be adapted to detect parasites from a wide variety of food, clinical, and environmental samples and can be used in multiplex PCR applications. PMID:10834988

  12. Repetitive Elements in Genomes of Parasitic Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Wickstead, Bill; Ersfeld, Klaus; Gull, Keith

    2003-01-01

    Repetitive DNA elements have been a part of the genomic fauna of eukaryotes perhaps since their very beginnings. Millions of years of coevolution have given repeats central roles in chromosome maintenance and genetic modulation. Here we review the genomes of parasitic protozoa in the context of the current understanding of repetitive elements. Particular reference is made to repeats in five medically important species with ongoing or completed genome sequencing projects: Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania major, Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Giardia lamblia. These organisms are used to illustrate five thematic classes of repeats with different structures and genomic locations. We discuss how these repeat classes may interact with parasitic life-style and also how they can be used as experimental tools. The story which emerges is one of opportunism and upheaval which have been employed to add genetic diversity and genomic flexibility. PMID:12966140

  13. Enteric Redmouth Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yersinia ruckeri, the causative agent of Enteric Redmouth Disease (ERM), is a disease of salmonid fish species that is endemic in areas of the world where salmonids are intensively cultured. The disease causes a chronic to acute hemorrhagic septicemia which can lead to high rates of mortality partic...

  14. Cows' milk protein-sensitive enteropathy: an important contributing cause of secondary sugar intolerance in young infants with acute infective enteritis.

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, N; Davis, K; Robinson, M J; Boey, C G; Sumithran, E; Yadav, M; Lam, S K; Puthucheary, S D

    1979-01-01

    The effect of cows' milk protein (CMP) on the mucosal disaccharidases was investigated in 23 infants with acute infective enteritis. Jejunal biopsies performed before and after cows' milk provocation were subjected to histological examination and to mucosal disaccharidase enzyme (lactase, sucrase, and maltase) analyses. After milk challenge, changes in mucosal histology were observed in 18 infants, in 17 of them the levels of all 3 mucosal disaccharidases were much reduced. 10 of these infants developed diarrhoea and, in 6, the stools were positive for reducing sugar. It is concluded that CMP has a deleterious effect on the jejunal mucosa of young infants recovering from infective enteritis, so that in the management of young infants with sugar intolerance secondary to infective enteritis, CMP and lactose should be excluded from the diet. PMID:570376

  15. Balamuthia mandrillaris: in vitro interactions with selected protozoa and algae.

    PubMed

    Tapia, José L; Torres, Benjamin Nogueda; Visvesvara, Govinda S

    2013-01-01

    Although Balamuthia mandrillaris was identified more than two decades ago as an agent of fatal granulomatous encephalitis in humans and other animals, little is known about its ecological niche, biological behavior in the environment, food preferences and predators, if any. When infecting humans or other animals, Balamuthia feeds on tissues; and in vitro culture, it feeds on mammalian cells (monkey kidney cells, human lung fibroblasts, and human microvascular endothelial cells). According to recent reports, it is believed that Balamuthia feeds on small amebae, for example, Acanthamoeba that are present in its ecological niche. To test this hypothesis, we associated Balamuthia on a one-on-one basis with selected protozoa and algae. We videotaped the behavior of Balamuthia in the presence of a potential prey, its ability to hunt and attack its food, and the time required to eat and cause damage to the target cell by direct contact. We found that B. mandrillaris ingested trophozoites of Naegleria fowleri, Naegleria gruberi, Acanthamoeba spp., Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes, Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, and Giardia. However, it did not feed on Acanthamoeba cysts or algae. Balamuthia caused cytolysis of T. cruzi epimastigotes and T. gondii tachyzoites by direct contact. Balamuthia trophozoites and cysts were, however, eaten by Paramecium sp. PMID:23790262

  16. Microbiological Analysis of Nontyphoidal Salmonella Strains Causing Distinct Syndromes of Bacteremia or Enteritis in HIV/AIDS Patients in San Diego, California

    PubMed Central

    Preziosi, Michael J.; Kandel, Sean M.; Guiney, Donald G.

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection is an AIDS-defining illness that has become less common in the developed world in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), while it has emerged as a major public health problem in developing countries, particularly sub-Saharan Africa. We retrospectively analyzed Salmonella (NTS) infection in HIV/AIDS patients from June 2003 until December 2009 at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), Medical Center. Bacterial isolates from all patients were tested for selected microbiological properties, including major Salmonella (NTS) virulence loci rpoS, sodCI, spvB, and sseI. Fourteen percent of all Salmonella (NTS) cases recorded at the UCSD Medical Center during this period occurred in known HIV/AIDS patients. The clinical presentations in HIV patients fell into two distinct groups, bacteremia and enteritis. There was little clinical overlap between these two syndromes. All strains were positive for the presence of the rpoS and sodCI virulence loci, and 75% of strains were positive for the presence of the spvB and sseI loci. Antibiotic susceptibility assay showed that all strains were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin. The clinical presentation did not have a clear relationship to the CD4+ cell count. Of the bacteremic isolates, all but one isolate, drawn from a patient with substantial enteric comorbidities, had all of the virulence genes tested, but 66% of nonbacteremic, enteritis strains also contained all the tested virulence loci. In conclusion, neither patients' CD4+ cell count nor bacterial strain properties necessarily predicted the clinical presentation of HIV/AIDS patients with Salmonella (NTS) infection, and AIDS patients can have episodes of Salmonella enteritis without dissemination. PMID:22933605

  17. Viral enteric infections of poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteric diseases cause great economic losses to the poultry industry mostly from depressed weight gains, impaired feed efficiency, and decreased flock uniformity. Enteric syndromes have been described in both young turkeys and chickens and likely result from infection by a mixture of pathogenic age...

  18. Aspects of cooling tower biocides and protozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, S.G.; Ashburn, R.J.; Ting, R.S.

    1998-12-31

    Previous work has shown that certain cooling tower amoebae and ciliated protozoa are resistant to several cooling tower biocides, even at the manufacturer`s recommended dosages. For the present study, an Acunthumoeba species was isolated from a cooling tower in Australia. Suspensions of the trophozoites (feeding stages) were exposed to isothiazolones. Cysts were tested separately. The minimum lethal concentration (MLC) for trophozoites was between 31-62 ppm of the biocide product, which is slightly less than the MLC for an amoebae species from the United States; and cyst forms were twofold more resistant than those of the US species, with a MLC of 62,500 ppm. A ciliate and an amoeba species were also exposed to bromochlorodimethylhydantoin. The MLC for the ciliate species was 1 ppm of the biocide product, and the MLC was 30--40 ppm for the amoeba trophozoites. Since amoebae can expel vesicles containing live Legionella, experiments were conducted to determine whether exposure of Acunthamoebu polyphugu to biocides influenced release of such potentially infectious particles. Vesicle release was not inhibited by any of the three biocides: quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), isothiazolones, and a thiocarbamate compound. These results suggest that amoebae from various sources are resistant to recommended levels of biocides, and the amoebae may continue to release potentially infectious vesicles in the presence of biocides.

  19. Longitudinal Evaluation of Enteric Protozoa in Haitian Children by Stool Exam and Multiplex Serologic Assay

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Delynn M.; Priest, Jeffrey W.; Hamlin, Kathy; Derado, Gordana; Herbein, Joel; Petri, William A.; Lammie, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Haitian children were monitored longitudinally in a filariasis study. Included were stool samples examined for Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica cysts, and serum specimens analyzed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to eight recombinant antigens from G. intestinalis (variant-specific surface protein [VSP1–VSP5]), E. histolytica (lectin adhesion molecule [LecA]), and Cryptosporidium parvum (17- and 27-kDa) using a multiplex bead assay. The IgG responses to VSP antigens peaked at 2 years of age and then diminished and were significantly lower (P < 0.002) in children > 4.5 years than in children < 4.5 years. The IgG responses to Cryptosporidium tended to increase with age. The IgG responses to LecA and VSP antigens and the prevalence of stools positive for cysts were significantly higher (P < 0.037 and P < 0.035, respectively) in the rainy season than in the dry season. The multiplex bead assay provides a powerful tool for analyzing serologic responses to multiple pathogens. PMID:24591430

  20. Incorrect key presses may cause Moog Medical's Zevex Infinity enteral feeding pumps to appear to be infusing even though an occlusion exists.

    PubMed

    2011-07-01

    If users of Moog Medical's Zevex Infinity series feeding pumps--the EnteraLite Infinity and the Infinity Orange--use an incorrect key-press sequence while attempting to address a downstream occlusion alarm, the pump's display may mimic normal operation even though the unit is not delivering feeding solution. Although Moog states that it has not received any reports of injury related to these devices, failure to deliver nutrition may result in hypoglycemia, which can have severe outcomes for patients who have difficulty maintaining their blood sugar levels. Users of these pumps should become familiar with this issue and with the guidance offered in the products' operator manuals. This behavior is similar to that of the Nutricia Flocare Infinity series enteral feeding pumps--also produced by Moog Medical--which we described in the May 2011 issue of Health Devices. PMID:23444649

  1. Multiplexed Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay To Detect Intestinal Protozoa.

    PubMed

    Crannell, Zachary; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Nair, Gayatri; Mejia, Rojelio; White, A Clinton; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2016-02-01

    This work describes a proof-of-concept multiplex recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay with lateral flow readout that is capable of simultaneously detecting and differentiating DNA from any of the diarrhea-causing protozoa Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba. Together, these parasites contribute significantly to the global burden of diarrheal illness. Differential diagnosis of these parasites is traditionally accomplished via stool microscopy. However, microscopy is insensitive and can miss up to half of all cases. DNA-based diagnostics such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are far more sensitive; however, they rely on expensive thermal cycling equipment, limiting their availability to centralized reference laboratories. Isothermal DNA amplification platforms, such as the RPA platform used in this study, alleviate the need for thermal cycling equipment and have the potential to broaden access to more sensitive diagnostics. Until now, multiplex RPA assays have not been developed that are capable of simultaneously detecting and differentiating infections caused by different pathogens. We developed a multiplex RPA assay to detect the presence of DNA from Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba. The multiplex assay was characterized using synthetic DNA, where the limits-of-detection were calculated to be 403, 425, and 368 gene copies per reaction of the synthetic Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba targets, respectively (roughly 1.5 orders of magnitude higher than for the same targets in a singleplex RPA assay). The multiplex assay was also characterized using DNA extracted from live parasites spiked into stool samples where the limits-of-detection were calculated to be 444, 6, and 9 parasites per reaction for Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba parasites, respectively. This proof-of-concept assay may be reconfigured to detect a wide variety of targets by re-designing the primer and probe sequences. PMID:26669715

  2. Preliminary study on applicability of microsatellite DNA primers from parasite protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi in free-living protozoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Yu, Yuhe; Shen, Yunfen; Miao, Wei; Feng, Weisong

    2004-04-01

    In this paper, we took the lead in studying on specificity of the microsatellite DNA loci and applicability of microsatellite DNA primers in protozoa. In order to study characters of microsatellites in free-living protozoa, eight microsatellite loci primers developed from Trypanosoma cruzi (MCLE01, SCLE10, MCLE08, SCLE11, MCLF10, MCLG10, MCL03, MCL05) were employed to amplify microsatellite in four free-living protozoa, including Bodo designis, Euglena gracilis FACHB848, Paramecium bruzise and Tetrahymena thermophila BF1. In the amplification systems of P. bruzise, four loci (SCLE10, SCLE11, MCLF10, MCL03) were amplified successfully, and four amplification fragments were in proper size. In genome of E. gracilis FACHB848, five of eight primers brought five clear amplification bands. In B. designis, three (No.4, 5 and 7) of eight loci produced clear and sharp products without stutter bands, whereas no bands appeared in T. thermophila BF1. Further, eight 300 500 bp amplification fragments were cloned and sequenced. Nevertheless, all sequenced products did not contain corresponding microsatellite sequence, although Bodo is in the same order and has the nearest phylogenetic relation with Trypanosoma among these four species. Thus, the microsatellite DNA primers can not be applied among order or more far taxa, and the specificity of microsatellite DNA is very high in protozoa. The results of this study will contribute to our understanding of microsatellite DNA in protozoa.

  3. The aminoethylphosphonate-containing lipids of rumen protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, R. M. C.; Kemp, P.

    1967-01-01

    1. A method is presented for identifying and estimating the aminoethylphosphonate (ciliatine)-containing phospholipids in a complex mixture. 2. Evidence was obtained that the phospholipids of a pure culture of Entodinium caudatum and a mixed rumen protozoa sample contain diglyceride ciliatine, and a plasmalogen ciliatine was detected in the latter. 3. A ninhydrin-positive sphingolipid was isolated from rumen protozoa. Although chromatographically homogeneous on silica gel it contains two components, which were provisionally identified as ceramide ciliatine and ceramide phosphorylethanolamine. 4. A detailed phospholipid analysis of E. caudatum and rumen protozoa is presented. They contain no phosphatidylserine or cardiolipin, but an unidentified phosphoglyceride containing a zwitterionic amino acid is present. PMID:4967076

  4. Neglected waterborne parasitic protozoa and their detection in water.

    PubMed

    Plutzer, Judit; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2016-09-15

    Outbreak incidents raise the question of whether the less frequent aetiological agents of outbreaks are really less frequent in water. Alternatively, waterborne transmission could be relevant, but the lack of attention and rapid, sensitive methods to recover and detect the exogenous stages in water may keep them under-recognized. High quality information on the prevalence and detection of less frequent waterborne protozoa, such as Cyclospora cayetanensis, Toxoplasma gondii, Isospora belli, Balantidium coli, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and other free-living amoebae (FLA), are not available. This present paper discusses the detection tools applied for the water surveillance of the neglected waterborne protozoa mentioned above and provides future perspectives. PMID:27281375

  5. Studies on protozoa in ancient remains - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Frías, Liesbeth; Leles, Daniela; Araújo, Adauto

    2013-01-01

    Paleoparasitological research has made important contributions to the understanding of parasite evolution and ecology. Although parasitic protozoa exhibit a worldwide distribution, recovering these organisms from an archaeological context is still exceptional and relies on the availability and distribution of evidence, the ecology of infectious diseases and adequate detection techniques. Here, we present a review of the findings related to protozoa in ancient remains, with an emphasis on their geographical distribution in the past and the methodologies used for their retrieval. The development of more sensitive detection methods has increased the number of identified parasitic species, promising interesting insights from research in the future. PMID:23440107

  6. Animals of the Sea: Coelenterates, Protozoa, and Sponges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    These three units are designed for use with standard science curricula. These publications, relating to animals of the sea, are: Protozoa, Sponges, and Coelenterates. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations designed to impart ocean science understanding to high school students. Objectives to be attained from the unit on…

  7. Detection of Protozoa in Surface and Finished Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans are known to be the host to approximately 1500 infectious agents, out of which 66 are protozoa and 287 are helminths. Therefore, from a global perspective helminths and protozoan parasites account for approximately one fourth of the total infectious diseases of humans. A s...

  8. Grazing by protozoa as selection factor for activated sludge bacteria.

    PubMed

    Güde, H

    1979-09-01

    In continuous culture enrichments that were inoculated with activated sludge and were fed with polymeric substrates, freely dispersed single-celled bacteria belonging to theCytophaga group dominated among the initial populations, irrespective of the activated sludge source. These populations were grazed by flagellated protozoa which after several days reached high cell densities. Other morphologic bacterial groups such as spiral-shaped or filamentous bacteria then became dominant. In defined mixed culture experiments with bacterial isolates from the enrichment cultures, it was shown that a "grazing-resistant"Microcyclus strain outgrew aCytophaga strain in the presence of grazing protozoa. In contrast, theCytophaga strain competed successfully with theMicrocyclus strain and with other "grazing-resistant" strains under protozoa-free conditions. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that assumed grazing resistance factors such as floccing or filamentous growth were lost by some of the strains when they were grown for several generations in continuous culture under the same conditions, but in the absence of protozoa. PMID:24232496

  9. Molecular and chemical dialogues in bacteria-protozoa interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil-dwelling Pseudomonas fluorescens produce lipopeptide surfactants (LPs) with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities. Recent studies suggested that LPs provide protection to P. fluorescens strain SS101 against grazing by the predatory protozoa Naegleria americana, both in vitro and in rhizospher...

  10. Comparison of microscopic and immunoassay examination in the diagnosis of intestinal protozoa of humans in Mansoura, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elswaifi, Shaadi F; Palmieri, James R; El-Tantawy, Nora; El-Hussiny, Mona; Besheer, Tarek; Abohashem, Ekbal

    2016-09-01

    Protozoal diseases are prevalent globally and especially in developing countries that have relatively lower socioeconomic populations such as Egypt. Direct microscopic examination (DME) is used for the detection and identification of protozoa but lacks sufficient reliability, and thus may be detrimental in obtaining accurate diagnostic or epidemiological data. In this study, we determine the prevalence of infections by Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium sp., and Entamoeba histolytica in humans in Egypt. Furthermore, we determine the reliability of DME in determining infections caused by these protozoa and compare the results to enzyme linked Immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Our results indicate that the prevalence of giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, and entamoebiasis is 38, 22, and 16 %, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of DME for detection of G. intestinalis is 45 and 99 %, for Cryptosporidium 66 and 99 %, and for Entamoeba 45 and 100 %, respectively. Our findings demonstrate that ELISA is more reliable for diagnostic and epidemiologic study purposes. PMID:27605751

  11. Bioreactor function under perturbation scenarios is affected by interactions between bacteria and protozoa.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Ameet J; Love, Nancy G

    2012-07-17

    This study investigated the impact of transient cadmium perturbations on the structure and function of the microbial community in an activated sludge system. The impact of cadmium perturbation on the bioreactor performance, bacterial activity, bacterial community structure, and bacteria-protozoa interactions was examined. The bacterial community exhibited a short-term inhibition following a pulse perturbation of cadmium. Process recovery was associated with an increase in bacterial abundance above the unperturbed control reactor, followed by high biomass activity after the washout of cadmium. This trend was seen for multiple experiments at both laboratory- and pilot-scale. The increase in biomass activity could not be explained by changes in bacterial community structure. Independent experiments showed that the increase in bacterial abundance, and by association biomass activity, was caused by the decrease in the protozoal grazing due to the higher inhibition of ciliated protozoa as compared to bacteria when exposed to cadmium. This paper highlights the importance of expanding the investigative boundaries of the microbial ecology of bioengineered systems to include protozoal grazing, especially under perturbation scenarios. PMID:22703282

  12. OCCURRENCE OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN SURFACE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human enteric viruses cause a number of diseases when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking & recreational waters. Vaccination against poliovirus has virtually eliminated poliomyelitis from the planet. Other members of enterovirus group cause numerous diseases. Hepatit...

  13. Optical detection of parasitic protozoa in sol-gel matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livage, Jacques; Barreau, J. Y.; Da Costa, J. M.; Desportes, I.

    1994-10-01

    Whole cell parasitic protozoa have been entrapped within sol-gel porous silica matrices. Stationary phase promastigote cells of Leishmania donovani infantum are mixed with a silica sol before gelation occurs. They remain trapped within the growing oxide network and their cellular organization appears to be well preserved. Moreover protozoa retain their antigenic properties in the porous gel. They are still able to detect parasite specific antibodies in serum samples from infected patients via an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antigen- antibody associations occurring in the gel are optically detected via the reactions of a peroxidase conjugate with ortho-phenylenediamine leading to the formation of a yellow coloration. A clear-cut difference in optical density is measured between positive and negative sera. Such an entrapment of antigenic species into porous sol-gel matrices avoids the main problems due to non specific binding and could be advantageously used in diagnostic kits.

  14. Observations on the intestinal protozoa infecting man in Rhodesia.

    PubMed

    Goldsmid, J M; Rogers, S; Mahomed, K

    1976-09-18

    Humans in Rhodesia harbour a wide range of intestinal protozoa. Of the species included, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba coli and Giardia lamblia have previously been recorded. Other species which are either rarely reported or which have previously never been reported from this country, include Trichomonas hominis, Chilomastix mesnili, Enteromonas hominis, Retortamonas intestinalis, Balantidum coli,Entamoeba hartmanni,Entamoeba histolytica Laredo. Endolimax nana, Dientamoeba fragilis and Isospora belli. The importance in Rhodesia of these species, and especially of E. histolytica, is discussed. PMID:988643

  15. Fluorogenic Substrate Detection of Viable Intracellular and Extracellular Pathogenic Protozoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Peter R.; Pappas, Michael G.; Hansen, Brian D.

    1985-01-01

    Viable Leishmania promastigotes and amastigotes were detected by epifluorescence microscopy with fluorescein diacetate being used to mark living parasites and the nucleic acid-binding compound ethidium bromide to stain dead cells. This procedure is superior to other assays because it is faster and detects viable intracellular as well as extracellular Leishmania. Furthermore, destruction of intracellular pathogens by macrophages is more accurately determined with fluorescein diacetate than with other stains. The procedure may have applications in programs to develop drugs and vaccines against protozoa responsible for human and animal disease.

  16. Calcium-Dependent Mitochondrial Extrusion in Ciliated Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Bisharyan, Yelena; Clark, Theodore G.

    2011-01-01

    Here we demonstrate that ciliated protozoa can jettison mitochondria as intact organelles, releasing their contents to the extracellular space either in a soluble form, or in association with membrane vesicles at the cell periphery. The response is triggered by lateral clustering of GPI-anchored surface antigens, or by heat shock. In the first instance, extrusion is accompanied by elevated levels of intracellular calcium and is inhibited by Verapamil and BAPTA-AM arguing strongly for the involvement of calcium in triggering the response. Cells survive mitochondrial discharge raising the interesting possibility that extrusion is an early evolutionary adaptation to cell stress. PMID:21856451

  17. Enteric viruses of poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the economic importance of the poultry gut, very little is known about the complex gut microbial community. Enteric disease syndromes such as Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS) in broiler chickens and Poult Enteritis Complex (PEC) in young turkeys are difficult to characterize and reproduce in ...

  18. [Usefulness of enteral feeding in surgery].

    PubMed

    Ciesielski, L; Czekalski, P; Bilski, D; Olejniczak, W

    1997-01-01

    Eighty malnourished patients with neoplasms, enteric fistulae, multiorgan trauma and septic complications administered food by means of enteral feeding (EF). It was found that EF prevents weight loss and even causes weight gain in patients, increases total protein and albumin concentrations and decreases urea and creatinine levels in blood which is a proof of catabolism fall. Patient condition improvement and healing of the majority of enteric fistulae was achieved after EF. Factory diet intolerance affected 5% of patients and diarrhoea-6%. Investigations prove that enteral feeding is a good alternative to parenteral nutrition. If enteral feeding follows proper indications, technique and route of administration are chosen the right way, it allows the surgeon to perform operation, decreases the number of complications and enables the patient's organism fight septic syndrome. Enteral feeding is a state of the art method of severely ill patient nutrition. PMID:9424919

  19. The natural alternative: protozoa as cellular models for Legionella infection.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Christine; Harrison, Christopher F; Hilbi, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease occurs following infection by the Gram-negative bacterium Legionella pneumophila. Normally resident in fresh-water sources, Legionella are subject to predation by eukaryotic phagocytes such as amoeba and ciliates. To counter this, L. pneumophila has evolved a complex system of effector proteins which allow the bacteria to hijack the phagocytic vacuole, hiding and replicating within their erstwhile killers. These same mechanisms allow L. pneumophila to hijack another phagocyte, lung-based macrophages, which thus avoids a vital part of the immune system and leads to infection. The course of infection can be divided into five main categories: pathogen uptake, formation of the replication-permissive vacuole, intracellular replication, host cell response, and bacterial exit. L. pneumophila effector proteins target every stage of this process, interacting with secretory, endosomal, lysosomal, retrograde and autophagy pathways, as well as with mitochondria. Each of these steps can be studied in protozoa or mammalian cells, and the knowledge gained can be readily applied to human pathogenicity. Here we describe the manner whereby L. pneumophila infects host protozoa, the various techniques which are available to analyse these processes and the implications of this model for Legionella virulence and the pathogenesis of Legionnaires' disease. PMID:24168696

  20. OCCURRENCE OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of different types of human enteric viruses cause waterborne outbreaks when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking and recreational waters. Vaccination against poliovirus has virtually eliminated poliomyelitis from the planet, but other members of the enterovi...

