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Sample records for enterovirus b human

  1. Antiviral activity of ginsenosides against coxsackievirus B3, enterovirus 71, and human rhinovirus 3

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae-Hyoung; Choi, Hwa-Jung; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Hong, Eun-Hye; Lee, Bo-Ra; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Choi, Kwangman; Yeo, Sang-Gu; Lee, Yong-Pyo; Cho, Sungchan; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Background Ginsenosides are the major components responsible for the biochemical and pharmacological actions of ginseng, and have been shown to have various biological activities. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activities of seven ginsenosides [protopanaxatriol (PT) type: Re, Rf, and Rg2; protopanaxadiol (PD) type: Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd)] against coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), enterovirus 71 (EV71), and human rhinovirus 3 (HRV3). Methods Assays of antiviral activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated by the sulforhodamine B method using the cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay. Results The antiviral assays demonstrated that, of the seven ginsenosides, the PT-type ginsenosides (Re, Rf, and Rg2) possess significant antiviral activities against CVB3 and HRV3 at a concentration of 100 ?g/mL. Among the PT-type ginsenosides, only ginsenoside Rg2 showed significant anti-EV71 activity with no cytotoxicity to cells at 100 ?g/mL. The PD-type ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd), by contrast, did not show any significant antiviral activity against CVB3, EV71, and HRV3, and exhibited cytotoxic effects to virus-infected cells. Notably, the antiviral efficacies of PT-type ginsenosides were comparable to those of ribavirin, a commonly used antiviral drug. Conclusion Collectively, our findings suggest that the ginsenosides Re, Rf, and Rg2 have the potential to be effective in the treatment of CVB3, EV71, and HRV3 infection. PMID:25378991

  2. Infectious Entry Pathway of Enterovirus B Species.

    PubMed

    Marjomki, Varpu; Turkki, Paula; Huttunen, Moona

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus B species (EV-B) are responsible for a vast number of mild and serious acute infections. They are also suspected of remaining in the body, where they cause persistent infections contributing to chronic diseases such as type I diabetes. Recent studies of the infectious entry pathway of these viruses revealed remarkable similarities, including non-clathrin entry of large endosomes originating from the plasma membrane invaginations. Many cellular factors regulating the efficient entry have recently been associated with macropinocytic uptake, such as Rac1, serine/threonine p21-activated kinase (Pak1), actin, Na/H exchanger, phospholipace C (PLC) and protein kinase C? (PKC?). Another characteristic feature is the entry of these viruses to neutral endosomes, independence of endosomal acidification and low association with acidic lysosomes. The biogenesis of neutral multivesicular bodies is crucial for their infection, at least for echovirus 1 (E1) and coxsackievirus A9 (CVA9). These pathways are triggered by the virus binding to their receptors on the plasma membrane, and they are not efficiently recycled like other cellular pathways used by circulating receptors. Therefore, the best "markers" of these pathways may be the viruses and often their receptors. A deeper understanding of this pathway and associated endosomes is crucial in elucidating the mechanisms of enterovirus uncoating and genome release from the endosomes to start efficient replication. PMID:26690201

  3. Infectious Entry Pathway of Enterovirus B Species

    PubMed Central

    Marjomki, Varpu; Turkki, Paula; Huttunen, Moona

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus B species (EV-B) are responsible for a vast number of mild and serious acute infections. They are also suspected of remaining in the body, where they cause persistent infections contributing to chronic diseases such as type I diabetes. Recent studies of the infectious entry pathway of these viruses revealed remarkable similarities, including non-clathrin entry of large endosomes originating from the plasma membrane invaginations. Many cellular factors regulating the efficient entry have recently been associated with macropinocytic uptake, such as Rac1, serine/threonine p21-activated kinase (Pak1), actin, Na/H exchanger, phospholipace C (PLC) and protein kinase C? (PKC?). Another characteristic feature is the entry of these viruses to neutral endosomes, independence of endosomal acidification and low association with acidic lysosomes. The biogenesis of neutral multivesicular bodies is crucial for their infection, at least for echovirus 1 (E1) and coxsackievirus A9 (CVA9). These pathways are triggered by the virus binding to their receptors on the plasma membrane, and they are not efficiently recycled like other cellular pathways used by circulating receptors. Therefore, the best markers of these pathways may be the viruses and often their receptors. A deeper understanding of this pathway and associated endosomes is crucial in elucidating the mechanisms of enterovirus uncoating and genome release from the endosomes to start efficient replication. PMID:26690201

  4. Enterovirus Species B Bias of RD Cell Line and Its Influence on Enterovirus Diversity Landscape.

    PubMed

    Faleye, Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas; Adeniji, Johnson Adekunle

    2015-12-01

    Despite its widespread use in poliovirus isolation, studies show that most RD cell line isolates are species B enteroviruses (EB), it was therefore employed to further catalogue the EB diversity in two different regions of Nigeria. Concentrates of 18 environmental samples were inoculated into RD cell line. Isolates were subjected to PCR assays to detect enteroviruses, species C and B members and partial VP1 gene which was subsequently sequenced and used for identification and phylogenetic analysis. Isolates were further passaged in L20B cell line to detect polioviruses. Sixty-eight isolates were recovered from the 18 concentrates, all of which were positive for the enterovirus 5'-UTR screen. Thirteen of the 68 isolates were positive for the species C screen and replicated in L20B cell line, eleven of which also contained species B enteroviruses. Some of the mixed isolates were successfully typed, but as species B members. In all, isolates recovered in this study were identified as CVB5, E6, E7, E11, E13, E19, E20, E33, EVB75 and WPV3, while some could not be typed. Alongside the ten different enterovirus serotypes confirmed, results of this study document for the first time in Nigeria, EVB75. It showed the EB bias of RD cell line might indicate something much more fundamental in its biology. Finally, the finding of WPV3 in a region considered low risk for poliovirus emphasizes the need to expand poliovirus environmental surveillance to enable early detection of poliovirus silent circulation before occurrence of clinical manifestations. PMID:26403309

  5. Crystal Structure of Human Enterovirus 71

    SciTech Connect

    Plevka, Pavel; Perera, Rushika; Cardosa, Jane; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2013-04-08

    Enterovirus 71 is a picornavirus associated with fatal neurological illness in infants and young children. Here, we report the crystal structure of enterovirus 71 and show that, unlike in other enteroviruses, the 'pocket factor,' a small molecule that stabilizes the virus, is partly exposed on the floor of the 'canyon.' Thus, the structure of antiviral compounds may require a hydrophilic head group designed to interact with residues at the entrance of the pocket.

  6. Prevalence of human enteroviruses among apparently healthy nursery school children in Accra

    PubMed Central

    Attoh, Juliana; Obodai, Evangeline; Adiku, Theophilus; Odoom, John Kofi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Human enteroviruses are common in children causing asymptomatic infections ranging from mild to severe illnesses. In Ghana, information on the prevalence of non-polio enterovirus causing acute flaccid paralysis is available but data on surveillance of these viruses in school children is scanty. Here, the prevalence of human enteroviruses among apparently healthy children in selected school in Accra was studied. Methods Stool samples from 273 apparently healthy children less than eight years of age in 9 selected nursery schools were collected between December 2010 and March 2011and processed for human enteroviruses on L20B, RD and Hep-2 cell lines. Positive Isolates were characterized by microneutralisation assay with antisera pools from RIVM, the Netherlands according to standard methods recommended by WHO. Results Of the 273 samples processed, 66 (24.2%) non-polio enteroviruses were isolated. More growth was seen on Hep-2C (46%) only than RD (18%) only and on both cell lines (34%). No growth was seen on L20B even after blind passage. Excretion of non-polio enteroviruses was found in all the schools with majority in BD school. Serotyping of the isolates yielded predominantly Coxsackie B viruses followed by echoviruses 13 and 7. More than half of the isolates could not be typed by the antisera pools. Conclusion The study detected 13 different serotypes of non-polio enteroviruses in circulation but no poliovirus was found. BD school was found to have the highest prevalence of NPEV. Complete identification through molecular methods is essential to establish the full range of NPEVs in circulation in these schools. PMID:25400833

  7. SUPPRESSION OF VIRAL REPLICATION BY GUANIDINE: A COMPARISON OF HUMAN ADENOVIRUSES AND ENTEROVIRUSES (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparison was made of the relative sensitivities of laboratory strain human adenoviruses and enteroviruses, and recently isolated human enteroviruses, to the presence of guanidine hydrochloride in cell culture media. The concentration of guanidine hydrochloride used was 100 mi...

  8. Characterization of a Novel Enterovirus Serotype and an Enterovirus EV-B93 Isolated from Acute Flaccid Paralysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shaukat, Shahzad; Angez, Mehar; Alam, Muhammad Masroor; Sharif, Salmaan; Khurshid, Adnan; Mahmood, Tariq; Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor

    2013-01-01

    Non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) are among the most common viruses infecting humans worldwide. Most of these infections are asymptomatic but few can lead to systemic and neurological disorders like Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP). Acute Flaccid Paralysis is a clinical syndrome and NPEVs have been isolated frequently from the patients suffering from AFP but little is known about their causal relationship. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the NPEV serotypes recovered from 184 stool samples collected from AFP patients in Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) in north-west of Pakistan. Overall, 44 (95.6 %) isolates were successfully typed through microneutralization assay as a member of enterovirus B species including echovirus (E)-2, E-3, E-4, E-6, E-7, E-11, E-13, E-14, E-21 and E-29 while two isolates (PAK NIH SP6545B and PAK NIH SP1202B) remained untypeable. The VP1 and capsid regions analysis characterized these viruses as EV-B93 and EV-B106. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that PAK NIH isolates had high genetic diversity and represent distinct genotypes circulating in the country. Our findings highlight the role of NPEVs in AFP cases to be thoroughly investigated especially in high disease risk areas, with limited surveillance activities and health resources. PMID:24244603

  9. Enterovirus-induced production of pro-inflammatory and T-helper cytokines by human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Vreugdenhil, G R; Wijnands, P G; Netea, M G; van der Meer, J W; Melchers, W J; Galama, J M

    2000-12-01

    Enteroviruses are associated with chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases in humans. In these conditions, the cytokine network is supposed to have an important role in inflammation and modulation of the (auto)immune response. In the present study, we demonstrate that coxsackie virus B4 and poliovirus type 1 induce production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha in freshly isolated human leucocytes. Furthermore, enteroviruses stimulate the production of cytokines belonging to Th(1)pathways (IFN-gamma, IL-2), and IL-10, which play a role in regulation of the cellular and humoral immune response. PMID:11097750

  10. Enterovirus 71 induces apoptosis of SH?SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells through stimulation of endogenous microRNA let-7b expression.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiling; Wang, Haipeng; Xu, Fuhui; Huang, Yongyi; Liu, Zhixue; Liu, Te

    2015-07-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a pathogenic microorganism that causes hand, foot and mouth disease. However, the epigenetic mechanisms behind how EV71 regulates host cell proliferation and apoptosis are unclear. In the present study, the ability of EV71 to induce apoptosis was analyzed in the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line and the effect of this virus on the mRNA expression levels of various apoptotic markers, miRNA let-7b and cyclin D1 (CCND1), was also investigated. The results demonstrated that EV71 induced SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis. An MTT assay revealed a significant inhibitory effect of EV71 on cell proliferation between 12-72 h post injection, compared with the control group. Furthermore, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses demonstrated that expression level of the apoptosis inhibitor Bcl-2 was markedly reduced, but the expression levels of the apoptosis-promoting factors Bax, caspase-7, caspase?3 and active caspase-3 were markedly higher in the SH-SY5Y cells 12-48 h after EV71 infection, compared with the non-infected cells. In addition, flow cytometric assays revealed that EV71 arrested the cell cycle of host SH-SY5Y cells. Northern blot analysis revealed a marked miRNA let-7b hybridization signal in the EV71 virus-infected group compared with the non-infected group. Furthermore, western blotting confirmed that the CCND1 protein expression levels were significantly reduced in EV71-infected SH-SY5Y cells. EV71-inhibited SH-SY5Y proliferation was abrogated using let-7b specific 2'-O-Methyl-RNA, which inhibited endogenous miRNA let-7b expression. Thus, EV71 regulated the host SH?SY5Y cell cycle and cell proliferation via stimulating endo-genous miRNA let-7b and directly targeting CCND1, therefore EV71 is a potential candidate for antiviral therapy. PMID:25779425

  11. Susceptibility of the VERO line of African green monkey kidney cells to human enteroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Patricia M.; Phillpotts, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The relative susceptibility of VERO cells and primary rhesus monkey kidney cells to 47 prototype strains of human enteroviruses is described. Of these strains, types 4, 14, 16, 17, 18, 21, 31 and 34 and Coxsackie virus A 9 failed to cause CPE in the VERO cells whilst only one, echovirus type 34, failed to cause CPE in the monkey kidney cells. A comparison is given of the efficiency of the two cell cultures for enterovirus isolation from clinical material. Results show that VERO cells are as useful as primary monkey kidney for the isolation of Coxsackie B viruses but less satisfactory for isolating echoviruses. They are satisfactory for the isolation of single types of poliovirus and appear to be more satisfactory than primary monkey kidney cells for the isolation of mixtures of polioviruses. The identification of enteroviruses by neutralization tests in VERO cells is successful. PMID:4361500

  12. Clinical Efficacy of Therapy with Recombinant Human Interferon α1b in Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease with Enterovirus 71 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xueyong; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Fang; Wei, Haiyan; Ma, Hong; Sui, Meili; Lu, Jie; Wang, Huaili; Dumler, J. Stephen; Sheng, Guangyao; Xu, Bianli

    2016-01-01

    A rapid expansion of HFMD with enterovirus 71 infection outbreaks has occurred and caused deaths in recent years in China, but no vaccine or antiviral drug is currently available for EV71 infection. This study aims to provide treatment programs for HFMD patients. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial and evaluated clinical efficacy of therapy with rHuIFN-α1b in HFMD patients with EV71 infection. There were statistical differences in outcomes including the fever clearance time, healing time of typical skin or oral mucosa lesions, and EV71 viral load of the HFMD patients among ultrasonic aerosol inhalation group, intramuscular injection group and control group. rHuIFN-α1b therapy reduced the fever clearance time, healing time of typical skin or oral mucosa lesions, and EV71 viral load in children with HFMD. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-14005153 PMID:26882102

  13. Complete genome analysis of porcine enterovirus B isolated in Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyoung-Joon; Song, DaeSub; Seon, Bo Hyeon; Kim, Hye-Kwon; Park, Seong-Jun; An, Dong-Jun; Kim, Jong-Man; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Park, Bong-Kyun

    2012-09-01

    The complete genome sequence of porcine enterovirus B (PEV-B) from a Korean isolate was analyzed. The genome size was 7,393 bp. Previously, full genome sequences of PEV-B had been reported from the United Kingdom, Hungary, and China. The Korean PEV-B isolate presented polyprotein gene nucleotide sequence similarities of 77.9, 73.7, 78.9, and 80.3%, respectively, to PEV-B UKG/410/73, LP54, PEV15, and Chinese strains (Ch-ah-f1). PMID:22923807

  14. Co-circulation of enteroviruses between apes and humans.

    PubMed

    Harvala, Heli; Van Nguyen, Dung; McIntyre, Chloe; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Ngole, Eitel Mpoudi; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Simmonds, Peter

    2014-02-01

    A total of 139 stool samples from wild chimpanzees, gorillas and bonobos in Cameroon and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) were screened for enteroviruses (EVs) by reverse transcription PCR. Enterovirus RNA was detected in 10 % of samples, comprising eight from 58 sampled chimpanzees (13.8 %), one from 40 bonobos (2.5 %) and five from 40 gorillas (12.2 %). Three viruses isolated from chimpanzees grouped with human isolate EV-A89 and four (four chimpanzees, one gorilla) represented a newly identified type, EV-A119. These species A virus types overlapped with those circulating in human populations in the same area. The remaining six strains comprised a new species D type, EV-D120, infecting one chimpanzee and four gorillas, and a single EV variant infecting a bonobo that was remarkably divergent from other EVs and potentially constitutes a new enterovirus species. The study demonstrates both the circulation of genetically divergent EV variants in apes and monkeys as well as those shared with local human populations. PMID:24189620

  15. Genomic analysis of two novel human enterovirus C genotypes found in respiratory samples from Peru

    PubMed Central

    Hirschberg, David L.; Sameroff, Stephen; Haq, Saddef; Luna, Giannina; Bennett, Andrew J.; Silva, Maria; Leguia, Mariana; Kasper, Matthew; Bausch, Daniel G.; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of two enteroviruses detected in nasopharyngeal samples obtained from subjects with respiratory disease in Peru. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that both viruses belong to a clade within the species Human enterovirus C, which includes the recently characterized human enteroviruses 109 and 104. Members of this clade have undergone significant genomic rearrangement, as indicated by deletions in the hypervariable region of the 5? UTR and the VP1 protein, as well as recombination within the non-structural genes. Our findings and review of published sequences suggests that several novel human enterovirus C serotypes are currently circulating worldwide. PMID:23034595

  16. Enterovirus infections with special reference to enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Hsiung, G D; Wang, J R

    2000-03-01

    The enteroviruses comprise a large group of immunologically distinct serotypes of viruses belonging to the family of Picornaviridae. Many enteroviruses cause diseases in human, but the infections are generally mild as asymptomatic, therefore, enteroviruses are considered to be unimportant as human pathogens. However, enteroviruses may also result in serious or even fatal disease (as shown in the enterovirus 71 (EV71) epidemic in Taiwan in 1998). There are three types of polioviruses, Coxsackievirus group A and group B viruses, and echoviruses group. All together a total of 67 types are available. Starting from enterovirus type 68 to 71, they are named as enterovirus types. Enterovirus type 72 is hepatitis A virus. Paralytic disease of poliomyelitis was recorded in ancient time but characterization of poliovirus was not reported until the turn of the 19th century that poliomyelitis was a viral disease. The major breakthrough for diagnosing and controlling of poliomyelitis was the discovery that poliovirus can be propagated in human embryonic tissues in cultures. As soon as cultures of human and monkey cells began to use for isolating polioviruses in stool specimen of patients, more unknown viruses were isolated which unlike polioviruses nor Coxsackie viruses; they were called "orphan" viruses or human enteric viruses, name later simplified to "echoviruses". Morphologically all enteroviruses are alike. They are small, ether insensitive viruses with an RNA genome. Their nucleic acid is single stranded, and the nucleocapsid has a cubic (icosahedral) symmetry, and is naked. The host ranges of enteroviruses vary greatly from one type to the next and even among strains of the same type. Polioviruses have a very restricted host range among laboratory animals. Virus isolation is the best method for diagnosis of enterovirus infection, but infection in the central nervous system (CNS) may be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Currently final identification and serotyping of enteroviruses are by indirect immunofluorescent tests using monoclonal antibody or by neutralization test using antiserum pools described by Lim and Benyesh-Melnick. The incidence and prevalence of diseases associated with the enterovirus infections are varied. The circulation of enteroviruses recently in Tainan and the epidemic of EV71 in Taiwan in 1998 are described in this review. Although poliovirus infection may be eradicated from the world due to the efficient vaccination program, there is no specific antiviral agents for either treatment or prevention for other enterovirus infections. In 1991, a new antiviral "pleconaril" which is a novel orally bioavailable and systematically acting small molecule inhibitor for picornaviruses. "Pleconaril" is currently in clinical trials for treatment of enterovirus meningitis and respiratory infections. PMID:10806956

  17. Cytokine and Chemokine Production by Human Pancreatic Islets Upon Enterovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Barbara M.; Lanke, Kjerstin H.W.; Piganelli, Jon D.; Kers-Rebel, Esther D.; Bottino, Rita; Trucco, Massimo; Huijbens, Richard J.F.; Radstake, Timothy R.D.J.; Engelse, Marten A.; de Koning, Eelco J.P.; Galama, Jochem M.; Adema, Gosse J.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Enteroviruses of the human enterovirus B species (HEV-Bs) (e.g., coxsackie B viruses [CVBs] and echoviruses) have been implicated as environmental factors that trigger/accelerate type 1 diabetes, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the cytokines and chemokines that are produced by human pancreatic islets upon infection with CVBs. To this end, we studied the response of human islets of Langerhans upon mock or CVB3 infection. Using quantitative PCR, we showed that upon CVB3 infection, transcription of interferon (IFN), IFN-stimulated genes, and inflammatory genes was induced. Analysis of secreted cytokines and chemokines by Luminex technology confirmed production and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukin [IL]-6 and tumor necrosis factor-?) as well as various chemotactic proteins, such as IFN-?induced protein 10, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1?, MIP-1?, and IL-8. Infection with other HEV-Bs induced similar responses, yet their extent depended on replication efficiency. Ultra violetinactivated CVB3 did not induce any response, suggesting that virus replication is a prerequisite for antiviral responses. Our data represent the first comprehensive overview of inflammatory mediators that are secreted by human islets of Langerhans upon CVB infection and may shed light on the role of enteroviruses in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. PMID:22596052

  18. Enterovirus and Human Parechovirus Surveillance - United States, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Abedi, Glen R; Watson, John T; Pham, Huong; Nix, W Allan; Oberste, M Steven; Gerber, Susan I

    2015-09-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) and human parechoviruses (HPeVs) are small, non-enveloped RNA viruses in the Picornaviridae family, which are known or suspected to cause a spectrum of clinical manifestations in humans. Although most infected persons are asymptomatic, mild presentations can include respiratory infections, herpangina, and hand, foot, and mouth disease. Among the more severe syndromes associated with EV and HPeV infection are acute flaccid paralysis, meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, and sepsis. Neonates and infants are at higher risk for infection and for severe clinical outcomes than older children or adults (1–3). As of August 2015, a total of 16 HPeV types and 118 EV types (within four EV species known to infect humans: A, B, C, and D) had been identified, and the spectrum of illness caused differed among virus types (4). To describe trends in EV and HPeV circulating in the United States during 2009–2013, CDC summarized detections reported through two surveillance systems. The most commonly reported types of EV and HPeV during this period were coxsackievirus (CV) A6 and HPeV3. The large number of CVA6 detections likely reflected an increase in testing in response to an outbreak of severe hand, foot, and mouth disease in late 2011 and 2012 (5). Most HPeV3 detections originated from a single hospital that routinely tested for HPeV (6). Clinicians and public health practitioners should consider the EV and HPeV types recently circulating in the United States to inform diagnostic and surveillance activities. When EV and HPeV typing is performed, clinical and public health laboratories should routinely report their results to improve the reliability and generalizability of surveillance data. PMID:26334674

  19. Molecular identification of human enteroviruses in children with neurological infections from the central region of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Faras, Adrin; Cabrerizo, Mara; R, Viviana; Glatstein, Nora; Pisano, Beln; Spinsanti, Lorena; Contigiani, Marta Silvia

    2011-01-01

    In the central area of Argentina, epidemiological and molecular characteristics of human enterovirus infections are still unknown. RT-nested PCR of the highly conserved 5'NCR was used to detect enteroviruses in 168 samples of cerebrospinal fluid from hospitalized patients with suspected infection of the central nervous system (2007-2008), and 13 (7.7%) were positive. Molecular typing was performed by sequencing of the 3'-half VP1 region. Echovirus 30 was the predominant type detected, followed by coxsackie viruses A9 and B4. All echovirus 30 strains of 2007 clustered in lineage H, whereas the echovirus 30 isolate obtained in 2008 was more distantly related, possibly representing a new lineage. PMID:20931249

  20. Impact of Human Enterovirus 71 Genotypes in Meningoencephalitis in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Pooneh; Roohandeh, Akram; Sohrabi, Amir; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Bahram Ali, Golnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since the importance of poliovirus has diminished, as a result of its elimination in the majority of countries, non-polioviruses are emerging as causative agents of severe central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Outbreaks of enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated CNS infections have recently been reported in Asia, Australia, and Europe. Objectives: This is the first study on genotyping of EV71 in children with meningoencephalitis to be carried out in Iran, and it was conducted in order to obtain an improved understanding of the disease burden of this virus, particularly with regard to CNS involvement. Patients and Methods: Viral RNA was extracted from 170 cerebrospinal fluid samples obtained from children aged under 8 years with a primary diagnosis of aseptic meningitis. Specific EV71 PCR was conducted to identify the genotype of the detected EV71 viruses. Results: Human enteroviruses (HEVs) were detected in 89 patients (52.3%). EV71 infection was detected in 19 (21.3%) of the 89 EV71-positive patients, and the C genotype was identified in 15 isolates. Conclusions: The C genotype should be considered as the prevalent EV71 circulating genotype in Iran, particularly in cases of aseptic meningitis. PMID:26865943

  1. Therapeutic and prevention strategies against human enterovirus 71 infection

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Chee Choy

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) is the cause of hand, foot and mouth disease and associated neurological complications in children under five years of age. There has been an increase in HEV71 epidemic activity throughout the Asia-Pacific region in the past decade, and it is predicted to replace poliovirus as the extant neurotropic enterovirus of highest global public health significance. To date there is no effective antiviral treatment and no vaccine is available to prevent HEV71 infection. The increase in prevalence, virulence and geographic spread of HEV71 infection over the past decade provides increasing incentive for the development of new therapeutic and prevention strategies against this emerging viral infection. The current review focuses on the potential, advantages and disadvantages of these strategies. Since the explosion of outbreaks leading to large epidemics in China, research in natural therapeutic products has identified several groups of compounds with anti-HEV71 activities. Concurrently, the search for effective synthetic antivirals has produced promising results. Other therapeutic strategies including immunotherapy and the use of oligonucleotides have also been explored. A sound prevention strategy is crucial in order to control the spread of HEV71. To this end the ultimate goal is the rapid development, regulatory approval and widespread implementation of a safe and effective vaccine. The various forms of HEV71 vaccine designs are highlighted in this review. Given the rapid progress of research in this area, eradication of the virus is likely to be achieved. PMID:25964873

  2. Construction of a subgenomic CV-B3 replicon expressing emerald green fluorescent protein to assess viral replication of a cardiotropic enterovirus strain in cultured human cells.

    PubMed

    Wehbe, Michel; Huguenin, Antoine; Leveque, Nicolas; Semler, Bert L; Hamze, Monzer; Andreoletti, Laurent; Bouin, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    Coxsackieviruses B (CV-B) (Picornaviridae) are a common infectious cause of acute myocarditis in children and young adults, a disease, which is a precursor to 10-20% of chronic myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) cases. The mechanisms involved in the disease progression from acute to chronic myocarditis phase and toward the DCM clinical stage are not fully understood but are influenced by both viral and host factors. Subgenomic replicons of CV-B can be used to assess viral replication mechanisms in human cardiac cells and evaluate the effects of potential antiviral drugs on viral replication activities. Our objectives were to generate a reporter replicon from a cardiotropic prototype CV-B3/28 strain and to characterize its replication properties into human cardiac primary cells. To obtain this replicon, a cDNA plasmid containing the full CV-B3/28 genome flanked by a hammerhead ribozyme sequence and an MluI restriction site was generated and used as a platform for the insertion of sequences encoding emerald green fluorescent protein (EmGFP) in place of those encoding VP3. In vitro transcribed RNA from this plasmid was transfected into HeLa cells and human primary cardiac cells and was able to produce EmGFP and VP1-containing polypeptides. Moreover, non-structural protein biological activity was assessed by the specific cleavage of eIF4G1 by viral 2A(pro). Viral RNA replication was indirectly demonstrated by inhibition assays, fluoxetine was added to cell culture and prevented the EmGFP synthesis. Our results indicated that the EmGFP CV-B3 replicon was able to replicate and translate as well as the CV-B3/28 prototype strain. Our EmGFP CV-B3 replicon will be a valuable tool to readily investigate CV-B3 replication activities in human target cell models. PMID:26800776

  3. Phylogenetic evidence for inter-typic recombination in the emergence of human enterovirus 71 subgenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Yoke-Fun, Chan; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2006-01-01

    Background Human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is a common causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). In recent years, the virus has caused several outbreaks with high numbers of deaths and severe neurological complications. Several new EV-71 subgenotypes were identified from these outbreaks. The mechanisms that contributed to the emergence of these subgenotypes are unknown. Results Six EV-71 isolates from an outbreak in Malaysia, in 1997, were sequenced completely. These isolates were identified as EV-71 subgenotypes, B3, B4 and C2. A phylogenetic tree that correlated well with the present enterovirus classification scheme was established using these full genome sequences and all other available full genome sequences of EV-71 and human enterovirus A (HEV-A). Using the 5' UTR, P2 and P3 genomic regions, however, isolates of EV-71 subgenotypes B3 and C4 segregated away from other EV-71 subgenotypes into a cluster together with coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16/G10) and EV-71 subgenotype C2 clustered with CV-A8. Results from the similarity plot analyses supported the clustering of these isolates with other HEV-A. In contrast, at the same genomic regions, a CV-A16 isolate, Tainan5079, clustered with EV-71. This suggests that amongst EV-71 and CV-A16, only the structural genes were conserved. The 3' end of the virus genome varied and consisted of sequences highly similar to various HEV-A viruses. Numerous recombination crossover breakpoints were identified within the non-structural genes of some of these newer EV-71 subgenotypes. Conclusion Phylogenetic evidence obtained from analyses of the full genome sequence supports the possible occurrence of inter-typic recombination involving EV-71 and various HEV-A, including CV-A16, the most common causal agent of HFMD. It is suggested that these recombination events played important roles in the emergence of the various EV-71 subgenotypes. PMID:16939656

  4. Virucidal activity of Virkon S on human enterovirus.

    PubMed

    Chan, Y F; Abu Bakar, S

    2005-06-01

    The efficacy of Virkon S, a commercial disinfectant as a virucidal spray against human enterovirus 71 (HEV71), the causative agent of the fatal form of hand, foot and mouth disease was examined. At least one log10 reduction of HEV71 titer was achieved when one spray of Virkon (1% or 2%) with ten minutes of contact time was applied. The infectivity was completely lost when four sprays of 1% or 2% Virkon were applied, suggesting that at least four sprays of 1% Virkon to the surface bound HEV71 was necessary to completely inactivate the virus. These findings suggest that Virkon S at the proper concentration is suitable to be used as an effective and easy to use disinfectant against HEV71. PMID:16114171

  5. Structural Basis for Antiviral Inhibition of the Main Protease, 3C, from Human Enterovirus 93 ?

    PubMed Central

    Costenaro, Lionel; Kaczmarska, Zuzanna; Arnan, Carme; Janowski, Robert; Coutard, Bruno; Sol, Maria; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.; Norder, Helne; Canard, Bruno; Coll, Miquel

    2011-01-01

    Members of the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family are abundant, with common human pathogens that belong to the rhinovirus (HRV) and enterovirus (EV) species, including diverse echo-, coxsackie- and polioviruses. They cause a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe diseases with neurological and/or cardiac manifestations. Pandemic outbreaks of EVs may be accompanied by meningitis and/or paralysis and can be fatal. However, no effective prophylaxis or antiviral treatment against most EVs is available. The EV RNA genome directs the synthesis of a single polyprotein that is autocatalytically processed into mature proteins at Gln?Gly cleavage sites by the 3C protease (3Cpro), which has narrow, conserved substrate specificity. These cleavages are essential for virus replication, making 3Cpro an excellent target for antivirus drug development. In this study, we report the first determination of the crystal structure of 3Cpro from an enterovirus B, EV-93, a recently identified pathogen, alone and in complex with the anti-HRV molecules compound 1 (AG7404) and rupintrivir (AG7088) at resolutions of 1.9, 1.3, and 1.5 , respectively. The EV-93 3Cpro adopts a chymotrypsin-like fold with a canonically configured oxyanion hole and a substrate binding pocket similar to that of rhino-, coxsackie- and poliovirus 3C proteases. We show that compound 1 and rupintrivir are both active against EV-93 in infected cells and inhibit the proteolytic activity of EV-93 3Cpro in vitro. These results provide a framework for further structure-guided optimization of the tested compounds to produce antiviral drugs against a broad range of EV species. PMID:21835784

  6. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Rhinoviruses and Enteroviruses Highlights Their Diversity in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    L'Huillier, Arnaud G; Kaiser, Laurent; Petty, Tom J; Kilowoko, Mary; Kyungu, Esther; Hongoa, Philipina; Vieille, Gal; Turin, Lara; Genton, Blaise; D'Acremont, Valrie; Tapparel, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) and enteroviruses (HEVs) belong to the Enterovirus genus and are the most frequent cause of infection worldwide, but data on their molecular epidemiology in Africa are scarce. To understand HRV and HEV molecular epidemiology in this setting, we enrolled febrile pediatric patients participating in a large prospective cohort assessing the causes of fever in Tanzanian children. Naso/oropharyngeal swabs were systematically collected and tested by real-time RT-PCR for HRV and HEV. Viruses from positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were then applied to highlight the HRV and HEV types as well as recombinant or divergent strains. Thirty-eight percent (378/1005) of the enrolled children harboured an HRV or HEV infection. Although some types were predominant, many distinct types were co-circulating, including a vaccinal poliovirus, HEV-A71 and HEV-D68. Three HRV-A recombinants were identified: HRV-A36/HRV-A67, HRV-A12/HRV-A67 and HRV-A96/HRV-A61. Four divergent HRV strains were also identified: one HRV-B strain and three HRV-C strains. This is the first prospective study focused on HRV and HEV molecular epidemiology in sub-Saharan Africa. This systematic and thorough large screening with careful clinical data management confirms the wide genomic diversity of these viruses, brings new insights about their evolution and provides data about associated symptoms. PMID:26670243

  7. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Rhinoviruses and Enteroviruses Highlights Their Diversity in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    L’Huillier, Arnaud G.; Kaiser, Laurent; Petty, Tom J.; Kilowoko, Mary; Kyungu, Esther; Hongoa, Philipina; Vieille, Gaël; Turin, Lara; Genton, Blaise; D’Acremont, Valérie; Tapparel, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) and enteroviruses (HEVs) belong to the Enterovirus genus and are the most frequent cause of infection worldwide, but data on their molecular epidemiology in Africa are scarce. To understand HRV and HEV molecular epidemiology in this setting, we enrolled febrile pediatric patients participating in a large prospective cohort assessing the causes of fever in Tanzanian children. Naso/oropharyngeal swabs were systematically collected and tested by real-time RT-PCR for HRV and HEV. Viruses from positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were then applied to highlight the HRV and HEV types as well as recombinant or divergent strains. Thirty-eight percent (378/1005) of the enrolled children harboured an HRV or HEV infection. Although some types were predominant, many distinct types were co-circulating, including a vaccinal poliovirus, HEV-A71 and HEV-D68. Three HRV-A recombinants were identified: HRV-A36/HRV-A67, HRV-A12/HRV-A67 and HRV-A96/HRV-A61. Four divergent HRV strains were also identified: one HRV-B strain and three HRV-C strains. This is the first prospective study focused on HRV and HEV molecular epidemiology in sub-Saharan Africa. This systematic and thorough large screening with careful clinical data management confirms the wide genomic diversity of these viruses, brings new insights about their evolution and provides data about associated symptoms. PMID:26670243

  8. Seroepidemiology of Human Enterovirus 71 Infection among Children, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, Paul F.; Andronico, Alessio; Tarantola, Arnaud; Salje, Henrik; Duong, Veasna; Mey, Channa; Ly, Sovann; Dussart, Philippe; Cauchemez, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 is reported to have emerged in Cambodia in 2012; at least 54 children with severe encephalitis died during that outbreak. We used serum samples collected during 2000–2011 to show that the virus had been widespread in the country for at least a decade before the 2012 outbreak. PMID:26690000

  9. Seroepidemiology of Human Enterovirus 71 Infection among Children, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Paul F; Andronico, Alessio; Tarantola, Arnaud; Salje, Henrik; Duong, Veasna; Mey, Channa; Ly, Sovann; Dussart, Philippe; Cauchemez, Simon; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 is reported to have emerged in Cambodia in 2012; at least 54 children with severe encephalitis died during that outbreak. We used serum samples collected during 2000-2011 to show that the virus had been widespread in the country for at least a decade before the 2012 outbreak. PMID:26690000

  10. Natural interspecies recombinant bovine/porcine enterovirus in sheep.

    PubMed

    Boros, Akos; Pankovics, Péter; Knowles, Nick J; Reuter, Gábor

    2012-09-01

    Members of the genus Enterovirus (family Picornaviridae) are believed to be common and widespread among humans and different animal species, although only a few enteroviruses have been identified from animal sources. Intraspecies recombination among human enteroviruses is a well-known phenomenon, but only a few interspecies examples have been reported and, to our current knowledge, none of these have involved non-primate enteroviruses. In this study, we report the detection and complete genome characterization (using RT-PCR and long-range PCR) of a natural interspecies recombinant bovine/porcine enterovirus (ovine enterovirus type 1; OEV-1) in seven (44 %) of 16 faecal samples from 3-week-old domestic sheep (Ovis aries) collected in two consecutive years. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete coding region revealed that OEV-1 (ovine/TB4-OEV/2009/HUN; GenBank accession no. JQ277724) was a novel member of the species Porcine enterovirus B (PEV-B), implying the endemic presence of PEV-B viruses among sheep. However, the 5' UTR of OEV-1 showed a high degree of sequence and structural identity to bovine enteroviruses. The presumed recombination breakpoint was mapped to the end of the 5' UTR at nucleotide position 814 using sequence and SimPlot analyses. The interspecies-recombinant nature of OEV-1 suggests a closer relationship among bovine and porcine enteroviruses, enabling the exchange of at least some modular genetic elements that may evolve independently. PMID:22647375

  11. [Occurrence and isolation of human enteroviruses from the air of waste removal and disposal plants].

