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Sample records for enterococcus faeciumstrains reveals

  1. Multilocus sequence typing of hospital-associated Enterococcus faecium from Brazil reveals their unique evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Titze-de-Almeida, Ricardo; Van Belkum, Alex; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; Zanella, Rosemeire C; Top, Janetta; Willems, Rob J L

    2006-01-01

    We studied the genetic relationships between vancomycin-susceptible (n = 11) and -resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE, n = 20) recovered from Brazil using a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. Grouping of allelic profiles revealed six clusters of related sequence types (STs) that differ in no more than two of the seven alleles. Of these, one cluster harbored 16 of the 20 isolates recovered during the first VRE outbreak in Brazil. The ampicillin and gentamicin resistance profiles were stable in the isolates that clustered within the groups I-III. Comparison with the allelic profiles of 139 E. faecium from different geographical regions and origins found in the international database http://www.mlst.net revealed that the Brazilian outbreak clone did not cluster in the previously named complex-17. This genetic complex contains hospital epidemic and clinical isolates recovered from different countries and continents. Twenty two of the 31 Brazilian isolates, including the VRE outbreak clone, clustered apart from the E. faecium isolates from the database, suggesting that these Brazilian isolates have a distinct evolutionary history. PMID:16922628

  2. Adaptation of Enterococcus faecalis to Daptomycin Reveals an Ordered Progression to Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Corwin; Kong, Jiayi; Tran, Truc T.; Arias, Cesar A.; Saxer, Gerda

    2013-01-01

    With increasing numbers of hospital-acquired antibiotic resistant infections each year and staggering health care costs, there is a clear need for new antimicrobial agents, as well as novel strategies to extend their clinical efficacy. While genomic studies have provided a wealth of information about the alleles associated with adaptation to antibiotics, they do not provide essential information about the relative importance of genomic changes, their order of appearance, or potential epistatic relationships between adaptive changes. Here we used quantitative experimental evolution of a single polymorphic population in continuous culture with whole-genome sequencing and allelic frequency measurements to study daptomycin (DAP) resistance in the vancomycin-resistant clinical pathogen Enterococcus faecalis S613. Importantly, we sustained both planktonic and nonplanktonic (i.e., biofilm) populations in coculture as the concentration of antibiotic was raised, facilitating the development of more ecological complexity than is typically observed in laboratory evolution. Quantitative experimental evolution revealed a clear order and hierarchy of genetic changes leading to resistance, the signaling and metabolic pathways responsible, and the relative importance of these mutations to the evolution of DAP resistance. Despite the relative simplicity of this ex vivo approach compared to the ecological complexity of the human body, we showed that experimental evolution allows for rapid identification of clinically relevant adaptive molecular pathways and new targets for drug design in pathogens. PMID:23959318

  3. Genetic relationships among Enterococcus faecalis isolates from different sources as revealed by multilocus sequence typing.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Song, Y Q; Xu, H Y; Menghe, B L G; Zhang, H P; Sun, Z H

    2015-08-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is part of the natural gut flora of humans and other mammals; some isolates are also used in food production. So, it is important to evaluate the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among E. faecalis isolates from different sources. Multilocus sequence typing protocol was used to compare 39 E. faecalis isolates from Chinese traditional food products (including dairy products, acidic gruel) and 4 published E. faecalis isolates from other sources including human-derived isolates employing 5 housekeeping genes (groEL, clpX, recA, rpoB, and pepC). A total of 23 unique sequence types were identified, which were grouped into 5 clonal complexes and 10 singletons. The value of standardized index of association of the alleles (IA(S)=0.1465) and network structure indicated a high frequency of intraspecies recombination across these isolates. Enterococcus faecalis lineages also exhibited clearly source-clustered distributions. The isolates from dairy source were clustered together. However, the relationship between isolates from acidic gruel and one isolate from a human source was close. The MLST scheme presented in this study provides a sharable and continuously growing sequence database enabling global comparison of strains from different sources, and will further advance our understanding of the microbial ecology of this important species. PMID:26074239

  4. The Transcriptome of the Nosocomial Pathogen Enterococcus faecalis V583 Reveals Adaptive Responses to Growth in Blood

    PubMed Central

    Vebø, Heidi C.; Snipen, Lars; Nes, Ingolf F.; Brede, Dag A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Enterococcus faecalis plays a dual role in human ecology, predominantly existing as a commensal in the alimentary canal, but also as an opportunistic pathogen that frequently causes nosocomial infections like bacteremia. A number of virulence factors that contribute to the pathogenic potential of E. faecalis have been established. However, the process in which E. faecalis gains access to the bloodstream and establishes a persistent infection is not well understood. Methodology/Principal Findings To enhance our understanding of how this commensal bacterium adapts during a bloodstream infection and to examine the interplay between genes we designed an in vitro experiment using genome-wide microarrays to investigate what effects the presence of and growth in blood have on the transcriptome of E. faecalis strain V583. We showed that growth in both 2xYT supplemented with 10% blood and in 100% blood had a great impact on the transcription of many genes in the V583 genome. We identified several immediate changes signifying cellular processes that might contribute to adaptation and growth in blood. These include modulation of membrane fatty acid composition, oxidative and lytic stress protection, acquisition of new available substrates, transport functions including heme/iron transporters and genes associated with virulence in E. faecalis. Conclusions/Significance The results presented here reveal that cultivation of E. faecalis in blood in vitro has a profound impact on its transcriptome, which includes a number of virulence traits. Observed regulation of genes and pathways revealed new insight into physiological features and metabolic capacities which enable E. faecalis to adapt and grow in blood. A number of the regulated genes might potentially be useful candidates for development of new therapeutic approaches for treatment of E. faecalis infections. PMID:19888459

  5. The identification and functional characterization of WxL proteins from Enterococcus faecium reveal surface proteins involved in extracellular matrix interactions.

    PubMed

    Galloway-Peña, Jessica R; Liang, Xiaowen; Singh, Kavindra V; Yadav, Puja; Chang, Chungyu; La Rosa, Sabina Leanti; Shelburne, Samuel; Ton-That, Hung; Höök, Magnus; Murray, Barbara E

    2015-03-01

    The WxL domain recently has been identified as a novel cell wall binding domain found in numerous predicted proteins within multiple Gram-positive bacterial species. However, little is known about the function of proteins containing this novel domain. Here, we identify and characterize 6 Enterococcus faecium proteins containing the WxL domain which, by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and genomic analyses, are located in three similarly organized operons, deemed WxL loci A, B, and C. Western blotting, electron microscopy, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) determined that genes of WxL loci A and C encode antigenic, cell surface proteins exposed at higher levels in clinical isolates than in commensal isolates. Secondary structural analyses of locus A recombinant WxL domain-containing proteins found they are rich in β-sheet structure and disordered segments. Using Biacore analyses, we discovered that recombinant WxL proteins from locus A bind human extracellular matrix proteins, specifically type I collagen and fibronectin. Proteins encoded by locus A also were found to bind to each other, suggesting a novel cell surface complex. Furthermore, bile salt survival assays and animal models using a mutant from which all three WxL loci were deleted revealed the involvement of WxL operons in bile salt stress and endocarditis pathogenesis. In summary, these studies extend our understanding of proteins containing the WxL domain and their potential impact on colonization and virulence in E. faecium and possibly other Gram-positive bacterial species. PMID:25512313

  6. Enterococcus infection biology: lessons from invertebrate host models.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Grace J; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2014-03-01

    The enterococci are commensals of the gastrointestinal tract of many metazoans, from insects to humans. While they normally do not cause disease in the intestine, they can become pathogenic when they infect sites outside of the gut. Recently, the enterococci have become important nosocomial pathogens, with the majority of human enterococcal infections caused by two species, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Studies using invertebrate infection models have revealed insights into the biology of enterococcal infections, as well as general principles underlying host innate immune defense. This review highlights recent findings on Enterococcus infection biology from two invertebrate infection models, the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella and the free-living bacteriovorous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:24585051

  7. Enterococcus Infection Biology: Lessons from Invertebrate Host Models

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Grace J.; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2015-01-01

    The enterococci are commensals of the gastrointestinal tract of many metazoans, from insects to humans. While they normally do not cause disease in the intestine, they can become pathogenic when they infect sites outside of the gut. Recently, the enterococci have become important nosocomial pathogens, with the majority of human enterococcal infections caused by two species, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Studies using invertebrate infection models have revealed insights into the biology of enterococcal infections, as well as general principles underlying host innate immune defense. This review highlights recent findings on Enterococcus infection biology from two invertebrate infection models, the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella and the free-living bacteriovorous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:24585051

  8. Enterococcus cecorum human infection, France.

    PubMed

    Delaunay, E; Abat, C; Rolain, J-M

    2015-09-01

    Enterococcus cecorum is a bacterium of the intestinal tract of many domestic animals that is rarely reported as human pathogen. Here we report the first case of incisional hernia plate infection and the first case of urinary tract colonization due to E. cecorum from patients in Marseille, France. PMID:26199733

  9. Characterization of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium from wild flowers.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Valenzuela, Antonio; Benomar, Nabil; Abriouel, Hikmate; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Martínez Cañamero, Magdalena; Gálvez, Antonio

    2012-05-01

    Wild flowers in the South of Spain were screened for Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Enterococci were frequently associated with prickypear and fieldpoppy flowers. Forty-six isolates, from 8 different flower species, were identified as E. faecalis (28 isolates) or E. faecium (18 isolates) and clustered in well-defined groups by ERIC-PCR fingerprinting. A high incidence of antibiotic resistance was detected among the E. faecalis isolates, especially to quinupristin/dalfopristin (75%), rifampicin (68%) and ciprofloxacin (57%), and to a lesser extent to levofloxacin (35.7%), erythromycin (28.5%), tetracycline (3.5%), chloramphenicol (3.5%) and streptomycin (3.5%). Similar results were observed for E. faecium isolates, except for a higher incidence of resistance to tetracycline (17%) and lower to erythromycin (11%) or quinupristin/dalfopristin (22%). Vancomycin or teicoplanin resistances were not detected. Most isolates (especially E. faecalis) were proteolytic and carried the gelatinase gene gelE. Genes encoding other potential virulence factors (ace, efaA (fs), ccf and cpd) were frequently detected. Cytolysin genes were mainly detected in a few haemolytic E. faecium isolates, three of which also carried the collagen adhesin acm gene. Hyaluronidase gene (hyl ( Efm )) was detected in two isolates. Many isolates produced bacteriocins and carried genes for enterocins A, B, and L50 mainly. The similarities found between enterococci from wild flowers and those from animal and food sources raise new questions about the puzzling lifestyle of these commensals and opportunistic pathogens. PMID:22183298

  10. Intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms in enterococcus

    PubMed Central

    Hollenbeck, Brian L.; Rice, Louis B.

    2012-01-01

    Enterococci have the potential for resistance to virtually all clinically useful antibiotics. Their emergence as important nosocomial pathogens has coincided with increased expression of antimicrobial resistance by members of the genus. The mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance in enterococci may be intrinsic to the species or acquired through mutation of intrinsic genes or horizontal exchange of genetic material encoding resistance determinants. This paper reviews the antibiotic resistance mechanisms in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis and discusses treatment options. PMID:23076243

  11. Targeting Enterococcus faecalis biofilms with phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Leron; Brosh, Yair; Gelman, Daniel; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Beyth, Shaul; Poradosu-Cohen, Ronit; Que, Yok-Ai; Beyth, Nurit; Hazan, Ronen

    2015-04-01

    Phage therapy has been proven to be more effective, in some cases, than conventional antibiotics, especially regarding multidrug-resistant biofilm infections. The objective here was to isolate an anti-Enterococcus faecalis bacteriophage and to evaluate its efficacy against planktonic and biofilm cultures. E. faecalis is an important pathogen found in many infections, including endocarditis and persistent infections associated with root canal treatment failure. The difficulty in E. faecalis treatment has been attributed to the lack of anti-infective strategies to eradicate its biofilm and to the frequent emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. To this end, an anti-E. faecalis and E. faecium phage, termed EFDG1, was isolated from sewage effluents. The phage was visualized by electron microscopy. EFDG1 coding sequences and phylogeny were determined by whole genome sequencing (GenBank accession number KP339049), revealing it belongs to the Spounavirinae subfamily of the Myoviridae phages, which includes promising candidates for therapy against Gram-positive pathogens. This analysis also showed that the EFDG1 genome does not contain apparent harmful genes. EFDG1 antibacterial efficacy was evaluated in vitro against planktonic and biofilm cultures, showing effective lytic activity against various E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates, regardless of their antibiotic resistance profile. In addition, EFDG1 efficiently prevented ex vivo E. faecalis root canal infection. These findings suggest that phage therapy using EFDG1 might be efficacious to prevent E. faecalis infection after root canal treatment. PMID:25662974

  12. Targeting Enterococcus faecalis Biofilms with Phage Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Khalifa, Leron; Brosh, Yair; Gelman, Daniel; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Beyth, Shaul; Poradosu-Cohen, Ronit; Que, Yok-Ai; Beyth, Nurit

    2015-01-01

    Phage therapy has been proven to be more effective, in some cases, than conventional antibiotics, especially regarding multidrug-resistant biofilm infections. The objective here was to isolate an anti-Enterococcus faecalis bacteriophage and to evaluate its efficacy against planktonic and biofilm cultures. E. faecalis is an important pathogen found in many infections, including endocarditis and persistent infections associated with root canal treatment failure. The difficulty in E. faecalis treatment has been attributed to the lack of anti-infective strategies to eradicate its biofilm and to the frequent emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. To this end, an anti-E. faecalis and E. faecium phage, termed EFDG1, was isolated from sewage effluents. The phage was visualized by electron microscopy. EFDG1 coding sequences and phylogeny were determined by whole genome sequencing (GenBank accession number KP339049), revealing it belongs to the Spounavirinae subfamily of the Myoviridae phages, which includes promising candidates for therapy against Gram-positive pathogens. This analysis also showed that the EFDG1 genome does not contain apparent harmful genes. EFDG1 antibacterial efficacy was evaluated in vitro against planktonic and biofilm cultures, showing effective lytic activity against various E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates, regardless of their antibiotic resistance profile. In addition, EFDG1 efficiently prevented ex vivo E. faecalis root canal infection. These findings suggest that phage therapy using EFDG1 might be efficacious to prevent E. faecalis infection after root canal treatment. PMID:25662974

  13. Genetic Diversity among Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Shonna M.; Fischetti, Vincent A.; LeBlanc, Donald J.; Moellering, Robert C.; Gilmore, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis, a ubiquitous member of mammalian gastrointestinal flora, is a leading cause of nosocomial infections and a growing public health concern. The enterococci responsible for these infections are often resistant to multiple antibiotics and have become notorious for their ability to acquire and disseminate antibiotic resistances. In the current study, we examined genetic relationships among 106 strains of E. faecalis isolated over the past 100 years, including strains identified for their diversity and used historically for serotyping, strains that have been adapted for laboratory use, and isolates from previously described E. faecalis infection outbreaks. This collection also includes isolates first characterized as having novel plasmids, virulence traits, antibiotic resistances, and pathogenicity island (PAI) components. We evaluated variation in factors contributing to pathogenicity, including toxin production, antibiotic resistance, polymorphism in the capsule (cps) operon, pathogenicity island (PAI) gene content, and other accessory factors. This information was correlated with multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) data, which was used to define genetic lineages. Our findings show that virulence and antibiotic resistance traits can be found within many diverse lineages of E. faecalis. However, lineages have emerged that have caused infection outbreaks globally, in which several new antibiotic resistances have entered the species, and in which virulence traits have converged. Comparing genomic hybridization profiles, using a microarray, of strains identified by MLST as spanning the diversity of the species, allowed us to identify the core E. faecalis genome as consisting of an estimated 2057 unique genes. PMID:17611618

  14. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Poultry Flocks in Germany.

    PubMed

    Maasjost, J; Mühldorfer, K; Cortez de Jäckel S; Hafez, H M

    2015-03-01

    Between 2010 and 2011, 145 Enterococcus isolates (Enterococcus faecalis, n = 127; Enterococcus faecium, n = 18) were collected during routine bacteriologic diagnostics from broilers, layers, and fattening turkeys in Germany showing various clinical signs. The susceptibility to 24 antimicrobial agents was investigated by broth microdilution test to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). All E. faecalis isolates (n = 127) were susceptible to the beta-lactam antibiotics ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and penicillin. Corresponding MIC with 50% inhibition (MIC50) and MIC with 90% inhibition (MIC90) values of these antimicrobial agents were at the lower end of the test range (≤ 4 μg/ml). In addition, no vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were found. High resistance rates were identified in both Enterococcus species for lincomycin (72%-99%) and tetracycline (67%-82%). Half or more than half of Enterococcus isolates were resistant to gentamicin (54%-72%) and the macrolide antibiotics erythromycin (44%-61%) and tylosin-tartate (44%-56%). Enterococcus faecalis isolated from fattening turkeys showed the highest prevalence of antimicrobial resistance compared to other poultry production systems. Eighty-nine out of 145 Enterococcus isolates were resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes. Again, turkeys stood out with 42 (8 1%) multiresistant isolates. The most-frequent resistance patterns of E. faecalis were gentamicin, lincomycin, and tetracycline in all poultry production systems. PMID:26292548

  15. Ecology of Enterococcus faecalis and niche adapted or non-niche-adapted Enterococcus faecium in continuous-flow anaerobic cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: To study the survivability of niche adapted Enterococcus faecium I.3rif (I.3rif) vs. non-niche adapted Enterococcus faecium (GRE47) in cultures that contain Enterococcus faecalis I.2. Methods: An anaerobic continuous-flow culture of chicken microflora (CCF) that models the chicken gastr...

  16. 9230 FECAL ENTEROCOCCUS/STREPTOCOCCUS GROUPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1903 the genus name Enterococcus was proposed for gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped bacterial of intestinal origin. Several years later, it was suggested that the genus name be changed to Streptococcus because of the organisms' ability to form chains of coccoid...

  17. Bacteriocinogenic Potential of Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Wine.

    PubMed

    Dündar, Halil

    2016-09-01

    A total of 145 lactic acid bacteria isolated from a variety of Turkish red wines during malolactic fermentation were screened to find bacteriocin-producing strains. Among them, 14 isolates of Enterococcus faecium were identified to produce bacteriocins. PCR screening revealed that some isolates harbored entA and entB genes while some harbored entA, entB and entP genes. An isolate designated as Ent. faecium H46 was selected to characterize its bacteriocins. The bacteriocins were purified to homogeneity from culture supernatant by Amberlite XAD-16, cation-exchange and reverse-phase chromatography. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis identified the bacteriocins as enterocin A and enterocin B. The presence of Ent. faecium is noteworthy since it is not associated with wine fermentation. However, it has been reported as an important wine spoilage organism due to its potential to produce tyramine. Although species of Enterococcus is not known as wine bacteria, contamination by Ent. faecium may arise from grapes or wineries equipments used for wine production. PMID:27406790

  18. Centromere anatomy in the multidrug-resistant pathogen Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Derome, Andrew; Hoischen, Christian; Bussiek, Malte; Grady, Ruth; Adamczyk, Malgorzata; Kędzierska, Barbara; Diekmann, Stephan; Barillà, Daniela; Hayes, Finbarr

    2008-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant variants of the opportunistic human pathogen Enterococcus have recently emerged as leading agents of nosocomial infection. The acquisition of plasmid-borne resistance genes is a driving force in antibiotic-resistance evolution in enterococci. The segregation locus of a high-level gentamicin-resistance plasmid, pGENT, in Enterococcus faecium was identified and dissected. This locus includes overlapping genes encoding PrgP, a member of the ParA superfamily of segregation proteins, and PrgO, a site-specific DNA binding homodimer that recognizes the cenE centromere upstream of prgPO. The centromere has a distinctive organization comprising three subsites, CESII separates CESI and CESIII, each of which harbors seven TATA boxes spaced by half-helical turns. PrgO independently binds both CESI and CESIII, but with different affinities. The topography of the complex was probed by atomic force microscopy, revealing discrete PrgO foci positioned asymmetrically at the CESI and CESIII subsites. Bending analysis demonstrated that cenE is intrinsically curved. The organization of the cenE site and of certain other plasmid centromeres mirrors that of yeast centromeres, which may reflect a common architectural requirement during assembly of the mitotic apparatus in yeast and bacteria. Moreover, segregation modules homologous to that of pGENT are widely disseminated on vancomycin and other resistance plasmids in enterococci. An improved understanding of segrosome assembly may highlight new interventions geared toward combating antibiotic resistance in these insidious pathogens. PMID:18245388

  19. Emphysematous pyometra secondary to Enterococcus avium infection in a dog.

    PubMed

    Chang, An-Chi; Cheng, Ching-Chang; Wang, Hsien-Chi; Lee, Wei-Ming; Shyu, Ching-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Kuan-Sheng

    2016-06-16

    A 5-year-old female intact Mastiff dog was presented with a history of vaginal discharge for 1 day. Physical examination revealed a sanguineo-purulent vaginal discharge and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Abdominal radiographs showed several dilated and gas- filled tubular loops. The differential diagnoses included emphysematous pyometra or small intestinal mechanical ileus. Surgical exploration of the abdomen demonstrated a severely dilated and gas-filled uterus, and emphysematous pyometra was confirmed. The patient's clinical signs resolved after ovariohysterectomy. Histopathology revealed mild endometrial cystic hyperplasia with infiltration of inflammatory cells in the superficial endometrial epithelia. Enterococcus avium, an α-hemolytic gram-positive coccus, was isolated from the uterus. This paper highlights the radiographic features of emphysematous pyometra and a pathogen that has never been reported to be associated with canine pyometra previously. PMID:27111397

  20. Heterologous expression and characterization of tyrosine decarboxylase from Enterococcus faecalis R612Z1 and Enterococcus faecium R615Z1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Xu, Wenjuan; Du, Lihui; Wang, Daoying; Zhu, Yongzhi; Geng, Zhiming; Zhang, Muhan; Xu, Weimin

    2014-04-01

    Tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC) is responsible for tyramine production and can catalyze phenylalanine to produce β-phenylethylamine. Enterococcus strains are a group of bacteria predominantly producing tyramine and β-phenylethylamine in water-boiled salted duck. In this study, the heterologous expression and characterization of two TDCs from Enterococcus faecalis R612Z1 (612TDC) and Enterococcus faecium R615Z1 (615TDC) were studied. The recombinant putative proteins of 612TDC and 615TDC were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. 612TDC is a 620-amino-acid protein with a molecular mass of 70.0 kDa, whereas 615TDC is a 625-amino-acid protein with a molecular mass of 70.3 kDa. Both 612TDC and 615TDC showed an optimum temperature of 25 °C for the tyrosine and phenylalanine substrates. However, 612TDC revealed maximal activity at pH 5.5, whereas 615TDC revealed maximal activity at pH 6.0. Kinetic studies showed that 612TDC and 615TDC exhibited higher specificity for tyrosine than for phenylalanine. The catalysis abilities of both 612TDC and 615TDC for phenylalanine were restrained significantly with the increase in NaCl concentration, but this was not the case for tyrosine. This study revealed that the enzyme properties of the purified recombinant 612TDC and 615TDC were similar, although their amino acid sequences had 84% identity. PMID:24680070

  1. The Enterococcus hirae Mur-2 enzyme displays N-acetylglucosaminidase activity.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Catherine; Magnet, Sophie; Mesnage, Stéphane

    2007-02-20

    Enterococcus hirae produces two autolytic enzymes named Mur-1 and Mur-2, both previously described as N-acetylmuramidases. We used tandem mass spectrometry to show that Mur-2 in fact displays N-acetylglucosaminidase activity. This result reveals that Mur-2 and its counterparts studied to date, which are members of glycosyl hydrolase family 73 from the CAZy (Carbohydrate-Active enZyme) database, display the same catalytic activity. PMID:17258207

  2. Phenotypic and molecular antibiotic resistance profile of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from different traditional fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Valenzuela, Antonio; Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Benomar, Nabil; Gálvez, Antonio; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2013-02-01

    A collection of 55 enterococci (41 Enterococcus faecium and 14 E. faecalis strains) isolated from various traditional fermented foodstuffs of both animal and vegetable origins, and water was evaluated for resistance against 15 antibiotics. Lower incidence of resistance was observed with gentamicin, ampicillin, penicillin and teicoplanin. However, a high incidence of antibiotic resistance was detected for rifampicin (12 out of 14 of isolates), ciprofloxacin (9/14), and quinupristin/dalfopristin (8/14) in E. faecalis strains. Enterococcus faecium isolates were resistant to rifampicin (25/41), ciprofloxacin (23/41), erythromycin (18/41), levofloxacin (16/41), and nitrofurantoin (15/41). One Enterococcus faecalis and two E. faecium strains were resistant to vancomycin (MIC>16 μg/mL). Among 55 isolates, 27 (19 E. faecium and eight E. faecalis) were resistant to at least three antibiotics. High level of multidrug resistance to clinically important antibiotics was detected in E. faecalis strains (57% of E. faecalis versus 46% of E. faecium), which showed resistance to six to seven antibiotics, especially those isolated from foods of animal origin. So, it is necessary to re-evaluate the use of therapeutic antibiotics in stock farms at both regional and international levels due to the high number of multiple resistant (MR) bacteria. Fifty-six MR E. faecalis and E. faecium strains selected from this and previous studies (Valenzuela et al., 2008, 2010) were screened by polymerase chain reaction for antibiotic resistance genes, revealing the presence of tet(L), tet(M), ermB, cat, efrA, efrB, mphA, or msrA/B genes. The ABC Multidrug Efflux Pump EfrAB was detected in 96% of E. faecalis strains and also in 13% of E. faecium strains; this is the first report describing EfrAB in this enterococcal species. The efflux pump-associated msrA/B gene was detected in 66.66% of E. faecium strains, but not in E. faecalis strains. PMID:23259502

  3. Enterococcus gallinarum endocarditis in a diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Ortu, Massimiliano; Gabrielli, Eugenia; Caramma, Ilaria; Rossotti, Roberto; Gambirasio, Maria; Gervasoni, Cristina

    2008-07-01

    Recent studies pointed out the increasing rate of infective endocarditis (IE) in diabetic patients. As diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence is expected to increase in the coming years, infective endocarditis could be more frequently reported in these patients. We here describe a rare case of Enterococcus gallinarum endocarditis developing on normal native heart valve in an elderly diabetic woman. Therapeutic options were restricted due to resistance factors of the microorganism, limited guidance in the medical literature, and the patient's history and underlying condition. Despite these challenges, adequate antibiotic therapy led to the patient's recovery. PMID:18457897

  4. Transcriptome analysis of Enterococcus faecalis in response to alkaline stress

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Shujun; Liu, Bin; Jiang, Wei; Sun, Zhe; Liang, Jingping

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly isolated species from endodontic failure root canals; its persistence in treated root canals has been attributed to its ability to resist high pH stress. The goal of this study was to characterize the E. faecalis transcriptome and to identify candidate genes for response and resistance to alkaline stress using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing. We found that E. faecalis could survive and form biofilms in a pH 10 environment and that alkaline stress had a great impact on the transcription of many genes in the E. faecalis genome. The transcriptome sequencing results revealed that 613 genes were differentially expressed (DEGs) for E. faecalis grown in pH 10 medium; 211 genes were found to be differentially up-regulated and 402 genes differentially down-regulated. Many of the down-regulated genes found are involved in cell energy production and metabolism and carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and the up-regulated genes are mostly related to nucleotide transport and metabolism. The results presented here reveal that cultivation of E. faecalis in alkaline stress has a profound impact on its transcriptome. The observed regulation of genes and pathways revealed that E. faecalis reduced its carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and increased nucleotide synthesis to adapt and grow in alkaline stress. A number of the regulated genes may be useful candidates for the development of new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of E. faecalis infections. PMID:26300863

  5. Enterococcus bulliens sp. nov., a novel lactic acid bacterium isolated from camel milk.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Zaina; Spitaels, Freek; Cnockaert, Margo; Praet, Jessy; El Farricha, Omar; Swings, Jean; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Four lactic acid bacteria isolates obtained from fresh dromedary camel milk produced in Dakhla, a city in southern Morocco, were characterised in order to determine their taxonomic position. The four isolates had highly similar MALDI-TOF MS and RAPD fingerprints and identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Comparative sequence analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the four isolates was most similar to that of Enterococcus sulfureus ATCC 49903(T) and Enterococcus italicus DSM 15952(T) (99.33 and 98.59% similarity, respectively). However, sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS), RNA polymerase (rpoA) and ATP synthase (atpA) genes revealed that the taxon represented by strain LMG 28766(T) was well separated from E. sulfureus LMG 13084(T) and E. italicus LMG 22039(T), which was further confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization values that were clearly below the species demarcation threshold. The novel taxon was easily differentiated from its nearest neighbour species through sequence analysis of protein encoding genes, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and multiple biochemical tests, but had a similar percentage G+C content of about 39%. We therefore propose to formally classify these isolates as Enterococcus bulliens sp. nov., with LMG 28766(T) (=CCMM B1177(T)) as the type strain. PMID:26346480

  6. Antimicrobial resistance profile of Enterococcus spp isolated from food in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Riboldi, Gustavo Pelicioli; Frazzon, Jeverson; d’Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-six Enterococcus spp. strains were isolated from foods in Southern Brazil, confirmed by PCR and classified as Enterococcus faecalis (27), Enterococcus faecium (23) and Enterococcus spp (6). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed resistance phenotypes to a range of antibiotics widely administrated in humans such as gentamycin, streptomycin, ampicillin and vancomycin. PMID:24031330

  7. A class IIa peptide from Enterococcus mundtii inhibits bacteria associated with otitis media.

    PubMed

    Knoetze, H; Todorov, S D; Dicks, L M T

    2008-03-01

    Peptide ST4SA, produced by Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA, inhibits the growth of Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Gram-positive bacteria isolated from patients diagnosed with middle ear infections. The peptide adsorbed at a level of 94% to S. pneumoniae 40, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 25 and E. faecium HKLHS. Low concentrations of peptide ST4SA (51200 arbitrary units (AU)/mL) caused DNA and enzyme leakage from target cells, whilst 1638400AU/mL caused cell lysis. No decrease in antimicrobial activity was observed when tested on solid medium with human blood as base. Peptide ST4SA revealed a similar level of activity compared with tetracycline (30 microg), but much higher activity compared with nasal sprays, aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, lincosamides, macrolides, nitroimidazole, penicillin, quinolones, sulphonamides, chloramphenicol, furazolidone, fusidic acid, rifampicin, trimethoprim, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and vancomycin when tested in vitro. Peptide ST4SA dissipates the proton-motive force and may be used in the treatment of multidrug-resistant strains where antibiotics are excluded from cells by efflux pumps dependent on the membrane proton gradient. PMID:18155886

  8. Transferable Multiresistance Plasmids Carrying cfr in Enterococcus spp. from Swine and Farm Environment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Yang; Schwarz, Stefan; Li, Yun; Shen, Zhangqi; Zhang, Qijing; Wu, Congming

    2013-01-01

    Seventy-seven porcine Enterococcus isolates with florfenicol MICs of ≥16 μg of were/ml screened for the presence of the multiresistance gene cfr, its location on plasmids, and its genetic environment. Three isolates—Enterococcus thailandicus 3-38 (from a porcine rectal swab collected at a pig farm), Enterococcus thailandicus W3, and Enterococcus faecalis W9-2 (the latter two from sewage at a different farm), carried the cfr gene. The SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of the three isolates differed distinctly. In addition, E. faecalis W9-2 was assigned to a new multilocus sequence type ST469. Mating experiments and Southern blot analysis indicated that cfr is located on conjugative plasmids pW3 (∼75 kb) from E. thailandicus W3, p3-38 (∼72 kb) from E. thailandicus 3-38, and pW9-2 (∼55 kb) from E. faecalis W9-2; these plasmids differed in their sizes, additional resistance genes, and the analysis of the segments encompassing the cfr gene. Sequence analysis revealed that all plasmids harbored a 4,447-bp central region, in which cfr was bracketed by two copies of the novel insertion sequence ISEnfa4 located in the same orientation. The sequences flanking the central regions of these plasmids, including the partial tra gene regions and a ω-ε-ζ toxin-antitoxin module, exhibited >95% nucleotide sequence identity to the conjugative plasmid pAMβ1 from E. faecalis. Conjugative plasmids carrying cfr appear to play an important role in the dissemination and maintenance of the multiresistance gene cfr among enterococcal isolates and possibly other species of Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23070165

  9. Enterococcus hirae Bacteremia Associated with Acute Pancreatitis and Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Dicpinigaitis, Peter V.; De Aguirre, Manuel; Divito, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Infection with Enterococcus hirae has rarely been reported in humans but is not uncommon in mammals and birds. We describe a case of Enterococcus hirae bacteremia associated with acute pancreatitis, acute cholecystitis, and septic shock responsive to antibiotic therapy and supportive critical care management. Unique aspects of this case of Enterococcus hirae bacteremia are its association with acute pancreatitis and its geographical origin. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Enterococcus hirae bacteremia occurring in a patient in the United States. Although human infection with this organism appears to be rare, all cases reported to date describe bacteremia associated with severe and life-threatening illness. Thus, physicians need to be cognizant of the clinical significance of this heretofore little recognized pathogen. PMID:26417465

  10. Enterococcus faecium small colony variant endocarditis in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Egido, S Hernández; Ruiz, M Siller; Inés Revuelta, S; García, I García; Bellido, J L Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Small colony variants (SCV) are slow-growing subpopulations of bacteria usually associated with auxotrophism, causing persistent or recurrent infections. Enterococcus faecalis SCV have been seldom described, and only one case of Enterococcus faecium SCV has been reported, associated with sepsis in a leukaemia patient. Here we report the first case described of bacteraemia and endocarditis by SCV E. faecium in an immunocompetent patient. PMID:26862434

  11. Enterococcus Xinjiangensis sp. nov., Isolated from Yogurt of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaopu; Li, Mingyang; Guo, Dongqi

    2016-09-01

    A Gram-strain-positive bacterial strain 48(T) was isolated from traditional yogurt in Xinjiang Province, China. The bacterium was characterized by a polyphasic approach, including 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, polymerase α subunit (rpoA) gene sequence analysis, determination of DNA G+C content, DNA-DNA hybridization with the type strain of Enterococcus ratti and analysis of phenotypic features. Strain 48(T) accounted for 96.1, 95.8, 95.8, and 95.7 % with Enterococcus faecium CGMCC 1.2136(T), Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790(T), Enterococcus durans CECT 411(T), and E. ratti ATCC 700914(T) in the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively. The sequence of rpoA gene showed similarities of 99.0, 96.0, 96.0, and 96 % with that of E. faecium ATCC 19434(T), Enterococcus villorum LMG12287, E. hirae ATCC 9790(T), and E. durans ATCC 19432(T), respectively. Based upon of polyphasic characterization data obtained in the study, a novel species, Enterococcus xinjiangensis sp. nov., was proposed and the type strain was 48(T)(=CCTCC AB 2014041(T) = JCM 30200(T)). PMID:27260143

  12. Linezolid resistance in Enterococcus faecium isolated in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Patel, Samir N; Memari, Nader; Shahinas, Dea; Toye, Baldwin; Jamieson, Frances B; Farrell, David J

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have described linezolid-resistant MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) occurring worldwide, including an outbreak of linezolid-resistant MRSA. The objective of this study was to determine if linezolid-resistant enterococci are present in clinical isolates in Ontario, Canada. From January 2010 to June 2012, all enterococcal isolates submitted to the Public Health Ontario Laboratory (PHOL) for confirmation of VRE and susceptibility testing were included in this study. Of 2829 enterococcal isolates tested, 12 Enterococcus faecium were found to be resistant to linezolid. All linezolid-resistant isolates were also resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and vancomycin. In addition, 33% of isolates were non-susceptible to daptomycin, whereas 41% were resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin. Molecular characterization of these isolates showed that 8/12 isolates (66.7%) contained the mutation G2576T in 23S rRNA, which has been associated with linezolid resistance. Amplification and sequencing of L3- and L4-coding genes did not reveal mutations associated with linezolid resistance. One isolate contained the cfr gene, which is associated with linezolid resistance, and has been found in staphylococcal species and E. faecalis. These data show that occurrence of linezolid resistance is still rare among enterococcal isolates referred to PHOL though detection of cfr in E. faecium is concerning as it has the potential to disseminate among other enterococci. PMID:24095643

  13. Genes Important for Catalase Activity in Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Baureder, Michael; Hederstedt, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Little in general is known about how heme proteins are assembled from their constituents in cells. The Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis cannot synthesize heme and does not depend on it for growth. However, when supplied with heme in the growth medium the cells can synthesize two heme proteins; catalase (KatA) and cytochrome bd (CydAB). To identify novel factors important for catalase biogenesis libraries of E. faecalis gene insertion mutants were generated using two different types of transposons. The libraries of mutants were screened for clones deficient in catalase activity using a colony zymogram staining procedure. Analysis of obtained clones identified, in addition to katA (encoding the catalase enzyme protein), nine genes distributed over five different chromosomal loci. No factors with a dedicated essential role in catalase biogenesis or heme trafficking were revealed, but the results indicate the RNA degradosome (srmB, rnjA), an ABC-type oligopeptide transporter (oppBC), a two-component signal transducer (etaR), and NADH peroxidase (npr) as being important for expression of catalase activity in E. faecalis. It is demonstrated that catalase biogenesis in E. faecalis is independent of the CydABCD proteins and that a conserved proline residue in the N-terminal region of KatA is important for catalase assembly. PMID:22590595

  14. Peptide pheromone signaling in Streptococcus and Enterococcus

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Laura C.; Federle, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Intercellular chemical signaling in bacteria, commonly referred to as quorum sensing (QS), relies on the production and detection of compounds known as pheromones to elicit coordinated responses among members of a community. Pheromones produced by Gram-positive bacteria are comprised of small peptides. Based on both peptide structure and sensory system architectures, Gram-positive bacterial signaling pathways may be classified into one of four groups with a defining hallmark: cyclical peptides of the Agr type, peptides that contain Gly-Gly processing motifs, sensory systems of the RNPP family, or the recently characterized Rgg-like regulatory family. The recent discovery that Rgg family members respond to peptide pheromones increases substantially the number of species in which QS is likely a key regulatory component. These pathways control a variety of fundamental behaviors including conjugation, natural competence for transformation, biofilm development, and virulence factor regulation. Overlapping QS pathways found in multiple species and pathways that utilize conserved peptide pheromones provide opportunities for interspecies communication. Here we review pheromone signaling identified in the genera Enterococcus and Streptococcus, providing examples of all four types of pathways. PMID:24118108

  15. Detection and DNA quantification of Enterococcus casseliflavus in a foal with septic meningitis.

    PubMed

    Stefanetti, Valentina; Beccati, Francesca; Passamonti, Fabrizio; Sgariglia, Elisa; Coletti, Mauro; Vuerich, Matteo; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa

    2016-07-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 3-month-old 180-kg (396-lb) Hanoverian colt was examined because of fever, lethargy, inappetence, drooping of the left ear, and stiff neck posture. Initial treatment included empirical antimicrobial treatment and NSAIDs. CLINICAL FINDINGS Initial findings were consistent with CNS anomalies. Endoscopy revealed hyperemia, ecchymosis, and some mucopurulent exudate in the right guttural pouch. Hematologic findings were consistent with neutrophilic inflammation. On the third day of hospitalization, severe neurologic signs were observed. Computed tomography of the skull revealed a comminuted fracture of the axial aspect of the right mandibular condyle. Examination of CSF revealed turbidity, xanthochromia, and intracellular and extracellular cocci, consistent with septic meningitis. After DNA extraction from blood and CSF, sequenced products from a PCR assay for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were 99% identical to Enterococcus casseliflavus. Microbial culture of CSF and blood samples yielded bacteria with Enterococcus spp morphology; antimicrobials were selected on the basis of susceptibility testing that identified the isolate as vancomycin resistant. A quantitative PCR assay was used to estimate Enterococcus DNA concentrations in CSF and blood. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Treatment for E casseliflavus meningitis, including trimethoprim-sulfadiazine and ampicillin sodium administration, resulted in resolution of clinical signs. Culture of CSF and blood samples after 12 days of the targeted treatment yielded no growth. CLINICAL RELEVANCE To the authors' knowledge, this was the first report of E casseliflavus meningitis in a horse. Treatment was successful; vancomycin-resistant enterococci can be a clinical problem and may potentially be zoonotic. PMID:27308888

  16. The mazEF toxin–antitoxin system as an attractive target in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Soheili, Sara; Ghafourian, Sobhan; Sekawi, Zamberi; Neela, Vasantha Kumari; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Taherikalani, Morovat; Khosravi, Afra; Ramli, Ramliza; Hamat, Rukman Awang

    2015-01-01

    The toxin–antitoxin (TA) system is a regulatory system where two sets of genes encode the toxin and its corresponding antitoxin. In this study, the prevalence of TA systems in independently isolated clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis was determined, the dominant TA system was identified, different virulence genes in E. faecium and E. faecalis were surveyed, the level of expression of the virulence and TA genes in normal and stress conditions was determined, and finally their associations with the TA genes were defined. Remarkably, the analysis demonstrated higBA and mazEF in all clinical isolates, and their locations were on chromosomes and plasmids, respectively. On the other hand, a quantitative analysis of TA and virulence genes revealed that the expression level in both genes is different under normal and stress conditions. The results obtained by anti-mazF peptide nucleic acids demonstrated that the expression level of virulence genes had decreased. These findings demonstrate an association between TA systems and virulence factors. The mazEF on the plasmids and the higBA TA genes on the chromosomes of all E. faecium and E. faecalis strains were dominant. Additionally, there was a decrease in the expression of virulence genes in the presence of anti-mazF peptide nucleic acids. Therefore, it is suggested that mazEF TA systems are potent and sensitive targets in all E. faecium and E. faecalis strains. PMID:26005332

  17. Biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from the processing of ricotta and the control of these pathogens through cleaning and sanitization procedures.

    PubMed

    da Silva Fernandes, Meg; Kabuki, Dirce Yorika; Kuaye, Arnaldo Yoshiteru

    2015-05-01

    The biofilm formation of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from the processing of ricotta on stainless steel coupons was evaluated, and the effect of cleaning and sanitization procedures in the control of these biofilms was determined. The formation of biofilms was observed while varying the incubation temperature (7, 25 and 39°C) and time (0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days). At 7°C, the counts of E. faecalis and E. faecium were below 2 log10 CFU/cm(2). For the temperatures of 25 and 39°C, after 1 day, the counts of E. faecalis and E. faecium were 5.75 and 6.07 log10 CFU/cm(2), respectively, which is characteristic of biofilm formation. The tested sanitation procedures a) acid-anionic tensioactive cleaning, b) anionic tensioactive cleaning+sanitizer and c) acid-anionic tensioactive cleaning+sanitizer were effective in removing the biofilms, reducing the counts to levels below 0.4 log10 CFU/cm(2). The sanitizer biguanide was the least effective, and peracetic acid was the most effective. These studies revealed the ability of enterococci to form biofilms and the importance of the cleaning step and the type of sanitizer used in sanitation processes for the effective removal of biofilms. PMID:25702883

  18. The stress proteome of Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Giard, J C; Laplace, J M; Rincé, A; Pichereau, V; Benachour, A; Leboeuf, C; Flahaut, S; Auffray, Y; Hartke, A

    2001-08-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a resident bacterium of the intestinal tract of humans and animals. This bacterium can be responsible for serious diseases and is one of the largest causes of hospital-based infections. This hardy organism resists many kinds of stresses and is used as a major indicator of the hygienic quality of food, milk, and drinking water. On the other side, enterococci seem to have beneficial role in the development of cheese aroma and are added in certain starter cultures. Since ten years, our laboratory has used the two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) technique to study the response of E. faecalis to physical or chemical stresses as well as to glucose and total starvation. Twenty-seven protein spots on 2-D gels have been identified by N-terminal sequencing or Western blotting which make up the first proteome database of this species. The proteins were classified in four different groups according to their function and their regulation. The first group comprises well-characterized proteins with known protective functions towards stresses. The second group contains enzymes of catabolic pathways. Their implication in stress resistance seems not obvious. A third group are proteins induced in glucose-starved cells belonging to the CcpA regulon. Induction of these enzymes under starvation may serve to increase the scavenging capacity of the cells for nutrients or may be important to mobilize endogenous energetic reserves. Lastly, nine N-terminal amino acid sequences or open reading frames (ORF) showed no homologies with sequences in databases. A comprehensive description of stress proteins of E. faecalis and analysis of their patterns of expression under different environmental conditions would greatly increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the extraordinary capacity of this bacterium to survive under hostile conditions. PMID:11565789

  19. Postneurosurgical Central Nervous System Infection Due to Enterococcus faecalis Successfully Treated With Intraventricular Vancomycin

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Trisha; Lewis, Mark E.; Niesley, Michelle L.; Chowdhury, Mashiul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Infections from Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are uncommon in the post-neurosurgical intervention setting., [1, 2, 3, 4] Intraventricular antibiotics are recommended when standard intravenous therapy fails. [5] Here we present a case of post-neurosurgical ventriculitis, meningitis, and cerebritis in an oncology patient caused by refractory Enterococcus faecalis successfully treated with intraventricular vancomycin. PMID:27226704

  20. Enterococcus gallinarum Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in an HCV Cirrhotic.

    PubMed

    Abidali, Hussein; Sheikh, Maheen; Abidali, Moustapha; Abidali, Ali; Farraji, Hamoudi S; Berry, Andrew C

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 60-year-old Caucasian male with history of hepatitis C viral cirrhosis with portosystemic encephalopathy and ascites with evidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) with absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of 944 cells/µL blood. Despite adequate treatment, the abdominal pain and elevated creatinine continued to persist. Initial ascites fluid cultures returned back positive for growth of Enterococcus gallinarum. Empiric antibiotics were then substituted with ampicillin/sulbactam. Our case of Enterococcus gallinarum causing SBP is only the seventh case reported in the literature to date. PMID:26064715

  1. Antimicrobial Action of Oleanolic Acid on Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Yoon, Yohan; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the antimicrobial action of oleanolic acid against Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis. To determine the cytotoxicity of oleanolic acid, HEp-2 cells were incubated with oleanolic acid at 37oC. MICs (minimal inhibition concentrations) for L. monocytogenes, E. faecium, and E. faecalis were determined using two-fold microdilutions of oleanolic acid, and bacterial cell viability was then assessed by exposing the bacteria to oleanolic acid at 2 × MIC. To investigate the mode of antimicrobial action of oleanolic acid, we measured leakage of compounds absorbing at 280 nm, along with propidium iodide uptake. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were also analysed. The viability of HEp-2 cells decreased (P < 0.05) at oleanolic acid concentrations greater than 128 μg mL-1. The MICs were 16-32 μg mL-1 for L. monocytogenes and 32-64 μg mL-1 for E. faecium and E. faecalis, and bacterial cell viability decreased (P < 0.05) about 3-4 log CFU mL-1 after exposure to 2 × MIC of oleanolic acid. Leakage of 280 nm absorbing materials and propidium iodide uptake was higher in oleanolic acid –treated cells than in the control. The cell membrane was damaged in oleanolic acid-treated cells, but the control group had intact cell membrane in SEM images. The results indicate that oleanolic acid can kill L. monocytogenes, E. faecium, and E. faecalis by destroying the bacterial cell membrane. PMID:25756202

  2. Biocide and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from the swine meat chain.

    PubMed

    Rizzotti, Lucia; Rossi, Franca; Torriani, Sandra

    2016-12-01

    In this study nine strains of Enterococcus faecalis and 12 strains of Enterococcus faecium, isolated from different sample types in the swine meat chain and previously characterized for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes, were examined for phenotypic tolerance to seven biocides (chlorexidine, benzalkonium chloride, triclosan, sodium hypochlorite, 2-propanol, formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide) and resistance to nine antibiotics (ampicillin, vancomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol). Moreover, the presence of efflux system encoding genes qacA/B, qacC, qacE, qacEΔ1, emeA, and stress response genes, sigV and gsp65, involved in the tolerance to biocides, was analysed. Most strains were not tolerant to the biocides, but showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) higher than the recommended cut-off values for all the antibiotics tested, except for vancomycin and chloramphenicol. Only weak correlations, if any, were found between biocide and antibiotic resistance data. One E. faecalis strain was tolerant to triclosan and one E. faecium strain, with higher tolerance to chlorexidine than the other strains tested, was found to carry a qacA/B gene. Our results indicated that phenotypic resistance to antibiotics is very frequent in enterococcal isolates from the swine meat chain, but phenotypic tolerance to biocides is not common. On the other hand, the gene qacA/B was found for the first time in the species E. faecium, an indication of the necessity to adopt measures suitable to control the spread of biocide resistance determinants among enterococci. PMID:27554158

  3. Emergence of Clonal Complex 17 Enterococcus faecium in The Netherlands▿

    PubMed Central

    Top, Janetta; Willems, Rob; van der Velden, Saskia; Asbroek, Miranda; Bonten, Marc

    2008-01-01

    The global emergence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium has been characterized as the clonal spread of clonal complex 17 (CC17) E. faecium. CC17 was defined upon multilocus sequence typing and is characterized by resistance to quinolones and ampicillin and the presence of the enterococcal surface protein (Esp) in the majority of isolates. The recently noticed increased incidence of vancomycin-susceptible CC17 E. faecium infections in our hospital initiated a nationwide study to determine ecological changes among enterococcal infections. The data and strain collections were obtained from 26 (38%) and 9 (14%) of 66 microbiology laboratories in The Netherlands. E. faecium and E. faecalis were distinguished by multiplex PCR; all E. faecium isolates were genotyped by multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), and the presence of esp was identified by PCR. Average numbers of ampicillin-resistant enterococcal isolates from normally sterile body sites per hospital increased from 5 ± 1 in 1994 to 25 ± 21 in 2005. Among all enterococcal bloodstream infections, the proportions of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium (AREF) increased from 4% in 1994 to 20% in 2005 (P < 0.001). All E. faecalis isolates were susceptible to ampicillin, whereas 78% of the E. faecium isolates were resistant (49% of these contained esp). Genotyping revealed that 86% of AREF isolates belonged to CC17, including four dominant MLVA types found in ≥3 hospitals, accounting for 64% of the AREF isolates. Infections caused by CC17 E. faecium has increased nationwide, especially in university hospitals due to the clonal spread of four MLVA types, and seems associated with acquisition of the esp gene. PMID:17977983

  4. RNase 7 Contributes to the Cutaneous Defense against Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Gläser, Regine; Podschun, Rainer; Schröder, Jens-Michael; Harder, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Background Human skin is able to mount a fast response against invading microorganisms by the release of antimicrobial proteins such as the ribonuclease RNase 7. Because RNase 7 exhibits high activity against Enterococcus faecium the aim of this study was to further explore the role of RNase 7 in the cutaneous innate defense system against E. faecium. Methodology/Principal Findings Absolute quantification using real-time PCR and ELISA revealed that primary keratinocytes expressed high levels of RNase 7. Immunohistochemistry showed RNase 7 expression in all epidermal layers of the skin with an intensification in the upper more differentiated layers. Furthermore, RNase 7 was secreted by keratinocytes in vitro and in vivo in a site-dependent way. RNase 7 was still active against E. faecium at low pH (5.5) or high NaCl (150 mM) concentration and the bactericidal activity of RNase 7 against E. faecium required no ribonuclease activity as shown by recombinant RNase 7 lacking enzymatic activity. To further explore the role of RNase 7 in cutaneous defense against E. faecium, we investigated whether RNase 7 contributes to the E. faecium killing activity of skin extracts derived from stratum corneum. Treatment of the skin extract with an RNase 7 specific antibody, which neutralizes the antimicrobial activity of RNase 7, diminished its E. faecium killing activity. Conclusions/Significance Our data indicate that RNase 7 contributes to the E. faecium-killing activity of skin extracts and suggest an important role for RNase 7 in the protection of human skin against E. faecium colonization. PMID:19641608

  5. Survival of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus in Stream Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    E. coli and Enterococcus indicate fecal contamination and are used for monitoring of lakes, streams, and rivers. Transport of bacteria from manured or pastured lands can result in large bacterial loads from both small and large runoff events and the persistence of bacteria following these loadings i...

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecium Commensal Isolate E1002.

    PubMed

    Tytgat, Hanne L P; Douillard, François P; Laine, Pia K; Paulin, Lars; Willems, Rob J L; de Vos, Willem M

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) has been associated with an increase in multidrug-resistant nosocomial infections. Here, we report the 2.614-Mb genome sequence of the Enterococcus faecium commensal isolate E1002, which will be instrumental in further understanding the determinants of the commensal and pathogenic lifestyle of E. faecium. PMID:26988041

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecium ATCC 700221.

    PubMed

    McKenney, Peter T; Ling, Lilan; Wang, Guilin; Mane, Shrikant; Pamer, Eric G

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of a vancomycin-resistant isolate of Enterococcus faecium derived from human feces. The genome comprises one chromosome of 2.9 Mb and three plasmids. The strain harbors a plasmid-borne vanA-type vancomycin resistance locus and is a member of multilocus sequencing type (MLST) cluster ST-17. PMID:27198022

  8. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus strains isolated from poultry.

    PubMed

    Stępień-Pyśniak, Dagmara; Marek, Agnieszka; Banach, Tomasz; Adaszek, Łukasz; Pyzik, Ewelina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Winiarczyk, Stanisław

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of occurrence of bacteria of the genus Enterococcus in poultry, to identify them by means of matrixassisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF MS), and to analyse the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolated strains to the drugs most frequently used in poultry. The material for the bacteriological tests was obtained mainly from the heart (97%) of the birds investigated. Of a total of 2,970 samples tested, 911 (30.7%) tested positive for Enterococcus spp. Enterococci were detected in broilers (88.1%), laying hens (5.3%), turkeys (3.9%), breeding hens (2.2%), and geese (0.4%). The most commonly identified species were Enterococcus (E.) faecalis (74.7%), E. faecium (10.1%), E. gallinarum (5.5%), E. hirae (4.6%), and E. cecorum (4.1%). The most frequent resistance properties were resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (88%), tylosin (71.4%), enrofloxacin (69.4%), doxycycline (67.3%), and lincomycin/spectinomycin (56.1%). Only one vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, E. cecorum from a broiler, was found. PMID:27342087

  9. An antimicrobial peptidoglycan hydrolase for treating Enterococcus faecalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enterococcus faecalis is an intestinal bacteria species that can become an opportunistic pathogen in humans and farm animals with antibiotic resistant strains becoming increasingly common. In farm animals, strong antimicrobials, such as Vancomycin, should not be used due to the risk of propagation ...

  10. Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Peritonitis due to Enterococcus cecorum

    PubMed Central

    De Baere, Thierry; Claeys, Geert; Verschraegen, Gerda; Devriese, Luc A.; Baele, Margo; Van Vlem, Bruno; Vanholder, Raymond; Dequidt, Clement; Vaneechoutte, Mario

    2000-01-01

    Enterococcus cecorum was isolated as the etiologic agent of a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis peritonitis episode in an alcoholic patient. To date, this is only the third infection due to this bacterium, found in the intestinal tract of many domestic animals, that has been reported in humans. PMID:10970419

  11. Enterococcus faecalis Prophage Dynamics and Contributions to Pathogenic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Renata C.; Lapaque, Nicolas; Rigottier-Gois, Lionel; Debarbieux, Laurent; Meylheuc, Thierry; Gonzalez-Zorn, Bruno; Repoila, Francis; Lopes, Maria de Fatima; Serror, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Polylysogeny is frequently considered to be the result of an adaptive evolutionary process in which prophages confer fitness and/or virulence factors, thus making them important for evolution of both bacterial populations and infectious diseases. The Enterococcus faecalis V583 isolate belongs to the high-risk clonal complex 2 that is particularly well adapted to the hospital environment. Its genome carries 7 prophage-like elements (V583-pp1 to -pp7), one of which is ubiquitous in the species. In this study, we investigated the activity of the V583 prophages and their contribution to E. faecalis biological traits. We systematically analyzed the ability of each prophage to excise from the bacterial chromosome, to replicate and to package its DNA. We also created a set of E. faecalis isogenic strains that lack from one to all six non-ubiquitous prophages by mimicking natural excision. Our work reveals that prophages of E. faecalis V583 excise from the bacterial chromosome in the presence of a fluoroquinolone, and are able to produce active phage progeny. Intricate interactions between V583 prophages were also unveiled: i) pp7, coined EfCIV583 for E. faecalis chromosomal island of V583, hijacks capsids from helper phage 1, leading to the formation of distinct virions, and ii) pp1, pp3 and pp5 inhibit excision of pp4 and pp6. The hijacking exerted by EfCIV583 on helper phage 1 capsids is the first example of molecular piracy in Gram positive bacteria other than staphylococci. Furthermore, prophages encoding platelet-binding-like proteins were found to be involved in adhesion to human platelets, considered as a first step towards the development of infective endocarditis. Our findings reveal not only a role of E. faecalis V583 prophages in pathogenicity, but also provide an explanation for the correlation between antibiotic usage and E. faecalis success as a nosocomial pathogen, as fluoriquinolone may provoke release of prophages and promote gene dissemination among

  12. Enterococcus faecalis prophage dynamics and contributions to pathogenic traits.

    PubMed

    Matos, Renata C; Lapaque, Nicolas; Rigottier-Gois, Lionel; Debarbieux, Laurent; Meylheuc, Thierry; Gonzalez-Zorn, Bruno; Repoila, Francis; Lopes, Maria de Fatima; Serror, Pascale

    2013-06-01

    Polylysogeny is frequently considered to be the result of an adaptive evolutionary process in which prophages confer fitness and/or virulence factors, thus making them important for evolution of both bacterial populations and infectious diseases. The Enterococcus faecalis V583 isolate belongs to the high-risk clonal complex 2 that is particularly well adapted to the hospital environment. Its genome carries 7 prophage-like elements (V583-pp1 to -pp7), one of which is ubiquitous in the species. In this study, we investigated the activity of the V583 prophages and their contribution to E. faecalis biological traits. We systematically analyzed the ability of each prophage to excise from the bacterial chromosome, to replicate and to package its DNA. We also created a set of E. faecalis isogenic strains that lack from one to all six non-ubiquitous prophages by mimicking natural excision. Our work reveals that prophages of E. faecalis V583 excise from the bacterial chromosome in the presence of a fluoroquinolone, and are able to produce active phage progeny. Intricate interactions between V583 prophages were also unveiled: i) pp7, coined EfCIV583 for E. faecalis chromosomal island of V583, hijacks capsids from helper phage 1, leading to the formation of distinct virions, and ii) pp1, pp3 and pp5 inhibit excision of pp4 and pp6. The hijacking exerted by EfCIV583 on helper phage 1 capsids is the first example of molecular piracy in Gram positive bacteria other than staphylococci. Furthermore, prophages encoding platelet-binding-like proteins were found to be involved in adhesion to human platelets, considered as a first step towards the development of infective endocarditis. Our findings reveal not only a role of E. faecalis V583 prophages in pathogenicity, but also provide an explanation for the correlation between antibiotic usage and E. faecalis success as a nosocomial pathogen, as fluoriquinolone may provoke release of prophages and promote gene dissemination among

  13. Outbreak of vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium containing the wild-type vanA gene.

    PubMed

    Szakacs, Tom A; Kalan, Lindsay; McConnell, Michael J; Eshaghi, Alireza; Shahinas, Dea; McGeer, Allison; Wright, Gerry D; Low, Donald E; Patel, Samir N

    2014-05-01

    Accurate detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is essential in preventing transmission in health care settings. Chromogenic media are widely used for screening VRE because of fast turnaround times (TAT) and high sensitivity. We report an outbreak of Enterococcus faecium bearing vanA yet susceptible to vancomycin (vancomycin-variable Enterococcus [VVE]). Between October 2009 to March 2011, clinical and screening specimens (n=14,747) were screened for VRE using VRE-selective medium and/or PCR. VVE isolates were genotyped to determine relatedness. Plasmids from these isolates were characterized by sequencing. Overall, 52 VVE isolates were identified, comprising 15% of all VRE isolates identified. Isolates demonstrated growth on Brilliance VRE agar (Oxoid) at 24 h of incubation but did not grow on brain heart infusion agar with 6 μg/ml vancomycin (Oxoid) or bile esculin azide agar with 6 μg/ml vancomycin (Oxoid) and were susceptible to vancomycin. Genotyping of 20 randomly selected VVE isolates revealed that 15/20 were identical, while 5 were highly related. PCR of the VVE transposon confirmed the presence of vanHAXY gene cluster; however, vanS (sensor) and vanR (regulator) genes were absent. The outbreak was controlled through routine infection control measures. We report an emergence of a fit strain of E. faecium containing vanA yet susceptible to vancomycin. Whether this new strain represents VRE has yet to be determined; however, unique testing procedures are required for reliable identification of VVE. PMID:24523464

  14. Investigation of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium outbreak in neonatal intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Cilo, Burcu Dalyan; Ağca, Harun; Efe, Kadir; Sınırtaş, Melda; Çelebi, Solmaz; Özkan, Hilal; Köksal, Nilgün; Hacımustafaoğlu, Mustafa; Özakın, Cüneyt

    2014-01-01

    Enterococci are one of the major agents of community-acquired and nosocomial infections. In this study we aimed to analyze the clonal relation of the vancomycin-resistant Enterococci outbreak seen at the Neonate Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Uludag University Hospital. Vancomycin resistance gene was investigated in the Enterococcus faecium strains and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to investigate the genetic relation between outbreak strains. Enterococci grown in all patient samples were identified as Enterococcus faecium by BD Phoenix 100 (Becton Dickinson, USA). We found vanA resistance gene in all of the swab samples by Xpert VanA/B test on Cepheid (Cepheid, USA). PFGE band patterns revealed two different strains, of which the majority of them (22/24) had the same clonal origin. The common clonal origin was also isolated from rectal probes. Perianal swab culture positivity was evaluated as colonization but culture growth in two blood cultures, two urine cultures and one wound culture was evaluated as infection and treated with linezolid. All of the patients survived the outbreak. Besides the infection control precautions determining the genetic relation between outbreak strains which can be done in the microbiology laboratory is necessary to control an outbreak. PFGE is a reliable method in the microbiologic analysis of outbreaks. Molecular microbiologic analysis of outbreak strains will contribute to prove the epidemiologic and evolution of outbreaks. PMID:25664041

  15. Synergistic Antibacterial Effect of the Combination of ε-Polylysine and Nisin against Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Liu, Mei; Du, Lihui; Wang, Daoying; Geng, Zhiming; Zhang, Muhan; Sun, Chong; Xu, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Yongzhi; Xu, Weimin

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the antibacterial effect of the combination of ε-polylysine (ε-PL) and nisin against Enterococcus faecalis strains. The combination of ε-PL and nisin showed synergistic antibacterial activity against three Enterococcus strains. Scanning electron microscopy and a membrane permeability assay revealed that the combined treatment with ε-PL and nisin synergistically damaged the cell morphology of E. faecalis strain R612Z1 cells. Both ε-PL and nisin can dissipate the transmembrane electric potential of E. faecalis R612Z1 cells, but these peptides did not affect the transmembrane pH gradient. The combination of ε-PL and nisin can produce a high reactive oxygen species level in E. faecalis R612Z1 cells. The results indicated that the uptake of ε-PL into cells was promoted through nisin and that the combination of ε-PL and nisin could produce a high reactive oxygen species level in E. faecalis R612Z1 cells, leading to cell growth inhibition. PMID:26613915

  16. Prevalence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Emaneini, M; Hosseinkhani, F; Jabalameli, F; Nasiri, M J; Dadashi, M; Pouriran, R; Beigverdi, R

    2016-09-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) is considered to be a major nosocomial pathogen that results in serious morbidity and mortality worldwide. Limited information is available concerning the prevalence of VRE infections in Iran. We carried out a systematic search by using different electronic databases including: Medline (via PubMed), Embase, Web of Science, and the Iranian Database. Meta-analysis was performed using comprehensive meta-analysis software. The meta-analyses revealed that the prevalence of VRE infections was 9.4 % (95 % confidence interval [95 % CI] 7.3-12) among culture-positive cases for Enterococcus species. The prevalence of VRE in Iran is compared with the results of developed countries. The prevalence of VRE in Germany, the United Kingdom (UK), and Italy was 11.2 %, 8.5-12.5 %, and 9 % respectively. Additionally, the frequency of vancomycin resistance among E. faecalis isolates was higher than for E. faecium. The results of this study indicate that a comprehensive infection control strategy based on hand hygiene, educating the hospital staff members, providing clinical guidance and principles for the appropriate use of antibiotics, sanitizing the hospitals, contact precautions, and active surveillance systems on the basis of international criteria is urgently needed. PMID:27344575

  17. Genotypic and phenotypic evaluation of the evolution of high-level daptomycin nonsusceptibility in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Romney M; Kelesidis, Theodoros; Tewhey, Ryan; Rose, Warren E; Schork, Nicholas; Nizet, Victor; Sakoulas, George

    2012-11-01

    Whole-genome sequencing and cell membrane studies of three clonal Enterococcus faecium strains with daptomycin MICs of 4, 32, and 192 μg/ml were performed, revealing nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants in eight open reading frames, including those predicted to encode a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent, mannose-specific phosphotransferase system, cardiolipin synthetase, and EzrA. Membrane studies revealed a higher net surface charge among the daptomycin-nonsusceptible isolates and increased septum formation in the isolate with a daptomycin MIC of 192 μg/ml. PMID:22948885

  18. Characterization of the Ers Regulon of Enterococcus faecalis▿

    PubMed Central

    Riboulet-Bisson, Eliette; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Budin-Verneuil, Aurélie; Auffray, Yanick; Hartke, Axel; Giard, Jean-Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Ers has been qualified as the PrfA-like transcriptional regulator of Enterococcus faecalis. In a previous study we reported that Ers is important for the survival within macrophages of this opportunist pathogenic bacterium. In the present work we have used proteomic and microarray expression profiling of E. faecalis JH2-2 and an ers-deleted mutant (Δers mutant) strains to define the Ers regulon. In addition to EF_0082 (encoding a putative facilitator family transporter), already known to be under Ers regulation, three genes or operons displayed a significant decrease (confirmed by reverse transcription quantitative PCR) in expression in the Δers mutant. The first locus corresponds to three genes: arcA, arcB, and arcC1 (arcABC). These genes are members of the ADI operon, encoding enzymes of the arginine deiminase system. The second is the EF_1459 gene, which encodes a hypothetical protein and is located within a putative phage genetic element. Lastly, Ef_3319 is annotated as the alpha subunit of the citrate lyase encoded by citF. citF is a member of a putative 12-gene operon involved in citrate catabolism. Moreover, the promoter sequence, similar to the “PrfA box” and found in the promoter regions of ers and EF_0082, has been shown to be included in the DNA segment recognized by Ers. Phenotypic analysis of the Δers mutant strain revealed a growth defect when cultured with arginine or citrate as the energy source; this was not seen for the wild type. As expected, similar results were obtained with mutants in which arcA and citF were inactivated. In addition, in the mouse peritonitis model of virulence, the Δers mutant appeared significantly less lethal than the JH2-2 wild-type strain. Taken together, these results indicate that the regulator Ers has a pleiotropic effect, especially in the cellular metabolism and virulence of E. faecalis. PMID:18426870

  19. Review of virulence factors of enterococcus: an emerging nosocomial pathogen.

    PubMed

    Giridhara Upadhyaya, P M; Ravikumar, K L; Umapathy, B L

    2009-01-01

    Enterococcus, considered a normal commensal of intestinal tract, is fast emerging as a pathogen causing serious and life threatening hospital borne infections. This is attributed to acquisition of multi drug resistance and virulence factors of the organisms. The sequencing of Enterococcus faecalis has given a lot of insight into its genetic makeup. The E. faecalis strain V583, which has been sequenced, contains a total of 3182 open reading frames (ORFs) with 1760 of these showing similarity to known proteins and 221 of unknown functions. Strikingly unique to this genome is the fact that over 25% of the genome is made up of mobile and exogenously acquired DNA which includes a number of conjugative and composite transposons, a pathogenicity island, integrated plasmid genes and phage regions, and a high number of insertion sequence (IS) elements. This review addresses the genomic arrangement and the study of virulence factors that have occurred since the sequencing of the genome. PMID:19736397

  20. Enterococcus gallinarum meningitis in an immunocompetent host: a case report.

    PubMed

    Antonello, Vicente Sperb; Zenkner, Francis de Moura; França, Josiane; Santos, Breno Riegel

    2010-01-01

    We describe a rare case of a 53-year-old man with a long history of alcohol abuse, with Enterococcus gallinarum meningitis, an organism that rarely causes human infection and is primarily found in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry. The patient improved with high-dose ampicillin and gentamicin therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first Brazilian reported case of E. gallinarum meningitis and probably the first case described in an immunocompetent host. PMID:20464133

  1. Eight-year Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance among Enterococcus Spp. Isolated in the First Bethune Hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiancheng; Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Kai; Zhou, Qi

    This study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. isolated in 8 consecutive years in the First Bethune Hospital. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Most of 1446 strains of Enterococcus spp. were collected from urine 640 (44.3%), sputum 315 (21.8%), secretions and pus 265 (18.3%) during the past 8 years. The rates of high-level aminoglycoside resistance in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were 57.4%∼75.9% and 69.0%∼93.8% during the past 8 years, respectively. No Enterococcus spp. was resistant to vancomycin. The antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. had increased in recent 8 years. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to direct rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from being transmitted.

  2. Enterococcus rivorum sp. nov., from water of pristine brooks.

    PubMed

    Niemi, R Maarit; Ollinkangas, Tuula; Paulin, Lars; Svec, Pavel; Vandamme, Peter; Karkman, Antti; Kosina, Marcel; Lindström, Kristina

    2012-09-01

    A significant number of Enterococcus strains from pristine waters of two brooks in Finland formed a distinct cluster on the basis of whole-cell protein fingerprinting by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE. The strains shared the following characteristics. Cells were ovoid, Gram-positive-staining and non-spore-forming, appearing singly or in pairs or chains. They were facultatively anaerobic and catalase-negative. Growth in broth containing 6.5 % NaCl or at 45 °C was weak or absent. Production of D antigen was variable. The strains tolerated 60 °C for 30 min, 40 % bile and tellurite, hydrolysed aesculin strongly and gelatin weakly, produced no acid from hippurate and did not reduce it, grew weakly at 10 °C, showed a strong reaction for the Voges-Proskauer test and produced acid from methyl α-d-glucoside, mannitol, sorbitol and sucrose, with weak or no production of acid from methyl α-d-mannoside, l-arabinose, gluconate and l-xylose. Several of the strains were selected for identification on the basis of sequencing of almost the whole 16S rRNA gene and partial atpA and pheS genes and of (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprints. Partial atpA and pheS gene sequencing was also performed for those type strains of Enterococcus species without available sequences in the database. The pristine brook isolates formed a novel species, for which the name Enterococcus rivorum sp. nov. (type strain S299(T) = HAMBI 3055(T) = LMG 25899(T) = CCM 7986(T)) is proposed. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, E. rivorum sp. nov. is related to the Enterococcus faecalis genogoup. It is distinguished from described Enterococcus species on the basis of 16S rRNA, atpA and pheS gene sequences and whole-cell protein and (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprints. It is most closely related to E. faecalis, but DNA-DNA hybridization confirms it to represent a novel species. PMID:22058322

  3. Molecular structure and rotary dynamics of Enterococcus hirae V₁-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Iino, Ryota; Minagawa, Yoshihiro; Ueno, Hiroshi; Hara, Mayu; Murata, Takeshi

    2014-09-01

    V1-ATPase is a rotary molecular motor in which the mechanical rotation of the rotor DF subunits against the stator A3B3 ring is driven by the chemical free energy of ATP hydrolysis. Recently, using X-ray crystallography, we solved the high-resolution molecular structure of Enterococcus hirae V1-ATPase (EhV1) and revealed how the three catalytic sites in the stator A3B3 ring change their structure on nucleotide binding and interaction with the rotor DF subunits. Furthermore, recently, we also demonstrated directly the rotary catalysis of EhV1 by using single-molecule high-speed imaging and analyzed the properties of the rotary motion in detail. In this critical review, we introduce the molecular structure and rotary dynamics of EhV1 and discuss a possible model of its chemomechanical coupling scheme. PMID:25229752

  4. Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis are able to incorporate and enhance a pre-formed Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm.

    PubMed

    Castro, Joana; Machado, Daniela; Cerca, Nuno

    2016-04-01

    Gardnerella vaginalis is the most frequent microorganism found in bacterial vaginosis (BV), while Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis are amongst the most frequent pathogens found in urinary tract infections (UTIs). This study aimed to evaluate possible interactions between UTIs pathogens and G. vaginalis using an in vitro dual-species biofilm model. Our results showed that dual-species biofilms reached significantly higher bacterial concentration than monospecies biofilms. Moreover, visualization of dual-populations species in the biofilms, using the epifluorescence microscopy, revealed that all of the urogenital pathogens coexisted with G. vaginalis. In conclusion, our work demonstrates that uropathogens can incorporate into mature BV biofilms. PMID:26782142

  5. Bioprosthetic Aortic Valve Endocarditis in Association with Enterococcus durans

    PubMed Central

    Di Gioacchino, Lorena; Balestrini, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci are common organisms associated with endocarditis, but infection by Enterococcus durans is very rare. To our knowledge, only 3 cases have been reported in the medical literature, and all 3 have involved native valves. Here we publish the first reported case (to our knowledge) of E. durans endocarditis in association with a bioprosthetic aortic valve. After the organism and its antibiotic susceptibility were identified, the 74-year-old male patient was treated successfully with teicoplanin and gentamicin, over a course of 6 weeks. PMID:27127436

  6. Draft genome sequence of Enterococcus faecium strain LMG 8148.

    PubMed

    Michiels, Joran E; Van den Bergh, Bram; Fauvart, Maarten; Michiels, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium, traditionally considered a harmless gut commensal, is emerging as an important nosocomial pathogen showing increasing rates of multidrug resistance. We report the draft genome sequence of E. faecium strain LMG 8148, isolated in 1968 from a human in Gothenburg, Sweden. The draft genome has a total length of 2,697,490 bp, a GC-content of 38.3 %, and 2,402 predicted protein-coding sequences. The isolation of this strain predates the emergence of E. faecium as a nosocomial pathogen. Consequently, its genome can be useful in comparative genomic studies investigating the evolution of E. faecium as a pathogen. PMID:27610213

  7. Role of house flies in the ecology of Enterococcus faecalis from wastewater treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Doud, C W; Scott, H M; Zurek, L

    2014-02-01

    Enterococci are important nosocomial pathogens, with Enterococcus faecalis most commonly responsible for human infections. In this study, we used several measures to test the hypothesis that house flies, Musca domestica (L.), acquire and disseminate antibiotic-resistant and potentially virulent E. faecalis from wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF) to the surrounding urban environment. House flies and sludge from four WWTF (1-4) as well as house flies from three urban sites close to WWTF-1 were collected and cultured for enterococci. Enterococci were identified, quantified, screened for antibiotic resistance and virulence traits, and assessed for clonality. Of the 11 antibiotics tested, E. faecalis was most commonly resistant to tetracycline, doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, and erythromycin, and these traits were intra-species horizontally transferrable by in vitro conjugation. Profiles of E. faecalis (prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and virulence traits) from each of WWTF sludge and associated house flies were similar, indicating that flies successfully acquired these bacteria from this substrate. The greatest number of E. faecalis with antibiotic resistance and virulence factors (i.e., gelatinase, cytolysin, enterococcus surface protein, and aggregation substance) originated from WWTF-1 that processed meat waste from a nearby commercial meat-processing plant, suggesting an agricultural rather than human clinical source of these isolates. E. faecalis from house flies collected from three sites 0.7-1.5 km away from WWTF-1 were also similar in their antibiotic resistance profiles; however, antibiotic resistance was significantly less frequent. Clonal diversity assessment using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the same clones of E. faecalis from sludge and house flies from WWTF-1 but not from the three urban sites close to WWTF-1. This study demonstrates that house flies acquire antibiotic-resistant enterococci from WWTF and potentially

  8. Systems biology approach for mapping the response of human urothelial cells to infection by Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Dozmorov, Mikhail G; Kyker, Kimberly D; Saban, Ricardo; Shankar, Nathan; Baghdayan, Arto S; Centola, Michael B; Hurst, Robert E

    2007-01-01

    Background To better understand the response of urinary epithelial (urothelial) cells to Enterococcus faecalis, a uropathogen that exhibits resistance to multiple antibiotics, a genome-wide scan of gene expression was obtained as a time series from urothelial cells growing as a layered 3-dimensional culture similar to normal urothelium. We herein describe a novel means of analysis that is based on deconvolution of gene variability into technical and biological components. Results Analysis of the expression of 21,521 genes from 30 minutes to 10 hours post infection, showed 9553 genes were expressed 3 standard deviations (SD) above the system zero-point noise in at least 1 time point. The asymmetric distribution of relative variances of the expressed genes was deconvoluted into technical variation (with a 6.5% relative SD) and biological variation components (>3 SD above the mode technical variability). These 1409 hypervariable (HV) genes encapsulated the effect of infection on gene expression. Pathway analysis of the HV genes revealed an orchestrated response to infection in which early events included initiation of immune response, cytoskeletal rearrangement and cell signaling followed at the end by apoptosis and shutting down cell metabolism. The number of poorly annotated genes in the earliest time points suggests heretofore unknown processes likely also are involved. Conclusion Enterococcus infection produced an orchestrated response by the host cells involving several pathways and transcription factors that potentially drive these pathways. The early time points potentially identify novel targets for enhancing the host response. These approaches combine rigorous statistical principles with a biological context and are readily applied by biologists. PMID:18047719

  9. Comparison of the effect of monolaurin on the growth and survival of Enterococcus and Salmonella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of monolaurin, a glyceride ester derivative of lauric acid, on the growth of Enterococcus sp. and Salmonella sp. was determined. Salmonella is considered one of the main pathogens in poultry industry, and Enterococcus is an important indicator of fecal contamination and an important cause...