  1. Mecillinam in enteric fever.

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, B K; Ironside, A G; Brennand, J

    1979-01-01

    Twelve consecutive patients with enteric fever entered a trial of 14 days' treatment with mecillinam. Only three patients became afebrile within three days; four continued unimproved with fever and toxaemia for seven to nine days, when treatment was changed to chloramphenicol with good results. In one case the fever did not settle until the 13th day, and five days later the patient had a clinical relapse. Although all organisms recovered were fully sensitive to mecillinam, this drug is not an effective or consistent treatment for enteric fever. PMID:218670

  2. Phenolic Composition, Fermentation Profile, Protozoa Population and Methane Production from Sheanut (Butryospermum Parkii) Byproducts In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bhatta, Raghavendra; Mani, Saravanan; Baruah, Luna; Sampath, K. T.

    2012-01-01

    Sheanut cake (SNC), expeller (SNE) and solvent extractions (SNSE) samples were evaluated to determine their suitability in animal feeding. The CP content was highest in SNSE (16.2%) followed by SNE (14.7%) and SNC (11.6%). However, metabolizable energy (ME, MJ/kg) was maximum in SNC (8.2) followed by SNE (7.9) and SNSE (7.0). The tannin phenol content was about 7.0 per cent and mostly in the form of hydrolyzable tannin (HT), whereas condensed tannin (CT) was less than one per cent. The in vitro gas production profiles indicated similar y max (maximum potential of gas production) among the 3 by-products. However, the rate of degradation (k) was maximum in SNC followed by SNE and SNSE. The t1/2 (time taken for reaching half asymptote) was lowest in SNC (14.4 h) followed by SNE (18.7 h) and SNSE (21.9 h). The increment in the in vitro gas volume (ml/200 mg DM) with PEG (polyethylene glycol)-6000 (as a tannin binder) addition was 12.0 in SNC, 9.6 in SNE and 11.0 in SNSE, respectively. The highest ratio of CH4 (ml) reduction per ml of the total gas, an indicator of the potential of tannin, was recorded in SNE (0.482) followed by SNC (0.301) and SNSE (0.261). There was significant (p<0.05) reduction in entodinia population and total protozoa population. Differential protozoa counts revealed that Entodinia populations increased to a greater extent than Holotricha when PEG was added. This is the first report on the antimethanogenic property of sheanut byproducts. It could be concluded that all the three forms of SN byproducts are medium source of protein and energy for ruminants. There is a great potential for SN by-products to be incorporated in ruminant feeding not only as a source of energy and protein, but also to protect the protein from rumen degradation and suppress enteric methanogenesis. PMID:25049494

  3. Prevalence of Protozoa Species in Drinking and Environmental Water Sources in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Shanan, Salah; Abd, Hadi; Bayoumi, Magdi; Saeed, Amir; Sandström, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Protozoa are eukaryotic cells distributed worldwide in nature and are receiving increasing attention as reservoirs and potential vectors for the transmission of pathogenic bacteria. In the environment, on the other hand, many genera of the protozoa are human and animal pathogens. Only limited information is available on these organisms in developing countries and so far no information on their presence is available from Sudan. It is necessary to establish a molecular identification of species of the protozoa from drinking and environmental water. 600 water samples were collected from five states (Gadarif, Khartoum, Kordofan, Juba, and Wad Madani) in Sudan and analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. 57 out of 600 water samples were PCR positive for protozoa. 38 out of the 57 positive samples were identified by sequencing to contain 66 protozoa species including 19 (28.8%) amoebae, 17 (25.7%) Apicomplexa, 25 (37.9%) ciliates, and 5 (7.6%) flagellates. This study utilized molecular methods identified species belonging to all phyla of protozoa and presented a fast and accurate molecular detection and identification of pathogenic as well as free-living protozoa in water uncovering hazards facing public health. PMID:25789313

  4. Prevalence of protozoa species in drinking and environmental water sources in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Shanan, Salah; Abd, Hadi; Bayoumi, Magdi; Saeed, Amir; Sandström, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Protozoa are eukaryotic cells distributed worldwide in nature and are receiving increasing attention as reservoirs and potential vectors for the transmission of pathogenic bacteria. In the environment, on the other hand, many genera of the protozoa are human and animal pathogens. Only limited information is available on these organisms in developing countries and so far no information on their presence is available from Sudan. It is necessary to establish a molecular identification of species of the protozoa from drinking and environmental water. 600 water samples were collected from five states (Gadarif, Khartoum, Kordofan, Juba, and Wad Madani) in Sudan and analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. 57 out of 600 water samples were PCR positive for protozoa. 38 out of the 57 positive samples were identified by sequencing to contain 66 protozoa species including 19 (28.8%) amoebae, 17 (25.7%) Apicomplexa, 25 (37.9%) ciliates, and 5 (7.6%) flagellates. This study utilized molecular methods identified species belonging to all phyla of protozoa and presented a fast and accurate molecular detection and identification of pathogenic as well as free-living protozoa in water uncovering hazards facing public health. PMID:25789313

  5. Effects of altered temperature and precipitation on desert protozoa associated with biological soil crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darby, B.J.; Housman, D.C.; Zaki, A.M.; Shamout, Y.; Adl, S.M.; Belnap, J.; Neher, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are diverse assemblages of bacteria, cyanobacteria, algae, fungi, lichens, and mosses that cover much of arid land soils. The objective of this study was to quantify protozoa associated with biological soil crusts and test the response of protozoa to increased temperature and precipitation as is predicted by some global climate models. Protozoa were more abundant when associated with cyanobacteria/lichen crusts than with cyanobacteria crusts alone. Amoebae, flagellates, and ciliates originating from the Colorado Plateau desert (cool desert, primarily winter precipitation) declined 50-, 10-, and 100-fold, respectively, when moved in field mesocosms to the Chihuahuan Desert (hot desert, primarily summer rain). However, this was not observed in protozoa collected from the Chihuahuan Desert and moved to the Sonoran desert (hot desert, also summer rain, but warmer than Chihuahuan Desert). Protozoa in culture began to encyst at 37??C. Cysts survived the upper end of daily temperatures (37-55??C), and could be stimulated to excyst if temperatures were reduced to 15??C or lower. Results from this study suggest that cool desert protozoa are influenced negatively by increased summer precipitation during excessive summer temperatures, and that desert protozoa may be adapted to a specific desert's temperature and precipitation regime. ?? 2006 by the International Society of Protistologists.

  6. Protozoa lectins and their role in host-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ram Sarup; Walia, Amandeep Kaur; Kanwar, Jagat Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are proteins/glycoproteins of non-immune origin that agglutinate red blood cells, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, etc., and bind reversibly to carbohydrates present on the apposing cells. They have at least two carbohydrate binding sites and their binding can be inhibited by one or more carbohydrates. Owing to carbohydrate binding specificity of lectins, they mediate cell-cell interactions and play role in protozoan adhesion and host cell cytotoxicity, thus are central to the pathogenic property of the parasite. Several parasitic protozoa possess lectins which mediate parasite adherence to host cells based on their carbohydrate specificities. These interactions could be exploited for development of novel therapeutics, targeting the adherence and thus helpful in eradicating wide spread of protozoan diseases. The current review highlights the present state knowledge with regard to protozoal lectins with an emphasis on their haemagglutination activity, carbohydrate specificity, characteristics and also their role in pathogenesis notably as adhesion molecules, thereby aiding the pathogen in disease establishment. PMID:27268207

  7. Molecular and chemical dialogues in bacteria-protozoa interactions

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chunxu; Mazzola, Mark; Cheng, Xu; Oetjen, Janina; Alexandrov, Theodore; Dorrestein, Pieter; Watrous, Jeramie; van der Voort, Menno; Raaijmakers, Jos M.

    2015-01-01

    Protozoan predation of bacteria can significantly affect soil microbial community composition and ecosystem functioning. Bacteria possess diverse defense strategies to resist or evade protozoan predation. For soil-dwelling Pseudomonas species, several secondary metabolites were proposed to provide protection against different protozoan genera. By combining whole-genome transcriptome analyses with (live) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS), we observed multiple changes in the molecular and chemical dialogues between Pseudomonas fluorescens and the protist Naegleria americana. Lipopeptide (LP) biosynthesis was induced in Pseudomonas upon protozoan grazing and LP accumulation transitioned from homogeneous distributions across bacterial colonies to site-specific accumulation at the bacteria-protist interface. Also putrescine biosynthesis was upregulated in P. fluorescens upon predation. We demonstrated that putrescine induces protozoan trophozoite encystment and adversely affects cyst viability. This multifaceted study provides new insights in common and strain-specific responses in bacteria-protozoa interactions, including responses that contribute to bacterial survival in highly competitive soil and rhizosphere environments. PMID:26246193

  8. Influence of rumen protozoa on methane emission in ruminants: a meta-analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Guyader, J; Eugène, M; Nozière, P; Morgavi, D P; Doreau, M; Martin, C

    2014-11-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effects of protozoa concentration on methane emission from ruminants. A database was built from 59 publications reporting data from 76 in vivo experiments. The experiments included in the database recorded methane production and rumen protozoa concentration measured on the same groups of animals. Quantitative data such as diet chemical composition, rumen fermentation and microbial parameters, and qualitative information such as methane mitigation strategies were also collected. In the database, 31% of the experiments reported a concomitant reduction of both protozoa concentration and methane emission (g/kg dry matter intake). Nearly all of these experiments tested lipids as methane mitigation strategies. By contrast, 21% of the experiments reported a variation in methane emission without changes in protozoa numbers, indicating that methanogenesis is also regulated by other mechanisms not involving protozoa. Experiments that used chemical compounds as an antimethanogenic treatment belonged to this group. The relationship between methane emission and protozoa concentration was studied with a variance-covariance model, with experiment as a fixed effect. The experiments included in the analysis had a within-experiment variation of protozoa concentration higher than 5.3 log10 cells/ml corresponding to the average s.e.m. of the database for this variable. To detect potential interfering factors for the relationship, the influence of several qualitative and quantitative secondary factors was tested. This meta-analysis showed a significant linear relationship between methane emission and protozoa concentration: methane (g/kg dry matter intake)=-30.7+8.14×protozoa (log10 cells/ml) with 28 experiments (91 treatments), residual mean square error=1.94 and adjusted R 2=0.90. The proportion of butyrate in the rumen positively influenced the least square means of this relationship. PMID:25075950

  9. Relative diversity and community structure analysis of rumen protozoa according to T-RFLP and microscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Tymensen, Lisa; Barkley, Cindy; McAllister, Tim A

    2012-01-01

    Protozoa are common inhabitants of the rumen where they play roles in host nutrition and methanogenesis. Knowledge of how changes in the composition of protozoa communities affect these processes is limited in part due to a lack of efficient methods for protozoa community analysis. In this study, a terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) assay targeting the 18S rRNA gene was developed for comparative analysis of rumen protozoa communities. Comparison of diversity and structure of protozoa communities from hay-fed versus silage/grain-fed cattle via T-RFLP analysis yielded similar overall results to microscopy analysis. According to both methods, Entodinium spp. were more abundant in the silage/grain-fed cattle and protozoa diversity (as calculated using the Shannon index) was higher for the hay-fed cattle due to greater species evenness. Type B protozoa were more prevalent in the hay-fed cattle, whereas Type A protozoa were more prevalent in the silage/grain-fed cattle. Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) indicated that the protozoa communities from hay-fed and silage/grain-fed cattle were different, and multivariate analysis indicated that pen mates (i.e., cattle fed the same diet and housed together) tended to have similar protozoa communities types. In summary, we present a T-RFLP method for analyzing rumen protozoa communities which complements traditional microscopy approaches but has the advantage of being amenable to high-throughput. PMID:22033497

  10. Transient Superdiffusion and Long-Range Correlations in the Motility Patterns of Trypanosomatid Flagellate Protozoa.

    PubMed

    Alves, Luiz G A; Scariot, Débora B; Guimarães, Renato R; Nakamura, Celso V; Mendes, Renio S; Ribeiro, Haroldo V

    2016-01-01

    We report on a diffusive analysis of the motion of flagellate protozoa species. These parasites are the etiological agents of neglected tropical diseases: leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis, African sleeping sickness caused by Trypanosoma brucei, and Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. By tracking the positions of these parasites and evaluating the variance related to the radial positions, we find that their motions are characterized by a short-time transient superdiffusive behavior. Also, the probability distributions of the radial positions are self-similar and can be approximated by a stretched Gaussian distribution. We further investigate the probability distributions of the radial velocities of individual trajectories. Among several candidates, we find that the generalized gamma distribution shows a good agreement with these distributions. The velocity time series have long-range correlations, displaying a strong persistent behavior (Hurst exponents close to one). The prevalence of "universal" patterns across all analyzed species indicates that similar mechanisms may be ruling the motion of these parasites, despite their differences in morphological traits. In addition, further analysis of these patterns could become a useful tool for investigating the activity of new candidate drugs against these and others neglected tropical diseases. PMID:27007779

  11. Transient Superdiffusion and Long-Range Correlations in the Motility Patterns of Trypanosomatid Flagellate Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Luiz G. A.; Scariot, Débora B.; Guimarães, Renato R.; Nakamura, Celso V.; Mendes, Renio S.; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a diffusive analysis of the motion of flagellate protozoa species. These parasites are the etiological agents of neglected tropical diseases: leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis, African sleeping sickness caused by Trypanosoma brucei, and Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. By tracking the positions of these parasites and evaluating the variance related to the radial positions, we find that their motions are characterized by a short-time transient superdiffusive behavior. Also, the probability distributions of the radial positions are self-similar and can be approximated by a stretched Gaussian distribution. We further investigate the probability distributions of the radial velocities of individual trajectories. Among several candidates, we find that the generalized gamma distribution shows a good agreement with these distributions. The velocity time series have long-range correlations, displaying a strong persistent behavior (Hurst exponents close to one). The prevalence of “universal” patterns across all analyzed species indicates that similar mechanisms may be ruling the motion of these parasites, despite their differences in morphological traits. In addition, further analysis of these patterns could become a useful tool for investigating the activity of new candidate drugs against these and others neglected tropical diseases. PMID:27007779

  12. [Cyclic enteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Hébuterne, X; Rampal, P

    1996-02-10

    Cyclic enteral nutrition consists in continuous infusion of nutrients with a pump over a 12 to 14 hour period at night. Different reports have demonstrated that cyclic enteral nutrition is well tolerated in malnourished ambulatory patients. The incidence of pneumonia by inhalation in this type of patients is less than 2%. Excepting patients with major amputation of the small intestine and important functional consequences, the increased infusion rate required by cyclic enteral nutrition does not diminish digestive tract absorption making the technique as effective as continuous 24-hour infusion. The main advantages of the cyclic infusion are the preservation of physiological balance between fasting and feeding, improved physical activity during the day with its beneficial effect on protein-energy metabolism, compatibility with oral nutrition during the day in nutrition reeducation programs, and the psychological impact in patients who are free to move about, further improving tolerance. Finally, cyclic enteral nutrition is adapted to enteral nutrition programs conducted in the patient's homes. PMID:8729381

  13. Environmental Enteric Dysfunction in Children.

    PubMed

    Syed, Sana; Ali, Asad; Duggan, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Diarrheal diseases are a major cause of childhood death in resource-poor countries, killing approximately 760,000 children younger than 5 years each year. Although deaths due to diarrhea have declined dramatically, high rates of stunting and malnutrition have persisted. Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a subclinical condition caused by constant fecal-oral contamination with resultant intestinal inflammation and villous blunting. These histological changes were first described in the 1960s, but the clinical effect of EED is only just being recognized in the context of failure of nutritional interventions and oral vaccines in resource-poor countries. We review the existing literature regarding the underlying causes of and potential interventions for EED in children, highlighting the epidemiology, clinical and histologic classification of the entity, and discussing novel biomarkers and possible therapies. Future research priorities are also discussed. PMID:26974416

  14. Infection strategies of enteric pathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Abigail; Young, Joanna C.; Constantinou, Nicholas; Frankel, Gad

    2012-01-01

    Enteric Escherichia coli (E. coli) are both natural flora of humans and important pathogens causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Traditionally enteric E. coli have been divided into 6 pathotypes, with further pathotypes often proposed. In this review we suggest expansion of the enteric E. coli into 8 pathotypes to include the emerging pathotypes of adherent invasive E. coli (AIEC) and Shiga-toxin producing enteroaggregative E. coli (STEAEC). The molecular mechanisms that allow enteric E. coli to colonize and cause disease in the human host are examined and for two of the pathotypes that express a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) we discuss the complex interplay between translocated effectors and manipulation of host cell signaling pathways that occurs during infection. PMID:22555463

  15. Enteral approaches in malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Avitzur, Yaron; Courtney-Martin, Glenda

    2016-04-01

    Enteral autonomy and freedom from parenteral nutrition dependency is the ultimate therapeutic goal in children with intestinal failure. This can be achieved following attainment of bowel adaptation in conditions such as short bowel syndrome. Enteral nutrition is a major therapeutic cornerstone in the management of children with intestinal failure. It promotes physiological development, bowel adaptation and enhances weaning from parenteral nutrition. The optimal method of delivery, type of nutrients, timing of initiation, promotion of feeds and transition to solid food in children with short bowel syndrome are debated. Lack of high quality human data hampers evidence based conclusions and impacts daily practices in the field. Clinical approaches and therapeutic decisions are regularly influenced by expert opinion and center practices. This review summarizes the physiological principles, medical evidence and practice recommendations on enteral nutrition approaches in short bowel syndrome and provides a practical framework for daily treatment of this unique group of patients. Oral and tube feeding, bolus and continuous feeding, type of nutrients, formulas, trace elements and solid food options are reviewed. Future collaborative multicenter, high quality clinical trials are needed to support enteral nutrition approaches in intestinal failure. PMID:27086892

  16. Potential role of bacteria packaging by protozoa in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Denoncourt, Alix M.; Paquet, Valérie E.; Charette, Steve J.

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria live in close association with protozoa. These unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms are ubiquitous in various environments. A number of protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates ingest pathogenic bacteria, package them usually in membrane structures, and then release them into the environment. Packaged bacteria are more resistant to various stresses and are more apt to survive than free bacteria. New evidence indicates that protozoa and not bacteria control the packaging process. It is possible that packaging is more common than suspected and may play a major role in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria. To confirm the role of packaging in the propagation of infections, it is vital that the molecular mechanisms governing the packaging of bacteria by protozoa be identified as well as elements related to the ecology of this process in order to determine whether packaging acts as a Trojan Horse. PMID:24904553

  17. MEASURE OCCURRENCE AND EXPOSURE TO CCL-RELATED, EMERGING AND REGULATED WATERBORNE HUMAN PROTOZOA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pathogenic waterborne protozoa (Giardia, Cryptosporidium) have been identified as significant etiological agents in the transmission of waterborne disease. Microsporidians, which are on the Agency's Contaminant Candidate List, are obligate intracellular parasites of invertebrate...

  18. [New drugs for the treatment of human parasitic protozoa].

    PubMed

    Dupouy-Camet, J

    2004-06-01

    Whereas parasitic diseases are always a heavy burden for humanity, few are the new antiparasitic molecules marketed during the last 25 years. Thus on the 1393 new molecules marketed between 1975 and 1999, only 7 have antiprotozoan properties. This talk will detail the progress made in the treatment of the intestinal protozoa, malaria, visceral leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis, problems with which are especially confronted the European parasitologists. The treatment of Giardia and intestinal amoebas is based on 5-nitro-imidazoles derivatives. Single-dose treatments can be used with tinidazole or secnidazole. Resistance to these compounds of Giardia were described and in these cases, treatment by quinacrine or nitazoxanide are possible alternatives. Nitazoxanide is marketed in the United States and in Australia. It seems to be a well tolerated antiparasitic agent with a broad spectrum because it is active on a lot of intestinal protozoa and helminths. It acts on the same metabolic way as the 5-nitro-imidazoles (inhibition of the ferredoxine reductase) but without synthesis of free radicals and DNA deterioration of the target cell. It is thus neither teratogenic nor mutagenic. Artemisinin derivatives allowed considerable progress in the treatment of malaria. They have short half-lifes, allowing a fast parasitic clearance and these derivatives do no provoke resistance. They are first line drugs for the treatment of malaria in areas of drug resistance. The arthemeter-lumefantrine association (Riamet, Coartem) ensures a rapid disappearance of the circulating parasites and is well tolerated. Atovaquone-proguanil (Malarone) is usable in the treatment of acute malaria but also in disease prevention with the advantage of continuing drug intake for only 7 days after having left the infected area. The treatment of leishmaniasis is always delicate and is characterized by the worrying development of antimony resistances, probably related in the European zones to the treatment of

  19. Coinfection of Schistosoma (Trematoda) with bacteria, protozoa and helminths.

    PubMed

    Abruzzi, Amy; Fried, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    This review examines coinfection of selected species of Schistosoma with bacteria, protozoa and helminths and focuses on the effects of the coinfection on the hosts. The review is based mainly on tables that contain the salient information on the coinfecting organisms in vertebrate hosts. Further explanation and clarification of the tables are given in the text. A table is also provided that gives synoptic information on the 37 species in the 19 genera considered in this review. Coinfection studies with Schistosoma species and the other organisms were considered in six tables plus the accompanying text. Considerations of the Schistosoma interactions with another species of organism include studies on coinfection with Plasmodium, with protozoa other than Plasmodium; with Salmonella, with bacteria other than Salmonella; and with Fasciola, with helminths other than Fasciola. Numerous factors were found to influence the effects of coinfection on the vertebrate host, including organisms and hosts used in the studies, order and time interval between the first and the second infection, studies on natural versus experimental hosts, dosage of the infectious agents, strains and pedigrees of the parasites, age of hosts at time of exposure to the infectious agents and age of hosts at the time of necropsy. Overall, a prior infection with Schistosoma, particularly a patent infection, often has an effect on the subsequent infection by a protozoan, bacterium or other helminth. In relatively few cases, a prior infection with Schistosoma decreased the severity of the subsequent infection as with Helicobacter pylori, Fasciola hepatica, Echinostoma or Plasmodium, the latter only exhibiting this behaviour when coinfected with Schistosoma haematobium. More often, however, a prior infection with Schistosoma increased the severity of the second infection as with Leishmania, Toxoplasma gondii, Entamoeba histolytica, Staphylococcus aureus or Salmonella. In some of these coinfection studies

  20. Quantification of Protozoa and Viruses from Small Water Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla, J. Alfredo; Bonilla, Tonya D.; Abdelzaher, Amir M.; Scott, Troy M.; Lukasik, Jerzy; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Palmer, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    Large sample volumes are traditionally required for the analysis of waterborne pathogens. The need for large volumes greatly limits the number of samples that can be processed. The goals of this study were to compare extraction and detection procedures for quantifying protozoan parasites and viruses from small volumes of marine water. The intent was to evaluate a logistically simpler method of sample collection and processing that would facilitate direct pathogen measures as part of routine monitoring programs. Samples were collected simultaneously using a bilayer device with protozoa capture by size (top filter) and viruses capture by charge (bottom filter). Protozoan detection technologies utilized for recovery of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. were qPCR and the more traditional immunomagnetic separation—IFA-microscopy, while virus (poliovirus) detection was based upon qPCR versus plaque assay. Filters were eluted using reagents consistent with the downstream detection technologies. Results showed higher mean recoveries using traditional detection methods over qPCR for Cryptosporidium (91% vs. 45%) and poliovirus (67% vs. 55%) whereas for Giardia the qPCR-based methods were characterized by higher mean recoveries (41% vs. 28%). Overall mean recoveries are considered high for all detection technologies. Results suggest that simultaneous filtration may be suitable for isolating different classes of pathogens from small marine water volumes. More research is needed to evaluate the suitability of this method for detecting pathogens at low ambient concentration levels. PMID:26114244