    PubMed

    Pfirrmann, A; vanden Bossche, G

    1994-08-01

    Aerosols from waste treatment plants were examined with regard to the presence of airborne viruses. For the purpose of a comparative evaluation, two different collecting devices consisting of an electroprecipitator and a special-impinger apparatus were used for extraction and collection of viruses from air samples. The collected suspensions were concentrated and fractionated by means of hydroextraction in combination with a differential centrifugation procedure. After solubilisation of the sedimented material with the anionic detergent, sodium-dodecylsulfate, and following ultrasonic treatment, viral infectivity could be demonstrated in 12 out of 36 examined specimens, after inoculation on BGM cells. The highest virus isolation rates were obtained with the electroprecipitator. Based on the results of investigations of biological, physicochemical as well as antigenic characteristics, the isolated strains revealed to belong to the family of Picornaviridae. According to the results of additional characterization assays, the isolates were identified as Coxsackie-B and ECHO-viruses. The linkage between the occurrence of these viruses and a possible risk of infection for humans remains to be elucidated by further epidemiological studies. However, the results of the present work indicate that, besides of an increased dust and germ concentration in such facilities, there is substantial evidence of increased viral contamination as well. Enteroviruses are generally considered as indicator viruses revealing the presence of viral contaminants in tap water and sewage. As human enteroviruses can be regularly isolated from such aerosols, the detection of these viruses in air samples may also be an appropriate criterion to estimate the amount to which virus concentrations may build up within waste treatment plants. PMID:7802896

  12. Survey of human enterovirus occurrence in fresh and marine surface waters on Long Island.

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, J M; Landry, E F; Thomas, M Z; Vicale, T J; Penello, W F

    1979-01-01

    A variety of surface water systems, including a lake, a creek, and two marine embayments, were analyzed on a monthly basis for indigenous human enteroviruses and coliform bacteria. Findings are discussed in terms of the probable pollution sources to each system and their relationship to data from previous studies. PMID:229767

  13. Estimation of contamination sources of human enteroviruses in a wastewater treatment and reclamation system by PCR-DGGE.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zheng; Wang, Xiaochang C; Xu, Limei; Zhang, Chongmiao; Funamizu, Naoyuki; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2014-06-01

    A polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method was employed to estimate the contamination sources of human enteroviruses and understand how their dominant strains vary in a wastewater treatment and reclamation system consisting of sewage collection, wastewater treatment with membrane bioreactor and open lakes for reclaimed water storage and reuse. After PCR-DGGE using a selected primer set targeting enteroviruses, phylogenetic analysis of acquired enterovirus gene sequences was performed. Enteroviruses identified from the septic tank were much more diverse than those from grey water and kitchen wastewater. Several unique types of enterovirus different from those in wastewater samples were dominant in a biological wastewater treatment unit. Membrane filtration followed by chlorination was proved effective for physically eliminating enteroviruses; however, secondary contamination likely occurred as the reclaimed water was stored in artificial lakes. Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) viral pathogen, was detected mainly from the artificial lakes, implying that wastewater effluent was not the contamination source of EV71 and that there were unidentified non-point sources of the contamination with the HFMD viral pathogen in the reclaimed water stored in the artificial lakes. The PCR-DGGE targeting enteroviruses provided robust evidence about viral contamination sources in the wastewater treatment and reclamation system. PMID:24715657

  14. Estimation of contamination sources of human enteroviruses in a wastewater treatment and reclamation system by PCR-DGGE.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Ji Z; Wang XC; Xu L; Zhang C; Funamizu N; Okabe S; Sano D

    2014-06-01

    A polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method was employed to estimate the contamination sources of human enteroviruses and understand how their dominant strains vary in a wastewater treatment and reclamation system consisting of sewage collection, wastewater treatment with membrane bioreactor and open lakes for reclaimed water storage and reuse. After PCR-DGGE using a selected primer set targeting enteroviruses, phylogenetic analysis of acquired enterovirus gene sequences was performed. Enteroviruses identified from the septic tank were much more diverse than those from grey water and kitchen wastewater. Several unique types of enterovirus different from those in wastewater samples were dominant in a biological wastewater treatment unit. Membrane filtration followed by chlorination was proved effective for physically eliminating enteroviruses; however, secondary contamination likely occurred as the reclaimed water was stored in artificial lakes. Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) viral pathogen, was detected mainly from the artificial lakes, implying that wastewater effluent was not the contamination source of EV71 and that there were unidentified non-point sources of the contamination with the HFMD viral pathogen in the reclaimed water stored in the artificial lakes. The PCR-DGGE targeting enteroviruses provided robust evidence about viral contamination sources in the wastewater treatment and reclamation system.

  15. Cytotoxic and viral neutralizing antibodies crossreact with streptococcal M protein, enteroviruses, and human cardiac myosin.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, M W; Antone, S M; Gulizia, J M; McManus, B M; Fischetti, V A; Gauntt, C J

    1992-01-01

    The development of autoimmunity in certain instances is related to infectious agents. In this report, cytotoxic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize epitopes on both enteroviruses and the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes are described. Murine anti-streptococcal mAbs that were crossreactive with streptococcal M protein, human cardiac myosin, and other alpha-helical coiled-coil molecules were found to neutralize coxsackieviruses B3 and B4 or poliovirus type 1. The viral-neutralizing anti-streptococcal mAbs were also cytotoxic for heart and fibroblast cell lines and reacted with viral capsid proteins on a Western immunoblot. Alignment of amino acid sequences shared between streptococcal M protein, coxsackie-virus B3 capsid protein VP1, and myosin revealed 40% identity in a 14- to 15-amino acid overlap. Synthetic peptides containing these sequences blocked mAb reactivity with streptococcal M protein. The data show that antibodies against alpha-helical structures of bacterial and viral antigens can lead to cytotoxic reactions and may be one mechanism to explain the origin of autoimmune heart disease. Images PMID:1311095

  16. Combining cell lines to optimize isolation of human enterovirus from clinical specimens: report of 25 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Prim, Nria; Rodrguez, Graciela; Margall, Nria; Del Cuerpo, Margarita; Trallero, Gloria; Rabella, Nria

    2013-01-01

    Cell culture is still the gold standard for the diagnosis of human enteroviruses (HEVs) although molecular techniques are required for detection of some serotypes. Due to the diversity of HEVs, a single cell line is not susceptible to all serotypes, and several lines are required to optimize the isolation of HEVs. In this study, the results of HEV isolation during the last 25 years are reported. A total of 1,192 HEVs were isolated and isolation rates varied depending on the cell line used. MRC5 cells yielded the best results (70.7%), followed by A549 cells (52.6%), RD cells (37.5%), and HEp-2 cells (29.7%). A total of 521 HEVs were characterized, and HEV-B was the most frequent species (81%). Polioviruses (PV) and HEV-A were isolated less frequently (17% and 1%, respectively). None of the cell lines detected all the enteroviruses. MRC5 cells were the most susceptible for isolation of echoviruses (85.7%) and PVs (85.4%), whereas HEp2 was the most susceptible for Coxsackieviruses B (82.6%). Some serotypes were isolated in one cell line only. 40.5% of echoviruses were isolated in MRC5 cells whereas 42.3% and 23.9% of Coxsackieviruses B were isolated in RD cells and HEp2 cells, respectively. Although A549 cells did not achieve the best performance for any enterovirus serotypes, they isolated 52.6% of the total HEVs. In view of these results, MRC5 cells, A549 cells, and RD cells should be combined to optimize isolation of HEVs. PMID:23124895

  17. Human enteroviruses in oysters and their overlying waters.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S M; Gerba, C P; Melnick, J L

    1979-03-01

    The presence of enteroviruses in oysters and oyster-harvesting waters of the Texas Gulf coast was monitored over a period of 10 months. Viruses were detected in water and oyster samples obtained from areas both open and closed to shellfish harvesting. Viruses were detected periodically in waters that met current bacteriological standards for shellfish harvesting. No significant statistical relationship was demonstrated between virus concentration in oysters and the bacteriological and physiochemical quality of water and shellfish. Viruses in water were, however, moderately correlated with total coliforms in water and oysters and with fecal coliforms in oysters. Total coliforms in water were realted to total coliforms in sediment were related only to total coliforms in sediment. Among the physiochemical characteristics of water, turbidity was related statistically to the organic matter content of water and to fecal coliforms in water. There was a marked effect of rainfall on the bacteriological quality of water. Of a total of 44 water samples, 26 yielded virus in concentrations from 4 to 167 plaque-forming units per 100-gallon (ca. 378.5-liter) sample. Of a total of 40 pools of 10 to 12 oysters each, virus was found in 14 pools at a concentration of 6 to 224 plaque-forming units per 100 g of oyster meat. On five occasions, virus was found in water samples when no virus could be detected in oysters harvested from the same sites. This study indicates that current bacteriological standards for determining the safety of shellfish and shellfish-growing waters do no reflect the occurrence of enteroviruses. PMID:222210

  18. Human enteroviruses in oysters and their overlying waters.

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, S M; Gerba, C P; Melnick, J L

    1979-01-01

    The presence of enteroviruses in oysters and oyster-harvesting waters of the Texas Gulf coast was monitored over a period of 10 months. Viruses were detected in water and oyster samples obtained from areas both open and closed to shellfish harvesting. Viruses were detected periodically in waters that met current bacteriological standards for shellfish harvesting. No significant statistical relationship was demonstrated between virus concentration in oysters and the bacteriological and physiochemical quality of water and shellfish. Viruses in water were, however, moderately correlated with total coliforms in water and oysters and with fecal coliforms in oysters. Total coliforms in water were realted to total coliforms in sediment were related only to total coliforms in sediment. Among the physiochemical characteristics of water, turbidity was related statistically to the organic matter content of water and to fecal coliforms in water. There was a marked effect of rainfall on the bacteriological quality of water. Of a total of 44 water samples, 26 yielded virus in concentrations from 4 to 167 plaque-forming units per 100-gallon (ca. 378.5-liter) sample. Of a total of 40 pools of 10 to 12 oysters each, virus was found in 14 pools at a concentration of 6 to 224 plaque-forming units per 100 g of oyster meat. On five occasions, virus was found in water samples when no virus could be detected in oysters harvested from the same sites. This study indicates that current bacteriological standards for determining the safety of shellfish and shellfish-growing waters do no reflect the occurrence of enteroviruses. PMID:222210

  19. Human rhinoviruses and enteroviruses in influenza-like illness in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) belong to the Picornaviridae family with high similarity to human enteroviruses (HEVs). Limited data is available from Latin America regarding the clinical presentation and strains of these viruses in respiratory disease. Methods We collected nasopharyngeal swabs at clinics located in eight Latin American countries from 3,375 subjects aged 25years or younger who presented with influenza-like illness. Results Our subjects had a median age of 3years and a 1.2:1.0 male:female ratio. HRV was identified in 16% and HEV was identified in 3%. HRVs accounted for a higher frequency of isolates in those of younger age, in particular children?B. In addition, both EV-D68 and EV-A71 were identified. Conclusions In Latin America as in other regions, HRVs and HEVs account for a substantial proportion of respiratory viruses identified in young people with ILI, a finding that provides additional support for the development of pharmaceuticals and vaccines targeting these pathogens. PMID:24119298

  20. Evaluation of a Viral Microarray Based on Simultaneous Extraction and Amplification of Viral Nucleotide Acid for Detecting Human Herpesviruses and Enteroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunxiu; Yang, Xiaomeng; Zhao, Yan; Dong, Rui; Zhou, Jiajing; Gai, Zhongtao

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a viral microarray based assay was developed to detect the human herpesviruses and enteroviruses associated with central nervous system infections, including herpes simplex virus type 1, type 2 (HSV1 and HSV2), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), enterovirus 71 (EV71), coxsackievirus A 16 (CA16) and B 5(CB5). The DNA polymerase gene of human herpesviruses and 5-untranslated region of enteroviruses were selected as the targets to design primers and probes. Human herpesviruses DNA and enteroviruses RNA were extracted simultaneously by using a guanidinium thiocyanate acid buffer, and were subsequently amplified through a biotinylated asymmetry multiplex RT-PCR with the specific primer of enteroviruses. In total, 90 blood samples and 49 cerebrospinal fluids samples with suspected systemic or neurological virus infections were investigated. Out of 139 samples, 66 were identified as positive. The specificities of this multiplex RT-PCR microarray assay were over 96% but the sensitivities were various from 100% for HSV1, HSV2, EV71 and CB5, 95.83% for CMV, 80% for EBV to 71.43% for CA16 in comparison with reference standards of TaqMan qPCR/qRT-PCR. The high Kappa values (>0.90) from HSV1, HSV2, CMV, EV71 and CB5 were obtained, indicating almost perfect agreement in term of the 5 viruses detection. But lower Kappa values for EBV (0.63) and CA16 (0.74) displayed a moderate to substantial agreement. This study provides an innovation of simultaneous extraction, amplification, hybridization and detection of DNA viruses and RNA viruses with simplicity and specificity, and demonstrates a potential clinical utility for a variety of viruses detection. PMID:25774509

  1. Molecular Evolution of the Human Enteroviruses: Correlation of Serotype with VP1 Sequence and Application to Picornavirus Classification

    PubMed Central

    Oberste, M. Steven; Maher, Kaija; Kilpatrick, David R.; Pallansch, Mark A.

    1999-01-01

    Sixty-six human enterovirus serotypes have been identified by serum neutralization, but the molecular determinants of the serotypes are unknown. Since the picornavirus VP1 protein contains a number of neutralization domains, we hypothesized that the VP1 sequence should correspond with neutralization (serotype) and, hence, with phylogenetic lineage. To test this hypothesis and to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among the human enteroviruses, we determined the complete VP1 sequences of the prototype strains of 47 human enterovirus serotypes and 10 antigenic variants. Our sequences, together with those available from GenBank, comprise a database of complete VP1 sequences for all 66 human enterovirus serotypes plus additional strains of seven serotypes. Phylogenetic trees constructed from complete VP1 sequences produced the same four major clusters as published trees based on partial VP2 sequences; in contrast to the VP2 trees, however, in the VP1 trees strains of the same serotype were always monophyletic. In pairwise comparisons of complete VP1 sequences, enteroviruses of the same serotype were clearly distinguished from those of heterologous serotypes, and the limits of intraserotypic divergence appeared to be about 25% nucleotide sequence difference or 12% amino acid sequence difference. Pairwise comparisons suggested that coxsackie A11 and A15 viruses should be classified as strains of the same serotype, as should coxsackie A13 and A18 viruses. Pairwise identity scores also distinguished between enteroviruses of different clusters and enteroviruses from picornaviruses of different genera. The data suggest that VP1 sequence comparisons may be valuable in enterovirus typing and in picornavirus taxonomy by assisting in the genus assignment of unclassified picornaviruses. PMID:9971773

  2. Evaluation of RT-PCR and Immunohistochemistry as Tools for Detection of Enterovirus in the Human Pancreas and Islets of Langerhans

    PubMed Central

    Skog, Oskar; Ingvast, Sofie; Korsgren, Olle

    2014-01-01

    Background Enteroviruses have been implicated in the etiology of type 1 diabetes, supported by immunoreactivity of enteroviral protein in islets, but presence of enteroviral genome has rarely been reported. Failure to detect enterovirus with RT-PCR has been attributed to the possible presence of PCR inhibitors and that only few cells are infected. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate strategies for detection of enterovirus in human islets. Study design A scenario was modeled with defined infected islets among a large number of uninfected pancreatic cells and the sensitivity of immunohistochemistry and PCR for detection of enterovirus was evaluated. Results Enterovirus was detected with PCR when only one single human islet, infected in vitro with a low dose of virus, was mixed with an uninfected pancreatic biopsy. Enterovirus could not be detected by immunohistochemistry under the same conditions, demonstrating the superior sensitivity of PCR also in pancreatic tissue with only a small fraction of infected cells. In addition, we demonstrate that pancreatic cell culture supernatant does not cause degradation of enterovirus at 37C, indicating that under normal culture conditions released virus is readily detectable. Utilizing PCR, the pancreases of two organ donors that died at onset of type 1 diabetes were found negative for enterovirus genome despite islet cells being positive using immunohistochemistry. Conclusions These data suggest that PCR should be the preferred screening method for enterovirus in the pancreas and suggest cautious interpretation of immunostaining for enterovirus that cannot be confirmed with PCR. PMID:25132399

  3. Potent inhibition of enterovirus D68 and human rhinoviruses by dipeptidyl aldehydes and ?-ketoamides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yunjeong; Kankanamalage, Anushka C Galasiti; Damalanka, Vishnu C; Weerawarna, Pathum M; Groutas, William C; Chang, Kyeong-Ok

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emerging pathogen responsible for mild to severe respiratory infections that occur mostly in infants, children and teenagers. EV-D68, one of more than 100 non-polio enteroviruses, is acid-labile and biologically similar to human rhinoviruses (HRV) (originally classified as HRV87). However, there is no approved preventive or therapeutic measure against EV-D68, HRV, or other enteroviruses. In this study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of series of dipeptidyl compounds against EV-D68 and HRV strains, and demonstrated that several peptidyl aldehyde and ?-ketoamide peptidyl compounds are potent inhibitors of EV-D68 and HRV strains with high in-vitro therapeutic indices (>1000). One of the ?-ketoamide compounds is shown to have favorable pharmacokinetics profiles, including a favorable oral bioavailability in rats. Recent successful development of ?-ketoamide protease inhibitors against hepatitis C virus suggests these compounds may have a high potential for further optimization and development against emerging EV-D68, as well as HRV. PMID:26658373

  4. Attenuation of Human Enterovirus 71 High-Replication-Fidelity Variants in AG129 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In a screen for ribavirin resistance, a novel high-fidelity variant of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) with the single amino acid change L123F in its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp or 3D) was identified. Based on the crystal structure of EV71 RdRp, L123 locates at the entrance of the RNA template binding channel, which might form a fidelity checkpoint. EV71 RdRp-L123F variants generated less progeny in a guanidine resistance assay and virus populations with lower mutation frequencies in cell culture passage due to their higher replication fidelity. However, compared with wild-type viruses, they did not show growth defects. In vivo infections further revealed that high-fidelity mutations L123F and G64R (previously reported) negatively impacted EV71 fitness and greatly reduced viral pathogenicity alone or together in AG129 mice. Interestingly, a variant with double mutations, RG/B4-G64R/L123F (where RG/B4 is an EV71 genotype B4 virus constructed by reverse genetics [RG])showed higher fidelity in vitro and less virulence in vivo than any one of the above two single mutants. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) of the double mutant increased more than 500 times compared with the LD50 of wild-type RG/B4 in mice. The results indicated that these high-fidelity variants exhibited an attenuated pathogenic phenotype in vivo and offer promise as a live attenuated EV71 vaccine. IMPORTANCE The error-prone nature of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of RNA viruses during replication results in quasispecies and aids survival of virus populations under a wide range of selective pressures. Virus variants with higher replication fidelity exhibit lower genetic diversity and attenuated pathogenicity in vivo. Here, we identified a novel high-fidelity mutation L123F in the RdRp of human enterovirus 71 (EV71). We further elucidated that EV71 variants with the RdRp-L123F mutation and/or the previously identified high-fidelity mutation RdRp-G64R were attenuated in an AG129 mouse model. As EV71 has emerged as a serious worldwide health threat, especially in developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region, we urgently need EV71 vaccines. Learning from the poliovirus vaccination, we prefer live attenuated EV71 vaccines to inactivated EV71 vaccines in order to effectively control EV71 outbreaks at low cost. Our results imply a new means of attenuating EV71 and reducing its mutation rate at the same time. PMID:24623423

  5. A neonatal gnotobiotic pig model of human enterovirus 71 infection and associated immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xingdong; Li, Guohua; Wen, Ke; Bui, Tammy; Liu, Fangning; Kocher, Jacob; Jortner, Bernard S; Vonck, Marlice; Pelzer, Kevin; Deng, Jie; Zhu, Runan; Li, Yuyun; Qian, Yuan; Yuan, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine development and pathogenesis studies for human enterovirus 71 are limited by a lack of suitable animal models. Here, we report the development of a novel neonatal gnotobiotic pig model using the non-pig-adapted neurovirulent human enterovirus 71 strain BJ110, which has a C4 genotype. Porcine small intestinal epithelial cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and neural cells were infected in vitro. Oral and combined oral–nasal infection of 5-day-old neonatal gnotobiotic pigs with 5×108 fluorescence forming units (FFU) resulted in shedding up to 18 days post-infection, with viral titers in rectal swab samples peaking at 2.22×108 viral RNA copies/mL. Viral capsid proteins were detected in enterocytes within the small intestines on post-infection days (PIDs) 7 and 14. Additionally, viral RNA was detected in intestinal and extra-intestinal tissues, including the central nervous system, the lung and cardiac muscle. The infected neonatal gnotobiotic pigs developed fever, forelimb weakness, rapid breathing and some hand, foot and mouth disease symptoms. Flow cytometry analysis revealed increased frequencies of both CD4+ and CD8+ IFN-γ-producing T cells in the brain and the blood on PID 14, but reduced frequencies were observed in the lung. Furthermore, high titers of serum virus-neutralizing antibodies were generated in both orally and combined oral–nasally infected pigs on PIDs 7, 14, 21 and 28. Together, these results demonstrate that neonatal gnotobiotic pigs represent a novel animal model for evaluating vaccines for human enterovirus 71 and for understanding the pathogenesis of this virus and the associated immune responses. PMID:26038741

  6. Establishment of a panel of in-house polyclonal antibodies for the diagnosis of enterovirus infections.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Osamu; Iwata-Yoshikawa, Naoko; Suzuki, Tadaki; Sato, Yuko; Nakajima, Noriko; Koike, Satoshi; Iwasaki, Takuya; Sata, Tetsutaro; Yamashita, Teruo; Minagawa, Hiroko; Taguchi, Fumihiro; Hasegawa, Hideki; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Noriyo

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a reliable method of virus detection for the diagnosis of critical enterovirus infections such as acute infective encephalitis, encephalomyelitis and myocarditis. Because histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of paraffin-embedded tissues play an important role in recognizing infectious agents in tissue samples, six in-house polyclonal antibodies raised against three representative enteroviruses using an indirect immunofluorescence assay and immunohistochemistry were examined. This panel of polyclonal antibodies recognized three serotypes of enterovirus. Two of the polyclonal antibodies were raised against denatured virus particles from enterovirus A71, one was raised against the recombinant VP1 protein of coxsackievirus B3, and the other for poliovirus type 1 were raised against denatured virus particles, the recombinant VP1 protein and peptide 2C. Western blot analysis revealed that each of these antibodies recognized the corresponding viral antigen and none cross-reacted with non-enteroviruses within the family Picornaviridae. However, all cross-reacted to some extent with the antigens derived from other serotypes of enterovirus. Indirect immunofluorescence assay and immunohistochemistry revealed that the virus capsid and non-structural proteins were localized in the cytoplasm of affected culture cells, and skeletal muscles and neurons in neonatal mice experimentally-infected with human enterovirus. The antibodies also recognized antigens derived from recent clinical isolates of enterovirus A71, coxsackievirus B3 and poliovirus. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed that representative antibodies tested showed the same recognition pattern according to each serotype. Thus, the panel of in-house anti-enterovirus polyclonal antibodies described herein will be an important tool for the screening and pathological diagnosis for enterovirus infections, and may be useful for the classification of different enterovirus serotypes, including coxsackieviruses A and B, echoviruses, enterovirus A71 and poliovirus. PMID:25263613

  7. Chebulagic Acid, a Hydrolyzable Tannin, Exhibited Antiviral Activity in Vitro and in Vivo against Human Enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yajun; Xiu, Jinghui; Liu, Jiangning; Zhang, Li; Li, Xiaoying; Xu, Yanfeng; Qin, Chuan; Zhang, Lianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease in children under six years of age. Presently, no vaccines or antiviral drugs have been clinically available to employ against EV71. In this study, we demonstrate that treatment with chebulagic acid reduced the viral cytopathic effect on rhabdomyosarcoma cells with an IC50 of 12.5 ?g/mL. The utilization of the chebulagic acid treatment on mice challenged with a lethal dose of enterovirus 71 was able to efficiently reduce mortality and relieve clinical symptoms through the inhibition of viral replication. Chebulagic acid may represent a potential therapeutic agent to control infections to enterovirus 71. PMID:23644889

  8. Sialic acid-dependent cell entry of human enterovirus D68

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Yue; Sheng, Ju; Baggen, Jim; Meng, Geng; Xiao, Chuan; Thibaut, Hendrik J.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2015-11-13

    Human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a causative agent of childhood respiratory diseases and has now emerged as a global public health threat. Nevertheless, knowledge of the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of EV-D68 has been hindered by a lack of studies on the receptor-mediated EV-D68 entry into host cells. Here we demonstrate that cell surface sialic acid is essential for EV-D68 to bind to and infect susceptible cells. Crystal structures of EV-D68 in complex with sialylated glycan receptor analogues show that they bind into the ‘canyon’ on the virus surface. The sialic acid receptor induces a cascade of conformational changes inmore » the virus to eject a fatty-acid-like molecule that regulates the stability of the virus. Furthermore, virus binding to a sialic acid receptor and to immunoglobulin-like receptors used by most other enteroviruses share a conserved mechanism for priming viral uncoating and facilitating cell entry.« less

  9. Sialic acid-dependent cell entry of human enterovirus D68

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yue; Sheng, Ju; Baggen, Jim; Meng, Geng; Xiao, Chuan; Thibaut, Hendrik J.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a causative agent of childhood respiratory diseases and has now emerged as a global public health threat. Nevertheless, knowledge of the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of EV-D68 has been hindered by a lack of studies on the receptor-mediated EV-D68 entry into host cells. Here we demonstrate that cell surface sialic acid is essential for EV-D68 to bind to and infect susceptible cells. Crystal structures of EV-D68 in complex with sialylated glycan receptor analogues show that they bind into the ‘canyon' on the virus surface. The sialic acid receptor induces a cascade of conformational changes in the virus to eject a fatty-acid-like molecule that regulates the stability of the virus. Thus, virus binding to a sialic acid receptor and to immunoglobulin-like receptors used by most other enteroviruses share a conserved mechanism for priming viral uncoating and facilitating cell entry. PMID:26563423

  10. Sialic acid-dependent cell entry of human enterovirus D68

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yue; Sheng, Ju; Baggen, Jim; Meng, Geng; Xiao, Chuan; Thibaut, Hendrik J.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2015-11-13

    Human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a causative agent of childhood respiratory diseases and has now emerged as a global public health threat. Nevertheless, knowledge of the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of EV-D68 has been hindered by a lack of studies on the receptor-mediated EV-D68 entry into host cells. Here we demonstrate that cell surface sialic acid is essential for EV-D68 to bind to and infect susceptible cells. Crystal structures of EV-D68 in complex with sialylated glycan receptor analogues show that they bind into the ‘canyon’ on the virus surface. The sialic acid receptor induces a cascade of conformational changes in the virus to eject a fatty-acid-like molecule that regulates the stability of the virus. Furthermore, virus binding to a sialic acid receptor and to immunoglobulin-like receptors used by most other enteroviruses share a conserved mechanism for priming viral uncoating and facilitating cell entry.

  11. Human Enterovirus Nonstructural Protein 2CATPase Functions as Both an RNA Helicase and ATP-Independent RNA Chaperone

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hongjie; Wang, Peipei; Wang, Guang-Chuan; Yang, Jie; Sun, Xianlin; Wu, Wenzhe; Qiu, Yang; Shu, Ting; Zhao, Xiaolu; Yin, Lei; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Hu, Yuanyang; Zhou, Xi

    2015-01-01

    RNA helicases and chaperones are the two major classes of RNA remodeling proteins, which function to remodel RNA structures and/or RNA-protein interactions, and are required for all aspects of RNA metabolism. Although some virus-encoded RNA helicases/chaperones have been predicted or identified, their RNA remodeling activities in vitro and functions in the viral life cycle remain largely elusive. Enteroviruses are a large group of positive-stranded RNA viruses in the Picornaviridae family, which includes numerous important human pathogens. Herein, we report that the nonstructural protein 2CATPase of enterovirus 71 (EV71), which is the major causative pathogen of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and has been regarded as the most important neurotropic enterovirus after poliovirus eradication, functions not only as an RNA helicase that 3′-to-5′ unwinds RNA helices in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent manner, but also as an RNA chaperone that destabilizes helices bidirectionally and facilitates strand annealing and complex RNA structure formation independently of ATP. We also determined that the helicase activity is based on the EV71 2CATPase middle domain, whereas the C-terminus is indispensable for its RNA chaperoning activity. By promoting RNA template recycling, 2CATPase facilitated EV71 RNA synthesis in vitro; when 2CATPase helicase activity was impaired, EV71 RNA replication and virion production were mostly abolished in cells, indicating that 2CATPase-mediated RNA remodeling plays a critical role in the enteroviral life cycle. Furthermore, the RNA helicase and chaperoning activities of 2CATPase are also conserved in coxsackie A virus 16 (CAV16), another important enterovirus. Altogether, our findings are the first to demonstrate the RNA helicase and chaperoning activities associated with enterovirus 2CATPase, and our study provides both in vitro and cellular evidence for their potential roles during viral RNA replication. These findings increase our understanding of enteroviruses and the two types of RNA remodeling activities. PMID:26218680

  12. Human Enterovirus Nonstructural Protein 2CATPase Functions as Both an RNA Helicase and ATP-Independent RNA Chaperone.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hongjie; Wang, Peipei; Wang, Guang-Chuan; Yang, Jie; Sun, Xianlin; Wu, Wenzhe; Qiu, Yang; Shu, Ting; Zhao, Xiaolu; Yin, Lei; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Hu, Yuanyang; Zhou, Xi

    2015-07-01

    RNA helicases and chaperones are the two major classes of RNA remodeling proteins, which function to remodel RNA structures and/or RNA-protein interactions, and are required for all aspects of RNA metabolism. Although some virus-encoded RNA helicases/chaperones have been predicted or identified, their RNA remodeling activities in vitro and functions in the viral life cycle remain largely elusive. Enteroviruses are a large group of positive-stranded RNA viruses in the Picornaviridae family, which includes numerous important human pathogens. Herein, we report that the nonstructural protein 2CATPase of enterovirus 71 (EV71), which is the major causative pathogen of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and has been regarded as the most important neurotropic enterovirus after poliovirus eradication, functions not only as an RNA helicase that 3'-to-5' unwinds RNA helices in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent manner, but also as an RNA chaperone that destabilizes helices bidirectionally and facilitates strand annealing and complex RNA structure formation independently of ATP. We also determined that the helicase activity is based on the EV71 2CATPase middle domain, whereas the C-terminus is indispensable for its RNA chaperoning activity. By promoting RNA template recycling, 2CATPase facilitated EV71 RNA synthesis in vitro; when 2CATPase helicase activity was impaired, EV71 RNA replication and virion production were mostly abolished in cells, indicating that 2CATPase-mediated RNA remodeling plays a critical role in the enteroviral life cycle. Furthermore, the RNA helicase and chaperoning activities of 2CATPase are also conserved in coxsackie A virus 16 (CAV16), another important enterovirus. Altogether, our findings are the first to demonstrate the RNA helicase and chaperoning activities associated with enterovirus 2CATPase, and our study provides both in vitro and cellular evidence for their potential roles during viral RNA replication. These findings increase our understanding of enteroviruses and the two types of RNA remodeling activities. PMID:26218680

  13. Differential Susceptibility and Response of Primary Human Myeloid BDCA1+ Dendritic Cells to Infection with Different Enteroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Barbara M.; Kers-Rebel, Esther D.; Prosser, Amy C.; Galama, Jochem M. D.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.; Adema, Gosse J.

    2013-01-01

    Coxsackie B viruses (CVBs) and echoviruses (EVs) form the Human Enterovirus-B (HEV-B) species within the family Picornaviridae. HEV-B infections are widespread and generally cause mild disease; however, severe infections occur and HEV-B are associated with various chronic diseases such as cardiomyopathy and type 1 diabetes. Dendritic cells (DCs) are the professional antigen-presenting cells of our immune system and initiate and control immune responses to invading pathogens, yet also maintain tolerance to self-antigens. We previously reported that EVs, but not CVBs, can productively infect in vitro generated monocyte-derived DCs. The interactions between HEV-B and human myeloid DCs (mDCs) freshly isolated from blood, however, remain unknown. Here, we studied the susceptibility and responses of BDCA1+ mDC to HEV-B species and found that these mDC are susceptible to EV, but not CVB infection. Productive EV7 infection resulted in massive, rapid cell death without DC activation. Contrary, EV1 infection, which resulted in lower virus input at the same MOI, resulted in DC activation as observed by production of type I interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), upregulation of co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules (CD80, CD86, PDL1) and production of IL-6 and TNF-?, with a relative moderate decrease in cell viability. EV1-induced ISG expression depended on virus replication. CVB infection did not affect DC viability and resulted in poor induction of ISGs and CD80 induction in part of the donors. These data show for the first time the interaction between HEV-B species and BDCA1+ mDCs isolated freshly from blood. Our data indicate that different HEV-B species can influence DC homeostasis in various ways, possibly contributing to HEV-B associated pathology. PMID:23638101

  14. The Autophagic Machinery in Enterovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jeffrey K. F.; Sam, I-Ching; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-01

    The Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family comprises many important human pathogens, including polioviruses, rhinovirus, enterovirus A71, and enterovirus D68. They cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from mild to severe life-threatening diseases. Currently, no effective vaccine is available against enteroviruses except for poliovirus. Enteroviruses subvert the autophagic machinery to benefit their assembly, maturation, and exit from host. Some enteroviruses spread between cells via a process described as autophagosome-mediated exit without lysis (AWOL). The early and late phases of autophagy are regulated through various lipids and their metabolizing enzymes. Some of these lipids and enzymes are specifically regulated by enteroviruses. In the present review, we summarize the current understanding of the regulation of autophagic machinery by enteroviruses, and provide updates on recent developments in this field. PMID:26828514

  15. Molecular typing of enteroviruses associated with viral meningitis in Cyprus, 2000-2002.

    PubMed

    Richter, Jan; Koptides, Dana; Tryfonos, Christina; Christodoulou, Christina

    2006-08-01

    Human enteroviruses are responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical diseases affecting many different organ systems. Although infection is usually asymptomatic, infections of the central nervous system manifested as meningitis or encephalitis can pose a serious public health problem, especially during outbreaks. In this study, samples from 218 patients diagnosed with enteroviral meningitis between January 2000 and December 2002 were analysed in order to assess the epidemiology of human enteroviruses as a cause of viral meningitis in Cyprus. A new typing strategy, based on partial sequencing of the 5' non-coding region (5'NCR), prediction of type, and selection of type-specific primers for sensitive VP1 PCR amplification, was developed. As clustering in the 5'NCR was concordant with clustering in the VP1 region, quick and reliable typing by VP1 sequencing was achieved without virus isolation in cell culture. The most frequent enterovirus serotypes identified were Human echovirus 30 (55.5%), Human echovirus 13 (15.1%), Human echovirus 6 (13.8%) and Human echovirus 9 (8.3%). Human coxsackieviruses B2, B1 and B5, Human echovirus 4, Human enterovirus 71 and Human coxsackievirus A6 represented rather rare serotypes. This is the first molecular epidemiological study of enterovirus meningitis in Cyprus. Serotype distribution corresponded basically with observations in other European countries, suggesting the spread of enteroviruses by tourism. PMID:16849723

  16. Full Genome Sequence of a Novel Human Enterovirus C (EV-C118) Isolated from Two Children with Acute Otitis Media and Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Daleno, Cristina; Piralla, Antonio; Scala, Alessia; Baldanti, Fausto; Greenberg, David; Principi, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    The new enterovirus C strain EV-C118 belongs to the human enterovirus C species of the Picornaviridae family. We report the complete genome sequence of this strain, which was identified in respiratory specimens of two children hospitalized in Israel because of acute otitis media and community-acquired pneumonia who were enrolled in the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Pediatric Research Initiative (CAP-PRI) study. PMID:23405305

  17. Enterovirus-Infected ?-Cells Induce Distinct Response Patterns in BDCA1+ and BDCA3+ Human Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Barbara M.; Gielen, Paul R.; Kers-Rebel, Esther D.; Schreibelt, Gerty; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.; Adema, Gosse J.