  10. Genetic analysis of a novel plasmid encoded durancin locus in Enterococcus durans 41D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enterococcus durans is commonly found in the intestinal tract in humans and animals and several strains are known to produce bacteriocins. Durancin GL, a novel bacteriocin of Enterococcus durans 41D with antilisterial activity was isolated from artisanal cheese samples and its genetic determinants ...

  11. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by Enterococcus mundtii isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Bigwood, T; Hudson, J A; Cooney, J; McIntyre, L; Billington, C; Heinemann, J A; Wall, F

    2012-12-01

    Two bacterial isolates with inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus faecalis were obtained from soil. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization identified them as Enterococcus mundtii, a species whose ability to compete with L. monocytogenes is relatively unexplored compared to other members of the genus. The thermal stability of the inhibitory factor and its sensitivity to proteolytic enzymes indicate that it is most likely a bacteriocin. Both isolates grew at comparable rates to L. monocytogenes at 5 °C and 10 °C in vitro. One isolate killed L. monocytogenes when it reached concentrations of 10(6)-10(8) CFU ml(-1). Minimum inocula of 10(6) and 10(5) CFU ml(-1) of E. mundtii were required to reduce and maintain L. monocytogenes concentrations beneath the level of detection at 5 °C and 10 °C, respectively. In situ experiments at 5 °C showed that E. mundtii inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes on vacuum-packed cold smoked salmon during its four week shelf life. E. mundtii could, therefore, control the growth of L. monocytogenes at low temperatures, indicating a potential application in controlling this pathogen in chilled foods. To control growth of Listeria, the concentration of E. mundtii needs to be high, but it is possible that a purified bacteriocin could be used to achieve the same effect. PMID:22986201

  12. Genotypic intraspecies heterogeneity of Enterococcus italicus: data from dairy environments.

    PubMed

    Borgo, Francesca; Ferrario, Chiara; Ricci, Giovanni; Fortina, Maria Grazia

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of a collection of 19 Enterococcus italicus strains isolated from different dairy sources was explored using a molecular polyphasic approach, comprising random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR), repetitive element PCR (REP-PCR), plasmid profiling and ribotyping. The data obtained showed a high-level of biodiversity, not always correlated to the niche of isolation. Particularly, REP-PCR with primer BOXA1R and plasmid profiling allowed the best discrimination at strain level. Exploiting the genome shotgun sequence of the type strain of the species, available in public database, genes related to insertion sequences present on enterococcal Pathogenic Islands (ISEf1, IS905), determinants related to virulence factors (codifying for hemolysin and cell wall surface proteins), exogenously DNA (conjugal transfer protein, replication plasmid protein, pheromone shutdown protein, phage integrase/recombinase) and penicillin binding proteins system were detected. The presence of most of these genes seemed a common genetic trait in the Enterococcus genus, sur gene (cell wall surface protein) was only detected in strains of E. italicus. To our knowledge, this is the first time that specific primers, with the expection of the species-specific probe targeted to 16S rRNA gene, have been designed for this species. PMID:22581461

  13. Protein translation machinery holds a key for transition of planktonic cells to biofilm state in Enterococcus faecalis: A proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Qayyum, Shariq; Sharma, Divakar; Bisht, Deepa; Khan, Asad U

    2016-06-10

    Enterococcus faecalis is a member of human gut microflora causing nosocomial infection involving biofilm formation. Ethyl methyl sulfonate induced mutants were analysed using crystal violet assay, SEM and CLSM microscopy which confirmed AK-E12 as biofilm efficient and AK-F6 as biofilm deficient mutants. Growth curve pattern revealed AK-E12 was fast growing whereas, AK-F6 was found slow growing mutant. 2D-Electrophorosis and MALDI-TOF analysis revealed over and underexpression of many translation-elongation associated proteins in mutants compared to wild type. Protein translation elongation factor G, translation elongation factor Tu and ribosomal subunit interface proteins were underexpressed and UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyl transferase and cell division protein divIVA were overexpressed in AK-E12 as compared to wild type. In AK-F6, except 10 kDa chaperonin which was over-expressed other selected proteins were found to be suppressed. RT-PCR confirmed proteomic data except for the translation elongation factor G which showed contradictory data of proteome expression in AK-E12. Protein-protein interaction networks were constructed using STRING 10.0 which demonstrated strong connection of translation-elongation proteins with other proteins. Hence, it concludes from the data that translation elongation factors are important in transition of planktonic cells to biofilm cells in Enterococcus faecalis. PMID:27144316

  14. In situ molecular diagnosis and histopathological characterization of enteroadherent Enterococcus hirae infection in pre-weaning-age kittens.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Jodi L; Moisan, Peter; Stone, Maria R; Gookin, Jody L

    2010-08-01

    The bacterial causes of diarrhea can be frustrating to identify, and it is likely that many remain undiagnosed. The pathogenic potential of certain bacteria becomes less ambiguous when they are observed to intimately associate with intestinal epithelial cells. In the present study we sought to retrospectively characterize the clinical, in situ molecular, and histopathological features of enteroadherent bacteria in seven unrelated kittens that were presumptively diagnosed with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) on the basis of postmortem light microscopic and, in some cases, microbiological examination. Characterization of the enteroadherent bacteria in each case was performed by Gram staining, in situ hybridization using fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotide probes, PCR amplification of species-specific gene sequences, and ultrastructural imaging applied to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of intestinal tissue. In only two kittens was EPEC infection confirmed. In the remaining five kittens, enteroadherent bacteria were identified as Enterococcus spp. The enterococci were further identified as Enterococcus hirae on the basis of PCR amplification of DNA extracted from the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue and amplified by using species-specific primers. Transmission electron microscopy of representative lesions from E. coli- and Enterococcus spp.-infected kittens revealed coccobacilli adherent to intestinal epithelial cells without effacement of microvilli or cup-and-pedestal formation. Enterococci were not observed, nor were DNA sequences amplified from intestinal tissue obtained from age-matched kittens euthanized for reasons unrelated to intestinal disease. These studies suggest that E. hirae may be a common cause of enteroadherent bacterial infection in pre-weaning-age kittens and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bacterial disease in this population. PMID:20519483

  15. In Situ Molecular Diagnosis and Histopathological Characterization of Enteroadherent Enterococcus hirae Infection in Pre-Weaning-Age Kittens▿

    PubMed Central

    Nicklas, Jodi L.; Moisan, Peter; Stone, Maria R.; Gookin, Jody L.

    2010-01-01

    The bacterial causes of diarrhea can be frustrating to identify, and it is likely that many remain undiagnosed. The pathogenic potential of certain bacteria becomes less ambiguous when they are observed to intimately associate with intestinal epithelial cells. In the present study we sought to retrospectively characterize the clinical, in situ molecular, and histopathological features of enteroadherent bacteria in seven unrelated kittens that were presumptively diagnosed with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) on the basis of postmortem light microscopic and, in some cases, microbiological examination. Characterization of the enteroadherent bacteria in each case was performed by Gram staining, in situ hybridization using fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotide probes, PCR amplification of species-specific gene sequences, and ultrastructural imaging applied to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of intestinal tissue. In only two kittens was EPEC infection confirmed. In the remaining five kittens, enteroadherent bacteria were identified as Enterococcus spp. The enterococci were further identified as Enterococcus hirae on the basis of PCR amplification of DNA extracted from the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue and amplified by using species-specific primers. Transmission electron microscopy of representative lesions from E. coli- and Enterococcus spp.-infected kittens revealed coccobacilli adherent to intestinal epithelial cells without effacement of microvilli or cup-and-pedestal formation. Enterococci were not observed, nor were DNA sequences amplified from intestinal tissue obtained from age-matched kittens euthanized for reasons unrelated to intestinal disease. These studies suggest that E. hirae may be a common cause of enteroadherent bacterial infection in pre-weaning-age kittens and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bacterial disease in this population. PMID:20519483

  16. Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Enterococcus Species Isolated from Hospital and Domestic Wastewater Effluents in Alice, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Iweriebor, Benson Chuks; Gaqavu, Sisipho; Obi, Larry Chikwelu; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms are on the increase worldwide and are responsible for substantial cases of therapeutic failures. Resistance of species of Enterococcus to antibiotics is linked to their ability to acquire and disseminate antimicrobial resistance determinants in nature, and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered to be one of the main reservoirs of such antibiotic resistant bacteria. We therefore determined the antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles of some common Enterococcus spp that are known to be associated with human infections that were recovered from hospital wastewater and final effluent of the receiving wastewater treatment plant in Alice, Eastern Cape. Methods: Wastewater samples were simultaneously collected from two sites (Victoria hospital and final effluents of a municipal WWTP) in Alice at about one to two weeks interval during the months of July and August 2014. Samples were screened for the isolation of enterococci using standard microbiological methods. The isolates were profiled molecularly after targeted generic identification and speciation for the presence of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. Results: Out of 66 presumptive isolates, 62 were confirmed to belong to the Enterococcus genusof which 30 were identified to be E. faecalis and 15 E. durans. The remaining isolates were not identified by the primers used in the screening procedure. Out of the six virulence genes that were targeted only three of them; ace, efaA, and gelE were detected. There was a very high phenotypic multiple resistance among the isolates and these were confirmed by genetic analyses. Conclusions: Analyses of the results obtained indicated that hospital wastewater may be one of the sources of antibiotic resistant bacteria to the receiving WWTP. Also, findings revealed that the final effluent discharged into the environment was contaminated with multi-resistant enterococci species thus posing a health hazard

  17. COMPARISON BETWEEN AUTOMATED SYSTEM AND PCR-BASED METHOD FOR IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF CLINICAL Enterococcus spp

    PubMed Central

    Furlaneto-Maia, Luciana; Rocha, Kátia Real; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; Furlaneto, Márcia Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Enterococci are increasingly responsible for nosocomial infections worldwide. This study was undertaken to compare the identification and susceptibility profile using an automated MicrosScan system, PCR-based assay and disk diffusion assay of Enterococcus spp. We evaluated 30 clinical isolates of Enterococcus spp. Isolates were identified by MicrosScan system and PCR-based assay. The detection of antibiotic resistance genes (vancomycin, gentamicin, tetracycline and erythromycin) was also determined by PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibilities to vancomycin (30 µg), gentamicin (120 µg), tetracycline (30 µg) and erythromycin (15 µg) were tested by the automated system and disk diffusion method, and were interpreted according to the criteria recommended in CLSI guidelines. Concerning Enterococcus identification the general agreement between data obtained by the PCR method and by the automatic system was 90.0% (27/30). For all isolates of E. faecium and E. faecalis we observed 100% agreement. Resistance frequencies were higher in E. faecium than E. faecalis. The resistance rates obtained were higher for erythromycin (86.7%), vancomycin (80.0%), tetracycline (43.35) and gentamicin (33.3%). The correlation between disk diffusion and automation revealed an agreement for the majority of the antibiotics with category agreement rates of > 80%. The PCR-based assay, the van(A) gene was detected in 100% of vancomycin resistant enterococci. This assay is simple to conduct and reliable in the identification of clinically relevant enterococci. The data obtained reinforced the need for an improvement of the automated system to identify some enterococci. PMID:24626409

  18. Differences in Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Strains Isolated from Farm and Pet Animals

    PubMed Central

    Butaye, Patrick; Devriese, Luc A.; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of acquired resistance in 146 Enterococcus faecium and 166 Enterococcus faecalis strains from farm and pet animals, isolated in 1998 and 1999 in Belgium, against antibiotics used for growth promotion and for therapy was determined. Acquired resistance against flavomycin and monensin, two antibiotics used solely for growth promotion, was not detected. Avoparcin (glycopeptide) resistance was found sporadically in E. faecium only. Avilamycin resistance was almost exclusively seen in strains from farm animals. Resistance rates were higher in E. faecium strains from broiler chickens than in strains from other animal groups with tylosin and virginiamycin and in E. faecalis as well as in E. faecium strains with narasin and bacitracin. Resistance against ampicillin was mainly found among E. faecium strains from pets and was absent in E. faecalis. Tetracycline resistance occurred most often in strains from farm animals, while enrofloxacin resistance, only found in E. faecalis, occurred equally among strains from all origins. Resistance against gentamicin was very rare in broiler strains, whereas resistance rates were high in strains from other origins. It can be concluded that resistance against antibiotics used solely for growth promotion was more prevalent in E. faecium strains than in E. faecalis strains. With few exceptions, resistance against the different categories of antibiotics was more prevalent in strains from farm animals than in those from pets. PMID:11302798

  19. Differences in antibiotic resistance patterns of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from farm and pet animals.

    PubMed

    Butaye, P; Devriese, L A; Haesebrouck, F

    2001-05-01

    The prevalence of acquired resistance in 146 Enterococcus faecium and 166 Enterococcus faecalis strains from farm and pet animals, isolated in 1998 and 1999 in Belgium, against antibiotics used for growth promotion and for therapy was determined. Acquired resistance against flavomycin and monensin, two antibiotics used solely for growth promotion, was not detected. Avoparcin (glycopeptide) resistance was found sporadically in E. faecium only. Avilamycin resistance was almost exclusively seen in strains from farm animals. Resistance rates were higher in E. faecium strains from broiler chickens than in strains from other animal groups with tylosin and virginiamycin and in E. faecalis as well as in E. faecium strains with narasin and bacitracin. Resistance against ampicillin was mainly found among E. faecium strains from pets and was absent in E. faecalis. Tetracycline resistance occurred most often in strains from farm animals, while enrofloxacin resistance, only found in E. faecalis, occurred equally among strains from all origins. Resistance against gentamicin was very rare in broiler strains, whereas resistance rates were high in strains from other origins. It can be concluded that resistance against antibiotics used solely for growth promotion was more prevalent in E. faecium strains than in E. faecalis strains. With few exceptions, resistance against the different categories of antibiotics was more prevalent in strains from farm animals than in those from pets. PMID:11302798

  20. Prevalence and characterization of Enterococcus spp. isolated from Brazilian foods.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Bruna C; Esteves, Carolina T; Palazzo, Izabel C V; Darini, Ana Lúcia C; Felis, G E; Sechi, Leonardo A; Franco, Bernadette D G M; De Martinis, Elaine C P

    2008-08-01

    Enterococci can be used in the food industry as starter or probiotic cultures. However, enterococci are also implicated in severe multi-resistant nosocomial infections. In this study, the prevalence of enterococci in selected Brazilian foodstuffs (raw and pasteurized milk, meat products, cheeses and vegetables) was evaluated. Phenotypic and PCR protocols were used for species identification. Tests for production of gelatinase, haemolysin, bacteriocin and bile salt hydrolysis were done with all enterococci isolates, whereas molecular determination of virulence markers (genes esp, gel, ace, as, efaA, hyl and cylA) and antibiotic resistance was checked only for Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The antibiotic-resistant isolates were assayed for biofilm formation and adhesion to mammalian cells. From the 120 food samples analyzed, 52.5% were positive for enterococci, meat and cheese being the most contaminated. E. faecium was the predominant species, followed by E. faecalis, E. casseliflavus and Enterococcus gallinarum. Phenotypic tests indicated that 67.7% of isolates hydrolyzed bile salts, 15.2% produced bacteriocin, 12.0% were beta-hemolytic and 18.2% produced gelatinase. Antibiotic resistance (gentamicin, tetracycline and erythromycin) and genes encoding for virulence traits were more frequent in E. faecalis than in E. faecium. Three E. faecium isolates were resistant to vancomycin. Among antibiotic-resistant isolates, 72.4% of E. faecalis were able to form biofilm and 13.8% to adhere to Caco-2 cells. Antibiotic-resistant E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates were grouped by RAPD-PCR and a scattered distribution was noted, indicating that resistance was not related to a particular clone. The spread of virulence/resistance traits in isolates of the two species and different RAPD-types suggest the pathogenic potential of both species. By contrast, the recovery of bacteriocinogenic E. faecium isolates with no virulence traits suggests their

  1. In vitro alkaline pH resistance of Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Weckwerth, Paulo Henrique; Zapata, Ronald Ordinola; Vivan, Rodrigo Ricci; Tanomaru Filho, Mário; Maliza, Amanda Garcia Alves; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a bacterial species often found in root canals with failed endodontic treatment. Alkaline pastes are widely used in Endodontics because of their biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity, but this microorganism can resist alkalinity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the alkaline pH resistance of E. faecalis for different periods up to 14 days. Samples were obtained from the oral cavity of 150 patients from the Endodontic clinic. The pH of the experimental tubes (n=84) was first adjusted with 6M NaOH to pH values of 9.5, 10.5, 11.5 and 12.5 (21 tubes per pH). Twenty clinical isolates and the ATCC 29212 strain were tested. The 5 positive controls and experimental tubes of each pH were inoculated with 10 µL of bacterial suspension and incubated at 36 °C for 24, 48 and 72 h, 7 and 14 days. For each period, the turbidity of the medium was visually compared with a 0.5 McFarland standard. The presence of the microorganism was confirmed by seeding on M-Enterococcus agar. Four tubes containing BHI broth adjusted to the tested pHs were incubated for 14 days to verify if pH changes occurred. The pH of inoculated BHI broth was also measured on day 14 to determine if the microorganism acidified the medium. The growth of all E. faecalis strains occurred at pH 9.5 to 11.5 in all periods. Although turbidity was not observed at pH 12.5, there was growth of 13 and 2 strains at 24 and 48 h, respectively, on M-Enterococcus agar. No tube showed growth at pH 12.5 after 72 h. It was concluded that E. faecalis can survive in highly alkaline pH, and some clinical isolates require 72 h at pH 12.5 to be killed. PMID:24474287

  2. Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis in the gut

    PubMed Central

    Garsin, Danielle A; Lorenz, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    The fungus Candida albicans and the gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis are both normal residents of the human gut microbiome and cause opportunistic disseminated infections in immunocompromised individuals. Using a nematode infection model, we recently showed that co-infection resulted in less pathology and less mortality than infection with either species alone and this was partly explained by an interkingdom signaling event in which a bacterial-derived product inhibits hyphal morphogenesis of C. albicans. In this addendum we discuss these findings in the contest of other described bacterial-fungal interactions and recent data suggesting a potentially synergistic relationship between these two species in the mouse gut as well. We suggest that E. faecalis and C. albicans promote a mutually beneficial association with the host, in effect choosing a commensal lifestyle over a pathogenic one. PMID:23941906

  3. A Rex Family Transcriptional Repressor Influences H2O2 Accumulation by Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Vesić, Dušanka

    2013-01-01

    Rex factors are bacterial transcription factors thought to respond to the cellular NAD+/NADH ratio in order to modulate gene expression by differentially binding DNA. To date, Rex factors have been implicated in regulating genes of central metabolism, oxidative stress response, and biofilm formation. The genome of Enterococcus faecalis, a low-GC Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen, encodes EF2638, a putative Rex factor. To study the role of E. faecalis Rex, we purified EF2638 and evaluated its DNA binding activity in vitro. EF2638 was able to bind putative promoter segments of several E. faecalis genes in an NADH-responsive manner, indicating that it represents an authentic Rex factor. Transcriptome analysis of a ΔEF2638 mutant revealed that genes likely to be involved in anaerobic metabolism were upregulated during aerobic growth, and the mutant exhibited an altered NAD+/NADH ratio. The ΔEF2638 mutant also exhibited a growth defect when grown with aeration on several carbon sources, suggesting an impaired ability to cope with oxidative stress. Inclusion of catalase in the medium alleviated the growth defect. H2O2 measurements revealed that the mutant accumulates significantly more H2O2 than wild-type E. faecalis. In summary, EF2638 represents an authentic Rex factor in E. faecalis that influences the production or detoxification of H2O2 in addition to its more familiar role as a regulator of anaerobic gene expression. PMID:23417491

  4. Characterization of Small-Colony Variants of Enterococcus faecalis Isolated from Chickens with Amyloid Arthropathy▿

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Andreas; Chadfield, Mark S.; Christensen, Jens P.; Christensen, Henrik; Bisgaard, Magne

    2008-01-01

    In this study we report the isolation and characterization of normal-sized and small-colony variants of Enterococcus faecalis from outbreaks of amyloid arthropathy in chickens. Postmortem examinations of 59 chickens revealed orange deposits in the knee joints, typical for amyloid arthropathy. Bacterial cultures from 102 joints and 43 spleens exhibited pure (n = 88) and mixed (n = 11) cultures of normal (n = 60) and pinpoint (n = 28) colonies of E. faecalis. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of 62 isolates demonstrated seven different band patterns with at most two band size variations, and multilocus sequence typing demonstrated two different sequence types, sharing six out of seven alleles, suggesting a close evolutionary relationship between isolates obtained from four outbreaks. In addition, all isolates were clonally related to an amyloid arthropathy reference strain from The Netherlands, previously shown to be globally dispersed. Initial investigation of the isolated small-colony variant phenotype revealed no difference in whole-cell protein profiling between normal and pinpoint colonies. However, the pinpoint colony isolates appeared to be more virulent in an in vivo challenge model in chickens than their normal-sized-colony counterparts. In addition, pinpoint morphology and associated slow growth were expressed without reversion after in vitro and in vivo passage, suggesting a genuine altered phenotype, and in some instances normal colonies converted to pinpoint morphology postinfection. In conclusion, small-colony variants of E. faecalis are described for the first time from veterinary clinical sources and in relation to amyloid arthropathy in chickens. PMID:18579713

  5. In vitro activity of Amazon plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    de Castilho, Adriana Lígia; da Silva, Juliana Paola Correa; Saraceni, Cintia Helena Coury; Díaz, Ingrit Elida Collantes; Paciencia, Mateus Luís Barradas; Varella, Antonio Drauzio; Suffredini, Ivana Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies analyzing 2,200 plant extracts indicated anti-enterococcal activity in 25 extracts obtained from Brazilian forests’ plants. In the present study, these extracts were subjected to microdilution broth assay (MDBA) and disk diffusion assay (DDA) using planktonic Enterococcus faecalis ATCC® 29212™ and were submitted to phytochemical analysis in TLC and HPLC. Three extracts obtained from Ipomoea alba (MIC < 40 μg/mL), Diclinanona calycina (MIC ≤ 40 μg/mL) and Moronobea coccinea (40 < MIC < 80 μg/mL; MBC = 80 μg/mL) showed significant bactericidal activity in the MDBA and four extracts obtained from I. alba (14.04 ± 0.55 mm diameter) S. globulifera (14.43 ± 0.33 mm and 12.18 ± 0.28 mm diameter) and Connarus ruber var. ruber (13.13 ± 0.18 mm diameter) were active in DDA. Residues H2O obtained from Psidium densicomum (mean of 16.78 mm diameter) and from Stryphnodendron pulcherrimum (mean of 15.97 mm diameter) have shown an improved antibacterial activity after fractionation if compared to that obtained from the respective crude extracts. Antioxidant activity was observed in some residues of the active extracts. TLC analysis showed that phenolic compounds are likely to be found in active extracts. Three molecules were isolated from S. globulifera and were identified by 13C NMR lupeol, α-amyrin and 3β-hydroxyglutin-5-ene. The present chemical and biological findings suggest that these extracts are a potential source of new anti-Enterococcus compounds to be introduced in endodontic therapy. PMID:25477906

  6. Restricted Gene Flow among Hospital Subpopulations of Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Rob J. L.; Top, Janetta; van Schaik, Willem; Leavis, Helen; Bonten, Marc; Sirén, Jukka; Hanage, William P.; Corander, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterococcus faecium has recently emerged as an important multiresistant nosocomial pathogen. Defining population structure in this species is required to provide insight into the existence, distribution, and dynamics of specific multiresistant or pathogenic lineages in particular environments, like the hospital. Here, we probe the population structure of E. faecium using Bayesian-based population genetic modeling implemented in Bayesian Analysis of Population Structure (BAPS) software. The analysis involved 1,720 isolates belonging to 519 sequence types (STs) (491 for E. faecium and 28 for Enterococcus faecalis). E. faecium isolates grouped into 13 BAPS (sub)groups, but the large majority (80%) of nosocomial isolates clustered in two subgroups (2-1 and 3-3). Phylogenetic and eBURST analysis of BAPS groups 2 and 3 confirmed the existence of three separate hospital lineages (17, 18, and 78), highlighting different evolutionary trajectories for BAPS 2-1 (lineage 78) and 3-3 (lineage 17 and lineage 18) isolates. Phylogenomic analysis of 29 E. faecium isolates showed agreement between BAPS assignment of STs and their relative positions in the phylogenetic tree. Odds ratio calculation confirmed the significant association between hospital isolates with BAPS 3-3 and lineages 17, 18, and 78. Admixture analysis showed a scarce number of recombination events between the different BAPS groups. For the E. faecium hospital population, we propose an evolutionary model in which strains with a high propensity to colonize and infect hospitalized patients arise through horizontal gene transfer. Once adapted to the distinct hospital niche, this subpopulation becomes isolated, and recombination with other populations declines. PMID:22807567

  7. Atomic force microscopy visualization of injuries in Enterococcus faecalis surface caused by Er,Cr:YSGG and diode lasers

    PubMed Central

    López-Jiménez, Lidia; Viñas, Miguel; Vinuesa, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To visualize by Atomic Force Microscopy the alterations induced on Enterococcus. faecalis surface after treatment with 2 types of laser: Erbium chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser and Diode laser. Material and Methods: Bacterial suspensions from overnight cultures of E. faecalis were irradiated during 30 seconds with the laser-lights at 1 W and 2 W of power, leaving one untreated sample as control. Surface alterations on treated E. faecalis were visualized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and its surface roughness determined. Results: AFM imaging showed that at high potency of laser both cell morphology and surface roughness resulted altered, and that several cell lysis signs were easily visualized. Surface roughness clearly increase after the treatment with Er,Cr:YSGG at 2W of power, while the other treatments gave similar values of surface roughness. The effect of lasers on bacterial surfaces visualized by AFM revealed drastic alterations. Conclusions: AFM is a good tool to evaluate surface injuries after laser treatment; and could constitute a measure of antimicrobial effect that can complete data obtained by determination of microbial viability. Key words:Atomic force microscopy, Er,Cr:YSGG laser, diode laser, Enterococcus faecalis, surface roughness. PMID:25475770

  8. Comparative Study of Bacteremias Caused by Enterococcus spp. with and without High-Level Resistance to Gentamicin

    PubMed Central

    Caballero-Granado, Francisco Javier; Cisneros, J. M.; Luque, R.; Torres-Tortosa, M.; Gamboa, F.; Díez, F.; Villanueva, J. L.; Pérez-Cano, R.; Pasquau, J.; Merino, D.; Menchero, A.; Mora, D.; López-Ruz, M. A.; Vergara, A.; Infecciosas, for the Grupo Andaluz Para El Estudio De Las Enfermedades

    1998-01-01

    A prospective, multicenter study was carried out over a period of 10 months. All patients with clinically significant bacteremia caused by Enterococcus spp. were included. The epidemiological, microbiological, clinical, and prognostic features and the relationship of these features to the presence of high-level resistance to gentamicin (HLRG) were studied. Ninety-three patients with enterococcal bacteremia were included, and 31 of these cases were caused by HLRG (33%). The multivariate analysis selected chronic renal failure, intensive care unit stay, previous use of antimicrobial agents, and Enterococcus faecalis species as the independent risk factors that influenced the development of HLRG. The strains with HLRG showed lower levels of susceptibility to penicillin and ciprofloxacin. Clinical features (except for chronic renal failure) were similar in both groups of patients. HLRG did not influence the prognosis for patients with enterococcal bacteremia in terms of either the crude mortality rate (29% for patients with bacteremia caused by enterococci with HLRG and 28% for patients not infected with strains with HLRG) or the hospital stay after the acquisition of enterococcal bacteremia. Hemodynamic compromise, inappropriate antimicrobial therapy, and mechanical ventilation were revealed in the multivariate analysis to be the independent risk factors for mortality. Prolonged hospitalization was associated with the nosocomial acquisition of bacteremia and polymicrobial infections. PMID:9466769

  9. Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and probiotic potential of Enterococcus hirae isolated from the rumen of Bos primigenius.

    PubMed

    Arokiyaraj, Selvaraj; Hairul Islam, Villianur Ibrahim; Bharanidharan, R; Raveendar, Sebastian; Lee, Jinwook; Kim, Do Hyung; Oh, Young Kyoon; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Kyoung Hoon

    2014-07-01

    In the present study bacterial strains were isolated from the rumen fluids of Bos primigenius and investigated their in vitro probiotic properties with potent antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory effects. 9 g positive bacterial isolates were obtained and three isolates could able to tolerate gastric conditions, high bile salt concentrations and exhibited significant bactericidal effect against the enteric pathogens Vibrio cholera, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter aerogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Moreover it showed above 70% cell surface hydrophobicity, significant low-invasion ability and potential adherence capacity in Caco-2 cells when compared with the control. The proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α) was greatly reduced in rumen bacteria treatment and ARBS-1 modulate the immune response by activating the IL-4 secretion in parallel to TNF-α suppression. The 16s rRNA gene sequence of the active isolates were identified as Enterococcus hirae (ARBS-1), Pediococcus acidilactici (ARBS-4) and Bacillus licheniformis (ARBS-7). This study revealed the probiotic bactericidal properties of E. hirae obtained from the rumen of B. primigenius with potential antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. Future studies with the strains may yield some novel probiotic product for livestock's. PMID:24609495

  10. Biochemical and genetic evidence for the transfer of Enterococcus solitarius Collins et al. 1989 to the genus Tetragenococcus as Tetragenococcus solitarius comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Ennahar, Saïd; Cai, Yimin

    2005-03-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that Enterococcus solitarius is not a member of the genus Enterococcus, but is related to species of the genus Tetragenococcus. On a phylogenetic tree, E. solitarius clustered with Tetragenococcus halophilus and Tetragenococcus muriaticus, with which it showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity level (about 94 %). Phenotypic studies indicated that E. solitarius was also unable to produce acid from lactose, providing further evidence of its affiliation to the genus Tetragenococcus. DNA hybridization studies indicated that E. solitarius was clearly a separate species, different from T. halophilus and T. muriaticus (reassociation levels of about 23 and 54 %, respectively). As suggested in previous studies, E. solitarius is closely related to but clearly distinct from T. halophilus. Based upon properties that taxonomically distinguish it from species of the genus Enterococcus, it is proposed that E. solitarius be transferred to the genus Tetragenococcus and reclassified as Tetragenococcus solitarius comb. nov. (type strain, 885/78(T)=ATCC 49428(T)=CCUG 29293(T)=CIP 103330(T)=DSM 5634(T)=JCM 8736(T)=LMG 12890(T)=NCTC 12193(T)). PMID:15774629

  11. Effects of pressure and pressure cycling on disinfection of Enterococcus sp. in seawater using pressurized carbon dioxide with different content rates.

    PubMed

    Dang, Loc T T; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Le, Tuan V; Nishihara, Satoshi; Higuchi, Takaya; Nguyen, Mai K D; Kanno, Ariyo; Yamamoto, Koichi; Sekine, Masahiko

    2016-09-18

    Interest is growing in a disinfection technique for water treatment without disinfection byproducts. This study presents the result of using a liquid-film-forming apparatus at less than 1.0 MPa for disinfection of seawater. The sensitivity of Enterococcus sp. (ATCC 202155) to the pressurized carbon dioxide (CO2) was examined under various conditions of pressure cycling, pressure, working volume ratio (WVR), and CO2 content rate. The key influences on frequency and magnitude of pressure cycling in enhancing Enterococcus sp. inactivation are elucidated. The results reveal strong correlation between pressure cycling and inactivation efficiency (P-value < 0.001). The outcome of linear regression model analysis suggests that the model can explain 93%, 85%, and 89% of the inactivation efficiency of (25% CO2 + 75% N2), (50% CO2 + 50% N2), and 100% CO2, respectively. The predicted value was fit with experimental results (p-value <0.05). Under identical treatment conditions (pressure = 0.9 MPa, ΔP = 0.14 MPa, 70% WVR, and 20 ± 1°C), treatment with pressurized CO2 (100% purity) resulted in complete inactivation 5.2 log of Enterococcus sp. after 70 cycles within 20 min. The Enterococcus sp. inactivation of pressurized CO2 followed first-order reaction kinetics. The smallest D-value (largest k-value) was induced by pressurized CO2 (100% purity) at 0.9 MPa, which was obtained at 3.85 min (0.5988 min(-1), R(2) ≥ 0.95). The findings could provide an effective method for enhanced bactericidal performance of pressurized CO2, to address recently emerging problems in water disinfection. PMID:27294417

  12. β-Lactam combinations with daptomycin provide synergy against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jordan R.; Barber, Katie E.; Raut, Animesh; Aboutaleb, Mostafa; Sakoulas, George; Rybak, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Enterococcus faecalis (Efc) and Enterococcus faecium (Efm) are frequently resistant to vancomycin and β-lactams (BLs). In vitro data suggest synergy between several BLs and glycopeptides or lipopeptides against resistant pathogens. Our objective was to conduct combination MIC and time–kill experiments to evaluate BL synergy with daptomycin against enterococci. Methods Fifteen Efc and 20 Efm strains were evaluated for daptomycin enhancement via combination MICs. Daptomycin MICs were obtained by microdilution in the absence and presence of ceftaroline, ertapenem, cefepime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefazolin and ampicillin. Two Efc strains (R6981 and R7808) and one isogenic daptomycin-susceptible/daptomycin-non-susceptible Efm pair (8019/5938) were evaluated in time–kill experiments. Daptomycin at 0.5 × MIC was used in combination with BL at biological free concentration. Strain 5938 was evaluated for enhancement of daptomycin binding in fluorescently labelled daptomycin (BoDipy) experiments. Results Ceftaroline reduced daptomycin MIC values the most against all strains. In time–kill experiments, ceftaroline, ertapenem, cefepime, ceftriaxone and ampicillin demonstrated synergy with daptomycin against all strains, cefazolin demonstrated none and cefotaxime demonstrated synergy against only R7808. Bacterial reduction at 24 h was greater for daptomycin + ceftaroline, ertapenem, cefepime, ceftriaxone or ampicillin for all strains compared with any single agent or daptomycin + cefazolin or cefotaxime (P < 0.001). In BoDipy daptomycin experiments, ceftaroline enhanced daptomycin binding most compared with all other agents (P < 0.001). Conclusions The data support the potential use of daptomycin/BL combination therapy in infections caused by VRE. Combination regimens, other than those involving cefazolin and cefotaxime, provide better kill compared with daptomycin alone. Further clinical research involving daptomycin combinations is

  13. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from retail food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although enterococci are considered opportunistic nosocomial pathogens, their contribution to food-borne illnesses via dissemination through retail food remains undefined. In this study, prevalence and association of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of 80 Enterococcus faecalis isolate...

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of an Enterococcus faecalis Strain Isolated from a Neonatal Blood Sepsis Patient.

    PubMed

    Kropp, K A; Lucid, A; Carroll, J; Belgrudov, V; Walsh, P; Kelly, B; Smith, C; Dickinson, P; O'Driscoll, A; Templeton, K; Ghazal, P; Sleator, R D

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we report the draft genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis ED-NGS-1009, cultivated from a blood sample taken from a neonatal sepsis patient at the Royal Infirmary in Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom. PMID:25212626

  15. The anti-Candida activity by Ancillary Proteins of an Enterococcus faecium strain

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Utpal; Chalasani, Ajay G.; Shekh, M. Raeesh

    2015-01-01

    An antimycotic activity toward seven strains of Candida albicans was demonstrated erstwhile by a wild-type Enterococcus faecium isolated from a penguin rookery of the Antarctic region. In the present study the antimicrobial principle was purified by ion exchange and gel permeation chromatography and further was analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. In the purification steps, the dialyzed concentrate and ion exchange fractions inhibited C. albicans MTCC 3958, 183, and SC 5314. However, the gel filtration purified fractions inhibited MTCC 3958 and 183. The data obtained from the LC-ESI-MS/MS indicate that the antimicrobial activity of the anti-Candida protein produced by E. faecium is facilitated by Sag A/Bb for the binding of the indicator organism's cell membrane. Partial N-terminal sequence revealed 12 N-terminal amino acid residues and its analysis shown that it belongs to the LysM motif. The nucleotide sequence of PCR-amplified product could detect 574 nucleotides of the LysM gene responsible for binding to chitin of the cell wall of Candida sp. PMID:26005434

  16. In vitro probiotic profiling of novel Enterococcus faecium and Leuconostoc mesenteroides from Tunisian freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    El-Jeni, Rim; El Bour, Monia; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Böhme, Karola; Fernández-No, Inmaculada C; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge; Bouhaouala-Zahar, Balkiss

    2016-01-01

    Novel lactic acid bacteria isolated from different organs of freshwater fish were examined for their potential application as probiotics in raw and processed foods. Four isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were identified at the molecular level by 16S rRNA sequencing and random amplification of polymorphic DNA - polymerase chain reaction, and their antimicrobial activity against a panel of pathogens and food-poisoning bacteria was investigated. The whole bacteriocins of the 4 isolates were characterized by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences in PCR. The isolates exhibited high inhibitory activities against food-borne pathogens and spoilage microbial species and have significant probiotic profiles, since they survived at pH 3.0 and in the presence of bile salts, pancreatin, and pepsin, without any detectable hemolytic activity. Further, moderate heat resistance, adhesion ability to steel surfaces, and sensitivity to clinically relevant antimicrobial agents were revealed for all the isolates. These results highlight the specific probiotic properties of the strains and give evidence for potential application in minimally processed foods subjected to moderate heat processing. PMID:26651241

  17. Efficacy of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma as an Antibacterial Agent Against Enterococcus Faecalis in Vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yingguang; Yang, Ping; Lu, Xinpei; Xiong, Zilan; Ye, Tao; Xiong, Qing; Sun, Ziyong

    2011-02-01

    Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is a microorganism that can survive extreme challenges in obturated root canals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma plume against E. faecalis in vitro. A non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet device which could generate a cold plasma plume carrying a peak current of 300 mA was used. The antibacterial efficacy of this device against E. faecalis and its biofilm under different conditions was detected. The antibacterial efficacy of the plasma against E. faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was also evaluated. After plasma treatment, the average diameter of inhibition zone on S. aureus and E. faecalis was 2.62±0.26 cm and 1.06±0.30 cm, respectively (P < 0.05). The diameter was increased with prolongation of the treatment duration. The diameters of inhibition zone of the sealed Petri dishes were larger than those of the uncovered Petri dishes. There was significant difference in colony-forming units between plasma group and control group on E. faecalis biofilm (P < 0.01). The transmission electron microscopy revealed that the ultrastructural changes cytoderm of E. faecalis were observed after treatment for 2 min. It is concluded that the non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma could serve as an effective adjunct to standard endodontic microbial treatment.

  18. Crystal structure of enterococcus faecalis sly A-like transcriptional factor.

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, R.; Zhang, R.; Zagnitko, O.; Dementieva, I.; Maltsev, N.; Watson, J. D.; Laskowski, R.; Gornicki, P.; Joachimiak, A.; Univ. of Chicago; European Bioinformatics Inst.

    2003-05-30

    The crystal structure of a SlyA transcriptional regulator at 1.6 {angstrom} resolution is presented, and structural relationships between members of the MarR/SlyA family are discussed. The SlyA family, which includes SlyA, Rap, Hor, and RovA proteins, is widely distributed in bacterial and archaeal genomes. Current evidence suggests that SlyA-like factors act as repressors, activators, and modulators of gene transcription. These proteins have been shown to up-regulate the expression of molecular chaperones, acid-resistance proteins, and cytolysin, and down-regulate several biosynthetic enzymes. The structure of SlyA from Enterococcus faecalis, determined as a part of an ongoing structural genomics initiative (www.mcsg.anl.gov), revealed the same winged helix DNA-binding motif that was recently found in the MarR repressor from Escherichia coli and the MexR repressor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a sequence homologue of MarR. Phylogenetic analysis of the MarR/SlyA family suggests that Sly is placed between the SlyA and MarR subfamilies and shows significant sequence similarity to members of both subfamilies.

  19. Structural Studies on Cytosolic Domain of Magnesium Transporter MgtE from Enterococcus faecalis

    SciTech Connect

    Ragumani, S.; Sauder, J; Burley, S; Swaminathan, S

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg{sup 2+}) is an essential element for growth and maintenance of living cells. It acts as a cofactor for many enzymes and is also essential for stability of the plasma membrane. There are two distinct classes of magnesium transporters identified in bacteria that convey Mg{sup 2+} from periplasm to cytoplasm [ATPase-dependent (MgtA and MgtB) and constitutively active (CorA and MgtE)]. Previously published work on Mg{sup 2+} transporters yielded structures of full length MgtE from Thermus thermophilus, determined at 3.5 {angstrom} resolution, and its cytoplasmic domain with and without bond Mg{sup 2+} determined at 2.3 and 3.9 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Here, they report the crystal structure of the Mg{sup 2+} bound form of the cytosolic portion of MgtE (residues 6-262) from Enterococcus faecalis at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution. The present structure and magnesium bound cytosolic domain structure from T. thermophilus (PDB ID: 2YVY) are structurally similar. Three magnesium binding sites are common to both MgtE full length and the present structure. Their work revealed an additional Mg{sup 2+} binding site in the E. faecalis structure. In this report, they discuss the functional significance of Mg{sup 2+} binding sites in the cytosolic domains of MgtE transporters.

  20. [Emergence of linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecalis strains from two inpatients in a pediatric ward].

    PubMed

    Nihonyanagi, Shin; Adachi, Yuzuru; Onuki, Tomoyo; Nakazaki, Nobuhiko; Hirata, Yasuyosi; Fujiki, Kuniko; Takayama, Yoko; Kanoh, Yuhsaku; Bandoh, Yuki; Dantsuji, Yurika; Hanaki, Hideaki; Sunakawa, Keisuke

    2012-09-01

    We report herein on the isolation of three linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecalis strains in 2011 from two pediatric inpatients at Kitasato University Hospital, Japan. Three linezolid resistant strains were isolated from two patients who shared the same room of a pediatric inpatient ward. Two linezolid resistant strains were isolated from patient A who had been treated with a total of 17,600mg of linezolid during 60 days of hospitalization (strains 1 and 2). The linezolid resistant E. faecalis persisted through the time that the patient had been discharged from the hospital. Another linezolid resistant strain was isolated from patient B who had no history of linezolid administration. The resistant strain in patient B phased out spontaneously. The minimum inhibitory concentration of linezolid in these strains ranged from 8.0 to 16.0 microg/mL. PCR amplification of the chromosomal gene encoding domain V of the 23S rRNA and subsequent nucleotide sequencing revealed that all the strains had at least one G2576T mutation. The pulse-field-gel electrophoretograms of the DNA treated with the SmaI restriction enzyme showed an identical profile suggesting that they were derived from a single resistant strain. These results suggested that the resistant strain occurred in patient A and was transmitted to patient B within the inpatient ward. PMID:23198574

  1. Insidious Onset of Tetraparesis due to Cervical Epidural Abscess from Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Soultanis, Konstantinos Chr; Sakellariou, Vasileios I; Starantzis, Konstantinos A; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos A; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of cervical epidural abscess from Enterococcus faecalis, which caused an insidious onset of tetraparesis. This 53-year-old female with a history of diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure under hemodialysis presented with pain and progressive weakness of upper and lower extremities without fever. Although a recent MRI she did at the beginning of symptoms showed no significant pathologies, except for a cervical disc herniation and adjacent spinal degeneration, and stenosis that confused the diagnostic procedure, newer imaging with CT and MRI, which was performed due to progression of tetraparesis, revealed the formation of a cervical epidural abscess. Surgical drainage was done after a complete infection workup. The patient showed immediate neurological improvement after surgery. She received antibiotics intravenously for 3 weeks and orally for another 6 weeks. The patient was free from complications 24 months after surgery. A high index of suspicion is most important in making a rapid and correct diagnosis of spinal epidural abscess. The classic clinical triad (fever, local pain, and neurologic deficits) is not sensitive enough for early detection. Continuous clinical, laboratory, and imaging monitoring are of paramount importance. Early diagnosis and surgical intervention could optimize the final functional outcome. PMID:23573096

  2. The opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis resists phagosome acidification and autophagy to promote intracellular survival in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jun; Shankar, Nathan

    2016-06-01

    While many strains of Enterococcus faecalis have been reported to be capable of surviving within macrophages for extended periods, the exact mechanisms involved are largely unknown. In this study, we found that after phagocytosis by macrophages, enterococci-containing vacuoles resist acidification, and E. faecalis is resistant to low pH. Ultrastructural examination of the enterococci-containing vacuole by transmission electron microscopy revealed a single membrane envelope, with no evidence of the classical double-membraned autophagosomes. Western blot analysis further confirmed that E. faecalis could trigger inhibition of the production of LC3-II during infection. By employing cells transfected with RFP-LC3 plasmid and infected with GFP-labelled E. faecalis, we also observed that E. faecalis was not delivered into autophagosomes during macrophage infection. While these observations indicated no role for autophagy in elimination of intracellular E. faecalis, enhanced production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide were keys to this process. Stimulation of autophagy suppressed the intracellular survival of E. faecalis in macrophages in vitro and decreased the burden of E. faecalis in vivo. In summary, the results from this study offer new insights into the interaction of E. faecalis with host cells and may provide a new approach to treatment of enterococcal infections. PMID:26663775

  3. Characterization of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Swine in Three Michigan Counties▿ ‖

    PubMed Central

    Donabedian, Susan M.; Perri, Mary Beth; Abdujamilova, Nodira; Gordoncillo, Mary Joy; Naqvi, Amir; Reyes, Katherine C.; Zervos, Marcus J.; Bartlett, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are a major cause of nosocomial infections but are rarely found in humans in the community and have not been identified in food animals in the United States. We evaluated a total of 360 fecal specimens from humans and their animals being raised for exhibit at three county fairs in Michigan. Fecal samples from 158 humans, 55 swine, 50 cattle, 25 horses, 57 sheep, 14 goats, and 1 llama were obtained and plated onto Enterococcosel agar containing 16 μg/ml of vancomycin. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) was isolated from six pigs but not from humans or any animal other than pigs. All six VREF isolates had a MIC to vancomycin of ≥256 μg/ml and contained the vanA gene. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the six VREF isolates were ≥80% similar. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) revealed sequence type 5 (ST5) (n = 2), ST6 (n = 3), and ST185 (n = 1), which are E. faecium sequence types belonging to clonal complex 5 (CC5). These findings show the dissemination of VREF strains among pigs in three Michigan counties. This is the first report of VRE found in food animals in the United States. PMID:20739498

  4. Effect of the quorum-sensing luxS gene on biofilm formation by Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiyan; Liang, Jingping; Zhou, Wei; Xie, Qian; Tang, Zisheng; Ma, Rui; Huang, Zhengwei

    2016-06-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is the species of bacterium most frequently isolated from the root canals of teeth that exhibit chronic apical periodontitis refractory to endodontic treatment. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase (luxS) quorum-sensing gene on E. faecalis biofilm formation by constructing a knockout mutant. The biofilms formed by both E. faecalis and its luxS mutant strain were evaluated using the MTT method. Important parameters that influence biofilm formation, including cell-surface hydrophobicity and the nutrient content of the growth medium, were also studied. Biofilm structures were observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and expression of biofilm-related genes was investigated using RT-PCR. The results showed that the luxS gene can affect biofilm formation, whereas it does not affect the bacterial growth rate. Deletion of the luxS gene also increased cell-surface hydrophobicity. Biofilm formation was accelerated by the addition of increasing concentrations of glucose. The CLSM images revealed that the luxS mutant strain tends to aggregate into distinct clusters and relatively dense structures, whereas the wild-type strain appears confluent and more evenly distributed. All genes examined were up-regulated in the biofilms formed by the luxS mutant strain. The quorum-sensing luxS gene can affect E. faecalis biofilm formation. PMID:27080421

  5. Characterization of Enterococcus faecium bacteriophage IME-EFm5 and its endolysin LysEFm5.

    PubMed

    Gong, Pengjuan; Cheng, Mengjun; Li, Xinwei; Jiang, Haiyan; Yu, Chuang; Kahaer, Nadire; Li, Juecheng; Zhang, Lei; Xia, Feifei; Hu, Liyuan; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Lei, Liancheng; Han, Wenyu; Gu, Jingmin

    2016-05-01

    Due to the worldwide prevalence of antibiotic resistant strains, phages therapy has been revitalized recently. In this study, an Enterococcus faecium phage named IME-EFm5 was isolated from hospital sewage. Whole genomic sequence analysis demonstrated that IME-EFm5 belong to the Siphoviridae family, and has a double-stranded genome of 42,265bp (with a 35.51% G+C content) which contains 70 putative coding sequences. LysEFm5, the endolysin of IME-EFm5, contains an amidase domain in its N-terminal and has a wider bactericidal spectrum than its parental phage IME-EFm5, including 7 strains of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. The mutagenesis analysis revealed that the zinc ion binding residues (H27, H132, and C140), E90, and T138 are required for the catalysis of LysEFm5. However, the antibacterial activity of LysEFm5 is zinc ion independent, which is inconsistent with most of other amidase members. The phage lysin LysEFm5 might be an alternative treatment strategy for infections caused by multidrug-resistant E. faecium. PMID:26896930

  6. Acyl acceptor recognition by Enterococcus faecium L,D-transpeptidase Ldtfm.

    PubMed

    Triboulet, Sébastien; Bougault, Catherine M; Laguri, Cédric; Hugonnet, Jean-Emmanuel; Arthur, Michel; Simorre, Jean-Pierre

    2015-10-01

    In Mycobacterium tuberculosis and ampicillin-resistant mutants of Enterococcus faecium, the classical target of β-lactam antibiotics is bypassed by L,D-transpeptidases that form unusual 3 → 3 peptidoglycan cross-links. β-lactams of the carbapenem class, such as ertapenem, are mimics of the acyl donor substrate and inactivate l,d-transpeptidases by acylation of their catalytic cysteine. We have blocked the acyl donor site of E. faecium L,D-transpeptidase Ldt(fm) by ertapenem and identified the acyl acceptor site based on analyses of chemical shift perturbations induced by binding of peptidoglycan fragments to the resulting acylenzyme. An nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-driven docking structure of the complex revealed key hydrogen interactions between the acyl acceptor and Ldt(fm) that were evaluated by site-directed mutagenesis and development of a cross-linking assay. Three residues are reported as critical for stabilisation of the acceptor in the Ldt(fm) active site and proper orientation of the nucleophilic nitrogen for the attack of the acylenzyme carbonyl. Identification of the catalytic pocket dedicated to the acceptor substrate opens new perspectives for the design of inhibitors with an original mode of action that could act alone or in synergy with β-lactams. PMID:26101813

  7. Biodegradation of C.I. Reactive Red 195 by Enterococcus faecalis strain YZ66.

    PubMed

    Mate, Madhuri Sahasrabudhe; Pathade, Girish

    2012-03-01

    Synthetic dyes are extensively used in textile dyeing, paper, printing, colour photography, pharmaceutics, cosmetics and other industries. Among these, azodyes represents the largest and most versatile class of synthetic dyes. As high as 50% of the dyes are released into the environment during manufacture and usage. Traditional methods of treatment are found to be expensive and have operational problems. Biological decolourization has been investigated as a method to transform, degrade or mineralize azo dyes. In the present studies bacteria from soil from dye waste area, dye waste, sewage and dung were subjected to acclimatization with C.I. Reactive Red 195 an azo dye, in the basal nutrient media. The most promising bacterial isolate was used for further dye degradation studies. The 16s rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical characteristics revealed the isolated organism as Enterococcus faecalis strain YZ66. The strain showed 99.5% decolourization of the selected dye (Reactive Red 195-50 mg/l) within one and half hour in static anoxic condition. The optimum pH and temperature for the decolourization was 5.0 and 40°C respectively. The biodegradation was monitored by UV-Vis, FTIR, TLC and HPLC. The final products were characterized by Gas chromatography and Mass Spectrophotometry. Toxicity study demonstrated no toxicity of the biodegradation product. The results suggest that the isolated organism E. faecalis strain YZ 66 can be used as a useful tool to treat waste water containing reactive dyes. PMID:22805800

  8. Inhibition of initial adhesion of uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis by biosurfactants from Lactobacillus isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Velraeds, M M; van der Mei, H C; Reid, G; Busscher, H J

    1996-01-01

    In this study, 15 Lactobacillus isolates were found to produce biosurfactants in the mid-exponential and stationary growth phases. The stationary-phase biosurfactants from lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus 36 and ATCC 7469, Lactobacillus fermentum B54, and Lactobacillus acidophilus RC14 were investigated further to determine their capacity to inhibit the initial adhesion of uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis 1131 to glass in a parallel-plate flow chamber. The initial deposition rate of E. faecalis to glass with an adsorbed biosurfactant layer from L. acidophilus RC14 or L. fermentum B54 was significantly decreased by approximately 70%, while the number of adhering enterococci after 4 h of adhesion was reduced by an average of 77%. The surface activity of the biosurfactants and their activity inhibiting the initial adhesion of E. faecalis 1131 were retained after dialysis (molecular weight cutoff, 6,000 to 8,000) and freeze-drying. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the freeze-dried biosurfactants from L. acidophilus RC14 and L. fermentum B54 were richest in protein, while those from L. casei subsp. rhamnosus 36 and ATCC 7469 had relatively high polysaccharide and phosphate contents. PMID:8787394

  9. Enterococcus growth on eelgrass (Zostera marina); implications for water quality.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Donna M; Weisberg, Stephen B; Hagedorn, Charles; De Leon, Kristine; Mofidi, Vida; Wolfe, Julia; Zimmerman, May; Jay, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Enterococci are fecal indicator bacteria used to monitor fecal pollution of recreational waters. When enterococci levels exceed health standards, fecal pollution is assumed as the cause. Enterococci growing on plants limit their usefulness as fecal indicator bacteria. Here we examined enterococcal growth on eelgrass in Mission Bay, CA where enterococci levels have exceeded water quality thresholds. A total of 69 eelgrass samples were collected from six sites, shaken to remove enterococci attached to plant surfaces and the eluant filtered onto culture media. Isolates were then identified to species using biochemical methods, and DNA typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was done to assess clonality of strains. Enterococci concentrations among eelgrass ranged from 8 to 14 000 CFU g(-1) dry weight. The most predominant enterococcal species found were Enterococcus casseliflavus and E. hirae followed by E. faecalis. Cluster analysis indicated a high level of clonality among isolates across all species, with clonal isolates consistently associated with individual eelgrass samples. Finding high densities of E. casseliflavus, E. hirae and E. faecalis on eelgrass that included clonal strains indicates the capability of enterococcal growth on eelgrass. Amplification of enterococci on eelgrass presents challenges for regulatory agencies that interpret elevated levels of these bacteria as an indication of fecal pollution. PMID:26976844

  10. Endocarditis and biofilm-associated pili of Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R.; Singh, Kavindra V.; Sillanpää, Jouko; Garsin, Danielle A.; Höök, Magnus; Erlandsen, Stanley L.; Murray, Barbara E.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing multidrug resistance in Enterococcus faecalis, a nosocomial opportunist and common cause of bacterial endocarditis, emphasizes the need for alternative therapeutic approaches such as immunotherapy or immunoprophylaxis. In an earlier study, we demonstrated the presence of antibodies in E. faecalis endocarditis patient sera to recombinant forms of 9 E. faecalis cell wall–anchored proteins; of these, we have now characterized an in vivo–expressed locus of 3 genes and an associated sortase gene (encoding sortase C; SrtC). Here, using mutation analyses and complementation, we demonstrated that both the ebp (encoding endocarditis and biofilm-associated pili) operon and srtC are important for biofilm production of E. faecalis strain OG1RF. In addition, immunogold electron microscopy using antisera against EbpA–EbpC proteins as well as patient serum demonstrated that E. faecalis produces pleomorphic surface pili. Assembly of pili and their cell wall attachment appeared to occur via a mechanism of cross-linking of the Ebp proteins by the designated SrtC. Importantly, a nonpiliated, allelic replacement mutant was significantly attenuated in an endocarditis model. These biologically important surface pili, which are antigenic in humans during endocarditis and encoded by a ubiquitous E. faecalis operon, may be a useful immunotarget for studies aimed at prevention and/or treatment of this pathogen. PMID:17016560

  11. Antibacterial Effect of Diclofenac Sodium on Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Salem-Milani, Amin; Balaei-Gajan, Esrafil; Rahimi, Saeed; Moosavi, Zohreh; Abdollahi, Ardalan; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Bolourian, Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have shown antibacterial activity in some recent studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of diclofenac against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) as a resistant endodontic bacterium in comparison with ibuprofen, calcium hydroxide and amoxicillin. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activity of materials was evaluated using agar diffusion test and tube dilution method. Mixtures of 400 mg/ml of materials were prepared. The bacteria were seeded on 10 Muller-Hinton agar culture plates. Thirty microliter of each test material was placed in each well punched in agar plates. After incubation, the zone of bacterial inhibition was measured. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the test materials was determined by agar dilution method. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Sidak post hoc test was used to compare the mean zone of microbial growth in the groups. Results: There were significant differences between the two groups (p< 0.05). Results of the agar diffusion test showed that antibiotics (amoxicillin, gentamycin) had the greatest antibacterial activity followed by NSAIDs (ibuprofen, diclofenac). Ca(OH)2 failed to show antibacterial activity. Diclofenac and ibuprofen showed distinct antibacterial activity against E. faecalis in 50 μg/ml and above concentrations. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it is concluded that diclofenac and ibuprofen have significantly more pronounced antibacterial activity against E. faecalis in comparison with Ca(OH)2. PMID:23724199

  12. Rapid kill-novel endodontic sealer and Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Beyth, Nurit; Kesler Shvero, Dana; Zaltsman, Nathan; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Abramovitz, Itzhak; Davidi, Michael Perez; Weiss, Ervin I

    2013-01-01

    With growing concern over bacterial resistance, the identification of new antimicrobial means is paramount. In the oral cavity microorganisms are essential to the development of periradicular diseases and are the major causative factors associated with endodontic treatment failure. As quaternary ammonium compounds have the ability to kill a wide array of bacteria through electrostatic interactions with multiple anionic targets on the bacterial surface, it is likely that they can overcome bacterial resistance. Melding these ideas, we investigated the potency of a novel endodontic sealer in limiting Enterococcus faecalis growth. We used a polyethyleneimine scaffold to synthesize nano-sized particles, optimized for incorporation into an epoxy-based endodontic sealer. The novel endodontic sealer was tested for its antimicrobial efficacy and evaluated for biocompatibility and physical eligibility. Our results show that the novel sealer foundation affixes the nanoparticles, achieving surface bactericidal properties, but at the same time impeding nanoparticle penetration into eukaryotic cells and thereby mitigating a possible toxic effect. Moreover, adequate physical properties are maintained. The nanosized quaternary amine particles interact within minutes with bacteria, triggering cell death across wide pH values. Throughout this study we demonstrate a new antibacterial perspective for endodontic sealers; a novel antibacterial, effective and safe antimicrobial means. PMID:24223159

  13. Effects of photodynamic therapy on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms.

    PubMed

    López-Jiménez, L; Fusté, E; Martínez-Garriga, B; Arnabat-Domínguez, J; Vinuesa, T; Viñas, M

    2015-07-01

    Microbial biofilms are involved in almost all infectious pathologies of the oral cavity. This has led to the search for novel therapies specifically aimed at biofilm elimination. In this study, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to visualize injuries and to determine surface roughness, as well as confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to enumerate live and dead bacterial cells, to determine the effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. The AFM images showed that PDT consisting of methylene blue and a 670-nm diode laser (output power 280 mW during 30 s) or toluidine blue and a 628-nm LED light (output power 1000 mW during 30 s) induced severe damage, including cell lysis, to E. faecalis biofilms, with the former also causing an important increase in surface roughness. These observations were confirmed by the increase in dead cells determined using CLSM. Our results highlight the potential of PDT as a promising method to achieve successful oral disinfection. PMID:25917515

  14. Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome in Broilers Caused by Enterococcus faecalis†

    PubMed Central

    Tankson, J. D.; Thaxton, J. P.; Vizzier-Thaxton, Y.

    2001-01-01

    A field strain of Enterococcus faecalis was administered to broiler chicks at doses of 0, 3 × 106, 1.5 × 107, and 2 × 107 bacteria/bird either intra-abdominally or intravenously. In trials 1 to 3, birds were reared communally in a broiler house on pine shaving litter. In trial 4, challenged and control birds were maintained in separate isolation rooms in metal cages with raised wire floors. Challenged birds exhibited a characteristic cavity or depression in the external wall of the right ventricle. A subjective scoring system was devised to quantify challenge effects by assigning each heart a score of 1 to 4. The average number of birds, over all trials and over all dose levels, exhibiting the ventricular cavity was 93%. This value in controls was 5%. The average heart score for challenged birds was 3.1, and that for controls was 0.20. Heart scores of challenged and control chicks were not different in birds reared communally or in separate isolation rooms. Additionally, both routes of administration were equally effective. Results suggest that challenge with E. faecalis caused pulmonary hypertension. PMID:11553576

  15. Functional genomic analysis of bile salt resistance in Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Enterococcus faecium is a Gram-positive commensal bacterium of the mammalian intestinal tract. In the last two decades it has also emerged as a multi-resistant nosocomial pathogen. In order to survive in and colonize the human intestinal tract E. faecium must resist the deleterious actions of bile. The molecular mechanisms exploited by this bacterium to tolerate bile are as yet unexplored. Results In this study we used a high-throughput quantitative screening approach of transposon mutant library, termed Microarray-based Transposon Mapping (M-TraM), to identify the genetic determinants required for resistance to bile salts in E. faecium E1162. The gene gltK, which is predicted to encode a glutamate/aspartate transport system permease protein, was identified by M-TraM to be involved in bile resistance. The role of GltK in bile salt resistance was confirmed by the subsequent observation that the deletion of gltK significantly sensitized E. faecium E1162 to bile salts. To further characterize the response of E. faecium E1162 to bile salts, we performed a transcriptome analysis to identify genes that are regulated by exposure to 0.02% bile salts. Exposure to bile salts resulted in major transcriptional rearrangements, predominantly in genes involved in carbohydrate, nucleotide and coenzyme transport and metabolism. Conclusion These findings add to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which E. faecium responds and resists the antimicrobial action of bile salts. PMID:23641968

  16. Gastrointestinal Tract Colonization Dynamics by Different Enterococcus faecium Clades.

    PubMed

    Montealegre, Maria Camila; Singh, Kavindra V; Murray, Barbara E

    2016-06-15

    Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) generally precedes infection with antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus faecium We used a mouse GIT colonization model to test differences in the colonization levels by strains from different E. faecium lineages: clade B, part of the healthy human microbiota; subclade A1, associated with infections; and subclade A2, primarily associated with animals. After mono-inoculation, there was no significant difference in colonization (measured as the geometric mean number of colony-forming units per gram) by the E. faecium clades at any time point (P > .05). However, in competition assays, with 6 of the 7 pairs, clade B strains outcompeted clade A strains in their ability to persist in the GIT; this difference was significant in some pairs by day 2 and in all pairs by day 14 (P < .0008-.0283). This observation may explain the predominance of clade B in the community and why antibiotic-resistant hospital-associated E. faecium are often replaced by clade B strains once patients leave the hospital. PMID:26671890

  17. In vitro effectiveness of Brazilian brown propolis against Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Hévelin Couto; Violante, Ivana Maria Povoa; Musis, Carlo Ralph de; Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Aranha, Andreza Maria Fábio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Brazilian brown propolis as an intracanal medication against Enterococcus faecalis. Thirty dentin discs prepared from intact freshly extracted bovine maxillary central incisors were infected with E. faecalis for 21 days. The specimens were distributed into six groups according to the medicament used as follows: G1- calcium hydroxide paste; G2- Carbowax 400 (control group); G3- 20% brown propolis paste; G4- 40% brown propolis paste; G5- 20% brown propolis paste + calcium hydroxide paste; and G6- 40% brown propolis paste + calcium hydroxide paste. The experimental pastes were placed into the canal lumen and left for 14 days. After each period, irrigation was performed with sterile saline to remove the medicament, and the canals were dried with sterile paper points. The dentin chips were removed from the canals with sequential sterile round burs at low speed and were immediately collected in separate test tubes containing BHI broth. The tubes were incubated at 37°C, and microbial growth was analyzed by spectrophotometry after 15 days. All the experimental medications significantly reduced the number of viable bacteria. The G4 and G5 pastes were more effective than the G1 paste, with 35.8%, 41%, and 21.3% antibacterial activity, respectively. Brazilian brown propolis shows antibacterial capacity against E. faecalis. PMID:25992787

  18. Identification of Enterococcus faecalis antigens specifically expressed in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shet, Uttom K.; Park, Sang-Won; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Kang, Seong Soo; Kim, Se Eun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Molecular mechanism of the pathogenicity of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis), a suspected endodontic pathogen, has not yet been adequately elucidated due to limited information on its virulence factors. Here we report the identification of in vivo expressed antigens of E. faecalis by using a novel immunoscreening technique called change-mediated antigen technology (CMAT) and an experimental animal model of endodontic infection. Materials and Methods Among 4,500 E. coli recombinant clones screened, 19 positive clones reacted reproducibly with hyperimmune sera obtained from rabbits immunized with E. faecalis cells isolated from an experimental endodontic infection. DNA sequences from 16 of these in vivo-induced (IVI) genes were determined. Results Identified protein antigens of E. faecalis included enzymes involved in housekeeping functions, copper resistance protein, putative outer membrane proteins, and proteins of unknown function. Conclusions In vivo expressed antigens of E. faecalis could be identified by using a novel immune-screening technique CMAT and an experimental animal model of endodontic infection. Detailed analysis of these IVI genes will lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the endodontic infection of E. faecalis. PMID:26587417

  19. The Capability of Tyramine Production and Correlation between Phenotypic and Genetic Characteristics of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Bargossi, Eleonora; Gardini, Fausto; Gatto, Veronica; Montanari, Chiara; Torriani, Sandra; Tabanelli, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diversity of tyramine production capability of four Enterococcus strains in buffered systems in relation to their genetic characteristics and environmental conditions. Cells of the strains Enterococcus faecalis EF37 and ATCC 29212, and E. faecium FC12 and FC643 were re-suspended in phosphate/citrate buffers with different pH, NaCl concentration and incubation temperature. At intervals, cell viability and tyramine production were assessed by plate counting and HPLC analysis, respectively. The activity of a purified tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC) was determined under the same conditions, as a reference. Reduced loss in cell viability was observed in all the tested conditions, except for pH 4 after 24 h. The TDC activity was greatly heterogeneous within the enterococci: EF37 and FC12 produced the higher tyramine concentrations, ATCC 29212 showed a reduced decarboxylase activity, while EF643 did not accumulate detectable amounts of tyramine in all the conditions assayed. Among the considerate variables, temperature was the most influencing factor on tyramine accumulation for enterococcal cells. To further correlate the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of the enterococci, the TDC operon region carrying the genes tyrosine decarboxylase (tyrDC), tyrosine/tyramine permease (tyrP), and Na+/H+ antiporter (nhaC-2) was amplified and sequenced. The genetic organization and nucleotide sequence of this operon region were highly conserved in the enterococcal strains of the same species. The heterogeneity in tyramine production found between the two E. faecalis strains could be ascribed to different regulation mechanisms not yet elucidated. On the contrary, a codon stop was identified in the translated tyrDC sequence of E. faecium FC643, supporting its inability to accumulate tyramine in the tested conditions. In addition, the presence of an additional putative tyrosine decarboxylase with different substrate specificity and genetic

  20. Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus species from gut microbiota of Chilean Altiplano camelids

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero-Olmos, Katheryne; Báez, John; Valenzuela, Nicomédes; Gahona, Joselyne; del Campo, Rosa; Silva, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Background Enterococcus is one of the major human pathogens able to acquire multiple antibiotic-resistant markers as well as virulence factors which also colonize remote ecosystems, including wild animals. In this work, we characterized the Enterococcus population colonizing the gut of Chilean Altiplano camelids without foreign human contact. Material and methods Rectal swabs from 40 llamas and 10 alpacas were seeded in M-Enterococcus agar, and we selected a total of 57 isolates. Species identification was performed by biochemical classical tests, semi-automated WIDER system, mass spectrometry analysis by MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer), and, finally, nucleotide sequence of internal fragments of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, pheS, and aac(6)-I genes. Genetic diversity was measured by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)-SmaI, whereas the antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the WIDER system. Carriage of virulence factors was explored by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Our results demonstrated that the most prevalent specie was Enterococcus hirae (82%), followed by other non–Enterococcus faecalis and non–Enterococcus faecium species. Some discrepancies were detected among the identification methods used, and the most reliable were the rpoB, pheS, and aac(6)-I nucleotide sequencing. Selected isolates exhibited susceptibility to almost all studied antibiotics, and virulence factors were not detected by PCR. Finally, some predominant clones were characterized by PFGE into a diverse genetic background. Conclusion Enterococcus species from the Chilean camelids’ gut microbiota were different from those adapted to humans, and they remained free of antibiotic resistance mechanisms as well as virulence factors. PMID:25405007

  1. Enterococcus phages as potential tool for identifying sewage inputs in the Great Lakes region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    K.Vijayavel; K.Vijayavel; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; J. Ebdon; J. Ebdon; H. Taylor; H. Taylor; Whitman, Richard L.; D.R. Kashian; D.R. Kashian

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses living in bacteria that can be used as a tool to detect fecal contamination in surface waters around the world. However, the lack of a universal host strain makes them unsuitable for tracking fecal sources. We evaluated the suitability of two newly isolated Enterococcus host strains (ENT-49 and ENT-55) capable for identifying sewage contamination in impacted waters by targeting phages specific to these hosts. Both host strains were isolated from wastewater samples and identified as E. faecium by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Occurrence of Enterococcus phages was evaluated in sewage samples (n = 15) from five wastewater treatment plants and in fecal samples from twenty-two species of wild and domesticated animals (individual samples; n = 22). Levels of Enterococcus phages, F + coliphages, Escherichia coli and enterococci were examined from four rivers, four beaches, and three harbors. Enterococcus phages enumeration was at similar levels (Mean = 6.72 Log PFU/100 mL) to F + coliphages in all wastewater samples, but were absent from all non-human fecal sources tested. The phages infecting Enterococcus spp. and F + coliphages were not detected in the river samples (detection threshold < 10 PFU/100 mL), but were present in the beach and harbor samples (range = 1.83 to 2.86 Log PFU/100 mL). Slightly higher concentrations (range = 3.22 to 3.69 Log MPN/100 mL) of E. coli and enterococci when compared to F + coliphages and Enterococcus phages, were observed in the river, beach and harbor samples. Our findings suggest that the bacteriophages associated with these particular Enterococcus host strains offer potentially sensitive and human-source specific indicators of enteric pathogen risk.