  1. Quantification of Protozoa and Viruses from Small Water Volumes.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, J Alfredo; Bonilla, Tonya D; Abdelzaher, Amir M; Scott, Troy M; Lukasik, Jerzy; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Palmer, Carol J

    2015-07-01

    Large sample volumes are traditionally required for the analysis of waterborne pathogens. The need for large volumes greatly limits the number of samples that can be processed. The aims of this study were to compare extraction and detection procedures for quantifying protozoan parasites and viruses from small volumes of marine water. The intent was to evaluate a logistically simpler method of sample collection and processing that would facilitate direct pathogen measures as part of routine monitoring programs. Samples were collected simultaneously using a bilayer device with protozoa capture by size (top filter) and viruses capture by charge (bottom filter). Protozoan detection technologies utilized for recovery of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. were qPCR and the more traditional immunomagnetic separation-IFA-microscopy, while virus (poliovirus) detection was based upon qPCR versus plaque assay. Filters were eluted using reagents consistent with the downstream detection technologies. Results showed higher mean recoveries using traditional detection methods over qPCR for Cryptosporidium (91% vs. 45%) and poliovirus (67% vs. 55%) whereas for Giardia the qPCR-based methods were characterized by higher mean recoveries (41% vs. 28%). Overall mean recoveries are considered high for all detection technologies. Results suggest that simultaneous filtration may be suitable for isolating different classes of pathogens from small marine water volumes. More research is needed to evaluate the suitability of this method for detecting pathogens at low ambient concentration levels. PMID:26114244

  2. Bioaugmentation Mitigates the Impact of Estrogen on Coliform-Grazing Protozoa in Slow Sand Filters.

    PubMed

    Haig, Sarah-Jane; Gauchotte-Lindsay, Caroline; Collins, Gavin; Quince, Christopher

    2016-03-15

    Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as estrogens, is a growing issue for human and animal health as they have been shown to cause reproductive and developmental abnormalities in wildlife and plants and have been linked to male infertility disorders in humans. Intensive farming and weather events, such as storms, flash flooding, and landslides, contribute estrogen to waterways used to supply drinking water. This paper explores the impact of estrogen exposure on the performance of slow sand filters (SSFs) used for water treatment. The feasibility and efficacy of SSF bioaugmentation with estrogen-degrading bacteria was also investigated, to determine whether removal of natural estrogens (estrone, estradiol, and estriol) and overall SSF performance for drinking water treatment could be improved. Strains for SSF augmentation were isolated from full-scale, municipal SSFs so as to optimize survival in the laboratory-scale SSFs used. Concentrations of the natural estrogens, determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), revealed augmented SSFs reduced the overall estrogenic potency of the supplied water by 25% on average and removed significantly more estrone and estradiol than nonaugmented filters. A negative correlation was found between coliform removal and estrogen concentration in nonaugmented filters. This was due to the toxic inhibition of protozoa, indicating that high estrogen concentrations can have functional implications for SSFs (such as impairing coliform removal). Consequently, we suggest that high estrogen concentrations could impact significantly on water quality production and, in particular, on pathogen removal in biological water filters. PMID:26895622

  3. Bioaugmentation Mitigates the Impact of Estrogen on Coliform-Grazing Protozoa in Slow Sand Filters

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as estrogens, is a growing issue for human and animal health as they have been shown to cause reproductive and developmental abnormalities in wildlife and plants and have been linked to male infertility disorders in humans. Intensive farming and weather events, such as storms, flash flooding, and landslides, contribute estrogen to waterways used to supply drinking water. This paper explores the impact of estrogen exposure on the performance of slow sand filters (SSFs) used for water treatment. The feasibility and efficacy of SSF bioaugmentation with estrogen-degrading bacteria was also investigated, to determine whether removal of natural estrogens (estrone, estradiol, and estriol) and overall SSF performance for drinking water treatment could be improved. Strains for SSF augmentation were isolated from full-scale, municipal SSFs so as to optimize survival in the laboratory-scale SSFs used. Concentrations of the natural estrogens, determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), revealed augmented SSFs reduced the overall estrogenic potency of the supplied water by 25% on average and removed significantly more estrone and estradiol than nonaugmented filters. A negative correlation was found between coliform removal and estrogen concentration in nonaugmented filters. This was due to the toxic inhibition of protozoa, indicating that high estrogen concentrations can have functional implications for SSFs (such as impairing coliform removal). Consequently, we suggest that high estrogen concentrations could impact significantly on water quality production and, in particular, on pathogen removal in biological water filters. PMID:26895622

  4. Effect of nylon bag and protozoa on in vitro corn starch disappearance.

    PubMed

    van Zwieten, J T; van Vuuren, A M; Dijkstra, J

    2008-03-01

    An in vitro experiment was carried out to study whether the presence of protozoa in nylon bags can explain the underestimation of the in situ degradation of slowly degradable starch. Corn of a high (flint) and a low (dent) vitreousness variety was ground over a 3-mm screen, weighed in nylon bags with a pore size of 37 microm, and washed in cold water. Samples of washed cornstarch were incubated in 40-mL tubes with faunated and defaunated ruminal fluid. An additional amount of washed corn, in nylon bags, was inserted in each incubation tube. Incubations were carried out for 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h, and starch residue in tube and nylon bag was determined. In general, starch disappearance from the nylon bag was less than from the tube, and was less with faunated than defaunated rumen fluid, but corn variety did not affect starch disappearance. When no protozoa were present, the disappearance of starch from the bags was higher after 6 and 12 h incubation compared with presence of protozoa. However, in the tubes, there was no difference in starch disappearance due to presence or absence of protozoa. Estimated lag time was higher in presence (4.6 h) then absence (3.6 h) of protozoa. It was concluded that the effect of presence or absence of protozoa on starch disappearance differs within or outside nylon bags. The reduced disappearance rate of starch inside the nylon bags in the presence of protozoa helps to explain the underestimation of starch degradation based on the in sacco procedure when compared with in vivo data upon incubation of slowly degradable starch sources. PMID:18292269

  5. Protozoa in Subsurface Sediments from Sites Contaminated with Aviation Gasoline or Jet Fuel

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, James L.; Kampbell, Don H.; Cook, Mike L.; Wilson, John T.

    1993-01-01

    Numbers of protozoa in the subsurface of aviation gasoline and jet fuel spill areas at a Coast Guard base at Traverse City, Mich., were determined. Boreholes were drilled in an uncontaminated location, in contaminated but untreated parts of the fuel plumes, and in the aviation gasoline source area undergoing H2O2 biotreatment. Samples were taken from the unsaturated zone to depths slightly below the floating free product in the saturated zone. Protozoa were found to occur in elevated numbers in the unsaturated zone, where fuel vapors mixed with atmospheric oxygen, and below the layer of floating fuel, where uncontaminated groundwater came into contact with fuel. The same trends were noted in the biotreatment area, except that numbers of protozoa were higher. Numbers of protozoa in some contaminated areas equalled or exceeded those found in surface soil. The abundance of protozoa in the biotreatment area was high enough that it would be expected to significantly reduce the bacterial community that was degrading the fuel. Little reduction in hydraulic conductivity was observed, and no bacterial fouling of the aquifer was observed during biotreatment. PMID:16348871

  6. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000164.htm Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  7. John Glenn Entering Friendship 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Overall view of astronaut John Glenn, Jr., as he enters into the spacecraft Friendship 7 prior to MA-6 launch operations at Launch Complex 14. Astronaut Glenn is entering his spacecraft to begin the first American manned Earth orbital mission.

  8. Entering the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vince, Gaia

    2016-04-01

    There is growing evidence that we are now entering a new geological age defined by human influence on the planet, the Anthropocene. Millions of years from now, a stripe in the accumulated layers of rock on Earth's surface will reveal our human fingerprint just as we can see evidence of dinosaurs in rocks of the Jurassic, or the explosion of life that marks the Cambrian. There is now no part of the planet untouched by human influence. The realisation that we wield such planetary power requires a quite extraordinary shift in perception, fundamentally toppling the scientific, cultural and religious philosophies that define our place in the world. This session explores these issues and examines our new relationship with nature now that we so strongly influence the biosphere. And this session will look at what the impacts of our planetary changes mean for us, and how we might deal with the consequences of the Anthropocene we have created.

  9. Comparison digestibility and protozoa population of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow

    PubMed Central

    Jabari, Safora; Eslami, Moosa; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Bojarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to compare the morphology and activity of rumen protozoa of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow using in vitro digestibility and gas production parameters of steam treated sugarcane pith. Rumen fluid obtained from two buffalo and cow steers fed the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. To separate rumen protozoa, antibiotic solution and fungicides were added to rumen fluid. The results of present experiment indicated that the neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 7.8 vs. 1.69%) and acid detergent fiber (ADF; 6.24 vs. 3.24%) digestibility of steam treated sugarcane pith by rumen protozoal population of Khuzestan buffalo was higher than those of cow (p < 0.05). Also, digestibility of dry matter, NDF and ADF by whole buffalo micro-organisms was more than those in cow (p < 0.05). The results indicated that the potential of gas production of sugarcane pith by rumen protozoa in water buffalo was more than that of cow (p < 0.05). Total rumen ciliate protozoa numbers in water buffalo were significantly higher than those of cow (3.68 × 105 vs. 2.18 × 105 mL-1 of rumen content) (p < 0.05). The number of Diplodinium in buffalo was more than that of cow (41.27 vs. 35.7% of total rumen protozoa, respectively). Percentage of Entodinium, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex and Isotricha in cow was more than those of buffalo. Therefore, in the same diet, protozoa and total rumen micro-organisms of Khuzestan water buffalo have higher digestion activity compared to Holstein cow. PMID:25610581

  10. Native protozoa decrease Escherichia coli O157:H7 in microcosms of wastewater from a dairy lagoon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since protozoa constitute almost half of rumen microbial biomass and regulate rumen microbial ecosystem, we evaluated the influence of protozoa in wastewater from a dairy lagoon on the fate of pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 marked with antibiotic resistance. Protozoan populations in ...

  11. Not plants or animals: a brief history of the origin of Kingdoms Protozoa, Protista and Protoctista.

    PubMed

    Scamardella, J M

    1999-12-01

    In the wake of Darwin's evolutionary ideas, mid-nineteenth century naturalists realized the shortcomings of the long established two-kingdom system of organismal classification. Placement in a natural scheme of Protozoa, Protophyta, Phytozoa and Bacteria, microorganisms that exhibited plant-like and animal-like characteristics but obviously differed in organization from larger plants and animals, challenged traditional classification. The attempts of naturalists to classify these organisms outside the constraints of the plant and animal kingdoms led to concepts of additional kingdoms (Protozoa, Protista, Protoctista, etc.) to accommodate the nature of these organisms as not true plants or animals. PMID:10943416

  12. Microscopic enteritis: Bucharest consensus.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Kamran; Aldulaimi, David; Holmes, Geoffrey; Johnson, Matt W; Robert, Marie; Srivastava, Amitabh; Fléjou, Jean-François; Sanders, David S; Volta, Umberto; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Going, James J; Becheanu, Gabriel; Catassi, Carlo; Danciu, Mihai; Materacki, Luke; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Ishaq, Sauid; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Peña, A Salvador; Bassotti, Gabrio; Marsh, Michael N; Villanacci, Vincenzo

    2015-03-01

    Microscopic enteritis (ME) is an inflammatory condition of the small bowel that leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, nutrient and micronutrient deficiency. It is characterised by microscopic or sub-microscopic abnormalities such as microvillus changes and enterocytic alterations in the absence of definite macroscopic changes using standard modern endoscopy. This work recognises a need to characterize disorders with microscopic and submicroscopic features, currently regarded as functional or non-specific entities, to obtain further understanding of their clinical relevance. The consensus working party reviewed statements about the aetiology, diagnosis and symptoms associated with ME and proposes an algorithm for its investigation and treatment. Following the 5(th) International Course in Digestive Pathology in Bucharest in November 2012, an international group of 21 interested pathologists and gastroenterologists formed a working party with a view to formulating a consensus statement on ME. A five-step agreement scale (from strong agreement to strong disagreement) was used to score 21 statements, independently. There was strong agreement on all statements about ME histology (95%-100%). Statements concerning diagnosis achieved 85% to 100% agreement. A statement on the management of ME elicited agreement from the lowest rate (60%) up to 100%. The remaining two categories showed general agreement between experts on clinical presentation (75%-95%) and pathogenesis (80%-90%) of ME. There was strong agreement on the histological definition of ME. Weaker agreement on management indicates a need for further investigations, better definitions and clinical trials to produce quality guidelines for management. This ME consensus is a step toward greater recognition of a significant entity affecting symptomatic patients previously labelled as non-specific or functional enteropathy. PMID:25759526

  13. Microscopic enteritis: Bucharest consensus

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Kamran; Aldulaimi, David; Holmes, Geoffrey; Johnson, Matt W; Robert, Marie; Srivastava, Amitabh; Fléjou, Jean-François; Sanders, David S; Volta, Umberto; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Going, James J; Becheanu, Gabriel; Catassi, Carlo; Danciu, Mihai; Materacki, Luke; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Ishaq, Sauid; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Peña, A Salvador; Bassotti, Gabrio; Marsh, Michael N; Villanacci, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic enteritis (ME) is an inflammatory condition of the small bowel that leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, nutrient and micronutrient deficiency. It is characterised by microscopic or sub-microscopic abnormalities such as microvillus changes and enterocytic alterations in the absence of definite macroscopic changes using standard modern endoscopy. This work recognises a need to characterize disorders with microscopic and submicroscopic features, currently regarded as functional or non-specific entities, to obtain further understanding of their clinical relevance. The consensus working party reviewed statements about the aetiology, diagnosis and symptoms associated with ME and proposes an algorithm for its investigation and treatment. Following the 5th International Course in Digestive Pathology in Bucharest in November 2012, an international group of 21 interested pathologists and gastroenterologists formed a working party with a view to formulating a consensus statement on ME. A five-step agreement scale (from strong agreement to strong disagreement) was used to score 21 statements, independently. There was strong agreement on all statements about ME histology (95%-100%). Statements concerning diagnosis achieved 85% to 100% agreement. A statement on the management of ME elicited agreement from the lowest rate (60%) up to 100%. The remaining two categories showed general agreement between experts on clinical presentation (75%-95%) and pathogenesis (80%-90%) of ME. There was strong agreement on the histological definition of ME. Weaker agreement on management indicates a need for further investigations, better definitions and clinical trials to produce quality guidelines for management. This ME consensus is a step toward greater recognition of a significant entity affecting symptomatic patients previously labelled as non-specific or functional enteropathy. PMID:25759526

  14. Further evidence for the regulation of bacterial populations in soil by protozoa.

    PubMed

    Habte, M; Alexander, M

    1977-06-20

    After the addition to soil of large numbers of a cowpea Rhizobium strain, the population declined steadily until the numbers reached about 10(7)/g, and the protozoa rose to about 10(4)/g. When indigenous protozoa were suppressed by the addition of actidione to the soil, the density of the test rhizobium did not fall initially, but its abundance declined to about 10(7)/g when actidione-resistant protozoa arose in significant numbers. The addition to actidione-treated soil of an antibiotic-resistant strain of Paramecium led to a rapid decrease in the population of the rhizobium, the density reaching essentially the same value as in soil receiving neither the drug nor the paramecia. The same changes occurred with Xanthomonas campestris as test prey except that its numbers fell to about 10(5)/g of soil. These data provide further evidence for the key role of protozoa in controlling the abundance of populations of certain bacteria introduced into soil. PMID:879960

  15. PROTOZOA IN SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS FROM SITES CONTAMINATED WITH AVIATION GASOLINE OR JET FUEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numbers of protozoa in the subsurface of aviation gasoline and jet fuel spill areas at a Coast Guard base at Traverse City, Mich., were determined. oreholes were drilled in an uncontaminated location, in contaminated but untreated parts of the fuel plumes, and in the aviation gas...

  16. DISTRIBUTION OF PROTOZOA IN SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS OF A PRISTINE GROUNDWATER STUDY SITE IN OKLAHOMA (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most-probable-number counting methods were applied to determine the distribution of protozoa in a depth profile at a groundwater microbiology study site near Lula, Oklahoma in January and June, 1985. Aseptic procedures were used to ensure minimal airborne contamination samples. N...

  17. PROTOZOA IN SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS FROM SITE CONTAMI- NATED WITH AVIATION GASOLINE OR JET FUEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numbers of protozoa in the subsurface of aviation gasoline and jet fuel spill areas at a Coast Guard base at Traverse City, Mich., were determined. Boreholes were drilled in an uncontaminated location, in contaminated but untreated parts of the fuel plumes, and in the aviation ga...

  18. Detection of zoonotic protozoa Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis suihominis in wild boars from Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food safety regulations require the control of presence of protozoa in meats destined for human consumption. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat may constitute a source of zoonoses. A 23.8% (688/2881) seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, and 72.2% (662/910) Sarcocystis sarcocysts prevalence ...

  19. [Testaceans (Protozoa: Testacea) in quaternary permafrost sediments of Bykovsky Peninsula, arctic Yakutia].

    PubMed

    Bobrov, A A; Siegert, Ch; Schirrmeister, L; Andreev, A A

    2003-01-01

    The results of the first protozoological study in terms of paleoecology of long-term sediments and buried soils formed in the cryolite zone of northeastern Siberia are discussed. The data on testaceans (Protozoa: Testacea) inhabiting various sites of Bykovsky Peninsula, Laptev Sea coast near estuary of Lena, within the last 53,000 years (late Pleistocene and Holocene). PMID:12712585

  20. Importance of passive diffusion in the uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by phagotrophic protozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Kujawinski, E.B.; Farrington, J.W.; Moffett, J.W.

    2000-05-01

    Unicellular protozoan grazers represent a size class of organisms where a transition in the mechanism of chlorobiphenyl (CB) introduction, from diffusion through surface membranes to ingestion of contaminated prey, could occur. This study compares the relative importance of these two processes in the overall uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by protists. Uptake rates and steady-state concentrations were compared in laboratory cultures of grazing and nongrazing protozoa. These experiments were conducted with a 10-{micro}m marine scuticociliate (Uronema sp.), bacterial prey (Halomonas halodurans), and a suite of 21 CB congeners spanning a range of aqueous solubilities. The dominant pathway of CB uptake by both grazing and nongrazing protozoa was diffusion. Organic-carbon-normalized CB concentrations (in the protozoan cell) were equivalent in grazing and nongrazing protozoa for all congeners studied. Rate constants for uptake into and loss from the protozoan cell were independently determined by using [3,3{prime}, 4,4{prime}-{sup 14}C]tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC no. 77), 0.38 {+-} 0.03 min{sup {minus}1} and (1.1 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup {minus}5} (g of organic carbon){minus}{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Magnitudes of the uptake and loss processes were calculated and compared by using a numerical model. The model result was consistent with data from the bioaccumulation experiment and supported the hypothesis that diffusive uptake is faster than ingestive uptake in phagotrophic unicellular protozoa.

  1. Can fungal zoospores be the source of energy for the rumen protozoa Eudiplodinium maggii?

    PubMed

    Miltko, Renata; Bełżecki, Grzegorz; Kowalik, Barbara; Michałowski, Tadeusz

    2014-10-01

    Results of our earlier studies showed the ability of ciliates Eudiplodinium maggii to digest and metabolize commercial chitin. The natural source of this polysaccharide in the rumen are fungi. The objectives of present research were to determine the effect of fungal zoospores on the survival and population density of E. maggii to quantify the concentration of chitin in the cells of protozoa and to examine the ability of E. maggii, to ferment chitin of fungal zoospores. The cultivation experiment showed that the survival of protozoa was shorter than 4 days when the culture medium was composed of buffer solution and lyophilized fungal spores. An enrichment of this medium with wheat gluten prolonged the survival of ciliates up to 8 days. The supplementation of the last medium with meadow hay enabled the protozoa to survive for 28 days but a positive effect was observed only during the last 8 days of experiment. The chitin content was 0.27 ng and 0.21-0.35 ng per single zoospore and ciliate, respectively. An increase in the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) was found when protozoa were incubated with zoospores. The production rate of VFA was 46.3 pM/protozoan per h whereas the endogenous production did not exceed 31 pM/protozoan per h. The molar proportion of acetic acid was 77.7% and these of butyric and propionic acids-12.2 and 11.0%, respectively. The obtained results make it evident that carbohydrates present in fungal zoospores were utilized by protozoa in energy yielding processes. PMID:24012688

  2. Enteric virus and vibrio contamination of shellfish: intervention strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    INTRODUCTION. Molluscan shellfish include oysters, clams, mussels, and cockles, which can cause illnesses from a variety of human pathogens. Enteric viruses, like norovirus and hepatitis A virus, are generally transmitted to shellfish through fecal contamination of shellfish harvesting areas, alth...

  3. The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa.

    PubMed

    Cavalier-Smith, T

    2002-03-01

    ancestrally biciliate clade, named 'bikonts'. The apparently conflicting rRNA and protein trees can be reconciled with each other and this ultrastructural interpretation if long-branch distortions, some mechanistically explicable, are allowed for. Bikonts comprise two groups: corticoflagellates, with a younger anterior cilium, no centrosomal cone and ancestrally a semi-rigid cell cortex with a microtubular band on either side of the posterior mature centriole; and Rhizaria [a new infrakingdom comprising Cercozoa (now including Ascetosporea classis nov.), Retaria phylum nov., Heliozoa and Apusozoa phylum nov.], having a centrosomal cone or radiating microtubules and two microtubular roots and a soft surface, frequently with reticulopodia. Corticoflagellates comprise photokaryotes (Plantae and chromalveolates, both ancestrally with cortical alveoli) and Excavata (a new protozoan infrakingdom comprising Loukozoa, Discicristata and Archezoa, ancestrally with three microtubular roots). All basal eukaryotic radiations were of mitochondrial aerobes; hydrogenosomes evolved polyphyletically from mitochondria long afterwards, the persistence of their double envelope long after their genomes disappeared being a striking instance of membrane heredity. I discuss the relationship between the 13 protozoan phyla recognized here and revise higher protozoan classification by updating as subkingdoms Lankester's 1878 division of Protozoa into Corticata (Excavata, Alveolata; with prominent cortical microtubules and ancestrally localized cytostome--the Parabasalia probably secondarily internalized the cytoskeleton) and Gymnomyxa [infrakingdoms Sarcomastigota (Choanozoa, Amoebozoa) and Rhizaria; both ancestrally with a non-cortical cytoskeleton of radiating singlet microtubules and a relatively soft cell surface with diffused feeding]. As the eukaryote root almost certainly lies within Gymnomyxa, probably among the Sarcomastigota, Corticata are derived. Following the single symbiogenetic origin of

  4. Molecular Physiology of Enteric Opioid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Galligan, James J.; Akbarali, Hamid I.