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses often cause mild disease, yet are also linked to development of autoimmune diabetes. Dendritic cells (DCs) shape both innate and adaptive immune responses, including anti-viral responses. How different human DC subsets shape anti-viral responses, whether they have complementary or overlapping functions and how this relates to autoimmune responses is largely unknown. We used enterovirus-infected ?-cells and freshly isolated human myeloid DC (mDC) subsets as a model for autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Our data show that both the BDCA1+ and BDCA3+ mDC subsets engulf mock- as well as virus-infected ?-cells, albeit BDCA1+ mDCs are more efficient. Uptake of enterovirus-infected, but not mock-infected cells, activated both DC subsets as indicated by the induction of co-stimulatory molecules and secretion of type I and type III interferons. Both subsets produced similar amounts of interferon-?, yet the BDCA3+ DC were superior in IFN-? production. The BDCA1+ mDCs more strongly upregulated PD-L1, and were superior in IL-12 and IL-10 production as compared to the BDCA3+ DC. Despite lack of IL-12 production by the BDCA3+ DC, both BDCA1+ and BDCA3+ DCs activated T cells in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction towards a Th1-type reactivity while suppressing Th2-associated cytokines. PMID:25806537

  18. Enterovirus 71 transmission by exosomes establishes a productive infection in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mao, Lingxiang; Wu, Jing; Shen, Li; Yang, Jing; Chen, Jianguo; Xu, Huaxi

    2016-04-01

    Exosomes are small secreted cellular vesicles for intercellular communications which contain proteins, mRNAs, and microRNAs (miRNAs). Recent studies have shown that exosomes play an important role in the transmission of infectious agents including hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and so on. However, the role of exosomes in the transfer of enterovirus 71 (EV71) between host cells remains unknown. In this study, we show that the exosomes derived from EV71-infected rhabdomyosarcoma cells contain EV71 RNA and capsid protein VP1, determined by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (QRT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. The shedding of exosomes containing virus can establish a productive infection in human neuroblastoma cell line (SK-N-SH). A comparative analysis of neutralization by EV71-specific immunoglobulins showed different levels of neutralization of exosomes-mediated infection compared with free virus. In conclusion, exosomes from EV71-infected cells may play an important role in virus dissemination and are partially resisted to antibody neutralization. Our results suggest that there is an exosomal route of EV71 transmission infection. PMID:26837894

  19. Epidemic Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Caused by Human Enterovirus 71, Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Kee Tai; Chong, Chia Yin; Teo, Eng Swee; Lau, Gilbert; Ling, Ai Ee

    2003-01-01

    Singapore experienced a large epidemic of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in 2000. After reviewing HFMD notifications from doctors and child-care centers, we found that the incidence of HFMD rose in September and declined at the end of October. During this period, 3,790 cases were reported. We performed enteroviral cultures on 311 and 157 specimens from 175 HFMD patients and 107 non-HFMD patients, respectively; human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) was the most frequently isolated virus from both groups. Most of the HFMD patients were <4 years of age. Three HFMD and two non-HFMD patients died. Specimens from two HFMD and both non-HFMD patients were culture positive for HEV71; a third patient was possibly associated with the virus. Autopsies performed on all three HFMD and one of the non-HFMD case-patients showed encephalitis, interstitial pneumonitis, and myocarditis. A preparedness plan for severe HFMD outbreaks provided for the prompt, coordinated actions needed to control the epidemic. PMID:12533285

  20. Development of A Sensitive and Specific Epitope-Blocking ELISA for Universal Detection of Antibodies to Human Enterovirus 71 Strains

    PubMed Central

    He, Fang; Kiener, Tanja K.; Lim, Xiao Fang; Tan, Yunrui; Raj, Kattur Venkatachalam Ashok; Tang, Manli; Chow, Vincent T. K.; Chen, Qingfeng; Kwang, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    Background Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a common cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in young children. It is often associated with severe neurological diseases and mortalities in recent outbreaks across the Asia Pacific region. Currently, there is no efficient universal antibody test available to detect EV71 infections. Methodology/Principal Finding In the present study, an epitope-blocking ELISA was developed to detect specific antibodies to human EV71 viruses in human or animal sera. The assay relies on a novel monoclonal antibody (Mab 1C6) that specifically binds to capsid proteins in whole EV71 viruses without any cross reaction to any EV71 capsid protein expressed alone. The sensitivity and specificity of the epitope-blocking ELISA for EV71 was evaluated and compared to microneutralization using immunized animal sera to multiple virus genotypes of EV71 and coxsackieviruses. Further, 200 serum sample from human individuals who were potentially infected with EV71 viruses were tested in both the blocking ELISA and microneutralization. Results indicated that antibodies to EV71 were readily detected in immunized animals or human sera by the epitope blocking ELISA whereas specimens with antibodies to other enteroviruses yielded negative results. This assay is not only simpler to perform but also shows higher sensitivity and specificity as compared to microneutralization. Conclusion The epitope-blocking ELISA based on a unique Mab 1C6 provided highly sensitive and 100% specific detection of antibodies to human EV71 viruses in human sera. PMID:23383215

  1. Enterovirus 71 2C Protein Inhibits NF-κB Activation by Binding to RelA(p65).

    PubMed

    Du, Haiwei; Yin, Peiqi; Yang, Xiaojie; Zhang, Leiliang; Jin, Qi; Zhu, Guofeng

    2015-01-01

    Viruses evolve multiple ways to interfere with NF-κB signaling, a key regulator of innate and adaptive immunity. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of primary pathogens that cause hand-foot-mouth disease. Here, we identify RelA(p65) as a novel binding partner for EV71 2C protein from yeast two-hybrid screen. By interaction with IPT domain of p65, 2C reduces the formation of heterodimer p65/p50, the predominant form of NF-κB. We also show that picornavirus 2C family proteins inhibit NF-κB activation and associate with p65 and IKKβ. Our findings provide a novel mechanism how EV71 antagonizes innate immunity. PMID:26394554

  2. Enterovirus 71 2C Protein Inhibits NF-?B Activation by Binding to RelA(p65)

    PubMed Central

    Du, Haiwei; Yin, Peiqi; Yang, Xiaojie; Zhang, Leiliang; Jin, Qi; Zhu, Guofeng

    2015-01-01

    Viruses evolve multiple ways to interfere with NF-?B signaling, a key regulator of innate and adaptive immunity. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of primary pathogens that cause hand-foot-mouth disease. Here, we identify RelA(p65) as a novel binding partner for EV71 2C protein from yeast two-hybrid screen. By interaction with IPT domain of p65, 2C reduces the formation of heterodimer p65/p50, the predominant form of NF-?B. We also show that picornavirus 2C family proteins inhibit NF-?B activation and associate with p65 and IKK?. Our findings provide a novel mechanism how EV71 antagonizes innate immunity. PMID:26394554

  3. Enterovirus D68

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CDC web page http://www.cdc.gov/non-polio-enterovirus/about/EV-D68.html . ... Non-polio enterovirus ... October 10, 2014. http://www.cdc.gov/non-polio-enterovirus/about/EV-D68.html. Accessed January 11, ...

  4. Synergistic antiviral activity of gemcitabine and ribavirin against enteroviruses.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyunju; Kim, Chonsaeng; Kim, Dong-Eun; Song, Jae-Hyoung; Choi, Miri; Choi, Kwangman; Kang, Mingu; Lee, Kyungjin; Kim, Hae Soo; Shin, Jin Soo; Kim, Janghwan; Han, Sang-Bae; Lee, Mi-Young; Lee, Su Ui; Lee, Chong-Kyo; Kim, Meehyein; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Cho, Sungchan

    2015-12-01

    Enteroviruses are major causative agents of various human diseases, and some of them are currently considered to be an enormous threat to public health. However, no effective therapy is currently available for the treatment of these infections. We identified gemcitabine, a nucleoside-analog drug used for cancer treatment, from a screen of bioactive chemicals as a novel inhibitor of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and enterovirus 71 (EV71). Gemcitabine potently inhibited the proliferation of CVB3 and EV71, as well as the replication of CVB3 and EV71 replicons, in cells with a low micromolar IC50 (1-5?M). Its strong inhibitory effect was also observed in cells infected with human rhinoviruses, demonstrating broad-spectrum antiviral effects on enteroviruses. Mechanistically, an extensive analysis excluded the involvement of 2C, 3A, IRES-dependent translation, and also that of polyprotein processing in the antiviral effects of gemcitabine. Importantly, gemcitabine in combination with ribavirin, an antiviral drug currently being used against a few RNA viruses, exhibited a synergistic antiviral effect on the replication of CVB3 and EV71 replicons. Consequently, our results clearly demonstrate a new indication for gemcitabine as an effective broad-spectrum inhibitor of enteroviruses and strongly suggest a new therapeutic strategy using gemcitabine alone or in combination with ribavirin for the treatment of various diseases associated with enterovirus infection. PMID:26526589

  5. Structural Basis for Recognition of Human Enterovirus 71 by a Bivalent Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Zhiqiang; Zuo, Teng; Kong, Liangliang; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Jinping; Liu, Qingwei; Chen, Tan; Zhang, Yingyi; Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Linqi; Huang, Zhong; Cong, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main pathogen responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease with severe neurological complications and even death in young children. We have recently identified a highly potent anti-EV71 neutralizing monoclonal antibody, termed D5. Here we investigated the structural basis for recognition of EV71 by the antibody D5. Four three-dimensional structures of EV71 particles in complex with IgG or Fab of D5 were reconstructed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) single particle analysis all at subnanometer resolutions. The most critical EV71 mature virion-Fab structure was resolved to a resolution of 4.8 Å, which is rare in cryo-EM studies of virus-antibody complex so far. The structures reveal a bivalent binding pattern of D5 antibody across the icosahedral 2-fold axis on mature virion, suggesting that D5 binding may rigidify virions to prevent their conformational changes required for subsequent RNA release. Moreover, we also identified that the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) of D5 heavy chain directly interacts with the extremely conserved VP1 GH-loop of EV71, which was validated by biochemical and virological assays. We further showed that D5 is indeed able to neutralize a variety of EV71 genotypes and strains. Moreover, D5 could potently confer protection in a mouse model of EV71 infection. Since the conserved VP1 GH-loop is involved in EV71 binding with its uncoating receptor, the scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2), the broadly neutralizing ability of D5 might attribute to its inhibition of EV71 from binding SCARB2. Altogether, our results elucidate the structural basis for the binding and neutralization of EV71 by the broadly neutralizing antibody D5, thereby enhancing our understanding of antibody-based protection against EV71 infection. PMID:26938634

  6. Structural Basis for Recognition of Human Enterovirus 71 by a Bivalent Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaohua; Fan, Chen; Ku, Zhiqiang; Zuo, Teng; Kong, Liangliang; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Jinping; Liu, Qingwei; Chen, Tan; Zhang, Yingyi; Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Linqi; Huang, Zhong; Cong, Yao

    2016-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main pathogen responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease with severe neurological complications and even death in young children. We have recently identified a highly potent anti-EV71 neutralizing monoclonal antibody, termed D5. Here we investigated the structural basis for recognition of EV71 by the antibody D5. Four three-dimensional structures of EV71 particles in complex with IgG or Fab of D5 were reconstructed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) single particle analysis all at subnanometer resolutions. The most critical EV71 mature virion-Fab structure was resolved to a resolution of 4.8 Å, which is rare in cryo-EM studies of virus-antibody complex so far. The structures reveal a bivalent binding pattern of D5 antibody across the icosahedral 2-fold axis on mature virion, suggesting that D5 binding may rigidify virions to prevent their conformational changes required for subsequent RNA release. Moreover, we also identified that the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) of D5 heavy chain directly interacts with the extremely conserved VP1 GH-loop of EV71, which was validated by biochemical and virological assays. We further showed that D5 is indeed able to neutralize a variety of EV71 genotypes and strains. Moreover, D5 could potently confer protection in a mouse model of EV71 infection. Since the conserved VP1 GH-loop is involved in EV71 binding with its uncoating receptor, the scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2), the broadly neutralizing ability of D5 might attribute to its inhibition of EV71 from binding SCARB2. Altogether, our results elucidate the structural basis for the binding and neutralization of EV71 by the broadly neutralizing antibody D5, thereby enhancing our understanding of antibody-based protection against EV71 infection. PMID:26938634

  7. Prevalence of human parechovirus and enterovirus in cerebrospinal fluid samples in children in Jinju, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji-Hyun; Yeom, Jung Sook; Youn, Hee-Shang; Han, Tae-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Human parechovirus (HPeV) and enterovirus (EV) are causative agents of a sepsis-like illness in neonates and of infections of the central nervous system in young children. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of HPeV3 and EV infection in young children with a sepsis-like illness or with meningitis in Jinju, Korea. Methods Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected from 267 patients (age range, 1 day to 5 years) and assessed for HPeV and EV by performing reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. Amplification products of the VP3/VP1 region of HPeV and of the VP1 region of EV were sequenced to identify the virus type. Results HPeV and EV were detected in 3.4% and 7.5% of the total CSF samples assessed, respectively. The age distribution of EV-positive patients (median age, 1.4 months) had a significantly broader range than that of HPeV-positive patients (median age, 7.8 months). The peak seasons for HPeV and EV infection were spring and summer, respectively. The clinical symptoms for HPeV and EV infection were similar, and fever was the most common symptom. Pleocytosis was detected in 22.2% of HPeV-positive patients and 35.5% of EV-positive patients. The VP3/VP1 gene sequence of the nine Korean strains clustered most closely with the Japanese strain (AB759202). Conclusion The data indicate that HPeV infection is predominant in young infants (<6 months) and that meningitis without pleocytosis was caused by both HPeV and EV infection in children. PMID:25861333

  8. Genetic Diversity of Human Enterovirus 68 Strains Isolated in Kenya Using the Hypervariable 3?- End of VP1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Opanda, Silvanos M.; Wamunyokoli, Fred; Khamadi, Samoel; Coldren, Rodney; Bulimo, Wallace D.

    2014-01-01

    Reports of increasing worldwide circulation of human enterovirus-68 (EV68) are well documented. Despite health concerns posed by resurgence of these viruses, little is known about EV68 strains circulating in Kenya. In this study, we characterized 13 EV68 strains isolated in Kenya between 2008 and 2011 based on the Hypervariable 3?- end of the VP1 gene. Viral RNA was extracted from the isolates and partial VP1 gene amplified by RT-PCR, followed by nucleotide sequencing. Alignment of deduced amino acid sequences revealed substitutions in Kenyan EV68 isolates absent in the prototype reference strain (Fermon). The majority of these changes were present in the BC and DE-loop regions, which are associated with viral antigenicity and virulence. The Kenyan strains exhibited high sequence homology with respect to those from other countries. Natural selection analysis based on the VP1 region showed that the Kenyan EV68 isolates were under purifying selection. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that majority (84.6%) of the Kenyan strains belonged to clade A, while a minority belonged to clades B and C. Overall, our results illustrate that although EV68 strains isolated in Kenya were genetically and antigenically divergent from the prototype strain (Fermon), they were closely related to those circulating in other countries, suggesting worldwide transmissibility. Further, the presence of shared mutations by Kenyan EV68 strains and those isolated in other countries, indicates evolution in the VP1 region may be contributing to increased worldwide detection of the viruses. This is the first study to document circulation of EV68 in Kenya. PMID:25054861

  9. The Lim Benyesh-Melnick antiserum pools for serotyping human enterovirus cell culture isolates--still useful, but may fail to identify current strains of echovirus 18.

    PubMed

    Bendig, Justin; Earl, Pamela

    2005-07-01

    Neutralisation tests are often used as a second line method of serotyping human enterovirus cell culture isolates after failure of indirect immunofluorescence. We reviewed the results of 85 consecutive neutralisation tests performed routinely on presumptive enterovirus isolates using the Lim Benyesh-Melnick antiserum pools after failure of immunofluorescence on most of them, in order to assess the value of these antiserum pools. Confirmation of serotype was determined by partial VP1 genome sequencing. Forty isolates were serotyped successfully and 45 isolates were untypable by the LBM pools, although 16 of the latter would not be expected to be typable by this means. Of eighteen echovirus 18 isolates tested, only two were typable by neutralisation. Of 15 coxsackievirus A16 isolates only nine were typable by neutralisation. Neutralisation with the LBM pools remains a useful second line method of serotyping human enteroviruses despite difficulties with at least two serotypes. PMID:15893571

  10. Environmental Surveillance of Non-polio Enteroviruses in Poland, 2011.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Magdalena; Ciąćka, Agnieszka; Witek, Agnieszka; Kuryk, Łukasz; Żuk-Wasek, Anna

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to apply environmental surveillance to evaluate circulation of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) in sewage in Poland. Samples of raw sewage were collected in 14 sewage disposal systems from January to December, 2011. Sewage samples were concentrated prior to analysis by RT-PCR and isolation in cells (RD, L20B and Caco-2). Out of the 165 analysed samples, 127 (77%) were positive for enteroviruses using RT-PCR and 109 (66%) were positive for enteroviruses using cell culture methods and the highest detection rate was observed in the summer and autumn. In total, 141 enteroviruses were identified using neutralization test (107 NPEVs and 34 polioviruses). Accounting for 52% of all the detected NPEVs, E11 and E3 were the predominant serotypes identified in raw sewage. Retrospectively, E11 was the known aetiology for the past aseptic meningitis outbreaks in Poland, as E3 being rarely associated with any outbreak prior to 2013. In conclusion, the environmental surveillance provides data which may help in understanding the epidemiology of enteroviruses in humans. PMID:25862480

  11. Characterization of Enteroviruses from Non-Human Primates in Cameroon Revealed Virus Types Widespread in Humans along with Candidate New Types and Species

    PubMed Central

    Sadeuh-Mba, Serge Alain; Bessaud, Mal; Joffret, Marie-Line; Endegue Zanga, Marie-Claire; Balanant, Jean; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Njouom, Richard; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Delpeyroux, Francis; Rousset, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) infecting African Non-Human Primates (NHP) are still poorly documented. This study was designed to characterize the genetic diversity of EVs among captive and wild NHP in Cameroon and to compare this diversity with that found in humans. Stool specimens were collected in April 2008 in NHP housed in sanctuaries in Yaounde and neighborhoods. Moreover, stool specimens collected from wild NHP from June 2006 to October 2008 in the southern rain forest of Cameroon were considered. RNAs purified directly from stool samples were screened for EVs using a sensitive RT-nested PCR targeting the VP1 capsid coding gene whose nucleotide sequence was used for molecular typing. Captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) were primarily infected by EV types already reported in humans in Cameroon and elsewhere: Coxsackievirus A13 and A24, Echovirus 15 and 29, and EV-B82. Moreover EV-A119, a novel virus type recently described in humans in central and west Africa, was also found in a captive Chimpanzee. EV-A76, which is a widespread virus in humans, was identified in wild chimpanzees, thus suggesting its adaptation and parallel circulation in human and NHP populations in Cameroon. Interestingly, some EVs harbored by wild NHP were genetically distinct from all existing types and were thus assigned as new types. One chimpanzee-derived virus was tentatively assigned as EV-J121 in the EV-J species. In addition, two EVs from wild monkeys provisionally registered as EV-122 and EV-123 were found to belong to a candidate new species. Overall, this study indicates that the genetic diversity of EVs among NHP is more important than previously known and could be the source of future new emerging human viral diseases. PMID:25079078

  12. Characterization of Enteroviruses from non-human primates in cameroon revealed virus types widespread in humans along with candidate new types and species.

    PubMed

    Sadeuh-Mba, Serge Alain; Bessaud, Mal; Joffret, Marie-Line; Endegue Zanga, Marie-Claire; Balanant, Jean; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Njouom, Richard; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Delpeyroux, Francis; Rousset, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) infecting African Non-Human Primates (NHP) are still poorly documented. This study was designed to characterize the genetic diversity of EVs among captive and wild NHP in Cameroon and to compare this diversity with that found in humans. Stool specimens were collected in April 2008 in NHP housed in sanctuaries in Yaounde and neighborhoods. Moreover, stool specimens collected from wild NHP from June 2006 to October 2008 in the southern rain forest of Cameroon were considered. RNAs purified directly from stool samples were screened for EVs using a sensitive RT-nested PCR targeting the VP1 capsid coding gene whose nucleotide sequence was used for molecular typing. Captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) were primarily infected by EV types already reported in humans in Cameroon and elsewhere: Coxsackievirus A13 and A24, Echovirus 15 and 29, and EV-B82. Moreover EV-A119, a novel virus type recently described in humans in central and west Africa, was also found in a captive Chimpanzee. EV-A76, which is a widespread virus in humans, was identified in wild chimpanzees, thus suggesting its adaptation and parallel circulation in human and NHP populations in Cameroon. Interestingly, some EVs harbored by wild NHP were genetically distinct from all existing types and were thus assigned as new types. One chimpanzee-derived virus was tentatively assigned as EV-J121 in the EV-J species. In addition, two EVs from wild monkeys provisionally registered as EV-122 and EV-123 were found to belong to a candidate new species. Overall, this study indicates that the genetic diversity of EVs among NHP is more important than previously known and could be the source of future new emerging human viral diseases. PMID:25079078

  13. Prevalence and Characterization of Enterovirus Infections among Pediatric Patients with Hand Foot Mouth Disease, Herpangina and Influenza Like Illness in Thailand, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Puenpa, Jiratchaya; Mauleekoonphairoj, John; Linsuwanon, Piyada; Suwannakarn, Kamol; Chieochansin, Thaweesak; Korkong, Sumeth; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina are common infectious diseases caused by several genotypes of human enterovirus species A and frequently occurring in young children. This study was aimed at analyzing enteroviruses from patients with these diseases in Thailand in 2012. Detection and genotype determination of enteroviruses were accomplished by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the VP1 region. Enterovirus-positive samples were differentiated into 17 genotypes (coxsackievirus A4 (CAV4), A5, A6, A8, A9, A10, A12, A16, A21, B1, B2, B4, B5, echovirus 7, 16, 25 and Enterovirus 71). The result showed CAV6 (33.5%), followed by CAV16 (9.4%) and EV71 (8.8%) as the most frequent genotypes in HFMD, CAV8 (19.3%) in herpangina and CAV6 (1.5%) in influenza like illness. Enterovirus infections were most prevalent during July with 34.4% in HFMD, 39.8% in herpangina and 1.6% in ILI. The higher enterovirus infection associated with HFMD and herpangina occurred in infants over one year-old. This represents the first report describing the circulation of multiple enteroviruses in Thailand. PMID:24887237

  14. Therapeutic Use of Native and Recombinant Enteroviruses.

    PubMed

    Yl-Pelto, Jani; Tripathi, Lav; Susi, Petri

    2016-01-01

    Research on human enteroviruses has resulted in the identification of more than 100 enterovirus types, which use more than 10 protein receptors and/or attachment factors required in cell binding and initiation of the replication cycle. Many of these "viral" receptors are overexpressed in cancer cells. Receptor binding and the ability to replicate in specific target cells define the tropism and pathogenesis of enterovirus types, because cellular infection often results in cytolytic response, i.e., disruption of the cells. Viral tropism and cytolytic properties thus make native enteroviruses prime candidates for oncolytic virotherapy. Copy DNA cloning and modification of enterovirus genomes have resulted in the generation of enterovirus vectors with properties that are useful in therapy or in vaccine trials where foreign antigenic epitopes are expressed from or on the surface of the vector virus. The small genome size and compact particle structure, however, set limits to enterovirus genome modifications. This review focuses on the therapeutic use of native and recombinant enteroviruses and the methods that have been applied to modify enterovirus genomes for therapy. PMID:26907330

  15. Dual-color fluorescence and homogeneous immunoassay for the determination of human enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Zhang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Cuiling; Zhou, Guohua; Zhang, Wanpo; Xiang, Dongshan; He, Zhike; Wang, Hanzhong

    2011-10-01

    We have developed a new fluorescent immune ensemble probe comprised of a conjugated lower toxic water-soluble CdTe:Zn(2+) quantum dots (QDs) and Ru(bpy)(2)(mcbpy-O-Su-ester)(PF(6))(2)- antibody complex (Ru-Ab) for the dual-color determination of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) in homogeneous solution. EV71 monoantibody was easily covalently conjugated with Ru(bpy)(2)(mcbpy-O-Su-ester)(PF(6))(2) to form a stable complex Ru-Ab, which acted both as an effective quencher of QDs fluorescence and the capture probe of virus antigen EV71. Herein, the target EV71 can break up the low fluorescent ionic ensemble by antigen-antibody combination to set free the fluorescent QDs and restore the fluorescence of QDs whereas the fluorescence intensity of Ru-Ab remains the same. Thus, the determination of EV71 by the complex Ru-Ab and QDs can be realized via the restoration of QDs fluorescence upon addition of EV71 and even can be directly evaluated by the ratio of green-colored QDs fluorescence intensity to Ru-Ab red-colored fluorescence intensity. The green-colored fluorescence of QDs was very sensitive to the change of EV71 concentration, and its fluorescence intensity increased with the increase of EV71 concentration between 1.8 ng/mL and 12 ?g/mL. With this method, EV71 was detected at subnanogram per milliliter concentration in the presence of 160 ?g/mL bovine serum albumin. More importantly, this strategy can be used as a universal method for any protein or virus by changing conjugated antibodies in disease early diagnosis providing a fast and promising clinical approach for virus determination. In a word, a simple, fast, sensitive, and highly selective assay for EV71 has been described. It could be applied in real sample analysis with a satisfactory result. It was notable that the sensor could not only achieve rapid and precise quantitative determination of protein/virus by fluorescent intensity but also could be applied in semiquantitative protein/virus determination by digital visualization. PMID:21838323

  16. Serological detection and analysis of anti-VP1 responses against various enteroviruses (EV) (EV-A, EV-B and EV-C) in Chinese individuals

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Caixia; Ding, Yingying; Zhou, Peng; Feng, Jiaojiao; Qian, Baohua; Lin, Ziyu; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jinhong; Zhao, Chunyan; Li, Xiangyu; Cao, Mingmei; Peng, Heng; Rui, Bing; Pan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The overall serological prevalence of EV infections based on ELISA remains unknown. In the present study, the antibody responses against VP1 of the EV-A species (enterovirus 71 (EV71), Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), Coxsackievirus A5 (CA5) and Coxsackievirus A6 (CA6)), of the EV-B species (Coxsackievirus B3 (CB3)), and of the EV-C species (Poliovirus 1 (PV1)) were detected and analyzed by a NEIBM (novel evolved immunoglobulin-binding molecule)-based ELISA in Shanghai blood donors. The serological prevalence of anti-CB3 VP1 antibodies was demonstrated to show the highest level, with anti-PV1 VP1 antibodies at the second highest level, and anti-CA5, CA6, CA16 and EV71 VP1 antibodies at a comparatively low level. All reactions were significantly correlated at different levels, which were approximately proportional to their sequence similarities. Antibody responses against EV71 VP1 showed obvious differences with responses against other EV-A viruses. Obvious differences in antibody responses between August 2013 and May 2014 were revealed. These findings are the first to describe the detailed information of the serological prevalence of human antibody responses against the VP1 of EV-A, B and C viruses, and could be helpful for understanding of the ubiquity of EV infections and for identifying an effective approach for seroepidemiological surveillance based on ELISA. PMID:26917423

  17. Detection of infectious enteroviruses, enterovirus genomes, somatic coliphages, and Bacteroides fragilis phages in treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gantzer, C; Maul, A; Audic, J M; Schwartzbrod, L

    1998-11-01

    In this study, three types of treated wastewater were tested for infectious enteroviruses, the enterovirus genome, somatic coliphages, and Bacteroides fragilis phages. The aim of this work was to determine whether the presence of the two types of bacteriophages or of the enterovirus genome was a good indicator of infectious enterovirus contamination. The enterovirus genome was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Infectious enteroviruses were quantified by cell culturing (BGM cells), and the bacteriophages were quantified by plaque formation on the host bacterium (Escherichia coli or B. fragilis) in agar medium. Forty-eight samples of treated wastewater were analyzed. Sixteen samples had been subjected to a secondary treatment for 8 to 12 h (A), 16 had been subjected to a secondary treatment for 30 h (B1), and 16 had been subjected to both secondary and tertiary treatments (B2). The mean concentrations of somatic coliphages were 4.9 x 10(4) PFU . liter-1 for treatment line A, 9.8 x 10(3) PFU . liter-1 for B1, and 1.4 x 10(3) PFU . liter-1 for B2, with all the samples testing positive (100%). The mean concentrations of B. fragilis phages were 1.7 x 10(3) PFU . liter-1 for A (100% positive samples), 17 to 24 PFU . liter-1 for B1 (44% positive samples), and 0.8 to 13 PFU . liter-1 for B2 (6% positive samples). The mean concentrations of infectious enteroviruses were 4 most probable number of cytopathogenic units (MPNCU) . liter-1 for A (31% positive samples) and <1 MPNCU . liter-1 for B1 and B2 (0% positive samples). The percentages of samples testing positive for the enterovirus genome were 100% for A, 56% for B1, and 19% for B2. The percentages of samples testing positive for the enterovirus genome were significantly higher than those for infectious enteroviruses. This finding may have been due to the presence of noninfectious enteroviruses or to the presence of infectious enteroviruses that do not multiply in BGM cell cultures. However, under our experimental conditions, nondetection of the genome implies the absence of infectious viruses. There was a significant correlation between the concentration of somatic coliphages or B. fragilis phages and the presence of infectious enteroviruses or the presence of the enterovirus genome. However, the somatic coliphage concentration did not lead to fluctuations in the infectious enterovirus concentration, whereas the B. fragilis phage concentration did. PMID:9797281

  18. Enterovirus spectrum from the active surveillance of hand foot and mouth disease patients under the clinical trial of inactivated Enterovirus A71 vaccine in Jiangsu, China, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xin; Bian, Lian-Lian; Lu, Wei-Wei; Li, Jing-Xin; Mao, Qun-Ying; Wang, Yi-Ping; Gao, Fan; Wu, Xing; Ye, Qiang; Xu, Miao; Li, Xiu-Ling; Zhu, Feng-Cai; Liang, Zheng-Lun

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological data from active surveillance on human enterovirus, which could cause hand, foot, and mouth disease, were limited. An active surveillance system was used to investigate the enterovirus spectrum and the incidence of different enteroviruses in infants aged 6-35 months in Jiangsu Province from 2012 to 2013. Fifty-nine infants were randomly selected from 522 non-EV-A71/CV-A16 HFMD patients. We collected 173 throat swabs and 174 rectal swabs from these infants. RT-PCR was used to amplify 5'-UTR and VP1 regions of enteroviruses and the serotypes were determined by the sequence comparison using BLAST. Twenty-one non-EV-A71/CA16 enterovirus serotypes were detected in those infants. E16, E18 were firstly reported in HFMD patients. The four top common non-EV-A71/CV-A enteroviruses among infants were CV-B3, CV-A10, CV-A6, and E9 with the HFMD incidence rates at 1.4%, 0.84%, 0.56%, and 0.47%, respectively. Over 20.8% patients were co-infected with multiple enteroviruses. Neither the course of sickness nor clinical symptoms of the co-infected patients was more severe than those infected with single enterovirus. Two patients were infected different enterovirus successively within 2 months. Several new enterovirus serotypes and multiple models of infection associated with HFMD were discovered through the active surveillance system. These data provide a better understanding of the viral etiology of HFMD. J. Med. Virol. 87:2009-2017, 2015. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26010334

  19. Epidemic 2014 Enterovirus D68 Cross-Reacts with Human Rhinovirus on a Respiratory Molecular Diagnostic Platform

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Shane C.; Schleiss, Mark R.; Arbefeville, Sophie; Steiner, Marie E.; Hanson, Ryan S.; Pollock, Catherine; Ferrieri, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emerging virus known to cause sporadic disease and occasional epidemics of severe lower respiratory tract infection. However, the true prevalence of infection with EV-D68 is unknown, due in part to the lack of a rapid and specific nucleic acid amplification test as well as the infrequency with which respiratory samples are analyzed by enterovirus surveillance programs. During the 2014 EV-D68 epidemic in the United States, we noted an increased frequency of low-positive results for human rhinovirus (HRV) detected in respiratory tract samples using the GenMark Diagnostics eSensor respiratory viral panel, a multiplex PCR assay able to detect 14 known respiratory viruses but not enteroviruses. We simultaneously noted markedly increased admissions to our Pediatric Intensive Care Unit for severe lower respiratory tract infections in patients both with and without a history of reactive airway disease. Accordingly, we hypothesized that these low-positive RVP results were due to EV-D68 rather than rhinovirus infection. Sequencing of the picornavirus 5 untranslated region (5-UTR) of 49 samples positive for HRV by the GenMark RVP revealed that 33 (67.3%) were in fact EV-D68. Notably, the mean intensity of the HRV RVP result was significantly lower in the sequence-identified EV-D68 samples (20.3 nA) compared to HRV (129.7 nA). Using a cut-off of 40 nA for the differentiation of EV-D68 from HRV resulted in 94% sensitivity and 88% specificity. The robust diagnostic characteristics of our data suggest that the cross-reactivity of EV-D68 and HRV on the GenMark Diagnostics eSensor RVP platform may be an important factor to consider in making accurate molecular diagnosis of EV-D68 at institutions utilizing this system or other molecular respiratory platforms that may also cross-react. PMID:25799541

  20. [Influence of enteroviruses on metabolism of fatty acids in human embryo fibroblasts].

    PubMed

    Shyrobokov, V P; Ievtushenko, O I; Krotenko, O V; Briuzhina, T S

    2005-01-01

    The investigations on changes in metabolism of lipids--saturated and nonsaturated fatty acids in membranes of fibroblasts of the human embryo on a background of Coxsackie B virus infection have been done. Virus-induced changes of the lipid composition are indicated by a higher level of content of eicosatrienic and arachidonic PNFA, and a sum of nonsaturated and polynon saturated fatty acids. Such phenomena (most expressed for serotypes of Coxsackie B2, B3, B4 viruses) promote the increase of permeability of biological membranes and infiltration of viruses into the cell. PMID:16493889

  1. Enterovirus D68

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What is Polio? Enterovirus D68 Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Need to Know about Enterovirus D68” in English Spanish Haitian Creole (translation provided by State of New ...

  2. Enterovirus (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Signing Kids Up for Sports 15-Minute Meal: ... not more than a few days. Keep in Mind Although enteroviruses can cause serious illness, enterovirus infections ...

  3. Animal orphan enteroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Kalter, Seymour S.

    1960-01-01

    Since the discovery, some ten years ago, of the pathogenic effect of polioviruses on non-nervous-tissue cells, tissue-culture methods have come to be widely used in virological research. Through these improved techniques for studying viruses, a large number of new cytopathogenic agents have been isolated from the intestinal tract of man. Many of these agents have been obtained from persons suffering from polio-like disease, but others have been isolated from apparently normal persons. The term orphans is used to designate those viruses which cannot definitely be associated with any recognized disease syndrome. The existence of these enteric pathogenic human orphan (ECHO) viruses, and their association with clinical disease in certain cases, stimulated interest in their animal counter-parts, which might constitute a serious threat to both human and animal health. In this paper, the author reviews the information at present available on the occurrence of the so-called orphan enteroviruses in monkeys, cattle, swine, and other animals in various parts of the world, and discusses the possible interrelationships of these animal viruses with each other and with the human enteroviruses. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 PMID:14404195

  4. Molecular Comparison and Evolutionary Analyses of VP1 Nucleotide Sequences of New African Human Enterovirus 71 Isolates Reveal a Wide Genetic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Nougairde, Antoine; Joffret, Marie-Line; Deshpande, Jagadish M.; Dubot-Prs, Audrey; Hraud, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    Most circulating strains of Human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) have been classified primarily into three genogroups (A to C) on the basis of genetic divergence between the 1D gene, which encodes the VP1 capsid protein. The aim of the present study was to provide further insights into the diversity of the EV-A71 genogroups following the recent description of highly divergent isolates, in particular those from African countries, including Madagascar. We classified recent EV-A71 isolates by a large comparison of 3,346 VP1 nucleotidic sequences collected from GenBank. Analysis of genetic distances and phylogenetic investigations indicated that some recently-reported isolates did not fall into the genogroups A-C and clustered into three additional genogroups, including one Indian genogroup (genogroup D) and 2 African ones (E and F). Our Bayesian phylogenetic analysis provided consistent data showing that the genogroup D isolates share a recent common ancestor with the members of genogroup E, while the isolates of genogroup F evolved from a recent common ancestor shared with the members of the genogroup B. Our results reveal the wide diversity that exists among EV-A71 isolates and suggest that the number of circulating genogroups is probably underestimated, particularly in developing countries where EV-A71 epidemiology has been poorly studied. PMID:24598878

  5. Global quantitative proteomic analysis of human glioma cells profiled host protein expression in response to enterovirus type 71 infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei-Ke; Lin, Tao; Zhu, Sheng-Lin; Xianyu, Ling-Zhi; Lu, Song-Ya

    2015-11-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the leading causes of hand, foot and mouth disease with neurological complications in some cases. To study the pathogenesis of EV71 infection, large-scale analyses of EV71 infected cells have been performed. However, most of these studies employed rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells or used transcriptomic strategy. Here, we performed SILAC-based quantitative proteomic analysis of EV71-infected U251 cells, a human glioma cell line. A total of 3125 host proteins were quantified, in which 451 were differentially regulated as a result of EV71 infection at 8 or 20 hpi or both. Gene Ontology analysis indicates the regulated proteins were enriched in "metabolic process", "biological regulation" and "cellular process", implying that these biological processes were affected by EV71 infection. Furthermore, functional study indicated that TRAF2 and TRAF6 among the up-regulated proteins could inhibit the replication of EV71 at the early phase post infection, and the anti-EV71 function of both proteins was independent of interferon β. Our study not only provided an overview of cellular response to EV71 infection in a human glioma cell line, but also found that TRAF2 and TRAF6 might be potential targets to inhibit the replication of EV71. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002454 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002454). PMID:26350028

  6. Differential Regulation of TLR Signaling on the Induction of Antiviral Interferons in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells Infected with Enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunyang; Ji, Lianfu; Yuan, Xinhui; Jin, Yu; Cardona, Carol J.; Xing, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease, which can lead to fatal neurological complications in young children and infants. Few gastrointestinal symptoms are observed clinically, suggesting the presence of a unique immunity to EV71 in the gut. We reported a robust induction of interferons (IFNs) in human intestinal epithelial cells (HT-29), which was suppressed in other types such as RD and HeLa cells. The underlying mechanism for the apparent difference remains obscure. In this study we report that in EV71-infected HT-29 cells, TLR/TRIF signaling was essential to IFN induction; viral replication increased and the induction of IFN-α, -β, -ω, -κ, and -ε decreased markedly in TRIF-silenced HT-29 cells. Importantly, TRIF was degraded by viral 3Cpro in RD cells, but resisted cleavage, and IRF3 was activated and translocated into the nucleus in HT-29 cells. Taken together, our data suggest that IFNs were induced differentially in human HT-29 cells through an intact TLR/TRIF signaling, which differs from other cell types and may be implicated in viral pathogenesis in EV71 infection. PMID:27007979

  7. The association of recombination events in the founding and emergence of subgenogroup evolutionary lineages of human enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    McWilliam Leitch, E C; Cabrerizo, M; Cardosa, J; Harvala, H; Ivanova, O E; Koike, S; Kroes, A C M; Lukashev, A; Perera, D; Roivainen, M; Susi, P; Trallero, G; Evans, D J; Simmonds, P

    2012-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is responsible for frequent large-scale outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease worldwide and represent a major etiological agent of severe, sometimes fatal neurological disease. EV71 variants have been classified into three genogroups (GgA, GgB, and GgC), and the latter two are further subdivided into subgenogroups B1 to B5 and C1 to C5. To investigate the dual roles of recombination and evolution in the epidemiology and transmission of EV71 worldwide, we performed a large-scale genetic analysis of isolates (n = 308) collected from 19 countries worldwide over a 40-year period. A series of recombination events occurred over this period, which have been identified through incongruities in sequence grouping between the VP1 and 3Dpol regions. Eleven 3Dpol clades were identified, each specific to EV71 and associated with specific subgenogroups but interspersed phylogenetically with clades of coxsackievirus A16 and other EV species A serotypes. The likelihood of recombination increased with VP1 sequence divergence; mean half-lives for EV71 recombinant forms (RFs) of 6 and 9 years for GgB and GgC overlapped with those observed for the EV-B serotypes, echovirus 9 (E9), E30, and E11, respectively (1.3 to 9.8 years). Furthermore, within genogroups, sporadic recombination events occurred, such as the linkage of two B4 variants to RF-W instead of RF-A and of two C4 variants to RF-H. Intriguingly, recombination events occurred as a founding event of most subgenogroups immediately preceding their lineage expansion and global emergence. The possibility that recombination contributed to their subsequent spread through improved fitness requires further biological and immunological characterization. PMID:22205739

  8. Enterovirus-71 Virus-Like Particles Induce the Activation and Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells through TLR4 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Li; Hu, Yu-Chen; Liang, Cheng-Chao; Lin, Shih-Yeh; Liang, Yu-Chih; Yuan, Hui-Ping; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes seasonal epidemics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and has a high mortality rate among young children. We recently demonstrated potent induction of the humoral and cell-mediated immune response in monkeys immunized with EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs), with a morphology resembling that of infectious EV71 virions but not containing a viral genome, which could potentially be safe as a vaccine for EV71. To elucidate the mechanisms through which EV71 VLPs induce cell-mediated immunity, we studied the immunomodulatory effects of EV71 VLPs on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), which bind to and incorporate EV71 VLPs. DC treatment with EV71 VLPs enhanced the expression of CD80, CD86, CD83, CD40, CD54, and HLA-DR on the cell surface; increased the production of interleukin (IL)-12 p40, IL-12 p70, and IL-10 by DCs; and suppressed the capacity of DCs for endocytosis. Treatment with EV71 VLPs also enhanced the ability of DCs to stimulate nave T cells and induced secretion of interferon (IFN)-? by T cells and Th1 cell responses. Neutralization with antibodies against Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 suppressed the capacity of EV71 VLPs to induce the production of IL-12 p40, IL-12 p70, and IL-10 by DCs and inhibited EV71 VLPs binding to DCs. Our study findings clarified the important role for TLR4 signaling in DCs in response to EV71 VLPs and showed that EV71 VLPs induced inhibitor of kappaB alpha (I?B?) degradation and nuclear factor of kappaB (NF-?B) activation. PMID:25360749

  9. Human Astrocytic Cells Support Persistent Coxsackievirus B3 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Zheng, Zhenhua; Shu, Bo; Liu, Xijuan; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Liu, Yan; Bai, Bingke; Hu, Qinxue

    2013-01-01

    Enteroviruses can frequently target the human central nervous system to induce a variety of neurological diseases. Although enteroviruses are highly cytolytic, emerging evidence has shown that these viruses can establish persistent infections both in vivo and in vitro. Here, we investigated the susceptibility of three human brain cell lines, CCF-STTG1, T98G, and SK-N-SH, to infection with three enterovirus serotypes: coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), enterovirus 71, and coxsackievirus A9. Persistent infection was observed in CVB3-infected CCF-STTG1 cells, as evidenced by prolonged detection of infectious virions, viral RNA, and viral antigens. Of note, infected CCF-STTG1 cells expressed the nonfunctional canonical viral receptors coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor and decay-accelerating factor, while removal of cell surface chondroitin sulfate from CCF-STTG1 cells inhibited the replication of CVB3, suggesting that receptor usage was one of the major limiting factors in CVB3 persistence. In addition, CVB3 curtailed the induction of beta interferon in infected CCF-STTG1 cells, which likely contributed to the initiation of persistence. Furthermore, proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines, such as vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, interleukin-8 (IL-8), and IL-6, were upregulated in CVB3-infected CCF-STTG1 cells and human progenitor-derived astrocytes. Our data together demonstrate the potential of CCF-STTG1 cells to be a novel cell model for studying CVB3-central nervous system interactions, providing the basis toward a better understanding of CVB3-induced chronic neuropathogenesis. PMID:24027313

  10. THERMAL AND WATER SOURCE EFFECTS UPON THE STABILITY OF ENTEROVIRUSES IN SURFACE FRESHWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The long-term survival of three human enterovirus serotypes, coxsackievirus B3, echovirus 7, and poliovirus 1 was examined in samples of surface freshwater collected from five sites of physically different character. hese were an artificial lake created by damming a creek, a smal...

  11. Direct Identification of Enteroviruses in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Suspected Meningitis by Nested PCR Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Krasota, Alexandr; Loginovskih, Natalia; Ivanova, Olga; Lipskaya, Galina

    2016-01-01

    Enteroviruses, the most common human viral pathogens worldwide, have been associated with serous meningitis, encephalitis, syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis, myocarditis and the onset of diabetes type 1. In the future, the rapid identification of the etiological agent would allow to adjust the therapy promptly and thereby improve the course of the disease and prognosis. We developed RT-nested PCR amplification of the genomic region coding viral structural protein VP1 for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical specimens and compared it with the existing analogs. One-hundred-fifty-nine cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from patients with suspected meningitis were studied. The amplification of VP1 genomic region using the new method was achieved for 86 (54.1%) patients compared with 75 (47.2%), 53 (33.3%) and 31 (19.5%) achieved with previously published methods. We identified 11 serotypes of the Enterovirus species B in 2012, including relatively rare echovirus 14 (E-14), E-15 and E-32, and eight serotypes of species B and 5 enteroviruses A71 (EV-A71) in 2013. The developed method can be useful for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical material with the low virus loads such as CSF. PMID:26751470

  12. Direct Identification of Enteroviruses in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Suspected Meningitis by Nested PCR Amplification.

    PubMed

    Krasota, Alexandr; Loginovskih, Natalia; Ivanova, Olga; Lipskaya, Galina

    2016-01-01

    Enteroviruses, the most common human viral pathogens worldwide, have been associated with serous meningitis, encephalitis, syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis, myocarditis and the onset of diabetes type 1. In the future, the rapid identification of the etiological agent would allow to adjust the therapy promptly and thereby improve the course of the disease and prognosis. We developed RT-nested PCR amplification of the genomic region coding viral structural protein VP1 for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical specimens and compared it with the existing analogs. One-hundred-fifty-nine cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from patients with suspected meningitis were studied. The amplification of VP1 genomic region using the new method was achieved for 86 (54.1%) patients compared with 75 (47.2%), 53 (33.3%) and 31 (19.5%) achieved with previously published methods. We identified 11 serotypes of the Enterovirus species B in 2012, including relatively rare echovirus 14 (E-14), E-15 and E-32, and eight serotypes of species B and 5 enteroviruses A71 (EV-A71) in 2013. The developed method can be useful for direct identification of enteroviruses in clinical material with the low virus loads such as CSF. PMID:26751470

  13. The survey of porcine teschoviruses, sapeloviruses and enteroviruses B infecting domestic pigs and wild boars in the Czech Republic between 2005 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Prod?lalov, Jana

    2012-10-01

    This study presents results of epidemiological survey and genetic characterisation of porcine enteric picornaviruses belonging to the genera Teschovirus, Sapelovirus, and Porcine enterovirus B. Faecal or gut content samples from domestic pigs (Sus scrofa f. domestica) and the cecal content of wild boars (Sus scrofa) of different ages (collected between 2005 and 2011) were analysed by molecular methods. Porcine enterovirus B was the most prevalent virus detected in both domestic pigs and wild boars (50.2% and 69.4%, respectively), followed by Porcine teschovirus and Porcine sapelovirus. The majority of positive domestic pigs (69.4%) and wild boars (64.3%) were infected with two or three tested viruses. There was no significant difference in prevalences of teschoviruses, sapeloviruses, and enteroviruses among healthy and diarrhoeic pigs. Results of epidemiological survey demonstrated that all target viral genera are common in Czech farms producing pigs and wild boars. Amplified nucleotide fragments of VP2 region obtained from randomly selected both historical and recent Teschovirus isolates were sequenced. Based on sequence data, historical Porcine teschovirus isolate CAPM V-180, previously determined as serotype 1 was reclassified into serotype 11. Moreover, another recent Porcine teschovirus isolate OH264/2010 was described and classified into serotype 11. Four nontypeable PTV strains (historical isolate CAPM V-182/1976 and recent isolates JA247/2010, NI429/2010, and BR1576/2007) identified in this study might represent novel serotypes. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first description of this serotype in the Czech Republic. PMID:22579481

  14. Antiviral effects of Phyllanthus urinaria containing corilagin against human enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Sang-Gu; Song, Jae Hyoung; Hong, Eun-Hye; Lee, Bo-Ra; Kwon, Yong Soo; Chang, Sun-Young; Kim, Seung Hyun; Lee, Sang Won; Park, Jae-Hak; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

    2015-02-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) especially in infants and children under 5 years of age. Despite recent outbreaks of HFMD, there are no approved therapeutics against EV71 and CA16 infection. Moreover, in a small percentage of cases, the disease progression can lead to serious complications of the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the antiviral effect of corilagin and Phyllanthus urinaria extract, which contains corilagin as a major component, on EV71 and CA16 infection in vitro. Our results indicate that corilagin reduces the cytotoxicity induced by EV71 or CA16 on Vero cells with and IC50 value of 5.6 and 32.33 ?g/mL, respectively. We confirmed the presence of corilagin in EtOAc and BuOH fractions from P. urinaria extract and this correlated with antiviral activity of the fractions against EV71 or CA16. Future studies will be required to confirm the antiviral activity of corilagin and P. urinaria extract in vivo. Challenging a model with a lethal dose of viral infection will be required to test this. Collectively, our work provides potential candidates for the development of novel drugs to treat HFMD. PMID:24752860

  15. Occurrence of enteroviruses in community swimming pools.

    PubMed

    Keswick, B H; Gerba, C P; Goyal, S M

    1981-09-01

    Municipal swimming pools and wading pools were examined for the presence of human enteric viruses using a portable virus concentrator at the site to concentrate viruses from 100-gallon to 500-gallon samples. Ten of 14 samples contained viruses; three of these were positive for virus in the presence of residual free chlorine. Enteroviruses were isolated from two pools which exceeded the 0.4 ppm free residual chlorine standard. This study appears to be supportive of recent evidence that indicates a higher incidence of enterovirus infection among bathers. All seven wading pool samples contained virus. Coxsackieviruses B3 and B4, poliovirus 1, and echovirus 7 were isolated. Total coliform bacteria were not adequate indicators of the presence of virus, as six of the samples were positive for virus but negative for coliforms. Total plate counts appeared to provide a better indication of the sanitary quality of the pool water, but viruses could still be detected in samples that met currently recommended bacterial levels. It is possible that swimming and wading pools may serve as a means of transmission of enteroviral disease, especially in children, during summer months. PMID:6267950

  16. Hemoagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests with enterovirus type 70.

    PubMed Central

    Kono, R; Tajiri, E; Miyamura, K; Sasagawa, A; Tsuruhara, T

    1978-01-01

    Human type "O," guinea pig, and chicken erythrocytes were agglutinated by enterovirus type 70 at 4 degrees C or room temperature. A hemagglutination inhibition test, using human "O" erythrocytes, is described for the serological diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis caused by enterovirus type 70. Images PMID:209057

  17. Neurotropic Enterovirus Infections in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsing-I; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses are a group of positive-sense single stranded viruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family. Most enteroviruses infect humans from the gastrointestinal tract and cause mild symptoms. However, several enteroviruses can invade the central nervous system (CNS) and result in various neurological symptoms that are correlated to mortality associated with enteroviral infections. In recent years, large outbreaks of enteroviruses occurred worldwide. Therefore, these neurotropic enteroviruses have been deemed as re-emerging pathogens. Although these viruses are becoming large threats to public health, our understanding of these viruses, especially for non-polio enteroviruses, is limited. In this article, we review recent advances in the trafficking of these pathogens from the peripheral to the central nervous system, compare their cell tropism, and discuss the effects of viral infections in their host neuronal cells. PMID:26610549

  18. Neurotropic Enterovirus Infections in the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsing-I; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2015-11-01

    Enteroviruses are a group of positive-sense single stranded viruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family. Most enteroviruses infect humans from the gastrointestinal tract and cause mild symptoms. However, several enteroviruses can invade the central nervous system (CNS) and result in various neurological symptoms that are correlated to mortality associated with enteroviral infections. In recent years, large outbreaks of enteroviruses occurred worldwide. Therefore, these neurotropic enteroviruses have been deemed as re-emerging pathogens. Although these viruses are becoming large threats to public health, our understanding of these viruses, especially for non-polio enteroviruses, is limited. In this article, we review recent advances in the trafficking of these pathogens from the peripheral to the central nervous system, compare their cell tropism, and discuss the effects of viral infections in their host neuronal cells. PMID:26610549

  19. Hydrophobic pocket targeting probes for enteroviruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martikainen, Mari; Salorinne, Kirsi; Lahtinen, Tanja; Malola, Sami; Permi, Perttu; Häkkinen, Hannu; Marjomäki, Varpu

    2015-10-01

    Visualization and tracking of viruses without compromising their functionality is crucial in order to understand virus targeting to cells and tissues, and to understand the subsequent subcellular steps leading to virus uncoating and replication. Enteroviruses are important human pathogens causing a vast number of acute infections, and are also suggested to contribute to the development of chronic diseases like type I diabetes. Here, we demonstrate a novel method to target site-specifically the hydrophobic pocket of enteroviruses. A probe, a derivative of Pleconaril, was developed and conjugated to various labels that enabled the visualization of enteroviruses under light and electron microscopes. The probe mildly stabilized the virus particle by increasing the melting temperature by 1-3 degrees, and caused a delay in the uncoating of the virus in the cellular endosomes, but could not however inhibit the receptor binding, cellular entry or infectivity of the virus. The hydrophobic pocket binding moiety of the probe was shown to bind to echovirus 1 particle by STD and tr-NOESY NMR methods. Furthermore, binding to echovirus 1 and Coxsackievirus A9, and to a lesser extent to Coxsackie virus B3 was verified by using a gold nanocluster labeled probe by TEM analysis. Molecular modelling suggested that the probe fits the hydrophobic pockets of EV1 and CVA9, but not of CVB3 as expected, correlating well with the variations in the infectivity and stability of the virus particles. EV1 conjugated to the fluorescent dye labeled probe was efficiently internalized into the cells. The virus-fluorescent probe conjugate accumulated in the cytoplasmic endosomes and caused infection starting from 6 hours onwards. Remarkably, before and during the time of replication, the fluorescent probe was seen to leak from the virus-positive endosomes and thus separate from the capsid proteins that were left in the endosomes. These results suggest that, like the physiological hydrophobic content, the probe may be released upon virus uncoating. Our results collectively thus show that the gold and fluorescently labeled probes may be used to track and visualize the studied enteroviruses during the early phases of infection opening new avenues to follow virus uncoating in cells.Visualization and tracking of viruses without compromising their functionality is crucial in order to understand virus targeting to cells and tissues, and to understand the subsequent subcellular steps leading to virus uncoating and replication. Enteroviruses are important human pathogens causing a vast number of acute infections, and are also suggested to contribute to the development of chronic diseases like type I diabetes. Here, we demonstrate a novel method to target site-specifically the hydrophobic pocket of enteroviruses. A probe, a derivative of Pleconaril, was developed and conjugated to various labels that enabled the visualization of enteroviruses under light and electron microscopes. The probe mildly stabilized the virus particle by increasing the melting temperature by 1-3 degrees, and caused a delay in the uncoating of the virus in the cellular endosomes, but could not however inhibit the receptor binding, cellular entry or infectivity of the virus. The hydrophobic pocket binding moiety of the probe was shown to bind to echovirus 1 particle by STD and tr-NOESY NMR methods. Furthermore, binding to echovirus 1 and Coxsackievirus A9, and to a lesser extent to Coxsackie virus B3 was verified by using a gold nanocluster labeled probe by TEM analysis. Molecular modelling suggested that the probe fits the hydrophobic pockets of EV1 and CVA9, but not of CVB3 as expected, correlating well with the variations in the infectivity and stability of the virus particles. EV1 conjugated to the fluorescent dye labeled probe was efficiently internalized into the cells. The virus-fluorescent probe conjugate accumulated in the cytoplasmic endosomes and caused infection starting from 6 hours onwards. Remarkably, before and during the time of replication, the fluorescent probe was seen to leak from the virus-positive endosomes and thus separate from the capsid proteins that were left in the endosomes. These results suggest that, like the physiological hydrophobic content, the probe may be released upon virus uncoating. Our results collectively thus show that the gold and fluorescently labeled probes may be used to track and visualize the studied enteroviruses during the early phases of infection opening new avenues to follow virus uncoating in cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the synthesis of the probes, UV-Vis absorption spectra of the probe (2), PAGE separation and the absorption spectra of the gold labeled probe (3), details of the NMR experiments, determination of the cytotoxicity of the studied molecules, TEM micrographs of the gold labeled probe (3) with enteroviruses, live cell imaging of the fluorescent probe (4) in cells, and additional details of modeling of the hydrophobic pockets. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04139b

  20. Etiology of Multiple Non-EV71 and Non-CVA16 Enteroviruses Associated with Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Jinan, China, 2009June 2013

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunrong; Yang, Mengjie; Liu, Lanzheng; Yang, Guoliang; Ma, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an infectious disease caused by human enterovirus 71 (EV71), coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) and other enteroviruses. It is of interest that other enteroviruses associated with HFMD in Jinan have been rarely reported. The aim of the present study is to detect and characterize the circulating serotypes of non-EV71 and non-CVA16 enteroviruses associated with HFMD in Jinan city, Shandong province, China. A total of 400 specimens were collected from clinically diagnosed HFMD cases in Jinan from January 2009 to June 2013. All specimens were infected with non-EV71 and non-CVA16 enteroviruses previously confirmed by RT-PCR or real-time PCR according to the protocols at that time. The GeXP-based multiplex RT-PCR assay (GeXP assay) was performed to investigate the pathogen spectrum of 15 enteroviruses (coxsackieviruses A4, A5, A6, A9, A10, A16; coxsackieviruses B1, B3, B5; Echoviruses 6, 7, 11, 13, 19 and EV71) infections associated with HMFD. For GeXP assay negative samples, reverse transcription nested PCR (nested RT-PCR) based on the 5 -untranslated region (5- UTR) sequence and phylogenetic analysis were conducted to further explore the etiology of multiple enteroviruses. The results showed that a total of twenty serotypes of enteroviruses (including EV71 and CVA16) were identified by GeXP assay and nested RT-PCR. The most circulating twelve serotypes of enteroviruses with HFMD in Jinan from 2009 to June 2013 were EV71, CVA16, CVA10, CVA6, CVA12, CVA2, Echo3, CVA4, CVA9, CVB1, CVB3 and Echo6. CVA10 and CVA6 were the most prevalent pathogens other than EV71 and CVA16 in Jinan and their most prevalent seasons were spring and summer, and a slight increase was observed in autumn and early winter. It should be noted that mixed-infections were identified by GeXP assay and the phylogenetic tree clearly discriminated the multiple pathogens associated with HFMD. Our results thus demonstrate that there was a clear lack of a reliable testing method for EV71 and CVA16 and multiple non-EV71 and non-CVA16 enteroviruses associated with HFMD were present in Jinan. The GeXP assay combined with nested RT-PCR based on 5-UTR region could meet the need for the national surveillance of multiple enteroviruses or the investigation of epidemic outbreaks triggered by enteroviruses in the future. PMID:26562154

  1. Hydrophobic pocket targeting probes for enteroviruses.

    PubMed

    Martikainen, Mari; Salorinne, Kirsi; Lahtinen, Tanja; Malola, Sami; Permi, Perttu; Hkkinen, Hannu; Marjomki, Varpu

    2015-11-01

    Visualization and tracking of viruses without compromising their functionality is crucial in order to understand virus targeting to cells and tissues, and to understand the subsequent subcellular steps leading to virus uncoating and replication. Enteroviruses are important human pathogens causing a vast number of acute infections, and are also suggested to contribute to the development of chronic diseases like type I diabetes. Here, we demonstrate a novel method to target site-specifically the hydrophobic pocket of enteroviruses. A probe, a derivative of Pleconaril, was developed and conjugated to various labels that enabled the visualization of enteroviruses under light and electron microscopes. The probe mildly stabilized the virus particle by increasing the melting temperature by 1-3 degrees, and caused a delay in the uncoating of the virus in the cellular endosomes, but could not however inhibit the receptor binding, cellular entry or infectivity of the virus. The hydrophobic pocket binding moiety of the probe was shown to bind to echovirus 1 particle by STD and tr-NOESY NMR methods. Furthermore, binding to echovirus 1 and Coxsackievirus A9, and to a lesser extent to Coxsackie virus B3 was verified by using a gold nanocluster labeled probe by TEM analysis. Molecular modelling suggested that the probe fits the hydrophobic pockets of EV1 and CVA9, but not of CVB3 as expected, correlating well with the variations in the infectivity and stability of the virus particles. EV1 conjugated to the fluorescent dye labeled probe was efficiently internalized into the cells. The virus-fluorescent probe conjugate accumulated in the cytoplasmic endosomes and caused infection starting from 6 hours onwards. Remarkably, before and during the time of replication, the fluorescent probe was seen to leak from the virus-positive endosomes and thus separate from the capsid proteins that were left in the endosomes. These results suggest that, like the physiological hydrophobic content, the probe may be released upon virus uncoating. Our results collectively thus show that the gold and fluorescently labeled probes may be used to track and visualize the studied enteroviruses during the early phases of infection opening new avenues to follow virus uncoating in cells. PMID:26440968

  2. Human enteroviruses are not the cause of neurological impairments in children at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Tettey, Prudence; Badoe, Ebenezer; Adiku, Theophilus; Obodai, Eva; Odoom, John Kofi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Convulsions associated with fever and acute onset of unknown aetiology with case fatalities have become a long observed medical condition at the Child Health Department of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Children admitted to the department with seizures of undetermined origin and fever has been a source of diagnostic confusion. Studies from the Asia Pacific region suggest a link with non-polio enteroviruses. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between non-polio enterovirus and acute encephalopathy causing neurological morbidity in children. Methods One hundred and fifty cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), throat swab and serum samples were collected from participants at the Child Health Department of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital for virus isolation and characterization. Samples were cultured on cells and positive culture assayed by microneutralisation. Direct PCR as well as multiplex PCR were used to detect other viral agents present. Results Enterovirus isolation rate was approximately 0.67%. Intratypic differentiation by molecular characterization identified a poliovirus from vaccine origin. Further screening by real-time RT-PCR identified the virus as normal Sabin and not vaccine-derive poliovirus. No arbovirus was however detected. Conclusion Non-polio enteroviruses and chikugunya virus were found not to be the etiologic agent responsible for the convulsion with neurologic morbidity observed in the Ghanaian children. Investigation for other viral agents is recommended. PMID:25426190

  3. Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Vaccine Produced by 200-L Scale Serum-Free Microcarrier Bioreactor System Provides Cross-Protective Efficacy in Human SCARB2 Transgenic Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Ying; Lin, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Chia-Ho; Liu, Wan-Hsin; Tai, Hsiu-Fen; Pan, Chien-Hung; Chen, Yung-Tsung; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Chan, Chi-Hsien; Chang, Ching-Chuan; Liu, Chung-Cheng; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chen, Juine-Ruey

    2015-01-01

    Epidemics and outbreaks caused by infections of several subgenotypes of EV71 and other serotypes of coxsackie A viruses have raised serious public health concerns in the Asia-Pacific region. These concerns highlight the urgent need to develop a scalable manufacturing platform for producing an effective and sufficient quantity of vaccines against deadly enteroviruses. In this report, we present a platform for the large-scale production of a vaccine based on the inactivated EV71(E59-B4) virus. The viruses were produced in Vero cells in a 200 L bioreactor with serum-free medium, and the viral titer reached 107 TCID50/mL 10 days after infection when using an MOI of 10−4. The EV71 virus particles were harvested and purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Fractions containing viral particles were pooled based on ELISA and SDS-PAGE. TEM was used to characterize the morphologies of the viral particles. To evaluate the cross-protective efficacy of the EV71 vaccine, the pooled antigens were combined with squalene-based adjuvant (AddaVAX) or aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and tested in human SCARB2 transgenic (Tg) mice. The Tg mice immunized with either the AddaVAX- or AlPO4-adjuvanted EV71 vaccine were fully protected from challenges by the subgenotype C2 and C4 viruses, and surviving animals did not show any degree of neurological paralysis symptoms or muscle damage. Vaccine treatments significantly reduced virus antigen presented in the central nervous system of Tg mice and alleviated the virus-associated inflammatory response. These results strongly suggest that this preparation results in an efficacious vaccine and that the microcarrier/bioreactor platform offers a superior alternative to the previously described roller-bottle system. PMID:26287531

  4. Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Vaccine Produced by 200-L Scale Serum-Free Microcarrier Bioreactor System Provides Cross-Protective Efficacy in Human SCARB2 Transgenic Mouse.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Ying; Lin, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Chia-Ho; Liu, Wan-Hsin; Tai, Hsiu-Fen; Pan, Chien-Hung; Chen, Yung-Tsung; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Chan, Chi-Hsien; Chang, Ching-Chuan; Liu, Chung-Cheng; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chen, Juine-Ruey

    2015-01-01

    Epidemics and outbreaks caused by infections of several subgenotypes of EV71 and other serotypes of coxsackie A viruses have raised serious public health concerns in the Asia-Pacific region. These concerns highlight the urgent need to develop a scalable manufacturing platform for producing an effective and sufficient quantity of vaccines against deadly enteroviruses. In this report, we present a platform for the large-scale production of a vaccine based on the inactivated EV71(E59-B4) virus. The viruses were produced in Vero cells in a 200 L bioreactor with serum-free medium, and the viral titer reached 10(7) TCID50/mL 10 days after infection when using an MOI of 10(-4). The EV71 virus particles were harvested and purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Fractions containing viral particles were pooled based on ELISA and SDS-PAGE. TEM was used to characterize the morphologies of the viral particles. To evaluate the cross-protective efficacy of the EV71 vaccine, the pooled antigens were combined with squalene-based adjuvant (AddaVAX) or aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and tested in human SCARB2 transgenic (Tg) mice. The Tg mice immunized with either the AddaVAX- or AlPO4-adjuvanted EV71 vaccine were fully protected from challenges by the subgenotype C2 and C4 viruses, and surviving animals did not show any degree of neurological paralysis symptoms or muscle damage. Vaccine treatments significantly reduced virus antigen presented in the central nervous system of Tg mice and alleviated the virus-associated inflammatory response. These results strongly suggest that this preparation results in an efficacious vaccine and that the microcarrier/bioreactor platform offers a superior alternative to the previously described roller-bottle system. PMID:26287531

  5. An enzyme-linked immuno focus assay for rapid detection and enumeration, and a newborn mouse model for human non-polio enteroviruses associated with acute diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Rao, C Durga; Reddy, Harikrishna; Naidu, Jagadish R; Raghavendra, A; Radhika, N S; Karande, Anjali

    2015-11-01

    We have recently reported significant association of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) with acute and persistent diarrhea (18-21% of total diarrheal cases), and non-diarrheal Increased Frequency of Bowel Movements (IFoBM-ND) (about 29% of the NPEV infections) in children and that the NPEV-associated diarrhea was as significant as rotavirus diarrhea. However, their diarrhea-causing potential is yet to be demonstrated in an animal model system. Since the determination of virus titers by the traditional plaque assay takes 4-7 days, there is a need for development of a rapid method for virus titer determination to facilitate active clinical research on enterovirus-associated diarrhea. The goal of this study is to develop a cell-based rapid detection and enumeration method and to demonstrate the diarrhea-inducing potential of purified and characterized non-polio enteroviruses, which were isolated from diarrheic children. Here we describe generation of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against purified strains belonging to different serotypes, and development of an enzyme-linked immuno focus assay (ELIFA) for detection and enumeration of live NPEV particles in clinical and purified virus samples, and a newborn mouse model for NPEV diarrhea. Plaque-purified NPVEs, belonging to different serotypes, isolated from children with diarrhea, were grown in cell culture and purified by isopycnic CsCl density gradient centrifugation. By ELIFA, NPEVs could be detected and enumerated within 12h post-infection. Our results demonstrated that Coxsackievirus B1 (CVB1) and CVB5 strains, isolated from diarrheic children, induced severe diarrhea in orally-inoculated 9-12 day-old mouse pups, fulfilling Koch's postulates. The methods described here would facilitate studies on NPEV-associated gastrointestinal disease. PMID:26300372

  6. Enteroviruses, hygiene and type 1 diabetes: toward a preventive vaccine.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Kristen M; von Herrath, Matthias; Tracy, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses and humans have long co-existed. Although recognized in ancient times, poliomyelitis and type 1 diabetes (T1D) were exceptionally rare and not epidemic, due in large part to poor sanitation and personal hygiene which resulted in repeated exposure to fecal-oral transmitted viruses and other infectious agents and viruses and the generation of a broad protective immunity. As a function of a growing acceptance of the benefits of hygienic practices and microbiologically clean(er) water supplies, the likelihood of exposure to diverse infectious agents and viruses declined. The effort to vaccinate against poliomyelitis demonstrated that enteroviral diseases are preventable by vaccination and led to understanding how to successfully attenuate enteroviruses. Type 1 diabetes onset has been convincingly linked to infection by numerous enteroviruses including the group B coxsackieviruses (CVB), while studies of CVB infections in NOD mice have demonstrated not only a clear link between disease onset but an ability to reduce the incidence of T1D as well: CVB infections can suppress naturally occurring autoimmune T1D. We propose here that if we can harness and develop the capacity to use attenuated enteroviral strains to induce regulatory T cell populations in the host through vaccination, then a vaccine could be considered that should function to protect against both autoimmune as well as virus-triggered T1D. Such a vaccine would not only specifically protect from certain enterovirus types but more importantly, also reset the organism's regulatory rheostat making the further development of pathogenic autoimmunity less likely. PMID:25430610

  7. Ribavirin-resistant mutants of human enterovirus 71 express a high replication fidelity phenotype during growth in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Sadeghipour, Sara; Bek, Emily J; McMinn, Peter C

    2013-02-01

    It has been shown in animal models that ribavirin-resistant poliovirus with a G64S mutation in its 3D polymerase has high replication fidelity coupled with attenuated virulence. Here, we describe the effects of mutagenesis in the human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) 3D polymerase on ribavirin resistance and replication fidelity. Seven substitutions were introduced at amino acid position 3D-G64 of a HEV71 full-length infectious cDNA clone (26M). Viable clone-derived virus populations were rescued from the G64N, G64R, and G64T mutant cDNA clones. The clone-derived G64R and G64T mutant virus populations were resistant to growth inhibition in the presence of 1,600 ?M ribavirin, whereas the growth of parental 26M and the G64N mutant viruses were inhibited in the presence of 800 ?M ribavirin. Nucleotide sequencing of the 2C and 3D coding regions revealed that the rate of random mutagenesis after 13 passages in the presence of 400 ?M ribavirin was nearly 10 times higher in the 26M genome than in the mutant G64R virus genome. Furthermore, random mutations acquired in the 2C coding regions of 26M and G64N conferred resistance to growth inhibition in the presence of 0.5 mM guanidine, whereas the G64R and G64T mutant virus populations remained susceptible to growth inhibition by 0.5 mM guanidine. Interestingly, a S264L mutation identified in the 3D coding region of 26M after ribavirin selection was also associated with both ribavirin-resistant and high replication fidelity phenotypes. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the 3D-G64R, 3D-G64T, and 3D-S264L mutations confer resistance upon HEV71 to the antiviral mutagen ribavirin, coupled with a high replication fidelity phenotype during growth in cell culture. PMID:23175376

  8. An emerging recombinant human enterovirus 71 responsible for the 2008 outbreak of Hand Foot and Mouth Disease in Fuyang city of China

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), a common contagious disease that usually affects children, is normally mild but can have life-threatening manifestations. It can be caused by enteroviruses, particularly Coxsackieviruses and human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) with highly variable clinical manifestations. In the spring of 2008, a large, unprecedented HFMD outbreak in Fuyang city of Anhui province in the central part of southeastern China resulted in a high aggregation of fatal cases. In this study, epidemiologic and clinical investigations, laboratory testing, and genetic analyses were performed to identify the causal pathogen of the outbreak. Of the 6,049 cases reported between 1 March and 9 May of 2008, 3023 (50%) were hospitalized, 353 (5.8%) were severe and 22 (0.36%) were fatal. HEV71 was confirmed as the etiological pathogen of the outbreak. Phylogenetic analyses of entire VP1 capsid protein sequence of 45 Fuyang HEV71 isolates showed that they belong to C4a cluster of the C4 subgenotype. In addition, genetic recombinations were found in the 3D region (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, a major component of the viral replication complex of the genome) between the Fuyang HEV71 strain and Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16), resulting in a recombination virus. In conclusion, an emerging recombinant HEV71 was responsible for the HFMD outbreak in Fuyang City of China, 2008. PMID:20459851

  9. Molecular Classification of Enteroviruses Not Identified by Neutralization Tests

    PubMed Central

    Iritani, Nobuhiro; Seto, Yoshiyuki

    2002-01-01

    We isolated six viruses from patients diagnosed with aseptic meningitis or hand, foot, and mouth disease. The cytopathic effect of these viruses on cultured cells was like that of enteroviruses. However, viral neutralization tests against standard antisera were negative. Phylogenetic analysis with the complete VP4 nucleotide sequences of these 6 viruses and 29 serotypes of enteroviruses classified 3 of the viruses as serotype echovirus type 18 (EV18) and 3 as serotype human enterovirus 71 (HEV71). These results were confirmed by remicroneutralization tests with HEV-monospecific antisera or an additional phylogenetic analysis with the complete VP4 nucleotide sequences. Phylogenetic analysis with complete VP4 genes is more useful than neutralization tests with enterovirus serotype-specific antisera in identifying enterovirus serotypes. PMID:11927028

  10. Nucleic acid detection systems for enteroviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Rotbart, H A

    1991-01-01

    The enteroviruses comprise nearly 70 human pathogens responsible for a wide array of diseases including poliomyelitis, meningitis, myocarditis, and neonatal sepsis. Current diagnostic tests for the enteroviruses are limited in their use by the slow growth, or failure to grow, of certain serotypes in culture, the antigenic diversity among the serotypes, and the low titer of virus in certain clinical specimens. Within the past 6 years, applications of molecular cloning techniques, in vitro transcription vectors, automated nucleic acid synthesis, and the polymerase chain reaction have resulted in significant progress toward nucleic acid-based detection systems for the enteroviruses that take advantage of conserved genomic sequences across many, if not all, serotypes. Similar approaches to the study of enteroviral pathogenesis have already produced dramatic advances in our understanding of how these important viruses cause their diverse clinical spectra. PMID:1649002

  11. WHO collaborative studies on enterovirus reference antisera*

    PubMed Central

    Hampil, Bettylee; Melnick, Joseph L.

    1968-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the second part of co-operative studies undertaken by the WHO International Reference Centre for Enteroviruses and a number of WHO Regional Virus Reference Centres, WHO Virus Collaborating Laboratories and other laboratories in a comprehensive testing programme of enterovirus equine antisera. The studies were designed to appraise the specificity of immune serum prepared in horses against 16 representative prototype enteroviruses (polioviruses 2 and 3, coxsackieviruses A7, B1, B2, B4, B5 and B6 and echoviruses 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12 and 17). Tests for neutralizing antibody were performed not only against the homologous viruses but also against the homotypic strains available in each laboratory. Tests for heterotypic antibody were made against the entire group of enteroviruses, reoviruses 1-3 and adenoviruses 1-11, 13 and 17. Each serum sample represented a pool of the individual bleedings taken from a group of horses before and after immunization with each virus antigen. The results showed that the homologous geometric mean titres of the immune sera ranged from 7000 to 36 000, whereas the preinoculation sera were negative. Results of the homotypic tests showed the usefulness of the sera. The specificity of the haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody of the sera against coxsackieviruses A7, B1, B5, B6 and echoviruses 3, 7, 12 was demonstrated. The results of the tests performed in tissue culture and mice are discussed. Co-operative testing of other enterovirus equine antisera is now in progress. PMID:4299693

  12. Antigenic Diversity of Enteroviruses Associated with Nonpolio Acute Flaccid Paralysis, India, 20072009

    PubMed Central

    Yergolkar, Prasanna; Shankarappa, K. Subbanna

    2012-01-01

    Because of the broadened acute flacid paralysis (AFP) definition and enhanced surveillance, many nonpolio AFP (NP-AFP) cases have been reported in India since 2005. To determine the spectrum of nonpolio enterovirus (NPEV) serotypes associated with NP-AFP from polio-endemic and -free regions, we studied antigenic diversity of AFP-associated NPEVs. Of fecal specimens from 2,786 children with NP-AFP in 1 polio-endemic and 2 polio-free states, 823 (29.5%) were positive for NPEVs in RD cells, of which 532 (64.6%) were positive by viral protein 1 reverse transcription PCR. We identified 66 serotypes among 581 isolates, with enterovirus 71 most frequently (8.43%) detected, followed by enterovirus 13 (7.1%) and coxsackievirus B5 (5.0%). Most strains within a serotype represented new genogropups or subgenogroups. Agents for ?35.0% and 70.0% of culture-positive and -negative cases, respectively, need to be identified. Association of human enterovirus with NP-AFP requires better assessment and understanding of health risks of NPEV infections after polio elimination. PMID:23092622

  13. Complete coding regions of the prototypes enterovirus B93 and C95: phylogenetic analyses of the P1 and P3 regions of EV-B and EV-C strains.

    PubMed

    Junttila, N; Lvque, N; Magnius, L O; Kabue, J P; Muyembe-Tamfum, J J; Maslin, J; Lina, B; Norder, H

    2015-03-01

    Complete coding regions were sequenced for two new enterovirus genomes: EV-B93 previously identified by VP1 sequencing, derived from a child with acute flaccid paralysis in the Democratic Republic of Congo; and EV-C95 from a French soldier with acute gastroenteritis in Djibouti. The EV-B93 P1 had more than 30% nucleotide divergence from other EV-B types, with highest similarity to E-15 and EV-B80. The P1 nucleotide sequence of EV-C95 was most similar, 71%, to CV-A21. Complete coding regions for the new enteroviruses were compared with those of 135 EV-B and 176 EV-C strains representing all types available in GenBank. When strains from the same outbreak or strains isolated during the same year in the same geographical region were excluded, 27 of the 58 EV-B, and 16 of the 23 EV-C types were represented by more than one sequence. However, for EV-B the P3 sequences formed three clades mainly according to origin or time of isolation, irrespective of type, while for EV-C the P3 sequences segregated mainly according to disease manifestation, with most strains causing paralysis, including polioviruses, forming one clade, and strains causing respiratory illness forming another. There was no intermixing of types between these two clades, apart from two EV-C96 strains. The EV-B P3 sequences had lower inter-clade and higher intra-clade variability as compared to the EV-C sequences, which may explain why inter-clade recombinations are more frequent in EV-B. Further analysis of more isolates may shed light on the role of recombinations in the evolution of EV-B in geographical context. PMID:25163640

  14. Simultaneous Detection and Differentiation of Human Rhino- and Enteroviruses in Clinical Specimens by Real-Time PCR with Locked Nucleic Acid Probes

    PubMed Central

    sterback, Riikka; Tevaluoto, Tuire; Ylinen, Tiina; Peltola, Ville; Susi, Petri; Hyypi, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) and human enteroviruses (HEVs) are significant respiratory pathogens. While HRV infections are restricted to the respiratory tract, HEV infections may spread to secondary target organs. The method of choice for sensitive specific detection of these viruses is reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with primers targeting the conserved 5? noncoding region of the viral RNA. On the other hand, sequence similarities between HRVs and HEVs complicate their differential detection. In this study, we describe the use of locked nucleic acid (LNA) analogues in short double-dye probes which contained only two selectively HRV- or HEV-specific bases. The double-stranded DNA dye BOXTO (4-[6-(benzoxazole-2-yl-(3-methyl-)-2,3-dihydro-(benzo-1,3-thiazole)-2-methylidene)]-1-methyl-quinolinium chloride) was used with the LNA probes in a tricolor real-time PCR assay to allow specific detection of HRVs (probes labeled with 6-carboxyfluorescein [FAM] [green]) and HEVs (Cy5 [red]) with additional melting curve analysis (BOXTO [yellow]). The functionality of the probes was validated in PCR and RT-PCR assays using plasmids containing viral cDNA, quantified viral RNA transcripts, cultivated rhino- and enterovirus prototypes, and clinical specimens. Of 100 HRV and 63 HEV prototypes, the probes correctly identified all HEVs except one that produced only a BOXTO signal. Among 118 clinical specimens with sequencing results, concordant results were obtained for 116 specimens. Two specimens were reactive with both probes, but sequencing yielded only a single virus. Real-time PCR with LNA probes allowed sensitive group-specific identification of HRVs and HEVs and would enable relative copy number determination. The assay is suitable for rapid and accurate differential detection of HRVs and HEVs in a diagnostic laboratory setting. PMID:24048533

  15. Echovirus 22 is an atypical enterovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Coller, B A; Chapman, N M; Beck, M A; Pallansch, M A; Gauntt, C J; Tracy, S M

    1990-01-01

    Although echovirus 22 (EV22) is classified as an enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae, it is atypical of the enterovirus paradigm, typified by the polioviruses and the coxsackie B viruses. cDNA reverse transcribed from coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) RNA does not hybridize to genomic RNA of EV22, and conversely, cDNA made to EV22 does not hybridize to CVB3 genomic RNA or to molecular clones of CVB3 or poliovirus type 1. EV22 cDNA does not hybridize to viral RNA of encephalomyocarditis virus or to a molecular clone of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, members of the cardiovirus genus. The genomic RNA of EV22 cannot be detected by the polymerase chain reaction using generic enteroviral primers. EV22 does not shut off host cell protein synthesis, and the RNA of EV22 is efficiently translated in vitro in rabbit reticulocyte lysates. Murine enterovirus-immune T cells recognize and proliferate against EV22 as an antigen in vitro, demonstrating that EV22 shares an epitope(s) common to enteroviruses but not found among other picornaviruses. Images PMID:2159539

  16. Molecular Typing of Enteroviruses: Current Status and Future Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Peter; Kmmerer, Ulrike; Korn, Klaus; Mulders, Mick N.; Pyry, Tuija; Weissbrich, Benedikt; Kandolf, Reinhard; Cleator, Graham M.; van Loon, Anton M.

    1998-01-01

    Human enteroviruses have traditionally been typed according to neutralization serotype. This procedure is limited by the difficulty in culturing some enteroviruses, the availability of antisera for serotyping, and the cost and technical complexity of serotyping procedures. Furthermore, the impact of information derived from enterovirus serotyping is generally perceived to be low. Enteroviruses are now increasingly being detected by PCR rather than by culture. Classical typing methods will therefore no longer be possible in most instances. An alternative means of enterovirus typing, employing PCR in conjunction with molecular genetic techniques such as nucleotide sequencing or nucleic acid hybridization, would complement molecular diagnosis, may overcome some of the problems associated with serotyping, and would provide additional information regarding the epidemiology and biological properties of enteroviruses. We argue the case for developing a molecular typing system, discuss the genetic basis of such a system, review the literature describing attempts to identify or classify enteroviruses by molecular methods, and suggest ways in which the goal of molecular typing may be realized. PMID:9457433

  17. The compatibility of inactivated-Enterovirus 71 vaccination with Coxsackievirus A16 and Poliovirus immunizations in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qunying; Wang, Yiping; Shao, Jie; Ying, Zhifang; Gao, Fan; Yao, Xin; Li, Changgui; Ye, Qiang; Xu, Miao; Li, Rongcheng; Zhu, Fengcai; Liang, Zhenglun

    2015-11-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the key pathogen for Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) and can result in severe neurological complications and death among young children. Three inactivated-EV71 vaccines have gone through phase III clinical trials and have demonstrated good safety and efficacy. These vaccines will benefit young children under the threat of severe HFMD. However, the potential immunization-related compatibility for different enterovirus vaccines remains unclear, making it hard to include the EV71 vaccine in Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). Here, we measured the neutralizing antibodies (NTAbs) against EV71, Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) and Poliovirus from infants enrolled in those EV71 vaccine clinical trials. The results indicated that the levels of NTAb GMTs for EV71 increased significantly in all 3 vaccine groups (high, middle and low dosages, respectively) post-vaccination. Seroconversion ratios and Geometric mean fold increase were significantly higher in the vaccine groups (?7/9 and 8.9?228.1) than in the placebo group (?1/10 and 0.8?1.7, P < 0.05). But no similar NTAb response trends were found in CA16 and 3 types of Poliovirus. The decrease of 3 types of Poliovirus NTAb GMTs and an increase of CA16 GMTs post-EV71-vaccination were found in vaccine and placebo groups. Further animal study on CA16 and poliovirus vaccine co-immunization or pre-immunization with EV71 vaccine in mice indicated that there was no NTAb cross-activity between EV71 and CA16/Poliovirus. Our research showed that inactivated-EV71 vaccine has good specific-neutralizing capacity and can be included in EPI. PMID:25715318

  18. The compatibility of inactivated-Enterovirus 71 vaccination with Coxsackievirus A16 and Poliovirus immunizations in humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Qunying; Wang, Yiping; Shao, Jie; Ying, Zhifang; Gao, Fan; Yao, Xin; Li, Changgui; Ye, Qiang; Xu, Miao; Li, Rongcheng; Zhu, Fengcai; Liang, Zhenglun

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the key pathogen for Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) and can result in severe neurological complications and death among young children. Three inactivated-EV71 vaccines have gone through phase III clinical trials and have demonstrated good safety and efficacy. These vaccines will benefit young children under the threat of severe HFMD. However, the potential immunization-related compatibility for different enterovirus vaccines remains unclear, making it hard to include the EV71 vaccine in Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). Here, we measured the neutralizing antibodies (NTAbs) against EV71, Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) and Poliovirus from infants enrolled in those EV71 vaccine clinical trials. The results indicated that the levels of NTAb GMTs for EV71 increased significantly in all 3 vaccine groups (high, middle and low dosages, respectively) post-vaccination. Seroconversion ratios and Geometric mean fold increase were significantly higher in the vaccine groups (≥7/9 and 8.9~228.1) than in the placebo group (≤1/10 and 0.8~1.7, P < 0.05). But no similar NTAb response trends were found in CA16 and 3 types of Poliovirus. The decrease of 3 types of Poliovirus NTAb GMTs and an increase of CA16 GMTs post-EV71-vaccination were found in vaccine and placebo groups. Further animal study on CA16 and poliovirus vaccine co-immunization or pre-immunization with EV71 vaccine in mice indicated that there was no NTAb cross-activity between EV71 and CA16/Poliovirus. Our research showed that inactivated-EV71 vaccine has good specific-neutralizing capacity and can be included in EPI. PMID:25715318

  19. Divergent Requirement for a DNA Repair Enzyme during Enterovirus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Maciejewski, Sonia; Nguyen, Joseph H. C.; Gómez-Herreros, Fernando; Cortés-Ledesma, Felipe; Caldecott, Keith W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses of the Enterovirus genus of picornaviruses, including poliovirus, coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), and human rhinovirus, commandeer the functions of host cell proteins to aid in the replication of their small viral genomic RNAs during infection. One of these host proteins is a cellular DNA repair enzyme known as 5′ tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2). TDP2 was previously demonstrated to mediate the cleavage of a unique covalent linkage between a viral protein (VPg) and the 5′ end of picornavirus RNAs. Although VPg is absent from actively translating poliovirus mRNAs, the removal of VPg is not required for the in vitro translation and replication of the RNA. However, TDP2 appears to be excluded from replication and encapsidation sites during peak times of poliovirus infection of HeLa cells, suggesting a role for TDP2 during the viral replication cycle. Using a mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line lacking TDP2, we found that TDP2 is differentially required among enteroviruses. Our single-cycle viral growth analysis shows that CVB3 replication has a greater dependency on TDP2 than does poliovirus or human rhinovirus replication. During infection, CVB3 protein accumulation is undetectable (by Western blot analysis) in the absence of TDP2, whereas poliovirus protein accumulation is reduced but still detectable. Using an infectious CVB3 RNA with a reporter, CVB3 RNA could still be replicated in the absence of TDP2 following transfection, albeit at reduced levels. Overall, these results indicate that TDP2 potentiates viral replication during enterovirus infections of cultured cells, making TDP2 a potential target for antiviral development for picornavirus infections. PMID:26715620

  20. Rhinoviruses and Respiratory Enteroviruses: Not as Simple as ABC.

    PubMed

    Royston, Lna; Tapparel, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Rhinoviruses (RVs) and respiratory enteroviruses (EVs) are leading causes of upper respiratory tract infections and among the most frequent infectious agents in humans worldwide. Both are classified in the Enterovirus genus within the Picornaviridae family and they have been assigned to seven distinct species, RV-A, B, C and EV-A, B, C, D. As viral infections of public health significance, they represent an important financial burden on health systems worldwide. However, the lack of efficient antiviral treatment or vaccines against these highly prevalent pathogens prevents an effective management of RV-related diseases. Current advances in molecular diagnostic techniques have revealed the presence of RV in the lower respiratory tract and its role in lower airway diseases is increasingly reported. In addition to an established etiological role in the common cold, these viruses demonstrate an unexpected capacity to spread to other body sites under certain conditions. Some of these viruses have received particular attention recently, such as EV-D68 that caused a large outbreak of respiratory illness in 2014, respiratory EVs from species C, or viruses within the newly-discovered RV-C species. This review provides an update of the latest findings on clinical and fundamental aspects of RV and respiratory EV, including a summary of basic knowledge of their biology. PMID:26761027

  1. Rhinoviruses and Respiratory Enteroviruses: Not as Simple as ABC

    PubMed Central

    Royston, Léna; Tapparel, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Rhinoviruses (RVs) and respiratory enteroviruses (EVs) are leading causes of upper respiratory tract infections and among the most frequent infectious agents in humans worldwide. Both are classified in the Enterovirus genus within the Picornaviridae family and they have been assigned to seven distinct species, RV-A, B, C and EV-A, B, C, D. As viral infections of public health significance, they represent an important financial burden on health systems worldwide. However, the lack of efficient antiviral treatment or vaccines against these highly prevalent pathogens prevents an effective management of RV-related diseases. Current advances in molecular diagnostic techniques have revealed the presence of RV in the lower respiratory tract and its role in lower airway diseases is increasingly reported. In addition to an established etiological role in the common cold, these viruses demonstrate an unexpected capacity to spread to other body sites under certain conditions. Some of these viruses have received particular attention recently, such as EV-D68 that caused a large outbreak of respiratory illness in 2014, respiratory EVs from species C, or viruses within the newly-discovered RV-C species. This review provides an update of the latest findings on clinical and fundamental aspects of RV and respiratory EV, including a summary of basic knowledge of their biology. PMID:26761027

  2. Defining the Enterovirus Diversity Landscape of a Fecal Sample: A Methodological Challenge?

    PubMed

    Faleye, Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas; Adewumi, Moses Olubusuyi; Adeniji, Johnson Adekunle

    2016-01-01

    Enteroviruses are a group of over 250 naked icosahedral virus serotypes that have been associated with clinical conditions that range from intrauterine enterovirus transmission withfataloutcome through encephalitis and meningitis, to paralysis. Classically, enterovirus detection was done by assaying for the development of the classic enterovirus-specific cytopathic effect in cell culture. Subsequently, the isolates were historically identified by a neutralization assay. More recently, identification has been done by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). However, in recent times, there is a move towards direct detection and identification of enteroviruses from clinical samples using the cell culture-independent RT semi-nested PCR (RT-snPCR) assay. This RT-snPCR procedure amplifies the VP1 gene, which is then sequenced and used for identification. However, while cell culture-based strategies tend to show a preponderance of certain enterovirus species depending on the cell lines included in the isolation protocol, the RT-snPCR strategies tilt in a different direction. Consequently, it is becoming apparent that the diversity observed in certain enterovirus species, e.g., enterovirus species B(EV-B), might not be because they are the most evolutionarily successful. Rather, it might stem from cell line-specific bias accumulated over several years of use of the cell culture-dependent isolation protocols. Furthermore, it might also be a reflection of the impact of the relative genome concentration on the result of pan-enterovirus VP1 RT-snPCR screens used during the identification of cell culture isolates. This review highlights the impact of these two processes on the current diversity landscape of enteroviruses and the need to re-assess enterovirus detection and identification algorithms in a bid to better balance our understanding of the enterovirus diversity landscape. PMID:26771630

  3. MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ANIMAL ENTEROVIRUSES: IMPLICATIONS FOR THEIR USE AS MARKERS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL FECAL CONTAMINATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteroviruses are the most common viruses, infecting a wide variety of mammals. It is generally accepted that only a small number of entero viruses are known. Every year several new isolates are identified and named. Human enteroviruses have been found as environmental contaminants, and contaminatio...

  4. Antiviral activity of substituted homoisoflavonoids on enteroviruses.

    PubMed

    Tait, Sabrina; Salvati, Anna Laura; Desideri, Nicoletta; Fiore, Lucia

    2006-12-01

    The antiviral activity of homoisoflavonoids, a class of flavonoids, was determined in vitro against a large panel of enteroviruses. The inhibition of viral replication was monitored on BGM (Buffalo Green Monkey) cells, and the concentration required for 50% inhibition (IC50), as well as the selectivity index (SI) were determined. None of the substances were effective against Sabin type 1 poliovirus (PV1), but most of them showed a low cytotoxicity and a marked antiviral activity against Coxsackie virus B1, B3, B4, A9 and echovirus 30. PMID:16934879

  5. Binding of Glutathione to Enterovirus Capsids Is Essential for Virion Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; Thys, Bert; Canela, Mara-Dolores; Aguado, Leire; Wimmer, Eckard; Paul, Aniko; Prez-Prez, Mara-Jess; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.; Neyts, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Enteroviruses (family of the Picornaviridae) cover a large group of medically important human pathogens for which no antiviral treatment is approved. Although these viruses have been extensively studied, some aspects of the viral life cycle, in particular morphogenesis, are yet poorly understood. We report the discovery of TP219 as a novel inhibitor of the replication of several enteroviruses, including coxsackievirus and poliovirus. We show that TP219 binds directly glutathione (GSH), thereby rapidly depleting intracellular GSH levels and that this interferes with virus morphogenesis without affecting viral RNA replication. The inhibitory effect on assembly was shown not to depend on an altered reducing environment. Using TP219, we show that GSH is an essential stabilizing cofactor during the transition of protomeric particles into pentameric particles. Sequential passaging of coxsackievirus B3 in the presence of low GSH-levels selected for GSH-independent mutants that harbored a surface-exposed methionine in VP1 at the interface between two protomers. In line with this observation, enteroviruses that already contained this surface-exposed methionine, such as EV71, did not rely on GSH for virus morphogenesis. Biochemical and microscopical analysis provided strong evidence for a direct interaction between GSH and wildtype VP1 and a role for this interaction in localizing assembly intermediates to replication sites. Consistently, the interaction between GSH and mutant VP1 was abolished resulting in a relocalization of the assembly intermediates to replication sites independent from GSH. This study thus reveals GSH as a novel stabilizing host factor essential for the production of infectious enterovirus progeny and provides new insights into the poorly understood process of morphogenesis. PMID:24722756

  6. Human MicroRNA hsa-miR-296-5p Suppresses Enterovirus 71 Replication by Targeting the Viral Genome

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhenhua; Ke, Xianliang; Wang, Meng; He, Siyi; Li, Qian; Zheng, Caishang; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Liu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a major cause of neurological disease following the near eradication of poliovirus. Accumulating evidence suggests that mammalian microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of noncoding RNAs of 18 to 23 nucleotides (nt) with important regulatory roles in many cellular processes, participate in host antiviral defenses. However, the roles of miRNAs in EV71 infection and pathogenesis are still unclear. Here, hsa-miR-296-5p expression was significantly increased in EV71-infected human cells. As determined by virus titration, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and Western blotting, overexpression of hsa-miR-296-5p inhibited, while inhibition of endogenous hsa-miR-296-5p facilitated, EV71 infection. Additionally, two potential hsa-miR-296-5p targets (nt 2115 to 2135 and nt 2896 to 2920) located in the EV71 genome (strain BrCr) were bioinformatically predicted and validated by luciferase reporter assays and Western blotting. Genomic alignment of various EV71 strains revealed synonymous mutations in hsa-miR-296-5p target sequences. Furthermore, the introduction of synonymous mutations into the EV71 BrCr genome by site-directed mutagenesis impaired the viral inhibitory effects of hsa-miR-296-5p and facilitated mutant virus infection. Meanwhile, compensatory mutations in corresponding hsa-miR-296-5p target sequences of the EV71 HeN strain (GenBank accession number JN256064) restored the inhibitory effects of the miRNA. These results indicate that hsa-miR-296-5p inhibits EV71 replication by targeting the viral genome. Our findings support the notion that cellular miRNAs can inhibit virus infection and that the virus mutates to escape suppression by cellular miRNAs. PMID:23468506

  7. Magnesium lithospermate B and rosmarinic acid, two compounds present in Salvia miltiorrhiza, have potent antiviral activity against enterovirus 71 infections.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yi-Ching; Hsieh, Feng-Chia; Lin, Ying-Ju; Wu, Tzong-Yuan; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Lin, Ching-Ting; Tang, Nou-Ying; Jinn, Tzyy-Rong

    2015-05-15

    The aim of this study was to identify the active ingredients responsible for the anti-EV71 activity produced by Salvia miltiorrhiza extracts. A pGS-EV71 IRES-based bicistronic reporter assay platform was used for rapid analysis of compounds that could specifically inhibit EV71 viral IRES-mediated translation. The analysis identified 2 caffeic acid derivatives, magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) and rosmarinic acid (RA), which suppressed EV71 IRES-mediated translation at concentrations of 30μg/ml. We also found that MLB and RA inhibited EV71 infection when they were added to RD cells during the viral absorption stage. MLB had a low IC50 value of 0.09mM and a high TI value of 10.52. In contrast, RA had an IC50 value of 0.50mM with a TI value of 2.97. MLB and RA (100µg/ml) also reduced EV71 viral particle production and significantly decreased VP1 protein production. We propose that these two derivatives inhibit EV71 viral entry into cells and viral IRES activity, thereby reducing viral particle production and viral RNA expression and blocking viral VP1 protein translation. This study provides useful information for the development of anti-EV71 assays and reagents by demonstrating a convenient EV71 IRES-based bicistronic assay platform to screen for anti-EV71 IRES activity, and also reports 2 compounds, MLB and RA, which are responsible for the anti-EV71 activity of S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:25773498

  8. Coxsackievirus B1-based antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA with broad specificity for enteroviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Swanink, C M; Veenstra, L; Poort, Y A; Kaan, J A; Galama, J M

    1993-01-01

    An antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with coxsackievirus B1 as the antigen was evaluated for detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies and showed broad specificity for enteroviruses. In total, 116 serum or cerebrospinal fluid samples from 62 patients were tested by ELISA and the complement fixation test (CFT). Additionally, 15 serum samples that contained poliovirus-specific IgM antibody were tested. Serum samples from 200 healthy blood donors were used for standardization of the assays. The sensitivity of the ELISA varied with time of serum sampling, with a relatively low sensitivity when serum was collected within 3 days after the onset of symptoms (23%; 5 of 22) but good sensitivity when serum was collected later (83%; 20 of 24). The sensitivity was better than that of the CFT. The ELISAs were broadly reactive as concluded from typing of virus isolates that were simultaneously obtained. The assay did, furthermore, detect antibody against poliovirus type 3. Sera that contained rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, or cardiolipin antibody (by the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test) did not react in this ELISA. Nonspecific reactivity did occur, however, in cases of infectious mononucleosis and in Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. The enterovirus-specific ELISA is found to be simple to perform, more sensitive than the CFT, and far less laborious than the neutralization test. PMID:8308117

  9. Mapping Enterovirus A71 Antigenic Determinants from Viral Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sheng-Wen; Tai, Ching-Hui; Fonville, Judith M.; Lin, Chin-Hui; Wang, Shih-Min; Liu, Ching-Chung; Su, Ih-Jen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) belongs to the Enterovirus A species in the Picornaviridae family. Several vaccines against EV-A71, a disease causing severe neurological complications or even death, are currently under development and being tested in clinical trials, and preventative vaccination programs are expected to start soon. To characterize the potential for antigenic change of EV-A71, we compared the sequences of two antigenically diverse genotype B4 and B5 strains of EV-A71 and identified substitutions at residues 98, 145, and 164 in the VP1 capsid protein as antigenic determinants. To examine the effects of these three substitutions on antigenicity, we constructed a series of recombinant viruses containing different mutation combinations at these three residues with a reverse genetics system and then investigated the molecular basis of antigenic changes with antigenic cartography. We found that a novel EV-A71 mutant, containing lysine, glutamine, and glutamic acid at the respective residues 98, 145, and 164 in the VP1 capsid protein, exhibited neutralization reduction against patients' antisera and substantially increased virus binding ability to human cells. These observations indicated that this low-neutralization-reactive EV-A71 VP1-98K/145Q/164E mutant potentially increases viral binding ability and that surveillance studies should look out for these mutants, which could compromise vaccine efficacy. IMPORTANCE Emerging and reemerging EV-A71 viruses can cause severe neurological etiology, primarily affecting children, especially around Asia-Pacific countries. We identified a set of mutations in EV-A71 that both reduced neutralization activity against humoral immunity in antisera of patients and healthy adults and greatly increased the viral binding ability to cells. These findings provide important insights for EV-A71 antigenic determinants and emphasize the importance of continuous surveillance, especially after EV-A71 vaccination programs begin. PMID:26339057

  10. MicroRNA and Pathogenesis of Enterovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Bing-Ching; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yu, Sung-Liang

    2016-01-01

    There are no currently available specific antiviral therapies for non-polio Enterovirus infections. Although several vaccines have entered clinical trials, the efficacy requires further evaluation, particularly for cross-strain protective activity. Curing patients with viral infections is a public health problem due to antigen alterations and drug resistance caused by the high genomic mutation rate. To conquer these limits in the development of anti-Enterovirus treatments, a comprehensive understanding of the interactions between Enterovirus and host cells is urgently needed. MicroRNA (miRNA) constitutes the biggest family of gene regulators in mammalian cells and regulates almost a half of all human genes. The roles of miRNAs in Enterovirus pathogenesis have recently begun to be noted. In this review, we shed light on recent advances in the understanding of Enterovirus infection-modulated miRNAs. The impacts of altered host miRNAs on cellular processes, including immune escape, apoptosis, signal transduction, shutdown of host protein synthesis and viral replication, are discussed. Finally, miRNA-based medication provides a promising strategy for the development of antiviral therapy. PMID:26751468

  11. MicroRNA and Pathogenesis of Enterovirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Ho, Bing-Ching; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yu, Sung-Liang

    2016-01-01

    There are no currently available specific antiviral therapies for non-polio Enterovirus infections. Although several vaccines have entered clinical trials, the efficacy requires further evaluation, particularly for cross-strain protective activity. Curing patients with viral infections is a public health problem due to antigen alterations and drug resistance caused by the high genomic mutation rate. To conquer these limits in the development of anti-Enterovirus treatments, a comprehensive understanding of the interactions between Enterovirus and host cells is urgently needed. MicroRNA (miRNA) constitutes the biggest family of gene regulators in mammalian cells and regulates almost a half of all human genes. The roles of miRNAs in Enterovirus pathogenesis have recently begun to be noted. In this review, we shed light on recent advances in the understanding of Enterovirus infection-modulated miRNAs. The impacts of altered host miRNAs on cellular processes, including immune escape, apoptosis, signal transduction, shutdown of host protein synthesis and viral replication, are discussed. Finally, miRNA-based medication provides a promising strategy for the development of antiviral therapy. PMID:26751468

  12. Enterovirus and type 1 diabetes: What is the matter?

    PubMed Central

    Bergamin, Carla Sanchez; Dib, Sergio Atala

    2015-01-01

    A complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors can trigger the immune-mediated mechanism responsible for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) establishment. Environmental factors may initiate and possibly sustain, accelerate, or retard damage to β-cells. The role of environmental factors in this process has been exhaustive studied and viruses are among the most probable ones, especially enteroviruses. Improvements in enterovirus detection methods and randomized studies with patient follow-up have confirmed the importance of human enterovirus in the pathogenesis of T1DM. The genetic risk of T1DM and particular innate and acquired immune responses to enterovirus infection contribute to a tolerance to T1DM-related autoantigens. However, the frequency, mechanisms, and pathways of virally induced autoimmunity and β-cell destruction in T1DM remain to be determined. It is difficult to investigate the role of enterovirus infection in T1DM because of several concomitant mechanisms by which the virus damages pancreatic β-cells, which, consequently, may lead to T1DM establishment. Advances in molecular and genomic studies may facilitate the identification of pathways at earlier stages of autoimmunity when preventive and therapeutic approaches may be more effective. PMID:26131324

  13. Development of a transcription-reverse transcription concerted reaction method for specific detection of human enterovirus 71 from clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Naoto; Kitamori, Yuka; Ohnaka, Satoru; Mitoma, Yasutami; Mizuta, Katsumi; Wakita, Takaji; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Arita, Minetaro

    2012-05-01

    A transcription-reverse transcription (RT) concerted reaction (TRCR) method was developed for rapid and specific detection of EV71 from clinical specimens. This method was validated with EV71 strains from all of the known genotypes (genotypes A, B1 to B5, and C1 to C5), with detection limits of 10 to 10(3) copies, and was useful for identification of EV71 from throat swabs of patients with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). PMID:22357494

  14. Development of a Transcription-Reverse Transcription Concerted Reaction Method for Specific Detection of Human Enterovirus 71 from Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Naoto; Kitamori, Yuka; Ohnaka, Satoru; Mitoma, Yasutami; Mizuta, Katsumi; Wakita, Takaji; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    A transcription-reverse transcription (RT) concerted reaction (TRCR) method was developed for rapid and specific detection of EV71 from clinical specimens. This method was validated with EV71 strains from all of the known genotypes (genotypes A, B1 to B5, and C1 to C5), with detection limits of 10 to 103 copies, and was useful for identification of EV71 from throat swabs of patients with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). PMID:22357494

  15. 21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. 866.3225 Section 866.3225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3225...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. 866.3225 Section 866.3225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3225...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. 866.3225 Section 866.3225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3225...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. 866.3225 Section 866.3225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3225...

  19. The role of Misshapen NCK-related kinase (MINK), a novel Ste20 family kinase, in the IRES-mediated protein translation of human enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Leong, Shi Yun; Ong, Bryan Kit Teck; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2015-03-01

    Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) commonly causes Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in young children, and occasional occurrences of neurological complications can be fatal. In this study, a high-throughput cell-based screening on the serine/threonine kinase siRNA library was performed to identify potential antiviral agents against EV71 replication. Among the hits, Misshapen/NIKs-related kinase (MINK) was selected for detailed analysis due to its strong inhibitory profile and novelty. In the investigation of the stage at which MINK is involved in EV71 replication, virus RNA transfection in MINK siRNA-treated cells continued to cause virus inhibition despite bypassing the normal entry pathway, suggesting its involvement at the post-entry stage. We have also shown that viral RNA and protein expression level was significantly reduced upon MINK silencing, suggesting its involvement in viral protein synthesis which feeds into viral RNA replication process. Through proteomic analysis and infection inhibition assay, we found that the activation of MINK was triggered by early replication events, instead of the binding and entry of the virus. Proteomic analysis on the activation profile of p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) indicated that the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was stimulated by EV71 infection upon MINK activation. Luciferase reporter assay further revealed that the translation efficiency of the EV71 internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) was reduced after blocking the MINK/p38 MAPK pathway. Further investigation on the effect of MINK silencing on heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) localisation demonstrated that cytoplasmic relocalisation of hnRNP A1 upon EV71 infection may be facilitated via the MINK/p38 MAPK pathway which then positively regulates the translation of viral RNA transcripts. These novel findings hence suggest that MINK plays a functional role in the IRES-mediated translation of EV71 viral RNA and may provide a potential target for the development of specific antiviral strategies against EV71 infection. PMID:25747578

  20. The Role of Misshapen NCK-related kinase (MINK), a Novel Ste20 Family Kinase, in the IRES-Mediated Protein Translation of Human Enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Shi Yun; Ong, Bryan Kit Teck; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2015-01-01

    Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) commonly causes Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in young children, and occasional occurrences of neurological complications can be fatal. In this study, a high-throughput cell-based screening on the serine/threonine kinase siRNA library was performed to identify potential antiviral agents against EV71 replication. Among the hits, Misshapen/NIKs-related kinase (MINK) was selected for detailed analysis due to its strong inhibitory profile and novelty. In the investigation of the stage at which MINK is involved in EV71 replication, virus RNA transfection in MINK siRNA-treated cells continued to cause virus inhibition despite bypassing the normal entry pathway, suggesting its involvement at the post-entry stage. We have also shown that viral RNA and protein expression level was significantly reduced upon MINK silencing, suggesting its involvement in viral protein synthesis which feeds into viral RNA replication process. Through proteomic analysis and infection inhibition assay, we found that the activation of MINK was triggered by early replication events, instead of the binding and entry of the virus. Proteomic analysis on the activation profile of p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) indicated that the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was stimulated by EV71 infection upon MINK activation. Luciferase reporter assay further revealed that the translation efficiency of the EV71 internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) was reduced after blocking the MINK/p38 MAPK pathway. Further investigation on the effect of MINK silencing on heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) localisation demonstrated that cytoplasmic relocalisation of hnRNP A1 upon EV71 infection may be facilitated via the MINK/p38 MAPK pathway which then positively regulates the translation of viral RNA transcripts. These novel findings hence suggest that MINK plays a functional role in the IRES-mediated translation of EV71 viral RNA and may provide a potential target for the development of specific antiviral strategies against EV71 infection. PMID:25747578

  1. Improved Detection Limit in Rapid Detection of Human Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 by a Novel Reverse TranscriptionIsothermal Multiple-Self-Matching-Initiated Amplification Assay

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiong; Nie, Kai; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Yong; Guan, Li; Zhang, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Rapid detection of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) is important in the early phase of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). In this study, we developed and evaluated a novel reverse transcriptionisothermal multiple-self-matching-initiated amplification (RT-IMSA) assay for the rapid detection of EV71 and CVA16 by use of reverse transcriptase, together with a strand displacement DNA polymerase. Real-time RT-IMSA assays using a turbidimeter and visual RT-IMSA assays to detect EV71 and CVA16 were established and completed in 1 h, and the reported corresponding real-time reverse transcriptionloop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assays targeting the same regions of the VP1 gene were adopted as parallel tests. Through testing VP1 RNAs transcribed in vitro, the real-time RT-IMSA assays exhibited better linearity of quantification, with R2 values of 0.952 (for EV71) and 0.967 (for CVA16), than the real-time RT-LAMP assays, which had R2 values of 0.803 (for EV71) and 0.904 (for CVA16). Additionally, the detection limits of the real-time RT-IMSA assays (approximately 937 for EV71 and 67 for CVA16 copies/reaction) were higher than those of real-time RT-LAMP assays (approximately 3,266 for EV71 and 430 for CVA16 copies/reaction), and similar results were observed in the visual RT-IMSA assays. The new approaches also possess high specificities for the corresponding targets, with no cross-reactivity observed. In clinical assessment, compared to commercial reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) kits, the diagnostic sensitivities of the real-time RT-IMSA assays (96.4% for EV71 and 94.6% for CVA16) were higher than those of the real-time RT-LAMP assays (91.1% for EV71 and 90.8% for CVA16). The visual RT-IMSA assays also exhibited the same results. In conclusion, this proof-of-concept study suggests that the novel RT-IMSA assay is superior to the RT-LAMP assay in terms of detection limit and has the potential to rapidly detect EV71 and CVA16 viruses. PMID:24648558

  2. Enterovirus D68 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Susanna; Bosis, Samantha; Niesters, Hubert; Principi, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    First described in 1962 in children hospitalized for pneumonia and bronchiolitis, the Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emergent viral pathogen. Since its discovery, during the long period of surveillance up to 2005, EV-D68 was reported only as a cause of sporadic outbreaks. In recent years, many reports from different countries have described an increasing number of patients with respiratory diseases due to EV-D68 associated with relevant clinical severity. In particular, an unexpectedly high number of children have been hospitalized for severe respiratory disease due to EV-D68, requiring intensive care such as intubation and mechanical ventilation. Moreover, EV-D68 has been associated with acute flaccid paralysis and cranial nerve dysfunction in children, which has caused concerns in the community. As no specific antiviral therapy is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Moreover, because no vaccines are available, conventional infection control measures (i.e., standard, for contacts and droplets) in both community and healthcare settings are recommended. However, further studies are required to fully understand the real importance of this virus. Prompt diagnosis and continued surveillance of EV-D68 infections are essential to managing and preventing new outbreaks. Moreover, if the association between EV-D68 and severe diseases will be confirmed, the development of adequate preventive and therapeutic approaches are a priority. PMID:26610548

  3. Enterovirus D68 Infection.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Bosis, Samantha; Niesters, Hubert; Principi, Nicola

    2015-11-01

    First described in 1962 in children hospitalized for pneumonia and bronchiolitis, the Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emergent viral pathogen. Since its discovery, during the long period of surveillance up to 2005, EV-D68 was reported only as a cause of sporadic outbreaks. In recent years, many reports from different countries have described an increasing number of patients with respiratory diseases due to EV-D68 associated with relevant clinical severity. In particular, an unexpectedly high number of children have been hospitalized for severe respiratory disease due to EV-D68, requiring intensive care such as intubation and mechanical ventilation. Moreover, EV-D68 has been associated with acute flaccid paralysis and cranial nerve dysfunction in children, which has caused concerns in the community. As no specific antiviral therapy is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Moreover, because no vaccines are available, conventional infection control measures (i.e., standard, for contacts and droplets) in both community and healthcare settings are recommended. However, further studies are required to fully understand the real importance of this virus. Prompt diagnosis and continued surveillance of EV-D68 infections are essential to managing and preventing new outbreaks. Moreover, if the association between EV-D68 and severe diseases will be confirmed, the development of adequate preventive and therapeutic approaches are a priority. PMID:26610548

  4. Molecular Identification and Typing of Enteroviruses Isolated from Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Manzara, Stefania; Muscillo, Michele; La Rosa, Giuseppina; Marianelli, Cinzia; Cattani, Paola; Fadda, Giovanni

    2002-01-01

    Enterovirus characterization and typing require an integrated technological approach, using both immunological and molecular methods. The seventy-nine enteroviruses included in this study were isolated from cell cultures and classified as enteroviruses on the basis of an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) against common enterovirus antigens and a neutralization test based on the Lim Benyesh-Melnick (LBM) pool. The final identification was carried out using a number of different molecular approaches, including reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and nucleotide sequence analysis of amplicons from various regions of the genome. Twenty-seven poliovirus strains (set A) were identified using LBM pool analysis, RFLP analysis, and IFA. Use of the LBM pool method showed that 35 out of 79 strains were nonpoliovirus (set B), while 17 specimens tested negative (set C). Sets B and C were further investigated. Twenty-five specimens from set B and 8 from set C were identified by IFA. Six specimens from set B and five from set C were identified by RFLP analysis. Specimens in sets B and C were treated using RT-PCR; the resulting amplicons were subjected to nucleotide sequence analysis. The VP1 region was analyzed using two sets of deoxyinosine degenerate primers. Where the VP1 test gave no signal, the VP4-VP2 region was analyzed. Where both tests were negative, a 5? noncoding region analysis was performed. Interestingly, analysis of the VP1 region showed that two specimens from set C were strains of enterovirus 71, whose presence was unexpected in Italy. As in other European epidemiological studies, the strain found most frequently was echovirus 30. PMID:12454151

  5. Identification of a Series of Compounds with Potent Antiviral Activity for the Treatment of Enterovirus Infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Rhinovirus (genus enterovirus) infections are responsible for many of the severe exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Other members of the genus can cause life-threatening acute neurological infections. There is currently no antiviral drug approved for the treatment of such infections. We have identified a series of potent, broad-spectrum antiviral compounds that inhibit the replication of the human rhinovirus, Coxsackie virus, poliovirus, and enterovirus-71. The mechanism of action of the compounds has been established as inhibition of a lipid kinase, PI4KIII?. Inhibition of hepatitis C replication in a replicon assay correlated with enterovirus inhibition. PMID:24900715

  6. Structure determination of enterovirus 71

    SciTech Connect

    Plevka, Pavel; Perera, Rushika; Cardosa, Jane; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2013-02-20

    Enterovirus 71 is a picornavirus that causes hand, foot and mouth disease but may induce fatal neurological illness in infants and young children. Enterovirus 71 crystallized in a body-centered orthorhombic space group with two particles in general orientations in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Determination of the particle orientations required that the locked rotation function excluded the twofold symmetry axes from the set of icosahedral symmetry operators. This avoided the occurrence of misleading high rotation-function values produced by the alignment of icosahedral and crystallographic twofold axes. Once the orientations and positions of the particles had been established, the structure was solved by molecular replacement and phase extension.