  2. Changes in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium causing outbreaks in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Palazzo, I C V; Pitondo-Silva, A; Levy, C E; da Costa Darini, A L

    2011-09-01

    Enterococci have been implicated in severe human infections as a consequence of associated determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance. The majority of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE(fm)) connected to outbreaks worldwide pertains to the clonal complex 17 (CC17). In Brazil, the majority of VRE(fm) involved in outbreaks reported so far are not related to CC17. VRE(fm) strains responsible for an outbreak and sporadic cases in hospitals located in the city of Campinas, Brazil, were compared to other VRE(fm) strains in the country. Twenty-two out of 23 E. faecium were vancomycin-resistant and harboured the vanA gene. One vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium (VSE(fm)) strain was included in this study because it was isolated from a patient who one week later harboured a VRE(fm). All strains, except VSE, showed the same alteration in the VanA element characterised by deletion of the left extremity of the transposon and insertion of IS1251 between the vanS and vanH genes. Genes codifying virulence factors such as collagen-adhesin protein, enterococcal surface protein and hyaluronidase were detected in the VRE(fm) and VSE(fm) studied. Both pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) revealed that VRE(fm) and VSE(fm) strains have a clonal relationship. New sequence types (STs) were identified by MLST as ST447, ST448, ST478 and ST412 but all belonged to the CC17. The present study revealed that VRE(fm) outbreaks in Brazil were caused by strains that did not share a common evolutionary history, and that VRE(fm) strains belonging to CC17 could be predominant in Brazil as in other countries. PMID:21741112

  3. The Heterodimeric ABC Transporter EfrCD Mediates Multidrug Efflux in Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Hürlimann, Lea M.; Corradi, Valentina; Hohl, Michael; Bloemberg, Guido V.; Tieleman, D. Peter

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial infections with Enterococcus faecalis are an emerging health problem. However, drug efflux pumps contributing to intrinsic drug resistance are poorly studied in this Gram-positive pathogen. In this study, we functionally investigated seven heterodimeric ABC transporters of E. faecalis that are annotated as drug efflux pumps. Deletion of ef0789-ef0790 on the chromosome of E. faecalis resulted in increased susceptibility to daunorubicin, doxorubicin, ethidium, and Hoechst 33342, and the corresponding transporter was named EfrCD. Unexpectedly, the previously described heterodimeric multidrug ABC transporter EfrAB contributes marginally to drug efflux in the endogenous context of E. faecalis. In contrast, heterologous expression in Lactococcus lactis revealed that EfrAB, EfrCD, and the product of ef2226-ef2227 (EfrEF) mediate the efflux of fluorescent substrates and confer resistance to multiple dyes and drugs, including fluoroquinolones. Four of seven transporters failed to exhibit drug efflux activity for the set of drugs and dyes tested, even upon overexpression in L. lactis. Since all seven transporters were purified as heterodimers after overexpression in L. lactis, a lack of drug efflux activity is not attributed to poor expression or protein aggregation. Reconstitution of the purified multidrug transporters EfrAB, EfrCD, and EfrEF in proteoliposomes revealed functional coupling between ATP hydrolysis and drug binding. Our analysis creates an experimental basis for the accurate prediction of drug efflux transporters and indicates that many annotated multidrug efflux pumps might be incapable of drug transport and thus might fulfill other physiological functions in the cell. PMID:27381387

  4. Isolation and Biochemical Fingerprinting of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium From Meat, Chicken and Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Malihe; Sadeghi, Javad; Rahimi, Fateh; Pourshafie, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are important nosocomial pathogens and food chain has been considered as an assumed source for dissemination of VRE to human. Objectives: The presence of VRE isolates from food samples and typing of these isolates with Phene plate, a biochemical fingerprinting method, were investigated. Materials and Methods: Thirty samples of meat, chicken and cheese were analyzed for VRE during 2010. Antibiotic susceptibility tests and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were also examined. VRE isolates were typed with the Phene plate system (PhPlate), a biochemical fingerprinting method. Results: A total of 70 VRE isolates were obtained and identified as Enterococcus faecium by species-specific PCR. All the isolates carried vanA, while none of them harbored vanB. The VRE isolates included 35, 27, and 8 isolates from meat, chicken and cheese, respectively. Typing with the PhPlate revealed a diversity index of 0.78 for E. faecium, containing 10 common and four single types. The results of antibiotic susceptibility and MIC tests showed an increased resistance to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, ampicillin and gentamicin, to which, 100%, 100%, 100%, and 95% of VRE isolates were resistant, respectively. Only 5% of the isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol and the MIC of the isolates for vancomycin and teicoplanin was ≥ 256 µg/mL and for gentamicin-resistant isolates it was 1024 µg/mL. Conventional and molecular identification tests exhibited that all the isolates were E. faecium carrying vanA. None of the isolates harbored vanB. Conclusions: The results showed that enterococci are common contaminants in food. Indeed, this study indicates a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant enterococci in food of animal origin in Iran. Isolating some persisting enterococcal isolates revealed that continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in enterococci from food is essential. PMID:26034532

  5. Characterization of functional properties of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from human gut.

    PubMed

    İspirli, Hümeyra; Demirbaş, Fatmanur; Dertli, Enes

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the functional properties of Enterococcus faecium strains identified after isolation from human faeces. Of these isolates, strain R13 showed the best resistance to low pH, bile salts, and survival in the simulated in vitro digestion assay, and demonstrated an important level of adhesion to hexadecane as a potential probiotic candidate. Analysis of the antibiotic resistance of E. faecium strains indicated that in general these isolates were sensitive to the tested antibiotics and no strain appeared to be resistant to vancomycin. Examination of the virulence determinants for E. faecium strains demonstrated that all strains contained the virulence genes common in gut- and food-originated enterococci, and strain R13 harboured the lowest number of virulence genes. Additionally, no strain contained the genes related to cytolysin metabolism and showed hemolytic activity. The antimicrobial role of E. faecium strains was tested against several pathogens, in which different levels of inhibitory effects were observed, and strain R13 was inhibitory to all tested pathogens. PCR screening of genes encoding enterocin A and B indicated the presence of these genes in E. faecium strains. Preliminary characterization of bacteriocins revealed that their activity was lost after proteolytic enzyme treatments, but no alteration in antimicrobial activity was observed at different pHs (3.5 to 9.5) and after heat treatments. In conclusion, this study revealed the functional characteristics of E. faecium R13 as a gut isolate, and this strain could be developed as a new probiotic after further tests. PMID:26485327

  6. The Heterodimeric ABC Transporter EfrCD Mediates Multidrug Efflux in Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Hürlimann, Lea M; Corradi, Valentina; Hohl, Michael; Bloemberg, Guido V; Tieleman, D Peter; Seeger, Markus A

    2016-09-01

    Nosocomial infections with Enterococcus faecalis are an emerging health problem. However, drug efflux pumps contributing to intrinsic drug resistance are poorly studied in this Gram-positive pathogen. In this study, we functionally investigated seven heterodimeric ABC transporters of E. faecalis that are annotated as drug efflux pumps. Deletion of ef0789-ef0790 on the chromosome of E. faecalis resulted in increased susceptibility to daunorubicin, doxorubicin, ethidium, and Hoechst 33342, and the corresponding transporter was named EfrCD. Unexpectedly, the previously described heterodimeric multidrug ABC transporter EfrAB contributes marginally to drug efflux in the endogenous context of E. faecalis In contrast, heterologous expression in Lactococcus lactis revealed that EfrAB, EfrCD, and the product of ef2226-ef2227 (EfrEF) mediate the efflux of fluorescent substrates and confer resistance to multiple dyes and drugs, including fluoroquinolones. Four of seven transporters failed to exhibit drug efflux activity for the set of drugs and dyes tested, even upon overexpression in L. lactis Since all seven transporters were purified as heterodimers after overexpression in L. lactis, a lack of drug efflux activity is not attributed to poor expression or protein aggregation. Reconstitution of the purified multidrug transporters EfrAB, EfrCD, and EfrEF in proteoliposomes revealed functional coupling between ATP hydrolysis and drug binding. Our analysis creates an experimental basis for the accurate prediction of drug efflux transporters and indicates that many annotated multidrug efflux pumps might be incapable of drug transport and thus might fulfill other physiological functions in the cell. PMID:27381387

  7. Drug-resistant and hospital-associated Enterococcus faecium from wastewater, riverine estuary and anthropogenically impacted marine catchment basin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Enterococci, ubiquitous colonizers of humans and other animals, play an increasingly important role in health-care associated infections (HAIs). It is believed that the recent evolution of two clinically relevant species, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium occurred in a big part in a hospital environment, leading to formation of high-risk enterococcal clonal complexes (HiRECCs), which combine multidrug resistance with increased pathogenicity and epidemicity. The aim of this study was to establish the species composition in wastewater, its marine recipient as well as a river estuary and to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of collected isolates. Molecular methods were additionally applied to test the presence of HiRRECC-related E. faecium. Results Two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), their marine outfalls and Vistula river that influence significantly the quality of waters in Gulf of Gdansk were sampled to investigate the presence of Enterococcus spp. Four-hundred-twenty-eight isolates were obtained, including E. faecium (244 isolates, 57.0%), E. hirae (113 isolates, 26.4%) and E. faecalis (63 isolates, 14.7%); other species (E. gallinarum/casseliflavus, E. durans and E. avium) accounted for 1.9%. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed the presence of isolates resistant to erythromycin, tetracycline, amipicillin, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides (high-level resistance), especially among E. faecium, where such isolates were usually characterized by multilocus sequence types associated with nosocomial lineages 17, 18 and 78 of this species representing HiRECC, formerly called CC17. These isolates not only carried several resistance determinants but were also enriched in genes encoding pathogenicity factors (Esp, pili) and genes associated with mobile genetic elements (MGE), a feature also typical for nosocomial HiRECC. Conclusions Our data show that WWTPs constitute an important source of enterococcal strains carrying

  8. Specificity of induction of glycopeptide resistance genes in Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed Central

    Baptista, M; Depardieu, F; Courvalin, P; Arthur, M

    1996-01-01

    Regulation of VanA- and VanB-type glycopeptide resistance in enterococci is mediated by related two-component regulatory systems (VanR-VanS and VanRB-VanSB). The transglycosylase inhibitors vancomycin, teicoplanin, and moenomycin induced synthesis of the VanX D,D-dipeptidase in a VanA-type Enterococcus faecalis harboring transposon Tn1546. Inhibitors of reactions immediately preceding (ramoplanin) or following (penicillin G and bacitracin) transglycosylation were not inducers. These results identify accumulation of membrane-bound lipid intermediate II as a potential signal for induction of VanA-type resistance. In E.faecalis BM4281 harboring a wild vanB genetic element, D,D-dipeptidase synthesis was only inducible by vancomycin. Induction of the production of the VanB ligase by vancomycin was required for growth of a vancomycin-dependent derivative of BM4281, since introduction of a plasmid coding for constitutive synthesis of the VanA ligase eliminated the requirement of glycopeptide for growth. Both vancomycin and teicoplanin were able to induce D,D-dipeptidase synthesis in BM4281 derivatives that were vancomycin and teicoplanin resistant or vancomycin and teicoplanin dependent. Acquisition of teicoplanin resistance in the latter types of strains was due to alteration in induction specificity associated with an increase in the sensitivity of the regulatory system to vancomycin. Thus, the wild VanRB-VanSB system is unable or not sensitive enough to sense teicoplanin, although mutations can lead to recognition of this antibiotic. PMID:8891132

  9. In vitro inactivation of Enterococcus faecalis with a led device.

    PubMed

    D'Ercole, S; Spoto, G; Trentini, P; Tripodi, D; Petrini, M

    2016-07-01

    Non-coherent light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are effective in a large variety of clinical indications; however, the bactericidal activity of LEDs is unclear, although the effectiveness of such lights is well known. Currently, no studies have examined the effects of NIR-LED on bacteria. The aims of this study were to verify the antibacterial activity of 880-nm LED irradiation on a bacterial suspension of Enterococcus faecalis and to compare it with the actions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and the concurrent use of both treatments. Before we proceeded with the main experiment, we first performed preliminary tests to evaluate the influence of such parameters as the distance of irradiation, the energy density, the irradiation time and the presence of photosensitizers on the antimicrobial effects of LEDs. After treatment, the colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) was recorded and the data were submitted to ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests at a level of significance of 5%. The results showed that LED irradiation, at the parameters used, is able to significantly decrease E. faecalis viability in vitro. The total inhibition of E. faecalis was obtained throughout concurrent treatment of LED and NaOCl (1%) for 5min. The same antimicrobial activity was confirmed in all of the experiments (p<0.05), but no statistically significant differences were found by varying such parameters as the distance of irradiation (from 0.5mm to 10mm), energy density (from 2.37 to 8.15mJ/s), irradiation time (from 5min to 20min) or by adding toluidine blue O (TBO). PMID:27107704

  10. Growth and adherence on stainless steel by Enterococcus faecium cells.

    PubMed

    Andrade, N J; Ajao, D B; Zottola, E A

    1998-11-01

    Enterococcus faecium isolated from Brazilian raw milk was used in this study. For growth studies, E. faecium was inoculated into 10% RSM (reconstituted skim milk) and MRS both, incubated at 6.5 and 9 degrees C for 10 days and at 30, 42, and 45 degrees C for 48 h. Cells were enumerated after spread-plating onto MRS agar and incubating at 30 degrees C for 48 h. The ability of E. faecium cells to adhere to stainless-steel chips (6 by 6 by 1 mm, AISI 304, finish #4) was investigated. MRS broth containing stainless steel chips was inoculated to an initial concentration of 10(3) or 10(6) CFU/ml of E. faecium. Adherent cells were stained with acridine orange and enumerated by epifluorescence microscopy. E. faecium grew between 6.5 and 42 degrees C in MRS and between 9 and 40 degrees C in RSM. In MRS broth with 10(6) or 10(3) CFU/ml, the g (generation time) values were 0.62 and 0.42 h and R (growth rate) values were 1.6 and 2.4 h-1. Values of R = 2.3 h-1 and g = 0.43 h were determined for E. faecium growing in RSM with 10(3) CFU/ml. In MRS broth, for samples with a starting concentration of 10(6) cells per ml, adherence to stainless-steel chips was first observed at 2 h. However, adherence was first observed at 4 h in samples with an initial concentration of 10(3) cells per ml. After 10 h of exposure the number of adherent cells was similar for all samples regardless of initial inoculum. These results indicate that E. faecium readily adheres to stainless steel. It also underscores the need to control E. faecium by using appropriate low storage temperatures and adequate sanitizing practices in the dairy industry. PMID:9829184

  11. Comparative genomics of Enterococcus faecalis from healthy Norwegian infants

    PubMed Central

    Solheim, Margrete; Aakra, Ågot; Snipen, Lars G; Brede, Dag A; Nes, Ingolf F

    2009-01-01

    Background Enterococcus faecalis, traditionally considered a harmless commensal of the intestinal tract, is now ranked among the leading causes of nosocomial infections. In an attempt to gain insight into the genetic make-up of commensal E. faecalis, we have studied genomic variation in a collection of community-derived E. faecalis isolated from the feces of Norwegian infants. Results The E. faecalis isolates were first sequence typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and characterized with respect to antibiotic resistance and properties associated with virulence. A subset of the isolates was compared to the vancomycin resistant strain E. faecalis V583 (V583) by whole genome microarray comparison (comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)). Several of the putative enterococcal virulence factors were found to be highly prevalent among the commensal baby isolates. The genomic variation as observed by CGH was less between isolates displaying the same MLST sequence type than between isolates belonging to different evolutionary lineages. Conclusion The variations in gene content observed among the investigated commensal E. faecalis is comparable to the genetic variation previously reported among strains of various origins thought to be representative of the major E. faecalis lineages. Previous MLST analysis of E. faecalis have identified so-called high-risk enterococcal clonal complexes (HiRECC), defined as genetically distinct subpopulations, epidemiologically associated with enterococcal infections. The observed correlation between CGH and MLST presented here, may offer a method for the identification of lineage-specific genes, and may therefore add clues on how to distinguish pathogenic from commensal E. faecalis. In this work, information on the core genome of E. faecalis is also substantially extended. PMID:19393078

  12. Persistent, Toxin-Antitoxin System-Independent, Tetracycline Resistance-Encoding Plasmid from a Dairy Enterococcus faecium Isolate▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinhui; Alvarez, Valente; Harper, Willis James; Wang, Hua H.

    2011-01-01

    A tetracycline-resistant (Tetr) dairy Enterococcus faecium isolate designated M7M2 was found to carry both tet(M) and tet(L) genes on a 19.6-kb plasmid. After consecutive transfer in the absence of tetracycline, the resistance-encoding plasmid persisted in 99% of the progenies. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the 19.6-kb plasmid contained 28 open reading frames (ORFs), including a tet(M)-tet(L)-mob gene cluster, as well as a 10.6-kb backbone highly homologous (99.9%) to the reported plasmid pRE25, but without an identified toxin-antitoxin (TA) plasmid stabilization system. The derived backbone plasmid without the Tetr determinants exhibited a 100% retention rate in the presence of acridine orange, suggesting the presence of a TA-independent plasmid stabilization mechanism, with its impact on the persistence of a broad spectrum of resistance-encoding traits still to be elucidated. The tet(M)-tet(L) gene cluster from M7M2 was functional and transmissible and led to acquired resistance in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF by electroporation and in Streptococcus mutans UA159 by natural transformation. Southern hybridization showed that both the tet(M) and tet(L) genes were integrated into the chromosome of S. mutans UA159, while the whole plasmid was transferred to and retained in E. faecalis OG1RF. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) indicated tetracycline-induced transcription of both the tet(M) and tet(L) genes of pM7M2. The results indicated that multiple mechanisms might have contributed to the persistence of antibiotic resistance-encoding genes and that the plasmids pM7M2, pIP816, and pRE25 are likely correlated evolutionarily. PMID:21784909

  13. Neonatal Septicaemia Caused by Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus Faecium-A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    T, Nagarathnamma; DR, Pooja; TR, Harsha; R, Karthik

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal bacterial sepsis is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in neonates. 10% cases of neonatal bacteraemia and septicaemia are caused by Enterococci. The increasing incidence of Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) is of particular concern because of limited treatment options and increased mortality. We report here a case of neonatal sepsis in a premature baby caused by vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium Van A phenotype from a tertiary care Hospital in South India. A preterm baby boy with low birth weight was admitted to the NICU with Respiratory distress and meconium aspiration. On 5th day the baby succumbed to death and a final diagnosis of respiratory distress and meconium aspiration with sepsis was made. Blood cultures sent yielded vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥ 256 μg/ml). It was confirmed as Enterococcus feacium Van A phenotype by Automated Vitek system. PMID:25584223

  14. Noncontiguous finished genome sequence and description of Enterococcus massiliensis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Le Page, S; Cimmino, T; Togo, A; Million, M; Michelle, C; Khelaifia, S; Lagier, J-C; Raoult, D; Rolain, J-M

    2016-07-01

    Enterococcus massiliensis strain sp. nov. (= CSUR P1927 = DSM 100308) is a new species within the genus Enterococcus. This strain was first isolated from a fresh stool sample of a man during culturomics study of intestinal microflora. Enterococcus massiliensis is a Gram-positive cocci, facultative anaerobic and motile. E. massiliensis is negative for mannitol and positive for β-galactosidase, contrary to E. gallinarum. The complete genome sequence is 2 712 841 bp in length with a GC content of 39.6% and contains 2617 protein-coding genes and 70 RNA genes, including nine rRNA genes. PMID:27330820

  15. Identification of vancomycin-susceptible major clones of clinical Enterococcus from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Bourafa, Nadjette; Abat, Cédric; Loucif, Lotfi; Olaitan, Abiola Olumuyiwa; Bentorki, Ahmed Aimen; Boutefnouchet, Nafissa; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-09-01

    The main objectives of this study were to characterize clinical strains of Enterococcus spp. isolated from Algerian inpatients and outpatients, to investigate their susceptibility to antibiotics and to analyse their phylogenetic relatedness. A total of 85 non-duplicate Enterococcus spp. isolates collected between 2010 and 2013 from various clinical samples, including urine, vaginal swab, pus, blood and semen, from Algerian inpatients (n=62) and outpatients (n=23) were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and Etest methods. Clonal relatedness was analysed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Enterococcus faecalis was the most predominant species (75.3%), followed by Enterococcus faecium (21.2%), Enterococcus gallinarum (2.4%) and Enterococcus casseliflavus (1.2%). High-level resistance to aminoglycosides was significantly more prevalent in hospitalized patients than in outpatients. None of the E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates were resistant to vancomycin. High genetic diversity was observed among the E. faecalis isolates, with the identification of a new clonal complex (CC256), as well as the detection of E. faecalis ST6 and E. faecium lineages ST17, ST18 and ST78 associated with hospital isolates. This is the first report of E. faecalis ST6 and E. faecium ST17 and ST18 in Algeria. Although acquired vancomycin resistance was not observed among the enterococcal strains, there is a continued need to monitor the level of antibiotic resistance among enterococci as well as the evolution of the E. faecalis/E. faecium ratio. PMID:27530845

  16. Phenotypic & genotypic characterization of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus isolates from clinical specimens

    PubMed Central

    Praharaj, Ira; Sujatha, S.; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Enterococci have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens and emergence of resistance to many of the antimicrobials used for Gram-positive organisms has made the management of infections due to Enterococcus species difficult. Resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics, especially vancomycin is of special concern. This study was undertaken to perform a phenotypic and genotypic characterization of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE) isolates obtained from clinical samples in a tertiary care hospital in southern India. Methods: Susceptibility testing was performed for Enterococcus isolates collected over a period of one year (November 2008-October 2009). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of vancomycin and teicoplanin were determined for the isolates by the agar dilution method. Genotypic characterization of VRE isolates was done by performing multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting the various vancomycin resistance genes. Results: Of the 367 isolates of Enterococcus species isolated, 32 were found to be resistant to vancomycin after MIC testing. VanA was the commonest phenotype of vancomycin resistance and the commonest genotype was vanA. Among the other important findings of the study was the presence of heterogeneity in isolates of VRE with the vanA gene cluster with regards to resistance to teicoplanin and the coexistence of vanA and vanC1 gene clusters in an isolate of E. gallinarum which conferred high level glycopeptide resistance to the isolate. Interpretation & conclusions: Enterococcus species have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens in our patients with a capacity to cause a variety of infections. The vancomycin resistance among Enterococcus isolates was 8.7 per cent in our study which was high compared to other Indian studies. VanA was the commonest phenotype of glycopeptide resistance and vanA was the commonest vancomycin resistance gene. The study also demonstrates phenotypic as well as genotypic

  17. Identification of an unusual VanA element in glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium in Brazil following international transfer of a bone marrow transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Camargo, I L B C; Del Peloso, P F; Da Costa Leite, C F; Goldman, G H; Darini, A L C

    2004-09-01

    A vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) was isolated from a blood culture of a patient in a Brazilian hospital who had a treatment history of a bone marrow transplant in the USA. The organism was identified as Enterococcus faecium, which exhibited an MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) >or= 256 microg/mL for vancomycin. This was confirmed by E-test and the vanA gene was detected by PCR. Overlapping PCR revealed a left IR deletion and an additional 1.5 kb fragment between vanSH genes. DdeI digestion of vanRSHAX genes showed the determinant to be a T type variant, and the element was cloned and sequenced. These results revealed an IS1251 downstream of nucleotide 5820 of the VanA element. Insertions like this have not been reported previously in Brazil, but have been detected in the USA. The genotype and association with a patient previously treated in the USA suggest that this VRE was introduced from abroad, probably through inter-hospital strain spread. PMID:15644931

  18. Purification and characterization of enterocin MC13 produced by a potential aquaculture probiont Enterococcus faecium MC13 isolated from the gut of Mugil cephalus.

    PubMed

    Satish Kumar, R; Kanmani, P; Yuvaraj, N; Paari, K A; Pattukumar, V; Arul, V

    2011-12-01

    A bacteriocin producer strain MC13 was isolated from the gut of Mugil cephalus (grey mullet) and identified as Enterococcus faecium. The bacteriocin of E. faecium MC13 was purified to homogeneity, as confirmed by Tricine sodium dodecyl sulphate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed a single active fraction eluted at 26 min, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis showed the molecular mass to be 2.148 kDa. The clear zone in native PAGE corresponding to enterocin MC13 band further substantiated its molecular mass. A dialyzed sample (semicrude preparation) of enterocin MC13 was broad spectrum in its action and inhibited important seafood-borne pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes , Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus. This antibacterial substance was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes: trypsin, protease, and chymotrypsin but insensitive to catalase and lipase, confirming that inhibition was due to the proteinaceous molecule, i.e., bacteriocin, and not due to hydrogen peroxide. Enterocin MC13 tolerated heat treatment (up to 90 °C for 20 min). Enterococcus faecium MC13 was effective in bile salt tolerance, acid tolerance, and adhesion to the HT-29 cell line. These properties reveal the potential of E. faecium MC13 to be a probiotic bacterium. Enterococcus faecium MC13 could be used as potential fish probiotic against pathogens such as V. parahaemolyticus, Vibrio harveyi, and Aeromonas hydrophila in fisheries. Also, this could be a valuable seafood biopreservative against L. monocytogenes. PMID:22112158

  19. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium active Dimeric Isobutyrylphloroglucinol from Ivesia gordonii

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Marwa H.; Ibrahim, Mohamed Ali; Zhang, Jin; Melek, Farouk R.; El-Hawary, Seham S.; Jacob, Melissa R.; Muhammad, Ilias

    2014-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the chloroform soluble fraction of stem, leave, and flower extracts of the American plant Ivesia gordonii led to the isolation of a new dimeric acylphloroglucinol 3,3′-diisobutyryl-2,6′-dimethoxy-4,6,2′,4′-tetrahydroxy-5,5′dimethyldiphenyl methane (1), to which we have assigned the trivial name of ivesinol (1), together with a known monomeric acylphloroglucinol, 1,5-dihydroxy-2-(2′-methylpropionyl)-3-methoxy-6-methylbenzene (2). The structures of the isolated compounds were characterized using 1D- and 2D NMR spectroscopy, including COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and ROESY experiments as well as mass spectrometery. Ivesinol (1) showed potent activity against Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) with IC50/MIC/MBC values of 0.10/1.25/>20 µg/mL and 0.05/0.31/>20 µg/mL, respectively (vs. IC50/MIC/MBC 0.133/0.5/1.0 µg/mL and 0.128/0.5/1.0 µg/mL of ciprofloxacin), while the corresponding monomer 2 was found to be less active. Compound 1 also demonstrated strong activity against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) with IC50/MIC/MBC values 0.22/1.25/>20 µg/mL, whereas the reference standard ciprofloxacin was found to be inactive against this strain. In addition, compound 2 showed moderate activity against two species of Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans, while 1 was inactive against these fungi. In order to evaluate the influence of acyl group(s) in phloroglucinol (3) as a ligand, the mono- (4) and diacetylphloroglucinol (5) were prepared from 3, and evaluated for their in vitro SA, MRSA, and VRE activities, where 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (5) showed potent activity, like 1, against SA, MRSA, and VRE (ATCC 700221) with IC50/ MIC values of 0.27/2.5 µg/mL, 0.23/2.5 µg/mL, and 0.86/2.5 µg/mL, respectively, while 4 was inactive. PMID:24689296

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of the Nonstarter Bacteriocin-Producing Strain Enterococcus mundtii CRL35

    PubMed Central

    Bonacina, Julieta; Saavedra, Lucila; Suárez, Nadia E.

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus mundtii CRL35 is a bacteriocinogenic strain isolated from an artisanal cheese of northwestern Argentina. Here we report its draft genome sequence, consisting of 82 contigs. In silico genomic analysis of biotechnological properties was performed to determine the potential of this microorganism to be used in a food model system. PMID:24855298

  1. Effects of ionophores on Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium growth in pure and mixed ruminal culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enterococcus faecalis and faecium are Gram-positive human pathogens that can live in the gastrointestinal tract of food animals. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are an increasing threat to humans as a nosocomial infection, as well as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. Ionophores ar...

  2. Comparison of temperature effects on E. coli, Salmonella, and Enterococcus survival in surface waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare the dependencies of survival rates on temperature for indicator organisms E. coli and Enterococcus and the pathogen Salmonella in surface waters. A database consisting of 86 survival datasets from peer-reviewed papers on inactivation of E. coli, Salmonella...

  3. An indigenous gut bacterium, Enterococcus faecalis (Lactobacillales: Enterococcaceae), increases seed consumption by Harpalus pensylvanicus (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harpalus pensylvanicus is a beneficial beetle contributing to insect control and seed predation in North American cropland. The bacterial endosymbiont Enterococcus faecalis is found in the intestinal tract of H. pensylvanicus and is thought to contribute to the digestion of the insect's seed diet. W...

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated from environmental samples in the area of intensive poultry production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we investigated antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. from different environmental compartments including litter from two farms, 12 surface and 28 groundwater sites in an area of intensive poultry production and litter application. The enumerated isolates (n=250) were tested ...

  5. Investigation of genes involved in nisin production in Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from raw goat milk.

    PubMed

    Perin, Luana Martins; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2016-09-01

    Different strains of Lactococcus lactis are capable of producing the bacteriocin nisin. However, genetic transfer mechanisms allow the natural occurrence of genes involved in nisin production in members of other bacterial genera, such as Enterococcus spp. In a previous study, nisA was identified in eight enterococci capable of producing antimicrobial substances. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of genes involved in nisin production in Enterococcus spp. strains, as well as nisin expression. The nisA genes from eight Enterococcus spp. strains were sequenced and the translated amino acid sequences were compared to nisin amino-acid sequences previously described in databases. Although containing nisin structural and maturation related genes, the enterococci strains tested in the present study did not present the immunity related genes (nisFEG and nisI). The translated sequences of nisA showed some point mutations, identical to those presented by Lactococcus strains isolated from goat milk. All enterococci were inhibited by nisin, indicating the absence of immunity and thus that nisin cannot be expressed. This study demonstrated for the first time the natural occurrence of nisin structural genes in Enterococcus strains and highlights the importance of providing evidence of a link between the presence of bacteriocin genes and their expression. PMID:27255139

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of the Tyramine Producer Enterococcus durans Strain IPLA 655

    PubMed Central

    Ladero, Victor; Linares, Daniel M.; del Rio, Beatriz; Fernandez, Maria; Martin, M. Cruz

    2013-01-01

    We here report a 3.059-Mbp draft assembly for the genome of Enterococcus durans strain IPLA 655. This dairy isolate provides a model for studying the regulation of the biosynthesis of tyramine (a toxic compound). These results should aid our understanding of tyramine production and allow tyramine accumulation in food to be reduced. PMID:23682153

  7. Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants among Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia, and Enterococcus using PCR and Microarray Approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia, and Enterococcus can be important carriers of antimicrobial resistance. Limited work has been done to examine the relationship among strains co-cultured from the gastrointestinal tract of individual animals. To address this, 1284 isolates were collected from s...

  8. Complete Genome Assembly of Enterococcus faecalis 29212, a Laboratory Reference Strain.

    PubMed

    Minogue, T D; Daligault, H E; Davenport, K W; Broomall, S M; Bruce, D C; Chain, P S; Coyne, S R; Chertkov, O; Freitas, T; Gibbons, H S; Jaissle, J; Koroleva, G I; Ladner, J T; Palacios, G F; Rosenzweig, C N; Xu, Y; Johnson, S L

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a nonmotile Gram-positive coccus, found both as a commensal organism in healthy humans and animals and as a causative agent of multiple diseases, in particular endocarditis. We sequenced the genome of E. faecalis ATCC 29212, a commonly used reference strain in laboratory studies, to complete "finished" annotated assembly (3 Mb). PMID:25291775

  9. Complete Genome Assembly of Enterococcus faecalis 29212, a Laboratory Reference Strain

    PubMed Central

    Minogue, T. D.; Daligault, H. E.; Davenport, K. W.; Broomall, S. M.; Bruce, D. C.; Chain, P. S.; Coyne, S. R.; Chertkov, O.; Freitas, T.; Gibbons, H. S.; Jaissle, J.; Koroleva, G. I.; Ladner, J. T.; Palacios, G. F.; Rosenzweig, C. N.; Xu, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a nonmotile Gram-positive coccus, found both as a commensal organism in healthy humans and animals and as a causative agent of multiple diseases, in particular endocarditis. We sequenced the genome of E. faecalis ATCC 29212, a commonly used reference strain in laboratory studies, to complete “finished” annotated assembly (3 Mb). PMID:25291775

  10. Biotechnological and safety characterization of Enterococcus lactis, a recently described species of dairy origin.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Stefano; Silvetti, Tiziana; Brasca, Milena

    2013-01-01

    The biotechnological and safety properties of a recently described enterococcal species, Enterococcus lactis, were investigated. With regard to the technological properties, in milk all the strains tested had weak acidifying and proteolytic activities, generally medium reduction activity over 24 h (-102 mV < Eh < -2 mV) and low lipolytic activity on tributyrin agar. The isolates were tested for resistance against 14 antibiotics and none of the studied strains were classified as resistant to clinically important antibiotics such as ampicillin, erythromycin, penicillin G, tetracycline and vancomycin. Furthermore, PCR-based detection did not identify any of the common genetic determinants for vancomycin, tetracycline and erythromycin resistance. The E. lactis strains showed good survival in simulated in vitro digestion and were able to inhibit the growth of Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Clostridium sporogenes, Clostridium tyrobutyricum and Pseudomonas syringae. Screening for enterocin structural genes showed that all isolates harboured the entP gene. The presence of nine virulence factor genes (cylA, asa1, gelE, hyl, esp, ace, efaA, hdc and tdc) was investigated by PCR and no virulence determinants were detected. This study highlights that the recently described E. lactis may be a potential source of novel strains with interesting features that could be used for fermented dairy foods. PMID:22961639

  11. Properties of durancin GL, a new antilisterial bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus durans 41D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The properties of the antilisterial durancin GL were characterized. The bacteriocin was the product of Enterococcus durans 41D which was isolated from Hispanic-style cheese samples. The antibacterial activity of durancin GL was only evident against Gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria specie...

  12. Lack of antibacterial activity of Ruta graveolens extracts against Enterococcus fecalis.

    PubMed

    Saeidinia, Amin; Keihanian, Fatemeh; Delavar, Sadegh Fallah; Keihanian, Fereshteh; Ranjbar, Arash; Karkan, Morteza Fallah

    2016-07-01

    Enterococcus fecalis is responsible for majority of enterococci infections and can cause clinical disorders in adult and pediatrics. In order to adverse effects of synthetic drugs, it has made a positive attitude toward alternative and complementary medicine. Ruta graveolens has a wide therapeutic application for various diseases. Aim of this study was to see the effect of this herb on Enterococcus fecalis growth. In this investigation we used standard Enterococcus fecalis. Effect of hydro-alcoholic, aqueous and methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens on growth of bacteria has been evaluated by disc diffusion and serial dilution method and compared with eight prevalent antibiotics. None of disks with different extracts in the range of 50 to 400μ/ μl show any non-growth hallo. Disks with 500μg of all type extracts in comparison with antibiotic disks did not avoid from growth of bacteria. Third test showed the growth of bacteria and ineffectiveness of various amount of extracts. It seems that this ineffectiveness is because of low antibacterial substance against the bacteria in extracts of the herb and high resistant nature of Enterococcus fecalis to antibiotics and it needs more studies. PMID:27592474

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of a Vancomycin-Resistant and Vancomycin-Dependent Enterococcus faecium Isolate.

    PubMed

    Blaschitz, Marion; Lepuschitz, Sarah; Wagner, Laura; Allerberger, Franz; Indra, Alexander; Ruppitsch, Werner; Huhulescu, Steliana

    2016-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci have emerged as major nosocomial pathogens worldwide. While antimicrobial pressure promotes nosocomial colonization with these enterococci, prolonged exposure to vancomycin may foster the transition from vancomycin resistance to vancomycin dependence. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a vancomycin-dependentEnterococcus faeciumisolate showing partial teicoplanin dependence. PMID:27056211

  14. Comparison of antimicrobial resistance determinants among Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus isolated from Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: The importance of Salmonella, Campylobacter, E.coli, and Enterococcus as carriers of antimicrobial resistance is well known, but limited work has been done to examine the relationship between this phenotypic characteristic and genotypic attributes among strains isolated in similar set...

  15. Comparing Temperature Effects on E. Coli, Salmonella, and Enterococcus Survival in Surface Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to compare dependency of survival rates on temperature for indicator organisms E. coli and Enterococcus and the pathogen Salmonella in surface waters. A database of 86 survival datasets from peer-reviewed papers on inactivation of E. coli, Salmonel...

  16. Antimicrobial resistance, virulence determinants, and genetic profiles of clinical and nonclinical Enterococcus cecorum from poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although enterococci are considered commensal bacteria, they are capable of causing disease in humans and animals. Enterococcus cecorum has been implicated as a possible cause of disease in poultry across the world. However, the characteristics that contribute to pathogenesis of E. cecorum in poul...

  17. REAL-TIME PCR METHOD TO DETECT ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 16S rDNA real-time PCR method was developed to detect Enterococcus faecalis in water samples. The dynamic range for cell detection spanned five logs and the detection limit was determined to be 6 cfu/reaction. The assay was capable of detecting E. faecalis cells added to biof...

  18. Detection and quantification limits of the EPA Enterococcus qPCR method

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA will be recommending a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method targeting Enterococcus spp. as an option for monitoring recreational beach water quality in 2013 and has published preliminary proposed water quality criteria guidelines for the method. An im...

  19. Enterococcus diestrammenae sp. nov., isolated from the gut of Diestrammena coreana

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joon Yong; Shin, Na-Ri; Na, Hong-Kyung; Hyun, Dong-Wook; Whon, Tae Woong; Kim, Pil Soo; Yun, Ji-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    A novel Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile and lactic-acid-producing bacterium, designated strain ORL-24T, was isolated from the gut of the camel cricket, Diestrammena coreana. Optimal growth occurred at 37 °C, pH 8 and with 0 % (w/v) NaCl. The ratio of l-lactate to d-lactate in strain ORL-24T was 96 : 4. Lancefield antigen D was not detected. The strain was negative for oxidase activity and catalase activity. According to a phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain ORL-24T was most closely related to the type strain of Enterococcus asini (96.9 % similarity). Comparative pheS and rpoA sequence analyses of strain ORL-24T indicated that the strain belonged to the genus Enterococcus. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c. The DNA G+C content was 41.3 mol%. Based on phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic analyses, strain ORL-24T represents a novel species of the genus Enterococcus, for which the name Enterococcus diestrammenae is proposed. The type strain is ORL-24T ( = KACC 16708T = JCM 18359T). PMID:23907226

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of a Vancomycin-Resistant and Vancomycin-Dependent Enterococcus faecium Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Blaschitz, Marion; Lepuschitz, Sarah; Wagner, Laura; Allerberger, Franz; Indra, Alexander; Huhulescu, Steliana

    2016-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci have emerged as major nosocomial pathogens worldwide. While antimicrobial pressure promotes nosocomial colonization with these enterococci, prolonged exposure to vancomycin may foster the transition from vancomycin resistance to vancomycin dependence. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a vancomycin-dependent Enterococcus faecium isolate showing partial teicoplanin dependence. PMID:27056211

  1. ESCHERICHIA COLI AND ENTEROCOCCUS IN THE SOUTH FORK OF THE IOWA RIVER WATERSHED

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confined swine production has increased in Iowa over the last decade and there is uncertainty about the impact of these operations on water quality. We have monitored the populations of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus in the 78,000 ha South Fork of the Iowa River watershed from 2003 through 2005 t...

  2. Draft Genome Sequence for a Clinical Isolate of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Keesha E; Madinger, Nancy E; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecalis strain, isolated from a patient at the University of Colorado Hospital. The genome assembly is 3,040,186 bp in length with 37.6% GC content. This isolate encodes eleven resistance genes, including those for glycopeptide, aminoglycoside, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin, and tetracycline resistance. PMID:27340066

  3. Draft Genome Sequence for a Clinical Isolate of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Keesha E.; Madinger, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecalis strain, isolated from a patient at the University of Colorado Hospital. The genome assembly is 3,040,186 bp in length with 37.6% GC content. This isolate encodes eleven resistance genes, including those for glycopeptide, aminoglycoside, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin, and tetracycline resistance. PMID:27340066

  4. Dispersion of the Vancomycin Resistance Genes vanA and vanC of Enterococcus Isolated from Nile Tilapia on Retail Sale: A Public Health Hazard.

    PubMed

    Osman, Kamelia M; Ali, Mohamed N; Radwan, Ismail; ElHofy, Fatma; Abed, Ahmed H; Orabi, Ahmed; Fawzy, Nehal M

    2016-01-01

    Although normally regarded harmless commensals, enterococci may cause a range of different infections in humans, including urinary tract infections, sepsis, and endocarditis. The acquisition of vancomycin resistance by enterococci (VRE) has seriously affected the treatment and infection control of these organisms. VRE are frequently resistant to all antibiotics that are effective treatment for vancomycin-susceptible enterococci, which leaves clinicians treating VRE infections with limited therapeutic options. With VRE emerging as a global threat to public health, we aimed to isolate, identify enterococci species from tilapia and their resistance to van-mediated glycopeptide (vanA and vanC) as well as the presence of enterococcal surface protein (esp) using conventional and molecular methods. The cultural, biochemical (Vitek 2 system) and polymerase chain reaction results revealed eight Enterococcus isolates from the 80 fish samples (10%) to be further identified as E. faecalis (6/8, 75%) and E gallinarum (2/8, 25%). Intraperitoneal injection of healthy Nile tilapia with the eight Enterococcus isolates caused significant morbidity (70%) within 3 days and 100% mortality at 6 days post-injection with general signs of septicemia. All of the eight Enterococcus isolates were found to be resistant to tetracycline. The 6/6 E. faecalis isolates were susceptible for penicillin, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, and streptomycin. On the other hand 5/6 were susceptible for ampicillin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin. The two isolates of E. gallinarum were sensitive to rifampicin and ciprofloxacin and resistant to vancomycin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. Molecular characterization proved that they all presented the prototypic vanC element. On the whole, one of the two vancomycin resistance gene was present in 3/8 of the enterococci isolates, while the esp virulence gene was present in 1/8 of the enterococci isolates. The results in this study emphasize the

  5. Dispersion of the Vancomycin Resistance Genes vanA and vanC of Enterococcus Isolated from Nile Tilapia on Retail Sale: A Public Health Hazard

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Kamelia M.; Ali, Mohamed N.; Radwan, Ismail; ElHofy, Fatma; Abed, Ahmed H.; Orabi, Ahmed; Fawzy, Nehal M.

    2016-01-01

    Although normally regarded harmless commensals, enterococci may cause a range of different infections in humans, including urinary tract infections, sepsis, and endocarditis. The acquisition of vancomycin resistance by enterococci (VRE) has seriously affected the treatment and infection control of these organisms. VRE are frequently resistant to all antibiotics that are effective treatment for vancomycin-susceptible enterococci, which leaves clinicians treating VRE infections with limited therapeutic options. With VRE emerging as a global threat to public health, we aimed to isolate, identify enterococci species from tilapia and their resistance to van-mediated glycopeptide (vanA and vanC) as well as the presence of enterococcal surface protein (esp) using conventional and molecular methods. The cultural, biochemical (Vitek 2 system) and polymerase chain reaction results revealed eight Enterococcus isolates from the 80 fish samples (10%) to be further identified as E. faecalis (6/8, 75%) and E gallinarum (2/8, 25%). Intraperitoneal injection of healthy Nile tilapia with the eight Enterococcus isolates caused significant morbidity (70%) within 3 days and 100% mortality at 6 days post-injection with general signs of septicemia. All of the eight Enterococcus isolates were found to be resistant to tetracycline. The 6/6 E. faecalis isolates were susceptible for penicillin, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, and streptomycin. On the other hand 5/6 were susceptible for ampicillin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin. The two isolates of E. gallinarum were sensitive to rifampicin and ciprofloxacin and resistant to vancomycin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. Molecular characterization proved that they all presented the prototypic vanC element. On the whole, one of the two vancomycin resistance gene was present in 3/8 of the enterococci isolates, while the esp virulence gene was present in 1/8 of the enterococci isolates. The results in this study emphasize the

  6. Characterization of aminoglycoside resistance and virulence genes among Enterococcus spp. isolated from a hospital in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanxiang; Li, Jing; Wei, Quhao; Hu, Qingfeng; Lin, Xiaowei; Chen, Mengquan; Ye, Renji; Lv, Huoyang

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the aminoglycoside resistance phenotypes and genotypes, as well as the prevalence of virulence genes, in Enterococcus species isolated from clinical patients in China. A total of 160 enterococcal isolates from various clinical samples collected from September 2013 to July 2014 were identified to the species level using the VITEK-2 COMPACT system. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of the identified Enterococcus strains were determined by the Kirby-Bauer (K-B) disc diffusion method. PCR-based assays were used to detect the aminoglycoside resistance and virulence genes in all enterococcal isolates. Of 160 Enterococcus isolates, 105 were identified as E. faecium, 35 as E. faecalis, and 20 isolates were classified as "other" Enterococcus species. High-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) for gentamicin, streptomycin, and both antibiotics was identified in 58.8, 50, and 34.4% of strains, respectively. The most common virulence gene (50.6% of isolates) was efaA, followed by asa1 (28.8%). The most prevalent aminoglycoside resistance genes were aac(6')-Ie-aph(2''), aph(2')-Id, aph(3')-IIIa, and ant(6')-Ia, present in 49.4%, 1.3%, 48.8% and 31.3% of strains, respectively. Overall, E. faecium and E. faecalis were most frequently associated with hospital-acquired enterococcal infections in Zhejiang Province. All aminoglycoside resistance genes, except aph(2'')-Id, were significantly more prevalent in HLAR strains than amongst high level aminoglycoside susceptible (HLAS) strains, while there was no significant difference between HLAR and HLAS strains in regard to the prevalence of virulence genes, apart from esp, therefore, measures should be taken to manage infections caused by multi-drug resistant Enterococcus species. PMID:25768240

  7. Partial purification and characterization of bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis DU10 and its probiotic attributes.

    PubMed

    Perumal, Venkatesh; Repally, Ayyanna; Dasari, Ankaiah; Venkatesan, Arul

    2016-10-01

    A novel bacteriocin produced by avian duck isolated lactic acid bacterium Enterococcus faecalis DU10 was isolated. This bacteriocin showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against important food-borne pathogens and was purified by size exclusion chromatography followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography in a C-18 column. Tricine-SDS PAGE revealed the presence of a band with an estimated molecular mass of 6.3 kDa. The zymogram clearly linked the antimicrobial activity with this band. This result was further confirmed by mass-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, since a sharp peak corresponding to 6.313 kDa was detected and the functional groups were revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Bacteriocin DU10 activity was found sensitive to proteinase-K and pepsin and partially affected by trypsin and α-chymotrypsin. The activity of bacteriocin DU10 was partially resistant to heat treatments ranging from 30 to 90°C for 30 min. It also withstood a treatment at 121°C for 10 min. Cytotoxicity of bacteriocin DU10 by methyl-thiazolyl-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay showed that the viability of HT-29 and HeLa cells decreased 60 ± 0.7% and 43 ± 4.8%, respectively, in the presence of 3,200 AU/mL of bacteriocin. The strain withstood 0.3% w/v of bile oxgall and pH 2 affected the bacterial growth between 2 and 4 hr of incubation. Adhesion properties examined with HT-29 cell line showed 69.85% initial population of strain E. faecalis DU10, which was found to be strongly adhered to this cell line. These results conclude bacteriocin DU10 may be used as a potential biopreservative and E. faecalis DU10 may be used as a potential probiont to control Salmonella infections. PMID:26786752

  8. Relation between Enterococcus concentrations and turbidity in fresh and saline recreational waters, coastal Horry County, South Carolina, 2003–04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, James E.; Garigen, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    The positive relation observed between turbidity and Enterococcus concentrations in surface water at the water-quality data collection station located in the channel that drains a freshwater swamp may be attributed to bacterial survival in the abundant channel bed sediments that characterized this more naturalized area. Surface-water bed sediments collected near each water-quality data collection station and the surf zone were incubated in static microcosms in the laboratory and analyzed for Enterococcus concentrations over time. Enterococcus concentrations continued to persist in bed sediments collected in the channel that drains the swamp even after almost 4 months of incubation. Conversely, enterococci w

  9. Combined effect of enterocin and lipase from Enterococcus faecium NCIM5363 against food borne pathogens: mode of action studies.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Vrinda; Narayan, Bhaskar; Halami, Prakash M

    2012-08-01

    Food borne diseases have a major impact on public health whose epidemiology is rapidly changing. The whole cells of pathogens involved or their toxins/metabolites affect the human health apart from spoiling sensory properties of the food products finally affecting the food industry as well as consumer health. With pathogens developing mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, there has been an increased need to replace antibiotics as well as chemical additives with naturally occurring bacteriocins. Bacteriocins are known to act mainly against Gram-positive pathogens and with little or no effect towards Gram-negative enteric bacteria. In the present study, combination effect of lipase and bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecium NCIM5363, a highly lipolytic lactic acid bacterium against various food pathogens was assessed. The lipase in combination with enterocin exhibited a lethal effect against Gram-negative pathogens. Scanning electron microscopy studies carried out to ascertain the constitutive mode of action of lipase and enterocin revealed that the lipase degrades the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria and creates a pore through which enterocin enters thereby resulting in cell death. The novelty of this work is the fact that this is the first report revealing the synergistic effect of lipase with enterocin against Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:22580888

  10. Bacteriocin Protein BacL1 of Enterococcus faecalis Is a Peptidoglycan d-Isoglutamyl-l-lysine Endopeptidase*

    PubMed Central

    Kurushima, Jun; Hayashi, Ikue; Sugai, Motoyuki; Tomita, Haruyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis strains are commensal bacteria in humans and other animals, and they are also the causative agent of opportunistic infectious diseases. Bacteriocin 41 (Bac41) is produced by certain E. faecalis clinical isolates, and it is active against other E. faecalis strains. Our genetic analyses demonstrated that the extracellular products of the bacL1 and bacA genes, which are encoded in the Bac41 operon, coordinately express the bacteriocin activity against E. faecalis. In this study, we investigated the molecular functions of the BacL1 and BacA proteins. Immunoblotting and N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis revealed that BacL1 and BacA are secreted without any processing. The coincidental treatment with the recombinant BacL1 and BacA showed complete bacteriocin activity against E. faecalis, but neither BacL1 nor BacA protein alone showed the bacteriocin activity. Interestingly, BacL1 alone demonstrated substantial degrading activity against the cell wall fraction of E. faecalis in the absence of BacA. Furthermore, MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed that BacL1 has a peptidoglycan d-isoglutamyl-l-lysine endopeptidase activity via a NlpC/P60 homology domain. These results collectively suggest that BacL1 serves as a peptidoglycan hydrolase and, when BacA is present, results in the lysis of viable E. faecalis cells. PMID:24235140

  11. The Generalist Inside the Specialist: Gut Bacterial Communities of Two Insect Species Feeding on Toxic Plants Are Dominated by Enterococcus sp.

    PubMed Central

    Vilanova, Cristina; Baixeras, Joaquín; Latorre, Amparo; Porcar, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Some specialist insects feed on plants rich in secondary compounds, which pose a major selective pressure on both the phytophagous and the gut microbiota. However, microbial communities of toxic plant feeders are still poorly characterized. Here, we show the bacterial communities of the gut of two specialized Lepidoptera, Hyles euphorbiae and Brithys crini, which exclusively feed on latex-rich Euphorbia sp. and alkaloid-rich Pancratium maritimum, respectively. A metagenomic analysis based on high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the gut microbiota of both insects is dominated by the phylum Firmicutes, and especially by the common gut inhabitant Enterococcus sp. Staphylococcus sp. are also found in H. euphorbiae though to a lesser extent. By scanning electron microscopy, we found a dense ring-shaped bacterial biofilm in the hindgut of H. euphorbiae, and identified the most prominent bacterium in the biofilm as Enterococcus casseliflavus through molecular techniques. Interestingly, this species has previously been reported to contribute to the immobilization of latex-like molecules in the larvae of Spodoptera litura, a highly polyphagous lepidopteran. The E. casseliflavus strain was isolated from the gut and its ability to tolerate natural latex was tested under laboratory conditions. This fact, along with the identification of less frequent bacterial species able to degrade alkaloids and/or latex, suggest a putative role of bacterial communities in the tolerance of specialized insects to their toxic diet. PMID:27446044

  12. Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in a multi-species biofilm with Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium and control through sanitation procedures.

    PubMed

    da Silva Fernandes, Meg; Kabuki, Dirce Yorika; Kuaye, Arnaldo Yoshiteru

    2015-05-01

    The formation of mono-species biofilm (Listeria monocytogenes) and multi-species biofilms (Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and L. monocytogenes) was evaluated. In addition, the effectiveness of sanitation procedures for the control of the multi-species biofilm also was evaluated. The biofilms were grown on stainless steel coupons at various incubation temperatures (7, 25 and 39°C) and contact times (0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days). In all tests, at 7°C, the microbial counts were below 0.4 log CFU/cm(2) and not characteristic of biofilms. In mono-species biofilm, the counts of L. monocytogenes after 8 days of contact were 4.1 and 2.8 log CFU/cm(2) at 25 and 39°C, respectively. In the multi-species biofilms, Enterococcus spp. were present at counts of 8 log CFU/cm(2) at 25 and 39°C after 8 days of contact. However, the L. monocytogenes in multi-species biofilms was significantly affected by the presence of Enterococcus spp. and by temperature. At 25°C, the growth of L. monocytogenes biofilms was favored in multi-species cultures, with counts above 6 log CFU/cm(2) after 8 days of contact. In contrast, at 39°C, a negative effect was observed for L. monocytogenes biofilm growth in mixed cultures, with a significant reduction in counts over time and values below 0.4 log CFU/cm(2) starting at day 4. Anionic tensioactive cleaning complemented with another procedure (acid cleaning, disinfection or acid cleaning+disinfection) eliminated the multi-species biofilms under all conditions tested (counts of all micro-organisms<0.4 log CFU/cm(2)). Peracetic acid was the most effective disinfectant, eliminating the multi-species biofilms under all tested conditions (counts of the all microorganisms <0.4 log CFU/cm(2)). In contrast, biguanide was the least effective disinfectant, failing to eliminate biofilms under all the test conditions. PMID:25655573

  13. Aggregation and Binding Substances Enhance Pathogenicity in Rabbit Models of Enterococcus faecalis Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Schlievert, Patrick M.; Gahr, Pamala J.; Assimacopoulos, Aris P.; Dinges, Martin M.; Stoehr, Jennifer A.; Harmala, John W.; Hirt, Helmut; Dunny, Gary M.

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the importance of enterococcal aggregation substance (AS) and enterococcal binding substance (EBS) in rabbit models of Enterococcus faecalis cardiac infections. First, American Dutch belted rabbits were injected intraventricularly with 108 CFU and observed for 2 days. No clinical signs of illness developed in animals given AS− EBS− organisms, and all survived. All rabbits given AS− EBS+ organisms developed signs of illness, including significant pericardial inflammation, but only one of six died. All animals given AS+ EBS− organisms developed signs of illness, including pericardial inflammation, and survived. All rabbits given AS+ EBS+ organisms developed signs of illness and died. None of the rabbits receiving AS+ EBS+ organisms showed gross pericardial inflammation. The lethality and lack of inflammation are consistent with the presence of a superantigen. Rabbit and human lymphocytes were highly stimulated in vitro by cell extracts, but not cell-free culture fluids, of AS+ EBS+ organisms. In contrast, cell extracts from AS− EBS− organisms weakly stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Culture fluids from human lymphocytes stimulated with AS+/EBS+ enterococci contained high levels of gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and TNF-β, which is consistent with functional stimulation of T-lymphocyte proliferation and macrophage activation. Subsequent experiments examined the abilities of the same strains to cause endocarditis in a catheterization model. New Zealand White rabbits underwent transaortic catheterization for 2 h, at which time catheters were removed and animals were injected with 2 × 109 CFU of test organisms. None of the animals given AS− EBS− organisms developed vegetations or showed autopsy evidence of tissue damage. Rabbits given AS− EBS+ or AS+ EBS− organisms developed small vegetations and had splenomegaly at autopsy. All rabbits given AS+ EBS+ organisms developed large vegetations and had

  14. Ampicillin in Combination with Ceftaroline, Cefepime, or Ceftriaxone Demonstrates Equivalent Activities in a High-Inoculum Enterococcus faecalis Infection Model.

    PubMed

    Luther, Megan K; Rice, Louis B; LaPlante, Kerry L

    2016-05-01

    Ampicillin-ceftriaxone combination therapy has become a predominant treatment for serious Enterococcus faecalis infections, such as endocarditis. Unfortunately, ceftriaxone use is associated with future vancomycin-resistant enterococcus colonization. We evaluated E. faecalis in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model against simulated human concentration-time profiles of ampicillin plus ceftaroline, cefepime, ceftriaxone, or gentamicin. Ampicillin-cefepime and ampicillin-ceftaroline demonstrated activities similar to those of ampicillin-ceftriaxone against E. faecalis. PMID:26926624

  15. Safety, beneficial and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium isolated from Brazilian cheeses.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Karina Maria Olbrich; Vieira, Antônio Diogo Silva; Salles, Hévila Oliveira; Oliveira, Jacqueline da Silva; Rocha, Cíntia Renata Costa; Borges, Maria de Fátima; Bruno, Laura Maria; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the safety and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Brazilian Coalho cheeses. High levels of co-aggregation were observed between Enterococcus faecium strains EM485 and EM925 and both Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens . Both strains presented low levels of hydrophobicity. E. faecium EM485 and EM925 were both able to grow in the presence of 0.5% of the sodium salts of taurocholic acid (TC), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC), glycocholic acid (GC), and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDC), although they showed the ability to deconjugate only GDC and TDC. Both strains showed good survival when exposed to conditions simulating the gastro intestinal tract (GIT). When tested for the presence of virulence genes, only tyrosine decarboxylase and vancomycin B generated positive PCR results. PMID:26221113

  16. Safety, beneficial and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium isolated from Brazilian cheeses

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Karina Maria Olbrich; Vieira, Antônio Diogo Silva; Salles, Hévila Oliveira; Oliveira, Jacqueline da Silva; Rocha, Cíntia Renata Costa; Borges, Maria de Fátima; Bruno, Laura Maria; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the safety and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Brazilian Coalho cheeses. High levels of co-aggregation were observed between Enterococcus faecium strains EM485 and EM925 and both Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens . Both strains presented low levels of hydrophobicity. E. faecium EM485 and EM925 were both able to grow in the presence of 0.5% of the sodium salts of taurocholic acid (TC), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC), glycocholic acid (GC), and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDC), although they showed the ability to deconjugate only GDC and TDC. Both strains showed good survival when exposed to conditions simulating the gastro intestinal tract (GIT). When tested for the presence of virulence genes, only tyrosine decarboxylase and vancomycin B generated positive PCR results. PMID:26221113

  17. Enterococcus hirae enteropathy with ascending cholangitis and pancreatitis in a kitten.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, J M; Higgins, R; Barrette, N; Milette, S

    2000-05-01

    A 2-month-old female Persian cat that had been showing episodes of anorexia and diarrhea for the previous 4 weeks was presented in shock and died 2 days later. Numerous Gram-positive cocci were located along the brush border of small intestinal villi, without significant inflammatory infiltration. Similar bacteria were present within hepatic bile ducts and pancreatic ducts and were associated with suppurative inflammation and exfoliation of epithelial cells. Culture of the liver and lung yielded bacteria identified as Enterococcus hirae. Fecal culture from an asymptomatic adult female from the same cattery also yielded large numbers of E. hirae. To our knowledge, this is the first report of E. hirae enteropathy in a cat and the first report of ascending cholangitis and ductal pancreatitis caused by an Enterococcus spp. PMID:10810996

  18. Deactivation of Enterococcus Faecalis Bacteria by an Atmospheric Cold Plasma Brush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Huang, Jun; Du, Ning; Liu, Xiao-Di; Lv, Guo-Hua; Wang, Xing-Quan; Zhang, Guo-Ping; Guo, Li-Hong; Yang, Si-Ze

    2012-07-01

    An atmospheric cold plasma brush suitable for large area and low-temperature plasma-based sterilization is designed and used to treat enterococcus faecalis bacteria. The results show that the efficiency of the inactivation process by helium plasma is dependent on applied power and exposure time. After plasma treatments, the cell structure and morphology changes can be observed by scanning electron microscopy. Optical emission measurements indicate that reactive species such as O and OH play a significant role in the sterilization process.

  19. Serum as a Factor Influencing Adhesion of Enterococcus faecalis to Glass and Silicone

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo-Moreno, Amparo M.; González-Martín, M. Luisa; Pérez-Giraldo, Ciro; Bruque, José M.; Gómez-García, Antonio C.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to analyze the effect of serum on the physicochemical surface properties and adhesion to glass and silicone of Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 at 37°C. As is presented using thermodynamics analysis, serum minimizes the interaction of cells with water, which correlates well with the increase in hydrophobicity and in bacterial adhesion to glass and silicone. PMID:12406782

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Enterococcus faecium Strains Isolated from Argentine Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Gabriela P.; Quintana, Ingrid M.; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S.; Gallina Nizo, Gabriel; Esteban, Luis

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of four Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Argentine regional cheeses. These strains were selected based on their technological properties, i.e., their ability to produce aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) from citrate. The goal of our study is to provide further genetic evidence for the rational selection of enterococci strains based on their pheno- and genotype in order to be used in cheese production. PMID:26847907

  1. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Enterococcus faecium Strains Isolated from Argentine Cheese.

    PubMed

    Martino, Gabriela P; Quintana, Ingrid M; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S; Gallina Nizo, Gabriel; Esteban, Luis; Magni, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of four Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Argentine regional cheeses. These strains were selected based on their technological properties, i.e., their ability to produce aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) from citrate. The goal of our study is to provide further genetic evidence for the rational selection of enterococci strains based on their pheno- and genotype in order to be used in cheese production. PMID:26847907

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Probiotic Enterococcus faecium Strain L-3.

    PubMed

    Karaseva, Alena; Tsapieva, Anna; Pachebat, Justin; Suvorov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the bacteriocin producer Enterococcus faecium strain L-3, isolated from a probiotic preparation, Laminolact, which is widely used in the Russian Federation. The draft genome sequence is composed of 74 contigs for a total of 2,643,001 bp, with 2,646 coding genes. Five clusters for bacteriocin production were found. PMID:26823581

  3. Complete genome sequence of Enterococcus durans KLDS6.0930, a strain with probiotic properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Li, Bailiang; Du, Jincheng; Yu, Shangfu; Li, Wan; Evivie, Smith Etareri; Guo, Lidong; Ding, Xiuyun; Xu, Min; Huo, Guicheng

    2016-01-10

    Enterococcus durans KLDS6.0930 strain was originally isolated from traditional naturally fermented cream in Inner Mongolia of China. The complete genome sequence of E. durans KLDS6.0930 was carried out using the PacBio RSII platform. The genome contains a circular chromosome and two circular plasmids. Genome sequencing information provides the genetic basis for bioinformatics analysis of bile salt and acid tolerance, cell adhesion, and molecular mechanisms responsible for lipid metabolism. PMID:26603119

  4. Role of (p)ppGpp in Biofilm Formation by Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, José A.; Wickström, Claes; Sedgley, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis strain OG1RF and its (p)ppGpp-deficient ΔrelA, ΔrelQ, and ΔrelA ΔrelQ mutants were grown in biofilms and evaluated for growth profiles, biofilm morphology, cell viability, and proteolytic activity. E. faecalis lacking (p)ppGpp had a diminished capacity to sustain biofilm formation over an extended period of time and expressed abundant proteolytic activity. PMID:22179256

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Probiotic Enterococcus faecium Strain L-3

    PubMed Central

    Tsapieva, Anna; Pachebat, Justin; Suvorov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the bacteriocin producer Enterococcus faecium strain L-3, isolated from a probiotic preparation, Laminolact, which is widely used in the Russian Federation. The draft genome sequence is composed of 74 contigs for a total of 2,643,001 bp, with 2,646 coding genes. Five clusters for bacteriocin production were found. PMID:26823581

  6. Could β-hemolytic, group B Enterococcus faecalis be mistaken for Streptococcus agalactiae?

    PubMed

    Savini, Vincenzo; Gherardi, Giovanni; Marrollo, Roberta; Franco, Alessia; Pimentel De Araujo, Fernanda; Dottarelli, Samuele; Fazii, Paolo; Battisti, Antonio; Carretto, Edoardo

    2015-05-01

    A β-hemolytic Enterococcus faecalis strain agglutinating Lancefield group A, B, C, D, F, and G antisera was observed from a rectovaginal swab, in the context of antenatal screening for Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]). This is the first multi-Lancefield antisera-agglutinating isolate of this species, and it raised particular concern, as it may mimic GBS, leading to false reporting and useless receipt of intrapartum antibiotics. PMID:25766004

  7. First case of vanA-positive Enterococcus mundtii in human urinary tract infection in Iran.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Rad, M; Shadanpour, S; van Belkum, A; Soltani, A; Sharifi-Rad, J

    2016-05-01

    We cultured enterococci from urinary tract infections in Iranian hospitals. Seven different Enterococcus species (E. raffinosus, E. durans, E. hirae, E. avium, E. mundtii, E. faecium and E. faecalis) were found. Seven strains were vancomycin resistant, leading to an overall vancomycin resistance rate of 3.9%. The enterococcal infection rate was high and vancomycin-resistant enterococci incidence low. We report the first vanA-positive E. mundtii urinary tract infections. PMID:27081495

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Vancomycin-Susceptible, Ampicillin-Intermediate Enterococcus faecium Strain D344RRF.

    PubMed

    García-Solache, Mónica; Rice, Louis B

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium is an important nosocomial pathogen, causing a substantial health burden due to high resistance to antibiotics and its ability to colonize the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we present the draft genome of vancomycin-susceptible, ampicillin-intermediate strain D344RRF, a rifampicin/fusidic acid-resistant and commonly used laboratory strain, which is useful in studying the transfer of antibiotic resistance. PMID:27151809

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Vancomycin-Susceptible, Ampicillin-Intermediate Enterococcus faecium Strain D344RRF

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Louis B.

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium is an important nosocomial pathogen, causing a substantial health burden due to high resistance to antibiotics and its ability to colonize the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we present the draft genome of vancomycin-susceptible, ampicillin-intermediate strain D344RRF, a rifampicin/fusidic acid-resistant and commonly used laboratory strain, which is useful in studying the transfer of antibiotic resistance. PMID:27151809

  10. Complete genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis LD33, a bacteriocin-producing strain.

    PubMed

    Yuehua, Jiao; Lanwei, Zhang; Fei, Liu; Huaxi, Yi; Xue, Han

    2016-06-10

    Enterococcus faecalis LD33 strain was originally isolated from traditional naturally fermented cream in Inner Mongolia of China. Its complete genome sequence was carried out using the Illumina Hiseq and the PacBio RSII platform. The genome only has a circular chromosome and a GC content of 37.58%. Other core information shown in the genome sequencing results further insight on this bacterium's genetic elements for bacteriocin production and the genes related to respiratory chain. PMID:27090021

  11. [Antibiotic resistance analysis of Enterococcus spp. and Enterobacteriaceae spp. isolated from food].

    PubMed

    Korotkevich, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    The isolates from foods were screened for sensitivity to clinically significant antibiotics to assess the actual situation related to the prevalence of the antibiotic-resistant microorganisms in food. The goal of this work was to study the phenotypic characteristics of the antibiotic susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus spp. isolated from the good quality foods, and evaluation of the prevalence of tetracycline resistance in this groups of microbial contaminants. 68 strains of Enterobacteriaceae family and Enterococcus spp. isolated from poultry and livestock meat, pasteurized dairy products, acquired in the retail in the Moscow region, were studied. The disk-diffusion method (DDM) analysis showed a rather high prevalence of bacteria that are resistant and forming resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics: in general 38% of Enterobacteriaceae strains and 40% of Enterococcus spp., isolated from meat products were resistant to tetracycline and doxycycline, and 21 and 33% - from dairy products, respectively; 26% of milk isolates and 54% of meat isolates were resistant to ampicillin. Considering that the tetracyclines is the most frequently used in animal husbandry and veterinary, the incidence and levels of tetracycline resistance were evaluated using tests with higher sensitivity to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), than the DDM. It was shown that among the Enterobacteriaceae strains 26% of isolates and 38% isolates were highly resistant to tetracycline (MIC ranged from 8 to 120 mg/kg) and 17-40% - among Enterococcus spp. These data obtained on a small number of samples, however, correspond to the frequency of tetracycline resistant strains detected in animal products in the EU (10-50%). Two multidrug-resistant enterobacteria strains - Klebsiella pneumoniae (farmer cheese) and Escherichia coli (minced turkey) were found among the .46 strains (4.4%), and they were resistant to 8 antibiotics. PMID:27455596

  12. Is a single positive blood culture for Enterococcus species representative of infection or contamination?

    PubMed

    Jindai, K; Strerath, M S; Hess, T; Safdar, N

    2014-11-01

    Data on the clinical outcomes of patients with a single compared with multiple positive blood cultures for Enterococcus species is limited. We undertook a retrospective cohort study in adults with at least one positive blood culture for Enterococcus species in a single institution. Clinical outcomes included death and elimination of infection. We included 471 positive blood cultures from 206 enterococcal positive blood culture episodes in 189 patients. Multiple positive blood cultures for Enterococcus species occurred in 110/206 (53.4 %) episodes; 31.6 % of patients had diabetes mellitus; 42.9 % of patients had solid or hematologic malignancy; 26.5 % of patients were solid organ transplant recipients; hospital-acquired and healthcare-associated acquisition represented 55.3 % and 33.0 % of episodes, respectively. Thirty-five patients died and 110 episodes of enterococcal bloodstream infection were successfully treated. In the multivariable analysis, multiple positive blood cultures were not statistically significantly associated with an increased likelihood of in-hospital death [odds ratio (OR) 1.00, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.42-2.40] or elimination (OR 1.41, 95 % CI 0.76-2.64) compared with single positive blood cultures. Hematologic malignancy and diabetes mellitus were independently associated with in-hospital death (OR 2.83, 95 % Cl 1.02-7.82; OR 2.79, 95 % Cl 1.16-6.70, respectively). Infectious disease consultation was associated with a greater likelihood of elimination (OR 2.50, 95 % Cl 1.32-4.72). The clinical outcomes of patients with single versus multiple positive blood cultures with Enterococcus species were similar in our institution. Further studies should examine efficient methods to detect contamination versus true infection. PMID:25027071

  13. Identification of vancomycin interaction with Enterococcus faecalis within 30 min of interaction time using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Cora; Kirchhoff, Johanna; Beleites, Claudia; Hey, Jessica; Kostudis, Sophia; Pfister, Wolfgang; Schlattmann, Peter; Popp, Jürgen; Neugebauer, Ute

    2015-11-01

    Vancomycin is an important glycopeptide antibiotic which is used to treat serious infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. However, during the last years, a tremendous rise in vancomycin resistances, especially among Enterococci, was reported, making fast diagnostic methods inevitable. In this contribution, we apply Raman spectroscopy to systematically characterize vancomycin-enterococci interactions over a time span of 90 min using a sensitive Enterococcus faecalis strain and two different vancomycin concentrations above the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Successful action of the drug on the pathogen could be observed already after 30 min of interaction time. Characteristic spectral changes are visualized with the help of multivariate statistical analysis (linear discriminant analysis and partial least squares regressions). Those changes were employed to train a statistical model to predict vancomycin treatment based on the Raman spectra. The robustness of the model was tested using data recorded by an independent operator. Classification accuracies of >90 % were obtained for vancomycin concentrations in the lower range of a typical trough serum concentration recommended for most patients during appropriate vancomycin therapy. Characterization of drug-pathogen interactions by means of label-free spectroscopic methods, such as Raman spectroscopy, can provide the knowledge base for innovative and fast susceptibility tests which could speed up microbiological analysis as well as finding applications in novel antibiotic screenings assays. Graphical Abstract E. faecalis is incubated with vancomycin and characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy after different time points. Characteristic spectral changes reveal efficient vancomycin-enterococci-interaction. PMID:26231687

  14. Biochemical and Structural Basis for Inhibition of Enterococcus faecalis Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Synthase, mvaS, by Hymeglusin

    SciTech Connect

    Skaff, D. Andrew; Ramyar, Kasra X.; McWhorter, William J.; Barta, Michael L.; Geisbrecht, Brian V.; Miziorko, Henry M.

    2012-07-25

    Hymeglusin (1233A, F244, L-659-699) is established as a specific {beta}-lactone inhibitor of eukaryotic hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGCS). Inhibition results from formation of a thioester adduct to the active site cysteine. In contrast, the effects of hymeglusin on bacterial HMG-CoA synthase, mvaS, have been minimally characterized. Hymeglusin blocks growth of Enterococcus faecalis. After removal of the inhibitor from culture media, a growth curve inflection point at 3.1 h is observed (vs 0.7 h for the uninhibited control). Upon hymeglusin inactivation of purified E. faecalis mvaS, the thioester adduct is more stable than that measured for human HMGCS. Hydroxylamine cleaves the thioester adduct; substantial enzyme activity is restored at a rate that is 8-fold faster for human HMGCS than for mvaS. Structural results explain these differences in enzyme-inhibitor thioester adduct stability and solvent accessibility. The E. faecalis mvaS-hymeglusin cocrystal structure (1.95 {angstrom}) reveals virtually complete occlusion of the bound inhibitor in a narrow tunnel that is largely sequestered from bulk solvent. In contrast, eukaryotic (Brassica juncea) HMGCS binds hymeglusin in a more solvent-exposed cavity.

  15. Decolorization and detoxification of sulfonated toxic diazo dye C.I. Direct Red 81 by Enterococcus faecalis YZ 66.

    PubMed

    Sahasrabudhe, Madhuri M; Saratale, Rijuta G; Saratale, Ganesh D; Pathade, Girish R

    2014-01-01

    Isolated Enterococcus faecalis YZ 66 strain shows ability to decolorize various industrial dyes among which, it showed complete decolorization and degradation of toxic, sulfonated recalcitrant diazo dye Direct Red 81 (50 mg/L) within 1.5 h of incubation under static anoxic condition. The optimum pH and temperature for decolorization was 7.0 and 40°C, respectively. Significant induction in the activity of intracellular oxidoreductive enzymes suggested its involvement in the decolorization of Direct Red 81. The biodegradation of Direct Red 81 was monitored by UV-Visible, FT-IR spectroscopy and HPLC. The final products were characterized by GC-MS and possible pathway of the degradation of the dye was proposed. The phytotoxicity assay (with respect to plants Sorghum vulgare and Phaseolus mungo) revealed that the degradation of Direct Red 81 produced nontoxic metabolites. Finally E. faecalis was employed to decolorize actual industrial effluent showing decolorization (in terms of ADMI value) with moderate COD and BOD reduction. Moreover the result increases the applicability of the strain for the treatment of industrial wastewaters containing dye pollutants. PMID:25649265

  16. Characterization of lead-resistant river isolate Enterococcus faecalis and assessment of its multiple metal and antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Aktan, Yasin; Tan, Sema; Icgen, Bulent

    2013-06-01

    Contamination of surface waters has a direct impact on the public health of entire communities. Microorganisms inhabiting contaminated surface waters have developed mechanisms of coping with a variety of toxic metals and drugs. Investigations were carried out to isolate and identify lead-resistant bacteria from the river Kızılırmak along the city of Kırıkkale, Turkey. Of the 33 lead-resistant isolates, one isolate with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 1,200 mg L(-1) was isolated and identified as Enterococcus faecalis by using biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequencing. Lead-resistant E. faecalis isolate was found out to be resistant to other heavy metals like aluminum, lithium, barium, chromium, iron, silver, tin, nickel, zinc, and strontium and to drugs like amikacin, aztreonam, and gentamicin. E. faecalis harbored four plasmids with the molecular sizes of 1.58, 3.06, 22.76, and 28.95 kb. Plasmid profile analyses of cured derivatives revealed that the lead resistance ability of E. faecalis was still existing despite the elimination of all the plasmids. Moreover, the antibiotic resistance pattern of the cured derivatives did not demonstrate any change from the parental strain. Our findings indicated that the lead resistance genes of E. faecalis were located on the chromosomal DNA rather than the plasmid. PMID:23079796

  17. The Two-Component System GrvRS (EtaRS) Regulates ace Expression in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavindra V.; La Rosa, Sabina Leanti; Cohen, Ana Luisa V.; Murray, Barbara E.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of ace (adhesin to collagen of Enterococcus faecalis), encoding a virulence factor in endocarditis and urinary tract infection models, has been shown to increase under certain conditions, such as in the presence of serum, bile salts, urine, and collagen and at 46°C. However, the mechanism of ace/Ace regulation under different conditions is still unknown. In this study, we identified a two-component regulatory system GrvRS as the main regulator of ace expression under these stress conditions. Using Northern hybridization and β-galactosidase assays of an ace promoter-lacZ fusion, we found transcription of ace to be virtually absent in a grvR deletion mutant under the conditions that increase ace expression in wild-type OG1RF and in the complemented strain. Moreover, a grvR mutant revealed decreased collagen binding and biofilm formation as well as attenuation in a murine urinary tract infection model. Here we show that GrvR plays a major role in control of ace expression and E. faecalis virulence. PMID:25385790

  18. Isolation and mode of action of bacteriocin BacC1 produced by nonpathogenic Enterococcus faecium C1.

    PubMed

    Goh, H F; Philip, K

    2015-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are present in fermented food products and help to improve shelf life and enhance the flavor of the food. They also produce metabolites such as bacteriocins to prevent the growth of undesirable or pathogenic bacteria. In this study, Enterococcus faecium C1 isolated from fermented cow milk was able to produce bacteriocin BacC1 and inhibit the growth of selected food-spoilage bacteria. The bacteriocin was purified through 4 steps: ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction column, a series of centrifugal steps, and finally reversed-phase HPLC. A membrane permeability test using SYTOX green dye (Invitrogen, Grand Island, NY) showed that the bacteriocin caused significant disruptions to the test bacterial membrane, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. The molecular weight of the BacC1 obtained from SDS-PAGE was around 10kDa, and N-terminal sequencing revealed a partial amino acid sequence of BacC1: GPXGPXGP. The bacterial strain was nonhemolytic and not antibiotic resistant. Therefore, it has high potential for application in the food industry as an antimicrobial agent to extend the shelf life of food products. PMID:26004828

  19. Identification and methods for prevention of Enterococcus mundtii infection in silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori, reared on artificial diet.

    PubMed

    Nwibo, Don Daniel; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2015-06-01

    Previously, it was reported that Enterococcus mundtii (E. mundtii) was associated with flacherie disease of silkworm larvae reared on artificial diet. In this study, we report that E. mundtii was isolated from diseased silkworm larvae, and validated as a pathogenic bacterium of the animal. When silkworm larva was infected with 1.04 × 10⁶ colony-forming units of E. mundtii via oral administration of diet, half population died within six days, indicating that the bacterium is pathogenic to silkworm. Less severe infection was found to cause anorexia and hamper the development of larvae. This pathogen was found to proliferate in both time- and dose-dependent manner in the gastrointestinal tract of the animal. The bacterium was isolated from powder of artificial diet made from mulberry leaves, and from mulberry leaves growing at a field. Minimum inhibitory concentration determination revealed that this bacterium was susceptible to tested antibiotics. Vancomycin treatment of diet significantly decreased the number of E. mundtii in intestine of silkworm larvae infected with the bacteria, compared to control. Furthermore, autoclaving or gamma ray irradiation of diet was also effective for exclusion of E. mundtii from the diet without the loss of its nutrient capacities. These results suggest that mulberry leaves used in making artificial diet for silkworm larvae is one of the sources of E. mundtii infection; and that antibiotic treatment, autoclaving or gamma ray irradiation of artificial diet can exclude the bacteria. PMID:26193940

  20. SalB inactivation modulates culture supernatant exoproteins and affects autolysis and viability in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Jayendra; Walker, Rachel G; Wilkinson, Mark C; Ward, Deborah; Horsburgh, Malcolm J

    2012-07-01

    The culture supernatant fraction of an Enterococcus faecalis gelE mutant of strain OG1RF contained elevated levels of the secreted antigen SalB. Using differential fluorescence gel electrophoresis (DIGE) the salB mutant was shown to possess a unique complement of exoproteins. Differentially abundant exoproteins were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Stress-related proteins including DnaK, Dps family protein, SOD, and NADH peroxidase were present in greater quantity in the OG1RF salB mutant culture supernatant. Moreover, several proteins involved in cell wall synthesis and cell division, including d-Ala-d-Lac ligase and EzrA, were present in reduced quantity in OG1RF salB relative to the parent strain. The salB mutant displayed reduced viability and anomalous cell division, and these phenotypes were exacerbated in a gelE salB double mutant. An epistatic relationship between gelE and salB was not identified with respect to increased autolysis and cell morphological changes observed in the salB mutant. SalB was purified as a six-histidine-tagged protein to investigate peptidoglycan hydrolytic activity; however, activity was not evident. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of reduced muropeptides from peptidoglycan digested with mutanolysin revealed that the salB mutant and OG1RF were indistinguishable. PMID:22563054

  1. Interference in Pheromone-Responsive Conjugation of a High-Level Bacitracin Resistant Enterococcus faecalis Plasmid of Poultry Origin

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Cindy-Love; Archambault, Marie

    2013-01-01

    The current study reports on contact interference of a high-level bacitracin- resistant pheromone-responsive plasmid of Enterococcus faecalis strain 543 of poultry origin during conjugative transfer of bcr antimicrobial resistance genes using a polyclonal antiserum aggregation substance44–560 (AS). After induction with pheromones produced by the recipient strain E. faecalis JH2-2, clumping of the donor E. faecalis strain 543 was observed as well as high transfer frequencies of bcr in short time broth mating. Filter mating assays from donor strain E. faecalis 543 to the recipient strain E. faecalis JH2-2 revealed conjugative transfer of asa1 (AS), bcrRAB and traB (negative regulator pheromone response) genes. The presence of these genes in transconjugants was confirmed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR, Southern hybridization and sequencing. A significant reduction in formation of aggregates was observed when the polyclonal anti-AS44–560 was added in the pheromone-responsive conjugation experiments as compared to the induced state. Moreover, interference of anti-AS44–560 antibodies in pheromone-responsive conjugation was demonstrated by a reduction in horizontal transfer of asa1 and bcr genes between E. faecalis strain 543 and E. faecalis JH2-2. Reducing the pheromone-responsive conjugation of E. faecalis is of interest because of its clinical importance in the horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:24030654

  2. Optimization of conditions for probiotic curd formulation by Enterococcus faecium MTCC 5695 with probiotic properties using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Vrinda; Goveas, Louella Concepta; Prakash, Maya; Halami, Prakash M; Narayan, Bhaskar

    2014-11-01

    Enterococcus faecium MTCC 5695 possessing potential probiotic properties as well as enterocin producing ability was used as starter culture. Effect of time (12-24 h) and inoculum level (3-7 % v/v) on cell growth, bacteriocin production, antioxidant property, titrable acidity and pH of curd was studied by response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized conditions were 26.48 h and 2.17%v/v inoculum and the second order model validated. Co cultivation studies revealed that the formulated product had the ability to prevent growth of foodborne pathogens that affect keeping quality of the product during storage. The results indicated that application of E. faecium MTCC 5695 along with usage of optimized conditions attributed to the formation of highly consistent well set curd with bioactive and bioprotective properties. Formulated curd with potential probiotic attributes can be used as therapeutic agent for the treatment of foodborne diseases like Traveler's diarrhea and gastroenteritis which thereby help in improvement of bowel health. PMID:26396297

  3. Studies on the drug resistance profile of Enterococcus faecium distributed from poultry retailers to hospitals.

    PubMed

    Limayem, Alya; Donofrio, Robert Scott; Zhang, Chao; Haller, Edward; Johnson, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    The multidrug resistant Enterococcus faecium (MEF) strains originating from farm animals are proliferating at a substantial pace to impact downstream food chains and could reach hospitals. This study was conducted to elucidate the drug susceptibility profile of MEF strains collected from poultry products in Ann Arbor, MI area and clinical settings from Michigan State Lab and Moffitt Cancer Center (MCC) in Florida. Presumptive positive Enterococcus isolates at species level were identified by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis. The antibiotic susceptibility profile for both poultry and clinical strains was determined by the Thermo Scientific's Sensititre conform to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) and validated via quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods. Out of 50 poultry samples (Turkey: n = 30; Chicken: n = 20), 36 samples were positive for Enterococcus species from which 20.83% were identified as E. faecium. All the E. faecium isolates were multidrug resistant and displayed resistance to the last alternative drug, quinupristin/dalfopristin (QD) used to treat vancomycin resistant E. faecium (VRE) in hospitals. Results indicate the presence of MEF strains in food animals and clinical settings that are also resistant to QD. PMID:26357893

  4. Biological Activities of Tetrodotoxin-Producing Enterococcus faecium AD1 Isolated from Puffer Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tu Hoang Khue; Nguyen, Huu Ngoc; Nghe, Dat Van; Nguyen, Kim Hoang

    2015-01-01

    Puffer fishes were collected from the central sea in Vietnam from spring to summer season. The eggs were incubated in MRS broth that was used to test the toxicity in mice and isolate the lactic acid bacteria community that could produce tetrodotoxin (TTX). Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance lipid chromatography (HPLC) were used to detect and quantify TTX. As a result, Enterococcus faecium AD1 which was identified by biochemical test and 16S rRNA analysis could produce TTX 0.3 mg/mL when cultured in MRS broth. The bacterium was optimized for TTX production and gave 0.18 mg/mL, 0.07 mg/mL, and 0.15 mg/mL in media prepared from the meat-washing water of freshwater fishes (Pangasius bocourti, Oreochromis sp.) and sea fish (Auxis thazard), respectively, that are also hopeful to answer some poisoning cases related to eating fishes. Enterococcus faecium also showed the wide antimicrobial activities on yeast, Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. Extracted exopolysaccharide (EPS) that reacted with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl to give IC50 at 5 mg/mL equaled 11 mg/mL ascorbic acid which could show effects on Hela-6 and Hep G2 using sulforhodamine B test. Enterococcus faecium can be claimed as a promising source in tetrodotoxin and biological compounds. PMID:26380310

  5. Host range susceptibility of Enterococcus sp. strains isolated from diseased turbot: possible routes of infection.

    PubMed Central

    Romalde, J L; Magariños, B; Nuñez, S; Barja, J L; Toranzo, A E

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the pathogenicity of Enterococcus sp. strains isolated from diseased turbot for several fish species (turbot, salmon, trout, and seabream), as well as for mice. The intraperitoneal injection assays indicated that the tested strains showed host specificity for turbot, with a high degree of virulence (50% lethal dose of 10(4) cells per g of fish). The Spanish Enterococcus sp. isolates were nonpathogenic for the other fish species studied and for mice. The possible routes of infection were determined by bath exposure (with and without prior abrasion of the skin) and by intragastric inoculations with food and feces contaminated with the pathogen. The bath challenges indicated that the Enterococcus isolates were able to overcome the defense mechanisms present on the surface of the turbot only if the skin was abraded prior to the exposure. The antibacterial activities of components of a glycoprotein nature present in the turbot skin mucus are probably responsible in part for the resistance in noninjured fish to infection. On the other hand, we demonstrated the capacity of this pathogen to overcome adverse conditions in the stomachs of fish when associated with food or fecal material, since it is able to establish an infective state and to produce mortalities after 16 to 20 days postingestion. From all of these findings, we can conclude that horizontal transmissions through water and the fecal-oral route are the main avenues of infection of turbot streptococcosis. PMID:8593061

  6. First detection of the antiseptic resistance gene qacA/B in Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Meike; Bauer, Johann; Preikschat, Petra; Schwaiger, Karin; Mölle, Gabriele; Hölzel, Christina

    2012-02-01

    Resistance to disinfectants is well investigated in staphylococci and pseudomonads but nearly unexplored in bacteria of the genus Enterococcus, despite their rising significance as nosocomial pathogens. In this study, Enterococcus faecalis (n=585) from blood (n=42) and stool (n=109) of hospitalized humans, from faeces of farm animals (n=226), and from food (milk and dairy products, n=96; meat and meat products, n=112) were screened for the presence of qac-genes (qacA, qacB, qacC, smr [qacC+qacD], qacEΔ1, qacG, qacH, qacJ) via PCR. The isolates' susceptibility to a quaternary ammonium compound (didecyldimethylammoniumchloride, DDAC) and antibiotics was assessed by microdilution. Four E. faecalis strains were positive for qac-genes: qacA/B was found in one isolate from cattle and one isolate from human blood; smr (qacC+qacD) was detected in one isolate from human stool and in one isolate from cheese ("Camembert"). The sequences of the qacA/B-amplicons differed in two basepairs. DDAC had an elevated minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2.45-3.5 mg/L in one qacA/B-positive strain from human blood, whereas the other qac-gene carriers had wild-type MIC-values for DDAC (1.05 mg/L). This is the first detection of qacA/B in the genus Enterococcus. PMID:22017402

  7. Biological Activities of Tetrodotoxin-Producing Enterococcus faecium AD1 Isolated from Puffer Fishes.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tu Hoang Khue; Nguyen, Huu Ngoc; Nghe, Dat Van; Nguyen, Kim Hoang

    2015-01-01

    Puffer fishes were collected from the central sea in Vietnam from spring to summer season. The eggs were incubated in MRS broth that was used to test the toxicity in mice and isolate the lactic acid bacteria community that could produce tetrodotoxin (TTX). Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance lipid chromatography (HPLC) were used to detect and quantify TTX. As a result, Enterococcus faecium AD1 which was identified by biochemical test and 16S rRNA analysis could produce TTX 0.3 mg/mL when cultured in MRS broth. The bacterium was optimized for TTX production and gave 0.18 mg/mL, 0.07 mg/mL, and 0.15 mg/mL in media prepared from the meat-washing water of freshwater fishes (Pangasius bocourti, Oreochromis sp.) and sea fish (Auxis thazard), respectively, that are also hopeful to answer some poisoning cases related to eating fishes. Enterococcus faecium also showed the wide antimicrobial activities on yeast, Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. Extracted exopolysaccharide (EPS) that reacted with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl to give IC50 at 5 mg/mL equaled 11 mg/mL ascorbic acid which could show effects on Hela-6 and Hep G2 using sulforhodamine B test. Enterococcus faecium can be claimed as a promising source in tetrodotoxin and biological compounds. PMID:26380310

  8. Identification, antimicrobial resistance and genotypic characterization of Enterococcus spp. isolated in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Eduardo André; de Freitas, Ana Lúcia Peixoto; Reiter, Keli Cristine; Lutz, Larissa; Barth, Afonso Luís

    2009-01-01

    In the past two decades the members of the genus Enterococcus have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens worldwide. In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial resistance and genotypic characteristics of 203 Enterococcus spp. recovered from different clinical sources from two hospitals in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The species were identified by conventional biochemical tests and by an automated system. The genetic diversity of E. faecalis presenting high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of chromosomal DNA after SmaI digestion. The E. faecalis was the most frequent specie (93.6%), followed by E. faecium (4.4%). The antimicrobial resistance profile was: 2.5% to ampicillin, 0.5% to vancomycin, 0.5% teicoplanin, 33% to chloramphenicol, 2% to nitrofurantoin, 66.1% to erythromycin, 66.5% to tetracycline, 24.6% to rifampicin, 30% to ciprofloxacin and 87.2% to quinupristin-dalfopristin. A total of 10.3% of the isolates proved to be HLAR to both gentamicin and streptomycin (HLR-ST/GE), with 23.6% resistant only to gentamicin (HLR-GE) and 37.4% only to streptomycin (HLR-ST). One predominant clonal group was found among E. faecalis HLR-GE/ST. The prevalence of resistance among beta-lactam antibiotics and glycopeptides was very low. However, in this study there was an increased number of HLR Enterococcus which may be spreading intra and inter-hospital. PMID:24031416

  9. Study of Aminoglycoside Resistance Genes in Enterococcus and Salmonella Strains Isolated From Ilam and Milad Hospitals, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Nasser; Pakzad, Iraj; Monadi Sefidan, Alireza; Hosainzadegan, Hasan; Tanomand, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aminoglycosides are a group of antibiotics that have been widely used in the treatment of life-threatening infections of Gram-negative bacteria. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of aminoglycoside resistance genes in Enterococcus and Salmonella strains isolated from clinical samples by PCR. Materials and Methods: In this study, 140 and 79 isolates of Enterococcus and Salmonella were collected, respectively. After phenotypic biochemical confirmation, 117 and 77 isolates were identified as Enterococcus and Salmonella, respectively. After the biochemical identification of the isolates, antibiotic susceptibility for screening of resistance was done using the Kirby-Bauer method for gentamicin, amikacin, kanamycin, tobramycin and netilmycin. DNA was extracted from resistant strains and the presence of acc (3)-Ia, aac (3′)-Ib, acc (6)-IIa ,16SrRNA methylase genes (armA and rat) was detected by PCR amplification using special primers and positive controls. Results: Enterococcus isolates have the highest prevalence of resistance to both kanamycin and amikacin (68.4%), and Salmonella isolates have the highest prevalence of resistance against kanamycin (6.9%). Ninety-three and 26 isolates of Enterococcus and Salmonella at least were resistant against one of the aminoglycosides, respectively. Moreover, 72.04%, 66.7%, and 36.6% of the resistant strains of Enterococcus had the aac (3′)-Ia, aac (3′)-IIa, and acc (6′)-Ib genes, respectively. None of the Salmonella isolates have the studied aminoglycoside genes. Conclusions: Our results indicate that acetylation genes have an important role in aminoglycoside resistance of the Enterococcus isolates from clinical samples. Moreover, Salmonella strains indicate very low level of aminoglycoside resistance, and aminoglycoside resistance genes were not found in Salmonella isolates. These results indicate that other resistance mechanisms, including efflux pumps have an important role in

  10. Evaluation of the quality of coastal bathing waters in Spain through fecal bacteria Escherichia coli and Enterococcus.

    PubMed

    Aragonés, L; López, I; Palazón, A; López-Úbeda, R; García, C

    2016-10-01

    Sun. and beach tourism is very important to the economy of Spain, so the control of the quality of the environment on the beaches is essential. Therefore, the analysis and control of the quality of bathing water is necessary, which is defined by the European Directive 2006/7/EC as excellent, good or sufficient depending on the presence of microbiological contamination or other organisms or waste presenting a risk to bathers' health. For that, 1392 beaches of the Iberian Peninsula and its islands were analysed, taking into account: fecal bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus), physical characteristics of sediment, level of urbanization, climatic and anthropogenic factors, and maritime climate. Thus, it was observed that urban sand beaches located in seas with fewer hours of sunshine and important tide have higher concentrations of E. coli and Enterococcus. There is also an indirect relationship between these microorganisms with salinity (R(2) 0.746 for E. coli and 0.606 for Enterococcus), temperature (R(2) 0.743 for E. coli and 0.604 for Enterococcus) and hours of sunshine (R(2) 0.781 for E. coli and 0.706 for Enterococcus), while this relationship is direct with rainfall (R(2) 0.640 for E. coli and 0.607 for Enterococcus) or wave height (R(2) 0.769 for E. coli and 0.601 for Enterococcus). From all this, it follows that the Directive 2006/7/EC should define more specific criteria as to the place and time of sampling, and take into account the different environment variables that influence the survival of bacteria, so that the results may reflect reality, and avoid staff responsible for sampling freely choose the place and time of sampling. PMID:27232959

  11. Isolation and characterization of an Enterococcus-like bacterium causing muscle necrosis and mortality in Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, W; Chen, J C

    1998-10-01

    A Gram-positive, ovoid, diplococoid bacterium tentatively identified as Enterococcus-like was isolated from diseased Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Taiwanese aquaculture ponds. The diseased prawns displayed poor growth, anorexia, inactivity, opaque and whitish musculature, and mortality. In histological preparations, melanized hemocytic granulomas were seen in the connective tissue around hemal sinuses together with hemocytic aggregation in necrotic musculature. Five isolates of diplococci were collected from diseased prawns at 4 farms and these were evaluated for 93 characteristics including morphology, physiology, biochemistry and sensitivity to antibiotics. The results indicated that the isolates belonged to a single species. They grew in 0.5 to 6.0% NaCl, at 10 to 40 degrees C, at pH 9.6 and on bile esculin medium, gave positive pyrrolidonylarylamidase, arginine dehydrolase and Voges-Proskauer tests, were resistant to bacitracin and SXT, and were CAMP-negative and non-hemolytic on sheep blood agar. These findings indicated an Enterococcus-like bacterium closely related to Enterococcus seriolicida (recently reduced to synonymy with Lactococcus garvieae). Experimental injection of 3 x 10(5) cells of strain KM002 of this Enterococcus-like bacterium into the ventral sinus of the prawn cephalothorax caused 100% mortality in 11 d, and induced muscular necrosis and hepatopancreatitis, gross signs and histopathology similar to those observed in the naturally infected prawns. It was concluded that this Enterococcus-like bacterium was the etiological agent associated with mortality of the farmed, diseased prawns. PMID:9828405

  12. Native Microbial Colonization of Drosophila melanogaster and Its Use as a Model of Enterococcus faecalis Pathogenesis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Christopher R.; Gilmore, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    Enterococci are commensal organisms of the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of a broad range of mammalian and insect hosts, but they are also leading causes of nosocomial infection. Little is known about the ecological role of enterococci in the GI tract consortia. To develop a tractable model for studying the roles of these organisms as commensals and pathogens, we characterized the Drosophila melanogaster microflora and examined the occurrence of enterococci in the gastrointestinal consortium of Drosophila. In a survey of laboratory-reared Drosophila and wild-captured flies, we found that Drosophila was naturally colonized by representatives of five bacterial phyla. Among these organisms were several species of enterococci, including Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus gallinaraum, and Enterococcus durans, as well as a previously detected but uncultured Enterococcus species. Drosophila could be cured of enterococcal carriage by antibiotic treatment and could be reassociated with laboratory strains. High-level colonization by a well-characterized strain expressing the enterococcal cytolysin was found to be detrimental to Drosophila compared to the effect of an isogenic, noncytolytic control. The anatomical distribution of enterococci in the Drosophila GI tract was determined by immunohistochemical staining of thin sections of naturally colonized and reassociated flies. PMID:17220307

  13. Mortality in kittens is associated with a shift in ileum mucosa-associated enterococci from Enterococcus hirae to biofilm-forming Enterococcus faecalis and adherent Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Borst, Luke; Stauffer, Stephen H; Suyemoto, Mitsu; Moisan, Peter; Zurek, Ludek; Gookin, Jody L

    2013-11-01

    Approximately 15% of foster kittens die before 8 weeks of age, with most of these kittens demonstrating clinical signs or postmortem evidence of enteritis. While a specific cause of enteritis is not determined in most cases, these kittens are often empirically administered probiotics that contain enterococci. The enterococci are members of the commensal intestinal microbiota but also can function as opportunistic pathogens. Given the complicated role of enterococci in health and disease, it would be valuable to better understand what constitutes a "healthy" enterococcal community in these kittens and how this microbiota is impacted by severe illness. In this study, we characterized the ileum mucosa-associated enterococcal community of 50 apparently healthy and 50 terminally ill foster kittens. In healthy kittens, Enterococcus hirae was the most common species of ileum mucosa-associated enterococci and was often observed to adhere extensively to the small intestinal epithelium. These E. hirae isolates generally lacked virulence traits. In contrast, non-E. hirae enterococci, notably Enterococcus faecalis, were more commonly isolated from the ileum mucosa of kittens with terminal illness. Isolates of E. faecalis had numerous virulence traits and multiple antimicrobial resistances. Moreover, the attachment of Escherichia coli to the intestinal epithelium was significantly associated with terminal illness and was not observed in any kitten with adherent E. hirae. These findings identify a significant difference in the species of enterococci cultured from the ileum mucosa of kittens with terminal illness compared to the species cultured from healthy kittens. In contrast to prior case studies that associated enteroadherent E. hirae with diarrhea in young animals, these controlled studies identified E. hirae as more often isolated from healthy kittens and adherence of E. hirae as more common and extensive in healthy kittens than in sick kittens. PMID:23966487

  14. β-Lactams Enhance Daptomycin Activity against Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium in In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Models

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jordan R.; Barber, Katie E.; Raut, Animesh

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are frequently resistant to vancomycin and β-lactams. In enterococcal infections with reduced glycopeptide susceptibility, combination therapy is often administered. Our objective was to conduct pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models to evaluate β-lactam synergy with daptomycin (DAP) against resistant enterococci. One E. faecalis strain (R6981) and two E. faecium strains (R6370 and 8019) were evaluated. DAP MICs were obtained. All strains were evaluated for response to LL37, an antimicrobial peptide, in the presence and absence of ceftaroline (CPT), ertapenem (ERT), and ampicillin (AMP). After 96 h, in vitro models were run simulating 10 mg DAP/kg body weight/day, 600 mg CPT every 8 h (q8h), 2 g AMP q4h, and 1 g ERT q24h, both alone and in combination against all strains. DAP MICs were 2, 4, and 4 μg/ml for strains R6981, R6370, and 8019, respectively. PK/PD models demonstrated bactericidal activity with DAP-CPT, DAP-AMP, and DAP-ERT combinations against strain 8019 (P < 0.001 and log10 CFU/ml reduction of >2 compared to any single agent). Against strains R6981 and R6370, the DAP-AMP combination demonstrated enhancement against R6370 but not R6981, while the combinations of DAP-CPT and DAP-ERT were bactericidal, demonstrated enhancement, and were statistically superior to all other regimens at 96 h (P < 0.001) against both strains. CPT, ERT, and AMP similarly augmented LL37 killing against strain 8019. In strains R6981 and R6370, CPT and ERT aided LL37 more than AMP (P < 0.001). Compared to DAP alone, combination regimens provide better killing and prevent resistance. Clinical research involving DAP combinations is warranted. PMID:25753639

  15. Mortality in Kittens Is Associated with a Shift in Ileum Mucosa-Associated Enterococci from Enterococcus hirae to Biofilm-Forming Enterococcus faecalis and Adherent Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Borst, Luke; Stauffer, Stephen H.; Suyemoto, Mitsu; Moisan, Peter; Zurek, Ludek

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 15% of foster kittens die before 8 weeks of age, with most of these kittens demonstrating clinical signs or postmortem evidence of enteritis. While a specific cause of enteritis is not determined in most cases, these kittens are often empirically administered probiotics that contain enterococci. The enterococci are members of the commensal intestinal microbiota but also can function as opportunistic pathogens. Given the complicated role of enterococci in health and disease, it would be valuable to better understand what constitutes a “healthy” enterococcal community in these kittens and how this microbiota is impacted by severe illness. In this study, we characterized the ileum mucosa-associated enterococcal community of 50 apparently healthy and 50 terminally ill foster kittens. In healthy kittens, Enterococcus hirae was the most common species of ileum mucosa-associated enterococci and was often observed to adhere extensively to the small intestinal epithelium. These E. hirae isolates generally lacked virulence traits. In contrast, non-E. hirae enterococci, notably Enterococcus faecalis, were more commonly isolated from the ileum mucosa of kittens with terminal illness. Isolates of E. faecalis had numerous virulence traits and multiple antimicrobial resistances. Moreover, the attachment of Escherichia coli to the intestinal epithelium was significantly associated with terminal illness and was not observed in any kitten with adherent E. hirae. These findings identify a significant difference in the species of enterococci cultured from the ileum mucosa of kittens with terminal illness compared to the species cultured from healthy kittens. In contrast to prior case studies that associated enteroadherent E. hirae with diarrhea in young animals, these controlled studies identified E. hirae as more often isolated from healthy kittens and adherence of E. hirae as more common and extensive in healthy kittens than in sick kittens. PMID:23966487

  16. [Evaluation of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus colonization at Gaziantep Children's Hospital, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Yiş, Reyhan; Aslan, Selda; Cıtak, Cağlar; Değirmenci, Süleyman

    2011-10-01

    Enterococci are members of normal flora of human gastrointestinal system, and occupy the first places among the agents causing nosocomial infection. The most frequent origin of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) is the gastrointestinal colonization in hospitalized patients. Prolonged hospitalization, long-term antibiotic use and severe underlying diseases increase the risk of VRE colonization. Routine VRE surveillance of high-risk group patients is crucial for early detection and implementation of precautions to impede the development of infection and spread of VRE. The aim of this study was to evaluate the status of VRE colonization in Oncology Department of Gaziantep Children's Hospital, Turkey, following a VRE isolation from the urine sample of a patient (index case). In the first phase of this point prevalence study VRE screening was done after positive VRE result was obtained from the index case, and in the second phase VRE colonization rate was investigated after the implementation of infection control policies. Perirectal swab samples collected from patients were cultivated into supplemented VRE agar base (Oxoid, UK) including vancomycin 6 µg/ml and 5% sheep blood agar. The isolates were identified by conventional methods together with API 20 Strep (bioMerieux, France) and VITEK2 (bioMerieux, France) identification systems. Vancomycin (30 µg) and teicoplanin (30 µg) susceptibilities of the isolates were investigated by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI criteria. In addition, VITEK2 antibiogram cards, AST-592 were used to determine antibiotic susceptibilities. In the first phase of the surveillance a total of 123 perirectal swab specimens obtained from patients staying at oncology, burn, pediatric surgery and intensive care units (ICU) were investigated and the rate of VRE colonization was determined as 14.6% (18/123). Thirteen of the VRE colonized patients were from oncology wards and five were from ICU. Upon the detection of VRE

  17. Vancomycin for multi-drug resistant Enterococcus faecium cholangiohepatitis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Pressel, Michelle A; Fox, Leslie E; Apley, Michael D; Simutis, Frank J

    2005-10-01

    A 12-year-old, neutered male domestic shorthair cat was evaluated with a life-long history of intermittent, predominantly small bowel diarrhea and a 3 day history of hematochezia. At presentation, the cat had increased liver enzyme activities and an inflammatory leukogram. Histopathology demonstrated inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), cholangiohepatitis and pancreatitis. The cholangiohepatitis was associated with a multi-drug resistant Enterococcus faecium. Gallbladder agenesis was also documented. Treatment with vancomycin was safely instituted for 10 days. Clinical signs resolved, however, cure of the bacterial cholangiohepatitis was not achieved. The risk of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in human and veterinary medicine is discussed. PMID:16182186

  18. Riboflavin-shuttled extracellular electron transfer from Enterococcus faecalis to electrodes in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Enren; Cai, Yamin; Luo, Yue; Piao, Zhe

    2014-11-01

    Great attention has been focused on Gram-negative bacteria in the application of microbial fuel cells. In this study, the Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis was employed in microbial fuel cells. Bacterial biofilms formed by E. faecalis ZER6 were investigated with respect to electricity production through the riboflavin-shuttled extracellular electron transfer. Trace riboflavin was shown to be essential for transferring electrons derived from the oxidation of glucose outside the peptidoglycan layer in the cell wall of E. faecalis biofilms formed on the surface of electrodes, in the absence of other potential electron mediators (e.g., yeast extract). PMID:25345758

  19. Acute Pyelonephritis with Bacteremia Caused by Enterococcus hirae: A Rare Infection in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Pãosinho, Ana; Azevedo, Telma; Alves, João V.; Costa, Isabel A.; Carvalho, Gustavo; Peres, Susana R.; Baptista, Teresa; Borges, Fernando; Mansinho, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci are one of the usual residents of the microflora in humans. In the last decade this genus has been reported as the third most common cause of bacteremia. We present the case of a 78-year-old female who was admitted to the emergency room because of nausea, lipothymia, and weakness. She was diagnosed with a pyelonephritis with bacteremia, with the isolation in blood and urine cultures of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus hirae. This last microorganism is a rarely isolated pathogen in humans. Currently it is estimated to represent 1–3% of all enterococcal species isolated in clinical practice. PMID:27127665

  20. Genome Sequence of Enterococcus pernyi, a Pathogenic Bacterium for the Chinese Oak Silkworm, Antheraea pernyi.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying; Li, Xisheng; Wang, Guobao; Wang, Yong; Jiang, Yiren; Liu, Yanqun; Yu, Zhiguo; Qin, Li

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome assembly of Enterococcus pernyi The genome sequence is 3.09 Mb in length with a G+C content of 38.35%. It covers 3,153 genes with an average length of 854 bp, and contains 65 tRNAs, 13 small RNAs, and 18 rRNAs. Moreover, it contains 9 genomic islands with an average length of 14,058 bp and 3 prophages with an average length of 37,430 bp. PMID:27198035

  1. First Characterization of a Cluster of VanA-Type Glycopeptide-Resistant Enterococcus faecium, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Panesso, Diana; Ospina, Sigifredo; Robledo, Jaime; Vela, María Claudia; Peña, Julieta; Hernández, Orville; Reyes, Jinnethe

    2002-01-01

    From August 1998 to October 1999, glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (GRE) were isolated from 23 infected patients at a teaching hospital in Medellín, Colombia. Identification at the species level and by multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay indicated that all isolates were Enterococcus faecium. The isolates were highly resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, penicillin, streptomycin, teicoplanin, and vancomycin; they were susceptible only to chloramphenicol, linezolid, and nitrofurantoin. Determination of glycopeptide genotype indicated the presence of the vanA gene in all isolates. Molecular typing by pulsed field gel electrophoresis showed that all isolates were closely related. This study is the first molecular characterization of GRE in Colombia. PMID:12194774

  2. Inducer bacteria, unique signal peptides and low nutrient media stimulate in-vitro bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus spp. and Enterococcus spp. strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteriocins (BCN) provide promising potential to control bacterial infections in a variety of applications. We previously reported three Type IIa BCN produced by Lactobacillus salivarius B-30514 (OR-7), Enterococcus durans/faecium/hirae B-30745 (E 760) and Enterococcus faecium B-30746 (E 50-52). ...

  3. Diversity, distribution and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus spp. recovered from tomatoes, leaves, water and soil on U.S. Mid-Atlantic farms.

    PubMed

    Micallef, Shirley A; Goldstein, Rachel E Rosenberg; George, Ashish; Ewing, Laura; Tall, Ben D; Boyer, Marc S; Joseph, Sam W; Sapkota, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    Antibiotic-resistant enterococci are important opportunistic pathogens and have been recovered from retail tomatoes. However, it is unclear where and how tomatoes are contaminated along the farm-to-fork continuum. Specifically, the degree of pre-harvest contamination with enterococci is unknown. We evaluated the prevalence, diversity and antimicrobial susceptibilities of enterococci collected from tomato farms in the Mid-Atlantic United States. Tomatoes, leaves, groundwater, pond water, irrigation ditch water, and soil were sampled and tested for enterococci using standard methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Sensititre microbroth dilution system. Enterococcus faecalis isolates were characterized using amplified fragment length polymorphism to assess dispersal potential. Enterococci (n = 307) occurred in all habitats and colonization of tomatoes was common. Seven species were identified: Enterococcus casseliflavus, E. faecalis, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus avis, Enterococcus hirae and Enterococcus raffinosus. E. casseliflavus predominated in soil and on tomatoes and leaves, and E. faecalis predominated in pond water. On plants, distance from the ground influenced presence of enterococci. E. faecalis from samples within a farm were more closely related than those from samples between farms. Resistance to rifampicin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin was prevalent. Consumption of raw tomatoes as a potential exposure risk for antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus spp. deserves further attention. PMID:24010630

  4. In Vitro Activities of Telavancin and Vancomycin against Biofilm-Producing Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, and Enterococcus faecalis Strains▿

    PubMed Central

    LaPlante, Kerry L.; Mermel, Leonard A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the activities of telavancin and vancomycin against biofilm-producing Staphylococcus and Enterococcus strains. At clinically attainable concentrations, telavancin was active against bacteria embedded in biofilm (minimal biofilm eradication concentration [MBEC], 0.125 to 2 μg/ml) and inhibited biofilm formation at concentrations below the MIC. Vancomycin did not demonstrate the same activity (MBEC, ≥512 μg/ml) against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. Telavancin may have a unique role in biofilm-associated infections. PMID:19451302

  5. Unraveling antimicrobial resistance genes and phenotype patterns among Enterococcus faecalis isolated from retail chicken products in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hidano, Arata; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Hayama, Yoko; Muroga, Norihiko; Kobayashi, Sota; Nishida, Takeshi; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant enterococci are considered crucial drivers for the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance determinants within and beyond a genus. These organisms may pass numerous resistance determinants to other harmful pathogens, whose multiple resistances would cause adverse consequences. Therefore, an understanding of the coexistence epidemiology of resistance genes is critical, but such information remains limited. In this study, our first objective was to determine the prevalence of principal resistance phenotypes and genes among Enterococcus faecalis isolated from retail chicken domestic products collected throughout Japan. Subsequent analysis of these data by using an additive Bayesian network (ABN) model revealed the co-appearance patterns of resistance genes and identified the associations between resistance genes and phenotypes. The common phenotypes observed among E. faecalis isolated from the domestic products were the resistances to oxytetracycline (58.4%), dihydrostreptomycin (50.4%), and erythromycin (37.2%), and the gene tet(L) was detected in 46.0% of the isolates. The ABN model identified statistically significant associations between tet(L) and erm(B), tet(L) and ant(6)-Ia, ant(6)-Ia and aph(3')-IIIa, and aph(3')-IIIa and erm(B), which indicated that a multiple-resistance profile of tetracycline, erythromycin, streptomycin, and kanamycin is systematic rather than random. Conversely, the presence of tet(O) was only negatively associated with that of erm(B) and tet(M), which suggested that in the presence of tet(O), the aforementioned multiple resistance is unlikely to be observed. Such heterogeneity in linkages among genes that confer the same phenotypic resistance highlights the importance of incorporating genetic information when investigating the risk factors for the spread of resistance. The epidemiological factors that underlie the persistence of systematic multiple-resistance patterns warrant further investigations with appropriate

  6. Dietary Enterococcus faecalis LAB31 Improves Growth Performance, Reduces Diarrhea, and Increases Fecal Lactobacillus Number of Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuanliang; Dun, Yaohao; Li, Shenao; Zhang, Dongxiao; Peng, Nan; Zhao, Shumiao; Liang, Yunxiang

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been shown to enhance performance of weaned piglets. However, few studies have reported the addition of LAB Enterococcus faecalis as alternatives to growth promoting antibiotics for weaned piglets. This study evaluated the effects of dietary E. faecalis LAB31 on the growth performance, diarrhea incidence, blood parameters, fecal bacterial and Lactobacillus communities in weaned piglets. A total of 360 piglets weaned at 26 ± 2 days of age were randomly allotted to 5 groups (20 pens, with 4 pens for each group) for a trial of 28 days: group N (negative control, without antibiotics or probiotics); group P (Neomycin sulfate, 100 mg/kg feed); groups L, M and H (supplemented with E. faecalis LAB31 0.5×109, 1.0×109, and 2.5×109 CFU/kg feed, respectively). Average daily gain and feed conversion efficiency were found to be higher in group H than in group N, and showed significant differences between group H and group P (P0 < 0.05). Furthermore, groups H and P had a lower diarrhea index than the other three groups (P0 < 0.05). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the application of probiotics to the diet changed the bacterial community, with a higher bacterial diversity in group M than in the other four groups. Real-time PCR revealed that the relative number of Lactobacillus increased by addition of probiotics, and was higher in group H than in group N (P0 < 0.05). However, group-specific PCR-DGGE showed no obvious difference among the five groups in Lactobacillus composition and diversity. Therefore, the dietary addition of E. faecalis LAB31 can improve growth performance, reduce diarrhea, and increase the relative number of Lactobacillus in feces of weaned piglets. PMID:25617897

  7. The Lysozyme-Induced Peptidoglycan N-Acetylglucosamine Deacetylase PgdA (EF1843) Is Required for Enterococcus faecalis Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Ladjouzi, Rabia; Le Jeune, André; Hébert, Laurent; Thorpe, Simon; Courtin, Pascal; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre; Prajsnar, Tomasz K.; Foster, Simon J.

    2012-01-01

    Lysozyme is a key component of the innate immune response in humans that provides a first line of defense against microbes. The bactericidal effect of lysozyme relies both on the cell wall lytic activity of this enzyme and on a cationic antimicrobial peptide activity that leads to membrane permeabilization. Among Gram-positive bacteria, the opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis has been shown to be extremely resistant to lysozyme. This unusual resistance is explained partly by peptidoglycan O-acetylation, which inhibits the enzymatic activity of lysozyme, and partly by d-alanylation of teichoic acids, which is likely to inhibit binding of lysozyme to the bacterial cell wall. Surprisingly, combined mutations abolishing both peptidoglycan O-acetylation and teichoic acid alanylation are not sufficient to confer lysozyme susceptibility. In this work, we identify another mechanism involved in E. faecalis lysozyme resistance. We show that exposure to lysozyme triggers the expression of EF1843, a protein that is not detected under normal growth conditions. Analysis of peptidoglycan structure from strains with EF1843 loss- and gain-of-function mutations, together with in vitro assays using recombinant protein, showed that EF1843 is a peptidoglycan N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase. EF1843-mediated peptidoglycan deacetylation was shown to contribute to lysozyme resistance by inhibiting both lysozyme enzymatic activity and, to a lesser extent, lysozyme cationic antimicrobial activity. Finally, EF1843 mutation was shown to reduce the ability of E. faecalis to cause lethality in the Galleria mellonella infection model. Taken together, our results reveal that peptidoglycan deacetylation is a component of the arsenal that enables E. faecalis to thrive inside mammalian hosts, as both a commensal and a pathogen. PMID:22961856

  8. Enterococcus faecium LKE12 Cell-Free Extract Accelerates Host Plant Growth via Gibberellin and Indole-3-Acetic Acid Secretion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ko-Eun; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kang, Sang-Mo; You, Young-Hyun; Joo, Gil-Jae; Lee, In-Jung; Ko, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2015-09-01

    The use of microbial extracts containing plant hormones is a promising technique to improve crop growth. Little is known about the effect of bacterial cell-free extracts on plant growth promotion. This study, based on phytohormonal analyses, aimed at exploring the potential mechanisms by which Enterococcus faecium LKE12 enhances plant growth in oriental melon. A bacterial strain, LKE12, was isolated from soil, and further identified as E. faecium by 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The plant growth-promoting ability of an LKE12 bacterial culture was tested in a gibberellin (GA)-deficient rice dwarf mutant (waito-C) and a normal GA biosynthesis rice cultivar (Hwayongbyeo). E. faecium LKE12 significantly improved the length and biomass of rice shoots in both normal and dwarf cultivars through the secretion of an array of gibberellins (GA1, GA3, GA7, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA19, GA20, GA24, and GA53), as well as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study indicating that E. faecium can produce GAs. Increases in shoot and root lengths, plant fresh weight, and chlorophyll content promoted by E. faecium LKE12 and its cell-free extract inoculated in oriental melon plants revealed a favorable interaction of E. faecium LKE12 with plants. Higher plant growth rates and nutrient contents of magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, manganese, silicon, zinc, and nitrogen were found in cell-free extract-treated plants than in control plants. The results of the current study suggest that E. faecium LKE12 promotes plant growth by producing GAs and IAA; interestingly, the exogenous application of its cell-free culture extract can be a potential strategy to accelerate plant growth. PMID:25907061

  9. Identification and functional characterization of the putative polysaccharide biosynthesis protein (CapD) of Enterococcus faecium U0317.

    PubMed

    Ali, Liaqat; Spiess, Meike; Wobser, Dominique; Rodriguez, Marta; Blum, Hubert E; Sakιnç, Türkân

    2016-01-01

    Most bacterial species produce capsular polysaccharides that contribute to disease pathogenesis through evasion of the host innate immune system and are also involved in inhibiting leukocyte killing. In the present study, we identified a gene in Enterococcus faecium U0317 with homologies to the polysaccharide biosynthesis protein CapD that is made up of 336 amino acids and putatively catalyzes N-linked glycosylation. A capD deletion mutant was constructed and complemented by homologous recombination that was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. The mutant revealed different growth behavior and morphological changes compared to wild-type by scanning electron microscopy, also the capD mutant showed a strong hydrophobicity and that was reversed in the reconstituted mutant. For further characterization and functional analyses, in-vitro cell culture and in-vivo a mouse infection models were used. Antibodies directed against alpha lipotechoic acid (αLTA) and the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (αPpiC), effectively mediated the opsonophagocytic killing in the capD knock-out mutant, while this activity was not observed in the wild-type and reconstituted mutant. By comparison more than 2-fold decrease was seen in mutant colonization and adherence to both T24 and Caco2 cells. However, a significant higher bacterial colonization was observed in capD mutant during bacteremia in the animal model, while virulence in a mouse UTI (urinary tract infection) model, there were no obvious differences. Further studies are needed to elucidate the function of capsular polysaccharide synthesis gene clusters and its involvement in the disease pathogenesis with the aim to develop targeted therapies to treat multidrug-resistant E. faecium infections. PMID:26611826

  10. Feeding of the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 differentially affects shedding of enteric viruses in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Effects of probiotic bacteria on viral infections have been described previously. Here, two groups of sows and their piglets were fed with or without feed supplementation of the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415. Shedding of enteric viruses naturally occurring in these pigs was analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. No differences between the groups were recorded for hepatitis E virus, encephalomyocarditis virus and norovirus. In contrast, astrovirus was exclusively detected in the non-supplemented control group. Rotavirus was shedded later and with lower amounts in the probiotic piglet group (p < 0.05); rotavirus-shedding piglets gained less weight than non-infected animals (p < 0.05). Serum titres of anti-rotavirus IgA and IgG antibodies were higher in piglets from the control group, whereas no difference was detected between sow groups. Phenotype analysis of immune cell antigens revealed significant differences of the CD4 and CD8β (p < 0.05) as well as CD8α and CD25 (p < 0.1) T cell populations of the probiotic supplemented group compared to the non-supplemented control group. In addition, differences were evident for CD21/MHCII-positive (p < 0.05) and IgM-positive (p < 0.1) B cell populations. The results indicate that probiotic bacteria could have effects on virus shedding in naturally infected pigs, which depend on the virus type. These effects seem to be caused by immunological changes; however, the distinct mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. PMID:22838386

  11. Biochemical and Genetic Characterization of the vanC-2 Vancomycin Resistance Gene Cluster of Enterococcus casseliflavus ATCC 25788

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Ireena; Reynolds, Peter E.

    2002-01-01

    The vanC-2 cluster of Enterococcus casseliflavus ATCC 25788 consisted of five genes (vanC-2, vanXYC-2, vanTC-2, vanRC-2, and vanSC-2) and shared the same organization as the vanC cluster of E. gallinarum BM4174. The proteins encoded by these genes displayed a high degree of amino acid identity to the proteins encoded within the vanC gene cluster. The putative d,d-dipeptidase-d,d-carboxypeptidase, VanXYC-2, exhibited 81% amino acid identity to VanXYC, and VanTC-2 displayed 65% amino acid identity to the serine racemase, VanT. VanRC-2 and VanSC-2 displayed high degrees of identity to VanRC and VanSC, respectively, and contained the conserved residues identified as important to their function as a response regulator and histidine kinase, respectively. Resistance to vancomycin was expressed inducibly in E. casseliflavus ATCC 25788 and required an extended period of induction. Analysis of peptidoglycan precursors revealed that UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-l-Ala-δ-d-Glu-l-Lys-d-Ala-d-Ser could not be detected until several hours after the addition of vancomycin, and its appearance coincided with the resumption of growth. The introduction of additional copies of the vanTC-2 gene, encoding a putative serine racemase, and the presence of supplementary d-serine in the growth medium both significantly reduced the period before growth resumed after addition of vancomycin. This suggested that the availability of d-serine plays an important role in the induction process. PMID:12234834

  12. Host-derived probiotics Enterococcus casseliflavus improves resistance against Streptococcus iniae infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) via immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Safari, Reza; Adel, Milad; Lazado, Carlo C; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Dadar, Maryam

    2016-05-01

    The present study evaluated the benefits of dietary administration of host-derived candidate probiotics Enterococcus casseliflavus in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Experimental diets were prepared by incorporating the microorganisms in the basal feed at 3 inclusion levels (i.e. 10(7) CFU g(-1) of feed [T1], 10(8) CFU g(-1) of feed [T2], 10(9) CFU g(-1) of feed [T3]). The probiotic feeds were administered for 8 weeks, with a group fed with the basal diet serving as control. The effects on growth performance, gut health, innate immunity and disease resistance were evaluated. Results showed that growth performance parameters were significantly improved in T2 and T3 groups. Activities of digestive enzymes such as trypsin and lipase were significantly higher in these two groups as well. Gut micro-ecology was influenced by probiotic feeding as shown by the significant increase in intestinal lactic acid bacteria and total viable aerobic counts in T2 and T3. Humoral immunity was impacted by dietary probiotics as total serum protein and albumin were significantly elevated in T3. The levels of serum IgM significantly increased in all probiotic fed groups at week 8; with the T3 group registering the highest increment. Respiratory burst activity of blood leukocytes were significantly improved in T2 and T3. Hematological profiling further revealed that neutrophil counts significantly increased in all probiotic fed groups. Challenge test showed that probiotic feeding significantly improved host resistance to Streptococcus iniae infection, specifically in T2 and T3 where a considerable modulation of immune responses was observed. Taken together, this study demonstrated E. casseliflavus as a potential probiotics for rainbow trout with the capability of improving growth performance and enhancing disease resistance by immunomodulation. PMID:26997202

  13. Effect of probiotic bacterial strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Enterococcus on enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yoshibumi; Kamiya, Shigeru; Hanawa, Tomoko; Fukuda, Minoru; Kawakami, Hayato; Takahashi, Hidemi; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2010-02-01

    The effects of nine probiotic strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Enterococcus on the growth, adhesion activity, and biofilm formation of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAggEC) were examined. The culture supernatant of the E. faecium strain, with or without pH adjustment to a neutral pH, had a strong bactericidal effect on EAggEC, including induction of membrane damage and cell lysis. Supernatants of the L. casei ss. casei and L. casei ss. rhamnosus strains also had a bactericidal effect on EAggEC, but this activity was abolished by pH adjustment to a neutral pH. No inhibitory effect of the culture supernatants of Bifidobacterium or E. faecalis strains was detected. Adhesion of EAggEC to intestinal epithelial cells was not inhibited by the bacterial strains tested. Two strains of L. casei enhanced EAggEC biofilm formation, which was characterized by increased bacterial proliferation. These results suggest that the three different bacterial species; Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Enterococcus, have different effects on EAggEC, and that further analysis is required for the practical use of these bacteria as probiotics against EAggEC infection. PMID:20054601

  14. Antibacterial Effect of All-in-one Self-etch Adhesives on Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi Chaharom, Mohammad Esmaeel; Ajami, Amir Ahmad; Abed Kahnamouei, Mehdi; Jafari Navimipour, Elmira; Tehranchi, Pardis; Zand, Vahid; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Sohrabi, Aydin

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of one-step self-etch adhesives on Enterococcus faecalis on days 1, 7 and 14 with the use of modified direct contact test. Materials and methods. The modified directcontact test was used to evaluate the antibacterial effect of Adper Easy One, Bond Force, Clearfil S3 Bond, Futurabond M, G-Bond, iBond and OptiBond All-in-one adhesives on Enterococcus faecalis after aging the samples in phosphate-buffered saline for one, seven and fourteen days. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Aging effect of each adhesive was evaluated by paired-sample test. In this study, P<0.05 was considered significant. Results. All the tested adhesives exhibited antibacterial activity after one day and had significant differences with the positive control group (P<0.05). After one week, OptiBond All-in-one, iBond and Futurabond M exhibited significant differences in bacterial growth from other groups (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the groups in two weeks (P>0.05). Conclusion. iBond exhibited the highest antibacterial effect on E. faecalis after one week. Futurabond and OptiBond All-in-one exhibited antibacterial effects against E. faecalis for one week. PMID:25587384

  15. An antibacterial and antiviral peptide produced by Enterococcus mundtii ST4V isolated from soya beans.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Svetoslav D; Wachsman, Mónica B; Knoetze, Hendriëtte; Meincken, Martina; Dicks, Leon M T

    2005-06-01

    Enterococcus mundtii ST4V, isolated from soya beans, produces a 3950Da antibacterial peptide active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. The peptide also inactivated the herpes simplex viruses HSV-1 (strain F) and HSV-2 (strain G), a polio virus (PV3, strain Sabin) and a measles virus (strain MV/BRAZIL/001/91, an attenuated strain of MV). MV, HSV-1 and HSV-2 were 95.5%-99.9% inactivated by peptide ST4V at 400 microg/ml. Monkey kidney Vero cells were not inactivated, even at four times the level peptide ST4V displayed antiviral activity, indicating that the effect was not due to cytotoxicity. Complete inactivation or significant reduction in antimicrobial activity was observed after treatment of peptide ST4V with Proteinase K, pronase, pepsin and trypsin. No change in antimicrobial activity was recorded after treatment with alpha-amylase, suggesting that peptide ST4V was not glycosylated. This is the first description of an antibacterial and antiviral peptide with such broad-spectrum of activity, produced by a lactic acid bacterium. PMID:15869868

  16. Are Enterococcus populations present during malolactic fermentation of red wine safe?

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martín, Fátima; Seseña, Susana; Izquierdo, Pedro Miguel; Palop, María Llanos

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was the genetic characterisation and safety evaluation of 129 Enterococcus isolates obtained from wine undergoing malolactic fermentation. Genetic characterisation by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR displayed 23 genotypes. 25 isolates representative of all genotypes were identified as Enterococcus faecium by species-specific PCR and assayed for antibiotic resistance, presence of virulence genes and aminobiogenic capacity, both in decarboxylase medium and wine. The aminobiogenic capacity in wine was analysed in presence (assay 1) and absence (assay 2) of Oenococcus oeni CECT 7621. Resistance to tetracycline, cotrimoxazol, vancomycin and teicoplanin was exhibited by 96% of the strains, but none of them harboured the assayed virulence genes. All of the strains harboured the tyrosine decarboxylase (tdc) gene, while 44% were positive for tyramine in decarboxylase medium. Only five out of 25 strains survived in wine after seven days of incubation, and when concentrations of biogenic amines in wines were determined by HPLC, only those wines in which the five surviving strains occurred contained biogenic amines. Histamine, putrescine and cadaverine were detected in wines from both assays, although concentrations were higher in assay 2. Tyramine and phenylethylamine were detected only in absence of O. oeni. This research contributes for the knowledge of safety aspects of enterococci related to winemaking. PMID:24929723

  17. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and chloroform alone and combinated with cetrimide against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer Luque, Carmen Maria; González-Rodríguez, Maria Paloma; Arias-Moliz, Maria Teresa; Baca, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Enterococcus faecalis bacteria have been identified as the most commonly recovered species from teeth with persistent endodontic infections. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and chloroform (CHL), alone and in association with various concentrations of cetrimide (CTR), against biofilm of Enterococcus faecalis was investigated. Solutions of CHL, eucalyptus oil (EO) and orange oil (OO) associated with CTR at 0.3%, 0.2%, 0.1%, and 0.05% were used to determine antimicrobial activity by exposing treated bovine dentine blocks to E. faecalis. Biofilms grown in the dentine blocks for 7 days were exposed to solutions for 2 and 5 min. Biofilm reduction between OO and EO at 2 min did not show any significant differences; however, OO had a higher kill percentage of biofilms than did the eucalyptus oil at 5 min (p < 0.01). Combinations with CTR at all concentrations achieved a 100% kill rate at 2 and 5 min. The association of CTR with solvent agents achieved the maximum antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis biofilms in dentine. PMID:24265917

  18. Enterococcus faecium isolated from honey synthesized bacteriocin-like substances active against different Listeria monocytogenes strains.

    PubMed

    Ibarguren, Carolina; Raya, Raúl R; Apella, María C; Audisio, M Carina

    2010-02-01

    Four Enterococcus faecium strains, isolated from honeycombs (C1 and M2d strains) and feral combs (Mori1 and M1b strains) secreted antimicrobial substances active against fourteen different Listeria spp. strains. The antimicrobial compound(s) present in the cell free supernatant were highly thermostable (121 degrees C for 15 min) and inactivated by proteolytic enzymes, but not by alpha-amylase and lipase, thus suggesting a peptidic nature. Since the structural bacteriocin gene determinants of enterocins A and B were PCR amplified from the four E. faecium isolates, only the bacteriocin produced by strain C1 was further characterized: it showed a broad band of approximately 4.0-7.0 kDa in SDS-PAGE and was bactericidal (4 log decrease) against L. monocytogenes 99/287. L. monocytogenes 99/287R, a clone spontaneously resistant to the enterocin produced by E. avium DSMZ17511 (ex PA1), was not inhibited by the enterocin-like compounds produced by strain C1. However, it was inhibited in mixed culture fermentations by E. faecium C1 and a bacteriostatic effect was observed. The bacteriocin-producer Enterococcus strains were not haemolytic; gelatinase negative and sensitive to vancomycin and other clinically relevant antibiotics. PMID:20221729

  19. Echinoderms from Azores islands: an unexpected source of antibiotic resistant Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Catarina; Silva, Nuno; Pombo, Sofia; Santos, Tiago; Monteiro, Ricardo; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Micael, Joana; Rodrigues, Pedro; Costa, Ana Cristina; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia

    2013-04-15

    The prevalence of antibiotic resistance and the implicated mechanisms of resistance were evaluated in Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli, isolated from a total of 250 faecal samples of echinoderms collected from Azorean waters (Portugal). A total of 144 enterococci (120 Enterococcus faecium, 14 E. hirae, 8 E. faecalis, 2 E. gallinarum) and 10 E. coli were recovered. High percentages of resistance in enterococci were found for erythromycin, ampicillin, tetracyclin and ciprofloxacin. The erm(A) or erm(B), tet(M) and/or tet(L), vat(D), aac(6')-aph(2″) and aph(3')-IIIa genes were found in isolates resistant to erythromycin, tetracycline, quinupristin/dalfopristin, high-level gentamicin and high-level kanamycin, respectively. Resistance in E. coli isolates was detected for streptomycin, amikacin, tetracycline and tobramycin. The aadA gene was found in streptomycin-resistant isolates and tet(A)+tet(B) genes in tetracycline-resistant isolates. The data recovered are essential to improve knowledge about the dissemination of resistant strains through marine ecosystems and the possible implications involved in transferring these resistances either to other animals or to humans. PMID:23419753

  20. Identification of Polyketide Inhibitors Targeting 3-Dehydroquinate Dehydratase in the Shikimate Pathway of Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Valladares, Maria; Go, Maybelle Kho; Tung, Alvin; Aguda, Adeleke H.; Robinson, Robert C.; Yew, Wen Shan

    2014-01-01

    Due to the emergence of resistance toward current antibiotics, there is a pressing need to develop the next generation of antibiotics as therapeutics against infectious and opportunistic diseases of microbial origins. The shikimate pathway is exclusive to microbes, plants and fungi, and hence is an attractive and logical target for development of antimicrobial therapeutics. The Gram-positive commensal microbe, Enterococcus faecalis, is a major human pathogen associated with nosocomial infections and resistance to vancomycin, the “drug of last resort”. Here, we report the identification of several polyketide-based inhibitors against the E. faecalis shikimate pathway enzyme, 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase (DHQase). In particular, marein, a flavonoid polyketide, both inhibited DHQase and retarded the growth of Enterococcus faecalis. The purification, crystallization and structural resolution of recombinant DHQase from E. faecalis (at 2.2 Å resolution) are also reported. This study provides a route in the development of polyketide-based antimicrobial inhibitors targeting the shikimate pathway of the human pathogen E. faecalis. PMID:25072253

  1. Sensitivity of antibiotic resistant and antibiotic susceptible Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus strains against ozone.

    PubMed

    Heß, Stefanie; Gallert, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    Tolerance of antibiotic susceptible and antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus strains from clinical and wastewater samples against ozone was tested to investigate if ozone, a strong oxidant applied for advanced wastewater treatment, will affect the release of antibiotic resistant bacteria into the aquatic environment. For this purpose, the resistance pattern against antibiotics of the mentioned isolates and their survival after exposure to 4 mg/L ozone was determined. Antibiotic resistance (AR) of the isolates was not correlating with higher tolerance against ozone. Except for ampicillin resistant E. coli strains, which showed a trend towards increased resistance, E. coli strains that were also resistant against cotrimoxazol, ciprofloxacin or a combination of the three antibiotics were similarly or less resistant against ozone than antibiotic sensitive strains. Pigment-producing Enterococcus casseliflavus and Staphylococcus aureus seemed to be more resistant against ozone than non-pigmented species of these genera. Furthermore, aggregation or biofilm formation apparently protected bacteria in subsurface layers from inactivation by ozone. The relatively large variance of tolerance against ozone may indicate that resistance to ozone inactivation most probably depends on several factors, where AR, if at all, does not play a major role. PMID:26608763

  2. Reevaluation of the Taxonomic Status of Recently Described Species of Enterococcus: Evidence that E. thailandicus Is a Senior Subjective Synonym of “E. sanguinicola” and Confirmation of E. caccae as a Species Distinct from E. silesiacus▿

    PubMed Central

    Shewmaker, Patricia Lynn; Steigerwalt, Arnold G.; Nicholson, Ainsley C.; Carvalho, Maria da Glória S.; Facklam, Richard R.; Whitney, Anne M.; Teixeira, Lúcia M.

    2011-01-01

    Several of the more recently proposed new species of Enterococcus are nearly identical based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and phenotypic traits. In the present study, DNA-DNA reassociation experiments, in conjunction with sequencing of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes, provided evidence that “Enterococcus sanguinicola” and Enterococcus thailandicus actually represent the same species. In contrast, Enterococcus caccae and Enterococcus silesiacus, two other species with nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, were confirmed to be separate species. PMID:21543565

  3. Use of Enterococcus, BST and sterols as indicators for poultry pollution source tracking in surface and groundwater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study has applied Enterococcus, Bacterial Source Tracking (BST) and sterol analysis for pollution source identification from poultry sources. Fecal contamination was detected in 100% of surface water and 15% of groundwater sites tested. E. faecium was the dominant species in aged litter sampl...

  4. Depth-dependent inactivation of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis in soil after manure application and simulated rainfall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    E.coli and Enterococcus serve as important water quality indicator organisms. Rainfall action on manured fields and pastures releases these organisms into soil with infiltrating water. They can then be released back to runoff during subsequent rainfall or irrigation events as soil solution interacts...

  5. COMPARISON OF ENTEROCOCCUS MEASUREMENTS IN FRESHWATER AT TWO RECREATIONAL BEACHES BY QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION AND MEMBRANE FILER CULTURE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cell densities of the fecal pollution indicator genus, Enterococcus, were determined by a rapid (2-3 hr) quantitative PCR (QPCR) analysis based method in 100 ml water samples collected from recreational beaches on Lake Michigan and Lake Erie during the summer of 2003. Enumeration...

  6. Comparison of Enterococcus qPCR analysis results from fresh and marine water samples on two real-time instruments -

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is currently considering a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method, targeting Enterococcus spp., for beach monitoring. Improvements in the method’s cost-effectiveness may be realized by the use of newer instrumentation such as the Applied Biosystems StepOneTM a...

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterococcus hirae R17, a Daptomycin-Resistant Bacterium Isolated from Retail Pork in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zixin; Wang, Wei; Hu, Yujie; Li, Fengqin

    2016-01-01

    Daptomycin-resistant Enterococcus hirae R17 was isolated from retail pork sold at a free-trade market in Beijing, China. The complete genome sequence of R17 contains a circular 2,886,481-bp chromosome and a circular 73,574-bp plasmid. Genes involved in cell envelope homeostasis of this bacterium were identified by whole-genome analysis. PMID:27340071

  8. Comparison of Enterococcus qPCR analysis results from fresh and marine waters on two real-tme instruments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will be recommending a quantitativ e polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method targeting Enterococcus spp. as an option for monitoring recreational beach water quality. A practical consideration for widespread implementation of this o...

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bacteriocinogenic Strain Enterococcus faecalis DBH18, Isolated from Mallard Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    PubMed Central

    Arbulu, Sara; Jimenez, Juan J.; Borrero, Juan; Sánchez, Jorge; Frantzen, Cyril; Herranz, Carmen; Nes, Ingolf F.; Cintas, Luis M.; Diep, Dzung B.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis DBH18, a bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolated from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). The assembly contains 2,836,724 bp, with a G+C content of 37.6%. The genome is predicted to contain 2,654 coding DNA sequences (CDSs) and 50 RNAs. PMID:27417838

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bacteriocinogenic Strain Enterococcus faecalis DBH18, Isolated from Mallard Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Arbulu, Sara; Jimenez, Juan J; Borrero, Juan; Sánchez, Jorge; Frantzen, Cyril; Herranz, Carmen; Nes, Ingolf F; Cintas, Luis M; Diep, Dzung B; Hernández, Pablo E

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis DBH18, a bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolated from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). The assembly contains 2,836,724 bp, with a G+C content of 37.6%. The genome is predicted to contain 2,654 coding DNA sequences (CDSs) and 50 RNAs. PMID:27417838

  11. Antibiotic and disinfectant susceptibility profiles of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) isolated from community wastewater in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) previously isolated from human wastewater effluents in a nonclinical semiclosed agri-food system in Texas were characterized for susceptibility to antibiotics and disinfectants. The 50 VRE were resistant to eight fluoroquinolones and to 10 of 17 Natio...

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterococcus hirae R17, a Daptomycin-Resistant Bacterium Isolated from Retail Pork in China

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zixin; Wang, Wei; Hu, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    Daptomycin-resistant Enterococcus hirae R17 was isolated from retail pork sold at a free-trade market in Beijing, China. The complete genome sequence of R17 contains a circular 2,886,481-bp chromosome and a circular 73,574-bp plasmid. Genes involved in cell envelope homeostasis of this bacterium were identified by whole-genome analysis. PMID:27340071

  13. Virulence Genes among Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Coastal Beaches and Human and Nonhuman Sources in Southern California and Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Talavera, Ginamary Negrón; Hernández, Luis A. Ríos; Ambrose, Richard F.; Jay, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    Most Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium are harmless to humans; however, strains harboring virulence genes, including esp, gelE, cylA, asa1, and hyl, have been associated with human infections. E. faecalis and E. faecium are present in beach waters worldwide, yet little is known about their virulence potential. Here, multiplex PCR was used to compare the distribution of virulence genes among E. faecalis and E. faecium isolated from beaches in Southern California and Puerto Rico to isolates from potential sources including humans, animals, birds, and plants. All five virulence genes were found in E. faecalis and E. faecium from beach water, mostly among E. faecalis. gelE was the most common among isolates from all source types. There was a lower incidence of asa1, esp, cylA, and hyl genes among isolates from beach water, sewage, septage, urban runoff, sea wrack, and eelgrass as compared to human isolates, indicating that virulent strains of E. faecalis and E. faecium may not be widely disseminated at beaches. A higher frequency of asa1 and esp among E. faecalis from dogs and of asa1 among birds (mostly seagull) suggests that further studies on the distribution and virulence potential of strains carrying these genes may be warranted. PMID:27144029

  14. Virulence Genes among Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Coastal Beaches and Human and Nonhuman Sources in Southern California and Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Donna M; Talavera, Ginamary Negrón; Hernández, Luis A Ríos; Weisberg, Stephen B; Ambrose, Richard F; Jay, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Most Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium are harmless to humans; however, strains harboring virulence genes, including esp, gelE, cylA, asa1, and hyl, have been associated with human infections. E. faecalis and E. faecium are present in beach waters worldwide, yet little is known about their virulence potential. Here, multiplex PCR was used to compare the distribution of virulence genes among E. faecalis and E. faecium isolated from beaches in Southern California and Puerto Rico to isolates from potential sources including humans, animals, birds, and plants. All five virulence genes were found in E. faecalis and E. faecium from beach water, mostly among E. faecalis. gelE was the most common among isolates from all source types. There was a lower incidence of asa1, esp, cylA, and hyl genes among isolates from beach water, sewage, septage, urban runoff, sea wrack, and eelgrass as compared to human isolates, indicating that virulent strains of E. faecalis and E. faecium may not be widely disseminated at beaches. A higher frequency of asa1 and esp among E. faecalis from dogs and of asa1 among birds (mostly seagull) suggests that further studies on the distribution and virulence potential of strains carrying these genes may be warranted. PMID:27144029

  15. Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance Enterococcus Surveillance Programme annual report, 2010.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Geoffrey W; Pearson, Julie C; Christiansen, Keryn; Gottlieb, Thomas; Bell, Jan M; George, Narelle; Turnidge, John D

    2013-09-01

    In 2010, 15 institutions around Australia conducted a period prevalence study of key resistances in isolates of Enterococcus species associated with a range of clinical disease amongst in- and outpatients. Each institution collected up to 100 consecutive isolates and tested these for susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobials using standardised methods. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis were characterised by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Multilocus sequence typing was performed on representative pulsotypes of E. faecium. Susceptibility results were compared with similar surveys conducted in 1995, 1999, 2003, 2005, 2007 and 2009. In the 2010 survey, E. faecalis (1,201 isolates) and E. faecium (170 isolates) made up 98.9% of the 1,386 isolates tested. Ampicillin resistance was very common (85.3%) in E. faecium and absent in E. faecalis. Non-susceptibility to vancomycin was 36.5% in E. faecium (similar to the 35.2% in 2009 but up from 15.4% in the 2007 survey) and 0.5% in E. faecalis. There were significant differences in the proportion of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium between the states ranging from 0% in Western Australia to 54.4% in South Australia. The vanB gene was detected in 62 E. faecium and 3 E. faecalis isolates. The vanA gene was detected in 1 E. faecium isolate. All vancomycin-resistant E. faecium belonged to clonal complex 17. The most common sequence type (ST) was ST203, which was found in all regions that had reports of vancomycin resistant enterococci. ST341 was detected only in New South Wales/Australian Capital Territory and ST414 only in South Australia and Victoria. High-level resistance to gentamicin was 34.1% in E. faecalis and 66.1% in E. faecium. A subset of isolates was tested against high-level streptomycin, linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin. High-level streptomycin resistance was found in 8.2% of E. faecalis isolates and 43.8% of E. faecium isolates. Linezolid non

  16. Population Biology of Intestinal Enterococcus Isolates from Hospitalized and Nonhospitalized Individuals in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Tedim, Ana P.; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M.; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J.; Baquero, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  17. Antibacterial activity of Enterococcus faecium derived from Koopeh cheese against Listeria monocytogenes in probiotic ultra-filtrated cheese

    PubMed Central

    Hassanzadazar, Hassan; Ehsani, Ali; Mardani, Karim

    2014-01-01

    Viability of probiotic bacteria in food during maintenance and time of consuming in food has become a challenge in food hygiene and technology and is important for representing their beneficial health effects. The aim of this study was to determine the survival of probiotic Enterococcus faecium derived from Koopeh cheese added to industrial Iranian ultra-filtrated (UF) cheese and screening for antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus faecium against Listeria monocytogenes during two months of cheese ripening. Physiochemical and standard microbial methods were used for isolation of Enterococcus strains in cheese samples. The initial number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as starter culture was 6 Log g-1 in control samples. The counts started to decrease slightly after day seven (p < 0.05) and dropped to 5 Log g-1 at the end of 60 days. The count of LAB in the test groups decreased to 11 Log g-1 on the day 60 of ripening. The number of Enterococcus faecium was 6 Log g-1 on the day 60. The count of Listeria monocytogenes after 60 days of ripening in blank sample decreased 1 Log but in test samples with protective strain decreased 3 Log in 30 days and reached to zero at 45 days. There were not significant (p < 0.05) changes in chemical parameters such as fat, protein and total solid of UF cheese treatment groups. The results showed that Enterococcus faecium of Koopeh cheese was suitable for development of an acceptable probiotic UF cheese and could be adapted to industrial production of UF cheese. PMID:25568714

  18. RNA of Enterococcus faecalis Strain EC-12 Is a Major Component Inducing Interleukin-12 Production from Human Monocytic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nishibayashi, Ryoichiro; Inoue, Ryo; Harada, Yuri; Watanabe, Takumi; Makioka, Yuko; Ushida, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is an important cytokine for the immunomodulatory effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Using murine immune cells, we previously reported that the RNA of Enterococcus faecalis EC-12, a LAB strain exerting probiotic-like beneficial effects, is the major IL-12-inducing immunogenic component. However, it was recently revealed that bacterial RNA can be a ligand for Toll-like receptor (TLR) 13, which is only expressed in mice. Because TLR13 is not expressed in humans, the immuno-stimulatory and -modulatory effects of LAB RNA in human cells should be augmented excluding TLR13 contribution. In experiment 1 of this study, the role of LAB RNA in IL-12 induction in human immune cells was studied using three LAB strains, E.faecalis EC-12, Lactobacillus gasseri JCM5344, and Bifidobacterium breve JCM1192. RNase A treatment of heat-killed LAB significantly decreased the IL-12 production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells on stimulation, while RNase III treatment revealed virtually no effects. Further, IL-12 production against heat-killed E. faecalis EC-12 was abolished by depleting monocytes. These results demonstrated that single stranded RNA (ssRNA) of LAB is a strong inducer of IL-12 production from human monocytes. In experiment 2, major receptor for ssRNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was identified using THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line. The type of RNA molecules of E. faecalis EC-12 responsible for IL-12 induction was also identified. IL-12 production induced by the total RNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was significantly reduced by the treatment of siRNA for TLR8 but not for TLR7. Furthermore, both 23S and 16S rRNA, but not mRNA, of E. faecalis EC-12 markedly induced IL-12 production from THP-1 cells. These results suggested that the recognition of ssRNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was mediated by TLR8 and that rRNA was the RNA molecule that exhibited IL-12-inducing ability in human cells. PMID:26083838

  19. RNA of Enterococcus faecalis Strain EC-12 Is a Major Component Inducing Interleukin-12 Production from Human Monocytic Cells.

    PubMed

    Nishibayashi, Ryoichiro; Inoue, Ryo; Harada, Yuri; Watanabe, Takumi; Makioka, Yuko; Ushida, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is an important cytokine for the immunomodulatory effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Using murine immune cells, we previously reported that the RNA of Enterococcus faecalis EC-12, a LAB strain exerting probiotic-like beneficial effects, is the major IL-12-inducing immunogenic component. However, it was recently revealed that bacterial RNA can be a ligand for Toll-like receptor (TLR) 13, which is only expressed in mice. Because TLR13 is not expressed in humans, the immuno-stimulatory and -modulatory effects of LAB RNA in human cells should be augmented excluding TLR13 contribution. In experiment 1 of this study, the role of LAB RNA in IL-12 induction in human immune cells was studied using three LAB strains, E.faecalis EC-12, Lactobacillus gasseri JCM5344, and Bifidobacterium breve JCM1192. RNase A treatment of heat-killed LAB significantly decreased the IL-12 production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells on stimulation, while RNase III treatment revealed virtually no effects. Further, IL-12 production against heat-killed E. faecalis EC-12 was abolished by depleting monocytes. These results demonstrated that single stranded RNA (ssRNA) of LAB is a strong inducer of IL-12 production from human monocytes. In experiment 2, major receptor for ssRNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was identified using THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line. The type of RNA molecules of E. faecalis EC-12 responsible for IL-12 induction was also identified. IL-12 production induced by the total RNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was significantly reduced by the treatment of siRNA for TLR8 but not for TLR7. Furthermore, both 23S and 16S rRNA, but not mRNA, of E. faecalis EC-12 markedly induced IL-12 production from THP-1 cells. These results suggested that the recognition of ssRNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was mediated by TLR8 and that rRNA was the RNA molecule that exhibited IL-12-inducing ability in human cells. PMID:26083838

  20. Inductive effects of environmental concentration of atrazine on Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Koutsotoli, A D; Dimou, D S; Alamanos, Y P; Maipa, V E

    2005-01-01

    Atrazine solutions (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 microg/L) inoculated with Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis under natural conditions significantly increased (p < or = 0.05) the population levels of both test bacteria; it indicates the ability of bacterial cells to degrade atrazine and to use the original compound or its degradation products as nutrient(s). In some cases, alterations in the morphology of the colonies were also observed on selective solid media. Biochemical differentiation was also found and, on the other hand, a loss of culturability was recorded; this suggests that bacteria have entered in a viable but nonculturable state. A re-appearance of the colonies occurred after inoculation on tryptone-soy agar with atrazine. PMID:16408845

  1. Treatment of enterococcus faecalis bacteria by a helium atmospheric cold plasma brush with oxygen addition

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Wei; Huang Jun; Wang Xingquan; Lv Guohua; Zhang Guoping; Du Ning; Liu Xiaodi; Guo Lihong; Yang Size

    2012-07-01

    An atmospheric cold plasma brush suitable for large area and low-temperature plasma-based sterilization is designed. Results demonstrate that the He/O{sub 2} plasma more effectively kills Enterococcus faecalis than the pure He plasma. In addition, the sterilization efficiency values of the He/O{sub 2} plasma depend on the oxygen fraction in Helium gas. The atmospheric cold plasma brush using a proper ratio of He/O{sub 2} (2.5%) reaches the optimum sterilization efficiency. After plasma treatment, the cell structure and morphology changes can be observed by the scanning electron microscopy. Optical emission measurements indicate that reactive species such as O and OH play a significant role in the sterilization process.

  2. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of SecA from Enterococcus faecalis

    SciTech Connect

    Meining, Winfried; Scheuring, Johannes; Fischer, Markus; Weinkauf, Sevil

    2006-06-01

    SecA ATPase from E. faecalis has been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals belong to space group C2 and diffract to 2.4 Å resolution. The gene coding for SecA from Enterococcus faecalis was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In this protein, the lysine at position 6 was replaced by an asparagine in order to reduce sensitivity towards proteases. The modified protein was purified and crystallized. Crystals diffracting to 2.4 Å resolution were obtained using the vapour-diffusion technique. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 203.4, b = 49.8, c = 100.8 Å, α = γ = 90.0, β = 119.1°. A selenomethionine derivative was prepared and is currently being tested in crystallization trials.

  3. Treatment of enterococcus faecalis bacteria by a helium atmospheric cold plasma brush with oxygen addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Huang, Jun; Du, Ning; Liu, Xiao-Di; Wang, Xing-Quan; Lv, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Guo-Ping; Guo, Li-Hong; Yang, Si-Ze

    2012-07-01

    An atmospheric cold plasma brush suitable for large area and low-temperature plasma-based sterilization is designed. Results demonstrate that the He/O2 plasma more effectively kills Enterococcus faecalis than the pure He plasma. In addition, the sterilization efficiency values of the He/O2 plasma depend on the oxygen fraction in Helium gas. The atmospheric cold plasma brush using a proper ratio of He/O2 (2.5%) reaches the optimum sterilization efficiency. After plasma treatment, the cell structure and morphology changes can be observed by the scanning electron microscopy. Optical emission measurements indicate that reactive species such as O and OH play a significant role in the sterilization process.

  4. A febrile neutropenic patient with Enterococcus gallinarum sepsis treated with daptomycin and gentamicin.

    PubMed

    Barber, Gerard R; Lauretta, Joseph; Saez, Ruben

    2007-06-01

    Gram-positive pathogens are increasingly implicated in today's changing epidemiology of hospital-acquired infections. Staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci are among the most frequently identified causes of surgical site, complicated skin-structure, and bloodstream infections. In accordance, the use of antimicrobial agents with gram-positive activity, especially those with activity against resistant organisms, has also increased. We describe a septic, neutropenic patient with bacteremia due to Enterococcus gallinarum. Therapeutic options were restricted due to resistance factors of the organism, limited guidance in the medical literature, and the patient's history and underlying condition. Despite these challenges, the patient was successfully treated with a combination of daptomycin and gentamicin and replacement of her indwelling central line. As antimicrobial stewards and diagnosticians, we must bear in mind that selective pressures exerted by the increasing use of agents with gram-positive activity may result in an increased prevalence of organisms such as E. gallinarum. PMID:17542774

  5. Assessment of Enterococcus Levels in Recreational Beach Sand Along the Rhode Island Coast.

    PubMed

    Coakley, Eugenie; Parris, Amie L; Wyman, Al; Latowsky, Gretchen

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that coastal beach sand as well as coastal ocean water can be contaminated with fecal indicator Enterococcus bacteria (ENT). A study of sand ENT concentrations over a four-week period at 12 Rhode Island beaches was conducted during the summer of 2009. While average contamination was low relative to water quality standards, every beach had at least one day with very high sand ENT readings. On 10 of the 12 beaches, a statistically significant gradient occurred in geometric mean ENT concentrations among tidal zones, with dry (supratidal, or above high tide mark) sand having the highest level, followed by wet (intratidal, or below high tide mark) and underwater sand. Beaches with higher wave action had significantly lower ENT levels in wet and underwater sand compared to beaches with lower wave action. PMID:27188067

  6. Effects of Enterococcus faecalis CECT 7121 on Cryptosporidium parvum infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Del Coco, Valeria F; Sparo, Mónica D; Sidoti, Alicia; Santín, Mónica; Basualdo, Juan Angel; Córdoba, María Alejandra

    2016-08-01

    Cryptosporidium is an opportunistic protozoan parasite of humans and animals worldwide and causes diarrheal disease that is typically self-limiting in immunocompetent hosts but often life threatening to immunocompromised individuals. However, there is a lack of completely efficient therapy available. Probiotics have attracted the attention as potential antiparasite compounds against protozoa involved in intestinal infections. This study investigated the effects of administration of probiotic Enterococcus faecalis CECT 7121 on Cryptosporidium parvum infection in immunosuppressed mice. Effects on C. parvum infection at the intestinal mucosa were studied and scored at each portion of the gut. It was demonstrated that Ef CECT 7121 interfered with C. parvum infection when both probiotic and parasite were present in the same intestinal location suggesting that Ef CECT 7121 supplementation can alleviate the negative effects of C. parvum infection. PMID:27193238

  7. Epidemiology of Enterococcus faecalis urinary tract infection in a teaching hospital in London, United Kingdom.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, L M; Duke, B; Urwin, G; Guiney, M

    1992-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a frequent cause of urinary tract infection in hospitalized patients. Recent reports have suggested that the organism may frequently be acquired by cross-infection from other patients. In this study, we used total DNA restriction patterns to type 135 urine isolates of E. faecalis from four sets of patients. Isolates were placed into types (all bands identical) and into groups (most bands identical). Most isolates were discriminated by the typing method, and the results suggested that direct cross-infection occurred rarely if at all. However, two groups of clonally related isolates occurred frequently in the urine specimens and also in feces from hospital-associated patients and were often associated with antibiotic resistance. Isolates from these two groups were found less frequently in feces from people not associated with the hospital. Images PMID:1500498

  8. Survival of Enterococcus faecalis in seawater microcosms is limited in the presence of bacterivorous zooflagellates.

    PubMed

    Hartke, A; Lemarinier, S; Pichereau, V; Auffray, Y

    2002-05-01

    The survival and persistence of growing and starved cells of Enterococcus faecalis in untreated and differentially filtered (20 microm, 5 microm, 3 microm, 1.2 microm, and 0.1 microm) seawater was analyzed in samples taken at different times over a 1-year period by plate counts and scanning electron microscopy. Whereas seawater filtered through a 0.1-microm mesh was not at all or only slightly bactericidal during incubation at 16 degrees C in the dark, culturability of E. faecalis in the other systems decreased as a function of increasing pore size of the filters. Recovery of culturable, glucose pre-starved cells was always higher than that of cells harvested from the exponential growth phase. Electron microscopic analysis showed that the disappearance of enterococci appeared related to the presence and multiplication of various zooflagellates. PMID:11927983

  9. Enterococcus faecalis cytolysin without effect on the intestinal growth of susceptible enterococci in mice.

    PubMed

    Huycke, M M; Joyce, W A; Gilmore, M S

    1995-07-01

    A murine model was developed to determine whether the Enterococcus faecalis cytolysin, through its bacteriolytic action on gram-positive bacteria, could promote intestinal overgrowth of cytolytic strains. Sets of E. faecalis strains with varying cytolytic production and susceptibility to cytolytic activity were mixed 1:1 and allowed to compete in vitro in broth or in vivo after orogastric administration in mice pretreated with antibiotics. In general, cytolytic strains outgrew, by as much as 2000-fold, competing cytolysin-susceptible or -hypersusceptible strains in vitro. In contrast, no growth advantage was observed in vivo, despite similar transient colonization of the murine intestinal tract by both cytolytic and cytolysin-susceptible strains. These data suggest that cytolysin plays little role in promoting intestinal overgrowth of enterococci through bacteriolytic activity. PMID:7797930

  10. Bactericidal Effects of Diode Laser Irradiation on Enterococcus faecalis Using Periapical Lesion Defect Model

    PubMed Central

    Nagayoshi, Masato; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Nakashima, Keisuke; Iwaki, Shigetsugu; Chen, Ker-Kong; Terashita, Masamichi; Kitamura, Chiaki

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Photodynamic therapy has been expanded for use in endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of diode laser irradiation on endodontic pathogens in periapical lesions using an in vitro apical lesion model. Study Design. Enterococcus faecalis in 0.5% semisolid agar with a photosensitizer was injected into apical lesion area of in vitro apical lesion model. The direct effects of irradiation with a diode laser as well as heat produced by irradiation on the viability of microorganisms in the lesions were analyzed. Results. The viability of E. faecalis was significantly reduced by the combination of a photosensitizer and laser irradiation. The temperature caused by irradiation rose, however, there were no cytotoxic effects of heat on the viability of E. faecalis. Conclusion. Our results suggest that utilization of a diode laser in combination with a photosensitizer may be useful for clinical treatment of periapical lesions. PMID:21991489

  11. The effect of berberine hydrochloride on Enterococcus faecalis biofilm formation and dispersion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lihua; Bu, Qianqian; Xu, Huan; Liu, Yuan; She, Pengfei; Tan, Ruichen; Wu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is one of the major causes of biofilm infections. Berberine hydrochloride (BBH) has diverse pharmacological effects; however, the effects and mechanisms of BBH on E. faecalis biofilm formation and dispersion have not been reported. In this study, 99 clinical isolates from the urine samples of patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) were collected and identified. Ten strains of E. faecalis with biofilm formation ability were studied. BBH inhibited E. faecalis biofilm formation and promoted the biofilm dispersion of E. faecalis. In addition, sortase A and esp expression levels were elevated during early E. faecalis biofilm development, whereas BBH significantly reduced their expression levels. The results of this study indicated that BBH effectively prevents biofilm formation and promotes biofilm dispersion in E. faecalis, most likely by inhibiting the expressions of sortase A and esp. PMID:27242142

  12. Differential antimicrobial susceptibility between human and chicken isolates of vancomycin-resistant and sensitive Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Han Yuan; Hill, Robert L R; Kirk, Monica; Casewell, Mark W; Beighton, David

    2002-01-01

    To compare the differential antimicrobial susceptibilities of Enterococcus faecium from humans and whole chicken carcasses, MICs of 12 antimicrobial agents were determined for 54 clinical-isolates (31 vancomycin-resistant [VREF]) and 60 chicken-isolates (29 VREF). Chicken VREF were slightly but consistently more resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin and avoparcin, compared with human VREF (P<0.01). MICs of LY333328 were

  13. Outbreak of mastitis in sheep caused by multi-drug resistant Enterococcus faecalis in Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Sanciu, G; Marogna, G; Paglietti, B; Cappuccinelli, P; Leori, G; Rappelli, P

    2013-03-01

    An outbreak of infective mastitis due to Enterococcus faecalis occurred in an intensive sheep farm in north Sardinia (Italy). E. faecalis, which is only rarely isolated from sheep milk, was unexpectedly found in 22·3% of positive samples at microbiological examination. Forty-five out of the 48 E. faecalis isolates showed the same multi-drug resistance pattern (cloxacillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, clindamycin, oxytetracycline). E. faecalis isolates were analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and all 45 multi-drug resistant strains showed an indistinguishable macrorestiction profile, indicating their clonal origin. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an outbreak of mastitis in sheep caused by E. faecalis. PMID:22595402

  14. Characterization of the Deoxynucleotide Triphosphate Triphosphohydrolase (dNTPase) Activity of the EF1143 Protein from Enterococcus faecalis and Crystal Structure of the Activator-Substrate Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Vorontsov, Ivan I.; Minasov, George; Kiryukhina, Olga; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Shuvalova, Ludmilla; Anderson, Wayne F.

    2012-06-19

    The EF1143 protein from Enterococcus faecalis is a distant homolog of deoxynucleotide triphosphate triphosphohydrolases (dNTPases) from Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus. These dNTPases are important components in the regulation of the dNTP pool in bacteria. Biochemical assays of the EF1143 dNTPase activity demonstrated nonspecific hydrolysis of all canonical dNTPs in the presence of Mn{sup 2+}. In contrast, with Mg{sup 2+} hydrolysis required the presence of dGTP as an effector, activating the degradation of dATP and dCTP with dGTP also being consumed in the reaction with dATP. The crystal structure of EF1143 and dynamic light scattering measurements in solution revealed a tetrameric oligomer as the most probable biologically active unit. The tetramer contains four dGTP specific allosteric regulatory sites and four active sites. Examination of the active site with the dATP substrate suggests an in-line nucleophilic attack on the {alpha}-phosphate center as a possible mechanism of the hydrolysis and two highly conserved residues, His-129 and Glu-122, as an acid-base catalytic dyad. Structural differences between EF1143 apo and holo forms revealed mobility of the {alpha}3 helix that can regulate the size of the active site binding pocket and could be stabilized in the open conformation upon formation of the tetramer and dGTP effector binding.

  15. Penicillin-Binding Protein 5 Sequence Alteration and Levels of plp5 mRNA Expression in Clinical Isolates of Enterococcus faecium with Different Levels of Ampicillin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Belhaj, Mondher; Boutiba-Ben Boubaker, Ilhem; Slim, Amin

    2016-04-01

    Eighty-two nonduplicated ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (AREF) isolates from clinical infections at the Charles Nicolle Hospital of Tunisia were investigated. They were collected from January 2001 to December 2009. Genetic relationship between them was studied using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The amino acid sequence difference variations of the C-terminal part of penicillin-binding protein 5 (PBP5) versus levels of expressed mRNA were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequencing, and real-time PCR quantification of (PBP5), respectively. No β-lactamase activity was detected and none of our strains showed resistance to glycopeptides, which retain their therapeutic efficiency against enterococcal infections in our hospital. Pattern analysis of the strains revealed six main clones disseminating in different wards. Sequence data revealed the existence of 19 different plp5 alleles with a difference in 16 amino acid positions spanning from residue 414 to 632. Each allele presented at least five amino acid substitutions (His-470→Gln, Asn-496→Lys, Ala-499→Thr, Glu-525→Asp, and Glu-629→Val). No correlation between amino acid sequence polymorphism of PBP5 and levels of ampicillin resistance was detected. The levels of plp5 mRNA expression varied between strains and did not always correlate with levels of ampicillin resistance in clinical AREF. PMID:26618475

  16. Use of in-house studies of molecular epidemiology and full species identification for controlling spread of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, U R; Noskin, G A; Suriano, T; Cooper, I; Reisberg, B E; Peterson, L R

    1996-01-01

    Infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms is a major clinical challenge, and few, if any, therapeutic options remain available. Increasingly, infection control measures have taken on greater importance in preventing the nosocomial transmission of MDR organisms. During December 1994 and January 1995, we identified a cluster of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis isolates involving 16 patients situated in different areas of our university-affiliated teaching hospital. Initial review of laboratory requisition forms for the patients' locations revealed no common association, suggesting that the occurrence was not due to horizontal spread. However, using genomic DNA extraction, restriction enzyme analysis, and gel electrophoresis, we found that 12 patients were infected with isolates originating from a single clone, 2 other patients were infected with isolates from a different clone, and the remaining 2 patients were infected with unique strains. Because the typing data suggested nosocomial spread, chart review was undertaken to determine a possible common exposure source. With three exceptions, clonal isolates were linked to patient movement between surgical floors, intensive care units, and a rehabilitation unit. A detailed review of patient records revealing the association would not have been performed without realization of clonality. Thus, the data demonstrate the utility of genomic typing for epidemiological purposes. In turn, targeted infection control measures that halted the spread of the potentially lethal MDR pathogen were instituted. PMID:8862571

  17. The annotated complete DNA sequence of Enterococcus faecalis bacteriophage φEf11 and its comparison with all available phage and predicted prophage genomes.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Roy H; Ektefaie, Mahmoud R; Fouts, Derrick E

    2011-04-01

    φEf11 is a temperate Siphoviridae bacteriophage isolated by induction from a lysogenic Enterococcus faecalis strain. The φEf11 DNA was completely sequenced and found to be 42,822 bp in length, with a G+C mol% of 34.4%. Genome analysis revealed 65 ORFs, accounting for 92.8% of the DNA content. All except for seven of the ORFs displayed sequence similarities to previously characterized proteins. The genes were arranged in functional modules, organized similar to that of several other phages of low GC Gram-positive bacteria; however, the number and arrangement of lysis-related genes were atypical of these bacteriophages. A 159 bp noncoding region between predicted cI and cro genes is highly similar to the functionally characterized early promoter region of lactococcal temperate phage TP901-1, and possessed a predicted stem-loop structure in between predicted P(L) and P(R) promoters, suggesting a novel mechanism of repression of these two bacteriophages from the λ paradigm. Comparison with all available phage and predicted prophage genomes revealed that the φEf11 genome displays unique features, suggesting that φEf11 may be a novel member of a larger family of temperate prophages that also includes lactococcal phages. Trees based on the blast score ratio grouped this family by tail fiber similarity, suggesting that these trees are useful for identifying phages with similar tail fibers. PMID:21204936

  18. Incidence of Type II CRISPR1-Cas Systems in Enterococcus Is Species-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Casandra; Raustad, Nicole; Bustos, Mario A.; Shiaris, Michael

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems, which obstruct both viral infection and incorporation of mobile genetic elements by horizontal transfer, are a specific immune response common to prokaryotes. Antiviral protection by CRISPR-Cas comes at a cost, as horizontally-acquired genes may increase fitness and provide rapid adaptation to habitat change. To date, investigations into the prevalence of CRISPR have primarily focused on pathogenic and clinical bacteria, while less is known about CRISPR dynamics in commensal and environmental species. We designed PCR primers and coupled these with DNA sequencing of products to detect and characterize the presence of cas1, a universal CRISPR-associated gene and proxy for the Type II CRISPR1-Cas system, in environmental and non-clinical Enterococcus isolates. CRISPR1-cas1 was detected in approximately 33% of the 275 strains examined, and differences in CRISPR1 carriage between species was significant. Incidence of cas1 in E. hirae was 73%, nearly three times that of E. faecalis (23.6%) and 10 times more frequent than in E. durans (7.1%). Also, this is the first report of CRISPR1 presence in E. durans, as well as in the plant-associated species E. casseliflavus and E. sulfureus. Significant differences in CRISPR1-cas1 incidence among Enterococcus species support the hypothesis that there is a tradeoff between protection and adaptability. The differences in the habitats of enterococcal species may exert varying selective pressure that results in a species-dependent distribution of CRISPR-Cas systems. PMID:26600384

  19. Proficiency of Clinical Laboratories in Spain in Detecting Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Echanove, Juan; Robles, Belen; Jarvis, William R.

    1999-01-01

    Studies in a variety of U.S. clinical laboratories have demonstrated difficulty in detecting intermediate and low-level vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). The misclassification of “at least intermediate resistant isolates” as vancomycin susceptible may have both clinical implications and a negative impact on measures to control the spread of VRE. No published study has assessed the ability of clinical laboratories in Europe to detect VRE. So, the apparent low prevalence of VRE in European hospitals may be, in part, secondary to the inability of these laboratories to detect all VRE. In an effort to assess European laboratories’ proficiency in detecting VRE, we identified 22 laboratories in Spain and asked them to test four VRE strains and one susceptible enterococcal strain from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collection. Each organism was tested by the routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing method used by each laboratory. Overall, VRE were correctly identified in 61 of 88 (69.1%) instances. The accuracy of VRE detection varied with the level of resistance and the antimicrobial susceptibility method. The high-level-resistant strain (Enterococcus faecium; MIC, 512 μg/ml) was accurately detected in 20 of 22 (91.3%) instances, whereas the intermediate-resistant isolate (Enterococcus gallinarum; MIC, 8 μg/ml) was accurately detected in only 11 of 22 (50%) instances. Classification errors occurred in 27 of 88 (30.9%) instances. Misclassification as vancomycin susceptible was the most common error (16 of 27 [59.3%] instances). Our study shows that the participating Spanish laboratories had an overall acceptable proficiency in detecting VRE but that a substantial proportion of VRE isolates with low or intermediate levels of resistance were not detected. We recommend that studies be conducted to validate laboratory proficiency testing as an important step in the prevention and control of the spread of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:10364577

  20. Mutations Associated with Reduced Surotomycin Susceptibility in Clostridium difficile and Enterococcus Species

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Hannah M.; Li, Xiang; Mascio, Carmela; Chesnel, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an urgent public health concern causing considerable clinical and economic burdens. CDI can be treated with antibiotics, but recurrence of the disease following successful treatment of the initial episode often occurs. Surotomycin is a rapidly bactericidal cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic that is in clinical trials for CDI treatment and that has demonstrated superiority over vancomycin in preventing CDI relapse. Surotomycin is a structural analogue of the membrane-active antibiotic daptomycin. Previously, we utilized in vitro serial passage experiments to derive C. difficile strains with reduced surotomycin susceptibilities. The parent strains used included ATCC 700057 and clinical isolates from the restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) groups BI and K. Serial passage experiments were also performed with vancomycin-resistant and vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis. The goal of this study is to identify mutations associated with reduced surotomycin susceptibility in C. difficile and enterococci. Illumina sequence data generated for the parent strains and serial passage isolates were compared. We identified nonsynonymous mutations in genes coding for cardiolipin synthase in C. difficile ATCC 700057, enoyl-(acyl carrier protein) reductase II (FabK) and cell division protein FtsH2 in C. difficile REA type BI, and a PadR family transcriptional regulator in C. difficile REA type K. Among the 4 enterococcal strain pairs, 20 mutations were identified, and those mutations overlap those associated with daptomycin resistance. These data give insight into the mechanism of action of surotomycin against C. difficile, possible mechanisms for resistance emergence during clinical use, and the potential impacts of surotomycin therapy on intestinal enterococci. PMID:25941217

  1. Antibiotic and biocide resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus.

    PubMed

    Suller, M T; Russell, A D

    1999-12-01

    Concern has been growing regarding the potential of antibiotic and disinfectant co-resistance in clinically important bacteria. In this study, the susceptibilities of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) to chlorhexidine (CHX), the quaternary ammonium compounds cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and benzalkonium chloride (BC), triclosan, dibromopropamidine isethionate (DBPI) and triclocarban were compared. MRSA exhibited low-level resistance to CHX and the QACs, with MICs of 1.5 to 3-fold (CHX), and 2 to 4-fold (QACs) higher than MSSA. However, the MIC values for MRSA ranged between 0.025 (the MIC of MSSA) and 1 microg/mL with triclosan, and between <5 (the MIC of MSSA) and 75 microg/mL with DPBI. Nevertheless, these strains remain relatively sensitive to most of these antimicrobial agents. The bactericidal efficacy of CHX, CPC and DBPI (with the exception of one strain) correlated with their MIC value. This was not observed using triclosan; MRSA and MSSA strains were equally susceptible to its killing effect, regardless of MIC. The permeabilizing agent, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was unable to potentiate the antibacterial activities of the biocides against any of the strains tested. Attempts to select for staphylococcal strains with increased resistance to triclosan, CPC or CHX, using disc diffusion, step-wise broth, or repeated exposure/recovery technique, were only partially successful, and resistance was found to be unstable. The susceptibilities of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) and vancomycin-sensitive enterococcus (VSE) to the biocides were also compared and found to be similar both in terms of MIC testing and time-kill studies. PMID:10658804

  2. Selection of potential probiotic Enterococcus faecium isolated from Portuguese fermented food.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Joana; Borges, Sandra; Teixeira, Paula

    2014-11-17

    Four Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from fermented products were evaluated for potential use as probiotic strains. In addition to efaAfm gene, commonly found in E. faecium food isolates, none of the isolates possessed virulence genes and none had positive reactions for the production of tyramine, histamine, putrescine and cadaverine in the screening medium used. All of these four isolates proved to be resistant to 65 °C. E. faecium 119 did not show antimicrobial activity against any of the target bacteria investigated. E. faecium 85 and 101 inhibited Listeria innocua and E. faecium DSMZ 13590. The strain E. faecium 120 inhibited seven target bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes 7946, L. monocytogenes 7947, L. innocua 2030c, L. innocua NCTC 11286, E. faecium DSMZ 13590, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213) and was chosen as the representative to assess the ability to survive gastrointestinal tract passage simulation, as well as the protective role of two food matrices (skim milk and Alheira) during its passage. For both matrices used, no significant differences (p<0.05) were obtained between the types of digestion - quick and slow passage simulation. In the skim milk matrix the isolate was reduced to values below the detection limit of the enumeration technique by the end of the two digestions, in contrast to the Alheira matrix, for which isolate 120 showed a reduction of only ca. 1 log CFU/ml. The E. faecium strain 120 was shown to be a potential candidate for further investigations as a potential probiotic culture. PMID:25268323

  3. [Evolution of resistance in the genus Enterococcus in strains isolated from blood].

    PubMed

    Peset, V; Ubeda, P; Sarrión, A; Pérez-Bellés, C; Cantón, E; Córdoba, J; Gobernado, M

    1998-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the evolution of the species distribution and the prevalence of resistance to the Enterococcus genus. We studied 281 strains of enterococcus isolated from blood samples: 90 throughout 1984 and 791 from the years 1994 to 1996. identification was made using PosCombo 4Y Microscan-Baxter dehydrated panels and the Rapid ID 32 Strep system (bioMerieux). The MICs were calculated using the agar dilution method according to recommendations of the NCCLS for the following antibiotics: ampicillin, vancomycin, teicoplanin, gentamicin, kanamycin and streptomycin. The production of betalactamases were evaluated using a paper disk with nitrocefin for all the strains. The genotypes with resistance to glycopeptides were determined using PCR. The percentage of E. faecalis for 1984-1986/1994-1996 was 82.2/79.4; of E. faecium 4.4/16.4; and other species 12.214.3. The resistance to ampicillin went from 1.1% to 5.8%; high level resistance to glycopeptides went from 0% to 9.9%; for low level from 7.7% to 2.6%; resistance to a high charge of gentamicin went from 27.7% to 40.8%; and that for kanamycin from 45.5% to 62.8%. Resistance to streptomycin remained constant (45.5%). No strains produced betalactamases. For the species E. faecium, a statistically significant increase was detected for global resistance to ampicillin, gentamicin and kanamycin, with resistance to streptomycin remaining at similar percentages. No high level resistance to glycopeptides was detected in the first time period, but the low level resistance was greater. PMID:10336313

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bacteriocin-Producing Strain Enterococcus faecium M3K31, Isolated from Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus subsp. fulvus).

    PubMed

    Arbulu, Sara; Frantzen, Cyril; Lohans, Christopher T; Cintas, Luis M; Herranz, Carmen; Holo, Helge; Diep, Dzung B; Vederas, John C; Hernández, Pablo E

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faeciumM3K31 is a bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolated from griffon vulture (Gyps fulvussubsp.fulvus) feces. The draft genome sequence of this strain provides genetic data that support its biotechnological potential. PMID:27013035

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bacteriocin-Producing Strain Enterococcus faecium M3K31, Isolated from Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus subsp. fulvus)

    PubMed Central

    Arbulu, Sara; Frantzen, Cyril; Lohans, Christopher T.; Cintas, Luis M.; Herranz, Carmen; Holo, Helge; Diep, Dzung B.; Vederas, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium M3K31 is a bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolated from griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus subsp. fulvus) feces. The draft genome sequence of this strain provides genetic data that support its biotechnological potential. PMID:27013035

  6. Transcriptomic and metabolic responses of Staphylococcus aureus in mixed culture with Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus thermophilus and Enterococcus durans in milk.

    PubMed

    Zdenkova, Kamila; Alibayov, Babek; Karamonova, Ludmila; Purkrtova, Sabina; Karpiskova, Renata; Demnerova, Katerina

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major food-borne pathogen due to the production of enterotoxin and is particularly prevalent in contaminated milk and dairy products. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used as biocontrol agents in fermented foods which can inhibit pathogenic flora. In our work, we investigated the influence of three strains of LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus thermophilus and Enterococcus durans) on the relative expression of three enterotoxin genes (sea, sec, sell) and eight virulence and/or regulatory genes (sarA, saeS, codY, srrA, rot, hld/RNAIII, agrA/RNAII, sigB) in two S. aureus strains (MW2 and Sa1612) in TSB and reduced-fat milk (1.5 %) at 30 °C over a 24-h period. The tested LAB and S. aureus strains proved to be mutually non-competitive or only slightly competitive during co-cultivation. In addition, under the above-mentioned conditions, differential gene expression between the S. aureus MW2 and Sa1612 strains was well documented. S. aureus growth was changed in mixed culture with LAB; however, its effect on the repression of sea and sec expression correlated with production of these virulence factors. In comparison, the presence of LAB strains generally inhibited the expression of sec, sell, sarA, seaS, agrA/RNAII and hld/RNAIII genes. The effect of LAB strains presence on the expression of sea, codY, srrA, rot and sigB genes was medium, time, LAB and S. aureus strain specific. SEA and SEC production was significantly reduced in milk compared to TSB in pure culture. After the 24-h cultivation, S. aureus MW2 and Sa1612 SEC production was 187 and 331 times lower in milk compared to TSB, respectively (0.07 and 0.39 ng/mL in milk, versus 13.1 and 129.2 ng/mL in TSB, respectively). At the same time S. aureus MW2 and Sa1612 SEA production was 77 and 68 times lower in milk compared to TSB, respectively (0.99 and 0.17 ng/mL in milk, versus 76.4 and 11.5 ng/mL in TSB, respectively). This study has revealed new insights into the

  7. Optimizing hybrid assembly of next-generation sequence data from Enterococcus faecium: a microbe with highly divergent genome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sequencing of bacterial genomes became an essential approach to study pathogen virulence and the phylogenetic relationship among close related strains. Bacterium Enterococcus faecium emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen that were often associated with resistance to common antibiotics in hospitals. With highly divergent gene contents, it presented a challenge to the next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies featuring high-throughput and shorter read-length. This study was designed to investigate the properties and systematic biases of NGS technologies and evaluate critical parameters influencing the outcomes of hybrid assemblies using combinations of NGS data. Results A hospital strain of E. faecium was sequenced using three different NGS platforms: 454 GS-FLX, Illumina GAIIx, and ABI SOLiD4.0, to approximately 28-, 500-, and 400-fold coverage depth. We built a pipeline that merged contigs from each NGS data into hybrid assemblies. The results revealed that each single NGS assembly had a ceiling in continuity that could not be overcome by simply increasing data coverage depth. Each NGS technology displayed some intrinsic properties, i.e. base calling error, systematic bias, etc. The gaps and low coverage regions of each NGS assembly were associated with lower GC contents. In order to optimize the hybrid assembly approach, we tested with varying amount and different combination of NGS data, and obtained optimal conditions for assembly continuity. We also, for the first time, showed that SOLiD data could help make much improved assemblies of E. faecium genome using the hybrid approach when combined with other type of NGS data. Conclusions The current study addressed the difficult issue of how to most effectively construct a complete microbial genome using today's state of the art sequencing technologies. We characterized the sequence data and genome assembly from each NGS technologies, tested conditions for hybrid assembly with combinations of

  8. Genome sequences of copper resistant and sensitive Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from copper-fed pigs in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Six strains of Enterococcus faecalis (S1, S12, S17, S18, S19 and S32) were isolated from copper fed pigs in Denmark. These Gram-positive bacteria within the genus Enterococcus are able to survive a variety of physical and chemical challenges by the acquisition of diverse genetic elements. The genome of strains S1, S12, S17, S18, S19 and S32 contained 2,615, 2,769, 2,625, 2,804, 2,853 and 2,935 protein-coding genes, with 41, 42, 27, 42, 32 and 44 genes encoding antibiotic and metal resistance, respectively. Differences between Cu resistant and sensitive E. faecalis strains, and possible co-transfer of Cu and antibiotic resistance determinants were detected through comparative genome analysis. PMID:26203344

  9. Diversity and Evolution of the Tn5801-tet(M)-Like Integrative and Conjugative Elements among Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus

    PubMed Central

    León-Sampedro, Ricardo; Novais, Carla; Peixe, Luísa; Baquero, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the diversity and evolution of Tn5801 among enterococci, staphylococci, and streptococci based on analysis of the 5,073 genomes of these bacterial groups available in gene databases. We also examined 610 isolates of Enterococcus (from 10 countries, 1987 to 2010) for the presence of this and other known CTn-tet(M) elements due to the scarcity of data about Tn5801 among enterococci. Genome location (by ICeu-I–pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] hybridization/integration site identification), conjugation and fitness (by standard methods), Tn5801 characterization (by long-PCR mapping/sequencing), and clonality (by PFGE/multilocus sequence typing [MLST]) were studied. Twenty-three Tn5801 variants (17 unpublished) clustered in two groups, designated “A” (25 kb; n = 14; predominant in Staphylococcus aureus) and “B” (20 kb; n = 9; predominant in Streptococcus agalactiae). The percent GC content of the common backbone suggests a streptococcal origin of Tn5801 group B, with further acquisition of a 5-kb fragment that resulted in group A. Deep sequence analysis allowed identification of variants associated with clonal lineages of S. aureus (clonal complex 8 [CC8], sequence type 239 [ST239]), S. agalactiae (CC17), Enterococcus faecium (ST17/ST18), or Enterococcus faecalis (ST8), local variants, or variants located in different species and geographical areas. All Tn5801 elements were chromosomally located upstream of the guaA gene, which serves as an integration hot spot. Transferability was demonstrated only for Tn5801 type B among E. faecalis clonal backgrounds, which eventually harbored another Tn5801 copy. The study documents early acquisition of Tn5801 by Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus. Clonal waves of these pathogens seem to have contributed to the geographical spread and local evolution of the transposon. Horizontal transfer, also demonstrated, could explain the variability observed, with the isolates often containing

  10. High-level plasmid-mediated gentamicin resistance and pheromone response of plasmids present in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed Central

    Shiojima, M; Tomita, H; Tanimoto, K; Fujimoto, S; Ike, Y

    1997-01-01

    Eleven pheromone-responding plasmids encoding erythromycin or gentamicin resistance were isolated from multiresistant clinical Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The plasmids were classified into six types with respect to their pheromone responses. The three erythromycin resistance plasmids responded to different pheromones. Of the eight gentamicin resistance plasmids, four plasmids responded to same pheromone. Southern hybridization studies showed that the genes involved in regulation of the pheromone response were conserved in the drug resistance plasmids. PMID:9056018

  11. Diversity and Evolution of the Tn5801-tet(M)-Like Integrative and Conjugative Elements among Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus.

    PubMed

    León-Sampedro, Ricardo; Novais, Carla; Peixe, Luísa; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2016-03-01

    This work describes the diversity and evolution of Tn5801 among enterococci, staphylococci, and streptococci based on analysis of the 5,073 genomes of these bacterial groups available in gene databases. We also examined 610 isolates of Enterococcus (from 10 countries, 1987 to 2010) for the presence of this and other known CTn-tet(M) elements due to the scarcity of data about Tn5801 among enterococci. Genome location (by ICeu-I-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] hybridization/integration site identification), conjugation and fitness (by standard methods), Tn5801 characterization (by long-PCR mapping/sequencing), and clonality (by PFGE/multilocus sequence typing [MLST]) were studied. Twenty-three Tn5801 variants (17 unpublished) clustered in two groups, designated "A" (25 kb; n = 14; predominant in Staphylococcus aureus) and "B" (20 kb; n = 9; predominant in Streptococcus agalactiae). The percent GC content of the common backbone suggests a streptococcal origin of Tn5801 group B, with further acquisition of a 5-kb fragment that resulted in group A. Deep sequence analysis allowed identification of variants associated with clonal lineages of S. aureus (clonal complex 8 [CC8], sequence type 239 [ST239]), S. agalactiae (CC17), Enterococcus faecium (ST17/ST18), or Enterococcus faecalis (ST8), local variants, or variants located in different species and geographical areas. All Tn5801 elements were chromosomally located upstream of the guaA gene, which serves as an integration hot spot. Transferability was demonstrated only for Tn5801 type B among E. faecalis clonal backgrounds, which eventually harbored another Tn5801 copy. The study documents early acquisition of Tn5801 by Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus. Clonal waves of these pathogens seem to have contributed to the geographical spread and local evolution of the transposon. Horizontal transfer, also demonstrated, could explain the variability observed, with the isolates often containing sequences of

  12. Failure of High-Dose Daptomycin for Bacteremia Caused by Daptomycin-Susceptible Enterococcus faecium Harboring LiaSR Substitutions

    PubMed Central

    Munita, Jose M.; Mishra, Nagendra N.; Alvarez, Danya; Tran, Truc T.; Diaz, Lorena; Panesso, Diana; Reyes, Jinnethe; Murray, Barbara E.; Adachi, Javier A.; Bayer, Arnold S.; Arias, Cesar A.

    2014-01-01

    High-dose daptomycin (DAP) therapy failed in a neutropenic patient with bloodstream infection caused by a DAP-susceptible Enterococcus faecium (minimum inhibitory concentration, 3 µg/mL) harboring genetic changes associated with DAP resistance, with persistent bacteremia and selection of additional resistances. Daptomycin monotherapy should be used cautiously against DAP-susceptible E. faecium strains with minimum inhibitory concentrations >2 µg/mL. PMID:25107294

  13. Biofilm forming capacity of Enterococcus faecalis on Gutta-percha points treated with four disinfectants using confocal scanning laser microscope: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ravi Chandra, Polavarapu Venkata; Kumar, Vemisetty Hari; Reddy, Surakanti Jayaprada; Kiran, Dandolu Ram; Krishna, Muppala Nagendra; Kumar, Golla Vinay

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the in vitro biofilm forming capacity of Enterococcus faecalis on Gutta-percha points disinfected with four disinfectants. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 Gutta-percha points used in this study were divided into four test groups based on disinfectant (5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate, 20% neem, 13% benzalkonium chloride [BAK]), and one control group. The Gutta-percha points were initially treated with corresponding disinfectants followed by anaerobic incubation in Brain Heart Infusion broth suspended with human serum and E. faecalis strain for 14 days. After incubation, these Gutta-percha points were stained with Acridine Orange (Sigma – Aldrich Co., St. Louis, MO, USA) and 0.5 mm thick cross section samples were prepared. The biofilm thickness of E. faecalis was analyzed quantitatively using a confocal scanning laser microscope. Results statistically analyzed using analysis of variance. P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Confocal scanning laser microscope showed reduced amount of E. faecalis biofilm on Gutta-percha points treated with BAK and sodium hypochlorite. Post-hoc (least square differences) test revealed that there is no statistically significant difference between BAK and sodium hypochlorite groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: This study illustrates that the Gutta-percha points disinfected with sodium hypochlorite and BAK showed minimal biofilm growth on its surface. PMID:26288622

  14. Expression of the agmatine deiminase pathway in Enterococcus faecalis is activated by the AguR regulator and repressed by CcpA and PTS(Man) systems.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Cristian; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Víctor S; Magni, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Although the agmatine deiminase system (AgDI) has been investigated in Enterococcus faecalis, little information is available with respect to its gene regulation. In this study we demonstrate that the presence of exogenous agmatine induces the expression of agu genes in this bacterium. In contrast to the homologous and extensively characterized AgDI system of S. mutants, the aguBDAC operon in E. faecalis is not induced in response to low pH. In spite of this, agmatine catabolism in this bacterium contributes by neutralizing the external medium while enhancing bacterial growth. Our results indicate that carbon catabolic repression (CCR) operates on the AgDI system via a mechanism that involves interaction of CcpA and P-Ser-HPr with a cre site found in an unusual position considering the aguB promoter (55 nt upstream the +1 position). In addition, we found that components of the mannose phosphotransferase (PTS(Man)) system also contributed to CCR in E. faecalis since a complete relief of the PTS-sugars repressive effect was observed only in a PTS(Man) and CcpA double defective strain. Our gene context analysis revealed that aguR is present in oral and gastrointestinal microorganisms. Thus, regulation of the aguBDAC operon in E. faecalis seems to have evolved to obtain energy and resist low pH conditions in order to persist and colonize gastrointestinal niches. PMID:24155893

  15. Expression of the Agmatine Deiminase Pathway in Enterococcus faecalis Is Activated by the AguR Regulator and Repressed by CcpA and PTSMan Systems

    PubMed Central

    Blancato, Víctor S.; Magni, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Although the agmatine deiminase system (AgDI) has been investigated in Enterococcus faecalis, little information is available with respect to its gene regulation. In this study we demonstrate that the presence of exogenous agmatine induces the expression of agu genes in this bacterium. In contrast to the homologous and extensively characterized AgDI system of S. mutants, the aguBDAC operon in E. faecalis is not induced in response to low pH. In spite of this, agmatine catabolism in this bacterium contributes by neutralizing the external medium while enhancing bacterial growth. Our results indicate that carbon catabolic repression (CCR) operates on the AgDI system via a mechanism that involves interaction of CcpA and P-Ser-HPr with a cre site found in an unusual position considering the aguB promoter (55 nt upstream the +1 position). In addition, we found that components of the mannose phosphotransferase (PTSMan) system also contributed to CCR in E. faecalis since a complete relief of the PTS-sugars repressive effect was observed only in a PTSMan and CcpA double defective strain. Our gene context analysis revealed that aguR is present in oral and gastrointestinal microorganisms. Thus, regulation of the aguBDAC operon in E. faecalis seems to have evolved to obtain energy and resist low pH conditions in order to persist and colonize gastrointestinal niches. PMID:24155893

  16. The tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase like gene located in the tyramine biosynthesis cluster of Enterococcus durans is transcriptionally regulated by tyrosine concentration and extracellular pH

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The tyramine producer Enterococcus durans IPLA655 contains all the necessary genes for tyramine biosynthesis, grouped in the TDC cluster. This cluster includes tyrS, an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase like gene. Results This work shows that tyrS was maximally transcribed in absence of tyrosine at acidic pH, showing a greater than 10-fold induction in mRNA levels over levels occurring in presence of tyrosine. Mapping of the tyrS transcriptional start site revealed an unusually long untranslated leader region of 322 bp, which displays the typical features of the T box transcriptional attenuation mechanism. The tyrosine concentration regulation of tyrS was found to be mediated by a transcription antitermination system, whereas the specific induction at acidic pH was regulated at transcription initiation level. Conclusions The expression of the tyrS gene present in the TDC cluster of E. durans is transcriptionally regulated by tyrosine concentration and extracelular pH. The regulation is mediated by both an antitermination system and the promoter itself. PMID:22333391

  17. Synthesis and Evaluation of 1,2,4-Triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines as Antibacterial Agents Against Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huan; Lee, Mijoon; Peng, Zhihong; Blázquez, Blas; Lastochkin, Elena; Kumarasiri, Malika; Bouley, Renee; Chang, Mayland; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2015-01-01

    Rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance is one of the most challenging global public health concerns. In particular, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium infections have been increasing in frequency, representing 25% of enterococci infections in intensive care units. A novel class of 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines active against E. faecium is reported herein. We used a three-component Biginelli-like heterocyclization reaction for the synthesis of a series of these derivatives based on reactions of aldehydes, β-dicarbonyl compounds, and 3-alkylthio-5-amino-1,2,4-tria-zoles. The resulting compounds were assayed for antimicrobial activity against the ESKAPE panel of bacteria, followed by investigation of their in vitro activities. These analyses identified a subset of 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines that had good narrow-spectrum antibacterial activity against E. faecium and exhibited metabolic stability with low intrinsic clearance. Macromolecular synthesis assays revealed cell-wall biosynthesis as the target of these antibiotics. PMID:25923368

  18. Distribution of streptogramin resistance genes and genetic relatedness among quinupristin/dalfopristin-resistant Enterococcus faecium recovered from pigs and chickens in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, I Y; Ku, H O; Lim, S K; Lee, K J; Park, C K; Jung, G S; Jung, S C; Park, Y H; Nam, H M

    2010-08-01

    Fifty-four quinupristin/dalfopristin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (QDREF) isolated from chickens and pigs during 2002-2003 in Korea were screened by PCR for the presence of streptogramin resistance genes vatD, vatE, and vgbA, and macrolide resistance gene ermB. None of the QDREF isolates carried vgbA and vatD genes, while vatE and ermB were detected in 9.2% and 74% of the isolates, respectively. Twenty-six percent (14/54) of the QDREF isolates contained none of the resistance determinants tested. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns revealed high heterogeneity: 47 different patterns for 54 QDREF evaluated. Identical PFGE types were observed in two pairs of chicken isolates and a pair of pig isolates, respectively, but chicken isolates did not share PFGE pattern with pig isolates, suggesting clonal spread of QDREF strain between the same species of animals but not between different species of animals. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of vatE-positive E. faecium isolates and also the first evidence of clonal spread of QDREF strain between animals in Korea. PMID:20206952

  19. [Phenotypic and genotypic traits of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a public hospital: the first vanB-positive Enterococcus faecium isolates].

    PubMed

    Coşkun, Feride Alaca; Mumcuoğlu, Ipek; Aksu, Neriman; Karahan, Zeynep Ceren; Us, Ebru; Tekeli, Fazıl Alper; Baran, Irmak; Kanyılmaz, Dilek; Kurşun, Senol

    2012-04-01

    Thirty eight vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) were isolated in one year surveillance study for hospital infection control programme in a state hospital in Ankara, Turkey. All isolates were identified as Enterococcus faecium by VITEK2 system (bioMerieux, France). Vancomycin and teicoplanin resistant 30 strains were defined as vanA phenotype while vancomycin-resistant teicoplanin-susceptible eight strains were defined as vanB phenotype. vanA genes were found in 30 strains while vanB genes were found in five strains by using PCR method. Those five strains were the first vanB positive E.faecium strains in our country. VRE strains revealed six different band patterns by PFGE, while six isolates could not be classified. All isolates with vanB type resistance were found in the same cluster. Source of vanB positive strains was considered as the hemodialysis unit. When the previous national reports related to vancomycin-resistant enterococci were considered, this was the first report of vanB positive E.faecium isolates in our country. This emphasized that both the diversity of VRE and the isolation rate was increasing. In order to eliminate the spread of VRE, effective surveillance studies should be performed and protective measures should be established promptly. PMID:22639316

  20. Effects of microgravity on the virulence of Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Timothy G; Stodieck, Louis; Birdsall, Holly H; Becker, Jeanne L; Koenig, Paul; Hammond, Jeffrey S; Gunter, Margaret A; Allen, Patricia L

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate effects of microgravity on virulence, we studied the ability of four common clinical pathogens--Listeria monocytogenes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Enterococcus faecalis, and Candida albicans--to kill wild type Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) nematodes at the larval and adult stages. Simultaneous studies were performed utilizing spaceflight, clinorotation in a 2-D clinorotation device, and static ground controls. The feeding rate of worms for killed E. coli was unaffected by spaceflight or clinorotation. Nematodes, microbes, and growth media were separated until exposed to true or modeled microgravity, then mixed and grown for 48 h. Experiments were terminated by paraformaldehyde fixation, and optical density measurements were used to assay residual microorganisms. Spaceflight was associated with reduced virulence for Listeria, Enterococcus, MRSA, and Candida for both larval and adult C. elegans. These are the first data acquired with a direct in vivo assay system in space to demonstrate virulence. Clinorotation reproduced the effects of spaceflight in some, but not all, virulence assays: Candida and Enterococcus were less virulent for larval worms but not adult worms, whereas virulence of MRSA and Listeria were unaffected by clinorotation in tests with both adult and larval worms. We conclude that four common clinical microorganisms are all less virulent in space. PMID:24283929

  1. Antibacterial Efficacy of Calcium Hypochlorite with Vibringe Sonic Irrigation System on Enterococcus faecalis: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Dumani, Aysin; Guvenmez, Hatice Korkmaz; Yilmaz, Sehnaz; Yoldas, Oguz; Kurklu, Zeliha Gonca Bek

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro efficacy of calcium hypochlorite (Ca[OCl]2) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) associated with sonic (Vibringe) irrigation system in root canals which were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. Material and Methods. The root canals of 84 single-rooted premolars were enlarged up to a file 40, autoclaved, inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis, and incubated for 21 days. The samples were divided into 7 groups according to the irrigation protocol: G0: no treatment; G1: distilled water; G2: 2.5% NaOCl; G3: 2.5% Ca(OCl)2; G4: distilled water with sonic activation; G5: 2.5% NaOCl with sonic activation; and G6: 2.5% Ca(OCl)2 with sonic activation. Before and after decontamination procedures microbiological samples were collected and the colony-forming units were counted and the percentages of reduction were calculated. Results. Distilled water with syringe irrigation and sonic activation groups demonstrated poor antibacterial effect on Enterococcus faecalis compared to other experimental groups (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between syringe and sonic irrigation systems with Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl. Conclusion. The antimicrobial property of Ca(OCl)2 has been investigated and compared with that of NaOCl. Both conventional syringe irrigation and sonic irrigation were found effective at removing E. faecalis from the root canal of extracted human teeth. PMID:27218106

  2. Antibacterial Efficacy of Calcium Hypochlorite with Vibringe Sonic Irrigation System on Enterococcus faecalis: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Dumani, Aysin; Guvenmez, Hatice Korkmaz; Yilmaz, Sehnaz; Yoldas, Oguz; Kurklu, Zeliha Gonca Bek

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro efficacy of calcium hypochlorite (Ca[OCl]2) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) associated with sonic (Vibringe) irrigation system in root canals which were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. Material and Methods. The root canals of 84 single-rooted premolars were enlarged up to a file 40, autoclaved, inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis, and incubated for 21 days. The samples were divided into 7 groups according to the irrigation protocol: G0: no treatment; G1: distilled water; G2: 2.5% NaOCl; G3: 2.5% Ca(OCl)2; G4: distilled water with sonic activation; G5: 2.5% NaOCl with sonic activation; and G6: 2.5% Ca(OCl)2 with sonic activation. Before and after decontamination procedures microbiological samples were collected and the colony-forming units were counted and the percentages of reduction were calculated. Results. Distilled water with syringe irrigation and sonic activation groups demonstrated poor antibacterial effect on Enterococcus faecalis compared to other experimental groups (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between syringe and sonic irrigation systems with Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl. Conclusion. The antimicrobial property of Ca(OCl)2 has been investigated and compared with that of NaOCl. Both conventional syringe irrigation and sonic irrigation were found effective at removing E. faecalis from the root canal of extracted human teeth. PMID:27218106

  3. Expression of Alzheimer-Type Neurofibrillary Epitopes in Primary Rat Cortical Neurons Following Infection with Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Underly, Robert; Song, Mee-Sook; Dunbar, Gary L.; Weaver, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    The neurofibrillary tau pathology and amyloid deposits seen in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) also have been seen in bacteria-infected brains. However, few studies have examined the role of these bacteria in the generation of tau pathology. One suggested link between infection and AD is edentulism, the complete loss of teeth. Edentulism can result from chronic periodontal disease due to infection by Enterococcus faecalis. The current study assessed the ability to generate early Alzheimer-like neurofibrillary epitopes in primary rat cortical neurons through bacterial infection by E. faecalis. Seven-day old cultured neurons were infected with E. faecalis for 24 and 48 h. An upward molecular weight shift in tau by Western blotting (WB) and increased appearance of tau reactivity in cell bodies and degenerating neurites was found in the 48 h infection group for the antibody CP13 (phospho-Serine 202). A substantial increase in reactivity of Alz-50 was seen at 24 and 48 h after infection. Furthermore, extensive microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) reactivity also was seen at 24 and 48 h post-infection. Our preliminary findings suggest a potential link between E. faecalis infection and intracellular changes that may help facilitate early AD-like neurofibrillary pathology. HighlightsEnterococcus faecalis used in the generation of AD neurofibrillary epitopes in rat.Infection increases Alz-50, phospho-Serine 202 tau, and MAP2 expression.Infection by Enterococcus may play a role in early Alzheimer neurofibrillary changes. PMID:26834627

  4. Deletion of liaR Reverses Daptomycin Resistance in Enterococcus faecium Independent of the Genetic Background

    PubMed Central

    Panesso, Diana; Reyes, Jinnethe; Gaston, Elizabeth P.; Deal, Morgan; Londoño, Alejandra; Nigo, Masayuki; Munita, Jose M.; Miller, William R.; Shamoo, Yousif; Tran, Truc T.

    2015-01-01

    We have shown previously that changes in LiaFSR, a three-component regulatory system predicted to orchestrate the cell membrane stress response, are important mediators of daptomycin (DAP) resistance in enterococci. Indeed, deletion of the gene encoding the response regulator LiaR in a clinical strain of Enterococcus faecalis reversed DAP resistance (DAP-R) and produced a strain hypersusceptible to antimicrobial peptides. Since LiaFSR is conserved in Enterococcus faecium, we investigated the role of LiaR in a variety of clinical E. faecium strains representing the most common DAP-R genetic backgrounds. Deletion of liaR in DAP-R E. faecium R446F (DAP MIC of 16 μg/ml) and R497F (MIC of 24 μg/ml; harboring changes in LiaRS) strains fully reversed resistance (DAP MICs decreasing to 0.25 and 0.094 μg/ml, respectively). Moreover, DAP at concentrations of 13 μg/ml (achieved with human doses of 12 mg/kg body weight) retained bactericidal activity against the mutants. Furthermore, the liaR deletion derivatives of these two DAP-R strains exhibited increased binding of boron-dipyrromethene difluoride (BODIPY)-daptomycin, suggesting that high-level DAP-R mediated by LiaR in E. faecium involves repulsion of the calcium-DAP complex from the cell surface. In DAP-tolerant strains HOU503F and HOU515F (DAP MICs within the susceptible range but bacteria not killed by DAP concentrations of 5× the MIC), deletion of liaR not only markedly decreased the DAP MICs (0.064 and 0.047 μg/ml, respectively) but also restored the bactericidal activity of DAP at concentrations as low as 4 μg/ml (achieved with human doses of 4 mg/kg). Our results suggest that LiaR plays a relevant role in the enterococcal cell membrane adaptive response to antimicrobial peptides independent of the genetic background and emerges as an attractive target to restore the activity of DAP against multidrug-resistant strains. PMID:26369959

  5. Defining Daptomycin Resistance Prevention Exposures in Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Werth, B. J.; Steed, M. E.; Ireland, C. E.; Tran, T. T.; Nonejuie, P.; Murray, B. E.; Rose, W. E.; Sakoulas, G.; Pogliano, J.; Arias, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    Daptomycin is used off-label for enterococcal infections; however, dosing targets for resistance prevention remain undefined. Doses of 4 to 6 mg/kg of body weight/day approved for staphylococci are likely inadequate against enterococci due to reduced susceptibility. We modeled daptomycin regimens in vitro to determine the minimum exposure to prevent daptomycin resistance (Dapr) in enterococci. Daptomycin simulations of 4 to 12 mg/kg/day (maximum concentration of drug in serum [Cmax] of 57.8, 93.9, 123.3, 141.1, and 183.7 mg/liter; half-life [t1/2] of 8 h) were tested against one Enterococcus faecium strain (S447) and one Enterococcus faecalis strain (S613) in a simulated endocardial vegetation pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model over 14 days. Samples were plated on media containing 3× the MIC of daptomycin to detect Dapr. Mutations in genes encoding proteins associated with cell envelope homeostasis (yycFG and liaFSR) and phospholipid metabolism (cardiolipin synthase [cls] and cyclopropane fatty acid synthetase [cfa]) were investigated in Dapr derivatives. Dapr derivatives were assessed for changes in susceptibility, surface charge, membrane depolarization, cell wall thickness (CWT), and growth rate. Strains S447 and S613 developed Dapr after simulations of 4 to 8 mg/kg/day but not 10 to 12 mg/kg/day. MICs for Dapr strains ranged from 8 to 256 mg/liter. Some S613 derivatives developed mutations in liaF or cls. S447 derivatives lacked mutations in these genes. Dapr derivatives from both strains exhibited lowered growth rates, up to a 72% reduction in daptomycin-induced depolarization and up to 6-nm increases in CWT (P < 0.01). Peak/MIC and AUC0–24/MIC ratios (AUC0–24 is the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h) associated with Dapr prevention were 72.1 and 780 for S447 and 144 and 1561 for S613, respectively. Daptomycin doses of 10 mg/kg/day may be required to prevent Dapr in serious enterococcal infections. PMID:24957825

  6. Efflux pump inhibitor potentiates antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation of Enterococcus faecalis biofilm.

    PubMed

    Kishen, Anil; Upadya, Megha; Tegos, George P; Hamblin, Michael R

    2010-01-01

    Microbial biofilm architecture contains numerous protective features, including extracellular polymeric material that render biofilms impermeable to conventional antimicrobial agents. This study evaluated the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) of Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. The ability of a cationic, phenothiazinium photosensitizer, methylene blue (MB) and an anionic, xanthene photosensitizer, rose bengal (RB) to inactivate biofilms of E. faecalis (OG1RF and FA 2-2) and disrupt the biofilm structure was evaluated. Bacterial cells were tested as planktonic suspensions, intact biofilms and biofilm-derived suspensions obtained by the mechanical disruption of biofilms. The role of a specific microbial efflux pump inhibitor (EPI), verapamil hydrochloride in the MB-mediated aPDI of E. faecalis biofilms was also investigated. The results showed that E. faecalis biofilms exhibited significantly higher resistance to aPDI when compared with E. faecalis in suspension (P < 0.001). aPDI with cationic MB produced superior inactivation of E. faecalis strains in a biofilm along with significant destruction of biofilm structure when compared with anionic RB (P < 0.05). The ability to inactivate biofilm bacteria was further enhanced when the EPI was used with MB (P < 0.001). These experiments demonstrated the advantage of a cationic phenothiazinium photosensitizer combined with an EPI to inactivate biofilm bacteria and disrupt biofilm structure. PMID:20860692

  7. Antimicrobial Effects of Four Intracanal Medicaments on Enterococcus Faecalis: An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Mozayeni, Mohammad Ali; Haeri, Ali; Dianat, Omid; Jafari, Ali Reza

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of four intracanal medicaments on Enterococcus Faecalis (E. Faecalis). Methods and Materials: Fifty extracted single-rooted human teeth were prepared with standard method. After contaminating the canals with E. Faecalis, the samples were divided into one control and four experimental groups (n=10). The teeth in each group were treated with one of the experimental medicaments, including calcium hydroxide (CH), 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX), triple antibiotic paste (TAP) and nanosilver (NS). In control group, canals were filled with a neutral gel. Microbial samples were obtained from the roots after 7 days and optical density of the cultures was determined after 24 h of incubation. Optical density values were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s post hoc tests. Results: CHX gel and TAP were significantly more effective against E. Faecalis than CH, which was also significantly more efficient than NS and normal saline. In the paper cone samples, CHX gel was more effective than TAP; however, samples obtained with sizes 2 and 4 Gate Glidden drills, indicated that TAP was much more efficient than CHX. Normal saline and NS had similar effects on E. Faecalis. Conclusion: NS gel was not efficient enough against E. Faecalis; however, TAP and CHX gel showed better antibacterial efficacy than CH and can be used as an alternative intracanal medicaments in root canal therapies. PMID:25031593

  8. Confocal microscopy evaluation of the effect of irrigants on Enterococcus faecalis biofilm: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Flach, Nicole; Böttcher, Daiana Elisabeth; Parolo, Clarissa Cavalcanti Fatturi; Firmino, Luciana Bitello; Malt, Marisa; Lammers, Marcelo Lazzaron; Grecca, Fabiana Soares

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effectiveness of two endodontic irrigants and their association against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Twenty-four bovine incisors were inoculated in a monoculture of E. faecalis for 21 days. After this period, the teeth were divided into three test groups (n = 5) according to the chemical used. Group 1: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), group 2: 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX), group 3: 2.5% NaOCl + 2% CHX gel, and two control groups (n = 3): negative control group (NCG)-sterile and without root canals preparation and positive control group (PCG)-saline. Then, the samples were stained with SYTO9 and propidium iodide and subjected to analysis by CLSM. Bacterial viability was quantitatively analyzed by the proportions of dead and live bacteria in the biofilm remnants. Statistical analysis was performed by the One-way ANOVA test (p = 0.05). No statistical differences were observed to bacterial viability. According to CLSM analysis, none of the tested substances could completely eliminate E. faecalis from the root canal space. Until now, there are no irrigant solutions able to completely eliminate E. faecalis from the root canal. In this regard, the search for irrigants able to intensify the antimicrobial action is of paramount importance. SCANNING 38:57-62, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26153228

  9. The in vitro Effect of Irrigants with Low Surface Tension on Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Giardino, Luciano; Estrela, Carlos; Generali, Luigi; Mohammadi, Zahed; Asgary, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Due to the complex anatomy of the root canal system and high surface tension of common root canal irrigants (RCI), conducting an investigation on RCIs containing surfactants is a priority. The aim of this in vitro study was to verify the antibacterial potential of RCI with low surface tension in root canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Methods and Materials: Thirty-five extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were prepared and inoculated with E. faecalis for 60 days. After root canal preparation, the teeth were randomly divided to one positive and one negative control groups and 5 experimental groups: Hypoclean/Tetraclean NA, Hypoclean, Tetraclean, NaOCl/Tetraclean and NaOCl. Bacterial growth was observed by turbidity of culture medium and then measured using a UV spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed in three time intervals (pre-instrumentation and, 20 min and 72 h after canal preparation) using the ANOVA and post hoc Tukey’s tests. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The results indicated the presence of E. faecalis in all post-irrigation samples irrespective of the RCI. However, the optical densities in both post-irrigation periods showed bacterial reduction and significant differences between groups. Conclusion: RCI with low surface tension showed antibacterial potential in E. faecalis infected roots. PMID:26229541

  10. Detection of Enterococcus faecalis in Necrotic Teeth Root Canals by Culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction Methods

    PubMed Central

    Cogulu, Dilsah; Uzel, Atac; Oncag, Ozant; Aksoy, Semiha C.; Eronat, Cemal

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Enterococcus faecalis in endodontic infections in both deciduous and permanent teeth by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Methods A total of 145 children aged 5–13 years old were involved in this study. The presence of E. faecalis in necrotic deciduous and permanent teeth root canals was studied using culture and polymerase chain reaction methods. Results Among 145 molar teeth, 57% (n=83) presented necrotic asymptomatic pulp tissues and were included in this study. Culture and PCR methods detected the test species in 18 and 22 of 83 teeth involved, respectively. E. faecalis was cultured from 8 (18%) of 45 necrotic deciduous teeth and from 10 (26%) of 38 necrotic permanent teeth. PCR detection identified the target species in 10 (22%) and 12 (32%) of necrotic deciduous and permanent teeth respectively. Statistically significant difference in the presence of E. faecalis in deciduous and permanent teeth was found by culture and PCR methods (P=0.03 and 0.02, respectively). The difference in the presence of E. faecalis between two different methods was not statistically significant (P>.05). Conclusions The results of the present study confirm that both culture and PCR methods are sensitive to detect E. faecalis in root canals. PMID:19212470

  11. Phenotypic and Genotypic Alterations of Durancin GL-Resistant Enterococcus durans Strains.

    PubMed

    Du, Lihui; Liu, Lingping; Liu, Fang; Ju, Xingrong; Yuan, Jian

    2016-06-01

    The emergence and spread of bacteriocin-resistant bacteria threaten the efficiency of bacteriocin usage as food preservatives. In this experiment, 19 selected Enterococcus durans strains acquired resistance after exposure to durancin GL, and the mutants had similar intermediate levels of resistance. One wild-type E. durans KLDS 6.0603 and its two resistant mutants, E. durans KLDS 6.0603-2 and E. durans KLDS 6.0603-3, were used to characterize phenotypic and genotypic differences. Approximately 100 μg/mL of durancin GL can penetrate the cytoplasmic membrane of E. durans KLDS 6.0603, causing damage to bacterial cells, but cannot penetrate E. durans KLDS 6.0603-2 and KLDS 6.0603-3 membranes. Unsaturated fatty acid content in resistant strains was significantly increased compared with wild-type strains, indicating that the former has more fluidity of cell membrane than the latter. Decreased mannose phosphotransferase system gene expression (mptD) was observed in the two resistant strains. Results showed that the factors, including the increased unsaturated fatty acid and decreased mptD expression, could contribute to durancin GL resistance. PMID:27096434

  12. Production of lactic acid using a new homofermentative Enterococcus faecalis isolate.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Mohan Raj; Talluri, Suvarna; Christopher, Lew P

    2015-03-01

    Lactic acid is an intermediate-volume specialty chemical for a wide range of food and industrial applications such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and chemical syntheses. Although lactic acid production has been well documented, improved production parameters that lead to reduced production costs are always of interest in industrial developments. In this study, we describe the production of lactic acid at high concentration, yield and volumetric productivity utilizing a novel homofermentative, facultative anaerobe Enterococcus faecalis CBRD01. The highest concentration of 182 g lactic acid l(-1) was achieved after 38 h of fed-batch fermentation on glucose. The bacterial isolate utilized only 2-13% of carbon for its growth and energy metabolism, while 87-98% of carbon was converted to lactic acid at an overall volumetric productivity of 5 g l(-1)  h(-1). At 13 h of fermentation, the volumetric productivity of lactate production reached 10.3 g l(-1)  h(-1), which is the highest ever reported for microbial production of lactic acid. The lactic acid produced was of high purity as formation of other metabolites was less than 0.1%. The present investigation demonstrates a new opportunity for enhanced production of lactic acid with potential for reduced purification costs. PMID:24894833

  13. Heat-Killed Enterococcus faecalis EF-2001 Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis in a Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Ju; Iwasa, Masahiro; Han, Kwon-Il; Kim, Wan-Jae; Tang, Yujiao; Hwang, Young Joung; Chae, Jeong Ryong; Han, Weon Cheol; Shin, Yu-Su; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2016-03-01

    Recent reports have shown the immunomodulatory effect of heat-killed lactic acid bacteria. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an allergic skin disease, caused by immune dysregulation among other factors. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of heat-killed Enterococcus faecalis EF-2001 (EF-2001) on AD. We established an in vivo AD model by repeated local exposure of Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE; house dust mite extract) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears of mice. After oral administration of EF-2001 for four weeks, the epidermal and dermal ear thickness, mast cell infiltration, and serum immunoglobulin levels were measured. In addition, the gene expression levels of pathogenic cytokines in the ears, lymph nodes, and splenocytes were assayed. EF-2001 attenuated AD symptoms based on the ear thickness, histopathological analysis, and serum immunoglobulin levels. Moreover, EF-2001 decreased the DFE/DNCB-induced expression of various pathogenic cytokines in the ears, lymph nodes, and splenocytes. These results suggest that EF-2001 has therapeutic potential in the treatment of AD owing to its immunomodulatory effects. PMID:26959058

  14. Alterations in peptidoglycan precursors and vancomycin susceptibility in Tn917 insertion mutants of Enterococcus faecalis 221.

    PubMed Central

    Handwerger, S

    1994-01-01

    Derivatives of the highly vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis strain 221 (MIC, 1,024 micrograms/ml) harboring Tn917 insertions in vanR, vanH, and vanA were compared with the parent strain and the susceptible plasmid-free strain JH2-2 (MIC, 2 micrograms/ml). Cytoplasmic pools of UDP-N-acetyl-muramyl-peptide precursors of strain 221 contained the depsipeptide-terminating precursor as well as elevated levels of both the tripeptide and tetrapeptide precursors. Insertional inactivation of vanR resulted in the loss of carboxypeptidase activity, full susceptibility to vancomycin, and precursor pools similar to those of JH2-2. For the vanA insertional mutant the MBC of vancomycin was fourfold higher than that for JH2-2, and the mutant had increased levels of tripeptide and tetrapeptide precursors compared with those for JH2-2. The vanH insertional mutant showed elevated levels of these precursors, as well as a small amount of depsipeptide, and both the MIC and the MBC of vancomycin were increased compared with those for JH2-2. These findings suggest that DD-carboxypeptidase activity, under the control of vanR, results in increased pools of both tripeptide and tetrapeptide precursors, which may contribute to survival in the presence of vancomycin. PMID:8203839

  15. Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of a novel endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase from Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Goda, Hatsumi M; Ushigusa, Kota; Ito, Hiromi; Okino, Nozomu; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Ito, Makoto

    2008-10-31

    We report here the molecular cloning, expression and characterization of a novel endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, classified into the GH101 family, from Enterococcus faecalis (endo-EF). The recombinant endo-EF was found to catalyze the liberation of core1-disaccharides (Galbeta1-3GalNAc) from core1-pNP (Galbeta1-3GalNAcalpha-pNP) like other GH101 family enzymes. However, endo-EF seems to differ in specificity from the GH101 enzymes reported to date, because it was able to release trisaccharides from core2-pNP (Galbeta1-3[GlcNAcbeta1-6]GalNAcalpha-pNP) and tetrasaccharides from Gal-core2-pNP (Galbeta1-3[Galbeta1-3GlcNAcbeta1-6]GalNAcalpha-pNP). Interestingly, the enzyme could transfer not only core1-disaccharides but also core2-trisaccharides to alkanols generating alkyl-oligosaccharides. Endo-EF should facilitate O-glycoprotein research. PMID:18725192

  16. Aerobic degradation of BDE-209 by Enterococcus casseliflavus: Isolation, identification and cell changes during degradation process.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shaoyu; Yin, Hua; Chen, Shuona; Peng, Hui; Chang, Jingjing; Liu, Zehua; Dang, Zhi

    2016-05-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) is one of the most commonly used brominated flame retardants that have contaminated the environment worldwide. Microbial bioremediation has been considered as an effective technique to remove these sorts of persistent organic pollutants. Enterococcus casseliflavus, a gram-positive bacterium capable of aerobically transforming BDE-209, was isolated by our team from sediments in Guiyu, an e-waste dismantling area in Guangdong Province, China. To promote microbial bioremediation of BDE-209 and elucidate the mechanism behind its aerobic degradation, the effects of BDE-209 on the cell changes of E. casseliflavus were examined in this study. The experimental results demonstrated that the high cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of E. casseliflavus made the bacteria absorb hydrophobic BDE-209 more easily. E. casseliflavus responded to BDE-209 stress, resulting in an increase in cell membrane permeability and accumulation of BDE-209 inside the cell. The differential expression of intracellular protein was analyzed through two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). More than 50 differentially expressed protein spots were reproducibly detected, including 25 up, and 25 down regulated after a 4 days exposure. Moreover, the apoptotic-like cell changes were observed during E. casseliflavus mediated degradation of BDE-209 by means of flow cytometry. PMID:26852209

  17. Safety assessment and probiotic evaluation of Enterococcus faecium YF5 isolated from sourdough.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qianglai; Xu, Hengyi; Aguilar, Zoraida P; Peng, Shanshan; Dong, Suqin; Wang, Baogui; Li, Ping; Chen, Tingtao; Xu, Feng; Wei, Hua

    2013-04-01

    Enterococcus faecium YF5, a strain previously isolated from sourdough, was assessed for safety and probiotic potential. Its virulence and antibiotic resistant phenotypes (cytolysin and gelatinase production, antibiotic susceptibility) and genes (cylA, gelE, ace, agg, esp, and vanA) were surveyed. Results indicated that the tested virulence determinants were nontoxic. In addition, E. faecium YF5 was sensitive to 3 antibiotics such as amoxicillin, vancomycin, and chloramphenicol. Furthermore, results of in vivo animal acute oral toxicity of E. faecium YF5 studies were similar to the control group that indicated no abnormalities. In addition, E. faecium YF5 stably survived in low pH, bile salts, gastric, and intestinal fluids in vitro. Moreover, E. faecium YF5 was found to adhere to human colon cancer cell line HT-29 at 3.39 (±0.67) × 10(5) CFU/mL. When cocultured with pathogenic organisms (Enterobacter sakazakii CMCC45402, Escherichia coli CMCC44102, enterohemorrhage Escherichia coli O157: H7 CMCC44828, Salmonella Typhimurium CMCC50071, Shigella flexneri 301, and Shigella sonnei ATCC 29930) and 2 gram-positive strains (Listeria monocytogenes CMCC54001 and Staphylococcus aureus CMCC 26003), it inhibited these foodborne pathogens with exception of S. aureus. Therefore, E. faecium YF5 can be regarded as a safe strain and it may be used as a probiotic preparation or for microecologics. PMID:23488799

  18. The Prophylactic Effect of Probiotic Enterococcus lactis IW5 against Different Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nami, Yousef; Haghshenas, Babak; Haghshenas, Minoo; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus lactis IW5 was obtained from human gut and the potential probiotic characteristics of this organism were then evaluated. Results showed that this strain was highly resistant to low pH and high bile salt and adhered strongly to Caco-2 human epithelial colorectal cell lines. The supernatant of E. lactis IW5 strongly inhibited the growth of several pathogenic bacteria and decreased the viability of different cancer cells, such as HeLa, MCF-7, AGS, HT-29, and Caco-2. Conversely, E. lactis IW5 did not inhibit the viability of normal FHs-74 cells. This strain did not generate toxic enzymes, including β-glucosidase, β-glucuronidase, and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase and was highly susceptible to ampicillin, gentamycin, penicillin, vancomycin, clindamycin, sulfamethoxazol, and chloramphenicol but resistant to erythromycin and tetracyclin. This study provided evidence for the effect of E. lactis IW5 on cancer cells. Therefore, E. lactis IW5, as a bioactive therapeutics, should be subjected to other relevant tests to verify the therapeutic suitability of this strain for clinical applications. PMID:26635778

  19. Heat-Killed Enterococcus faecalis EF-2001 Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun-Ju; Iwasa, Masahiro; Han, Kwon-Il; Kim, Wan-Jae; Tang, Yujiao; Hwang, Young Joung; Chae, Jeong Ryong; Han, Weon Cheol; Shin, Yu-Su; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have shown the immunomodulatory effect of heat-killed lactic acid bacteria. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an allergic skin disease, caused by immune dysregulation among other factors. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of heat-killed Enterococcus faecalis EF-2001 (EF-2001) on AD. We established an in vivo AD model by repeated local exposure of Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE; house dust mite extract) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears of mice. After oral administration of EF-2001 for four weeks, the epidermal and dermal ear thickness, mast cell infiltration, and serum immunoglobulin levels were measured. In addition, the gene expression levels of pathogenic cytokines in the ears, lymph nodes, and splenocytes were assayed. EF-2001 attenuated AD symptoms based on the ear thickness, histopathological analysis, and serum immunoglobulin levels. Moreover, EF-2001 decreased the DFE/DNCB-induced expression of various pathogenic cytokines in the ears, lymph nodes, and splenocytes. These results suggest that EF-2001 has therapeutic potential in the treatment of AD owing to its immunomodulatory effects. PMID:26959058

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Calcium Hydroxide and Betamethasone on Enterococcus faecalis; An in vitro Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizizadeh, Mahdi; Rasti, Mojtaba; Ayatollahi, Fatemeh; Mossadegh, Mohammad Hossein; Zandi, Hengameh; Dehghan, Farzad; Mousavi, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Calcium hydroxide (CH) is one of the most common intracanal medications. Corticosteroids (CS) are used in endodontics because of their anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of CH+betamethasone and CH+saline against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) using agar diffusion test and measuring the microbial zone of inhibition (ZOI). Methods and Materials: Four plates containing Mueller-Hinton broth and E. faecalis culture media, were prepared. In each plate, 5 holes (5×3 mm) were created and a creamy mixture of CH+betamethasone was inserted into the holes (10 holes for each material). Two holes with ampicillin disks and two empty holes were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Plates were incubated for 24 h and then the diameter of microbial ZOI was measured. The pH of each mixture was measured by pH meter. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: The mean diameter of ZOI for CH+betamethasone and CH+saline was 3.4 and 3 mm, respectively. The difference was not significant (P=0.143). The pH was 12.5 for CH+saline and 12.3 CH+betamethasone, respectively. Conclusion: The mixture of CH+betamethasone had good antimicrobial effects against E. faecalis. Further studies are needed to confirm the value of this mixture in clinical settings. PMID:26213541

  1. The Presence and Origin of Enterococcus faecalis in Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachman, A. J.; Sturm, P.; Viqueira Ríos, R.

    2015-12-01

    Currently, a watershed management plan is being developed for Cabo Rojo region in Southwest Puerto Rico. This project fills in major gaps for water quality data on the Rio Viejo, a tributary on the Guanajibio River. The Rio Viejo flows through the town of Cabo Rojo, a town of 51,245 people. The project has identified 5 sites along the river to track bacterial loads. In the tropics, Enterococcus faecalis is an important indicator for fecal contamination in surface waters as it does not reproduce as quickly soils as E. coli. A combination of EPA 1600 and 9230B from Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater for identification of E. faecalis were utilized. The assay is a four step procedure that identifies the four criteria of bacteria in the group D Streptococcus system. The criteria require that the bacteria are Gram-positive cocci and Esculin-positive. There also must be growth in Brain Heart Infusion Broth at 35C and 45C as well as growth in Brain Heart Infusion broth + 6.5% NaCl. Further research will be conducted at North Carolina State University to ascertain the vertebrate species that is the source of the contamination through the use of qPCR.

  2. Overexpression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase from Enterococcus faecalis

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Ji Yong; Lee, Hyung Ho; Yoon, Hye Jin; Kim, Hyoun Sook; Suh, Se Won

    2006-11-01

    Phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase from En. faecalis was crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.70 Å resolution. Phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase, an essential enzyme in the coenzyme A biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes the reversible transfer of an adenylyl group from ATP to 4′-phosphopantetheine, yielding 3′-dephospho-CoA and pyrophosphate. Enterococcus faecalis PPAT has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion with a C-terminal purification tag and crystallized at 297 K using a reservoir solution consisting of 0.1 M sodium HEPES pH 7.5, 0.8 M sodium dihydrogen phosphate and 0.8 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.70 Å at 100 K. The crystals belong to the primitive tetragonal space group P4{sub 1} (or P4{sub 3}), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 160.81, c = 225.68 Å. Four copies of the hexameric molecule are likely to be present in the asymmetric unit, giving a crystal volume per protein weight (V{sub M}) of 3.08 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 60.1%.

  3. Bactericial effect of a non-thermal plasma needle against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chunqi; Schaudinn, C.; Jaramillo, D. E.; Sedghizadeh, P. P.; Webster, P.; Costerton, J. W.

    2011-10-01

    Up to 3 cm long submillimeter-in-scale plasma needle was generated in ambient atmosphere for root canal disinfection. Powered with 1-2 kHz, multi-kilovolt nanosecond electric pulses, this He/(1%)O2 plasma jet consists of ionization fronts propagating at speeds of the order of 107 cm/s. Plasma treatment of Enterococcus faecalis biofilms on hydroxyapatite (HA) discs for 5 min resulted in severe damage of the bacterial cells and sterilized HA surfaces of more than 3 mm in diameter, observed by the scanning electron microscopy. With a curing dielectric microtube placed 1 cm or less below the nozzle, the plasma jet entered even at a sharp angle and followed the curvature of the tube, and reached the bottom of the tube. The bactericidal effect of the plasma needle against E. faecalis biofilm grown on the inner surfaces of the tube was demonstrated. However, the bactericidal effect weakens or diminishes for the bacteria grown deeper in the tube, indicating improvement of the plasma treatment scheme is needed. Mechanisms of the plasma bactericidal effects are discussed. Supported by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  4. Genetic features and molecular epidemiology of Enterococcus faecium isolated in two university hospitals in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Leila Priscilla Pinheiro; Pitondo-Silva, André; Martinez, Roberto; da Costa Darini, Ana Lúcia

    2012-11-01

    The global emergence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) has been characterized by a clonal spread of strains belonging to clonal complex 17 (CC17). Genetic features and clonal relationships of 53 VREfm isolated from patients in 2 hospitals in Ribeirao Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, during 2005-2010 were determined as a contribution to the Brazilian evolutionary history of these nosocomial pathogens. All isolates were daptomycin susceptible, vancomycin-resistant, and had the vanA gene. The predominant virulence genes were acm and esp. Only 5 VREfm isolated in 2005-2006 had intact Tn1546, while 81% showed Tn1546 with deleted left extremity and insertion of IS1251 between the vanS and vanH genes. Multilocus sequence typing analysis permitted the identification of 9 different sequence types (STs), with 5 being new ones (656, 657, 658, 659, and 660). Predominant STs were ST412 and ST478, all belonging to CC17, except ST658. This is the first report of the ST78 in Brazil. PMID:22959818

  5. Enterococcus faecalis Ebp pili are important for cell-cell aggregation and intraspecies gene transfer.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Sabina Leanti; Montealegre, Maria Camila; Singh, Kavindra V; Murray, Barbara E

    2016-05-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen that ranks among the leading causes of biofilm-associated infections. We previously demonstrated that the endocarditis- and biofilm-associated pili (Ebp) of E. faecalis play a major role in biofilm formation, adherence to abiotic surfaces and experimental infections. In this study, derivatives of E. faecalis strain OG1 were engineered to further characterize functions of Ebp pili. Loss of pili resulted in a 36-fold decrease in the number of closely associated cells when OG1RFΔebpABC was mixed with OG1SSpΔebpABC, compared with mixing the Ebp+ parental strains. In addition, using the Ebp+ parental strains as donor and recipient, we found a statistically significant increase (280-360 %, P < 0.05) in the frequency of plasmid transfer versus using Ebp-  mutants in the conjugation experiments. These results demonstrate a previously unrecognized role of Ebp pili, namely, as important contributors to microscale cell aggregation and horizontal spread of genetic material. PMID:26967674

  6. Evaluation of the presence of Enterococcus Faecalis in root cementum: A confocal laser scanning microscope analysis

    PubMed Central

    Halkai, Rahul; Hegde, Mithra N; Halkai, Kiran

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to address the cause of persistent infection of root cementum by Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: A sample of 60 human single-rooted teeth were divided into three groups. Group I (control group) had no access opening and one-third of the apical root cementum was sealed using varnish. Group II had no preparation of teeth samples. In group III, apical root cementum was exposed to organic acid and roughened using diamond point to mimic apical resorption. After access opening in groups II and III, all teeth samples were sterilized using gamma irradiation (25 kGy). E. faecalis broth was placed in the root canal and apical one-third of the tooth was immersed in the broth for 8 weeks with alternate day refreshment followed by biomechanical preparation, obturation and coronal seal. Apical one-third of all teeth samples were again immersed in the broth for 8 weeks with alternate day refreshment to mimic secondary infection. The samples were observed under a confocal microscope after splitting the teeth into two halves. Results: E. faecalis penetrated 160 μm deep into the root cementum in group III samples and only showed adhesion in group II samples. Conclusion: Penetration and survival of E. faecalis deep inside the cementum in extreme conditions could be the reason for persistent infection. PMID:24778505

  7. Effect of high-intensity focused ultrasound on Enterococcus faecalis planktonic suspensions and biofilms.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Kulsum; Ohl, Siew-Wan; Khoo, Boo-Cheong; Neo, Jennifer; Fawzy, Amr S

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the effect of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) on Enterococcus faecalis on both planktonic suspensions and biofilms was investigated. E. faecalis persist in secondary dental infections as biofilms. Glass-bottom Petri dishes with biofilms were centered at the focal point of the HIFU wave generated by a 250-kHz transducer. Specimens were subjected to HIFU exposure at different periods of 30, 60 and 120 s. The viable bacteria, removal effect and bacterial viability of biofilms attached to the Petri dish surface were studied by colony-forming units (CFUs), scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy, respectively. The removal and bactericidal effects of HIFU are dependent on the exposure time. A significant reduction in biofilm thickness and CFU was found with the increase in HIFU exposure. The removal or bactericidal effect of HIFU was more significant starting from 60 s of exposure. This study highlighted the potential application of HIFU as a novel method for root canal disinfection. PMID:23453374

  8. Genomic Features and Niche-Adaptation of Enterococcus faecium Strains from Korean Soybean-Fermented Foods

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Bae; Jin, Gwi-Deuk; Lee, Jun-Yeong; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2016-01-01

    Certain strains of Enterococcus faecium contribute beneficially to human health and food fermentation. However, other E. faecium strains are opportunistic pathogens due to the acquisition of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance determinants. To characterize E. faecium from soybean fermentation, we sequenced the genomes of 10 E. faecium strains from Korean soybean-fermented foods and analyzed their genomes by comparing them with 51 clinical and 52 non-clinical strains of different origins. Hierarchical clustering based on 13,820 orthologous genes from all E. faecium genomes showed that the 10 strains are distinguished from most of the clinical strains. Like non-clinical strains, their genomes are significantly smaller than clinical strains due to fewer accessory genes associated with antibiotic resistance, virulence, and mobile genetic elements. Moreover, we identified niche-associated gene gain and loss from the soybean strains. Thus, we conclude that soybean E. faecium strains might have evolved to have distinctive genomic features that may contribute to its ability to thrive during soybean fermentation. PMID:27070419

  9. Cloning and sequence analysis of the muramidase-2 gene from Enterococcus hirae.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, C P; Kariyama, R; Daneo-Moore, L; Shockman, G D

    1992-01-01

    Extracellular muramidase-2 of Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790 was purified to homogeneity by substrate binding, guanidine-HCl extraction, and reversed-phase chromatography. A monoclonal antibody, 2F8, which specifically recognizes muramidase-2, was used to screen a genomic library of E. hirae ATCC 9790 DNA in bacteriophage lambda gt11. A positive phage clone containing a 4.5-kb DNA insert was isolated and analyzed. The EcoRI-digested 4.5-kb fragment was cut into 2.3-, 1.0-, and 1.5-kb pieces by using restriction enzymes KpnI, Sau3AI, and PstI, and each fragment was subcloned into plasmid pJDC9 or pUC19. The nucleotide sequence of each subclone was determined. The sequence data indicated an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 666 amino acid residues, with a calculated molecular mass of 70,678 Da. The first 24 N-terminal amino acids of purified extracellular muramidase-2 were in very good agreement with the deduced amino acid sequence after a 49-amino-acid putative signal sequence. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence showed the presence at the C-terminal region of the protein of six highly homologous repeat units separated by nonhomologous intervening sequences that are highly enriched in serine and threonine. The overall sequence showed a high degree of homology with a recently cloned Streptococcus faecalis autolysin. Images PMID:1347040

  10. Protoplast formation and regeneration of dehydrodivanillin-degrading strains of Fusobacterium varium and Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, W; Ohmiya, K; Shimizu, S

    1986-01-01

    Two strains of rumen anaerobes isolated from dehydrodivanillin-degrading cultures were identified as Fusobacterium varium and Enterococcus faecium. These organisms degraded dehydrodivanillin synergistically to 5-carboxymethylvanillin and vanillic acid. Specific conditions for protoplast formation and cell wall regeneration for both bacteria were determined, under strictly anaerobic conditions, to be as follows. The cell wall of each bacterium in yeast extract medium was loosened by adding penicillin G during early log-phase growth. The cell wall of F. varium was lysed by lysozyme (1 mg/ml) in glycerol (0.2 M)-phosphate buffer (0.05 M; pH 7.0). The addition of NaCl (0.08 M) with lysozyme was necessary for lysis of E. faecium in this solution. Almost all cells were converted to protoplasts after 2 h of incubation at 37 degrees C. Regeneration of both protoplasts was 20 to 30% on an agar-containing yeast extract medium. Images PMID:3777921

  11. Genome-based characterization of hospital-adapted Enterococcus faecalis lineages.

    PubMed

    Raven, Kathy E; Reuter, Sandra; Gouliouris, Theodore; Reynolds, Rosy; Russell, Julie E; Brown, Nicholas M; Török, M Estée; Parkhill, Julian; Peacock, Sharon J

    2016-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VREfs) is an important nosocomial pathogen(1,2). We undertook whole genome sequencing of E. faecalis associated with bloodstream infection in the UK and Ireland over more than a decade to determine the population structure and genetic associations with hospital adaptation. Three lineages predominated in the population, two of which (L1 and L2) were nationally distributed, and one (L3) geographically restricted. Genome comparison with a global collection identified that L1 and L3 were also present in the USA, but were genetically distinct. Over 90% of VREfs belonged to L1-L3, with resistance acquired and lost multiple times in L1 and L2, but only once followed by clonal expansion in L3. Putative virulence and antibiotic resistance genes were over-represented in L1, L2 and L3 isolates combined, versus the remainder. Each of the three main lineages contained a mixture of vancomycin-resistant and -susceptible E. faecalis (VSEfs), which has important implications for infection control and antibiotic stewardship. PMID:27572164

  12. Screening of Bacteriocin-producing Enterococcus faecalis Strains for Antagonistic Activities against Clostridium perfringens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So-Young

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate and characterize bacteriocin-producing bacteria against Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) from domestic animals to determine their usefulness as probiotics. Bacteriocin-producing bacteria were isolated from pig feces by the spot-on-lawn method. A total of 1,370 bacterial stains were isolated, and six were tentatively selected after identifying the inhibitory activity against the pathogenic indicator C. perfringens KCTC 3269 and KCTC 5100. The selected strains were identified as Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) by 16s rRNA sequencing. Most of the isolated bacterial strains were resistant to 0.5% bile salts for 48 h and remained viable after 2 h at pH 3.0. Some E. faecalis also showed strong inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes KCTC 3569, KCTC 3586 and KCTC 3710. In the present study, we finally selected E. faecalis AP 216 and AP 45 strain based on probiotic selection criteria such as antimicrobial activity against C. perfringens and tolerance to acid and bile salts. The bacteriocins of E. faecalis AP 216 and AP 45 strains were highly thermostable, showing anticlostridial activities even after incubation at 121℃ for 15 min. These bacteriocinproducing bacteria and/or bacteriocins could be used in feed manufacturing as probiotics as an alternative to antibiotics in the livestock industry. PMID:26761495

  13. Involvement of Enterococcus faecalis Small RNAs in Stress Response and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Michaux, Charlotte; Hartke, Axel; Martini, Cecilia; Reiss, Swantje; Albrecht, Dirk; Budin-Verneuil, Aurélie; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Engelmann, Susanne; Hain, Torsten; Verneuil, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Candidate small RNAs (sRNAs) have recently been identified in Enterococcus faecalis, a Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen, and six of these candidate sRNAs with unknown functions were selected for a functional study. Deletion mutants and complemented strains were constructed, and their virulence was tested. We were unable to obtain the ef0869-0870 mutant, likely due to an essential role, and the ef0820-0821 sRNA seemed not to be involved in virulence. In contrast, the mutant lacking ef0408-0409 sRNA, homologous to the RNAII component of the toxin-antitoxin system, appeared more virulent and more able to colonize mouse organs. The three other mutants showed reduced virulence. In addition, we checked the responses of these mutant strains to several stresses encountered in the gastrointestinal tract or during the infection process. In parallel, the activities of the sRNA promoters were measured using transcriptional fusion constructions. To attempt to identify the regulons of these candidate sRNAs, proteomics profiles of the mutant strains were compared with that of the wild type. This showed that the selected sRNAs controlled the expression of proteins involved in diverse cellular processes and the stress response. The combined data highlight the roles of certain candidate sRNAs in the adaptation of E. faecalis to environmental changes and in the complex transition process from a commensal to a pathogen. PMID:24914223

  14. Enterococcus faecalis reconfigures its gene regulatory network activation under copper exposure

    PubMed Central

    Latorre, Mauricio; Galloway-Peña, Jessica; Roh, Jung Hyeob; Budinich, Marko; Reyes-Jara, Angélica; Murray, Barbara E.; Maass, Alejandro; González, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    A gene regulatory network was generated in the bacterium Enterococcus faecalis in order to understand how this organism can activate its expression under different copper concentrations. The topological evaluation of the network showed common patterns described in other organisms. Integrating microarray experiments allowed the identification of sub-networks activated under low (0.05 mM CuSO4) and high (0.5 mM CuSO4) copper concentrations. The analysis indicates the presence of specific functionally activated modules induced by copper, highlighting the regulons LysR, ArgR as global regulators and CopY, Fur and LexA as local regulators. Taking advantage of the fact that E. faecalis presented a homeostatic module isolated, we produced an in vivo intervention removing this system from the cell without affecting the connectivity of the global transcriptional network. This strategy led us to find that this bacterium can reconfigure its gene expression to maintain cellular homeostasis, activating new modules principally related to glucose metabolism and transcriptional processes. Finally, these results position E. faecalis as the organism having the most complete and controllable systemic model of copper homeostasis available to date. PMID:24382465

  15. Antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus Faecium Fair-E 198 against gram-positive pathogens

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Maristela da Silva; Moreno, Izildinha; Kuaye, Arnaldo Yoshiteru

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 against Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Using the critical-dilution method, the bacteriocin produced by E. faecium FAIR-E 198 inhibited all L. monocytogenes strains evaluated (1,600 to 19,200 AU mL-1). However, none of the B. cereus and S. aureus strains investigated were inhibited. The maximum activity of this bacteriocin (800 AU mL-1) was observed in MRS broth, while the activity in milk was 100 AU mL-1. In the co-cultivation test in milk, B. cereus K1-B041 was reduced to below the detection limit (1.00 log CFU mL-1) after 48 h. E. faecium reduced the initial L. monocytogenes Scott A population by 1 log CFU mL-1 after 3 h at 35°C, However, the pathogen regained growth, reaching 3.68 log CFU mL-1 after 48 h. E. faecium did not influence the growth of S. aureus ATCC 27154 during the 48 h of co-cultivation, Therefore, it can be concluded that the effectiveness of the antimicrobial activity of E. faecium FAIR-E 198 is strictly related to the species and strain of the target microorganism and to the culture medium, PMID:24031466

  16. Enterococcus faecalis sufCDSUB complements Escherichia coli sufABCDSE.

    PubMed

    Riboldi, Gustavo P; Larson, Timothy J; Frazzon, Jeverson

    2011-07-01

    Iron-sulfur [Fe-S] clusters are inorganic prosthetic groups that play essential roles in all living organisms. Iron and sulfur mobilization, formation of [Fe-S] clusters, and delivery to its final protein targets involves a complex set of specific protein machinery. Proteobacteria has three systems of [Fe-S] biogenesis, designated NIF, ISC, and SUF. In contrast, the Firmicutes system is not well characterized and has only one system, formed mostly by SUF homologs. The Firmicutes phylum corresponds to a group of pathological bacteria, of which Enterococcus faecalis is a clinically relevant representative. Recently, the E. faecalis sufCDSUB [Fe-S] cluster biosynthetic machinery has been identified, although there is no further information available about the similarities and/or variations of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes systems. The aim of the present work was to compare the ability of the different Proteobacteria and Firmicutes systems to complement the Azotobacter vinelandii and Escherichia coli ISC and SUF systems. Indeed, E. faecalis sufCDSUB is able to complement the E. coli SUF system, allowing viable mutants of both sufABCDSE and iscRSU-hscBA-fdx systems. The presence of all E. faecalis SUF factors enables proper functional interactions, which would not otherwise occur in proteins from different systems. PMID:21480963

  17. Bacteriocin of Enterococcus from lactoserum able to cause oxidative stress in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Eraso, Alberto Jorge; Inés, Albesa

    2004-02-13

    The effect of a bacteriocin of Enterococcus on the oxidative metabolism of sensitive bacteria was investigated through the detection of oxidative stress by chemiluminescence (CL). The bacteriocin named EntB was purified to study the action on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cosmetic. Chromatographic separation of EntB indicated different states of oligomerization with molecular weights multiple of 12,000Da monomeric form. The monomer purified by ion exchange was studied in its capacity to affect the oxidative metabolism of S. aureus, which showed increase of anion superoxide (O(2)(-)) when incubated with EntB. This effect was compared to the action of EntB on leukocytes as an assay of toxicity. EntB did not generate significant oxidative stress in leukocytes. Pyoverdin, a leukotoxic pigment of Pseudomonas fluorescens, was taken as reference, and it was found that this pigment caused similar oxidative stress to EntB in S. aureus; however, pyoverdin generated high production of anion superoxide (O(2)(-)) in leukocytes, while EntB did not increase the level of O(2)(-). PMID:14741721

  18. Genetic analysis of faropenem-resistant Enterococcus faecalis in urinary isolates.

    PubMed

    Hiraga, Noriyuki; Muratani, Tetsuro; Naito, Seiji; Matsumoto, Tetsuro

    2008-04-01

    We isolated faropenem-resistant Enterococcus faecalis in urine specimens and studied the mechanisms of resistance to faropenem in these isolates. Three mechanisms of penicillin resistance have been reported in E. faecalis; (1) beta-lactamase production, (2) overproduction of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 4 or PBP5, and (3) decreasing affinities of penicillins for PBP4 by the occurrence of point mutations of the penicillin-binding domain. None of the E. faecalis isolates examined produced beta-lactamase or overproduced any PBPs, but the affinities of faropenem for PBP4 were decreased in faropenem-insensitive and -resistant strains. We found single amino acid substitutions at positions 475, 520 or 605 in PBP4 in the insensitive strains and two amino acid substitutions at positions 520 and 605 in PBP4 in the resistant strains by sequencing the entire pbp4 gene from each isolate. We conclude that development of resistance to faropenem in E. faecalis is due to decreasing affinities for PBP4 that are the result of the occurrence of one or two point mutations. PMID:18503200

  19. Enterococcus faecalis 6-Phosphogluconolactonase Is Required for Both Commensal and Pathogenic Interactions with Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Jonathan F.; Frank, Kristi L.; Du, Jing; Guan, Changhui; Handelsman, Jo

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a commensal and pathogen of humans and insects. In Manduca sexta, E. faecalis is an infrequent member of the commensal gut community, but its translocation to the hemocoel results in a commensal-to-pathogen switch. To investigate E. faecalis factors required for commensalism, we identified E. faecalis genes that are upregulated in the gut of M. sexta using recombinase-based in vivo expression technology (RIVET). The RIVET screen produced 113 clones, from which we identified 50 genes that are more highly expressed in the insect gut than in culture. The most frequently recovered gene was locus OG1RF_11582, which encodes a 6-phosphogluconolactonase that we designated pglA. A pglA deletion mutant was impaired in both pathogenesis and gut persistence in M. sexta and produced enhanced biofilms compared with the wild type in an in vitro polystyrene plate assay. Mutation of four other genes identified by RIVET did not affect persistence in caterpillar guts but led to impaired pathogenesis. This is the first identification of genetic determinants for E. faecalis commensal and pathogenic interactions with M. sexta. Bacterial factors identified in this model system may provide insight into colonization or persistence in other host-associated microbial communities and represent potential targets for interventions to prevent E. faecalis infections. PMID:25385794

  20. Spread of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecalis within the household setting.

    PubMed

    Leite-Martins, Liliana; Meireles, Diana; Bessa, Lucinda J; Mendes, Ângelo; de Matos, Augusto J; da Costa, Paulo Martins

    2014-10-01

    Advances in veterinary medicine have resulted in the survival of many animals with severe illness or infectious diseases. In addition, increased usage of antimicrobial agents for veterinary purposes has contributed to the worldwide problem of increasing antimicrobial resistance. The objective of this study was to contribute to better understand the potential and implications for the spread of antimicrobial-resistant enterococci between pets receiving antimicrobial treatments and their owners. Three household aggregates (HA A, B, and C) were selected for this study. Information was collected on individual and clinical parameters of both humans and animals that cohabit. For this study, samples of feces, oral secretions, skin and fur of pets, as well as owners' feces and hands and exposed household surfaces and objects were also collected. All enterococci isolates were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility. Based on the antimicrobial resistance patterns and origin of isolates, ERIC-PCR analysis was performed on selected isolates to evaluate phylogenetic relationships. In all three HA, Enterococcus faecalis clonal spread was detected between pets and the respective owners, confirming the in-home interanimal species dissemination. Additionally, fecal enterococci colonization of other body parts of the same animal and dissemination of those same enterococci to household surfaces and objects were also observed. Our results demonstrate that enterococcal clones were found in pets in multiple body sites, their human cohabitants, and shared domestic objects. PMID:24617521

  1. Structural analysis and proteolytic activation of Enterococcus faecalis cytolysin, a novel lantibiotic.

    PubMed

    Booth, M C; Bogie, C P; Sahl, H G; Siezen, R J; Hatter, K L; Gilmore, M S

    1996-09-01

    Clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis more commonly produce a cytolysin than do commensal isolates. Epidemiologic evidence and animal-model studies have established a role for the cytolysin in the pathogenesis of enterococcal disease. The cytolysin consists of two structural subunits, CylLL and CylLS, that are activated by a third component, CylA. Genetic and biochemical characterization of CylA indicate that it is a serine protease, and that activation putatively results from cleavage of one or both cytolysin subunits. Genetic evidence also suggests that the cytolysin subunits are related to the rapidly growing class of bacteriocins termed lantibiotics. However, unlike lantibiotics, the cytolysin is lytic for eukaryotic as well as prokaryotic cells, and it consists of two structural subunits. This report describes the purification and characterization of the cytolysin subunits and detection of lanthionine-type post-translational modifications within their structures. Furthermore, the cleavage specificity of the CylA activator is reported and it is shown that proteolytic activation of both subunits is essential for activity. PMID:8898386

  2. The Intraperitoneal Transcriptome of the Opportunistic Pathogen Enterococcus faecalis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Cécile; Cacaci, Margherita; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Rattei, Thomas; Eder, Thomas; Giard, Jean-Christophe; Kalinowski, Jörn; Hain, Torsten; Hartke, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive lactic acid intestinal opportunistic bacterium with virulence potential. For a better understanding of the adapation of this bacterium to the host conditions, we performed a transcriptome analysis of bacteria isolated from an infection site (mouse peritonitis) by RNA-sequencing. We identified a total of 211 genes with significantly higher transcript levels and 157 repressed genes. Our in vivo gene expression database reflects well the infection process since genes encoding important virulence factors like cytolysin, gelatinase or aggregation substance as well as stress response proteins, are significantly induced. Genes encoding metabolic activities are the second most abundant in vivo induced genes demonstrating that the bacteria are metabolically active and adapt to the special nutrient conditions of the host. α- and β- glucosides seem to be important substrates for E. faecalis inside the host. Compared to laboratory conditions, the flux through the upper part of glycolysis seems to be reduced and more carbon may enter the pentose phosphate pathway. This may reflect the need of the bacteria under infection conditions to produce more reducing power for biosynthesis. Another important substrate is certainly glycerol since both pathways of glycerol catabolism are strongly induced. Strongly in vivo induced genes should be important for the infection process. This assumption has been verified in a virulence test using well characterized mutants affected in glycerol metabolism. This showed indeed that mutants unable to metabolize this sugar alcohol are affected in organ colonisation in a mouse model. PMID:25978463

  3. Hybrid Potential Simulation of the Acylation of Enterococcus faecium l,d-Transpeptidase by Carbapenems.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Nicholus; Field, Martin J; Simorre, Jean-Pierre; Arthur, Michel; Bougault, Catherine M

    2016-06-01

    The l,d-transpeptidases, Ldts, catalyze peptidoglycan cross-linking in β-lactam-resistant mutant strains of several bacteria, including Enterococcus faecium and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although unrelated to the essential d,d-transpeptidases, which are inactivated by the β-lactam antibiotics, they are nevertheless inhibited by the carbapenem antibiotics, making them potentially useful targets in the treatment of some important diseases. In this work, we have investigated the acylation mechanism of the Ldt from E. faecium by the carbapenem, ertapenem, using computational techniques. We have employed molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with QC/MM hybrid potential calculations to map out possible reaction paths. We have focused on determining the following: (i) the protonation state of the nucleophilic cysteine of the enzyme when it attacks; (ii) whether nucleophilic attack and β-lactam ring-opening are concerted or stepwise, the latter occurring via an oxyanion intermediate; and (iii) the identities of the proton acceptors at the beginning and end of the reaction. Overall, we note that there is considerable plasticity in the mechanisms, owing to the significant flexibility of the enzyme, but find that the preferred pathways are ones in which nucleophilic attack of cysteine thiolate is concerted with β-lactam ring-opening. PMID:27196382

  4. In Vitro Comparison of the Effectiveness of Chlorhexidine and Two Calcium Hydroxide Formulations on Enterococcus Faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Sharifian, Mohammad Reza; Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Aligholi, Marzieh; Emaneini, Mohammad; Katebi, Arash; Assadian, Hadi

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the effectiveness of three intracanal medicaments in disinfecting the root canal and dentin of experimentally infected human teeth with Enterococcus faecalis (EF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred extracted human single-rooted teeth were used. After root canal preparation, teeth were mounted in epoxy resin. Following sterilization, the teeth were infected for 28 days with EF. Then root canals were filled with one of three different disinfectants: viscous 2% Chlorhexidine (CHX), calcium hydroxide paste (CH) or a mixture of CH and CHX (n=30 in each group). Antimicrobial assessments were performed at 1, 3 and 7 days (n=10 in each time period). Microbial samples were obtained from root canals before and after the experiment. Also dentin samples were examined. The data was analyzed using Two- Way ANOVA test. RESULTS: The findings showed that there was no difference between experimental groups at different time periods. The mixture of CH/CHX in 7 days was able to eliminate EF completely from root canal system. The most elimination of EF was from dentinal tubules. CONCLUSION: According to the results of this in vitro study, viscous 2% CHX, mixture of CH with distilled water and 2% CHX are all effective disinfectants. PMID:24146671

  5. Antimicrobial activity of tetraacetylethylenediamine-sodium perborate versus sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Shakouie, Sahar; Salem Milani, Amin; Eskandarnejad, Mahsa; Rahimi, Saeed; Froughreyhani, Mohammad; Galedar, Saeede; Ranjbar, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Tetraacetylethylenediamine-sodium perborate (TAED-SP) in comparison to 2.5% and 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococcus faecalis. Methods. A standard suspension of E. faecalis was inoculated on 60 plates containing Mueller-Hinton agar culture medium. Four sterile disks of Beckman filtration paper were placed on each plate. TAED-SP, 5% and 2.5% NaOCl were placed on three disks. Sterile physiologic saline was placed on the fourth disk as negative control. After 24-hour incubation, the diameter of the inhibition zone around the disks was measured using a transparent ruler. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the mean zone of microbial growth in the groups. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. There was a significant difference in the diameter of the inhibition zones between groups (P < 0.05). The Tukey post hoc test showed a higher diameter of the inhibitory zone with TAED-SP than that of 2.5% NaOCl. However, there were no significant differences between the inhibitory zones of TAED-SP and 5% NaOCl. Conclusion. TAED-SP and 5% NaOCl have similar antibacterial activity against E. faecalis; however, TAED-SP has a greater antibacterial effect compared to 2.5% NaOCl. PMID:27092214

  6. In Vitro Antimicrobial Effect of a Cold Plasma Jet against Enterococcus faecalis Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chunqi; Schaudinn, Christoph; Jaramillo, David E.; Webster, Paul; Costerton, J. William

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that a cold plasma jet has the antimicrobial effect against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms was tested in vitro. 27 hydroxyapatite discs were incubated with E. faecalis for six days to form a monoculture biofilm on the disc surface. The prepared substrata were divided into three groups: the negative control, the positive control (5.25% NaOCl solution), and the plasma treatment group. Resultant colony-forming unit counts were associated with observations of bacterial cell morphology changes using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Treatment of E. faecalis biofilm with the plasma and 5.25% NaOCl for 5 min resulted in 93.1% and 90.0% kill (P < 0.0001), respectively. SEM detected that nearly no intact bacteria were discernible for the plasma-exposed HA disc surfaces. The demonstrated bactericidal effect of the plasma with direct surface contact may be due to the enhanced oxidation by the locally produced reactive plasma species. PMID:22461988

  7. Endophthalmitis Caused by Enterococcus faecalis: Clinical Features, Antibiotic Sensitivities, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kuriyan, Ajay E.; Sridhar, Jayanth; Flynn, Harry W.; Smiddy, William E.; Albini, Thomas A.; Berrocal, Audina M.; Forster, Richard K.; Belin, Peter J.; Miller, Darlene

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report the clinical features, antibiotic sensitivities, and visual acuity (VA) outcomes of endophthalmitis caused by Enterococcus faecalis. Study Design Retrospective, observational case series. Methods A consecutive case series of patients with culture-positive endophthalmitis caused by E. faecalis between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2012 at an academic referral center. Results Of 14 patients identified, clinical settings included bleb-associated (n=8), post-cataract surgery (n=4), and post-penetrating keratoplasty (n=2). All isolates were vancomycin sensitive. When comparing isolates in the current study to isolates from 1990–2001, the minimal inhibitory concentration required to inhibit 90% of isolates (MIC 90, μg/ml) increased for ciprofloxacin (4 from 1), erythromycin (256 from 4), and penicillin (8 from 4), indicating higher levels of resistance. The MIC 90 remained the same for vancomycin (2) and linezolid (2). Presenting VA ranged from hand motion to no light perception. Initial treatment strategies were vitreous tap and intravitreal antibiotic injection (n=12) and pars plana vitrectomy with intravitreal antibiotic injection (n=2). VA outcomes were ≤ 20/400 in 13 (93%) of 14 patients. Conclusions Although all isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and linezolid, higher MIC 90s for isolates in the current study, compared to isolates from 1990 to 2001, occurred with ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and penicillin. Despite prompt treatment, most patients had poor outcomes. PMID:25089354

  8. Heterogeneity of vat(E)-carrying plasmids in Enterococcus faecium recovered from human and animal sources.

    PubMed

    Simjee, Shabbir; Zhang, Yifan; McDermott, Patrick F; Donabedian, Susan M; Zervos, Marcus J; Meng, Jianghong

    2006-09-01

    In this study, quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D)-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates (33 from poultry farms and 1 from a human outpatient) with Q/D minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 4 microg/mL to 32 microg/mL were analysed. Polymerase chain reaction detected the presence of vat(E) in all isolates. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), 14 distinct PFGE patterns were identified. The human E. faecium isolate was distinguishable from the 33 farm isolates by PFGE. Southern hybridisation localised the vat(E) gene to an 11 kb plasmid and resulted in five plasmid hybridisation types. The vat(E)-carrying plasmid from the human isolate showed a nearly identical hybridisation pattern to a plasmid from a farm isolate. This study showed that the vat(E) gene, conferring resistance to Q/D, was carried on different plasmids in a heterogeneous group of E. faecium, some of which may be acquired by E. faecium capable of infecting humans. PMID:16911866

  9. Partial Characterization of Bacteriocins Produced by Two New Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Human Intestine.

    PubMed

    Turgis, Mélanie; Vu, Khanh Dang; Lacroix, Monique

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed at characterizing two novel bacteriocin-producing enterococcal strains isolated from human intestine. A total of 200 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from a woman stool sample. Two of them were selected for characterization due to their high antimicrobial activity against five strains of Listeria monocytogenes. The selected bacteria were identified as two different strains of Enterococcus faecium and designated MT 104 and MT 162. The bacteriocins produced by MT 104 and MT 162 were stable at different pH ranging from 2 to 11 and were active after different treatments such as heat, enzymes, detergents, and γ-irradiation. The two isolated strains exhibited some probiotic properties such as survival in simulated gastric fluid and intestinal fluid, lack of expression of bile salt hydrolase or hemolytic activity, adhesion to Caco-2 cells efficiently, and sensitivity to clinical antimicrobial agents. Thus, the two isolated strains of E. faecium could become new probiotic bacteria and their bacteriocins could be used for controlling L. monocytogenes in combination with irradiation for food preservation. PMID:26782736

  10. Monoclonal antibodies recognizing the Enterococcus faecalis collagen-binding MSCRAMM Ace: conditional expression and binding analysis.

    PubMed

    Hall, Andrea E; Gorovits, Elena L; Syribeys, Peter J; Domanski, Paul J; Ames, Brenda R; Chang, Cathy Y; Vernachio, John H; Patti, Joseph M; Hutchins, Jeff T

    2007-01-01

    Enterococci are opportunistic pathogens known to cause numerous clinical infections and complications in humans. Adhesin-mediated binding to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins of the host is thought to be a crucial step in the pathogenesis of these bacterial infections. Adhesin of collagen from Enterococcus faecalis (Ace) is a cell-wall anchored protein of E. faecalis that has been shown to be important for bacterial binding to the ECM. In this report, we characterize the conditions for Ace expression and demonstrate Ace binding to mammalian epithelial and endothelial cells as well as to collagens found in the ECM. To further characterize Ace expression and function, we report the generation of a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against this important E. faecalis virulence factor. Through the use of multiple in vitro assays, surface plasmon resonance and flow cytometry, we have characterized this panel of mAbs which may prove to be not only beneficial in studies that address the precise biological role of adhesion of E. faecalis, but may also serve as beneficial therapeutic agents against E. faecalis infections. PMID:17521860

  11. Transcriptome profiling of TDC cluster deletion mutant of Enterococcus faecalis V583.

    PubMed

    Perez, Marta; Ladero, Victor; Del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begoña; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P; Kok, Jan; Martin, M Cruz; Fernandez, Maria; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2016-09-01

    The species Enterococcus faecalis is able to catabolise the amino acid tyrosine into the biogenic amine tyramine by the tyrosine decarboxilase (TDC) pathway Ladero et al. (2012) [1]. The TDC cluster comprises four genes: tyrS, an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-like gene; tdcA, which encodes the tyrosine decarboxylase; tyrP, a tyrosine/tyramine exchanger gene and nhaC-2, which encodes an Na(+)/H(+) antiporter and whose role in the tyramine biosynthesis remains unknown [2]. In E. faecalis V583 the last three genes are co-transcribed as a single polycistronic mRNA forming the catabolic operon, while tyrS is transcribed independently of the catabolic genes as a monocistronic mRNA [2]. The catabolic operon is transcriptionally induced by tyrosine and acidic pH. On the opposite, the tyrS expression is repressed by tyrosine concentrations [2]. In this work we report the transcriptional profiling of the TDC cluster deletion mutant (E. faecalis V583 ΔTDC) [2] compared to the wild-type strain, both grown in M17 medium supplemented with tyrosine. The transcriptional profile data of TDC cluster-regulated genes were deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession no. GSE77864. PMID:27408815

  12. Identification and Characterization of a Bacitracin Resistance Network in Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Chong; Shaaly, Aishath; Leslie, David J.; Weimar, Marion R.; Kalamorz, Falk; Carne, Alan; Cook, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    Resistance of Enterococcus faecalis against antimicrobial peptides, both of host origin and produced by other bacteria of the gut microflora, is likely to be an important factor in the bacterium's success as an intestinal commensal. The aim of this study was to identify proteins with a role in resistance against the model antimicrobial peptide bacitracin. Proteome analysis of bacitracin-treated and untreated cells showed that bacitracin stress induced the expression of cell wall-biosynthetic proteins and caused metabolic rearrangements. Among the proteins with increased production, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter with similarity to known peptide antibiotic resistance systems was identified and shown to mediate resistance against bacitracin. Expression of the transporter was dependent on a two-component regulatory system and a second ABC transporter, which were identified by genome analysis. Both resistance and the regulatory pathway could be functionally transferred to Bacillus subtilis, proving the function and sufficiency of these components for bacitracin resistance. Our data therefore show that the two ABC transporters and the two-component system form a resistance network against antimicrobial peptides in E. faecalis, where one transporter acts as the sensor that activates the TCS to induce production of the second transporter, which mediates the actual resistance. PMID:24342648

  13. A LacI-Family Regulator Activates Maltodextrin Metabolism of Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinglin; Rogers, Malbert; Bierschenk, Damien; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Willems, Rob J. L.; van Schaik, Willem

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium is a gut commensal of humans and animals. In the intestinal tract, E. faecium will have access to a wide variety of carbohydrates, including maltodextrins and maltose, which are the sugars that result from the enzymatic digestion of starch by host-derived and microbial amylases. In this study, we identified the genetic determinants for maltodextrin utilization of E. faecium E1162. We generated a deletion mutant of the mdxABCD-pulA gene cluster that is homologous to maltodextrin uptake genes in other Gram-positive bacteria, and a deletion mutant of the mdxR gene, which is predicted to encode a LacI family regulator of mdxABCD-pulA. Both mutations impaired growth on maltodextrins but had no effect on the growth on maltose and glucose. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that eight genes (including mdxABCD-pulA) were expressed at significantly lower levels in the isogenic ΔmdxR mutant strain compared to the parental strain when grown on maltose. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR confirmed the results of transcriptome analysis and showed that the transcription of a putative maltose utilization gene cluster is induced in a semi-defined medium supplemented with maltose but is not regulated by MdxR. Understanding the maltodextrin metabolism of E. faecium could yield novel insights into the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the gut commensal lifestyle of E. faecium. PMID:23951303

  14. Inorganic Cation Transport and Energy Transduction in Enterococcus hirae and Other Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Kakinuma, Yoshimi

    1998-01-01

    Energy metabolism by bacteria is well understood from the chemiosmotic viewpoint. We know that bacteria extrude protons across the plasma membrane, establishing an electrochemical potential that provides the driving force for various kinds of physiological work. Among these are the uptake of sugars, amino acids, and other nutrients with the aid of secondary porters and the regulation of the cytoplasmic pH and of the cytoplasmic concentration of potassium and other ions. Bacteria live in diverse habitats and are often exposed to severe conditions. In some circumstances, a proton circulation cannot satisfy their requirements and must be supplemented with a complement of primary transport systems. This review is concerned with cation transport in the fermentative streptococci, particularly Enterococcus hirae. Streptococci lack respiratory chains, relying on glycolysis or arginine fermentation for the production of ATP. One of the major findings with E. hirae and other streptococci is that ATP plays a much more important role in transmembrane transport than it does in nonfermentative organisms, probably due to the inability of this organism to generate a large proton potential. The movements of cations in streptococci illustrate the interplay between a variety of primary and secondary modes of transport. PMID:9841664

  15. Enterococcus faecalis Clones in Poultry and in Humans with Urinary Tract Infections, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Louise Ladefoged; Bisgaard, Magne; Son, Nguyen Thai; Trung, Nguyen Vu; An, Hoang Manh

    2012-01-01

    Enterococcus spp. as pathogens have increased, but the sources of infection often remain unclear. To investigate whether poultry might be a reservoir for E. faecalis–associated urinary tract infections (UTIs) in humans, we characterized E. faecalis isolates from patients in Vietnam with UTIs during January 2008–January 2010 and poultry living in close contact with them by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, analysis of antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns, and sequencing of virulence genes. In 7 (23%) of 31 UTI cases, we detected identical MLST, indistinguishable or closely related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, and similar antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns. Isolates from urine and poultry showed identical virulence gene profiles, except for 1 variation, and individual genes showed identical sequences. The homology of isolates from urine and poultry further indicates the zoonotic potential and global spread of E. faecalis sequence type 16, which recently was reported in humans with endocarditis and in pigs in Denmark. PMID:22709904

  16. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated from environmental samples in an area of intensive poultry production.

    PubMed

    Furtula, Vesna; Jackson, Charlene R; Farrell, Erin Gwenn; Barrett, John B; Hiott, Lari M; Chambers, Patricia A

    2013-03-01

    Enterococcus spp. from two poultry farms and proximate surface and ground water sites in an area of intensive poultry production were tested for resistance to 16 clinical antibiotics. Resistance patterns were compared to assess trends and possible correlations for specific antimicrobials and levels of resistance. Enterococci were detected at all 12 surface water sites and three of 28 ground water sites. Resistance to lincomycin, tetracycline, penicillin and ciprofloxacin in poultry litter isolates was high (80.3%, 65.3%, 61.1% and 49.6%, respectively). Resistance in the surface water to the same antibiotics was 87.1%, 24.1%, 7.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Overall, 86% of litter isolates, 58% of surface water isolates and 100% of ground water isolates were resistant to more than one antibiotic. Fifty-four different resistance patterns were recognised in isolates obtained from litter and environmental samples and several E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from litter and environment samples shared the same resistance pattern. Multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) indices calculated to assess health risks due to the presence of resistant enterococci suggested an increased presence of antibiotics in surface water, likely from poultry sources as no other wastewater contributions in the area were documented. PMID:23481592

  17. Antibiotic susceptibility, antibacterial activity and characterisation of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from breast milk

    PubMed Central

    Kıvanç, Sertaç Argun; Kıvanç, Merih; Yiğit, Tülay

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci, which have useful biotechnological applications, produce bacteriocins, including those that exert anti-Listerial activity. The present study aimed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns and antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from human breast milk. The strains were identified using carbohydrate fermentation tests and ribotyping. Subsequently, the antibacterial activity of the isolates was investigated, and the quantities of lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide produced, and the proteolytic activity of E. faecium, were determined. In addition, biofilm formation by E. faecium strains was assessed. E. faecium strains exhibited antimicrobial activity against food-borne and clinical bacterial isolates. Furthermore, following 24 h incubation, the tested strains exhibited resistance to a pH range of 2.0–9.5 and tolerance of bile acid, lysozyme activity and phenol. Supernatants of the E. faecium TM13, TM15, TM17 and TM18 strains were shown to be effective against Listeria monocytogenes, and were also resistant to heat. Further studies are required in order to determine whether certain strains of E. faecium may be used for the development of novel antibacterial agents. PMID:27602088

  18. New Insights into the Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus Host Interaction Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Hernández, Beatriz; Conde-Moreno, Elisa; Kwak, Young-Keun; Zamora, Javier; Colque-Navarro, Patricia; Möllby, Roland; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Cantón, Rafael; García-Bermejo, Laura; del Campo, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus) were classically clustered into the Lancefield Group D streptococci and despite their taxonomic reclassification still share a similar genetic content and environment. Both species are considered as opportunistic pathogens. E. faecium is often associated with nosocomial bacteraemia, and S. gallolyticus is sporadically found in endocarditis of colorectal cancer patients. In both cases, the source of infection is commonly endogenous with a translocation process that launches through the intestinal barrier. To get new insights into the pathological processes preceding infection development of both organisms, we used an in vitro model with Caco-2 cells to study and compare the adhesion, invasion and translocation inherent abilities of 6 E. faecium and 4 S. gallolyticus well-characterized isolates. Additionally, biofilm formation on polystyrene, collagen I and IV was also explored. Overall results showed that E. faecium translocated more efficiently than S. gallolyticus, inducing a destabilization of the intestinal monolayer. Isolates Efm106, Efm121 and Efm113 (p < .001 compared to Ef222) exhibited the higher translocation ability and were able to adhere 2–3 times higher than S. gallolyticus isolates. Both species preferred the collagen IV coated surfaces to form biofilm but the S. gallolyticus structures were more compact (p = .01). These results may support a relationship between biofilm formation and vegetation establishment in S. gallolyticus endocarditis, whereas the high translocation ability of E. faecium high-risk clones might partially explain the increasing number of bacteraemia. PMID:27463203

  19. Proteolytic activity of Enterococcus faecalis VB63F for reduction of allergenicity of bovine milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Biscola, V; Tulini, F L; Choiset, Y; Rabesona, H; Ivanova, I; Chobert, J-M; Todorov, S D; Haertlé, T; Franco, B D G M

    2016-07-01

    With the aim of screening proteolytic strains of lactic acid bacteria to evaluate their potential for the reduction of allergenicity of the major bovine milk proteins, we isolated a new proteolytic strain of Enterococcus faecalis (Ent. faecalis VB63F) from raw bovine milk. The proteases produced by this strain had strong activity against caseins (αS1-, αS2-, and β-casein), in both skim milk and sodium caseinate. However, only partial hydrolysis of whey proteins was observed. Proteolysis of Na-caseinate and whey proteins, observed after sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, was confirmed by analysis of peptide profiles by reversed-phase HPLC. Inhibition of proteolysis with EDTA indicated that the proteases produced by Ent. faecalis VB63F belonged to the group of metalloproteases. The optimal conditions for their activity were 42°C and pH 6.5. The majority of assessed virulence genes were absent in Ent. faecalis VB63F. The obtained results suggest that Ent. faecalis VB63F could be efficient in reducing the immunoreactivity of bovine milk proteins. PMID:27179865

  20. Involvement of PhoP-PhoS homologs in Enterococcus faecalis virulence.

    PubMed

    Teng, Fang; Wang, Ling; Singh, Kavindra V; Murray, Barbara E; Weinstock, George M

    2002-04-01

    Eleven PhoP-PhoS homolog pairs were identified by searching the Enterococcus faecalis V583 genome sequence database at The Institute for Genomic Research with the Bacillus subtilis PhoP-PhoS sequences. Each pair appears to be a potential two-component system composed of a response regulator and a sensor kinase. Seven of the homologs were disrupted in E. faecalis strain OG1RF. TX10293, a mutant disrupted in one of these genes (etaR, the first gene of the gene pair designated etaRS), showed delayed killing and a higher 50% lethal dose in a mouse peritonitis model. The predicted EtaR protein sequence showed greatest similarity to LisR of Listeria monocytogenes (77%) and CsrR of Streptococcus pyogenes (70%); EtaS is 53% similar to LisK and 54% similar to CsrS. When grown in vitro, the TX10293 mutant was more sensitive to low pH (pH 3.4) and more resistant to high temperature (55 degrees C) than wild-type OG1RF. In conclusion, many potential two-component systems are identified for E. faecalis, one of which, EtaRS, was shown to be involved in stress response and virulence. PMID:11895963

  1. Identification of an N-terminal formylated, two-peptide bacteriocin from Enterococcus faecalis 710C.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoji; Vederas, John C; Whittal, Randy M; Zheng, Jing; Stiles, Michael E; Carlson, Denise; Franz, Charles M A P; McMullen, Lynn M; van Belkum, Marco J

    2011-05-25

    Enterococcus faecalis 710C, isolated from beef product, has a broad antimicrobial activity spectrum against foodborne pathogens. Two bacteriocins, enterocin 7A (Ent7A) and enterocin 7B (Ent7B), were purified from the culture supernatant of E. faecalis 710C and characterized using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and electrospray infusion tandem mass spectrometry analyses. These data and subsequent genetic analysis showed that Ent7A and Ent7B are produced without N-terminal leader sequences and have amino acid sequences that are identical to those of enterocins MR10A and MR10B, respectively. However, the observed masses for Ent7A and Ent7B are 5200.80 and 5206.65 Da (monoisotopic mass), respectively, which are higher than the theoretical molecular masses of MR10A and MR10B, respectively. This study provides evidence that both Ent7A and Ent7B are formylated on the N-terminal methionine residue. Purified Ent7A and Ent7B are active against spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens, including Clostridium sporogenes , Listeria monocytogenes , and Staphylococcus aureus as well as Brevundimonas diminuta , which has been associated with infections among immune-suppressed cancer patients. PMID:21469734

  2. Antibiotic Resistance and Biofilm Formation of Enterococcus faecalis in Patient and Environmental Samples

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Malihe; Asghari Moghadam, Nastaran; Mamooii, Zeynab; Enayati, Mohsen; Saifi, Mahnaz; Pourshafie, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Enterococci are opportunistic pathogens and are a major factor in nosocomial infections. They may contain ebp operon, which upon expression makes them highly prone to biofilm formation on biotic and abiotic surfaces. Objectives: The aim of the current study was to detect the polymorphism of ebp genes in Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: Samples were isolated from patients (n = 58) and hospital environments (n = 32) of two hospitals in Tehran, Iran. All enterococcal species were identified by species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR); the antibiotic resistance pattern against nine antibiotics was determined. The ebp A, ebp B, ebp C and srt C genes were detected by PCR and the biofilm formation by the isolates was evaluated using the microtiter plate method. The genetic diversity of ebp genes was analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results: The results indicated that, 86% of patient and 29% of environmental isolates carried ebp genes. The ability of the isolates to strongly attach was 62% and 71% for patient and environmental samples, respectively. The RFLP of the ebp showed no genetic variations amongst the isolates. Conclusions: The results of the antibiotic resistance and other data suggest that there is a possible common clone of E. faecalis, which could rapidly disseminate in patients and the environment. PMID:26587208

  3. Effectiveness of a high purity chlorine dioxide solution in eliminating intracanal Enterococcus faecalis biofilm.

    PubMed

    Herczegh, Anna; Ghidan, Agoston; Friedreich, Dóra; Gyurkovics, Milán; Bendő, Zsolt; Lohinai, Zsolt

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) solution in comparison to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) in the elimination of intracanal Enterococcus faecalis biofilm. Extracted human teeth were inoculated with E. faecalis. After preparation the canals were irrigated with ClO2, NaOCl, CHX or physiologic saline for control. Two and five days later bacterial samples were collected and streaked onto Columbia agar. CFU/mL were counted. The canal walls were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The gas phase was investigated in an upside down Petri dish where E. faecalis was inoculated onto blood agar. The irrigants were placed on absorbent paper into the cover. Bacteria were detectable in the control group, but not in any of the irrigants groups. There was a massive reinfection 2 or 5 days after irrigation in the control group. The lowest reinfection was found after the ClO2 treatment. These findings were confirmed by SEM images. We observed an antibacterial effect of ClO2 and NaOCl gas phases on E. faecalis growth, but not of CHX. ClO2 eliminates intracanal biofilm and keeps canal nearly free from bacteria. We suggest the use of high purity ClO2 as a root canal irrigant in clinical practice. PMID:23529300

  4. Enterococcus and Lactobacillus contamination of raw milk in a farm dairy environment.

    PubMed

    Kagkli, Dafni Maria; Vancanneyt, Marc; Hill, Colin; Vandamme, Peter; Cogan, Timothy M

    2007-03-10

    Enterococci and lactobacilli are ubiquitously found in the intestinal microflora of humans and animals. The aim of the present study was to determine the importance of bovine faeces as a source of these organisms in raw milk. One hundred and fifty six putative enterococci and 362 lactobacilli were isolated from bovine faeces (n=26), cows' teats, raw milk, the milking machine and the milking environment on one farm. The clonal relationships of each group were investigated using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and representatives of the different clusters were identified by repetitive DNA element (rep)-PCR fingerprinting, protein profiling, phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS) sequence analysis or 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Lactobacilli were present at approximately 3 orders of magnitude greater than enterococci in the bovine faeces. The majority of the bovine faecal enterococcal isolates were identified as Aerococcus viridans. Seven teat isolates belonged to a potential novel Aerococcus sp. and one bovine faecal isolate to a potential second novel Aerococcus sp. The lactobacilli present in the bovine faeces were predominantly Lactobacillus mucosae and Lactobacillus brevis, with small numbers of Lactobacillus plantarum. Only one Enterococcus (a strain of E. casseliflavus) out of 76 and one Lactobacillus (a strain of L. parabuchneri/kefir) out of 247 of the bovine faecal isolates was found in the milk. The major source of these bacteria in the milk was the milking equipment. PMID:17189657

  5. New Insights into the Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus Host Interaction Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Díaz, Ana María; Romero-Hernández, Beatriz; Conde-Moreno, Elisa; Kwak, Young-Keun; Zamora, Javier; Colque-Navarro, Patricia; Möllby, Roland; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Cantón, Rafael; García-Bermejo, Laura; Del Campo, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus) were classically clustered into the Lancefield Group D streptococci and despite their taxonomic reclassification still share a similar genetic content and environment. Both species are considered as opportunistic pathogens. E. faecium is often associated with nosocomial bacteraemia, and S. gallolyticus is sporadically found in endocarditis of colorectal cancer patients. In both cases, the source of infection is commonly endogenous with a translocation process that launches through the intestinal barrier. To get new insights into the pathological processes preceding infection development of both organisms, we used an in vitro model with Caco-2 cells to study and compare the adhesion, invasion and translocation inherent abilities of 6 E. faecium and 4 S. gallolyticus well-characterized isolates. Additionally, biofilm formation on polystyrene, collagen I and IV was also explored. Overall results showed that E. faecium translocated more efficiently than S. gallolyticus, inducing a destabilization of the intestinal monolayer. Isolates Efm106, Efm121 and Efm113 (p < .001 compared to Ef222) exhibited the higher translocation ability and were able to adhere 2-3 times higher than S. gallolyticus isolates. Both species preferred the collagen IV coated surfaces to form biofilm but the S. gallolyticus structures were more compact (p = .01). These results may support a relationship between biofilm formation and vegetation establishment in S. gallolyticus endocarditis, whereas the high translocation ability of E. faecium high-risk clones might partially explain the increasing number of bacteraemia. PMID:27463203

  6. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of chitosan and other endodontic irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Shenoi, Pratima R; Morey, Elakshi S; Makade, Chetana S; Gunwal, Mohit K; Khode, Rajiv T; Wanmali, Sunay S

    2016-01-01

    The success of endodontic treatment is directly enhanced by elimination of microorganisms in infected root canals. Recently, chitosan, a natural, nontoxic biopolymer, has been introduced as an irrigant that has the capacity to remove the smear layer. The antimicrobial properties of chitosan as an endodontic irrigant have not yet been explored. The purpose of this study was to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of BioPure MTAD, 0.2% chitosan, 1% chitosan, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate, and 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococcus faecalis, which is frequently isolated from persistent root canal infections. The agar well diffusion method was used to measure the antimicrobial activities of these irrigants. Saline was used as a negative control. The order of effectiveness was determined by the measurement of inhibition zones. Data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and the Duncan multiple range test. BioPure MTAD had a significantly larger mean inhibition zone against E faecalis than the other irrigants (P < 0.001). Although 0.2% chitosan did not show any inhibition zones, 1% chitosan was as effective as 3% NaOCl (P = 0.352), and both irrigants showed significantly greater effectivity than 2% chlorhexidine (P < 0.001). Thus, 1% chitosan can be an effective natural antimicrobial substitute for synthetic irrigants. PMID:27599284

  7. Feeding the Probiotic Enterococcus faecium Strain NCIMB 10415 to Piglets Specifically Reduces the Number of Escherichia coli Pathotypes That Adhere to the Gut Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Guenther, Sebastian; Oelgeschläger, Kathrin; Kinnemann, Bianca; Pieper, Robert; Hartmann, Susanne; Tedin, Karsten; Semmler, Torsten; Neumann, Konrad; Schierack, Peter; Bethe, Astrid; Wieler, Lothar H.

    2013-01-01

    Feed supplementation with the probiotic Enterococcus faecium for piglets has been found to reduce pathogenic gut microorganisms. Since Escherichia coli is among the most important pathogens in pig production, we performed comprehensive analyses to gain further insight into the influence of E. faecium NCIMB 10415 on porcine intestinal E. coli. A total of 1,436 E. coli strains were isolated from three intestinal habitats (mucosa, digesta, and feces) of probiotic-supplemented and nonsupplemented (control) piglets. E. coli bacteria were characterized via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for clonal analysis. The high diversity of E. coli was reflected by 168 clones. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to determine the phylogenetic backgrounds, revealing 79 sequence types (STs). Pathotypes of E. coli were further defined using multiplex PCR for virulence-associated genes. While these analyses discerned only a few significant differences in the E. coli population between the feeding groups, analyses distinguishing clones that were uniquely isolated in either the probiotic group only, the control group only, or both groups (shared group) revealed clear effects at the habitat level. Interestingly, extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC)-typical clones adhering to the mucosa were significantly reduced in the probiotic group. Our data show a minor influence of E. faecium on the overall population of E. coli in healthy piglets. In contrast, this probiotic has a profound effect on mucosa-adherent E. coli. This finding further substantiates a specific effect of E. faecium strain NCIMB 10415 in piglets against pathogenic E. coli in the intestine. In addition, these data question the relevance of data based on sampling fecal E. coli only. PMID:24123741

  8. Enterococcus phoeniculicola sp. nov., a novel member of the enterococci isolated from the uropygial gland of the Red-billed Woodhoopoe, Phoeniculus purpureus.

    PubMed

    Law-Brown, Janette; Meyers, Paul R

    2003-05-01

    A facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive, coccoid, non-spore-forming, non-motile, catalase-negative bacterium was isolated from the uropygial (preen) gland of wild Red-billed Woodhoopoes (Phoeniculus purpureus) and designated strain JLB-1(T). Physiological and biochemical testing suggested that this homofermentative, lactic-acid-producing bacterium could belong to the genus Enterococcus or the genus Streptococcus. Comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain JLB-1(T) with other 16S rDNA sequences in the GenBank database by BLAST analysis showed that its closest relatives are Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus avium and Enterococcus asini. Strain JLB-1(T) may be differentiated from these species by the fact that it does not produce acid from lactose, D-mannitol, D(+)-melezitose or D-sorbitol. Furthermore, it does not hydrolyse arginine or hippurate and cannot grow in the presence of 6.5% NaCl or 40% bile. It differs from the streptococci in that it does not lyse erythrocytes. Strain JLB-1(T) is a novel member of the enterococci, for which the name Enterococcus phoeniculicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JLB-1(T) (=ATCC BAA-412(T) = DSM 14726(T)). PMID:12807187

  9. Revealing Rembrandt

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Our results emphasized the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt's portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings. PMID:24795552

  10. A Vaccine Approach for the Prevention of Infections by Multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Kodali, Srinivas; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Lin, Fiona; Khoury, Nancy; Hao, Li; Pavliak, Vilo; Jones, C Hal; Laverde, Diana; Huebner, Johannes; Jansen, Kathrin U; Anderson, Annaliesa S; Donald, Robert G K

    2015-08-01

    The incidence of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium hospital infections has been steadily increasing. With the goal of discovering new vaccine antigens, we systematically fractionated and purified four distinct surface carbohydrates from E. faecium endocarditis isolate Tx16, shown previously to be resistant to phagocytosis in the presence of human serum. The two most abundant polysaccharides consist of novel branched heteroglycan repeating units that include signature sugars altruronic acid and legionaminic acid, respectively. A minor high molecular weight polysaccharide component was recognized as the fructose homopolymer levan, and a glucosylated lipoteichoic acid (LTA) was identified in a micellar fraction. The polysaccharides were conjugated to the CRM197 carrier protein, and the resulting glycoconjugates were used to immunize rabbits. Rabbit immune sera were evaluated for their ability to kill Tx16 in opsonophagocytic assays and in a mouse passive protection infection model. Although antibodies raised against levan failed to mediate opsonophagocytic killing, the other glycoconjugates induced effective opsonic antibodies, with the altruronic acid-containing polysaccharide antisera showing the greatest opsonophagocytic assay activity. Antibodies directed against either novel heteroglycan or the LTA reduced bacterial load in mouse liver or kidney tissue. To assess antigen prevalence, we screened a diverse collection of blood isolates (n = 101) with antibodies to the polysaccharides. LTA was detected on the surface of 80% of the strains, and antigens recognized by antibodies to the two major heteroglycans were co-expressed on 63% of these clinical isolates. Collectively, these results represent the first steps toward identifying components of a glycoconjugate vaccine to prevent E. faecium infection. PMID:26109072

  11. Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for High-Resolution Typing of Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    de Been, Mark; Pinholt, Mette; Top, Janetta; Bletz, Stefan; van Schaik, Willem; Brouwer, Ellen; Rogers, Malbert; Kraat, Yvette; Bonten, Marc; Corander, Jukka; Westh, Henrik; Harmsen, Dag

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium, a common inhabitant of the human gut, has emerged in the last 2 decades as an important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen. Since the start of the 21st century, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) has been used to study the molecular epidemiology of E. faecium. However, due to the use of a small number of genes, the resolution of MLST is limited. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) now allows for high-resolution tracing of outbreaks, but current WGS-based approaches lack standardization, rendering them less suitable for interlaboratory prospective surveillance. To overcome this limitation, we developed a core genome MLST (cgMLST) scheme for E. faecium. cgMLST transfers genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity into a standardized and portable allele numbering system that is far less computationally intensive than SNP-based analysis of WGS data. The E. faecium cgMLST scheme was built using 40 genome sequences that represented the diversity of the species. The scheme consists of 1,423 cgMLST target genes. To test the performance of the scheme, we performed WGS analysis of 103 outbreak isolates from five different hospitals in the Netherlands, Denmark, and Germany. The cgMLST scheme performed well in distinguishing between epidemiologically related and unrelated isolates, even between those that had the same sequence type (ST), which denotes the higher discriminatory power of this cgMLST scheme over that of conventional MLST. We also show that in terms of resolution, the performance of the E. faecium cgMLST scheme is equivalent to that of an SNP-based approach. In conclusion, the cgMLST scheme developed in this study facilitates rapid, standardized, and high-resolution tracing of E. faecium outbreaks. PMID:26400782

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Diode Laser and Sodium Hypochlorite in Enterococcus Faecalis-Contaminated Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabi, Khosrow; Sooratgar, Aidin; Zolfagharnasab, Kaveh; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Afkhami, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the disinfection ability of 980-nm diode laser in comparison with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as a common root canal irrigant in canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Methods and Materials: The root canals of 18 extracted single-rooted premolars were prepared by rotary system. After decoronation, the roots were autoclaved. One specimen was chosen for the negative control, and the remaining teeth were incubated with E. faecalis suspension for two weeks. Subsequently, one specimen was selected as the positive control and the remaining samples were divided into two groups (n=8). The samples of the first group were irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl and the second group were treated with a 980-nm diode laser. Microbial samples were taken from the root canals and bacterial cultivation was carried out. The average value and the standard deviation of colony-forming units (CFU) of each specimen were measured using descriptive statistics. The student’s t-test was used to compare the reduction in CFU in each group. The equality of variance of CFU was measured by the Levene’s test. Results: NaOCl resulted in 99.87% removal of the bacteria and showed significantly more antibacterial effect compared to the 980-nm diode laser which led to 96.56% bacterial reduction (P<0.05). Conclusion: Although 5.25% NaOCl seems to reduce E. faecalis more effectively, the diode laser also reduced the bacterial count. Therefore a 980-nm diode laser could be considered as a complementary disinfection method in root canal treatment. PMID:26843870

  13. Molecular Epidemiology of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium: a Prospective, Multicenter Study in South American Hospitals▿

    PubMed Central

    Panesso, Diana; Reyes, Jinnethe; Rincón, Sandra; Díaz, Lorena; Galloway-Peña, Jessica; Zurita, Jeannete; Carrillo, Carlos; Merentes, Altagracia; Guzmán, Manuel; Adachi, Javier A.; Murray, Barbara E.; Arias, Cesar A.

    2010-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen worldwide, and this trend has been associated with the dissemination of a genetic lineage designated clonal cluster 17 (CC17). Enterococcal isolates were collected prospectively (2006 to 2008) from 32 hospitals in Colombia, Ecuador, Perú, and Venezuela and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Genotyping was performed with all vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VREfm) isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing. All VREfm isolates were evaluated for the presence of 16 putative virulence genes (14 fms genes, the esp gene of E. faecium [espEfm], and the hyl gene of E. faecium [hylEfm]) and plasmids carrying the fms20-fms21 (pilA), hylEfm, and vanA genes. Of 723 enterococcal isolates recovered, E. faecalis was the most common (78%). Vancomycin resistance was detected in 6% of the isolates (74% of which were E. faecium). Eleven distinct PFGE types were found among the VREfm isolates, with most belonging to sequence types 412 and 18. The ebpAEfm-ebpBEfm-ebpCEfm (pilB) and fms11-fms19-fms16 clusters were detected in all VREfm isolates from the region, whereas espEfm and hylEfm were detected in 69% and 23% of the isolates, respectively. The fms20-fms21 (pilA) cluster, which encodes a putative pilus-like protein, was found on plasmids from almost all VREfm isolates and was sometimes found to coexist with hylEfm and the vanA gene cluster. The population genetics of VREfm in South America appear to resemble those of such strains in the United States in the early years of the CC17 epidemic. The overwhelming presence of plasmids encoding putative virulence factors and vanA genes suggests that E. faecium from the CC17 genogroup may disseminate in the region in the coming years. PMID:20220167

  14. Dichotomous Metabolism of Enterococcus faecalis Induced by Hematin Starvation Modulates Colonic Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Toby D.; Moore, Danny R.; Wang, Xingmin; Casu, Viviana; May, Randal; Lerner, Megan R.; Houchen, Courtney; Brackett, Daniel J.; Huycke, Mark M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Enterococcus faecalis is an intestinal commensal that cannot synthesize porphyrins and only expresses a functional respiratory chain when provided exogenous hematin. In the absence of hematin, E. faecalis reverts to fermentative metabolism and produces extracellular superoxide that can damage epithelial cell DNA. The acute response of the colonic mucosa to hematin-starved E. faecalis was identified by gene array. E. faecalis was inoculated into murine colons using a surgical ligation model that preserved tissue architecture and homeostasis. The mucosa was exposed to hematin-starved E. faecalis and compared to a control consisting of the same strain grown with hematin. At 1 hour post-inoculation six mucosal genes were differentially regulated and this increased to 42 genes at 6 hours. At 6 hours a highly significant biological interaction network was identified with functions that included NF-κB signaling, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation. Colon biopsies showed no histological abnormalities by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Immunohistochemical staining, however, detected NF-κB activation in tissue macrophages using antibodies to the nuclear localization sequence for p65 and the F4/80 marker for murine macrophages. Similarly, hematin-starved E. faecalis strongly activated NF-κB in murine macrophages in vitro. Furthermore, primary and transformed colonic epithelial cells activated the G2/M checkpoint in vitro following exposure to hematin-starved E. faecalis. Modulation of this cell cycle checkpoint was due to extracellular superoxide produced as a result of the respiratory block in hematin-starved E. faecalis. These results demonstrate that the uniquely dichotomous metabolism of E. faecalis can significantly modulate gene expression in the colonic mucosa for pathways associated with inflammation, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation. PMID:18809545

  15. Global Regulation of Gene Expression by the MafR Protein of Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Cruz, Sofía; Espinosa, Manuel; Goldmann, Oliver; Bravo, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a natural inhabitant of the human gastrointestinal tract. However, as an opportunistic pathogen, it is able to colonize other host niches and cause life-threatening infections. Its adaptation to new environments involves global changes in gene expression. The EF3013 gene (here named mafR) of E. faecalis strain V583 encodes a protein (MafR, 482 residues) that has sequence similarity to global response regulators of the Mga/AtxA family. The enterococcal OG1RF genome also encodes the MafR protein (gene OG1RF_12293). In this work, we have identified the promoter of the mafR gene using several in vivo approaches. Moreover, we show that MafR influences positively the transcription of many genes on a genome-wide scale. The most significant target genes encode components of PTS-type membrane transporters, components of ABC-type membrane transporters, and proteins involved in the metabolism of carbon sources. Some of these genes were previously reported to be up-regulated during the growth of E. faecalis in blood and/or in human urine. Furthermore, we show that a mafR deletion mutant strain induces a significant lower degree of inflammation in the peritoneal cavity of mice, suggesting that enterococcal cells deficient in MafR are less virulent. Our work indicates that MafR is a global transcriptional regulator. It might facilitate the adaptation of E. faecalis to particular host niches and, therefore, contribute to its potential virulence. PMID:26793169

  16. Global Regulation of Gene Expression by the MafR Protein of Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Cruz, Sofía; Espinosa, Manuel; Goldmann, Oliver; Bravo, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a natural inhabitant of the human gastrointestinal tract. However, as an opportunistic pathogen, it is able to colonize other host niches and cause life-threatening infections. Its adaptation to new environments involves global changes in gene expression. The EF3013 gene (here named mafR) of E. faecalis strain V583 encodes a protein (MafR, 482 residues) that has sequence similarity to global response regulators of the Mga/AtxA family. The enterococcal OG1RF genome also encodes the MafR protein (gene OG1RF_12293). In this work, we have identified the promoter of the mafR gene using several in vivo approaches. Moreover, we show that MafR influences positively the transcription of many genes on a genome-wide scale. The most significant target genes encode components of PTS-type membrane transporters, components of ABC-type membrane transporters, and proteins involved in the metabolism of carbon sources. Some of these genes were previously reported to be up-regulated during the growth of E. faecalis in blood and/or in human urine. Furthermore, we show that a mafR deletion mutant strain induces a significant lower degree of inflammation in the peritoneal cavity of mice, suggesting that enterococcal cells deficient in MafR are less virulent. Our work indicates that MafR is a global transcriptional regulator. It might facilitate the adaptation of E. faecalis to particular host niches and, therefore, contribute to its potential virulence. PMID:26793169

  17. Characterization of Enterococcus faecalis Phage IME-EF1 and Its Endolysin

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Hang; An, Xiaoping; Zhang, Zhiyi; Chen, Jiankui; Tong, Yigang

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is increasingly becoming an important nosocomial infection opportunistic pathogen. E. faecalis can easily obtain drug resistance, making it difficult to be controlled in clinical settings. Using bacteriophage as an alternative treatment to drug-resistant bacteria has been revitalized recently, especially for fighting drug-resistant bacteria. In this research, an E. faecalis bacteriophage named IME-EF1 was isolated from hospital sewage. Whole genomic sequence analysis demonstrated that the isolated IME-EF1 belong to the Siphoviridae family, and has a linear double-stranded DNA genome consisting of 57,081 nucleotides. The IME-EF1 genome has a 40.04% G+C content and contains 98 putative coding sequences. In addition, IME-EF1 has an isometric head with a width of 35 nm to 60 nm and length of 75 nm to 90 nm, as well as morphology resembling a tadpole. IME-EF1 can adsorb to its host cells within 9 min, with an absorbance rate more than 99% and a latent period time of 25 min. The endolysin of IME-EF1 contains a CHAP domain in its N-terminal and has a wider bactericidal spectrum than its parental bacteriophage, including 2 strains of vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis. When administrated intraperitoneally, one dose of IME-EF1 or its endolysin can reduce bacterial count in the blood and protected the mice from a lethal challenge of E. faecalis, with a survival rate of 60% or 80%, respectively. Although bacteriophage could rescue mice from bacterial challenge, to the best of our knowledge, this study further supports the potential function of bacteriophage in dealing with E. faecalis infection in vivo. The results also indicated that the newly isolated bacteriophage IME-EF1 enriched the arsenal library of lytic E. faecalis bacteriophages and presented another choice for phage therapy in the future. PMID:24236180

  18. Enterococcus faecalis Gene Transfer under Natural Conditions in Municipal Sewage Water Treatment Plants†

    PubMed Central

    Marcinek, Herbert; Wirth, Reinhard; Muscholl-Silberhorn, Albrecht; Gauer, Matthias

    1998-01-01

    The ability of Enterococcus faecalis to transfer various genetic elements under natural conditions was tested in two municipal sewage water treatment plants. Experiments in activated sludge basins of the plants were performed in a microcosm which allowed us to work under sterile conditions; experiments in anoxic sludge digestors were performed in dialysis bags. We used the following naturally occurring genetic elements: pAD1 and pIP1017 (two so-called sex pheromone plasmids with restricted host ranges, which are transferred at high rates under laboratory conditions); pIP501 (a resistance plasmid possessing a broad host range for gram-positive bacteria, which is transferred at low rates under laboratory conditions); and Tn916 (a conjugative transposon which is transferred under laboratory conditions at low rates to gram-positive bacteria and at very low rates to gram-negative bacteria). The transfer rate between different strains of E. faecalis under natural conditions was, compared to that under laboratory conditions, at least 105-fold lower for the sex pheromone plasmids, at least 100-fold lower for pIP501, and at least 10-fold lower for Tn916. In no case was transfer from E. faecalis to another bacterial species detected. By determining the dependence of transfer rates for pIP1017 on bacterial concentration and extrapolating to actual concentrations in the sewage water treatment plant, we calculated that the maximum number of transfer events for the sex pheromone plasmids between different strains of E. faecalis in the municipal sewage water treatment plant of the city of Regensburg ranged from 105 to 108 events per 4 h, indicating that gene transfer should take place under natural conditions. PMID:9464401

  19. Different extracts of Zingiber officinale decrease Enterococcus faecalis infection in Galleria mellonella.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Valera, Marcia Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Dried, fresh and glycolic extracts of Zingiber officinale were obtained to evaluate the action against G. mellonella survival assay against Enterococcus faecalis infection. Eighty larvae were divided into: 1) E. faecalis suspension (control); 2) E. faecalis + fresh extract of Z. officinale (FEO); 3) E. faecalis + dried extract of Z. officinale (DEO); 4) E. faecalis + glycolic extract of Z. officinale (GEO); 5) Phosphate buffered saline (PBS). For control group, a 5 μL inoculum of standardized suspension (107 cells/mL) of E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) was injected into the last left proleg of each larva. For the treatment groups, after E. faecalis inoculation, the extracts were also injected, but into the last right proleg. The larvae were stored at 37 °C and the number of dead larvae was recorded daily for 168 h (7 days) to analyze the survival curve. The larvae were considered dead when they did not show any movement after touching. E. faecalis infection led to the death of 85% of the larvae after 168 h. Notwithstanding, in treatment groups with association of extracts, there was an increase in the survival rates of 50% (GEO), 61% (FEO) and 66% (DEO) of the larvae. In all treatment groups, the larvae exhibited a survival increase with statistically significant difference in relation to control group (p=0.0029). There were no statistically significant differences among treatment groups with different extracts (p=0.3859). It may be concluded that the tested extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis infection by increasing the survival of Galleria mellonella larvae. PMID:25831098

  20. Sub-lethal stress effects on virulence gene expression in Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Christian A; Hew Ferstl, Carrie M; Vogel, Rudi F

    2010-05-01

    Enterococci are ubiquitous lactic acid bacteria commonly associated with the human digestive tract as commensal organisms. Additionally, these organisms have a long history of use in foods improving flavor as well as providing protective mechanisms as either a probiotic or antimicrobial additive. However, Enterococcus faecalis accounts for up to 10% of all nosocomial infections of the bloodstream, wounds, urinary tract and heart. Knowledge about the regulation of virulence factors is limited and the involvement of environmental signals contributing to E. faecalis pathogenicity is poorly documented. In this study, two clinical E. faecalis isolates, TMW 2.63 and OG1RF, as well as one food isolate, TMW 2.629, were subjected to six sub-lethal food- and host-related stresses including 6.8% NaCl, 200 ppm nitrite, 51 degrees C, 80 MPa, pH 4.1 and 0.08% bile salts (cholic acid:chenodeoxycholic acid 1:1), respectively, reducing their growth rate to 10%. Relative gene expression of 15 stress and virulence-associated genes including dnaK, groEL, ctsR, clpPBCEX, gls24, efaAfs, ace, fsrB, gelE, sprE and cylB, was quantified by using real time PCR and Lightcycler((R)) technology (reference conditions: BHI broth, 37 degrees C, pH = 7.4). Apart from strain-dependent differences, sub-lethal environmental stress was capable of provoking significant alterations in the expression of virulence-associated genes in E. faecalis from clinical as well as food origins of isolation. These results help to avoid preconditioning enterococci in food production processes and to understand the complex mechanisms in E. faecalis' switch to pathogenicity. PMID:20227595

  1. Occurrence of vancomycin-resistant and -susceptible Enterococcus spp. in reclaimed water used for spray irrigation.

    PubMed

    Carey, Stephanie Ann; Goldstein, Rachel E Rosenberg; Gibbs, Shawn G; Claye, Emma; He, Xin; Sapkota, Amy R

    2016-05-01

    Reclaiming municipal wastewater for agricultural, environmental, and industrial purposes is increasing in the United States to combat dwindling freshwater supplies. However, there is a lack of data regarding the microbial quality of reclaimed water. In particular, no previous studies have evaluated the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in reclaimed water used at spray irrigation sites in the United States. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the occurrence, concentration, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of VRE and vancomycin-susceptible enterococci at three U.S. spray irrigation sites that use reclaimed water. We collected 48 reclaimed water samples from one Mid-Atlantic and two Midwest spray irrigation sites, as well as their respective wastewater treatment plants, in 2009 and 2010. Samples were analyzed for total enterococci and VRE using standard membrane filtration. Isolates were purified and then confirmed using biochemical tests and PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted using the Sensititre® microbroth dilution system. Data were analyzed by two-sample proportion tests and one-way analysis of variance. We detected total enterococci and VRE in 71% (34/48) and 4% (2/48) of reclaimed water samples, respectively. Enterococcus faecalis was the most common species identified. At the Mid-Atlantic spray irrigation site, UV radiation decreased total enterococci to undetectable levels; however, subsequent storage in an open-air pond at this site resulted in increased concentrations of enterococci. E. faecalis isolates recovered from the Mid-Atlantic spray irrigation site expressed intrinsic resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin; however, non-E. faecalis isolates expressed resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin (52% of isolates), vancomycin (4%), tetracycline (13%), penicillin (4%) and ciprofloxacin (17%). Our findings show that VRE are present in low numbers in reclaimed water at point-of-use at the sampled spray

  2. New trends in dentistry: plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis. The efficacy compared to chlorhexidine.

    PubMed

    Castilho, Adriana Lígia de; Saraceni, Cintia Helena Coury; Díaz, Ingrit Elida Collantes; Paciencia, Mateus Luís Barradas; Suffredini, Ivana Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is an important pathogen associated with endodontic diseases, and its elimination and control are of paramount importance, as it represents one of the major causes of failure in the treatment of endodontic disease. Twenty-five plant extracts obtained from Brazilian forests were found to be effective against planktonic E. faecalis and were subjected to two traditional antibacterial assays, the microdilution broth assay (MDBA) and the disk diffusion assay (DDA), using chlorhexidine (CHX) as a control. Seven out of 25 extracts showed significant antibacterial activity and were tested in a biofilm assay, and three of these extracts were subjected to chemical fractionation. Residues were tested for their antibacterial activity, and the first chemical findings were described based on thin layer chromatography (TLC). Extracts obtained from Ipomoea alba, Symphonia globulifera and Moronobea coccinea showed significant bactericidal activity in the MDBA. The same I. alba and S. globulifera extracts, as well as the extract obtained from Connarus ruber var. ruber, showed significant activity in the DDA. RH2O obtained from Psidium densicomum and Stryphnodendron pulcherrimum showed better antibacterial activity compared to the respective crude extracts and CHX. TLC analysis showed that phenolic compounds and triterpenes represent the first findings of chemical groups that may occur in all species. The results of the present study include the discovery of six active extracts against planktonic E. faecalis and support further testing via assays involving biofilm formation, as well as the determination of the compounds' chemical profiles, as their activity was significantly better than that observed for CHX. PMID:23538423

  3. Cotransfer of antibiotic resistance genes and a hylEfm-containing virulence plasmid in Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Arias, Cesar A; Panesso, Diana; Singh, Kavindra V; Rice, Louis B; Murray, Barbara E

    2009-10-01

    The hyl(Efm) gene (encoding a putative hyaluronidase) has been found almost exclusively in Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates, and recently, it was shown to be on a plasmid which increased the ability of E. faecium strains to colonize the gastrointestinal tract. In this work, the results of mating experiments between hyl(Efm)-containing strains of E. faecium belonging to clonal cluster 17 and isolated in the United States and Colombia indicated that the hyl(Efm) gene of these strains is also carried on large plasmids (>145 kb) which we showed transfer readily from clinical strains to E. faecium hosts. Cotransfer of resistance to vancomycin and high-level resistance (HLR) to aminoglycosides (gentamicin and streptomycin) and erythromycin was also observed. The vanA gene cluster and gentamicin resistance determinants were genetically linked to hyl(Efm), whereas erm(B) and ant(6)-I, conferring macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance and HLR to streptomycin, respectively, were not. A hyl(Efm)-positive transconjugant resulting from a mating between a well-characterized endocarditis strain [TX0016 (DO)] and a derivative of a fecal strain of E. faecium from a healthy human volunteer (TX1330RF) exhibited increased virulence in a mouse peritonitis model. These results indicate that E. faecium strains use a strategy which involves the recruitment into the same genetic unit of antibiotic resistance genes and determinants that increase the ability to produce disease. Our findings indicate that the acquisition of the hyl(Efm) plasmids may explain, at least in part, the recent successful emergence of some E. faecium strains as nosocomial pathogens. PMID:19667280

  4. Multiple posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms partner to control ethanolamine utilization in Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Kristina A.; Ramesh, Arati; Stearns, Jennifer E.; Bourgogne, Agathe; Reyes-Jara, Angelica; Winkler, Wade C.; Garsin, Danielle A.

    2009-01-01

    Ethanolamine, a product of the breakdown of phosphatidylethanolamine from cell membranes, is abundant in the human intestinal tract and in processed foods. Effective utilization of ethanolamine as a carbon and nitrogen source may provide a survival advantage to bacteria that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and may influence the virulence of pathogens. In this work, we describe a unique series of posttranscriptional regulatory strategies that influence expression of ethanolamine utilization genes (eut) in Enterococcus, Clostridium, and Listeria species. One of these mechanisms requires an unusual 2-component regulatory system. Regulation involves specific sensing of ethanolamine by a sensor histidine kinase (EutW), resulting in autophosphorylation and subsequent phosphoryl transfer to a response regulator (EutV) containing a RNA-binding domain. Our data suggests that EutV is likely to affect downstream gene expression by interacting with conserved transcription termination signals located within the eut locus. Breakdown of ethanolamine requires adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) as a cofactor, and, intriguingly, we also identify an intercistronic AdoCbl riboswitch that has a predicted structure different from previously established AdoCbl riboswitches. We demonstrate that association of AdoCbl to this riboswitch prevents formation of an intrinsic transcription terminator element located within the intercistronic region. Together, these results suggest an intricate and carefully coordinated interplay of multiple regulatory strategies for control of ethanolamine utilization genes. Gene expression appears to be directed by overlapping posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms, each responding to a particular metabolic signal, conceptually akin to regulation by multiple DNA-binding transcription factors. PMID:19246383

  5. Safety of the surrogate microorganism Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 for use in thermal process validation.

    PubMed

    Kopit, Lauren M; Kim, Eun Bae; Siezen, Roland J; Harris, Linda J; Marco, Maria L

    2014-03-01

    Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 is a surrogate microorganism used in place of pathogens for validation of thermal processing technologies and systems. We evaluated the safety of strain NRRL B-2354 based on its genomic and functional characteristics. The genome of E. faecium NRRL B-2354 was sequenced and found to comprise a 2,635,572-bp chromosome and a 214,319-bp megaplasmid. A total of 2,639 coding sequences were identified, including 45 genes unique to this strain. Hierarchical clustering of the NRRL B-2354 genome with 126 other E. faecium genomes as well as pbp5 locus comparisons and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed that the genotype of this strain is most similar to commensal, or community-associated, strains of this species. E. faecium NRRL B-2354 lacks antibiotic resistance genes, and both NRRL B-2354 and its clonal relative ATCC 8459 are sensitive to clinically relevant antibiotics. This organism also lacks, or contains nonfunctional copies of, enterococcal virulence genes including acm, cyl, the ebp operon, esp, gelE, hyl, IS16, and associated phenotypes. It does contain scm, sagA, efaA, and pilA, although either these genes were not expressed or their roles in enterococcal virulence are not well understood. Compared with the clinical strains TX0082 and 1,231,502, E. faecium NRRL B-2354 was more resistant to acidic conditions (pH 2.4) and high temperatures (60°C) and was able to grow in 8% ethanol. These findings support the continued use of E. faecium NRRL B-2354 in thermal process validation of food products. PMID:24413604

  6. Characterisation of the Plasmidome within Enterococcus faecalis Isolated from Marginal Periodontitis Patients in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Mikalsen, Theresa; Roberts, Adam P.; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify and characterize plasmids in a national collection of oral Enterococcus faecalis (n = 106) isolated from patients with marginal periodontitis. Plasmid replicon typing was performed by multiplex-PCR and sequencing with specific primers for 18 rep-families and 1 unique sequence. Additional plasmid analysis by S1-PFGE was performed for comparison. Totally 120 plasmid replicon amplicons of seven rep-families were identified in 93 E. faecalis strains, e.g. rep9 (prototype pCF10), rep6 (prototype pS86), rep2 (prototype pRE25/pEF1), and rep8 (prototype pAM373). Rep9 was the most predominant rep-family being detected in 81 (76.4%) strains. Forty of these strains were tetracycline resistant and three were erythromycin resistant. Rep6 was the second predominant rep-family being detected in 22 (20.8%) strains. Rep2 was detected in eight (7.5%) strains. All rep2-positive strains were resistant to tetracycline and/or erythromycin and six of them contained Tn916/Tn1545 genes. The rep-positive E. faecalis exhibited divergence in multilocus sequence types (STs). There was a significant correlation between rep9 and ST21, while multiple rep-families appeared in ST40. Totally 145 plasmid bands were identified in 95 E. faecalis strains by S1-PFGE, 59 strains carrying one plasmid, 27 carrying two, five carrying three, three carrying four, and one strain carrying five plasmids. Plasmid sizes varied between 5–150 kbp. There was a significant correlation between the number of plasmids identified by PCR rep-typing and by S1-PFGE. The results indicate that the majority of E. faecalis of marginal periodontitis are likely to be a reservoir for diverse mobile genetic elements and associated antimicrobial resistance determinants. PMID:23646122

  7. Antibacterial potential and genetic profile of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from human normal flora.

    PubMed

    Karimaei, Samira; Sadeghi, Javad; Asadian, Mahla; Esghaei, Maryam; Pourshafie, Mohammad Reza; Talebi, Malihe

    2016-07-01

    Enterococci have a widespread attendance in the circumference and belongs to the enteric commensal microbiota. Most of them produce the antimicrobial compounds and have an inhibition effect on pathogenic microorganisms. The objective of this study was to characterize the enterococcal strains isolated from human normal flora and assess their antibacterial activity. Enterococcal isolates were obtained from the feces of eighteen healthy humans. All enterococcal species were identified by biochemical and species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These isolates were investigated further to examine their ability to inhibit growth of Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli by well diffusion assay. Furthermore, antibiotic susceptibility test was performed and genetic relatedness of all isolates was evaluated by Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). In all, 432 isolates were obtained from fecal samples. All of the isolates identified as Enterococcus faecium by biochemical and molecular (PCR) methods. Using repetitive element palindromic (REP)-PCR method 54 patterns have been obtained and were selected for further evaluation. The results indicated that 66%, 38% and 24% of our isolates had antimicrobial effect against S. typhi, S flexneri and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), respectively. On the other hand, there was no significant inhibition effect against enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. On the other hand, the resistance rates for erythromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were 20%, 22%, and 1.8% respectively. In addition, the analysis of PFGE showed forty patterns with eight (40.7%) common types (CT) and thirty two (59.2%) single types (ST). Among eight common types, only one common type (CT5) had similar antimicrobial effect. These results suggested that enterococcal isolates obtained from

  8. A comparison of monomicrobial versus polymicrobial Enterococcus faecalis bacteriuria in a French University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Fourcade, C; Canini, L; Lavigne, J-P; Sotto, A

    2015-08-01

    Enterococci are of considerable relevance in the hospital setting. Their most common location is the urinary tract, where they may be responsible for both colonization and infections. They are often associated with the presence of other microorganisms. The aim was to compare monomicrobial and polymicrobial Enterococcus faecalis bacteriuria. A retrospective study was performed on the demographic, clinical, and laboratory data of 299 patients who had presented with E. faecalis bacteriuria in 2012 at a University Hospital. The bacteriuria was polymicrobial in 46.1 % of cases and in 36.4 % of cases was responsible for a urinary tract infection. Infections appeared to be more prevalent in the polymicrobial than the monomicrobial group (42 % vs 32 %, p = 0.06). Half of the patients who presented with urinary tract colonization received antibiotic treatment (54/ out of 10). A multivariate analysis adjusted for age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.02 per year, p = 0.006), gender (AOR = 2.2, p = 0.007), and clinical classification (colonization or infection, AOR = 1.6, p = 0.091), showed that diabetes mellitus (AOR = 2.0, p = 0.04), hospital length of stay exceeding 28 days (AOR = 2.0, p = 0.03), and presence of a urinary catheter (AOR = 2.4, p = 0.001) were all factors associated with polymicrobial E. faecalis bacteriuria. A reduction in the length of hospital stay and the use of urinary catheters would appear to be required to decrease the incidence of urinary tract colonization and infections by polymicrobial E. faecalis. Improper use of antibiotics to treat urinary tract colonization remains a major concern. PMID:25987245

  9. Chloride-Inducible Expression Vector for Delivery of Antimicrobial Peptides Targeting Antibiotic-Resistant Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Geldart, Kathryn; Borrero, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant enterococcal infections are a major concern in hospitals where patients with compromised immunity are readily infected. Enterococcus faecium bacteria are of particular interest as these pathogens account for over 80% of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infections. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced at the site of infection by engineered bacteria may offer a potential alternative to traditional antibiotics for the treatment of resistant bacteria such as E. faecium. For this mode of delivery to be effective, it is essential to identify a suitable protein expression system that can be used in the desired delivery bacterium. In this study, we describe a promising chloride-inducible promoter and its application in the bacterial delivery of AMPs from Lactococcus lactis to reduce counts of E. faecium bacteria in vitro. Reporter gene studies show that at chloride concentrations found within the human intestines, the chloride-inducible promoter exhibits high levels of protein expression compared to those of the commonly used nisin-inducible promoter. These results indicate that this system is powerful and would not require the exogenous administration of an inducer molecule. In its application for AMP production against E. faecium in vitro, L. lactis producing AMPs under the chloride promoter rapidly decreased E. faecium counts by nearly 10,000-fold. As an extension of this application, we also demonstrate the potential in using this type of delivery system in combination with traditional antibiotics to slow the development of resistance. Collectively, this study shows the promise of using a chloride-inducible promoter for the bacterial delivery of AMPs in the body for the treatment of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and other antibiotic-resistant bacteria. PMID:25841002

  10. Enterococcus faecalis 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase, an enzyme of isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Sutherlin, Autumn; Hedl, Matija; Sanchez-Neri, Barbara; Burgner, John W; Stauffacher, Cynthia V; Rodwell, Victor W

    2002-08-01

    Biosynthesis of the isoprenoid precursor isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) proceeds via two distinct pathways. Sequence comparisons and microbiological data suggest that multidrug-resistant strains of gram-positive cocci employ exclusively the mevalonate pathway for IPP biosynthesis. Bacterial mevalonate pathway enzymes therefore offer potential targets for development of active site-directed inhibitors for use as antibiotics. We used the PCR and Enterococcus faecalis genomic DNA to isolate the mvaS gene that encodes 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) synthase, the second enzyme of the mevalonate pathway. mvaS was expressed in Escherichia coli from a pET28 vector with an attached N-terminal histidine tag. The expressed enzyme was purified by affinity chromatography on Ni(2+)-agarose to apparent homogeneity and a specific activity of 10 micromol/min/mg. Analytical ultracentrifugation showed that the enzyme is a dimer (mass, 83.9 kDa; s(20,w), 5.3). Optimal activity occurred in 2.0 mM MgCl(2) at 37(o)C. The DeltaH(a) was 6,000 cal. The pH activity profile, optimum activity at pH 9.8, yielded a pK(a) of 8.8 for a dissociating group, presumably Glu78. The stoichiometry per monomer of acetyl-CoA binding was 1.2 +/- 0.2 and that of covalent acetylation was 0.60 +/- 0.02. The K(m) for the hydrolysis of acetyl-CoA was 10 microM. Coupled conversion of acetyl-CoA to mevalonate was demonstrated by using HMG-CoA synthase and acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase/HMG-CoA reductase from E. faecalis. PMID:12107122

  11. Antibacterial Efficacy of Aqueous Ozone in Root Canals Infected by Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Hubbezoglu, Ihsan; Zan, Recai; Tunc, Tutku; Sumer, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    Background: In endodontics, the elimination of resistant bacteria such as Enterococcus faecalis plays an important role for treatment success in root canals. Therefore, new alternative irrigants (instead of sodium hypochlorite) have been researched to achieve ideal endodontic treatment. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and to compare the antibacterial effect of aqueous ozone with different concentrations and techniques of application (manual and ultrasonic) against E. faecalis in human root canals. Patients and Methods: Eighty single-root mandibular premolar teeth were selected, prepared and sterilized. E. faecalis was incubated in the root canals and kept at 37°C for 24 h. The teeth were divided into four main groups each has 20 members: NaOCl (positive control) group; 8 ppm aqueous ozone group; 12 ppm aqueous ozone group; and 16 ppm aqueous ozone group. While half of the specimens were disinfected with aqueous ozone by manual technique, the other half was disinfected with the aqueous ozone by ultrasonic technique. Conventional irrigation technique was simultaneously applied with ultrasonic vibration that was produced by VDW.ULTRA device. The disinfection procedures were performed for 180 s to ensure standardization of all the working groups. Paper points (placed in the root canals before and after the disinfection procedures) were transferred to Eppendorf tubes containing 0.5 mL of brain heart infusion broth. Then, 50 μL of the suspension was inoculated onto broth agar media. Microbial colonies were counted, and the data were evaluated statistically using 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests. Results: Although the antibacterial effect of 16 ppm aqueous ozone using a manual technique had an insufficient effect, its ultrasonic application technique resulted in complete disinfection in the root canals. Conclusions: The bactericidal activity of high concentration of aqueous ozone combined with ultrasonic application technique

  12. Enterococcus faecalis subverts and invades the host urothelium in patients with chronic urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Horsley, Harry; Malone-Lee, James; Holland, David; Tuz, Madeleine; Hibbert, Andrew; Kelsey, Michael; Kupelian, Anthony; Rohn, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial urinary tract infections (UTI) are a major growing concern worldwide. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli has been shown to invade the urothelium during acute UTI in mice and humans, forming intracellular reservoirs that can evade antibiotics and the immune response, allowing recurrence at a later date. Other bacterial species, such as Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella enterica have also been shown to be invasive in acute UTI. However, the role of intracellular infection in chronic UTI causing more subtle lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), a particular problem in the elderly population, is poorly understood. Moreover, the species of bacteria involved remains largely unknown. A previous study of a large cohort of non-acute LUTS patients found that Enterococcus faecalis was frequently found in urine specimens. E. faecalis accounts for a significant proportion of chronic bladder infections worldwide, although the invasive lifestyle of this uropathogen has yet to be reported. Here, we wanted to explore this question in more detail. We harvested urothelial cells shed in response to inflammation and, using advanced imaging techniques, inspected them for signs of bacterial pathology and invasion. We found strong evidence of intracellular E. faecalis harboured within urothelial cells shed from the bladder of LUTS patients. Furthermore, using a culture model system, these patient-isolated strains of E. faecalis were able to invade a transitional carcinoma cell line. In contrast, we found no evidence of cellular invasion by E. coli in the patient cells or the culture model system. Our data show that E. faecalis is highly competent to invade in this context; therefore, these results have implications for both the diagnosis and treatment of chronic LUTS. PMID:24363814

  13. Estradiol protects female rats against sepsis induced by Enterococcus faecalis improving leukocyte bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Saia, Rafael Simone; Garcia, Fabíola Morales; Cárnio, Evelin Capellari

    2015-10-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive bacteria described as an important causative agent of sepsis. The contact between host leukocytes and bacteria activates the innate immunity, participating as the first defense mechanism against infection. Pro-inflammatory cytokines [including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin-1β] and nitric oxide (NO) are essential to recruitment of leukocytes into the infectious focus as well as their activation for phagocytosis. Beyond the bacteria species, gender has been considered another factor to predict outcome in septic patients. Studies suggest that females exhibit a protective advantage during sepsis models, being gonadal hormones possible modulators of functions of immune cells. Nevertheless, the role of estradiol during Gram-positive infection remains a literature gap. Our aims were to investigate whether estradiol protects rats against bacterial dissemination during E. faecalis-induced sepsis. We determined whether estradiol modulates the local and systemic inflammatory response, as well as the cell migration into the infectious focus and the bactericidal capacity of leukocytes. Our findings demonstrated that estradiol pre-treated rats showed a dose-dependent reduction in bacterial counts in peritoneal lavage fluid (PLF) and in liver. Moreover, TNF-α and nitrate levels were increased in plasma, while only TNF-α was increased in the PLF in estradiol-treated rats. The prevention of bacterial dissemination may be related to the enhanced neutrophil and macrophage migration into the peritoneal cavity. Furthermore, estradiol improved the phagocytic and bactericidal ability of these both inflammatory cells. Taken together, the present study clearly demonstrates an important protective role of estradiol against sepsis induced by E. faecalis in female rats. PMID:26143494

  14. Photodynamic and Antibiotic Therapy Impair the Pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecium in a Whole Animal Insect Model

    PubMed Central

    Chibebe Junior, José; Fuchs, Beth B.; Sabino, Caetano P.; Junqueira, Juliana C.; Jorge, Antonio O. C.; Ribeiro, Martha S.; Gilmore, Michael S.; Rice, Louis B.; Tegos, George P.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium has emerged as one of the most important pathogens in healthcare-associated infections worldwide due to its intrinsic and acquired resistance to many antibiotics, including vancomycin. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is an alternative therapeutic platform that is currently under investigation for the control and treatment of infections. PDT is based on the use of photoactive dye molecules, widely known as photosensitizer (PS). PS, upon irradiation with visible light, produces reactive oxygen species that can destroy lipids and proteins causing cell death. We employed Galleria mellonella (the greater wax moth) caterpillar fatally infected with E. faecium to develop an invertebrate host model system that can be used to study the antimicrobial PDT (alone or combined with antibiotics). In the establishment of infection by E. faecium in G. mellonella, we found that the G. mellonella death rate was dependent on the number of bacterial cells injected into the insect hemocoel and all E. faecium strains tested were capable of infecting and killing G. mellonella. Antibiotic treatment with ampicillin, gentamicin or the combination of ampicillin and gentamicin prolonged caterpillar survival infected by E. faecium (P = 0.0003, P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0001, respectively). In the study of antimicrobial PDT, we verified that methylene blue (MB) injected into the insect followed by whole body illumination prolonged the caterpillar survival (P = 0.0192). Interestingly, combination therapy of larvae infected with vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, with antimicrobial PDT followed by vancomycin, significantly prolonged the survival of the caterpillars when compared to either antimicrobial PDT (P = 0.0095) or vancomycin treatment alone (P = 0.0025), suggesting that the aPDT made the vancomycin resistant E. faecium strain more susceptible to vancomycin action. In summary, G. mellonella provides an invertebrate model host to study the

  15. vanC cluster of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus gallinarum BM4174.

    PubMed

    Arias, C A; Courvalin, P; Reynolds, P E

    2000-06-01

    Glycopeptide-resistant enterococci of the VanC type synthesize UDP-muramyl-pentapeptide[D-Ser] for cell wall assembly and prevent synthesis of peptidoglycan precursors ending in D-Ala. The vanC cluster of Enterococcus gallinarum BM4174 consists of five genes: vanC-1, vanXY(C), vanT, vanR(C), and vanS(C). Three genes are sufficient for resistance: vanC-1 encodes a ligase that synthesizes the dipeptide D-Ala-D-Ser for addition to UDP-MurNAc-tripeptide, vanXY(C) encodes a D,D-dipeptidase-carboxypeptidase that hydrolyzes D-Ala-D-Ala and removes D-Ala from UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide[D-Ala], and vanT encodes a membrane-bound serine racemase that provides D-Ser for the synthetic pathway. The three genes are clustered: the start codons of vanXY(C) and vanT overlap the termination codons of vanC-1 and vanXY(C), respectively. Two genes which encode proteins with homology to the VanS-VanR two-component regulatory system were present downstream from the resistance genes. The predicted amino acid sequence of VanR(C) exhibited 50% identity to VanR and 33% identity to VanR(B). VanS(C) had 40% identity to VanS over a region of 308 amino acids and 24% identity to VanS(B) over a region of 285 amino acids. All residues with important functions in response regulators and histidine kinases were conserved in VanR(C) and VanS(C), respectively. Induction experiments based on the determination of D,D-carboxypeptidase activity in cytoplasmic extracts confirmed that the genes were expressed constitutively. Using a promoter-probing vector, regions upstream from the resistance and regulatory genes were identified that have promoter activity. PMID:10817725

  16. Pilin and Sortase Residues Critical for Endocarditis- and Biofilm-Associated Pilus Biogenesis in Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Hailyn V.; Flores-Mireles, Ana L.; Kau, Andrew L.; Kline, Kimberly A.; Pinkner, Jerome S.; Neiers, Fabrice; Normark, Staffan; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Enterococci commonly cause hospital-acquired infections, such as infective endocarditis and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. In animal models of these infections, a long hairlike extracellular protein fiber known as the endocarditis- and biofilm-associated (Ebp) pilus is an important virulence factor for Enterococcus faecalis. For Ebp and other sortase-assembled pili, the pilus-associated sortases are essential for fiber formation as they create covalent isopeptide bonds between the sortase recognition motif and the pilin-like motif of the pilus subunits. However, the molecular requirements governing the incorporation of the three pilus subunits (EbpA, EbpB, and EbpC) have not been investigated in E. faecalis. Here, we show that a Lys residue within the pilin-like motif of the EbpC subunit was necessary for EbpC polymerization. However, incorporation of EbpA into the pilus fiber only required its sortase recognition motif (LPXTG), while incorporation of EbpB only required its pilin-like motif. Only the sortase recognition motif would be required for incorporation of the pilus tip subunit, while incorporation of the base subunit would only require the pilin recognition motif. Thus, these data support a model with EbpA at the tip and EbpB at the base of an EbpC polymer. In addition, the housekeeping sortase, SrtA, was found to process EbpB and its predicted catalytic Cys residue was required for efficient cell wall anchoring of mature Ebp pili. Thus, we have defined molecular interactions involved in fiber polymerization, minor subunit organization, and pilus subcellular compartmentalization in the E. faecalis Ebp pilus system. These studies advance our understanding of unique molecular mechanisms of sortase-assembled pilus biogenesis. PMID:23913319

  17. Photodynamic therapy in root canals contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis using curcumin as photosensitizer.

    PubMed

    da Frota, Matheus Franco; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Tanomaru-Filho, Mario; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Espir, Camila Galetti; Berbert, Fabio Luis Camargo Villela

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the photodynamic therapy (PDT) effect on root canals contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis using a light emitting diode (LED) light and a curcumin solution (CUR) as photosensitizer (PS). Eighty root canals from uniradicular human teeth were prepared with Protaper Universal rotary system and contaminated with E. faecalis for 21 days. They were divided as: GIa-PDT (CUR, pre-irradiation for 5 + 5 min of irradiation); GIb-PDT (CUR, pre-irradiation for 5 + 10 min of irradiation); GIIa-(CUR, pre-irradiation for 5 + 5 min without irradiation); GIIb-(CUR pre-irradiation for 5 + 10 min of irradiation); GIIIa-(physiological solution and irradiation for 5 min); and GIIIb-(physiological solution and irradiation for 10 min); positive and negative control groups. Collections from root canals were made at time intervals of 21 days after contamination, immediately after treatment, and 7 days after treatment, and submitted to colony forming units per milliter (CFU mL(-1)) counts. The data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison tests, at a level of significance of 5 %. In the immediate post-treatment collection, group GIa showed greater bacterial reduction in comparison with GIIa, GIIb, GIIIa, GIIIb, and positive control (P < 0.05). At 7 days post-treatment, GIa showed significant bacterial reduction only in comparison with GIIIa (P < 0.05). Curcumin as sensitizer was effective by 5 min LED irradiation but not by 10 min irradiation PDT using LED light, and curcumin as PS was not effective in eliminating E. faecalis. No difference was observed for periods of irradiation. PMID:25502831

  18. Rapid tests for detection and quantitation of Enterococcus contamination in recreational waters.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Rhian; Morris, Ceri; Livzey, Kristin; Hogan, James; Buttigieg, Neil; Pollner, Reinhold; Kacian, Daniel; Weeks, Ian

    2007-05-01

    Presently, growth-based tests are used for the detection and quantitation of microbiological contaminants in the environment. These tests take a minimum of 24 h to generate a result, which compromises the ability to take the most appropriate action. This report describes a rapid test for Enterococcus in recreational water as an indicator of faecal contamination. This method involves (1) isolation and lysis of the target organism, (2) purification of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) from the lysate and (3) amplification and detection of the purified rRNA. rRNA is used as the target since, in contrast to DNA, there are hundreds to thousands of copies in the cell. The rRNA is purified from the lysate by target capture onto magnetic microspheres, which removes interfering substances present in the sample. The rRNA is then quantitated using transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) with real-time homogeneous detection of amplicon using a fluorescent oligonucleotide probe. Compared to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, TMA is isothermal, more rapid, and ideally suited to RNA detection. The test described here demonstrates sensitive detection and quantitation of enterococci over a wide dynamic range with a high level of analytical specificity. The latter is particularly important for accurate and relevant monitoring both for protecting public health and for source tracking. Many conventional microbiological tests are time-consuming, exhibit limited dynamic range and are known to lack specificity. This assay demonstrates the advantages achievable by the application of TMA of rRNA targets to current environmental testing challenges. PMID:17492087

  19. Chloride-Inducible Expression Vector for Delivery of Antimicrobial Peptides Targeting Antibiotic-Resistant Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Geldart, Kathryn; Borrero, Juan; Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2015-06-01

    Antibiotic-resistant enterococcal infections are a major concern in hospitals where patients with compromised immunity are readily infected. Enterococcus faecium bacteria are of particular interest as these pathogens account for over 80% of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infections. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced at the site of infection by engineered bacteria may offer a potential alternative to traditional antibiotics for the treatment of resistant bacteria such as E. faecium. For this mode of delivery to be effective, it is essential to identify a suitable protein expression system that can be used in the desired delivery bacterium. In this study, we describe a promising chloride-inducible promoter and its application in the bacterial delivery of AMPs from Lactococcus lactis to reduce counts of E. faecium bacteria in vitro. Reporter gene studies show that at chloride concentrations found within the human intestines, the chloride-inducible promoter exhibits high levels of protein expression compared to those of the commonly used nisin-inducible promoter. These results indicate that this system is powerful and would not require the exogenous administration of an inducer molecule. In its application for AMP production against E. faecium in vitro, L. lactis producing AMPs under the chloride promoter rapidly decreased E. faecium counts by nearly 10,000-fold. As an extension of this application, we also demonstrate the potential in using this type of delivery system in combination with traditional antibiotics to slow the development of resistance. Collectively, this study shows the promise of using a chloride-inducible promoter for the bacterial delivery of AMPs in the body for the treatment of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and other antibiotic-resistant bacteria. PMID:25841002

  20. Nosocomial outbreak of ampicillin resistant Enterococcus faecium: risk factors for infection and fatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Harthug, S; Eide, G E; Langeland, N

    2000-06-01

    A nosocomial outbreak caused by ampicillin resistant Enterococcus faecium (ARE) was detected at a Norwegian university hospital in January 1995. Prior to this outbreak, ARE were not common in this hospital or other hospitals in Norway. During 1995 and 1996, a total of 149 cases with clinical ARE infection were detected prospectively. A case control study was performed by allocating controls matched for gender, age and ward of admission. Altogether, 123 case control pairs with mean age 70.1 years were included. Isolates from 89 (72. 4%) of the cases were identical or related to the defined outbreak strain as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In 75 of the patients (60.9%), ARE caused urinary tract infection, five (4.1%) had bacteraemia, 33 (26.8%) had wound infection and 10 (8.1%) had other infections. In a logistic regression model for 1:1 matched samples, the following factors were identified as significant risk factors for ARE infection: underlying neurological disease (OR=33.5), prescription of antimicrobial agents for more than 10 days (OR=8. 99), prescription of cephalosporins (OR=4.69), underlying gastrointestinal disease (OR=3.36) and length of hospital stay per day (OR=1.04). The intrahospital death rate for the cases was 18.7% compared with 8.9% for the controls, corresponding to an excess mortality attributable to ARE infection of 9.8%. A history of carbapenem prescription was the only independent factor contributing to death (OR=5.64) when comparing ARE patients dying in hospital to those surviving. PMID:10860690

  1. Human salivary proteins with affinity to lipoteichoic acid of Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Baik, Jung Eun; Choe, Hyuk-Il; Hong, Sun Woong; Kang, Seok-Seong; Ahn, Ki Bum; Cho, Kun; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is associated with refractory apical periodontitis and its lipoteichoic acid (Ef.LTA) is considered as a major virulence factor. Although the binding proteins of Ef.LTA may play an important role for mediating infection and immunity in the oral cavity, little is known about Ef.LTA-binding proteins (Ef.LTA-BPs) in saliva. In this study, we identified salivary Ef.LTA-BPs with biotinylated Ef.LTA (Ef.LTA-biotin) through mass spectrometry. The biotinylation of Ef.LTA was confirmed by binding capacity with streptavidin-FITC on CHO/CD14/TLR2 cells. The biological activity of Ef.LTA-biotin was determined based on the induction of nitric oxide and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α in a macrophage cell-line, RAW 264.7. To identify salivary Ef.LTA-BPs, the Ef.LTA-biotin was mixed with a pool of human saliva obtained from nine healthy subjects followed by precipitation with a streptavidin-coated bead. Ef.LTA-BPs were then separated with 12% SDS-PAGE and subjected to the mass spectrometry. Six human salivary Ef.LTA-BPs including short palate lung and nasal epithelium carcinoma-associated protein 2, zymogen granule protein 16 homolog B, hemoglobin subunit α and β, apolipoprotein A-I, and lipocalin-1 were identified with statistical significance (P<0.05). Ef.LTA-BPs were validated with lipocalin-1 using pull-down assay. Hemoglobin inhibited the biofilm formation of E. faecalis whereas lipocalin-1 did not show such effect. Collectively, the identified Ef.LTA-BPs could provide clues for our understanding of the pathogenesis of E. faecalis and host immunity in oral cavity. PMID:27474971

  2. The effect of different root canal medicaments on the elimination of Enterococcus faecalis ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    Dammaschke, Till; Jung, Nina; Harks, Inga; Schafer, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of chlorhexidine gel (CHX-G) 2%, chlorhexidine powder (CHX-P) 1%, povidone-iodine (PVP-I), polyhexanide and camphorated-and-mentholated chlorophenol (ChKM) ex vivo. Materials and Methods: For every medicament group 10 root segments (15 mm long) of extracted human teeth were prepared to ISO-size 45 and sterilized (n = 50). The root segments were then inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis and aerobically incubated at 37°C. After 1 week, ten root canals were filled with one of the medicaments, respectively and aerobically incubated at 37°C for another week. Ten teeth served as positive controls and were filled with sterile saline solution. After 7 days, the medicaments were inactivated and all root canals were instrumented to ISO-size 50. The obtained dentin samples were dispersed in Ringer solution followed by the preparation of serial dilutions. 10 μl per sample were applied to an agar plate and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. The colony forming units were counted and the reduction factors (RFs) were calculated and statistically analyzed. Results: Compared with the positive controls all medicaments exhibited an antibacterial effect against E. faecalis. The RFs for CHX-G, CHX-P and ChKM were significantly higher compared to PVP-I and polyhexanide (P < 0.05). In contrast to PVP-I and polyhexanide, CHX-G, CHX-P and ChKM were able to eliminate E. faecalis from all dentin samples. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this ex vivo investigation, 2% CHX-G and CHX-P were as effective as ChKM against E. faecalis. Thus, when choosing a root canal medicament the better biocompatibility of CHX compared with ChKM should be taken in consideration. PMID:24932119

  3. Ceftaroline Restores Daptomycin Activity against Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Warren; Nonejuie, Poochit; Olson, Joshua; Pogliano, Joseph; Humphries, Romney; Nizet, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Daptomycin-nonsusceptible vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) strains are a formidable emerging threat to patients with comorbidities, leaving few therapeutic options in cases of severe invasive infections. Using a previously characterized isogenic pair of VRE strains from the same patient differing in their daptomycin susceptibilities (Etest MICs of 0.38 mg/liter and 10 mg/liter), we examined the effect of ceftaroline, ceftriaxone, and ampicillin on membrane fluidity and susceptibility of VRE to surface binding and killing by daptomycin and human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL37. Synergy was noted in vitro between daptomycin, ampicillin, and ceftaroline for the daptomycin-susceptible VRE strain, but only ceftaroline showed synergy against the daptomycin-nonsusceptible VRE strain (∼2 log10 CFU reduction at 24 h). Ceftaroline cotreatment increased daptomycin surface binding with an associated increase in membrane fluidity and an increase in the net negative surface charge of the bacteria as evidenced by increased poly-l-lysine binding. Consistent with the observed biophysical changes, ceftaroline resulted in increased binding and killing of daptomycin-nonsusceptible VRE by human cathelicidin LL37. Using a pair of daptomycin-susceptible/nonsusceptible VRE strains, we noted that VRE is ceftaroline resistant, yet ceftaroline confers significant effects on growth rate as well as biophysical changes on the cell surface of VRE that can potentiate the activity of daptomycin and innate cationic host defense peptides, such as cathelicidin. Although limited to just 2 strains, these finding suggest that additional in vivo and in vitro studies need to be done to explore the possibility of using ceftaroline as adjunctive anti-VRE therapy. PMID:24366742

  4. Whole-Genome Analyses of Enterococcus faecium Isolates with Diverse Daptomycin MICs

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Lorena; Tran, Truc T.; Munita, Jose M.; Miller, William R.; Rincon, Sandra; Carvajal, Lina P.; Wollam, Aye; Reyes, Jinnethe; Panesso, Diana; Rojas, Natalia L.; Shamoo, Yousif; Murray, Barbara E.; Weinstock, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Daptomycin (DAP) is a lipopeptide antibiotic frequently used as a “last-resort” antibiotic against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE). However, an important limitation for DAP therapy against VRE is the emergence of resistance during therapy. Mutations in regulatory systems involved in cell envelope homeostasis are postulated to be important mediators of DAP resistance in E. faecium. Thus, in order to gain insights into the genetic bases of DAP resistance in E. faecium, we investigated the presence of changes in 43 predicted proteins previously associated with DAP resistance in enterococci and staphylococci using the genomes of 19 E. faecium with different DAP MICs (range, 3 to 48 μg/ml). Bodipy-DAP (BDP-DAP) binding to the cell membrane assays and time-kill curves (DAP alone and with ampicillin) were performed. Genetic changes involving two major pathways were identified: (i) LiaFSR, a regulatory system associated with the cell envelope stress response, and (ii) YycFGHIJ, a system involved in the regulation of cell wall homeostasis. Thr120→Ala and Trp73→Cys substitutions in LiaS and LiaR, respectively, were the most common changes identified. DAP bactericidal activity was abolished in the presence of liaFSR or yycFGHIJ mutations regardless of the DAP MIC and was restored in the presence of ampicillin, but only in representatives of the LiaFSR pathway. Reduced binding of BDP-DAP to the cell surface was the predominant finding correlating with resistance in isolates with DAP MICs above the susceptibility breakpoint. Our findings suggest that genotypic information may be crucial to predict response to DAP plus β-lactam combinations and continue to question the DAP breakpoint of 4 μg/ml. PMID:24867964

  5. Safety of the Surrogate Microorganism Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 for Use in Thermal Process Validation

    PubMed Central

    Kopit, Lauren M.; Kim, Eun Bae; Siezen, Roland J.; Harris, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 is a surrogate microorganism used in place of pathogens for validation of thermal processing technologies and systems. We evaluated the safety of strain NRRL B-2354 based on its genomic and functional characteristics. The genome of E. faecium NRRL B-2354 was sequenced and found to comprise a 2,635,572-bp chromosome and a 214,319-bp megaplasmid. A total of 2,639 coding sequences were identified, including 45 genes unique to this strain. Hierarchical clustering of the NRRL B-2354 genome with 126 other E. faecium genomes as well as pbp5 locus comparisons and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed that the genotype of this strain is most similar to commensal, or community-associated, strains of this species. E. faecium NRRL B-2354 lacks antibiotic resistance genes, and both NRRL B-2354 and its clonal relative ATCC 8459 are sensitive to clinically relevant antibiotics. This organism also lacks, or contains nonfunctional copies of, enterococcal virulence genes including acm, cyl, the ebp operon, esp, gelE, hyl, IS16, and associated phenotypes. It does contain scm, sagA, efaA, and pilA, although either these genes were not expressed or their roles in enterococcal virulence are not well understood. Compared with the clinical strains TX0082 and 1,231,502, E. faecium NRRL B-2354 was more resistant to acidic conditions (pH 2.4) and high temperatures (60°C) and was able to grow in 8% ethanol. These findings support the continued use of E. faecium NRRL B-2354 in thermal process validation of food products. PMID:24413604

  6. Physicochemical factors differentially affect the biomass and bacteriocin production by bovine Enterococcus mundtii CRL1656.

    PubMed

    Espeche, M Carolina; Juárez Tomás, M Silvina; Wiese, Birgitt; Bru, Elena; Nader-Macías, M E Fátima

    2014-02-01

    Bovine Enterococcus mundtii CRL1656 (Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos Culture Collection) produces an anti-Listeria and anti-Streptococcus dysgalactiae bacteriocin identified as mundticin CRL1656. The strain and its bacteriocin are candidates to be included in a beneficial product to prevent bovine mastitis as an alternative to antimicrobial agents. To optimize the production of biomass and mundticin CRL1656 by E. mundtii CRL1656, a complete 3 × 2(4) factorial design was applied. The effect of culture medium, initial pH, inoculum size, incubation temperature, and agitation conditions on biomass and bacteriocin production was evaluated simultaneously. Growth parameters were determined using the modified Gompertz model. A nonlinear model was used to estimate the effects of the variables on growth parameters. Bacteriocin production was analyzed using a linear mixed model. Optimal biomass and mundticin CRL1656 production by E. mundtii CRL1656 were obtained in different conditions. Maximal growth was recorded in autolyzed yeast, peptone, tryptone, Tween 80, and glucose or M17 broths, pH 6.5, 5.0% inoculum, 30 °C, with agitation. However, bacteriocin titers were higher in autolyzed yeast, peptone, tryptone, Tween 80, and glucose or de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) broths, pH 6.5, 30°C, both with or without agitation. Knowledge of the optimum conditions for growth and bacteriocin production of E. mundtii CRL1656 will allow the obtainment of high levels of biomass and mundticin CRL1656 as bioingredients of potential products to prevent bovine mastitis. PMID:24359825

  7. Erythromycin resistance and virulence genes in Enterococcus faecalis from swine in China.

    PubMed

    Zou, Li-Kou; Wang, Hong-Ning; Zeng, Bo; Li, Jin-Niang; Li, Xu-Ting; Zhang, An-Yun; Zhou, Ying-Shun; Yang, Xin; Xu, Chang-Wen; Xia, Qing-Qing

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to describe the erythromycin resistance phenotypes and genotypes, and the prevalence of virulence genes of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from swine in China. A total of 117 nonreplicate E. faecalis isolates, obtained from 502 clinical samples taken from different pig farms between 2007 and 2009 were included in the study. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the broth microdilution method. All of the isolates were screened for the presence of seven virulence genes (ace, asa1, cylA, efaA, esp, gelE, and hyl). In addition, the DNA from rythromycin-resistant isolates were amplified with primers specific for erythromycin resistance erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), mef(A/E), and msr(C) genes. Results show that erythromycin, tylosin, and ciprofloxacin resistance rates in E. faecalis were 66.67% (n=78), 66.67% (n=78), and 64.10% (n=75), respectively. About 69.23% of isolates (n=81) were positive for gelE, 48.72% (n=57) for ace, 15.38% (n=18) for efa, 7.69% (n=9) for asa1, and 6.84% (n=8) for esp. Among the erythromycin-resistant isolates, erm(B) (n=54) was the most prevalent resistance gene, followed by erm(A) (n=37). A significant correlation was found between the presence of the gelE virulence gene and erythromycin resistance (P<0.05). These findings suggest that enterococci from swine should be regarded with caution because they can be reservoirs for antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes. PMID:21344149

  8. Transmission and genetic diversity of Enterococcus faecalis among layer chickens during hatch

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies on transmission of Enterococcus faecalis among chickens during hatch have not been carried out so far. Information about vertical transmission and subsequent spreading and colonization of the cloacal mucosa through cloacal 'drinking' during hatch are important to understand the epidemiology of E. faecalis infections. In the present investigation vertical transmission and subsequent spreading and colonization of the cloacal mucosa of chickens by E. faecalis through cloacal 'drinking' were examined. Methods Two different batches of layer chickens originating from 45 weeks old Brown and White Lohmann parents, respectively from the same farm were sampled in the hatcher. Isolates were confirmed to be E. faecalis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and further by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to state their population structure and comparison made to sequence types previously obtained from chicken. Results A total of 480 chickens were swabbed from the cloacae just after hatch and after 24 hours. A total of 101 isolates were confirmed as E. faecalis by a species specific PCR. The prevalence of E. faecalis increased from 14% at 0 h to 97% after 24 h for the Brown Lohmann chickens and from 0.5% to 23% for the White Lohmann flock. The 84 isolates analysed by MLST were distributed on 14 sequence types (ST). Three ST (401, 82 and 249) accounted for 64% of all isolates analysed by MLST after 24 h. ST 82 has previously been reported from amyloid arthropathy and other lesions in poultry. Conclusions The present findings demonstrated a high potential of a few contaminated eggs or embryos to rapidly facilitate the spread of E. faecalis to almost all chickens during hatch. PMID:22017822

  9. Revealing Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prockter, L. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Head, J. W.; Watters, T. R.; Murchie, S. L.; Robinson, M. S.; Chapman, C. R.; McNutt, R. L.

    2009-04-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, developed under NASA's Discovery Program, launched in August 2004. En route to insertion into orbit about Mercury in 2011, MESSENGER flies by Mercury three times. The first and second of these encounters were accomplished in January and October of 2008. These flybys viewed portions of Mercury's surface that were not observed by Mariner 10 during its reconnaissance of somewhat less than half of the planet in 1974-1975. All MESSENGER instruments operated during each flyby and returned a wealth of new data. Many of the new observations were focused on the planet's geology, including monochrome imaging at resolutions as high as 100 m/pixel, multispectral imaging in 11 filters at resolutions as high as 500 m/pixel, laser altimetry tracks extending over several thousands of kilometers, and high-resolution spectral measurements of several types of terrain. Here we present an overview of the first inferences on the global geology of Mercury from the MESSENGER observations. Whereas evidence for volcanism was equivocal from Mariner 10 data, the new MESSENGER images and altimetry provide compelling evidence that volcanism was widespread and protracted on Mercury. Color imaging reveals three common spectral units on the surface: a higher-reflectance, relatively red material occurring as a distinct class of smooth plains, typically with distinct embayment relationships interpreted to indicate volcanic emplacement; a lower-reflectance, relatively blue material typically excavated by impact craters and therefore inferred to be more common at depth; and a spectrally intermediate terrain that constitutes much of the uppermost crust. Three more minor spectral units are also seen: fresh crater ejecta, reddish material associated with rimless depressions interpreted to be volcanic centers, and high-reflectance deposits seen in some crater floors. Preliminary measurements of crater size

  10. Aroma compounds generation in citrate metabolism of Enterococcus faecium: Genetic characterization of type I citrate gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Martino, Gabriela P; Quintana, Ingrid M; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S; Magni, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Enterococcus is one of the most controversial genera belonging to Lactic Acid Bacteria. Research involving this microorganism reflects its dual behavior as regards its safety. Although it has also been associated to nosocomial infections, natural occurrence of Enterococcus faecium in food contributes to the final quality of cheese. This bacterium is capable of fermenting citrate, which is metabolized to pyruvate and finally derives in the production of the aroma compounds diacetyl, acetoin and 2,3 butanediol. Citrate metabolism was studied in E. faecium but no data about genes related to these pathways have been described. A bioinformatic approach allowed us to differentiate cit(-) (no citrate metabolism genes) from cit(+) strains in E. faecium. Furthermore, we could classify them according to genes encoding for the transcriptional regulator, the oxaloacetate decarboxylase and the citrate transporter. Thus we defined type I organization having CitI regulator (DeoR family), CitM cytoplasmic soluble oxaloacetate decarboxylase (Malic Enzyme family) and CitP citrate transporter (2-hydroxy-carboxylate transporter family) and type II organization with CitO regulator (GntR family), OAD membrane oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex (Na(+)-transport decarboxylase enzyme family) and CitH citrate transporter (CitMHS family). We isolated and identified 17 E. faecium strains from regional cheeses. PCR analyses allowed us to classify them as cit(-) or cit(+). Within the latter classification we could differentiate type I but no type II organization. Remarkably, we came upon E. faecium GM75 strain which carries the insertion sequence IS256, involved in adaptative and evolution processes of bacteria related to Staphylococcus and Enterococcus genera. In this work we describe the differential behavior in citrate transport, metabolism and aroma generation of three strains and we present results that link citrate metabolism and genetic organizations in E. faecium for the first time

  11. A comparison of available and investigational antibiotics for complicated skin infections and treatment-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and enterococcus.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeld, Noah

    2007-01-01

    This article compares vancomycin, teicoplanin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, daptomycin, tigecyline, dalbavancin, telavancin, ceftobiprole, oritavancin, and ramoplanin for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), enterococcus, and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus. Vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic, is administered intravenously, and is the mainstay of treatment for MRSA and cSSSI. While not available in the U.S., teicoplanin, another glycopeptide antibiotic, can be administered intramuscularly and has simpler dosing and monitoring requirements than vancomycin. Quinupristin/dalfopristin treats vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) infections but inhibits cytochrome P450 A3P4, and has only modest activity against MRSA pneumonia. Daptomycin effectively treats cSSSI but not pneumonia caused by MRSA, and is effective against all strains of Staphylococcus. Linezolid, available orally and intravenously, is approved to treat community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia, cSSSI, and infections caused by MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci including infections with concurrent bacteraemia and VREE Tigecycline, a glycylcycline derived from minocycline, has been approved by the FDA to treat cSSSI and complicated intraabdominal infections, and might be effective against Acinetobacter baumannii; its primary side effect is digestive upset. Dalbavancin, effective against MRSA and administered intravenously once weekly, possesses coverage similar to vancomycin. Telavancin deploys multiple mechanisms of action and is effective against MRSA and Gram-positive bacteria resistant to vancomycin. Ceftobiprole, a cephalosporin effective against MRSA, has few side effects. Oritavancin demonstrates similar activity to vancomycin but possesses extended activity against vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus and enterococci. Ramoplanin, a macrocyclic depsipeptide, is unstable in the

  12. Proteomic characterization of vanA-containing Enterococcus recovered from Seagulls at the Berlengas Natural Reserve, W Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Enterococci have emerged as the third most common cause of nosocomial infections, requiring bactericidal antimicrobial therapy. Although vancomycin resistance is a major problem in clinics and has emerged in an important extend in farm animals, few studies have examined it in wild animals. To determine the prevalence of vanA-containing Enterococcus strains among faecal samples of Seagulls (Larus cachinnans) of Berlengas Natural Reserve of Portugal, we developed a proteomic approach integrated with genomic data. The purpose was to detect the maximum number of proteins that vary in different enterococci species which are thought to be connected in some, as yet unknown, way to antibiotic resistance. Results From the 57 seagull samples, 54 faecal samples showed the presence of Enterococcus isolates (94.7%). For the enterococci, E. faecium was the most prevalent species in seagulls (50%), followed by E. faecalis and E. durans (10.4%), and E. hirae (6.3%). VanA-containing enterococcal strains were detected in 10.5% of the 57 seagull faecal samples studied. Four of the vanA-containing enterococci were identified as E. faecium and two as E. durans. The tet(M) gene was found in all five tetracycline-resistant vanA strains. The erm(B) gene was demonstrated in all six erythromycin-resistant vanA strains. The hyl virulence gene was detected in all four vanA-containing E. faecium isolates in this study, and two of them harboured the purK1 allele. In addition these strains also showed ampicillin and ciprofoxacin resistance. The whole-cell proteomic profile of vanA-containing Enterococcus strains was applied to evaluate the discriminatory power of this technique for their identification. The major differences among species-specific profiles were found in the positions corresponding to 97-45 kDa. Sixty individualized protein spots for each vanA isolate was identified and suitable for peptide mass fingerprinting measures by spectrometry measuring (MALDI/TOF MS) and their

  13. Enterococcus faecalis utilizes maltose by connecting two incompatible metabolic routes via a novel maltose-6’-phosphate phosphatase (MapP)

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Abdelhamid; Blancato, Víctor S.; Repizo, Guillermo; Henry, Céline; Pikis, Andreas; Bourand, Alexa; de Fátima Álvarez, María; Immel, Stefan; Mechakra-Maza, Aicha; Hartke, Axel; Thompson, John; Magni, Christian; Deutscher, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Summary Similar to Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis transports and phosphorylates maltose via a phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP):maltose phosphotransferase system (PTS). The maltose-specific PTS permease is encoded by the malT gene. However, E. faecalis lacks a malA gene encoding a 6-phospho-α-glucosidase which in B. subtilis hydrolyses maltose-6’-P into glucose and glucose-6-P. Instead, an operon encoding a maltose phosphorylase (MalP), a phosphoglucomutase and a mutarotase starts upstream from malT. MalP was suggested to split maltose-6-P into glucose-1-P and glucose-6-P. However, purified MalP phosphorolyses maltose but not maltose-6’-P. We discovered that the gene downstream from malT encodes a novel enzyme (MapP) that dephosphorylates maltose-6’-P formed by the PTS. The resulting intracellular maltose is cleaved by MalP into glucose and glucose-1-P. Slow uptake of maltose probably via a maltodextrin ABC transporter allows poor growth for the mapP but not the malP mutant. Synthesis of MapP in a B. subtilis mutant accumulating maltose-6’-P restored growth on maltose. MapP catalyzes the dephosphorylation of intracellular maltose-6’-P, and the resulting maltose is converted by the B. subtilis maltose phosphorylase into glucose and glucose-1-P. MapP therefore connects PTS-mediated maltose uptake to maltose phosphorylase-catalyzed metabolism. Dephosphorylation assays with a wide variety of phospho-substrates revealed that MapP preferably dephosphorylates disaccharides containing an O-α-glycosyl linkage. PMID:23490043

  14. Using a Genome-Scale Metabolic Model of Enterococcus faecalis V583 To Assess Amino Acid Uptake and Its Impact on Central Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Solheim, Margrete; van Grinsven, Koen W. A.; Olivier, Brett G.; Levering, Jennifer; Grosseholz, Ruth; Hugenholtz, Jeroen; Holo, Helge; Nes, Ingolf; Teusink, Bas; Kummer, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria necessitates the development of new medication strategies. Interfering with the metabolic network of the pathogen can provide novel drug targets but simultaneously requires a deeper and more detailed organism-specific understanding of the metabolism, which is often surprisingly sparse. In light of this, we reconstructed a genome-scale metabolic model of the pathogen Enterococcus faecalis V583. The manually curated metabolic network comprises 642 metabolites and 706 reactions. We experimentally determined metabolic profiles of E. faecalis grown in chemically defined medium in an anaerobic chemostat setup at different dilution rates and calculated the net uptake and product fluxes to constrain the model. We computed growth-associated energy and maintenance parameters and studied flux distributions through the metabolic network. Amino acid auxotrophies were identified experimentally for model validation and revealed seven essential amino acids. In addition, the important metabolic hub of glutamine/glutamate was altered by constructing a glutamine synthetase knockout mutant. The metabolic profile showed a slight shift in the fermentation pattern toward ethanol production and increased uptake rates of multiple amino acids, especially l-glutamine and l-glutamate. The model was used to understand the altered flux distributions in the mutant and provided an explanation for the experimentally observed redirection of the metabolic flux. We further highlighted the importance of gene-regulatory effects on the redirection of the metabolic fluxes upon perturbation. The genome-scale metabolic model presented here includes gene-protein-reaction associations, allowing a further use for biotechnological applications, for studying essential genes, proteins, or reactions, and the search for novel drug targets. PMID:25527553

  15. Characterization of the chitinolytic machinery of Enterococcus faecalis V583 and high-resolution structure of its oxidative CBM33 enzyme.

    PubMed

    Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Bøhle, Liv Anette; Gåseidnes, Sigrid; Dalhus, Bjørn; Bjørås, Magnar; Mathiesen, Geir; Eijsink, Vincent G H

    2012-02-17

    Little information exists for the ability of enterococci to utilize chitin as a carbon source. We show that Enterococcus faecalis V583 can grow on chitin, and we describe two proteins, a family 18 chitinase (ef0361; EfChi18A) and a family 33 CBM (carbohydrate binding module) (ef0362; EfCBM33A) that catalyze chitin conversion in vitro. Various types of enzyme activity assays showed that EfChi18A has functional properties characteristic of an endochitinase. EfCBM33A belongs to a recently discovered family of enzymes that cleave glycosidic bonds via an oxidative mechanism and that act synergistically with classical hydrolytic enzymes (i.e., chitinases). The structure and function of this protein were probed in detail. An ultra-high-resolution crystal structure of EfCBM33A revealed details of a conserved binding surface that is optimized to interact with chitin and contains the catalytic center. Chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses of product formation showed that EfCBM33A cleaves chitin via the oxidative mechanism previously described for CBP21 from Serratia marcescens. Metal-depletion studies showed that EfCBM33A is a copper enzyme. In the presence of an external electron donor, EfCBM33A boosted the activity of EfChi18A, and combining the two enzymes led to rapid and complete conversion of β-chitin to chitobiose. This study provides insight into the structure and function of the CBM33 family of enzymes, which, together with their fungal counterpart called GH61, currently receive considerable attention in the biomass processing field. PMID:22210154

  16. Cloning and genetic organization of the bacteriocin 31 determinant encoded on the Enterococcus faecalis pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmid pYI17.

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, H; Fujimoto, S; Tanimoto, K; Ike, Y

    1996-01-01

    The conjugative plasmid pYI17 (57.5 kb) isolated from Enterococcus faecalis YI717 confers a pheromone response on the host and encodes the bacteriocin 31 gene. Bacteriocin 31 is active against E. hirae 9790, E. faecium, and Listeria monocytogenes. pYI17 was mapped physically by restriction enzyme analysis and the relational clone method. Deletion mutant and sequence analyses of the EcoRI fragment B cloned from pYl17 revealed that a 1.0-kb fragment contained the bacteriocin gene (bacA) and an immunity gene (bacB). This fragment induced bacteriocin activity in E. faecalis OG1X and E. hirae 9790. The bacA gene is located on the pYI17 physical map between 3.37 and 3.57 kb, and bacB is located between 3.59 kb and 3.87 kb, bacA encodes 67 amino acids, and bacB encodes 94 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of the bacA protein contained a series of hydrophobic residues typical of a signal sequence at its amino terminus. The predicted mature bacA protein (43 amino acids) showed sequence homology with the membrane-active class II bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria. Analysis of Tn5 insertion mutants and the resulting transcripts indicated that these genes are transcribed as an operon composed of bacA, bacB, and an open reading frame located downstream of bacB designated ORF3. PMID:8655558

  17. Characterization of Enterococcus faecium with macrolide resistance and reduced susceptibility to quinupristin/dalfopristin in a Japanese hospital: detection of extensive diversity in erm(B)-regulator regions.

    PubMed

    Isogai, Nayuta; Urushibara, Noriko; Kawaguchiya, Mitsuyo; Ghosh, Souvik; Suzaki, Keisuke; Watanabe, Naoki; Quiñones, Dianelys; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2013-08-01

    Cross-resistance to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B (MLSB) antibiotics is mainly mediated by the erm (erythromycin ribosome methylation) genes that encode 23S rRNA methylases in enterococi, and various mechanisms are involved in the streptogramin B resistance. Prevalence of MLSB resistance and its genetic mechanisms were analyzed for a total of 159 strains of Enterococcus faecium isolated from clinical specimens in a university hospital in Japan from 1997 to 2006. Resistance to erythromycin (EM) and clindamycin was detected in 88.1% and 89.9% of all the strains examined, respectively, and expression of resistance was totally constitutive. Although none of the strain was resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D), 28 strains (17.6%) showed intermediate resistance to Q/D (MIC: 2 μg/ml). The erm(B) gene was detected in 139 strains (87.4%), and msrC was found in all the strains examined, whereas no other known MLSB resistance genes were identified. The erm(B) regulator region (RR) containing a coding region of the leader peptide was classified into 13 genetic variations (L1-L3, M, S1-S7, D, and R genotypes) in 56 strains. However, no relatedness was identified between the erm(B) RR genotype and EM resistance, or reduced susceptibility to Q/D, although most of Q/D-intermediate strains were assigned to the L1, L2, and S1 genotypes. Q/D-intermediate strains were classified into five multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) types, including four types of clonal complex (CC)-C1, five sequence types (STs), including four STs of CC-17, and several resistance gene/virulence factor profiles. The present study revealed the occurrence of Q/D-intermediate E. faecium, which are composed of heterogeneous strains in Japan, and more genetic diversity in the erm(B) RRs than those reported previously. PMID:23442208

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF THE FIRST REPORTED VANCOMYCIN-RESISTANT ENTEROCOCCUS OUTBREAK AT A TERTIARY-CARE HOSPITAL IN BANGKOK, THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Chotiprasitsakul, Darunee; Santanirand, Pitak; Thitichai, Phantanee; Rotjanapan, Porpon; Watcharananan, Siriorn; Siriarayapon, Potjaman; Chaihongsa, Narong; Sirichot, Suntariya; Chitasombat, Maria; Chantharit, Prawat; Malathum, Kumthorn

    2016-05-01

    This retrospective study described the first reported vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) outbreak from June 2013 through January 2014 at a tertiary-care hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. After the index case was detected in an 18-bed medical intermediate care unit, a number of interventions was implemented, including targeted active surveillance for VRE, strict contact precautions, enhanced standard precautions, dedicated units for VRE cases, extensive cleaning of the environment and the restricted use of antibiotics. VRE isolates were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) testing. A prevalence case-control study was conducted. Among 3,699 culture samples from 2,671 patients screened, 74 patients (2.8%) had VRE. The positivity rate declined from 15.1% during week 1 to 8.2% during week 2 and then 1.4% during week 3. By weeks 4-9, the prevalences were 0-2.7%. However, the prevalence rose to 9.4% during week 10 and then subsequently declined. All VRE isolates were Enterococcus faecium and had the vanA gene. RAPD analysis revealed a single predominant clone. Multivariate analysis showed mechanical ventilation for ≥ 7 days was a predictive factor for VRE colonization [odds ratio (OR) 11.47; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.75-75.35; p = 0.011]. This experience demonstrates VRE can easily spread and result in an outbreak in multiple-bed units. Active surveillance, early infection control interventions and rapid patient cohorting were important tools for control of this outbreak. Patients requiring mechanical ventilator for ≥ 7 days were at higher risk for VRE acquisition. PMID:27405133

  19. Molecular characteristics of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium from a tertiary care hospital in Chengdu, China: molecular characteristics of VRE in China.

    PubMed

    Kang, M; Xie, Y; He, C; Chen, Z X; Guo, L; Yang, Q; Liu, J Y; Du, Y; Ou, Q S; Wang, L L

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) isolates phenotypically and molecularly, and investigate associations between the virulence factors enterococcal surface protein (esp), hyaluronidase (hyl), and collagen adhesin (acm) and colonization/infection. A total of 126 E. faecium [66 VREfm and 60 vancomycin-susceptible (VSEfm)] were collected in West China Hospital. Nine E. faecium isolates (7 VREfm and 2 VSEfm) were selected at random for comparative study in a large region from China. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were measured by Etest and agar dilution, vancomycin resistance genes (vanA, vanB, and vanC) and virulence genes (esp, acm, and hyl) were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Thirty-four VREfm underwent repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). One linezolid-resistant isolate (MIC = 8 μg/ml) was found; none were tigecycline resistant. All 73 VREfm (28 infective strains and 45 intestinal colonizers) had the vanA gene and VanA phenotype. Positivity for esp, hyl, and acm in VREfm was 79.5, 46.6, and 86.3%, respectively, which was higher than in VSEfm (54.8, 27.4, and 56.5%, respectively). Among VSEfm, positivity for acm in isolates from pleural or cerebrospinal fluid (84.6%) was higher than that from blood (32.4%). There were 11 rep-PCR types (similarity >95%) and MLST revealed nine sequence types (STs) among the selected isolates. Most VREfm and all VSEfm belonged to clonal complex 17. A new ST was found, with allele sequence (15, 1, 38, 1, 1, 1, 1). In China, most VREfm seem to belong to the classical nosocomial CC17 clone, and many of them have acquired virulence genes, further strengthening a hospital-adapted type. PMID:24463723

  20. Activity of linezolid in an in vitro pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model using different dosages and Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis strains with and without a hypermutator phenotype.

    PubMed

    Ba, Boubakar B; Arpin, Corinne; Bikie Bi Nso, Branly; Dubois, Véronique; Saux, Marie-Claude; Quentin, Claudine

    2010-04-01

    The influence of antibiotic dosages and bacterial mutator phenotypes on the emergence of linezolid-resistant mutants was evaluated in an in vitro pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model. A twice-daily 0.5-h infusion of a 200-, 600-, or 800-mg dose for 48 h was simulated against four strains (MIC, 2 microg/ml): Staphylococcus aureus RN4220 and its mutator derivative MutS2, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, and a mutator clinical strain of E. faecalis, Ef1497. The peak concentrations (4.38 to 4.79, 13.4 to 14.6, and 19.2 to 19.5 microg/ml) and half-lives at beta-phase (5.01 to 6.72 h) fit human plasma linezolid pharmacokinetics. Due to its bacteriostatic property, the cumulative percentages of the dosing interval during which the drug concentration exceeded the MIC (T > MIC), 66.6 and 69.1% of the dosing interval, were not significant, except for Ef1497, with an 800-mg dose and a T > MIC of 80.9%. At the standard 600-mg dosage, resistant mutants (2- to 8-fold MIC increases) were selected only with Ef1497. A lower, 200-mg dosage did not select resistant mutants of E. faecalis ATCC 29212, but a higher, 800-mg dosage against Ef1497 did not prevent their emergence. For the most resistant mutant (MIC, 16 microg/ml), characterization of 23S rRNA genes revealed the substitution A2453G in two of the four operons, which was previously described only in in vitro mutants of archaebacteria. Nevertheless, this mutant did not yield further mutants under 600- or 200-mg treatment. In conclusion, linezolid was consistently efficient against S. aureus strains. The emergence of resistant E. faecalis mutants was probably favored by the rapid decline of linezolid concentrations against a strong mutator, a phenotype less exceptional in E. faecalis than in S. aureus. PMID:20100878

  1. Genetic modifications to temperate Enterococcus faecalis phage Ef11 that abolish the establishment of lysogeny and sensitivity to repressor, and increase host range and productivity of lytic infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Fouts, D E; DePew, J; Stevens, R H

    2013-06-01

    Ef11 is a temperate bacteriophage originally isolated by induction from a lysogenic Enterococcus faecalis strain recovered from an infected root canal, and the Ef11 prophage is widely disseminated among strains of E. faecalis. Because E. faecalis has emerged as a significant opportunistic human pathogen, we were interested in examining the genes and regulatory sequences predicted to be critical in the establishment/maintenance of lysogeny by Ef11 as a first step in the construction of the genome of a virulent, highly lytic phage that could be used in treating serious E. faecalis infections. Passage of Ef11 in E. faecalis JH2-2 yielded a variant that produced large, extensively spreading plaques in lawns of indicator cells, and elevated phage titres in broth cultures. Genetic analysis of the cloned virus producing the large plaques revealed that the variant was a recombinant between Ef11 and a defective FL1C-like prophage located in the E. faecalis JH2-2 chromosome. The recombinant possessed five ORFs of the defective FL1C-like prophage in place of six ORFs of the Ef11 genome. Deletion of the putative lysogeny gene module (ORFs 31-36) and replacement of the putative cro promoter from the recombinant phage genome with a nisin-inducible promoter resulted in no loss of virus infectivity. The genetic construct incorporating all the aforementioned Ef11 genomic modifications resulted in the generation of a variant that was incapable of lysogeny and insensitive to repressor, rendering it virulent and highly lytic, with a notably extended host range. PMID:23579685

  2. Biochemical characterization of an anti-Candida factor produced by Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Because Candida albicans is resistant to several antifungal antibiotics, there is a need to identify other less toxic natural products, particularly antimicrobial proteins, peptides or bacteriocin like inhibitory substances. An attempt has been made to purify and characterise an anti-Candida compound produced by Enterococcus faecalis. Results An anti-Candida protein (ACP) produced by E. faecalis active against 8 C. albicans strains was characterised and partially purified. The ACP showed a broad-spectrum activity against multidrug resistant C. albicans MTCC 183, MTCC 7315, MTCC 3958, NCIM 3557, NCIM 3471 and DI. It was completely inactivated by treatment with proteinase K and partially by pronase E. The ACP retained biological stability after heat-treatment at 90°C for 20 min, maintained activity over a pH range 6–10, and remained active after treatment with α-amylase, lipase, organic solvents, and detergents. The antimicrobial activity of the E. faecalis strain was found exclusively in the extracellular filtrate produced in the late logarithmic growth phase. The highest activity (1600 AU mL-1) against C. albicans MTCC 183 was recorded at 48 h of incubation, and activity decreased thereafter. The peptide showed very low haemagglutination and haemolytic activities against human red blood cells. The antimicrobial substance was purified by salt-fractionation and chromatography. Partially purified ACP had a molecular weight of approximately 43 KDa in Tricine-PAGE analysis. The 12 amino acid N terminal sequence was obtained by Edman degradation. The peptide was de novo sequenced by ESI-MS, and the deduced combined sequence when compared to other bacteriocins and antimicrobial peptide had no significant sequence similarity. Conclusions The inhibitory activity of the test strain is due to the synthesis of an antimicrobial protein. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of a promising non-haemolytic anti-Candida protein from E

  3. Molecular Epidemiologic Analysis of Enterococcus faecalis Isolates in Cuba by Multilocus Sequence Typing

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Nobumichi; Nagashima, Shigeo

    2009-01-01

    We carried out the first study of Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates in Cuba by multilocus sequence typing linking the molecular typing data with the presence of virulence determinants and the antibiotic resistance genes. A total of 23 E. faecalis isolates recovered from several clinic sources and geographic areas of Cuba during a period between 2000 and 2005 were typed by multilocus sequence typing. Thirteen sequence types (STs) including five novel STs were identified, and the ST 64 (clonal complex [CC] 8), ST 6 (CC2), ST 21(CC21), and ST 16 (CC58) were found in more than one strain. Sixty-seven percent of STs corresponded to STs reported previously in Spain, Poland, and The Netherlands, and other STs (ST115, ST64, ST6, and ST40) were genetically close to those detected in the United States. Prevalence of both antimicrobial resistance genes [aac(6′)-aph(2″), aph(3′), ant(6), ant(3″)(9), aph(2″)-Id, aph(2″)-Ic, erm(B), erm(A), erm(C), mef(A), tet(M), and tet(L)] and virulence genes (agg, gelE, cylA, esp, ccf, and efaAfs) were examined by polymerase chain reaction. Aminoglycoside resistance genes aac(6′)-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia, aph(3′), ant(6), ant(3″)(9) were more frequently detected in ST6, ST16, ST23, ST64, and ST115. The multidrug resistance was distributed to all STs detected, except for ST117 and singleton ST225. The presence of cyl gene was specifically linked to the ST64 and ST16. Presence of the esp, gel, and agg genes was not specific to any particular ST. This research provided the first insight into the population structure of E. faecalis in Cuba, that is, most Cuban strains were related to European strains, whereas others to U.S. strains. The CC2, CC21, and CC8, three of the biggest CCs in the world, were evidently circulating in Cuba, associated with multidrug resistance and virulence traits. PMID:19857135

  4. Role of the mannose receptor in phagocytosis of Enterococcus faecalis strain EC-12 by antigen-presenting cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsuruta, Takeshi; Inoue, Ryo; Nagino, Takayuki; Nishibayashi, Ryoichiro; Makioka, Yuko; Ushida, Kazunari

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to clarify the phagocytic mechanisms of a heat-killed cell preparation of Enterococcus faecalis strain EC-12 (EC-12) by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled EC-12 was cocultured with peritoneal macrophage and the amount of EC-12 phagocytosed by peritoneal macrophages was measured using a microplate fluorometer. Peritoneal macrophages from toll-like receptor (TLR)2-, TLR7-, and MyD88-deficient knockout (KO) mice exhibited similar levels of EC-12 phagocytosis to those from wild-type mice. Similarly, dectin-1 neutralization of peritoneal macrophages had no effect on EC-12 phagocytosis. However, blockade of the mannose receptor (MR) significantly decreased the amount of EC-12 phagocytosed by peritoneal macrophages; the same effect was observed in bone marrow-derived macrophages and dendritic cells. Our findings suggest that MR plays a major role in EC-12 phagocytosis by the APCs. This aim of this study was to clarify the phagocytic mechanisms of a heat-killed cell preparation of Enterococcus faecalis strain EC-12 (EC-12) by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Our findings suggest that mannose receptor (MR) plays a major role in EC-12 phagocytosis by the APCs. PMID:23801521

  5. Vancomycin and High Level Aminoglycoside Resistance in Enterococcus spp. in a Tertiary Health Care Centre: A Therapeutic Concern.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Seema; Singla, Pooja; Deep, Antariksha; Bala, Kiran; Sikka, Rama; Garg, Meenu; Chaudhary, Uma

    2016-01-01

    Aims. This study was aimed at knowing the prevalence of vancomycin and high level aminoglycoside resistance in enterococcal strains among clinical samples. Study Design. It was an investigational study. Place and Duration of Study. It was conducted on 100 Enterococcus isolates, in the Department of Microbiology, Pt. BDS PGIMS, Rohtak, over a period of six months from July to December 2014. Methodology. Clinical specimens including urine, pus, blood, semen, vaginal swab, and throat swab were processed and Enterococcus isolates were identified by standard protocols. Antibiotic sensitivity testing of enterococci was performed using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Results. High level gentamicin resistance (HLGR) was more common in urine samples (41.5%) followed by blood (36%) samples. High level streptomycin resistance (HLSR) was more common in pus samples (52.6%) followed by blood samples (36%). Resistance to vancomycin was maximum in blood isolates. Conclusion. Enterococci resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents have been recognized. Thus, it is crucial for laboratories to provide accurate antimicrobial resistance patterns for enterococci so that effective therapy and infection control measures can be initiated. PMID:27047693

  6. Vancomycin and High Level Aminoglycoside Resistance in Enterococcus spp. in a Tertiary Health Care Centre: A Therapeutic Concern

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Pooja; Deep, Antariksha; Bala, Kiran; Sikka, Rama; Garg, Meenu; Chaudhary, Uma

    2016-01-01

    Aims. This study was aimed at knowing the prevalence of vancomycin and high level aminoglycoside resistance in enterococcal strains among clinical samples. Study Design. It was an investigational study. Place and Duration of Study. It was conducted on 100 Enterococcus isolates, in the Department of Microbiology, Pt. BDS PGIMS, Rohtak, over a period of six months from July to December 2014. Methodology. Clinical specimens including urine, pus, blood, semen, vaginal swab, and throat swab were processed and Enterococcus isolates were identified by standard protocols. Antibiotic sensitivity testing of enterococci was performed using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Results. High level gentamicin resistance (HLGR) was more common in urine samples (41.5%) followed by blood (36%) samples. High level streptomycin resistance (HLSR) was more common in pus samples (52.6%) followed by blood samples (36%). Resistance to vancomycin was maximum in blood isolates. Conclusion. Enterococci resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents have been recognized. Thus, it is crucial for laboratories to provide accurate antimicrobial resistance patterns for enterococci so that effective therapy and infection control measures can be initiated. PMID:27047693

  7. Fe(III) and Fe(II) ions different effects on Enterococcus hirae cell growth and membrane-associated ATPase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Vardanyan, Zaruhi; Trchounian, Armen

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sup 3+} stimulates but Fe{sup 2+} suppresses Enterococcus hirae wild-type and atpD mutant growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe ions change oxidation-reduction potential drop during cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} have opposite effects on a membrane-associated ATPase activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These effects are either in the presence of F{sub 0}F{sub 1} inhibitor or non-functional F{sub 0}F{sub 1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe ions decrease protons and coupled potassium ions fluxes across the membrane. -- Abstract: Enterococcus hirae is able to grow under anaerobic conditions during glucose fermentation (pH 8.0) which is accompanied by acidification of the medium and drop in its oxidation-reduction potential (E{sub h}) from positive values to negative ones (down to {approx}-200 mV). In this study, iron (III) ions (Fe{sup 3+}) have been shown to affect bacterial growth in a concentration-dependent manner (within the range of 0.05-2 mM) by decreasing lag phase duration and increasing specific growth rate. While iron(II) ions (Fe{sup 2+}) had opposite effects which were reflected by suppressing bacterial growth. These ions also affected the changes in E{sub h} values during bacterial growth. It was revealed that ATPase activity with and without N,N Prime -dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), an inhibitor of the F{sub 0}F{sub 1}-ATPase, increased in the presence of even low Fe{sup 3+} concentration (0.05 mM) but decreased in the presence of Fe{sup 2+}. It was established that Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} both significantly inhibited the proton-potassium exchange of bacteria, but stronger effects were in the case of Fe{sup 2+} with DCCD. Such results were observed with both wild-type ATCC9790 and atpD mutant (with defective F{sub 0}F{sub 1}) MS116 strains but they were different with Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+}. It is suggested that the effects of Fe{sup 3+} might be due to

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecalis Strain P8-1 Isolated from Wild Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) Feces on the South Coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prichula, Janira; Campos, Fabricio Souza; Pereira, Rebeca Inhoque; Cardoso, Leonardo Almansa; Wachholz, Guilherme Raffo; Pieta, Luiza; Mariot, Roberta Fogliatto; de Moura, Tiane Martin; Tavares, Maurício; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Frazzon, Jeverson; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis strains have a ubiquitous nature that allows them to survive in different niches. Studies involving enterococci isolated from marine animals are scarce. Therefore, in this study, we report the complete genome sequence of E. faecalis strain P8-1 isolated from feces of a Magellanic penguin on the south coast of Brazil. PMID:26769928

  9. Comparison of Enterococcus qPCR analysis results from fresh and marine water samples on two real-time instruments - poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will be recommending a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method targeting Enterococcus spp. as an option for monitoring recreational beach water quality. A practical consideration for widespread implementation of this or ...

  10. Comparison of Enterococcus quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis results from midwest U.S. river samples using EPA Method 1611 and Method 1609 PCR reagents

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has provided recommended beach advisory values in its 2012 recreational water quality criteria (RWQC) for states wishing to use quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for the monitoring of Enterococcus fecal indicator bacteria...

  11. Development of a prediction rule for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus carriage in a Veterans Affairs Medical Center population.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Stefan; Von Stein, Diana; Richardson, Kelly; Page, Joann; Miller, Sara; Winokur, Patricia; Diekema, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    A history of hospital admission in the prior year was the most sensitive predictor of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus colonization at admission to a Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) but missed more than one-third of carriers and required screening more than one-half of admitted patients. PMID:18702599

  12. Molecular analysis of the bacteriocin-encoding plasmid pDGL1 from Enterococcus durans and genetic characterization of the durancin locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enterococci constitute a significant component of lactic acid bacteria normally present in the intestinal microflora and include strains that produce bacteriocins. The genetic determinants for durancin GL in Enterococcus durans 41D were identified on the 8,347 bp plasmid pDGL1 by plasmid curing exp...

  13. INHIBITION OF VANCOMYCIN-RESISTANT ENTEROCOCCUS BY IN VITRO CONTINUOUS-FLOW CULTURES OF HUMAN STOOL MICROFLORA WITH AND WITHOUT ANAEROBIC GAS SUPPLEMENTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: An in vitro continuous-flow competitive exclusion (CFCE) culture model of human stool microflora was used to examine whether supplemental anaerobic gas is necessary for maintenance of anaerobes and inhibition of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). Methods and Results: CFCE culture...

  14. Genome Sequence of the Multiantibiotic-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Strain C68 and Insights on the pLRM23 Colonization Plasmid.

    PubMed

    García-Solache, Mónica; Rice, Louis B

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium infections are a rising concern in hospital settings. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci colonize the gastrointestinal tract and replace nonresistant strains, complicating the treatment of debilitated patients. Here, we present a polished genome of the multiantibiotic-resistant strain C68, which was obtained as a clinical isolate and is a useful experimental strain. PMID:27151808

  15. Genome Sequence of the Multiantibiotic-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Strain C68 and Insights on the pLRM23 Colonization Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Louis B.

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium infections are a rising concern in hospital settings. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci colonize the gastrointestinal tract and replace nonresistant strains, complicating the treatment of debilitated patients. Here, we present a polished genome of the multiantibiotic-resistant strain C68, which was obtained as a clinical isolate and is a useful experimental strain. PMID:27151808

  16. Enterococcus hirae, an unusual pathogen in humans causing urinary tract infection in a patient with benign prostatic hyperplasia: first case report in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Bourafa, N; Loucif, L; Boutefnouchet, N; Rolain, J-M

    2015-11-01

    Enterococcus hirae is a zoonotic pathogen rarely isolated from human infections. This case is the first description of E. hirae causing urinary tract infection in a diabetic man with benign prostatic hyperplasia from Algeria. The clinical isolate was identified by MALDI-TOF MS and displayed a multisensitivity antibiotic profile. PMID:26543562

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecalis Strain P8-1 Isolated from Wild Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) Feces on the South Coast of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Prichula, Janira; Campos, Fabricio Souza; Pereira, Rebeca Inhoque; Cardoso, Leonardo Almansa; Wachholz, Guilherme Raffo; Pieta, Luiza; Mariot, Roberta Fogliatto; de Moura, Tiane Martin; Tavares, Maurício; d’Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis strains have a ubiquitous nature that allows them to survive in different niches. Studies involving enterococci isolated from marine animals are scarce. Therefore, in this study, we report the complete genome sequence of E. faecalis strain P8-1 isolated from feces of a Magellanic penguin on the south coast of Brazil. PMID:26769928

  18. Effects of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 on selected lactic acid bacteria and enterobacteria in co-culture.

    PubMed

    Starke, I C; Zentek, J; Vahjen, W

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 is used as a probiotic for piglets and has been shown to modify the porcine intestinal microbiota. However, the mode of action of this probiotic modification is still unclear. One possible explanation is the direct growth inhibiting or stimulating effect of the probiotic on other indigenous bacteria. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the growth interactions of the probiotic with different indigenous porcine bacteria in vitro. Reference strains were cultivated with the probiotic E. faecium strain NCIMB10415 (SF68) in a checkerboard assay with 102 to 105 cells/ml inoculum per strain. Growth kinetics were recorded for 8 h and used to determine specific growth of the co-cultures. Additionally, total DNA was extracted from the co-cultures at the end of the incubation to verify which strain in the co-culture was affected. Co-cultivation with eight Enterococcus spp. tester strains showed strain-specific growth differences. Three of four E. faecium strains were not influenced by the probiotic strain. PCR results showed reduced growth of the probiotic strain in co-culture with E. faecium DSM 6177. Three of four Enterococcus faecalis strains showed reduced specific growth in co-culture with the probiotic strain. However, E. faecalis DSM 20478 impaired growth of the probiotic E. faecium strain. The growth of Lactobacillus johnsonii DSM 10533 and Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016 was enhanced in co-culture with the probiotic strain, but co-cultivations with Lactobacillus mucosae DSM13345 or Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM10533 showed no differences. Co-cultures with the probiotic E. faecium showed no impact on the growth rate of four different enterobacterial reference strains (2 strains of Salmonella enterica and 2 strains of Escherichia coli), but PCR results showed reduced cell numbers for a pathogenic E. coli isolate at higher concentration of the probiotic strain. As the in vitro effect of the probiotic E. faecium on

  19. Antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus species from meat and fermented meat products isolated by a PCR-based rapid screening method.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Musarrat; Krause, Denis O; Holley, Richard A

    2013-05-15

    Enterococci are predominantly found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals, but species commonly resident on vegetation are known. Their presence in large numbers in foods may indicate a lapse in sanitation and their ability to serve as a genetic reservoir of transferable antibiotic resistance is of concern. Conventional culture methods for identification of enterococci are slow and sometimes give false results because of the biochemical diversity of the organisms in this genus. This work reports the development of a PCR-based assay to detect enterococci at the genus level by targeting a 16S rRNA sequence. Published 16S rRNA sequences were aligned and used to design genus specific primers (EntF and EntR). The primers were able to amplify a 678 bp target region from Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 7080 and 20 other strains of enterococci from 11 different species, but there was no amplification by 32 species from closely related genera (Pediococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and Listeria) or species of Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The PCR positive samples were plated, screened by a colony patch technique and their identities were confirmed by API 20 Strep panels and sequencing. When dry fermented sausage and ham as well as fresh meat batter for dry cured sausage manufacture were tested for enterococci by the method, 29 Enterococcus strains (15 E. faecalis, 13 E. faecium, and one E. gallinarum) were identified. When susceptibility of these enterococci to 12 antibiotics was tested, the highest incidence of resistance was to clindamycin (89.6%), followed by tetracycline hydrochloride (65.5%), tylosin (62%), erythromycin (45%), streptomycin and neomycin (17%), chloramphenicol (10.3%), penicillin (10.3%), ciprofloxacin (10.3%) and gentamicin (3.4%). None was resistant to the clinically important drugs vancomycin or ampicillin. Most strains (27/29) were resistant to more than one antibiotic while 17 of 29 strains were resistant to three to 8 antibiotics

  20. Evaluation of technological properties of Enterococcus faecium CECT 8849, a strain isolated from human milk, for the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Nivia; Arroyo, Rebeca; Calzada, Javier; Peirotén, Ángela; Medina, Margarita; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Fernández, Leonides

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a variety of biochemical properties of Enterococcus faecium CECT 8849, which had been isolated from breast milk, were analyzed. Its acidifying capacity and proteolytic activity were low but, in contrast, remarkable peptidase and esterase activities were observed. Ethanol and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone were the most abundant volatile compounds found in experimental model cheese manufactured with E. faecium CECT 8849. This strain inhibited the growth of several Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua strains in vitro. Enterocin A and B structural genes were detected in E. faecium CECT 8849. Model fermented milk and cheeses were manufactured from milk inoculated or not with L. innocua CECT 8848 (2.5-3 log10 colony forming units mL(-1)) using E. faecium CECT 8849 or Lactococcus lactis ESI 153 as starter cultures. Although E. faecium CECT 8849 controlled Listeria growth in both dairy models, it led to lower reduction in Listeria counts when compared with L. lactis ESI 153. PMID:27216614

  1. Reduced susceptibility to quinupristin/dalfopristin in Enterococcus faecium in Greece without prior exposure to the agent.

    PubMed

    Karanika, M; Prati, A; Kiritsi, M; Spiliopoulou, I; Neonakis, I; Anifantaki, M; Petinaki, E

    2008-01-01

    During 2005-2006, a total of 865 Enterococcus faecium isolated from patients from eight Greek hospitals were tested for susceptibility to quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D). Among them, 250 genetically unrelated strains (28.9%) were found to be intermediate-resistant to Q/D (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 1.5-4 mg/L); all were resistant to dalfopristin (MIC=16-64 mg/L), whilst 69% were resistant to quinupristin, carrying the ermB gene. No strain was found to carry any of the known genes, such as vatE and vatD, involved in Q/D resistance, indicating that a non-transferable undetermined mechanism is responsible for the expression of low-level Q/D resistance. The high percentage of Q/D-intermediate-resistant E. faecium in Greece was not associated with prior consumption of the agent or with the veterinary use of virginiamycin. PMID:17923393

  2. Modelling the Biphasic Growth and Product Formation by Enterococcus faecium CECT 410 in Realkalized Fed-Batch Fermentations in Whey

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Nelson Pérez; Fajardo, Paula; Fuciños, Clara; Amado, Isabel Rodríguez; Alonso, Elisa; Torrado, Ana; Pastrana, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    The influence of initial pH on growth and nutrient (total sugars, nitrogen, and phosphorous) consumption by Enterococcus faecium CECT 410 was studied during batch cultures in whey. With these data, two realkalized fed-batch fermentations were developed using different feeding substrates. The shift from homolactic to mixed acid fermentation, the biphasic kinetics observed for cell growth and nitrogen consumption and the increase in the concentrations of biomass and products (lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and butane-2,3-diol) were the most noteworthy observations of these cultures. Modelling the fed-batch growth of Ent. faecium with the Logistic and bi-Logistic models was not satisfactory. However, biomass production was best mathematically described with the use of a double Monod model, which was expressed in terms of biomass, product accumulation, and nitrogen utilization. Product formation was successfully modelled with a modified form of the Luedeking and Piret model developed in this study. PMID:20689729

  3. Antimicrobial activity of herbal medicines (tulsi extract, neem extract) and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis in Endodontics: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Chandrappa, Pradeep Muttagadur; Dupper, Akash; Tripathi, Pragya; Arroju, Ramakrishna; Sharma, Preeti; Sulochana, Konthoujam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Successful endodontic treatment depends on effective disinfection and complete sealing of root canal. Various medicaments are advised for disinfecting root canal, such as herbal and non-herbal medicaments. This study was done to assess the antimicrobial activity of herbal medicines (neem extract, tulsi extract) and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis in Endodontics. Materials and Methods: Agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the antimicrobial action of different medicines. Sixty samples were segregated into four groups with 15 samples in each: Group I: chlorhexidine 2%, Group II: neem extract, Group III: tulsi extract, and Group IV: distilled water. The inhibition zones against E. faecalis were recorded and statistically assessed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test (P < 0.05). Results: Significant antibacterial effect against E. faecalis was observed with chlorhexidine followed by neem extract and tulsi extract. Conclusion: Herbal medicines seemed to be effective against E. faecalis compared to 2% chlorhexidine gluconate. PMID:26942123

  4. Rotational mechanism of Enterococcus hirae V1-ATPase by crystal-structure and single-molecule analyses.

    PubMed

    Iino, Ryota; Ueno, Hiroshi; Minagawa, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Kano; Murata, Takeshi

    2015-04-01

    In ion-transporting rotary ATPases, the mechanical rotation of inner rotor subunits against other stator subunits in the complex mediates conversion of chemical free energy from ATP hydrolysis into electrochemical potential by pumping ions across the cell membrane. To fully understand the rotational mechanism of energy conversion, it is essential to analyze a target sample by multiple advanced methods that differ in spatiotemporal resolutions and sample environments. Here, we describe such a strategy applied to the water-soluble V1 moiety of Enterococcus hirae V-ATPase; this strategy involves integration of crystal structure studies and single-molecule analysis of rotary dynamics and torque generation. In addition, we describe our current model of the chemo-mechanical coupling scheme obtained by this approach, as well as future prospects. PMID:25796033

  5. Transferable plasmid-mediated resistance to linezolid due to cfr in a human clinical isolate of Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Lorena; Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Mendes, Rodrigo E; Panesso, Diana; Singh, Kavindra V; Arias, Cesar A

    2012-07-01

    Nonmutational resistance to linezolid is due to the presence of cfr, which encodes a methyltransferase responsible for methylation of A2503 in the 23S rRNA. The cfr gene was first described in animal isolates of staphylococci, and more recently, it has been identified in Staphylococcus aureus from human clinical infections, including in an outbreak of methicillin-resistant S. aureus. In enterococci, cfr has been described in an animal isolate of Enterococcus faecalis from China. Here, we report an isolate of linezolid-resistant E. faecalis (603-50427X) recovered from a patient in Thailand who received prolonged therapy with the antibiotic for the treatment of atypical mycobacterial disease. The isolate lacked mutations in the genes coding for 23S rRNA and L3 and L4 ribosomal proteins and belonged to the multilocus sequence type (MLST) 16 (ST16), which is commonly found in enterococcal isolates from animal sources. Resistance to linezolid was associated with the presence of cfr on an ~97-kb transferable plasmid. The cfr gene environment exhibited DNA sequences similar to those of other cfr-carrying plasmids previously identified in staphylococci (nucleotide identity, 99 to 100%). The cfr-carrying plasmid was transferable by conjugation to a laboratory strain of E. faecalis (OG1RF) but not to Enterococcus faecium or S. aureus. The cfr gene was flanked by IS256-like sequences both upstream and downstream. This is the first characterization of the potential horizontal transferability of the cfr gene from a human linezolid-resistant isolate of E. faecalis. PMID:22491691

  6. Ex situ study of Enterococcus faecalis survival in the recreational waters of the southern coast of the Caspian Sea

    PubMed Central

    Irankhah, Sahar; Soudi, Mohammad Reza; Gharavi, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The US Environmental Protection Agency has suggested faecal enterococci as the primary bacterial indicators. Of more importance is their direct correlation with swimmer-associated gastroenteritis in recreation water quality monitoring. In contrast to other seawater bodies with 3.5% salinity, the recreational waters in the southern coast of the Caspian Sea possess its own salinity (about 1% w/v) and thus require further investigations to determine the capacity of Enterococcus faecalis as the sole primary microbial index in this unique aquatic environment. Materials and Methods: The survey of the presence and survival of E. faecalis as a microbial index in the recreational waters of the southern Caspian Sea was carried out using a microcosm as an experimental model. The concentration of E. faecalis cells in samples of seawater were estimated by a standard membrane filtration method using m-Enterococcus agar as the selective culture medium. As the current standard culture-based methods are not reliable enough for the detection of non-growing, damaged and under-tension bacteria, PCR was used to identify the possible VBNC form of the bacterium after disappearance of the culturable cells. Results and Conclusion: A continuous decline in the number of culturable E. faecalis cells resulted in apparent elimination of the bacteria from seawater in a defined period. Detection of intact DNA was possible in the following 60 days. The salinity of about 1% and the self-purification properties of the Caspian Sea make the conditions feasible for the use of this microorganism as a measure of water quality throughout the region. The results confirmed the presence of damaged bacterial cells, namely VBNC forms, indicating the necessity of examining of the sea water samples by using molecular approaches or repair procedures. PMID:27307975

  7. The influence of different peritoneal dialysis fluids on the in vitro activity of ampicillin, daptomycin, and linezolid against Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Kussmann, M; Schuster, L; Zeitlinger, M; Pichler, P; Reznicek, G; Wiesholzer, M; Burgmann, H; Poeppl, W

    2015-11-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of antibiotics is recommended for the treatment of peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis. However, little data are available on a possible interference between peritoneal dialysis fluids and the activity of antimicrobial agents. Thus, the present in vitro study set out to investigate the influence of different peritoneal dialysis fluids on the antimicrobial activity of ampicillin, linezolid, and daptomycin against Enterococcus faecalis. Time-kill curves in four different peritoneal dialysis fluids were performed over 24 h with four different concentrations (1 × MIC, 4 × MIC, 8 × MIC, 30 × MIC) of each antibiotic evaluated. Cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth was used as the comparator solution. All four peritoneal dialysis fluids evaluated had a bacteriostatic effect on the growth of Enterococcus faecalis. Compared to the cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth comparator solution, the antimicrobial activity of all antibiotics tested was reduced. For ampicillin and linezolid, no activity was found in any peritoneal dialysis fluid, regardless of the concentration. Daptomycin demonstrated dose-dependent activity in all peritoneal dialysis fluids. Bactericidal activity was observed at the highest concentrations evaluated in Dianeal® PDG4 and Extraneal®, but not in concentrations lower than 30 × MIC and not in Nutrineal® PD4 and Physioneal® 40. The antimicrobial activity of ampicillin and linezolid is limited in peritoneal dialysis fluids in vitro. Daptomycin is highly effective in peritoneal dialysis fluids and might, thus, serve as an important treatment option in peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical impact of the present findings. PMID:26337433

  8. Activity of Linezolid in an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model Using Different Dosages and Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis Strains with and without a Hypermutator Phenotype▿

    PubMed Central

    Ba, Boubakar B.; Arpin, Corinne; Bikie Bi Nso, Branly; Dubois, Véronique; Saux, Marie-Claude; Quentin, Claudine

    2010-01-01

    The influence of antibiotic dosages and bacterial mutator phenotypes on the emergence of linezolid-resistant mutants was evaluated in an in vitro pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model. A twice-daily 0.5-h infusion of a 200-, 600-, or 800-mg dose for 48 h was simulated against four strains (MIC, 2 μg/ml): Staphylococcus aureus RN4220 and its mutator derivative MutS2, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, and a mutator clinical strain of E. faecalis, Ef1497. The peak concentrations (4.38 to 4.79, 13.4 to 14.6, and 19.2 to 19.5 μg/ml) and half-lives at β-phase (5.01 to 6.72 h) fit human plasma linezolid pharmacokinetics. Due to its bacteriostatic property, the cumulative percentages of the dosing interval during which the drug concentration exceeded the MIC (T > MIC), 66.6 and 69.1% of the dosing interval, were not significant, except for Ef1497, with an 800-mg dose and a T > MIC of 80.9%. At the standard 600-mg dosage, resistant mutants (2- to 8-fold MIC increases) were selected only with Ef1497. A lower, 200-mg dosage did not select resistant mutants of E. faecalis ATCC 29212, but a higher, 800-mg dosage against Ef1497 did not prevent their emergence. For the most resistant mutant (MIC, 16 μg/ml), characterization of 23S rRNA genes revealed the substitution A2453G in two of the four operons, which was previously described only in in vitro mutants of archaebacteria. Nevertheless, this mutant did not yield further mutants under 600- or 200-mg treatment. In conclusion, linezolid was consistently efficient against S. aureus strains. The emergence of resistant E. faecalis mutants was probably favored by the rapid decline of linezolid concentrations against a strong mutator, a phenotype less exceptional in E. faecalis than in S. aureus. PMID:20100878

  9. Emergence of high ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates in a kidney transplant ward: role of antibiotic pressure and cross transmission.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Olivier; Corvec, Stéphane; Dantal, Jacques; Reynaud, Alain; Lucet, Jean-Christophe; Bémer, Pascale; Lepelletier, Didier

    2010-06-01

    The epidemiology of patients associated with ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (ARE) was investigated by combining both clinical approach and molecular analysis in a kidney transplant patient's ward. A case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for ARE by matching each patient with ARE with two control patients without any isolated E. faecium strain. ARE isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. From June 2004 to May 2006, 18 cases with clinical ARE samples were detected and compared with 35 control patients. By univariate analysis, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) (odds ratio [OR], 4.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-25.6), mean number of hospitalization days in the last year (p < 0.003), pyelonephritis or UTI (OR, 9.6; 95% CI, 2.2-46.1), oral third-generation cephalosporin use (OR, 12.42; 95% CI, 2.04-109.1), and fluoroquinolone use (OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.1-18.2) were significantly associated with ARE urinary tract colonization. By conditional logistic regression, hospitalization >21 days within 1 year (adjusted OR [aOR], 6.9; 95% CI, 1.0-46.5), recent medical history of pyelonephritis or UTI (aOR, 8.6; 95% CI, 1.5-49.1), and prior oral third-generation cephalosporin use (aOR, 13.1; 95% CI, 1.2-142.6) were identified as independent factors associated with ARE urinary tract colonization. Genotyping revealed a heterogeneous epidemiological situation with two major clones in patients hospitalized in successive rooms and 10 different single pulsotypes. Emergence of highly resistant enterococcal strains is a collateral damage from antibiotic prescription and represents a potential source of patient-to-patient transmission. Combining epidemiological approach and molecular analysis is a powerful tool to delineate mechanisms of emerging resistance. Improving our knowledge on ARE emergence in high antibiotic pressure hospital wards is a key factor to better control these colonizations/infections and to prevent the

  10. Cloning and genetic and sequence analyses of the bacteriocin 21 determinant encoded on the Enterococcus faecalis pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmid pPD1.

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, H; Fujimoto, S; Tanimoto, K; Ike, Y

    1997-01-01

    The pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmid pPD1 (59 kb) of Enterococcus faecalis encodes the bacteriocin 21 (bac21) determinant. Cloning, transposon insertion mutagenesis and sequence analysis of the bac21 determinant showed that an 8.5-kb fragment lying between kb 27.1 and 35.6 of the pPD1 map is required for complete expression of the bacteriocin. The 8.5-kb fragment contained nine open reading frames (ORFs), bacA to bac1, which were oriented in the same (upstream-to-downstream) direction. Transposon insertions into the bacA to bacE ORFs, which are located in the proximal half of bac21, resulted in defective bacteriocin expression. Insertions into the bacF to bac1 ORFs, which are located in the distal half of bac21, resulted in reduced bacteriocin expression. Deletion mutant analysis of the cloned 8.5-kb fragment revealed that the deletion of segments between kb 31.6 and 35.6 of the pPD1 map, which contained the distal region of the determinant encoding bacF to bac1, resulted in reduced bacteriocin expression. The smallest fragment (4.5 kb) retaining some degree of bacteriocin expression contained the bacA to bacE sequences located in the proximal half of the determinant. The cloned fragment encoding the 4.5-kb proximal region and a Tn916 insertion mutant into pPD1 bacB trans-complemented intracellularly to give complete expression of the bacteriocin. bacA encoded a 105-residue sequence with a molecular mass of 11.1 kDa. The deduced BacA protein showed 100% homology to the broad-spectrum antibiotic peptide AS-48, which is encoded on the E. faecalis conjugative plasmid pMB2 (58 kb). bacH encoded a 195-residue sequence with a molecular mass of 21.9 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed significant homology to the C-terminal region of HlyB (31.1% identical residues), a protein located in the Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin operon that is a representative bacterial ATP-binding cassette export protein. PMID:9401046

  11. Resource burden associated with contact precautions for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus: the patient access managers' perspective.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Erica S; Walensky, Rochelle P; Lee, Hang; Orcutt, Benjamin; Hooper, David C

    2012-08-01

    We surveyed patient access managers on the impact of contact precautions (CP) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) on time to bed assignment, and we investigated the factors influencing infection control policies allowing for discontinuation of CP. The majority of respondents reported an increase in time to bed assignment for patients with a history of MRSA and/or VRE infection or colonization. PMID:22759555

  12. Comparison of Genotypic and Phylogenetic Relationships of Environmental Enterococcus Isolates by BOX-PCR Typing and 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing ▿

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Bina S.; Badgley, Brian; Harwood, Valerie J.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental Enterococcus spp. were compared by BOX-PCR genotyping and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to clarify the predictive relationship of BOX-PCR fingerprints to species designation. BOX-PCR and 16S rRNA gene relationships agreed for 77% of strains. BOX-PCR provided superior intraspecies discrimination but incorrectly identified some strains to the species level and divided some species into multiple groups. PMID:21622792

  13. Evaluation of a PCR Assay to Detect Enterococcus faecalis in Blood and Determine Glycopeptides Resistance Genes: Van A and Van B

    PubMed Central

    Honarm, Hamidreza; Falah Ghavidel, Mahsome; Nikokar, Iraj; Rahbar Taromsari, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bacteremia due to Enterococcus faecalis is usually caused by strains resistant to most antibiotics. Effective management of the disease is dependent on rapid detection and characterization of the bacteria, and determination its sensitivity pattern to antimicrobial drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate a more rapid and reliable assay for simultaneous diagnosis of enterococcal bacteremia and its sensitivity pattern to antimicrobial drugs. Methods: Several bacterial suspensions with different content of two standard strains of Enterococcus faecalis resistant to vancomycin were used for inoculation to defibrinated sheep blood samples. PCR and routine assay was performed on all blood samples with different bacterial content. Results: Routine assay and PCR for all inoculated blood samples with ≥5 cfu/ml was positive. Mean time for PCR and routine assays was 10 hours and 5 days, respectively. Conclusion: PCR is a more rapid and sensitive assay for simultaneous detection and characterization for Enterococcus faecalis, and determination of its sensitivity pattern to vancomycin. PMID:23115452

  14. Distribution of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Genes in Enterococcus spp. and Characterization of Isolates from Broiler Chickens ▿ † ‡

    PubMed Central

    Diarra, Moussa S.; Rempel, Heidi; Champagne, Julie; Masson, Luke; Pritchard, Jane; Topp, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Enterococci are now frequent causative agents of nosocomial infections. In this study, we analyzed the frequency and distribution of antibiotic resistance and virulence genotypes of Enterococcus isolates from broiler chickens. Fecal and cecal samples from nine commercial poultry farms were collected to quantify total enterococci. Sixty-nine presumptive enterococci were isolated and identified by API 20 Strep, and their susceptibilities to antibiotics were determined. Genotypes were assessed through the use of a novel DNA microarray carrying 70 taxonomic, 17 virulence, and 174 antibiotic resistance gene probes. Total enterococcal counts were different from farm to farm and between sample sources (P < 0.01). Fifty-one (74%) of the isolates were identified as E. faecium, whereas nine (13%), seven (10%), and two (3%) isolates were identified as E. hirae, E. faecalis, and E. gallinarum, respectively. Multiple-antibiotic resistance was evident in E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates. The most common multiple-antibiotic resistance phenotype was Bac Ery Tyl Lin Str Gen Tet Cip. Genes conferring resistance to aminoglycoside (aac, aacA-aphD, aadB, aphA, sat4), macrolide (ermA, ermB, ermAM, msrC), tetracycline (tetL, tetM, tetO), streptogramin (satG_vatE8), bacitracin (bcrR), and lincosamide (linB) antibiotics were detected in corresponding phenotypes. A range of 9 to 12 different virulence genes was found in E. faecalis, including ace, agg, agrBEfs (agrB gene of E. faecalis), cad1, the cAM373 and cCF10 genes, cob, cpd1, cylAB, efaAEfs, and gelE. All seven E. faecalis isolates were found to carry the gelE gene and to hydrolize gelatin and bile salts. Results from this study showed the presence of enterococci of public and environmental health concerns in broiler chicken farms and demonstrated the utility of a microarray to quickly and reliably analyze resistance and virulence genotypes of Enterococcus spp. PMID:20971861

  15. Use of bacteriocin-producing, probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium AL41 to control intestinal microbiota in farm ostriches.

    PubMed

    Lauková, A; Kandričáková, A; Ščerbová, J

    2015-06-01

    Probiotic enterococci can produce bacteriocins. Enterococcus faecium AL41 is an Enterocin M-producing, probiotic strain which has previously shown beneficial effect in broiler chickens. In this study, it was used to control intestinal microbiota in farm ostriches in a 42-day experiment with an experimental group (EG, 40 ostriches) and a control group (CG, 46). In addition to feed mixture, the ostriches in EG received Ent. faecium AL41 (10(9) CFU ml(-1); by rifampicin-marked variant) 400 μl per animal per day in their drinking water for 21 days. Sampling was carried out at the start of the experiment (at day 0/1), at day 21 (after 21 days of AL41 application) and at day 42 (21 days after AL41 cessation). Faeces (mixture, n = 6) were treated using the standard microbiological dilution method and cultivated on selective media (ISO). The highest count of AL41 was found at day 42. Its identity was confirmed with PCR and Maldi-Tof. The ostriches were free of Salmonella and Campylobacter cells. At day 21, antimicrobial effect was demonstrated by significant reduction in coagulase-positive and negative staphylococci in EG compared to CG (P < 0·001) and coliforms, Enterobacteria and Pseudomonas-like bacteria (P < 0·001). We conclude that AL41 can be used to control intestinal microbiota in farm ostriches. Significance and impact of the study: Ostriches are excellent for high intensity farming in a wide range of climates, requiring only limited space and giving high yields per hectare. They are reared mainly for their meat. Although adult birds possess quite good immunity, young birds can be threatened by spoilage bacteria, especially when they are transferred from the nests to the farm area. Based on our previous results related to the beneficial effect of bacteriocin-producing, probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium AL41 in poultry or rabbits, we decided to test its ability to control intestinal microbiota in farming ostriches which has never been tested previously. PMID

  16. Accumulation of Pharmaceuticals, Enterococcus, and Resistance Genes in Soils Irrigated with Wastewater for Zero to 100 Years in Central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Siebe, Christina; Willaschek, Elisha; Sakinc, Tuerkan; Huebner, Johannes; Amelung, Wulf; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Siemens, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Irrigation with wastewater releases pharmaceuticals, pathogenic bacteria, and resistance genes, but little is known about the accumulation of these contaminants in the environment when wastewater is applied for decades. We sampled a chronosequence of soils that were variously irrigated with wastewater from zero up to 100 years in the Mezquital Valley, Mexico, and investigated the accumulation of ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, clarithromycin, carbamazepine, bezafibrate, naproxen, diclofenac, as well as the occurrence of Enterococcus spp., and sul and qnr resistance genes. Total concentrations of ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and carbamazepine increased with irrigation duration reaching 95% of their upper limit of 1.4 µg/kg (ciprofloxacin), 4.3 µg/kg (sulfamethoxazole), and 5.4 µg/kg (carbamazepine) in soils irrigated for 19–28 years. Accumulation was soil-type-specific, with largest accumulation rates in Leptosols and no time-trend in Vertisols. Acidic pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, naproxen, bezafibrate) were not retained and thus did not accumulate in soils. We did not detect qnrA genes, but qnrS and qnrB genes were found in two of the irrigated soils. Relative concentrations of sul1 genes in irrigated soils were two orders of magnitude larger (3.15×10−3±0.22×10−3 copies/16S rDNA) than in non-irrigated soils (4.35×10−5±1.00×10−5 copies/16S rDNA), while those of sul2 exceeded the ones in non-irrigated soils still by a factor of 22 (6.61×10–4±0.59×10−4 versus 2.99×10−5±0.26×10−5 copies/16S rDNA). Absolute numbers of sul genes continued to increase with prolonging irrigation together with Enterococcus spp. 23S rDNA and total 16S rDNA contents. Increasing total concentrations of antibiotics in soil are not accompanied by increasing relative abundances of resistance genes. Nevertheless, wastewater irrigation enlarges the absolute concentration of resistance genes in soils due to a long-term increase in

  17. Prevalence of putative virulence factors and antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococcus faecalis isolates from patients with dental Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Salah, Randa; Dar-Odeh, Najla; Abu Hammad, Osama; Shehabi, Asem A

    2008-01-01

    Background This study investigated the prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis, its putative virulence factors and antimicrobial susceptibility in individuals with and without dental diseases. A total of 159 oral rinse specimens were collected from patients (n = 109) suffering from dental diseases and healthy controls (n = 50). Results E. faecalis was detected using only culture in 8/109 (7.3%) of the patients with various types of dental diseases, whereas no E. faecalis was found in the healthy controls weather using both culture and PCR. Phenotype characterizations of the 8 E. faecalis isolates indicated that 25% of the isolates produced haemolysin and 37.5% produced gelatinase. Most important virulence genes; collagen binding protein (ace) and endocarditis antigen (efaA) were present in all 8 E. faecalis isolates, while haemolysin activator gene (cylA) was detected only in 25% of isolates, and all isolates were negative for esp gene. All E. faecalis isolates were 100% susceptible to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin, and to less extent to erythromycin (62.5%). Conclusion This study shows that all E. faecalis isolates were recovered only from patients with dental diseases especially necrotic pulps, and all isolates carried both collagen binding protein and endocarditis antigen genes and highly susceptible to frequently used antimicrobial drugs in Jordan. PMID:18513445

  18. Sunlight mediated inactivation mechanisms of Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli in clear water versus waste stabilization pond water.

    PubMed

    Kadir, Khalid; Nelson, Kara L

    2014-03-01

    Escherichia coli and enterococci have been previously reported to differ in the mechanisms and conditions that affect their sunlight-mediated inactivation in waste stabilization ponds. This study was undertaken to further characterize these mechanisms, using simulated sunlight and single strains of laboratory-grown E. coli and Enterococcus faecalis, with a focus on characterizing the contribution of exogenous reactive oxygen species to the inactivation process. We found that direct damage by UVB light (280-320 nm) was not a significant inactivation mechanism for either organism. E. coli inactivation was strongly dependent on dissolved oxygen concentrations and the presence of UVB wavelengths but E. coli were not susceptible to inactivation by exogenous sensitizers present in waste stabilization pond water. In contrast, E. faecalis inactivation in pond water occurred primarily through exogenous mechanisms, with strong evidence that singlet oxygen is an important transient reactive species. The exogenous mechanism could utilize wavelengths into the visible spectrum and sensitizers were mainly colloidal, distributed between 0.2 and ∼1 μm in size. Singlet oxygen is likely an important endogenous species in both E. faecalis and E. coli inactivation due to sunlight. Although the two organisms had similar inactivation rates in buffered, clear water, the inactivation rate of E. faecalis was 7 times greater than that of E. coli in air-saturated pond water at circumneutral pH due to its susceptibility to exogenous sensitizers and longer wavelengths. PMID:24188579

  19. Antibacterial and residual antimicrobial activities against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm: A comparison between EDTA, chlorhexidine, cetrimide, MTAD and QMix.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Chen, Min; Lu, Yan; Guo, Xiangjun; Qiao, Feng; Wu, Ligeng

    2015-01-01

    We compared the antibacterial and residual antimicrobial activities of five root canal irrigants (17% EDTA,2% chlorhexidine,0.2% cetrimide, MTAD, and QMix) in a model of Enterococcus faecalis biofilm formation. Sixty dentin blocks with 3-week E. faecalis biofilm were divided into six equal groups and flushed with irrigant for 2 min or left untreated. A blank control group was also established. Antibacterial activities of the irrigants were evaluated by counting colony forming units. To test residual antimicrobial activities, 280 dentin blocks were divided into seven equal groups and flushed with irrigant for 2 min or left untreated and then incubated with E. faecalis suspension for 48 h, or used as a blank. No bacteria were observed in the blank control group. The number of viable E. faecalis was significantly fewer in the irrigant-treated groups compared with the untreated control (P < 0.05). Among the five irrigants, QMix had the strongest antibacterial activity. Residual antimicrobial activities of CHX were significantly higher at 12 h, 24 h and 36 h compared to untreated control (P < 0.05). All five root canal irrigants were effective to some extent against E. faecalis, but QMix and CHX had the strongest, and CHX the longest (up to 36 h), antimicrobial activity. PMID:26245711

  20. Comparative evaluation of effect of different irrigation solutions against Enterococcus faecalis: A polymerase chain reaction-based study

    PubMed Central

    Seelan, R. Gnana; Kumar, Arvind; Jonathan, R.; Maheswari, Uma; Raja, Jacob; Chelliah, P.

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is the most isolated or detected species from oral infections including marginal periodontitis, infected root canals, periradicular abscesses and also detected in cases of failed endodontic therapy. To prevent endodontic treatment failure irrigation is mandatory for the effective removal of smear layer, pulp tissue, and microorganisms. Cultivation and other traditional identification methods have been demonstrated to have several limitations when it comes to microbiological identification. Polymerase chain reaction was selected because it has an added advantage over traditional microbiological methods. Materials and Methods: Twenty single rooted premolars were taken were taken stored in 0.1% thymol solution at 4°C decoronated to obtain 12 mm length, teeth were autoclaved at 121°C, canals were instrumented up to 35k file (International Organization for Standardization). The samples were randomly divided into three groups Group I - 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL) and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), Group - II 5.25% NaOCL and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), Group III - 5.25% NaOCL and 17% EDTA and 2% CHX. Results: The results showed that Group III which is 5% NaOCl followed by 17% EDTA and followed by 2% CHX showed maximum antimicrobial activity in all the three different time intervals. PMID:26538921

  1. Risk factors for vancomycin-resistant enterococcus bacteremia and its influence on survival after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tavadze, M; Rybicki, L; Mossad, S; Avery, R; Yurch, M; Pohlman, B; Duong, H; Dean, R; Hill, B; Andresen, S; Hanna, R; Majhail, N; Copelan, E; Bolwell, B; Kalaycio, M; Sobecks, R

    2014-10-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) is a well-known infectious complication among immunocompromised patients. We performed a retrospective analysis to identify risk factors for the development of VRE bacteremia (VRE-B) within 15 months after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) and to determine its prognostic importance for other post-transplant outcomes. Eight hundred consecutive adult patients who underwent alloHCT for hematologic diseases from 1997 to 2011 were included. Seventy-six (10%) developed VRE-B at a median of 46 days post transplant. Year of transplant, higher HCT comorbidity score, a diagnosis of ALL, unrelated donor and umbilical cord blood donor were all significant risk factors on multivariable analysis for the development of VRE-B. Sixty-seven (88%) died within a median of 1.1 months after VRE-B, but only four (6%) of these deaths were attributable to VRE. VRE-B was significantly associated with worse OS (hazard ratio 4.28, 95% confidence interval 3.23-5.66, P<0.001) in multivariable analysis. We conclude that the incidence of VRE-B after alloHCT has increased over time and is highly associated with mortality, although not usually attributable to VRE infection. Rather than being the cause, this may be a marker for a complicated post-transplant course. Strategies to further enhance immune reconstitution post transplant and strict adherence to infection prevention measures are warranted. PMID:25111516

  2. The Fibronectin-Binding Protein EfbA Contributes to Pathogenesis and Protects against Infective Endocarditis Caused by Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavindra V.; La Rosa, Sabina Leanti; Somarajan, Sudha R.; Roh, Jung Hyeob

    2015-01-01

    EfbA is a PavA-like fibronectin adhesin of Enterococcus faecalis previously shown to be important in experimental urinary tract infection. Here, we expressed and purified the E. faecalis OG1RF EfbA and confirmed that this protein binds with high affinity to immobilized fibronectin, collagen I, and collagen V. We constructed an efbA deletion mutant and demonstrated that its virulence was significantly attenuated (P < 0.0006) versus the wild type in a mixed inoculum rat endocarditis model. Furthermore, efbA deletion resulted in diminished ability to bind fibronectin (P < 0.0001) and reduced biofilm (P < 0.001). Reintroduction of efbA into the original chromosomal location restored virulence, adherence to fibronectin, and biofilm formation to wild-type levels. Finally, vaccination of rats with purified recombinant EfbA protein protected against OG1RF endocarditis (P = 0.008 versus control). Taken together, our results demonstrate that EfbA is an important factor involved in E. faecalis endocarditis and that rEfbA immunization is effective in preventing such infection, likely by interfering with bacterial adherence. PMID:26351286

  3. High-level vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium related to humans and pigs found in dust from pig breeding facilities.

    PubMed

    Braga, Teresa M; Pomba, Constança; Lopes, M Fátima Silva

    2013-01-25

    Environmental dust from animal breeding facilities was never screened for the presence of enterococci, nor of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), despite the possibility of being a vehicle of transmission of strains and antibiotic resistance genes between food-producing animals and man. Bio-security measures in pig facilities include disinfection with biocides to avoid the dissemination of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, namely enterococci and in particular VRE. We thus undertook collection of enterococci and VRE in a representative number of breeding pig facilities in Portugal (n=171) and analyzed their susceptibility to benzalkonium chloride (BC) and chlorhexidine (CHX). A prevalence of 15% of VRE was found, with 6% high-level resistance found, and MIC values for CHX and BC were similar to those commonly found among enterococcal isolates from related environments, 8 μg/ml and 4 μg/ml, respectively. Among the isolated high-level vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium carrying the vanA genotype, we found multilocus sequence types closely related to pig and human isolates from European countries and Brazil. These results strongly advise constant surveillance of this environment and its inclusion in future epidemiologic studies on VRE. PMID:22909989

  4. VirB8-like protein TraH is crucial for DNA transfer in Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Fercher, Christian; Probst, Ines; Kohler, Verena; Goessweiner-Mohr, Nikolaus; Arends, Karsten; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Zangger, Klaus; Meyer, N. Helge; Keller, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Untreatable bacterial infections caused by a perpetual increase of antibiotic resistant strains represent a serious threat to human healthcare in the 21st century. Conjugative DNA transfer is the most important mechanism for antibiotic resistance and virulence gene dissemination among bacteria and is mediated by a protein complex, known as type IV secretion system (T4SS). The core of the T4SS is a multiprotein complex that spans the bacterial envelope as a channel for macromolecular secretion. We report the NMR structure and functional characterization of the transfer protein TraH encoded by the conjugative Gram-positive broad-host range plasmid pIP501. The structure exhibits a striking similarity to VirB8 proteins of Gram-negative secretion systems where they play an essential role in the scaffold of the secretion machinery. Considering TraM as the first VirB8-like protein discovered in pIP501, TraH represents the second protein affiliated with this family in the respective transfer operon. A markerless traH deletion in pIP501 resulted in a total loss of transfer in Enterococcus faecalis as compared with the pIP501 wild type (wt) plasmid, demonstrating that TraH is essential for pIP501 mediated conjugation. Moreover, oligomerization state and topology of TraH in the native membrane were determined providing insights in molecular organization of a Gram-positive T4SS. PMID:27103580

  5. Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 Modulates Epithelial Integrity, Heat Shock Protein, and Proinflammatory Cytokine Response in Intestinal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bondzio, Angelika; Aschenbach, Jörg R.; Bratz, Katharina; Einspanier, Ralf; Lodemann, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics have shown positive effects on gastrointestinal diseases; they have barrier-modulating effects and change the inflammatory response towards pathogens in studies in vitro. The aim of this investigation has been to examine the response of intestinal epithelial cells to Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 (E. faecium), a probiotic positively affecting diarrhea incidence in piglets, and two pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains, with specific focus on the probiotic modulation of the response to the pathogenic challenge. Porcine (IPEC-J2) and human (Caco-2) intestinal cells were incubated without bacteria (control), with E. faecium, with enteropathogenic (EPEC) or enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) each alone or in combination with E. faecium. The ETEC strain decreased transepithelial resistance (TER) and increased IL-8 mRNA and protein expression in both cell lines compared with control cells, an effect that could be prevented by pre- and coincubation with E. faecium. Similar effects were observed for the increased expression of heat shock protein 70 in Caco-2 cells. When the cells were challenged by the EPEC strain, no such pattern of changes could be observed. The reduced decrease in TER and the reduction of the proinflammatory and stress response of enterocytes following pathogenic challenge indicate the protective effect of the probiotic. PMID:25948884

  6. Effects of the Probiotic Enterococcus faecium and Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains in a Pig and Human Epithelial Intestinal Cell Model

    PubMed Central

    Lodemann, Ulrike; Strahlendorf, Julia; Schierack, Peter; Klingspor, Shanti; Aschenbach, Jörg R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to elucidate the effect of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 on epithelial integrity in intestinal epithelial cells and whether pre- and coincubation with this strain can reproducibly prevent damage induced by enterotoxigenic (ETEC) and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Porcine (IPEC-J2) and human (Caco-2) intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with bacterial strains and epithelial integrity was assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and mannitol flux rates. E. faecium alone increased TEER of Caco-2 cells without affecting mannitol fluxes whereas the E. coli strains decreased TEER and concomitantly increased mannitol flux rates in both cell lines. Preincubation with E. faecium had no effect on the TEER decrease induced by E. coli in preliminary experiments. However, in a second set of experiments using a slightly different protocol, E. faecium ameliorated the TEER decrease induced by ETEC at 4 h in IPEC-J2 and at 2, 4, and 6 h in Caco-2 cells. We conclude that E. faecium positively affected epithelial integrity in monoinfected Caco-2 cells and could ameliorate the damage on TEER induced by an ETEC strain. Reproducibility of the results is, however, limited when experiments are performed with living bacteria over longer periods. PMID:25883829

  7. The effects of solution chemistry on the sticking efficiencies of viable Enterococcus faecalis: An atomic force microscopy and modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cail, Tracy L.; Hochella, Michael F.

    2005-06-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory in combination with the interaction force boundary layer (IFBL) model have been used to empirically and theoretically calculate sticking efficiencies (α) of Enterococcus faecalis cells against a silica glass surface. Sticking efficiencies were calculated in solutions of varying pH and ionic strength and related to maximum distances of transport through a hypothetical soil block using colloid filtration theory. AFM measurements show that the repulsive and attractive forces between E. faecalis cells and a glass surface are a function of ionic strength but are less sensitive to changes in solution pH. Zeta (ζ)-potential measurements of the cells and glass surfaces correlate with these trends. Calculated DLVO energy profiles predict much greater sensitivity to changing solution chemistry. Sticking efficiencies derived from AFM measurements range from 9.6 × 10 -17 to 1 in solutions of low ionic strength (IS) and from 2.6 × 10 -33 to 1 at higher IS. Corresponding α values determined from DLVO theory are essentially zero in all tested solutions. Sticking efficiencies calculated in this study are smaller than values determined from column and field studies in similar systems; however, α derived from AFM data and the IFBL model more closely represent field data than do values calculated from DLVO energy values. A comparison with different methods of calculating α suggests that reversible adhesion may be significant in column-scale transport studies.

  8. Purification, Crystallization And Preliminary X-Ray Analysis of Aminoglycoside-2 ''-Phosphotransferase-Ic [APH(2 '')-Ic] From Enterococcus Gallinarum

    SciTech Connect

    Byrnes, L.J.; Badarau, A.; Vakulenko, S.B.; Smith, C.A.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2009-04-30

    Bacterial resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics is primarily the result of deactivation of the drugs. Three families of enzymes are responsible for this activity, with one such family being the aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs). The gene encoding one of these enzymes, aminoglycoside-2{double_prime}-phosphotransferase-Ic [APH(2{double_prime})-Ic] from Enterococcus gallinarum, has been cloned and the wild-type protein (comprising 308 amino-acid residues) and three mutants that showed elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations towards gentamicin (F108L, H258L and a double mutant F108L/H258L) were expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified. All APH(2{double_prime})-Ic variants were crystallized in the presence of 14-20%(w/v) PEG 4000, 0.25 M MgCl{sub 2}, 0.1 M Tris-HCl pH 8.5 and 1 mM Mg{sub 2}GTP. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The approximate unit-cell parameters are a = 82.4, b = 54.2, c = 77.0 {angstrom}, {beta} = 108.8{sup o}. X-ray diffraction data were collected to approximately 2.15 {angstrom} resolution from an F108L crystal at beamline BL9-2 at SSRL, Stanford, California, USA.

  9. VirB8-like protein TraH is crucial for DNA transfer in Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Fercher, Christian; Probst, Ines; Kohler, Verena; Goessweiner-Mohr, Nikolaus; Arends, Karsten; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Zangger, Klaus; Meyer, N Helge; Keller, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Untreatable bacterial infections caused by a perpetual increase of antibiotic resistant strains represent a serious threat to human healthcare in the 21(st) century. Conjugative DNA transfer is the most important mechanism for antibiotic resistance and virulence gene dissemination among bacteria and is mediated by a protein complex, known as type IV secretion system (T4SS). The core of the T4SS is a multiprotein complex that spans the bacterial envelope as a channel for macromolecular secretion. We report the NMR structure and functional characterization of the transfer protein TraH encoded by the conjugative Gram-positive broad-host range plasmid pIP501. The structure exhibits a striking similarity to VirB8 proteins of Gram-negative secretion systems where they play an essential role in the scaffold of the secretion machinery. Considering TraM as the first VirB8-like protein discovered in pIP501, TraH represents the second protein affiliated with this family in the respective transfer operon. A markerless traH deletion in pIP501 resulted in a total loss of transfer in Enterococcus faecalis as compared with the pIP501 wild type (wt) plasmid, demonstrating that TraH is essential for pIP501 mediated conjugation. Moreover, oligomerization state and topology of TraH in the native membrane were determined providing insights in molecular organization of a Gram-positive T4SS. PMID:27103580

  10. Identification of the satA gene encoding a streptogramin A acetyltransferase in Enterococcus faecium BM4145.

    PubMed Central

    Rende-Fournier, R; Leclercq, R; Galimand, M; Duval, J; Courvalin, P

    1993-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium BM4145, a clinical isolate from urine, was resistant to streptogramin group A antibiotics by inactivation. The strain harbored a plasmid containing a gene, satA, responsible for this resistance; this gene was cloned and sequenced. It encoded SatA, a protein deduced to be 23,634 Da in mass and homologous with a new family of chloramphenicol acetyltransferases described in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. The similarity of SatA to other acetyltransferases, LacA (thiogalactoside acetyltransferase) and CysE (serine acetyltransferase) from E. coli, and to two putative acetyltransferases, NodL from Rhizobium leguminosarum and Urf1 from E. coli, was also observed in a region considered to be the enzyme's active site. Acetylation experiments indicated that acetyl coenzyme A was necessary for SatA activity and that a single acetylated derivative of pristinamycin IIA was produced. Other members of the streptogramin A group such as virginiamycin M and RP54476 were also substrates for the enzyme. We conclude that resistance to the streptogramin A group of antibiotics in E. faecium BM4145 is due to acetylation by an enzyme related to the novel chloramphenicol acetyltransferase family. Images PMID:8257133

  11. Distinct but Spatially Overlapping Intestinal Niches for Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium and Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Silvia; Carter, Rebecca; Ke, Xu; Sušac, Bože; Leiner, Ingrid M; Kim, Grace J; Miller, Liza; Ling, Lilan; Manova, Katia; Pamer, Eric G

    2015-09-01

    Antibiotic resistance among enterococci and γ-proteobacteria is an increasing problem in healthcare settings. Dense colonization of the gut by antibiotic-resistant bacteria facilitates their spread between patients and also leads to bloodstream and other systemic infections. Antibiotic-mediated destruction of the intestinal microbiota and consequent loss of colonization resistance are critical factors leading to persistence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The mechanisms underlying microbiota-mediated colonization resistance remain incompletely defined and are likely distinct for different antibiotic-resistant bacterial species. It is unclear whether enterococci or γ-proteobacteria, upon expanding to high density in the gut, confer colonization resistance against competing bacterial species. Herein, we demonstrate that dense intestinal colonization with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) does not reduce in vivo growth of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. Reciprocally, K. pneumoniae does not impair intestinal colonization by VRE. In contrast, transplantation of a diverse fecal microbiota eliminates both VRE and K. pneumoniae from the gut. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrates that VRE and K. pneumoniae localize to the same regions in the colon but differ with respect to stimulation and invasion of the colonic mucus layer. While VRE and K. pneumoniae occupy the same three-dimensional space within the gut lumen, their independent growth and persistence in the gut suggests that they reside in distinct niches that satisfy their specific in vivo metabolic needs. PMID:26334306

  12. Antibiofilm efficacy of photoactivated curcumin, triple and double antibiotic paste, 2% chlorhexidine and calcium hydroxide against Enterococcus fecalis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Devaraj, Sharmila; Jagannathan, Nithya; Neelakantan, Prasanna

    2016-01-01

    Root canal disinfection is one of the most important factors governing success of root canal treatment, especially when regenerative strategies are used. This study evaluated the efficacy of 5 intracanal medicaments against mature biofilms of Enterococcus fecalis in vitro: Light activated curcumin, triple antibiotic paste (TAP), double antibiotic paste (DAP), chlorhexidine, calcium hydroxide. Untreated teeth with biofilms served as controls. Confocal microscopy was used to analyse the biofilm mass and percentage of live/dead bacteria within the root canal as well as dentinal tubules. Dentinal shavings obtained from the root canal walls (at 200 and 400 microns depth) were used to quantify the colony forming units/mL. The results showed that light activated curcumin and triple antibiotic paste brought about complete disruption of the biofilm structure (P < 0.05) while chlorhexidine and calcium hydroxide were not significantly different from the control (P > 0.05). Light activated curcumin brought about the highest percentage of dead cells at both depths, but this was not significantly different from triple antibiotic paste (P > 0.05). Curcumin, TAP and DAP brought about a significant reduction of CFU/mL at both depths compared to the control and other groups (P < 0.05). Light activated curcumin brought about a 7 log reduction of bacteria at both depths. PMID:27097667

  13. Immunostimulatory Effects Triggered by Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121 Probiotic Strain Involve Activation of Dendritic Cells and Interferon-Gamma Production.

    PubMed

    Molina, Matías Alejandro; Díaz, Ailén Magalí; Hesse, Christina; Ginter, Wiebke; Gentilini, María Virginia; Nuñez, Guillermo Gabriel; Canellada, Andrea Mercedes; Sparwasser, Tim; Berod, Luciana; Castro, Marisa Silvia; Manghi, Marcela Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics can modulate the immune system, conferring beneficial effects on the host. Understanding how these microorganisms contribute to improve the health status is still a challenge. Previously, we have demonstrated that Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121 implants itself and persists in the murine gastrointestinal tract, and enhances and skews the profile of cytokines towards the Th1 phenotype in several biological models. Given the importance of dendritic cells (DCs) in the orchestration of immunity, the aim of this work was to elucidate the influence of E. faecalis CECT7121 on DCs and the outcome of the immune responses. In this work we show that E. faecalis CECT7121 induces a strong dose-dependent activation of DCs and secretion of high levels of IL-12, IL-6, TNFα, and IL-10. This stimulation is dependent on TLR signaling, and skews the activation of T cells towards the production of IFNγ. The influence of this activation in the establishment of Th responses in vivo shows the accumulation of specific IFNγ-producing cells. Our findings indicate that the activation exerted by E. faecalis CECT7121 on DCs and its consequence on the cellular adaptive immune response may have broad therapeutic implications in immunomodulation. PMID:25978357

  14. No Beneficial Effects Evident for Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 in Weaned Pigs Infected with Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzer, Susanne; Aßmus, Jens; Schmidt, Michael F. G.; Brockmann, Gudrun A.; Nöckler, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT 104 is the major pathogen for salmonellosis outbreaks in Europe. We tested if the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 can prevent or alleviate salmonellosis. Therefore, piglets of the German Landrace breed that were treated with E. faecium (n = 16) as a feed additive and untreated controls (n = 16) were challenged with S. Typhimurium 10 days after weaning. The presence of salmonellae in feces and selected organs, as well as the immune response, were investigated. Piglets treated with E. faecium gained less weight than control piglets (P = 0.05). The feeding of E. faecium had no effect on the fecal shedding of salmonellae and resulted in a higher abundance of the pathogen in tonsils of all challenged animals. The specific (anti-Salmonella IgG) and nonspecific (haptoglobin) humoral immune responses as well as the cellular immune response (T helper cells, cytotoxic T cells, regulatory T cells, γδ T cells, and B cells) in the lymph nodes, Peyer's patches of different segments of the intestine (jejunal and ileocecal), the ileal papilla, and in the blood were affected in the course of time after infection (P < 0.05) but not by the E. faecium treatment. These results led to the conclusion that E. faecium may not have beneficial effects on the performance of weaned piglets in the case of S. Typhimurium infection. Therefore, we suggest a critical discussion and reconsideration of E. faecium NCIMB 10415 administration as a probiotic for pigs. PMID:22544257

  15. Tyramine biosynthesis is transcriptionally induced at low pH and improves the fitness of Enterococcus faecalis in acidic environments.

    PubMed

    Perez, Marta; Calles-Enríquez, Marina; Nes, Ingolf; Martin, Maria Cruz; Fernandez, Maria; Ladero, Victor; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2015-04-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a commensal bacterium of the human gut that requires the ability to pass through the stomach and therefore cope with low pH. E. faecalis has also been identified as one of the major tyramine producers in fermented food products, where they also encounter acidic environments. In the present work, we have constructed a non-tyramine-producing mutant to study the role of the tyramine biosynthetic pathway, which converts tyrosine to tyramine via amino acid decarboxylation. Wild-type strain showed higher survival in a system that mimics gastrointestinal stress, indicating that the tyramine biosynthetic pathway has a role in acid resistance. Transcriptional analyses of the E. faecalis V583 tyrosine decarboxylase cluster showed that an acidic pH, together with substrate availability, induces its expression and therefore the production of tyramine. The protective role of the tyramine pathway under acidic conditions appears to be exerted through the maintenance of the cytosolic pH. Tyramine production should be considered important in the adaptability of E. faecalis to acidic environments, such as fermented dairy foods, and to survive passage through the human gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25529314

  16. IS256 abolishes gelatinase activity and biofilm formation in a mutant of the nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecalis V583.

    PubMed

    Perez, Marta; Calles-Enríquez, Marina; del Rio, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Martín, María Cruz; Fernández, María; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2015-07-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is one of the most controversial species of lactic acid bacteria. Some strains are used as probiotics, while others are associated with severe and life-threatening nosocomial infections. Their pathogenicity depends on the acquisition of multidrug resistance and virulence factors. Gelatinase, which is required in the first steps of biofilm formation, is an important virulence determinant involved in E. faecalis pathogenesis, including endocarditis and peritonitis. The gene that codes for gelatinase (gelE) is controlled by the Fsr quorum-sensing system, whose encoding genes (fsrA, fsrB, fsrC, and fsrD) are located immediately upstream of gelE. The integration of a DNA fragment into the fsr locus of a derived mutant of E. faecalis V583 suppressed the gelatinase activity and prevented biofilm formation. Sequence analysis indicated the presence of IS256 integrated into the fsrC gene at nucleotide position 321. Interestingly, IS256 is also associated with biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first description of an insertion sequence that prevents biofilm formation in E. faecalis. PMID:25966618

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterococcus mundtii QU 25, an Efficient l-(+)-Lactic Acid-Producing Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Shiwa, Yuh; Yanase, Hiroaki; Hirose, Yuu; Satomi, Shohei; Araya-Kojima, Tomoko; Watanabe, Satoru; Zendo, Takeshi; Chibazakura, Taku; Shimizu-Kadota, Mariko; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus mundtii QU 25, a non-dairy bacterial strain of ovine faecal origin, can ferment both cellobiose and xylose to produce l-lactic acid. The use of this strain is highly desirable for economical l-lactate production from renewable biomass substrates. Genome sequence determination is necessary for the genetic improvement of this strain. We report the complete genome sequence of strain QU 25, primarily determined using Pacific Biosciences sequencing technology. The E. mundtii QU 25 genome comprises a 3 022 186-bp single circular chromosome (GC content, 38.6%) and five circular plasmids: pQY182, pQY082, pQY039, pQY024, and pQY003. In all, 2900 protein-coding sequences, 63 tRNA genes, and 6 rRNA operons were predicted in the QU 25 chromosome. Plasmid pQY024 harbours genes for mundticin production. We found that strain QU 25 produces a bacteriocin, suggesting that mundticin-encoded genes on plasmid pQY024 were functional. For lactic acid fermentation, two gene clusters were identified—one involved in the initial metabolism of xylose and uptake of pentose and the second containing genes for the pentose phosphate pathway and uptake of related sugars. This is the first complete genome sequence of an E. mundtii strain. The data provide insights into lactate production in this bacterium and its evolution among enterococci. PMID:24568933

  18. Enterococcus faecalis inhibits superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1-induced interleukin-8 from human vaginal epithelial cells through tetramic acids.

    PubMed

    Brosnahan, Amanda J; Merriman, Joseph A; Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara; Ford, Bradley; Schlievert, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    The vaginal mucosa can be colonized by many bacteria including commensal organisms and potential pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus. Some strains of S. aureus produce the superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, which can penetrate the vaginal epithelium to cause toxic shock syndrome. We have observed that a female was mono-colonized with Enterococcus faecalis vaginally as tested in aerobic culture, even upon repeated culture for six months, suggesting this organism was negatively influencing colonization by other bacteria. In recent studies, we demonstrated an "outside-in" mechanism of cytokine signaling and consequent inflammation that facilitates the ability of potential pathogens to initiate infection from mucosal surfaces. Thus, we hypothesized that this strain of E. faecalis may make anti-inflammatory factors which block disease progression of more pathogenic organisms. E. faecalis MN1 inhibited interleukin-8 production from human vaginal epithelial cells in response to the vaginal pathogens Candida albicans, Gardnerella vaginalis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, as well as to toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. We further demonstrated that this organism secretes two tetramic acid compounds which appear responsible for inhibition of interleukin-8 production, as well as inhibition of T cell proliferation due to toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. Microbicides that include anti-inflammatory molecules, such as these tetramic acid compounds naturally produced by E. faecalis MN1, may be useful in prevention of diseases that develop from vaginal infections. PMID:23613823

  19. Purification of a dimeric arginine deiminase from Enterococcus faecium GR7 and study of its anti-cancerous activity.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Baljinder; Kaur, Rajinder

    2016-09-01

    The arginine deiminase (ADI, E.C 3.5.3.6) - a key enzyme of ADI pathway of Enterococcus faecium GR7 was purified to homogeneity. A sequential purification strategy involving ammonium sulfate fractionation, molecular sieve followed by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration was applied to the crude culture filtrate to obtain a pure enzyme preparation. The enzyme was purified with a fold of 16.92 and showed a final specific activity of 76.65IU/mg with a 49.17% yield. The dimeric ADI has a molecular mass of about 94,364.929Da, and comprises of hetrodimers of 49.1kDa and 46.5kDa as determined by MALDI-TOF and PAGE analysis. To assess anti-cancerous activity of ADI by MTT assay was carried out against cancer cell lines (MCF-7, Sp2/0-Ag14 and Hep-G2). Purified ADI exhibited the most profound antiproliferative activity against Hep-G2 cells; with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.95μg/ml. Purified ADI from E. faecium GR7 was observed to induce apoptosis in the Hep-G2 cells by DNA fragmentation assay. Our findings suggest the possibility of a future use of ADI from E. faecium GR7 as a potential anticancer drug. PMID:26363115

  20. Antibacterial Activity of Synthetic Peptides Derived from Lactoferricin against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212

    PubMed Central

    León-Calvijo, María A.; Leal-Castro, Aura L.; Almanzar-Reina, Giovanni A.; Rosas-Pérez, Jaiver E.; García-Castañeda, Javier E.; Rivera-Monroy, Zuly J.

    2015-01-01

    Peptides derived from human and bovine lactoferricin were designed, synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC and MALDI-TOF-MS. Specific changes in the sequences were designed as (i) the incorporation of unnatural amino acids in the sequence, the (ii) reduction or (iii) elongation of the peptide chain length, and (iv) synthesis of molecules with different number of branches containing the same sequence. For each peptide, the antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 was evaluated. Our results showed that Peptides I.2 (RWQWRWQWR) and I.4 ((RRWQWR)4K2Ahx2C2) exhibit bigger or similar activity against E. coli (MIC 4–33 μM) and E. faecalis (MIC 10–33 μM) when they were compared with lactoferricin protein (LF) and some of its derivate peptides as II.1 (FKCRRWQWRMKKLGA) and IV.1 (FKCRRWQWRMKKLGAPSITCVRRAE). It should be pointed out that Peptides I.2 and I.4, containing the RWQWR motif, are short and easy to synthesize; our results demonstrate that it is possible to design and obtain synthetic peptides that exhibit enhanced antibacterial activity using a methodology that is fast and low-cost and that allows obtaining products with a high degree of purity and high yield. PMID:25815317

  1. Antimicrobial characterization and safety aspects of the bacteriocinogenic Enterococcus hirae F420 isolated from Moroccan raw goat milk.

    PubMed

    Achemchem, F; Cebrián, R; Abrini, J; Martínez-Bueno, M; Valdivia, E; Maqueda, M

    2012-05-01

    The F420 strain, isolated from raw goat milk and identified as Enterococcus hirae, was selected because of its strong activity against gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes. Interestingly, the F420 strain lacks the virulence genes and decarboxylase activity of histidine, lysine, and ornithine, and it is susceptible to 11 of 14 tested antibiotics, including vancomycin. The antimicrobial compounds produced by E. hirae F420 strain showed high resistance to heat treatment and to acidic and basic pHs. The MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis coupled with the sequence of peptide and structural gene analysis of one of the purified enterocins showed 100% identity with enterocin P (EntP), previously described in E. faecium strains. The structural gene for EntP is located on a plasmid of 65 kb. Other enterocins with molecular mass higher than 7 kDa were also detected. This is the first report of the production of EntP by E. hirae species naturally occurring in foods. The biotechnological characteristics of the F420 strain and its enterocins indicate their potential for application in the control of L. monocytogenes and other undesirable bacteria in food systems. PMID:22471967

  2. Antimicrobial activity of some essential oils against oral multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecalis in both planktonic and biofilm state

    PubMed Central

    Benbelaïd, Fethi; Khadir, Abdelmounaïm; Abdoune, Mohamed Amine; Bendahou, Mourad; Muselli, Alain; Costa, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate some essential oils in treatment of intractable oral infections, principally caused by biofilm of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis), such as persistent endodontic infections in which their treatment exhibits a real challenge for dentists. Methods Ten chemically analyzed essential oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against sensitive and resistant clinical strains of E. faecalis in both planktonic and biofilm state using two methods, disk diffusion and broth micro-dilution. Results Studied essential oils showed a good antimicrobial activity and high ability in E. faecalis biofilm eradication, whether for sensitive or multidrug-resistant strains, especially those of Origanum glandulosum and Thymbra capitata with interesting minimum inhibitory concentration, biofilm inhibitory concentration, and biofilm eradication concentration values which doesn't exceed 0.063%, 0.75%, and 1.5%, respectively. Conclusions Findings of this study indicate that essential oils extracted from aromatic plants can be used in treatment of intractable oral infections, especially caused by biofilm of multidrug-resistant E. faecalis. PMID:25182948

  3. Molecular epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from haematological malignancy patients in a research hospital in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kirdar, S; Sener, A G; Arslan, U; Yurtsever, S G

    2010-06-01

    Infections and outbreaks of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) still appear to be rare in Turkey. In the present study, VRE strains isolated during an outbreak in a haematology unit of a training and research hospital in Turkey were typed and their antimicrobial-resistance patterns were characterized by molecular methods. Twelve vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from patients with haematological malignancies were investigated by PCR for the presence of genes encoding resistance to vancomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, gentamicin and erythromycin. Their clonal relationship was evaluated by PFGE and multilocus sequence typing. All strains were resistant to vancomycin and erythromycin, and had the vanA and ermB genes, respectively. PFGE was used to determine the presence of two pulsotypes and determine their subtypes. Pulsotype A belonged to sequence type (ST) 17 and pulsotype B belonged to ST 78. All strains with the vanA gene were not the same clone, indicating multiple acquisitions of resistant isolates, even over such a short time period. PMID:20223901

  4. Distinct SagA from Hospital-Associated Clade A1 Enterococcus faecium Strains Contributes to Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Paganelli, F. L.; de Been, M.; Braat, J. C.; Hoogenboezem, T.; Vink, C.; Bayjanov, J.; Rogers, M. R. C.; Huebner, J.; Bonten, M. J. M.; Willems, R. J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium is an important nosocomial pathogen causing biofilm-mediated infections. Elucidation of E. faecium biofilm pathogenesis is pivotal for the development of new strategies to treat these infections. In several bacteria, extracellular DNA (eDNA) and proteins act as matrix components contributing to biofilm development. In this study, we investigated biofilm formation capacity and the roles of eDNA and secreted proteins for 83 E. faecium strains with different phylogenetic origins that clustered in clade A1 and clade B. Although there was no significant difference in biofilm formation between E. faecium strains from these two clades, the addition of DNase I or proteinase K to biofilms demonstrated that eDNA is essential for biofilm formation in most E. faecium strains, whereas proteolysis impacted primarily biofilms of E. faecium clade A1 strains. Secreted antigen A (SagA) was the most abundant protein in biofilms from E. faecium clade A1 and B strains, although its localization differed between the two groups. sagA was present in all sequenced E. faecium strains, with a consistent difference in the repeat region between the clades, which correlated with the susceptibility of biofilms to proteinase K. This indicates an association between the SagA variable repeat profile and the localization and contribution of SagA in E. faecium biofilms. PMID:26209668

  5. The polyamine N-acetyltransferase-like enzyme PmvE plays a role in the virulence of Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Martini, Cecilia; Michaux, Charlotte; Bugli, Francesca; Arcovito, Alessandro; Iavarone, Federica; Cacaci, Margherita; Paroni Sterbini, Francesco; Hartke, Axel; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Posteraro, Brunella; Giard, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed that the mutant strain of Enterococcus faecalis lacking the transcriptional regulator SlyA is more virulent than the parental strain. We hypothesized that this phenotype was due to overexpression of the second gene of the slyA operon, ef_3001, renamed pmvE (for polyamine metabolism and virulence of E. faecalis). PmvE shares strong homologies with N(1)-spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase enzymes involved in the metabolism of polyamines. In this study, we used an E. faecalis strain carrying the recombinant plasmid pMSP3535-pmvE (V19/p3535-pmvE), which allows the induction of pmvE by addition of nisin. Thereby, we showed that the overexpression of PmvE increased the virulence of E. faecalis in the Galleria mellonella infection model, as well as the persistence within peritoneal macrophages. We were also able to show a direct interaction between the His-tagged recombinant PmvE (rPmvE) protein and putrescine by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique on a Biacore instrument. Moreover, biochemical assays showed that PmvE possesses an N-acetyltransferase activity toward polyamine substrates. Our results suggest that PmvE contributes to the virulence of E. faecalis, likely through its involvement in the polyamine metabolism. PMID:25385793

  6. A novel enterocin T1 with anti-Pseudomonas activity produced by Enterococcus faecium T1 from Chinese Tibet cheese.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Zhang, Lanwei; Yi, Huaxi; Han, Xue; Gao, Wei; Chi, Chunliang; Song, Wei; Li, Haiying; Liu, Chunguang

    2016-02-01

    An enterocin-producing Enterococcus faecium T1 was isolated from Chinese Tibet cheese. The enterocin was purified by SP-Sepharose and reversed phase HPLC. It was identified as unique from other reported bacteriocins based on molecular weight (4629 Da) and amino acid compositions; therefore it was subsequently named enterocin T1. Enterocin T1 was stable at 80-100 °C and over a wide pH range, pH 3.0-10.0. Protease sensitivity was observed to trypsin, pepsin, papain, proteinase K, and pronase E. Importantly, enterocin T1 was observed to inhibit the growth of numerous Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes. Take together, these results suggest that enterocin T1 is a novel bacteriocin with the potential to be used as a bio-preservative to control Pseudomonas spp. in food. PMID:26745981

  7. Differential Effects of Penicillin Binding Protein Deletion on the Susceptibility of Enterococcus faecium to Cationic Peptide Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Kumaraswamy, Monika; Nonejuie, Poochit; Werth, Brian J.; Rybak, Micahel J.; Pogliano, Joseph; Rice, Louis B.; Nizet, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Beta-lactam antibiotics sensitize Enterococcus faecium to killing by endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of the innate immune system and daptomycin through mechanisms yet to be elucidated. It has been speculated that beta-lactam inactivation of select E. faecium penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) may play a pivotal role in this sensitization process. To characterize the specific PBP inactivation that may be responsible for these phenotypes, we utilized a previously characterized set of E. faecium PBP knockout mutants to determine the effects of such mutations on the activity of daptomycin and the AMP human cathelicidin (LL-37). Enhanced susceptibility to daptomycin was dependent more on a cumulative effect of multiple PBP deletions than on inactivation of any single specific PBP. Selective knockout of PBPZ rendered E. faecium more vulnerable to killing by both recombinant LL-37 and human neutrophils, which produce the antimicrobial peptide in high quantities. Pharmacotherapy targeting multiple PBPs may be used as adjunctive therapy with daptomycin to treat difficult E. faecium infections. PMID:26195528

  8. Antibiotic and disinfectant susceptibility profiles of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) isolated from community wastewater in Texas.

    PubMed

    Beier, Ross C; Duke, Sara E; Ziprin, Richard L; Harvey, Roger B; Hume, Michael E; Poole, Toni L; Scott, H Morgan; Highfield, Linda D; Alali, Walid Q; Andrews, Kathleen; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J

    2008-03-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) from human wastewater effluents in a nonclinical semiclosed agri-food system in Texas were characterized for susceptibility to antibiotics and disinfectants. The 50 VRE were resistant to eight fluoroquinolones and 10 of 17 antimicrobials typically active against Gram-positive organisms. The VRE were susceptible to quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid. Lack of the insertion element IS1251 correlated with VRE susceptibility to streptomycin and gentamicin at p < 0.0001 and p = 0.033, respectively. An association was observed between pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotypes Ic and II and susceptibility to streptomycin at p = 0.0006. VRE susceptibility for nine disinfectants and five disinfectant components is shown. Ninety-two percent of the isolates had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for triclosan > or =2 ppm. Triclosan MICs for many of the VRE were well over expected product application levels. No association was observed between antibiotic resistance and disinfectant susceptibility in these VRE. Enterococci multiply-resistant to vancomycin and aminoglycosides were found in a non-hospital environment where one would not expect to find them. PMID:18193143

  9. Antibacterial and residual antimicrobial activities against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm: A comparison between EDTA, chlorhexidine, cetrimide, MTAD and QMix

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Chen, Min; Lu, Yan; Guo, Xiangjun; Qiao, Feng; Wu, Ligeng

    2015-01-01

    We compared the antibacterial and residual antimicrobial activities of five root canal irrigants (17% EDTA,2% chlorhexidine,0.2% cetrimide, MTAD, and QMix) in a model of Enterococcus faecalis biofilm formation. Sixty dentin blocks with 3-week E. faecalis biofilm were divided into six equal groups and flushed with irrigant for 2 min or left untreated. A blank control group was also established. Antibacterial activities of the irrigants were evaluated by counting colony forming units. To test residual antimicrobial activities, 280 dentin blocks were divided into seven equal groups and flushed with irrigant for 2 min or left untreated and then incubated with E. faecalis suspension for 48 h, or used as a blank. No bacteria were observed in the blank control group. The number of viable E. faecalis was significantly fewer in the irrigant-treated groups compared with the untreated control (P < 0.05). Among the five irrigants, QMix had the strongest antibacterial activity. Residual antimicrobial activities of CHX were significantly higher at 12 h, 24 h and 36 h compared to untreated control (P < 0.05). All five root canal irrigants were effective to some extent against E. faecalis, but QMix and CHX had the strongest, and CHX the longest (up to 36 h), antimicrobial activity. PMID:26245711

  10. Accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid by Enterococcus avium 9184 in scallop solution in a two-stage fermentation strategy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haoyue; Xing, Ronge; Hu, Linfeng; Liu, Song; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a new bacterial strain having a high ability to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was isolated from naturally fermented scallop solution and was identified as Enterococcus avium. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to prove that E. avium possesses glutamate decarboxylase activity. The strain was then mutagenized with UV radiation and was designated as E. avium 9184. Scallop solution was used as the culture medium to produce GABA. A two-stage fermentation strategy was applied to accumulate GABA. In the first stage, cell growth was regulated. Optimum conditions for cell growth were pH, 6.5; temperature, 37°C; and glucose concentration, 10 g·L(-1) . This produced a maximum dry cell mass of 2.10 g·L(-1) . In the second stage, GABA formation was regulated. GABA concentration reached 3.71 g·L(-1) at 96 h pH 6.0, 37°C and initial l-monosodium glutamate concentration of 10 g·L(-1) . Thus, compared with traditional one-stage fermentation, the two-stage fermentation significantly increased GABA accumulation. These results provide preliminary data to produce GABA using E. avium and also provide a new approach to process and utilize shellfish. PMID:26200650

  11. Inhibitory effect of gels loaded with a low concentration of antibiotics against biofilm formation by Enterococcus faecalis and Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    A Algarni, Amnah; H Yassen, Ghaeth; L Gregory, Richard

    2015-09-01

    We explored longitudinally the inhibitory effect of gels loaded with 1 mg/mL modified triple antibiotic paste (MTAP) or double antibiotic paste (DAP) against biofilm formation by Enterococcus faecalis and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Methylcellulose-based antibiotic gels of MTAP (ciprofloxacin, metronidazole and clindamycin) and DAP (ciprofloxacin and metronidazole) were prepared at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. Individually cultured E. faecalis and P. gingivalis bacterial suspensions were treated with MTAP, DAP, or placebo (vehicle only) gels at different dilutions and allowed to grow in 96-well microtiter plates. Untreated bacterial suspensions served as a negative control. Crystal violet assays were used to evaluate biofilm formation after 48 h. The ability of the gels to inhibit biofilm formation was determined immediately, and at 1 month and 3 months after the gels had been prepared. Data were analyzed using a mixed-model ANOVA. The MTAP and DAP gels significantly reduced biofilm formation by both bacterial species at all time points, regardless of the tested dilution. No-significant differences in biofilm-inhibitory effects between MTAP and DAP gels were observed at the majority of the tested dilutions through various time points. Gels loaded with 1 mg/mL MTAP and DAP demonstrated a significant antibiofilm effect against E.faecalis and P. gingivalis. PMID:26369485

  12. Antimicrobial Effect of Lippia sidoides and Thymol on Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm of the Bacterium Isolated from Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    Veras, H. N. H.; Rodrigues, F. F. G.; Botelho, M. A.; Menezes, I. R. A.; Coutinho, H. D. M.; da Costa, J. G. M.

    2014-01-01

    The species Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) is utilized in popular medicine as a local antiseptic on the skin and mucosal tissues. Enterococcus faecalis is the bacterium isolated from root canals of teeth with persistent periapical lesions and has the ability to form biofilm, where it is responsible for the failure of endodontic treatments. Essential oil of L. sidoides (EOLS) and its major component, thymol, were evaluated for reducing the CFU in biofilms of E. faecalis in vitro. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and examined with respect to the chemical composition, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC-MS analysis has led to the identification of thymol (84.9%) and p-cymene (5.33%). EOLS and thymol reduced CFU in biofilms of E. faecalis in vitro (time of maturation, 72 h), with an exposure time of 30 and 60 min at concentrations of 2.5 and 10%. There was no statistical difference in effect between EOLS and thymol, demonstrating that this phenolic monoterpene was the possible compound responsible for the antimicrobial activity of EOLS. This study provides a basis for the possible utilization of EOLS as an adjuvant in the treatment of root canals that show colonization by E. faecalis. PMID:24683344

  13. Antibacterial activity of synthetic peptides derived from lactoferricin against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212.

    PubMed

    León-Calvijo, María A; Leal-Castro, Aura L; Almanzar-Reina, Giovanni A; Rosas-Pérez, Jaiver E; García-Castañeda, Javier E; Rivera-Monroy, Zuly J

    2015-01-01

    Peptides derived from human and bovine lactoferricin were designed, synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC and MALDI-TOF-MS. Specific changes in the sequences were designed as (i) the incorporation of unnatural amino acids in the sequence, the (ii) reduction or (iii) elongation of the peptide chain length, and (iv) synthesis of molecules with different number of branches containing the same sequence. For each peptide, the antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 was evaluated. Our results showed that Peptides I.2 (RWQWRWQWR) and I.4 ((RRWQWR)4K2Ahx2C2) exhibit bigger or similar activity against E. coli (MIC 4-33 μM) and E. faecalis (MIC 10-33 μM) when they were compared with lactoferricin protein (LF) and some of its derivate peptides as II.1 (FKCRRWQWRMKKLGA) and IV.1 (FKCRRWQWRMKKLGAPSITCVRRAE). It should be pointed out that Peptides I.2 and I.4, containing the RWQWR motif, are short and easy to synthesize; our results demonstrate that it is possible to design and obtain synthetic peptides that exhibit enhanced antibacterial activity using a methodology that is fast and low-cost and that allows obtaining products with a high degree of purity and high yield. PMID:25815317

  14. Development of an intracanal mature Enterococcus faecalis biofilm and its susceptibility to some antimicrobial intracanal medications; an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Saber, Shehab El-Din Mohamed; El-Hady, Soha A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To develop a mature biofilm of Enterococcus faecalis inside the root canal system and to test its susceptibility to some antimicrobial medications in vitro. Methods: Single rooted premolars were mechanically enlarged, sterilized, and then infected with a clinical isolate of E. faecalis. Biofilm formation and maturation was monitored using SEM. Biofilm bacteria were exposed to Amoxicillin+clavulanate, Ciprofloxacin, Clindamycin, Doxycycline, and calcium hydroxide as intracanal medications for 1 week. Finally bacterial samples were collected, and colony-forming units were enumerated. Results: SEM examination confirmed the formation of a mature biofilm at the end of the incubation period. All the chemotherapeutic agents used were significantly better than Calcium hydroxide in elimination of biofilm bacteria. The antimicrobial effect of Amoxicillin + clavulanate, Ciprofloxacin and Clindamycin was significantly better than Doxycycline (P=.05). However the difference in the antimicrobial effectiveness among them was statistically non-significant (P=.05). Conclusions: The method used for bacterial biofilm development and maturation is reliable and can be used to assess the anti bacterial potential of endodontic materials. Also, the local application of antibacterial agents can be beneficial in resistant cases of apical periodontitis but only after careful culture and sensitivity testing to choose the appropriate agent for the existing flora. PMID:22229006

  15. Inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis by a direct-current, cold atmospheric-pressure air plasma microjet☆

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ye; Sun, Peng; Wu, Haiyan; Bai, Na; Wang, Ruixue; Zhu, Weidong; Zhang, Jue; Liu, Fuxiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective A direct-current, cold atmospheric-pressure air plasma microjet (PMJ) was performed to inactivate Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) in air. The process of sterilization and morphology of bacteria was observed. We wish to know the possible inactivation mechanisms of PMJ and explore a potential application in dental and other temperature sensitive treatment. Methods In this study, we employed a direct current, atmospheric pressure, cold air PMJ to inactivate bacterias. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to evaluate the morphology of S. aureus and showed rupture of cell walls after the plasma treatment and Optical emission spectrum (OES) were used to understand the possible inactivation mechanisms of PMJ. Results The inactivation rates could reach 100% in 5 min. When the distance between the exit nozzle of the PMJ device and Petri dish was extended from 1 cm to 3 cm, effective inactivation was also observed with a similar inactivation curve. Conclusion The inactivation of bacteria is attributed to the abundant reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, as well as ultroviolet radiation in the plasma. Different life spans and defensibilities of these killing agents may hold the key to understanding the different inactivation curves at different treatment distances. PMID:23554639

  16. An in vitro study on the effects of nisin on the antibacterial activities of 18 antibiotics against Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zhongchun; Zhang, Yuejiao; Ling, Junqi; Ma, Jinglei; Huang, Lijia; Zhang, Luodan

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis rank among the leading causes of nosocomial infections worldwide and possesses both intrinsic and acquired resistance to a variety of antibiotics. Development of new antibiotics is limited, and pathogens continually generate new antibiotic resistance. Many researchers aim to identify strategies to effectively kill this drug-resistant pathogen. Here, we evaluated the effect of the antimicrobial peptide nisin on the antibacterial activities of 18 antibiotics against E. faecalis. The MIC and MBC results showed that the antibacterial activities of 18 antibiotics against E. faecalis OG1RF, ATCC 29212, and strain E were significantly improved in the presence of 200 U/ml nisin. Statistically significant differences were observed between the results with and without 200 U/ml nisin at the same concentrations of penicillin or chloramphenicol (p<0.05). The checkerboard assay showed that the combination of nisin and penicillin or chloramphenicol had a synergetic effect against the three tested E. faecalis strains. The transmission electron microscope images showed that E. faecalis was not obviously destroyed by penicillin or chloramphenicol alone but was severely disrupted by either antibiotic in combination with nisin. Furthermore, assessing biofilms by a confocal laser scanning microscope showed that penicillin, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol all showed stronger antibiofilm actions in combination with nisin than when these antibiotics were administered alone. Therefore, nisin can significantly improve the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of many antibiotics, and certain antibiotics in combination with nisin have considerable potential for use as inhibitors of this drug-resistant pathogen. PMID:24586598

  17. Isolation and identification of Enterococcus faecalis membrane proteins using membrane shaving, 1D SDS/PAGE, and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cathro, Peter; McCarthy, Peter; Hoffmann, Peter; Zilm, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a significant nosocomial pathogen, which is able to survive in diverse environments and resist killing with antimicrobial therapies. The expression of cell membrane proteins play an important role in how bacteria respond to environmental stress. As such, the capacity to identify and study membrane protein expression is critical to our understanding of how specific proteins influence bacterial survival. Here, we describe a combined approach to identify membrane proteins of E. faecalis ATCC V583 using membranes fractionated by either 1D SDS/PAGE or membrane shaving, coupled with LC-ESI mass spectrometry. We identified 222 membrane-associated proteins, which represent approximately 24% of the predicted membrane-associated proteome: 170 were isolated using 1D SDS/PAGE and 68 with membrane shaving, with 36 proteins being common to both the techniques. Of the proteins identified by membrane shaving, 97% were membrane-associated with the majority being integral membrane proteins (89%). Most of the proteins identified with known physiology are involved with transportation across the membrane. The combined 1D SDS/PAGE and membrane shaving approach has produced the greatest number of membrane proteins identified from E. faecalis to date. These protocols will aid future researchers investigating changes in the membrane proteome of E. faecalis by improving our understanding of how E. faecalis adapts and responds to its environment. PMID:27419061

  18. Combined effect of a mixture of tetracycline, acid, and detergent, and Nisin against Enterococcus faecalis and Actinomyces viscosus biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Balto, Hanan A.; Shakoor, Zahid A.; Kanfar, Maha A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the combined effect of a mixture of tetracycline, acid, and detergent (MTAD) and Nisin against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) and Actinomyces viscosus (A. viscosus) biofilms. Methods: This study was conducted between June and December 2013 in collaboration with Dental Caries Research Chair, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Single-species biofilms (n=9/species/observation period) were generated on membrane filter discs and subjected to 5, 10, or 15 minute incubation with MTADN (MTAD with 3% Nisin), 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), or normal saline. The colony forming units were counted using the Dark field colony counter. Results: A 100% bactericidal effect of 5.25% NaOCl was noted during the 3 observation periods; a significant reduction (p=0.000) in mean survival rates of E. faecalis (77.3+13.6) and A. viscosus (39.6+12.6) was noted after 5 minutes exposure to MTADN compared with normal saline (78000000+5291503) declining to almost no growth after 10 and 15 minutes. The survival rates of the E. faecalis and A. viscosus biofilm were no different after treatment with MTADN and 5.25% NaOCl at the 3 observation periods (p=1.000). Conclusion: A combination of MTAD and Nisin was as effective as NaOCl against E. faecalis and A. viscosus biofilms. PMID:25719587

  19. The Fibronectin-Binding Protein Fnm Contributes to Adherence to Extracellular Matrix Components and Virulence of Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Somarajan, Sudha R.; La Rosa, Sabina Leanti; Singh, Kavindra V.; Roh, Jung H.; Höök, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between bacteria and fibronectin is believed to play an important role in the pathogenicity of clinically important Gram-positive cocci. In the present study, we identified a gene encoding a predicted fibronectin-binding protein of Enterococcus faecium (fnm), a homologue of Streptococcus pneumoniae pavA, in the genomes of E. faecium strain TX82 and all other sequenced E. faecium isolates. Full-length recombinant Fnm from strain TX82 bound to immobilized fibronectin in a concentration-dependent manner and also appeared to bind collagen type V and laminin, but not other proteins, such as transferrin, heparin, bovine serum albumin, mucin, or collagen IV. We demonstrated that the N-terminal fragment of Fnm is required for full fibronectin binding, since truncation of this region caused a 2.4-fold decrease (P < 0.05) in the adhesion of E. faecium TX82 to fibronectin. Deletion of fnm resulted in a significant reduction (P < 0.001) in the ability of the mutant, TX6128, to bind fibronectin relative to that of the wild-type strain; in situ reconstitution of fnm in the deletion mutant strain restored adherence. In addition, the Δfnm mutant was highly attenuated relative to TX82 (P ≤ 0.0001) in a mixed-inoculum rat endocarditis model. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Fnm affects the adherence of E. faecium to fibronectin and is important in the pathogenesis of experimental endocarditis. PMID:26371130

  20. Antibiofilm efficacy of photoactivated curcumin, triple and double antibiotic paste, 2% chlorhexidine and calcium hydroxide against Enterococcus fecalis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Devaraj, Sharmila; Jagannathan, Nithya; Neelakantan, Prasanna

    2016-01-01

    Root canal disinfection is one of the most important factors governing success of root canal treatment, especially when regenerative strategies are used. This study evaluated the efficacy of 5 intracanal medicaments against mature biofilms of Enterococcus fecalis in vitro: Light activated curcumin, triple antibiotic paste (TAP), double antibiotic paste (DAP), chlorhexidine, calcium hydroxide. Untreated teeth with biofilms served as controls. Confocal microscopy was used to analyse the biofilm mass and percentage of live/dead bacteria within the root canal as well as dentinal tubules. Dentinal shavings obtained from the root canal walls (at 200 and 400 microns depth) were used to quantify the colony forming units/mL. The results showed that light activated curcumin and triple antibiotic paste brought about complete disruption of the biofilm structure (P < 0.05) while chlorhexidine and calcium hydroxide were not significantly different from the control (P > 0.05). Light activated curcumin brought about the highest percentage of dead cells at both depths, but this was not significantly different from triple antibiotic paste (P > 0.05). Curcumin, TAP and DAP brought about a significant reduction of CFU/mL at both depths compared to the control and other groups (P < 0.05). Light activated curcumin brought about a 7 log reduction of bacteria at both depths. PMID:27097667