    2015-01-01

    Opioid drugs have powerful antidiarrheal effects and many patients taking these drugs for chronic pain relief experience chronic constipation that can progress to opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Three classes of opioid receptors are expressed by enteric neurons: μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors (MOR, DOR, and KOR). MOR and DOR couple to inhibition of adenylate cylase and nerve terminal Ca2+ channels and activation of K+ channels. These effects reduce neuronal activity and neurotransmitter release. KOR couples to inhibition of Ca2+ channels and inhibition of neurotransmitter release. In the human gastrointestinal tract, MOR, DOR, and KOR link to inhibition of acetylcholine release from enteric interneurons and purine/nitric oxide release from inhibitory motorneurons. These actions inhibit propulsive motility. MOR and DOR also link to inhibition of submucosal secretomotor neurons, reducing active Cl− secretion and passive water movement into the colonic lumen. These effects account for the constipation caused by opioid receptor agonists. Tolerance develops to the analgesic effects of opioid receptor agonists but not to the constipating actions. This may be due to differential β-arrestin-2-dependent opioid receptor desensitization and internalization in enteric nerves in the colon compared with the small intestine and in neuronal pain pathways. Further studies of differential opioid receptor desensitization and tolerance in subsets of enteric neurons may identify new drugs or other treatment strategies of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. PMID:25207608

  5. Molecular physiology of enteric opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Galligan, James J; Akbarali, Hamid I

    2014-09-10

    Opioid drugs have powerful antidiarrheal effects and many patients taking these drugs for chronic pain relief experience chronic constipation that can progress to opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Three classes of opioid receptors are expressed by enteric neurons: μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors (MOR, DOR, and KOR). MOR and DOR couple to inhibition of adenylate cylase and nerve terminal Ca(2+) channels and activation of K(+) channels. These effects reduce neuronal activity and neurotransmitter release. KOR couples to inhibition of Ca(2+) channels and inhibition of neurotransmitter release. In the human gastrointestinal tract, MOR, DOR, and KOR link to inhibition of acetylcholine release from enteric interneurons and purine/nitric oxide release from inhibitory motorneurons. These actions inhibit propulsive motility. MOR and DOR also link to inhibition of submucosal secretomotor neurons, reducing active Cl(-) secretion and passive water movement into the colonic lumen. These effects account for the constipation caused by opioid receptor agonists. Tolerance develops to the analgesic effects of opioid receptor agonists but not to the constipating actions. This may be due to differential β-arrestin-2-dependent opioid receptor desensitization and internalization in enteric nerves in the colon compared with the small intestine and in neuronal pain pathways. Further studies of differential opioid receptor desensitization and tolerance in subsets of enteric neurons may identify new drugs or other treatment strategies of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. PMID:25207608

  6. Rosetta enters hibernation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, Paolo; Accomazzo, Andrea; Hubault, Armelle; Lodiot, Sylvain; Pellon-Bailon, Jose-Luis; Porta, Roberto

    2012-10-01

    The International Rosetta Mission was launched on 2nd March 2004 on its 10 years journey to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Rosetta will reach the comet in 2014, orbit it for about 1.5 years down to distances of a few kilometres and deliver the Lander Philae onto its surface. Following the fly-by of Asteroid (21-)Lutetia in 2010, Rosetta continued its travel towards the planned comet encounter in 2014. In this phase Rosetta became the solar-powered spacecraft that reached the largest Sun distances in history of spaceflight, up to an aphelion at 5.3 AU in October 2012. At distances above 4.5 AU the spacecraft's solar generator power is not sufficient to keep all spacecraft systems active. Therefore in June 2011 the spacecraft was spun up to provide gyroscopic stabilisation, and most of its on-board units, including those used for attitude control and communications, were switched off. Over this "hibernation" phase of about 2.5 years the spacecraft will keep a minimum of autonomy active to ensure maintenance of safe thermal conditions. After Lutetia fly-by, flight controllers had to tackle two anomalies that had significant impacts on the mission operations. A leak in the reaction control subsystem was confirmed and led to the re-definition of the operational strategy to perform the comet rendezvous manoeuvres planned for 2011 and 2014. Anomalous jumps detected in the estimated friction torque of two of the four reaction wheels used for attitude control forced the rapid adoption of measures to slow down the wheels degradation. This included in-flight re-lubrication activities and changes in the wheels operational speed regime. Once the troubleshooting of the two anomalies was completed, and the related operational scenarios were implemented, the first large (790 m/s) comet rendezvous manoeuvre was executed, split into several long burns in January and February 2011. The second burn was unexpectedly interrupted due to the anomalous behaviour of two thrusters, causing

  7. Environmental enteric dysfunction: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Rosie J.; Jones, Kelsey D. J.; Berkley, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) refers to an incompletely defined syndrome of inflammation, reduced absorptive capacity, and reduced barrier function in the small intestine. It is widespread among children and adults in low- and middle-income countries. Understanding of EED and its possible consequences for health is currently limited. Objective A narrative review of the current understanding of EED: epidemiology, pathogenesis, therapies, and relevance to child health. Methods Searches for key papers and ongoing trials were conducted using PUBMED 1966–June 2014; ClinicalTrials.gov; the WHO Clinical Trials Registry; the Cochrane Library; hand searches of the references of retrieved literature; discussions with experts; and personal experience from the field. Results EED is established during infancy and is associated with poor sanitation, certain gut infections, and micronutrient deficiencies. Helicobacter pylori infection, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), abnormal gut microbiota, undernutrition, and toxins may all play a role. EED is usually asymptomatic, but it is important due to its association with stunting. Diagnosis is frequently by the dual sugar absorption test, although other biomarkers are emerging. EED may partly explain the reduced efficacy of oral vaccines in low- and middle-income countries and the increased risk of serious infection seen in children with undernutrition. Conclusions Despite its potentially significant impacts, it is currently unclear exactly what causes EED and how it can be treated or prevented. Ongoing trials involve nutritional supplements, water and sanitation interventions, and immunomodulators. Further research is needed to better understand this condition, which is of likely crucial importance for child health and development in low- and middle-income settings. PMID:25902619

  8. Intestinal parasitism--protozoa and helminths--in primates at the Barcelona Zoo.

    PubMed

    Soledad Gómez, M; Gracenea, M; Montoliu, I; Feliu, C; Monleon, A; Fernandez, J; Enseñat, C

    1996-12-01

    The faunistic results regarding intestinal parasitism by protozoa and helminths in 21 primate species (three Cebidae, thirteen Cercopithecidae, one Hylobatidae, one Lemuridae, three Pongidae) are reported. The primate species were housed in four separate galleries. Six faecal samples of each host species were subjected to coprological analysis. Fifteen parasite species were detected: 11 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, E. chattoni, E. hartmanni, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Endolimax nana, Giardia intestinalis, Chilomastix mesnilii, Enteromonas hominis, Trichomonas intestinalis, Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis hominis) and 4 helminths (Ancylostoma sp., Strongyloides fuelleborni, Strongyloides sp., and Trichuris trichiura). The results reveal certain parasitic similarities between host species housed in the same gallery; however, these primate species do not always carry identical parasite species. PMID:9210027

  9. What are the taxonomic and evolutionary relationships of the Protozoa to the Protista?

    PubMed

    Corliss, J O

    1981-01-01

    In order to consider the problems of protist-protozoan interrelationships in proper perspective, a new "packaging" of phyla within the great kingdom Protista is proposed. Although it is based largely on historical groupings and is admittedly "unnatural" (nor are taxonomic names proposed for my five supraphyletic groupings), the arrangement may clarify some long-persisting problems, especially with regard to mixed algal-protozoan groups and/or phylogenies. Some three dozen phyla are recognized as comprising the kingdom, with the number that might be considered as "protozoan" ranging from 10 to 25, depending on one's viewpoint. No taxon should have the formal name "Protozoa", "Phytoflagellate" and "zooflagellate" are also misleading categories. Taxonomic and evolutionary relationships of phyla containing protozoa (with small "p") are inextricably intermeshed with those of other protist phyla, and thus no unified protozoan super-group exists. PMID:7337817

  10. Enteric viral infections in lambs or kids.

    PubMed

    Martella, V; Decaro, N; Buonavoglia, C

    2015-12-14

    Diarrhoea in lambs and kids is often a complex, multi-factorial syndrome. Common infectious causes of diarrhoea in lambs and kids during the first month of life are of bacterial or parasite nature. However, despite appreciable improvements in management practices and prevention and treatment strategies over the last decades, diarrhoea is still a common and costly syndrome affecting newborn small ruminants. Recent advances in the diagnostics and metagenomic investigations of the enteric environment have allowed discovering a number of novel viruses, although their pathobiological properties remain largely unknown. Assessing more in depth the impact of these viruses on the health and productions of these livestock animals is necessary and requires the development of accurate diagnostic tools and updating of the diagnostic algorithms of enteric pathological conditions. PMID:26321129

  11. Detection of protozoa in water samples by formalin/ether concentration method.

    PubMed

    Lora-Suarez, Fabiana; Rivera, Raul; Triviño-Valencia, Jessica; Gomez-Marin, Jorge E

    2016-09-01

    Methods to detect protozoa in water samples are expensive and laborious. We evaluated the formalin/ether concentration method to detect Giardia sp., Cryptosporidium sp. and Toxoplasma in water. In order to test the properties of the method, we spiked water samples with different amounts of each protozoa (0, 10 and 50 cysts or oocysts) in a volume of 10 L of water. Immunofluorescence assay was used for detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Toxoplasma oocysts were identified by morphology. The mean percent of recovery in 10 repetitions of the entire method, in 10 samples spiked with ten parasites and read by three different observers, were for Cryptosporidium 71.3 ± 12, for Giardia 63 ± 10 and for Toxoplasma 91.6 ± 9 and the relative standard deviation of the method was of 17.5, 17.2 and 9.8, respectively. Intraobserver variation as measured by intraclass correlation coefficient, was fair for Toxoplasma, moderate for Cryptosporidium and almost perfect for Giardia. The method was then applied in 77 samples of raw and drinkable water in three different plant of water treatment. Cryptosporidium was found in 28 of 77 samples (36%) and Giardia in 31 of 77 samples (40%). Theses results identified significant differences in treatment process to reduce the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. In conclusion, the formalin ether method to concentrate protozoa in water is a new alternative for low resources countries, where is urgently need to monitor and follow the presence of theses protozoa in drinkable water. PMID:27219047

  12. Studies on the in vitro cultivation of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach.

    PubMed

    Dehority, Burk A; Wright, André-Denis G

    2014-08-01

    The methods used for culturing rumen protozoa were found to be unsatisfactory for growth of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach. Based on published measurements of physical parameters in the marsupial forestomach, several modifications were incorporated into the procedure, i.e., an increase in % hydrogen in the gas phase, adjustment of initial pH of the medium to 6.9-7.0 range, feed only forage as a substrate and incubate at a lower temperature (33-36 °C). Only incubation at the lower temperature increased survival time of the kangaroo protozoa. Two species of Bitricha were still viable after 28 d in culture. Cultures had to be terminated at that time. One of the species differed considerably in size and shape from previously described species and based on 18S rRNA data, may represent a new species of Bitricha. The second species, present in low numbers was identified as Bitricha oblata. In a separate trial, Macropodinium yalanbense survived for 11 d, at which time these cultures also had to be terminated. PMID:25051515

  13. RNA-binding proteins related to stress response and differentiation in protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Lysangela Ronalte; Goldenberg, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are key regulators of gene expression. There are several distinct families of RBPs and they are involved in the cellular response to environmental changes, cell differentiation and cell death. The RBPs can differentially combine with RNA molecules and form ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes, defining the function and fate of RNA molecules in the cell. RBPs display diverse domains that allow them to be categorized into distinct families. They play important roles in the cellular response to physiological stress, in cell differentiation, and, it is believed, in the cellular localization of certain mRNAs. In several protozoa, a physiological stress (nutritional, temperature or pH) triggers differentiation to a distinct developmental stage. Most of the RBPs characterized in protozoa arise from trypanosomatids. In these protozoa gene expression regulation is mostly post-transcriptional, which suggests that some RBPs might display regulatory functions distinct from those described for other eukaryotes. mRNA stability can be altered as a response to stress. Transcripts are sequestered to RNA granules that ultimately modulate their availability to the translation machinery, storage or degradation, depending on the associated proteins. These aggregates of mRNPs containing mRNAs that are not being translated colocalize in cytoplasmic foci, and their numbers and size vary according to cell conditions such as oxidative stress, nutritional status and treatment with drugs that inhibit translation. PMID:26981197

  14. The effect of acid drinking water on rumen protozoa in the blesbok (Damaliscus dorcas phillipsi).

    PubMed

    Booyse, D G; Dehority, B A; Myburgh, J G

    2015-01-01

    Rumen contents were collected from ten adult female blesbok, five from a mine area with only acid drinking water available and five from a control group consuming normal, non-polluted drinking water. The mean concentration of total protozoa in the normal water group was almost double that in the acid drinking water group, 24.9 x 10(3) versus 14.7 x 10(3). Percent of Entodinium was higher and Diplodinium lower in those animals drinking the acid water. The number of different protozoa species present in animals from both locations was fairly similar. Diplodinium bubalidis, Ostracodinium gracile and Diplodinium consors were present in the highest percentage in the normal water group, 18.8, 18.4 and 17.7 %, respectively. The same three species, plus Entodinium dubardi, were also highest in the acid water group, O. gracile, 21.3 %; D. consors, 12.6 %; E. dubardi, 11.4 % and D. bubalidis, 10.3 %. Seventeen species of protozoa found in this study were a new host record for the blesbok, bringing the total number of species reported from the blesbok to 29. PMID:26701455

  15. Influence of different anoxic time exposures on active biomass, protozoa and filamentous bacteria in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Perez, S; Fermoso, F G; Arnaiz, C

    2016-01-01

    Medium-sized wastewater treatment plants are considered too small to implement anaerobic digestion technologies and too large for extensive treatments. A promising option as a sewage sludge reduction method is the inclusion of anoxic time exposures. In the present study, three different anoxic time exposures of 12, 6 and 4 hours have been studied to reduce sewage sludge production. The best anoxic time exposure was observed under anoxic/oxic cycles of 6 hours, which reduced 29.63% of the biomass production compared with the oxic control conditions. The sludge under different anoxic time exposures, even with a lower active biomass concentration than the oxic control conditions, showed a much higher metabolic activity than the oxic control conditions. Microbiological results suggested that both protozoa density and abundance of filamentous bacteria decrease under anoxic time exposures compared to oxic control conditions. The anoxic time exposures 6/6 showed the highest reduction in both protozoa density, 37.5%, and abundance of filamentous bacteria, 41.1%, in comparison to the oxic control conditions. The groups of crawling ciliates, carnivorous ciliates and filamentous bacteria were highly influenced by the anoxic time exposures. Protozoa density and abundance of filamentous bacteria have been shown as promising bioindicators of biomass production reduction. PMID:27508364

  16. The enter-educate approach.

    PubMed

    Piotrow, P T; Coleman, P L

    1992-03-01

    This article describes how the Population Communication Services (PCS) has seized on the "enter-educate" approach, the blending of popular entertainment with social messages, to change reproductive health behavior. The enter-educate approach spreads its message through songs, soap operas, variety shows, and other types of popular entertainment mediums. Because they entertain, enter-educate projects can capture the attention of an audience -- such as young people -- who would otherwise scorn social messages. And the use of population mediums makes it possible to reach a variety of audiences. Funded by USAID, PCS began its first enter-educate project in response to the increasing number of teenage pregnancies in Latin America. PCS developed 2 songs and videos, which featured popular teenage singers to serve as role models, to urge abstinence. The songs became instant hits. Since then, PCS has mounted more then 80 major projects in some 40 countries. Highlights of programs range from a successful multi-media family planning campaign in Turkey to humorous television ads in Brazil promoting vasectomy. Recently, PCS initiated projects to teach AIDS awareness. At the core of the enter-educate approach is the social learning theory which holds that much behavior is learned through the observation of role-models. Health professionals work alongside entertainers to produce works that have audience appeal and factual social messages. The enter-educate approach works because it is popular, pervasive, personal, persuasive, and profitable. PCS has found that enter-educate programs pay for themselves through cost sharing and cost recovery. PMID:12284960

  17. Enteric viruses of chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although enteric disease in commercial poultry operations is common, and often unofficially reported and discussed by field veterinarians as “non-specific enteric disease”, three recognized enteric syndromes do exist in poultry: poult enteritis complex (PEC) and poult enteritis mortality syndrome (P...

  18. Spatio-temporal variability of periphytic protozoa related to environment in the Niyang River, Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haiping; Ye, Shaowen; Yang, Xuefeng; Guo, Chuanbo; Zhang, Huijuan; Fan, Liqing; Zhang, Liangsong; Sovan, Lek; Li, Zhongjie

    2016-06-01

    The Niyang River, a main tributary of the Yarlung Zangbo River, is an important and typical plateau river ecosystem in Tibet, China. At present, few studies have focused on its aquatic living resources and river ecology. In this study, the composition, abundance, and diversity of periphytic protozoa were investigated across four seasons from 2008 to 2009 to better understand their spatio-temporal patterns and relationship to the environment. Our investigation shows that periphytic protozoa in the Niyang River contained 15 genera, belonged to Tubulinea, Alveolata, Discosea and Rhizaria, Alveolata possessed most genera, up to nine, with highest share in abundance, exceeding 50%, Difflugia and Glaucoma were dominant genera. Moreover, four diversity indices of periphytic protozoa, including species richness, total abundance, Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Pielou's evenness index, displayed a significant descending trend as the seasons continued, in the order of winter, spring, summer and autumn; with a significant difference existing between winter and summer (or autumn) for Shannon-Wiener diversity index and species richness (P<0.05). Four of these diversity indices also presented a V-shaped pattern between the upper middle course of the Niyang River and the confluence of the Niyang River and Yarlung Zangbo River, with the lowest value occurred in the middle course of the Niyang River. However, no significant variation was found through the Niyang River (P>0.05). In addition, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) shows that the densities of Difflugia, Glaucomais, Enchelydium, Cyphoderia, and Enchelys correlate with water temperature, alkalinity, hardness, pH, and dissolved oxygen, respectively. Lastly, the relationship between periphytic protozoa diversity and the environmental factors of the Niyang River can be predicted using classification and regression trees (CART) annalysis, which suggests that the total abundance and Shannon-Wiener diversity index would be

  19. Role of interferon in resistance and immunity to protozoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Degee, A. L. W.; Mansfield, J. M.; Newsome, A. L.; Arnold, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Production of interferon (I) in response to protozoan infection, and the interferon-mediated inhibition of parasite replication were studied in order to determine if these effects may be related to immunologic-mediated resistance of the hosts. Two extracellular parasites-Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Naegleria fowlei were used. Upon infection with the trypanosome, only resistant strains of mice produced I. An early peak of alpha/beta I is followed by appearance of gamma I, which coincided with antibody production and a drop in parasitemia. In case of the amoeba, pretreatment of its suspension with alpha/beta I inhibits its replication in vitro, and appears to protect mice from the infection and the disease. It is proposed that production of interferon, with its regulatory effect on the immune responses, may play a major role in regulating the processes of protozoan-caused diseases.

  20. Endovascular Management of Acute Enteric Bleeding from Pancreas Transplant

    SciTech Connect

    Semiz-Oysu, Aslihan; Cwikiel, Wojciech

    2007-04-15

    Arterioenteric fistula is a rare but serious complication of enteric drained pancreas transplant, which may lead to massive gastrointestinal bleeding. We present 3 patients with failed enteric drained pancreas transplants and massive gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to arterioenteric fistula. One patient was treated by embolization and the 2 others by stent graft placement. Bleeding was successfully controlled in all cases, at follow up of 5 days, 8 months, and 12 months, respectively. One patient died 24 days after embolization, of unknown causes.

  1. Colleges Enter the Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Issues in Higher Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The implications for higher education of the U.S. transformation from an industrial to an information society are discussed in six papers. Russell Edgerton provides an overview in "Entering the Information Society: An Introduction." In "The Computer: An Enabling Instrument," Louis Robinson considers the current era of the personalization of the…

  2. Computer Literacy of Entering Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellep, Andrew

    In an effort to improve college program planning using data on the computer skills of entering freshmen, a survey was conducted to obtain information about computer science programs in Pennsylvania's public schools. The study investigated the material being taught, the background of computer science teachers, program plans, tendencies in the…

  3. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  4. [Enteral nutrition: past and future].

    PubMed

    Bengmark, S; Ortiz de Urbina, J J

    2004-01-01

    Perioperative nutrition has during the last century been transformed from a tool to provide calorie and nitrogen support to a tool to boost the immune system and increase resistance to complications. Despite all progress in medicine and surgery has perioperative morbidity, rate of infections, thrombosis and development of serosal adhesions remained the same as long as can be judged or at least during the last eighty years. Most prone to develop complications are persons above the age of 65 and persons with depressed immunity. About eighty percent of the immune system is localised in the gastrointestinal tract, which offers great opportunities for modulation through enterar nutrition. As the stomach has a tendency to develop postoperative paralysis, tube feeding is often necessary. Andresen demonstrated already in 1918 the advantages of enteral nutrition, which starts already on the table. Mulholland et al and Rhoads and co-workers demonstrated during the 1940s certain advantages of enteral tube feeding. Also works by Alexander, Fischer, Ryan and their co-workers supported the value of early enteral feeding, and suggested enteral feeding as an effective tool to boost the immune system. It was, however, works published in the early nineties by Moore et al and by Kudsk et al, which made surgeons more aware of the advantages of early enteral nutrition. Major surgery is known to have a high rate of complications. Uninterrupted perioperative nutrition, eg nutrition during the night before, during surgery and immediately after offers a strong tool to prevent complications. It is essential that the nutrition provides food also for the colon, e.g. fibres and healthy bacteria (probiotics) to ferment the fibre and boost the immune system. PMID:15049413

  5. Necrotic enteritis predisposing factors in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Moore, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    Necrotic enteritis in chickens develops as a result of infection with pathogenic strains of Clostridium perfringens and the presence of predisposing factors. Predisposing factors include elements that directly change the physical properties of the gut, either damaging the epithelial surface, inducing mucus production, or changing gut transit times; factors that disrupt the gut microbiota; and factors that alter the immune status of birds. In the past research into necrotic enteritis predisposing factors was directed by the simple hypothesis that low-level colonization of C. perfringens commonly occurred within the gut of healthy chickens and the predisposing factors lead to a proliferation of those bacteria to produce disease. More recently, with an increasing understanding of the major virulence factors of C. perfringens and the application of molecular techniques to define different clades of C. perfringens strains, it has become clear that the C. perfringens isolates commonly found in healthy chickens are generally not strains that have the potential to cause disease. Therefore, we need to re-evaluate hypotheses regarding the development of disease, the origin of disease causing isolates of C. perfringens, and the importance of interactions with other C. perfringens strains and with predisposing factors. Many predisposing factors that affect the physical and immunological characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract may also change the resident microbiota. Research directed towards defining the relative importance of each of these different actions of predisposing factors will improve the understanding of disease pathogenesis and may allow refinement of experiment disease models. PMID:26926926

  6. Research update on the poultry enteric viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry enteric disease is an ongoing economic problem for the poultry industry in the United States and abroad. The etiologies of the recognized enteric disease syndromes—Poult Enteritis Complex (PEC) and Poult Enteritis Mortality Syndrome (PEMS) in young turkeys, and Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS...