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Reveals Differential Protein Expression in Response to Enterovirus 71 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wenying; Zhong, Jiayu; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Jianjun; Zhang, Renli; Peng, Liang; Hong, Wenxu; Huang, Sheng He; Cao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    2D DIGE technology was employed on proteins prepared from human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), to study the differentially expressed proteins in cells at 0?h, 1?h, 16?h, and 24?h after infection. Proteins found to be differentially expressed were identified with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF/TOF MS) analysis. We identified 43 spots showing changes of at least 2.5 fold up- or downregulated expressions in EV71-infected cells at different time when comparing to control, and 28 proteins could be successfully identified by MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry analysis. 4 proteins were significantly upregulated, and 6 proteins were downregulated, another 18 proteins were different expression at different incubation time. We identified changes in the expression of 12 cellular metabolism-related proteins, 5 molecules involved in cytoskeleton, 3 molecules involved in energy metabolism, 2 molecules involved in signal transduction, 1 molecule involved in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, 1 molecule involved in cell cycle, 1 molecule involved in apoptosis-related protein, 1 molecular chaperone, and 2 unknown proteins. These findings build up a comprehensive profile of the HBMEC proteome and provide a useful basis for further analysis of the pathogenic mechanism that underlies EV71 infections to induce severe neural complications. PMID:25821824

  8. Molecular mimicry in diabetes mellitus: the homologous domain in coxsackie B virus protein 2C and islet autoantigen GAD65 is highly conserved in the coxsackie B-like enteroviruses and binds to the diabetes associated HLA-DR3 molecule.

    PubMed

    Vreugdenhil, G R; Geluk, A; Ottenhoff, T H; Melchers, W J; Roep, B O; Galama, J M

    1998-01-01

    It has been proposed that molecular mimicry between protein 2C (p2C) of coxsackie virus B4 and the autoantigen glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) plays a role in the pathogenesis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). In this study we show that the amino acid sequence of p2C which shares homology with a sequence in GAD65 (PEVKEK), is highly conserved in coxsackie virus B4 isolates as well as in different viruses of the subgroup of coxsackie B-like enteroviruses. These are the most prevalent enteroviruses and therefore exposure to the mimicry motif will be a frequent event throughout life. Presentation of the homologous peptides by HLA molecules is essential for T-cell reactivity. Therefore, we tested whether the PEVKEK motif can bind to the IDDM-associated HLA-DR1, -DR3 and -DR4 molecules. Synthetic peptides with sequences derived from p2C and GAD65 did bind to HLA-DR3 but not to HLA-DR1 or -DR4. Replacement of amino acids within the motif showed that the PEVKEK motif binds specifically to HLA-DR3. Moreover, both p2C and GAD65 peptides bind in the same position within the peptide binding groove of the DR3 molecule which is an essential requirement for T-cell cross-reactivity. The results support molecular mimicry between p2C of coxsackie B-like enteroviruses and GAD65. However, this molecular mimicry may be limited to the HLA-DR3 positive subpopulation of IDDM patients. PMID:9498628

  9. Precise genotyping and recombination detection of Enterovirus

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EV) with different genotypes cause diverse infectious diseases in humans and mammals. A correct EV typing result is crucial for effective medical treatment and disease control; however, the emergence of novel viral strains has impaired the performance of available diagnostic tools. Here, we present a web-based tool, named EVIDENCE (EnteroVirus In DEep conception, http://symbiont.iis.sinica.edu.tw/evidence), for EV genotyping and recombination detection. We introduce the idea of using mixed-ranking scores to evaluate the fitness of prototypes based on relatedness and on the genome regions of interest. Using phylogenetic methods, the most possible genotype is determined based on the closest neighbor among the selected references. To detect possible recombination events, EVIDENCE calculates the sequence distance and phylogenetic relationship among sequences of all sliding windows scanning over the whole genome. Detected recombination events are plotted in an interactive figure for viewing of fine details. In addition, all EV sequences available in GenBank were collected and revised using the latest classification and nomenclature of EV in EVIDENCE. These sequences are built into the database and are retrieved in an indexed catalog, or can be searched for by keywords or by sequence similarity. EVIDENCE is the first web-based tool containing pipelines for genotyping and recombination detection, with updated, built-in, and complete reference sequences to improve sensitivity and specificity. The use of EVIDENCE can accelerate genotype identification, aiding clinical diagnosis and enhancing our understanding of EV evolution. PMID:26678286

  10. Precise genotyping and recombination detection of Enterovirus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chieh-Hua; Wang, Yu-Bin; Chen, Shu-Hwa; Hsiung, Chao; Lin, Chung-Yen

    2015-12-01

    Enteroviruses (EV) with different genotypes cause diverse infectious diseases in humans and mammals. A correct EV typing result is crucial for effective medical treatment and disease control; however, the emergence of novel viral strains has impaired the performance of available diagnostic tools. Here, we present a web-based tool, named EVIDENCE (EnteroVirus In DEep conception, http://symbiont.iis.sinica.edu.tw/evidence), for EV genotyping and recombination detection. We introduce the idea of using mixed-ranking scores to evaluate the fitness of prototypes based on relatedness and on the genome regions of interest. Using phylogenetic methods, the most possible genotype is determined based on the closest neighbor among the selected references. To detect possible recombination events, EVIDENCE calculates the sequence distance and phylogenetic relationship among sequences of all sliding windows scanning over the whole genome. Detected recombination events are plotted in an interactive figure for viewing of fine details. In addition, all EV sequences available in GenBank were collected and revised using the latest classification and nomenclature of EV in EVIDENCE. These sequences are built into the database and are retrieved in an indexed catalog, or can be searched for by keywords or by sequence similarity. EVIDENCE is the first web-based tool containing pipelines for genotyping and recombination detection, with updated, built-in, and complete reference sequences to improve sensitivity and specificity. The use of EVIDENCE can accelerate genotype identification, aiding clinical diagnosis and enhancing our understanding of EV evolution. PMID:26678286

  11. Differential permissivity of human cerebrovascular endothelial cells to enterovirus infection and specificities of serotype EV-A71 in crossing an in vitro model of the human blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Volle, Romain; Archimbaud, Christine; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Romero, Ignacio A; Weksler, Babette; Mirand, Audrey; Pereira, Bruno; Henquell, Cécile; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-07-01

    Human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3 cell line) form a steady polarized barrier when cultured in vitro on a permeable membrane. Their susceptibility to enterovirus (EV) strains was analysed to investigate how these viruses may cross the blood-brain barrier. A sample of 88 virus strains was selected on phylogenetic features amongst 43 epidemiologically relevant types of the four EV species A-D. The EV-A71 genome was replicated at substantial rates, whilst the infectious virus was released at extremely low but sustained rates at both barrier sides for at least 4 days. EV-A71 antigens were detected in a limited number of cells. The properties of the endothelial barrier (structure and permeability) remained intact throughout infection. The chronic EV-A71 infection was in sharp contrast to the productive infection of cytolytic EVs (e.g. echoviruses E-6 and E-30). The hCMEC/D3 barriers infected with the latter EVs exhibited elevated proportions of apoptotic and necrotic cells, which resulted in major injuries to the endothelial barriers with a dramatic increase of paracellular permeability and virus crossing to the abluminal side. The following intracellular rearrangements were also seen: early destruction of the actin cytoskeleton, remodelling of intracellular membranes and reorganization of the mitochondrion network in a small cluster near the perinuclear space. PMID:25711966

  12. Enteroviruses in recreational waters of Northern Ireland.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, M. S.; Coyle, P. V.; Connolly, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    Virus surveillance of Northern Ireland recreational waters, between April 1986 and May 1989 demonstrated widespread enteroviral contamination of coastal and inland waters. In 1986, enteroviruses were detected in 4 of 46 (8.7%) water samples, collected from 6 coastal bathing waters. In 1987, 49 of 107 (45.8%) samples, from 16 coastal bathing waters, yielded enteroviruses; 33 of the enterovirus positive samples passed one or both of the coliform standards outlined by the European Economic Community (EEC) bathing water directive (76/160/EEC). Enteroviruses were also detected in 33 of 39 (84.6%) samples tested from 3 inland recreational waters. PMID:1318220

  13. Human laminin B2 chain

    SciTech Connect

    Pikkarainen, T.; Kallunki, T.; Tryggvason, K.

    1988-05-15

    The complete amino acid sequence of the human laminin B2 chains has been determined by sequencing of cDNA clones. The six overlapping clones studied cover approximately 7.5 kilobases of which 5312 nucleotides were sequenced from the 5' end. The open reading frame codes for a 33-residue signal peptide and a 1576-residue B2 chain proper, which is 189 residues less than in the highly homologous B1 chain. Computer analysis revealed that the B2 chain consists of distinct domains that contain helical structures, cysteine-rich repeats, and globular regions, as does the B1 chain. However, domain ..cap alpha.. and domain ..beta.. of the B1 chain have no counterpart in B2, and the number of cysteine-rich repeats is 12, or 1 less than in the B1 chain. The degree of homology between the two chains is highest in the cysteine repeat-containing domains III and V where 40% of the residues match. However, in helical domains I/II only 16% of residues match. The results demonstrate that the B1 and B2 chains of laminin are highly homologous proteins that are probably the products of related genes.

  14. Monitoring Antigenic Variations of Enterovirus 71: Implications for Virus Surveillance and Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Min-Yuan; Chung, Wan-Yu; Chiang, Pai-Shan; Chien, Yeh-Sheng; Ho, Mei-Shang; Lee, Min-Shi

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes life-threatening epidemics in Asia and can be phylogenetically classified into three major genogroups (A?C) including 11 genotypes (A, B1?B5, and C1?C5). Recently, EV71 epidemics occurred cyclically in Taiwan with different genotypes. In recent years, human studies using post-infection sera obtained from children have detected antigenic variations among different EV71 strains. Therefore, surveillance of enterovirus 71 should include phylogenetic and antigenic analysis. Due to limitation of sera available from children with EV71 primary infection, suitable animal models should be developed to generate a panel of antisera for monitoring EV71 antigenic variations. Twelve reference strains representing the 11 EV71 genotypes were grown in rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Infectious EV71 particles were purified and collected to immunize rabbits. The rabbit antisera were then employed to measure neutralizing antibody titers against the 12 reference strains and 5 recent strains. Rabbits immunized with genogroup B and C viruses consistently have a lower neutralizing antibody titers against genogroup A (?8-fold difference) and antigenic variations between genogroup B and C viruses can be detected but did not have a clear pattern, which are consistent with previous human studies. Comparison between human and rabbit neutralizing antibody profiles, the results showed that ?8-fold difference in rabbit cross-reactive antibody ratios could be used to screen EV71 isolates for identifying potential antigenic variants. In conclusion, a rabbit model was developed to monitor antigenic variations of EV71, which are critical to select vaccine strains and predict epidemics. PMID:25058733

  15. High Rates of Infection with Novel Enterovirus Variants in Wild Populations of Mandrills and Other Old World Monkey Species

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Dung Van; Harvala, Heli; Ngole, Eitel Mpoudi; Delaporte, Eric; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.; Peeters, Martine

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enteroviruses (EVs) are a genetically and antigenically diverse group of viruses infecting humans. A mostly distinct set of EV variants have additionally been documented to infect wild apes and several, primarily captive, Old World monkey (OWM) species. To investigate the prevalence and genetic characteristics of EVs infecting OWMs in the wild, fecal samples from mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) and other species collected in remote regions of southern Cameroon were screened for EV RNA. Remarkably high rates of EV positivity were detected in M. sphinx (100 of 102 screened), Cercocebus torquatus (7/7), and Cercopithecus cephus (2/4), with high viral loads indicative of active infection. Genetic characterization in VP4/VP2 and VP1 regions allowed EV variants to be assigned to simian species H (EV-H) and EV-J (including one or more new types), while seven matched simian EV-B variants, SA5 and EV110 (chimpanzee). Sequences from the remaining 70 formed a new genetic group distinct in VP4/2 and VP1 region from all currently recognized human or simian EV species. Complete genome sequences were obtained from three to determine their species assignment. In common with EV-J and the EV-A A13 isolate, new group sequences were chimeric, being most closely related to EV-A in capsid genes and to EV-B in the nonstructural gene region. Further recombination events created different groupings in 5? and 3? untranslated regions. While clearly a distinct EV group, the hybrid nature of new variants prevented their unambiguous classification as either members of a new species or as divergent members of EV-A using current International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) assignment criteria. IMPORTANCE This study is the first large-scale investigation of the frequency of infection and diversity of enteroviruses (EVs) infecting monkeys (primarily mandrills) in the wild. Our findings demonstrate extremely high frequencies of active infection (95%) among mandrills and other Old World monkey species inhabiting remote regions of Cameroon without human contact. EV variants detected were distinct from those infecting human populations, comprising members of enterovirus species B, J, and H and a large novel group of viruses most closely related to species A in the P1 region. The viral sequences obtained contribute substantially to our growing understanding of the genetic diversity of EVs and the existence of interspecies chimerism that characterizes the novel variants in the current study, as well as in previously characterized species A and J viruses infecting monkeys. The latter findings will contribute to future development of consensus criteria for species assignments in enteroviruses and other picornavirus genera. PMID:24623420

  16. Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein M Facilitates Enterovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jagdeo, Julienne M.; Dufour, Antoine; Fung, Gabriel; Luo, Honglin; Kleifeld, Oded; Overall, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Picornavirus infection involves a dynamic interplay of host and viral protein interactions that modulates cellular processes to facilitate virus infection and evade host antiviral defenses. Here, using a proteomics-based approach known as TAILS to identify protease-generated neo-N-terminal peptides, we identify a novel target of the poliovirus 3C proteinase, the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M (hnRNP M), a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling RNA-binding protein that is primarily known for its role in pre-mRNA splicing. hnRNP M is cleaved in vitro by poliovirus and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) 3C proteinases and is targeted in poliovirus- and CVB3-infected HeLa cells and in the hearts of CVB3-infected mice. hnRNP M relocalizes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during poliovirus infection. Finally, depletion of hnRNP M using small interfering RNA knockdown approaches decreases poliovirus and CVB3 infections in HeLa cells and does not affect poliovirus internal ribosome entry site translation and viral RNA stability. We propose that cleavage of and subverting the function of hnRNP M is a general strategy utilized by picornaviruses to facilitate viral infection. IMPORTANCE Enteroviruses, a member of the picornavirus family, are RNA viruses that cause a range of diseases, including respiratory ailments, dilated cardiomyopathy, and paralysis. Although enteroviruses have been studied for several decades, the molecular basis of infection and the pathogenic mechanisms leading to disease are still poorly understood. Here, we identify hnRNP M as a novel target of a viral proteinase. We demonstrate that the virus subverts the function of hnRNP M and redirects it to a step in the viral life cycle. We propose that cleavage of hnRNP M is a general strategy that picornaviruses use to facilitate infection. PMID:25926642

  17. Proposals for the classification of human rhinovirus species A, B and C into genotypically assigned types

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Chloe L.; Knowles, Nick J.

    2013-01-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) frequently cause mild upper respiratory tract infections and more severe disease manifestations such as bronchiolitis and asthma exacerbations. HRV is classified into three species within the genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae. HRV species A and B contain 75 and 25 serotypes identified by cross-neutralization assays, although the use of such assays for routine HRV typing is hampered by the large number of serotypes, replacement of virus isolation by molecular methods in HRV diagnosis and the poor or absent replication of HRV species C in cell culture. To address these problems, we propose an alternative, genotypic classification of HRV-based genetic relatedness analogous to that used for enteroviruses. Nucleotide distances between 384 complete VP1 sequences of currently assigned HRV (sero)types identified divergence thresholds of 13, 12 and 13?% for species A, B and C, respectively, that divided inter- and intra-type comparisons. These were paralleled by 10, 9.5 and 10?% thresholds in the larger dataset of >3800 VP4 region sequences. Assignments based on VP1 sequences led to minor revisions of existing type designations (such as the reclassification of serotype pairs, e.g. A8/A95 and A29/A44, as single serotypes) and the designation of new HRV types A101106, B101103 and C34C51. A protocol for assignment and numbering of new HRV types using VP1 sequences and the restriction of VP4 sequence comparisons to type identification and provisional type assignments is proposed. Genotypic assignment and identification of HRV types will be of considerable value in the future investigation of type-associated differences in disease outcomes, transmission and epidemiology. PMID:23677786

  18. 5' terminal deletions in the genome of a coxsackievirus B2 strain occurred naturally in human heart

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Nora M.; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Drescher, Kristen M.; Oka, Kuniyuki; Tracy, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Enteroviruses can induce human myocarditis, which can be modeled in mice inoculated with group B coxsackieviruses (CVB) and in which CVB evolve to produce defective, terminally deleted genomes. The 5' non-translated region (NTR) was enzymatically amplified from heart tissue of a fatal case of enterovirus-associated myocarditis in Japan in 2002. While no intact 5' viral genomic termini were detected, 5' terminal deletions ranged in size from 22?36 nucleotides. Sequence of the 5' third of this viral genome is of a modern strain, closely related to CVB2 strains isolated in Japan in 2002. A CVB3 chimera containing the 5 NTR with a 22 nt deletion produced progeny virus upon transfection of HeLa cells. When the 5' 22 nucleotide deletion was repaired, the virus induced myocarditis in mice and replicated like wild-type virus in murine heart cells. This is the first report of these naturally occurring defective enteroviral genomes in human myocarditis. PMID:18378272

  19. High Susceptibility for Enterovirus Infection and Virus Excretion Features in Tunisian Patients with Primary Immunodeficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Driss, Nadia; Ben-Mustapha, Imen; Mellouli, Fethi; Ben Yahia, Ahlem; Touzi, Henda; Bejaoui, Mohamed; Ben Ghorbel, Mohamed; Barbouche, Mohamed-Ridha

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the susceptibility to enterovirus infection and the frequency of long-term poliovirus excreters in Tunisian patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), enteroviruses were assessed in stool specimens of 82 patients with humoral, combined, and other PIDs. Isolated viruses were typed and intratyped by standard molecular techniques, and the whole VP1 region of poliovirus isolates was sequenced. Polioviruses were detected in 6 patients; all isolates were vaccine related. Five patients rapidly stopped excretion; one excreted a poliovirus type 1 isolate for several months, and the isolate accumulated up to 14 mutations in the VP1 region. Nonpolio enteroviruses were identified in 6 patients; 4 of them kept excreting the same strain for more than 6 months. The rate of enterovirus infection was 13.4% of the PID patients and 20.7% of those with an IgG defect; it greatly exceeded the rates generally found in Tunisian supposed-immunocompetent individuals (4.1% during the study period; P = 0.001 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Interestingly, patients with combined immunodeficiencies were at a higher risk for enterovirus infection than those with an exclusively B cell defect. A major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen expression defect was found in 54% of enterovirus-positive patients and in the unique long-term poliovirus excreter. The study results also suggest that substitutive immunoglobulin therapy may help clearance of a poliovirus infection and that most PID patients have the ability to stop poliovirus excretion within a limited period. However, the high susceptibility of these patients to enterovirus infection reinforces the need for enhanced surveillance of these patients until the use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is stopped. PMID:22914367

  20. Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Enterovirus 71 Strains Isolated from 1970 to 1998

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Betty A.; Oberste, M. Steven; Alexander, James P.; Kennett, Margery L.; Pallansch, Mark A.

    1999-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) (genus Enterovirus, family Picornaviridae), a common cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), may also cause severe neurological diseases, such as encephalitis and poliomyelitis-like paralysis. To examine the genetic diversity and rate of evolution of EV71, we have determined and analyzed complete VP1 sequences (891 nucleotides) for 113 EV71 strains isolated in the United States and five other countries from 1970 to 1998. Nucleotide sequence comparisons demonstrated three distinct EV71 genotypes, designated A, B, and C. The genetic variation within genotypes (12% or fewer nucleotide differences) was less than the variation between genotypes (16.5 to 19.7%). Strains of all three genotypes were at least 94% identical to one another in deduced amino acid sequence. The EV71 prototype strain, BrCr-CA-70, isolated in California in 1970, is the sole member of genotype A. Strains isolated in the United States and Australia during the period from 1972 to 1988, a 1994 Colombian isolate, and isolates from a large HFMD outbreak in Malaysia in 1997 are all members of genotype B. Although strains of genotype B continue to circulate in other parts of the world, none have been isolated in the United States since 1988. Genotype C contains strains isolated in 1985 or later in the United States, Canada, Australia, and the Republic of China. The annual rate of evolution within both the B and C genotypes was estimated to be approximately 1.35 10?2 substitutions per nucleotide and is similar to the rate observed for poliovirus. The results indicate that EV71 is a genetically diverse, rapidly evolving virus. Its worldwide circulation and potential to cause severe disease underscore the need for additional surveillance and improved methods to identify EV71 in human disease. PMID:10559310

  1. Enterovirus inactivation in soil.

    PubMed Central

    Yeager, J G; O'Brien, R T

    1979-01-01

    The inactivation of radioactively labeled poliovirus type 1 and coxsackievirus B 1 in soils saturated with surface water, groundwater, and septic tank liquor was directly proportional to temperature. Virus persistence was also related to soil type and the liquid amendment in which viruses were suspended. At 37 degrees C, no infectivity was recovered from saturated soil after 12 days; at 4 degrees C, viruses persisted for at least 180 days. No infectivity was recovered from dried soil regardless of temperature, soil type, or liquid amendment. Additional experiments showed that evaporation of soil water was largely responsible for the decreased recovery of infectivity from drying soil. Increased rates of virus inactivation at low soil moisture levels were also demonstrated. PMID:44178

  2. Transgenic mouse model for the study of enterovirus 71 neuropathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Ken; Nagata, Noriyo; Sato, Yuko; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong; Yamayoshi, Seiya; Shimanuki, Midori; Shitara, Hiroshi; Taya, Choji; Koike, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) typically causes mild hand-foot-and-mouth disease in children, but it can also cause severe neurological disease. Recently, epidemic outbreaks of EV71 with significant mortality have been reported in the Asia-Pacific region, and EV71 infection has become a serious public health concern worldwide. However, there is little information available concerning EV71 neuropathogenesis, and no vaccines or anti-EV71 drugs have been developed. Previous studies of this disease have used monkeys and neonatal mice that are susceptible to some EV71 strains as models. The monkey model is problematic for ethical and economical reasons, and mice that are more than a few weeks old lose their susceptibility to EV71. Thus, the development of an appropriate small animal model would greatly contribute to the study of this disease. Mice lack EV71 susceptibility due to the absence of a receptor for this virus. Previously, we identified the human scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (hSCARB2) as a cellular receptor for EV71. In the current study, we generated a transgenic (Tg) mouse expressing hSCARB2 with an expression profile similar to that in humans. Tg mice infected with EV71 exhibited ataxia, paralysis, and death. The most severely affected cells were neurons in the spinal cord, brainstem, cerebellum, hypothalamus, thalamus, and cerebrum. The pathological features in these Tg mice were generally similar to those of EV71 encephalomyelitis in humans and experimentally infected monkeys. These results suggest that this Tg mouse could represent a useful animal model for the study of EV71 infection. PMID:23959904

  3. Antiviral activity of Isatis indigotica root-derived clemastanin B against human and avian influenza A and B viruses in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zifeng; Wang, Yutao; Zheng, Zhaoguang; Zhao, Suishan; Zhao, Jin; Lin, Qing; Li, Chuyuan; Zhu, Quan; Zhong, Nanshan

    2013-04-01

    Clemastanin B, 7S,8R,8'R-(-)-lariciresinol-4,4'-bis-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, is one of the major lignans extracted from Isatis indigotica root (IIR). In this study, the anti-influenza activities of clemastanin B were evaluated in vitro. Clemastanin B was found to inhibit different subtypes of human (H1N1, including swine-origin H1N1; H3N2 and influenza B) and avian influenza viruses (H6N2, H7N3, H9N2) at different magnitudes of activity (IC50 0.087-0.72 mg/ml) while this compound was inactive against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus 3 (ADV3), parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3), enterovirus 71 (EV71) and human rhinovirus (HRV). An apparent virus titer reduction was detected when MDCK cells were treated with clemastanin B after viral infection, particularly at the early stage, and the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) of the influenza virus was retained in the nucleus after treatment with clemastanin B. These results demonstrated that clemastanin B targets viral endocytosis, uncoating or RNP export from the nucleus. Furthermore, treatment with clemastanin B did not easily result in the emergence of viral drug resistance. The effects of clemastanin B demonstrated in this study may promote the antiviral study of IIR, but additional studies are required to define the anti-influenza mechanism(s). PMID:23403777

  4. Overall codon usage pattern of enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Ma, M R; Hui, L; Wang, M L; Tang, Y; Chang, Y W; Jia, Q H; Wang, X H; Yan, W; Ha, X Q

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a systemic illness in children and is usually caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71). To provide new insights into the genetic features of EV71 and the relationship between the overall codon usage pattern of this virus and that of humans, values for relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU), effective number of codons (ENC), codon adaptation index (CAI), and nucleotide composition were calculated and analyzed. The relationship between ENC values and (G+C)?% suggests that, although nucleotide composition plays an important role in shaping the overall codon usage pattern of this virus, other factors also affect this pattern. In addition, the negative correlation between the CAI value and (G+C)?% suggests that the secondary structure of the EV71 coding sequence caused by its nucleotide composition can affect gene expression. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between ENC and CAI, suggesting that gene expression does not play a role in shaping the overall codon usage pattern of EV71. The overall codon usage pattern of the EV71 virus is only partly similar to the general codon pattern of human, suggesting that, although EV71 has co-evolved with humans for extended periods, mutation pressure played an important role in shaping the virus's overall codon usage pattern. These results revealed that the EV71 virus has developed a subtle strategy during evolution for adapting to environmental changes in its host cells solely by means of mutation pressure. PMID:24535860

  5. The isolation of enteroviruses from cases of acute conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, P. G.; Scott, R. J. D.

    1973-01-01

    In two epidemics of acute enterovirus conjunctivitis the diagnosis could only be established by the use of human embryonic organ cultures. In one instance cultures of ciliated respiratory epithelium proved sensitive to the virus but similar culture failed to support growth of the virus from the second outbreak which was isolated in organ cultures of conjunctiva. The virus associated with a third outbreak had previously been isolated from the original material by culture in human embryo kidney cells, but it required passage in organ culture for its detection after the specimens had been diluted. PMID:4356574

  6. Failure of indicator bacteria to reflect the occurrence of enteroviruses in marine waters.

    PubMed Central

    Gerba, C P; Goyal, S M; LaBelle, R L; Cech, I; Bodgan, G F

    1979-01-01

    The results of several studies conducted along the upper Texas Gulf coast, where a substantial amount of quantitative virological data were collected, are compared to bacteriological indicators and other environmental factors on a statistical basis. Variables common to all these studies were anlayzed by multivariate regression. Although multivariate analysis indicated that the number of viruses detected in water was related to rainfall, salinity, and total coliforms in the water, the amount of variation in the number of viruses accounted for by these factors was not large enough to make them good predictors. Enteroviruses were detected 43 per cent of the time in recreational waters considered acceptable as judged by coliform standards, and 44 per cent of the time when judged by fecal coliform standards. Enteroviruses were detected 35 per cent of the time in waters which met acceptable standards for shellfish-harvesting. Our failure to correlate the occurrence of enteroviruses in marine waters with indicator bacteria, and the frequent occurrence of enteroviruses in water which met current bacteriological standards, indicates that these standards do not reflect the occurrence of enteroviruses, and perhaps other human pathogenic viruses, in marine waters. PMID:228561

  7. Replication and Inhibitors of Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses

    PubMed Central

    van der Linden, Lonneke; Wolthers, Katja C.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The Enterovirus (EV) and Parechovirus genera of the picornavirus family include many important human pathogens, including poliovirus, rhinovirus, EV-A71, EV-D68, and human parechoviruses (HPeV). They cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from a simple common cold to life-threatening diseases such as encephalitis and myocarditis. At the moment, no antiviral therapy is available against these viruses and it is not feasible to develop vaccines against all EVs and HPeVs due to the great number of serotypes. Therefore, a lot of effort is being invested in the development of antiviral drugs. Both viral proteins and host proteins essential for virus replication can be used as targets for virus inhibitors. As such, a good understanding of the complex process of virus replication is pivotal in the design of antiviral strategies goes hand in hand with a good understanding of the complex process of virus replication. In this review, we will give an overview of the current state of knowledge of EV and HPeV replication and how this can be inhibited by small-molecule inhibitors. PMID:26266417

  8. Understanding Enterovirus 71 Neuropathogenesis and Its Impact on Other Neurotropic Enteroviruses.

    PubMed

    Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong

    2015-09-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) belongs to the species group A in the Enterovirus genus within the Picornaviridae family. EV-A71 usually causes self-limiting hand, foot and mouth disease or herpangina but rarely causes severe neurological complications such as acute flaccid paralysis and encephalomyelitis. The pathology and neuropathogenesis of these neurological syndromes is beginning to be understood. EV-A71 neurotropism for motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem, and other neurons, is mainly responsible for central nervous system damage. This review on the general aspects, recent developments and advances of EV-A71 infection will focus on neuropathogenesis and its implications on other neurotropic enteroviruses, such as poliovirus and the newly emergent Enterovirus D68. With the imminent eradication of poliovirus, EV-A71 is likely to replace it as an important neurotropic enterovirus of worldwide importance. PMID:26276025

  9. 21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. 866.3225 Section... nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification. An enterovirus nucleic acid assay is a device that consists of primers, probes, enzymes, and controls for the amplification and detection of enterovirus ribonucleic...

  10. Development and evaluation of a 'real-time' RT-PCR for the detection of enterovirus and parechovirus RNA in CSF and throat swab samples.

    PubMed

    Corless, Caroline E; Guiver, Malcolm; Borrow, Raymond; Edwards-Jones, Valerie; Fox, Andrew J; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Mutton, Kenneth J

    2002-08-01

    A two-step reverse transcriptase TaqMantrade mark duplex PCR (RT-PCR) assay was developed using the ABI 7700 Sequence Detection System for the detection of enterovirus (EV) and parechovirus type 1 and 2 (PEV) RNA from samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and throat swabs. Using sequence-specific fluorescent dye labeled probes and continuous 'real-time' monitoring, PCR amplified product accumulation was measured. Based on limiting dilutions, the TaqMantrade mark enterovirus and parechovirus RT-PCR showed an increase of two orders of magnitude compared to cell culture with sensitivity of 100% (7/7) when assessed using enterovirus cell culture positive samples (CSF, TS). The assays were specific for enterovirus and parechovirus and did not amplify a wide selection of virus and bacterial isolates. RNA was amplified from 22 enterovirus serotypes: coxsackie A7, A9, A21; coxsackie B2, B3, B4, B5; echovirus 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, 13, 17, 18, 19, 30, 31; poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, and parechovirus types 1 and 2. The assay was used to assess the incidence of enterovirus and parechovirus RNA in cell culture negative CSF and throat swab samples (n = 200). An additional 33 (15.9%) enterovirus and 2 (1%) parechovirus were identified as positive by RT-PCR. Also, of 100 CSF samples from suspected cases of meningococcal meningitis submitted for meningococcal PCR testing, 59 (59%) were enterovirus and 2 (2%) parechovirus 1 and 2 were positive by RT-PCR. The TaqMantrade mark duplex assay offers a more rapid and sensitive alternative to conventional cell culture for the diagnosis of enterovirus and parechovirus infection. Closed tube real-time detection using the ABI Sequence Detection System obviates the need for post-PCR manipulation, which reduces hands on time and eliminates the risk of contamination from amplified PCR product. PMID:12116004

  11. Evaluation of methods using celite to concentrate norovirus, adenovirus and enterovirus from wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enteroviruses, noroviruses and adenoviruses are among the most common viruses infecting humans worldwide. These viruses are shed in the feces of infected individuals and can accumulate in wastewater. Therefore, wastewater is a source of a potentially diverse group of enteric viru...

  12. ADSORPTION OF ENTEROVIRUSES TO SOIL CORES AND THEIR SUBSEQUENT ELUTION BY ARTIFICIAL RAINWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The adsorption and elution of a variety of human enteroviruses in a highly permeable, sandy soil was studied by using cores (43 by 125 mm) collected from an operating recharge basin on Long Island. Viruses studied included field and reference strains of polioviruses types 1 and 3...

  13. QUANTIFICATION OF ENTEROVIRUS AND HEPATITIS A VIRUSES IN WELLS AND SPRINGS IN EAST TENNESSEE USING REAL-TIME REVERSE TRANSCIPTION PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project involves development, validation testing and application of a fast, efficient method of quantitatively measuring occurrence and concentration of common human viral pathogens, enterovirus and hepatitis A virus, in ground water samples using real-time reverse transcrip...

  14. Human B-1 cells take the stage

    PubMed Central

    Rothstein, Thomas L.; Griffin, Daniel O.; Holodick, Nichol E.; Quach, Tam D.; Kaku, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    B-1cells play critical roles in defending against microbial invasion and in housekeeping removal of cellular debris. B-1cells secrete natural antibody and manifest functions that influence T cell expansion and differentiation and in these and other ways differ from conventional B-2 cells. B-1-cells were originally studied in mice where they are easily distinguished from B-2cells, but their identity in the human system remained poorly defined for many years. Recently, functional criteria for human B-1cells were established on the basis of murine findings, and reverse engineering resulted in identification of the phenotypic profile, CD20+CD27+CD43+CD70−, for B-1cells found in both umbilical cord blood and adult peripheral blood. Human B-1cells may contribute to multiple disease states through production of autoantibody and stimulation/modulation of T cell activity. Human B-1cells could be a rich source of antibodies useful in treating diseases present in elderly populations where natural antibody protection may have eroded. Manipulation of human B-1cell numbers and/or activity may be a new avenue for altering T cell function and treating immune dyscrasias. PMID:23692567

  15. Enterovirus Migration Patterns between France and Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Ines; Mirand, Audrey; Slama, Ichrak; Mastouri, Maha; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The enterovirus (EV) types echovirus (E-) 5, E-9, and E-18, and coxsackievirus (CV-) A9 are infrequently reported in human diseases and their epidemiologic features are poorly defined. Virus transmission patterns between countries have been estimated with phylogenetic data derived from the 1D/VP1 and 3CD gene sequences of a sample of 74 strains obtained in France (2000–2012) and Tunisia (2011–2013) and from the publicly available sequences. The EV types (E-5, E-9, and E-18) exhibited a lower worldwide genetic diversity (respective number of genogroups: 4, 5, and 3) in comparison to CV-A9 (n = 10). The phylogenetic trees estimated with both 1D/VP1 and 3CD sequence data showed variations in the number of co-circulating lineages over the last 20 years among the four EV types. Despite the low number of genogroups in E-18, the virus exhibited the highest number of recombinant 3CD lineages (n = 10) versus 4 (E-5) to 8 (E-9). The phylogenies provided evidence of multiple transportation events between France and Tunisia involving E-5, E-9, E-18, and CV-A9 strains. Virus spread events between France and 17 other countries in five continents had high probabilities of occurrence as those between Tunisia and two European countries other than France. All transportation events were supported by BF values > 10. Inferring the source of virus transmission from phylogenetic data may provide insights into the patterns of sporadic and epidemic diseases caused by EVs. PMID:26709514

  16. The cross-reactivity of the enterovirus 71 to human brain tissue and identification of the cross-reactivity related fragments

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background EV71 occasionally cause a series of severe neurological symptoms, including aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, and poliomyelitis-like paralysis. However, the neurological destruction mechanism was remained to be clarified. This study described the cross reaction between EV71 induced IgG and human brain tissue. Results Cross reaction of the IgG from 30 EV71 infected patients' sera to human tissues of cerebra was observed, which suggested that some EV71 antigens could induce IgG cross-reactivity to human cerebra. To identify the regions of EV71 virus that containing above antigens, the polypeptide of virus was divided into 19 peptides by expression in prokaryotes cell. Mouse anti-sera of these peptides was prepared and applied in immunohistochemical staining with human adult and fetus brain tissue, respectively. The result indicated the 19 peptides can be classified into three groups: strong cross-reactivity, weak cross-reactivity and no cross-reactivity with human brain tissue according the cross reaction activity. Then, the increased Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) permeability and permits IgG entry in neonatal mice after EV71 infection was determined. Conclusion EV71 induced IgG could enter BBB and cross-reacted with brain tissue in EV71 infected neonatal mice, and then the peptides of EV71 that could induce cross-reactivity with brain tissue were identified, which should be avoided in future vaccine designing. PMID:20170551

  17. Enteroviruses and bacteriophages in bathing waters.

    PubMed

    Moc-Llivina, Laura; Lucena, Francisco; Jofre, Juan

    2005-11-01

    A new procedure for detecting and counting enteroviruses based on the VIRADEN method applied to 10 liters of seawater was examined. It improved the efficiency of detection by taking into account both the number of positive isolations and numbers found with traditional methods. It was then used to quantify viruses in bathing waters. A number of bacterial indicators and bacteriophages were also tested. Cultivable enteroviruses were detected in 55% of the samples, most of which complied with bacteriological criteria. In contrast, viral genomes were only detected in 20% of the samples by reverse transcription-PCR. Somatic coliphages outnumbered all other indicators. F-specific RNA phages were detected in only 15% of the samples, whereas phages infecting Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron were detected in 70% of samples. A numerical relationship between the numbers of enteroviruses and the numbers of enterococci and somatic coliphages was observed. In situ inactivation experiments showed that viruses persisted significantly longer than the bacterial indicators. Only somatic coliphages and bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides persisted longer than the viruses. These results explain the numbers of enteroviruses and indicators in bathing waters attending the numbers usually found in sewage in the area. Somatic coliphages show a very good potential to predict the risk of viruses being present in bathing waters. PMID:16269717

  18. Enteroviruses and Bacteriophages in Bathing Waters

    PubMed Central

    Mocé-Llivina, Laura; Lucena, Francisco; Jofre, Juan

    2005-01-01

    A new procedure for detecting and counting enteroviruses based on the VIRADEN method applied to 10 liters of seawater was examined. It improved the efficiency of detection by taking into account both the number of positive isolations and numbers found with traditional methods. It was then used to quantify viruses in bathing waters. A number of bacterial indicators and bacteriophages were also tested. Cultivable enteroviruses were detected in 55% of the samples, most of which complied with bacteriological criteria. In contrast, viral genomes were only detected in 20% of the samples by reverse transcription-PCR. Somatic coliphages outnumbered all other indicators. F-specific RNA phages were detected in only 15% of the samples, whereas phages infecting Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron were detected in 70% of samples. A numerical relationship between the numbers of enteroviruses and the numbers of enterococci and somatic coliphages was observed. In situ inactivation experiments showed that viruses persisted significantly longer than the bacterial indicators. Only somatic coliphages and bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides persisted longer than the viruses. These results explain the numbers of enteroviruses and indicators in bathing waters attending the numbers usually found in sewage in the area. Somatic coliphages show a very good potential to predict the risk of viruses being present in bathing waters. PMID:16269717

  19. External quality assessment of enterovirus detection and typing. European Union Concerted Action on Virus Meningitis and Encephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    van Loon, A. M.; Cleator, G. C.; Ras, A.

    1999-01-01

    Reported are the results of a study of an enterovirus proficiency panel for use in isolation and serotyping and/or the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) carried out by 12 laboratories in nine European countries. Eleven laboratories reported results of virus isolation and serotyping. In addition, four laboratories reported results of a PCR for enterovirus detection. Correct virus isolation results were obtained for 105 of 110 samples (95.5%, four false-negatives, one false-positive), and correct PCR results for 39 of 40 (97.5%, one false-negative). The highest isolation rate (87.5%) was observed in primary and tertiary monkey kidney cells; on monkey kidney cell lines, human diploid fibroblasts or human heteroploid cells the isolation rate varied between 64% and 71.4%. Serotyping results were less satisfactory. Only 63 of 106 (59.4%) isolated viruses were typed correctly. Major problems were seen with samples containing mixtures of enteroviruses and with enterovirus 71 or echovirus 4, with 9%, 50%, and 55% correct results, respectively. These results underline the need for improvement of enterovirus typing, especially in view of the poliomyelitis eradication initiative. PMID:10212511

  20. Detection of adenoviruses and enteroviruses in polluted waters by nested PCR amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Puig, M; Jofre, J; Lucena, F; Allard, A; Wadell, G; Girones, R

    1994-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for the rapid detection of enteroviruses and adenoviruses in environmental samples. Several systems for virus concentration and extraction of nucleic acid were tested by adding adenovirus type 2 and poliovirus type 1 to different sewage samples. The most promising method for virus recovery involved the concentration of viruses by centrifugation and elution of the virus pellets by treatment with 0.25 N glycine buffer, pH 9.5. Nucleic acid extraction by adsorption of RNA and DNA to silica particles was the most efficient. One aliquot of the extracted nucleic acids was used for a nested two-step PCR, with specific primers for all adenoviruses; and another aliquot was used to synthesize cDNA for a nested two-step PCR with specific primers for further detection of seeded polioviruses or all enteroviruses in the river water and sewage samples. The specificity and sensitivity were evaluated, and 24 different enterovirus strains and the 47 human adenovirus serotypes were recognized by the primers used. The sensitivity was estimated to be between 1 and 10 virus particles for each of the species tested. Twenty-five samples of sewage and polluted river water were analyzed and showed a much higher number of positive isolates by nested PCR than by tissue culture analysis. The PCR-based detection of enteroviruses and adenoviruses shows good results as an indicator of possible viral contamination in environmental wastewater. Images PMID:8085832

  1. New Approaches for Enhanced Detection of Enteroviruses from Hawaiian Environmental Waters

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Christina; Tong, Hsin-I; Wang, Zi; Allmann, Erin; Lu, Yuanan

    2012-01-01

    Health risks associated with sewage-contaminated recreational waters are of important public health concern. Reliable water monitoring systems are therefore crucial. Current recreational water quality criteria rely predominantly on the enumeration of bacterial indicators, while potentially dangerous viral pathogens often remain undetected. Human enteric viruses have been proposed as alternative indicators; however, their detection is often hindered by low viral concentrations present in the environment. Reported here are novel and effective laboratory protocols for viral concentration and highly sensitive and optimized RT-PCR for the efficient detection of enteroviruses, an important enteric virus subset, in Hawaiian environmental waters. Eighteen published enterovirus primer pairs were comparatively evaluated for detection sensitivity. The primer set exhibiting the lowest detection limit under optimized conditions, EQ-1/EQ-2, was validated in a field survey of 22 recreational bodies of water located around the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Eleven sites tested positive for enterovirus, indicating fecal contamination at these locations. As an additional means of viral concentration, shellfish were collected from 9 sample sites and subjected to dissection, RNA extraction, and subsequent RT-PCR. Shellfish tissue from 6 of 9 sites tested positive for enterovirus. The techniques implemented here are valuable resources to aid accurate reflection of microbial contamination in Hawaiis environmental waters. PMID:22567083

  2. Presence of enteroviruses in recreational water in Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Allmann, Erin; Pan, Lei; Li, Lu; Li, Dejia; Wang, Suqing; Lu, Yuanan

    2013-11-01

    Contaminated recreational waters pose a public health concern, as the potential for waterborne diseases exists in water contaminated with human fecal waste. Worldwide, bacterial indicators such as Escherichia coli, enterococci, and total and fecal coliform are used as indicators of water quality. However, enteric viruses also present a public health concern and their presence cannot always be determined based on bacterial indicators. This study explores the use of molecular detection methods of enteric viruses as indicators of fecal contamination. Four viruses, enterovirus, norovirus genogroups I and II, and male-specific FRNA coliphage, were tested in this study. Highly sensitive RT-PCR methods developed at the University of Hawaii at Manoa were utilized to evaluate environmental samples collected from three lakes in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Sixteen of twenty-five sites tested positive for at least one virus. Enterovirus was the most commonly detected virus, followed by norovirus genogroup I. These findings support the use of molecular detection methods to test for enteric virus presence in recreational freshwater sources in China as alternative water quality indicators, and utilize recently developed, highly sensitive methods of detection of these viruses. In addition, these findings suggest that there is substantial fecal contamination of the three lakes tested in this study. PMID:23827950

  3. Isolation of polioviruses and other enteroviruses in south Greece between 1994 and 1998.

    PubMed

    Siafakas, N; Georgopoulou, A; Markoulatos, P; Spyrou, N

    2000-01-01

    During the five-year period between 1994 and 1998, a total of 217 clinical samples were assessed for the isolation of enteroviruses at the Enterovirus Reference Centre for South Greece. Fourteen enterovirus strains belonging to different serotypes were isolated. These field strains were detected by cell culture in appropriate cell lines. They were subsequently identified by neutralizing antibodies with the LBM (Lim-Benyesh Melnick) mixed antisera pools up to 1995 and RIVM (National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands) pools from 1996 onwards. The isolated viruses included two strains of poliovirus type 2 Sabin-like, three strains of poliovirus type 1 non-Sabin-like, one Coxsackie B2 (CBV2) strain, one Coxsackie B5 (CBV5) strain, one Echo 5 (ECV5) strain, one Echo 7 (ECV7) strain, three Coxsackie A16 (CAV16) strains, and two currently enteroviral strains unidentified by RIVM pools. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using poliovirus-specific primers or poliovirus type-specific primers and enterovirus specific primers from the highly conserved 5'-UTR, the latter followed by RFLP, was also applied in 6 clinical isolates (3 strains of poliovirus type 1 non-Sabin-like, 1 polio type 2 Sabin-like, and 2 non-identified by RIVM pools enteroviruses). The advantages and the drawbacks of these assays against the conventional ones are discussed here. The isolations and the subsequent identification of the strains were carried out from fecal samples of clinical cases that included hand-foot-and-mouth disease, meningitis, and acute flaccid paralysis. The reappearance of non-Sabin-like poliovirus strains in Greece in 1996 after 14 years is considered to have an important medical and clinical value. PMID:10906768

  4. Specific Cell-Surface Alteration by Enteroviruses as Reflected by Viral-Attachment Interference1

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Richard L.

    1966-01-01

    Crowell, Richard L. (Hahnemann Medical College, Philadelphia, Pa.). Specific cell-surface alteration by enteroviruses as reflected by viral-attachment interference. J. Bacteriol. 91:198204. 1966.Exposure of HeLa cells to high levels of coxsackievirus B3 produced cells which were refractory to attachment of coxsackievirus B1, whereas poliovirus T2 attached normally. Under similar conditions, poliovirus T2 was found to interfere with the attachment of poliovirus T1 to HeLa cells without affecting the attachment rate of coxsackievirus B3. The data confirm earlier findings that the receptor sites on HeLa cells, which bind members of group B coxsackieviruses, are distinct from those for polioviruses. Quantitatively, coxsackieviruses B1 and B3 were found to be mutually exclusive in the attachment interference assay to suggest that they compete for the same receptors on the HeLa cell surface. The finding that input multiplicities of B3 virus which exceeded 500 saturated the homologous viral receptors of HeLa cells was unexpected, but was consistent with the results of interference assays. Excessive amounts of input virus did not, however, inhibit eclipse of homologous cell-associated virus. Attachment interference between enteroviruses occurred even though the interfering virus was eclipsed prior to addition of challenge virus. The finding that enterovirus attachment interference was reversible with acid pH suggested that attachment and eclipse of enterovirus does not result in a permanent alteration of the cell membrane and that these events occur at the cell surface. PMID:4285531

  5. Enterovirus D68 Infection in an Adult.

    PubMed

    Ward, Nicholas S; Hughes, Brenna L; Mermel, Leonard A

    2016-03-01

    The first confirmed US case of severe respiratory tract infection caused by enterovirus D68 in an adult occurred in a pregnant woman with no history of asthma in August 2014. Before she came to the hospital, she had a productive cough, headache, and increasing dyspnea. At the hospital, she was hypoxic and required admittance to the intensive care unit and management with noninvasive bilevel positive pressure assistance. Analysis of a nasopharyngeal swab sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for a viral respiratory panel of tests confirmed enterovirus D68 infection. She eventually had an uneventful vaginal delivery, was discharged without oxygen supplementation, and has resumed normal activities. This case suggests that pregnant women may be a sentinel group infected with this pathogen, similar to what has been described for influenza virus infection. PMID:26932922

  6. Discovery of a Bovine Enterovirus in Alpaca

    PubMed Central

    McClenahan, Shasta D.; Scherba, Gail; Borst, Luke; Fredrickson, Richard L.; Krause, Philip R.; Uhlenhaut, Christine

    2013-01-01

    A cytopathic virus was isolated using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells from lung tissue of alpaca that died of a severe respiratory infection. To identify the virus, the infected cell culture supernatant was enriched for virus particles and a generic, PCR-based method was used to amplify potential viral sequences. Genomic sequence data of the alpaca isolate was obtained and compared with sequences of known viruses. The new alpaca virus sequence was most similar to recently designated Enterovirus species F, previously bovine enterovirus (BEVs), viruses that are globally prevalent in cattle, although they appear not to cause significant disease. Because bovine enteroviruses have not been previously reported in U.S. alpaca, we suspect that this type of infection is fairly rare, and in this case appeared not to spread beyond the original outbreak. The capsid sequence of the detected virus had greatest homology to Enterovirus F type 1 (indicating that the virus should be considered a member of serotype 1), but the virus had greater homology in 2A protease sequence to type 3, suggesting that it may have been a recombinant. Identifying pathogens that infect a new host species for the first time can be challenging. As the disease in a new host species may be quite different from that in the original or natural host, the pathogen may not be suspected based on the clinical presentation, delaying diagnosis. Although this virus replicated in MDBK cells, existing standard culture and molecular methods could not identify it. In this case, a highly sensitive generic PCR-based pathogen-detection method was used to identify this pathogen. PMID:23950875

  7. Environmental surveillance of poliovirus and non-polio enterovirus in urban sewage in Dakar, Senegal (2007-2013)

    PubMed Central

    Ndiaye, Abdou Kader; Diop, Pape Amadou Mbathio; Diop, Ousmane Madiagne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Global poliomyelitis eradication initiative relies on (i) laboratory based surveillance of acute flaccid surveillance (AFP) to monitor the circulation of wild poliovirus in a population, and (ii) vaccination to prevent its diffusion. However, as poliovirus can survive in the environment namely in sewage, environmental surveillance (ES) is of growing importance as the eradication target is close. This study aimed to assess polioviruses and non polio enteroviruses circulation in sewage drains covering a significant population of Dakar. Methods From April 2007 to May 2013, 271 specimens of raw sewage were collected using the grab method in 6 neighborhoods of Dakar. Samples were processed to extract and concentrate viruses using polyethylene glycol and Dextran (two-phase separation method). Isolation of enteroviruses was attempted in RD, L20B and Hep2 cell lines. Polioviruses were identified by RT-PCR and Elisa. Non Polio Enteroviruses (NPEVs) were identified by RT-PCR and microneutralisation tests. Results Polioviruses and NPEVs were respectively detected in 34,3% and 42,8% sewage samples. No wild poliovirus neither circulating vaccine-derived Poliovirus (cVDPV) was detected. Neutralization assays have identified 49 non polio enteroviruses that were subsequently classified in 13 serotypes belonging to HEV-A (22, 4%), HEV-B (12, 24%), HEV-C (26, 53%) and HEV-D (6, 12%) species. Conclusion This study is the first documentation of enteroviruses environmental detection in Senegal. It shows the usefulness of environmental surveillance for indirect monitoring of the circulation and distribution of enteroviruses in the community. PMID:25848458

  8. Phosphatidylserine vesicles enable efficient en bloc transmission of enteroviruses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Han; Du, WenLi; Hagemeijer, Marne C; Takvorian, Peter M; Pau, Cyrilla; Cali, Ann; Brantner, Christine A; Stempinski, Erin S; Connelly, Patricia S; Ma, Hsin-Chieh; Jiang, Ping; Wimmer, Eckard; Altan-Bonnet, Grégoire; Altan-Bonnet, Nihal

    2015-02-12

    A central paradigm within virology is that each viral particle largely behaves as an independent infectious unit. Here, we demonstrate that clusters of enteroviral particles are packaged within phosphatidylserine (PS) lipid-enriched vesicles that are non-lytically released from cells and provide greater infection efficiency than free single viral particles. We show that vesicular PS lipids are co-factors to the relevant enterovirus receptors in mediating subsequent infectivity and transmission, in particular to primary human macrophages. We demonstrate that clustered packaging of viral particles within vesicles enables multiple viral RNA genomes to be collectively transferred into single cells. This study reveals a novel mode of viral transmission, where enteroviral genomes are transmitted from cell-to-cell en bloc in membrane-bound PS vesicles instead of as single independent genomes. This has implications for facilitating genetic cooperativity among viral quasispecies as well as enhancing viral replication. PMID:25679758

  9. The Antiviral Effect of Baicalin on Enterovirus 71 In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Tingting; Jin, Yue; Cheng, Jianpin; Wan, Changbiao; Qian, Weihe; Xing, Fei; Shi, Weifeng

    2015-01-01

    Baicalin is a flavonoid compound extracted from Scutellaria roots that has been reported to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral activities. However, the antiviral effect of baicalin on enterovirus 71 (EV71) is still unknown. In this study, we found that baicalin showed inhibitory activity on EV71 infection and was independent of direct virucidal or prophylactic effect and inhibitory viral absorption. The expressions of EV71/3D mRNA and polymerase were significantly blocked by baicalin treatment at early stages of EV71 infection. In addition, baicalin could decrease the expressions of FasL and caspase-3, as well as inhibit the apoptosis of EV71-infected human embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. Altogether, these results indicate that baicalin exhibits potent antiviral effect on EV71 infection, probably through inhibiting EV71/3D polymerase expression and Fas/FasL signaling pathways. PMID:26295407

  10. [Experience in the use of chemical compounds for the primary identification and differentiation of enteroviruses].

    PubMed

    Amvros'eva, T V; Votiakov, V I; Andreeva, O T; Kazinets, O N; Bogush, Z F; Sharko, R M; Kvacheva, Z B

    2003-02-01

    Data on the usage of chemical inhibitors nifan and belvtazid, which possess a selective and antienteroviral effect, in the primary identification of enteroviruses and their differentiation into polio- and non-poliomyelytic ones isolated from human clinical materials or the environment by using the cell culture are presented in the article. The method is recommended for the practical use by the virology service in the diagnostics of enteroviral infections and in the identification of cytopathic agents isolated from the enviroment. PMID:12688219

  11. INFECTIVITY AND PATHOGENICITY OF ENTEROVIRUSES INGESTED WITH DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was designed to examine the relationship of waterborne enteroviruses to infections and disease. Young weanling swine and their homologous enteroviruses were chosen as the model system: The porcine digestive tract is like that of man, but pigs can be handled under more c...

  12. Acute Flaccid Paralysis Associated with Novel Enterovirus C105

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Liana M.; Poulter, Melinda D.; Brenton, J. Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of acute flaccid paralysis among children in the United States during summer 2014 was tentatively associated with enterovirus D68 infection. This syndrome in a child in fall 2014 was associated with enterovirus C105 infection. The presence of this virus strain in North America may pose a diagnostic challenge. PMID:26401731

  13. Genotypes of the Enterovirus Causing Hand Foot and Mouth Disease in Shanghai, China, 2012-2013

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Menghua; Su, Liyun; Cao, Lingfeng; Zhong, Huaqing; Dong, Niuniu; Dong, Zuoquan; Xu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic HFMD (hand foot and mouth disease, HFMD) cases and outbreaks caused by etiologic agents other than EV71 and CA16 have increased globally. We conducted this study to investigate the prevalence and genetic characteristics of enteroviruses, especially the non-EV71 and non-CA16 enteroviruses, causing HFMD in Shanghai. Clinical specimens were collected from patients with a diagnosis of HFMD. A partial length of VP1 was amplified with RT-PCR and subjected to direct sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using MEGA 5.0. The ages of the HFMD cases ranged from 3 to 96 months, and the male/female ratio was 1.41. The median hospital stay was 2.96 days. Up to 18.0% of patients had neurologic system complications such as encephalitis, meningoencephalitis or meningitis. Of the 480 samples, 417 were positive for enterovirus (86.9%) with RT-PCR. A total of 13 enterovirus genotypes were identified. The most frequent genotypes were CA6 (31.9%), EV71 (30.6%), CA16 (8.8%) and CA10 (7.5%). Infections with CA6, EV71, CA16 and CA10 were prevalent throughout the years of study, while the proportion of CA6 notably increased from Sep. 2012 to Dec. 2013. Phylogenetic analyses showed that EV71 strains belonged to the C4a subgenogroup and CA16 was identified as B1b subgenogroup. The CA6 strains were assigned to genogroup F, whereas the CA10 strains were assigned to genogroup D. Patients infected with CA6 were typically younger, had a shorter hospital stay and had a lower incidence of neurologic system complications when compared to patients infected with EV71. Our study demonstrates that the enterovirus genotypes causing HFMD were diversified, and there was an increasing prevalence of the non-EV71 and non-CA16 enteroviruses from 2012 to 2013. CA6 was the most predominant pathogen causing HFMD from Sep. 2012 to Dec. 2013, and it often caused relatively mild HFMD symptoms. Most severe HFMD cases were associated with EV71 infection. PMID:26398767

  14. Mincle and human B cell function

    PubMed Central

    Kawata, Kazuhito; Illarionov, Petr; Kenny, Thomas; Zhang, Weici; Tsuda, Masanobu; Ando, Yugo; Leung, Patrick; Ansari, Aftab A.; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2012-01-01

    C-type lectin receptors are pattern recognition receptors that are critical for autoimmunity and the immune response. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor expressed by a variety of antigen presenting cells including macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells and B cells; a variety of stimuli including stress are known to induce the expression of Mincle. Mincle is an FcR?-associated activation receptor that senses damaged cells and upon ligation induces activated macrophages to produce inflammatory cytokines. Recently, while several studies have reported that Mincle plays an important role in macrophage responses to fungal infection its function on B cells remains to be defined. In efforts to elucidate the function of Mincle expressed by B cells, we studied the expression of Mincle on subsets of B cells and analyzed cytokines and synthesized immunoglobulin upon ligation of Mincle. The expression of Mincle on CD27?CD19+ nave B cells is significantly higher than CD27+CD19+ memory B cells. The stimulation of TLR9 ligand induced Mincle expression on B cells. Furthermore, co-stimulation of TLR9 and Mincle ligand reduced IgG and IgA production from B cells without a significant change in the inflammatory cytokines TNF?, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10. Our data identifies Mincle as a potentially critical player in human B cell responses. PMID:22698596

  15. Mincle and human B cell function.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Kazuhito; Illarionov, Petr; Yang, Guo-Xiang; Kenny, Thomas P; Zhang, Weici; Tsuda, Masanobu; Ando, Yugo; Leung, Patrick S C; Ansari, Aftab A; Eric Gershwin, M

    2012-12-01

    C-type lectin receptors are pattern recognition receptors that are critical for autoimmunity and the immune response. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor expressed by a variety of antigen presenting cells including macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells and B cells; a variety of stimuli including stress are known to induce the expression of Mincle. Mincle is an FcR?-associated activation receptor that senses damaged cells and upon ligation induces activated macrophages to produce inflammatory cytokines. Recently, while several studies have reported that Mincle plays an important role in macrophage responses to fungal infection its function on B cells remains to be defined. In efforts to elucidate the function of Mincle expressed by B cells, we studied the expression of Mincle on subsets of B cells and analyzed cytokines and synthesized immunoglobulin upon ligation of Mincle. The expression of Mincle on CD27-CD19(+) nave B cells is significantly higher than CD27 + CD19(+) memory B cells. The stimulation of TLR9 ligand induced Mincle expression on B cells. Furthermore, co-stimulation of TLR9 and Mincle ligand reduced IgG and IgA production from B cells without a significant change in the inflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10. Our data identifies Mincle as a potentially critical player in human B cell responses. PMID:22698596

  16. Folate, vitamin B12 and human health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past decade the role of folate and vitamin B12 in human nutrition have been under constant re-examination. Basic knowledge on the metabolism and interactions between these essential nutrients has expanded and multiple complexities have been unraveled. These micronutrients have shared func...

  17. Human norovirus culture in B cells.

    PubMed

    Jones, Melissa K; Grau, Katrina R; Costantini, Veronica; Kolawole, Abimbola O; de Graaf, Miranda; Freiden, Pamela; Graves, Christina L; Koopmans, Marion; Wallet, Shannon M; Tibbetts, Scott A; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Wobus, Christiane E; Vinjé, Jan; Karst, Stephanie M

    2015-12-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a leading cause of foodborne disease and severe childhood diarrhea, and they cause a majority of the gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. However, the development of effective and long-lasting HuNoV vaccines and therapeutics has been greatly hindered by their uncultivability. We recently demonstrated that a HuNoV replicates in human B cells, and that commensal bacteria serve as a cofactor for this infection. In this protocol, we provide detailed methods for culturing the GII.4-Sydney HuNoV strain directly in human B cells, and in a coculture system in which the virus must cross a confluent epithelial barrier to access underlying B cells. We also describe methods for bacterial stimulation of HuNoV B cell infection and for measuring viral attachment to the surface of B cells. Finally, we highlight variables that contribute to the efficiency of viral replication in this system. Infection assays require 3 d and attachment assays require 3 h. Analysis of infection or attachment samples, including RNA extraction and RT-qPCR, requires ∼6 h. PMID:26513671

  18. Human norovirus culture in B cells

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Melissa K; Grau, Katrina R; Costantini, Veronica; Kolawole, Abimbola O; de Graaf, Miranda; Freiden, Pamela; Graves, Christina L; Koopmans, Marion; Wallet, Shannon M; Tibbetts, Scott A; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Wobus, Christiane E; Vinj, Jan; Karst, Stephanie M

    2015-01-01

    Human noroviruses (HunoVs) are a leading cause of foodborne disease and severe childhood diarrhea, and they cause a majority of the gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. However, the development of effective and long-lasting HunoV vaccines and therapeutics has been greatly hindered by their uncultivability. We recently demonstrated that a HunoV replicates in human B cells, and that commensal bacteria serve as a cofactor for this infection. In this protocol, we provide detailed methods for culturing the GII.4-sydney HunoV strain directly in human B cells, and in a coculture system in which the virus must cross a confluent epithelial barrier to access underlying B cells. We also describe methods for bacterial stimulation of HunoV B cell infection and for measuring viral attachment to the surface of B cells. Finally, we highlight variables that contribute to the efficiency of viral replication in this system. Infection assays require 3 d and attachment assays require 3 h. analysis of infection or attachment samples, including rna extraction and rt-qpcr, requires ~6 h. PMID:26513671

  19. Human Memory B Cells Producing Potent Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies against Human Parechovirus: Implications for Prevalence, Treatment, and Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Benschop, K. S. M.; Koen, G.; Claassen, Y. B.; Wagner, K.; Bakker, A. Q.; Wolthers, K. C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The family Picornaviridae is a large and diverse group of positive-sense RNA viruses, including human enteroviruses (EVs) and human parechoviruses (HPeVs). The human immune response against EVs and HPeVs is thought to be mainly humoral, and an insufficient neutralizing antibody (Ab) response during infection is a risk factor and can ultimately be life threatening. The accessibility of different antigenic sites and observed cross-reactivity make HPeVs a good target for development of therapeutic human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). In this study, we generated two different human MAbs specific for HPeV by screening culture supernatants of Ab-producing human B cell cultures for direct neutralization of HPeV1. Both MAbs showed HPeV1-specific neutralization as well as neutralization of HPeV2. One antibody, AM18, cross-neutralized HPeV4, -5, and -6 and coxsackievirus A9 (CV-A9). VP1 capsid protein-specific assays confirmed that AM18 bound VP1 of HPeV1, -2, and -4 with high affinity (11.5 pM). In contrast, the HPeV1-specific MAb AM28, which neutralized HPeV1 even more efficiently than did AM18, showed no cross-reactivity with HPeV3 to -6 or other EVs and did not bind any of the capsid proteins, suggesting that AM28 is specific for a conformation-dependent, nonlinear epitope on the virus. The discovery of MAbs that are cross-reactive between HPeVs may help development of HPeV treatment options with antibodies and vaccine design based on epitopes recognized by these antibodies. IMPORTANCE HPeV infections are widespread among young children and adults, causing a broad range of disease. Infections can be severe and life threatening, while no antiviral treatment is available. Given that the absence of neutralizing Abs is a risk factor for severe disease in infants, treatment of picornavirus infections with MAbs would be a therapeutic option. To study antibody neutralization of HPeV in more detail, we generated two different HPeV1-specific human MAbs. Both MAbs show HPeV1-specific neutralization and cross-neutralized HPeV2. One MAb also cross-neutralized other HPeVs. Surprisingly, this MAb also neutralized CV-A9. These MAbs provide a unique tool for further research and for the diagnosis (antigen detection) and possible treatment of HPeV infections. PMID:25948742

  20. Innate Immunity Evasion by Enteroviruses: Insights into Virus-Host Interaction.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaobo; Xiao, Xia; Wang, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus genus includes multiple important human pathogens, such as poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus (EV) A71, EV-D68 and rhinovirus. Infection with EVs can cause numerous clinical conditions including poliomyelitis, meningitis and encephalitis, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, acute flaccid paralysis, diarrhea, myocarditis and respiratory illness. EVs, which are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, trigger activation of the host antiviral innate immune responses through pathogen recognition receptors such as retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG-I)-likeand Toll-like receptors. In turn, EVs have developed sophisticated strategies to evade host antiviral responses. In this review, we discuss the interplay between the host innate immune responses and EV infection, with a primary focus on host immune detection and protection against EV infection and viral strategies to evade these antiviral immune responses. PMID:26784219

  1. Pancreatitis in hand-foot-and-mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Feng; Deng, Hui-Ling; Fu, Jia; Zhang, Yu; Wei, Jian-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Some viruses, including certain members of the enterovirus genus, have been reported to cause pancreatitis, especially Coxsackie virus. However, no case of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) associated with pancreatitis has been reported so far. We here report a case of EV71-induced hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) presenting with pancreatitis in a 2-year-old girl. This is the first report of a patient with acute pancreatitis in HFMD caused by EV71. We treated the patient conservatively with nasogastric suction, intravenous fluid and antivirals. The patient’s symptoms improved after 8 d, and recovered without complications. We conclude that EV71 can cause acute pancreatitis in HFMD, which should be considered in differential diagnosis, especially in cases of idiopathic pancreatitis. PMID:26877620

  2. Pancreatitis in hand-foot-and-mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Feng; Deng, Hui-Ling; Fu, Jia; Zhang, Yu; Wei, Jian-Qiang

    2016-02-14

    Some viruses, including certain members of the enterovirus genus, have been reported to cause pancreatitis, especially Coxsackie virus. However, no case of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) associated with pancreatitis has been reported so far. We here report a case of EV71-induced hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) presenting with pancreatitis in a 2-year-old girl. This is the first report of a patient with acute pancreatitis in HFMD caused by EV71. We treated the patient conservatively with nasogastric suction, intravenous fluid and antivirals. The patient's symptoms improved after 8 d, and recovered without complications. We conclude that EV71 can cause acute pancreatitis in HFMD, which should be considered in differential diagnosis, especially in cases of idiopathic pancreatitis. PMID:26877620

  3. Innate Immunity Evasion by Enteroviruses: Insights into Virus-Host Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xiaobo; Xiao, Xia; Wang, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus genus includes multiple important human pathogens, such as poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus (EV) A71, EV-D68 and rhinovirus. Infection with EVs can cause numerous clinical conditions including poliomyelitis, meningitis and encephalitis, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, acute flaccid paralysis, diarrhea, myocarditis and respiratory illness. EVs, which are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, trigger activation of the host antiviral innate immune responses through pathogen recognition receptors such as retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG-I)-likeand Toll-like receptors. In turn, EVs have developed sophisticated strategies to evade host antiviral responses. In this review, we discuss the interplay between the host innate immune responses and EV infection, with a primary focus on host immune detection and protection against EV infection and viral strategies to evade these antiviral immune responses. PMID:26784219

  4. Norovirus, hepatitis A virus and enterovirus presence in shellfish from high quality harvesting areas in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Joo R; Vaz, Lisa; Cerqueira, Snia; Castilho, Fernanda; Santos, Ricardo; Monteiro, Slvia; Manso, Carmen F; Romalde, Jesus L; Nascimento, Maria So Jos

    2011-08-01

    This is the first report on the screening of shellfish from Portugal for the presence of human enteropathogenic viruses. Approximately 2000 shellfish (Curbicula fluminea, Ruditapes decussatus, Tellina crassa, Spisula solida, Dosinia exoleta, Ensis spp., Mytilus spp., Ostrea edulis and Cerastoderma edule), organized in 49 batches, were collected between March 2008 and February 2009. They were tested for norovirus (NoV), hepatitis A virus (HAV) and enterovirus (EV) by RT-PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing. Bacterial contamination was also evaluated by Escherichia coli counts. Viral contamination was detected throughout the year in all shellfish species and in all collection areas, independently of their harvesting areas classification. Overall, 67% of all analyzed batches were contaminated by at least one of the studied viruses while the simultaneous presence of two and three viruses was detected in 22% and 6% batches, respectively. Of the three viruses, NoV was detected in 37% of the batches, followed by EV in 35%, and HAV in 33%. Nucleotide sequencing of the NoV and HAV RT-PCR products demonstrated that all strains belonged to NoV genotype GII.4 and HAV subgenotype 1B. The presence of NoV and HAV in shellfish from "A class" harvesting areas of Portugal can represent a potential health risk. PMID:21569936

  5. Antiviral treatment of Coxsackie B virus infection in human pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Berg, Anna-Karin; Olsson, Annika; Korsgren, Olle; Frisk, Gun

    2007-04-01

    Enterovirus infections of the pancreatic islets are believed to trigger or precipitate the near total destruction of beta-cells that constitutes type 1 diabetes (T1D). This study investigated the ability of an anti-picornaviral compound, pleconaril, to block the replication of two beta-cell tropic Coxsackie B4 virus (CBV-4) strains in isolated human islets. The two strains, VD2921 and V89 4557, with demonstrated abilities to cause non-lytic persistence or lytic infection, respectively, in islets, represented two different potential mechanisms behind virus-induced T1D. The virus replication in the islets was studied with and without addition of pleconaril. In addition, islet morphology was studied every day. To test the effects of pleconaril and/or DMSO on the beta-cells' insulin secretion, glucose perifusions were performed on treated and untreated islets. Virus titrations showed a clear reduction of the replication of both strains after pleconaril treatment. The VD2921 strain was inhibited to undetectable levels. The V89 4557 strain, however, showed an initial reduction of titers but virus titers then increased despite the addition of a second dose of pleconaril. This incomplete inhibition of viral replication suggested the existence of a resistant subtype within this strain. Pleconaril treatment reduced the beta-cells' insulin secretion in response to glucose stimulation in some experiments and induced slight morphological changes to the islets compared to untreated controls. In summary, pleconaril reduced the replication of the two beta-cell tropic CBV-4 strains in human islets. However, genetic differences between these strains influenced the effectiveness of pleconaril treatment. This stresses the importance of using multiple viral strains in antiviral tests. PMID:17239967

  6. Regulation of host responses and viral replication by the mitogen-activated protein kinases in intestinal epithelial cells infected with Enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunyang; Gao, Luying; Jin, Yu; Cardona, Carol J; Xing, Zheng

    2015-02-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has become an important neurotropic enterovirus in children since the eradication of the poliovirus. A cytokine storm with elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines is proposed as critical to the pathogenesis of EV71-induced brain stem encephalitis with pulmonary edema, often a fatal complication. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are involved in cellular processes including immune responses and apoptosis. EV71 infection can trigger MAPK activation in human cells, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling is essential for EV71 replication. In this study, we report that in EV71-infected human intestinal epithelial cells (HT-29), both ERK1/2 and Jun-N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) were phosphorylated and activated. While MAPK was not involved in the induction of IL-1?, the expressions of IL-6 and IL-8 were positively regulated by both ERK1/2 and JNK1/2, which were also responsible for type I IFN induction. HT-29 cells underwent apoptosis in EV71 infection, but the activation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 signaling appeared to suppress induction of TNF-? and FasL and inhibit extrinsic apoptosis in infected cells. Activation of NF-?B was also observed in HT-29 cells in EV71 infection, leading to increased viral replication and proinflammatory cytokine induction. However, the activation of NF-?B was inhibited by the inhibitors of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK1/2, indicating that a cross-talk may exist between MAPK and NF-?B pathways in EV71-infected intestinal epithelial cells. Understanding host responses and their underlying mechanisms may help develop effective therapeutics against EV71 and tools for control of future EV71 outbreaks. PMID:25529441

  7. Case of a healthy infant born following antenatal enterovirus myocarditis and hydrops.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, Aurore; Tassin, Mikael; Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle; Letamendia, Emmanuelle; Stos, Bertrand; Bonnet, Damien; Gajdos, Vincent; Mabille, Mylne; Benachi, Alexandra

    2014-11-01

    Fetal hydrops and myocarditis were diagnosed in a woman at 32 weeks of gestation (WG). Transplacental enterovirus infection was suspected because all other causes of myocarditis and hydrops were excluded, it was during an endemic period, and there was a setting of maternal infection (fever a few days before). We opted for in utero treatment because of the risk of resuscitating a neonate with myocarditis and hydrops. We administered dexamethasone 12mg twice for pulmonary maturation and presumed it would partially improve the myocarditis. Fetal arrhythmia was noted at 35 WG and we decided to deliver the infant as postnatal treatment of the heart disorder would be more effective. RT-PCR (ARGENE()) showed that the neonate's throat and anal tissues and cord blood sampled on the day of birth contained enterovirus ribonucleic acid and coxsackievirus B5, as did the mother's anal sample. Laboratory tests, heart MRI and probably brain MRI indicated neonatal enterovirus infection. Findings were normal at two-year follow-up. PMID:25242311

  8. Animal models of enterovirus 71 infection: applications and limitations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a neuroinvasive virus that is responsible for several outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region over the past 15 years. Appropriate animal models are needed to understand EV71 neuropathogenesis better and to facilitate the development of effective vaccines and drugs. Non-human primate models have been used to characterize and evaluate the neurovirulence of EV71 after the early outbreaks in late 1990s. However, these models were not suitable for assessing the neurovirulence level of the virus and were associated with ethical and economic difficulties in terms of broad application. Several strategies have been applied to develop mouse models of EV71 infection, including strategies that employ virus adaption and immunodeficient hosts. Although these mouse models do not closely mimic human disease, they have been applied to determine the pathogenesis of and treatment and prevention of the disease. EV71 receptor-transgenic mouse models have recently been developed and have significantly advanced our understanding of the biological features of the virus and the host-parasite interactions. Overall, each of these models has advantages and disadvantages, and these models are differentially suited for studies of EV71 pathogenesis and/or the pre-clinical testing of antiviral drugs and vaccines. In this paper, we review the characteristics, applications and limitation of these EV71 animal models, including non-human primate and mouse models. PMID:24742252

  9. Development and Evaluation of an Enterovirus D68 Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Todd N.; Wylie, Kristine M.; Buller, Richard S.; Cannella, Maria

    2015-01-01

    We have developed and evaluated a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assay for the detection of human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in clinical specimens. This assay was developed in response to the unprecedented 2014 nationwide EV-D68 outbreak in the United States associated with severe respiratory illness. As part of our evaluation of the outbreak, we sequenced and published the genome sequence of the EV-D68 virus circulating in St. Louis, MO. This sequence, along with other GenBank sequences from past EV-D68 occurrences, was used to computationally select a region of EV-D68 appropriate for targeting in a strain-specific RT-PCR assay. The RT-PCR assay amplifies a segment of the VP1 gene, with an analytic limit of detection of 4 copies per reaction, and it was more sensitive than commercially available assays that detect enteroviruses and rhinoviruses without distinguishing between the two, including three multiplex respiratory panels approved for clinical use by the FDA. The assay did not detect any other enteroviruses or rhinoviruses tested and did detect divergent strains of EV-D68, including the first EV-D68 strain (Fermon) identified in California in 1962. This assay should be useful for identifying and studying current and future outbreaks of EV-D68 viruses. PMID:26063859

  10. Prevalence of rotavirus, norovirus and enterovirus in diarrheal diseases in Himachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Jain, Swapnil; Thakur, Nutan; Grover, Neelam; Vashistt, Jitendraa; Changotra, Harish

    2016-03-01

    Diarrheal diseases are responsible for a significant proportion of mortality and morbidity all around the globe. The contribution of viruses to gastroenteritis incidences in humans is well established. In the present study, we have studied the prevalence of rotavirus, norovirus and enterovirus in Himachal Pradesh, a north Indian state. A total of 287 (111 children and 176 adults) stool samples of gastroenteritis patients were screened for the viruses using RT-PCR method. 34.5% samples were positive for the viral pathogens of gastroenteritis. Rotavirus was the predominant virus detected in the study with 49.5 and 14.8% positivity in children and adults, respectively. Enterovirus was present in 5.6% cases whereas norovirus had least prevalence (1.4%). Co infection (rotavirus and enterovirus) was witnessed at the prevalence rate of 0.6%. Among different age groups, the prevalence of studied viruses was highest in the children belonging to the age groups of <5years. Rotavirus infections were found to be significantly associated with vomiting and trend of higher rates of fever and dehydration was seen in children along with diarrhea. Seasonal distribution shows circulation of diarrheagenic viruses throughout the year. This is the first report of prevalence of various diarrheagenic viruses circulating in this region. The outcome of the study from this cohort provides a baseline data which can be used to design the preventive strategies in the otherwise unexplored state of Himachal Pradesh. PMID:26925447

  11. Incidence of enteroviruses in Mamala Bay, Hawaii using cell culture and direct polymerase chain reaction methodologies.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, K A; Roll, K; Fujioka, R S; Gerba, C P; Pepper, I L

    1998-06-01

    The consequence of point and nonpoint pollution sources, discharged into marine waters, on public recreational beaches in Mamala Bay, Hawaii was evaluated using virus cell culture and direct reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Twelve sites, nine marine, two freshwater (one stream and one canal), and one sewage, were assessed either quarterly or monthly for 1 year to detect the presence of human enteric viruses. Water samples were concentrated from initial volumes of 400 L to final volumes of 30 mL using Filterite electronegative cartridge filters and a modified beef extract elution procedure. Cell culture was applied using the Buffalo Green Monkey kidney cell line to analyze samples for enteroviruses. Positive samples were also evaluated by RT-PCR, using enterovirus-specific primers. Levels of RT-PCR inhibition varied with each concentrated sample. Resin column purification increased PCR detection sensitivity by at least one order of magnitude in a variety of sewage outfall and recreational marine water samples but not in the freshwater canal samples. Using cell culture, viable enteroviruses were found in 50 and 17% of all outfall and canal samples, respectively. Samples were positive at beaches 8% of the time. These data illustrate the potential public health hazard associated with recreational waters. Using direct PCR, viruses were detected at the outfall but were not found in any beach or canal samples, in part, owing to substances that inhibit PCR. Therefore, conventional cell culture is the most effective means of detecting low levels of infectious enteroviruses in environmental waters, whereas direct RT-PCR is rendered less effective by inhibitory compounds and low equivalent reaction volumes. PMID:9734309

  12. Development of Novel Vaccines against Enterovirus-71

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Pinn Tsin Isabel; Poh, Chit Laa

    2015-01-01

    The hand, foot and mouth disease is caused by a group of Enteroviruses such as Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and Coxsackievirus CV-A5, CV-A8, and CV-A16. Mild symptoms of EV-A71 infection in children range from high fever, vomiting, rashes and ulcers in mouth but can produce more severe symptoms such as brainstem and cerebellar encephalitis, leading up to cardiopulmonary failure and death. The lack of vaccines and antiviral drugs against EV-A71 highlights the urgency of developing preventive and treatment agents against EV-A71 to prevent further fatalities. Research groups have developed experimental inactivated vaccines, recombinant Viral Protein 1 (VP1) vaccine and virus-like particles (VLPs). The inactivated EV-A71 vaccine is considered the safest viral vaccine, as there will be no reversion to the infectious wild type strain. The recombinant VP1 vaccine is a cost-effective immunogen, while VLPs contain an arrangement of epitopes that can elicit neutralizing antibodies against the virus. As each type of vaccine has its advantages and disadvantages, increased studies are required in the development of such vaccines, whereby high efficacy, long-lasting immunity, minimal risk to those vaccinated, safe and easy production, low cost, dispensing the need for refrigeration and convenient delivery are the major goals in their design. PMID:26729152

  13. Detection of enterovirus 70 with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, L J; Hatch, M H; Flemister, M R; Marchetti, G E

    1984-01-01

    To improve the ability to identify enterovirus-70 (EV-70) from patients with acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, we developed four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to EV-70. We reacted the four MAbs against nine previously characterized strains of EV-70 and heterologous viruses by virus neutralization, indirect immunofluorescence, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Two of the MAbs neutralized all nine strains of EV-70 and none of the other enterovirus types tested. Two of the MAbs gave a positive reaction with all nine strains by indirect immunofluorescence, and three reacted with all nine strains by ELISA. None of the MAbs gave a positive reaction with heterologous viruses, including those associated with eye disease, by indirect immunofluorescence or ELISA. The two neutralizing MAbs failed to give a positive reaction with some of the strains of EV-70 by indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA, yet they neutralized these viruses. By ELISA with a polyclonal serum as capture antibody and a mixture of MAbs as detector antibody, we were able to detect from 10(2.2) to 10(5.8) 50% tissue culture infective doses of virus and to type lyophilized isolates of EV-70 sent from Taiwan from which we could not recover infectious virus. By choosing the appropriate MAb, or mixture of MAbs, we could construct a test which had the type specificity and strain sensitivity needed to type isolates of EV-70. PMID:6092426

  14. Development of Novel Vaccines against Enterovirus-71.

    PubMed

    Yee, Pinn Tsin Isabel; Poh, Chit Laa

    2015-01-01

    The hand, foot and mouth disease is caused by a group of Enteroviruses such as Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and Coxsackievirus CV-A5, CV-A8, and CV-A16. Mild symptoms of EV-A71 infection in children range from high fever, vomiting, rashes and ulcers in mouth but can produce more severe symptoms such as brainstem and cerebellar encephalitis, leading up to cardiopulmonary failure and death. The lack of vaccines and antiviral drugs against EV-A71 highlights the urgency of developing preventive and treatment agents against EV-A71 to prevent further fatalities. Research groups have developed experimental inactivated vaccines, recombinant Viral Protein 1 (VP1) vaccine and virus-like particles (VLPs). The inactivated EV-A71 vaccine is considered the safest viral vaccine, as there will be no reversion to the infectious wild type strain. The recombinant VP1 vaccine is a cost-effective immunogen, while VLPs contain an arrangement of epitopes that can elicit neutralizing antibodies against the virus. As each type of vaccine has its advantages and disadvantages, increased studies are required in the development of such vaccines, whereby high efficacy, long-lasting immunity, minimal risk to those vaccinated, safe and easy production, low cost, dispensing the need for refrigeration and convenient delivery are the major goals in their design. PMID:26729152

  15. Detection, quantitation and identification of enteroviruses from surface waters and sponge tissue from the Florida Keys using real-time RT-PCR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donaldson, K.A.; Griffin, Dale W.; Paul, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    A method was developed for the quantitative detection of pathogenic human enteroviruses from surface waters in the Florida Keys using Taqman (R) one-step Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with the Model 7700 ABI Prism (R) Sequence Detection System. Viruses were directly extracted from unconcentrated grab samples of seawater, from seawater concentrated by vortex flow filtration using a 100kD filter and from sponge tissue. Total RNA was extracted from the samples, purified and concentrated using spin-column chromatography. A 192-196 base pair portion of the 5??? untranscribed region was amplified from these extracts. Enterovirus concentrations were estimated using real-time RT-PCR technology. Nine of 15 sample sites or 60% were positive for the presence of pathogenic human enteroviruses. Considering only near-shore sites, 69% were positive with viral concentrations ranging from 9.3viruses/ml to 83viruses/g of sponge tissue (uncorrected for extraction efficiency). Certain amplicons were selected for cloning and sequencing for identification. Three strains of waterborne enteroviruses were identified as Coxsackievirus A9, Coxsackievirus A16, and Poliovirus Sabin type 1. Time and cost efficiency of this one-step real-time RT-PCR methodology makes this an ideal technique to detect, quantitate and identify pathogenic enteroviruses in recreational waters. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  16. Quinacrine Impairs Enterovirus 71 RNA Replication by Preventing Binding of Polypyrimidine-Tract Binding Protein with Internal Ribosome Entry Sites

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianmin; Du, Jiang; Wu, Zhiqiang; Jin, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s, epidemics of enterovirus 71 (EV71) and other enteroviruses have occurred in Asian countries and regions, causing a wide range of human diseases. No effective therapy is available for the treatment of these infections. Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) are indispensable for the initiation of translation in enteroviruses. Several cellular factors, as well as the ribosome, are recruited to the conserved IRES during this process. Quinacrine intercalates into the RNA architecture and inhibits RNA transcription and protein synthesis, and a recent study showed that quinacrine inhibited encephalomyocarditis virus and poliovirus IRES-mediated translation in vitro without disrupting internal cellular IRES. Here, we report that quinacrine was highly active against EV71, protecting cells from EV71 infection. Replication of viral RNA, expression of viral capsid protein, and production of virus were all strongly inhibited by quinacrine. Interaction of the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) with the conserved IRES was prevented by quinacrine. Coxsackieviruses and echovirus were also inhibited by quinacrine in cultured cells. These results indicate that quinacrine may serve as a potential protective agent for use in the treatment of patients with chronic enterovirus infection. PMID:23301007

  17. Susceptibility of human bone marrow cells and hematopoietic cell lines to coxsackievirus B3 infection.

    PubMed Central

    Vuorinen, T; Vainionp, R; Vanharanta, R; Hyypi, T

    1996-01-01

    Viremia is commonly observed in association with enterovirus infections, and during this phase viruses can be transmitted to secondary target organs in the body. It is not known, however, whether blood cells play a role in the pathogenesis of enterovirus infection supporting virus replication. Our earlier work (T. Vuorinen, R. Vainionp, H. Kettinen, and T. Hyypi, Blood 84:823-829, 1994) demonstrated that coxsackievirus B3 is able to replicate in representatives of B- and T-cell lines but not in a monocytic cell line or peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating that virus replication may depend on the differentiation and maturation stages of the cells. Therefore, we have broaden our studies and analyzed the susceptibility of granulocyte-macrophage CFU and hematopoietic cell lines with various differentiation and maturation stages to coxsackievirus B3 infection. Virus replication was detected in B- and T-cell lines with no direct correlation to the maturation stage. Granulocyte-macrophage CFU were also able to support virus multiplication. PMID:8971035

  18. Cell and tissue tropism of enterovirus 71 and other enteroviruses infections.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jing-Yi; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a member of Picornaviridae that causes mild and self-limiting hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). However, EV71 infections can progress to polio-like paralysis, neurogenic pulmonary edema, and fatal encephalitis in infants and young children. Large EV71 outbreaks have been reported in Taiwan, China, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, and Australia. This virus is considered a critical emerging public health threat. EV71 is an important crucial neurotropic enterovirus for which there is currently no effective antiviral drug or vaccine. The mechanism by which EV71 causes severe central nervous system complications remains unclear. The interaction between the virus and the host is vital for viral replication, virulence, and pathogenicity. SCARB2 or PSGL-1 receptor binding is the first step in the development of viral infections, and viral factors (e.g., 5' UTR, VP1, 3C, 3D, 3' UTR), host factors and environments (e.g., ITAFs, type I IFN) are also involved in viral infections. The tissue tropism and pathogenesis of viruses are determined by a combination of several factors. This review article provides a summary of host and virus factors affecting cell and tissue tropism and the pathogenesis of enteroviruses. PMID:24602216

  19. Replication strategy of human hepatitis B virus

    SciTech Connect

    Will, H.; Reiser, W.; Weimer, T.; Pfaff, E.; Buescher, M.; Sprengel, R.; Cattaneo, R.; Schaller, H.

    1987-03-01

    To study the replication strategy of the human hepatitis B virus, the 5' end of the RNA pregenome and the initiation sites of DNA plus and minus strands have been mapped. The RNA pregenome was found to be terminally redundant by 120 nucleotides; it is initiated within the pre-C region and may also function as mRNA for synthesis of the major core protein and the hepatitis B virus reverse transcriptase. The hepatitis B virus DNA minus strand is initiated within the direct repeat sequence DR1, it contains a terminal redundancy of up to eight nucleotides, and its synthesis does not require any template switch. The DNA plus strand is primed by a short oligoribonucleotide probably derived from the 5' end of the RNA pregenome, and its synthesis is initiated close to the direct repeat sequence DR2. For its elongation to pass the discontinuity in the DNA minus strand an intramolecular template switch occurs using the terminal redundancy of this template. Thus, the route of reverse transcription and DNA replication of hepatitis B viruses is fundamentally different from that of retroviruses.

  20. Comparative genetic analysis of VP4, VP1 and 3D gene regions of enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 circulating in Malaysia between 1997-2008.

    PubMed

    Chan, Y F; Wee, K L; Chiam, C W; Khor, C S; Chan, S Y; Amalina W, M Z; Sam, I C

    2012-09-01

    Three genomic regions, VP4 capsid, VP1 capsid and 3D RNA polymerase of human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) were sequenced to understand the evolution of these viruses in Malaysia. A total of 42 EV-71 and 36 CV-A16 isolates from 1997- 2008 were sequenced. Despite the presence of many EV-71 subgenotypes worldwide, only subgenotypes B3, B4, B5, C1 and C2 were present in Malaysia. Importation of other subgenotypes such as C3, C4/D and C5 from other countries was infrequent. For CV-A16, the earlier subgenotype B1 was replaced by subgenotypes B2a and the recent B2c. Subgenotype B2a was present throughout the study while B2c only emerged in 2005. No genetic signatures could be attributed to viral virulence suggesting that host factors have a major role in determining the outcome of infection. Only three EV-71 B3 isolates showed non-consistent phylogeny in the 3D RNA polymerase region which indicated occurrence of recombination in EV-71. High genetic diversity was observed in the Malaysian EV-71 but Malaysian CV-A16 showed low genetic diversity in the three genomic regions sequenced. EV-71 showed strong purifying selection, but that occurred to a lesser extent in CV-A16. PMID:23018509

  1. The structure-function relationship of the enterovirus 3'-UTR.

    PubMed

    Zoll, Jan; Heus, Hans A; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Melchers, Willem J G

    2009-02-01

    Essential processes in living cells are carried out by large complex assemblies, which typically consist of a large number of proteins and frequently also contain nucleic acids, mostly RNA [Alberts, B., 1998. The cell as a collection of protein machines: preparing the next generation of molecular biologists. Cell 92, 291-294]. These large biomolecular complexes carry out biological processes in highly sophisticated ways: molecules do not move around randomly in the cell and interact by chance, but are guided to these "macromolecular machines", in which the number of possible collisions is restricted to a few possibilities, based, e.g., on the specificity of protein-RNA recognition. While the coding capacity of RNA lies within its sequence, the shape of an RNA molecule determines other functionalities such as stability, intra- and intermolecular interactions, catalytic activity, regulation of cellular processes, etc. [Doudna, J.A., 2000. Structural genomics of RNA. Nat. Struct. Biol. 7, 954-956; Cech, T.R. 2000. Structural biology. The ribosome is a ribozyme. Science 289, 878-879]. RNA structures in macromolecular machines are important features in assembly, target recognition and activity. Viral RNA molecules contain cis- and/or trans-acting control elements that, as exemplified by internal ribosomal entry sites and origins of genome replication, consist of complex multidomain structures [Andino, R., Rieckhof, G.E., Achacoso, P.L., Baltimore D., 1993. Poliovirus RNA synthesis utilizes an RNP complex formed around the 5'-end of viral RNA. EMBO J. 12, 3587-3598; Melchers, W.J.G., Hoenderop, J.G.J., Bruins Slot, H.J., Pleij, C.W.A., Pilipenko, E.V., Agol, V.I., Galama, J.M.D., 1997. Kissing of the two predominant hairpin loops in the coxsackie B virus 3' untranslated region is the essential structural feature of the origin of replication required for negative-strand RNA synthesis. J. Virol. 71, 686-696]. The formation of these structures is involved in the specific recognition of ligands or serves to support the structural integrity of the whole element. The replication of the enterovirus RNA is carried out by a large biomolecular complex formed by cis-acting RNA elements found in the 5'- and 3'-UTR of the virus genome and several cellular and viral proteins. This review will focus on RNA elements in the 3'-UTR of enteroviruses. PMID:18706945

  2. Viral pollution in the environment and in shellfish: human adenovirus detection by PCR as an index of human viruses.

    PubMed

    Pina, S; Puig, M; Lucena, F; Jofre, J; Girones, R

    1998-09-01

    A study of the presence of human viruses (adenoviruses, enteroviruses, and hepatitis A viruses [HAVs]) in environmental and shellfish samples was carried out by applying DNA and cDNA amplification techniques by PCR. The detection of human adenoviruses by PCR was also examined as a potential molecular test to monitor viral pollution. The samples studied were urban and slaughterhouse sewage, river water, seawater, and shellfish. Enteroviruses were quantified by PFU in Buffalo green monkey kidney cells and fecal coliforms and phages of Bacteroides fragilis HSP40 were also evaluated in some of the samples. The amplification of viral DNA and cDNA has shown a high prevalence of human viruses that would not be detected by the use of classical techniques, such as the quantification of PFU in cell lines. The results of the analysis of slaughterhouse sewage samples together with the test of farm animal feces indicate that the adenoviruses and the HAVs detected in the environment are mostly of human origin. A significative correlation between the detection of human viruses by PCR and the values of bacteriophages of B. fragilis HSP40 in urban raw sewage was observed. Human adenoviruses were the viruses most frequently detected throughout the year, and all the samples that were positive for enteroviruses or HAVs were also positive for human adenoviruses. The results suggest that the detection of adenoviruses by PCR could be used as an index of the presence of human viruses in the environment where a molecular index is acceptable. PMID:9726885

  3. Clinical severity of pediatric respiratory illness with enterovirus D68 compared with rhinovirus or other enterovirus genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Mertz, Dominik; Alawfi, Abdulsalam; Pernica, Jeffrey M.; Rutherford, Candy; Luinstra, Kathy; Smieja, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Background: Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) resulted in a reported increase in the number of children needing hospital or critical care admission because of respiratory insufficiency during 2014. It remains unclear, however, whether EV-D68 infections were more severe than rhinovirus or nonEV-D68 enterovirus infections. Methods: We evaluated consecutive children presenting to a pediatric hospital between Aug. 1 and Oct. 31, 2014, with positive nasopharyngeal swabs for rhinovirus or enterovirus that were sent automatically for EV-D68 testing. We compared characteristics and outcomes of patients with EV-D68 with those with rhinovirus or nonEV-D68 enterovirus in a matched cohort study. Results: A total of 93/297 (31.3%) of rhinovirus or enterovirus samples tested positive for EV-D68, and it was possible to compare 87 matched pairs. Children with EV-D68 infection were more likely to have difficulty breathing (odds ratio [OR] 3.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.476.14). There was no significant difference in admission to the critical care unit or death among children with EV-D68 infection compared with those with other rhinovirus or enterovirus infections (adjusted OR 1.47, 95% CI 0.613.52). Children with EV-D68 infection were more often admitted to hospital, but not significantly so (adjusted OR 2.29, 95% CI 0.965.46). Interpretation: Enterovirus D68 seems to be a more virulent pulmonary pathogen than rhinovirus or nonEV-D68 enterovirus, but we did not find a significant difference in death or need for critical care. PMID:26464137

  4. Clinical severity of rhinovirus/enterovirus compared to other respiratory viruses in children

    PubMed Central

    Asner, Sandra A; Petrich, Astrid; Hamid, Jemila S; Mertz, Dominik; Richardson, Susan E; Smieja, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Background Human rhinovirus/enterovirus (HRV/ENT) infections are commonly identified in children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs), but data on their clinical severity remain limited. Objectives We compared the clinical severity of HRV/ENT to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A/B (FLU), and other common respiratory viruses in children. Patients/Methods Retrospective study of children with ARIs and confirmed single positive viral infections on mid-turbinate swabs by molecular assays. Outcome measures included hospital admission and, for inpatients, a composite endpoint consisting of intensive care admission, hospitalization >5 days, oxygen requirements or death. Results A total of 116 HRV/ENT, 102 RSV, 99 FLU, and 64 other common respiratory viruses were identified. Children with single HRV/ENT infections presented with significantly higher rates of underlying immunosuppressive conditions compared to those with RSV (379% versus 136%; P < 0001), FLU (379% versus 22%; P = 0018) or any other single viral infection (379% versus 225%; P = 0024). In multivariable analysis adjusted for underlying conditions and age, children with HRV/ENT infections had increased odds of hospitalization compared to children with RSV infections (OR 26; 95% CI 14, 48; P < 0003) or FLU infections (OR 30; 95% CI 16, 58; <0001) and increased odds of severe clinical disease among inpatients (OR 30; 95% CI 16,56; P = 0001) when compared to those with FLU infections. Conclusions Children with HRV/ENT had a more severe clinical course than those with RSV and FLUA/B infections and often had significant comorbidities. These findings emphasize the importance of considering HRV/ENT infection in children presenting with severe acute respiratory tract infections. PMID:24801963

  5. Enterovirus 71 inhibits cellular type I interferon signaling by downregulating JAK1 protein expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Zhe; Zhao, Xinghui; Yu, Rui; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wu, Shipo; Liu, Ju; Chi, Xiangyang; Song, Xiaohong; Fu, Ling; Yu, Yingqun; Hou, Lihua; Chen, Wei

    2014-08-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can cause severe disease and lead to death in children. Recurring outbreaks of EV71 have been reported in several countries. Interferons (IFNs) have been used for decades to treat several types of viral infection, but have a limited ability to inhibit EV71 replication. Herein, we intend to investigate the mechanisms by which EV71 inhibits the cellular type I IFN response. In this study, MRC-5 (human embryonic lung fibroblast) or RD (human rhabdomyosarcoma) cells were infected with EV71, and then treated with or without IFN-?2b. Cells were harvested and analyzed by flow cytometry to determine the level of IFNAR1. Cell lysis were prepared to detect the levels of STAT1, STAT2, phosphorylated STAT1, phosphorylated STAT2, IFNAR1, JAK1, and TYK2 by Western blotting. The phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT2 induced by IFN were inhibited without significant downregulation of IFNAR1 in EV71-infected cells. The EV71-induced suppression of STAT1 and STAT2 phosphorylation was not rescued by the protein tyrosine phosphatases inhibitor, and was independent of suppressor of cytokine signaling protein 1/3 levels. The phosphorylation of JAK1 and TYK2 were inhibited accompanied by EV71-induced downregulation of JAK1, which occurred at a post-transcriptional level and was proteasome independent. JAK1 expression did not decrease, and IFN-?-stimulated STAT1 and STAT2 phosphorylation were not blocked in HEK293T cells overexpressing the EV71 viral protein 2A or 3C. This study demonstrates that EV71 inhibits the cellular type I IFN antiviral pathway by downregulating JAK1, while the expression of IFNAR1 does not significantly alter in EV71-infected cells. Additionally, the EV71 viral proteins 2A and 3C do not act as antagonists of cellular type I IFN signaling. PMID:24905060

  6. Recombinant human erythrocyte cytochrome b5.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, E; Ferrer, J C; Funk, W D; Mauk, M R; Mauk, A G

    1994-09-27

    The gene encoding the human erythrocyte form of cytochrome b5 (97 residues in length) has been prepared by mutagenesis of an expression vector encoding lipase-solubilized bovine liver microsomal cytochrome b5 (93 residues in length) (Funk et al., 1990). Efficient expression of this gene in Escherichia coli has provided the first opportunity to obtain this protein in quantities sufficient for physical and functional characterization. Comparison of the erythrocytic cytochrome with the trypsin-solubilized bovine liver cytochrome b5 by potentiometric titration indicates that the principal electrostatic difference between the two proteins results from two additional His residues present in the human erythrocytic protein. The midpoint reduction potential of this protein determined by direct electrochemistry is -9 +/- 2 mV vs SHE at pH 7.0 (mu = 0.10 M, 25.0 degrees C), and this value varies with pH in a fashion that is consistent with the presence of a single ionizable group that changes pKa from 6.0 +/- 0.1 in the ferricytochrome to 6.3 +/- 0.1 in the ferrocytochrome with delta H degrees = -3.2 +/- 0.1 kcal/mol and delta S degrees = -11.5 +/- 0.3 eu (pH 7.0, mu = 0.10). The 1D 1H NMR spectrum of the erythrocytic ferricytochrome indicates that 90% of the protein binds heme in the "major" orientation and 10% of the protein binds heme in the "minor" orientation (pH 7.0, 25 degrees C) with delta H degrees = -2.9 +/- 0.3 kcal/mol and delta S degrees = -5.4 +/- 0.9 eu for this equilibrium. PMID:7918357

  7. Adaptation of Enterovirus 71 to Adult Interferon Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Caine, Elizabeth A.; Partidos, Charalambos D.; Santangelo, Joseph D.; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2013-01-01

    Non-polio enteroviruses, including enterovirus 71 (EV71), have caused severe and fatal cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Asia-Pacific region. The development of a vaccine or antiviral against these pathogens has been hampered by the lack of a reliable small animal model. In this study, a mouse adapted EV71 strain was produced by conducting serial passages through A129 (?/? interferon (IFN) receptor deficient) and AG129 (?/?, ? IFN receptor deficient) mice. A B2 sub genotype of EV71 was inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) into neonatal AG129 mice and brain-harvested virus was subsequently passaged through 12 and 15 day-old A129 mice. When tested in 10 week-old AG129 mice, this adapted strain produced 100% lethality with clinical signs including limb paralysis, eye irritation, loss of balance, and death. This virus caused only 17% mortality in same age A129 mice, confirming that in the absence of a functional IFN response, adult AG129 mice are susceptible to infection by adapted EV71 isolates. Subsequent studies in adult AG129 and young A129 mice with the adapted EV71 virus examined the efficacy of an inactivated EV71 candidate vaccine and determined the role of humoral immunity in protection. Passive transfer of rabbit immune sera raised against the EV71 vaccine provided protection in a dose dependent manner in 15 day-old A129 mice. Intramuscular injections (i.m.) in five week-old AG129 mice with the alum adjuvanted vaccine also provided protection against the mouse adapted homologous strain. No clinical signs of disease or mortality were observed in vaccinated animals, which received a prime-and-boost, whereas 71% of control animals were euthanized after exhibiting systemic clinical signs (P<0.05). The development of this animal model will facilitate studies on EV71 pathogenesis, antiviral testing, the evaluation of immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccine candidates, and has the potential to establish correlates of protection studies. PMID:23527208

  8. Immunogenicity and performance of an enterovirus 71 virus-like-particle vaccine in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Lim, Pei-Yin; Hickey, Andrew C; Jamiluddin, Mohamad F; Hamid, Sharifah; Kramer, Joshua; Santos, Rosemary; Bossart, Katharine N; Cardosa, M Jane

    2015-11-01

    A vaccine against human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is urgently needed to combat outbreaks of EV-A71 and in particular, the serious neurological complications that manifest during these outbreaks. In this study, an EV-A71 virus-like-particle (VLP) based on a B5 subgenogroup (EV-A71-B5 VLP) was generated using an insect cell/baculovirus platform. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that the purified VLP had a highly native procapsid structure and initial studies in vivo demonstrated that the VLPs were immunogenic in mice. The impact of VLP immunization on infection was examined in non-human primates using a VLP prime-boost strategy prior to EV-A71 challenge. Rhesus macaques were immunized on day 0 and day 21 with VLPs (100 ?g/dose) containing adjuvant or with adjuvant alone (controls), and were challenged with EV-A71 on day 42. Complete blood counts, serum chemistry, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and histopathology results were mostly normal in vaccinated and control animals after virus challenge demonstrating that the fatal EV-A71-B3 clinical isolate used in this study was not highly virulent in rhesus macaques. Viral genome and/or infectious virus were detected in blood, spleen or brain of two of three control animals, but not in any specimens from the vaccinated animals, indicating that VLP immunization prevented systemic spread of EV-A71 in rhesus macaques. High levels of IgM and IgG were detected in VLP-vaccinated animals and these responses were highly specific for EV-A71 particles and capsid proteins. Serum from vaccinated animals also exhibited similar neutralizing activity against different subgenogroups of EV-A71 demonstrating that the VLPs induced cross-neutralizing antibodies. In conclusion, our EV-A71-B5 VLP is safe, highly immunogenic, and prevents systemic EV-A71-B3 infection in nonhuman primates making it a viable attractive vaccine candidate for EV-A71. PMID:26271825

  9. Pyrazolopyrimidines: Potent Inhibitors Targeting the Capsid of Rhino- and Enteroviruses.

    PubMed

    Makarov, Vadim A; Braun, Heike; Richter, Martina; Riabova, Olga B; Kirchmair, Johannes; Kazakova, Elena S; Seidel, Nora; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2015-10-01

    There are currently no drugs available for the treatment of enterovirus (EV)-induced acute and chronic diseases such as the common cold, meningitis, encephalitis, pneumonia, and myocarditis with or without consecutive dilated cardiomyopathy. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of pyrazolopyrimidines, a well-tolerated and potent class of novel EV inhibitors. The compounds inhibit the replication of a broad spectrum of EV in vitro with IC50 values between 0.04 and 0.64 μM for viruses resistant to pleconaril, a known capsid-binding inhibitor, without affecting cytochrome P450 enzyme activity. Using virological and genetics methods, the viral capsid was identified as the target of the most promising, orally bioavailable compound 3-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)amino-6-phenylpyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine-4-amine (OBR-5-340). Its prophylactic as well as therapeutic application was proved for coxsackievirus B3-induced chronic myocarditis in mice. The favorable pharmacokinetic, toxicological, and pharmacodynamics profile in mice renders OBR-5-340 a highly promising drug candidate, and the regulatory nonclinical program is ongoing. PMID:26260222

  10. Development of a stable Gaussia luciferase enterovirus 71 reporter virus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin-Lin; Shan, Chao; Deng, Cheng-Lin; Li, Xiao-Dan; Shang, Bao-Di; Ye, Han-Qing; Liu, Si-Qing; Yuan, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Qing-Yin; Shi, Pei-Yong; Zhang, Bo

    2015-07-01

    We report a stable Gaussia luciferase enterovirus 71 (Gluc-EV71) reporter virus to facilitate drug discovery. The Gluc-EV71 reporter virus was generated by engineering the Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) gene between the 5' untranslated region and VP4 gene of the EV71 genome. We could recover Gluc-EV71 after transfection of Vero cells with the cDNA clone-derived RNA. The reporter virus efficiently infects and replicates in various cell types (Vero, human rhabdomyosarcoma, and HeLa cells), producing robust luciferase activity. The Gluc-EV71 virus replicates slower than the wild-type virus in cell culture. The reporter virus is stable in maintaining the Gluc gene after five rounds of continuous passaging in Vero cells. Using known EV71 inhibitors, we demonstrate that the reporter virus can be used for antiviral testing. However, the Gluc-EV71 infection assay cannot be adapted to a homogenous format for high throughput screen, mainly due to the secreted nature of the Gluc protein and the short half-life of the Gluc luminescence signal. The Gluc-EV71 and its infection assay could be useful for antiviral drug discovery as well as for studying EV71 replication and pathogenesis. PMID:25843263

  11. First Detection of an Enterovirus C99 in a Captive Chimpanzee with Acute Flaccid Paralysis, from the Tchimpounga Chimpanzee Rehabilitation Center, Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Mombo, Illich Manfred; Berthet, Nicolas; Lukashev, Alexander N.; Bleicker, Tobias; Brünink, Sebastian; Léger, Lucas; Atencia, Rebeca; Cox, Debby; Bouchier, Christiane; Durand, Patrick; Arnathau, Céline; Brazier, Lionel; Fair, Joseph N.; Schneider, Bradley S.; Drexler, