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Sample records for enteric viruses coliphages

  1. Surveillance of enteric viruses and coliphages in a tropical urban catchment.

    PubMed

    Rezaeinejad, S; Vergara, G G R V; Woo, C H; Lim, T T; Sobsey, M D; Gin, K Y H

    2014-07-01

    An assessment of the occurrence and concentration of enteric viruses and coliphages was carried out in highly urbanized catchment waters in the tropical city-state of Singapore. Target enteric viruses in this study were noroviruses, adenoviruses, astroviruses and rotaviruses. In total, 65 water samples were collected from canals and the reservoir of the Marina catchment on a monthly basis over a period of a year. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and single agar layer plaque assay (SAL) were used to enumerate target enteric viruses and coliphages in water samples, respectively. The most prevalent pathogen were noroviruses, detected in 37 samples (57%), particularly norovirus genogroup II (48%), with a mean concentration of 3.7 × 10(2) gene copies per liter. Rotavirus was the second most prevalent virus (40%) with a mean concentration of 2.5 × 10(2) GC/L. The mean concentrations of somatic and male-specific coliphages were 2.2 × 10(2) and 1.1 × 10(2) PFU/100 ml, respectively. The occurrence and concentration of each target virus and the ratio of somatic to male-specific coliphages varied at different sampling sites in the catchment. For sampling sites with higher frequency of occurrence and concentration of viruses, the ratio of somatic to male-specific coliphages was generally much lower than other sampling sites with lower incidences of enteric viruses. Overall, higher statistical correlation was observed between target enteric viruses than between enteric viruses and coliphages. However, male-specific coliphages were positively correlated with norovirus concentrations. A multi-level integrated surveillance system, which comprises the monitoring of bacterial indicators, coliphages and selected enteric viruses, could help to meet recreational and surface water quality criteria in a complex urbanized catchment. PMID:24747143

  2. Evaluation of FRNA coliphages as indicators of human enteric viruses in a tropical urban freshwater catchment.

    PubMed

    Vergara, G G R V; Goh, S G; Rezaeinejad, S; Chang, S Y; Sobsey, M D; Gin, K Y H

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between FRNA coliphages (FRNA GI to GIV) and human enteric viruses (human adenoviruses, HAdV, astroviruses, AstV, noroviruses, NoV, and rotaviruses, RoV) in a tropical urban freshwater catchment. Positive associations between human-specific coliphages and human viral pathogens substantiate their use as viral indicators and in microbial source tracking. Reverse transcription qPCR was used to measure the concentrations of viruses and FRNA coliphages in concentrated water samples. Environmental water samples were also analyzed for male-specific (F+) and somatic (Som) coliphages using plaque assay. The most abundant enteric virus was NoV (55%) followed by HAdV (33%), RoV (33%), and AstV (23%), while the most abundant FRNA genogroup was GI (85%) followed by GII (48%), GIV (8%) and GIII (7%). Concentrations of human-specific coliphages FRNA GII were positively correlated with NoV, HAdV, RoV, AstV, F+ and Som (τ = 0.5 to 0.3, P < 0.05) while concentrations of animal-specific coliphages FRNA GI were negatively correlated with HAdV and RoV (τ = -0.2, P < 0.05). This study demonstrates statistical relationships between human-specific coliphages and a suite of human enteric viruses in the environment. PMID:25965886

  3. Comparative study of enteric viruses, coliphages and indicator bacteria for evaluating water quality in a tropical high-altitude system

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Bacteria used as indicators for pathogenic microorganisms in water are not considered adequate as enteric virus indicators. Surface water from a tropical high-altitude system located in Mexico City that receives rainwater, treated and non-treated wastewater used for irrigation, and groundwater used for drinking, was studied. Methods The presence of enterovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, coliphage, coliform bacteria, and enterococci was determined during annual cycles in 2001 and 2002. Enteric viruses in concentrated water samples were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Coliphages were detected using the double agar layer method. Bacteria analyses of the water samples were carried out by membrane filtration. Results The presence of viruses and bacteria in the water used for irrigation showed no relationship between current bacterial indicator detection and viral presence. Coliphages showed strong association with indicator bacteria and enterovirus, but weak association with other enteric viruses. Enterovirus and rotavirus showed significant seasonal differences in water used for irrigation, although this was not clear for astrovirus. Conclusion Coliphages proved to be adequate faecal pollution indicators for the irrigation water studied. Viral presence in this tropical high-altitude system showed a similar trend to data previously reported for temperate zones. PMID:19860917

  4. Removal of indigenous coliphages and enteric viruses during riverbank filtration from highly polluted river water in Delhi (India).

    PubMed

    Sprenger, C; Lorenzen, G; Grunert, A; Ronghang, M; Dizer, H; Selinka, H-C; Girones, R; Lopez-Pila, J M; Mittal, A K; Szewzyk, R

    2014-06-01

    Emerging countries frequently afflicted by waterborne diseases require safe and cost-efficient production of drinking water, a task that is becoming more challenging as many rivers carry a high degree of pollution. A study was conducted on the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi, India, to ascertain if riverbank filtration (RBF) can significantly improve the quality of the highly polluted surface water in terms of virus removal (coliphages, enteric viruses). Human adenoviruses and noroviruses, both present in the Yamuna River in the range of 10(5) genomes/100 mL, were undetectable after 50 m infiltration and approximately 119 days of underground passage. Indigenous somatic coliphages, used as surrogates of human pathogenic viruses, underwent approximately 5 log10 removal after only 3.8 m of RBF. The initial removal after 1 m was 3.3 log10, and the removal between 1 and 2.4 m and between 2.4 and 3.8 m was 0.7 log10 each. RBF is therefore an excellent candidate to improve the water situation in emerging countries with respect to virus removal. PMID:24937227

  5. COLIPHAGES AS INDICATORS OF ENTEROVIRUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coliphages were monitored in conjunction with indicator bacteria and enteric viruses in a drinking water plant modified to reduce trihalomethane (THM) production. Coliphages could be detected in the source water by direct innoculation and sufficient coliphages were detected in en...

  6. Application of F⁺RNA Coliphages as Source Tracking Enteric Viruses on Parsley and Leek Using RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Shahrampour, Dina; Yavarmanesh, Masoud; Najafi, Mohammad Bagher Habibi; Mohebbi, Mohebbat

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify sources of fecal contamination in leek and parsley, by using four different F(+)RNA coliphage genogroups (IV, I indicate animal fecal contamination and II, III indicate human fecal contamination). Three different concentrations (10(2), 10(4), 10(6) pfu/ml) of MS2 coliphage were inoculated on the surface of parsley and leek samples for detection of phage recovery efficiency among two methods of elution concentration (PEG-precipitation and Ultracentrifugation) by performing double agar layer (DAL) assay in three replications. Highest recovery of MS2 was observed in PEG method and in 10(6) inoculation concentration. Accordingly, the PEG method was used for washing and isolation of potentially contaminated phages of 30 collected samples (15 samples from the market and 15 samples from the farm). The final solutions of PEG method were tested for the enumeration of plaques by DAL assay. Total RNA was then extracted from recovered phages, and RT-PCR was performed by using four primer sets I, II, III, and IV. Incidence of F(+)RNA coliphages was observed in 12/15 (80 %) and 10/15 (66/6 %) of samples were obtained from farm and market, respectively, using both DAL and RT-PCR test methods. Different genotypes (I, II, and IV) of F(+)RNA coliphages were found in farm samples, while only genotype I was detected in market samples by using the primer sets. Due to the higher frequency of genotype I and IV, the absence of genotype III, and also the low frequency of genotype II, it is concluded that the contamination of vegetable (parsley and leek) in Neyshabour, Iran is most likely originated from animal sources. PMID:26264153

  7. Inactivation of a model coliphage virus in water by iodine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brion, Gail M.; Silverstein, Joann

    1992-01-01

    Until now, NASA's space water reuse research program has not considered the transport of water-borne infectious enteric viruses; however, viral diseases probably are a signifficant concern in long-duration space missions. To simplify monitoring and prediction of pathogen distribution, model indicator strains historically have been used. In this research, the male specific RNA coliphage MS-2 is used as a model of enteric viruses due to their similar size and biochemical composition. Inactivation of some water-borne enteric viruses by iodine has previously been characterized. In this paper, iodine inactivation of the model coliphage MS-2 in buffered water is compared with earlier bench-scale disinfection survival data and with survival in iodinated simulated shower water used in a test water recycling system.

  8. Enteric viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characteristic clinical signs associated with viral enteritis in young poultry include diarrhea, anorexia, litter eating, ruffled feathers, and poor growth. Intestines may have lesions; intestines are typically dilated and are filled with fluid and gaseous contents. The sequela to clinical disease...

  9. Hepatitis E virus and coliphages in waters proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Gentry-Shields, Jennifer; Myers, Kevin; Pisanic, Nora; Heaney, Christopher; Stewart, Jill

    2015-02-01

    North Carolina is the second leading state in pork production in the United States, with over 10 million swine. Swine manure in NC is typically collected and stored in open-pit lagoons before the liquid waste is sprayed onto agricultural fields for disposal. Components of this waste may be able to impact surface water quality with the potential for human exposure. This study examined viruses of public health concern in creeks adjacent to swine concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) spray fields. Surface water samples (n=154) were collected from public access waters in proximity to swine CAFO spray fields for six months and were tested for hepatitis E virus (HEV) and coliphages. HEV was detected in one sample. Somatic coliphages were detected in 98% of samples (geometric mean 24 ± 4.1 PFU per 100 ml), and F+ coliphages were detected in 85% of samples (geometric mean 6.8 ± 5.0 PFU per 100 ml). Only 3% (21) of the F+ coliphage isolates were RNA phage, and all of the F+ RNA coliphages belonged to genogroup I. Although the pervasiveness of swine CAFOs in this area prevented a comparison with samples from un-impacted sites, the near ubiquity of coliphages, as well as the presence of HEV, suggests that current waste management practices may be associated with the dissemination of viruses of public health concern in waters proximal to CAFO spray fields. PMID:25461050

  10. Incidence of Somatic and F+ Coliphage at Three Great Lake Beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing interest for the potential use of coliphage as an alternative indicator to assess fecal pollution in recreational waters. Coliphage are a group of viruses that infect E. coli and are commonly used as models to infer the likely presence of human enteric viral pa...

  11. Distinct behaviors of infectious F-specific RNA coliphage genogroups at a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Haramoto, Eiji; Fujino, Saki; Otagiri, Mikie

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine the differences in the behaviors of four F-specific RNA (F-RNA) coliphage genogroups (GI-GIV) during wastewater treatment. Raw sewage, aeration tank effluent, secondary-treated sewage, and return activated sludge were collected from a wastewater treatment plant in Japan at monthly intervals between March and December 2011 (n=10 each). F-specific coliphages were detected by plaque assay in all tested samples, with a concentration ranging from -0.10 to 3.66 log10 plaque-forming units/ml. Subsequently, eight plaques were isolated from each sample, followed by genogroup-specific reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (qPCR) for F-RNA coliphages and qPCR for F-specific DNA (F-DNA) coliphages. GI F-RNA coliphages were the most abundant in the secondary-treated sewage samples (73% of the plaque isolates), while GII F-RNA coliphages were the most abundant in the other three sample types (41-81%, depending on sample type). Based on the results of the quantification and genotyping, the annual mean concentrations of each F-specific coliphage type were calculated, and their reduction ratios during wastewater treatment were compared with those of indicator bacteria (total coliforms and Escherichia coli) and enteric viruses (human adenoviruses and GI and GII noroviruses). The mean reduction ratio of GI F-RNA coliphages was the lowest (0.93 log10), followed by those of the indicator bacteria and enteric viruses (1.59-2.43 log10), GII-GIV F-RNA coliphages (>2.60-3.21 log10), and F-DNA coliphages (>3.41 log10). These results suggest that GI F-RNA coliphages may be used as an appropriate indicator of virus reduction during wastewater treatment. PMID:25791054

  12. Characterization of Coliphage PR772 and Evaluation of Its Use for Virus Filter Performance Testing

    PubMed Central

    Lute, Scott; Aranha, Hazel; Tremblay, Denise; Liang, Dehai; Ackermann, Hans-W.; Chu, Benjamin; Moineau, Sylvain; Brorson, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    Virus filtration is a key clearance unit operation in the manufacture of recombinant protein, monoclonal antibody, and plasma-derived biopharmaceuticals. Recently, a consensus has developed among filter manufacturers and end users about the desirability of a common nomenclature and a standardized test for classifying and identifying virus-retentive filters. The Parenteral Drug Association virus filter task force has chosen PR772 as the model bacteriophage to standardize nomenclature for large-pore-size virus-retentive filters (filters designed to retain viruses larger than 50 to 60 nm in size). Previously, the coliphage PR772 (Tectiviridae family) has been used in some filtration studies as a surrogate for mammalian viruses of around 50 to 60 nm. In this report, we describe specific properties of PR772 critical to the support of its use for the standardization of virus filters. The complete genomic sequence of virulent phage PR772 was determined. Its genome contains 14,946 bp with an overall G+C content of 48.3 mol%, and 32 open reading frames of at least 40 codons. Comparison of the PR772 nucleotide sequence with the genome of Tectiviridae family prototype phage PRD1 revealed 97.2% identity at the DNA level. By dynamic light-scattering analysis, its hydrodynamic diameter was measured as 82 ± 6 nm, consistent with use in testing large-virus-retentive filters. Finally, dynamic light-scattering analysis of PR772 preparations purified on CsCl gradients showed that the phage preparations are largely monodispersed. In summary, PR772 appears to be an appropriate model bacteriophage for standardization of nomenclature for larger-pore-size virus-retentive filters. PMID:15294825

  13. Enteric viruses of poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the economic importance of the poultry gut, very little is known about the complex gut microbial community. Enteric disease syndromes such as Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS) in broiler chickens and Poult Enteritis Complex (PEC) in young turkeys are difficult to characterize and reproduce in ...

  14. NATIONAL RESPIRATORY AND ENTERIC VIRUS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System is a lab based system which monitors temporal and geographic patterns associated with the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV), respiratory and enteric adenoviruses, and r...

  15. Pathogenic Enteric Viruses and Microbial Indicators during Secondary Treatment of Municipal Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Montazeri, Naim; Goettert, Dorothee; Achberger, Eric C.; Johnson, Crystal N.; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic enteric viruses are responsible for a wide range of infections in humans, with diverse symptoms. Raw and partially treated wastewaters are major sources of environmental contamination with enteric viruses. We monitored a municipal secondary wastewater treatment plant (New Orleans, LA) on a monthly basis for norovirus (NoV) GI and GII and enterovirus serotypes using multiplex reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and microbial indicators of fecal contamination using standard plating methods. Densities of indicator bacteria (enterococci, fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli) did not show monthly or seasonal patterns. Norovirus GII was more abundant than GI and, along with enterovirus serotypes, increased in influent during fall and spring. The highest NoV GI density in influent was in the fall, reaching an average of 4.0 log10 genomic copies/100 ml. Norovirus GI removal (0.95 log10) was lower than that for GII, enterovirus serotypes, and male-specific coliphages (1.48 log10) or for indicator bacteria (4.36 log10), suggesting higher resistance of viruses to treatment. Male-specific coliphages correlated with NoV GII densities in influent and effluent (r = 0.48 and 0.76, respectively) and monthly removal, indicating that male-specific coliphages can be more reliable than indicator bacteria to monitor norovirus GII load and microbial removal. Dominant norovirus genotypes were classified into three GI genotypes (GI.1, GI.3, and GI.4) and four GII genotypes (GII.3, GII.4, GII.13, and GII.21), dominated by GI.1 and GII.4 strains. Some of the seasonal and temporal patterns we observed in the pathogenic enteric viruses were different from those of epidemiological observations. PMID:26162869

  16. Assessment of coliphage surrogates for testing drinking water treatment devices.

    PubMed

    Gerba, Charles P; Abd-Elmaksoud, Sherif; Newick, Huikheng; El-Esnawy, Nagwa A; Barakat, Ahmed; Ghanem, Hossam

    2015-03-01

    Test protocols have been developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) to test water treatment devices/systems that are used at the individual and home levels to ensure the removal of waterborne viruses. The goal of this study was to assess if coliphage surrogates could be used in this testing in place of the currently required use of animal or human enteric viruses. Five different coliphages (MS-2, PRD1, ΦX-174, Qβ, and fr) were compared to the removal of poliovirus type 1 (LSc-2ab) by eight different water treatment devices/systems using a general case and a challenge case (high organic load, dissolved solids, and turbidity) test water as defined by the USEPA. The performance of the units was rated as a pass/fail based on a 4 log removal/inactivation of the viruses. In all cases, a failure or a pass of the units/system for poliovirus also corresponded to a pass/fail by all of the coliphages. In summary, in using pass/fail criteria as recommended under USEPA guidelines for testing water treatment device/systems, the use of coliphages should be considered as an alternative to reduce cost and time of testing such devices/systems. PMID:25399400

  17. Removal of bacterial fecal indicators, coliphages and enteric adenoviruses from waters with high fecal pollution by slow sand filtration.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Rosalie; Dizer, Halim; Graeber, Ingeborg; Rosenwinkel, Karl-Heinz; López-Pila, Juan M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the performance of slow sand filtration (SSF) facilities, including the time needed for reaching stabilization (maturation), operated with surface water bearing high fecal contamination, representing realistic conditions of rivers in many emerging countries. Surface water spiked with wastewater was infiltrated at different pore water velocities (PWV) and samples were collected at different migration distances. The samples were analyzed for phages and to a lesser extent for fecal bacteria and enteric adenoviruses. At the PWV of 50 cm/d, at which somatic phages showed highest removal, their mean log(10) removal after 90 cm migration was 3.2. No substantial differences of removal rates were observed at PWVs between 100 and 900 cm/d (2.3 log(10) mean removal). The log(10) mean removal of somatic phages was less than the observed for fecal bacteria and tended more towards that of enteric adenoviruses This makes somatic phages a potentially better process indicator than Escherichia coli for the removal of viruses in SSF. We conclude that SSF, and by inference in larger scale river bank filtration (RBF), is an excellent option as a component in multi-barrier systems for drinking water treatment also in areas where the sources of raw water are considerably fecally polluted, as often found in many emerging countries. PMID:20851449

  18. Human enteric viruses--potential indicators for enhanced monitoring of recreational water quality.

    PubMed

    Updyke, Erin Allmann; Wang, Zi; Sun, Si; Connell, Christina; Kirs, Marek; Wong, Mayee; Lu, Yuanan

    2015-10-01

    Recreational waters contaminated with human fecal pollution are a public health concern, and ensuring the safety of recreational waters for public use is a priority of both the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Current recreational water standards rely on fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) levels as indicators of human disease risk. However present evidence indicates that levels of FIB do not always correspond to the presence of other potentially harmful organisms, such as viruses. Thus, enteric viruses are currently tested as water quality indicators, but have yet to be successfully implemented in routine monitoring of water quality. This study utilized enteric viruses as possible alternative indicators of water quality to examine 18 different fresh and offshore recreational waters on O'ahu, Hawai'i, by using newly established laboratory techniques including highly optimized PCR, real time PCR, and viral infectivity assays. All sample sites were detected positive for human enteric viruses by PCR including enterovirus, norovirus genogroups I and II, and male specific FRNA coliphage. A six time-point seasonal study of enteric virus presence indicated significant variation in virus detection between the rainy and dry seasons. Quantitative PCR detected the presence of norovirus genogroup II at levels at which disease risk may occur, and there was no correlation found between enteric virus presence and FIB counts. Under the present laboratory conditions, no infectious viruses were detected from the samples PCR-positive for enteric viruses. These data emphasize both the need for additional indicators for improved monitoring of water quality, and the feasibility of using enteric viruses as these indicators. PMID:26494480

  19. OCCURRENCE OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN SURFACE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human enteric viruses cause a number of diseases when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking & recreational waters. Vaccination against poliovirus has virtually eliminated poliomyelitis from the planet. Other members of enterovirus group cause numerous diseases. Hepatit...

  20. OCCURRENCE OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of different types of human enteric viruses cause waterborne outbreaks when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking and recreational waters. Vaccination against poliovirus has virtually eliminated poliomyelitis from the planet, but other members of the enterovi...

  1. Immunoaffinity concentration and purification of waterborne enteric viruses for detection by reverse transcriptase PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, K J; De Leon, R; Sobsey, M D

    1996-01-01

    To assess the risks from viral contamination of drinking-water supplies, there is a clear need for methods to directly detect viral pathogens. In this study, we developed a broad-spectrum immunocapture method for concentration and purification of enteric viruses. The method involved indirect antibody capture (AbCap) of intact viruses followed by release of virion genomic RNA and reverse transcriptase PCR for amplification and oligoprobe hybridization for detection. The procedure involved concentrating enteric viruses from large volumes of water by standard filtration-elution techniques with IMDS filters and 1 liter of 1% beef extract-0.05 M glycine (BE/G) as an eluate. The BE/G eluate was concentrated and purified by polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation, Pro-Cipitate (a commercially available protein precipitating reagent) precipitation, and a second PEG precipitation to a volume of approximately 500 mu l. Aliquots of the second PEG precipitate were further processed by RNA extraction, AbCap, or cell culture analysis for infectious viruses. The AbCap method was applied to 11 field samples of fecally contaminated surface water. Of the 11 samples, 9 were positive for enteric viruses by AbCap method 4 of 11 samples were positive for enteric viruses by direct RNA extraction of a small aliquot of the second PEG concentrate; and 4 of 11 samples were positive for enteric viruses by measurement of cell culture infectivity. The results of enteric viruses were compared with those for standard bacterial and coliphage indicators of fecal contamination. PMID:8787407

  2. Thermal inactivation of enteric viruses and bioaccumulation of enteric foodborne viruses in live oysters (Crassostrea virginica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human enteric viruses are one of the main causative agents of shellfish associated outbreaks. In this study, the kinetics of viral bioaccumulation in live oysters and the heat stability of the most predominant enteric viruses were determined in both tissue culture and in oyster tissues. A human nor...

  3. Somatic Coliphage Profiles of Produce and Environmental Samples from Farms in Northern México.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Faith E; Hodge, Domonique Watson; Heredia, Norma; de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Solís, Luisa; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Garcia, Santos; Leon, Juan S

    2016-09-01

    Somatic coliphages were quantified in 459 produce and environmental samples from 11 farms in Northern Mexico to compare amounts of somatic coliphages among different types of fresh produce and environmental samples across the production steps on farms. Rinsates from cantaloupe melons, jalapeño peppers, tomatoes, and the hands of workers, soil, and water were collected during 2011-2012 at four successive steps on each farm, from the field before harvest through the packing facility, and assayed by FastPhage MPN Quanti-tray method. Cantaloupe farm samples contained more coliphages than jalapeño or tomato (p range <0.01-0.03). Across production steps, jalapeños had higher coliphage percentages before harvest than during packing (p = 0.03), while tomatoes had higher coliphage concentrations at packing than all preceding production steps (p range <0.01-0.02). These findings support the use of targeted produce-specific interventions at multiple points in the process of growing and packing produce to reduce the risk of enteric virus contamination and improve food safety during fruit and vegetable production. PMID:27153836

  4. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  5. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  6. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  7. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  8. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  9. MS2 Coliphage as a Surrogate for 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus (pH1N1) in Surface Survival Studies on N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators

    PubMed Central

    Coulliette, A.D.; Perry, K.A.; Fisher, E.M.; Edwards, J.R.; Shaffer, R.E.; Noble-Wang, J.

    2015-01-01

    Research on influenza viruses regarding transmission and survival has surged in the recent years due to infectious emerging strains and outbreaks such as the 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) pandemic. MS2 coliphage has been applied as a surrogate for pathogenic respiratory viruses, such as influenza, as it’s safe for personnel to handle and requires less time and labor to measure virus infectivity. However, direct comparisons to determine the effectiveness of coliphage as a surrogate for influenza virus regarding droplet persistence on personal protective equipment such as N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) are lacking. Persistence of viral droplets deposited on FFRs in healthcare settings is important to discern due to the potential risk of infection via indirect fomite transmission. The objective of this study was to determine if MS2 coliphage could be applied as a surrogate for influenza A viruses for studying persistence when applied to the FFRs as a droplet. The persistence of MS2 coliphage and 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus on FFR coupons in different matrices (viral media, 2% fetal bovine serum, and 5 mg ml−1 mucin) were compared over time (4, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 144 hours) in typical absolute humidity conditions (4.1 × 105 mPa [18°C/20% relative humidity (RH)]). Data revealed significant differences in viral infectivity over the 6-day period (H1N1- P <0.0001; MS2 - P <0.005), although a significant correlation of viral log10 reduction in 2% FBS (P <0.01) was illustrated. Overall, MS2 coliphage was not determined to be a sufficient surrogate for influenza A virus with respect to droplet persistence when applied to the N95 FFR as a droplet. PMID:26500392

  10. Vulnerability of Drinking-Water Wells in La Crosse, Wisconsin, to Enteric-Virus Contamination from Surface Water Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Borchardt, Mark A.; Haas, Nathaniel L.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2004-01-01

    Human enteric viruses can contaminate municipal drinking-water wells, but few studies have examined the routes by which viruses enter these wells. In the present study, the objective was to monitor the municipal wells of La Crosse, Wisconsin, for enteric viruses and determine whether the amount of Mississippi River water infiltrating the wells was related to the frequency of virus detection. From March 2001 to February 2002, one river water site and four wells predicted by hydrogeological modeling to have variable degrees of surface water contributions were sampled monthly for enteric viruses, microbial indicators of sanitary quality, and oxygen and hydrogen isotopes. 18O/16O and 2H/1H ratios were used to determine the level of surface water contributions. All samples were collected prior to chlorination at the wellhead. By reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), 24 of 48 municipal well water samples (50%) were positive for enteric viruses, including enteroviruses, rotavirus, hepatitis A virus (HAV), and noroviruses. Of 12 river water samples, 10 (83%) were virus positive by RT-PCR. Viable enteroviruses were not detected by cell culture in the well samples, although three well samples were positive for culturable HAV. Enteroviruses detected in the wells by RT-PCR were identified as several serotypes of echoviruses and group A and group B coxsackieviruses. None of the well water samples was positive for indicators of sanitary quality, namely male-specific and somatic coliphages, total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, and fecal enterococci. Contrary to expectations, viruses were found in all wells regardless of the level of surface water contributions. This result suggests that there were other unidentified sources, in addition to surface water, responsible for the contamination. PMID:15466536

  11. Development of reference antisera to enteric-origin avian viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent molecular surveys have revealed geographically distinct lineages of avian reovirus, rotavirus and astrovirus circulating in commercial poultry. To improve our understanding of enteric virus pathogenesis, specific immunological reagents are needed to detect viruses in histological samples. To ...

  12. Enteric virus and vibrio contamination of shellfish: intervention strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    INTRODUCTION. Molluscan shellfish include oysters, clams, mussels, and cockles, which can cause illnesses from a variety of human pathogens. Enteric viruses, like norovirus and hepatitis A virus, are generally transmitted to shellfish through fecal contamination of shellfish harvesting areas, alth...

  13. Enteric viruses of chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although enteric disease in commercial poultry operations is common, and often unofficially reported and discussed by field veterinarians as “non-specific enteric disease”, three recognized enteric syndromes do exist in poultry: poult enteritis complex (PEC) and poult enteritis mortality syndrome (P...

  14. Research update on the poultry enteric viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry enteric disease is an ongoing economic problem for the poultry industry in the United States and abroad. The etiologies of the recognized enteric disease syndromes—Poult Enteritis Complex (PEC) and Poult Enteritis Mortality Syndrome (PEMS) in young turkeys, and Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS...

  15. Processing Strategies to Inactivate Enteric Viruses in Shellfish: Limitations of Surrogate Viruses and Molecular Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Noroviruses, hepatitis A and E viruses, sapovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, Aichi virus, enteric adenoviruses, poliovirus, and other enteroviruses enter shellfish through contaminated seawater or by contamination during handling and processing, resulting in outbreaks ranging from isolated to epidemic....

  16. Persistence of enteric viruses within oysters (Crassostrea virginica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is well known that water-borne enteric viruses are concentrated by bivalves. Why these viruses are selectively retained and remain infectious within shellfish tissues for extended periods is unknown. Our current hypothesis is that phagocytic hemocytes (blood cells) are a site of virus persiste...

  17. AN OVERVIEW OF ENTERIC VIRUS EXTRACTION AND ASSAY METHODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteric viruses, particularly norovirus and hepatitis A virus, are major contaminants of molluscan shellfish, leading to outbreaks of viral illness. A host of procedures have been developed for the extraction and assay of viruses from shellfish. Early extraction and assay methods focused on the de...

  18. Field survey of enteric viruses in solid waste landfill leachates.

    PubMed Central

    Sobsey, M D

    1978-01-01

    Because municipal solid waste may contain fecal material from a variety of sources, there is concern that the leachate discharged from some solid waste landfills may contain enteric pathogens, including enteric viruses. In this study, 22 leachate samples from 21 different landfills in the United States and Canada were examined for enteric viruses. The sites represented a broad range of conditions for solid waste landfills and the leachate samples ranged from 10.3 to 18 liters in volume. Enteric viruses were found in only one of the 22 leachate samples examined. Two viruses, identified as poliovirus types 1 and 3, were found in an 11.8 liter sample obtained from a site where solid waste landfill practice was deficient. The low levels of enteric viruses detected in field samples of raw leachate and the opportunities for further reductions in the virus concentration of leachates by such processes as thermal inactivation, removal by soil and dilution in ground and surface waters, suggest that leachates from properly operated solid waste landfills do not constitute an environmental or public health hazard due to enteric viruses. PMID:28677

  19. IMPROVED METHOD FOR RECOVERY OF ENTERIC VIRUSES FROM WASTEWATER SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various parameters involved in recovering indigenous enteric viruses from wastewater sludges aided by buffered beef extract elution and subsequent organic flocculation concentration were examined. Conditions were optimized to yield an overall effective method for use in environme...

  20. Detection of enteric viruses in shellfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Norovirus and hepatitis A virus contamination are significant threats to the safety of shellfish and other foods. Methods for the extraction and assay of these viruses from shellfish are complex, time consuming, and technically challenging. Here, we itemize some of the salient points in extracting...

  1. MECHANISM OF INACTIVATION OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN FRESH WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods developed in the laboratory were used to measure inactivation rates of enteric viruses seeded into freshwaters from a variety of sources. All freshwater samples caused a decrease in poliovirus-1 infectivity of less than 98% within 4 days at 27 deg C. Virus inactivation wa...

  2. Identification of Enteric Viruses in Foods from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Parada-Fabián, José Carlos; Juárez-García, Patricia; Natividad-Bonifacio, Iván; Vázquez-Salinas, Carlos; Quiñones-Ramírez, Elsa Irma

    2016-09-01

    Foodborne viruses are a common and, probably, the most under-recognized cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Among the main foods involved in the transmission of human enteric viruses are mollusks, and fruits and vegetables irrigated with wastewater and/or washed with non-potable water or contaminated by contact with surfaces or hands of the infected personnel during its preparation. In this study, 134 food samples were analyzed for the detection of Norovirus, Rotavirus, and Hepatitis A virus (HAV) by amplification of conserved regions of these viruses. From the 134 analyzed samples, 14 were positive for HAV, 6 for Norovirus, and 11 for Rotavirus. This is the first report in Mexico where emphasis is given to the presence of HAV and Norovirus on perishable foods and food from fisheries, as well as Rotavirus on frozen vegetables, confirming the role of vegetables and bivalve mollusks as transmitting vehicles of enteric viruses. PMID:27221088

  3. IMPROVING DETECTION METHODS FOR ENTERIC WATERBORNE VIRUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Waterborne viruses are a significant cause of illness, both within the US and worldwide. These illnesses can occur as the result of outbreaks, potentially affecting hundreds or thousands of people, or as a part of a background level of endemic infection. While many of these out...

  4. The effect of carvacrol on enteric viruses.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, C; Aznar, R; Sánchez, G

    2015-01-01

    Carvacrol, a monoterpenic phenol, is said to have extensive antimicrobial activity in a wide range of food spoilage or pathogenic fungi, yeast and bacteria. The aim of this study was to assess its antiviral activity on norovirus surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV), murine norovirus (MNV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV), as well as its potential in food applications. Initially, different concentrations of carvacrol (0.25, 0.5, 1%) were individually mixed with each virus at titers of ca. 6-7 log TCID50/ml and incubated 2h at 37°C. Carvacrol at 0.5% completely inactivated the two norovirus surrogates, whereas 1% concentration was required to achieve ca. 1 log reduction of HAV. In lettuce wash water, carvacrol efficacy on MNV was dependent on the chemical oxygen demand (COD), with no effect over 300 ppm. A 4 log reduction in FCV infectivity was observed when 0.5% carvacrol was used to sanitize lettuce wash water, regardless of COD. Carvacrol was also evaluated as a natural disinfectant of produce, showing 1% carvacrol reduced inoculated NoV surrogates titers in lettuce by 1 log after 30 min contact. These results represent a step forward in improving food safety by using carvacrol as an alternative natural additive to reduce viral contamination in the fresh vegetable industry. PMID:25310265

  5. Enteric and indicator virus removal by surface flow wetlands.

    PubMed

    Rachmadi, Andri T; Kitajima, Masaaki; Pepper, Ian L; Gerba, Charles P

    2016-01-15

    We investigated the occurrence and attenuation of several human enteric viruses (i.e., norovirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus 1, polyomaviruses, and enterovirus) as well as a plant virus, pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), at two surface flow wetlands in Arizona. The retention time in one of the wetlands was seven days, whereas in the other wetland it could not be defined. Water samples were collected at the inlet and outlet from the wetlands over nine months, and concentration of viral genomes was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Of the human enteric viruses tested, adenovirus and Aichi virus 1 were found in the greatest prevalence in treated wastewater (i.e., inlet of the wetlands). Reduction efficiencies of enteric viruses by the wetlands ranged from 1 to 3 log10. Polyomaviruses were generally removed to below detection limit, indicating at least 2 to 4 log10 removal. PMMoV was detected in a greater concentration in the inlet of both wetlands for all the viruses tested (10(4) to 10(7) genome copies/L), but exhibited little or no removal (1 log10 or less). To determine the factors associated with virus genome attenuation (as determined by qPCR), the persistence of PMMoV and poliovirus type 1 (an enterovirus) was studied in autoclaved and natural wetland water, and deionized water incubated under three different temperatures for 21 days. A combination of elevated water temperature and biological activities reduced poliovirus by 1 to 4 log10, while PMMoV was not significantly reduced during this time period. Overall, PMMoV showed much greater persistence than human viruses in the wetland treatment. PMID:26562344

  6. Development of diagnostic assays to monitor novel poultry enteric viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gut plays a key role in poultry performance, but much remains to be discovered regarding the complex viral constituency present in the poultry intestinal tract. It is likely that certain enteric viruses may affect the overall health and performance of commercial poultry, and it is possible that...

  7. Expression and serological reactivity of hemorrhagic enteritis virus hexon protein.

    PubMed

    Lobová, Dana; Celer, Vladimír

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to express the recombinant hexon protein of the hemorrhagic enteritis virus, to establish the diagnostic value of this protein for serological detection of antibodies in turkey serum samples and to assess seroprevalence of the infection in the Czech Republic. The N' terminal part of the hexon protein was expressed in a bacterial expression system and used as an antigen in an ELISA test for the detection of hemorrhagic enteritis virus specific antibodies in turkey sera. Validation of the test was performed by comparison with a commercially available ELISA test. Serological reactivity was assessed on a panel of 126 turkey sera by a newly developed ELISA test. Serum samples were taken from turkey farms with the history of hemorrhagic enteritis virus infection, from farms with animals free of infection, and from turkey farms following vaccination. Both ELISA kits gave identical results (100 %) with the tested sera. ELISA based on the recombinant hexon protein thus proved useful and cheaper for detection of antibodies in turkey flocks infected with the hemorrhagic enteritis virus. PMID:26471497

  8. Hemocytes Are Sites of Enteric Virus Persistence within Oysters ▿

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Keleigh; Dancho, Brooke A.; Ozbay, Gulnihal; Anderson, Robert S.; Richards, Gary P.; Kingsley, David H.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how enteric viruses persist within shellfish tissues. Several lines of novel evidence show that phagocytic blood cells (hemocytes) of Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) play an important role in the retention of virus particles. Our results demonstrated an association of virus contamination with hemocytes but not with hemolymph. Live oysters contaminated overnight with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and murine norovirus (MNV) had 56% and 80% of extractable virus associated with hemocytes, respectively. Transfer of HAV-contaminated hemocytes to naïve (virus-free) oysters resulted in naïve oyster meat testing HAV positive for up to 3 weeks. Acid tolerance of HAV, MNV, poliovirus (PV), and feline calicivirus (FCV) correlated with the ability of each virus to persist within oysters. Using reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) to evaluate persistence of these viruses in oysters, we showed that HAV persisted the longest (>21 days) and was most acid resistant, MNV and PV were less tolerant of acidic pH, persisting for up to 12 days and 1 day, respectively, and FCV did not persist (<1 day) within oysters and was not acid tolerant. This suggests that the ability of a virus to tolerate the acidic conditions typical of phagolysosomal vesicles within hemocytes plays a role in determining virus persistence in shellfish. Evaluating oyster and hemocyte homogenates and live contaminated oysters as a prelude to developing improved viral RNA extraction methods, we found that viruses were extracted more expediently from hemocytes than from whole shellfish tissues and gave similar RT-PCR detection sensitivities. PMID:21948840

  9. Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C.

    1988-12-31

    Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.

  10. Comparative uptake of enteric viruses into spinach and green onions.

    PubMed

    Hirneisen, Kirsten A; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2013-03-01

    Root uptake of enteric pathogens and subsequent internalization has been a produce safety concern and is being investigated as a potential route of pre-harvest contamination. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and the human norovirus surrogate, murine norovirus (MNV), to internalize in spinach and green onions through root uptake in both soil and hydroponic systems. HAV or MNV was inoculated into soil matrices or into two hydroponic systems, floating and nutrient film technique systems. Viruses present within spinach and green onions were detected by RT-qPCR or infectivity assays after inactivating externally present viruses with Virkon(®). HAV and MNV were not detected in green onion plants grown up to 20 days and HAV was detected in only 1 of 64 spinach plants grown in contaminated soil substrate systems up to 20 days. Compared to soil systems, a drastic difference in virus internalization was observed in hydroponic systems; HAV or pressure-treated HAV and MNV were internalized up to 4 log RT-qPCR units and internalized MNV was shown to remain infectious. Understanding the interactions of human enteric viruses on produce can aid in the elucidation of the mechanisms of attachment and internalization, and aid in understanding risks associated with contamination events. PMID:23412715

  11. Phytocompounds for the control of human enteric viruses.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Doris H

    2014-02-01

    Plant extracts and associated polyphenols are known for their varied health benefits that include antioxidant effects and antimicrobial properties. The increasing consumer demand for cost-effective and natural alternatives to chemically-synthesized antimicrobials and therapeutics that are also sustainable makes the field of phytochemical research rather intriguing and challenging. Human enteric viruses are increasingly recognized worldwide as significant causes of human disease in adults and children, alike. In the absence of available vaccines for the human noroviruses, plant extracts are gaining popularity for the prevention and treatment of viral diseases. Research on plant extracts (particularly polyphenols derived from fruits) for human enteric virus control will be briefly summarized in this article. PMID:24434686

  12. Detection of Human Enteric Viruses in Freshwater from European Countries.

    PubMed

    D'Ugo, Emilio; Marcheggiani, Stefania; Fioramonti, Ilaria; Giuseppetti, Roberto; Spurio, Roberto; Helmi, Karim; Guillebault, Delphine; Medlin, Linda K; Simeonovski, Ivan; Boots, Bas; Breitenbach, Ulrich; Koker, Latife; Albay, Meric; Mancini, Laura

    2016-09-01

    The transmission of water-borne pathogens typically occurs by a faecal-oral route, through inhalation of aerosols, or by direct or indirect contact with contaminated water. Previous molecular-based studies have identified viral particles of zoonotic and human nature in surface waters. Contaminated water can lead to human health issues, and the development of rapid methods for the detection of pathogenic microorganisms is a valuable tool for the prevention of their spread. The aims of this work were to determine the presence and identity of representative human pathogenic enteric viruses in water samples from six European countries by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) and to develop two quantitative PCR methods for Adenovirus 41 and Mammalian Orthoreoviruses. A 2-year survey showed that Norovirus, Mammalian Orthoreovirus and Adenoviruses were the most frequently identified enteric viruses in the sampled surface waters. Although it was not possible to establish viability and infectivity of the viruses considered, the detectable presence of pathogenic viruses may represent a potential risk for human health. The methodology developed may aid in rapid detection of these pathogens for monitoring quality of surface waters. PMID:27117764

  13. Feline fecal virome reveals novel and prevalent enteric viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Mesquita, João Rodrigo; Nascimento, Maria São José; Kondov, Nikola O.; Wong, Walt; Reuter, Gábor; Knowles, Nick J.; Vega, Everardo; Esona, Mathew D.; Deng, Xutao; Vinjé, Jan; Delwart, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Humans keep more than 80 million cats worldwide, ensuring frequent contacts with their viruses. Despite such interactions the enteric virome of cats remains poorly understood. We analyzed a fecal sample from a single healthy cat from Portugal using viral metagenomics and detected five eukaryotic viral genomes. These viruses included a novel picornavirus (proposed genus “Sakobuvirus”) and bocavirus (feline bocavirus 2), a variant of feline astrovirus 2 and sequence fragments of a highly divergent feline rotavirus and picobirnavirus. Feline sakobuvirus A represents the prototype species of a proposed new genus in the Picornaviridae family, distantly related to human salivirus and kobuvirus. Feline astroviruses (mamastrovirus 2) are the closest relatives of the classic human astroviruses (mamastrovirus 1), suggestive of past cross-species transmission. Presence of these viruses by PCR among Portuguese cats was detected in 13% (rotavirus), 7% (astrovirus), 6% (bocavirus), 4% (sakobuvirus), and 4% (picobirnavirus) of 55 feline fecal samples. Co-infections were frequent with 40% (4/10) of cats shedding more than one of these viruses. Our study provides an initial unbiased description of the feline fecal virome indicating a high level of asymptomatic infections. Availability of the genome sequences of these viruses will facilitate future tropism and disease association studies. PMID:24793097

  14. Norovirus and other human enteric viruses in moroccan shellfish.

    PubMed

    Benabbes, Laila; Ollivier, Joanna; Schaeffer, Julien; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Rhaissi, Houria; Nourlil, Jalal; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of human enteric viruses in shellfish collected along the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Coast of Morocco. A total of 77 samples were collected from areas potentially contaminated by human sewage. Noroviruses were detected in 30 % of samples, with an equal representation of GI and GII strains, but were much more frequently found in cockles or clams than in oysters. The method used, including extraction efficiency controls, allowed the quantification of virus concentration. As in previous reports, results showed levels of contamination between 100 and 1,000 copies/g of digestive tissues. Sapoviruses were detected in 13 % of samples mainly in oyster and clam samples. Hepatitis A virus was detected in two samples, with concentrations around 100 RNA copies/g of digestive tissues. Only two samples were contaminated with enterovirus and none with norovirus GIV or Aichi virus. This study highlights the interest of studying shellfish samples from different countries and different production areas. A better knowledge of shellfish contamination helps us to understand virus levels in shellfish and to improve shellfish safety, thus protecting consumers. PMID:23412717

  15. Enteric viruses in New Zealand drinking-water sources.

    PubMed

    Williamson, W M; Ball, A; Wolf, S; Hewitt, J; Lin, S; Scholes, P; Ambrose, V; Robson, B; Greening, G E

    2011-01-01

    This study determined whether human pathogenic viruses are present in two New Zealand surface waters that are used as drinking-water sources. Enteric viruses were concentrated using hollow-fibre ultrafiltration and detected using PCR for adenovirus (AdV), and reverse transcription PCR for norovirus (NOV) genogroups I-III, enterovirus, rotavirus (RoV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV). Target viruses were detected in 106/109 (97%) samples, with 67/109 (61%) samples positive for three or more viral types at any one time. AdV, NoV and ROV were detected the most frequently, and HEV the least frequently. Human NoV was not usually associated with animal NOV. Our results suggest that New Zealand would be well served by assessing the ability of drinking-water treatment plants to remove viruses from the source waters, and that this assessment could be based on the viral concentration of AdV-NoV-RoV. The long-term aim of our work is to use this information to estimate the risk of waterborne viral infection. PMID:21866776

  16. African Swine Fever Virus Uses Macropinocytosis to Enter Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Elena G.; Quintas, Ana; Pérez-Núñez, Daniel; Nogal, Marisa; Barroso, Susana; Carrascosa, Ángel L.; Revilla, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by a large and highly pathogenic DNA virus, African swine fever virus (ASFV), which provokes severe economic losses and expansion threats. Presently, no specific protection or vaccine against ASF is available, despite the high hazard that the continued occurrence of the disease in sub-Saharan Africa, the recent outbreak in the Caucasus in 2007, and the potential dissemination to neighboring countries, represents. Although virus entry is a remarkable target for the development of protection tools, knowledge of the ASFV entry mechanism is still very limited. Whereas early studies have proposed that the virus enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, the specific mechanism used by ASFV remains uncertain. Here we used the ASFV virulent isolate Ba71, adapted to grow in Vero cells (Ba71V), and the virulent strain E70 to demonstrate that entry and internalization of ASFV includes most of the features of macropinocytosis. By a combination of optical and electron microscopy, we show that the virus causes cytoplasm membrane perturbation, blebbing and ruffles. We have also found that internalization of the virions depends on actin reorganization, activity of Na+/H+ exchangers, and signaling events typical of the macropinocytic mechanism of endocytosis. The entry of virus into cells appears to directly stimulate dextran uptake, actin polarization and EGFR, PI3K-Akt, Pak1 and Rac1 activation. Inhibition of these key regulators of macropinocytosis, as well as treatment with the drug EIPA, results in a considerable decrease in ASFV entry and infection. In conclusion, this study identifies for the first time the whole pathway for ASFV entry, including the key cellular factors required for the uptake of the virus and the cell signaling involved. PMID:22719252

  17. Comparison of canine parvovirus with mink enteritis virus by restriction site mapping.

    PubMed Central

    McMaster, G K; Tratschin, J D; Siegl, G

    1981-01-01

    The genomes of canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus were compared by restriction enzyme analysis of their replicative-form DNAs. Of 79 mapped sites, 68, or 86%, were found to be common for both types of DNA, indicating that canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus are closely related viruses. Whether they evolved from a common precursor or whether canine parvovirus is derived from mink enteritis virus, however, cannot be deduced from our present data. Images PMID:6264109

  18. A mass balance approach to the fate of viruses in a municipal wastewater treatment plant during summer and winter seasons.

    PubMed

    Ulbricht, Katharina; Selinka, Hans-Christoph; Wolter, Stefanie; Rosenwinkel, Karl-Heinz; Nogueira, Regina

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to previous discussion on general virus removal efficiency and identifying surrogates for human pathogenic viruses, this study focuses on virus retention within each step of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Additionally, the influence of weather conditions on virus removal was addressed. To account for the virus retention, this study describes a mass balance of somatic coliphages (bacterial viruses) in a municipal WWTP, performed in the winter and summer seasons of 2011. In the winter season, the concentration of coliphages entering the WWTP was about 1 log lower than in summer. The mass balance in winter revealed a virus inactivation of 85.12 ± 13.97%. During the summer season, virus inactivation was significantly higher (95.25 ± 3.69%, p-value <0.05), most likely due to additional virus removal in the secondary clarifier by insolation. Thus, a total removal of coliphages of about 2.78 log units was obtained in summer compared to 1.95 log units in winter. Rainfall events did not statistically correlate with the concentrations of coliphages entering the WWTP in summer. PMID:24473307

  19. Shellfish-associated enteric virus illness: virus localization, disease outbreaks and prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous outbreaks of shellfish-borne enteric virus illness have been reported worldwide. Most notable among the outbreaks are those involving norovirus illness and hepatitis A. Lessons learned from outbreak investigations indicate that most outbreaks are preventable. Anthropogenic sources of con...

  20. The influence of commensal bacteria on infection with enteric viruses.

    PubMed

    Karst, Stephanie M

    2016-04-01

    The intestinal microbiota exerts a marked influence in the mammalian host, both during homeostasis and disease. However, until very recently, there has been relatively little focus on the potential effect of commensal microorganisms on viral infection of the intestinal tract. In this Progress article, I review the recent advances that elucidate the mechanisms by which enteric viruses use commensal bacteria to enhance viral infectivity. These mechanisms segregate into two general categories: the direct facilitation of viral infection, including bacterial stabilization of viral particles and the facilitation of viral attachment to host target cells; and the indirect skewing of the antiviral immune response in a manner that promotes viral infection. Finally, I discuss the implications of these interactions for the development of vaccines and novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:26853118

  1. Heat inactivation of enteric viruses in dewatered wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Ward, R L; Ashley, C S

    1978-12-01

    The effect of moisture content on the rates of heat inactivation of enteric viruses in wastewater sludge was determined. The protective effect of raw sludge on poliovirus previously observed (R. L. Ward, C. S. Ashley, and R. H. Moseley, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 32:339--346, 1976) was found to be greatly enhanced in sludge dewatered by evaporation. Other enteroviruses responded in a similar fashion. This effect did not appear to be due merely to the state of dryness of the sludge samples because in humus-deficient soil, a relatively inert material, the rate of poliovirus inactivation by heat was not significantly altered through dewatering. Instead, this effect appeared to have been caused by protective substances in the sludge, such as detergents, which are concentrated through dewatering. As reported previously (R. L. Ward and C. S. Ashley, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 34:681-688, 1977; R. L. Ward and C. S. Ashley, Appl. Environ. Microbiol 36:889--897, 1978) raw sludge is not protective of reovirus, but, instead, the ionic detergents in sludge cause the rate of heat inactivation of this virus to be accelerated. Dewatering of sludge, however, was found to partially reverse this virucidal effect. Evidence is presented indicating that this reversal is caused by an unidentified protective substance in sludge also concentrated through dewatering. Finally, it was shown that the effects of raw sludge on heat inactivation of poliovirus and reovirus are greatly reduced by composting, a result that correlated with the degradation of detergents. PMID:216309

  2. Differential depuration of poliovirus, Escherichia coli, and a coliphage by the common mussel, Mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Power, U.F.; Collins, J.K. )

    1989-06-01

    The elimination of sewage effluent-associated poliovirus, Escherichia coli, and a 22-nm icosahedral coliphage by the common mussel, Mytilus edulis, was studied. Both laboratory-and commercial-scale recirculating, UV depuration systems were used in this study. In the laboratory system, the logarithms of the poliovirus, E. coli, and coliphage levels were reduced by 1.86, 2.9, and 2.16, respectively, within 52 h of depuration. The relative patterns and rates of elimination of the three organisms suggest that they are eliminated from mussels by different mechanisms during depuration under suitable conditions. Poliovirus was not included in experiments undertaken in the commercial-scale depuration system. The differences in the relative rates and patterns of elimination were maintained for E. coli and coliphage in this system, with the logarithm of the E. coli levels being reduced by 3.18 and the logarithm of the coliphage levels being reduced by 0.87. The results from both depuration systems suggest that E. coli is an inappropriate indicator of the efficiency of virus elimination during depuration. The coliphage used appears to be a more representative indicator. Depuration under stressful conditions appeared to have a negligible affect on poliovirus and coliphage elimination rates from mussels. However, the rate and pattern of E. coli elimination were dramatically affected by these conditions. Therefore, monitoring E. coli counts might prove useful in ensuring that mussels are functioning well during depuration.

  3. Retention of Enteric Viruses by the Hemocytes of the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shellfish are an important vector for transmission of enteric pathogens. Interventions, such as depuration, do not adequately clear enteric viruses, while fecal bacteria levels are significantly reduced. Why viruses are retained in the bivalve flesh is not well understood. We hypothesize that phagoc...

  4. Enteritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... with suspected enteric infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... with diarrhea and malabsorption. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  5. Comparative examination of cats with feline leukemia virus-associated enteritis and other relevant forms of feline enteritis.

    PubMed

    Kipar, A; Kremendahl, J; Jackson, M L; Reinacher, M

    2001-07-01

    Cats with feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-associated enteritis (FAE), enteritis of other known viral etiology (parvovirus [PV], enteric coronavirus [CoV]), and enteritis of unknown etiology with histologic features similar to those of FAE and PV enteritis (EUE) and FeLV-negative and FeLV-positive cats without enterocyte alterations were examined. Amount and types of infiltrating leukocytes in the jejunum and activity and cellular constituents of mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow were determined. PV and CoV infections were confirmed by immunohistologic demonstration of PV and CoV antigen, ultrastructural demonstration of viral particles in the intestinal content, and in situ hybridization for PV genome. FeLV infection was detected by immunohistology for gp70, p27, and p15E. Latent FeLV infection was excluded by polymerase chain reaction methods for exogenous FeLV DNA. Enterocyte lesions involved the crypts in cats with PV enteritis, FAE, and EUE and the villous tips in cats with CoV enteritis. Inflammatory infiltration was generally dominated by mononuclear cells and was moderate in the unaltered intestine and in cats with PV enteritis and marked in cats with FAE, CoV enteritis, and EUE. In cats with EUE, myeloid/histiocyte antigen-positive macrophages were relatively numerous, suggesting recruitment of peripheral blood monocytes. Lymphoid tissues were depleted in cats with PV enteritis and with EUE but were normal or hyperplastic in cats with FAE. Bone marrow activity was decreased in cats with PV enteritis; in cats with FAE or EUE and in FeLV-positive cats without enterocyte alterations, activity was slightly increased. In cats with FAE and PV enteritis, a T-cell-dominated response prevailed. EUE showed some parallels to human inflammatory bowel disease, indicating a potential harmful effect of infiltrating macrophages on the intestinal epithelium. PMID:11467470

  6. Coliphage and indigenous phage in Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Paul, J H; Rose, J B; Jiang, S C; London, P; Xhou, X; Kellogg, C

    1997-01-01

    Public concern over the discharge of primarily treated sewage by two offshore outfalls in Mamala Bay, Oahu, prompted a multidisciplinary study to determine the impact of such activities on the water quality in the bay and at adjacent recreational beaches. As part of this study, we determined the abundance of coliphage as an indicator of fecal pollution along with total viral direct counts and phages infective for Vibrio parahaemoltyicus 16 at stations in Mamala Bay in four quarterly samplings over 13 months. Coliphage (< 1 to 1.2 x 10(3)/liter) were found during each quarterly sampling along an offshore transect to the Sand Island waste treatment facility outfall. The nonpoint coastal stations (Pearl Harbor, Ala Wai Canal, and Ke'ehi Lagoon) had high levels of coliphage during the storm event sampling in February 1994 but much lower levels or none when sampled during dry weather. Coliphage were absent at all samplings at Waikiki Beach and at the control station off Diamond Head. Viral direct counts in eutrophic coastal stations (Pearl Harbor, Ke'ehi Lagoon, Ala Moana Beach, and Ala Wai canal) averaged 10(9)/liter, while counts at offshore stations ranged from 9 x 10(7) to 1 x 10(9) viruses/liter, values similar to those for other marine environments. Vibriophage were found mainly in eutrophic coastal environments (Ala Wai Canal, Pearl Harbor, and Ke'ehi Lagoon) and at the Sand Island Transect stations D1 and D2. The greatest abundance was found during the storm event (February 1994) sampling. These results suggest that the Sand Island outfall influenced the water quality of the immediate surrounding waters but had little effect on the quality of the recreational beaches. Nonpoint discharge sources appeared to be more important in the distribution of fecal indicators in the coastal zone. PMID:9065272

  7. The effect of chlorine and combined chlorine/UV treatment on coliphages in drinking water disinfection.

    PubMed

    Zyara, Alyaa M; Torvinen, Eila; Veijalainen, Anna-Maria; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

    2016-08-01

    Chlorine disinfection is a globally used method to ensure the safety of drinking water. However, it has not always been successful against viruses and, therefore, it is important to find new methods to disinfect water. Seventeen different coliphages were isolated from the treated municipal wastewater. These coliphages and MS2 were treated with different dosages of chlorine in drinking water, and a combined chlorine/ultraviolet irradiation treatment for the chlorine-resistant coliphages. Chlorine disinfection with 0.3-0.5 mg/L total chlorine (free Cl-dosage 0.12-0.21 mg/L) for 10 min achieved 2.5-5.7 Log10-reductions for 11 sensitive coliphages. The six most resistant coliphages showed no reduction with these chlorine concentrations. MS2 was intermediate in chlorine resistance, and thus it is not a good indicator for viruses in chlorine disinfection. In the combined treatment total chlorine of 0.05-0.25 mg/L (free Cl-dosage 0.02-0.08 mg/L) and ultraviolet irradiation (14-22 mWs/cm(2)) were more effective than chlorine alone, and 3-5 Log10-reductions were achieved for the chlorine-resistant strains. The chlorination efficiency could be increased by higher dosages and longer contact times, but this could increase the formation of disinfection by-products. Therefore, the combination treatment is a recommended disinfection method. PMID:27441859

  8. IMPROVED DETECTION OF HUMAN ENTERIC VIRUSES IN FOODS BY RT-PCR. (R826139)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human enteric viruses (including hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs)) are now recognized as common causes of foodborne disease. While methods to detect these agents in clinical specimens have improved significantly over the last 10 years, applications to fo...

  9. Source and transport of human enteric viruses in deep municipal water supply wells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until recently, few water utilities or researchers were aware of possible virus presence in deep aquifers and wells. Over the past several years, repeated detection of enteric viruses in water from deep wells in south-central Wisconsin, shows that viruses can be significant groundwater contaminants ...

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF HOMOLOGOUS VIRAL INTERNAL CONTROLS FOR USE IN RT-PCR ASSAYS OF WATERBORNE ENTERIC VIRUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enteric viruses often contaminate water sources causing frequent outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays are commonly used for detection of human enteric viruses in environmental and drinking water samples. RT-PCR provides ...

  11. DETECTION AND INACTIVATION OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers studies on the development and evaluation of methods for concentrating and assaying low levels of viruses in large volumes of water as well as studies on the use of ozone in inactivating viruses in water and wastewater. Of the eight virus concentration methods ...