  7. Effects of Rumen Protozoa of Brahman Heifers and Nitrate on Fermentation and In vitro Methane Production

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, S. H.; Li, L.; Hegarty, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted assessing the effects of presence or absence of rumen protozoa and dietary nitrate addition on rumen fermentation characteristics and in vitro methane production in Brahman heifers. The first experiment assessed changes in rumen fermentation pattern and in vitro methane production post-refaunation and the second experiment investigated whether addition of nitrate to the incubation would give rise to methane mitigation additional to that contributed by defaunation. Ten Brahman heifers were progressively adapted to a diet containing 4.5% coconut oil distillate for 18 d and then all heifers were defaunated using sodium 1-(2-sulfonatooxyethoxy) dodecane (Empicol). After 15 d, the heifers were given a second dose of Empicol. Fifteen days after the second dosing, all heifers were allocated to defaunated or refaunated groups by stratified randomisation, and the experiment commenced (d 0). On d 0, an oral dose of rumen fluid collected from unrelated faunated cattle was used to inoculate 5 heifers and form a refaunated group so that the effects of re-establishment of protozoa on fermentation characteristics could be investigated. Samples of rumen fluid collected from each animal using oesophageal intubation before feeding on d 0, 7, 14, and 21 were incubated for in vitro methane production. On d 35, 2% nitrate (as NaNO3) was included in in vitro incubations to test for additivity of nitrate and absence of protozoa effects on fermentation and methane production. It was concluded that increasing protozoal numbers were associated with increased methane production in refaunated heifers 7, 14, and 21 d after refaunation. Methane production rate was significantly higher from refaunated heifers than from defaunated heifers 35 d after refaunation. Concentration and proportions of major volatile fatty acids, however, were not affected by protozoal treatments. There is scope for further reducing methane output through combining defaunation and dietary

  8. Effects of Rumen Protozoa of Brahman Heifers and Nitrate on Fermentation and In vitro Methane Production.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, S H; Li, L; Hegarty, R S

    2016-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted assessing the effects of presence or absence of rumen protozoa and dietary nitrate addition on rumen fermentation characteristics and in vitro methane production in Brahman heifers. The first experiment assessed changes in rumen fermentation pattern and in vitro methane production post-refaunation and the second experiment investigated whether addition of nitrate to the incubation would give rise to methane mitigation additional to that contributed by defaunation. Ten Brahman heifers were progressively adapted to a diet containing 4.5% coconut oil distillate for 18 d and then all heifers were defaunated using sodium 1-(2-sulfonatooxyethoxy) dodecane (Empicol). After 15 d, the heifers were given a second dose of Empicol. Fifteen days after the second dosing, all heifers were allocated to defaunated or refaunated groups by stratified randomisation, and the experiment commenced (d 0). On d 0, an oral dose of rumen fluid collected from unrelated faunated cattle was used to inoculate 5 heifers and form a refaunated group so that the effects of re-establishment of protozoa on fermentation characteristics could be investigated. Samples of rumen fluid collected from each animal using oesophageal intubation before feeding on d 0, 7, 14, and 21 were incubated for in vitro methane production. On d 35, 2% nitrate (as NaNO3) was included in in vitro incubations to test for additivity of nitrate and absence of protozoa effects on fermentation and methane production. It was concluded that increasing protozoal numbers were associated with increased methane production in refaunated heifers 7, 14, and 21 d after refaunation. Methane production rate was significantly higher from refaunated heifers than from defaunated heifers 35 d after refaunation. Concentration and proportions of major volatile fatty acids, however, were not affected by protozoal treatments. There is scope for further reducing methane output through combining defaunation and dietary

  9. Enteral Nutrition in Critical Care

    PubMed Central

    Seron-Arbeloa, Carlos; Zamora-Elson, Monica; Labarta-Monzon, Lorenzo; Mallor-Bonet, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    There is a consensus that nutritional support, which must be provided to patients in intensive care, influences their clinical outcome. Malnutrition is associated in critically ill patients with impaired immune function and impaired ventilator drive, leading to prolonged ventilator dependence and increased infectious morbidity and mortality. Enteral nutrition is an active therapy that attenuates the metabolic response of the organism to stress and favorably modulates the immune system. It is less expensive than parenteral nutrition and is preferred in most cases because of less severe complications and better patient outcomes, including infections, and hospital cost and length of stay. The aim of this work was to perform a review of the use of enteral nutrition in critically ill patients. PMID:23390469

  10. Effect of medicinal and aromatic plants on rumen fermentation, protozoa population and methanogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, R; Baruah, L; Saravanan, M; Suresh, K P; Sampath, K T

    2013-06-01

    The potential of tannins from 21 medicinal and aromatic plant leaves as antimethanogenic additives in ruminant feeds was investigated. The effect of tannin from these leaves on rumen fermentation parameters, protozoa population and methanogenesis was studied by incubating the samples [200 mg dry matter (DM)] without and with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 (400 mg DM) as a tannin binder during 24-h incubation in the in vitro Hohenheim gas method. Based on the methane percentage estimated in the total gas produced, methane production in millilitre was calculated [methane volume (ml) = methane % × total gas produced (ml) in 24 h]. In the samples, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre (g/kg DM) ranged from 113 to 172 and from 352 to 444 respectively. The total phenol (TP; g/kg DM) content was highest in Terminalia chebula (274) followed by Hemigraphis colorata (71) and Sapindus laurifolia (51) respectively. In the remaining samples, it was <43 g/kg DM. Activity of tannins, as represented by the increase in gas volume on addition of PEG, ranged from 0 to 133%, with the highest being recorded in T. chebula. The per cent increase in methane on PEG addition was 0 for Ammi majus, Aristolochia indica, Cascabela thevetia, Ipomea nil and Lantana camara, illustrating that tannins present in these samples had no effect on methane concentration. The PEG addition increased the total protozoa count by >50% in A. indica and C. thevetica. One of the important findings of our study was that of the 21 samples screened, Entodinia population increased in 12 with PEG as compared to 7 where Holotricha increased, indicating higher susceptibility of Entodinia to tannin. There was no increase in the protozoa population with PEG when incubating Cardiospermum halicacabum, Clerodendrum inerme, Dioscorea floribunda, Nerium oleander and Selastras paniculatus, which strongly suggested that methane suppression recorded in these samples was not because of a defaunating effect

  11. Detection of Zoonotic Protozoa Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis suihominis in Wild Boars from Spain.

    PubMed

    Calero-Bernal, R; Pérez-Martín, J E; Reina, D; Serrano, F J; Frontera, E; Fuentes, I; Dubey, J P

    2016-08-01

    Food safety regulations require the control of the presence of protozoa in meats destined for human consumption. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat may constitute a source of zoonoses. A 23.8% (688/2881) seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and 72.2% (662/910) Sarcocystis sarcocysts prevalence were detected among wild boars hunted in Southwestern areas of Spain. Identity of Sarcocystis spp. was performed by RFLP-PCR and sequencing, detecting S. miescheriana (7/8) and the zoonotic S. suihominis (1/8). Risk assessment studies of these coccidian in meats destined to human consumption are needed. PMID:26604045

  12. Radiation enteritis and radiation scoliosis

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, M.; Eng, K.; Engler, G.L.

    1980-09-01

    Any patient with radiation scoliosis should be suspected of having a visceral lesion as well. Chronic radiation enteritis may be manifested by intestinal obstruction, fistulas, perforation, and hemorrhage. Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication, and must be differentiated from postoperative cast or from spinal-traction syndrome. Obstruction that does not respond promptly to conservative measures must be treated surgically. Irradiated bowel is ischemic, and necrosis with spontaneous perforation can only be avoided with early diagnosis and surgical intervention.

  13. Necrotic enteritis in young calves.

    PubMed

    Morris, Winston E; Venzano, Agustín J; Elizondo, Ana; Vilte, Daniel A; Mercado, Elsa C; Fernandez-Miyakawa, Mariano E

    2011-03-01

    Non-enterotoxin (CPE)-producing Clostridium perfringens type A has been associated with enteritis in calves. Recent evidence has suggested that a novel toxin, named beta2 (CPB2), is implicated in the pathogenesis of this disease, although there is little evidence supporting this. In the current study, the role of C. perfringens type A in an outbreak of enteritis in calves was studied. Two 20-day-old dairy calves exhibiting apathy and reluctance to eat, with paresis of the anterior limbs, were euthanized for postmortem examination. Gross and histological changes compatible with acute enteritis, rumenitis, meningitis, and pneumonia were seen in both calves. Clostridium perfringens type A non-CPE, non-CPB2 was isolated from the abomasum and the small intestine. Escherichia coli ONTH8 (with cdtBIII and f17 virulence genes detected by polymerase chain reaction) was also isolated from the brain, abomasum, and intestine from both calves. All the samples were negative for Salmonella spp. When the C. perfringens strain was inoculated into bovine ligated small and large intestinal loops, cell detachment, erosion, and hemorrhage of the lamina propria were observed, predominantly in the small intestine. The results suggest that non-CPE, non-CPB2 C. perfringens type A is able to induce pathologic changes in the intestine of calves, probably enhanced by other pathogens, such as some pathogenic E. coli strains. PMID:21398444

  14. Enteric pathogens through life stages

    PubMed Central

    Kolling, Glynis; Wu, Martin; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Enteric infections and diarrheal diseases constitute pervasive health burdens throughout the world, with rates being highest at the two ends of life. During the first 2–3 years of life, much of the disease burden may be attributed to infection with enteric pathogens including Salmonella, rotavirus, and many other bacterial, viral, and protozoan organisms; however, infections due to Clostridium difficile exhibit steady increases with age. Still others, like Campylobacter infections in industrialized settings are high in early life (<2 years old) and increase again in early adulthood (called the “second weaning” by some). The reasons for these differences undoubtedly reside in part in pathogen differences; however, host factors including the commensal intestinal microbial communities, immune responses (innate and acquired), and age-dependant shifts likely play important roles. Interplay of these factors is illustrated by studies examining changes in human gut microbiota with inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Recent gut microbial surveys have indicated dramatic shifts in gut microbial population structure from infants to young adults to the elders. An understanding of the evolution of these factors and their interactions (e.g., how does gut microbiota modulate the “inflamm-aging” process or vice versa) through the human life “cycle” will be important in better addressing and controlling these enteric infections and their consequences for both quality and quantity of life (often assessed as disability adjusted life-years or “DALYs”). PMID:22937528

  15. Enteric Viral Surrogate Reduction by Chitosan.

    PubMed

    Davis, Robert; Zivanovic, Svetlana; Davidson, P Michael; D'Souza, Doris H

    2015-12-01

    Enteric viruses are a major problem in the food industry, especially as human noroviruses are the leading cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Chitosan is known to be effective against some enteric viral surrogates, but more detailed studies are needed to determine the precise application variables. The main objective of this work was to determine the effect of increasing chitosan concentration (0.7-1.5% w/v) on the cultivable enteric viral surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), murine norovirus (MNV-1), and bacteriophages (MS2 and phiX174) at 37 °C. Two chitosans (53 and 222 kDa) were dissolved in water (53 kDa) or 1% acetic acid (222 KDa) at 0.7-1.5%, and were then mixed with each virus to obtain a titer of ~5 log plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL. These mixtures were incubated for 3 h at 37 °C. Controls included untreated viruses in phosphate-buffered saline and viruses were enumerated by plaque assays. The 53 kDa chitosan at the concentrations tested reduced FCV-F9, MNV-1, MS2, and phi X174 by 2.6-2.9, 0.1-0.4, 2.6-2.8, and 0.7-0.9 log PFU/mL, respectively, while reduction by 222 kDa chitosan was 2.2-2.4, 0.8-1.0, 2.6-5.2, and 0.5-0.8 log PFU/mL, respectively. The 222 kDa chitosan at 1 and 0.7% w/v in acetic acid (pH 4.5) caused the greatest reductions of MS2 by 5.2 logs and 2.6 logs, respectively. Overall, chitosan treatments showed the greatest reduction of MS2, followed by FCV-F9, phi X174, and MNV-1. These two chitosans may contribute to the reduction of enteric viruses at the concentrations tested but would require use of other hurdles to eliminate food borne viruses. PMID:26162243

  16. An approach to analyzing environmental drivers to spatial variations in annual distribution of periphytic protozoa in coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guangjian; Xu, Henglong

    2016-03-15

    The environmental drivers to the spatial variation in annual distribution were studied based on an annual dataset of periphytic protozoa using multivariate approaches. Samples were monthly collected at four stations within a pollution gradient in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China during a 1-year period. The second-stage (2STAGE) analyses showed that the internal patterns of the annual distribution were changed along the pollution gradient in terms of abundance. The dominant species represented different succession dynamics among four sampling stations during a 1-year cycle. Best matching analysis demonstrated that the spatial variations in annual distribution of the protozoa were significantly correlated with ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), alone or in combination with salinity and dissolved oxygen (DO). Based on the results, we suggest that the nutrients, salinity and DO may be the main drivers to shape the spatial variations in annual distribution of periphytic protozoa. PMID:26853591

  17. Strategies for design and application of enteric viral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Chattha, Kuldeep S; Roth, James A; Saif, Linda J

    2015-01-01

    Enteric viral infections in domestic animals cause significant economic losses. The recent emergence of virulent enteric coronaviruses [porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV)] in North America and Asia, for which no vaccines are available, remains a challenge for the global swine industry. Vaccination strategies against rotavirus and coronavirus (transmissible gastroenteritis virus) infections are reviewed. These vaccination principles are applicable against emerging enteric infections such as PEDV. Maternal vaccines to induce lactogenic immunity, and their transmission to suckling neonates via colostrum and milk, are critical for early passive protection. Subsequently, in weaned animals, oral vaccines incorporating novel mucosal adjuvants (e.g., vitamin A, probiotics) may provide active protection when maternal immunity wanes. Understanding intestinal and systemic immune responses to experimental rotavirus and transmissible gastroenteritis virus vaccines and infection in pigs provides a basis and model for the development of safe and effective vaccines for young animals and children against established and emerging enteric infections. PMID:25387111

  18. Epigenetic Regulation of Enteric Neurotransmission by Gut Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Savidge, Tor C.

    2016-01-01

    The Human Microbiome Project defined microbial community interactions with the human host, and provided important molecular insight into how epigenetic factors can influence intestinal ecosystems. Given physiological context, changes in gut microbial community structure are increasingly found to associate with alterations in enteric neurotransmission and disease. At present, it is not known whether shifts in microbial community dynamics represent cause or consequence of disease pathogenesis. The discovery of bacterial-derived neurotransmitters suggests further studies are needed to establish their role in enteric neuropathy. This mini-review highlights recent advances in bacterial communications to the autonomic nervous system and discusses emerging epigenetic data showing that diet, probiotic and antibiotic use may regulate enteric neurotransmission through modulation of microbial communities. A particular emphasis is placed on bacterial metabolite regulation of enteric nervous system function in the intestine. PMID:26778967

  19. Epigenetic Regulation of Enteric Neurotransmission by Gut Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Savidge, Tor C

    2015-01-01

    The Human Microbiome Project defined microbial community interactions with the human host, and provided important molecular insight into how epigenetic factors can influence intestinal ecosystems. Given physiological context, changes in gut microbial community structure are increasingly found to associate with alterations in enteric neurotransmission and disease. At present, it is not known whether shifts in microbial community dynamics represent cause or consequence of disease pathogenesis. The discovery of bacterial-derived neurotransmitters suggests further studies are needed to establish their role in enteric neuropathy. This mini-review highlights recent advances in bacterial communications to the autonomic nervous system and discusses emerging epigenetic data showing that diet, probiotic and antibiotic use may regulate enteric neurotransmission through modulation of microbial communities. A particular emphasis is placed on bacterial metabolite regulation of enteric nervous system function in the intestine. PMID:26778967

  20. Protozoa as agents responsible for the decline of Xanthomonas campestris in soil.

    PubMed

    Habte, M; Alexander, M

    1975-02-01

    A streptomycin-resistant mutant of Xanthomonas campestris was used to assess the persistence of the plant pathogen in soil and the changes in populations that might be important for its survival. In soil into which large numbers of the organism were introduced, a marked decline in its abundance occurred, but after about 1 week its population density reached a level of about 105 and did not continue to fall during the test period. No such marked decline was evident in sterile soil inoculated with X. campestris. The bacterium did not lose viability if starved for carbon or inorganic nitrogen. Although abundant in soil, the numbers of propagules capable of producing antibiotics or lytic enzymes active against X. campestris did not increase coincident with the pathogen's decline, and no increase in tartrate-extractable toxins was observed. Neither bdellovibrios nor bacteriophages active against the xanthomonad were found in the soil, but a marked increase in the frequency of protozoa paralleled the phase of rapid diminution in the X. campestris population. In actidione-treated soil, in which protozoan activity was severly limited, the high cell density of the pathogen was maintained. On the basis of these data, it is concluded that predation by protozoa is responsible for the abrupt fall in frequency of the bacterium in natural soil. PMID:1115496

  1. Protozoa as Agents Responsible for the Decline of Xanthomonas campestris in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Habte, Mitiku; Alexander, Martin

    1975-01-01

    A streptomycin-resistant mutant of Xanthomonas campestris was used to assess the persistence of the plant pathogen in soil and the changes in populations that might be important for its survival. In soil into which large numbers of the organism were introduced, a marked decline in its abundance occurred, but after about 1 week its population density reached a level of about 105 and did not continue to fall during the test period. No such marked decline was evident in sterile soil inoculated with X. campestris. The bacterium did not lose viability if starved for carbon or inorganic nitrogen. Although abundant in soil, the numbers of propagules capable of producing antibiotics or lytic enzymes active against X. campestris did not increase coincident with the pathogen's decline, and no increase in tartrate-extractable toxins was observed. Neither bdellovibrios nor bacteriophages active against the xanthomonad were found in the soil, but a marked increase in the frequency of protozoa paralleled the phase of rapid diminution in the X. campestris population. In actidione-treated soil, in which protozoan activity was severely limited, the high cell density of the pathogen was maintained. On the basis of these data, it is concluded that predation by protozoa is responsible for the abrupt fall in frequency of the bacterium in natural soil. PMID:1115496

  2. Technical note: A method for isolating glycogen granules from ruminal protozoa for further characterization.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mary Beth

    2016-03-01

    Evaluation of physical, chemical, and enzymatic hydrolysis characteristics of protozoal glycogen is best performed on a pure substrate to avoid interference from other cell components. A method for isolating protozoal glycogen granules without use of detergents or other potentially contaminating chemicals was developed. Rumen inoculum was incubated anerobically in vitro with glucose. Glycogen-laden protozoa produced in the fermentation, primarily isotrichids, were allowed to sediment in a separatory funnel and were dispensed. The protozoa were processed through repeated centrifugations and sonication to isolate glycogen granules largely free of feed and cellular debris. The final water-insoluble lyophilized product analyzed as 98.3% α-glucan with very rare starch granules and 1.9% protein. Observed losses of glycogen granules during the clean-up process indicate that this procedure should not be used for quantitative assessment of protozoal glycogen from fermentations. Further optimization of this procedure to enhance the amount of glycogen obtained per fermentation may be possible. PMID:26805977

  3. New species of Eimeria and Isospora (Protozoa: Eimeriidae) in Geochelone spp. (Chelonia: Testudinidae) from Amazonian Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lainson, R; Da Silva, F M M; Franco, C M; De Souza, M C

    2008-12-01

    Tetrasporocystic, dizoic oocysts of reptiles have been separated by some authors into the genera Eimeria, Choleoeimeria and Acroeimeria (Protozoa: Eimeriidae), based on the site and mode of development of their endogenous stages. The majority of Eimeria species have been, and still are, however, described on oocyst morphology alone. Four different oocysts with this basic morphology were encountered in the faeces of Brazilian tortoises, Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824 and are assigned to the genus Eimeria, with the view that they can readily be transferred to the genus Choleoeimeria or Acroeimeria if this is indicated by a future examination of their endogenous development. A morphological comparison distinguishes the oocysts from those of Eimeria spp., previously described in chelonids of the family Testudinidae, and the names E. amazonensis, E. carbonaria, E. carajasensis and E. wellcomei n. spp. are proposed. Coccidial infection appears to be common in G. carbonaria, with three of seven animals examined passing oocysts. Oocysts of Isospora rodriguesae n. sp. (Protozoa: Eimeriidae) are described in the faeces of Geochelone denticulata Linnaeus, 1766. They are morphologically very different from those of Isospora testudae, Davronov, 1985 in Testudo horsfieldi. Eimeria motelo Hůrková et al., 2000, previously described in Geochelone denticulata from Peru, is here recorded in the some chelonid from Amazonian Brazil. PMID:19202760

  4. Isolation of new Brazilian giant viruses from environmental samples using a panel of protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Dornas, Fábio P.; Khalil, Jacques Y. B.; Pagnier, Isabelle; Raoult, Didier; Abrahão, Jônatas; La Scola, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The Megavirales are a newly described order capable of infecting different types of eukaryotic hosts. For the most part, the natural host is unknown. Several methods have been used to detect these viruses, with large discrepancies between molecular methods and co-cultures. To isolate giant viruses, we propose the use of different species of amoeba as a cellular support. The aim of this work was to isolate new Brazilian giant viruses by comparing the protozoa Acanthamoeba castellanii, A. polyphaga, A. griffini, and Vermamoeba vermiformis (VV) as a platform for cellular isolation using environmental samples. One hundred samples were collected from 3 different areas in September 2014 in the Pampulha lagoon of Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais, Brazil. PCR was used to identify the isolated viruses, along with hemacolor staining, labelling fluorescence and electron microscopy. A total of 69 viruses were isolated. The highest ratio of isolation was found in A. polyphaga (46.38%) and the lowest in VV (0%). Mimiviruses were the most frequently isolated. One Marseillevirus and one Pandoravirus were also isolated. With Brazilian environmental samples, we demonstrated the high rate of lineage A mimiviruses. This work demonstrates how these viruses survive and circulate in nature as well the differences between protozoa as a platform for cellular isolation. PMID:26500630

  5. Bioaccumulation of human waterborne protozoa by zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha): interest for water biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Palos Ladeiro, M; Aubert, D; Villena, I; Geffard, A; Bigot, A

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis and Toxoplasma gondii are ubiquitous pathogens, which waterborne transmission has been largely demonstrated. Since they can be found in various watercourses, interactions with aquatic organisms are possible. Protozoan detection for watercourses biomonitoring is currently based on large water filtration. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is a choice biological model in ecotoxicological studies which are already in use to detect chemical contaminations in watercourses. In the present study, the zebra mussel was tested as a new tool for detecting water contamination by protozoa. In vivo exposures were conducted in laboratory experiments. Zebra mussel was exposed to various protozoan concentrations for one week. Detection of protozoa was realized by Taqman real time qPCR. Our experiments evidenced C. parvum, G. duodenalis and T. gondii oocyst bioaccumulation by mussels proportionally to ambient contamination, and significant T. gondii prevalence was observed in muscle tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates T. gondii oocyst accumulation by zebra mussel. The results from this study highlight the capacity of zebra mussels to reveal ambient biological contamination, and thus to be used as a new effective tool in sanitary biomonitoring of water bodies. PMID:24112626

  6. Endosymbiosis in trypanosomatid protozoa: the bacterium division is controlled during the host cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Catta-Preta, Carolina M C; Brum, Felipe L; da Silva, Camila C; Zuma, Aline A; Elias, Maria C; de Souza, Wanderley; Schenkman, Sergio; Motta, Maria Cristina M

    2015-01-01

    Mutualism is defined as a beneficial relationship for the associated partners and usually assumes that the symbiont number is controlled. Some trypanosomatid protozoa co-evolve with a bacterial symbiont that divides in coordination with the host in a way that results in its equal distribution between daughter cells. The mechanism that controls this synchrony is largely unknown, and its comprehension might provide clues to understand how eukaryotic cells evolved when acquiring symbionts that later became organelles. Here, we approached this question by studying the effects of inhibitors that affect the host exclusively in two symbiont-bearing trypanosomatids, Strigomonas culicis and Angomonas deanei. We found that inhibiting host protein synthesis using cycloheximide or host DNA replication using aphidicolin did not affect the duplication of bacterial DNA. Although the bacteria had autonomy to duplicate their DNA when host protein synthesis was blocked by cycloheximide, they could not complete cytokinesis. Aphidicolin promoted the inhibition of the trypanosomatid cell cycle in the G1/S phase, leading to symbiont filamentation in S. culicis but not in A. deanei. Treatment with camptothecin blocked the host protozoa cell cycle in the G2 phase and induced the formation of filamentous symbionts in both species. Oryzalin, which affects host microtubule polymerization, blocked trypanosomatid mitosis and abrogated symbiont division. Our results indicate that host factors produced during the cell division cycle are essential for symbiont segregation and may control the bacterial cell number. PMID:26082757

  7. Endosymbiosis in trypanosomatid protozoa: the bacterium division is controlled during the host cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Catta-Preta, Carolina M. C.; Brum, Felipe L.; da Silva, Camila C.; Zuma, Aline A.; Elias, Maria C.; de Souza, Wanderley; Schenkman, Sergio; Motta, Maria Cristina M.

    2015-01-01

    Mutualism is defined as a beneficial relationship for the associated partners and usually assumes that the symbiont number is controlled. Some trypanosomatid protozoa co-evolve with a bacterial symbiont that divides in coordination with the host in a way that results in its equal distribution between daughter cells. The mechanism that controls this synchrony is largely unknown, and its comprehension might provide clues to understand how eukaryotic cells evolved when acquiring symbionts that later became organelles. Here, we approached this question by studying the effects of inhibitors that affect the host exclusively in two symbiont-bearing trypanosomatids, Strigomonas culicis and Angomonas deanei. We found that inhibiting host protein synthesis using cycloheximide or host DNA replication using aphidicolin did not affect the duplication of bacterial DNA. Although the bacteria had autonomy to duplicate their DNA when host protein synthesis was blocked by cycloheximide, they could not complete cytokinesis. Aphidicolin promoted the inhibition of the trypanosomatid cell cycle in the G1/S phase, leading to symbiont filamentation in S. culicis but not in A. deanei. Treatment with camptothecin blocked the host protozoa cell cycle in the G2 phase and induced the formation of filamentous symbionts in both species. Oryzalin, which affects host microtubule polymerization, blocked trypanosomatid mitosis and abrogated symbiont division. Our results indicate that host factors produced during the cell division cycle are essential for symbiont segregation and may control the bacterial cell number. PMID:26082757

  8. Glenn Enters his Mercury Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr. enters his Mercury capsule, 'Friendship 7' as he prepares for launch of the Mercury-Atlas rocket. On February 20, 1962 Glenn lifted off into space aboard his Mercury Atlas 6 (MA-6) rocket and became the first American to orbit the Earth. After orbiting the Earth 3 times, Friendship 7 landed in the Atlantic Ocean 4 hours, 55 minutes and 23 seconds later, just East of Grand Turk Island in the Bahamas. Glenn and his capsule were recovered by the Navy Destroyer Noa, 21 minutes after splashdown.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF HOMOLOGOUS VIRAL INTERNAL CONTROLS FOR USE IN RT-PCR ASSAYS OF WATERBORNE ENTERIC VIRUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enteric viruses often contaminate water sources causing frequent outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays are commonly used for detection of human enteric viruses in environmental and drinking water samples. RT-PCR provides ...

  10. Potential Use of Fosfomycin-Tromethamine for Treatment of Recurrent Campylobacter Species Enteritis.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Company, Juan; Los-Arcos, Ibai; Pigrau, Carles; Rodríguez-Pardo, Dolors; Larrosa, María Nieves; Rodríguez-Garrido, Virginia; Sihuay-Diburga, Denisse; Almirante, Benito

    2016-07-01

    We report 2 cases of recurrent Campylobacter coli enteritis caused by macrolide- and fluoroquinolone-resistant strains in 2 patients with hypogammaglobulinemia, successfully treated with a prolonged course of fosfomycin-tromethamine with no side effects. Fosfomycin-tromethamine may be a feasible alternative therapy for recurrent enteritis caused by Campylobacter species resistant to first-line drugs. PMID:27161640

  11. Regional Enteritis of the Duodenum

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, A. M.; Michalyshyn, B.; Sherbaniuk, R. W.; Costopoulos, L. B.

    1965-01-01

    Forty-three cases of regional enteritis of the duodenum were found in the world literature. Regional duodenitis is relatively uncommon; in one large series of 600 cases of regional enteritis only three involved the duodenum. At the University of Alberta Hospital, in a three-year period (1962 to 1965), the authors encountered five patients with regional duodenitis, demonstrating a spectrum of clinical, radiologic and pathologic characteristics of this disease. The description of these patients brings the world's total to 48 reported cases. Two of these patients had symptoms of severe duodenal obstruction and were relieved by bypass procedures and vagotomy; one required surgery because of co-existent obstructive ileal disease: and two patients have improved on corticoids and salicylazosulfapyridine without surgery. In our experience treatment with corticoids and salicylazosulfapyridine is beneficial. Four of the five patients remain in a state of mild to moderate nutritional impairment and have evidence of intestinal malabsorption. In the fifth case the period of followup is too short to permit assessment. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Figs. 6 (X 50) and 7 (X 450)Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Figs. 13 and 14 (both X 100)Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21 PMID:5843869

  12. NATIONAL RESPIRATORY AND ENTERIC VIRUS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System is a lab based system which monitors temporal and geographic patterns associated with the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV), respiratory and enteric adenoviruses, and r...

  13. Diet supplementation with cinnamon oil, cinnamaldehyde, or monensin does not reduce enteric methane production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary addition of cinnamon oil (CIN), cinnamaldehyde (CDH), or monensin (MON) on enteric methane (CH4) emission in dairy cows. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (28-day periods). Cows were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration ((TMR); 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio, on a dry matter (DM) basis) not supplemented (CTL), or supplemented with CIN (50 mg/kg DM intake), CDH (50 mg/kg DM intake), or monensin (24 mg/kg of DM intake). Dry matter intake (DMI), nutrient digestibility, N retention, and milk performance were measured over 6 consecutive days. Ruminal degradability of the basal diet (with no additive) was assessed using in sacco incubations (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h). Ruminal fermentation characteristics (pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia (NH3)) and protozoa were determined over 2 days. Enteric CH4 emissions were measured over 6 consecutive days using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas technique. Adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet had no effects on DMI, N retention, in sacco ruminal degradation and nutrient digestibility of the diet. Ruminal fermentation characteristics and protozoa numbers were not modified by including the feed additives in the diet. Enteric CH4 emission and CH4 energy losses averaged 491 g/day and 6.59% of gross energy intake, respectively, and were not affected by adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet. Results of this study indicate that CIN, CDH and MON are not viable CH4 mitigation strategies in dairy cows. PMID:26888487

  14. IMMUNOGENOMIC APPROACHES TO STUDY HOST IMMUNITY TO ENTERIC PATHOGENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With increasing consumer’s demands for safe poultry products, effective control of disease-causing pathogens is becoming a major challenge to the poultry industry. Many chicken pathogens enter the host through the gastrointestinal tract, and over the past few decades in-feed antibiotics and active ...

  15. MECHANISM OF INACTIVATION OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN FRESH WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods developed in the laboratory were used to measure inactivation rates of enteric viruses seeded into freshwaters from a variety of sources. All freshwater samples caused a decrease in poliovirus-1 infectivity of less than 98% within 4 days at 27 deg C. Virus inactivation wa...

  16. Yokenella regensburgei infection in India mimicking enteric fever.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sarika; Gaind, Rajni; Gupta, Kunj Bihari; Dawar, Reetika; Kumar, Deepak; Paul, Premila; Sardana, Raman; Deb, Manorama

    2013-06-01

    Yokenella regensburgei is an opportunistic human pathogen of the Enterobacteriaceae family rarely reported to cause human infections. Here, we present a case report of Y. regensburgei bacteraemia from India clinically resembling enteric fever in an apparently immunocompetent paediatric patient. PMID:23518660

  17. Anti-Enteric Neuronal Antibodies and the Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sumei; Drossman, Douglas A; Ringel, Yehuda; Whitehead, William E

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Functional gastrointestinal disorders are those in which no abnormal metabolic or physical processes, which can account for the symptoms, can be identified. The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a significant functional disorder, which affects 10-20 percent of the population worldwide. Predominant symptoms of IBS are abnormal defecation associated with abdominal pain, both of which may be exacerbated by psychogenic stress. Our study was designed to test a hypothesis that symptoms in a subset of patients with a diagnosis of IBS are associated with an autoimmune degenerative neuropathy in the enteric nervous system. Methods Serum was collected from Rome II-IBS patients and controls at the University of North Carolina Functional Gastrointestinal Diseases Center. Assay procedures were immunohistochemical localization of antibody binding to enteric neurons and human protein microarray assay for antigens recognized by antibodies in the sera. Results Eighty-seven percent of IBS sera and 59% of control sera contained anti-enteric neuronal antibodies. Antibody immunostaining was seen in the nucleus and cytoplasm of neurons in the enteric nervous system. Protein microarray analysis detected antibody reactivity for autoantigens in serum with anti-enteric neuronal antibodies and no reactivity for the same autoantigens in samples not containing anti-enteric neuronal antibodies in our immunostaining assay. Antibodies in sera from IBS patients recognized only 3 antigens out of an 8,000 immunoprotein array. The 3 antigens were: (1) a nondescript ribonucleoprotein (RNP-complex); (2) small nuclear ribonuclear polypeptide A; and (3) Ro-5,200 kDa. Conclusions Results of the present study suggest that symptoms in a subset of IBS patients might be a reflection of enteric neuronal damage or loss, caused by circulating anti-enteric autoimmune antibodies. PMID:22323991

  18. Effects of feeding lauric acid on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation, and digestion and on milk production in dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the level of lauric acid (LA) addition to the diet necessary to effectively suppress ruminal protozoa (RP) to the extent observed when a single dose was given directly into the rumen; (2) to assess its effects on production and ruminal metabolism; ...

  19. EFFECT OF FOUR LEVELS OF LAURIC ACID ON RUMINAL PROTOZOA, MILK PRODUCTION AND COMPOSITION IN DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminal protozoa (RP) are the main contributors to bacterial protein turnover in the rumen; therefore, reducing RP may improve N utilization. Medium-chain saturated fatty acids such as lauric acid (C12:0) have been shown to suppress RP. We tested lauric acid (LA) as a practical defaunating agent and...

  20. Emergency Endovascular 'Bridge' Treatment for Iliac-Enteric Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Franchin, Marco; Tozzi, Matteo; Piffaretti, Gabriele; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Castelli, Patrizio

    2011-10-15

    Aortic aneurysm has been reported to be the dominant cause of primary iliac-enteric fistula (IEF) in >70% of cases [1]; other less common causes of primary IEF include peptic ulcer, primary aortitis, pancreatic pseudocyst, or neoplastic erosion into an adjacent artery [2, 3]. We describe an unusual case of IEF managed with a staged approach using an endovascular stent-graft as a 'bridge' in the emergency setting to optimize the next elective definitive excision of the lesion.

  1. Protozoa enhance foraging efficiency of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for mineral nitrogen from organic matter in soil to the benefit of host plants.

    PubMed

    Koller, Robert; Rodriguez, Alia; Robin, Christophe; Scheu, Stefan; Bonkowski, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Dead organic matter (OM) is a major source of nitrogen (N) for plants. The majority of plants support N uptake by symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Mineralization of N is regulated by microfauna, in particular, protozoa grazing on bacteria. We hypothesized that AM fungi and protozoa interactively facilitate plant N nutrition from OM. In soil systems consisting of an OM patch and a root compartment, plant N uptake and consequences for plant carbon (C) allocation were investigated using stable isotopes. Protozoa mobilized N by consuming bacteria, and the mobilized N was translocated via AM fungi to the host plant. The presence of protozoa in both the OM and root compartment stimulated photosynthesis and the translocation of C from the host plant via AM fungi into the OM patch. This stimulated microbial activity in the OM patch, plant N uptake from OM and doubled plant growth. The results indicate that protozoa increase plant growth by both mobilization of N from OM and by protozoa-root interactions, resulting in increased C allocation to roots and into the rhizosphere, thereby increasing plant nutrient exploitation. Hence, mycorrhizal plants need to interact with protozoa to fully exploit N resources from OM. PMID:23534902

  2. The protozoa dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina contains selenoproteins and the relevant translation apparatus.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Takashi; Beika, Asa; Hattori, Asuka; Kohno, Yoshinori; Kato, Koichi H; Mizutani, Takaharu

    2003-01-01

    In the phylogenetic tree, selenoproteins and the corresponding translation machinery are found in Archaea, Eubacteria, and animals, but not in fungi and higher plants. As very little is known about Protozoa, we searched for the presence of selenoproteins in the primitive dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina, belonging to the Protoctista kingdom. Four selenoproteins could be obtained from O. marina cells cultured in the presence of 75Se. Using O. marina or bovine liver cytosolic extracts, we could serylate and selenylate in vitro total O. marina tRNAs. Moreover, the existence of a tRNA(Sec) could be deduced from in vivo experiments. Lastly, an anti-serum against the specialized mammalian translation elongation factor mSelB reacted with a protein of 48-kDa molecular mass. Altogether, our data showed that O. marina contains selenoproteins and suggests that the corresponding translation machinery is related to that found in animals. PMID:12480549

  3. Heat-labile enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and intestinal protozoa in asymptomatic travellers.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, P; Cross, J H

    1977-12-01

    Thirty-two asymptomatic travellers who had recently journeyed in the Near, Middle, and Far East and had experienced a high incidence of diarrhoeal disease were screened for heat-labile enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ent+ E. coli) and other bacterial and parasitic pathogens. Six percent were colonized with ent+ E. coli and while other bacterial pathogens were not found, the intestinal protozoa Giardia lamblia (13%), Entamoeba histolytica (6%), Entamoeba coli (6%), Endolimax nana (6%), and Entamoeba hartmanni (3%) were detected in the stools. Ent+ E. coli, G. lamblia and E. histolytica should be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease in travellers returning from the Orient. Furthermore, these travellers may be a potential source for the introduction of ent+ E. coli into communities where such organisms are relatively rare. PMID:351820

  4. A Transposon-Based Tool for Transformation and Mutagenesis in Trypanosomatid Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Damasceno, Jeziel D.; Beverley, Stephen M.; Tosi, Luiz R.O.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of transposable elements to mobilize across genomes and affect the expression of genes makes them exceptional tools for genetic manipulation methodologies. Several transposon-based systems have been modified and incorporated into shuttle mutagenesis approaches in a variety of organisms. We have found that the Mos1 element, a DNA transposon from Drosophila mauritiana, is suitable and readily adaptable to a variety of strategies to the study of trypanosomatid parasitic protozoa. Trypanosomatids are the causative agents of a wide range of neglected diseases in underdeveloped regions of the globe. In this chapter we describe the basic elements and the available protocols for the in vitro use of Mos1 derivatives in the protozoan parasite Leishmania. PMID:25388118

  5. Detection by PCR of pathogenic protozoa in raw and drinkable water samples in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Triviño-Valencia, Jessica; Lora, Fabiana; Zuluaga, Juan David; Gomez-Marin, Jorge E

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the presence of DNA of Giardia, Toxoplasma, and Cryptosporidium by PCR, and of Giardia and Cryptosporidium genera by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), in water samples, before, during, and after plant treatment for drinkable water. We applied this method in 38 samples of 10 l of water taken from each of the water treatment steps and in 8 samples taken at home (only for Toxoplasma PCR) in Quindio region in Colombia. There were 8 positive samples for Cryptosporidium parvum (21 %), 4 for Cryptosporidium hominis (10.5 %), 27 for Toxoplasma gondii (58.6 %), 2 for Giardia duodenalis assemblage A (5.2 %), and 5 for G. duodenalis assemblage B (13.1 %). By IFAT, 23 % were positive for Giardia and 21 % for Cryptosporidium. An almost perfect agreement was found between IFAT and combined results of PCR, by Kappa composite proportion analysis. PCR positive samples were significantly more frequent in untreated raw water for C. parvum (p = 0.02). High mean of fecal coliforms, high pH values, and low mean of chlorine residuals were strongly correlated with PCR positivity for G. duodenalis assemblage B. High pH value was correlated with PCR positivity for C. parvum. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences was possible, showing water and human clinical sequences for Toxoplasma within the same phylogenetic group for B1 repeated sequence. PCR assay is complementary to IFAT assay for monitoring of protozoa in raw and drinkable water, enabling species identification and to look for phylogenetic analysis in protozoa from human and environmental sources. PMID:26779921

  6. Effect of solar disinfection on viability of intestinal protozoa in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Gaafar, Maha R

    2007-04-01

    The effect of solar disinfection on the viability of intestinal protozoa Giardia lamblia, Microsporidia sp., Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cyatenensis and Entamoeba histolytica in drinking water was studied as compared to chlorine disinfection. The protozoa were collected from stool samples, to infect to the distilled water. Chlorinated water samples were prepared at concentration of 4 ppm, and the parasites were incubated overnight at room temperature with the treated water. Sun treatment was applied for 2 exposures (6 & 24 hrs), in summer and winter. Sun treated water samples were put in tubes and exposed to sun. The 2 disinfection methods were tested in plastic and glass test tubes. Parasites viability was assessed by viability assay using trypan blue stain (0.4%), and bioassay infectivity tests in experimentally laboratory bred mice. Results proved that all parasites' viability was not affected by chlorine, following solar disinfection treatment, parasites became dark blue in colour and deformed by trypan blue stain. High parasites death was recorded for all parasites except Microsporidia sp. Bioassay infectivity test showed a statistically significant reduction in mean number of all parasites in intestinal sections compared to controls. The best results were tubes exposure to sun for 24 hrs in summer, where G. lamblia, C. parvum and C. cyatenensis were inactivated or absence in intestinal sections. No statistically significant difference was between the use of plastic and glass tubes, either in chlorine or sun treated parasites. So, solar disinfection proved a simple, cheap and effective means for improving water for human use, particularly in developing countries. PMID:17580569

  7. Intravital Computer Morphometry on Protozoa: A Method for Monitoring of the Morphofunctional Disorders in Cells Exposed in the Cell Phone Communication Electromagnetic Field.

    PubMed

    Uskalova, D V; Igolkina, Yu V; Sarapultseva, E I

    2016-08-01

    Morphofunctional disorders in unicellular aquatic protozoa - Spirostomum ambiguum infusorians after 30-, 60-, and 360-min exposure in electromagnetic field at a radiation frequency of 1 GHz and energy flow density of 50 μW/cm(2) were analyzed by intravital computer morphometry. Significant disorders in morphometric values correlated with low mobility of the protozoa. The results suggested the use of intravital computer morphometry on the protozoa for early diagnosis of radiation-induced effects of the mobile communication electromagnetic field, for example, low mobility of spermatozoa. PMID:27591872

  8. Detection of diarrhoea-causing protozoa in general practice patients in The Netherlands by multiplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    ten Hove, R; Schuurman, T; Kooistra, M; Möller, L; van Lieshout, L; Verweij, J J

    2007-10-01

    The diagnostic value of a multiplex real-time PCR for the detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum/Cryptosporidium hominis was evaluated by comparing the PCR results obtained with those of routinely performed microscopy of faecal samples from patients consulting their general practitioner (GP) because of gastrointestinal complaints. Analysis of 722 faecal DNA samples revealed that the prevalence of G. lamblia was 9.3% according to PCR, as compared to 5.7% by microscopy. The number of infections detected was more than double in children of school age. Furthermore, G. lamblia infection was detected in 15 (6.6%) of 228 faecal samples submitted to the laboratory for bacterial culture only. C. parvum/C. hominis infections were not diagnosed by routine procedures, but DNA from these organisms was detected in 4.3% of 950 DNA samples. A strong association with age was noted, with Cryptosporidium being detected in 21.8% of 110 children aged <5 years. C. hominis was the most prevalent species. E. histolytica was not detected in this study population. Analysis of microscopy data revealed that the number of additional parasites missed by PCR was small. Overall, the study demonstrated that a multiplex real-time PCR approach is a feasible diagnostic alternative in the clinical laboratory for the detection of parasitic infections in patients consulting GPs because of gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:17714523

  9. Entering China: an unconventional approach.

    PubMed

    Vanhonacker, W

    1997-01-01

    Conventional wisdom has it that the best way to do business in China is through an equity joint venture (EJV) with a well-connected Chinese partner. But pioneering companies are starting a trend toward a new way to enter that market: as a wholly foreign-owned enterprise, or WFOE. Increasingly, says the author, joint ventures do not offer foreign companies what they need to succeed in China. For example, many companies want to do business nationally, but the prospects for finding a Chinese partner with national scope are poor. Moreover, there are often conflicting perceptions between partners about how to operate an EJV: Chinese companies, for example, typically have a more immediate interest in profits than foreign investors do. By contrast, the author asserts, WFOEs are faster to set up and easier to manage; and they allow managers to expand operations more rapidly. That makes them the perfect solution, right? The answer is a qualified yes. First, foreign companies will still need sources of guanxi, or social and political connections. Second, managers must take steps to avoid trampling on China's cultural or economic sovereignty. Third and perhaps most important, foreign companies must be prepared to bring something of value to China-usually in the form of jobs or new technology that can help the country develop. Companies willing to make the effort, says the author, can reap the rewards of China's burgeoning marketplace. PMID:10165447

  10. Bioengineered probiotics, a strategic approach to control enteric infections

    PubMed Central

    Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Bhunia, Arun K

    2013-01-01

    Enteric infections account for high morbidity and mortality and are considered to be the fifth leading cause of death at all ages worldwide. Seventy percent of all enteric infections are foodborne. Thus significant efforts have been directed toward the detection, control and prevention of foodborne diseases. Many antimicrobials including antibiotics have been used for their control and prevention. However, probiotics offer a potential alternative intervention strategy owing to their general health beneficial properties and inhibitory effects against foodborne pathogens. Often, antimicrobial probiotic action is non-specific and non-discriminatory or may be ineffective. In such cases, bioengineered probiotics expressing foreign gene products to achieve specific function is highly desirable. In this review we summarize the strategic development of recombinant bioengineered probiotics to control enteric infections, and to examine how scientific advancements in the human microbiome and their immunomodulatory effects help develop such novel and safe bioengineered probiotics. PMID:23327986

  11. Pharmacokinetics of enteric-coated cysteamine bitartrate in healthy adults: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Gangoiti, Jon A; Fidler, Meredith; Cabrera, Betty L; Schneider, Jerry A; Barshop, Bruce A; Dohil, Ranjan

    2010-01-01

    AIMS Cysteamine bitartrate (Cystagon®) is the approved treatment for cystinosis. Poor compliance and patient outcome may occur because the drug needs to be taken every 6 h and in some patients causes gastrointestinal symptoms due to hypergastrinaemia. A formulation of cysteamine requiring twice daily ingestion would improve the quality of life for these patients. This study compares the pharmacokinetics and gastrin production following cysteamine bitartrate non-enteric-coated and cysteamine bitartrate enteric-coated in normal healthy subjects. METHODS Enteric-coated cysteamine was prepared. Following single doses of cysteamine bitartrate non-enteric-coated 450 mg and cysteamine bitartrate enteric-coated 450 mg and 900 mg, serial plasma cysteamine and gastrin concentrations were measured. Two subjects also received cysteamine bitartrate non-enteric-coated 900 mg. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms were recorded. RESULTS Six healthy adults (mean age 20.7 years, range 18–24 years; mean weight 59.3 kg) received drug. All post-dose gastrin concentrations were within the normal range (<100 pg ml–1). The tmax following cysteamine bitartrate non-enteric-coated (mean and SD is 75 ± 19 min) was shorter than cysteamine bitartrate enteric-coated (220 ± 74 min) (P = 0.001), but only the Cmax and AUC estimates following 900 mg cysteamine bitartrate enteric-coated were significantly greater than any of the other preparations or doses (P < 0.05). One patient had GI symptoms following both 900 mg cysteamine bitartrate non-enteric-coated and cysteamine bitartrate enteric-coated. CONCLUSION Although patient numbers were low, single high doses of cysteamine bitartrate enteric-coated were better tolerated than similar doses of cysteamine bitartrate non-enteric-coated in the healthy subjects and all had normal gastrin concentrations. The delayed tmax following cysteamine bitartrate enteric-coated suggested that the cysteamine was released enterically. PMID:20716238

  12. The Impact of Oxygen on Bacterial Enteric Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wallace, N; Zani, A; Abrams, E; Sun, Y

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial enteric pathogens are responsible for a tremendous amount of foodborne illnesses every year through the consumption of contaminated food products. During their transit from contaminated food sources to the host gastrointestinal tract, these pathogens are exposed and must adapt to fluctuating oxygen levels to successfully colonize the host and cause diseases. However, the majority of enteric infection research has been conducted under aerobic conditions. To raise awareness of the importance in understanding the impact of oxygen, or lack of oxygen, on enteric pathogenesis, we describe in this review the metabolic and physiological responses of nine bacterial enteric pathogens exposed to environments with different oxygen levels. We further discuss the effects of oxygen levels on virulence regulation to establish potential connections between metabolic adaptations and bacterial pathogenesis. While not providing an exhaustive list of all bacterial pathogens, we highlight key differences and similarities among nine facultative anaerobic and microaerobic pathogens in this review to argue for a more in-depth understanding of the diverse impact oxygen levels have on enteric pathogenesis. PMID:27261784

  13. Enteric fever and its impact on returning travellers.

    PubMed

    Dave, Jayshree; Sefton, Armine

    2015-05-01

    Enteric fever, a systemic illness, is caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi or S. enterica serovar Paratyphi A, B or C. The organism is transmitted to humans by the faecal oral route and is endemic in countries with poor sanitation and lacking clean drinking water. There are around 27 million individuals infected with S. Typhi worldwide annually. Enteric fever is a particular problem in travellers to endemic areas, especially those visiting friends and relatives. Currently, the two main vaccines recommended for travellers are the Vi polysaccharide vaccine and the oral Ty21a vaccine. These internationally licensed vaccines are safe and effective against S. Typhi. However, there is currently no commercially available vaccine against S. Paratyphi, which is increasingly reported as a cause of enteric fever. Vaccine uptake and taking appropriate precautions are poor in travellers visiting friends and relatives abroad; this problem requires addressing. Ciprofloxacin is no longer recommended for empirical treatment of infection because of increasing reports of resistance, especially from South Asia. Ceftriaxone and azithromycin are currently the most commonly used antimicrobials for empirical treatment of enteric fever but resistance to both these agents is emerging. PMID:25808163

  14. [Enteric parasites and AIDS in Haiti: utility of detection and treatment of intestinal parasites in family members].

    PubMed

    Raccurt, C P; Pannier Stockman, C; Eyma, E; Verdier, R I; Totet, A; Pape, J W

    2006-10-01

    Intestinal parasites and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are major health problems in Haiti. Both entities are known to interact strongly with cell-mediated immunity. The purpose of this study undertaken in Port-au-Prince, Haiti was to evaluate the risk of enteric parasite transmission between HIV-infected patients and family members. Routine examination of stool specimens for parasites was conducted in 90 HIV-infected undergoing treatment for intestinal disorders due mainly to Cryptosporidium sp. (62%) and 123 healthy family member volunteers. A stool sample preserved in 10% formalin solution was examined to detect protozoa (MIF, modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain, Uvibio fluorescence technique, Weber stain) and helminth ova (Bailenger technique). In addition to Cryptosporidium sp., 14 parasitic species were identified: 6 Rhizopoda, 3 Flagellata (including Giardia duodenalis), 1 Coccidia (Cyclospora cayetanensis), 3 Nematoda (mainly Ascaris lumbricoides) and 1 Cestoda (Hymenolepis nana). This is the first time that 5 protozoa, i.e., Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba hartmanni, E. polecki, Chilomastix mesnili, and Enteromonas hominis, have been reported in Haiti. As expected, enteric parasites were less common in HIV-infected subjects undergoing medical treatment (11.1%) than in uninfected family members (41.5%) (p = 0.0000). Multiple intestinal parasitism (infection by 2 to 4 parasites) was observed in 19.5% of family members. The findings of this study indicate that detecting and treating intestinal parasites in subjects living in close contact with HIV-infected patients as well as informing family members of the importance of personal hygiene in Haiti are highly recommended measures to preserve the health of AIDS patients. PMID:17201290

  15. Effect of bismuth citrate, lactose, and organic acid on necrotic enteritis in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clostridium perfringens – associated necrotic enteritis causes significant losses and increased morbidity in poultry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bismuth citrate and acidifiers on the development of necrotic enteritis in broilers. The first study was a dose response t...

  16. Transmission electron microscopy sample preparation protocols for the ultrastructural study of cysts of free-living protozoa.

    PubMed

    Lambrecht, Ellen; Baré, Julie; Claeys, Myriam; Chavatte, Natascha; Bert, Wim; Sabbe, Koen; Houf, Kurt

    2015-04-01

    Cysts of free-living protozoa have an impact on the ecology and epidemiology of bacteria because they may act as a transmission vector or shelter the bacteria against hash environmental conditions. Detection and localization of intracystic bacteria and examination of the en- and excystment dynamics is a major challenge because no detailed protocols for ultrastructural analysis of cysts are currently available. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is ideally suited for those analyses; however, conventional TEM protocols are not satisfactory for cysts of free-living protozoa. Here we report on the design and testing of four protocols for TEM sample preparation of cysts. Two protocols, one based on chemical fixation in coated well plates and one on high-pressure freezing, were selected as the most effective for TEM-based ultrastructural studies of cysts. Our protocols will enable improved analysis of cyst structure and a better understanding of bacterial survival mechanisms in cysts. PMID:25861930

  17. Prevalence of intestinal protozoa infection among school-aged children on Pemba Island, Tanzania, and effect of single-dose albendazole, nitazoxanide and albendazole-nitazoxanide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathogenic intestinal protozoa infections are common in school-aged children in the developing world and they are frequently associated with malabsorption syndromes and gastrointestinal morbidity. Since diagnosis of these parasites is difficult, prevalence data on intestinal protozoa is scarce. Methods We collected two stool samples from school-aged children on Pemba Island, Tanzania, as part of a randomized controlled trial before and 3 weeks after treatment with (i) single-dose albendazole (400 mg); (ii) single-dose nitazoxanide (1,000 mg); (iii) nitazoxanide-albendazole combination (1,000 mg–400 mg), with each drug given separately on two consecutive days; and (iv) placebo. Formalin-fixed stool samples were examined for the presence of intestinal protozoa using an ether-concentration method to determine the prevalence and estimate cure rates (CRs). Results Almost half (48.7%) of the children were diagnosed with at least one of the (potentially) pathogenic protozoa Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar and Blastocystis hominis. Observed CRs were high for all treatment arms, including placebo. Nitazoxanide showed a significant effect compared to placebo against the non-pathogenic protozoon Entamoeba coli. Conclusions Intestinal protozoa infections might be of substantial health relevance even in settings where they are not considered as a health problem. Examination of a single stool sample with the ether-concentration method lacks sensitivity for the diagnosis of intestinal protozoa, and hence, care is indicated when interpreting prevalence estimates and treatment effects. PMID:23289920

  18. Nitrogen-deficient microalgae are rich in cell-surface mannose: potential implications for prey biorecognition by phagotrophic protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Martel, Claire M.

    2009-01-01

    Flow cytometry was used to quantify the abundance of mannose-linked glycoconjugates on microalgae precultured using low- or high-nitrate media. Nitrogen-deficient microalgae were richer in cell-surface mannose than nitrogen-sufficient. Findings are discussed in view of recent research which reveals mannose-specific ‘feeding receptors’ assist prey biorecognition by phagotrophic protozoa that ingest microalgae. PMID:24031323

  19. Isolation of protozoa from water associated with a legionellosis outbreak and demonstration of intracellular multiplication of Legionella pneumophila

    SciTech Connect

    Barbaree, J.M.; Fields, B.S.; Feeley, J.C.; Gorman, G.W.; Martin, W.T.

    1986-02-01

    At the site of a legionellosis outbreak, amoebae and two ciliates, Tetrahymena sp. and Cyclidium sp., were isolated from cooling-tower water containing Legionella pneumophila. The Tetrahymena sp. and the amoebae repeatedly showed the ability to support intracellular multiplication of L. pneumophila. Both were isolated from cooling towers specifically implicated as the source for the spread of legionellosis. These protozoa may be reservoirs supporting the survival and multiplication of virulent legionellae in cooling-tower water.

  20. Vaccination against enteric septicaemia of catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edwardsiella ictaluri, the causative agent of enteric septicemia (ESC) of catfish, is one of the most economically important diseases of cultured channel catfish. In 2002, Wagner and coworkers reported that enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and columnaris (Flavobacterium columnaris) were the two m...

  1. Enteric infections due to Campylobacter, Yersinia, Salmonella, and Shigella*

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    This report reviews the available information on the clinical features, pathogenesis, bacteriology, and epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica, both of which have recently been recognized as important causes of enteric infection. In the fields of salmonellosis and shigellosis, important new epidemiological and related findings that have implications for the control of these infections are described. Priority research activities in each of these areas are outlined. PMID:6969131

  2. Measurement and prediction of enteric methane emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Lal, Rattan; Lakritz, Jeffrey; Ezeji, Thaddeus

    2011-01-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the agricultural sector account for about 25.5% of total global anthropogenic emission. While CO2 receives the most attention as a factor relative to global warming, CH4, N2O and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) also cause significant radiative forcing. With the relative global warming potential of 25 compared with CO2, CH4 is one of the most important GHGs. This article reviews the prediction models, estimation methodology and strategies for reducing enteric CH4 emissions. Emission of CH4 in ruminants differs among developed and developing countries, depending on factors like animal species, breed, pH of rumen fluid, ratio of acetate:propionate, methanogen population, composition of diet and amount of concentrate fed. Among the ruminant animals, cattle contribute the most towards the greenhouse effect through methane emission followed by sheep, goats and buffalos, respectively. The estimated CH4 emission rate per cattle, buffaloe, sheep and goat in developed countries are 150.7, 137, 21.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) respectively. However, the estimated rates in developing countries are significantly lower at 95.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) per cattle and sheep, respectively. There exists a strong interest in developing new and improving the existing CH4 prediction models to identify mitigation strategies for reducing the overall CH4 emissions. A synthesis of the available literature suggests that the mechanistic models are superior to empirical models in accurately predicting the CH4 emission from dairy farms. The latest development in prediction model is the integrated farm system model which is a process-based whole-farm simulation technique. Several techniques are used to quantify enteric CH4 emissions starting from whole animal chambers to sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer techniques. The latest technology developed to estimate CH4 more accurately is the micrometeorological mass difference technique. Because the conditions under which

  3. Measurement and prediction of enteric methane emission.

    PubMed

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Lal, Rattan; Lakritz, Jeffrey; Ezeji, Thaddeus

    2011-01-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the agricultural sector account for about 25.5% of total global anthropogenic emission. While CO(2) receives the most attention as a factor relative to global warming, CH(4), N(2)O and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) also cause significant radiative forcing. With the relative global warming potential of 25 compared with CO(2), CH(4) is one of the most important GHGs. This article reviews the prediction models, estimation methodology and strategies for reducing enteric CH(4) emissions. Emission of CH(4) in ruminants differs among developed and developing countries, depending on factors like animal species, breed, pH of rumen fluid, ratio of acetate:propionate, methanogen population, composition of diet and amount of concentrate fed. Among the ruminant animals, cattle contribute the most towards the greenhouse effect through methane emission followed by sheep, goats and buffalos, respectively. The estimated CH(4) emission rate per cattle, buffaloe, sheep and goat in developed countries are 150.7, 137, 21.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) respectively. However, the estimated rates in developing countries are significantly lower at 95.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) per cattle and sheep, respectively. There exists a strong interest in developing new and improving the existing CH(4) prediction models to identify mitigation strategies for reducing the overall CH(4) emissions. A synthesis of the available literature suggests that the mechanistic models are superior to empirical models in accurately predicting the CH(4) emission from dairy farms. The latest development in prediction model is the integrated farm system model which is a process-based whole-farm simulation technique. Several techniques are used to quantify enteric CH(4) emissions starting from whole animal chambers to sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer techniques. The latest technology developed to estimate CH(4) more accurately is the micrometeorological mass difference technique. Because

  4. Multigene-based phylogeny of the ciliate families Amphisiellidae and Trachelostylidae (Protozoa: Ciliophora: Hypotrichia).

    PubMed

    Huang, Jie; Luo, Xiaotian; Bourland, William A; Gao, Feng; Gao, Shan

    2016-08-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of ciliated protozoa have been increasingly relied on multigene information, which was revealed to provide more robust interpretations than single-gene information. Previous studies showed that Amphisiellidae was an extremely divergent group within the order Stichotrichida, with species widely dispersed throughout the stichotrichid assemblage, while Trachelostylidae, excluding gonostomatid species, is a monophyletic group within the order Sporadotrichida. In the present study, we provide 38 new sequences of SSU-rDNA, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and LSU-rDNA genes to infer phylogenetic relationships among all taxa available in Amphisiellidae and Trachelostylidae. The results indicate that: (1) Amphisiellidae is polyphyletic, with Amphisiella, Hemiamphisiella, Orthoamphisiella, Uroleptoides, and Urospinula distributing in different clades; (2) Amphisiella is separated into two clades in phylogenetic trees, corroborated by difference in cortical granule distribution. Thus, cortical granule pattern and distribution may be strong diagnostic features to divide Amphisiella species into two subgenera; (3) the monophyly of Trachelostylidae sensu Berger (2008) is strongly supported, suggesting it is a well-defined family; (4) Gonostomatidae is confirmed to be a valid family. PMID:27164471

  5. Abundance, diversity and community composition of free-living protozoa on vegetable sprouts.

    PubMed

    Chavatte, N; Lambrecht, E; Van Damme, I; Sabbe, K; Houf, K

    2016-05-01

    Interactions with free-living protozoa (FLP) have been implicated in the persistence of pathogenic bacteria on food products. In order to assess the potential involvement of FLP in this contamination, detailed knowledge on their occurrence, abundance and diversity on food products is required. In the present study, enrichment and cultivation methods were used to inventory and quantify FLP on eight types of commercial vegetable sprouts (alfalfa, beetroot, cress, green pea, leek, mung bean, red cabbage and rosabi). In parallel, total aerobic bacteria and Escherichia coli counts were performed. The vegetable sprouts harbored diverse communities of FLP, with Tetrahymena (ciliate), Bodo saltans and cercomonads (flagellates), and Acanthamoeba and Vannella (amoebae) as the dominant taxa. Protozoan community composition and abundance significantly differed between the sprout types. Beetroot harbored the most abundant and diverse FLP communities, with many unique species such as Korotnevella sp., Vannella sp., Chilodonella sp., Podophrya sp. and Sphaerophrya sp. In contrast, mung bean sprouts were species-poor and had low FLP numbers. Sampling month and company had no significant influence, suggesting that seasonal and local factors are of minor importance. Likewise, no significant relationship between protozoan community composition and bacterial load was observed. PMID:26742616

  6. Assessment of molecular methods as a tool for detecting pathogenic protozoa isolated from water bodies.

    PubMed

    Adamska, M; Sawczuk, M; Kolodziejczyk, L; Skotarczak, B

    2015-12-01

    Several species belong to the Cryptosporidium and Giardia genus, the main parasitic protozoa occurring in water, but only some of them are infectious to humans. We investigated the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia and identified their species in the water samples collected from natural water bodies in north-western Poland. A total of 600 samples from water bodies used for bathing, sewage discharge, as drinking water sources and watering places for animals were screened. The samples were collected during a 3-year period in each of the four seasons and filtered using Filta-Max (IDEXX Laboratories, USA). Genomic DNA was extracted from all samples and used as a target sequence for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and TaqMan real-time PCR, as well as for reverse line blotting (RLB) methods. PCR methods seem to be more sensitive to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium DNA in water samples than RLB methods. All PCR products were sequenced and three were identified as C. parvum and four as G. intestinalis. The overall prevalence of C. parvum (0.5%) and G. intestinalis (0.6%) in the samples suggests that the risk of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in north-western Poland is minimal. PMID:26608757

  7. [Contribution to the knowledge of intestinal protozoa infestation in the hospital population of Barcelona (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Portús, M; Prats, G

    1981-03-10

    This report concerns the analysis of 650 fecal samples submitted for parasitic investigation to the Microbiology Service of the Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau of Barcelona. The samples were analyzed by the technique of fixation and direct observation of Sapero and Lawless (MIFD), and with the biphasic concentration method of Blagg et al (MIFC). Intestinal protozoa were detected in 183 samples (28.2%), with a total of 232 protozoosis uncovered. The specific analysis gave the following results: Giardia lamblia, 10.9%; Dientamoeba fragilis, 7.8%; Entamoeba coli, 4.6%; Endolimax nana, 4.5%; Entamoeba hartmanni, 4.0%; Iodamoeba buetschlii, 2.9%; Entamoeba histolytica, 0.7%; Chilomastix mesnili, 0.2%; Trichomonas hominis, 0.2%. The results obtained by the two methods have been compared, observing the highest number of positive results with MIFD technique. Especial mention is made of the higher incidence of Dientamoeba fragilis in samples positive for Oxyuris further studies being needed to establish the basis for the relationship between both species of parasites. PMID:7206888

  8. Litter quality as driving factor for plant nutrition via grazing of protozoa on soil microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Koller, Robert; Robin, Christophe; Bonkowski, Michael; Ruess, Liliane; Scheu, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    Plant residues provide a major source of nitrogen (N) for plant growth. Litter N mineralization varies with litter carbon-to-nitrogen (C-to-N) ratio and presence of bacterial-feeding fauna. We assessed the effect of amoebae, major bacterial feeders in soil, on mineralization of litter of low (high quality) and high C-to-N ratio (low quality) and evaluated consequences for plant growth. We used stable isotopes to determine plant N uptake from litter and plant C partitioning. Stable isotope probing of phospholipid fatty acids was used to follow incorporation of plant C into microorganisms. Amoebae increased plant N uptake independent of litter quality and thereby the biomass of shoots and roots by 33% and 66%, respectively. Plant allocation of total (13)C to roots in low (42%) exceeded that of high-quality litter treatments (26%). Amoebae increased plant allocation of (13)C to roots by 37%. Microbial community structure and incorporation of (13)C into PLFAs varied significantly with litter quality and in the low-quality litter treatment also with the presence of amoebae. Overall, the results suggest that in particular at low nutrient conditions, root-derived C fosters the mobilization of bacterial N by protozoa, thereby increasing plant growth when microorganisms and plants compete for nutrients. PMID:23521364

  9. Occurrence and diversity of free-living protozoa on butterhead lettuce.

    PubMed

    Vaerewijck, Mario J M; Sabbe, Koen; Baré, Julie; Houf, Kurt

    2011-05-27

    The occurrence and diversity of free-living protozoa (FLP) on butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was investigated using four different sampling techniques (washing, swabbing, homogenization, and excising). FLP were recovered from all leaf samples (n=64), and cultures were FLP-positive after 1 week. Identification of FLP was performed by light microscopy and sequencing of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-separated 18S rRNA gene fragments. Bodo saltans, Spumella (-like) spp. and Cercozoa were the most common heterotrophic nanoflagellates. Amoebae belonged mainly to the Vannellida and Tubulinida. Colpoda steinii and Cyclidium glaucoma were the most common ciliates. The total number of FLP on middle leaves estimated by the Most Probable Number method ranged from 9.3 × 10(2)MPN/g to 2.4 × 10(5)MPN/g leaf, with flagellates (92 MPN/g to 2.4 ×10(5)MPN/g) being more abundant than amoebae (<3 MPN/g to 9.3 × 10(3)MPN/g) and ciliates (<3 MPN/g to 9.3 × 10(2)MPN/g). Washing or rinsing leaves followed by spin-drying in a household salad spinner reduced the protozoan number with maximum one log unit. Our survey shows that FLP on lettuce leaves are a common and diverse but largely unexplored group of microorganisms. PMID:21513995

  10. Real scale environmental monitoring of zoonotic protozoa and helminth eggs in biosolid samples in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bonatti, Taís Rondello; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-09-01

    Biosolid is the product of the activated sludge treatment system and its final disposition is subject of ongoing discussion as this residue can therefore harbor a great number and variety of pathogens. This study was aimed to (1) monitor the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in biosolid samples from a treatment plant in Campinas, SP, Brazil, (2) observe Giardia cyst wall morphological integrity in treated samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and (3) verify the presence and viability of helminth eggs. Cysts were present in 33.3 % of the samples, whereas oocysts were detected in 8.3 %. Viable Ascaris sp. Toxocara sp. and similar to Trichuris sp. eggs were found through the use of Mexican Official Norm. Results demonstrate the difficulties inherent in working with biosolid as factors such as temperature, ionic strength and pH influenced the recovery of cysts and oocysts. Pores and ruptures were not observed in cyst wall visualized by SEM following 45 days of exposure to sunlight, only minimal morphological changes. These observations emphasize both the importance of adequate treatment of sewage sludge and the need to develop appropriate techniques for the detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in this type of sample. This is the first time that a study was done in a real scale for biosolid samples in determining the presence of pathogenic protozoa as Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Brazil, and also observed minimal cyst wall damage after sunlight treatment. PMID:27605758

  11. Food and drinking water hygiene and intestinal protozoa in deployed German soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Wiemer, Dorothea F.; Fischer, Marcellus; Tannich, Egbert; Scheid, Patrick L.; Müller, Martin; Schotte, Ulrich; Bock, Wolfgang; Hagen, Ralf M.

    2013-01-01

    This report analyzes the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, and G. intestinalis in stool of returnees from military deployments and the impact of hygiene precautions. Between 2007 and 2010, stool samples of 830 returnees that were obtained 8–12 weeks after military deployments in Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, the Balkans, Democratic Republic of the Congo/Gabonese Republic, and Sudan and 292 control samples from non-deployed soldiers were analyzed by PCR for Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, G. intestinalis, and the commensal indicator of fecal contamination E. dispar. Data on hygiene precautions were available. The soldiers were questioned regarding gastrointestinal and general symptoms. Among 1122 stool samples, 18 were positive for G. intestinalis, 10 for E. dispar, and no-one for Cryptosporidium spp. and E. histolytica. An increased risk of acquiring chronic parasitic infections in comparison with non-deployed controls was demonstrated only for G. intestinalis in Sudan, where standardized food and drinking water hygiene precautions could not be implemented. Standard food and drinking water hygiene precautions in the context of screened military field camps proved to be highly reliable in preventing food-borne and water-borne chronic infections and colonization by intestinal protozoa, leading to detection proportions similar to those in non-deployed controls. PMID:24265919

  12. Diversity and distribution of freshwater testate amoebae (protozoa) along latitudinal and trophic gradients in China.

    PubMed

    Ju, Lihua; Yang, Jun; Liu, Lemian; Wilkinson, David M

    2014-11-01

    Freshwater microbial diversity is subject to multiple stressors in the Anthropocene epoch. However, the effects of climate changes and human activities on freshwater protozoa remain poorly understood. In this study, the diversity and distribution of testate amoebae from the surface sediments were investigated in 51 Chinese lakes and reservoirs along two gradients, latitude and trophic status. A total of 169 taxa belonging to 24 genera were identified, and the most diverse and dominant genera were Difflugia (78 taxa), Centropyxis (26 taxa) and Arcella (12 taxa). Our analysis revealed that biomass of testate amoebae decreased significantly along the latitudinal gradient, while Shannon-Wiener indices and species richness presented an opposite trend (P < 0.05). The relationship of diversity and latitude is, we suspect, an artifact of the altitudinal distribution of our sites. Furthermore, biomass-based Shannon-Wiener index and species richness of testate amoebae were significantly unimodally related to trophic status (P < 0.05). This is the first large-scale study showing the effects of latitude and trophic status on diversity and distribution of testate amoebae in China. Therefore, our results provide valuable baseline data on testate amoebae and contribute to lake management and our understanding of the large-scale global patterns in microorganism diversity. PMID:24910015

  13. Disinfection efficacy of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NADCC) against common food-borne intestinal protozoa.

    PubMed

    El Zawawy, Lobna A; El-Said, Doaa; Ali, Safia M; Fathy, Fouad M

    2010-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) on the infective stages of common food-borne intestinal protozoa; Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica), Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia), Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora and Microsporidia; beside its effect on raw green vegetables and fruits. Parasites, isolated from stool of patients with diarrhea or dysentery, were exposed to NaDCC solution (1g/l) for one and two hours. Disinfection effect of NaDCC was assessed by in-vitro viability, using trypan blue stain, and infectivity bioassay in laboratory animals as indicated by fecal and intestinal parasitic counts. Raw vegetables and fruits were dipped in NaDCC solution in the same concentration and exposure time as used for treatment of the parasites. Results revealed statistically significant reductions in viability and infectivity of all examined parasites indicating their susceptibility to NaDCC. Relative variations in susceptibility were revealed; E. histolytica and G. lamblia were most susceptible (100% reduction) followed by Microsporidia then Cryptospridium and Cyclospora. NaDCC did not affect the consistency, color, taste or flavor of raw green vegetables and fruits. The proved efficacy of NaDCC, in cheap and convenient dry tablet form, makes it a promising tool in decontaminating raw vegetables and fruits from food-borne protozoan parasites at household and restaurant levels as well as in catering and fresh produce industry. It is also recommended for disinfection of food preparation surfaces and equipment. PMID:20503596

  14. A retrospective molecular study of select intestinal protozoa in healthy pet cats from Italy.

    PubMed

    Mancianti, Francesca; Nardoni, Simona; Mugnaini, Linda; Zambernardi, Lucia; Guerrini, Alessandro; Gazzola, Valentina; Papini, Roberto Amerigo

    2015-02-01

    The feline gut can harbour a number of protozoan parasites. Recent genetic studies have highlighted new epidemiological findings about species of Cryptosporidium, assemblages of Giardia duodenalis and Toxoplasma gondii. Furthermore, epidemiological studies suggest the occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats is on the increase worldwide. The prevalence of selected intestinal protozoa was determined by PCR using DNA previously extracted from the faeces of 146 privately owned healthy cats from Italy. Molecular genotyping on T gondii, G duodenalis and Cryptosporidium DNA was achieved. PCR assays were positive in 32 (22.9%) samples. Three animals (2.0%) were positive for T foetus and Cryptosporidium DNA, 15 specimens (10.3%) were positive for T gondii and 11 (7.5%) for G duodenalis. Co-infections were never observed. Results of the typing analysis allowed the identification of Cryptosporidium felis in all cases. The specimens positive for T gondii hinted at clonal genotype I (n = 7), genotype II (n = 1) and genotype III (n = 7). The G duodenalis isolates were referable to assemblages F (n = 9) and C (n = 2). In conclusion, the results obtained in this study add to the literature regarding the epidemiology of these parasites by confirming their presence in the faeces of healthy pet cats. PMID:24793744

  15. [Enteral Nutritional Support in Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases].

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Ran

    2015-06-01

    Nutritional support is important because malnutrition is a major contributor to increased morbidity and mortality, decreased quality of life, increased length of hospital stay, and higher healthcare costs. Patients with gastrointestinal disease are at an increased risk of nutritional deterioration due to therapeutic dietary restriction, fasting for the diagnostic tests, loss of appetite due to anorexia or altered nutritional requirement caused by the disease itself. Therefore, it is important that gastroenterologists are aware of the nutritional status of patients and plan a treatment strategy considering patient's nutritional status. Enteral nutrition is preferred to parenteral nutrition as it is more physiologic, has fewer complications, help to prevent mucosal atrophy and maintain gut barrier function, which decrease intestinal bacterial translocation. Hence, enteral nutrition has been considered to be the most effective route for nutritional support. In this article, we will review enteral nutrition (oral nutritional supplements, enteral tube feeding) as a treatment for the patients with gastrointestinal, liver and pancreatic disease at risk of malnutrition. PMID:26087690

  16. Enteral nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Gassull, M A; Abad, A; Cabré, E; González-Huix, F; Giné, J J; Dolz, C

    1986-01-01

    To assess the effect of the addition of enteral tube feeding with polymeric diets to the standard treatment of acute attacks of inflammatory bowel disease a total of 43 patients admitted to hospital (23 with Crohn's disease and 20 with ulcerative colitis) were studied retrospectively. Total enteral nutrition was given to 26 as the sole nutritional supply and to 17 in conjunction with a normal ward diet, when appropriate, according to the severity of attack (control group). Nutritional state was assessed and classified in all patients at admission and at the end of the study, by measuring the triceps skinfold thickness, mid arm muscle circumference, and serum albumin concentration as representative of body fat, muscle protein, and visceral protein, respectively. At admission the three nutritional variables were not statistically different between the groups. There was a significantly positive effect on mid arm muscle circumference in patients on total enteral nutrition compared with the control group, but there was no effect on either triceps skinfold thickness or serum albumin concentration. The percentage of subjects requiring intravenous albumin infusion, however, was significantly less in the group fed enterally than in the control group. In addition, fewer patients in the group fed enterally required surgical treatment compared with the control group, despite the fact that one of the criteria for starting enteral nutritional support was the expectancy that surgery would be needed. Total enteral nutrition was well tolerated and no major side effects arose during its use in patients with acute exacerbations of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:3098646

  17. Enteric Neuronal Regulation of Intestinal Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Kara Gross; Gershon, Michael D

    2016-09-01

    Recent research has highlighted the importance of the two-way interaction between the nervous and immune systems. This interaction is particularly important in the bowel because of the unique properties of this organ. The lumen of the gut is lined by a very large but remarkably thin surface that separates the body from the enteric microbiome. Immune defenses against microbial invasion are thus well developed and neuroimmune interactions are important in regulating and integrating these defenses. Important concepts in the phylogeny of neuroimmunity, enteric neuronal and glial regulation of immunity, changes that occur in the enteric nervous system during inflammation, the fundamental role of serotonin (5-HT) in enteric neuroimmune mechanisms, and future perspectives are reviewed. PMID:27450201

  18. Detection of enteric pathogens by the nodosome.

    PubMed

    Keestra, A Marijke; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2014-03-01

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein (NOD)1 and NOD2 participate in signaling pathways that detect pathogen-induced processes, such as the presence of peptidoglycan fragments in the host cell cytosol, as danger signals. Recent work suggests that peptidoglycan fragments activate NOD1 indirectly, through activation of the small Rho GTPase Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1). Excessive activation of small Rho GTPases by virulence factors of enteric pathogens also triggers the NOD1 signaling pathway. Many enteric pathogens use virulence factors that alter the activation state of small Rho GTPases, thereby manipulating the host cell cytoskeleton of intestinal epithelial cells to promote bacterial attachment or entry. These data suggest that the NOD1 signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells provides an important sentinel function for detecting 'breaking and entering' by enteric pathogens. PMID:24268520

  19. Avian rotavirus enteritis - an updated review.

    PubMed

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Saminathan, Mani; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Tiwari, Ruchi; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Kumar, Naveen; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are among the leading causes of enteritis and diarrhea in a number of mammalian and avian species, and impose colossal loss to livestock and poultry industry globally. Subsequent to detection of rotavirus in mammalian hosts in 1973, avian rotavirus (AvRV) was first reported in turkey poults in USA during 1977 and since then RVs of group A (RVA), D (RVD), F (RVF) and G (RVG) have been identified around the globe. Besides RVA, other AvRV groups (RVD, RVF and RVG) may also contribute to disease. However, their significance has yet to be unraveled. Under field conditions, co-infection of AvRVs occurs with other infectious agents such as astroviruses, enteroviruses, reoviruses, paramyxovirus, adenovirus, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, cryptosporidium and Eimeria species prospering severity of disease outcome. Birds surviving to RV disease predominantly succumb to secondary bacterial infections, mostly E. coli and Salmonella spp. Recent developments in molecular tools including state-of-the-art diagnostics and vaccine development have led to advances in our understanding towards AvRVs. Development of new generation vaccines using immunogenic antigens of AvRV has to be explored and given due importance. Till now, no effective vaccines are available. Although specific as well as sensitive approaches are available to identify and characterize AvRVs, there is still need to have point-of-care detection assays to review disease burden, contemplate new directions for adopting vaccination and follow improvements in public health measures. This review discusses AvRVs, their epidemiology, pathology and pathogenesis, immunity, recent trends in diagnostics, vaccines, therapeutics as well as appropriate prevention and control strategies. PMID:25917772

  20. Prevalence and predictors associated with intestinal infections by protozoa and helminths in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Casavechia, Maria Teresinha Gomes; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Venazzi, Eneide Aparecida Sabaini; Campanerut-Sá, Paula Aline Zanetti; da Costa Benalia, Hugo Rafael; Mattiello, Matheus Felipe; Menechini, Pedro Victor Lazaretti; Dos Santos, Carlos Aparecido; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 2 billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths worldwide, mainly in tropical and subtropical areas. This research aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care. A cross-sectional study was performed with a large random sample to identify the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care in Marialva, southern Brazil, from April 2011 to September 2013. Stool samples from 775 individuals were analyzed for the presence of protozoan cysts, helminth eggs, and larvae. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 13.94 %, and the prevalence of protozoa and helminths was 15.1 and 2.9 %, respectively. The predictor variables that were associated with intestinal parasites were male gender odds ratio (OR) 1.60, 95 % confidence interval (CI 1.10-2.40) and the absence of a kitchen garden (OR 2.28, 95 % CI, 1.08-4.85). Positive associations were found between Giardia duodenalis and individuals aged ≤18 with high risk (OR 19.0, 95 % CI 2.16-167.52), between Endolimax nana and the absence of a kitchen garden (p < 0.01), and between Trichuris trichiura and the presence of a kitchen garden (p = 0.014). Polyparasitism was present in 27.27 % of infected individuals. Our findings confirmed a relatively low prevalence in primary care, compared to international standards, despite the rare publications in the area. As variables, male gender and the absence of a kitchen garden stood out as important predictors. It is highly relevant that the health conditions of the population comply with consistent standards. PMID:26987643

  1. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions.

    PubMed

    Girard, Yvette A; Johnson, Christine K; Fritz, Heather M; Shapiro, Karen; Packham, Andrea E; Melli, Ann C; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Gulland, Frances M; Rejmanek, Daniel; Conrad, Patricia A

    2016-04-01

    Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris). California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated with severe protozoal disease in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). In this study, we conducted surveillance for protozoal infection and fecal shedding in hospitalized and free-ranging California sea lions on the Pacific Coast and examined oocyst morphology and phenotypic characteristics of isolates via mouse bioassay and cell culture. Coccidia A and B were shed in similar frequency, particularly by yearlings. Oocysts shed by one free-ranging sea lion sampled at Año Nuevo State Park in California were previously unidentified in sea lions and were most similar to coccidia infecting Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi) diagnosed with protozoal disease in Oregon (USA). Sporulated Coccidia A and B oocysts did not replicate in three strains of mice or in African green monkey kidney cells. However, cultivation experiments revealed that the inoculum of fecally-derived Coccidia A and B oocysts additionally contained organisms with genetic and antigenic similarity to Sarcocystis neurona; despite the absence of detectable free sporocysts in fecal samples by microscopic examination. In addition to the further characterization of Coccidia A and B in free-ranging and hospitalized sea lions, these results provide evidence of a new role for sea lions as putative mechanical vectors of S. neurona, or S. neurona-like species. Future work is needed to clarify the distribution, taxonomical status, and pathogenesis of these parasites in sea lions and other marine mammals that share their the near-shore marine

  2. Transport behavior of groundwater protozoa and protozoan-sized microspheres in sandy aquifer sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, R.W.; Kinner, N.E.; Bunn, A.; MacDonald, D.; Metge, D.

    1995-01-01

    Transport behaviors of unidentified flagellated protozoa (flagellates) and flagellate-sized carboxylated microspheres in sandy, organically contaminated aquifer sediments were investigated in a small-scale (1 to 4-m travel distance) natural-gradient tracer test on Cape Cod and in flow-through columns packed with sieved (0.5-to 1.0-mm grain size) aquifer sediments. The minute (average in situ cell size, 2 to 3 ??m) flagellates, which are relatively abundant in the Cape Cod aquifer, were isolated from core samples, grown in a grass extract medium, labeled with hydroethidine (a vital eukaryotic stain), and coinjected into aquifer sediments along with bromide, a conservative tracer. The 2-??m flagellates appeared to be near the optimal size for transport, judging from flowthrough column experiments involving a polydispersed (0.7 to 6.2 ??m in diameter) suspension of carboxylated microspheres. However, immobilization within the aquifer sediments accounted for a log unit reduction over the first meter of travel compared with a log unit reduction over the first 10 m of travel for indigenous, free-living groundwater bacteria in earlier tests. High rates of flagellate immobilization in the presence of aquifer sediments also was observed in the laboratory. However, immobilization rates for the laboratory-grown flagellates (initially 4 to 5 ??m) injected into the aquifer were not constant and decreased noticeably with increasing time and distance of travel. The decrease in propensity for grain surfaces was accompanied by a decrease in cell size, as the flagellates presumably readapted to aquifer conditions. Retardation and apparent dispersion were generally at least twofold greater than those observed earlier for indigenous groundwater bacteria but were much closer to those observed for highly surface active carboxylated latex microspheres. Field and laboratory results suggest that 2- ??m carboxylated microspheres may be useful as analogs in investigating several abiotic

  3. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Yvette A.; Johnson, Christine K.; Fritz, Heather M.; Shapiro, Karen; Packham, Andrea E.; Melli, Ann C.; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Gulland, Frances M.; Rejmanek, Daniel; Conrad, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris). California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated with severe protozoal disease in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). In this study, we conducted surveillance for protozoal infection and fecal shedding in hospitalized and free-ranging California sea lions on the Pacific Coast and examined oocyst morphology and phenotypic characteristics of isolates via mouse bioassay and cell culture. Coccidia A and B were shed in similar frequency, particularly by yearlings. Oocysts shed by one free-ranging sea lion sampled at Año Nuevo State Park in California were previously unidentified in sea lions and were most similar to coccidia infecting Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi) diagnosed with protozoal disease in Oregon (USA). Sporulated Coccidia A and B oocysts did not replicate in three strains of mice or in African green monkey kidney cells. However, cultivation experiments revealed that the inoculum of fecally-derived Coccidia A and B oocysts additionally contained organisms with genetic and antigenic similarity to Sarcocystis neurona; despite the absence of detectable free sporocysts in fecal samples by microscopic examination. In addition to the further characterization of Coccidia A and B in free-ranging and hospitalized sea lions, these results provide evidence of a new role for sea lions as putative mechanical vectors of S. neurona, or S. neurona-like species. Future work is needed to clarify the distribution, taxonomical status, and pathogenesis of these parasites in sea lions and other marine mammals that share their the near-shore marine

  4. Transport Behavior of Groundwater Protozoa and Protozoan-Sized Microspheres in Sandy Aquifer Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, R. W.; Kinner, N. E.; Bunn, A.; MacDonald, D.; Metge, D.

    1995-01-01

    Transport behaviors of unidentified flagellated protozoa (flagellates) and flagellate-sized carboxylated microspheres in sandy, organically contaminated aquifer sediments were investigated in a small-scale (1 to 4-m travel distance) natural-gradient tracer test on Cape Cod and in flow-through columns packed with sieved (0.5-to 1.0-mm grain size) aquifer sediments. The minute (average in situ cell size, 2 to 3 (mu)m) flagellates, which are relatively abundant in the Cape Cod aquifer, were isolated from core samples, grown in a grass extract medium, labeled with hydroethidine (a vital eukaryotic stain), and coinjected into aquifer sediments along with bromide, a conservative tracer. The 2-(mu)m flagellates appeared to be near the optimal size for transport, judging from flowthrough column experiments involving a polydispersed (0.7 to 6.2 (mu)m in diameter) suspension of carboxylated microspheres. However, immobilization within the aquifer sediments accounted for a log unit reduction over the first meter of travel compared with a log unit reduction over the first 10 m of travel for indigenous, free-living groundwater bacteria in earlier tests. High rates of flagellate immobilization in the presence of aquifer sediments also was observed in the laboratory. However, immobilization rates for the laboratory-grown flagellates (initially 4 to 5 (mu)m) injected into the aquifer were not constant and decreased noticeably with increasing time and distance of travel. The decrease in propensity for grain surfaces was accompanied by a decrease in cell size, as the flagellates presumably readapted to aquifer conditions. Retardation and apparent dispersion were generally at least twofold greater than those observed earlier for indigenous groundwater bacteria but were much closer to those observed for highly surface active carboxylated latex microspheres. Field and laboratory results suggest that 2-(mu)m carboxylated microspheres may be useful as analogs in investigating several

  5. Population dynamics of marine ciliate Euplotes vannus (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in different artificial seawaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Henglong; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Jiang, Yong; Gao, Shan; Min, Gi-Sik; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.

    2011-01-01

    To study population dynamics of marine ciliates in different artificial seawaters (ASW), the population growth dynamics of a common marine ciliate Euplotes vannus were investigated using beef extract media and rice media for five types of ASW and natural seawater (NSW). The results show that: (1) the population growth rate was in the order of NSW>Flack ASW>Nakamula ASW>Schmadz ASW>Oshima ASW>Subow ASW and was considerably higher in rice media than in beef extract media (apart from Subow ASW); (2) the maximum density of E. vannus in stationary phase in each treatment was ranked as Flack ASW>Nakamula ASW>Schmadz ASW>NSW>Oshima ASW>Subow ASW, and was again higher in rice media than in beef extract media (except for Subow ASW); (3) the exponential and stationary phases were longer in rice media than in beef extract media; (4) strains of E. vannus that had been domesticated for >1 year in ASW grew significantly slower, with lower maximum density and longer stationary phase than those isolated and maintained in NSW. It was demonstrated that: (1) E. vannus may grow well in Flack, Nakamula and Schmads ASW compared with NSW (mainly in terms of growth rate); and (2) Oshima ASW is the preferred choice for stock cultures of E. vannus, but the ASWs Flack, Nakamula and Schmadz are preferred for mass culture. These findings suggest that these three ASWs are effective for the cultivation of marine protozoa for experimental studies on ecology, toxicology and molecular biology.

  6. Inhibitory Activity of Marine Sponge-Derived Natural Products against Parasitic Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Orhan, Ilkay; Şener, Bilge; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2010-01-01

    In this study, thirteen sponge-derived terpenoids, including five linear furanoterpenes: furospinulosin-1 (1), furospinulosin-2 (2), furospongin-1 (3), furospongin-4 (4), and demethylfurospongin-4 (5); four linear meroterpenes: 2-(hexaprenylmethyl)-2-methylchromenol (6), 4-hydroxy-3-octaprenylbenzoic acid (7), 4-hydroxy-3-tetraprenyl-phenylacetic acid (8), and heptaprenyl-p-quinol (9); a linear triterpene, squalene (10); two spongian-type diterpenes dorisenone D (11) and 11β-acetoxyspongi-12-en-16-one (12); a scalarane-type sesterterpene; 12-epi-deoxoscalarin (13), as well as an indole alkaloid, tryptophol (14) were screened for their in vitro activity against four parasitic protozoa; Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum. Cytotoxic potential of the compounds on mammalian cells was also assessed. All compounds were active against T. brucei rhodesiense, with compound 8 being the most potent (IC50 0.60 μg/mL), whereas 9 and 12 were the most active compounds against T. cruzi, with IC50 values around 4 μg/mL. Compound 12 showed the strongest leishmanicidal activity (IC50 0.75 μg/mL), which was comparable to that of miltefosine (IC50 0.20 μg/mL). The best antiplasmodial effect was exerted by compound 11 (IC50 0.43 μg/mL), followed by compounds 7, 10, and 12 with IC50 values around 1 μg/mL. Compounds 9, 11 and 12 exhibited, besides their antiprotozoal activity, also some cytotoxicity, whereas all other compounds had low or no cytotoxicity towards the mammalian cell line. This is the first report of antiprotozoal activity of marine metabolites 1–14, and points out the potential of marine sponges in discovery of new antiprotozoal lead compounds. PMID:20161970

  7. Identification of Enteric Viruses in Foods from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Parada-Fabián, José Carlos; Juárez-García, Patricia; Natividad-Bonifacio, Iván; Vázquez-Salinas, Carlos; Quiñones-Ramírez, Elsa Irma

    2016-09-01

    Foodborne viruses are a common and, probably, the most under-recognized cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Among the main foods involved in the transmission of human enteric viruses are mollusks, and fruits and vegetables irrigated with wastewater and/or washed with non-potable water or contaminated by contact with surfaces or hands of the infected personnel during its preparation. In this study, 134 food samples were analyzed for the detection of Norovirus, Rotavirus, and Hepatitis A virus (HAV) by amplification of conserved regions of these viruses. From the 134 analyzed samples, 14 were positive for HAV, 6 for Norovirus, and 11 for Rotavirus. This is the first report in Mexico where emphasis is given to the presence of HAV and Norovirus on perishable foods and food from fisheries, as well as Rotavirus on frozen vegetables, confirming the role of vegetables and bivalve mollusks as transmitting vehicles of enteric viruses. PMID:27221088

  8. Phytocompounds for the control of human enteric viruses.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Doris H

    2014-02-01

    Plant extracts and associated polyphenols are known for their varied health benefits that include antioxidant effects and antimicrobial properties. The increasing consumer demand for cost-effective and natural alternatives to chemically-synthesized antimicrobials and therapeutics that are also sustainable makes the field of phytochemical research rather intriguing and challenging. Human enteric viruses are increasingly recognized worldwide as significant causes of human disease in adults and children, alike. In the absence of available vaccines for the human noroviruses, plant extracts are gaining popularity for the prevention and treatment of viral diseases. Research on plant extracts (particularly polyphenols derived from fruits) for human enteric virus control will be briefly summarized in this article. PMID:24434686

  9. Effect of progressive inoculation of fauna-free sheep with holotrich protozoa and total-fauna on rumen fermentation, microbial diversity and methane emissions.

    PubMed

    Belanche, Alejandro; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Newbold, Charles J

    2015-03-01

    Rumen methanogenesis represents an energy waste for the ruminant and an important source of greenhouse gas; thus, integrated studies are needed to fully understand this process. Eight fauna-free sheep were used to investigate the effect of successive inoculation with holotrich protozoa then with total fauna on rumen methanogenesis. Holotrichs inoculation neither altered rumen fermentation rate nor diet digestibility, but increased concentrations of acetate (+15%), butyrate (+57%), anaerobic fungi (+0.82 log), methanogens (+0.41 log) and methanogenesis (+54%). Further inoculation with total fauna increased rumen concentrations of protozoa (+1.0 log), bacteria (+0.29 log), anaerobic fungi (+0.78 log), VFA (+8%), ammonia and fibre digestibility (+17%) without affecting levels of methanogens or methanogenesis. Rumen methanogens population was fairly stable in terms of structure and diversity, while the bacterial community was highly affected by the treatments. Inoculation with holotrich protozoa increased bacterial diversity. Further inoculation with total fauna lowered bacterial diversity but increased concentrations of certain propionate and lactate-producing bacteria, suggesting that alternative H2 sinks could be relevant. This experiment suggests that holotrich protozoa have a greater impact on rumen methanogenesis than entodiniomorphids. Thus, further research is warranted to understand the effect of holotrich protozoa on methane formation and evaluate their elimination from the rumen as a potential methane mitigation strategy. PMID:25764558

  10. Effect of progressive inoculation of fauna-free sheep with holotrich protozoa and total-fauna on rumen fermentation, microbial diversity and methane emissions

    PubMed Central

    Belanche, Alejandro; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Newbold, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    Rumen methanogenesis represents an energy waste for the ruminant and an important source of greenhouse gas; thus, integrated studies are needed to fully understand this process. Eight fauna-free sheep were used to investigate the effect of successive inoculation with holotrich protozoa then with total fauna on rumen methanogenesis. Holotrichs inoculation neither altered rumen fermentation rate nor diet digestibility, but increased concentrations of acetate (+15%), butyrate (+57%), anaerobic fungi (+0.82 log), methanogens (+0.41 log) and methanogenesis (+54%). Further inoculation with total fauna increased rumen concentrations of protozoa (+1.0 log), bacteria (+0.29 log), anaerobic fungi (+0.78 log), VFA (+8%), ammonia and fibre digestibility (+17%) without affecting levels of methanogens or methanogenesis. Rumen methanogens population was fairly stable in terms of structure and diversity, while the bacterial community was highly affected by the treatments. Inoculation with holotrich protozoa increased bacterial diversity. Further inoculation with total fauna lowered bacterial diversity but increased concentrations of certain propionate and lactate-producing bacteria, suggesting that alternative H2 sinks could be relevant. This experiment suggests that holotrich protozoa have a greater impact on rumen methanogenesis than entodiniomorphids. Thus, further research is warranted to understand the effect of holotrich protozoa on methane formation and evaluate their elimination from the rumen as a potential methane mitigation strategy. PMID:25764558