  12. Pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infection is associated with expansion of the enteric virome

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Scott; Thackray, Larissa B.; Zhao, Guoyan; Presti, Rachel; Miller, Andrew; Droit, Lindsay; Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F.; Kambal, Amal; Duan, Erning; Stanley, Kelly; Kramer, Joshua; Macri, Sheila C.; Permar, Sallie R.; Schmitz, Joern E.; Mansfield, Keith; Brenchley, Jason M.; Veazey, Ronald S.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Wang, David; Barouch, Dan H.; Virgin, Herbert W.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection is associated with enteropathy which likely contributes to AIDS progression. To identify candidate etiologies for AIDS enteropathy, we used next generation sequencing to define the enteric virome during SIV infection in nonhuman primates. Pathogenic, but not non-pathogenic, SIV infection was associated with significant expansion of the enteric virome. We identified at least 32 previously undescribed enteric viruses during pathogenic SIV infection and confirmed their presence using viral culture and PCR testing. We detected unsuspected mucosal adenovirus infection associated with enteritis as well as parvovirus viremia in animals with advanced AIDS, indicating the pathogenic potential of SIV-associated expansion of the enteric virome. No association between pathogenic SIV infection and the family-level taxonomy of enteric bacteria was detected. Thus, enteric viral infections may contribute to AIDS enteropathy and disease progression. These findings underline the importance of metagenomic analysis of the virome for understanding AIDS pathogenesis. PMID:23063120

  13. Use of a portable air disinfecting system to remove seeded coliphage in hospital rooms.

    PubMed

    Verhougstraete, Marc; Reynolds, Kelly

    2016-06-01

    Health care-associated infections are a major problem worldwide, and the airborne route is believed to be a contributory source of secondary health care-associated infections. This study examined the efficacy of a portable air disinfecting system to remove seeded coliphage virus from the air in hospitals rooms. Aerosolized coliphage concentrations were not statistically different between treatment and no treatment measurements. However, future research should focus on additional investigations in the patient rooms that incorporate fomite and air testing alongside portable air filtration devices. PMID:26905789

  14. Recent progress in the characterization of avian enteric viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the importance of the poultry gut, remarkably little is known about the complex gut microbial community. Enteric disease syndromes such as Runting-Stunting Syndrome in broiler chickens and Poult Enteritis Complex in young turkeys are difficult to characterize and reproduce in the laboratory....

  15. HUMAN ENTERIC VIRUS SURVIVAL IN SOIL FOLLOWING IRRIGATION WITH SEWAGE PLANT EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The wastewater treatment processes at Kerrville and Uvalde, Texas, were evaluated in terms of their efficacy in reducing human enteric viruses. (Data on the reduction of TOC, BOD5, suspended solids, orthophosphate, nitrogenous compounds, total coliform, fecal coliform, and bacter...

  16. Application of enteric viruses for fecal pollution source tracking in environmental waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial source tracking (MST) tools are used to identify sources of fecal pollution for accurately assessing public health risk and implementing best management practices (BMPs). This review focuses on the potential of enteric viruses for MST applications. Following host infect...

  17. Frequent site-specific deletion of coliphage lambda murine sarcoma virus recombinants and its use in the identification of a retrovirus integration site.

    PubMed Central

    McClements, W L; Enquist, L W; Oskarsson, M; Sullivan, M; Vande Woude, G F

    1980-01-01

    Stocks of hybrid lambda phages carrying the complete integrated provirus of either m1 or HT1 Moloney murine sarcoma virus, as well as flanking host sequences, frequently contain significant numbers of phages carrying a specific deletion. This deletion arises from a recombination event between the terminally repeated sequences in the provirus that deletes the unique Moloney murine sarcoma virus sequences bracketed by the terminally repeated sequences. Physical mapping has shown that the deletion phage retains one complete copy of the terminally repeated sequence and the flanking mink host sequences. One such deletion, lambdaHT1r+, was used to characterize a mink genomic DNA sequence that contains an HT1 Moloney murine sarcoma virus integration site. This integration site sequence from normal mink cells was also cloned into phage lambda. An analysis of the heteroduplexes between the integration site and the lambdaHT1r+ deletion indicated that no major rearrangement of host sequences occurred upon integration of the Moloney murine sarcoma provirus. Images PMID:6255187

  18. Human enteric viruses in groundwater from a confined bedrock aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borchardt, M. A.; Bradbury, K.R.; Gotkowitz, M.B.; Cherry, J.A.; Parker, B.L.

    2007-01-01

    Confined aquifers are overlain by low-permeability aquitards that are commonly assumed to protect underlying aquifers from microbial contaminants. However, empirical data on microbial contamination beneath aquitards is limited. This study determined the occurrence of human pathogenic viruses in well water from a deep sandstone aquifer confined by a regionally extensive shale aquitard. Three public water-supply wells were each sampled 10 times over 15 months. Samples were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for several virus groups and by cell culture for infectious enteroviruses. Seven of 30 samples were positive by RT-PCR for enteroviruses; one of these was positive for infectious echovirus 18. The virus-positive samples were collected from two wells cased through the aquitard, indicating the viruses were present in the confined aquifer. Samples from the same wells showed atmospheric tritium, indicating water recharged within the past few decades. Hydrogeologic conditions support rapid porous media transport of viruses through the upper sandstone aquifer to the top of the aquitard 61 m below ground surface. Natural fractures in the shale aquitard are one possible virus transport pathway through the aquitard; however, windows, cross-connecting well bores, or imperfect grout seals along well casings also may be involved. Deep confined aquifers can be more vulnerable to contamination by human viruses than commonly believed. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  19. Retention of Enteric Viruses by the Hemocytes of the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus accumulation and persistence in bivalve mollusks has long been documented in the United States and also throughout the world. Shellfish are an important vector for transmission of enteric pathogens. Interventions, such as depuration, do not adequately clear oysters of virus, while fecal bacter...

  20. Groundwater sampling methods using glass wool filtration to trace human enteric viruses in Madison, Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human enteric viruses have been detected in the Madison, Wisconsin deep municipal well system. Earlier projects by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey (WGNHS) have used glass wool filters to sample groundwater for these viruses directly from the deep municipal wells. Polymerase chain...

  1. SURVIVAL OF INDIGENOUS ENTERIC VIRUSES DURING STORAGE OF WASTE WATER SLUDGE SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The stability of indigenous enteric viruses in samples of settled primary and mixed-liquor activated sludges was studied at 2, 23 and -70 deg C. Changes of virus titer which occurred in these samples were followed during an 84-day observation period, with rates of change then cal...

  2. Understanding How Zika Virus Enters and Infects Neural Target Cells.

    PubMed

    Miner, Jonathan J; Diamond, Michael S

    2016-05-01

    Zika virus is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that has become a public health concern because of its ability to cause microcephaly. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Tang et al. (2016) and Nowakowski et al. (2016) use human neural stem cell models and single-cell RNA sequencing to investigate Zika virus tropism and potential entry receptors. PMID:27152436

  3. Efficient strategy for constructing duck enteritis virus-based live attenuated vaccine against homologous and heterologous H5N1 avian influenza virus and duck enteritis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhong; Hu, Yong; Liu, Zhigang; Zhong, Wei; Cao, Hangzhou; Chen, Huanchun; Jin, Meilin

    2015-01-01

    Duck is susceptible to many pathogens, such as duck hepatitis virus, duck enteritis virus (DEV), duck tembusu virus, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in particular. With the significant role of duck in the evolution of H5N1 HPAIV, control and eradication of H5N1 HPAIV in duck through vaccine immunization is considered an effective method in minimizing the threat of a pandemic outbreak. Consequently, a practical strategy to construct a vaccine against these pathogens should be determined. In this study, the DEV was examined as a candidate vaccine vector to deliver the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H5N1, and its potential as a polyvalent vaccine was evaluated. A modified mini-F vector was inserted into the gB and UL26 gene junction of the attenuated DEV vaccine strain C-KCE genome to generate an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) of C-KCE (vBAC-C-KCE). The HA gene of A/duck/Hubei/xn/2007 (H5N1) was inserted into the C-KCE genome via the mating-assisted genetically integrated cloning (MAGIC) to generate the recombinant vector pBAC-C-KCE-HA. A bivalent vaccine C-KCE-HA was developed by eliminating the BAC backbone. Ducks immunized with C-KCE-HA induced both the cross-reactive antibodies and T cell response against H5. Moreover, C-KCE-HA-immunized ducks provided rapid and long-lasting protection against homologous and heterologous HPAIV H5N1 and DEV clinical signs, death, and primary viral replication. In conclusion, our BAC-C-KCE is a promising platform for developing a polyvalent live attenuated vaccine. PMID:25889564

  4. Nearly Constant Shedding of Diverse Enteric Viruses by Two Healthy Infants

    PubMed Central

    Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Minor, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Stool samples from two healthy infant siblings collected at about weekly intervals during their first year of life were analyzed by PCR for 15 different enteric viral genera. Adenovirus, Aichi virus, Anellovirus, Astrovirus, Bocavirus, Enterovirus, Parechovirus, Picobirnavirus, and Rotavirus were detected. Not detected were Coronavirus, Cardiovirus, Cosavirus, Salivirus, Sapovirus, and Norovirus. Long-term virus shedding, lasting from one to 12 months, was observed for adenoviruses, anelloviruses, bocaviruses, enteroviruses, parechoviruses, and picobirnaviruses. Repeated administration of oral poliovirus vaccine resulted in progressively shorter periods of poliovirus detection. Four nonpolio enterovirus genotypes were also detected. An average of 1.8 distinct human viruses were found per time point. Ninety-two percent (66/72) of the fecal samples tested contained one to five different human viruses. Two British siblings in the mid-1980s showed nearly constant fecal viral shedding. Our results demonstrate that frequent enteric infections with diverse viruses occur during early childhood in the absence of severe clinical symptoms. PMID:22875894

  5. SEQUENTIAL INOCULATION AS AN ADJUNCT IN ENTERIC VIRUS PLAQUE ENUMERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential utility of sequentially inoculating a virus sample onto two different cultures of similar dissimilar cell lines was evaluated in conjunction with IDU (5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine) treatment of the cells as a potential adjunct in viral plaque formation assays. his evaluat...

  6. DETECTION OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN TREATED DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of viruses in conventionally treated drinking water derived from a heavily polluted source was evaluated by collecting and analyzing 38 large volume (65 to 756 liter) samples of water from a 9m3/sec (205 mgd) water treatment plant. Samples of raw, clarified, filter...

  7. Relationships Between Environmental Factors, Bacterial Indicators, and the Occurrence of Enteric Viruses in Estuarine Sediments

    PubMed Central

    LaBelle, Raymond L.; Gerba, Charles P.; Goyal, Sagar M.; Melnick, Joseph L.; Cech, Irina; Bogdan, Gregory F.

    1980-01-01

    Current standards for evaluation of the public health safety of recreational and shellfish-harvesting waters are based upon bacteriological analysis, but do not include an evaluation of the number of viruses. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of enteric viruses in estuarine sediments and to find a relationship, if any, between the presence of viruses in seawater or sediment or both and various biological and physicochemical characteristics of the environment. Viruses were found in greater numbers in sediment than in overlying seawater on a volume basis. Several types of enteroviruses were isolated: coxsackievirus types A16, B1, and B5, echovirus type 1, and poliovirus type 2. On several occasions, viruses were isolated from sediments when overlying seawaters met bacteriological water quality standards for recreational use. Statistical analysis of the relationship between viruses in seawater or in sediment and other variables measured yielded only one significant association: the number of viruses in sediment was found to be positively correlated with the number of fecal coliforms in sediment. No other physical, chemical, or biological characteristic of seawater or sediment that was measured showed statistically significant association with viral numbers. No correlation was found between bacterial indicators and virus in the overlying waters. The data indicated that evaluation of the presence of bacteria and viruses in sediment may provide additional insight into long-term water quality conditions and that indicator bacteria in water are not reflective of the concentration of enteric viruses in marine waters. PMID:6247974

  8. Surveillance of Enteric Viruses and Microbial Indicators in the Eastern Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and Harvest Waters along Louisiana Gulf Coast.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, Naim; Maite, Morgan; Liu, Da; Cormier, Jiemin; Landry, Matthew; Shackleford, John; Lampila, Lucina E; Achberger, Eric C; Janes, Marlene E

    2015-05-01

    Noroviruses are the most common causative agent of viral gastroenteritis in humans, and are responsible for major foodborne illnesses in the United States. Filter-feeding molluscan shellfish exposed to sewage-contaminated waters bioaccumulate viruses, and if consumed raw, transmit the viruses to humans and cause illness. We investigated the occurrence of norovirus GI and GII and microbial indicators of fecal contamination in the eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and water from commercial harvesting areas along the Louisiana Gulf Coast (January to November of 2013). Microbial indicators (aerobic plate count, enterococci, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, male-specific coliphages, and somatic coliphages) were detected at the densities lower than public health concerns. Only one oyster sample was positive for norovirus GII at 3.5 ± 0.2 log10 genomic equivalent copies/g digestive tissues. A stool specimen obtained from an infected individual associated with a norovirus outbreak and the suspected oysters (Cameron Parish, La., area 30, January 2013) were also analyzed. The norovirus strain in the stool belonged to GII.4 Sydney; however, the oysters were negative and could not be linked. In general, no temporal trend was observed in the microbial indicators. Low correlation among bacterial indicators was observed in oysters. Strongest correlations among microbial indicators were observed between enterococci and fecal coliforms (r = 0.63) and between enterococci and E. coli (r = 0.64) in water (P < 0.05); however, weak correlations were found in oysters (r < 0.45) and between oysters and harvest water (r ≤ 0.36, P > 0.05). Our results emphasize the need for regular monitoring of pathogenic viruses in commercial oyster harvesting areas to reduce the risks of viral gastroenteritis incidences. PMID:25899121

  9. Efficient Strategy to Generate a Vectored Duck Enteritis Virus Delivering Envelope of Duck Tembusu Virus

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zhong; Liu, Zhigang; Jin, Meilin

    2014-01-01

    Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is a recently emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has resulted in a huge economic loss in the duck industry. However, no vaccine is currently available to control this pathogen. Consequently, a practical strategy to construct a vaccine against this pathogen should be determined. In this study, duck enteritis virus (DEV) was examined as a candidate vaccine vector to deliver the envelope (E) of DTMUV. A modified mini-F vector was inserted into the SORF3 and US2 gene junctions of the attenuated DEV vaccine strain C-KCE genome to generate an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) of C-KCE (vBAC-C-KCE). The envelope (E) gene of DTMUV was inserted into the C-KCE genome through the mating-assisted genetically integrated cloning (MAGIC) strategy, resulting in the recombinant vector, pBAC-C-KCE-E. A bivalent vaccine C-KCE-E was generated by eliminating the BAC backbone. Immunofluorescence and western blot analysis results indicated that the E proteins were vigorously expressed in C-KCE-E-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). Duck experiments demonstrated that the insertion of the E gene did not alter the protective efficacy of C-KCE. Moreover, C-KCE-E-immunized ducks induced neutralization antibodies against DTMUV. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant C-KCE-E can serve as a potential bivalent vaccine against DEV and DTMUV. PMID:24956180

  10. Detection of enteric viruses in activated sludge by feasible concentration methods

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Tatiana; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Human enteric viruses are responsible to cause several diseases, including gastroenteritis and hepatitis, and can be present in high amounts in sewage sludge. This study compared virus recovery efficiency of two feasible concentration methods used for detecting human adenovirus (HAdV), rotavirus species A (RV-A), norovirus genogroup II (NoV GII) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in sewage sludge from an activated sludge process. Twelve sewage sludge samples were collected bi-monthly from January to July, 2011. Ultracentrifugation was compared with a simplified protocol based on beef extract elution for recovering enteric viruses. Viruses were quantified by quantitative real-time PCR assays and virus recovery efficiency and limits of detection were determined. Methods showed mean recovery rates lower than 7.5%, presenting critical limits of detection (higher than 102 – 103 genome copies - GC L−1 for all viruses analyzed). Nevertheless, HAdV were detected in 90% of the analyzed sewage sludge samples (range: 1.8 × 104 to 1.1 × 105 GC L−1), followed by RV-A and NoV (both in 50%) and HAV (8%). Results suggesting that activated sludge is contaminated with high viral loads and HAdV are widely disseminated in these samples. The low virus recovery rates achieved, especially for HAV, indicate that other feasible concentration methods could be developed to improve virus recovery efficiency in these environmental matrices. PMID:24948954

  11. Evaluation of Human Enteric Viruses in Surface Water and Drinking Water Resources in Southern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Kristen E.; Opryszko, Melissa C.; Schissler, James T.; Guo, Yayi; Schwab, Kellogg J.

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 884 million people worldwide do not have access to an improved drinking water source, and the microbial quality of these sources is often unknown. In this study, a combined tangential flow, hollow fiber ultrafiltration (UF), and real-time PCR method was applied to large volume (100 L) groundwater (N = 4), surface water (N = 9), and finished (i.e., receiving treatment) drinking water (N = 6) samples for the evaluation of human enteric viruses and bacterial indicators. Human enteric viruses including norovirus GI and GII, adenovirus, and polyomavirus were detected in five different samples including one groundwater, three surface water, and one drinking water sample. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli assessed for each sample before and after UF revealed a lack of correlation between bacterial indicators and the presence of human enteric viruses. PMID:21212196

  12. Emergence of Enteric Viruses in Production Chickens Is a Concern for Avian Health

    PubMed Central

    Mettifogo, Elena; Nuñez, Luis F. N.; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete S.; Jerez, José A.; Jones, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Several viruses have been identified in recent years in the intestinal contents of chickens and turkeys with enteric problems, which have been observed in commercial farms worldwide, including Brazil. Molecular detection of these viruses in Brazil can transform to a big threat for poultry production due to risk for intestinal integrity. This disease is characterized by severely delayed growth, low uniformity, lethargy, watery diarrhea, delayed feed consumption, and a decreased conversion rate. Chicken astrovirus (CAstV), rotavirus, reovirus, chicken parvovirus (ChPV), fowl adenovirus of subgroup I (FAdV-1), and avian nephritis virus (ANV) were investigated using the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), which may play a role in enteric disease, was included. The viruses most frequently detected, either alone or in concomitance with other viruses, were IBV, ANV, rotavirus, and CAstV followed by parvovirus, reovirus, and adenovirus. This study demonstrates the diversity of viruses in Brazilian chicken flocks presenting enteric problems characterized by diarrhea, growth retard, loss weight, and mortality, which reflects the multicausal etiology of this disease. PMID:24578633

  13. A 1-Year Study on the Detection of Human Enteric Viruses in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Kaas, Laetitia; Gourinat, Ann-Claire; Urbès, Florence; Langlet, Jérémie

    2016-03-01

    Human enteric viruses occur in high concentrations in wastewater and can contaminate receiving environmental waters. Due to the lack of data on the prevalence of enteric viruses in New Caledonia, the presence and the concentrations of enteric viruses in wastewater and seawater were determined. Untreated wastewater and seawater samples were collected monthly for 1 year from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and from the WWTP's outlet, located directly on a popular recreational beach. Samples were tested for norovirus genogroups I and II (NoV GI and GII), astroviruses (AsV), sapoviruses (SaV), enteroviruses (EV), hepatitis A viruses (HAV), rotaviruses (RoV), human adenoviruses (HAdV) and human polyomaviruses (HPyV). To support these data, faecal samples from cases of gastroenteritis were tested for the first time for NoV and detected in the population. NoV GI, NoV GII, EV, SaV, HAdV and HPyV were detected in all wastewaters, RoV in 75% and AsV in 67%. HAV were not detected in wastewater. Overall, 92% of seawater samples were positive for at least one virus. HPyV were detected most frequently in 92% of samples and at concentrations up to 7.7 × 10(3) genome copies/L. NoV GI, NoV GII, EV, SaV, RoV and HAdV were found in 33, 66, 41, 33, 16 and 66% of seawater samples, respectively. AsV were not detected in seawater. This study reports for the first time the presence of NoV and other enteric viruses in New Caledonia and highlights the year-round presence of enteric viruses in the seawater of a popular beach. PMID:26670603

  14. Comparison of PCR and Plaque Assay for Detection and Enumeration of Coliphage in Polluted Marine Waters

    PubMed Central

    Rose, J. B.; Zhou, X.; Griffin, D. W.; Paul, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    A total of 68 marine samples from various sites impacted by sewage and storm waters were analyzed by both the plaque assay and a reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR technique for F(sup+)-specific coliphage. The coliphage levels detected by the plaque assay averaged 1.90 x 10(sup4) PFU/100.0 ml. Using a most probable number (MPN) PCR approach, the levels averaged 2.40 x 10(sup6) MPN-PCR units/100.0 ml. Two samples were positive by RT-PCR but negative by plaque assay, and 12 samples were positive by plaque assay but negative by RT-PCR (levels lower than 11.00 PFU/100.0 ml). The host system used for the plaque assay may detect somatic coliphage in addition to the F(sup+)-specific coliphage. When it is used as an indicator of pollution, contamination may be missed with more restrictive systems. The difference in results may be due to the sensitivity, specificity, or inhibition of RT-PCR in marine samples. This study provides information on quantifying PCR results by an MPN method and insights into interpretation of PCR data for detection of viruses in marine environments. PMID:16535737

  15. Case report: epithelial intracytoplasmic herpes viral inclusions associated with an outbreak of duck virus enteritis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, B.C.; Jessup, David A.; Docherty, Douglas E.; Lownestine, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    Several muscovy ducks from a free-roaming flock of 65 muscovy and mallard ducks died over a 3-week period. Three muscovy ducks were necropsied. Gross and microscopic changes were compatible with duck virus enteritis, and the virus was isolated. In addition to intranuclear viral inclusion bodies in several tissues, intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in esophageal and cloacal epithelium, By electron microscopy, the membrane-bound intracytoplasmic inclusions were found to contain enveloped herpesvirus, and nuclei contained herpes viral nucleocapsids.

  16. Concentration of enteric virus indicator from seawater using granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Jiemin; Gutierrez, Miguel; Goodridge, Lawrence; Janes, Marlene

    2014-02-01

    Fecal contamination of shellfish growing seawater with enteric viruses is often associated with human outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Male specific bacteriophage MS2 is correlated with those of enteric viruses in a wide range of water environments and has been used widely as a surrogate for pathogenic waterborne viruses. Since viruses in contaminated water are usually at low levels, the development of methods to concentrate viruses from water is crucial for detection purposes. In the present study, granular activated carbon was evaluated for concentration of MS2 from artificial seawater, and different parameters of the seawater were also compared. Recovery of MS2 from warm seawater (37°C) was found to be significantly greater than from cold seawater (4 and 20°C), and even greater than from fresh water (4, 20 and 37°C); the difference between seawater and fresh water became less profound when the temperatures of both were below 37°C. Although not of statistical significance, recovery of MS2 from low salinity seawater (10 and 20 parts per thousand, ppt) was greater than from high salinity seawater (30 and 40ppt). One gram of granular activated carbon was able to extract 6-log plaque forming units (PFU) of MS2 from 500ml seawater at 37°C. This study demonstrated that granular activated carbon can concentrate an enteric virus indicator from shellfish growing seawater effectively. PMID:24269798

  17. Diversity in the enteric viruses detected in outbreaks of gastroenteritis from Mumbai, Western India.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Shobha; Gopalkrishna, Varanasi; Chhabra, Preeti; Patil, Pooja; Verma, Harsha; Lahon, Anismrita; Arora, Ritu; Tatte, Vaishali; Ranshing, Sujata; Dhale, Ganesh; Kolhapure, Rajendra; Tikute, Sanjay; Kulkarni, Jagannath; Bhardwaj, Renu; Akarte, Sulbha; Pawar, Sashikant

    2012-03-01

    Faecal specimens collected from two outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis that occurred in southern Mumbai, India in March and October, 2006 were tested for seven different enteric viruses. Among the 218 specimens tested, 95 (43.6%) were positive, 73 (76.8%) for a single virus and 22 (23.2%) for multiple viruses. Single viral infections in both, March and October showed predominance of enterovirus (EV, 33.3% and 40%) and rotavirus A (RVA, 33.3% and 25%). The other viruses detected in these months were norovirus (NoV, 12.1% and 10%), rotavirus B (RVB, 12.1% and 10%), enteric adenovirus (AdV, 6.1% and 7.5%), Aichivirus (AiV, 3% and 7.5%) and human astrovirus (HAstV, 3% and 0%). Mixed viral infections were largely represented by two viruses (84.6% and 88.9%), a small proportion showed presence of three (7.7% and 11%) and four (7.7% and 0%) viruses in the two outbreaks. Genotyping of the viruses revealed predominance of RVA G2P[4], RVB G2 (Indian Bangladeshi lineage), NoV GII.4, AdV-40, HAstV-8 and AiV B types. VP1/2A junction region based genotyping showed presence of 11 different serotypes of EVs. Although no virus was detected in the tested water samples, examination of both water and sewage pipelines in gastroenteritis affected localities indicated leakages and possibility of contamination of drinking water with sewage water. Coexistence of multiple enteric viruses during the two outbreaks of gastroenteritis emphasizes the need to expand such investigations to other parts of India. PMID:22690171

  18. Diversity in the Enteric Viruses Detected in Outbreaks of Gastroenteritis from Mumbai, Western India

    PubMed Central

    Chitambar, Shobha; Gopalkrishna, Varanasi; Chhabra, Preeti; Patil, Pooja; Verma, Harsha; Lahon, Anismrita; Arora, Ritu; Tatte, Vaishali; Ranshing, Sujata; Dhale, Ganesh; Kolhapure, Rajendra; Tikute, Sanjay; Kulkarni, Jagannath; Bhardwaj, Renu; Akarte, Sulbha; Pawar, Sashikant

    2012-01-01

    Faecal specimens collected from two outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis that occurred in southern Mumbai, India in March and October, 2006 were tested for seven different enteric viruses. Among the 218 specimens tested, 95 (43.6%) were positive, 73 (76.8%) for a single virus and 22 (23.2%) for multiple viruses. Single viral infections in both, March and October showed predominance of enterovirus (EV, 33.3% and 40%) and rotavirus A (RVA, 33.3% and 25%). The other viruses detected in these months were norovirus (NoV, 12.1% and 10%), rotavirus B (RVB, 12.1% and 10%), enteric adenovirus (AdV, 6.1% and 7.5%), Aichivirus (AiV, 3% and 7.5%) and human astrovirus (HAstV, 3% and 0%). Mixed viral infections were largely represented by two viruses (84.6% and 88.9%), a small proportion showed presence of three (7.7% and 11%) and four (7.7% and 0%) viruses in the two outbreaks. Genotyping of the viruses revealed predominance of RVA G2P[4], RVB G2 (Indian Bangladeshi lineage), NoV GII.4, AdV-40, HAstV-8 and AiV B types. VP1/2A junction region based genotyping showed presence of 11 different serotypes of EVs. Although no virus was detected in the tested water samples, examination of both water and sewage pipelines in gastroenteritis affected localities indicated leakages and possibility of contamination of drinking water with sewage water. Coexistence of multiple enteric viruses during the two outbreaks of gastroenteritis emphasizes the need to expand such investigations to other parts of India. PMID:22690171

  19. A MULTIPLEX REVERSE TRANSCIPTION-PCR METHOD FOR DETECTION OF HUMAN ENTERIC VIRUSES IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Untreated groundwater is responsible for about half of the waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States. Human enteric viruses are thought to be leading etiological agents of many of these outbreaks, but there is relatively little information on the types and levels of viru...

  20. EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES ON ENTERIC VIRUS SURVIVAL IN SURFACE FRESHWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a review of published studies which have concerned stability of enteric viruses in surface freshwaters, those environmental variables which have been determined to have a statistically significant effect are pH, chloride, TOC, hardness, turbidity, and exposure to sunlight when...

  1. INFLUENCE OF WATER QUALITY ON ENTERIC VIRUS CONCENTRATION BY MICROPOROUS FILTER METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four enteric viruses, poliovirus type 1, echovirus type 1, reovirus type 3 and simian adenovirus SV-11, were concentrated from seeded 1.3L-volumes of raw, finished and granular activated carbon (GAC)-treated waters by adsorption to 47 mm diameter (17 sq cm), electropositive (Viro...

  2. PRESENCE OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN FRESHWATER AND THEIR REMOVAL BY THE CONVENTIONAL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A review of results published in English or French between 1980 and 1990 was carried out to determine the levels of indigenous human enteric viruses in untreated surface and subsurface freshwaters, as well as in drinking water that had undergone the complete conventional treatmen...

  3. AN UNEXPECTED TEMPORAL PATTERN OF COLIPHAGE ISOLATION IN GROUNDWATERS SAMPLED FROM WELLS AT VARIED DISTANCES FROM RECLAIMED WATER RECHARGE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potable and monitoring wells located in close proximity to a large groundwater recharge project which utilizes a blend of surface water and reclaimed wastewater for recharge were tested for coliphage over a period of 6 months to assess the potential for virus migration. During th...

  4. Assessment of sewer source contamination of drinking water wells using tracers and human enteric viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, R.J.; Borchardt, M. A.; Richards, K.D.; Spencer, S. K.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the source, transport, and occurrence of human enteric viruses in municipal well water, focusing on sanitary sewer sources. A total of 33 wells from 14 communities were sampled once for wastewater tracers and viruses. Wastewater tracers were detected in four of these wells, and five wells were virus- positive by qRT-PCR. These results, along with exclusion of wells with surface water sources, were used to select three wells for additional investigation. Viruses and wastewater tracers were found in the groundwater at all sites. Some wastewater tracers, such as ionic detergents, flame retardants, and cholesterol, were considered unambiguous evidence of wastewater. Sampling at any given time may not show concurrent virus and tracer presence; however, given sufficient sampling over time, a relation between wastewater tracers and virus occurrence was identified. Presence of infectious viruses at the wellhead demonstrates that high-capacity pumping induced sufficiently short travel times for the transport of infectious viruses. Therefore, drinking-water wells are vulnerable to contaminants that travel along fast groundwater flowpaths even if they contribute a small amount of virus-laden water to the well. These results suggest that vulnerability assessments require characterization of "low yield-fast transport" in addition to traditional "high yield-slow transport", pathways. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. Survival of enteric viruses under natural conditions in a subarctic river.

    PubMed Central

    Dahling, D R; Safferman, R S

    1979-01-01

    The survival of enteric viruses was studied in the vicinity of Fairbanks, Alaska at selected stations along a 317-km section of the Tanana River. This section was located downstream from all known domestic wastewater sources and was effectively sealed by a total ice cover. The mean flow time through the region was 7.1 days, during which initial viral population showed a relative survival rate of 34%. The tracing of native viruses at such great distances in the complete absence of other point and nonpoint viral sources has not been previously reported. Of the two methods of virus concentration used, viral recoveries from the disk adsorption virus elution procedure were far greater than those achieved with the Aquella system employed at that time. The fact the ratio of enteric viruses to fecal indicator bacteria was not constant clearly inferred that these bacteria were not an effectual measure of virus concentration. The persistence of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci, however, attested to the microbiological health risk involved. PMID:230786

  6. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide binding enhances virion stability and promotes environmental fitness of an enteric virus

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Christopher M.; Jesudhasan, Palmy R.; Pfeiffer, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Enteric viruses, including poliovirus and reovirus, encounter a vast microbial community in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, which has been shown to promote virus replication and pathogenesis. Investigating the underlying mechanisms, we find that poliovirus binds bacterial surface polysaccharides, which enhances virion stability and cell attachment by increasing binding to the viral receptor. Additionally, we identified a poliovirus mutant, VP1-T99K, with reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding. Although T99K and WT poliovirus cell attachment, replication and pathogenesis in mice are equivalent, following peroral inoculation of mice, VP1-T99K poliovirus was unstable in feces. Consequently, the ratio of mutant virus in feces is reduced following additional cycles of infection in mice. Thus, the mutant virus incurs a fitness cost when environmental stability is a factor. These data suggest that poliovirus binds bacterial surface polysaccharides, enhancing cell attachment and environmental stability, potentially promoting transmission to a new host. PMID:24439896

  7. An outbreak of duck virus enteritis (duck plague) in a captive flock of mixed waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montgomery, R.D.; Stein, G., Jr.; Novilla, M.N.; Hurley, Sarah S.; Fink, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    An outbreak of duck virus enteritis occurred in a flock of captive waterfowl composed of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), black ducks (Anas rubripes), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Although all three species were housed together, morbidity and mortality were confined to the 227 black ducks and Canada geese, of which 180 died and the rest were left in a weakened condition. Lesions are given for 20 black ducks and 4 Canada geese dying from DVE. In addition, both horizontal and vertical transmission are discussed as possible sources of the virus that caused this outbreak.

  8. Comparative reductions of bacterial indicators, bacteriophage-infecting enteric bacteria and enteroviruses in wastewater tertiary treatments by lagooning and UV-radiation.

    PubMed

    Gomila, Margarita; Solis, Javier J; David, Zoyla; Ramon, Cristina; Lalucat, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    A two-year monitoring program of microbiological and physical-chemical parameters at 2 waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in Mallorca (Spain) was performed in order to (1) evaluate the efficiency of lagooning and UV radiation as tertiary treatment processes; (2) determine the characteristics of wastewater effluent for its potential agricultural reuse; and (3) establish correlations between bacteriological and virological parameters. The presence of currently established bacterial indicators (total coliforms, faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, and spores of sulphite-reducing clostridia), virological (enteroviruses, somatic coliphages, F-specific coliphages, and phages infecting Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron), and helminth eggs were tested during this study. Bacterial and viral indicators were removed at least with one log reduction in the lagooning system, and to a lesser extent with UV-radiation treatment. The lagooning system was less efficient in removing phages and viruses than were bacterial indicators, with the exception of F-specific phages. Phages of B. fragilis and B. thetaiotaomicron were less removed than all of the other microbiological parameters. In the UV-radiation treatment, however, the faecal coliforms proved the most sensitive, while clostridial spores, somatic coliphages, Bacteroides phages, and enteric viruses were the more resistant. Helminth eggs were not detected in any samples from effluents of either the secondary or tertiary treatments.Indicator levels in both treatments met the established regulations of both local and national authorities for the disposal or reuse of wastewater in irrigation for non-human crop. We demonstrate that somatic coliphages are effective indicators of enteric viruses in both of the WWTPs studied. PMID:19092200

  9. Molecular virus screening to detect novel viruses from turkey flocks affected by Poult Enteritis Mortality Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poult Enteritis Mortality Syndrome (PEMS) is an economically important, infectious enteric disease of young turkeys. The disease is characterized by decreased weight gain, increased morbidity and mortality, and increased production costs due to poor feed conversions. PEMS is considered to be a multi...

  10. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Enteric Viruses in Children with Diarrhea in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, Nafissatou; Kaplon, Jérôme; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste O.; Traoré, Alfred Sababénédjo; Pothier, Pierre; Barro, Nicolas; Ambert- Balay, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Enteric viruses are a major cause of diarrhea in children, especially those under five years old. Identifying the viral agents is critical to the development of effective preventive measures. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of common enteric viruses in children under five years old in Burkina Faso. Stool samples from children with (n = 263) and without (n = 50) diarrhea disorders were collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from November 2011 to September 2012. Rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus and Aichivirus A were detected using real-time or end-point (RT-)PCR. Rotavirus strains were G and P genotyped by multiplex RT-PCR and other viral strains were characterized by sequencing of viral subgenomic segements. At least one viral agent was detected in 85.6% and 72% of the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, respectively. Rotavirus (63.5%), adenovirus (31.2%) and genogroup II norovirus (18.2%) were the most prevalent viruses in symptomatic patients, but only rotavirus and genogroup II norovirus were significantly associated with diarrhea (OR: 7.9, 95%CI: 3.7–17; OR: 3.5, 95%CI: 1–11.7, respectively). Sapovirus (10.3%), astrovirus (4.9%), genogroup I norovirus (2.7%) and Aichivirus A (0.8%) were less prevalent. The predominant genotype of rotavirus was G9P[8] (36.5%), and the predominant norovirus strain was GII.4 variant 2012 (71.4%). Among sapovirus, the genogroup II (87.5%) predominated. Astrovirus type 1 (41.7%) was the most frequent astrovirus identified. Aichivirus A belonged to the three genotypes (A, B and C). Enteric adenoviruses type 40 and 41 were identified in 10.2% and 5.1% respectively. Several cases of co-infections were detected. The results highlight the high prevalence and the high diversity of enteric viruses in Burkinabe children. PMID:27092779

  11. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Enteric Viruses in Children with Diarrhea in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, Nafissatou; Kaplon, Jérôme; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste O; Traoré, Alfred Sababénédjo; Pothier, Pierre; Barro, Nicolas; Ambert-Balay, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Enteric viruses are a major cause of diarrhea in children, especially those under five years old. Identifying the viral agents is critical to the development of effective preventive measures. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of common enteric viruses in children under five years old in Burkina Faso. Stool samples from children with (n = 263) and without (n = 50) diarrhea disorders were collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from November 2011 to September 2012. Rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus and Aichivirus A were detected using real-time or end-point (RT-)PCR. Rotavirus strains were G and P genotyped by multiplex RT-PCR and other viral strains were characterized by sequencing of viral subgenomic segements. At least one viral agent was detected in 85.6% and 72% of the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, respectively. Rotavirus (63.5%), adenovirus (31.2%) and genogroup II norovirus (18.2%) were the most prevalent viruses in symptomatic patients, but only rotavirus and genogroup II norovirus were significantly associated with diarrhea (OR: 7.9, 95%CI: 3.7-17; OR: 3.5, 95%CI: 1-11.7, respectively). Sapovirus (10.3%), astrovirus (4.9%), genogroup I norovirus (2.7%) and Aichivirus A (0.8%) were less prevalent. The predominant genotype of rotavirus was G9P[8] (36.5%), and the predominant norovirus strain was GII.4 variant 2012 (71.4%). Among sapovirus, the genogroup II (87.5%) predominated. Astrovirus type 1 (41.7%) was the most frequent astrovirus identified. Aichivirus A belonged to the three genotypes (A, B and C). Enteric adenoviruses type 40 and 41 were identified in 10.2% and 5.1% respectively. Several cases of co-infections were detected. The results highlight the high prevalence and the high diversity of enteric viruses in Burkinabe children. PMID:27092779

  12. Removal of enteric viruses and Escherichia coli from municipal treated effluent by zebra mussels.

    PubMed

    Mezzanotte, Valeria; Marazzi, Francesca; Bissa, Massimiliano; Pacchioni, Sole; Binelli, Andrea; Parolini, Marco; Magni, Stefano; Ruggeri, Franco M; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Zanotto, Carlo; Radaelli, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Dreissena polymorpha is a widespread filter-feeder species, resistant to a broad range of environmental conditions and different types of pollutants,which has recently colonized Italian freshwaters. Although widely used to monitor pollution in freshwater environments, this species is also an important food source for some fish and water birds. It can also be used to concentrate or remove particulate organic matter to interrupt avian-to-human transmission of pollutants and control health risks for animals and humans. In this study, the accumulation/inactivation in D. polymorpha of human health-related spiked enteric viruses was described. The removal of endogenous Escherichia coli, the classical indicator of fecal contamination,was tested as well.Our preliminary lab-scale results demonstrate that zebra mussels can reduce significantly poliovirus titer after 24 h and rotavirus titer after 8 h. E. coli counts were also reduced in the presence of zebra mussels by about 1.5 log after 4 h and nearly completely after 24 h. The fate of the two enteric viruses after concentration by zebra mussels was also investigated after mechanical disruption of the tissues. To our knowledge, the accumulation from water and inactivation of human health-related enteric viruses by zebra mussels has never been reported. PMID:26372942

  13. New strain of mouse hepatitis virus as the cause of lethal enteritis in infant mice.

    PubMed Central

    Hierholzer, J C; Broderson, J R; Murphy, F A

    1979-01-01

    A new strain of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) was isolated from pooled gut suspensions from an epizootic of lethal enteritis in newborn mice. Negative-contrast electron microscopy showed an abundance of coronavirus particles in the intestinal contents and intestinal epithelium of moribund mice. We found no other virus in the epizootic. Dams seroconverted to MHV polyvalent antigen and to the agent isolated, but did not develop antibodies to other known mouse pathogens. Virus propagated in NCTC-1469 tissue culture produced enteric disease in suckling mice but not fatal diarrhea; the dams of these mice also developed antibodies to MHV and to the isolates. By complement fixation, single radial hemolysis, and quantal neutralization tests, we found the isolates antigenically most closely related to MHV-S, unilaterally related to MHV-JHM, and more distantly related to MHV-1, MHV-3, MHV-A59, and human coronavirus OC-43. We also studied cross-reactions among the murine and human coronaviruses in detail. Tissues of infected newborn mice were examined by light microscopy, thin-section electron microscopy, and frozen-section indirect immunofluorescence, revealing that viral antigen, virus particles, and pathological changes were limited to the intestinal tract. We have designated our isolates as MHV-S/CDC. Images PMID:222687

  14. Uptake and survival of enteric viruses in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Hejkal, T W; Gerba, C P

    1981-01-01

    Uptake of poliovirus 1 by the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, was measured to assess the likelihood of contamination by human enteric viruses. Virus was found in all parts of the crab within 2 h after the crab was placed in contaminated artificial seawater. The highest concentrations of virus were found in the hemolymph and digestive tract, but the meat also contained virus. The concentration of virus in the crabs was generally less than in the surrounding water. Changes in salinity did not substantially affect the rate of accumulation. An increase in temperature from 15 to 25 degrees C increased the rates of both uptake and removal. Poliovirus survived up to 6 days in crabs at a temperature of 15 degrees C and a salinity of 10 g/kg. When contaminated crabs were boiled, 99.9% of poliovirus 1, simian rotavirus SA11, and a natural isolate of echovirus 1 were inactivated within 8 min. These data demonstrate that viruses in crabs should not pose a serious health hazard if recommended cooking procedures are used. PMID:6261683

  15. Enteric virus infection risk from intrusion of sewage into a drinking water distribution network.

    PubMed

    Teunis, P F M; Xu, M; Fleming, K K; Yang, J; Moe, C L; Lechevallier, M W

    2010-11-15

    Contaminants from the soil surrounding drinking water distribution systems are thought to not enter the drinking water when sufficient internal pressure is maintained. Pressure transients may cause short intervals of negative pressure, and the soil near drinking water pipes often contains fecal material due to the proximity of sewage lines, so that a pressure event may cause intrusion of pathogens. This paper presents a risk model for predicting intrusion and dilution of viruses and their transport to consumers. Random entry and dilution of virus was simulated by embedding the hydraulic model into a Monte Carlo simulation. Special attention was given to adjusting for the coincidence of virus presence and use of tap water, as independently occurring short-term events within the longer interval that the virus is predicted to travel in any branch of the distribution system. The probability that a consumer drinks water contaminated with virus is small, but when this happens the virus concentration tends to be high and the risk of infection may be considerable. The spatial distribution of infection risk is highly heterogeneous. The presence of a chlorine residual reduces the infection risk. PMID:20968297

  16. Monitoring of human enteric viruses and coliform bacteria in waters after urban flood in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Phanuwan, C; Takizawa, S; Oguma, K; Katayama, H; Yunika, A; Ohgaki, S

    2006-01-01

    Floodwaters in Kampung Melayu village, Jakarta, Indonesia, as well as river water and consumable water (including groundwater and tap water) samples in flooded and non-flooded areas, were quantitatively analysed to assess occurrence of viruses and total coliforms and E. coli as bacterial indicators after flooding event. High numbers of enterovirus, hepatitis A virus, norovirus (G1, G2) and adenovirus were detected at high concentration in floodwaters and waters sampled from Ciliwung River which runs across metropolitan Jakarta and is used widely for agriculture and domestic purposes by poor residents. One out of three groundwater wells in the flooded area was contaminated with all viruses tested while no viruses were found in groundwater samples in non-flooded areas and tap water samples. The results revealed that human enteric viruses, especially hepatitis A virus and adenovirus, were prevalent in Jakarta, Indonesia. This study suggested that flooding posed a higher risk of viral infection to the people through contamination of drinking water sources or direct contact with floodwaters. PMID:17037154

  17. Current laboratory diagnosis of opportunistic enteric parasites in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    De, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Opportunistic enteric parasitic infections are encountered in 30-60% of HIV seropositive patients in developed countries and in 90% of patients in developing countries. Once the CD4+ cell count drops below 200 cells/μl, patients are considered to have developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), with the risk of an AIDS-defining illness or opportunistic infection significantly increasing. Opportunistic enteric parasites encountered in these patients are Cryptosporidium, Isospora, Cyclospora, and microsporidia; as well as those more commonly associated with gastrointestinal disease, for example, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, and also rarely Balantidium coli. In view of AIDS explosion in India, opportunistic enteric parasites are becoming increasingly important and it has to be identified properly. Apart from wet mounts, concentration methods for stool samples and special staining techniques for identification of these parasites, commercially available fecal immunoassays are widely available for the majority of enteric protozoa. Molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, flow cytometry, and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), have also come in the pipeline for early diagnosis of these infections. Proper disposal of the feces to prevent contamination of the soil and water, boiling/filtering drinking water along with improved personal hygiene might go a long way in preventing these enteric parasitic infections. PMID:23961436

  18. Integration Site of Noninducible Coliphage 186

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Walter H.; Egan, J. Barry

    1972-01-01

    From conjugational data, the attachment site for noninducible coliphage 186 (att186) was located between the origins of Hfr strains KL16 and KL98, and close to the pheA gene in Escherichia coli K-12. P1 transductions indicated that att186 lies at 51 min on the standard genetic map of E. coli, with the order cysC-nalB-att186-pheA. The presence of prophage 186 in the donor destroyed linkage between nalB and pheA, which is taken as evidence for the integration of the 186 prophage between these genes. PMID:4559723

  19. Predominance and Circulation of Enteric Viruses in the Region of Greater Cairo, Egypt▿

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Aziza H.; Ali, Mohamed A.; El-Nady, Hala G.; de Rougemont, Alexis; Pothier, Pierre; Belliot, Gaël

    2009-01-01

    The circulation of enteric viruses among the population of Cairo, Egypt, between March 2006 and February 2007 was studied. At least one virus was detected in 50% of fecal samples, 57.4% of which were positive for rotavirus, 26% for norovirus, 10.4% for adenovirus, and 1.7% for astrovirus. Over 10% of infections were mixed infections. Rotavirus typing showed that G1P[8] and G2P[4] were predominant but that the unusual G12P[4] and G12P[6] reassortants were also present. Among the noroviruses, half belonged to the predominant GGII.4 cluster. The phylogenetic analysis of the capsid gene suggested that GGII.4 strains from Cairo were similar to those circulating elsewhere. It also showed the emergence of new GGII.4 variants that were not associated with any previously known GGII.4 isolate. Further studies are required to assess the disease burden of enteric viruses in Egypt and the impact of atypical strains. PMID:19193841

  20. Inactivation of internalized and surface contaminated enteric viruses in green onions.

    PubMed

    Hirneisen, Kirsten A; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2013-09-01

    With increasing outbreaks of gastroenteritis associated with produce, it is important to assess interventions to reduce the risk of illness. UV, ozone and high pressure are non-thermal processing technologies that have potential to inactivate human pathogens on produce and allow the retention of fresh-like organoleptic properties. The objective of this study was to determine if UV, ozone, and high pressure are effective technologies compared to traditional chlorine spray on green onions to reduce enteric viral pathogens and to determine the effect of location of the virus (surface or internalized) on the efficacy of these processes. Mature green onion plants were inoculated with murine norovirus (MNV), hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human adenovirus type 41 (Ad41) either on the surface through spot inoculation or through inoculating contaminated hydroponic solution allowing for uptake of the virus into the internal tissues. Inoculated green onions were treated with UV (240 mJ s/cm(2)), ozone (6.25 ppm for 10 min), pressure (500 MPa, for 5 min at 20°C), or sprayed with calcium hypochlorite (150 ppm, 4°C). Viral inactivation was determined by comparing treated and untreated inoculated plants using cell culture infectivity assays. Processing treatments were observed to greatly affect viral inactivation. Viral inactivation for all three viruses was greatest after pressure treatment and the lowest inactivation was observed after chlorine and UV treatment. Both surface inoculated viruses and viruses internalized in green onions were inactivated to some extent by these post-harvest processing treatments. These results suggest that ozone and high pressure processes aimed to reduce the level of microbial contamination of produce have the ability to inactivate viruses if they become localized in the interior portions of produce. PMID:23973828

  1. Human adenoviruses and coliphages in urban runoff-impacted coastal waters of Southern California.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S; Noble, R; Chu, W

    2001-01-01

    A nested-PCR method was used to detect the occurrence of human adenovirus in coastal waters of Southern California. Twenty- to forty-liter water samples were collected from 12 beach locations from Malibu to the border of Mexico between February and March 1999. All sampling sites were located at mouths of major rivers and creeks. Two ultrafiltration concentration methods, tangential flow filtration (TFF) and vortex flow filtration (VFF), were compared using six environmental samples. Human adenoviruses were detected in 4 of the 12 samples tested after nucleic acid extraction of VFF concentrates. The most probable number of adenoviral genomes ranged from 880 to 7,500 per liter of water. Coliphages were detected at all sites, with the concentration varying from 5.3 to 3332 PFU/liter of water. F-specific coliphages were found at 5 of the 12 sites, with the concentration ranging from 5.5 to 300 PFU/liter. The presence of human adenovirus was not significantly correlated with the concentration of coliphage (r = 0.32) but was significantly correlated (r = 0.99) with F-specific coliphage. The bacterial indicators (total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and enterococci) were found to exceed California recreational water quality daily limits at 5 of the 12 sites. However, this excess of bacterial indicators did not correlate with the presence of human adenoviruses in coastal waters. The results of this study call for both a reevaluation of our current recreational water quality standards to reflect the viral quality of recreational waters and monitoring of recreational waters for human viruses on a regular basis. PMID:11133443

  2. Myxoma and vaccinia viruses exploit different mechanisms to enter and infect human cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Nancy Y.; Bartee, Eric; Mohamed, Mohamed R.; Rahman, Masmudur M.; Barrett, John W.; McFadden, Grant

    2010-06-05

    Myxoma (MYXV) and vaccinia (VACV) viruses have recently emerged as potential oncolytic agents that can infect and kill different human cancer cells. Although both are structurally similar, it is unknown whether the pathway(s) used by these poxviruses to enter and cause oncolysis in cancer cells are mechanistically similar. Here, we compared the entry of MYXV and VACV-WR into various human cancer cells and observed significant differences: 1 - low-pH treatment accelerates fusion-mediated entry of VACV but not MYXV, 2 - the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein inhibits entry of VACV, but not MYXV, 3 - knockdown of PAK1 revealed that it is required for a late stage event downstream of MYXV entry into cancer cells, whereas PAK1 is required for VACV entry into the same target cells. These results suggest that VACV and MYXV exploit different mechanisms to enter into human cancer cells, thus providing some rationale for their divergent cancer cell tropisms.

  3. HN gene c-terminal extension of Newcastle disease virus is not the determinant of the enteric tropism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) plays an important role in virus pathogenicity and tissue tropism. Sequence analysis revealed that the HN gene of many asymptomatic enteric NDV strains encodes a larger open reading frame (616 amino acids, aa) with additio...

  4. THE USE OF RT-PCR FOR THE DETECTION OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN PRAIRIE SURFACE DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concerns over the microbial safety of drinking water supplies have focused on bacteria and parasites while the occurrence of pathogenic waterborne viruses have been largely ignored. In fact, water supplies are not routinely monitored for human enteric viruses. This is despite t...

  5. Use of propidium monoazide in reverse transcriptase PCR to distinguish between infectious and noninfectious enteric viruses in water samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human enteric viruses can be present in untreated and inadequately treated drinking water. Molecular methods, such as the reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), can detect viral genomes in a few hours, but they cannot distinguish between infectious and noninfectious viruses. Since o...

  6. Membrane-associated GRP78 helps subgroup J avian leucosis virus enter cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Mei, Mei; Qin, Aijian; Ye, Jianqiang; Qian, Kun; Shao, Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    We previously identified chicken Annexin A2 (chANXA2) as a novel receptor for retrovirus avian leucosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), using a DF1 cell line expressing the viral envelope (env) protein. To further probe whether other proteins participate in virus infection, we investigated several host proteins from co-immunoprecipitation with the DF1 cell line expressing viral env. Mass spectrometry analysis indicates that the chicken glucose-regulation protein 78 (chGRP78) of the DF1 membrane interacted with the ALV-J env protein. The results revealed that antibodies or siRNA to chGRP78 significantly inhibited ALV-J infection and replication, and over-expression of chGRP78 enabled the entry of ALV-J into non-susceptible cells. Taken together, these results are the first to report that chGRP78 functions to help ALV-J enter cells. PMID:27599847

  7. Characterization of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and intracellular localization signals in Duck Enteritis Virus UL54.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaoyue; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Chen, Shun; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Sun, Kunfeng; Yang, Qiao; Chen, Xiaoyue

    2016-08-01

    Duck Enteritis virus (DEV) UL54 is a homolog of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) trafficking protein ICP27, which plays an essential role in infection. In this study, DEV UL54 shuttling between the nucleus and cytoplasm was verified with a heterokaryon assay. One predicted nuclear export sequence (NES) (339-348 aa) was shown to be functional and chromosomal region maintenance 1 (CRM1)-dependent; however, the insensitivity of UL54 to Leptomycin B (LMB) and NES mutation suggests that other mechanisms are responsible for the observed nuclear export. Next, three non-classical nuclear localization sequences (NLSs), referred to as NLS1 (105-122 aa), NLS2 (169-192 aa) and NLS3 (257-274 aa), were identified. Furthermore, a recombinant DEV with the UL54 NLSs deleted (DEV- UL54 mNLSs) was constructed and showed that UL54 NLSs moderately affected DEV growth. PMID:27157269

  8. Detection of enteric viruses in oysters by using the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Atmar, R L; Metcalf, T G; Neill, F H; Estes, M K

    1993-01-01

    A procedure for the detection of enteric viral nucleic acid in oysters by the polymerase chain reaction was developed. Known quantities of poliovirus type 1 were seeded into oysters. Virus was extracted and concentrated by using organic flocculation and polyethylene glycol precipitation. Inhibitors of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were present in the oyster extracts, preventing amplification of target viral nucleic acid. The use of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide precipitation sufficiently removed inhibitors to allow detection of as few as 10 PFU of poliovirus. Norwalk virus also could be detected after being seeded into oysters. This methodology may be useful for the detection of these and other shellfish-borne viral pathogens. Images PMID:8382024

  9. Release of infectious human enteric viruses by full-scale wastewater utilities.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Fredrick James; Xagoraraki, Irene

    2011-06-01

    In the United States, infectious human enteric viruses are introduced daily into the environment through the discharge of treated water and the digested sludge (biosolids). In this study, a total of 30 wastewater and 6 biosolids samples were analyzed over five months (May-September 2008-2009) from five full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Michigan using real-time PCR and cell culture assays. Samples were collected from four different locations at each WWTP (influent, pre-disinfection, post-disinfection and biosolids) using the 1MDS electropositive cartridge filter. Adenovirus (HAdV), enterovirus (EV) and norovirus genogroup II (NoV GGII) were detected in 100%, 67% and 10%, respectively of the wastewater samples using real-time PCR. Cytopathic effect (CPE) was present in 100% of the cell culture samples for influent, pre- and post-disinfection and biosolids with an average log concentration of 4.1 (2.9-4.7, range) 1.1 (0.0-2.3, range) and 0.5 (0.0-1.6, range) MPN/100 L and 2.1 (0.5-4.1) viruses/g, respectively. A significant log reduction in infectious viruses throughout the wastewater treatment process was observed at an average 4.2 (1.9-5.0, range) log units. A significant difference (p-value <0.05) was observed using real-time PCR data for HAdV but not for EV (p-value >0.05) removal in MBR as compared to conventional treatment. MBR treatment was able to achieve an additional 2 and 0.5 log reduction of HAdV and EV, respectively. This study has demonstrated the release of infectious enteric viruses in the final effluent and biosolids of wastewater treatment into the environment. PMID:21570703

  10. Management of hospital outbreaks of gastro-enteritis due to small roundstructured viruses.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, P R; Beards, G; Brown, D; Caul, E O; Cheesbrough, J; Clarke, I; Curry, A; O'Brien, S; Quigley, K; Sellwood, J; Westmoreland, D

    2000-05-01

    Small round structured viruses (SRSVs, Norwalk-like viruses, NLVs) are the most common cause of outbreaks of gastro-enteritis in hospitals and also cause outbreaks in other settings such as schools, hotels, nursing homes and cruise ships. Hospital outbreaks often lead to ward closure and major disruption in hospital activity. Outbreaks usually affect both patients and staff, sometimes with attack rates in excess of 50%. For this reason, staff shortages can be severe, particularly if several wards are involved at the same time. SRSVs may be spread by several routes: faecal-oral; vomiting/aerosols; food and water. Viruses may be introduced into the ward environment by any of these routes and then propagated by person-to-person spread. In an outbreak setting, the diagnosis can usually be made rapidly and confidently on clinical and epidemiological grounds, particularly if vomiting is a prominent symptom. By the time an SRSV outbreak has been recognized at ward level, most susceptible individuals will have been exposed to the virus and infection control efforts must prioritize the prevention of spread of infection to other clinical areas bycontainment of infected/exposed individuals (especially the prevention of patient and staff movements to other areas), hand-hygiene and effective environmental decontamination. This report of the Public Health Laboratory Service Viral Gastro-enteritis Working Group reviews the epidemiology of outbreaks of infection due to SRSVs and makes recommendations for their management in the hospital setting. The basic principles which underpin these recommendations will also be applicable to the management of some community-based institutional outbreaks. PMID:10833336

  11. Temperature and humidity influences on inactivation kinetics of enteric viruses on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Jung; Si, Jiyeon; Lee, Jung Eun; Ko, GwangPyo

    2012-12-18

    Norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are pathogenic enteric viruses responsible for public health concerns worldwide. The viral transmission occurs through fecally contaminated food, water, fomites, or direct contact. However, the difficulty in cultivating these viruses makes it a challenge to characterize the resistance to various environmental stresses. In this study, we characterized the inactivation rates of murine norovirus (MNV), MS2, and HAV on either lacquer coating rubber tree wood or stainless steel under different temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions. The viruses were analyzed at temperatures of 15 °C, 25 °C, 32 °C, and 40 °C and at RHs of 30%, 50%, and 70% for 30 days. Overall, they survived significantly longer on wood than on steel at lower temperature (P < 0.05). The inactivation rate of MS2 and MNV increased at higher RH levels, whereas HAV survived the best at a medium RH level (50%). The effect of RH was significant only for MS2 (P < 0.05). MS2 persisted longest under all of the environmental conditions examined. Both a linear and a nonlinear Weibull model were used to describe the viral inactivation data in this study. The data produced a better fit to the survival curves that were predicted by the Weibull model. PMID:23152976

  12. Acute gastroenteritis and enteric viruses in hospitalised children in southern Brazil: aetiology, seasonality and clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Raboni, Sonia Maria; Damasio, Guilherme Augusto Costa; Ferreira, Carla EO; Pereira, Luciane A; Nogueira, Meri B; Vidal, Luine R; Cruz, Cristina R; Almeida, Sergio M

    2014-01-01

    Viral acute gastroenteritis (AG) is a significant cause of hospitalisation in children younger than five years. Group A rotavirus (RVA) is responsible for 30% of these cases. Following the introduction of RVA immunisation in Brazil in 2006, a decreased circulation of this virus has been observed. However, AG remains an important cause of hospitalisation of paediatric patients and only limited data are available regarding the role of other enteric viruses in these cases. We conducted a prospective study of paediatric patients hospitalised for AG. Stool samples were collected to investigate human adenovirus (HAdV), RVA, norovirus (NoV) and astrovirus (AstV). NoV typing was performed by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. From the 225 samples tested, 60 (26%) were positive for at least one viral agent. HAdV, NoV, RVA and AstV were detected in 16%, 8%, 6% and 0% of the samples, respectively. Mixed infections were found in nine patients: HAdV/RVA (5), HAdV/NoV (3) and HAdV/NoV/RVA (1). The frequency of fever and lymphocytosis was significantly higher in virus-infected patients. Phylogenetic analysis of NoV indicated that all of these viruses belonged to genotype GII.4. The significant frequency of these pathogens in patients with AG highlights the need to routinely implement laboratory investigations. PMID:25075782

  13. Egg drop syndrome virus enters duck embryonic fibroblast cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingjing; Tan, Dan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Caihong; Xu, Jiamin; Wang, Jingyu

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies of egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) is restricted to serological surveys, disease diagnostics, and complete viral genome analysis. Consequently, the infection characteristics and entry routes of EDSV are poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to explore the entry pathway of EDSV into duck embryonic fibroblast (DEF) cells as well as the infection characteristics and proliferation of EDSV in primary DEF and primary chicken embryo liver (CEL) cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the virus triggered DEF cell membrane invagination as early as 10 min post-infection and that integrated endocytic vesicles formed at 20 min post-infection. The virus yield in EDSV-infected DEF cells treated with chlorpromazine (CPZ), sucrose, methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), or NH4Cl was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Compared with the mock treatment, CPZ and sucrose greatly inhibited the production of viral progeny in a dose-dependent manner, while MβCD treatment did not result in a significant difference. Furthermore, NH4Cl had a strong inhibitory effect on the production of EDSV progeny. In addition, indirect immunofluorescence demonstrated that virus particles clustered on the surface of DEF cells treated with CPZ or sucrose. These results indicate that EDSV enters DEF cells through clathrin-mediated endocytosis followed by a pH-dependent step, which is similar to the mechanism of entry of human adenovirus types 2 and 5. PMID:26200954

  14. Prevalence of human pathogenic enteric viruses in bivalve molluscan shellfish and cultured shrimp in south west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Umesha, Kanasinakatte R; Bhavani, Naniah C; Venugopal, Moleyur N; Karunasagar, Indrani; Krohne, Georg; Karunasagar, Iddya

    2008-03-20

    The prevalence of human enteric viruses in bivalve molluscan shellfish and shrimp collected off the south west coast of India was studied to assess the extent of fecal pollution of coastal environment. Out of 194 samples analyzed, 37% of oyster, 46% of clam and 15% of shrimp samples were positive for enteroviruses (EV). Adenoviruses (ADV) were detected in 17% of oyster and 27% of clam samples. However, other enteric viruses such as noroviruses (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) were not detected in any of the samples. High prevalence of EV and ADV was noticed between May to December. Thirty four percent of oyster and 49% of clam samples showed fecal coliform values higher than the limit. MS-2 phage was detected in 57% of oyster and 73% of clam samples. The presence of MS-2 phage and human enteric viruses showed association while fecal coliforms and enteric viruses showed no association. However, 17 samples, which were positive for enteric viruses (EV and ADV), were negative for MS-2 phage. PMID:18279989

  15. A survey of North American migratory waterfowl for duck plague (duck virus enteritis) virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, Christopher J.; Docherty, Douglas E.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of migratory waterfowl for duck plague (DP) virus was conducted in the Mississippi and Central flyways during 1982 and in the Atlantic and Pacific flyways during 1983. Cloacal and pharyngeal swabs were collected from 3,169 migratory waterfowl in these four flyways, principally mallards (Anas platyrhynchos L.), black ducks (Anas rubripes Brewster), and pintails (Anas acuta L). In addition 1,033 birds were sampled from areas of recurrent DP outbreaks among nonmigratory and captive waterfowl, and 590 from Lake Andes National Wildlife Refuge, the site of the only known major DP outbreak in migratory waterfowl. Duck plague virus was not found in any of the samples. Results support the hypothesis that DP is not established in North American migratory waterfowl as an enzootic disease.

  16. Diversity of Somatic Coliphages in Coastal Regions with Different Levels of Anthropogenic Activity in São Paulo State, Brazil ▿

    PubMed Central

    Burbano-Rosero, E. M.; Ueda-Ito, M.; Kisielius, J. J.; Nagasse-Sugahara, T. K.; Almeida, B. C.; Souza, C. P.; Markman, C.; Martins, G. G.; Albertini, L.; Rivera, I. N. G.

    2011-01-01

    Bacteriophages are the most abundant and genetically diverse viruses on Earth, with complex ecology in both quantitative and qualitative terms. Somatic coliphages (SC) have been reported to be good indicators of fecal pollution in seawater. This study focused on determining the concentration of SC and their diversity by electron microscopy of seawater, plankton, and bivalve samples collected at three coastal regions in São Paulo, Brazil. The SC counts varied from <1 to 3.4 × 103 PFU/100 ml in seawater (73 samples tested), from <1 to 4.7 × 102 PFU/g in plankton (46 samples tested), and from <1 to 2.2 × 101 PFU/g in bivalves (11 samples tested). In seawater samples, a relationship between the thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli and SC was observed at the three regions (P = 0.0001) according to the anthropogenic activities present at each region. However, SC were found in plankton samples from three regions: Baixada Santista (17/20), Canal de São Sebastião (6/14), and Ubatuba (3/12). In seawater samples collected from Baixada Santista, four morphotypes were observed: A1 (4.5%), B1 (50%), C1 (36.4%), and D1 (9.1%). One coliphage, Siphoviridae type T1, had the longest tail: between 939 and 995 nm. In plankton samples, Siphoviridae (65.8%), Podoviridae (15.8%), Microviridae (15.8%), and Myoviridae (2.6%) were found. In bivalves, only the morphotype B1 was observed. These SC were associated with enteric hosts: enterobacteria, E. coli, Proteus, Salmonella, and Yersinia. Baixada Santista is an area containing a high level of fecal pollution compared to those in the Canal de São Sebastião and Ubatuba. This is the first report of coliphage diversity in seawater, plankton, and bivalve samples collected from São Paulo coastal regions. A better characterization of SC diversity in coastal environments will help with the management and evaluation of the microbiological risks for recreation, seafood cultivation, and consumption. PMID:21531842

  17. Large scale survey of enteric viruses in river and waste water underlines the health status of the local population.

    PubMed

    Prevost, B; Lucas, F S; Goncalves, A; Richard, F; Moulin, L; Wurtzer, S

    2015-06-01

    Although enteric viruses constitute a major cause of acute waterborne diseases worldwide, environmental data about occurrence and viral load of enteric viruses in water are not often available. In this study, enteric viruses (i.e., adenovirus, aichivirus, astrovirus, cosavirus, enterovirus, hepatitis A and E viruses, norovirus of genogroups I and II, rotavirus A and salivirus) were monitored in the Seine River and the origin of contamination was untangled. A total of 275 water samples were collected, twice a month for one year, from the river Seine, its tributaries and the major WWTP effluents in the Paris agglomeration. All water samples were negative for hepatitis A and E viruses. AdV, NVGI, NVGII and RV-A were the most prevalent and abundant populations in all water samples. The viral load and the detection frequency increased significantly between the samples collected the most upstream and the most downstream of the Paris urban area. The calculated viral fluxes demonstrated clearly the measurable impact of WWTP effluents on the viral contamination of the Seine River. The viral load was seasonal for almost all enteric viruses, in accordance with the gastroenteritis recordings provided by the French medical authorities. These results implied the existence of a close relationship between the health status of inhabitants and the viral contamination of WWTP effluents and consequently surface water contamination. Subsequently, the regular analysis of wastewater could serve as a proxy for the monitoring of the human viruses circulating in both a population and surface water. PMID:25795193

  18. Prevalence and correlates of hepatitis C virus infection among inmates entering the California correctional system.

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, J D; Molitor, F; Sun, R K; Mikanda, J; Facer, M; Colford, J M; Rutherford, G W; Ascher, M S

    1999-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and predictors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among inmates, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 1994 among inmates entering six reception centers of the California Department of Corrections. Discarded serum samples were tested for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), HCV, hepatitis B core, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Of 4,513 inmates in this study, 87.0% were men and 13.0% were women. Among male inmates, 39.4% were anti-HCV-positive; by race/ethnicity, prevalences were highest among whites (49.1%). Among female inmates, 53.5% were anti-HCV-positive; the prevalence was highest among Latinas (69.7%). In addition, rates for HIV were 2.5% for men and 3.1% for women; and for HBsAg, 2.2% (men) and 1.2% (women). These data indicate that HCV infection is common among both men and women entering prison. The high seroprevalence of anti-HCV-positive inmates may reflect an increased prevalence of high-risk behaviors and should be of concern to the communities to which these inmates will be released. PMID:10214102

  19. Virus elimination in activated sludge systems: from batch tests to mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Haun, Emma; Ulbricht, Katharina; Nogueira, Regina; Rosenwinkel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    A virus tool based on Activated Sludge Model No. 3 for modeling virus elimination in activated sludge systems was developed and calibrated with the results from laboratory-scale batch tests and from measurements in a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The somatic coliphages were used as an indicator for human pathogenic enteric viruses. The extended model was used to simulate the virus concentration in batch tests and in a municipal full-scale WWTP under steady-state and dynamic conditions. The experimental and modeling results suggest that both adsorption and inactivation processes, modeled as reversible first-order reactions, contribute to virus elimination in activated sludge systems. The model should be a useful tool to estimate the number of viruses entering water bodies from the discharge of treated effluents. PMID:25259502

  20. Antiviral effect of resveratrol in ducklings infected with virulent duck enteritis virus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinghong; Xu, Jiao; Song, Xu; Jia, Ruilin; Yin, Zhongqiong; Cheng, Anchun; Jia, Renyong; Zou, Yuanfeng; Li, Lixia; Yin, Lizi; Yue, Guizhou; Lv, Cheng; Jing, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Duck enteritis virus (DEV) is a double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the alphaherpesvirinae subfamily of the herpesviridae. Although vaccines were wildly used in controlling this disease, some infection could still not be prevented and led to significant economic losses as a result of mortality and decreased egg production. However, there is no antiviral drug against DEV. Resveratrol was identified to exert its antiviral activity by inhibiting the DEV replication in preliminary investigations. In the present study, we confirmed that resveratrol significantly reduced the mortality of ducklings which infected with a virulent strain of DEV. With resveratrol treatment, the survival rate increased by almost 80% at 8 days post infection (dpi). Pathological symptoms of ducklings caused by DEV were also relieved by resveratrol. The virus load in blood and tissues were effectively depressed when compared with the untreated group. In the assay of immune cytokines, the resveratrol exerted a dual-regulation effect. These results suggest that resveratrol is expected to be a new alternative control measure for DEV infection. PMID:27040314

  1. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infects and establishes latency in enteric neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jason J.; Gershon, Anne A.; Li, Zhishan; Cowles, Robert A.; Gershon, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Case reports have linked varicella-zoster virus (VZV) to gastrointestinal disorders, including severe abdominal pain preceding fatal varicella and acute colonic pseudoobstruction (Ogilvie’s syndrome). Because we had previously detected DNA and transcripts encoding latency–associated VZV gene products in the human gut, we sought to determine whether latent VZV is present in the human enteric nervous system (ENS) and, if so, to identify the cells in which it is located and its route to the bowel. Neither DNA, nor transcripts encoding VZV gene products, could be detected in resected gut from any of 7 control children (< 1 year old) who had not received the varicella vaccine or experienced varicella; however, VZV DNA and transcripts were each found to be present in resected bowel from 6/6 of children with a past history of varicella and in that of 6/7 of children who received the varicella vaccine. Both wild-type (WT) and vaccine-type (vOka) VZV thus establish latent infection in human gut. To determine routes by which VZV might gain access to the bowel, we injected guinea pigs with human or guinea pig lymphocytes expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the VZV ORF66 gene (VZVOKA66.GFP). GFP-expressing enteric neurons were found throughout the bowel within 2 days and continued to be present for greater than 6 weeks. DNA encoding VZV gene products also appeared in enteric and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following intradermal administration of WT-VZV and in enteric neurons after intradermal injection of VZVOKA66.GFP; moreover, a small number of guinea pig DRG neurons were found to project both to the skin and the intraperitoneal viscera. Viremia, in which lymphocytes carry VZV, or axonal transport from DRG neurons infected through their epidermal projections are thus each potential routes that enable VZV to gain access to the ENS. PMID:22190254

  2. Sequence Variation among Group III F-Specific RNA Coliphages from Water Samples and Swine Lagoons

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jill R.; Vinjé, Jan; Oudejans, Sjon J. G.; Scott, Geoff I.; Sobsey, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    Typing of F-specific RNA (FRNA) coliphages has been proposed as a useful method for distinguishing human from animal fecal contamination in environmental samples. Group II and III FRNA coliphages are generally associated with human wastes, but several exceptions have been noted. In the present study, we have genotyped and partially sequenced group III FRNA coliphage field isolates from swine lagoons in North Carolina (NC) and South Carolina (SC), along with isolates from surface waters and municipal wastewaters. Phylogenetic analysis of a region of the 5′ end of the maturation protein gene revealed two genetically different group III FRNA subclusters with 36.6% sequence variation. The SC swine lagoon isolates were more closely related to group III prototype virus M11, whereas the isolates from a swine lagoon in NC, surface waters, and wastewaters grouped with prototype virus Q-beta. These results suggest that refining phage genotyping systems to discriminate M11-like phages from Q-beta-like phages would not necessarily provide greater discriminatory power in distinguishing human from animal sources of pollution. Within the group III subclusters, nucleotide sequence diversity ranged from 0% to 6.9% for M11-like strains and from 0% to 8.7% for Q-beta-like strains. It is demonstrated here that nucleotide sequencing of closely related FRNA strains can be used to help track sources of contamination in surface waters. A similar use of phage genomic sequence information to track fecal pollution promises more reliable results than phage typing by nucleic acid hybridization and may hold more potential for field applications. PMID:16461670

  3. White spot syndrome virus enters crayfish hematopoietic tissue cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiajun; Li, Fang; Wu, Junjun; Yang, Feng

    2015-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen of aquacultured shrimp. However, the mechanism of its entry remains poorly understood. In this study, by analyzing the internalization of WSSV using crayfish hematopoietic tissue (HPT) cells, we showed that WSSV virions were engulfed by cell membrane invaginations sharing the features of clathrin-coated pits and then internalized into coated cytoplasmic vesicles. Further investigation indicated that WSSV internalization was significantly inhibited by chlorpromazine (CPZ) but not genistein. The internalized virions were colocalized with endogenous clathrin as well as transferrin which undergoes clathrin-dependent uptake. Preventing endosome acidification by ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) or chloroquine (CQ) dramatically reduced WSSV entry as well. Moreover, disturbance of dynamin activity or depletion of membrane cholesterol also blocked WSSV uptake. These data indicate that WSSV enters crayfish HPT cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis in a pH-dependent manner, and membrane cholesterol as well as dynamin is critical for efficient viral entry. PMID:26397221

  4. A METHOD TO REMOVE ENVIRONMENTAL INHIBITORS PRIOR TO THE DETECTION OF WATERBORNE ENTERIC VIRUSES BY REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION-POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed to remove environmental inhibitors from sample concentrates prior to detection of human enteric viruses using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Environmental inhibitors, concentrated along with viruses during water sample processi...

  5. Removal properties of human enteric viruses in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) process.

    PubMed

    Miura, Takayuki; Okabe, Satoshi; Nakahara, Yoshihito; Sano, Daisuke

    2015-05-15

    In order to evaluate removal properties of human enteric viruses from wastewater by a membrane bioreactor (MBR), influent, anoxic and oxic mixed liquor, and membrane effluent samples were collected in a pilot-scale anoxic-oxic MBR process for 16 months, and concentrations of enteroviruses, norovirus GII, and sapoviruses were determined by real-time PCR using murine norovirus as a process control. Mixed liquor samples were separated into liquid and solid phases by centrifugation, and viruses in the bulk solution and those associated with mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) were quantified. Enteroviruses, norovirus GII, and sapoviruses were detected in the influent throughout the sampling period (geometrical mean, 4.0, 3.1, and 4.4 log copies/mL, respectively). Enterovirus concentrations in the solid phase of mixed liquor were generally lower than those in the liquid phase, and the mean log reduction value between influent and anoxic mixed liquor was 0.40 log units. In contrast, norovirus GII and sapovirus concentrations in the solid phase were equal to or higher than those in the liquid phase, and higher log reduction values (1.3 and 1.1 log units, respectively) were observed between influent and anoxic mixed liquor. This suggested that enteroviruses were less associated with MLSS than norovirus GII and sapoviruses, resulting in lower enterovirus removal in the activated sludge process. Enteroviruses and norovirus GII were detected in the MBR effluent but sapoviruses were not in any effluent samples. When MLSS concentration was reduced to 50-60% of a normal operation level, passages of enteroviruses and norovirus GII through a PVDF microfiltration membrane were observed. Since rejection of viruses by the membrane was not related to trans-membrane pressure which was monitored as a parameter of membrane fouling, the results indicated that adsorption to MLSS plays an important role in virus removal by an MBR, and removal properties vary by viruses reflecting different

  6. Characterization of duck enteritis virus UL53 gene and glycoprotein K

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most of the previous research work had focused on the epidemiology and prevention of duck enteritis virus (DEV). Whilst with the development of protocols in molecular biology, nowadays more and more information about the genes of DEV was reported. But little information about DEV UL53 gene and glycoprotein K(gK) was known except our reported data. Results In our paper, the fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR(FQ-RT-PCR) assay and nucleic acid inhibition test were used to study the transcription characteristic of the DEV UL53 gene. Except detecting the mRNA of DEV UL53 gene, the product gK encoded by UL53 gene was detected through the expression kinetics of UL53 gene by the purified rabbit anti-UL53 protein polyclonal antibodies. Western-blotting and indirect immunofluorescence assays were used to detect gK. From the results of these experiments, the UL53 gene and gK were respectively identified as a late gene and a really late protein. On the other hand, the indirect immunofluorescence assay provided another information that the intracellular localization of DEV gK was mainly distributed in cytoplasm. Conclusions By way of conclusions, we conceded that DEV UL53 gene is a really late gene, which is coincident with properties of UL53 homologs from other herpesvirus, such as ILTV(Infectious Laryngotracheitis virus) and HSV-1(Herpes simplex virus type 1). The properties of intracellular localization about gK protein provided a foundation for further functional analysis and further studies will be focused on constructing of the UL53 gene DEV mutant. PMID:21586146

  7. Three-Dimensional Structure of a Protozoal Double-Stranded RNA Virus That Infects the Enteric Pathogen Giardia lamblia

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Mandy E. W.; Takagi, Yuko; Parent, Kristin N.; Cardone, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Giardia lamblia virus (GLV) is a small, nonenveloped, nonsegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus infecting Giardia lamblia, the most common protozoan pathogen of the human intestine and a major agent of waterborne diarrheal disease worldwide. GLV (genus Giardiavirus) is a member of family Totiviridae, along with several other groups of protozoal or fungal viruses, including Leishmania RNA viruses and Trichomonas vaginalis viruses. Interestingly, GLV is more closely related than other Totiviridae members to a group of recently discovered metazoan viruses that includes penaeid shrimp infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV). Moreover, GLV is the only known protozoal dsRNA virus that can transmit efficiently by extracellular means, also like IMNV. In this study, we used transmission electron cryomicroscopy and icosahedral image reconstruction to examine the GLV virion at an estimated resolution of 6.0 Å. Its outermost diameter is 485 Å, making it the largest totivirus capsid analyzed to date. Structural comparisons of GLV and other totiviruses highlighted a related “T=2” capsid organization and a conserved helix-rich fold in the capsid subunits. In agreement with its unique capacity as a protozoal dsRNA virus to survive and transmit through extracellular environments, GLV was found to be more thermoresistant than Trichomonas vaginalis virus 1, but no specific protein machinery to mediate cell entry, such as the fiber complexes in IMNV, could be localized. These and other structural and biochemical findings provide a basis for future work to dissect the cell entry mechanism of GLV into a “primitive” (early-branching) eukaryotic host and an important enteric pathogen of humans. IMPORTANCE Numerous pathogenic bacteria, including Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Salmonella enterica, and Vibrio cholerae, are infected with lysogenic bacteriophages that contribute significantly to bacterial virulence. In line with this phenomenon, several pathogenic protozoa

  8. Distribution of ribonucleic acid coliphages in animals.

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, S; Furuse, K; Watanabe, I

    1981-01-01

    To determine the distribution pattern of ribonucleic acid (RNA) coliphages (classified by serological groups I through IV) in animal sources, we isolated RNA phages from (i) feces samples from domestic animals (cows, pigs, horses, and fowls), some other animals in a zoological garden, and humans, (ii) the gastrointestinal contents of cows and pigs, and (iii) sewage samples from treatment plants in slaughter houses. These samples were then analyzed serologically. The concentration of RNA phages in the first and second kinds of material was fairly low (10 to 10(3) plaque-forming units per original phage sample), whereas that in the third kind of material was fairly high (10(3) to 10(5) plaque-forming units per original phage sample). Concerning the group types of the RNA phages in the first and second kinds of material, human feces contained RNA phages of groups II and III almost equally, the gastrointestinal contents of pigs included those of groups I and II equally, and the feces or gastrointestinal contents of other mammals other than humans and pigs had those of group I exclusively. In the third type of material we found mostly group I phages with a minor fraction of group II phages. Thus, the prominent features of the distribution pattern of RNA phages are the predominance of groups III and II in humans and the predominance of group I in animals. PMID:7224619

  9. NDV HN gene C-terminal extension is not the determinant of the enteric tropism but influences the virus virulence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many asymptomatic enteric Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains contain a larger hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein (616 amino acids, aa) than that (571 aa) of virulent respirotropic NDV strains. Therefore, it has been suspected that the 45 aa extension at the C-terminus of HN influences the v...

  10. Periodic monitoring of commercial turkeys for enteric viruses indicates continuous presence of astrovirus and rotavirus on the farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A longitudinal survey to detect enteric viruses in intestinal contents collected from turkeys in eight commercial operations and one research facility was performed using molecular detection methods. Intestinal contents were collected from turkeys prior to placement with each flock being re-sampled...

  11. Characterization of preferential flow pathways in a siliciclastic aquifer system using human enteric viruses and groundwater geochemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human enteric viruses have been recognized as an emerging groundwater contaminant and are found only in human waste. In urban environments the most likely source of human waste is from sanitary sewers. Determining the travel time for near-surface contaminants to reach deep public supply wells is i...

  12. Protective effects of recombinant glycoprotein D based prime boost approach against duck enteritis virus in mice model.

    PubMed

    Aravind, S; Kamble, Nitin Machindra; Gaikwad, Satish S; Shukla, Sanjeev Kumar; Saravanan, R; Dey, Sohini; Madhan Mohan, C

    2015-11-01

    Duck virus enteritis, also known as duck plague, is an acute herpes viral infection of ducks caused by duck enteritis virus (DEV). The method of repeated immunization with a live attenuated vaccine has been used for the prevention and control of duck enteritis virus (DEV). However, the incidence of the disease in vaccinated flocks and latency reactivation are the major constraints in the present vaccination programme. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy afforded by intramuscular inoculation of plasmid DNA encoding DEV glycoprotein D (pCDNA-gD) followed by DEV gD expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisia (rgD) was assessed in a murine model. Compared with mice inoculated with DNA (pCDNA-gD) or protein (rgD) only, mice inoculated with the combination of gD DNA and protein had enhanced ELISA antibody titers to DEV and had accelerated clearance of virus following challenge infection. Furthermore, the highest levels of lymphocyte proliferation response, IL-4, IL-12 and IFN-γ production were induced following priming with the DNA vaccine and boosting with the rgD protein. For instance, the specially designed recombinant DEV vector vaccine would be the best choice to use in ducks. It offers an excellent solution to the low vaccination coverage rate in ducks. We expect that the application of this novel vaccine in the near future will greatly decrease the virus load in the environment and reduce outbreaks of DEV in ducks. PMID:26188265

  13. Use of Propidium Monoazide in Reverse Transcriptase PCR To Distinguish between Infectious and Noninfectious Enteric Viruses in Water Samples▿

    PubMed Central

    Parshionikar, Sandhya; Laseke, Ian; Fout, G. Shay

    2010-01-01

    Human enteric viruses can be present in untreated and inadequately treated drinking water. Molecular methods, such as the reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), can detect viral genomes in a few hours, but they cannot distinguish between infectious and noninfectious viruses. Since only infectious viruses are a public health concern, methods that not only are rapid but also provide information on the infectivity of viruses are of interest. The intercalating dye propidium monoazide (PMA) has been used for distinguishing between viable and nonviable bacteria with DNA genomes, but it has not been used to distinguish between infectious and noninfectious enteric viruses with RNA genomes. In this study, PMA in conjunction with RT-PCR (PMA-RT-PCR) was used to determine the infectivity of enteric RNA viruses in water. Coxsackievirus, poliovirus, echovirus, and Norwalk virus were rendered noninfectious or inactivated by treatment with heat (72°C, 37°C, and 19°C) or hypochlorite. Infectious or native and noninfectious or inactivated viruses were treated with PMA. This was followed by RNA extraction and RT-PCR or quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. The PMA-RT-PCR results indicated that PMA treatment did not interfere with detection of infectious or native viruses but prevented detection of noninfectious or inactivated viruses that were rendered noninfectious or inactivated by treatment at 72°C and 37°C and by hypochlorite treatment. However, PMA-RT-PCR was unable to prevent detection of enteroviruses that were rendered noninfectious by treatment at 19°C. After PMA treatment poliovirus that was rendered noninfectious by treatment at 37°C was undetectable by qRT-PCR, but PMA treatment did not affect detection of Norwalk virus. PMA-RT-PCR was also shown to be effective for detecting infectious poliovirus in the presence of noninfectious virus and in an environmental matrix. We concluded that PMA can be used to differentiate between potentially infectious and noninfectious

  14. Use of propidium monoazide in reverse transcriptase PCR to distinguish between infectious and noninfectious enteric viruses in water samples.

    PubMed

    Parshionikar, Sandhya; Laseke, Ian; Fout, G Shay

    2010-07-01

    Human enteric viruses can be present in untreated and inadequately treated drinking water. Molecular methods, such as the reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), can detect viral genomes in a few hours, but they cannot distinguish between infectious and noninfectious viruses. Since only infectious viruses are a public health concern, methods that not only are rapid but also provide information on the infectivity of viruses are of interest. The intercalating dye propidium monoazide (PMA) has been used for distinguishing between viable and nonviable bacteria with DNA genomes, but it has not been used to distinguish between infectious and noninfectious enteric viruses with RNA genomes. In this study, PMA in conjunction with RT-PCR (PMA-RT-PCR) was used to determine the infectivity of enteric RNA viruses in water. Coxsackievirus, poliovirus, echovirus, and Norwalk virus were rendered noninfectious or inactivated by treatment with heat (72 degrees C, 37 degrees C, and 19 degrees C) or hypochlorite. Infectious or native and noninfectious or inactivated viruses were treated with PMA. This was followed by RNA extraction and RT-PCR or quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. The PMA-RT-PCR results indicated that PMA treatment did not interfere with detection of infectious or native viruses but prevented detection of noninfectious or inactivated viruses that were rendered noninfectious or inactivated by treatment at 72 degrees C and 37 degrees C and by hypochlorite treatment. However, PMA-RT-PCR was unable to prevent detection of enteroviruses that were rendered noninfectious by treatment at 19 degrees C. After PMA treatment poliovirus that was rendered noninfectious by treatment at 37 degrees C was undetectable by qRT-PCR, but PMA treatment did not affect detection of Norwalk virus. PMA-RT-PCR was also shown to be effective for detecting infectious poliovirus in the presence of noninfectious virus and in an environmental matrix. We concluded that PMA can be used to differentiate

  15. Recombinant duck enteritis viruses expressing major structural proteins of the infectious bronchitis virus provide protection against infectious bronchitis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Huixin; Wang, Yulong; Han, Zongxi; Wang, Yu; Liang, Shulin; Jiang, Lu; Hu, Yonghao; Kong, Xiangang; Liu, Shengwang

    2016-06-01

    To design an alternative vaccine for control of infectious bronchitis in chickens, three recombinant duck enteritis viruses (rDEVs) expressing the N, S, or S1 protein of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) were constructed using conventional homologous recombination methods, and were designated as rDEV-N, rDEV-S, and rDEV-S1, respectively. Chickens were divided into five vaccinated groups, which were each immunized with one of the rDEVs, covalent vaccination with rDEV-N & rDEV-S, or covalent vaccination with rDEV-N & rDEV-S1, and a control group. An antibody response against IBV was detectable and the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-lymphocytes decreased at 7 days post-vaccination in each vaccinated group, suggesting that humoral and cellular responses were elicited in each group as early as 7 days post-immunization. After challenge with a homologous virulent IBV strain at 21 days post-immunization, vaccinated groups showed significant differences in the percentage of birds with clinical signs, as compared to the control group (p < 0.01), as the two covalent-vaccination groups and the rDEV-S group provided better protection than the rDEV-N- or rDEV-S1-vaccinated group. There was less viral shedding in the rDEV-N & rDEV-S- (2/10) and rDEV-N & rDEV-S1- (2/10) vaccinated groups than the other three vaccinated groups. Based on the clinical signs, viral shedding, and mortality rates, rDEV-N & rDEV-S1 covalent vaccination conferred better protection than use of any of the single rDEVs. PMID:26946113

  16. Detection of Bacterial Indicators and Human and Bovine Enteric Viruses in Surface Water and Groundwater Sources Potentially Impacted by Animal and Human Wastes in Lower Yakima Valley, Washington▿

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Kristen E.; Schwab, Kellogg J.

    2011-01-01

    Tangential flow ultrafiltration (UF) was used to concentrate and recover bacterial indicators and enteric viruses from 100 liters of groundwater (GW; n = 10) and surface water (SW; n = 11) samples collected in Lower Yakima Valley, WA. Human and bovine enteric viruses were analyzed in SW and GW concentrates by real-time PCR by using integrated inhibition detection. PMID:21075875

  17. DETECTION BY PCR OF HUMAN ENTERIC VIRUSES CONCENTRATED FROM LARGE VOLUMES OF WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Viruses are recovered and concentrated from water by passage through a positively charged cartridge filter. Following virus elution from the cartridge filter with beef extract and concentration of the beef extract solution, viruses are usually assayed by cell culture. However...

  18. Sunlight inactivation of somatic coliphage in the presence of natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chen-Xi; Kitajima, Masaaki; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2016-01-15

    Long wavelengths of sunlight spectrum (UVA and visible light), as well as natural organic matter (NOM) are important environmental factors affecting survival of viruses in aquatic environment through direct and indirect inactivation. In order to understand the virus inactivation kinetics under such conditions, this study investigated the effects of Suwannee River natural organic matter (NOM) on the inactivation of a somatic coliphage, phiX174, by UVA and visible light. Experiments were carried out to examine the virucidal effects of UVA/visible light, assess the influence of SRNOM at different concentrations, and identify the effective ROS in virus inactivation. The results from this study showed that the presence of NOM could either enhance virus inactivation or reduce virus inactivation depending on the concentration, where the inactivation rate followed a parabolic relationship against NOM concentration. The results indicated that moderate levels of NOM (11 ppm) had the strongest antiviral activity, while very low or very high NOM concentrations prolonged virus survival. The results also showed that OH▪ was the primary ROS in causing phiX174 (ssDNA virus) inactivation, unlike previous findings where (1)O2 was the primary ROS causing MS2 (ssRNA virus) inactivation. The phiX174 inactivation by OH∙ could be described as k=3.7 ✕ 10(13)[OH∙]+1.404 (R(2)=0.8527). PMID:26386910

  19. Method for recovery of enteric viruses from estuarine sediments with chaotropic agents.

    PubMed Central

    Wait, D A; Sobsey, M D

    1983-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the ability of chaotropes, low-molecular-weight ionic compounds which enhance the solubilization of hydrophobic compounds in water, to improve the recovery of enteric viruses from highly organic estuarine sediments. Chaotropic agents alone were poor eluents of polioviruses from sediment but were effective when combined with 3% beef extract. Chaotropes of lower potency, NaNO3, NaCl, and KCl, were more efficient eluents than the stronger chaotropes, guanidium hydrochloride or sodium trichloroacetate. The most effective eluent was 2 M NaNO3 in 3% beef extract at pH 5.5, which eluted 71% of sediment-associated polioviruses. Efficient concentration of the sodium nitrate-beef extract eluate by organic flocculation required the addition of the antichaotrope (NH4)2SO4 to a 2 M concentration and Cat-Floc T (Calgon, Pittsburgh, Pa.) a cationic polyelectrolyte, to a 0.01% concentration. Dialysis of the final concentrate was necessary to reduce salts to nontoxic levels before assay in cell cultures. Trials with highly organic estuarine sediment seeded with high or low numbers of poliovirus 1, echovirus 1, or rotavirus SA-11 demonstrated the superiority of this method over two other methods currently in use. PMID:6312884

  20. Effect of distance from the polluting focus on relative concentrations of Bacteroides fragilis phages and coliphages in mussels.

    PubMed Central

    Lucena, F; Lasobras, J; McIntosh, D; Forcadell, M; Jofre, J

    1994-01-01

    Concentrations of fecal bacteria, somatic and F-specific coliphages, and phages infecting Bacteroides fragilis in naturally occurring black mussels (Mytilus edulis) were determined. Mussels were collected over a 7-month period at four sampling sites with different levels of fecal pollution. Concentrations of both fecal bacteria and bacteriophages in mussel meat paralleled the concentration of fecal bacteria in the overlying waters. Mussels bioaccumulated efficiently, although with different efficiencies, all of the microorganisms studied. Ratios comparing the levels of microorganisms in mussels were determined. These ratios changed in mussels collected at the different sites. They suggest that bacteriophages infecting B. fragilis and somatic coliphages have the lowest decay rates among the microorganisms studied, with the exception of Clostridium perfringens. On the contrary, concentrations of F-specific coliphages showed a greater rate of decay than the other bacteriophages at sites more distant from the focus of contamination. Additionally, levels of enteroviruses were studied in a number of samples, and in these samples, the B. fragilis bacteriophages clearly outnumbered the enteroviruses. The results of this study indicate that, under the environmental conditions studied, the fate of phages infecting B. fragilis released into the marine environment resembles that of human viruses more than any other microorganism examined. Images PMID:8074509

  1. Detection of human enteric viruses in oysters by in vivo and in vitro amplification of nucleic acids.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, H; Jaykus, L A; Sobsey, M D

    1996-01-01

    This study describes the detection of enteroviruses and hepatitis A virus in 31 naturally contaminated oyster specimens by nucleic acid amplification and oligonucleotide probing. Viruses were extracted by adsorption-elution-precipitation from 50-g oyster samples harvested from an area receiving sewage effluent discharge. Ninety percent of each extract was inoculated into primate kidney cell cultures for virus isolation and infectivity assay. Viruses in the remaining 10% of oyster extract that was not inoculated into cell cultures were further purified and concentrated by a procedure involving Freon extraction, polyethylene glycol precipitation, and Pro-Cipitate precipitation. After 3 to 4 weeks of incubation, RNA was extracted from inoculated cultures that were negative for cytopathic effects (CPE). These RNA extracts and the RNA from virions purified and concentrated directly from oyster extracts were subjected to reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) with primer pairs for human enteroviruses and hepatitis A virus. The resulting amplicons were confirmed by internal oligonucleotide probe hybridization. For the portions of oyster sample extracts inoculated into cell cultures, 12 (39%) were positive for human enteroviruses by CPE and 6 (19%) were positive by RT-PCR and oligoprobing of RNA extracts from CPE-negative cell cultures. For the remaining sample portions tested by direct RT-PCR and oligoprobing after further concentration, five (about 16%) were confirmed to be positive for human enteroviruses. Hepatitis A virus was also detected in RNA extracts of two CPE-positive samples by RT-PCR and oligoprobing. Combining the data from all three methods, enteric viruses were detected in 18 of 31 (58%) samples. Detection by nucleic acid methods increased the number of positive samples by 50% over detection by CPE in cell culture. Hence, nucleic acid amplification methods increase the detection of noncytopathic human enteric viruses in oysters. PMID:8837433

  2. Quantifying viruses and bacteria in wastewater—Results, interpretation methods, and quality control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Mailot, Brian E.; Spencer, Susan K.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Elber, Ashley G.; Riddell, Kimberly R.; Gellner, Terry M.

    2011-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR), used for wastewater treatment in Ohio and elsewhere in the United States, have pore sizes small enough to theoretically reduce concentrations of protozoa and bacteria, but not viruses. Sampling for viruses in wastewater is seldom done and not required. Instead, the bacterial indicators Escherichia coli (E. coli) and fecal coliforms are the required microbial measures of effluents for wastewater-discharge permits. Information is needed on the effectiveness of MBRs in removing human enteric viruses from wastewaters, particularly as compared to conventional wastewater treatment before and after disinfection. A total of 73 regular and 28 quality-control (QC) samples were collected at three MBR and two conventional wastewater plants in Ohio during 23 regular and 3 QC sampling trips in 2008-10. Samples were collected at various stages in the treatment processes and analyzed for bacterial indicators E. coli, fecal coliforms, and enterococci by membrane filtration; somatic and F-specific coliphage by the single agar layer (SAL) method; adenovirus, enterovirus, norovirus GI and GII, rotavirus, and hepatitis A virus by molecular methods; and viruses by cell culture. While addressing the main objective of the study-comparing removal of viruses and bacterial indicators in MBR and conventional plants-it was realized that work was needed to identify data analysis and quantification methods for interpreting enteric virus and QC data. Therefore, methods for quantifying viruses, qualifying results, and applying QC data to interpretations are described in this report. During each regular sampling trip, samples were collected (1) before conventional or MBR treatment (post-preliminary), (2) after secondary or MBR treatment (post-secondary or post-MBR), (3) after tertiary treatment (one conventional plant only), and (4) after disinfection (post-disinfection). Glass-wool fiber filtration was used to concentrate enteric viruses from large volumes, and small

  3. Presence of pathogenic enteric viruses in illegally imported meat and meat products to EU by international air travelers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; Montes-Briones, Rebeca; Gallego, David; Hernández, Marta; Rovira, Jordi

    2015-09-16

    One hundred twenty two meat samples confiscated from passengers on flights from non-European countries at the International Airport of Bilbao (Spain) were tested for the presence of the main foodborne viral pathogens (human noroviruses genogroups I and II, hepatitis A and E viruses) during 2012 and 2013. A sample process control virus, murine norovirus, was used to evaluate the correct performance of the method. Overall, 67 samples were positive for at least one enteric viruses, 65 being positive for hepatitis E virus (53.3%), 3 for human norovirus genogroup I (2.5%) and 1 for human norovirus genogroup II (0.8%), whereas hepatitis A virus was not detected in any sample. The type of positive meat samples was diverse, but mainly was pork meat products (64.2%). The geographical origin of the positive samples was wide and diverse; samples from 15 out 19 countries tested were positive for at least one virus. However, the estimated virus load was low, ranging from 55 to 9.0 × 10(4) PDU per gram of product. The results obtained showed the potential introduction of viral agents in travelers' luggage, which constitute a neglected route of introduction and transmission. PMID:25951793

  4. COLIPHAGES AS POTENTIAL VIRAL INDICATORS OF FECAL POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Friedman, Stephanie D. In press. Coliphages as Potential Viral Indicators of Fecal Pollution (Abstract). To be presented at the SWS/GERS Fall Joint Society Meeting: Communication and Collaboration: Coastal Systems of the Gulf of Mexico and Southeastern United States, 6-9 October ...

  5. QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR METHODS TO DETECT HUMAN ENTERIC VIRUSES IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface or groundwaters impacted by untreated or inadequately treated domestic wastes may contain human pathogenic viruses that cause hepatitis, gastroenteritis, meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, diabetes, conjunctivitis and temporary or permanent paralysis. These viruses c...

  6. EVALUATION OF THE TENTATIVE STANDARD METHOD FOR ENTERIC VIRUS CONCENTRATION AND DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tentative Standard Method (TSM) for concentrating viruses from drinking water was evaluated for nine viruses using 100-gal tap water volumes experimentally contaminated with about 100 plaque-forming units of virus. The mean recoveries of poliovirus 1, coxsackievirus A9 and B3...

  7. Human enteric viruses in groundwater indicate offshore transport of human sewage to coral reefs of the Upper Florida Keys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Futch, J. Carrie; Griffin, Dale W.; Lipp, Erin K.

    2010-01-01

    To address the issue of human sewage reaching corals along the main reef of the Florida Keys, samples were collected from surface water, groundwater and coral [surface mucopolysaccharide layers (SML)] along a 10 km transect near Key Largo, FL. Samples were collected semi-annually between July 2003 and September 2005 and processed for faecal indicator bacteria (faecal coliform bacteria, enterococci and Clostridium perfringens) and human-specific enteric viruses (enterovirus RNA and adenovirus DNA) by (RT)-nested polymerase chain reaction. Faecal indicator bacteria concentrations were generally higher nearshore and in the coral SML. Enteric viruses were evenly distributed across the transect stations. Adenoviruses were detected in 37 of 75 samples collected (49.3%) whereas enteroviruses were only found in 8 of 75 samples (10.7%). Both viruses were detected twice as frequently in coral compared with surface water or groundwater. Offshore, viruses were most likely to be found in groundwater, especially during the wet summer season. These data suggest that polluted groundwater may be moving to the outer reef environment in the Florida Keys.

  8. Source and transport of human enteric viruses in deep municipal water supply wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradbury, Kenneth R.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Gotkowitz, Madeline; Spencer, Susan K.; Zhu, Jun; Hunt, Randall J.

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, few water utilities or researchers were aware of possible virus presence in deep aquifers and wells. During 2008 and 2009 we collected a time series of virus samples from six deep municipal water-supply wells. The wells range in depth from approximately 220 to 300 m and draw water from a sandstone aquifer. Three of these wells draw water from beneath a regional aquitard, and three draw water from both above and below the aquitard. We also sampled a local lake and untreated sewage as potential virus sources. Viruses were detected up to 61% of the time in each well sampled, and many groundwater samples were positive for virus infectivity. Lake samples contained viruses over 75% of the time. Virus concentrations and serotypes observed varied markedly with time in all samples. Sewage samples were all extremely high in virus concentration. Virus serotypes detected in sewage and groundwater were temporally correlated, suggesting very rapid virus transport, on the order of weeks, from the source(s) to wells. Adenovirus and enterovirus levels in the wells were associated with precipitation events. The most likely source of the viruses in the wells was leakage of untreated sewage from sanitary sewer pipes.

  9. Infectivity-destroying Effect of Humidity for Dried Coliphage T1

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, P. R.

    1968-01-01

    Infectivity of dried coliphage T1 has been measured as a function of humidity, temperature, and atmospheric pressure. Loss of infectivity by a factor of 104 was caused by water vapor of approximately 40 to 85% saturation when the microorganisms were kept for 3 days at 34 C in evacuated containers. At humidities below 40% and above 90% saturation, no loss of infectivity occurred. At a temperature of 24 C, the infectivity loss was 20-fold. When the virus preparation was kept at 34 C and atmospheric pressure, some loss of infectivity was also found at humidities below 40% and above 90% saturation. Damage to tail proteins or to the phage chromosome is considered as a possible explanation for the inactivation. PMID:5684204

  10. Expression and characterization of duck enteritis virus gI gene

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background At present, alphaherpesviruses gI gene and its encoding protein have been extensively studied. It is likely that gI protein and its homolog play similar roles in virions direct cell-to-cell spread of alphaherpesviruses. But, little is known about the characteristics of DEV gI gene. In this study, we expressed and presented the basic properties of the DEV gI protein. Results The special 1221-bp fragment containing complete open reading frame(ORF) of duck enteritis virus(DEV) gI gene was extracted from plasmid pMD18-T-gI, and then cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET-32a(+), resulting in pET-32a(+)-gI. After being confirmed by PCR, restriction endonuclease digestion and sequencing, pET-32a(+)-gI was transformed into E.coli BL21(DE3) competent cells for overexpression. DEV gI gene was successfully expressed by the addition of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside(IPTG). SDS-PAGE showed that the recombinant protein His6-tagged gI molecular weight was about 61 kDa. Subsequently, the expressed product was applied to generate specific antibody against gI protein. The specificity of the rabbit immuneserum was confirmed by its ability to react with the recombinant protein His6-tagged gI. In addition, real time-PCR was used to determine the the levels of the mRNA transcripts of gI gene, the results showed that the DEV gI gene was transcribed most abundantly during the late phase of infection. Furthermore, indirect immunofluorescence(IIF) was established to study the gI protein expression and localization in DEV-infected duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs), the results confirmed that the protein was expressed and located in the cytoplasm of the infected cells, intensively. Conclusions The recombinant prokaryotic expression vector of DEV gI gene was constructed successfully. The gI protein was successfully expressed by E.coli BL21(DE3) and maintained its antigenicity very well. The basic information of the transcription and intracellular localization of gI gene

  11. Metagenomic identification of novel enteric viruses in urban wild rats and genome characterization of a group A rotavirus

    PubMed Central

    Sachsenröder, Jana; Braun, Anne; Machnowska, Patrycja; Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Deng, Xutao; Guenther, Sebastian; Bernstein, Samuel; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Delwart, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Rats are known as reservoirs and vectors for several zoonotic pathogens. However, information on the viruses shed by urban wild rats that could pose a zoonotic risk to human health is scare. Here, intestinal contents from 20 wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) collected in the city of Berlin, Germany, were subjected to metagenomic analysis of viral nucleic acids. The determined faecal viromes of rats consisted of a variety of known and unknown viruses, and were highly variable among the individuals. Members of the families Parvoviridae and Picobirnaviridae represented the most abundant species. Novel picornaviruses, bocaviruses, sapoviruses and stool-associated circular ssDNA viruses were identified, which showed only low sequence identity to known representatives of the corresponding taxa. In addition, noroviruses and rotaviruses were detected as potential zoonotic gastroenteritis viruses. However, partial-genome sequence analyses indicated that the norovirus was closely related to the recently identified rat norovirus and the rotavirus B was closely related to the rat rotavirus strain IDIR; both viruses clustered separately from respective human virus strains in phylogenetic trees. In contrast, the rotavirus A sequences showed high identity to human and animal strains. Analysis of the nearly complete genome of this virus revealed the known genotypes G3, P[3] and N2 for three of the genome segments, whereas the remaining eight genome segments represented the novel genotypes I20–R11–C11–M10–A22–T14–E18–H13. Our results indicated a high heterogeneity of enteric viruses present in urban wild rats; their ability to be transmitted to humans remains to be assessed in the future. PMID:25121550

  12. Oral Phage Therapy of Acute Bacterial Diarrhea With Two Coliphage Preparations: A Randomized Trial in Children From Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Shafiqul Alam; Sultana, Shamima; Reuteler, Gloria; Moine, Deborah; Descombes, Patrick; Charton, Florence; Bourdin, Gilles; McCallin, Shawna; Ngom-Bru, Catherine; Neville, Tara; Akter, Mahmuda; Huq, Sayeeda; Qadri, Firdausi; Talukdar, Kaisar; Kassam, Mohamed; Delley, Michèle; Loiseau, Chloe; Deng, Ying; El Aidy, Sahar; Berger, Bernard; Brüssow, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance is rising in important bacterial pathogens. Phage therapy (PT), the use of bacterial viruses infecting the pathogen in a species-specific way, is a potential alternative. Method T4-like coliphages or a commercial Russian coliphage product or placebo was orally given over 4 days to Bangladeshi children hospitalized with acute bacterial diarrhea. Safety of oral phage was assessed clinically and by functional tests; coliphage and Escherichia coli titers and enteropathogens were determined in stool and quantitative diarrhea parameters (stool output, stool frequency) were measured. Stool microbiota was studied by 16S rRNA gene sequencing; the genomes of four fecal Streptococcus isolates were sequenced. Findings No adverse events attributable to oral phage application were observed (primary safety outcome). Fecal coliphage was increased in treated over control children, but the titers did not show substantial intestinal phage replication (secondary microbiology outcome). 60% of the children suffered from a microbiologically proven E. coli diarrhea; the most frequent diagnosis was ETEC infections. Bacterial co-pathogens were also detected. Half of the patients contained phage-susceptible E. coli colonies in the stool. E. coli represented less than 5% of fecal bacteria. Stool ETEC titers showed only a short-lived peak and were otherwise close to the replication threshold determined for T4 phage in vitro. An interim analysis after the enrollment of 120 patients showed no amelioration in quantitative diarrhea parameter by PT over standard care (tertiary clinical outcome). Stool microbiota was characterized by an overgrowth with Streptococcus belonging to the Streptococcus gallolyticus and Streptococcus salivarius species groups, their abundance correlated with quantitative diarrhea outcome, but genome sequencing did not identify virulence genes. Interpretation Oral coliphages showed a safe gut transit in children, but failed to achieve

  13. AUTOGRAPHA CALIFORNICA NUCLEAR POLYHEDROSIS VIRUS EFFICIENTLY ENTERS BUT DOES NOT REPLICATE IN POIKILOTHERMIC VERTEBRATE CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The host range of the insect virus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) was examined. AcMNPV could not initiate a productive infection in frog, turtle, trout, or moth cell lines. After exposure to AcMNPV, neither viral DNA nor RNA synthesis could be detected...

  14. Molecular epidemiology of enteric viruses in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Aichi prefecture, Japan, 2008/09-2013/14.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Noriko; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Minagawa, Hiroko; Matsushita, Tadashi; Sugiura, Wataru; Iwatani, Yasumasa

    2016-07-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is a critical infectious disease that affects infants and young children throughout the world, including Japan. This retrospective study was conducted from September 2008 to August 2014 (six seasons: 2008/09-2013/14) to investigate the incidence of enteric viruses responsible for 1,871 cases of acute gastroenteritis in Aichi prefecture, Japan. Of the 1,871 cases, 1,100 enteric viruses were detected in 978 samples, of which strains from norovirus (NoV) genogroup II (60.9%) were the most commonly detected, followed by strains of rotavirus A (RVA) (23.2%), adenovirus (AdV) type 41 (8.2%), sapovirus (SaV) (3.6%), human astrovirus (HAstV) (2.8%), and NoV genogroup I (1.3%). Sequencing of the NoV genogroup II (GII) strains revealed that GII.4 was the most common genotype, although four different GII.4 variants were also identified. The most common G-genotype of RVA was G1 (63.9%), followed by G3 (27.1%), G2 (4.7%) and G9 (4.3%). Three genogroups of SaV strains were found: GI (80.0%), GII (15.0%), and GV (5.0%). HAstV strains were genotyped as HAstV-1 (80.6%), HAstV-8 (16.1%), and HAstV-3 (3.2%). These results show that NoV GII was the leading cause of sporadic acute viral gastroenteritis, although a variety of enteric viruses were detected during the six-season surveillance period. PMID:26647761

  15. REDUCTION OF INTERFERING CYTOTOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH WASTEWATER SLUDGE CONCENTRATES ASSAYED FOR INDIGENOUS ENTERIC VIRUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Washing, freon extraction, and cationic polyelectrolyte precipitation were compared for their ability to reduce cytotoxicity associated with virus concentrates derived from beef extract eluates of wastewater sludges. Eluates concentrated by hydroextraction were usually much more ...

  16. Data report. The fate of human enteric viruses in a natural sewage recycling system

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, J.M.; Landry, E.F.

    1980-09-01

    A two-year study was conducted to determine the virus-removing capacity of two man-made ecosystems designed for the treatment of raw domestic wastewater. The first treatment system consisted of two meadows followed by a marsh-pond unit (M/M/P). The second system contained individual marsh and pond units (M/P). All systems demonstrated moderate virus removal, with the marsh/pond system yielding the most consistent removal rates. Within this system, the greater potential for virus removal appeared to occur in the marsh unit. In addition to the production of system-oriented data, improved techniques for the concentration and enumeration of human viruses from sewage-polluted aquatic systems were developed.

  17. Post-epizootic surveys of waterfowl for duck plague (duck virus enteritis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, C.J.; Docherty, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Surviving birds from nine duck plague outbreaks in urban and confined waterfowl were sampled for duck plague (DP) virus and DP antibody during 1979-86. Duck plague virus was found in combined oral and cloacal swabs of birds from three outbreaks, and DP-neutralizing antibody was demonstrated in some birds from all nine outbreaks. Greater prevalence of DP antibody and higher titers were found in survivors from confined populations than from free-flying urban populations. Free-flying waterfowl from within 52 km of four DP outbreak sites were also sampled; virus was not found in any birds, but DP antibody was found in urban waterfowl in the vicinity of an outbreak in Potterville, Michigan. No evidence of exposure to or shedding of DP virus in migratory waterfowl was found in two regions where DP appears enzootic in urban and confined waterfowl (Eastern Shore of Maryland and the vicinity of Sacramento, California).

  18. Detection of human enteric viruses in stream water with RT-PCR and cell culture.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denis-Mize, K.; Fout, G.S.; Dahling, D.R.; Francy, D.S.

    2004-01-01

    A multiplex RT-PCR method was used to measure virus occurrence at five stream water sites that span a range of hydroclimatic, water-quality, and land-use characteristics. The performance of the molecular method was evaluated in comparison with traditional cell culture and Escherichia coli membrane filtration assays. The study incorporated multiple quality controls and included a control for virus recovery during the sampling procedure as well as controls to detect potentially false-negative and false-positive data. Poliovirus recovery ranged from 16 to 65% and was variable, even in samples collected within the same stream. All five sites were positive for viruses by both molecular and cell culture-based virus assays. Enteroviruses, reoviruses, rotaviruses, and hepatitis A viruses were detected, but the use of the quality controls proved critical for interpretation of the molecular data. All sites showed evidence of faecal contamination, and culturable viruses were detected in four samples that would have met the US Environmental Protection Agency's recommended E. coli guideline for safe recreational water.

  19. Human viruses and viral indicators in marine water at two recreational beaches in Southern California, USA.

    PubMed

    Love, David C; Rodriguez, Roberto A; Gibbons, Christopher D; Griffith, John F; Yu, Qilu; Stewart, Jill R; Sobsey, Mark D

    2014-03-01

    Waterborne enteric viruses may pose disease risks to bather health but occurrence of these viruses has been difficult to characterize at recreational beaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate water for human virus occurrence at two Southern California recreational beaches with a history of beach closures. Human enteric viruses (adenovirus and norovirus) and viral indicators (F+ and somatic coliphages) were measured in water samples over a 4-month period from Avalon Beach, Catalina Island (n = 324) and Doheny Beach, Orange County (n = 112). Human viruses were concentrated from 40 L samples and detected by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Detection frequencies at Doheny Beach were 25.5% (adenovirus) and 22.3% (norovirus), and at Avalon Beach were 9.3% (adenovirus) and 0.7% (norovirus). Positive associations between adenoviruses and fecal coliforms were observed at Doheny (p = 0.02) and Avalon (p = 0.01) Beaches. Human viruses were present at both beaches at higher frequencies than previously detected in the region, suggesting that the virus detection methods presented here may better measure potential health risks to bathers. These virus recovery, concentration, and molecular detection methods are advancing practices so that analysis of enteric viruses can become more effective and routine for recreational water quality monitoring. PMID:24642440

  20. A single method for recovery and concentration of enteric viruses and bacteria from fresh-cut vegetables.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, G; Elizaquível, P; Aznar, R

    2012-01-01

    Fresh-cut vegetables are prone to be contaminated with foodborne pathogens during growth, harvest, transport and further processing and handling. As most of these products are generally eaten raw or mildly treated, there is an increase in the number of outbreaks caused by viruses and bacteria associated with fresh vegetables. Foodborne pathogens are usually present at very low levels and have to be concentrated (i.e. viruses) or enriched (i.e. bacteria) to enhance their detection. With this aim, a rapid concentration method has been developed for the simultaneous recovery of hepatitis A virus (HAV), norovirus (NV), murine norovirus (MNV) as a surrogate for NV, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica. Initial experiments focused on evaluating the elution conditions suitable for virus release from vegetables. Finally, elution with buffered peptone water (BPW), using a Pulsifier, and concentration by polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation were the methods selected for the elution and concentration of both, enteric viruses and bacteria, from three different types of fresh-cut vegetables by quantitative PCR (qPCR) using specific primers. The average recoveries from inoculated parsley, spinach and salad, were ca. 9.2%, 43.5%, and 20.7% for NV, MNV, and HAV, respectively. Detection limits were 132 RT-PCR units (PCRU), 1.5 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID₅₀), and 6.6 TCID₅₀ for NV, MNV, and HAV, respectively. This protocol resulted in average recoveries of 57.4%, 64.5% and 64.6% in three vegetables for E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes and Salmonella with corresponding detection limits of 10³, 10² and 10³ CFU/g, respectively. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the procedure herein is suitable to recover, detect and quantify enteric viruses and foodborne pathogenic bacteria within 5 h and can be applied for the simultaneous detection of both types of foodborne pathogens in fresh-cut vegetables. PMID:22036077

  1. Feeding of the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 differentially affects shedding of enteric viruses in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Effects of probiotic bacteria on viral infections have been described previously. Here, two groups of sows and their piglets were fed with or without feed supplementation of the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415. Shedding of enteric viruses naturally occurring in these pigs was analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. No differences between the groups were recorded for hepatitis E virus, encephalomyocarditis virus and norovirus. In contrast, astrovirus was exclusively detected in the non-supplemented control group. Rotavirus was shedded later and with lower amounts in the probiotic piglet group (p < 0.05); rotavirus-shedding piglets gained less weight than non-infected animals (p < 0.05). Serum titres of anti-rotavirus IgA and IgG antibodies were higher in piglets from the control group, whereas no difference was detected between sow groups. Phenotype analysis of immune cell antigens revealed significant differences of the CD4 and CD8β (p < 0.05) as well as CD8α and CD25 (p < 0.1) T cell populations of the probiotic supplemented group compared to the non-supplemented control group. In addition, differences were evident for CD21/MHCII-positive (p < 0.05) and IgM-positive (p < 0.1) B cell populations. The results indicate that probiotic bacteria could have effects on virus shedding in naturally infected pigs, which depend on the virus type. These effects seem to be caused by immunological changes; however, the distinct mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. PMID:22838386

  2. A MULTI-LABORATORY EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR DETECTING ENTERIC VIRUSES IN SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two candidate methods for the recovery and detection of viruses in soil were subjected to round robin comparative testing by members of the American Society for Testing and Materials D19:24:04:04 Subcommittee Task Group. Selection of the methods, designated “Berg” and “Goyal,” wa...

  3. DETECTION OF HUMAN ENTERIC VIRUSES IN STREAM WATER WITH RT-PCR AND CELL CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multiplex RT-PCR method was used to measure virus occurrence at five stream water sites that span a range of hydroclimatic, water-quality, and land-use characteristics. The performance of the molecular method was evaluated in comparison to traditional cell culture and Escherich...

  4. ENTERIC VIRUS AND INDICATOR BACTERIA LEVELS IN A WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM MODIFIED TO REDUCE TRIHALOMETHANE PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A drinking water treatment plant with high concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) in its finished water and large numbers of viruses in its source water was located. This plant was used to study the effect of an alteration in the point of chlorination from the first to last ste...

  5. IMMUNE RESPONSE AND PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODY TO NORWALK ENTERITIS VIRUS AS DETERMINED BY RADIOIMMUNOASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A solid-phase microtiter radioimmunoassay was established for the detection of Norwalk virus and its antibody, with clinical materials from human volunteers previously studied in Massachusetts as reagents. A study of 308 Massachusetts residents showed that serum antibody to Norwa...

  6. MULTI-LABORATORY EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR DETECTING ENTERIC VIRUSES IN SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two candidate methods for the recovery and detection of viruses in soil were subjected to round robin comparative testing by members of the American Society for Testing and Materials Dl9:24:04:04 subcommittee Task Group. election of the methods, designated "Berg" and "Goyal", was...

  7. A Duck Enteritis Virus-Vectored Bivalent Live Vaccine Provides Fast and Complete Protection against H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Ducks ▿ † §

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinxiong; Chen, Pucheng; Jiang, Yongping; Wu, Li; Zeng, Xianying; Tian, Guobin; Ge, Jinying; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2011-01-01

    Ducks play an important role in the maintenance of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in nature, and the successful control of AIVs in ducks has important implications for the eradication of the disease in poultry and its prevention in humans. The inactivated influenza vaccine is expensive, labor-intensive, and usually needs 2 to 3 weeks to induce protective immunity in ducks. Live attenuated duck enteritis virus (DEV; a herpesvirus) vaccine is used routinely to control lethal DEV infections in many duck-producing areas. Here, we first established a system to generate the DEV vaccine strain by using the transfection of overlapping fosmid DNAs. Using this system, we constructed two recombinant viruses, rDEV-ul41HA and rDEV-us78HA, in which the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the H5N1 virus A/duck/Anhui/1/06 was inserted and stably maintained within the ul41 gene or between the us7 and us8 genes of the DEV genome. Duck studies indicated that rDEV-us78HA had protective efficacy similar to that of the live DEV vaccine against lethal DEV challenge; importantly, a single dose of 106 PFU of rDEV-us78HA induced complete protection against a lethal H5N1 virus challenge in as little as 3 days postvaccination. The protective efficacy against both lethal DEV and H5N1 challenge provided by rDEV-ul41HA inoculation in ducks was slightly weaker than that provided by rDEV-us78HA. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that recombinant DEV is suitable for use as a bivalent live attenuated vaccine, providing rapid protection against both DEV and H5N1 virus infection in ducks. PMID:21865383

  8. Round robin investigation of methods for recovering human enteric viruses from sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, S M; Schaub, S A; Wellings, F M; Berman, D; Glass, J S; Hurst, C J; Brashear, D A; Sorber, C A; Moore, B E; Bitton, G

    1984-01-01

    To select a tentative standard method for detection of viruses in sludge the American Society for Testing and Materials D19:24:04:04 Subcommittee Task Group initiated round robin comparative testing of two procedures that, after initial screening of several methodologies, were found to meet the basic criteria considered essential by the task group. Eight task group member laboratories agreed to perform round robin testing of the two candidate methods, namely, The Environmental Protection Agency or low pH-AlCl3 method and the Glass or sonication-extraction method. Five different types of sludge were tested. For each particular type of sludge, a single laboratory was designated to collect the sludge in a single sampling, make samples, and ship it to the participating laboratories. In most cases, participating laboratories completed all the tests within 48 h of sample arrival. To establish the reproducibility of the methods, each laboratory tested each sludge sample in triplicate for the two candidate virus methods. Each processed sludge sample was quantitatively assayed for viruses by the procedures of each individual round robin laboratory. To attain a more uniform standard of comparison, a sample of each processed sample from all laboratories was reassayed with one cell line and passage number by a single laboratory (Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio). When the data were statistically analyzed, the Environmental Protection Agency method was found to yield slightly higher virus recoveries for all sludge types, except the dewatered sludge. The precisions of both methods were not significantly different.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6093689

  9. Improved inactivation of nonenveloped enteric viruses and their surrogates by a novel alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Macinga, David R; Sattar, Syed A; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Arbogast, James W

    2008-08-01

    Norovirus is the leading cause of food-related illness in the United States, and contamination of ready-to-eat items by food handlers poses a high risk for disease. This study reports the in vitro (suspension test) and in vivo (fingerpad protocol) assessments of a new ethanol-based hand sanitizer containing a synergistic blend of polyquaternium polymer and organic acid, which is active against viruses of public health importance, including norovirus. When tested in suspension, the test product reduced the infectivity of the nonenveloped viruses human rotavirus (HRV), poliovirus type 1 (PV-1), and the human norovirus (HNV) surrogates feline calicivirus (FCV) F-9 and murine norovirus type 1 (MNV-1) by greater than 3 log(10) after a 30-s exposure. In contrast, a benchmark alcohol-based hand sanitizer reduced only HRV by greater than 3 log(10) and none of the additional viruses by greater than 1.2 log(10) after the same exposure. In fingerpad experiments, the test product produced a 2.48 log(10) reduction of MNV-1 after a 30-s exposure, whereas a 75% ethanol control produced a 0.91 log(10) reduction. Additionally, the test product reduced the infectivity titers of adenovirus type 5 (ADV-5) and HRV by > or =3.16 log(10) and > or =4.32 log(10), respectively, by the fingerpad assay within 15 s; and PV-1 was reduced by 2.98 log(10) in 30 s by the same method. Based on these results, we conclude that this new ethanol-based hand sanitizer is a promising option for reducing the transmission of enteric viruses, including norovirus, by food handlers and care providers. PMID:18586970

  10. Improved Inactivation of Nonenveloped Enteric Viruses and Their Surrogates by a Novel Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer ▿

    PubMed Central

    Macinga, David R.; Sattar, Syed A.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Arbogast, James W.

    2008-01-01

    Norovirus is the leading cause of food-related illness in the United States, and contamination of ready-to-eat items by food handlers poses a high risk for disease. This study reports the in vitro (suspension test) and in vivo (fingerpad protocol) assessments of a new ethanol-based hand sanitizer containing a synergistic blend of polyquaternium polymer and organic acid, which is active against viruses of public health importance, including norovirus. When tested in suspension, the test product reduced the infectivity of the nonenveloped viruses human rotavirus (HRV), poliovirus type 1 (PV-1), and the human norovirus (HNV) surrogates feline calicivirus (FCV) F-9 and murine norovirus type 1 (MNV-1) by greater than 3 log10 after a 30-s exposure. In contrast, a benchmark alcohol-based hand sanitizer reduced only HRV by greater than 3 log10 and none of the additional viruses by greater than 1.2 log10 after the same exposure. In fingerpad experiments, the test product produced a 2.48 log10 reduction of MNV-1 after a 30-s exposure, whereas a 75% ethanol control produced a 0.91 log10 reduction. Additionally, the test product reduced the infectivity titers of adenovirus type 5 (ADV-5) and HRV by ≥3.16 log10 and ≥4.32 log10, respectively, by the fingerpad assay within 15 s; and PV-1 was reduced by 2.98 log10 in 30 s by the same method. Based on these results, we conclude that this new ethanol-based hand sanitizer is a promising option for reducing the transmission of enteric viruses, including norovirus, by food handlers and care providers. PMID:18586970

  11. Molecular investigations on the prevalence and viral load of enteric viruses in pigs from five European countries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weiguang; Ullman, Karin; Chowdry, Vinay; Reining, Márta; Benyeda, Zsófia; Baule, Claudia; Juremalm, Mikael; Wallgren, Per; Schwarz, Lukas; Zhou, Enmin; Pedrero, Sonia Pina; Hennig-Pauka, Isabel; Segales, Joaquim; Liu, Lihong

    2016-01-15

    Enteric viral infections in pigs may cause diarrhea resulting in ill-thrift and substantial economic losses. This study reports the enteric infections with porcine astrovirus type 4 (PAstV4), porcine group A rotavirus (GARV), porcine group C rotavirus (GCRV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine kobuvirus (PKoV) in 419 pigs, comprising both healthy and diarrheic animals, from 49 farms in five European countries (Austria, Germany, Hungary, Spain and Sweden). Real-time RT-PCR assays were developed to test fecal samples and to compare the prevalence and viral load in relation to health status, farms of origin and age groups. The results showed that PAstV4 (70.4%) was the dominant virus species, followed by PKoV (56.7%), PCV2 (42.2%), GCRV (3%) and GARV (0.9%). Diarrheic pigs had a higher viral load of PAstV4 in the nursery and growing-finishing groups. Rotaviruses were mainly detected in diarrheic pigs, whereas PCV2 was more often detected in clinically healthy than in diarrheic pigs, suggesting that most PCV2 infections were subclinical. PAstV4, PCV2 and PKoV were considered ubiquitous in the European pig livestock and co-infections among them were frequent, independently of the disease status, in contrast to a low prevalence of classical rotavirus infections. PMID:26711031

  12. Effects of epidermal growth factor on atrophic enteritis in piglets induced by experimental porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwonil; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Kim, Jeom-Yong; Shin, Kyoung-Sun; Lee, Chul-Seung; Song, Dae-Sub

    2008-08-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) promotes gastrointestinal mucosal recovery by stimulating the mitogenic activity of intestinal crypt epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of EGF on atrophic enteritis induced in piglets by experimental infection with porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) strain Dr13. Two groups of 12 conventional, colostrum-deprived, 1-day-old, large White-Duroc cross breed piglets were inoculated orally with PEDV (3 x 10(5) 50% tissue culture infective doses), with or without EGF (10 microg/kg/day, intraperitoneally once daily for 4 days after infection) and compared to 12 uninfected, untreated control piglets. PEDV+EGF piglets had less severe clinical signs than PEDV only piglets at 48 and 60 h post-infection (hpi). Histologically, the ratio of villous height:crypt depth of PEDV+EGF piglets was significantly higher than PEDV only piglets at 36 and 48 hpi. Immunohistochemistry for Ki67 demonstrated increased proliferation in intestinal crypt epithelial cells of PEDV+EGF piglets compared to PEDV only piglets at 36, 48 and 60 hpi. EGF stimulates proliferation of intestinal crypt epithelial cells and promotes recovery from atrophic enteritis in PEDV-infected piglets. PMID:17574457

  13. First survey of the occurrence of duck enteritis virus (DEV) in free-ranging Polish water birds.

    PubMed

    Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Samorek-Salamonowicz, Elzbieta

    2014-06-01

    Duck plague (DP) caused by anatid herpesvirus 1, also called duck enteritis virus (DEV), presents one of the most important concerns in mass waterfowl production. Apart from geese and ducks, free-ranging water birds are the most notorious infection carriers. The epidemiology of DEV in Western Europe remains unknown. Therefore, it was reasonable to conduct a study on its occurrence using modern but simple real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Analysis of 132 field isolates showed the presence of DEV in 96 birds (72.7 %), and it was found predominantly in wild ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and mute swans (Cygnus olor). This virus was also found in graylag geese (Anser anser), tundra bean geese (Anser fabalis), and grey herons (Ardea cinerea). The results were recorded as green colour of positive samples, fluorescence under ultraviolet light, and florescent curves in a real-time PCR system. This study indicates the high prevalence of DEV among free-ranging water birds in Poland and the possible transmission to other birds settling in the water environment. This is the first report of DEV detection among free-ranging water birds in Poland. PMID:24327092

  14. Acute Diarrhea in West African Children: Diverse Enteric Viruses and a Novel Parvovirus Genus

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Tung G.; Vo, Nguyen P.; Bonkoungou, Isidore J. O.; Kapoor, Amit; Barro, Nicolas; O'Ryan, Miguel; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Wang, Chunling

    2012-01-01

    Parvoviruses cause a variety of mild to severe symptoms or asymptomatic infections in humans and animals. During a viral metagenomic analysis of feces from children with acute diarrhea in Burkina Faso, we identified in decreasing prevalence nucleic acids from anelloviruses, dependoviruses, sapoviruses, enteroviruses, bocaviruses, noroviruses, adenoviruses, parechoviruses, rotaviruses, cosavirus, astroviruses, and hepatitis B virus. Sequences from a highly divergent parvovirus, provisionally called bufavirus, were also detected whose NS1 and VP1 proteins showed <39% and <31% identities to those of previously known parvoviruses. Four percent of the fecal samples were PCR positive for this new parvovirus, including a related bufavirus species showing only 72% identity in VP1. The high degree of genetic divergence of these related genomes from those of other parvoviruses indicates the presence of a proposed new Parvoviridae genus containing at least two species. Studies of the tropism and pathogenicity of these novel parvoviruses will be facilitated by the availability of their genome sequences. PMID:22855485

  15. Human and animal enteric virus in groundwater from deep wells, and recreational and network water.

    PubMed

    Fongaro, Gislaine; Padilha, J; Schissi, C D; Nascimento, M A; Bampi, G B; Viancelli, A; Barardi, C R M

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to assess the presence of human adenovirus (HAdV), rotavirus-A (RVA), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and porcine circovirus-2 (PCV2) in groundwater from deep wells, and recreational and network waters. The water samples were collected and concentrated and the virus genomes were assessed and quantified by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Infectious HAdV was evaluated in groundwater and network water samples by integrated cell culture using transcribed messenger RNA (mRNA) (ICC-RT-qPCR). In recreational water samples, HAdV was detected in 100 % (6/6), HAV in 66.6 % (4/6), and RVA in 66.6 % (4/6). In network water, HAdV was detected in 100 % (6/6) of the samples (these 83 % contained infectious HAdV), although HAV and RVA were not detected and PCV2 was not evaluated. In groundwater from deep wells, during rainy period, HAdV and RVA were detected in 80 % (4/5) of the samples, and HAV and PCV2 were not detected; however, during dry period, HAdV and RVA were detected in 60 % (3/5), HAV in only one sample, and PCV2 in 60 % (4/5). In groundwater, all samples contained infectious HAdV. PCV2 presence in groundwater is indicative of contamination caused by swine manure in Concórdia, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The disinfection of human and animal wastes is urgent, since they can contaminate surface and groundwater, being a potential threat for public and animal health. PMID:26300358

  16. Rift Valley Fever Virus Strain MP-12 Enters Mammalian Host Cells via Caveola-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Harmon, Brooke; Schudel, Benjamin R.; Maar, Dianna; Kozina, Carol; Ikegami, Tetsuro; Tseng, Chien-Te Kent

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic pathogen capable of causing serious morbidity and mortality in both humans and livestock. The lack of efficient countermeasure strategies, the potential for dispersion into new regions, and the pathogenesis in humans and livestock make RVFV a serious public health concern. The receptors, cellular factors, and entry pathways used by RVFV and other members of the family Bunyaviridae remain largely uncharacterized. Here we provide evidence that RVFV strain MP-12 uses dynamin-dependent caveola-mediated endocytosis for cell entry. Caveolae are lipid raft domains composed of caveolin (the main structural component), cholesterol, and sphingolipids. Caveola-mediated endocytosis is responsible for the uptake of a wide variety of host ligands, as well as bacteria, bacterial toxins, and a number of viruses. To determine the cellular entry mechanism of RVFV, we used small-molecule inhibitors, RNA interference (RNAi), and dominant negative (DN) protein expression to inhibit the major mammalian cell endocytic pathways. Inhibitors and RNAi specific for macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis had no effect on RVFV infection. In contrast, inhibitors of caveola-mediated endocytosis, and RNAi targeted to caveolin-1 and dynamin, drastically reduced RVFV infection in multiple cell lines. Expression of DN caveolin-1 also reduced RVFV infection significantly, while expression of DN EPS15, a protein required for the assembly of clathrin-coated pits, and DN PAK-1, an obligate mediator of macropinocytosis, had no significant impact on RVFV infection. These results together suggest that the primary mechanism of RVFV MP-12 uptake is dynamin-dependent, caveolin-1-mediated endocytosis. PMID:22993156

  17. A case study of enteric virus removal and insights into the associated risk of water reuse for two wastewater treatment pond systems in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Symonds, E M; Verbyla, M E; Lukasik, J O; Kafle, R C; Breitbart, M; Mihelcic, J R

    2014-11-15

    Wastewater treatment ponds (WTP) are one of the most widespread treatment technologies in the world; however, the mechanisms and extent of enteric virus removal in these systems are poorly understood. Two WTP systems in Bolivia, with similar overall hydraulic retention times but different first stages of treatment, were analyzed for enteric virus removal. One system consisted of a facultative pond followed by two maturation ponds (three-pond system) and the other consisted of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by two maturation (polishing) ponds (UASB-pond system). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction with reverse transcription (RT-qPCR) was used to measure concentrations of norovirus, rotavirus, and pepper mild mottle virus, while cell culture methods were used to measure concentrations of culturable enteroviruses (EV). Limited virus removal was observed with RT-qPCR in either system; however, the three-pond system removed culturable EV with greater efficiency than the UASB-pond system. The majority of viruses were not associated with particles and only a small proportion was associated with particles larger than 180 μm; thus, it is unlikely that sedimentation is a major mechanism of virus removal. High concentrations of viruses were associated with particles between 0.45 and 180 μm in the UASB reactor effluent, but not in the facultative pond effluent. The association of viruses with this size class of particles may explain why only minimal virus removal was observed in the UASB-pond system. Quantitative microbial risk assessment of the treated effluent for reuse for restricted irrigation indicated that the three-pond system effluent requires an additional 1- to 2-log10 reduction of viruses to achieve the WHO health target of <10(-4) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost per person per year; however, the UASB-pond system effluent may require an additional 2.5- to 4.5-log10 reduction of viruses. PMID:25129566

  18. Removal of enteric viruses and selected microbial indicators by UV irradiation of secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Jacangelo, J G; Loughran, P; Petrik, B; Simpson, D; McIlroy, C

    2003-01-01

    The Watercare Mangere Wastewater Treatment Facility, which treats wastewater from the greater Auckland New Zealand region, is undergoing a major expansion/upgrading to add advanced treatment and disinfection prior to discharge into a harbor. One important goal of this project is to protect the receiving water from microbial contamination. Since sufficient information on the fate of various microorganisms through wastewater treatment plants in New Zealand was not readily available, extensive pilot- and bench-scale studies were undertaken to develop specific design criteria for the treatment and disinfection systems. The specific objective of this study was to evaluate the removal and inactivation of enteric pathogens and other microbial indicators through treatment processes that employs UV irradiation as a final disinfection process. The removal of indicator organisms through secondary treatment was typically between 2.5-log (99.7% removal) and 2.8-log (99.8% removal) for fecal coliforms and enterococci, respectively. Indigenous F-specific bacteriophage exhibited a mean removal of 1.6-log (i.e. 97.7% removal) and Clostridium perfringens spores showed a mean removal of 1.3-log (i.e. 95% removal). The UV dose required to achieve a one log reduction in the concentration of indigenous F-specific bacteriophage was found to be approximately 20 mWs/cm2 per log removal. The concentration of enterovirus and adenovirus were consistently reduced to the limit of detection (1 TCID50/100L) at UV doses of 35 to 40 mWs/cm2 and 40 to 45 mWs/cm2, respectively. Clostridium perfringens spores were the most resistant indicator organisms, being reduced to less than 200 MPN/100 mL at a UV dose of 75 mWs/cm2. PMID:12830960

  19. Somatic coliphages as surrogates for enteroviruses in sludge hygienization treatments.

    PubMed

    Martín-Díaz, Julia; Casas-Mangas, Raquel; García-Aljaro, Cristina; Blanch, Anicet R; Lucena, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Conventional bacterial indicators present serious drawbacks giving information about viral pathogens persistence during sludge hygienization treatments. This calls for the search of alternative viral indicators. Somatic coliphages' (SOMCPH) ability for acting as surrogates for enteroviruses was assessed in 47 sludge samples subjected to novel treatment processes. SOMCPH, infectious enteroviruses and genome copies of enteroviruses were monitored. Only one of these groups, the bacteriophages, was present in the sludge at concentrations that allowed the evaluation of treatment's performance. An indicator/pathogen relationship of 4 log10 (PFU/g dw) was found between SOMCPH and infective enteroviruses and their detection accuracy was assessed. The obtained results and the existence of rapid and standardized methods encourage the inclusion of SOMCPH quantification in future sludge directives. In addition, an existing real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for enteroviruses was adapted and applied. PMID:27148720

  20. Behavior of Coliphage Lambda in Shigella flexneri 2a

    PubMed Central

    Gemski, P.; Alexeichik, J. A.; Baron, L. S.

    1972-01-01

    The insensitivity of wild-type Shigella flexneri 2a to coliphage λ is a consequence of its native genetic defect in the malA gene cluster. The “smooth” S. flexneri 2a lipopolysaccharide layer affects the efficient adsorption of λ. Derivatives, capable of serving as functional hosts for λ, were obtained by repairing the malA lesion, enabling the expression of the malB-λrcp region of S. flexneri. Introduction of a mutation into S. flexneri causing a “rough” lipopolysaccharide character resulted in more efficient adsorption of λ. Such S. flexneri hosts can be stably lysogenized and upon induction yield gal+-transducing lysates. Lambda propagated on a malA+ rough S. flexneri host was restricted by Escherichia coli K-12 and E. coli B, but not by E. coli C. This S. flexneri host did not restrict λ grown on these E. coli strains. PMID:4563593

  1. Detection and genetic characterization of human enteric viruses in oyster-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks between 2001 and 2012 in Osaka City, Japan.

    PubMed

    Iritani, Nobuhiro; Kaida, Atsushi; Abe, Niichiro; Kubo, Hideyuki; Sekiguchi, Jun-Ichiro; Yamamoto, Seiji P; Goto, Kaoru; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Noda, Mamoru

    2014-12-01

    Enteric viruses are an important cause of viral food-borne disease. Shellfish, especially oysters, are well recognized as a source of food-borne diseases, and oyster-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks have on occasion become international occurrences. In this study, 286 fecal specimens from 88 oyster-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks were examined for the presence of 10 human enteric viruses using antigenic or genetic detection methods in order to determine the prevalence of these infections. All virus-positive patients were over 18 years old. The most common enteric virus in outbreaks (96.6%) and fecal specimens (68.9%) was norovirus (NoV), indicating a high prevalence of NoV infection associated with the consumption of raw or under-cooked oysters. Five other enteric viruses, aichiviruses, astroviruses, sapoviruses, enteroviruses (EVs), and rotavirus A, were detected in 30.7% of outbreaks. EV strains were characterized into three rare genotypes, coxsackievirus (CV) A1, A19, and EV76. No reports of CVA19 or EV76 have been made since 1981 in the Infectious Agents Surveillance Report by the National Infectious Diseases Surveillance Center, Japan. Their detection suggested that rare types of EVs are circulating in human populations inconspicuously and one of their transmission modes could be the consumption of contaminated oysters. Rapid identification of pathogens is important for the development of means for control and prevention. The results of the present study will be useful to establish an efficient approach for the identification of viral pathogens in oyster-associated gastroenteritis in adults. PMID:24415518

  2. Organic Wastewater Compounds, Pharmaceuticals, andColiphage in Ground Water Receiving Discharge from OnsiteWastewater Treatment Systems near La Pine, Oregon:Occurrence and Implications for Transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Stephen J.; Weick, Rodney J.; Johnson, Jill M.; Cahill, Jeffery D.; Smith, Steven G.; Rich, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds (components of 'personal care products' and other common household chemicals), pharmaceuticals (human prescription and nonprescription medical drugs), and coliphage (viruses that infect coliform bacteria, and found in high concentrations in municipal wastewater) in onsite wastewater (septic tank effluent) and in a shallow, unconfined, sandy aquifer that serves as the primary source of drinking water for most residents near La Pine, Oregon, was documented. Samples from two types of observation networks provided basic occurrence data for onsite wastewater and downgradient ground water. One observation network was a group of 28 traditional and innovative (advanced treatment) onsite wastewater treatment systems and associated downgradient drainfield monitoring wells, referred to as the 'innovative systems network'. The drainfield monitoring wells were located adjacent to or under onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. Another observation network, termed the 'transect network', consisted of 31 wells distributed among three transects of temporary, stainless-steel-screened, direct-push monitoring wells installed along three plumes of onsite wastewater. The transect network, by virtue of its design, also provided a basis for increased understanding of the transport of analytes in natural systems. Coliphage were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Coliphage concentrations in onsite wastewater were highly variable, ranging from less than 1 to 3,000,000 plaque forming units per 100 milliliters. Coliphage were occasionally detected (eight occurrences) at low concentrations in samples from wells located downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. However, coliphage concentrations were below method detection limits in replicate or repeat samples collected from the eight sites. The consistent absence of coliphage detections in the replicate or repeat samples is interpreted to indicate

  3. Investigation of enteric adenovirus and poliovirus removal by coagulation processes and suitability of bacteriophages MS2 and φX174 as surrogates for those viruses.

    PubMed

    Shirasaki, N; Matsushita, T; Matsui, Y; Marubayashi, T; Murai, K

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the removal of enteric adenovirus (AdV) type 40 and poliovirus (PV) type 1 by coagulation, using water samples from 13 water sources for drinking water treatment plants in Japan. The behaviors of two widely accepted enteric virus surrogates, bacteriophages MS2 and φX174, were compared with the behaviors of AdV and PV. Coagulation with polyaluminum chloride (PACl, basicity 1.5) removed AdV and PV from virus-spiked source waters: the infectious AdV and PV removal ratios evaluated by means of a plaque-forming-unit method were 0.1-1.4-log10 and 0.5-2.4-log10, respectively. A nonsulfated high-basicity PACl (basicity 2.1) removed infectious AdV and PV more efficiently than did other commercially available PACls (basicity 1.5-2.1), alum, and ferric chloride. The MS2 removal ratios tended to be larger than those of AdV and PV, partly because of differences in the hydrophobicities of the virus particles and the sensitivity of the virus to the virucidal activity of PACl; the differences in removal ratios were not due to differences in the surface charges of the virus particles. MS2, which was more hydrophobic than the other viruses, was inactivated during coagulation with PACl. Therefore, MS2 does not appear to be an appropriate surrogate for AdV and PV during coagulation. In contrast, because φX174, like AdV and PV, was not inactivated during coagulation, and because the hydrophobicity of φX174 was similar to or somewhat lower than the hydrophobicities of AdV and PV, the φX174 removal ratios tended to be similar to or somewhat smaller than those of the enteric viruses. Therefore, φX174 is a potential conservative surrogate for AdV and PV during coagulation. In summary, the surface hydrophobicity of virus particles and the sensitivity of the virus to the virucidal activity of the coagulant are probably important determinants of the efficiency of virus removal during coagulation. PMID:27135564

  4. Virus and Bacteria Removal from Wastewater by Rapid Infiltration Through Soil

    PubMed Central

    Schaub, Stephen A.; Sorber, Charles A.

    1977-01-01

    A rapid infiltration land wastewater application site, composed of unconsolidated silty sand and gravel, which has been in continuous operation for over 30 years was examined for the accumulation and/or migration of a tracer virus (coliphage f2), indigenous enteroviruses, and enteric indicator bacteria in the soils and underlying groundwater. Tracer f2 penetrated into groundwater together with the front of percolating primary effluent and was not observed to concentrate on the upper soil layers. The tracer virus concentration in a 60-foot (about 18.3-m)-deep observation well directly beneath the wastewater application area began to increase within 48 h after application to the soil. The tracer level in this well stabilized after 72 h at a level of approximately 47% of the average applied concentration. Indigenous enteroviruses and tracer f2 were sporadically detected in the groundwater at horizontal distances of 600 feet (about 183 m) from the application zone. Laboratory soil adsorption studies confirmed the poor virus adsorption observed at the site. This was especially true on surface soils when contained in wastewater. Enteric indicator bacteria were readily concentrated on the soil surface by filtration on the soil surface mat. However, during tracer f2 virus tests, comparison studies with fecal Streptococcus revealed that bacteria capable of penetrating the surface were able to migrate into the groundwater. They were detected at the same locations as tracer and enteric viruses. PMID:16345215

  5. Bioaerosol Dispersion in Relation with Wastewater Reuse for Crop Irrigation. (Experiments to understand emission processes with enteric virus and risks modeling).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courault, D.; Girardin, G.; Capowiez, L.; Albert, I.; Krawczyk, C.; Ball, C.; Salemkour, A.; Bon, F.; Perelle, S.; Fraisse, A.; Renault, P.; Amato, P.

    2014-12-01

    Bio-aerosols consist of microorganisms or biological particles that become airborne depending on various environmental factors. Recycling of wastewater (WW) for irrigation can cope with the issues of water availability, and it can also threaten Human health if the pathogens present in WW are aerosolized during sprinkling irrigation or wind events. Among the variety of micro-organisms found in WW, enteric viruses can reach significant amounts, because most of the WW treatments are not completely efficient. These viruses are particularly resistant in the environment and responsibles of numerous digestive diseases (gastroenteritis, hepatitis…). Few quantities are enough to make people sick (102 pfu). Several knowledge gaps exist to better estimate the risks for Human exposure, and on the virus transfer from irrigation up to the respiratory track. A research program funded by the French government (INSU), gathering multi disciplinary teams aims at better understanding virus fate in air and health risks from WW reuse. Experiments were conducted under controlled conditions in order to prioritize the main factors impacting virus aerosolization. Irrigation with water loaded with safe surrogates of Hepatitis A virus (Murine Mengo Virus) was applied on small plots covered by channels in which the wind speed varied. Various situations have been investigated (wet/dry surfaces, strong/mild winds, clean/waste water). Air samples were collected above plots using impingers and filters after irrigation for several days. Viruses were quantified by RT-qPCR. The results showed that impingers were more efficient in airborne virus recovering than filters. Among environmental factors, Wind speed was the main factor explaining virus concentration in the air after irrigation. A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment approach has been chosen to assess the health effects on the population. The main modeling steps will be presented, including a simplified dispersion model coupled with a

  6. Molecular characterization of duck enteritis virus CHv strain UL49.5 protein and its colocalization with glycoprotein M

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Meng; Wang, Mingshu; Gao, Xinghong; Zhu, Dekang; Chen, Shun; Liu, Mafeng; Yin, Zhongqiong; Wang, Yin; Chen, Xiaoyue

    2014-01-01

    The UL49.5 gene of most herpesviruses is conserved and encodes glycoprotein N. However, the UL49.5 protein of duck enteritis virus (DEV) (pUL49.5) has not been reported. In the current study, the DEV pUL49.5 gene was first subjected to molecular characterization. To verify the predicted intracellular localization of gene expression, the recombinant plasmid pEGFP-C1/pUL49.5 was constructed and used to transfect duck embryo fibroblasts. Next, the recombinant plasmid pDsRed1-N1/glycoprotein M (gM) was produced and used for co-transfection with the pEGFP-C1/pUL49.5 plasmid to determine whether DEV pUL49.5 and gM (a conserved protein in herpesviruses) colocalize. DEV pUL49.5 was thought to be an envelope glycoprotein with a signal peptide and two transmembrane domains. This protein was also predicted to localize in the cytoplasm and endoplasmic reticulum with a probability of 66.7%. Images taken by a fluorescence microscope at different time points revealed that the DEV pUL49.5 and gM proteins were both expressed in the cytoplasm. Overlap of the two different fluorescence signals appeared 12 h after transfection and continued to persist until the end of the experiment. These data indicate a possible interaction between DEV pUL49.5 and gM. PMID:24690604

  7. Coliphage HK022 Nun protein inhibits RNA polymerase translocation.

    PubMed

    Vitiello, Christal L; Kireeva, Maria L; Lubkowska, Lucyna; Kashlev, Mikhail; Gottesman, Max

    2014-06-10

    The Nun protein of coliphage HK022 arrests RNA polymerase (RNAP) in vivo and in vitro at pause sites distal to phage λ N-Utilization (nut) site RNA sequences. We tested the activity of Nun on ternary elongation complexes (TECs) assembled with templates lacking the λ nut sequence. We report that Nun stabilizes both translocation states of RNAP by restricting lateral movement of TEC along the DNA register. When Nun stabilized TEC in a pretranslocated register, immediately after NMP incorporation, it prevented binding of the next NTP and stimulated pyrophosphorolysis of the nascent transcript. In contrast, stabilization of TEC by Nun in a posttranslocated register allowed NTP binding and nucleotidyl transfer but inhibited pyrophosphorolysis and the next round of forward translocation. Nun binding to and action on the TEC requires a 9-bp RNA-DNA hybrid. We observed a Nun-dependent toe print upstream to the TEC. In addition, mutations in the RNAP β' subunit near the upstream end of the transcription bubble suppress Nun binding and arrest. These results suggest that Nun interacts with RNAP near the 5' edge of the RNA-DNA hybrid. By stabilizing translocation states through restriction of TEC lateral mobility, Nun represents a novel class of transcription arrest factors. PMID:24853501

  8. Identification of a spliced gene from duck enteritis virus encoding a protein homologous to UL15 of herpes simplex virus 1

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In herpesviruses, UL15 homologue is a subunit of terminase complex responsible for cleavage and packaging of the viral genome into pre-assembled capsids. However, for duck enteritis virus (DEV), the causative agent of duck viral enteritis (DVE), the genomic sequence was not completely determined until most recently. There is limited information of this putative spliced gene and its encoding protein. Results DEV UL15 consists of two exons with a 3.5 kilobases (kb) inron and transcribes into two transcripts: the full-length UL15 and an N-terminally truncated UL15.5. The 2.9 kb UL15 transcript encodes a protein of 739 amino acids with an approximate molecular mass of 82 kiloDaltons (kDa), whereas the UL15.5 transcript is 1.3 kb in length, containing a putative 888 base pairs (bp) ORF that encodes a 32 kDa product. We also demonstrated that UL15 gene belonged to the late kinetic class as its expression was sensitive to cycloheximide and phosphonoacetic acid. UL15 is highly conserved within the Herpesviridae, and contains Walker A and B motifs homologous to the catalytic subunit of the bacteriophage terminase as revealed by sequence analysis. Phylogenetic tree constructed with the amino acid sequences of 23 herpesvirus UL15 homologues suggests a close relationship of DEV to the Mardivirus genus within the Alphaherpesvirinae. Further, the UL15 and UL15.5 proteins can be detected in the infected cell lysate but not in the sucrose density gradient-purified virion when reacting with the antiserum against UL15. Within the CEF cells, the UL15 and/or UL15.5 localize(s) in the cytoplasm at 6 h post infection (h p. i.) and mainly in the nucleus at 12 h p. i. and at 24 h p. i., while accumulate(s) in the cytoplasm in the absence of any other viral protein. Conclusions DEV UL15 is a spliced gene that encodes two products encoded by 2.9 and 1.3 kb transcripts respectively. The UL15 is expressed late during infection. The coding sequences of DEV UL15 are very similar to

  9. Effect of an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant on ambient air densities of aerosols containing bacteria and viruses.

    PubMed

    Fannin, K F; Vana, S C; Jakubowski, W

    1985-05-01

    Bacteria- and virus-containing aerosols were studied during the late summer and fall seasons in a midwestern suburb of the United States before and during the start-up and operation of an unenclosed activated sludge wastewater treatment plant. The study showed that the air in this suburban area contained low-level densities of indicator microorganisms. After the plant began operating, the densities of total aerobic bacteria-containing particles, standard plate count bacteria, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, and coliphages increased significantly in the air within the perimeter of the plant. Before plant operations, bacteria were detected from five genera, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, Salmonella, and Aeromonas. During plant operations, the number of genera identified increased to 11. In addition to those genera found before plant operations, Escherichia, Providencia, Citrobacter, Acinetobacter, Pasteurella, and Proteus, were also identified. Enteric viruses were detected in low densities from the air emissions of this plant. Only standard plate count bacteria remained at significantly higher than base-line densities beyond 250 m downwind from the center of the aeration tanks. Fecal streptococci and coliphages appeared to be more stable in aerosols than the other indicator microorganisms studied. In general, the densities of microorganism-containing aerosols were higher at night than during the day. The techniques used in this study may be employed to establish microorganism-containing aerosol exposure during epidemiological investigations. PMID:2988442

  10. Simultaneous detection of somatic and F-specific coliphages in different settings by Escherichia coli strain CB390.

    PubMed

    Agulló-Barceló, Miriam; Galofré, Belén; Sala, Lluís; García-Aljaro, Cristina; Lucena, Francisco; Jofre, Juan

    2016-09-01

    Bacteriophages are increasingly being used as water quality indicators. Two groups of phages infecting Escherichia coli, somatic and F-specific coliphages, are being considered as indicators of fecal and viral contamination for several types of water around the world. However, some uncertainties remain regarding which coliphages to assess. Recently, E. coli strain CB390 has been reported to be suitable for simultaneous detection of both groups, which seems to be more informative than determining only one of the groups. Here, a significant number of samples from different settings, mostly those where F-specific phages have been reported to outnumber somatic coliphages, are analyzed for somatic coliphages, F-specific RNA phages by standardized methods and coliphages detected by host strain CB390. The results presented here confirm that the numbers of phages counted using CB390 are equivalent to the sum of the somatic and F-specific coliphages counted independently in all settings. Hence the usefulness of this strain for simultaneous detection of somatic and F-specific coliphages is confirmed. Also, sets of data on the presence of coliphages in reclaimed and groundwater are reported. PMID:27481701

  11. Different linkages in the long and short regions of the genomes of duck enteritis virus Clone-03 and VAC Strains

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Duck enteritis virus (DEV) is an unassigned member in the family Herpesviridae. To demonstrate further the evolutionary position of DEV in the family Herpesviridae, we have described a 42,897-bp fragment. We demonstrated novel genomic organization at one end of the long (L) region and in the entire short (S) region in the Clone-03 strain of DEV. Results A 42,897-bp fragment located downstream of the LOFR11 gene was amplified from the Clone-03 strain of DEV by using 'targeted gene walking PCR'. Twenty-two open reading frames (ORFs) were predicted and determined in the following order: 5'-LORF11-RLORF1-ORF1-ICP4-S1-S2-US1-US10-SORF3-US2-MDV091.5-like-US3-US4-US5-US6-US7-US8-ORFx-US1-S2-S1-ICP4 -3'. This was different from that of the published VAC strain, both in the linkage of the L region and S region, and in the length of the US10 and US7 proteins. The MDV091.5-like gene, ORFx gene, S1 gene and S2 gene were first observed in the DEV genome. The lengths of DEV US10 and US7 were determined to be 311 and 371 amino acids, respectively, in the Clone-03 strain of DEV, and these were different from those of other strains. The comparison of genomic organization in the fragment studied herein with those of other herpesviruses showed that DEV possesses some unique characteristics, such as the duplicated US1 at each end of the US region, and the US5, which showed no homology with those of other herpesviruses. In addition, the results of phylogenetic analysis of ORFs in the represented fragment indicated that DEV is closest to its counterparts VZV (Varicellovirus) and other avian herpesviruses. Conclusion The molecular characteristics of the 42,897-bp fragment of Clone-03 have been found to be different from those of the VAC strain. The phylogenetic analysis of genes in this region showed that DEV should be a separate member of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. PMID:21535884

  12. Metagenomics and the poultry gut: using the next generation of nucleic acid sequencing to identify enteric viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteric disease syndromes such as Poult Enteritis Complex (PEC) in young turkeys and Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS) in chickens are a continual economic burden for poultry producers. The only reliable method to reproduce these syndromes in experimental birds is oral inoculation with crude preparat...

  13. Epidemiological survey of enteric viruses in wild boars in the Czech Republic: First evidence of close relationship between wild boar and human rotavirus A strains.

    PubMed

    Moutelíková, Romana; Dufková, Lucie; Kamler, Jiří; Drimaj, Jakub; Plhal, Radim; Prodělalová, Jana

    2016-09-25

    Population of wild boar is increasing in the whole Europe, the animals migrate close to human habitats which greatly increases the possibility of natural transmission between domestic animals or humans and wild boars. The aim of the study was to estimate in population of free-living wild boar in the Czech Republic the prevalence of enteric viral pathogens, namely rotavirus groups A and C (RVA and RVC), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and members of family Coronaviridae (transmissible gastroenteritis virus - TGEV, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus - PEDV, porcine respiratory coronavirus - PRCV, and porcine hemagglutination encephalomyelitis virus - PHEV) and Picornaviridae,(teschovirus A - PTV, sapelovirus A - PSV, and enterovirus G - EV-G). In our study, stool samples from 203 wild boars culled during hunting season 2014-2015 (from October to January) were examined by RT-PCR. RVA was detected in 2.5% of tested samples. Nucleotide analysis of VP7, VP4, and VP6 genes revealed that four RVA strains belong to G4P[25]I1, G4P[6]I5, G11P[13]I5, and G5P[13]I5 genotypes and phylogenetic analysis suggested close relation to porcine and human RVAs. The prevalence of RVC in wild boar population reached 12.8%, PTV was detected in 20.2%, PSV in 8.9%, and EV-G in 2.5% of samples. During our study no PRRSV or coronaviruses were detected. Our study provides the first evidence of RVC prevalence in wild boars and indicates that wild boars might contribute to the genetic variability of RVA and also serve as an important reservoir of other enteric viruses. PMID:27599927

  14. Heparan Sulfate-Binding Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Enters Cells Via Caveolae-Mediated Endocytosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) utilizes different cell surface macromolecules to facilitate infection of cultured cells. Virus which is virulent for susceptible animals infects cells via four members of the alpha V subclass of cellular integrins. In contrast, tissue culture adaptation of some...

  15. Male-specific coliphages for source tracking fecal contamination in surface waters and prevalence of Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli in a major produce production region of the Central Coast of California.

    PubMed

    Ravva, Subbarao V; Sarreal, Chester Z; Cooley, Michael B

    2015-07-01

    To provide data for traditional trace-back studies from fork to farm, it is necessary to determine the environmental sources for Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli. We developed SYBR green based reverse-transcriptase PCR methods to determine the prevalence of F+ RNA coliphages (FRNA) as indicators of fecal contamination. Male-specific coliphages, determined using a single-agar overlay method, were prevalent in all surface waters sampled for 8 months. F+ DNA coliphages (FDNA) were predominant compared to FRNA in water samples from majority of sampling locations. Most (90%) of the FRNA were sourced to humans and originated from human-impacted sites. Members of genogroup III represented 77% of FRNA originated from human sources. Furthermore, 93% of FRNA sourced to animals were also detected in water samples from human-impacted sites. Eighty percent of all FRNA were isolated during the winter months indicating seasonality in prevalence. In contrast, FDNA were more prevalent during summer months. E. coli O157:H7 and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli were detected in water samples from locations predominantly influenced by agriculture. Owing to their scarcity, their numbers could not be correlated with the prevalence of FRNA or FDNA in water samples. Both coliform bacteria and generic E. coli from agricultural or human-impacted sites were similar in numbers and thus could not be used to determine the sources of fecal contamination. Data on the prevalence of male-specific coliphages may be invaluable for predicting the sources of fecal contamination and aid in developing methods to prevent enteric pathogen contamination from likely sources during produce production. PMID:26018296

  16. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Enters Brain Microvascular Endothelia by Macropinocytosis Dependent on Lipid Rafts and the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nancy Q.; Lossinsky, Albert S.; Popik, Waldemar; Li, Xia; Gujuluva, Chandrasekhar; Kriederman, Benjamin; Roberts, Jaclyn; Pushkarsky, Tatania; Bukrinsky, Michael; Witte, Marlys; Weinand, Martin; Fiala, Milan

    2002-01-01

    Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs) present an incomplete barrier to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) neuroinvasion. In order to clarify the mechanisms of HIV-1 invasion, we have examined HIV-1 uptake and transcellular penetration in an in vitro BMVEC model. No evidence of productive infection was observed by luciferase, PCR, and reverse transcriptase assays. Approximately 1% of viral RNA and 1% of infectious virus penetrated the BMVEC barrier without disruption of tight junctions. The virus upregulated ICAM-1 on plasma membranes and in cytoplasmic vesiculotubular structures. HIV-1 virions were entangled by microvilli and were taken into cytoplasmic vesicles through surface invaginations without fusion of the virus envelope with the plasma membrane. Subsequently, the cytoplasmic vesicles fused with lysosomes, the virions were lysed, and the vesicles diminished in size. Upon cell entry, HIV-1 colocalized with cholera toxin B, which targets lipid raft-associated GM1 ganglioside. Cholesterol-extracting agents, cyclodextrin and nystatin, and polyanion heparin significantly inhibited virus entry. Anti-CD4 had no effect and the chemokine AOP-RANTES had only a slight inhibitory effect on virus entry. HIV-1 activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, and inhibition of MAPK/Erk kinase inhibited virus entry. Entry was also blocked by dimethylamiloride, indicating that HIV-1 enters endothelial cells by macropinocytosis. Therefore, HIV-1 penetrates BMVECs in ICAM-1-lined macropinosomes by a mechanism involving lipid rafts, MAPK signaling, and glycosylaminoglycans, while CD4 and chemokine receptors play limited roles in this process. PMID:12050382

  17. Emergence of a New Lineage of Dengue Virus Type 2 Identified in Travelers Entering Western Australia from Indonesia, 2010-2012

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Timo; McCarthy, Suzi; Chidlow, Glenys; Luang-Suarkia, Dagwin; Holmes, Edward C.; Smith, David W.; Imrie, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) transmission is ubiquitous throughout the tropics. More than 70% of the current global dengue disease burden is borne by people who live in the Asia-Pacific region. We sequenced the E gene of DENV isolated from travellers entering Western Australia between 2010–2012, most of whom visited Indonesia, and identified a diverse array of DENV1-4, including multiple co-circulating viral lineages. Most viruses were closely related to lineages known to have circulated in Indonesia for some time, indicating that this geographic region serves as a major hub for dengue genetic diversity. Most notably, we identified a new lineage of DENV-2 (Cosmopolitan genotype) that emerged in Bali in 2011–2012. The spread of this lineage should clearly be monitored. Surveillance of symptomatic returned travellers provides important and timely information on circulating DENV serotypes and genotypes, and can reveal the herald wave of dengue and other emerging infectious diseases. PMID:25635775

  18. Molecular assays for targeting human and bovine enteric viruses in coastal waters and their application for library-independent source tracking

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fong, T.-T.; Griffin, Dale W.; Lipp, E.K.

    2005-01-01

    Rapid population growth and urban development along waterways and coastal areas have led to decreasing water quality. To examine the effects of upstream anthropogenic activities on microbiological water quality, methods for source-specific testing are required. In this study, molecular assays targeting human enteroviruses (HEV), bovine enteroviruses (BEV), and human adenoviruses (HAdV) were developed and used to identify major sources of fecal contamination in the lower Altamaha River, Georgia. Two-liter grab samples were collected monthly from five tidally influenced stations between July and December 2002. Samples were analyzed by reverse transcription- and nested-PCR. PCR results were confirmed by dot blot hybridization. Eleven and 17 of the 30 surface water samples tested positive for HAdV and HEV, respectively. Two-thirds of the samples tested positive for either HEV or HAdV, and the viruses occurred simultaneously in 26% of samples. BEV were detected in 11 of 30 surface water samples. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of both human and bovine enteric viruses was not significantly related to either fecal coliform or total coliform levels. The presence of these viruses was directly related to dissolved oxygen and streamflow but inversely related to water temperature, rainfall in the 30 days preceding sampling, and chlorophyll-?? concentrations. The stringent host specificity of enteric viruses makes them good library-independent indicators for identification of water pollution sources. Viral pathogen detection by PCR is a highly sensitive and easy-to-use tool for rapid assessment of water quality and fecal contamination when public health risk characterization is not necessary. Copyright ?? 2005, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Comparison of coliphage and bacterial aerosols at a wastewater spray irrigation site.

    PubMed

    Bausum, H T; Schaub, S A; Kenyon, K F; Small, M J

    1982-01-01

    Microbiological aerosols were measured on a spray irrigation site at Fort Huachuca, Ariz. Indigenous bacteria and tracer bacteriophage were sampled from sprays of chlorinated and unchlorinated secondary-treatment wastewaters during day and night periods. Aerosol dispersal and downwind migration were determined. Bacterial and coliphage f2 aerosols were sampled by using Andersen viable type stacked-sieve and high-volume electrostatic precipitator samplers. Bacterial standard plate counts averaged 2.4 x 10(5) colony-forming units per ml in unchlorinated effluents. Bacterial aerosols reached 500 bacteria per m3 at 152 m downwind and 10,500 bacteria per m3 at 46m. Seeded coliphage f2 averaged 4.0 x 10(5) plaque-forming units per ml in the effluent and were detected 563 m downwind. Downwind microbial aerosol levels were somewhat enhanced by nighttime conditions. The median aerodynamic particle size of the microbial aerosols was approximately 5.0 micrometer. Chlorination reduced wastewater bacterial levels 99.97% and reduced aerosol concentrations to near background levels; coliphage f2 was reduced only 95.4% in the chlorinated effluent and was readily measured 137 m downwind. Microbiological source strength an meteorological data were used in conjunction with a dispersion model to generate mathematical predictions of aerosol strength at various sampler locations. The mean calculated survival of aerosolized bacteria (standard plate count) in the range 46 to 76 m downwind was 5.2%, and that of coliphage f2 was 4.3 %. PMID:7055376

  20. Transport of enterococci and F+ coliphage through the saturated zone of the beach aquifer.

    PubMed

    de Sieyes, Nicholas R; Russell, Todd L; Brown, Kendra I; Mohanty, Sanjay K; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2016-02-01

    Coastal groundwater has been implicated as a source of microbial pollution to recreational beaches. However, there is little work investigating the transport of fecal microbes through beach aquifers where waters of variable salinity are present. In this study, the potential for fecal indicator organisms enterococci (ENT) and F+ coliphage to be transported through marine beach aquifers was investigated. Native sediment and groundwaters were collected from the fresh and saline sections of the subterranean estuary at three beaches along the California coast where coastal communities utilize septic systems for wastewater treatment. Groundwaters were seeded with sewage and removal of F+ coliphage and ENT by the sediments during saturated flow was tested in laboratory column experiments. Removal varied significantly between beach and organism. F+ coliphage was removed to a greater extent than ENT, and removal was greater in saline sediments and groundwater than fresh. At one of the three beaches, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the attenuation of F+ coliphage and ENT down gradient of a septic leach field. ENT were detected up to 24 m from the leach field. The column study and field observations together suggest ENT can be mobile within native aquifer sediments and groundwater under certain conditions. PMID:26837827

  1. Occurrence of Escherichia coli, noroviruses, and F-specific coliphages in fresh market-ready produce.

    PubMed

    Allwood, Paul B; Malik, Yashpal S; Maherchandani, Sunil; Vought, Kevin; Johnson, Lee-Ann; Braymen, Craig; Hedberg, Craig W; Goyal, Sagar M

    2004-11-01

    Forty samples of fresh produce collected from retail food establishments were examined to determine the occurrence of Escherichia coli, F-specific coliphages, and noroviruses. An additional six samples were collected from a restaurant undergoing investigation for a norovirus outbreak. Nineteen (48%) of the retail samples and all outbreak samples were preprocessed (cut, shredded, chopped, or peeled) at or before the point of purchase. Reverse transcription-PCR, with the use of primers JV 12 and JV 13, failed to detect norovirus RNA in any of the samples. All six outbreak samples and 13 (33%) retail samples were positive for F-specific coliphages (odds ratio undefined, P = 0.003). Processed retail samples appeared more likely to contain F-specific coliphages than unprocessed samples (odds ratio 3.8; 95% confidence interval 0.8 to 20.0). Only two (5.0%) retail samples were positive for E. coli; outbreak samples were not tested for E. coli. The results of this preliminary survey suggest that F-specific coliphages could be useful conservative indicators of fecal contamination of produce and its associated virological risks. Large-scale surveys should be conducted to confirm these findings. PMID:15553617

  2. DETECTION OF FRNA COLIPHAGES IN GROUNDWATER: INTERFERENCE WITH THE ASSAY BY SOMATIC SALMONELLA BACTERIOPHAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groundwater samples from two sites in Alabama, USA were plaque assayed for F-specific RNA (FRNA) coliphages using Salmonella typhimurium WG49 as the host bacterium. While numerous plaques were detected with WG49 (a strain possessing Escherichia coli F pili), plaques were also obs...

  3. USE OF GEOSTATISTICS TO PREDICT VIRUS DECAY RATES FOR DETERMINATION OF SEPTIC TANK SETBACK DISTANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water samples were collected from 71 public drinking-water supply wells in the Tucson, Arizona, basin. Virus decay rates in the water samples were determined with MS-2 coliphage as a model virus. The correlations between the virus decay rates and the sample locations were shown b...

  4. Enteric virus status of turkey flocks over time: molecular diagnostic studies beginning on the day of placement.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry enteric disease is often associated with numerous viral and/or bacterial infections, including avian reoviruses, rotaviruses, astroviruses, parvoviruses, and Escherichia coli. These potential etiologic agents are often present in combination in a flock or individual birds, but in general it ...

  5. Molecular and serological surveillance of canine enteric viruses in stray dogs from Vila do Maio, Cape Verde

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infections caused by canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in dogs worldwide. Prior to this study, no information was available concerning the incidence and prevalence of these viruses in Cape Verde archipelago. Results To provide information regarding the health status of the canine population in Vila do Maio, Maio Island, Cape Verde, 53 rectal swabs were collected from 53 stray dogs during 2010 and 93 rectal swabs and 88 blood samples were collected from 125 stray dogs in 2011. All rectal swabs (2010 n = 53; 2011 n = 93) were analysed for the presence of canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus nucleic acids by quantitative PCR methods. Specific antibodies against canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus were also assessed (2011 n = 88). From the 2010 sampling, 43.3% (23/53) were positive for canine parvovirus DNA, 11.3% (6/53) for canine distemper virus RNA and 1.9% (1/53) for canine coronavirus RNA. In 2011, the prevalence values for canine parvovirus and canine coronavirus were quite similar to those from the previous year, respectively 44.1% (41/93), and 1.1% (1/93), but canine distemper virus was not detected in any of the samples analysed (0%, 0/93). Antibodies against canine parvovirus were detected in 71.6% (63/88) blood samples and the seroprevalence found for canine distemper virus was 51.1% (45/88). Conclusions This study discloses the data obtained in a molecular and serological epidemiological surveillance carried out in urban populations of stray and domestic animals. Virus transmission and spreading occurs easily in large dog populations leading to high mortality rates particularly in unvaccinated susceptible animals. In addition, these animals can act as disease reservoirs for wild animal populations by occasional contact. Identification of susceptible wildlife of Maio Island is of upmost importance to evaluate the risk

  6. Infection of the enteric nervous system by Borna Disease Virus (BDV) upregulates expression of Calbindin D-28k

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic agent infecting distinct neuronal subpopulations in the central nervous system of various mammalian species likely including humans. Horses, a major natural host for BDV, show dysfunctions of the gastrointestinal tract beside characteristic neurological sym...

  7. Comparative analysis of the genes UL1 through UL7 of the duck enteritis virus and other herpesviruses of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of eight open reading frames (ORFs) located at the 5' end of the unique long region of the duck enteritis virus (DEV) Clone-03 strain were determined. The genes identified were designated UL1, UL2, UL3, UL4, UL5, UL6 and UL7 homologues of the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). The DEV UL3.5 located between UL3 and UL4 had no homologue in the HSV-1. The arrangement and transcription orientation of the eight genes were collinear with their homologues in the HSV-1. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on the alignments of the deduced amino acids of eight proteins with their homologues in 12 alpha-herpesviruses. In the UL1, UL3, UL3.5, UL5 and UL7 proteins trees, the branches were more closely related to the genus Mardivirus. However, the UL2, UL4, and UL6 proteins phylogenetic trees indicated a large distance from Mardivirus, indicating that the DEV evolved differently from other viruses in the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae and formed a single branch within this subfamily. PMID:21637656

  8. Recovery rate of multiple enteric viruses artificially seeded in water and concentrated by adsorption-elution with negatively charged membranes: interaction and interference between different virus species.

    PubMed

    Vecchia, Andréia Dalla; Rigotto, Caroline; Soliman, Mayra Cristina; Souza, Fernanda Gil de; Giehl, Isabel Cristina; Spilki, Fernando Rosado

    2015-01-01

    Viral concentration method by adsorption-elution with negative membranes has been widely employed for concentrating viruses from environmental samples. In order to provide an adequate assessment of its recovery efficiency, this study was conducted to assess viral recovery rates for viral species commonly found in water (HAdV-5, EV, RV, BAdV and CAV-2), quantifying viral genomes at the end of the five different steps of the process. Recovery rates were analyzed for several viruses combined in a single water sample and for each virus assayed separately. Ultrapure water samples were artificially contaminated and analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). High recovery rates were found after the final stage when assessed individually (89 to 125%) and combined in the same sample (23 to > 164%). HAdV-5 exhibited >100% recovery when assayed with human viruses and other AdVs, whereas BAdV and CAV-2 were not detected. These data suggest that recovery efficiency could be related to viral structural characteristics, their electric charges and other interactions, so that they are retained with greater or lesser efficiency when coupled. This protocol could be applied to environmental samples, since high recovery rates were observed and infectious viruses were detected at the end of the concentration process. PMID:26676018

  9. Farm-level prevalence and risk factors for detection of hepatitis E virus, porcine enteric calicivirus, and rotavirus in Canadian finisher pigs.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Barbara; Leblanc, Danielle; Leger, David; Gow, Sheryl; Deckert, Anne; Pearl, David L; Friendship, Robert; Rajić, Andrijana; Houde, Alain; McEwen, Scott

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), norovirus (NoV), and rotavirus (RV) are all hypothesized to infect humans zoonotically via exposure through swine and pork. Our study objectives were to estimate Canadian farm-level prevalence of HEV, NoV [specifically porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC)], and RV in finisher pigs, and to study risk factors for farm level viral detection. Farms were recruited using the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) and FoodNet Canada on-farm sampling platforms. Six pooled groups of fecal samples were collected from participating farms, and a questionnaire capturing farm management and biosecurity practices was completed. Samples were assayed using validated real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We modeled predictors for farm level viral RNA detection using logistic and exact logistic regression. Seventy-two herds were sampled: 51 CIPARS herds (15 sampled twice) and 21 FoodNet Canada herds (one sampled twice). Hepatitis E virus was detected in 30/88 farms [34.1% (95% CI 25.0%, 44.5%)]; PEC in 18 [20.5% (95% CI: 13.4%, 30.0%)], and RV in 6 farms [6.8% (95% CI: 3.2%, 14.1%)]. Farm-level prevalence of viruses varied with province and sampling platform. Requiring shower-in and providing boots for visitors were significant predictors (P < 0.05) in single fixed effect mixed logistic regression analysis for detection of HEV and PEC, respectively. In contrast, all RV positive farms provided boots and coveralls, and 5 of 6 farms required shower-in. We hypothesized that these biosecurity measures delayed the mean age of RV infection, resulting in an association with RV detection in finishers. Obtaining feeder pigs from multiple sources was consistently associated with greater odds of detecting each virus. PMID:27127336

  10. Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (a fish iridovirus) enters Mandarin fish fry cells via caveola-dependent endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chang-Jun; Wu, Yan-Yan; Yang, Li-Shi; Yang, Xiao-Bo; He, Jian; Mi, Shu; Jia, Kun-Tong; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

    2012-03-01

    Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) is the type species of the genus Megalocytivirus from the family Iridoviridae. Megalocytiviruses have been implicated in more than 50 fish species infections and currently threaten the aquaculture industry, causing great economic losses in China, Japan, and Southeast Asia. However, the cellular entry mechanisms of megalocytiviruses remain largely uncharacterized. In this study, the main internalization mechanism of ISKNV was investigated by using mandarin fish fry (MFF-1) cells. The progression of ISKNV infection is slow, and infection is not inhibited when the cells are treated with ammonium chloride (NH(4)Cl), chloroquine, sucrose, and chlorpromazine, which are inhibitors of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. The depletion of cellular cholesterol by methyl-β-cyclodextrin results in the significant inhibition of ISKNV infection; however, the infection is resumed with cholesterol replenishment. Inhibitors of caveolin-1-involved signaling events, including phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), genistein, and wortmannin, impair ISKNV entry into MFF-1 cells. Moreover, ISKNV entry is dependent on dynamin and the microtubule cytoskeleton. Cofraction analysis of ISKNV and caveolin-1 showed that ISKNV colocates with caveolin-1 during virus infection. These results indicate that ISKNV entry into MFF-1 cells proceeds via classical caveola-mediated endocytosis and is dependent on the microtubules that serve as tracks along which motile cavicles may move via a caveola-caveosome-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pathway. As a fish iridovirus, ISKNV entry into MFF-1 cells is different from the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of frog virus 3 entry into mammalian cells (BHK-21) at 28°C, which has been recognized as a model for iridoviruses. Thus, our work may help further the understanding of the initial steps of iridovirus infection. PMID:22171272

  11. Development of a Luminex assay for the simultaneous detection of human enteric viruses in sewage and river water.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Ibrahim A; Jurzik, Lars; Wilhelm, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Real time PCR (qPCR) is increasingly being used for viral detection in aquatic environments because it enables high specificity and sensitivity of detection. However, the limited number of fluorescent reporter dyes restricts its multiplex application. In this study, a multiplex Luminex assay was established for the simultaneous detection of human adenovirus (HAdV), human polyomavirus (HPyV), enterovirus (EV), rotavirus (RoV), norovirus GI (NoVGI) and norovirus GII (NoVGII). Different river water and wastewater samples were tested for the viruses using both qPCR and the multiplex Luminex xMAP assay. HAdV and HPyV were the most abundant in all environmental samples. HAdV was detected in all river water and wastewater samples, and HPyV was detected in 79% of river water and 95.8% of wastewater samples. The multiplex xMAP assay revealed high specificity and no cross-reactivity. Using the multiplex Luminex assay, the viral detection rates in river water samples were lower than the rates obtained by qPCR for all viruses. Conversely, in wastewater samples, the viral detection rates were the same for both methods. In addition, the analytical sensitivity of the monoplex Luminex assay was comparable to or lower than qPCR. Results suggest that the multiplex Luminex assay could be a reliable method for the simultaneous detection of viral pathogens in wastewater. PMID:24747587

  12. Prevalence of enteric protozoa in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men from Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Stark, Damien; Fotedar, Rashmi; van Hal, Sebastian; Beebe, Nigel; Marriott, Deborah; Ellis, John T; Harkness, John

    2007-03-01

    A prospective, comparative study of the prevalence of enteric protozoa was determined among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in Sydney, Australia. A total of 1,868 patients submitted stool specimens; 1,246 were from MSM (628 HIV positive and 618 HIV positive) and 622 from non-MSM were examined over a 36-month period. A total of 651 (52.2%) stool specimens from MSM were positive for protozoa compared with 85 (13%) from non-MSM. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar complex, Entamoeba hartmanni, Iodamoeba butschlii, and Enteromonas hominis detected between MSM and non-MSM (P<0.001). The only notable difference between HIV-negative and HIV-positive MSM was that HIV-infected MSM were found to more likely have a Cryptosporidium parvum infection. Entamoeba histolytica was found in 3 patients, E. dispar in 25, and E. moshkovskii in 17, all of whom were MSM. When compared with a control group, MSM were significantly more likely to harbor intestinal protozoa and have multiple parasites present. The results of this study show high rates of enteric parasites persist in MSM and highlight the importance of testing for intestinal parasites in MSM. This is the first report of E. moshkovskii from MSM. PMID:17360882

  13. Alternative fecal indicators and their empirical relationships with enteric viruses, Salmonella enterica, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in surface waters of a tropical urban catchment.

    PubMed

    Liang, L; Goh, S G; Vergara, G G R V; Fang, H M; Rezaeinejad, S; Chang, S Y; Bayen, S; Lee, W A; Sobsey, M D; Rose, J B; Gin, K Y H

    2015-02-01

    The suitability of traditional microbial indicators (i.e., Escherichia coli and enterococci) has been challenged due to the lack of correlation with pathogens and evidence of possible regrowth in the natural environment. In this study, the relationships between alternative microbial indicators of potential human fecal contamination (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Methanobrevibacter smithii, human polyomaviruses [HPyVs], and F+ and somatic coliphages) and pathogens (Salmonella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, rotavirus, astrovirus, norovirus GI, norovirus GII, and adenovirus) were compared with those of traditional microbial indicators, as well as environmental parameters (temperature, conductivity, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, turbidity, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus). Water samples were collected from surface waters of urban catchments in Singapore. Salmonella and P. aeruginosa had significant positive correlations with most of the microbial indicators, especially E. coli and enterococci. Norovirus GII showed moderately strong positive correlations with most of the microbial indicators, except for HPyVs and coliphages. In general, high geometric means and significant correlations between human-specific markers and pathogens suggest the possibility of sewage contamination in some areas. The simultaneous detection of human-specific markers (i.e., B. thetaiotaomicron, M. smithii, and HPyVs) with E. coli and enterococcus supports the likelihood of recent fecal contamination, since the human-specific markers are unable to regrow in natural surface waters. Multiple-linear-regression results further confirm that the inclusion of M. smithii and HPyVs, together with traditional indicators, would better predict the occurrence of pathogens. Further study is needed to determine the applicability of such models to different geographical locations and environmental conditions. PMID:25416765

  14. Entering Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Ann; Sedorkin, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a short story of the authors, who show how they have "entered research", that is, entered the earliest conception of research and the early formation of research collaboration. As the authors worked together, they realised they had common concerns and life experiences. Each proudly identifies as working class Australian, each…

  15. Adsorption of coliphages T1 and T7 to clay minerals.

    PubMed Central

    Schiffenbauer, M; Stotzky, G

    1982-01-01

    Coliphages T1 and T7 of Escherichia coli were absorbed by kaolinite (K) and montmorillonite (M). Maximum adsorption of T7 (96%) to M was greater than that of T1 (84%), but the adsorption of both coliphages to K was the same (99%). Positively charged sites (i.e., anion exchange sites) on the clays appeared to be primarily responsible for the adsorption of T1 to K but only partially responsible for the adsorption of T1 to M; equilibrium adsorption isotherms of T1 to K and M did not show a correlation between adsorption and the cation exchange capacity of the clays, and the reduction in adsorption caused by sodium metaphosphate (a polyanion that interacts with positively charged sites on clay) was more pronounced with K than with M. The equilibrium adsorption isotherms of T7 to K and M suggested a correlation between adsorption and the cation exchange capacity of the clays. However, studies with sodium metaphosphate indicated that T7 also adsorbed to positively charged sites on the clays, especially on K. Adsorption of the coliphages to positively charged sites was greater with K than with M, probably because the ratio of positively charged sites to negatively charged sites was greater on K than on M. PMID:7041821

  16. Efficacy of Cinnamaldehyde Against Enteric Viruses and Its Activity After Incorporation Into Biodegradable Multilayer Systems of Interest in Food Packaging.

    PubMed

    Fabra, M J; Castro-Mayorga, J L; Randazzo, W; Lagarón, J M; López-Rubio, A; Aznar, R; Sánchez, G

    2016-06-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CNMA), an organic compound that gives cinnamon its flavor and odor, was investigated for its virucidal activity on norovirus surrogates, murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Initially, different concentrations of CNMA (0.1, 0.5 and 1 %) were individually mixed with each virus at titers of ca. 6-7 log10 TCID50/ml and incubated 2 h at 4 and 37 °C. CNMA was effective in reducing the titers of norovirus surrogates in a dose-dependent manner after 2 h at 37 °C, while HAV titers were reduced by 1 log10 after treatment with 1 % of CNMA. When incubation time was extended, HAV titers were reduced by 3.4 and 2.7 log10 after overnight incubation at 37 °C with 1 and 0.5 % of CNMA, respectively. Moreover, this paper analyzed, for the first time, the antiviral activity of adding an active electrospun interlayer based on zein and CNMA to a polyhydroxybutyrate packaging material (PHB) in a multilayer form. Biodegradable multilayer systems prepared with 2.60 mg/cm(2) (~9.7 %) of CNMA completely inactivated FCV according to ISO 22196:2011, while MNV titers were reduced by 2.75 log10. When the developed multilayer films were evaluated after one month of preparation or at 25 °C, the antiviral activity was reduced as compared to freshly prepared multilayer films evaluated at 37 °C. The results show the excellent potential of this system for food contact applications as well as for active packaging technologies in order to maintain or extend food quality and safety. PMID:27008344

  17. INACTIVATION KINETICS OF MONOCHLORAMINE ON MONODISPERSED HEPATITIS A VIRUS AND MS2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to further characterize the disinfecting capabilities of preformed monochloramine using hepatitis A virus and the model coliphage MS2. he EPA has identified the latter virus as a model organism in developing CT values and conducting pilot plant studi...

  18. ECHO virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to ...

  19. Moving beyond classical markers of water quality: detection of enteric viruses and genotoxicity in water of the Sinos River.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, B; Rodrigues, M T; Silva, J V S; Kluge, M; Luz, R B; Fleck, J D; Bianchi, E; Silva, L B; Spilki, F R

    2015-05-01

    It is well recognized that the classical biological and chemical markers of environmental pollution do not necessarily indicate the presence or absence of emerging threats to public health, such as waterborne viruses and genotoxicants. The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate the presence of material of enteroviruses (EV), rotavirus (RV) and adenovirus (AdV) and genotoxicity in water samples from points of routine monitoring of water quality in the main course of the Sinos River. The points are classified into different levels of pollution in accordance to the Brazilian federal regulations. Viral genomes from EV, AdV were detected in two of the 4 collection points regardless of the level of urbanisation of the surrounding areas. In contrast, genotoxicity was not observed in piava (Leporinus obtusidens) fingerlings cultivated on these same water samples. Results were compared with classical physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. There was no clear evidence of association between any of the classical markers and the presence of viral genomes in the water samples tested. PMID:26270215

  20. Persistent Enteric Murine Norovirus Infection Is Associated with Functionally Suboptimal Virus-Specific CD8 T Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Tomov, Vesselin T.; Osborne, Lisa C.; Dolfi, Douglas V.; Sonnenberg, Gregory F.; Monticelli, Laurel A.; Mansfield, Kathleen; Virgin, Herbert W.

    2013-01-01

    Norovirus (NV) gastroenteritis is a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality, yet little is known about immune mechanisms leading to NV control. Previous studies using the murine norovirus (MNV) model have established a key role for T cells in MNV clearance. Despite these advances, important questions remain regarding the magnitude, location, and dynamics of the MNV-specific T cell response. To address these questions, we identified MNV-specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I immunodominant epitopes using an overlapping peptide screen. One of these epitopes (amino acids 519 to 527 of open reading frame 2 [ORF2519-527]) was highly conserved among all NV genogroups. Using MHC class I peptide tetramers, we tracked MNV-specific CD8 T cells in lymphoid and mucosal sites during infection with two MNV strains with distinct biological behaviors, the acutely cleared strain CW3 and the persistent strain CR6. Here, we show that enteric MNV infection elicited robust T cell responses primarily in the intestinal mucosa and that MNV-specific CD8 T cells dynamically regulated the expression of surface molecules associated with activation, differentiation, and homing. Furthermore, compared to MNV-CW3 infection, chronic infection with MNV-CR6 resulted in fewer and less-functional CD8 T cells, and this difference was evident as early as day 8 postinfection. Finally, MNV-specific CD8 T cells were capable of reducing the viral load in persistently infected Rag1−/− mice, suggesting that these cells are a crucial component of NV immunity. Collectively, these data provide fundamental new insights into the adaptive immune response to two closely related NV strains with distinct biological behaviors and bring us closer to understanding the correlates of protective antiviral immunity in the intestine. PMID:23596300

  1. Enteric Campylobacteria and RNA Viruses Associated with Healthy and Diarrheic Humans in the Chinook Health Region of Southwestern Alberta, Canada ▿

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, G. Douglas; Boras, Valerie F.; Houde, Alain

    2011-01-01

    The presence of Campylobacter species and enteric RNA viruses in stools from diarrheic (n = 442) and healthy (n = 58) humans living in southwestern Alberta was examined (May to October 2005). A large number of diarrheic individuals who were culture negative for C. jejuni (n = 54) or C. coli (n = 19) were PCR positive for these taxa. Overall detection rates for C. jejuni and C. coli in diarrheic stools were 29% and 5%, respectively. In contrast, 3% and 0% of stools from healthy humans were positive for these taxa, respectively. Infection with C. jejuni was endemic over the study period. However, there was no difference in infection rates between individuals living in urban or rural locations. Stools from a large number of diarrheic (74%) and healthy (88%) individuals were positive for Campylobacter DNA. The prevalence rates of C. concisus, C. curvus, C. fetus, C. gracilis, C. helveticus, C. hominis, C. hyointestinalis, C. mucosalis, C. showae, C. sputorum, and C. upsaliensis DNA were either not significantly different or were significantly lower in stools from diarrheic than from healthy individuals. No C. lanienae or C. lari DNA was detected. Stools from 4% and 0% of diarrheic and healthy humans, respectively, were positive for rotavirus, sapovirus, or norovirus (GI/GII). Our results showed a high prevalence of diarrheic individuals living in southwestern Alberta who were infected by C. jejuni and, to a lesser extent, by C. coli. However, other Campylobacter species, norovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, and bovine enteric calicivirus were either inconsequential pathogens during the study period or are not pathogens at all. PMID:21106791

  2. Chapter A7. Section 7.2. Fecal Indicator Viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bushon, Rebecca N.

    2003-01-01

    More than 100 types of human pathogenic viruses may be present in fecal-contaminated waters. Coliphages are used as indicators of virus-related fecal contamination and of the microbiological quality of waters. This report provides information on the equipment, sampling protocols, and laboratory methods that are in standard use by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel for the collection of data on fecal indicator viruses.

  3. Two parvoviruses that cause different diseases in mink have different transcription patterns: transcription analysis of mink enteritis virus and Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in the same cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Storgaard, T; Oleksiewicz, M; Bloom, M E; Ching, B; Alexandersen, S

    1997-01-01

    The two parvoviruses of mink cause very different diseases. Mink enteritis virus (MEV) is associated with rapid, high-level viral replication and acute disease. In contrast, infection with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) is associated with persistent, low-level viral replication and chronic severe immune dysregulation. In the present report, we have compared viral transcription in synchronized CRFK cells infected with either MEV or ADV using a nonradioactive RNase protection assay. The overall level of viral transcription was 20-fold higher in MEV- than in ADV-infected cells. Furthermore, MEV mRNA encoding structural proteins (MEV mRNA R3) was dominant throughout the infectious cycle, comprising approximately 80% of the total viral transcription products. In marked contrast, in ADV-infected cells, transcripts encoding nonstructural proteins (ADV mRNA R1 and R2) comprised more than 84% of the total transcripts at all times after infection, whereas ADV mRNA R3 comprised less than 16%. Thus, the ADV mRNA coding for structural proteins (ADV mRNA R3) was present at a level at least 100-fold lower than the corresponding MEV mRNA R3. These findings paralleled previous biochemical studies analyzing in vitro activities of the ADV and MEV promoters (J. Christensen, T. Storgaard, B. Viuff, B. Aasted, and S. Alexandersen, J. Virol. 67:1877-1886, 1993). The overall low levels of ADV mRNA and the paucity of the mRNA coding for ADV structural proteins may reflect an adaptation of the virus for low-level restricted infection. PMID:9188563

  4. Tuberculous Enteritis

    PubMed Central

    Hill, George S.; Tabrisky, Joseph; Peter, Michael E.

    1976-01-01

    Tuberculous enteritis occurs in about 2 percent of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Although it is uncommon in the United States, tuberculous enteritis should be considered in any patient with active pulmonary tuberculosis and abdominal complaints. Eight cases of T. enteritis have been treated at Harbor General Hospital in the last 25 years. Associated pulmonary disease was shown radiologically to be present in seven of eight patients. Findings on contrast studies of the gastrointestinal tract showed disease in six of six patients examined. In five patients, surgical operation was required for diagnosis or complications. Resection of diseased bowel with primary anastomosis was done in five patients. Although medical therapy is the mainstay in the treatment of both pulmonary and intestinal tuberculosis, one staged resection of diseased bowel with primary anastomosis is the procedure of choice for complications such as obstruction, hemorrhage or perforation. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:936600

  5. Isolation, genome sequencing and functional analysis of two T7-like coliphages of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mianmian; Xu, Juntian; Yao, Huochun; Lu, Chengping; Zhang, Wei

    2016-05-10

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes colibacillosis, which results in significant economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Due to the drug residues and increased antibiotic resistance caused by antibiotic use, bacteriophages and other alternative therapeutic agents are expected to control APEC infection in poultry. Two APEC phages, named P483 and P694, were isolated from the feces from the farmers market in China. We then studied their biological properties, and carried out high-throughput genome sequencing and homology analyses of these phages. Assembly results of high-throughput sequencing showed that the structures of both P483 and P694 genomes consist of linear and double-stranded DNA. Results of the electron microscopy and homology analysis revealed that both P483 and P694 belong to T7-like virus which is a member of the Podoviridae family of the Caudovirales order. Comparative genomic analysis showed that most of the predicted proteins of these two phages showed strongest sequence similarity to the Enterobacteria phages BA14 and 285P, Erwinia phage FE44, and Kluyvera phage Kvp1; however, some proteins such as gp0.6a, gp1.7 and gp17 showed lower similarity (<85%) with the homologs of other phages in the T7 subgroup. We also found some unique characteristics of P483 and P694, such as the two types of the genes of P694 and no lytic activity of P694 against its host bacteria in liquid medium. Our results serve to further our understanding of phage evolution of T7-like coliphages and provide the potential application of the phages as therapeutic agents for the treatment of diseases. PMID:26828615

  6. Identification of a novel linear B-cell epitope in the UL26 and UL26.5 proteins of Duck Enteritis Virus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Unique Long 26 (UL26) and UL26.5 proteins of herpes simplex virus are known to function during the assembly of the viruses. However, for duck enteritis virus (DEV), which is an unassigned member of the family Herpesviridae, little information is available about the function of the two proteins. In this study, the C-terminus of DEV UL26 protein (designated UL26c), which contains the whole of UL26.5, was expressed, and the recombinant UL26c protein was used to immunize BALB/c mice to generate monoclonal antibodies (mAb). The mAb 1C8 was generated against DEV UL26 and UL26.5 proteins and used subsequently to map the epitope in this region. Both the mAb and its defined epitope will provide potential tools for further study of DEV. Results A mAb (designated 1C8) was generated against the DEV UL26c protein, and a series of 17 partially overlapping fragments that spanned the DEV UL26c were expressed with GST tags. These peptides were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blotting analysis using mAb 1C8 to identify the epitope. A linear motif, 520IYYPGE525, which was located at the C-terminus of the DEV UL26 and UL26.5 proteins, was identified by mAb 1C8. The result of the ELISA showed that this epitope could be recognized by DEV-positive serum from mice. The 520IYYPGE525 motif was the minimal requirement for reactivity, as demonstrated by analysis of the reactivity of 1C8 with several truncated peptides derived from the motif. Alignment and comparison of the 1C8-defined epitope sequence with those of other alphaherpesviruses indicated that the motif 521YYPGE525 in the epitope sequence was conserved among the alphaherpesviruses. Conclusion A mAb, 1C8, was generated against DEV UL26c and the epitope-defined minimal sequence obtained using mAb 1C8 was 520IYYPGE525. The mAb and the identified epitope may be useful for further study of the design of diagnostic reagents for DEV. PMID:20836860

  7. INACTIVATION OF HEPATITIS A VIRUS AND MODEL VIRUSES IN WATER BY FREE CHLORINE AND MONOCHLORAMINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The kinetics and extent of inactivation of hepatitis A virus (HAV) as well as three other viruses, coxsackievirus B5 (CB5) and coliphages MS2 and X174, by 0.5 mg/l free chlorine, pH 6-10, and 10 mg/1 monochloramine, pH8, in 0.01 M phosphate buffer were determined. These results i...

  8. Radiation enteritis

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, P.H.; Jenrette, J.M. III; Garvin, A.J.

    1987-09-01

    As the population receiving radiation therapy grows, so does the incidence of chronic radiation enteritis. A review of the pathology of chronic radiation enteritis reveals fibrosis, endarteritis, edema, fragility, perforation, and partial obstruction. Conservative management of patients with this disease is common. Because the obstruction is only partial, decompression is easily achieved with nasogastric suction and parenteral support. The patient is then often discharged on a liquid-to-soft diet. This therapeutic strategy does nothing for the underlying pathology. The problem, sooner or later, will return with the patient further depleted by the chronic radiation enteritis. We think surgical intervention is appropriate when the diagnosis of chronic radiation enteritis is assumed. The surgery in relation to this disease is high risk with a 30% mortality and 100% expensive morbidity. Early intervention seems to decrease these figures. All anastomoses, if possible, should be outside the irradiated area. Trapped pelvic loops of intestine should be left in place and a bypass procedure with decompressing enterostomies accomplished. The surgery should be performed by a surgeon with extensive experience with all kinds of bowel obstruction as well as experience in performing surgery in radiated tissue.

  9. The dual role of Apl in prophage induction of coliphage 186.

    PubMed

    Reed, M R; Shearwin, K E; Pell, L M; Egan, J B

    1997-02-01

    In the present study we show that the Apl protein of the temperate coliphage 186 combines, in one protein, the activities of the coliphage lambda proteins Cro and Xis. We have shown previously that Apl represses both the lysogenic promoter, pL, and the major lytic promoter, pR, and is required for excision of the prophage. Apl binds at two locations on the phage chromosome, i.e. between pR and pL and at the phage-attachment site. Using an in vivo recombination assay, we now show that the role of Apl in excision is in the process itself and is not simply a consequence of repression of pR or pL. To study the repressive role of Apl at the switch promoters we isolated Apl-resistant operator mutants and used them to demonstrate a requirement for Apl in the efficient derepression of the lysogenic promoter during prophage induction. We conclude that Apl is both an excisionase and transcriptional repressor. PMID:9157239

  10. Molecular testing for viral and bacterial enteric pathogens: gold standard for viruses, but don't let culture go just yet?

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Maxim G; Balm, Michelle N D; Blackmore, Timothy K

    2015-04-01

    Contemporary diagnostic microbiology is increasingly adopting molecular methods as front line tests for a variety of samples. This trend holds true for detection of enteric pathogens (EP), where nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) for viruses are well established as the gold standard, and an increasing number of commercial multi-target assays are now available for bacteria and parasites. NAAT have significant sensitivity and turnaround time advantages over traditional methods, potentially returning same-day results. Multiplex panels offer an attractive 'one-stop shop' that may provide workflow and cost advantages to laboratories processing large sample volumes. However, there are a number of issues which need consideration. Reflex culture is required for antibiotic susceptibility testing and strain typing when needed for food safety and other epidemiological investigations. Surveillance systems will need to allow for differences in disease incidence due to the enhanced sensitivity of NAAT. Laboratories should be mindful of local epidemiology when selecting which pathogens to include in multiplex panels, and be thoughtful regarding which pathogens will not be detected. Multiplex panels may not be appropriate in certain situations, such as hospital-onset diarrhoea, where Clostridium difficile testing might be all that is required, and laboratories may wish to retain the flexibility to run single tests in such situations. The clinical impact of rapid results is also likely to be relatively minor, as infective diarrhoea is a self-limiting illness in the majority of cases. Laboratories will require strategies to assist users in the interpretation of the results produced by NAAT, particularly where pathogens are detected at low levels with uncertain clinical significance. These caveats aside, faecal NAAT are increasingly being used and introduce a new era of diagnosis of gastrointestinal infection. PMID:25719855

  11. EFFECT OF THE METHOD OF PREPARING MONOCHLORAMINE UPON INACTIVATION OF MS2 COLIPHAGE, ESCHERICHIA COLI AND KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monochloramine prepared in situ by first adding chlorine to a suspension of microorganisms, followed by subsequent addition of ammonia inactivated the MS2 coliphage more rapidly than did monochloramine prepared either by adding chlorine to ammonia or by adding chlorine and ammoni...

  12. A Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay to Distinguish the Four Genogroups of Male-Specific (F+) RNA Coliphages

    EPA Science Inventory

    Goals of reducing fecal contamination in recreational, drinking, shellfishing and other waters and accurately assessing risk from exposure can best be attained if tools to distinguish between sources of pollution are available. The male-specific RNA coliphage (FRNA) genogroups h...

  13. Hand-mouth transfer and potential for exposure to E. coli and F+ coliphage in beach sand, Chicago, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, R.L.; Przybyla-Kelly, K.; Shively, D.A.; Nevers, M.B.; Byappanahalli, M.N.

    2009-01-01

    Beach sand contains fecal indicator bacteria, often in densities greatly exceeding the adjacent swimming waters. We examined the transferability of Escherichia coli and F+ coliphage (MS2) from beach sand to hands in order to estimate the potential subsequent health risk. Sand with high initial E. coli concentrations was collected from a Chicago beach. Individuals manipulated the sand for 60 seconds, and rinse water was analysed for E. coli and coliphage. E. coli densities transferred were correlated with density in sand rather than surface area of an individual's hand, and the amount of coliphage transferred from seeded sand was different among individuals. In sequential rinsing, percentage reduction was 92% for E. coli and 98% for coliphage. Using dose-response estimates developed for swimming water, it was determined that the number of individuals per thousand that would develop gastrointestinal symptoms would be 11 if all E. coli on the fingertip were ingested or 33 if all E. coli on the hand were ingested. These results suggest that beach sand may be an important medium for microbial exposure; bacteria transfer is related to initial concentration in the sand; and rinsing may be effective in limiting oral exposure to sand-borne microbes of human concern.

  14. Persistence of somatic and F-specific coliphages, potential indicators of fecal contamination, on spinach foliar tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent outbreaks of foodborne illness have been linked to consumption of fresh leafy greens. E. coli is commonly used as the indicator microorganism for fecal contamination on leafy greens. However, alternative microorganisms, such as coliphages, may deserve consideration as indicators of fecal cont...

  15. Persistence of somatic and F-specific coliphages, potential indicators of fecal contamination, on spinach foliar tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Recent outbreaks of foodborne illness have been linked to consumption of fresh leafy greens. E. coli is commonly used as the indicator microorganism for fecal contamination on growing leafy greens. However, alternative microorganisms, such as coliphages, may be an alternative indicat...

  16. A single amino acid change and truncated TM are sufficient for simian immunodeficiency virus to enter cells using CCR5 in a CD4-independent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bonavia, A.; Bullock, B.T.; Gisselman, K.M.; Margulies, B.J.; Clements, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Entry of HIV and SIV into susceptible cells is mediated by CD4 and chemokine receptors, which act as coreceptors. To study cell entry of SIV, we constructed a cell line, xKLuSIV, derived from non-susceptible human K562 cells, that express the firefly luciferase reporter gene under control of a minimal SIV long terminal repeat (LTR). Using these susceptible cells, we studied the entry of a well-characterized molecularly cloned macrophage-tropic SIV. xKLuSIV cells that express rhesus macaque CD4 and/or the rhesus chemokine receptor CCR5 are susceptible to infection with the macrophage-tropic, neurovirulent strain SIV/17E-Fr, but only xKLuSIV cells expressing both CCR5 and CD4 were susceptible to infection by the macrophage-tropic, non-neurovirulent strain SIV/17E-Cl. CCR5-dependent, CD4-independent infection by SIV/17E-Fr was abrogated by pre-incubation of the cells with AOP-RANTES, a ligand for CCR5. In addition to viral entry occurring by a CD4-independent mechanism, neutralization of SIV/17E-Fr with rhesus mAbs from 3 different neutralization groups blocked entry into xKLuSIV cells by both CD4-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Triggering the env glycoprotein of SIV-17EFr with soluble CD4 had no significant effect in infectivity, but triggering of the same glycoprotein of SIV/17E-Cl allowed it to enter cells in a CD4-independent fashion. Using mutant molecular clones, we studied the determinants for CD4 independence, all of which are confined to the env gene. We report here that truncation of the TM at amino acid 764 and changing a single amino acid (R751G) in the SIV envelope transmembrane protein (TM) conferred the observed CD4-independent phenotype. Our data suggest that the envelope from the neurovirulent SIV/17E-Fr interacts with CCR5 in a CD4-independent manner, and changes in the TM protein of this virus are important components that contribute to neurovirulence in SIV. PMID:16061266

  17. Nearest-neighbor doublets in protein-coding regions of MS2 RNA. [coliphage virus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jukes, T. H.

    1977-01-01

    'Nearest neighbor' base pairs ('doublets') in the protein-coding regions of MS2 RNA have been tabulated with respect to their positions in the first two bases of amino acid codons, in the second two bases, or paired by contact between adjoining codons. Considerable variation is evident between numbers of doublets in each of these three possible positions, but the totals of each of the 16 doublets in the coding regions of the MS2 RNA molecule show much less variation. Compilations of doublets in nucleic acid strands have no predictive value for the amino acid composition of proteins coded by such strands.

  18. Process Relationships for Evaluating the Role of Light-induced Inactivation of Coliphages at Selected Beaches and Nearby Tributaries of the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past studies have indicated that sunlight plays an important role in altering densities of coliphages, other indicator microorganisms and pathogens in aquatic environments. Fate and transport modeling of bacteriophage requires mathematical relationships that describe the waveleng...

  19. Factors affecting the enumeration of coliphages in sewage and sewage-polluted waters.

    PubMed

    Havelaar, A H; Hogeboom, W M

    1983-11-01

    The count of coliphages in naturally polluted waters was found to be dependent on many experimental factors. If Escherichia coli C was used as a host strain, consistently higher counts were obtained than with other strains (B,K-12-derivatives). This could be explained partly by the absence of a restriction system in C. A nutrient medium (modified Scholtens' agar, MSA) was developed with optimal concentrations of calcium- and magnesium-ions. MSA was compared with other media used for phage work and was found to give higher counts than all but one medium, Phage Assay Agar (PAA), which performed equally. If plating was done in a single agar layer in a large-size Petri-dish, higher counts were found than with the well-known double-agar-layer method. PMID:6360041

  20. Foodborne viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Testing for human pathogenic viruses in foods represents a formidable task requiring the extraction, concentration, and assay of a host of viruses from a wide range of food matrices. The enteric viruses, particularly genogroup I and II (GI and GII) noroviruses and hepatitis A virus, are the princip...

  1. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Variability and Prevalence of BVDV Subtypes in Persistently Infected Cattle Entering Feedlots: BVDV1b as Predominant Subtype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are a diverse group of viruses causing infections and disease in domestic and wild ruminants worldwide. BVDV biotypes are based on presence or absence of cytopathology in infected cultures: CP (cytopathic) or NCP (noncytopathic). BVDV are genetically diverse...

  2. New Method Using a Positively Charged Microporous Filter and Ultrafiltration for Concentration of Viruses from Tap Water ▿

    PubMed Central

    Ikner, Luisa A.; Soto-Beltran, Marcela; Bright, Kelly R.

    2011-01-01

    The methods used to concentrate enteric viruses from water have remained largely unchanged for nearly 30 years, with the most common technique being the use of 1MDS Virozorb filters followed by organic flocculation for secondary concentration. Recently, a few studies have investigated alternatives; however, many of these methods are impractical for use in the field or share some of the limitations of this traditional method. In the present study, the NanoCeram virus sampler, an electropositive pleated microporous filter composed of microglass filaments coated with nanoalumina fibers, was evaluated. Test viruses were first concentrated by passage of 20 liters of seeded water through the filter (average filter retention efficiency was ≥99.8%), and then the viruses were recovered using various salt-based or proteinaceous eluting solutions. A 1.0% sodium polyphosphate solution with 0.05 M glycine was determined to be the most effective. The recovered viruses were then further concentrated using Centricon Plus-70 centrifugal ultrafilters to a final volume of 3.3 (±0.3 [standard deviation]) ml; this volume compares quite favorably to that of previously described methods, such as organic flocculation (∼15 to 40 ml). The overall virus recovery efficiencies were 66% for poliovirus 1, 83% for echovirus 1, 77% for coxsackievirus B5, 14% for adenovirus 2, and 56% for MS2 coliphage. In addition, this method appears to be compatible with both cell culture and PCR assays. This new approach for the recovery of viruses from water is therefore a viable alternative to currently used methods when small volumes of final concentrate are an advantage. PMID:21441329

  3. INACTIVATION OF ENTERIC PATHOGENS DURING AEROBIC DIGESTION OF WASTEWATER SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of aerobic and anaerobic digestion on enteric viruses, enteric bacteria, total aerobic bacteria, and intestinal parasites were studied under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, the temperature of the sludge digestion was the major factor infl...

  4. ECHO virus

    MedlinePlus

    Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to gastrointestinal infection and skin rashes. ... Echovirus is one of several families of viruses that affect the ... are common. In the United States, they are most common in ...

  5. Persistence of F-Specific RNA Coliphages in Surface Waters from a Produce Production Region along the Central Coast of California

    PubMed Central

    Ravva, Subbarao V.; Sarreal, Chester Z.

    2016-01-01

    F+ RNA coliphages (FRNA) are used to source-track fecal contamination and as surrogates for enteric pathogen persistence in the environment. However, the environmental persistence of FRNA is not clearly understood and necessitates the evaluation of the survival of prototype and environmental isolates of FRNA representing all four genogroups in surface waters from the central coast of California. Water temperature played a significant role in persistence–all prototype and environmental strains survived significantly longer at 10°C compared to 25°C. Similarly, the availability of host bacterium was found to be critical in FRNA survival. In the absence of E. coli Famp, all prototypes of FRNA disappeared rapidly with a D-value (days for one log reduction) of <1.2 d from water samples incubated at 25°C; the longest surviving prototype was SP. However, in the presence of the host, the order of persistence at 25°C was QB>MS2>SP>GA and at 10°C it was QB = MS2>GA>SP. Significant differences in survival were observed between prototypes and environmental isolates of FRNA. While most environmental isolates disappeared rapidly at 25°C and in the absence of the host, members of genogroups GIII and GI persisted longer with the host compared to members of GII and GIV. Consequentially, FRNA based source tracking methods can be used to detect phages from recent fecal contamination along with those that persist longer in the environment as a result of cooler temperatures and increased host presence. PMID:26784030

  6. Removal of Viruses in Drinking Water- Ultrafiltration Module with a Cut Fiber, Dow Chemical Company - Dow Water & Process Solutions, SFD-2880 - Ultrafiltration Module

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this verification was a cut fiber challenge study for the Dow Chemical Company SFD-2880 UF membrane module. MS2 coliphage virus was the surrogate challenge organism. The challenge tests followed the requirements of the Department of Health Victoria (Australia) Dr...

  7. Evaluation of Four Different Systems for Extraction of RNA from Stool Suspensions Using MS-2 Coliphage as an Exogenous Control for RT-PCR Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Lester M.; Hindiyeh, Musa; Muhsen, Khitam; Cohen, Dani; Mendelson, Ella; Sofer, Danit

    2012-01-01

    Knowing when, and to what extent co-extracted inhibitors interfere with molecular RNA diagnostic assays is of utmost importance. The QIAamp Viral RNA Mini Kit (A); MagNA Pure LC2.0 Automatic extractor (B); KingFisher (C); and NucliSENS EasyMag (D) RNA extraction systems were evaluated for extraction efficiency and co-purification of inhibitors from stool suspensions. Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR) of MS-2 coliphage spiked into each system’s lysis buffer served as an external control for both. Cycle thresholds (Cts) of the MS2 were determined for RNA extracted from stool suspensions containing unknown (n = 93) or varying amounts of inhibitors (n = 92). Stool suspensions from the latter group were also used to determine whether MS-2 and enterovirus rRT-PCR inhibitions were correlated. Specifically 23 RNA extracts from stool suspensions were spiked with enterovirus RNA after extraction and 13 of these stool suspension were spiked with intact enterovirus before extraction. MS2 rRT-PCR inhibition varied for RNAs extracted by the different systems. Inhibition was noted in 12 (13.0%), 26 (28.3%), 7 (7.6%), and 7 (7.6%) of the first 93 RNA extracts, and 58 (63.0%), 55 (59.8%), 37 (40.2%) and 30 (32.6%) of the second 92 extracts for A, B, C, and D, respectively. Furthermore, enterovirus rRT-PCR inhibition correlated with MS2 rRT-PCR inhibition for added enterovirus RNA or virus particles. In conclusion, rRT-PCR for MS-2 RNA is a good predictor of inhibition of enterovirus RNA extracted from stool suspensions. EasyMag performed the best, however all four extraction methods were suitable provided that external controls identified problematic samples. PMID:22815706

  8. Investigating turkey enteric picornavirus and its association with enteric disease in poults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our previous research into the dynamic viral community in the turkey gastrointestinal tract revealed a number of novel enteric viruses. Of particular note in this previous metagenomic investigation was the observation of a number of novel avian enteric picornaviruses, in addition to numerous other ...

  9. The paramyxovirus simian virus 5 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein, but not the fusion glycoprotein, is internalized via coated pits and enters the endocytic pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Leser, G P; Ector, K J; Lamb, R A

    1996-01-01

    The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) glycoproteins of the paramyxovirus simian virus 5 (SV5) are expressed on the surface of virus-infected cells. Although the F protein was found to be expressed stably, the HN protein was internalized from the plasma membrane. HN protein lacks known internalization signals in its cytoplasmic domain that are common to many integral membrane proteins that are internalized via clathrin-coated pits. Thus, the cellular pathway of HN protein internalization was examined. Biochemical analysis indicated that HN was lost from the cell surface with a t1/2 of approximately 45-50 min and turned over with a t1/2 of approximately 2 h. Immunofluorescent analysis showed internalized SV5 HN in vesicle-like structures in a juxtanuclear pattern coincident with the localization of ovalbumin. In contrast the SV5 F glycoprotein and the HN glycoprotein of the highly related parainfluenza virus 3 (hPIV-3) were found only on the cell surface. Immunogold staining of HN on the surface of SV5-infected CV-1 cells and examination using electron microscopy, showed heavy surface labeling that gradually decreased with time. Concomitantly, gold particles were detected in the endosomal system and with increasing time, gold-labeled structures having the morphology of lysosomes were observed. On the plasma membrane approximately 5% of the gold-labeled HN was found in coated pits. The inhibition of the pinching-off of coated pits from the plasma membrane by cytosol acidification significantly reduced HN internalization. Internalized HN was co-localized with gold-conjugated transferrin, a marker for the early endosomal compartments, and with gold-conjugated bovine serum albumin, a marker for late endosomal compartments. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that the HN glycoprotein is internalized via clathrin-coated pits and delivered to the endocytic pathway. Images PMID:8741847

  10. Field testing and evaluation of the inhibitory effects of environmental waters on the detection of F-RNA coliphages using an Anionic-exchange resin Method

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal contamination of water poses a significant risk to public health due to the potential presence of pathogens, including enteric viruses. Thus, sensitive, reliable and easy to use methods for the detection of microorganisms are needed to evaluate water quality. In this stud...

  11. Use of abundance ratios of somatic coliphages and bacteriophages of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron GA17 for microbial source identification.

    PubMed

    Muniesa, Maite; Lucena, Francisco; Blanch, Anicet R; Payán, Andrey; Jofre, Juan

    2012-12-01

    Water contaminated with human faeces is a risk to human health and management of water bodies can be improved by determining the sources of faecal pollution. Field studies show that existing methods are insufficient and that different markers are required. This study proposes the combined use of two microbial indicators, the concentrations of which are presented as ratios. This provides a more reliable approach to identifying faecal sources as it avoids variation due to treatment or ageing of the contamination. Among other indicators, bacteriophages have been proposed as rapid and cheap indicators of faecal pollution. Samples analysed in this study were derived from wastewater treatment plants (raw sewage, secondary and tertiary effluents and raw sewage sludge) river water, seawater and animal related wastewater. The abundance ratios of faecal coliforms and Bacteroides phages, either strain RYC2056 (non-specific for faecal origin) or strain GA17 (specific for human pollution), and among somatic coliphages and phages infecting both Bacteroides strains, were evaluated. The results indicate that the ratio of somatic coliphages and phages infecting Bacteroides strain GA17, which is specific to human faecal sources, provides a robust method for discriminating samples, even those presenting different levels and ages of pollution, and allows samples polluted with human faeces to be distinguished from those containing animal faecal pollution. This method allows the generation of numerical data that can be further applied to numerical methods for faecal pollution discrimination. PMID:23039916

  12. Gene Mapping and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Complete Genome from 30 Single-Stranded RNA Male-Specific Coliphages (Family Leviviridae)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male-specific ssRNA (FRNA) coliphages belong to the family Leviviridae. Two genera subdivided into four genogroups (Levivirus, genogroups I and II and Allolevivirus, genogroups III and IV) comprise the lower taxonomic levels. Strains isolated from several continents have been p...

  13. Design and Assessment of a Real Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Method to Genotype Single-Stranded RNA Male-Specific Coliphages (Family Leviviridae).

    EPA Science Inventory

    A real-time, reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR) assay was developed to differentiate the four genogroups of male-specific ssRNA coliphages (FRNA) (family Leviviridae). As FRNA display a trend of source-specificity (human sewage or animal waste) at the genogroup level, this assa...

  14. Poor weaning transition average daily gain in pigs is not correlated with pathological or immunological markers of enteric disease during a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus outbreak.

    PubMed

    Jones, C K; Madson, D M; Main, R G; Gabler, N K; Patience, J F

    2014-06-01

    Previous research suggests that enteric disease and poor gut health interact to decrease pig performance. Our objective was to determine if light birth weight pigs or those from the bottom 10th percentile of transition ADG (tADG) have a higher incidence of pathogen presence or enteric lesions than heavier or faster-growing contemporaries. A total of 1,500 pigs were weighed at birth and divided into 5 birth weight (BRW) categories: <1, 1 to 1.25, 1.26 to 1.5, 1.51 to 1.75, and >1.76 kg. At weaning, 1,054 random pigs were moved to a commercial wean-to-finish barn. Pigs were weighed individually at 0 and 3 wk postweaning. Transition ADG was calculated as the ADG between wk 0 and 3 postweaning. One pig from each of the 10th, 30th, and 70th percentiles of tADG was used to create 1 set of 3 pigs with the same litter size and from the same parity sow. Forty pigs from each of the 3 tADG percentiles were matched for sex, litter size, and sow parity but not BRW to create 20 matched sets of 60 pigs. This allowed for the main effects of BRW and tADG to be studied as a 5 × 3 factorial design. At 3 and 22 wk postweaning, pigs were euthanized for organ system tissue evaluation. Lung, lymph node, and digesta were analyzed for presence of pathogens and for severity of microscopic lesions (0 = not present, 1 = present, with slight erosion, 2 = present, with moderate erosion, and 3 = present and severe erosion). Data were analyzed using PROC GENMOD and GLIMMIX, where pig served as the experimental unit. The fixed effects were BRW and tADG and the random effects were pen and set. There were no BRW × tADG interactions (P = 0.16). There was no correlation (P = 0.12) between tADG and pathogen presence at either 3 or 22 wk postweaning. Incidence and severity of microscopic lesions in the large intestine at 3 wk postweaning decreased linearly with increasing tADG (P = 0.01). Lesion incidence and severity were also affected (P < 0.04) by tADG at 22 wk postweaning, with greater stomach

  15. Diagnostics and intervention strategies for the control and prevention of viral enteric diseases in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent enteric virus surveys have revealed the presence of multiple viruses in turkeys and chickens in the United States, often in samples obtained from the same flock or bird. Complicating the picture considerably is the fact that many of the viruses implicated in enteric disease syndromes are rout...

  16. Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lytic bacteriophages, viruses which infect and lyse bacterial cells, can provide a natural method to reduce bacterial pathogens on produce commodities. The use of multi-phage cocktails is most likely to be effective against bacterial pathogens on produce commodities, and minimize the development of...

  17. Sequence analysis of parvoviruses associated with enteric disease of poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poult Enteritis Mortality Syndrome (PEMS) and Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS) are significant viral enteric diseases of poultry. The etiology of these diseases is not completely understood. Here, we report the application of a molecular screening method that was designed to detect novel viruses from...

  18. Mecillinam in enteric fever.

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, B K; Ironside, A G; Brennand, J

    1979-01-01

    Twelve consecutive patients with enteric fever entered a trial of 14 days' treatment with mecillinam. Only three patients became afebrile within three days; four continued unimproved with fever and toxaemia for seven to nine days, when treatment was changed to chloramphenicol with good results. In one case the fever did not settle until the 13th day, and five days later the patient had a clinical relapse. Although all organisms recovered were fully sensitive to mecillinam, this drug is not an effective or consistent treatment for enteric fever. PMID:218670

  19. Inactivation of hepatitis A virus and indicator organisms in water by free chlorine residuals.

    PubMed Central

    Grabow, W O; Gauss-Müller, V; Prozesky, O W; Deinhardt, F

    1983-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and selected indicator organisms were mixed together in chlorine-demand-free buffers at pH 6, 8, or 10 and exposed to free chlorine residuals, and the survival kinetics of individual organisms were compared. HAV was enumerated by a most-probable-number dilution assay, using PLC/PRF/5 liver cells for propagation of the virus and radioimmunoassay for its detection. At all pH levels, HAV was more sensitive than Mycobacterium fortuitum, coliphage V1 (representing a type of phage common in some sewage-polluted waters), and poliovirus type 2. Under certain conditions, HAV was more resistant than Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis, coliphage MS2, and reovirus type 3. It was always more resistant than SA-11 rotavirus. Evidence is presented that conditions generally specified for the chlorine disinfection of drinking-water supplies will also successfully inactivate HAV and that HAV inactivation by free chlorine residuals can reliably be monitored by practical indicator systems consisting of appropriate combinations of suitable indicators such as coliform and acid-fast bacteria, coliphages, the standard plate count, and fecal streptococci. PMID:6314894

  20. Enteric viral infections in lambs or kids.

    PubMed

    Martella, V; Decaro, N; Buonavoglia, C

    2015-12-14

    Diarrhoea in lambs and kids is often a complex, multi-factorial syndrome. Common infectious causes of diarrhoea in lambs and kids during the first month of life are of bacterial or parasite nature. However, despite appreciable improvements in management practices and prevention and treatment strategies over the last decades, diarrhoea is still a common and costly syndrome affecting newborn small ruminants. Recent advances in the diagnostics and metagenomic investigations of the enteric environment have allowed discovering a number of novel viruses, although their pathobiological properties remain largely unknown. Assessing more in depth the impact of these viruses on the health and productions of these livestock animals is necessary and requires the development of accurate diagnostic tools and updating of the diagnostic algorithms of enteric pathological conditions. PMID:26321129

  1. Strategies for design and application of enteric viral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Chattha, Kuldeep S; Roth, James A; Saif, Linda J

    2015-01-01

    Enteric viral infections in domestic animals cause significant economic losses. The recent emergence of virulent enteric coronaviruses [porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV)] in North America and Asia, for which no vaccines are available, remains a challenge for the global swine industry. Vaccination strategies against rotavirus and coronavirus (transmissible gastroenteritis virus) infections are reviewed. These vaccination principles are applicable against emerging enteric infections such as PEDV. Maternal vaccines to induce lactogenic immunity, and their transmission to suckling neonates via colostrum and milk, are critical for early passive protection. Subsequently, in weaned animals, oral vaccines incorporating novel mucosal adjuvants (e.g., vitamin A, probiotics) may provide active protection when maternal immunity wanes. Understanding intestinal and systemic immune responses to experimental rotavirus and transmissible gastroenteritis virus vaccines and infection in pigs provides a basis and model for the development of safe and effective vaccines for young animals and children against established and emerging enteric infections. PMID:25387111

  2. [Cyclic enteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Hébuterne, X; Rampal, P

    1996-02-10

    Cyclic enteral nutrition consists in continuous infusion of nutrients with a pump over a 12 to 14 hour period at night. Different reports have demonstrated that cyclic enteral nutrition is well tolerated in malnourished ambulatory patients. The incidence of pneumonia by inhalation in this type of patients is less than 2%. Excepting patients with major amputation of the small intestine and important functional consequences, the increased infusion rate required by cyclic enteral nutrition does not diminish digestive tract absorption making the technique as effective as continuous 24-hour infusion. The main advantages of the cyclic infusion are the preservation of physiological balance between fasting and feeding, improved physical activity during the day with its beneficial effect on protein-energy metabolism, compatibility with oral nutrition during the day in nutrition reeducation programs, and the psychological impact in patients who are free to move about, further improving tolerance. Finally, cyclic enteral nutrition is adapted to enteral nutrition programs conducted in the patient's homes. PMID:8729381

  3. Enteral approaches in malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Avitzur, Yaron; Courtney-Martin, Glenda

    2016-04-01

    Enteral autonomy and freedom from parenteral nutrition dependency is the ultimate therapeutic goal in children with intestinal failure. This can be achieved following attainment of bowel adaptation in conditions such as short bowel syndrome. Enteral nutrition is a major therapeutic cornerstone in the management of children with intestinal failure. It promotes physiological development, bowel adaptation and enhances weaning from parenteral nutrition. The optimal method of delivery, type of nutrients, timing of initiation, promotion of feeds and transition to solid food in children with short bowel syndrome are debated. Lack of high quality human data hampers evidence based conclusions and impacts daily practices in the field. Clinical approaches and therapeutic decisions are regularly influenced by expert opinion and center practices. This review summarizes the physiological principles, medical evidence and practice recommendations on enteral nutrition approaches in short bowel syndrome and provides a practical framework for daily treatment of this unique group of patients. Oral and tube feeding, bolus and continuous feeding, type of nutrients, formulas, trace elements and solid food options are reviewed. Future collaborative multicenter, high quality clinical trials are needed to support enteral nutrition approaches in intestinal failure. PMID:27086892

  4. Enteric Redmouth Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yersinia ruckeri, the causative agent of Enteric Redmouth Disease (ERM), is a disease of salmonid fish species that is endemic in areas of the world where salmonids are intensively cultured. The disease causes a chronic to acute hemorrhagic septicemia which can lead to high rates of mortality partic...

  5. Enteric Viral Surrogate Reduction by Chitosan.

    PubMed

    Davis, Robert; Zivanovic, Svetlana; Davidson, P Michael; D'Souza, Doris H

    2015-12-01

    Enteric viruses are a major problem in the food industry, especially as human noroviruses are the leading cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Chitosan is known to be effective against some enteric viral surrogates, but more detailed studies are needed to determine the precise application variables. The main objective of this work was to determine the effect of increasing chitosan concentration (0.7-1.5% w/v) on the cultivable enteric viral surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), murine norovirus (MNV-1), and bacteriophages (MS2 and phiX174) at 37 °C. Two chitosans (53 and 222 kDa) were dissolved in water (53 kDa) or 1% acetic acid (222 KDa) at 0.7-1.5%, and were then mixed with each virus to obtain a titer of ~5 log plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL. These mixtures were incubated for 3 h at 37 °C. Controls included untreated viruses in phosphate-buffered saline and viruses were enumerated by plaque assays. The 53 kDa chitosan at the concentrations tested reduced FCV-F9, MNV-1, MS2, and phi X174 by 2.6-2.9, 0.1-0.4, 2.6-2.8, and 0.7-0.9 log PFU/mL, respectively, while reduction by 222 kDa chitosan was 2.2-2.4, 0.8-1.0, 2.6-5.2, and 0.5-0.8 log PFU/mL, respectively. The 222 kDa chitosan at 1 and 0.7% w/v in acetic acid (pH 4.5) caused the greatest reductions of MS2 by 5.2 logs and 2.6 logs, respectively. Overall, chitosan treatments showed the greatest reduction of MS2, followed by FCV-F9, phi X174, and MNV-1. These two chitosans may contribute to the reduction of enteric viruses at the concentrations tested but would require use of other hurdles to eliminate food borne viruses. PMID:26162243

  6. Single virus detection by means of atomic force microscopy in combination with advanced image analysis.

    PubMed

    Bocklitz, Thomas; Kämmer, Evelyn; Stöckel, Stephan; Cialla-May, Dana; Weber, Karina; Zell, Roland; Deckert, Volker; Popp, Jürgen

    2014-10-01

    In the present contribution virions of five different virus species, namely Varicella-zoster virus, Porcine teschovirus, Tobacco mosaic virus, Coliphage M13 and Enterobacteria phage PsP3, are investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). From the resulting height images quantitative features like maximal height, area and volume of the viruses could be extracted and compared to reference values. Subsequently, these features were accompanied by image moments, which quantify the morphology of the virions. Both types of features could be utilized for an automatic discrimination of the five virus species. The accuracy of this classification model was 96.8%. Thus, a virus detection on a single-particle level using AFM images is possible. Due to the application of advanced image analysis the morphology could be quantified and used for further analysis. Here, an automatic recognition by means of a classification model could be achieved in a reliable and objective manner. PMID:25196422

  7. Characterization of the helper proteins for the assembly of tail fibers of coliphages T4 and lambda.

    PubMed Central

    Hashemolhosseini, S; Stierhof, Y D; Hindennach, I; Henning, U

    1996-01-01

    Assembly of tail fibers of coliphage T4 requires the action of helper proteins. In the absence of one of these, protein 38 (p38), p37, constituting the distal part of the long tail fiber, fails to oligomerize. In the absence of the other, p57, p34 (another component of the long tail fiber), p37, and p12 (the subunit of the short tail fiber) remain unassembled. p38 can be replaced by the Tfa (tail fiber assembly) protein (pTfa) of phage lambda, which has the advantage of remaining soluble even when produced in massive amounts. The mechanisms of action of the helpers are unknown. As a first step towards elucidation of these mechanisms, p57 and pTfa have been purified to homogeneity and have been crystallized. The identity of gene 57 (g57), not known with certainty previously, has been established. The 79-residue protein p57 represents a very exotic polypeptide. It is oligomeric and acidic (an excess of nine negative charges). It does not contain Phe, Trp, Tyr, His, Pro, and Cys. Only 25 N-terminal residues were still able to complement a g57 amber mutant, although with a reduced efficiency. In cells overproducing the protein, it assumed a quasi-crystalline structure in the form of highly ordered fibers. They traversed the cells longitudinally (and thus blocked cell division) with a diameter approaching that of the cell and with a hexagonal appearance. The 194-residue pTfa is also acidic (an excess of 13 negative charges) and is likely to be dimeric. PMID:8892827

  8. Impact of riparian zone protection from cattle on nutrient, bacteria, F-coliphage, and loading of an intermittent stream.

    PubMed

    Sunohara, M D; Topp, E; Wilkes, G; Gottschall, N; Neumann, N; Ruecker, N; Jones, T H; Edge, T A; Marti, R; Lapen, D R

    2012-01-01

    This 5-yr study compared, via an upstream-downstream experimental design, nutrient and microbial water quality of an intermittent stream running through a small pasture (∼2.5 animals ha) where cattle are restricted from the riparian zone (restricted cattle access [RCA]) and where cattle have unrestricted access to the stream (unrestricted cattle access [URCA]). Fencing in the RCA excluded pasturing cattle to within ∼3 to 5 m of the stream. Approximately 88% (26/32) of all comparisons of mean contaminant load reduction for lower, higher, and all stream flow conditions during the 5-yr study indicated net contaminant load reductions in the RCA; for the URCA, this percentage was 38% (12/32). For all flow conditions, mean percent load reductions in the RCA for nutrients and bacteria plus F-coliphage were 24 and 23%, respectively. These respective percentages for the URCA were -9 and -57% (positive values are reductions; negative values are increases). However, potentially as a result of protected wildlife habitat in the RCA, the mean percent load reduction for for "all flow" was -321% for the RCA and 60% for the URCA; for , these respective percentages were -209% (RCA) and 73% (URCA). For "all flow" situations, mean load reductions for the RCA were significantly greater ( < 0.1) than those from the URCA for NH-N, dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), total coliform, , and . For "high flow" situations, mean load reductions were significantly greater for the RCA for DRP, total coliform, and . For "low flow" conditions, significantly greater mean load reductions were in favor of the RCA for DRP, total P, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, , and . In no case were mean pollutant loads in the URCA significantly higher than RCA pollutant loads. Restricting pasturing livestock to within 3 to 5 m of intermittent streams can improve water quality; however, water quality impairment can occur if livestock have unrestricted access to a stream. PMID:22751075

  9. Total coliphages removal by activated sludge process and their morphological diversity by transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jebri, Sihem; Hmaied, Fatma; Yahya, Mariem; Ben Ammar, Aouatef; Hamdi, Moktar

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate phages in treated sewage collected from wastewater treatment plant, and explore their morphological diversity by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fates of total bacteriophages and their reduction by biological treatment were also assayed. Phages were isolated using the plaque assay then negatively stained and observed by electron microscope. Electron micrographs showed different types of phages with different shapes and sizes. The majority of viruses found in treated sewage ranged from 30 to 100 nm in capsid diameter. Many of them were tailed, belonging to Siphoviridae, Myoviridae and Podoviridae families. Non-tailed phage particles were also found at a low rate, presumably belonging to Leviviridae or Microviridae families. This study shows the diversity and the abundance of bacteriophages in wastewater after biological treatment. Their persistence in wastewater reused in agriculture should raise concerns about their potential role in controlling bacterial populations in the environment. They should be also included in water treatment quality controlling guidelines as fecal and viral indicators. PMID:27438235

  10. Use of Aqueous Silver To Enhance Inactivation of Coliphage MS-2 by UV Disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Butkus, Michael A.; Labare, Michael P.; Starke, Jeffrey A.; Moon, King; Talbot, Mark

    2004-01-01

    A synergistic effect between silver and UV radiation has been observed that can appreciably enhance the effectiveness of UV radiation for inactivation of viruses. At a fluence of ca. 40 mJ/cm2, the synergistic effect between silver and UV was observed at silver concentrations as low as 10 μg/liter (P < 0.0615). At the same fluence, an MS-2 inactivation of ca. 3.5 logs (99.97%) was achieved at a silver concentration of 0.1 mg/liter, a significant improvement (P < 0.0001) over the ca. 1.8-log (98.42%) inactivation of MS-2 at ca. 40 mJ/cm2 in the absence of silver. Modified Chick-Watson kinetics were used to model the synergistic effect of silver and UV radiation. For an MS-2 inactivation of 4 logs (99.99%), the coefficient of dilution (n) was determined to be 0.31, which suggests that changes in fluence have a greater influence on inactivation than does a proportionate change in silver concentration. PMID:15128542

  11. Rapid Determination of the Presence of Enteric Bacteria in Water

    PubMed Central

    Kenard, R. P.; Valentine, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive method is described for the detection of bacteria in water and various other natural substrates by the isolation of specific bacteriophage. By the addition of large numbers of the organism in question to the sample, the presence of virulent bacteriophage can be demonstrated in as little as 6 to 8 h. Fecal coliform, total coliform, and total coliphage counts were determined for over 150 water samples from several geographical areas over a period of 2 years. Computer analysis of the data shows a high degree of correlation between fecal coliforms and the coliphage present in the samples. With a high correlation coefficient between fecal coliform and coliphage counts, predictions of the fecal coliforms may be made by enumeration of the phage. PMID:4596384

  12. An introduction to food and waterborne viruses: diseases, transmission, outbreaks, detection and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteric viruses are the number one cause of foodborne illness throughout the world. In addition to foods, contaminated drinking water is another major cause of enteric viral illness. Among the enteric viruses are the noroviruses, hepatitis A and E viruses, enteric adenoviruses, rotavirus, and astro...

  13. John Glenn Entering Friendship 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Overall view of astronaut John Glenn, Jr., as he enters into the spacecraft Friendship 7 prior to MA-6 launch operations at Launch Complex 14. Astronaut Glenn is entering his spacecraft to begin the first American manned Earth orbital mission.

  14. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000164.htm Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  15. Ebola virus disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... urine, saliva, sweat, feces, vomit, breast milk, and semen. The virus can enter the body through a ... use condoms for 12 months or until their semen has twice tested negative. Long-term complications can ...

  16. Meta-Analysis of the Reduction of Norovirus and Male-Specific Coliphage Concentrations in Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    PubMed

    Pouillot, Régis; Van Doren, Jane M; Woods, Jacquelina; Plante, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Goblick, Gregory; Roberts, Christopher; Locas, Annie; Hajen, Walter; Stobo, Jeffrey; White, John; Holtzman, Jennifer; Buenaventura, Enrico; Burkhardt, William; Catford, Angela; Edwards, Robyn; DePaola, Angelo; Calci, Kevin R

    2015-07-01

    Human norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States and Canada. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents impacting bivalve mollusk-growing areas are potential sources of NoV contamination. We have developed a meta-analysis that evaluates WWTP influent concentrations and log10 reductions of NoV genotype I (NoV GI; in numbers of genome copies per liter [gc/liter]), NoV genotype II (NoV GII; in gc/liter), and male-specific coliphage (MSC; in number of PFU per liter), a proposed viral surrogate for NoV. The meta-analysis included relevant data (2,943 measurements) reported in the scientific literature through September 2013 and previously unpublished surveillance data from the United States and Canada. Model results indicated that the mean WWTP influent concentration of NoV GII (3.9 log10 gc/liter; 95% credible interval [CI], 3.5, 4.3 log10 gc/liter) is larger than the value for NoV GI (1.5 log10 gc/liter; 95% CI, 0.4, 2.4 log10 gc/liter), with large variations occurring from one WWTP to another. For WWTPs with mechanical systems and chlorine disinfection, mean log10 reductions were -2.4 log10 gc/liter (95% CI, -3.9, -1.1 log10 gc/liter) for NoV GI, -2.7 log10 gc/liter (95% CI, -3.6, -1.9 log10 gc/liter) for NoV GII, and -2.9 log10 PFU per liter (95% CI, -3.4, -2.4 log10 PFU per liter) for MSCs. Comparable values for WWTPs with lagoon systems and chlorine disinfection were -1.4 log10 gc/liter (95% CI, -3.3, 0.5 log10 gc/liter) for NoV GI, -1.7 log10 gc/liter (95% CI, -3.1, -0.3 log10 gc/liter) for NoV GII, and -3.6 log10 PFU per liter (95% CI, -4.8, -2.4 PFU per liter) for MSCs. Within WWTPs, correlations exist between mean NoV GI and NoV GII influent concentrations and between the mean log10 reduction in NoV GII and the mean log10 reduction in MSCs. PMID:25934626

  17. Meta-Analysis of the Reduction of Norovirus and Male-Specific Coliphage Concentrations in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    PubMed Central

    Pouillot, Régis; Van Doren, Jane M.; Woods, Jacquelina; Plante, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Goblick, Gregory; Roberts, Christopher; Locas, Annie; Hajen, Walter; Stobo, Jeffrey; White, John; Holtzman, Jennifer; Buenaventura, Enrico; Burkhardt, William; Catford, Angela; Edwards, Robyn; DePaola, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Human norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States and Canada. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents impacting bivalve mollusk-growing areas are potential sources of NoV contamination. We have developed a meta-analysis that evaluates WWTP influent concentrations and log10 reductions of NoV genotype I (NoV GI; in numbers of genome copies per liter [gc/liter]), NoV genotype II (NoV GII; in gc/liter), and male-specific coliphage (MSC; in number of PFU per liter), a proposed viral surrogate for NoV. The meta-analysis included relevant data (2,943 measurements) reported in the scientific literature through September 2013 and previously unpublished surveillance data from the United States and Canada. Model results indicated that the mean WWTP influent concentration of NoV GII (3.9 log10 gc/liter; 95% credible interval [CI], 3.5, 4.3 log10 gc/liter) is larger than the value for NoV GI (1.5 log10 gc/liter; 95% CI, 0.4, 2.4 log10 gc/liter), with large variations occurring from one WWTP to another. For WWTPs with mechanical systems and chlorine disinfection, mean log10 reductions were −2.4 log10 gc/liter (95% CI, −3.9, −1.1 log10 gc/liter) for NoV GI, −2.7 log10 gc/liter (95% CI, −3.6, −1.9 log10 gc/liter) for NoV GII, and −2.9 log10 PFU per liter (95% CI, −3.4, −2.4 log10 PFU per liter) for MSCs. Comparable values for WWTPs with lagoon systems and chlorine disinfection were −1.4 log10 gc/liter (95% CI, −3.3, 0.5 log10 gc/liter) for NoV GI, −1.7 log10 gc/liter (95% CI, −3.1, −0.3 log10 gc/liter) for NoV GII, and −3.6 log10 PFU per liter (95% CI, −4.8, −2.4 PFU per liter) for MSCs. Within WWTPs, correlations exist between mean NoV GI and NoV GII influent concentrations and between the mean log10 reduction in NoV GII and the mean log10 reduction in MSCs. PMID:25934626

  18. Entering the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vince, Gaia

    2016-04-01

    There is growing evidence that we are now entering a new geological age defined by human influence on the planet, the Anthropocene. Millions of years from now, a stripe in the accumulated layers of rock on Earth's surface will reveal our human fingerprint just as we can see evidence of dinosaurs in rocks of the Jurassic, or the explosion of life that marks the Cambrian. There is now no part of the planet untouched by human influence. The realisation that we wield such planetary power requires a quite extraordinary shift in perception, fundamentally toppling the scientific, cultural and religious philosophies that define our place in the world. This session explores these issues and examines our new relationship with nature now that we so strongly influence the biosphere. And this session will look at what the impacts of our planetary changes mean for us, and how we might deal with the consequences of the Anthropocene we have created.

  19. Enteric Immunization of Mice Against Influenza with Recombinant Vaccinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meitin, Catherine A.; Bender, Bradley S.; Small, Parker A., Jr.

    1994-11-01

    Intrajejunal administration to mice of a recombinant vaccinia virus containing the influenza virus hemagglutinin gene induced IgA antibody in nasal, gut, and vaginal secretions. It also induced IgG antibody in serum and cell-mediated immunity. The immunization provided significant protection against an influenza virus challenge. This work suggests that enteric-coated recombinant vaccinia could be an orally administered, inexpensive, multivalent, temperature-stable, safe, and effective vaccine for children that could be particularly useful in developing nations, where multiple injections are not easily administered. Oral administration of vaccines should also reduce children's fear of shots at the doctor's office.

  20. Microscopic enteritis: Bucharest consensus.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Kamran; Aldulaimi, David; Holmes, Geoffrey; Johnson, Matt W; Robert, Marie; Srivastava, Amitabh; Fléjou, Jean-François; Sanders, David S; Volta, Umberto; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Going, James J; Becheanu, Gabriel; Catassi, Carlo; Danciu, Mihai; Materacki, Luke; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Ishaq, Sauid; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Peña, A Salvador; Bassotti, Gabrio; Marsh, Michael N; Villanacci, Vincenzo

    2015-03-01

    Microscopic enteritis (ME) is an inflammatory condition of the small bowel that leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, nutrient and micronutrient deficiency. It is characterised by microscopic or sub-microscopic abnormalities such as microvillus changes and enterocytic alterations in the absence of definite macroscopic changes using standard modern endoscopy. This work recognises a need to characterize disorders with microscopic and submicroscopic features, currently regarded as functional or non-specific entities, to obtain further understanding of their clinical relevance. The consensus working party reviewed statements about the aetiology, diagnosis and symptoms associated with ME and proposes an algorithm for its investigation and treatment. Following the 5(th) International Course in Digestive Pathology in Bucharest in November 2012, an international group of 21 interested pathologists and gastroenterologists formed a working party with a view to formulating a consensus statement on ME. A five-step agreement scale (from strong agreement to strong disagreement) was used to score 21 statements, independently. There was strong agreement on all statements about ME histology (95%-100%). Statements concerning diagnosis achieved 85% to 100% agreement. A statement on the management of ME elicited agreement from the lowest rate (60%) up to 100%. The remaining two categories showed general agreement between experts on clinical presentation (75%-95%) and pathogenesis (80%-90%) of ME. There was strong agreement on the histological definition of ME. Weaker agreement on management indicates a need for further investigations, better definitions and clinical trials to produce quality guidelines for management. This ME consensus is a step toward greater recognition of a significant entity affecting symptomatic patients previously labelled as non-specific or functional enteropathy. PMID:25759526

  1. Microscopic enteritis: Bucharest consensus

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Kamran; Aldulaimi, David; Holmes, Geoffrey; Johnson, Matt W; Robert, Marie; Srivastava, Amitabh; Fléjou, Jean-François; Sanders, David S; Volta, Umberto; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Going, James J; Becheanu, Gabriel; Catassi, Carlo; Danciu, Mihai; Materacki, Luke; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Ishaq, Sauid; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Peña, A Salvador; Bassotti, Gabrio; Marsh, Michael N; Villanacci, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic enteritis (ME) is an inflammatory condition of the small bowel that leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, nutrient and micronutrient deficiency. It is characterised by microscopic or sub-microscopic abnormalities such as microvillus changes and enterocytic alterations in the absence of definite macroscopic changes using standard modern endoscopy. This work recognises a need to characterize disorders with microscopic and submicroscopic features, currently regarded as functional or non-specific entities, to obtain further understanding of their clinical relevance. The consensus working party reviewed statements about the aetiology, diagnosis and symptoms associated with ME and proposes an algorithm for its investigation and treatment. Following the 5th International Course in Digestive Pathology in Bucharest in November 2012, an international group of 21 interested pathologists and gastroenterologists formed a working party with a view to formulating a consensus statement on ME. A five-step agreement scale (from strong agreement to strong disagreement) was used to score 21 statements, independently. There was strong agreement on all statements about ME histology (95%-100%). Statements concerning diagnosis achieved 85% to 100% agreement. A statement on the management of ME elicited agreement from the lowest rate (60%) up to 100%. The remaining two categories showed general agreement between experts on clinical presentation (75%-95%) and pathogenesis (80%-90%) of ME. There was strong agreement on the histological definition of ME. Weaker agreement on management indicates a need for further investigations, better definitions and clinical trials to produce quality guidelines for management. This ME consensus is a step toward greater recognition of a significant entity affecting symptomatic patients previously labelled as non-specific or functional enteropathy. PMID:25759526

  2. Transport of Viruses Through Saturated and Unsaturated Columns Packed With Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, R.; Chrysikopoulos, C. V.

    2008-05-01

    Laboratory-scale virus transport experiments were conducted in columns packed with sand under saturated and unsaturated conditions. The viruses employed were the male-specific RNA coliphage, MS2, and the Salmonella typhimurium phage, PRD1. The mathematical model developed by Sim and Chrysikopoulos [2000] to quantify the processes responsible for removal of viruses during vertical transport in one-dimensional, unsaturated porous media was used to fit the data collected from the laboratory experiments. The liquid to liquid-solid and liquid to air-liquid interface mass transfer rate coefficients were shown to increase for both bacteriophage as saturation levels were reduced. The experimental results indicate that even for unfavorable attachment conditions within a sand column (e.g., phosphate-buffered saline solution; pH = 7.5; ionic strength = 2 mM), saturation levels can affect virus transport through porous media.

  3. Comparative metagenomic analysis of the enteric viromes from specific-pathogen free (SPF) chickens placed on broiler farms with enteric disease signs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metagenomics approaches have identified novel viruses in the poultry gastrointestinal tract, but these viruses and viral communities and their roles in general gut health have not been fully characterized. This study investigates the colonization of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens by enteric v...

  4. Role of sialic acids in feline enteric coronavirus infections.

    PubMed

    Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Roukaerts, Inge D M; Acar, Delphine D; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2014-09-01

    To initiate infections, many coronaviruses use sialic acids, either as receptor determinants or as attachment factors helping the virus find its receptor underneath the heavily glycosylated mucus layer. In the present study, the role of sialic acids in serotype I feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) infections was studied in feline intestinal epithelial cell cultures. Treatment of cells with neuraminidase (NA) enhanced infection efficiency, showing that terminal sialic acid residues on the cell surface were not receptor determinants and even hampered efficient virus-receptor engagement. Knowing that NA treatment of coronaviruses can unmask viral sialic acid binding activity, replication of untreated and NA-treated viruses was compared, showing that NA treatment of the virus enhanced infectivity in untreated cells, but was detrimental in NA-treated cells. By using sialylated compounds as competitive inhibitors, it was demonstrated that sialyllactose (2,6-α-linked over 2,3-α-linked) notably reduced infectivity of NA-treated viruses, whereas bovine submaxillary mucin inhibited both treated and untreated viruses. In desialylated cells, however, viruses were less prone to competitive inhibition with sialylated compounds. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that FECV had a sialic acid binding capacity, which was partially masked by virus-associated sialic acids, and that attachment to sialylated compounds could facilitate enterocyte infections. However, sialic acid binding was not a prerequisite for the initiation of infection and virus-receptor engagement was even more efficient after desialylation of cells, indicating that FECV requires sialidases for efficient enterocyte infections. PMID:24876305

  5. Diurnal fluctuation of indicator microorganisms and intestinal viruses in combined sewer system.

    PubMed

    Kim, W J; Managaki, S; Furumai, H; Nakajima, F

    2009-01-01

    Combined sewer overflow (CSO) has been considered to be a source of pathogenic microorganisms for aquatic environment. For the effective control and treatment of CSOs, the microbial behavior in combined sewer system (CSS) needs to be investigated. In this study, whole-day extensive monitoring of indicator microorganisms and intestinal viruses in dry weather flow (DWF) was conducted at a small residential urban drainage area with CSS. All indicator bacteria represented similar diurnal variations in the two different monitoring campaigns; their concentrations gradually decreased to the minimum at the dawn (around 5 a.m.), increased sharply to the maximum around 7 to 8 a.m., and remained rather constant from noon to midnight. On the other hand, neither coliphages nor intestinal viruses showed any concentration peaks in the morning. The maximum/minimum load ratios ranged from 18 to 42 for total coliforms, fecal coliforms and E. coli, whereas those ratios for coliphages, enteroviruses and noroviruses G2 showed greater values than those for indicator bacteria. These results indicate that the diurnal variation patterns of bacterial and viral concentrations in DWF should be considered, which affect the discharge characteristics of each microorganism and the loads of bacteria and viruses in CSOs significantly vary with the overflow time as well. PMID:19934500

  6. Detection of enteric pathogens in Turkey flocks affected with severe enteritis, in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moura-Alvarez, Joelma; Nuñez, Luis F N; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete S; Knöbl, Terezinha; Chacón, Jorge L; Moreno, Andrea M; Jones, Richard C; Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino

    2014-08-01

    Twenty-two flocks of turkeys affected by enteric problems, with ages between 10 and 104 days and located in the Southern region of Brazil, were surveyed for turkey by PCR for turkey astrovirus type 2 (TAstV-2), turkey coronavirus (TCoV), hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV), rotavirus, reovirus, Salmonella spp., and Lawsonia intracellularis (Li) infections. Eleven profiles of pathogen combination were observed. The most frequently encountered pathogen combinations were TCoV-Li, followed by TCoV-TAstV-2-Li, TCoV-TastV-2. Only TCoV was detected as the sole pathogen in three flocks. Eight and 19 flocks of the 22 were positive for TAstV-2 and TCoV, respectively. Six were positive for Salmonella spp. and L. intracellularis was detected in 12 turkey flocks. Reovirus and HEV were not detected in this survey. These results throw new light on the multiple etiology of enteritis in turkeys. The implications of these findings and their correlation with the clinical signs are comprehensively discussed, illustrating the complexity of the enteric diseases. PMID:24817479

  7. Viral enteric infections of poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteric diseases cause great economic losses to the poultry industry mostly from depressed weight gains, impaired feed efficiency, and decreased flock uniformity. Enteric syndromes have been described in both young turkeys and chickens and likely result from infection by a mixture of pathogenic age...

  8. Novel Receptor Specificity of Avian Gammacoronaviruses That Cause Enteritis

    PubMed Central

    Ambepitiya Wickramasinghe, I. N.; de Vries, R. P.; Weerts, E. A. W. S.; van Beurden, S. J.; Peng, W.; McBride, R.; Ducatez, M.; Guy, J.; Brown, P.; Eterradossi, N.; Gröne, A.; Paulson, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses exploit molecules on the target membrane as receptors for attachment and entry into host cells. Thus, receptor expression patterns can define viral tissue tropism and might to some extent predict the susceptibility of a host to a particular virus. Previously, others and we have shown that respiratory pathogens of the genus Gammacoronavirus, including chicken infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), require specific α2,3-linked sialylated glycans for attachment and entry. Here, we studied determinants of binding of enterotropic avian gammacoronaviruses, including turkey coronavirus (TCoV), guineafowl coronavirus (GfCoV), and quail coronavirus (QCoV), which are evolutionarily distant from respiratory avian coronaviruses based on the viral attachment protein spike (S1). We profiled the binding of recombinantly expressed S1 proteins of TCoV, GfCoV, and QCoV to tissues of their respective hosts. Protein histochemistry showed that the tissue binding specificity of S1 proteins of turkey, quail, and guineafowl CoVs was limited to intestinal tissues of each particular host, in accordance with the reported pathogenicity of these viruses in vivo. Glycan array analyses revealed that, in contrast to the S1 protein of IBV, S1 proteins of enteric gammacoronaviruses recognize a unique set of nonsialylated type 2 poly-N-acetyl-lactosamines. Lectin histochemistry as well as tissue binding patterns of TCoV S1 further indicated that these complex N-glycans are prominently expressed on the intestinal tract of various avian species. In conclusion, our data demonstrate not only that enteric gammacoronaviruses recognize a novel glycan receptor but also that enterotropism may be correlated with the high specificity of spike proteins for such glycans expressed in the intestines of the avian host. IMPORTANCE Avian coronaviruses are economically important viruses for the poultry industry. While infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a respiratory pathogen of chickens, is rather well

  9. Global occurrence of Torque teno virus in water systems.

    PubMed

    Charest, A J; Plummer, J D; Long, S C; Carducci, A; Verani, M; Sidhu, J P S

    2015-09-01

    Bacterial indicator organisms are used globally to assess the microbiological safety of waters. However, waterborne viral outbreaks have occurred in drinking water systems despite negative bacterial results. Using viral markers may therefore provide more accurate health risk assessment data. In this study, fecal, wastewater, stormwater, surface water (fresh and salt), groundwater, and drinking water samples were analyzed for the presence or concentration of traditional indicators, innovative indicators and viral markers. Samples were obtained in the United States, Italy, and Australia and results compared to those reported for studies conducted in Asia and South America as well. Indicators included total coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, male-specific coliphages, somatic coliphages and microviradae. Viral markers included adenovirus, polyomavirus, and a potential new surrogate, Torque teno virus (TTV). TTV was more frequently found in wastewaters (38-100%) and waters influenced by waste discharges (25%) than in surface waters used as drinking water sources (5%). TTV was also specific to human rather than animal feces. While TTV numbers were strongly correlated to other viral markers in wastewaters, suggesting its utility as a fecal contamination marker, data limitations and TTV presence in treated drinking waters demonstrates that additional research is needed on this potential viral indicator. PMID:26322763

  10. Comparative metagenomic analyses of the poultry enteric virome: implications for diagnostics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous comparative metagenomic analyses of the viral communities present in the poultry gut have revealed novel enteric viruses that may affect the overall performance of birds or that may play roles in disease syndromes such as Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS) or Poult Enteritis Complex (PEC). Ou...

  11. Partial genome sequence analysis of parvoviruses associated with enteric disease of poultry.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poult Enteritis Mortality Syndrome (PEMS) of turkeys and Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS) of chickens are significant viral enteric diseases of poultry. Although numerous different viruses have been isolated from the intestinal contents of affected poultry flocks, including avian reoviruses, rotaviru...

  12. Partial Genome Sequence Analysis of Parvoviruses Associated with Enteric Disease in Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poult Enteritis Mortality Syndrome (PEMS) of turkeys and Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS) of chickens are significant viral enteric diseases of poultry. Although a number of different viruses, including avian reoviruses, rotaviruses, astroviruses and coronaviruses, have been isolated from the intesti...

  13. Fecal indicators in sand, sand contact, and risk of enteric illness among beachgoers

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Sams, Elizabeth; Dufour, Alfred P.; Brenner, Kristen P.; Haugland, Richard A.; Chern, Eunice; Wing, Steve; Marshall, Stephen; Love, David C.; Serre, Marc; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Beach sand can harbor fecal indicator organisms and pathogens, but enteric illness risk associated with sand contact remains unclear. Methods In 2007, visitors at two recreational marine beaches were asked on the day of their visit about sand contact. Ten to 12 days later, participants answered questions about health symptoms since the visit. F+ coliphage, Enterococcus, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides, and Clostridium spp. in wet sand were measured using culture and molecular methods. Results We analyzed 144 wet sand samples and completed 4,999 interviews. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were computed, comparing those in the highest tertile of fecal indicator exposure with those who reported no sand contact. Among those digging in sand compared with those not digging in sand, a molecular measure of Enterococcus spp. (calibrator cell equivalents/g) in sand was positively associated with gastrointestinal (GI) illness (aOR = 2.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2–3.2]) and diarrhea (2.4 [1.4–4.2]). Among those buried in sand, point estimates were greater for GI illness (3.3 [1.3–7.9]) and diarrhea (4.9 [1.8–13]). Positive associations were also observed for culture-based Enterococcus (colony-forming units/g) with GI illness (aOR digging = 1.7 [1.1–2.7]) and diarrhea (2.1 [1.3–3.4]). Associations were not found among non-swimmers with sand exposure. Conclusions We observed a positive relationship between sand contact activities and enteric illness as a function of concentrations of fecal microbial pollution in beach sand. PMID:22157306

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF MULTIPLEX RT-PCR FOR THE DETECTION OF REOVIRUS, HEPATITIS A VIRUS, POLIOVIRUS, NORWALK VIRUS AND ROTAVIRUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water sources are often found to be contaminated by enteric viruses. This is a public health concern as food and waterborne outbreaks caused by enteric viruses such as noroviruses, rotaviruses, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and enteroviruses are a common occurrence. All of these viru...

  15. The enter-educate approach.

    PubMed

    Piotrow, P T; Coleman, P L

    1992-03-01

    This article describes how the Population Communication Services (PCS) has seized on the "enter-educate" approach, the blending of popular entertainment with social messages, to change reproductive health behavior. The enter-educate approach spreads its message through songs, soap operas, variety shows, and other types of popular entertainment mediums. Because they entertain, enter-educate projects can capture the attention of an audience -- such as young people -- who would otherwise scorn social messages. And the use of population mediums makes it possible to reach a variety of audiences. Funded by USAID, PCS began its first enter-educate project in response to the increasing number of teenage pregnancies in Latin America. PCS developed 2 songs and videos, which featured popular teenage singers to serve as role models, to urge abstinence. The songs became instant hits. Since then, PCS has mounted more then 80 major projects in some 40 countries. Highlights of programs range from a successful multi-media family planning campaign in Turkey to humorous television ads in Brazil promoting vasectomy. Recently, PCS initiated projects to teach AIDS awareness. At the core of the enter-educate approach is the social learning theory which holds that much behavior is learned through the observation of role-models. Health professionals work alongside entertainers to produce works that have audience appeal and factual social messages. The enter-educate approach works because it is popular, pervasive, personal, persuasive, and profitable. PCS has found that enter-educate programs pay for themselves through cost sharing and cost recovery. PMID:12284960

  16. Enteritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... be caused by: An autoimmune condition such as Crohn's disease Certain drugs, including ibuprofen, naproxen sodium, and cocaine ... may need to take antibiotics. People who have Crohn's disease will often need to take anti-inflammatory medicines. ...

  17. Colleges Enter the Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Issues in Higher Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The implications for higher education of the U.S. transformation from an industrial to an information society are discussed in six papers. Russell Edgerton provides an overview in "Entering the Information Society: An Introduction." In "The Computer: An Enabling Instrument," Louis Robinson considers the current era of the personalization of the…

  18. Computer Literacy of Entering Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellep, Andrew

    In an effort to improve college program planning using data on the computer skills of entering freshmen, a survey was conducted to obtain information about computer science programs in Pennsylvania's public schools. The study investigated the material being taught, the background of computer science teachers, program plans, tendencies in the…

  19. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  20. Analysis of multiple enteric viral targets as sewage markers in coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Erin K; Futch, J Carrie; Griffin, Dale W

    2007-12-01

    Water and coral mucus samples were collected from throughout the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and the Dry Tortugas for three years and were analyzed for human enteric viruses (enteroviruses, noroviruses, hepatitis A virus and adenoviruses) as conservative markers of human sewage using molecular methods. Of the 100 coral and water samples collected, 40 contained genetic material from one or more human enteric viruses. DNA-based adenoviruses were detected widely, in 37.8% of samples and at 91% of stations, including 'pristine' reefs in the Dry Tortugas; however, the detection rate was < or =12% for the RNA-based enteroviruses and noroviruses (hepatitis A virus was never detected). The disparity between the prevalence of RNA- and DNA-based viruses suggests the need for additional work to determine the utility of adenovirus as marker of human sewage. PMID:17881013

  1. Analysis of multiple enteric viral targets as sewage markers in coral reefs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipp, Erin K.; Futch, J. Carrie; Griffin, Dale W.

    2007-01-01

    Water and coral mucus samples were collected from throughout the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and the Dry Tortugas for three years and were analyzed for human enteric viruses (enteroviruses, noroviruses, hepatitis A virus and adenoviruses) as conservative markers of human sewage using molecular methods. Of the 100 coral and water samples collected, 40 contained genetic material from one or more human enteric viruses. DNA-based adenoviruses were detected widely, in 37.8% of samples and at 91% of stations, including ‘pristine’ reefs in the Dry Tortugas; however, the detection rate was ⩽12% for the RNA-based enteroviruses and noroviruses (hepatitis A virus was never detected). The disparity between the prevalence of RNA- and DNA-based viruses suggests the need for additional work to determine the utility of adenovirus as marker of human sewage.

  2. [Enteral nutrition: past and future].

    PubMed

    Bengmark, S; Ortiz de Urbina, J J

    2004-01-01

    Perioperative nutrition has during the last century been transformed from a tool to provide calorie and nitrogen support to a tool to boost the immune system and increase resistance to complications. Despite all progress in medicine and surgery has perioperative morbidity, rate of infections, thrombosis and development of serosal adhesions remained the same as long as can be judged or at least during the last eighty years. Most prone to develop complications are persons above the age of 65 and persons with depressed immunity. About eighty percent of the immune system is localised in the gastrointestinal tract, which offers great opportunities for modulation through enterar nutrition. As the stomach has a tendency to develop postoperative paralysis, tube feeding is often necessary. Andresen demonstrated already in 1918 the advantages of enteral nutrition, which starts already on the table. Mulholland et al and Rhoads and co-workers demonstrated during the 1940s certain advantages of enteral tube feeding. Also works by Alexander, Fischer, Ryan and their co-workers supported the value of early enteral feeding, and suggested enteral feeding as an effective tool to boost the immune system. It was, however, works published in the early nineties by Moore et al and by Kudsk et al, which made surgeons more aware of the advantages of early enteral nutrition. Major surgery is known to have a high rate of complications. Uninterrupted perioperative nutrition, eg nutrition during the night before, during surgery and immediately after offers a strong tool to prevent complications. It is essential that the nutrition provides food also for the colon, e.g. fibres and healthy bacteria (probiotics) to ferment the fibre and boost the immune system. PMID:15049413

  3. Molecular Characterization of Enteric Picornaviruses in Archived Turkey and Chicken Samples from the United States.

    PubMed

    Day, J Michael; Zsak, Laszlo

    2016-06-01

    Recent metagenomic analyses of the enteric viromes in turkeys and chickens have revealed complex viral communities comprised of multiple viral families. Of particular significance are the novel avian picobirnaviruses (family Picobirnaviridae), multiple genera of tailed phages (family Siphoviridae), and undescribed avian enteric picornaviruses (family Picornaviridae). In addition to these largely undescribed-and therefore relatively poorly understood-poultry enteric viral families, these metagenomic analyses have also revealed the presence of well-known groups of enteric viruses such as the chicken and turkey astroviruses (family Astroviridae) and the avian rotaviruses and reoviruses (family Reoviridae). The order Picornavirales is a group of viruses in flux, particularly among the avian picornaviruses, since several new genera have been described recently based upon community analysis of enteric viromes from poultry and other avian species worldwide. Our previous investigation of the turkey enteric picornaviruses suggests the avian enteric picornaviruses may contribute to the enteric disease syndromes and performance problems often observed in turkeys in the Southeastern United States. This report describes our recent phylogenetic analysis of turkey and chicken enteric samples archived at the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory from 2004 to present and is a first step in placing these novel avian picornaviruses within the larger Picornaviridae family. PMID:27309295

  4. TOTAL CULTURABLE VIRUS QUANTAL ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes a quantal method for assaying culturable human enteric viruses from water matrices. The assay differs from the plaque assay described in Chapter 10 (December 1987 Revision) in that it is based upon the direct microscopic viewing of cells for virus-induced ...

  5. DETECTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL VIRUSES IN SLUDGE: ENHANCEMENT OF ENTEROVIRUS PLAQUE ASSAY TITERS WITH 5-IODO-2'-DEOXYURIDINE AND COMPARISON TO ADENOVIRUS AND COLIPHAGE TITERS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enteroviruses present in the primary sludge of two wastewater treatment plants were quantitated by plaque assay using a continuous African green monkey kidney cell line (BGM). Incubation of BGM monolayers with 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (50 micrograms/ml) for 4 days prior to use enha...

  6. Emerging foodborne and agriculture-related viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viruses rapidly evolve and can emerge in unpredictable ways. Mechanisms by which food-borne viruses may enter human populations and become pathogens is discussed. It is known the majority of viruses emerge from zoonotic animal reservoirs, often by adapting and infecting intermediate hosts, such as ...

  7. THE APPLICATION OF EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES TO VIRUS DETECTION IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human enteric viruses belonging to many different viral genera cause waterborne disease when susceptible individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking and recreational waters. Diseases resulting from infection with these viruses include gastroenteritis, hepatitis, encephali...

  8. Duck viral enteritis in domestic muscovy ducks in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davison, S.; Converse, K.A.; Hamir, A.N.; Eckroade, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Duck viral enteritis (DVE) outbreaks occurred at two different locations in Pennsylvania in 1991 and 1992. In the first outbreak, four ducks died out of a group of 30 domestic ducks; in the second outbreak, 65 ducks died out of a group of 114 domestic ducks, and 15 domestic geese died as well. A variety of species of ducks were present on both premises, but only muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) died from the disease. On necropsy, gross lesions included hepatomegaly with petechial hemorrhages, petechial hemorrhages in the abdominal fat, petechial hemorrhages on the epicardial surface of the heart, and multifocal to coalescing areas of fibrinonecrotic material over the mucosal surface of the trachea, esophagus, intestine, and cloaca. Histologically, the liver had random multifocal areas of necrosis and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes. DVE virus was isolated and identified using muscovy duck embryo fibroblast inoculation and virus neutralization. /// En dos sitios diferentes se presentaron brotes de enteritis viral de los patos en el estados de Pensilvania en los a??os 1991 y 1992. En el primer brote, cuatro de un lote de 30 patos murieron mientras que en el segundo brote murieron 65 patos de un lote de 114 patos y 15 gansos. En ambas localidades exist?-a una variedad de especies de patos, sin embargo, s??lamente los patos almizcleros (Cairina moschata) murieron. A la necropsia, las lesiones macrosc??picas incluyeron hepatomegalia con hemorragias petequiales, hemorragias petequiales en la grasa abdominal y en la superficie del epicardio, y ?!reas multifocales o coalescentes de material fibrinonecr??tico sobre la superficie de la mucosa de la tr?!quea, es??fago, intestino y cloaca. Histol??gicamente, el h?-gado mostraba ?!reas multifocales de necrosis y cuerpos de inclusi??n intranucleares eosinof?-licos en los hepatocitos. El virus de la enteritis viral de los patos fue aislado e identificado usando fibroblasto de embriones de pato almizclero

  9. Enteral Nutrition in Critical Care

    PubMed Central

    Seron-Arbeloa, Carlos; Zamora-Elson, Monica; Labarta-Monzon, Lorenzo; Mallor-Bonet, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    There is a consensus that nutritional support, which must be provided to patients in intensive care, influences their clinical outcome. Malnutrition is associated in critically ill patients with impaired immune function and impaired ventilator drive, leading to prolonged ventilator dependence and increased infectious morbidity and mortality. Enteral nutrition is an active therapy that attenuates the metabolic response of the organism to stress and favorably modulates the immune system. It is less expensive than parenteral nutrition and is preferred in most cases because of less severe complications and better patient outcomes, including infections, and hospital cost and length of stay. The aim of this work was to perform a review of the use of enteral nutrition in critically ill patients. PMID:23390469

  10. Radiation enteritis and radiation scoliosis

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, M.; Eng, K.; Engler, G.L.

    1980-09-01

    Any patient with radiation scoliosis should be suspected of having a visceral lesion as well. Chronic radiation enteritis may be manifested by intestinal obstruction, fistulas, perforation, and hemorrhage. Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication, and must be differentiated from postoperative cast or from spinal-traction syndrome. Obstruction that does not respond promptly to conservative measures must be treated surgically. Irradiated bowel is ischemic, and necrosis with spontaneous perforation can only be avoided with early diagnosis and surgical intervention.

  11. Necrotic enteritis in young calves.

    PubMed

    Morris, Winston E; Venzano, Agustín J; Elizondo, Ana; Vilte, Daniel A; Mercado, Elsa C; Fernandez-Miyakawa, Mariano E

    2011-03-01

    Non-enterotoxin (CPE)-producing Clostridium perfringens type A has been associated with enteritis in calves. Recent evidence has suggested that a novel toxin, named beta2 (CPB2), is implicated in the pathogenesis of this disease, although there is little evidence supporting this. In the current study, the role of C. perfringens type A in an outbreak of enteritis in calves was studied. Two 20-day-old dairy calves exhibiting apathy and reluctance to eat, with paresis of the anterior limbs, were euthanized for postmortem examination. Gross and histological changes compatible with acute enteritis, rumenitis, meningitis, and pneumonia were seen in both calves. Clostridium perfringens type A non-CPE, non-CPB2 was isolated from the abomasum and the small intestine. Escherichia coli ONTH8 (with cdtBIII and f17 virulence genes detected by polymerase chain reaction) was also isolated from the brain, abomasum, and intestine from both calves. All the samples were negative for Salmonella spp. When the C. perfringens strain was inoculated into bovine ligated small and large intestinal loops, cell detachment, erosion, and hemorrhage of the lamina propria were observed, predominantly in the small intestine. The results suggest that non-CPE, non-CPB2 C. perfringens type A is able to induce pathologic changes in the intestine of calves, probably enhanced by other pathogens, such as some pathogenic E. coli strains. PMID:21398444

  12. Enteric pathogens through life stages

    PubMed Central

    Kolling, Glynis; Wu, Martin; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Enteric infections and diarrheal diseases constitute pervasive health burdens throughout the world, with rates being highest at the two ends of life. During the first 2–3 years of life, much of the disease burden may be attributed to infection with enteric pathogens including Salmonella, rotavirus, and many other bacterial, viral, and protozoan organisms; however, infections due to Clostridium difficile exhibit steady increases with age. Still others, like Campylobacter infections in industrialized settings are high in early life (<2 years old) and increase again in early adulthood (called the “second weaning” by some). The reasons for these differences undoubtedly reside in part in pathogen differences; however, host factors including the commensal intestinal microbial communities, immune responses (innate and acquired), and age-dependant shifts likely play important roles. Interplay of these factors is illustrated by studies examining changes in human gut microbiota with inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Recent gut microbial surveys have indicated dramatic shifts in gut microbial population structure from infants to young adults to the elders. An understanding of the evolution of these factors and their interactions (e.g., how does gut microbiota modulate the “inflamm-aging” process or vice versa) through the human life “cycle” will be important in better addressing and controlling these enteric infections and their consequences for both quality and quantity of life (often assessed as disability adjusted life-years or “DALYs”). PMID:22937528

  13. ACQUISITION OF ANTIBODIES TO VARIOUS COXSACKIE AND ECHO VIRUSES AND HEPATITIS A VIRUS IN AGRICULTURAL COMMUNAL SETTLEMENTS IN ISRAEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A seroepidemiological study was conducted to measure the antibody prevalence for eight different enteric viruses. These include seven 'classical' enteroviruses, ie, Coxsackie virus types A9, B1, B3, B4 and three ECHO virus types 4,7, and 9, as well as hepatitis A virus (HAV), rec...

  14. Aerosolization of Respirable Droplets from a Domestic Spa Pool and the Use of MS-2 Coliphage and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as Markers for Legionella pneumophila

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Matthew; Stevenson, David; Walker, Jimmy T.; Bennett, Allan M.

    2014-01-01

    Legionnaires' disease can result when droplets or aerosols containing legionella bacteria are inhaled and deposited in the lungs. A number of outbreaks have been associated with the use of a spa pool where aeration, a high water temperature, and a large and variable organic load make disinfectant levels difficult to maintain. Spa pool ownership is increasing, and the aim of this study, using two surrogate organisms (MS-2 coliphage and Pseudomonas aeruginosa [a natural contaminant]), was to assess the potential risk to domestic users when disinfection fails. A representative “entry level” domestic spa pool was installed in an outdoor courtyard. The manufacturer's instructions for spa pool maintenance were not followed. A cyclone sampler was used to sample the aerosols released from the spa pool with and without activation of the air injection system. Samples were taken at increasing heights and distances from the pool. An aerodynamic particle sizer was used to measure the water droplet size distribution at each sample point. When the air injection system was inactivated, neither surrogate organism was recovered from the air. On activation of the air injection system, the mean mass of droplets within the respirable range (10 cm above the water line) was 36.8 μg cm−3. This corresponded to a mean air concentration of P. aeruginosa of 350 CFU m−3. From extrapolation from animal data, the estimated risk of infection from aerosols contaminated with similar concentrations of Legionella pneumophila was 0.76 (males) and 0.65 (females). At 1 m above and/or beyond the pool, the mean aerosol mass decreased to 0.04 μg cm−3 and corresponded to a 100-fold reduction in mean microbial air concentration. The estimated risk of infection at this distance was negligible. PMID:25381233

  15. Glenn Enters his Mercury Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr. enters his Mercury capsule, 'Friendship 7' as he prepares for launch of the Mercury-Atlas rocket. On February 20, 1962 Glenn lifted off into space aboard his Mercury Atlas 6 (MA-6) rocket and became the first American to orbit the Earth. After orbiting the Earth 3 times, Friendship 7 landed in the Atlantic Ocean 4 hours, 55 minutes and 23 seconds later, just East of Grand Turk Island in the Bahamas. Glenn and his capsule were recovered by the Navy Destroyer Noa, 21 minutes after splashdown.

  16. Interferon Gamma as a Biomarker of Exposure to Enteric Viruses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) was selected as a biomarker for viral exposure. Twelve-week-old BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with Coxsackievirus B3 or B4 diluted in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Control mice were injected with PBS only. Four months after viral infectio...

  17. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ENTERIC VIRUSES AND WATERBORNE ILLNESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    With growing concern over drinking water safety, considerable attention has been directed towards microbial pathogens in source waters, and the adequacy of current methods used to detect, monitor and treat for these pathogens. The focus has been on bacterial and protozoan pathog...

  18. Regional Enteritis of the Duodenum

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, A. M.; Michalyshyn, B.; Sherbaniuk, R. W.; Costopoulos, L. B.

    1965-01-01

    Forty-three cases of regional enteritis of the duodenum were found in the world literature. Regional duodenitis is relatively uncommon; in one large series of 600 cases of regional enteritis only three involved the duodenum. At the University of Alberta Hospital, in a three-year period (1962 to 1965), the authors encountered five patients with regional duodenitis, demonstrating a spectrum of clinical, radiologic and pathologic characteristics of this disease. The description of these patients brings the world's total to 48 reported cases. Two of these patients had symptoms of severe duodenal obstruction and were relieved by bypass procedures and vagotomy; one required surgery because of co-existent obstructive ileal disease: and two patients have improved on corticoids and salicylazosulfapyridine without surgery. In our experience treatment with corticoids and salicylazosulfapyridine is beneficial. Four of the five patients remain in a state of mild to moderate nutritional impairment and have evidence of intestinal malabsorption. In the fifth case the period of followup is too short to permit assessment. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Figs. 6 (X 50) and 7 (X 450)Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Figs. 13 and 14 (both X 100)Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21 PMID:5843869

  19. Comparative effectiveness of membrane bioreactors, conventional secondary treatment, and disinfection to remove microorganisms from municipal wastewaters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Log removals of bacterial indicators, coliphage, and enteric viruses were studied in three membrane bioreactor activated-sludge (MBR) and two conventional secondary activated-sludge municipal wastewater treatment plants during three disinfection seasons (May–Oct.). In total, 73 regular samples were ...

  20. The Role of Carbohydrates in Infection Strategies of Enteric Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kentaro; Ishiwa, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Enteric pathogens cause considerable public health concerns worldwide including tropical regions. Here, we review the roles of carbohydrates in the infection strategies of various enteric pathogens including viruses, bacteria and protozoa, which infect the epithelial lining of the human and animal intestine. At host cell entry, enteric viruses, including norovirus, recognize mainly histo-blood group antigens. At the initial step of bacterial infections, carbohydrates also function as receptors for attachment. Here, we describe the function of carbohydrates in infection by Salmonella enterica and several bacterial species that produce a variety of fimbrial adhesions. During invasion by enteropathogenic protozoa, apicomplexan parasites utilize sialic acids or sulfated glycans. Carbohydrates serve as receptors for infection by these microbes; however, their usage of carbohydrates varies depending on the microbe. On the surface of the mucosal tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, various carbohydrate moieties are present and play a crucial role in infection, representing the site of infection or route of access for most microbes. During the infection and/or invasion process of the microbes, carbohydrates function as receptors for various microbes, but they can also function as a barrier to infection. One approach to develop effective prophylactic and therapeutic antimicrobial agents is to modify the drug structure. Another approach is to modify the mode of inhibition of infection depending on the individual pathogen by using and mimicking the interactions with carbohydrates. In addition, similarities in mode of infection may also be utilized. Our findings will be useful in the development of new drugs for the treatment of enteric pathogens. PMID:25859152

  1. A review of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems.

    PubMed

    Verbyla, Matthew E; Mihelcic, James R

    2015-03-15

    Wastewater treatment ponds (lagoons) are one of the most common types of technologies used for wastewater management worldwide, especially in small cities and towns. They are particularly well-suited for systems where the effluent is reused for irrigation. However, the efficiency of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems is not very well understood. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the major findings related to virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems and to statistically analyze results reported in the literature from field studies on virus removal in these systems. A comprehensive analysis of virus removal reported in the literature from 71 different wastewater treatment pond systems reveals only a weak to moderate correlation of virus removal with theoretical hydraulic retention time. On average, one log10 reduction of viruses was achieved for every 14.5-20.9 days of retention, but the 95th percentile value of the data analyzed was 54 days. The mechanisms responsible for virus removal in wastewater treatment ponds were also reviewed. One recent finding is that sedimentation may not be a significant virus removal mechanism in some wastewater ponds. Recent research has also revealed that direct and indirect sunlight-mediated mechanisms are not only dependent on pond water chemistry and optics, but also on the characteristics of the virus and its genome. MS2 coliphage is considered to be the best surrogate for studying sunlight disinfection in ponds. The interaction of viruses with particles, with other microorganisms, and with macroinvertebrates in wastewater treatment ponds has not been extensively studied. It is also unclear whether virus internalization by higher trophic-level organisms has a protective or a detrimental effect on virus viability and transport in pond systems. Similarly, the impact of virus-particle associations on sunlight disinfection in ponds is not well understood. Future research should focus on

  2. Lysis delay and burst shrinkage of coliphage T7 by deletion of terminator Tφ reversed by deletion of early genes.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huong Minh; Kang, Changwon

    2014-02-01

    Bacteriophage T7 terminator Tϕ is a class I intrinsic terminator coding for an RNA hairpin structure immediately followed by oligo(U), which has been extensively studied in terms of its transcription termination mechanism, but little is known about its physiological or regulatory functions. In this study, using a T7 mutant phage, where a 31-bp segment of Tϕ was deleted from the genome, we discovered that deletion of Tϕ from T7 reduces the phage burst size but delays lysis timing, both of which are disadvantageous for the phage. The burst downsizing could directly result from Tϕ deletion-caused upregulation of gene 17.5, coding for holin, among other Tϕ downstream genes, because infection of gp17.5-overproducing Escherichia coli by wild-type T7 phage showed similar burst downsizing. However, the lysis delay was not associated with cellular levels of holin or lysozyme or with rates of phage adsorption. Instead, when allowed to evolve spontaneously in five independent adaptation experiments, the Tϕ-lacking mutant phage, after 27 or 29 passages, recovered both burst size and lysis time reproducibly by deleting early genes 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7 of class I, among other mutations. Deletion of genes 0.5 to 0.7 from the Tϕ-lacking mutant phage decreased expression of several Tϕ downstream genes to levels similar to that of the wild-type phage. Accordingly, phage T7 lysis timing is associated with cellular levels of Tϕ downstream gene products. This suggests the involvement of unknown factor(s) besides the known lysis proteins, lysozyme and holin, and that Tϕ plays a role of optimizing burst size and lysis time during T7 infection. IMPORTANCE Bacteriophages are bacterium-infecting viruses. After producing numerous progenies inside bacteria, phages lyse bacteria using their lysis protein(s) to get out and start a new infection cycle. Normally, lysis is tightly controlled to ensure phage progenies are maximally produced and released at an optimal time. Here, we have

  3. Environmental Enteric Dysfunction in Children.

    PubMed

    Syed, Sana; Ali, Asad; Duggan, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Diarrheal diseases are a major cause of childhood death in resource-poor countries, killing approximately 760,000 children younger than 5 years each year. Although deaths due to diarrhea have declined dramatically, high rates of stunting and malnutrition have persisted. Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a subclinical condition caused by constant fecal-oral contamination with resultant intestinal inflammation and villous blunting. These histological changes were first described in the 1960s, but the clinical effect of EED is only just being recognized in the context of failure of nutritional interventions and oral vaccines in resource-poor countries. We review the existing literature regarding the underlying causes of and potential interventions for EED in children, highlighting the epidemiology, clinical and histologic classification of the entity, and discussing novel biomarkers and possible therapies. Future research priorities are also discussed. PMID:26974416

  4. A Potential Mechanism of Virus Persistence within Bivalve Shellfish.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The process of enteric virus bioaccumulation by molluscan shellfish has been widely studied and documented. However, it is not understood why some human enteric viruses, which cannot replicate within shellfish, are selectively retained and remain viable within shellfish tissues for extended periods...

  5. EPA METHODS FOR VIRUS DETECTION IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of different types of human enteric viruses cause waterborne outbreaks when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking and recreational waters. Members of the enterovirus group cause numerous diseases, including gastroenteritis, encephalitis, meningitis, myocard...

  6. A new ozone-based method for virus inactivation: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kekez, M M; Sattar, S A

    1997-11-01

    The nebulization technique reported here could be used to inactivate viruses with ozone in large volumes of body fluids, such as plasma, partial blood and perhaps whole blood in a short time. Coliphage MS2 was used as a model because it is safe, easy to handle and more resistant to chemical disinfections than viruses such as HIV. The theoretical curves and experimental points, describing ozone inactivation of MS2, form a semi-sigmoid of congruent data. There was a > 7log10 reduction in MS2 viability and the possibilities of minimizing the ozone concentration required to kill viruses are indicated. The analysis was expanded to account for the interaction of ozone with a virus suspension in the shape of a thin film from the experimental findings of Bolton et al. We again find a semi-sigmoid of congruent data for their case, i.e. describing ozone inactivation of the influenza A virus (WSN strain) and the vesicular stomatitis virus versus time. For the method of nebulization, the exposure time of droplets with ozone is a few seconds, whereas for the thin film method the exposure time is measured in hours. PMID:9394395

  7. Virus separation using membranes.

    PubMed

    Grein, Tanja A; Michalsky, Ronald; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Industrial manufacturing of cell culture-derived viruses or virus-like particles for gene therapy or vaccine production are complex multistep processes. In addition to the bioreactor, such processes require a multitude of downstream unit operations for product separation, concentration, or purification. Similarly, before a biopharmaceutical product can enter the market, removal or inactivation of potential viral contamination has to be demonstrated. Given the complexity of biological solutions and the high standards on composition and purity of biopharmaceuticals, downstream processing is the bottleneck in many biotechnological production trains. Membrane-based filtration can be an economically attractive and efficient technology for virus separation. Viral clearance, for instance, of up to seven orders of magnitude has been reported for state of the art polymeric membranes under best conditions.This chapter summarizes the fundamentals of virus ultrafiltration, diafiltration, or purification with adsorptive membranes. In lieu of an impractical universally applicable protocol for virus filtration, application of these principles is demonstrated with two examples. The chapter provides detailed methods for production, concentration, purification, and removal of a rod-shaped baculovirus (Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus, about 40 × 300 nm in size, a potential vector for gene therapy, and an industrially important protein expression system) or a spherical parvovirus (minute virus of mice, 22-26 nm in size, a model virus for virus clearance validation studies). PMID:24297430

  8. Nuclear entry of DNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Nikta; Panté, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    DNA viruses undertake their replication within the cell nucleus, and therefore they must first deliver their genome into the nucleus of their host cells. Thus, trafficking across the nuclear envelope is at the basis of DNA virus infections. Nuclear transport of molecules with diameters up to 39 nm is a tightly regulated process that occurs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Due to the enormous diversity of virus size and structure, each virus has developed its own strategy for entering the nucleus of their host cells, with no two strategies alike. For example, baculoviruses target their DNA-containing capsid to the NPC and subsequently enter the nucleus intact, while the hepatitis B virus capsid crosses the NPC but disassembles at the nuclear side of the NPC. For other viruses such as herpes simplex virus and adenovirus, although both dock at the NPC, they have each developed a distinct mechanism for the subsequent delivery of their genome into the nucleus. Remarkably, other DNA viruses, such as parvoviruses and human papillomaviruses, access the nucleus through an NPC-independent mechanism. This review discusses our current understanding of the mechanisms used by DNA viruses to deliver their genome into the nucleus, and further presents the experimental evidence for such mechanisms. PMID:26029198

  9. Characterization of viral enteric infections in chickens and turkeys: focus on new molecular techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gut plays a key role in the overall performance of poultry flocks, but little is known about the complex viral constituency present in the poultry intestinal tract. It is likely that certain enteric viruses may affect the overall health and performance of commercial poultry, and it is possible t...

  10. A non-enteric adenovirus A12 gastroenteritis outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Portes, Silvana Augusta Rodrigues; Volotão, Eduardo de Mello; Rocha, Monica Simões; Rebelo, Maria Cristina; Xavier, Maria da Penha Trindade Pinheiro; Assis, Rosane Maria de; Rose, Tatiana Lundgren; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal

    2016-05-24

    A gastroenteritis outbreak that occurred in 2013 in a low-income community in Rio de Janeiro was investigated for the presence of enteric viruses, including species A rotavirus (RVA), norovirus (NoV), astrovirus (HAstV), bocavirus (HBoV), aichivirus (AiV), and adenovirus (HAdV). Five of nine stool samples (83%) from patients were positive for HAdV, and no other enteric viruses were detected. Polymerase chain reaction products were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis, which revealed four strains and one strain of non-enteric HAdV-A12 and HAdV-F41, respectively. The HAdV-A12 nucleotide sequences shared 100% nucleotide similarity. Viral load was assessed using a TaqMan real-time PCR assay. Stool samples that were positive for HAdV-A12 had high viral loads (mean 1.9 X 107 DNA copies/g stool). All four patients with HAdV-A12 were < 25 months of age and had symptoms of fever and diarrhoea. Evaluation of enteric virus outbreaks allows the characterisation of novel or unique diarrhoea-associated viruses in regions where RVA vaccination is routinely performed. PMID:27223654

  11. A non-enteric adenovirus A12 gastroenteritis outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Portes, Silvana Augusta Rodrigues; Volotão, Eduardo de Mello; Rocha, Monica Simões; Rebelo, Maria Cristina; Xavier, Maria da Penha Trindade Pinheiro; de Assis, Rosane Maria; Rose, Tatiana Lundgren; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal

    2016-01-01

    A gastroenteritis outbreak that occurred in 2013 in a low-income community in Rio de Janeiro was investigated for the presence of enteric viruses, including species A rotavirus (RVA), norovirus (NoV), astrovirus (HAstV), bocavirus (HBoV), aichivirus (AiV), and adenovirus (HAdV). Five of nine stool samples (83%) from patients were positive for HAdV, and no other enteric viruses were detected. Polymerase chain reaction products were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis, which revealed four strains and one strain of non-enteric HAdV-A12 and HAdV-F41, respectively. The HAdV-A12 nucleotide sequences shared 100% nucleotide similarity. Viral load was assessed using a TaqMan real-time PCR assay. Stool samples that were positive for HAdV-A12 had high viral loads (mean 1.9 X 107 DNA copies/g stool). All four patients with HAdV-A12 were < 25 months of age and had symptoms of fever and diarrhoea. Evaluation of enteric virus outbreaks allows the characterisation of novel or unique diarrhoea-associated viruses in regions where RVA vaccination is routinely performed. PMID:27223654

  12. Entering China: an unconventional approach.

    PubMed

    Vanhonacker, W

    1997-01-01

    Conventional wisdom has it that the best way to do business in China is through an equity joint venture (EJV) with a well-connected Chinese partner. But pioneering companies are starting a trend toward a new way to enter that market: as a wholly foreign-owned enterprise, or WFOE. Increasingly, says the author, joint ventures do not offer foreign companies what they need to succeed in China. For example, many companies want to do business nationally, but the prospects for finding a Chinese partner with national scope are poor. Moreover, there are often conflicting perceptions between partners about how to operate an EJV: Chinese companies, for example, typically have a more immediate interest in profits than foreign investors do. By contrast, the author asserts, WFOEs are faster to set up and easier to manage; and they allow managers to expand operations more rapidly. That makes them the perfect solution, right? The answer is a qualified yes. First, foreign companies will still need sources of guanxi, or social and political connections. Second, managers must take steps to avoid trampling on China's cultural or economic sovereignty. Third and perhaps most important, foreign companies must be prepared to bring something of value to China-usually in the form of jobs or new technology that can help the country develop. Companies willing to make the effort, says the author, can reap the rewards of China's burgeoning marketplace. PMID:10165447

  13. Environmental enteric dysfunction: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Rosie J.; Jones, Kelsey D. J.; Berkley, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) refers to an incompletely defined syndrome of inflammation, reduced absorptive capacity, and reduced barrier function in the small intestine. It is widespread among children and adults in low- and middle-income countries. Understanding of EED and its possible consequences for health is currently limited. Objective A narrative review of the current understanding of EED: epidemiology, pathogenesis, therapies, and relevance to child health. Methods Searches for key papers and ongoing trials were conducted using PUBMED 1966–June 2014; ClinicalTrials.gov; the WHO Clinical Trials Registry; the Cochrane Library; hand searches of the references of retrieved literature; discussions with experts; and personal experience from the field. Results EED is established during infancy and is associated with poor sanitation, certain gut infections, and micronutrient deficiencies. Helicobacter pylori infection, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), abnormal gut microbiota, undernutrition, and toxins may all play a role. EED is usually asymptomatic, but it is important due to its association with stunting. Diagnosis is frequently by the dual sugar absorption test, although other biomarkers are emerging. EED may partly explain the reduced efficacy of oral vaccines in low- and middle-income countries and the increased risk of serious infection seen in children with undernutrition. Conclusions Despite its potentially significant impacts, it is currently unclear exactly what causes EED and how it can be treated or prevented. Ongoing trials involve nutritional supplements, water and sanitation interventions, and immunomodulators. Further research is needed to better understand this condition, which is of likely crucial importance for child health and development in low- and middle-income settings. PMID:25902619

  14. Vaccines against enteric infections for the developing world.

    PubMed

    Czerkinsky, Cecil; Holmgren, Jan

    2015-06-19

    Since the first licensure of the Sabin oral polio vaccine more than 50 years ago, only eight enteric vaccines have been licensed for four disease indications, and all are given orally. While mucosal vaccines offer programmatically attractive tools for facilitating vaccine deployment, their development remains hampered by several factors: -limited knowledge regarding the properties of the gut immune system during early life; -lack of mucosal adjuvants, limiting mucosal vaccine development to live-attenuated or killed whole virus and bacterial vaccines; -lack of correlates/surrogates of mucosal immune protection; and -limited knowledge of the factors contributing to oral vaccine underperformance in children from developing countries. There are now reasons to believe that the development of safe and effective mucosal adjuvants and of programmatically sound intervention strategies could enhance the efficacy of current and next-generation enteric vaccines, especially in lesser developed countries which are often co-endemic for enteric infections and malnutrition. These vaccines must be safe and affordable for the world's poorest, confer long-term protection and herd immunity, and must be able to contain epidemics. PMID:25964464

  15. Vaccines against enteric infections for the developing world

    PubMed Central

    Czerkinsky, Cecil; Holmgren, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Since the first licensure of the Sabin oral polio vaccine more than 50 years ago, only eight enteric vaccines have been licensed for four disease indications, and all are given orally. While mucosal vaccines offer programmatically attractive tools for facilitating vaccine deployment, their development remains hampered by several factors: —limited knowledge regarding the properties of the gut immune system during early life;—lack of mucosal adjuvants, limiting mucosal vaccine development to live-attenuated or killed whole virus and bacterial vaccines;—lack of correlates/surrogates of mucosal immune protection; and—limited knowledge of the factors contributing to oral vaccine underperformance in children from developing countries.There are now reasons to believe that the development of safe and effective mucosal adjuvants and of programmatically sound intervention strategies could enhance the efficacy of current and next-generation enteric vaccines, especially in lesser developed countries which are often co-endemic for enteric infections and malnutrition. These vaccines must be safe and affordable for the world's poorest, confer long-term protection and herd immunity, and must be able to contain epidemics. PMID:25964464

  16. [Usefulness of enteral feeding in surgery].

    PubMed

    Ciesielski, L; Czekalski, P; Bilski, D; Olejniczak, W

    1997-01-01

    Eighty malnourished patients with neoplasms, enteric fistulae, multiorgan trauma and septic complications administered food by means of enteral feeding (EF). It was found that EF prevents weight loss and even causes weight gain in patients, increases total protein and albumin concentrations and decreases urea and creatinine levels in blood which is a proof of catabolism fall. Patient condition improvement and healing of the majority of enteric fistulae was achieved after EF. Factory diet intolerance affected 5% of patients and diarrhoea-6%. Investigations prove that enteral feeding is a good alternative to parenteral nutrition. If enteral feeding follows proper indications, technique and route of administration are chosen the right way, it allows the surgeon to perform operation, decreases the number of complications and enables the patient's organism fight septic syndrome. Enteral feeding is a state of the art method of severely ill patient nutrition. PMID:9424919

  17. Novel methods for detection of foodborne viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteric viruses such as norovirus are the number one cause of foodborne illness. Bivalve shellfish such as oysters efficiently bioconcentrate and retain theses pathogens, making raw shellfish consumption a significant risk factor for acquisition of these viruses. Recent ARS research indicates...

  18. Top 10 plant viruses in molecular plant pathology.

    PubMed

    Scholthof, Karen-Beth G; Adkins, Scott; Czosnek, Henryk; Palukaitis, Peter; Jacquot, Emmanuel; Hohn, Thomas; Hohn, Barbara; Saunders, Keith; Candresse, Thierry; Ahlquist, Paul; Hemenway, Cynthia; Foster, Gary D

    2011-12-01

    Many scientists, if not all, feel that their particular plant virus should appear in any list of the most important plant viruses. However, to our knowledge, no such list exists. The aim of this review was to survey all plant virologists with an association with Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which plant viruses they would place in a 'Top 10' based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated more than 250 votes from the international community, and allowed the generation of a Top 10 plant virus list for Molecular Plant Pathology. The Top 10 list includes, in rank order, (1) Tobacco mosaic virus, (2) Tomato spotted wilt virus, (3) Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, (4) Cucumber mosaic virus, (5) Potato virus Y, (6) Cauliflower mosaic virus, (7) African cassava mosaic virus, (8) Plum pox virus, (9) Brome mosaic virus and (10) Potato virus X, with honourable mentions for viruses just missing out on the Top 10, including Citrus tristeza virus, Barley yellow dwarf virus, Potato leafroll virus and Tomato bushy stunt virus. This review article presents a short review on each virus of the Top 10 list and its importance, with the intent of initiating discussion and debate amongst the plant virology community, as well as laying down a benchmark, as it will be interesting to see in future years how perceptions change and which viruses enter and leave the Top 10. PMID:22017770

  19. Effects of precipitation events on virus presence in groundwater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies by our group have demonstrated the presence of human enteric viruses in groundwater, and that leakage from sanitary sewers is a likely source of such contamination in urban areas. This work showed high rates of virus detection, and that virus detection was positively correlated with...

  20. AN OVERVIEW OF VIRUS EXTRACTION AND ASSAY METHODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteric viruses, particularly norovirus and hepatitis A virus, are major contaminants of molluscan shellfish and can cause illness. A host of procedures have been developed for the extraction of viruse from shellfish and for their assay. Some extraction and assay methods focused on detection of vacc...

  1. Murine Cytomegalovirus Exploits Olfaction To Enter New Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Helen E.; Lawler, Clara; Tan, Cindy S. E.; MacDonald, Kate; Bruce, Kimberley; Mach, Michael; Davis-Poynter, Nick

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Viruses transmit via the environmental and social interactions of their hosts. Herpesviruses have colonized mammals since their earliest origins, suggesting that they exploit ancient, common pathways. Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) are assumed to enter new hosts orally, but no site has been identified. We show by live imaging that murine CMV (MCMV) infects nasally rather than orally, both after experimental virus uptake and during natural transmission. Replication-deficient virions revealed the primary target as olfactory neurons. Local, nasal replication by wild-type MCMV was not extensive, but there was rapid systemic spread, associated with macrophage infection. A long-term, transmissible infection was then maintained in the salivary glands. The viral m131/m129 chemokine homolog, which influences tropism, promoted salivary gland colonization after nasal entry but was not required for entry per se. The capacity of MCMV to transmit via olfaction, together with previous demonstrations of experimental olfactory infection by murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), suggest that this is a common, conserved route of mammalian herpesvirus entry. PMID:27118588

  2. Influenza virus neuraminidase: structure, antibodies, and inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Colman, P. M.

    1994-01-01

    The determination of the 3-dimensional structure of the influenza virus neuraminidase in 1983 has served as a platform for understanding interactions between antibodies and protein antigens, for investigating antigenic variation in influenza viruses, and for devising new inhibitors of the enzyme. That work is reviewed here, together with more recent developments that have resulted in one of the inhibitors entering clinical trials as an anti-influenza virus drug. PMID:7849585

  3. Vaccination against enteric septicaemia of catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edwardsiella ictaluri, the causative agent of enteric septicemia (ESC) of catfish, is one of the most economically important diseases of cultured channel catfish. In 2002, Wagner and coworkers reported that enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and columnaris (Flavobacterium columnaris) were the two m...

  4. Method for detecting viruses in aerosols.

    PubMed

    Wallis, C; Melnick, J L; Rao, V C; Sox, T E

    1985-11-01

    A simple method with poliovirus as the model was developed for recovering human enteric viruses from aerosols. Filterite filters (pore size, 0.45 micron; Filterite Corp., Timonium, Md.) moistened with glycine buffer (pH 3.5) were used for adsorbing the aerosolized virus. No virus passed the filter, even with air flow rates of 100 liters/min. Virus recovery from the filter was achieved by rapid elution with 800 ml of glycine buffer, pH 10. The virus in the primary eluate was reconcentrated by adjusting the pH to 3.5, adding AlCl3 to 0.0005 M, collecting the virus on a 0.25-micron-pore Filerite disk (diameter, 25 mm) and and eluting with 6 ml of buffer, pH 10. With this method, virus could be detected regularly in aerosols produced by flushing when 3 X 10(8) PFU of poliovirus were present in the toilet bowl. Poliovirus-containing fecal material from two of four infants who had recently received oral polio vaccine also yielded virus in the aerosols when feces containing 2.4 X 10(7) to 4.5 X 10(7) PFU of virus had been added to the toilet bowl. Persons infected with a variety of natural enteric viruses are known to excrete this amount of virus in their daily stools. PMID:3004329

  5. Method for detecting viruses in aerosols.

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, C; Melnick, J L; Rao, V C; Sox, T E

    1985-01-01

    A simple method with poliovirus as the model was developed for recovering human enteric viruses from aerosols. Filterite filters (pore size, 0.45 micron; Filterite Corp., Timonium, Md.) moistened with glycine buffer (pH 3.5) were used for adsorbing the aerosolized virus. No virus passed the filter, even with air flow rates of 100 liters/min. Virus recovery from the filter was achieved by rapid elution with 800 ml of glycine buffer, pH 10. The virus in the primary eluate was reconcentrated by adjusting the pH to 3.5, adding AlCl3 to 0.0005 M, collecting the virus on a 0.25-micron-pore Filerite disk (diameter, 25 mm) and and eluting with 6 ml of buffer, pH 10. With this method, virus could be detected regularly in aerosols produced by flushing when 3 X 10(8) PFU of poliovirus were present in the toilet bowl. Poliovirus-containing fecal material from two of four infants who had recently received oral polio vaccine also yielded virus in the aerosols when feces containing 2.4 X 10(7) to 4.5 X 10(7) PFU of virus had been added to the toilet bowl. Persons infected with a variety of natural enteric viruses are known to excrete this amount of virus in their daily stools. Images PMID:3004329

  6. Enteral nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Gassull, M A; Abad, A; Cabré, E; González-Huix, F; Giné, J J; Dolz, C

    1986-01-01

    To assess the effect of the addition of enteral tube feeding with polymeric diets to the standard treatment of acute attacks of inflammatory bowel disease a total of 43 patients admitted to hospital (23 with Crohn's disease and 20 with ulcerative colitis) were studied retrospectively. Total enteral nutrition was given to 26 as the sole nutritional supply and to 17 in conjunction with a normal ward diet, when appropriate, according to the severity of attack (control group). Nutritional state was assessed and classified in all patients at admission and at the end of the study, by measuring the triceps skinfold thickness, mid arm muscle circumference, and serum albumin concentration as representative of body fat, muscle protein, and visceral protein, respectively. At admission the three nutritional variables were not statistically different between the groups. There was a significantly positive effect on mid arm muscle circumference in patients on total enteral nutrition compared with the control group, but there was no effect on either triceps skinfold thickness or serum albumin concentration. The percentage of subjects requiring intravenous albumin infusion, however, was significantly less in the group fed enterally than in the control group. In addition, fewer patients in the group fed enterally required surgical treatment compared with the control group, despite the fact that one of the criteria for starting enteral nutritional support was the expectancy that surgery would be needed. Total enteral nutrition was well tolerated and no major side effects arose during its use in patients with acute exacerbations of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:3098646

  7. Genomic Characterization of a Circovirus Associated with Fatal Hemorrhagic Enteritis in Dog, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Decaro, Nicola; Martella, Vito; Desario, Costantina; Lanave, Gianvito; Circella, Elena; Cavalli, Alessandra; Elia, Gabriella; Camero, Michele; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2014-01-01

    Dog circovirus (DogCV) was identified in an outbreak of enteritis in pups in Italy. The disease was observed in 6 young dachshunds pups of a litter from a breeding kennel and caused the death of 2 dogs. Upon full-genome analysis, the virus detected in one of the dead pups (strain Bari/411–13) was closely related to DogCVs that have been recently isolated in the USA. The present study, if corroborated by further reports, could represent a useful contribution to the knowledge of the pathogenic potential of DogCV and its association with enteritis in dogs. PMID:25147946

  8. Transport of viruses through saturated and unsaturated columns packed with sand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anders, R.; Chrysikopoulos, C.V.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory-scale virus transport experiments were conducted in columns packed with sand under saturated and unsaturated conditions. The viruses employed were the male-specific RNA coliphage, MS2, and the Salmonella typhimurium phage, PRD1. The mathematical model developed by Sim and Chrysikopoulos (Water Resour Res 36:173-179, 2000) that accounts for processes responsible for removal of viruses during vertical transport in one-dimensional, unsaturated porous media was used to fit the data collected from the laboratory experiments. The liquid to liquid-solid and liquid to air-liquid interface mass transfer rate coefficients were shown to increase for both bacteriophage as saturation levels were reduced. The experimental results indicate that even for unfavorable attachment conditions within a sand column (e.g., phosphate-buffered saline solution; pH = 7.5; ionic strength = 2 mM), saturation levels can affect virus transport through porous media. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  9. REVERSETRANSCIPTION-PCR ASSAYS FOR THE DETECTION OF BOVINE ENTERIC CALICIVIRUSES (BEC) AND ANALYSIS OF THE GENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG BEC AND HUMAN CALICIVIRUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two genetically distinct bovine enteric caliciviruses (BEC) have been identified: the Norwalk-like-viruses (NLV), which are genetically related to human NLV, and the distinct NB-like BEC, which is most closely related to Sapporo-like viruses and lagoviruses, but potentially may ...

  10. Enteric Neuronal Regulation of Intestinal Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Kara Gross; Gershon, Michael D

    2016-09-01

    Recent research has highlighted the importance of the two-way interaction between the nervous and immune systems. This interaction is particularly important in the bowel because of the unique properties of this organ. The lumen of the gut is lined by a very large but remarkably thin surface that separates the body from the enteric microbiome. Immune defenses against microbial invasion are thus well developed and neuroimmune interactions are important in regulating and integrating these defenses. Important concepts in the phylogeny of neuroimmunity, enteric neuronal and glial regulation of immunity, changes that occur in the enteric nervous system during inflammation, the fundamental role of serotonin (5-HT) in enteric neuroimmune mechanisms, and future perspectives are reviewed. PMID:27450201

  11. Detection of enteric pathogens by the nodosome.

    PubMed

    Keestra, A Marijke; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2014-03-01

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein (NOD)1 and NOD2 participate in signaling pathways that detect pathogen-induced processes, such as the presence of peptidoglycan fragments in the host cell cytosol, as danger signals. Recent work suggests that peptidoglycan fragments activate NOD1 indirectly, through activation of the small Rho GTPase Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1). Excessive activation of small Rho GTPases by virulence factors of enteric pathogens also triggers the NOD1 signaling pathway. Many enteric pathogens use virulence factors that alter the activation state of small Rho GTPases, thereby manipulating the host cell cytoskeleton of intestinal epithelial cells to promote bacterial attachment or entry. These data suggest that the NOD1 signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells provides an important sentinel function for detecting 'breaking and entering' by enteric pathogens. PMID:24268520

  12. Infection strategies of enteric pathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Abigail; Young, Joanna C.; Constantinou, Nicholas; Frankel, Gad

    2012-01-01

    Enteric Escherichia coli (E. coli) are both natural flora of humans and important pathogens causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Traditionally enteric E. coli have been divided into 6 pathotypes, with further pathotypes often proposed. In this review we suggest expansion of the enteric E. coli into 8 pathotypes to include the emerging pathotypes of adherent invasive E. coli (AIEC) and Shiga-toxin producing enteroaggregative E. coli (STEAEC). The molecular mechanisms that allow enteric E. coli to colonize and cause disease in the human host are examined and for two of the pathotypes that express a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) we discuss the complex interplay between translocated effectors and manipulation of host cell signaling pathways that occurs during infection. PMID:22555463

  13. Inactivation of an astrovirus associated with poult enteritis mortality syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schultz-Cherry, S; King, D J; Koci, M D

    2001-01-01

    Outbreaks of poult enteritis mortality syndrome (PEMS) continue to cause financial losses to the turkey industry. Clinically, PEMS is defined by mortality profiles, diarrhea, flock unevenness, and immunosuppression. PEMS is a very difficult disease to control and prevent. Depopulation of PEMS-affected flocks and thorough cleaning of the contaminated housing have failed to prevent infection (disease) in subsequent flock placements. The relationship of PEMS to other enteric disease complexes of young turkeys is unknown, partly because the causative agent of PEMS remains unknown. Recently, we isolated a unique astrovirus strain from the thymus and intestines of PEMS-infected poults. This strain is molecularly and serologically distinct from the astrovirus that circulated in turkeys in the 1980s. Mammalian astroviruses are very resistant to inactivation. In these studies, we examined the stability of partially purified PEMS-associated astrovirus to inactivation with heat, laboratory disinfectants, and commercial disinfectants used in commercial turkey houses in an embryonated egg model system. Similar to mammalian astroviruses, the PEMS-associated astrovirus is resistant to inactivation by heat, acidification, detergent treatment, and treatment with phenolic, quaternary ammonium, or benzalkonium chloride-based products. Only treatment with formaldehyde, beta-propriolactone, or the peroxymonosulfate-based product Virkon S completely inactivated the astrovirus in the embryo model. These studies provide an alternate means to potentially control at least one virus associated with PEMS through the use of specific disinfectants. PMID:11332502

  14. Clinical Significance of Enteric Protozoa in the Immunosuppressed Human Population

    PubMed Central

    Stark, D.; Barratt, J. L. N.; van Hal, S.; Marriott, D.; Harkness, J.; Ellis, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Globally, the number of immunosuppressed people increases each year, with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic continuing to spread unabated in many parts of the world. Immunosuppression may also occur in malnourished persons, patients undergoing chemotherapy for malignancy, and those receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Components of the immune system can be functionally or genetically abnormal as a result of acquired (e.g., caused by HIV infection, lymphoma, or high-dose steroids or other immunosuppressive medications) or congenital illnesses, with more than 120 congenital immunodeficiencies described to date that either affect humoral immunity or compromise T-cell function. All individuals affected by immunosuppression are at risk of infection by opportunistic parasites (such as the microsporidia) as well as those more commonly associated with gastrointestinal disease (such as Giardia). The outcome of infection by enteric protozoan parasites is dependent on absolute CD4+ cell counts, with lower counts being associated with more severe disease, more atypical disease, and a greater risk of disseminated disease. This review summarizes our current state of knowledge on the significance of enteric parasitic protozoa as a cause of disease in immunosuppressed persons and also provides guidance on recent advances in diagnosis and therapy for the control of these important parasites. PMID:19822892

  15. Experimental infection of young rabbits with a rabbit enteric coronavirus.

    PubMed Central

    Descôteaux, J P; Lussier, G

    1990-01-01

    The clinical signs and lesions caused by the rabbit enteric coronavirus (RECV) were studied in young rabbits orally inoculated with a suspension containing RECV particles. The inoculated animals were observed daily for evidence of diarrhea. Fecal samples and specimens from the small intestine and from the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) were collected from 2 h to 29 days postinoculation (PI) and processed for immune electron microscopy (IEM) and light microscopy. Coronavirus particles were detected in the cecal contents of most inoculated animals from 6 h to 29 days PI. Lesions were first observed 6 h PI and were characterized by a loss of the brush border of mature enterocytes located at the tips of intestinal villi and by necrosis of these cells. At 48 h PI, short intestinal villi and hypertrophic crypts were noted. In the GALT, complete necrosis of the M cells as well as necrosis of the enterocytes lining the villi above the lymphoid follicules with hypertrophy of the corresponding crypts were observed in all the animals. Five inoculated rabbits had diarrhea three days PI. The presence of RECV particles in the feces of the sick animals and the microscopic lesions observed in the small intestine suggested that the virus was responsible for the clinical signs. A few inoculated rabbits remained free of diarrhea. Fecal material collected at postmortem examination contained RECV particles. The results suggest that the virus could also produce a subclinical infection. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2174299

  16. DETECTING CCL-RELATED, EMERGING WATERBORNE HUMAN VIRUSES AND VIRAL INDICATORS FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enteric viruses cause waterborne disease outbreaks in the U.S. and worldwide. The primary focus of this task is to develop methods to measure the occurrence of enteric viruses in environmental and drinking waters. Cell culture- and molecular-based methods are being developed fo...

  17. PERSISTENCE OF INDIGENOUS VIRUSES THROUGH THE PROCESSING REGIMEN AT AN OPERATING WATER TREATMENT PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The levels of viable indigenous bacteriophages and human enteric viruses contained in raw water entering a full scale drinking water treatment facility were examined on a quarterly basis for a 1-year period. n these same sampling occasions, indigenous virus concentrations were al...

  18. Removal of viruses and indicators by anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating animal waste.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kelvin; Xagoraraki, Irene; Wallace, James; Bickert, William; Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Rose, Joan B

    2009-01-01

    Appropriate treatment of agricultural waste is necessary for the protection of public health in rural areas because land-applied animal manure may transmit zoonotic disease. In this study, we evaluated the potential of using a pilot anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) to treat agricultural waste. The AnMBR system, following a conventional complete mix anaerobic digester (CMAD), achieved high removals of biological and chemical agents. The mean log(10) removals of Escherichia coli, enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, and coliphage by the AnMBR were 5.2, 6.1, 6.4, and 3.7, respectively, and for the CMAD were 1.5, 1.2, 0.1, and 0.5, respectively. Compared with other indicators, coliphage was observed most frequently and had the highest concentration in effluent samples. Bovine adenoviruses and bovine polymaviruses (BPyV) were monitored in this study using nested PCR methods. All of the CMAD influent and CMAD effluent samples were positive for both viruses, and three AnMBR effluent samples were BPyV positive. The mean removals of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphate, chemical oxygen demand, total solids, and volatile solids by the entire system were 31, 96, 92, 82, and 91%, respectively, but there was no removal of ammonium. When the AnMBR was operated independent of the CMAD, AnMBR achieved similar E. coli and enterococci removals as the combined CMAD/AnMBR system. The high quality of effluent produced by the pilot AnMBR system in this study demonstrated that such systems can be considered as alternatives for managing animal manure. PMID:19549946

  19. Stress, sex, and the enteric nervous system.

    PubMed

    Million, M; Larauche, M

    2016-09-01

    Made up of millions of enteric neurons and glial cells, the enteric nervous system (ENS) is in a key position to modulate the secretomotor function and visceral pain of the gastrointestinal tract. The early life developmental period, through which most of the ENS development occurs, is highly susceptible to microenvironmental perturbation. Over the past decade, accumulating evidence has shown the impact of stress and early life adversity (ELA) on host gastrointestinal pathophysiology. While most of the focus has been on alterations in brain structure and function, limited experimental work in rodents suggest that the enteric nervous system can also be directly affected, as shown by changes in the number, phenotype, and reactivity of enteric nerves. The work of Medland et al. in the current issue of this journal demonstrates that such alterations also occur in pigs, a larger mammalian species with high translational value to human. This work also highlights a sex-differential susceptibility of the ENS to the effect of ELA, which could contribute to the higher prevalence of GI disorders in women. In this mini-review, we will discuss the development and composition of the ENS and related gastrointestinal sensory motor and secretory functions. We will then focus on the influence of stress on the enteric nervous system, with a particular emphasis on neurodevelopmental changes. Finally, we will discuss the influence of sex on those parameters. PMID:27561694

  20. Qualitative release assessment to estimate the likelihood of henipavirus entering the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Snary, Emma L; Ramnial, Vick; Breed, Andrew C; Stephenson, Ben; Field, Hume E; Fooks, Anthony R

    2012-01-01

    The genus Henipavirus includes Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV), for which fruit bats (particularly those of the genus Pteropus) are considered to be the wildlife reservoir. The recognition of henipaviruses occurring across a wider geographic and host range suggests the possibility of the virus entering the United Kingdom (UK). To estimate the likelihood of henipaviruses entering the UK, a qualitative release assessment was undertaken. To facilitate the release assessment, the world was divided into four zones according to location of outbreaks of henipaviruses, isolation of henipaviruses, proximity to other countries where incidents of henipaviruses have occurred and the distribution of Pteropus spp. fruit bats. From this release assessment, the key findings are that the importation of fruit from Zone 1 and 2 and bat bushmeat from Zone 1 each have a Low annual probability of release of henipaviruses into the UK. Similarly, the importation of bat meat from Zone 2, horses and companion animals from Zone 1 and people travelling from Zone 1 and entering the UK was estimated to pose a Very Low probability of release. The annual probability of release for all other release routes was assessed to be Negligible. It is recommended that the release assessment be periodically re-assessed to reflect changes in knowledge and circumstances over time. PMID:22328916

  1. Role of histo-blood group antigens in primate enteric calicivirus infections.

    PubMed

    Sestak, Karol

    2014-08-12

    Human noroviruses (NoV) are associated with large proportion of non-bacterial diarrhea outbreaks together with > 50% of food-associated diarrheas. The function of histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) in pathogenesis of virus infection was implicated. Until recently however, due to lack of a robust animal and in vitro models of human NoV infection, only the partial knowledge concerning the virus pathogenesis (receptor, co-receptor and target cell) and absence of viable vaccine candidates were the frequently referenced attributes of this acute diarrheal illness. Recently, a novel group of enteric caliciviruses (CV) of rhesus macaque host origin was discovered and described. The new genus within the family Caliciviridae was identified: Rhesus Enteric CV, i.e., "Recovirus" (ReCV). ReCVs are genetically and biologically close relatives of human NoVs, exhibit similar genetic and biological features and are capable of being propagated in cell culture. ReCVs cause symptomatic disease (diarrhea and fever) in experimentally inoculated macaques. Formulation and evaluation of efficient NoV vaccine might take several years. As suggested by recent studies, inhibition of HBGAs or HBGA-based antivirals could meanwhile be exploited as vaccine alternatives. The purpose of this minireview is to provide the guidance in respect to newly available primate model of enteric CV infection and its similarities with human NoV in utilizing the HBGAs as potential virus co-receptors to indirectly address the unresolved questions of NoV pathogenesis and immunity. PMID:25392814

  2. Quinolone and Cephalosporin Resistance in Enteric Fever

    PubMed Central

    Capoor, Malini Rajinder; Nair, Deepthi

    2010-01-01

    Enteric fever is a major public health problem in developing countries. Ciprofloxacin resistance has now become a norm in the Indian subcontinent. Novel molecular substitutions may become frequent in future owing to selective pressures exerted by the irrational use of ciprofloxacin in human and veterinary therapeutics, in a population endemic with nalidixic acid-resistant strains. The therapeutics of ciprofloxacin-resistant enteric fever narrows down to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, azithromycin, tigecycline and penems. The first-line antimicrobials ampicillin, chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole need to be rolled back. Antimicrobial surveillance coupled with molecular analysis of fluoroquinolone resistance is warranted for reconfirming novel and established molecular patterns for therapeutic reappraisal and for novel-drug targets. This review explores the antimicrobial resistance and its molecular mechanisms, as well as novel drugs in the therapy of enteric fever. PMID:20927288

  3. Detection of enteric pathogens by the nodosome

    PubMed Central

    Keestra, A. Marijke; Bäumler, Andreas J.

    2014-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein (NOD)1 and NOD2 participate in signaling pathways that detect pathogen-induced processes, such as the presence of peptidoglycan fragments in the host cell cytosol, as danger signals. Recent work suggests that peptidoglycan fragments activate NOD1 indirectly, through activation of the small Rho GTPase Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1). Excessive activation of small Rho GTPases by virulence factors of enteric pathogens also triggers the NOD1 signaling pathway. Many enteric pathogens use virulence factors that alter the activation state of small Rho GTPases, thereby manipulating the host cell cytoskeleton of intestinal epithelial cells to promote bacterial attachment or entry. These data suggest that the NOD1 signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells provides an important sentinel function for detecting ‘breaking and entering’ by enteric pathogens. PMID:24268520

  4. Novel canine bocavirus strain associated with severe enteritis in a dog litter.

    PubMed

    Bodewes, Rogier; Lapp, Stefanie; Hahn, Kerstin; Habierski, André; Förster, Christine; König, Matthias; Wohlsein, Peter; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    Bocaviruses are small non-enveloped viruses with a linear ssDNA genome, that belong to the genus Bocaparvovirus of the subfamiliy Parvovirinae. Bocavirus infections are associated with a wide spectrum of disease in humans and various mammalian species. Here we describe a fatal enteritis associated with infection with a novel strain of canine bocavirus 2 (CaBoV-2), that occurred in a litter of German wirehaired pointers. Necropsy performed on three puppies revealed an enteritis reminiscent of canine parvovirus associated enteritis, accompanied with signs of lymphocytolytic disease in bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes and thymus. While other major causes of enteritis of young dogs, including canine parvovirus, were excluded, by random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing, a novel CaBoV-2 strain was detected. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome of this novel canine bocavirus strain indicated that this virus was indeed most closely related to group 2 canine bocaviruses. Infection with canine bocavirus was confirmed by in situ hybridization, which revealed the presence of CaBoV-2 nucleic acid in the intestinal tract and lymphoid tissues of the dogs. In a small-scale retrospective analysis concerning the role of CaBoV-2 no additional cases were identified. The findings of this study provide novel insights into the pathogenicity of canine bocaviruses. PMID:25263495

  5. Oncolytic virus therapy for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Goldufsky, Joe; Sivendran, Shanthi; Harcharik, Sara; Pan, Michael; Bernardo, Sebastian; Stern, Richard H; Friedlander, Philip; Ruby, Carl E; Saenger, Yvonne; Kaufman, Howard L

    2013-01-01

    The use of oncolytic viruses to treat cancer is based on the selection of tropic tumor viruses or the generation of replication selective vectors that can either directly kill infected tumor cells or increase their susceptibility to cell death and apoptosis through additional exposure to radiation or chemotherapy. In addition, viral vectors can be modified to promote more potent tumor cell death, improve the toxicity profile, and/or generate host antitumor immunity. A variety of viruses have been developed as oncolytic therapeutics, including adenovirus, vaccinia virus, herpesvirus, coxsackie A virus, Newcastle disease virus, and reovirus. The clinical development of oncolytic viral therapy has accelerated in the last few years, with several vectors entering clinical trials for a variety of cancers. In this review, current strategies to optimize the therapeutic effectiveness and safety of the major oncolytic viruses are discussed, and a summary of current clinical trials is provided. Further investigation is needed to characterize better the clinical impact of oncolytic viruses, but there are increasing data demonstrating the potential promise of this approach for the treatment of human and animal cancers. PMID:27512656

  6. Inventing Viruses.

    PubMed

    Summers, William C

    2014-11-01

    In the nineteenth century, "virus" commonly meant an agent (usually unknown) that caused disease in inoculation experiments. By the 1890s, however, some disease-causing agents were found to pass through filters that retained the common bacteria. Such an agent was called "filterable virus," the best known being the virus that caused tobacco mosaic disease. By the 1920s there were many examples of filterable viruses, but no clear understanding of their nature. However, by the 1930s, the term "filterable virus" was being abandoned in favor of simply "virus," meaning an agent other than bacteria. Visualization of viruses by the electron microscope in the late 1930s finally settled their particulate nature. This article describes the ever-changing concept of "virus" and how virologists talked about viruses. These changes reflected their invention and reinvention of the concept of a virus as it was revised in light of new knowledge, new scientific values and interests, and new hegemonic technologies. PMID:26958713

  7. Enteric glial cells have specific immunosuppressive properties.

    PubMed

    Kermarrec, Laetitia; Durand, Tony; Neunlist, Michel; Naveilhan, Philippe; Neveu, Isabelle

    2016-06-15

    Enteric glial cells (EGC) have trophic and neuroregulatory functions in the enteric nervous system, but whether they exert a direct effect on immune cells is unknown. Here, we used co-cultures to show that human EGC can inhibit the proliferation of activated T lymphocytes. Interestingly, EGC from Crohn's patients were effective at one EGC for two T cells whereas EGC from control patients required a ratio of 1:1. These data suggest that EGC contribute to local immune homeostasis in the gastrointestinal wall. They also raise the possibility that EGC have particular immunosuppressive properties in inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease. PMID:27235353

  8. Diarrhea complicating enteral feeding after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Benya, R; Damle, P; Mobarhan, S

    1990-03-01

    In this case report we present in detail the complex nature of enteral feeding, diarrhea, hypoalbuminemia, and edema in a critically ill patient. We also discuss the use of a peptide-elemental formula in this patient, who suffered continuous diarrhea for 15 weeks after liver transplantation. Use of this formula was associated with cessation of the diarrhea and permitted adequate nutritional delivery. After 26 weeks of mechanical pulmonary ventilation, extubation was possible. This case illustrates the ineffectiveness of parenteral albumin infusions for treatment of enteral edema and demonstrates the restoration of normal intestinal absorptive capacity when ultrafiltration was instituted and the patient's generalized edematous state was corrected. PMID:2106103

  9. Enteric alpha defensins in norm and pathology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Microbes living in the mammalian gut exist in constant contact with immunity system that prevents infection and maintains homeostasis. Enteric alpha defensins play an important role in regulation of bacterial colonization of the gut, as well as in activation of pro- and anti-inflammatory responses of the adaptive immune system cells in lamina propria. This review summarizes currently available data on functions of mammalian enteric alpha defensins in the immune defense and changes in their secretion in intestinal inflammatory diseases and cancer. PMID:22236533

  10. Enteric group 17 in clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Yang, D I; Chen, L C

    1989-11-01

    The Enteric Group 17, a new group of Enterobacteriaceae, has been classified (by the Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A.) based on its positive methyl-red test as well as its negative response to Voges-Proskauer, motility, rhamnose and melibiose fermentation tests. The isolation rate of Enteric Group 17 among 500 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae in Taiwan is 1.8% (9/500). This finding recommends that Taiwan's hospital laboratories should pay particular attention to the possible presence of this bacteria when an isolate has reactions similar to that of Enterobacter cloacae or other members of the Enterobacter species. PMID:2700157

  11. Isolation of avian rotaviruses from a normal turkey flock and from a flock with signs of enteric disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is often difficult to obtain enteric-origin viruses as pure isolates, complicating characterization and pathogenesis investigations. Two turkey-origin rotaviruses detected via NSP4-specific RT-PCR in pooled intestinal contents were isolated by serial passage in the African green monkey kidney cel...

  12. Molecular detection of chicken parvovirus in broilers with enteric disorders presenting curving of duodenal loop, pancreatic atrophy, and mesenteritis.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, L F N; Sá, L R M; Parra, S H S; Astolfi-Ferreira, C S; Carranza, C; Ferreira, A J P

    2016-04-01

    Enteric disorders are an important cause of economic losses in broiler chickens worldwide. Several agents have been associated with enteric problems, such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites. In this study, broiler chickens showing signs of enteric disorders were subjected to molecular diagnosis for several viral agents and also for pathological examination for elucidating this problem. Thus, the chickens were screened for avian nephritis virus (ANV), chicken astrovirus (CAstV), avian rotavirus (ArtV), avian reovirus (AReoV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), fowl adenovirus group I (FAdV-1), and chicken parvovirus (ChPV). Postmortem examinations revealed a curving of the duodenal loop (J-like appearance) and intestines filled with liquid and gaseous content. Histopathological analysis of the duodenal loop showed pancreatic atrophy, acute mesenteritis, and enteritis. PCR results showed that ChPV was the sole viral agent detected in samples with lesions such as the curved duodenal loop and pancreatic atrophy. Molecular characterization of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences revealed a high similarity with other strains of ChPV from Brazil, Canada, United States, Europe, and Asia. These findings suggest an association between ChPV and the development of enteritis, pancreatitis, and pancreatic atrophy, which may lead to curling of the duodenal loop. Together, these alterations may disrupt the normal functioning of the digestive system, diminishing digestion and the absorption of dietary nutrients and consequently leading to reduced weight gain, flock impairment, dwarfism, and an elevated feed conversion rate. PMID:26908891

  13. Detection and characterization of a new astrovirus in chicken and turkeys with enteric and locomotion disorders.

    PubMed

    de Wit, J J; Dam, G B Ten; de Laar, J M A M van; Biermann, Y; Verstegen, I; Edens, F; Schrier, C C

    2011-10-01

    In the present paper, we report the unexpected discovery of a new virus in samples from chicken and turkey flocks with clinical disorders such as tenosynovitis, enteric problems, or runting and/or stunting-like conditions. Since 1987, several virus isolation attempts on samples from these flocks resulted in the same macroscopic characteristic lesions in embryonated specific pathogen free eggs, being mortality with bright-red discolouration of legs and wing-tips, a swollen dark-red liver and oedema. Initial work suggested the presence of an agent with characteristics of a non-enveloped RNA virus. Further work, which is described in this paper, showed that the isolated strains formed a new group of avian nephritis viruses, which is genetically and antigenically distinct from known avian astroviruses. Inoculation of a representative strain (isolate 19) of this new group of avian nephritis viruses, provisionally named avian nephritis virus-3, in specific pathogen free layer chicks resulted in diarrhoea, runting and stunting, and even mortality. PMID:21780967

  14. Astronaut John Glenn Enters Friendship 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut John Glenn enters the Mercury spacecraft, Friendship 7, prior to the launch of MA-6 on February 20, 1961 and became the first American who orbited the Earth. The MA-6 mission was the first manned orbital flight boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, a modified Atlas ICBM (Intercontinental Ballistic Missile), lasted for five hours, and orbited the Earth three times.

  15. Social Network Formation of Entering College Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perl, Harold I.

    The examination of the functioning of social networks has been used to understand how individual and environmental characteristics can mediate the availability of social support. To examine the relationship between personal attributes, psychosocial environmental attributes, and the interaction between these variables, 92 entering college freshmen…

  16. Entering a Crack: An Encounter with Gossip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Linda

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I enter a crack to think otherwise about the concept "gossip". Drawing on previous scholarship engaging with Deleuzian concepts to inform research methodologies, this paper builds on this body of work. Following Deleuze and Guattari, the paper undertakes a mapping of gossip, subsequent to an encounter with a crack.…

  17. Molecular Physiology of Enteric Opioid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Galligan, James J.; Akbarali, Hamid I.

    2015-01-01

    Opioid drugs have powerful antidiarrheal effects and many patients taking these drugs for chronic pain relief experience chronic constipation that can progress to opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Three classes of opioid receptors are expressed by enteric neurons: μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors (MOR, DOR, and KOR). MOR and DOR couple to inhibition of adenylate cylase and nerve terminal Ca2+ channels and activation of K+ channels. These effects reduce neuronal activity and neurotransmitter release. KOR couples to inhibition of Ca2+ channels and inhibition of neurotransmitter release. In the human gastrointestinal tract, MOR, DOR, and KOR link to inhibition of acetylcholine release from enteric interneurons and purine/nitric oxide release from inhibitory motorneurons. These actions inhibit propulsive motility. MOR and DOR also link to inhibition of submucosal secretomotor neurons, reducing active Cl− secretion and passive water movement into the colonic lumen. These effects account for the constipation caused by opioid receptor agonists. Tolerance develops to the analgesic effects of opioid receptor agonists but not to the constipating actions. This may be due to differential β-arrestin-2-dependent opioid receptor desensitization and internalization in enteric nerves in the colon compared with the small intestine and in neuronal pain pathways. Further studies of differential opioid receptor desensitization and tolerance in subsets of enteric neurons may identify new drugs or other treatment strategies of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. PMID:25207608

  18. Molecular physiology of enteric opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Galligan, James J; Akbarali, Hamid I

    2014-09-10

    Opioid drugs have powerful antidiarrheal effects and many patients taking these drugs for chronic pain relief experience chronic constipation that can progress to opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Three classes of opioid receptors are expressed by enteric neurons: μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors (MOR, DOR, and KOR). MOR and DOR couple to inhibition of adenylate cylase and nerve terminal Ca(2+) channels and activation of K(+) channels. These effects reduce neuronal activity and neurotransmitter release. KOR couples to inhibition of Ca(2+) channels and inhibition of neurotransmitter release. In the human gastrointestinal tract, MOR, DOR, and KOR link to inhibition of acetylcholine release from enteric interneurons and purine/nitric oxide release from inhibitory motorneurons. These actions inhibit propulsive motility. MOR and DOR also link to inhibition of submucosal secretomotor neurons, reducing active Cl(-) secretion and passive water movement into the colonic lumen. These effects account for the constipation caused by opioid receptor agonists. Tolerance develops to the analgesic effects of opioid receptor agonists but not to the constipating actions. This may be due to differential β-arrestin-2-dependent opioid receptor desensitization and internalization in enteric nerves in the colon compared with the small intestine and in neuronal pain pathways. Further studies of differential opioid receptor desensitization and tolerance in subsets of enteric neurons may identify new drugs or other treatment strategies of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. PMID:25207608

  19. Astronaut Virgil Grissom Entering Liberty Bell 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Assisted by Astronaut John Glenn, Astronaut Virgil Grissom enters the Mercury capsule, Liberty Bell 7, for the MR-4 mission on July 21, 1961. Boosted by the Mercury-Redstone vehicle, the MR-4 mission was the second manned suborbital flight.

  20. Passive hemagglutination test for enteric fever.

    PubMed

    Petchclai, B; Ausavarungnirun, R; Manatsathit, S

    1987-01-01

    A passive hemagglutination (PHA) test for serodiagnosis of enteric fever was developed by sensitizing glutaraldehyde-preserved erythrocytes with lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella serogroups A, B, C, and D singly or simultaneously. The lipopolysaccharide-sensitized erythrocytes were tested with sera from 200 blood donors, 100 patients whose hemoculture was positive for Salmonella species, and 10 patients septicemic for other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The PHA test was positive in 90% of 28 acute-phase serum samples from patients with enteric fever from one hospital and in 93% of 72 acute-phase serum samples from another hospital. It was also positive in 100 and 60% of early- and late-convalescent-phase sera, respectively. The PHA test was negative in all patients septicemic for other members of the Enterobacteriaceae. Absorption of sera from patients with enteric fever with lipopolysaccharide from other members of the Enterobacteriaceae did not reduce PHA titers, indicating the specificity of the PHA test. Simultaneous sensitization with lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella serogroups A, B, C, and D was useful as a screening test in a limited trial with 28 acute-phase sera, 10 early-convalescent-phase sera, and 17 late-convalescent-phase sera. The PHA test is indeed a simple, sensitive, specific, and rapid test supplementing hemoculture in laboratory diagnosis of enteric fever. PMID:3793865

  1. Benchmarking & Benchmarks: Effective Practice with Entering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Community College Student Engagement, 2010

    2010-01-01

    If it takes a village to raise a child, it takes a strong network of committed colleagues to launch an initiative like "SENSE." From its conception in fall 2006 to the first national administration in fall 2009, the Survey of Entering Student Engagement ("SENSE") has been supported by key individuals and groups, without whom there would have been…

  2. Enteral feeding: how, when, how much?

    PubMed

    De Nisi, G

    2010-06-01

    In a NICU early enteral feeding is usually possible only when the newborn clinical conditions permit it. Because of the frequent need of umbilical/central catheters, they usually start with parenteral feeding and/or with minimal enteral feeding (trophic feeding). This kind of management is even more frequent in VLBWIs, in which the risk of NEC is very high. In this work we describe a model of early enteral exclusive feeding (EEEF) based on the use of banking human milk followed by mother In the Centre of Neonatology of Trento, as in other milk. Centers, the newborns weighing less than 750 g or with a GE <27 weeks, are treated with parenteral nutrition and minimal enteral feeding. The newborn weighing 750-1249g and with GE >26 weeks define a group in which we find critical neonates, who can not be treated with enteral feeding, and neonates whose clinical conditions permit EEEF. In particular, in a period of 16 years (1994-2009) in Trento, 308 newborns weighing 750-1249 g and GE >26 weeks were admitted. The 90.9% has been treated with prenatal steroids, the 91.9% was inborn, the 96.1% survived. In the 59.1% of the cases (175) we gave EEEF. We could continue with a complete EEEF in the 40.2% of the total (119 cases). The characteristics of these neonates and our centre management, based mainly on early use of banking human milk and mother milk, are detailed described. PMID:21089743

  3. Identification of RNA viruses in the turkey gut using metagenomics.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry enteric disease is marked by diarrhea, stunting, increased time to market, immune dysfunction and increased mortality. Numerous viruses have been detected in the intestinal tract of poultry, and have subsequently been implicated in enteric disease. Knowledge of the complete viral flora prese...

  4. Taxonomic reassessment of N4-like viruses using comparative genomics and proteomics suggests a new subfamily - "Enquartavirinae".

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Johannes; Klumpp, Jochen; Moreno Switt, Andrea I; Yagubi, Abdelbaset; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang; Wiedmann, Martin; Svircev, Antonet; Nash, John H E; Kropinski, Andrew M

    2015-12-01

    The GenBank database currently contains sequence data for 33 N4-like viruses, with only one, Escherichia phage N4, being formally recognized by the ICTV. The genus N4likevirus is uniquely characterized by that fact that its members possess an extremely large, virion-associated RNA polymerase. Using a variety of proteomic, genomic and phylogenetic tools, we have demonstrated that the N4-like phages are not monophyletic and that N4 is actually a genomic orphan. We propose to create four new genera: "G7cvirus" (consisting of phages G7C, IME11, KBNP21, vB_EcoP_PhAPEC5, vB_EcoP_PhAPEC7, Bp4, EC1-UPM and pSb-1), "Lit1virus" (LIT1, PA26 and vB_PaeP_C2-10_Ab09), "Sp58virus" (SP058 and SP076), and "Dss3virus" (DSS3φ2 and EE36φ1). We propose that coliphage N4, the members of "G7cvirus", Erwinia phage Ea9-2, and Achromobacter phage JWAlpha should be considered members of the same subfamily, which we tentatively call the "Enquartavirinae". PMID:26395091

  5. Early Enteral Feeding After Living Donor Liver Transplantation Prevents Infectious Complications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Man; Joh, Jae-Won; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Sung-Hye; Rha, Miyong; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Choi, Gyu-Seong; Kwon, Choon Hyuck David; Cho, Young Yun; Suh, Jeong-Meen; Lee, Suk-Koo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Infectious complications, including bacteria, virus, and fungus, often occur after liver transplantation and are the most frequent causes of in-hospital mortality. The current study prospectively analyze the effect of early enteral feeding in patients after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) Between January 2013 and August 2013, 36 patients underwent LDLT. These patients were randomly assigned to receive enteral formula via nasointestinal feeding tubes [enteral feeding (EN) group, n = 17] or maintenance on intravenous fluid until oral diets were initiated (control group, n = 19). All patients completed the study. The pretransplant and perioperative characteristics of patients did not differ between the 2 groups. The incidence of bacterial infection was significantly lower in the EN group (29.4%) than in the control group (63.2%) (P = 0.043). In addition, the incidence of bile duct complications in the EN group was lower than in the control group (5.9% versus 31.6%, P = 0.041). Multivariate analysis showed that early enteral feeding was closely associated with bacterial infections (odds ratio, 0.178; P = 0.041). There was no statistically significant difference in nutritional status between the 2 groups. There were no cases of in-hospital mortality. Early enteral feeding after LDLT prevents posttransplant bacterial infection, suggesting the possibility of a reduction of in-hospital mortality as a result of decreased infectious complications. PMID:26554774

  6. Human viruses in sediments, sludges, and soils*

    PubMed Central

    Rao, V. Chalapati; Metcalf, Theodore G.; Melnick, Joseph L.

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies have provided a greater understanding of the movement of viruses in the environment by their attachment to solids. These studies have focused on solids-associated viruses present in wastewater discharged into the ocean and on viruses in sludge and wastewater that may be retained in soil following their land disposal. Such ocean or land disposal of wastewater and sludge may result in a discharge of one or more of 120 human enteric virus pathogens including those causing poliomyelitis, viral hepatitis A and acute gastroenteritis. Solids-associated viruses in effluents discharged into coastal waters accumulate in bottom sediments, which may contain 10 to 10 000 more virus per unit volume than the overlying seawater. Solids-associated viruses resuspended by water turbulence may be transported from polluted to distant non-polluted recreational or shellfish-growing water. Transmission of viruses causing hepatitis or gastroenteritis may result from contact by bathers or swimmers with these viruses in recreational waters, or from ingestion of raw or improperly cooked shellfish in which the solids-associated virus had been bioaccumulated. The land disposal of sludge and wastewater has a potential of causing infections in farm workers, contamination of crops, pollution of raw potable water sources or infiltration of ground water. Viruses retained on soils can be released by rain water and may contaminate ground water through lateral and vertical movements. PMID:3015442

  7. PERSISTANCE OF VIRUSES IN OYSTER (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) HEMOCYTES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seafood is listed as one of the top three causes of human virus infection by foodborne products. The goal of this study is to determine why human enteric viruses such as hepatitis A (HAV) and Norovirus (NV) readily persist within bivalves. Shellfish bioaccumulate water-borne pathogens and concentra...

  8. Hemocytes are sites of persistence for virus-contaminated oysters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Like fecal bacteria, waterborne enteric viruses are readily bioconcentrated by bivalve shellfish. However while many bacteria decline rapidly when bivalves are placed in uncontaminated water, viruses tend to be retained within shellfish. In this study, we offer evidence that phagocytic blood cells...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF MOLECULAR METHODS TO DETECT EMERGING VIRUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large number of human enteric viruses are known to cause gastrointestinal illness and waterborne outbreaks. Many of these are emerging viruses that do not grow or grow poorly in cell culture and so molecular detectoin methods based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are be...

  10. Spectrum of Surgical Presentation of Eosinophilic Enteritis

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Spoorthy Sudhakar; Shetty, Charan Kishor

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic enteritis is a rare disorder presenting mostly with diarrhea, malabsorption, abdominal pain, weight loss, and hypersensitivity. Surgical manifestation of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders depends on the site and extent of involvement. In our case series of four patients two of them had ileocaecal masses with recurrent subacute intestinal obstruction with past history of intake of antitubercular drugs for 9 months. On histopathological examination both of them proved to have eosinophilic enterocolitis. Thus it is a clinical dilemma to differentiate between these two conditions. The other two patients presented as acute abdomen with perforation and intussusception. All four patients were treated surgically. Postoperatively they recovered well with no symptoms on one year follow-up. In Indian setup tuberculosis being rampant there may be under reporting or wrongly diagnosed cases of eosinophilic enteritis. Thus a strong clinical suspicion and awareness of this clinical entity are essential among surgical community. PMID:25960910

  11. Spectrum of surgical presentation of eosinophilic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Spoorthy Sudhakar; Shetty, Charan Kishor

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic enteritis is a rare disorder presenting mostly with diarrhea, malabsorption, abdominal pain, weight loss, and hypersensitivity. Surgical manifestation of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders depends on the site and extent of involvement. In our case series of four patients two of them had ileocaecal masses with recurrent subacute intestinal obstruction with past history of intake of antitubercular drugs for 9 months. On histopathological examination both of them proved to have eosinophilic enterocolitis. Thus it is a clinical dilemma to differentiate between these two conditions. The other two patients presented as acute abdomen with perforation and intussusception. All four patients were treated surgically. Postoperatively they recovered well with no symptoms on one year follow-up. In Indian setup tuberculosis being rampant there may be under reporting or wrongly diagnosed cases of eosinophilic enteritis. Thus a strong clinical suspicion and awareness of this clinical entity are essential among surgical community. PMID:25960910

  12. Clinical and nutritional implications of radiation enteritis

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, W.H.; Fan, A.; Halsted, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The clinical and nutritional significance of radiation enteritis was assessed in eight patients with chronic diarrhea which followed curative doses of radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. Steatorrhea, found in seven malnourished patients, was ascribed to ileal disease or previous surgery, or to bacterial contamination of the small intestine. Lactose intolerance, assessed by breath hydrogen excretion after oral lactose and by jejunal lactase levels, was found in six patients. In a subgroup of five patients, the administration of two different defined formula liquid diets by nasoduodenal infusion decreased fecal fluid and energy losses by about one-half. Compared to Vivonex-HN, the infusion of Criticare-HN was associated with greater likelihood of intestinal gas production but a three-fold greater utilization of protein. Intestinal malabsorption and malnutrition in radiation enteritis has diverse etiologies. Whereas nutritional support by liquid diet limits fecal fluid and energy losses, these diets differ significantly in clinical tolerance and biologic value.

  13. Clinical and nutritional implications of radiation enteritis.

    PubMed

    Beer, W H; Fan, A; Halsted, C H

    1985-01-01

    The clinical and nutritional significance of radiation enteritis was assessed in eight patients with chronic diarrhea which followed curative doses of radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. Steatorrhea, found in seven malnourished patients, was ascribed to ileal disease or previous surgery, or to bacterial contamination of the small intestine. Lactose intolerance, assessed by breath hydrogen excretion after oral lactose and by jejunal lactase levels, was found in six patients. In a subgroup of five patients, the administration of two different defined formula liquid diets by nasoduodenal infusion decreased fecal fluid and energy losses by about one-half. Compared to Vivonex-HN, the infusion of Criticare-HN was associated with greater likelihood of intestinal gas production but a three-fold greater utilization of protein. Intestinal malabsorption and malnutrition in radiation enteritis has diverse etiologies. Whereas nutritional support by liquid diet limits fecal fluid and energy losses, these diets differ significantly in clinical tolerance and biologic value. PMID:3917601

  14. Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Zika Virus Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Areas with Zika Countries and territories with active Zika virus transmission... Mosquito Control Prevent mosquito bites, integrated mosquito ...

  15. Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    Zika is a virus that is spread by mosquitoes. A pregnant mother can pass it to her ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in Africa, Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, ...

  16. Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    Zika is a virus that is spread mostly by mosquitoes. A pregnant mother can pass it to ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, ...

  17. Chikungunya Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... traveling to countries with chikungunya virus, use insect repellent, wear long sleeves and pants, and stay in ... Chikungunya Prevention is key! Prevent Infection. Use mosquito repellent. Chikungunya Virus Distribution Chikungunya in the U.S. What's ...

  18. PRELIMINARY COMPARATIVE STUDY OF METHODS TO EXTRACT VIRUS FROM RAW AND PROCESSED SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two simple virus extraction techniques were compared to an EPA standard method for detection of human enteric viruses in raw sewage sludge and class A biosolids. The techniques were used to detect both indigenous and seeded virus from a plant that distributes class A material pr...

  19. ESTABLISH AND STANDARDIZE METHODOLOGY FOR DETECTION OF WATERBORNE VIRUSES FROM HUMAN SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research is conducted to develop and standardize methods to detect and measure occurrence of human enteric viruses that cause waterborne disease. The viruses of concern include the emerging pathogens--hepatitis E virus and group B rotaviruses. Also of concern are the coxsackiev...

  20. CONCENTRATION AND PROCESSING OF WATERBORNE VIRUSES BY POSITIVE CHARGE 1MDS CARTRIDGE FILTERS AND ORGANIC FLOCCULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes the most widely used virus adsorption-elution (VIRADEL) method for recovering human enteric viruses from water matrices (Fout et al., 1996). The method takes advantage of postively charged cartridge filters to concentrate viruses from water. The major adv...

  1. Hepadna viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, W.; Koike, K.; Will, H.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines the molecular biology, disease pathogenesis, epidemiology, and clinical features of hepadna and other viruses with hepatic tropism and outlines future directions and approaches for their management. The volume's six sections provide a review of the various features, mechanisms, and functions of these viruses, ranging from hepadna virus replication and regulation of gene expression to the structure and function of hepadna-virus gene products.

  2. Enteral nutrition in dementia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brooke, Joanne; Ojo, Omorogieva

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life. PMID:25854831

  3. Enteral Nutrition in Dementia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Brooke, Joanne; Ojo, Omorogieva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life. PMID:25854831

  4. Diabetes and the enteric nervous system.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekharan, B; Srinivasan, S

    2007-12-01

    Diabetes is associated with several changes in gastrointestinal (GI) motility and associated symptoms such as nausea, bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhoea and constipation. The pathogenesis of altered GI functions in diabetes is multifactorial and the role of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in this respect has gained significant importance. In this review, we summarize the research carried out on diabetes-related changes in the ENS. Changes in the inhibitory and excitatory enteric neurons are described highlighting the role of loss of inhibitory neurons in early diabetic enteric neuropathy. The functional consequences of these neuronal changes result in altered gastric emptying, diarrhoea or constipation. Diabetes can also affect GI motility through changes in intestinal smooth muscle or alterations in extrinsic neuronal control. Hyperglycaemia and oxidative stress play an important role in the pathophysiology of these ENS changes. Antioxidants to prevent or treat diabetic GI motility problems have therapeutic potential. Recent research on the nerve-immune interactions demonstrates inflammation-associated neurodegeneration which can lead to motility related problems in diabetes. PMID:17971027

  5. Viruses in non-disinfected drinking water from municipal wells are related to community rates of acute gastrointestinal illness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundwater supplies for drinking water are frequently contaminated with low-levels of human enteric virus genomes, yet evidence for waterborne disease transmission is lacking. We related qPCR-measured enteric viruses in the tap water of 14 non-chlorinating communities in the U.S. to acute gastroint...

  6. West Nile virus: North American experience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  7. Multiscale Modeling of Virus Entry via Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin

    2012-11-01

    Virus infections are ubiquitous and remain major threats to human health worldwide. Viruses are intracellular parasites and must enter host cells to initiate infection. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is the most common entry pathway taken by viruses, the whole process is highly complex and dictated by various events, such as virus motions, membrane deformations, receptor diffusion and ligand-receptor reactions, occurring at multiple length and time scales. We develop a multiscale model for virus entry through receptor-mediated endocytosis. The binding of virus to cell surface is based on a mesoscale three dimensional stochastic adhesion model, the internalization (endocytosis) of virus and cellular membrane deformation is based on the discretization of Helfrich Hamiltonian in a curvilinear space using Monte Carlo method. The multiscale model is based on the combination of these two models. We will implement this model to study the herpes simplex virus entry into B78 cells and compare the model predictions with experimental measurements.

  8. Prediction of enteric methane emissions from cattle.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Luis E; Strathe, Anders B; Fadel, James G; Casper, David P; Kebreab, Ermias

    2014-07-01

    Agriculture has a key role in food production worldwide and it is a major component of the gross domestic product of several countries. Livestock production is essential for the generation of high quality protein foods and the delivery of foods in regions where animal products are the main food source. Environmental impacts of livestock production have been examined for decades, but recently emission of methane from enteric fermentation has been targeted as a substantial greenhouse gas source. The quantification of methane emissions from livestock on a global scale relies on prediction models because measurements require specialized equipment and may be expensive. The predictive ability of current methane emission models remains poor. Moreover, the availability of information on livestock production systems has increased substantially over the years enabling the development of more detailed methane prediction models. In this study, we have developed and evaluated prediction models based on a large database of enteric methane emissions from North American dairy and beef cattle. Most probable models of various complexity levels were identified using a Bayesian model selection procedure and were fitted under a hierarchical setting. Energy intake, dietary fiber and lipid proportions, animal body weight and milk fat proportion were identified as key explanatory variables for predicting emissions. Models here developed substantially outperformed models currently used in national greenhouse gas inventories. Additionally, estimates of repeatability of methane emissions were lower than the ones from the literature and multicollinearity diagnostics suggested that prediction models are stable. In this context, we propose various enteric methane prediction models which require different levels of information availability and can be readily implemented in national greenhouse gas inventories of different complexity levels. The utilization of such models may reduce errors

  9. The dengue virus type 2 envelope protein fusion peptide is essential for membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Claire Y.-H.; Butrapet, Siritorn; Moss, Kelly J.; Childers, Thomas; Erb, Steven M.; Calvert, Amanda E.; Silengo, Shawn J.; Kinney, Richard M.; Blair, Carol D.; Roehrig, John T.

    2010-01-20

    The flaviviral envelope (E) protein directs virus-mediated membrane fusion. To investigate membrane fusion as a requirement for virus growth, we introduced 27 unique mutations into the fusion peptide of an infectious cDNA clone of dengue 2 virus and recovered seven stable mutant viruses. The fusion efficiency of the mutants was impaired, demonstrating for the first time the requirement for specific FP AAs in optimal fusion. Mutant viruses exhibited different growth kinetics and/or genetic stabilities in different cell types and adult mosquitoes. Virus particles could be recovered following RNA transfection of cells with four lethal mutants; however, recovered viruses could not re-infect cells. These viruses could enter cells, but internalized virus appeared to be retained in endosomal compartments of infected cells, thus suggesting a fusion blockade. Mutations of the FP also resulted in reduced virus reactivity with flavivirus group-reactive antibodies, confirming earlier reports using virus-like particles.

  10. Biology and transmission of avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural host and reservoir for avian influenza is in wild birds where the viral infection is typically asymptomatic. The virus primarily replicates in the enteric tract and transmission is thought to be primarily by fecal-oral transmission. Avian influenza can infect a broad host range, but fo...

  11. Methods for virus recovery in water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food safety is intimately connected to water sanitary quality as water is used at almost every node in the food production process. Common contaminating pathogens in water are human enteric viruses, many of which are responsible for foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States and other high-inc...

  12. Management of enteric fever with amdinocillin.

    PubMed

    Ball, A P; Geddes, A M

    1983-08-29

    Twenty-six patients with enteric fever treated with amdinocillin and/or its pivaloyloxymethyl ester in 1975 to 1978 were compared with 21 patients with enteric fever treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in 1972 to 1974. Diagnosis was based on clinical illness and isolation of Salmonella typhi or S. paratyphi A/B from blood cultures or stool cultures. The dosage of pivamdinocillin in adults was 400 to 800 mg, every 6 hours, for 10 to 16 days; dosage in children was half this amount for 11 to 15 days. Of the 21 patients treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 18 (86 percent) showed a satisfactory clinical response; 13 of these 18 had negative stools immediately after therapy, and two more were negative at the time of discharge (total: 83 percent). Mean hospital stay of these patients was 34.5 days. Of the 26 patients treated with amdinocillin, 23 showed a satisfactory clinical response; 20 of those responding clinically were still excreting the causative organism at the end of therapy; seven of the group remained as convalescent patients who continued to excrete the causative organism in feces at the time of discharge. Mean hospital stay was 43 days. The results of initial trials of amdinocillin and ampicillin in combination suggest that such therapy may be preferable to use of amdinocillin alone, although the excretion of the causative organism during convalescence has not been adequately assessed. PMID:6311001

  13. [Drug administration through enteral feeding catheters].

    PubMed

    Goñi Viguria, R; Sánchez Sanz, L; Asiain Erro, M; Baztán Indave, A

    2001-01-01

    Because of easiness and accessibility, the oral route of administration is usually the route of choice for medication delivery, as long as the oral drug form is available and the patients' circumstances allow it.In patients admitted to the intensive care unit this route is frequently altered. This provokes difficulties in swallowing and consequently an enteral feeding catheter must be inserted to supply the patient's nutritional requirements. This catheter is also used for the drug administration, which necessitates opening capsules or crushing pills before dilution. When added to drug-nutrient interactions, this process alters the drug's properties and modifies its pharmacokinetic profile, its pharmacological effect and the intensity of side effects. It can also provoke catheter obstruction. The aim of this study was to establish guidelines for drug administration through enteral feeding catheters. We provide a thorough review of the literature, describe oral drug forms, present a protocol for correct drug administration and provide a guide to the most commonly used drugs in our unit. For each of these drugs we include recommendations on administration and possible alternatives. PMID:11459545

  14. Necrotic enteritis predisposing factors in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Moore, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    Necrotic enteritis in chickens develops as a result of infection with pathogenic strains of Clostridium perfringens and the presence of predisposing factors. Predisposing factors include elements that directly change the physical properties of the gut, either damaging the epithelial surface, inducing mucus production, or changing gut transit times; factors that disrupt the gut microbiota; and factors that alter the immune status of birds. In the past research into necrotic enteritis predisposing factors was directed by the simple hypothesis that low-level colonization of C. perfringens commonly occurred within the gut of healthy chickens and the predisposing factors lead to a proliferation of those bacteria to produce disease. More recently, with an increasing understanding of the major virulence factors of C. perfringens and the application of molecular techniques to define different clades of C. perfringens strains, it has become clear that the C. perfringens isolates commonly found in healthy chickens are generally not strains that have the potential to cause disease. Therefore, we need to re-evaluate hypotheses regarding the development of disease, the origin of disease causing isolates of C. perfringens, and the importance of interactions with other C. perfringens strains and with predisposing factors. Many predisposing factors that affect the physical and immunological characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract may also change the resident microbiota. Research directed towards defining the relative importance of each of these different actions of predisposing factors will improve the understanding of disease pathogenesis and may allow refinement of experiment disease models. PMID:26926926

  15. Enteric neurons show a primary cilium

    PubMed Central

    Luesma, Mª José; Cantarero, Irene; Castiella, Tomás; Soriano, Mario; Garcia–Verdugo, José Manuel; Junquera, Concepción

    2013-01-01

    The primary cilium is a non-motile cilium whose structure is 9+0. It is involved in co-ordinating cellular signal transduction pathways, developmental processes and tissue homeostasis. Defects in the structure or function of the primary cilium underlie numerous human diseases, collectively termed ciliopathies. The presence of single cilia in the central nervous system (CNS) is well documented, including some choroid plexus cells, neural stem cells, neurons and astrocytes, but the presence of primary cilia in differentiated neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS) has not yet been described in mammals to the best of our knowledge. The enteric nervous system closely resembles the central nervous system. In fact, the ultrastructure of the ENS is more similar to the CNS ultrastructure than to the rest of the peripheral nervous system. This research work describes for the first time the ultrastructural characteristics of the single cilium in neurons of rat duodenum myenteric plexus, and reviews the cilium function in the CNS to propose the possible role of cilia in the ENS cells. PMID:23205631

  16. Viral Spread to Enteric Neurons Links Genital HSV-1 Infection to Toxic Megacolon and Lethality.

    PubMed

    Khoury-Hanold, William; Yordy, Brian; Kong, Philip; Kong, Yong; Ge, William; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; Ralevski, Alexandra; Horvath, Tamas L; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2016-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), a leading cause of genital herpes, infects oral or genital mucosal epithelial cells before infecting the peripheral sensory nervous system. The spread of HSV-1 beyond the sensory nervous system and the resulting broader spectrum of disease are not well understood. Using a mouse model of genital herpes, we found that HSV-1-infection-associated lethality correlated with severe fecal and urinary retention. No inflammation or infection of the brain was evident. Instead, HSV-1 spread via the dorsal root ganglia to the autonomic ganglia of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in the colon. ENS infection led to robust viral gene transcription, pathological inflammatory responses, and neutrophil-mediated destruction of enteric neurons, ultimately resulting in permanent loss of peristalsis and the development of toxic megacolon. Laxative treatment rescued mice from lethality following genital HSV-1 infection. These results reveal an unexpected pathogenesis of HSV associated with ENS infection. PMID:27281569

  17. Commensal microbes and interferon-λ determine persistence of enteric murine norovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Baldridge, Megan T; Nice, Timothy J; McCune, Broc T; Yokoyama, Christine C; Kambal, Amal; Wheadon, Michael; Diamond, Michael S; Ivanova, Yulia; Artyomov, Maxim; Virgin, Herbert W

    2015-01-16

    The capacity of human norovirus (NoV), which causes >90% of global epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis, to infect a subset of people persistently may contribute to its spread. How such enteric viruses establish persistent infections is not well understood. We found that antibiotics prevented persistent murine norovirus (MNoV) infection, an effect that was reversed by replenishment of the bacterial microbiota. Antibiotics did not prevent tissue infection or affect systemic viral replication but acted specifically in the intestine. The receptor for the antiviral cytokine interferon-λ, Ifnlr1, as well as the transcription factors Stat1 and Irf3, were required for antibiotics to prevent viral persistence. Thus, the bacterial microbiome fosters enteric viral persistence in a manner counteracted by specific components of the innate immune system. PMID:25431490

  18. Zika virus.

    PubMed

    2016-02-10

    Essential facts Zika virus disease is caused by a virus that is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito. While it generally causes a mild illness, there is increasing concern that it is harmful in pregnancy and can cause congenital abnormalities in infants born to women infected with the virus. There is no antiviral treatment or vaccine currently available. The best form of prevention is protection against mosquito bites. PMID:26860150

  19. Mechanism of Cell Culture Adaptation of an Enteric Calicivirus, the Porcine Sapovirus Cowden Strain

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhongyan; Yokoyama, Masaru; Chen, Ning; Oka, Tomoichiro; Jung, Kwonil; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Annamalai, Thavamathi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The porcine sapovirus (SaV) (PoSaV) Cowden strain is one of only a few culturable enteric caliciviruses. Compared to the wild-type (WT) PoSaV Cowden strain, tissue culture-adapted (TC) PoSaV has two conserved amino acid substitutions in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and six in the capsid protein (VP1). By using the reverse-genetics system, we identified that 4 amino acid substitutions in VP1 (residues 178, 289, 324, and 328), but not the substitutions in the RdRp region, were critical for the cell culture adaptation of the PoSaV Cowden strain. The other two substitutions in VP1 (residues 291 and 295) reduced virus replication in vitro. Three-dimensional (3D) structural analysis of VP1 showed that residue 178 was located near the dimer-dimer interface, which may affect VP1 assembly and oligomerization; residues 289, 291, 324, and 328 were located at protruding subdomain 2 (P2) of VP1, which may influence virus binding to cellular receptors; and residue 295 was located at the interface of two monomeric VP1 proteins, which may influence VP1 dimerization. Although reversion of the mutation at residue 291 or 295 from that of the TC strain to that of the WT reduced virus replication in vitro, it enhanced virus replication in vivo, and the revertants induced higher-level serum and mucosal antibody responses than those induced by the TC PoSaV Cowden strain. Our findings reveal the molecular basis for PoSaV adaptation to cell culture. These findings may provide new, critical information for the cell culture adaptation of other PoSaV strains and human SaVs or noroviruses. IMPORTANCE The tissue culture-adapted porcine sapovirus Cowden strain is one of only a few culturable enteric caliciviruses. We discovered that 4 amino acid substitutions in VP1 (residues 178, 289, 324, and 328) were critical for its adaptation to LLC-PK cells. Two substitutions in VP1 (residues 291 and 295) reduced virus replication in vitro but enhanced virus replication and induced

  20. CHLORELLA VIRUSES

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque‐forming, double‐stranded‐DNA—containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330‐kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV‐1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ∼366 protein‐encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ∼50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site‐specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus‐encoded K+ channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV‐1 has three types of introns; a self‐splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV‐1 as well as other related viruses. PMID:16877063

  1. Endocytosis of simian virus 40 into the endoplasmic reticulum

    SciTech Connect

    Kartenbeck, J.; Stukenbrok, H.; Helenius, A. )

    1989-12-01

    The endocytosis of SV-40 into CV-1 cells we studied using biochemical and ultrastructural techniques. The half-time of binding of ({sup 35}S)methionine-radiolabeled SV-40 to CV-1 cells was 25 min. Most of the incoming virus particles remained undegraded for several hours. Electron microscopy showed that some virus entered the endosomal/lysosomal pathway via coated vesicles, while the majority were endocytosed via small uncoated vesicles. After infection at high multiplicity, one third of total cell-associated virus was observed to enter the ER, starting 1-2 h after virus application. The viruses were present in large, tubular, smooth membrane networks generated as extentions of the ER. The results describe a novel and unique membrane transport pathway that allows endocytosed viral particles to be targeted from the plasma membrane to the ER.

  2. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live virus" used ... cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine that ...

  3. New insights into environmental enteric dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Trehan, Indi; Kelly, Paul; Shaikh, Nurmohammad; Manary, Mark J

    2016-08-01

    Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) has been recognised as an important contributing factor to physical and cognitive stunting, poor response to oral vaccines, limited resilience to acute infections and ultimately global childhood mortality. The aetiology of EED remains poorly defined but the epidemiology suggests a multifactorial combination of prenatal and early-life undernutrition and repeated infectious and/or toxic environmental insults due to unsanitary and unhygienic environments. Previous attempts at medical interventions to ameliorate EED have been unsatisfying. However, a new generation of imaging and '-omics' technologies hold promise for developing a new understanding of the pathophysiology of EED. A series of trials designed to decrease EED and stunting are taking novel approaches, including improvements in sanitation, hygiene and nutritional interventions. Although many challenges remain in defeating EED, the global child health community must redouble their efforts to reduce EED in order to make substantive improvements in morbidity and mortality worldwide. PMID:26933151

  4. Gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.M.; Chernish, S.M.; Rosenek, B.D.; Brunelle, R.L.; Hargrove, B.; Wellman, H.N.

    1984-03-01

    To evaluate the gastric emptying time of pharmaceutical dosage forms in a clinical setting, a relatively simple dual-radionuclide technique was developed. Placebo tablets of six different combinations of shape and size were labeled with indium-111 DTPA and enteric coated. Six volunteers participated in a single-blind and crossover study. Tablets were given in the morning of a fasting stomach with 6 oz of water containing /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and continuously observed with a gamma camera. A scintigraph was obtained each minute. The results suggested that the size, shape, or volume of the tablet used in this study had no significant effect in the rate of gastric emptying. The tablets emptied erratically and unpredictably, depending upon their time of arrival in the stomach in relation to the occurrence of interdigestive myoelectric contractions. The method described is a relatively simple and accurate technique to allow one to follow the gastric emptying of tablets.

  5. [Endoscopic and surgical procedures for enteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Wallstabe, I; Tiedemann, A; Schiefke, I; Weimann, A

    2013-07-01

    Standardized management of oncology patients necessarily includes screening for nutritional risk. Weight loss of > 5 kg within 3 months and diminished food intake are warning signals even in overweight patients. In case oral nutrition is neither adequate nor feasible even by fortification or oral nutritional supplements, the implantation of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) or fine needle catheter jejunostomy (FNCJ) offers enteral access for long-term nutritional support. Although the indications derive from fulfilling caloric needs, endoscopic or operative measures are not considered to be an urgent or even emergency measure. The endoscopist or surgeon should be fully aware and informed of the indications and make a personal assessment of the situation. The implantation of a feeding tube requires informed consent of the patient or legal surrogates. The review summarizes recent indications, technical problems and complications. PMID:23719727

  6. APOLLO 10 ASTRONAUT ENTERS LUNAR MODULE SIMULATOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 10 lunar module pilot Eugene A. Cernan prepares to enter the lunar module simulator at the Flight Crew Training Building at the NASA Spaceport. Cernan, Apollo 10 commander Thomas P. Stafford and John W. Young, command module pilot, are to be launched May 18 on the Apollo 10 mission, a dress rehearsal for a lunar landing later this summer. Cernan and Stafford are to detach the lunar module and drop to within 10 miles of the moon's surface before rejoining Young in the command/service module. Looking on as Cernan puts on his soft helmet is Snoopy, the lovable cartoon mutt whose name will be the lunar module code name during the Apollo 10 flight. The command/service module is to bear the code name Charlie Brown.

  7. Prucalopride exerts neuroprotection in human enteric neurons.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Francesca; Bonora, Elena; Natarajan, Dipa; Vargiolu, Manuela; Thapar, Nikhil; Torresan, Francesco; Giancola, Fiorella; Boschetti, Elisa; Volta, Umberto; Bazzoli, Franco; Mazzoni, Maurizio; Seri, Marco; Clavenzani, Paolo; Stanghellini, Vincenzo; Sternini, Catia; De Giorgio, Roberto

    2016-05-15

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and its transporters and receptors are involved in a wide array of digestive functions. In particular, 5-HT4 receptors are known to mediate intestinal peristalsis and recent data in experimental animals have shown their role in neuronal maintenance and neurogenesis. This study has been designed to test whether prucalopride, a well-known full 5-HT4 agonist, exerts protective effects on neurons, including enteric neurons, exposed to oxidative stress challenge. Sulforhodamine B assay was used to determine the survival of SH-SY5Y cells, human enteric neurospheres, and ex vivo submucosal neurons following H2O2 exposure in the presence or absence of prucalopride (1 nM). Specificity of 5-HT4-mediated neuroprotection was established by experiments performed in the presence of GR113808, a 5-HT4 antagonist. Prucalopride exhibited a significant neuroprotective effect. SH-SY5Y cells pretreated with prucalopride were protected from the injury elicited by H2O2 as shown by increased survival (73.5 ± 0.1% of neuronal survival vs. 33.3 ± 0.1%, respectively; P < 0.0001) and a significant reduction of proapoptotic caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation in all neurons tested. The protective effect of prucalopride was reversed by the specific 5-HT4 antagonist GR113808. Prucalopride promotes a significant neuroprotection against oxidative-mediated proapoptotic mechanisms. Our data pave the way for novel therapeutic implications of full 5-HT4 agonists in gut dysmotility characterized by neuronal degeneration, which go beyond the well-known enterokinetic effect. PMID:26893157

  8. Mechanosensitivity in the enteric nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Mazzuoli-Weber, Gemma; Schemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) autonomously controls gut muscle activity. Mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN) initiate reflex activity by responding to mechanical deformation of the gastrointestinal wall. MEN throughout the gut primarily respond to compression or stretch rather than to shear force. Some MEN are multimodal as they respond to compression and stretch. Depending on the region up to 60% of the entire ENS population responds to mechanical stress. MEN fire action potentials after mechanical stimulation of processes or soma although they are more sensitive to process deformation. There are at least two populations of MEN based on their sensitivity to different modalities of mechanical stress and on their firing pattern. (1) Rapidly, slowly and ultra-slowly adapting neurons which encode compressive forces. (2) Ultra-slowly adapting stretch-sensitive neurons encoding tensile forces. Rapid adaptation of firing is typically observed after compressive force while slow adaptation or ongoing spike discharge occurs often during tensile stress (stretch). All MEN have some common properties: they receive synaptic input, are low fidelity mechanoreceptors and are multifunctional in that some serve interneuronal others even motor functions. Consequently, MEN possess processes with mechanosensitive as well as efferent functions. This raises the intriguing hypothesis that MEN sense and control muscle activity at the same time as servo-feedback loop. The mechanosensitive channel(s) or receptor(s) expressed by the different MEN populations are unknown. Future concepts have to incorporate compressive and tensile-sensitive MEN into neural circuits that controls muscle activity. They may interact to control various forms of a particular motor pattern or regulate different motor patterns independently from each other. PMID:26528136

  9. Removal of Rotavirus and Bacteriophages by Membrane Bioreactor Technology from Sewage.

    PubMed

    Hmaied, F; Keskes, S; Jebri, S; Amri, I; Yahya, M; Loisy-Hamon, F; Lebeau, B; Hamdi, M

    2015-11-01

    Human enteric viruses constitute a public health concern due to their low infectious dose and their resistance to environmental factors and to inactivation processes. We aimed at assessing the performance of a laboratory scale Submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) treating abattoir wastewaters for Rotavirus (RV) and total coliphages removal. We also aimed at evaluating removal efficiency of enteric viruses through conventional activated sludge treatment by measuring concentrations of total coliphages, considered as fecal and viral contamination indicators, with double-layer agar technique. The Log10 reduction values of bacteriophages ranged from 1.06 to 1.47. Effluents were analyzed to investigate and quantify RV, hepatitis A virus (HAV), Hepatitis E virus (HEV), Noroviruses genogroup I (NoV GI) and genogroup II (NoVGII), and Enterovirus (EV) by real-time PCR, using standardized detection kits (ceeramTools detection kits(®)). All effluent samples were positive for RV; concentrations ranged from 5.2 × 10(5) to 1.3 × 10(7) genome copies/L. These results highlight the inefficiency of conventional biological process for viral removal. A complete removal of RV during Membrane Bioreactor treatment was obtained. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study providing an evidence of removal of RV simultaneously with total coliphages by SMBR. PMID:26210901

  10. Detection of Pathogenic Viruses in Sewage Provided Early Warnings of Hepatitis A Virus and Norovirus Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Hellmér, Maria; Paxéus, Nicklas; Magnius, Lars; Enache, Lucica; Arnholm, Birgitta; Johansson, Annette; Bergström, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Most persons infected with enterically transmitted viruses shed large amounts of virus in feces for days or weeks, both before and after onset of symptoms. Therefore, viruses causing gastroenteritis may be detected in wastewater, even if only a few persons are infected. In this study, the presence of eight pathogenic viruses (norovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus, hepatitis A virus [HAV], and hepatitis E virus) was investigated in sewage to explore whether their identification could be used as an early warning of outbreaks. Samples of the untreated sewage were collected in proportion to flow at Ryaverket, Gothenburg, Sweden. Daily samples collected during every second week between January and May 2013 were pooled and analyzed for detection of viruses by concentration through adsorption to milk proteins and PCR. The largest amount of noroviruses was detected in sewage 2 to 3 weeks before most patients were diagnosed with this infection in Gothenburg. The other viruses were detected at lower levels. HAV was detected between weeks 5 and 13, and partial sequencing of the structural VP1protein identified three different strains. Two strains were involved in an ongoing outbreak in Scandinavia and were also identified in samples from patients with acute hepatitis A in Gothenburg during spring of 2013. The third strain was unique and was not detected in any patient sample. The method used may thus be a tool to detect incipient outbreaks of these viruses and provide early warning before the causative pathogens have been recognized in health care. PMID:25172863

  11. Enteral ecoimmunonutrition reduced enteral permeability and serum ghrelin activity in severe cerebral stroke patients with lung infection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Di; Shao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The study analyzed how enteral ecoimmunonutrition, which comprises probiotics, glutamine, fish oil, and Enteral Nutritional Suspension (TPF), can impact on the enteral permeability and serum Ghrelin activity in severe cerebral stroke patients with lung infection. Among 190 severe cerebral stroke patients with tolerance to TPF, they were randomized into control and treatment groups after antibiotics treatment due to lung infections. There were 92 patients in the control group and 98 patients in treatment group. The control group was treated with TPF and the treatment group was treated with enteral ecoimmunonutrition, which comprises probiotics, glutamine, fish oil, and Enteral Nutritional Suspension. All patients received continuous treatments through nasoenteral or nasogastric tubes. 7, 14, and 21 days after the treatments, the enteral tolerance to nutrition was observed in both groups. The tests included abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, and lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio. Serum Ghrelin levels were determined by ELISA. The incidence of abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea was lower in the treatment group and enteral tolerance to nutrition was also superior to the control group. No difference in serum Ghrelin level was observed between the control and treatment groups with enteral intolerance to nutrition. However, in patients with enteral tolerance to nutrition, the treatment group showed lower enteral nutrition and lower enteral permeability compared to the control group. In severe cerebral stroke patients with lung infection, enteral ecoimmunonutrition after antibiotics treatment improved enteral tolerance to nutrition and reduced enteral permeability; meanwhile, it lowered the serum Ghrelin activity, which implied the high serum Ghrelin reduces enteral permeability. PMID:25142270

  12. Measurement and prediction of enteric methane emission.

    PubMed

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Lal, Rattan; Lakritz, Jeffrey; Ezeji, Thaddeus

    2011-01-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the agricultural sector account for about 25.5% of total global anthropogenic emission. While CO(2) receives the most attention as a factor relative to global warming, CH(4), N(2)O and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) also cause significant radiative forcing. With the relative global warming potential of 25 compared with CO(2), CH(4) is one of the most important GHGs. This article reviews the prediction models, estimation methodology and strategies for reducing enteric CH(4) emissions. Emission of CH(4) in ruminants differs among developed and developing countries, depending on factors like animal species, breed, pH of rumen fluid, ratio of acetate:propionate, methanogen population, composition of diet and amount of concentrate fed. Among the ruminant animals, cattle contribute the most towards the greenhouse effect through methane emission followed by sheep, goats and buffalos, respectively. The estimated CH(4) emission rate per cattle, buffaloe, sheep and goat in developed countries are 150.7, 137, 21.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) respectively. However, the estimated rates in developing countries are significantly lower at 95.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) per cattle and sheep, respectively. There exists a strong interest in developing new and improving the existing CH(4) prediction models to identify mitigation strategies for reducing the overall CH(4) emissions. A synthesis of the available literature suggests that the mechanistic models are superior to empirical models in accurately predicting the CH(4) emission from dairy farms. The latest development in prediction model is the integrated farm system model which is a process-based whole-farm simulation technique. Several techniques are used to quantify enteric CH(4) emissions starting from whole animal chambers to sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer techniques. The latest technology developed to estimate CH(4) more accurately is the micrometeorological mass difference technique. Because

  13. Measurement and prediction of enteric methane emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Lal, Rattan; Lakritz, Jeffrey; Ezeji, Thaddeus

    2011-01-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the agricultural sector account for about 25.5% of total global anthropogenic emission. While CO2 receives the most attention as a factor relative to global warming, CH4, N2O and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) also cause significant radiative forcing. With the relative global warming potential of 25 compared with CO2, CH4 is one of the most important GHGs. This article reviews the prediction models, estimation methodology and strategies for reducing enteric CH4 emissions. Emission of CH4 in ruminants differs among developed and developing countries, depending on factors like animal species, breed, pH of rumen fluid, ratio of acetate:propionate, methanogen population, composition of diet and amount of concentrate fed. Among the ruminant animals, cattle contribute the most towards the greenhouse effect through methane emission followed by sheep, goats and buffalos, respectively. The estimated CH4 emission rate per cattle, buffaloe, sheep and goat in developed countries are 150.7, 137, 21.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) respectively. However, the estimated rates in developing countries are significantly lower at 95.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) per cattle and sheep, respectively. There exists a strong interest in developing new and improving the existing CH4 prediction models to identify mitigation strategies for reducing the overall CH4 emissions. A synthesis of the available literature suggests that the mechanistic models are superior to empirical models in accurately predicting the CH4 emission from dairy farms. The latest development in prediction model is the integrated farm system model which is a process-based whole-farm simulation technique. Several techniques are used to quantify enteric CH4 emissions starting from whole animal chambers to sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer techniques. The latest technology developed to estimate CH4 more accurately is the micrometeorological mass difference technique. Because the conditions under which

  14. Treatment of radiation enteritis: a comparison study

    SciTech Connect

    Loiudice, T.A.; Lang, J.A.

    1983-08-01

    Twenty-four patients with severe radiation injury to the small bowel seen over a 4-year period were randomized to four treatment groups: 1) methylprednisolone 80 mg intravenously plus Vivonex-HN, 2 L/day po, 2) methylprednisolone 80 mg intravenously plus total parenteral nutrition, 2.5 L/day, 3) total parenteral nutrition, 2.5 L/day, and 4) Vivonex-HN, 2 L/day po. Patients received nothing by mouth except water in groups II and III, and only Vivonex-HN in groups I and IV. Patients were treated for 8-wk periods. Improvement was gauged by overall nutritional assessment measurements, nitrogen balance data and by radiological and clinical parameters. No significant difference between groups I, II, III, and IV could be found for age, sex, mean radiation dosage, time of onset after radiation therapy, or initial nutritional assessment data. Differences statistically could be found between groups II and III and I and IV regarding nutritional assessment data, nitrogen balance, radiographic and clinical parameters after therapy, with marked improvement noted in groups II and III. We conclude that a treatment regimen consisting of total parenteral nutrition and bowel rest is beneficial in the treatment of radiation enteritis. Methylprednisolone appears to enhance this effect and indeed, may be responsible for a longer lasting response.

  15. Enteric bacterial catalysts for fuel ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, L.O.; Aldrich, H.C.; Borges, A.C.C.

    1999-10-01

    The technology is available to produce fuel ethanol from renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The current challenge is to assemble the various process options into a commercial venture and begin the task of incremental improvement. Current process designs for lignocellulose are far more complex than grain to ethanol processes. This complexity results in part from the complexity of the substrate and the biological limitations of the catalyst. Their work at the University of Florida has focused primarily on the genetic engineering of Enteric bacteria using genes encoding Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. These two genes have been assembled into a portable ethanol production cassette, the PET operon, and integrated into the chromosome of Escherichia coli B for use with hemicellulose-derived syrups. The resulting strain, KO11, produces ethanol efficiently from all hexose and pentose sugars present in the polymers of hemicellulose. By using the same approach, the authors integrated the PET operon into the chromosome of Klebsiella oxytoca to produce strain P2 for use in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for cellulose. Strain P2 has the native ability to ferment cellobiose and cellotriose, eliminating the need for one class of cellulase enzymes.

  16. Growth of bacteria in enteral feeding solutions.

    PubMed

    Anderton, A

    1985-08-01

    Solutions of Clinifeed ISO, Triosorbon, Vivonex Standard (full- and half-strength) and Vivonex HN were experimentally contaminated with two strains each of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella aerogenes, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae at concentrations of 10(2)-10(3) organisms/ml. Samples were incubated at 4, 25 or 37 degrees C and viable counts were made at 0, 4, 8 and 24 h. No increase in numbers of any of the organisms was observed in any of the feeds during 24 h at 4 degrees C. All organisms multiplied rapidly in Clinifeed ISO and in Triosorbon at 25 and 37 degrees C. There was less rapid growth in half-strength Vivonex Standard at 25 degrees C, although at 37 degrees C all strains multiplied rapidly except for the two S. aureus strains, the growth of which was inhibited in half-strength Vivonex Standard at both 25 and 37 degrees C. In full-strength Vivonex Standard at 25 degrees C, only P. aeruginosa showed any increase in numbers during 24 h, whereas P. aeruginosa, K. aerogenes and E. cloacae all multiplied at 37 degrees C. None of the test organisms multiplied in full strength Vivonex HN at any of the temperatures studied. The results of the study show that bacteria survive and may multiply even in feeds with low pH and high osmolarity, and emphasise the importance of strict hygiene during the preparation and handling of all enteral feeds. PMID:3927003

  17. Treatment of radiation enteritis: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Loiudice, T A; Lang, J A

    1983-08-01

    Twenty-four patients with severe radiation injury to the small bowel seen over a 4-year period were randomized to four treatment groups: 1) methylprednisolone 80 mg intravenously plus Vivonex-HN, 2 L/day po, 2) methylprednisolone 80 mg intravenously plus total parenteral nutrition, 2.5 L/day, 3) total parenteral nutrition, 2.5 L/day, and 4) Vivonex-HN, 2 L/day po. Patients received nothing by mouth except water in groups II and III, and only Vivonex-HN in groups I and IV. Patients were treated for 8-wk periods. Improvement was gauged by overall nutritional assessment measurements, nitrogen balance data and by radiological and clinical parameters. No significant difference between groups I, II, III, and IV could be found for age, sex, mean radiation dosage, time of onset after radiation therapy, or initial nutritional assessment data. Differences statistically could be found between groups II and III and I and IV regarding nutritional assessment data, nitrogen balance, radiographic and clinical parameters after therapy, with marked improvement noted in groups II and III. We conclude that a treatment regimen consisting of total parenteral nutrition and bowel rest is beneficial in the treatment of radiation enteritis. Methylprednisolone appears to enhance this effect and indeed, may be responsible for a longer lasting response. PMID:6410908

  18. Viruses causing diarrhoea in AIDS.

    PubMed

    Pollok, R C

    2001-01-01

    Opportunistic viral enteritis is an important gastrointestinal manifestation of HIV related disease. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a well established aetiological agent of disease in the gastrointestinal tract in this group. CMV enteritis may affect any region of the bowel, most commonly the colon. Diagnosis and management of these infections may be difficult. The role of other viruses in so-called 'pathogen-negative' diarrhoea remains controversial. The clinical importance of HIV-specific enteropathy is probably limited. Several viruses including astrovirus, picobirnavirus, small round structured virus and rotavirus have been implicated HIV-related diarrhoea. In addition, adenovirus has been linked to persistent diarrhoea in patients with a characteristic adenovirus colitis. The spectrum of disease morbidity and mortality amongst HIV patients has altered dramatically since the wide spread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Opportunistic infections, including CMV infection of the gastrointestinal tract in patients with AIDS, have diminished greatly. AIDS patients with CMV are able successfully to discontinue anti-CMV treatment without disease reactivation and with a parallel reduction in CMV viraemia following the initiation of HAART. PMID:11444032

  19. Diseases Caused by Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The symptoms, causal agents, epidemiology and management of important virus diseases in chickpea and lentil crops were reviewed in depth. The virus diseases include.Alflafa mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaiv virus, Faba bean necrotic yellows virus, Pea enation mosaic virus, Pea seed-borne mosaci virus,...

  20. Development of a Test System To Apply Virus-Containing Particles to Filtering Facepiece Respirators for the Evaluation of Decontamination Procedures▿

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Edward; Rengasamy, Samy; Viscusi, Dennis; Vo, Evanly; Shaffer, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    A chamber to apply aerosolized virus-containing particles to air-permeable substrates (coupons) was constructed and validated as part of a method to assess the virucidal efficacy of decontamination procedures for filtering facepiece respirators. Coliphage MS2 was used as a surrogate for pathogenic viruses for confirmation of the efficacy of the bioaerosol respirator test system. The distribution of virus applied onto and within the coupons was characterized, and the repeatability of applying a targeted virus load was examined. The average viable virus loaded onto 90 coupons over the course of 5 days was found to be 5.09 ± 0.19 log10 PFU/coupon (relative standard deviation, 4%). To determine the ability to differentiate the effectiveness of disinfecting procedures with different levels of performance, sodium hypochlorite and steam treatments were tested in experiments by varying the dose and time, respectively. The role of protective factors was assessed by aerosolizing the virus with various concentrations of the aerosol-generating medium. A sodium hypochlorite (bleach) concentration of 0.6% and steam treatments of 45 s and longer resulted in log reductions (>4 logs) which reached the detection limits for both levels of protective factors. Organic matter (ATCC medium 271) as a protective factor afforded some protection to the virus in the sodium hypochlorite experiments but was not a factor in the steam experiments. The evaluation of the bioaerosol respirator test system demonstrated a repeatable method for applying a targeted viral load onto respirator coupons and provided insight into the properties of aerosols that are of importance to the development of disinfection assays for air-permeable materials. PMID:19139225

  1. Computer viruses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

  2. Hendra virus.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Deborah

    2014-12-01

    Hendra virus infection of horses occurred sporadically between 1994 and 2010 as a result of spill-over from the viral reservoir in Australian mainland flying-foxes, and occasional onward transmission to people also followed from exposure to affected horses. An unprecedented number of outbreaks were recorded in 2011 leading to heightened community concern. Release of an inactivated subunit vaccine for horses against Hendra virus represents the first commercially available product that is focused on mitigating the impact of a Biosafety Level 4 pathogen. Through preventing the development of acute Hendra virus disease in horses, vaccine use is also expected to reduce the risk of transmission of infection to people. PMID:25281398

  3. Microbial shifts associated with necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Antonissen, Gunther; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Van Driessche, Karolien; Onrust, Lonneke; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Moore, Robert J; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2016-06-01

    An outbreak of necrotic enteritis (NE) is a complex process requiring one or a number of predisposing factors rather than just the presence of pathogenic Clostridium perfringens. Examples are dietary influences, such as high levels of non-starch polysaccharides and fishmeal, and factors that evoke epithelial cell damage, such as Fusarium mycotoxins in feed and Eimeria infections. Recent studies have shown that different predisposing factors induce similar shifts in the intestinal microbiota composition. Butyrate-producing-strains of the Ruminococcaceae family are decreased in abundance by both fishmeal and Eimeria. Similarly, a decreased abundance of butyrate-producing-strains belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family has been induced by fishmeal. Also shifts are observed in the lactic acid-producing bacteria, such as decreased abundance of Lactobacillus johnsonii or Weissella confusa, when broilers were fed a fishmeal-based diet or a Fusarium mycotoxin contaminated diet. Finally, the abundance of Candidatus Savagella was decreased in broilers following Eimeria challenge or feeding a fumonisins contaminated diet. The nature of the microbiota shifts indicate that immune modulatory actions of the intestinal microbiota may play a critical role in the effect on the necrosis inducing activity of C. perfringens. Indeed, colonization with butyrate-producing bacteria plays a key role in counteracting inflammation in the gut and preserving intestinal integrity, while Candidatus Savagella is involved in stimulating Th17 and immunoglobulin A responses. Lactic acid bacteria stimulate colonization of lactate-utilizing and butyrate-producing Lachnospiraceae. Future research needs to clarify the role of the microbiota changes in the pathogenesis of NE. PMID:26950294

  4. Avian rotavirus enteritis - an updated review.

    PubMed

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Saminathan, Mani; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Tiwari, Ruchi; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Kumar, Naveen; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are among the leading causes of enteritis and diarrhea in a number of mammalian and avian species, and impose colossal loss to livestock and poultry industry globally. Subsequent to detection of rotavirus in mammalian hosts in 1973, avian rotavirus (AvRV) was first reported in turkey poults in USA during 1977 and since then RVs of group A (RVA), D (RVD), F (RVF) and G (RVG) have been identified around the globe. Besides RVA, other AvRV groups (RVD, RVF and RVG) may also contribute to disease. However, their significance has yet to be unraveled. Under field conditions, co-infection of AvRVs occurs with other infectious agents such as astroviruses, enteroviruses, reoviruses, paramyxovirus, adenovirus, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, cryptosporidium and Eimeria species prospering severity of disease outcome. Birds surviving to RV disease predominantly succumb to secondary bacterial infections, mostly E. coli and Salmonella spp. Recent developments in molecular tools including state-of-the-art diagnostics and vaccine development have led to advances in our understanding towards AvRVs. Development of new generation vaccines using immunogenic antigens of AvRV has to be explored and given due importance. Till now, no effective vaccines are available. Although specific as well as sensitive approaches are available to identify and characterize AvRVs, there is still need to have point-of-care detection assays to review disease burden, contemplate new directions for adopting vaccination and follow improvements in public health measures. This review discusses AvRVs, their epidemiology, pathology and pathogenesis, immunity, recent trends in diagnostics, vaccines, therapeutics as well as appropriate prevention and control strategies. PMID:25917772

  5. Psychopathology among cocaine abusers entering treatment.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, P H; Miller, A B; Millman, R B; Woody, G E; Todd, T; Kemp, J; Lipton, D S

    1990-07-01

    A number of different indicators of psychopathology were assessed in this study of 76 cocaine and crack abusers who entered outpatient treatment in New York City between June and December 1987. The majority (75%) had used cocaine for 4 years or more, and the majority (62%) spent over one thousand dollars a month on cocaine in the 6 months before entry into treatment. Forty-seven percent of the sample were found to be clinically depressed. Phobic disorders were the only other axis I diagnoses found in addition to depression, and all persons who were found to have phobic disorders also were diagnosed as having some form of depressive disorder. The four most common axis II diagnoses were antisocial personality (21%), passive-aggressive (21%), borderline (18%) and self-defeating (18%). Subjects were classified as falling into one of the following three categories of a newly developed "psychopathology classification": a) no diagnosed psychopathology except substance abuse or dependency; b) one or more axis II diagnoses, but no axis I diagnoses except for substance abuse or dependency; c) at least one axis I diagnosis in addition to drug disorders whether or not accompanied by an axis II diagnosis. Mean scores on subscales and total score on the SCL-90, as well as total score on the Beck Depression Inventory, were ordered by category of the classification scheme, with those having no diagnosed psychopathology except substance abuse having the lowest score and persons in the third category having the highest score.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2366058

  6. Enteral nutrient solutions. Limiting bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Paauw, J D; Fagerman, K E; McCamish, M A; Dean, R E

    1984-06-01

    Bacterial contamination of enteral nutrient solutions ( ENS ) in FFcess of food product standards is known to occur in the hospital setting. The large amounts of bacteria often given with ENS have been shown to create a reservoir for nosocomial infections, and nonpathogenic bacteria have been implicated. Patient tolerance is dependent on immune status and the bacterial load delivered to the gut. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bacterial growth-sustaining properties of various ENS and to devise methods to limit bacterial growth. Five commercial products were prepared under sterile conditions. After inoculation with approximately 5 X 10(3) organisms/cm3 of Enterobacter cloacae, each solution was hung at room temperature for 24 hours with samples drawn at fixed intervals and plated for bacterial counts. Bacterial growth rates in Ensure, Travasorb , and Vital were markedly higher than those in Precision and Vivonex. Vivonex was noted to contain potassium sorbate (KS) used as a fungistatic agent. Recent studies have identified KS as a broad-spectrum bacteriostatic food preservative that is federally approved for this use. KS (0.03%) was added to Travasorb inoculated with 5 X 10(3) organisms/cm(3) of E. cloacae. The bacterial growth rate was reduced by 75 per cent, and the final count of 2-3 X 10(4) organisms/ml was within the federally regulated limit for milk. This study suggests that initial inoculum, growth rate, and hang time can be altered to provide a significant reduction in final bacterial counts in ENS . PMID:6428286

  7. Establishment of feline intestinal epithelial cell cultures for the propagation and study of feline enteric coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Olyslaegers, Dominique A J; Dedeurwaerder, Annelike; Vermeulen, Ben L; Roukaerts, Inge D M; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2013-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is the most feared infectious cause of death in cats, induced by feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). This coronavirus is a virulent mutant of the harmless, ubiquitous feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). To date, feline coronavirus (FCoV) research has been hampered by the lack of susceptible cell lines for the propagation of serotype I FCoVs. In this study, long-term feline intestinal epithelial cell cultures were established from primary ileocytes and colonocytes by simian virus 40 (SV40) T-antigen- and human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT)-induced immortalization. Subsequently, these cultures were evaluated for their usability in FCoV research. Firstly, the replication capacity of the serotype II strains WSU 79-1683 and WSU 79-1146 was studied in the continuous cultures as was done for the primary cultures. In accordance with the results obtained in primary cultures, FCoV WSU 79-1683 still replicated significantly more efficient compared to FCoV WSU 79-1146 in both continuous cultures. In addition, the cultures were inoculated with faecal suspensions from healthy cats and with faecal or tissue suspensions from FIP cats. The cultures were susceptible to infection with different serotype I enteric strains and two of these strains were further propagated. No infection was seen in cultures inoculated with FIPV tissue homogenates. In conclusion, a new reliable model for FCoV investigation and growth of enteric field strains was established. In contrast to FIPV strains, FECVs showed a clear tropism for intestinal epithelial cells, giving an explanation for the observation that FECV is the main pathotype circulating among cats. PMID:23964891

  8. Emerging roles for enteric glia in gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Enteric glia are important components of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and also form an extensive network in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Initially regarded as passive support cells, it is now clear that they are actively involved as cellular integrators in the control of motility and epithelial barrier function. Enteric glia form a cellular and molecular bridge between enteric nerves, enteroendocrine cells, immune cells, and epithelial cells, depending on their location. This Review highlights the role of enteric glia in GI motility disorders and in barrier and defense functions of the gut, notably in states of inflammation. It also discusses the involvement of enteric glia in neurological diseases that involve the GI tract. PMID:25689252

  9. Herpes simplex viruses lacking glycoprotein D are unable to inhibit virus penetration: quantitative evidence for virus-specific cell surface receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.C.; Ligas, M.W.

    1988-12-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoprotein D (gD) plays an essential role in the entry of virus into cells. HSV mutants unable to express gD were constructed. The mutants can be propagated on VD60 cells, which supply the viruses with gD; however, virus particles lacking gD were produced in mutant-infected Vero cells. Virus particles with or without gD adsorbed to a large number of sites on the cell surface; however, virions lacking gD did not enter cells. Cells pretreated with UV-inactivated virions containing gD were resistant to infection with HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. In contrast, cell pretreated with UV-inactivated virions lacking gD could be infected with HSV-1 and HSV-2. If infectious HSV-1 was added prior to UV-inactivated virus particles containing gD, the infectious virus entered cells and replicated. Therefore, virus particles containing gD appear to block specific cell surface receptors which are very limited in number. Particles lacking gD are presumably unable to interact with these receptors, suggesting that gD is an essential receptor-binding polypeptide.

  10. Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... be at risk for developing fetal complications. Blood, organ and tissue donor screening tests are also needed to assure the safety of transfusion and transplantation in areas of active mosquito-borne virus transmission. ...

  11. Zika Virus.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennan A; Neyland, Anavernyel

    2016-08-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infections are the latest global public health emergency. Occupational health nurses can protect society by educating workers, women of childbearing age, and others traveling in ZIKV-infected areas about prevention strategies. PMID:27411846

  12. Enteral feeding pumps: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability

    PubMed Central

    White, Helen; King, Linsey

    2014-01-01

    Enteral feeding is a long established practice across pediatric and adult populations, to enhance nutritional intake and prevent malnutrition. Despite recognition of the importance of nutrition within the modern health agenda, evaluation of the efficacy of how such feeds are delivered is more limited. The accuracy, safety, and consistency with which enteral feed pump systems dispense nutritional formulae are important determinants of their use and acceptability. Enteral feed pump safety has received increased interest in recent years as enteral pumps are used across hospital and home settings. Four areas of enteral feed pump safety have emerged: the consistent and accurate delivery of formula; the minimization of errors associated with tube misconnection; the impact of continuous feed delivery itself (via an enteral feed pump); and the chemical composition of the casing used in enteral feed pump manufacture. The daily use of pumps in delivery of enteral feeds in a home setting predominantly falls to the hands of parents and caregivers. Their understanding of the use and function of their pump is necessary to ensure appropriate, safe, and accurate delivery of enteral nutrition; their experience with this is important in informing clinicians and manufacturers of the emerging needs and requirements of this diverse patient population. The review highlights current practice and areas of concern and establishes our current knowledge in this field. PMID:25170284

  13. Survival of indicator organisms during enrichment on tetrachloroethene.

    PubMed

    Skramstad, J D; Hurst, C J; Novak, P J

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory study was performed as the basis for a full-scale bioaugmentation project at a site contaminated with chlorinated ethenes. The objectives of this study were to 1) develop a protocol to enrich for a tetrachloroethene (PCE)-dechlorinating culture from waste activated sludge and anaerobic digester biosolids and 2) monitor the survival of fecal coliform bacteria and bacteriophage, which model enteric viruses, during the enrichment process. A culture was enriched in 8 days with the ability to degrade 6-microM PCE to cis-dichloroethene. Using the enrichment protocol in two identical experiments, significant inactivation of fecal coliform bacteria (2 log) and somatic coliphage (0.33 log) was observed in one of the experiments; no inactivation occurred in the second experiment. The number of F-specific coliphage decreased in both experiments (0.87 and 1.26 log inactivation). Despite the decrease in some of the coliform and bacteriophage numbers, the quantity of organisms and phage particles present after enrichment was still high (approximately 7.5 x 10(5) most probable number/L, 6.9 x 10(6) plaque-forming units (PFU)/L, and 3.3 x 10(5) PFU/L, for fecal coliform bacteria, somatic coliphage, and F-specific coliphage, respectively). This may be cause for concern, depending on the current and future groundwater use at or near a site undergoing bioaugmentation with cultures derived from waste activated sludge and anaerobic digester biosolids. PMID:12934830

  14. A Novel Polyomavirus (Goose Hemorrhagic Polyomavirus) Is the Agent of Hemorrhagic Nephritis Enteritis of Geese

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Jean-Luc; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Dubois, Luc; Vuillaume, Aimé; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Pingret, Jean-Luc

    2000-01-01

    We have identified the etiological agent of hemorrhagic nephritis enteritis of geese (HNEG), a fatal disease of European geese. HNEG has been recognized in almost all goose breeding areas, with an epizootic pattern, and up to now, the infectious agent has remained unknown. In order to identify the causative agent, infected tissues from HNEG-affected geese were inoculated to 1-day-old goslings, which then developed clinical signs typical of HNEG. Tissue homogenates from these birds were subjected to Freon extraction followed by sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation. The resulting main band was examined by electron microscopy and consisted of spherical, naked, papovavirus-like particles approximately 45 nm in diameter. The virus was isolated and propagated in goose kidney cell primary culture. Tissue- or culture-purified virus allowed the experimental reproduction of the disease in goslings. Random PCR amplification of viral nucleic acid produced a 1,175-bp fragment which was shown to be associated with field samples collected from geese affected by HNEG on commercial farms in France. Sequence analysis of the PCR product revealed a unique open reading frame, showing 63 to 72% amino acid similarity with the major capsid protein (VP1) of several polyomaviruses. Finally, based on phylogenetic analysis, we conclude that the causative agent of HNEG is closely related to but clearly distinct from other polyomaviruses; we thus have named this newly identified virus Goose hemorrhagic polyomavirus. PMID:10775588

  15. Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (SD/THE) is a rare and severe bowel disorder caused by mutation in SKIV2L or in TTC37, 2 genes encoding subunits of the putative human SKI complex. The estimated prevalence is 1/1,000,000 births and the transmission is autosomal recessive. The classical form is characterized by 5 clinical signs: intractable diarrhea of infancy beginning in the first month of life, usually leading to failure to thrive and requiring parenteral nutrition; facial dysmorphism characterised by prominent forehead and cheeks, broad nasal root and hypertelorism; hair abnormalities described as woolly and easily removable; immune disorders resulting from defective antibody production; intrauterine growth restriction. The aetiology is a defect in TTC37, a TPR containing protein, or in the RNA helicase SKIV2L, both constituting the putative human ski complex. The ski complex is a heterotetrameric cofactor of the cytoplasmic RNA exosome which ensures aberrants mRNAs decay. The diagnosis SD/THE is initially based on clinical findings and confirmed by direct sequencing of TTC37 and SKIV2L. Differential diagnosis with the other causes of intractable diarrhea is easily performed by pathologic investigations. During their clinical course, most of the children require parenteral nutrition and often immunoglobulin supplementation. With time, some of them can be weaned off parenteral nutrition and immunoglobulin supplementation. The prognosis depends on the management and is largely related to the occurrence of parenteral nutrition complications or infections. Even with optimal management, most of the children seem to experience failure to thrive and final short stature. Mild mental retardation is observed in half of the cases. Abstract in French Les diarrhées syndromiques ou syndrome tricho-hepato-enterique (SD/THE) sont un syndrome rare et sévère dont l’incidence est estimée à 1 cas pour 1 million de naissances et la transmission

  16. Infectious complications following 72 consecutive enteric-drained pancreas transplants.

    PubMed

    Berger, N; Wirmsberger, R; Kafka, R; Margreiter, C; Ebenbichler, C; Stelzmueller, I; Margreiter, R; Steurer, W; Mark, W; Bonatti, H

    2006-07-01

    New immunosuppressive protocols and advanced surgical technique resulted in an improved outcome of pancreatic transplantation (PTx) with infection remaining the most common complication. Seventy-two enteric-drained whole PTxs performed at the Innsbruck University Hospital between September 2002 and October 2004 were retrospectively analyzed. Prophylactic immunosuppression consisted of either the standard protocol consisting of single bolus antithymocyteglobulin (ATG) (Thymoglobulin, Sangstat or ATG Fresenius) induction (9 mg/kg), tacrolimus (TAC), mycophenylate mofetil (MMF) and steroids (38 patients) or a 4-day course of ATG (4 mg/kg) tacrolimus and steroids with MMF (n = 19), or Sirolimus (n = 15). Perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis consisted of Piperacillin/Tazobactam (4.5 g q 8 h) in combination with ciprofloxacin (200 mg q 12 h) and fluconazole (400 mg daily). Ganciclovir was used for cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis if donor was positive and recipient-negative. Patient, pancreas, and kidney graft survival at 1 year were 97.2%, 88.8%, and 93%, respectively, with no difference between the groups. All retransplants (n = 8) and single transplants (n = 8) as well as all type II diabetics and nine of 11 patients older 55 years received standard immunosuppression (IS). The rejection rate was 14% and infection rate 46% with no difference in terms of incidence or type according to the three groups. Severe infectious complications included intra-abdominal infection (n = 12), wound infection (n = 7), sepsis (n = 13), respiratory tract infection (n = 4), urinary tract infection (n = 12), herpes simplex/human herpes virus 6 infection (n = 5), CMV infection/disease (n = 7), post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD, n = 3), invasive filamentous fungal infection (n = 4), Clostridial/Rotavirus colitis (n = 1), and endocarditis (n = 1). All four patients in this series died of infectious complications (invasive aspergillosis n = 2) (one with Candida glabrata

  17. Computer Viruses. Technology Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponder, Tim, Comp.; Ropog, Marty, Comp.; Keating, Joseph, Comp.

    This document provides general information on computer viruses, how to help protect a computer network from them, measures to take if a computer becomes infected. Highlights include the origins of computer viruses; virus contraction; a description of some common virus types (File Virus, Boot Sector/Partition Table Viruses, Trojan Horses, and…

  18. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable...

  19. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable...

  20. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable...

  1. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable...

  2. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable...

  3. Timing of predisposing factors is important in necrotic enteritis models.

    PubMed

    Van Waeyenberghe, Lieven; De Gussem, Maarten; Verbeke, Joren; Dewaele, Isabelle; De Gussem, Jeroen

    2016-06-01

    Since the ban of antimicrobial growth promotors, the importance of necrotic enteritis in broilers increases. Reliable and reproducible infection models are required for pathogenesis studies and product screening. Two major predisposing factors in necrotic enteritis models are fishmeal supplementation to feed and Eimeria infection. However, many unsolved issues regarding these predisposing factors still exist. Therefore, the influence of timepoint of fishmeal administration (onset on day 8 or day 18), timing of coccidiosis challenge (day 15 or day 19) and strain of coccidiosis challenge (field strain vs. commercial vaccine) on the induction of necrotic enteritis lesions was investigated. The birds were inoculated with Clostridium perfringens three times per day for four consecutive days (day 17 until day 20) and were scored for the presence of necrotic enteritis on days 22, 23, 24, 25 and 26. Supplementation of the diet with fishmeal from day 8 onwards increased the likelihood of necrotic enteritis compared to supplementation from day 18 onwards. Birds challenged on day 19 with coccidiosis were more likely to have necrotic enteritis on scoring days 23 and 24 compared to birds challenged on day 15. Differences on other scoring days were less pronounced. Finally, the strain of coccidiosis challenge had little influence on the induction of necrotic enteritis. Findings of this study can help researchers to set up successful necrotic enteritis infection models. PMID:26927291

  4. Enteral feeding in critical care, gastrointestinal diseases, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kirby, D F; Teran, J C

    1998-07-01

    This article discusses the many advantages and changes that have occurred in the nutritional management of critically-ill patients, patients with gastrointestinal diseases, and patients with selected cancers. Mechanical obstruction is the only absolute contraindication to enteral nutrition. This article reviews the present aggressive approach to the use of enteral nutrition. PMID:9654573

  5. ENTERING SIDE OF TRAM HOUSE, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST UP ARRASTRA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ENTERING SIDE OF TRAM HOUSE, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST UP ARRASTRA GULCH. ENTERING ORE BUCKETS ROLLED OF SUSPENSION CABLE ONTO UPPER STEEL RAIL, WHERE THEY WERE DISCONNECTED FROM TRACTION (LOWER) CABLE. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  6. The HIV-Associated Enteric Microbiome Has Gone Viral.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Brent E; Li, Sam X; Lozupone, Catherine A

    2016-03-01

    HIV infection is associated with dramatic alterations in enteric bacteria, but little is known about other microbiome components. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, studies by Monaco et al. (2016) and Handley et al. (2016) reveal an under-appreciated role of the enteric virome in HIV-associated gastroenteritis and pathogenesis. PMID:26962936

  7. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Entering cargo handling spaces. 154.1850 Section 154... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in operation for 30 minutes before a person enters one of the following: (1) Spaces containing cargo...

  8. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified...

  9. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified...

  10. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified...

  11. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified...

  12. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Entering cargo handling spaces. 154.1850 Section 154... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in operation for 30 minutes before a person enters one of the following: (1) Spaces containing cargo...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Entering cargo handling spaces. 154.1850 Section 154... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in operation for 30 minutes before a person enters one of the following: (1) Spaces containing cargo...

  15. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Entering cargo handling spaces. 154.1850 Section 154... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in operation for 30 minutes before a person enters one of the following: (1) Spaces containing cargo...

  16. Enteral Nutrition in Crohn's Disease: An Underused Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kansal, S.; Wagner, J.; Kirkwood, C. D.; Catto-Smith, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the history, efficacy, and putative mechanism of action of enteral nutrition for inflammatory bowel disease in both paediatric and adult patients. It also analyses the reasoning behind the low popularity of exclusive enteral nutrition in clinical practice despite the benefits and safety profile. PMID:24382954

  17. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Entering cargo handling spaces. 154.1850 Section 154... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in operation for 30 minutes before a person enters one of the following: (1) Spaces containing cargo...

  18. New models of hepatitis E virus replication in human and porcine hepatocyte cell lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute, enterically-transmitted hepatitis. It is associated with large epidemics in tropical and subtropical regions where it is endemic or with sporadic cases in non-endemic regions. Unlike other hepatitis viruses, HEV has several animal reservoirs. Phylogenetic studie...

  19. Virus contamination from operation and maintenance practices in small drinking water distribution systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the association of common events in drinking water distribution systems with contamination of household tap water with human enteric viruses. Viruses were enumerated by qPCR in the tap water of 14 municipal systems that use non-disinfected groundwater. Ultra-violet disinfection was install...

  20. Methods for Measuring Occurrence and Exposure From Viruses in Drinking and Recreational Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has an active research program to develop and improve methods for detecting human enteric viruses in recreational, source, and drinking waters. EPA is also developing methods to measure exposure to waterborne viruses and ap...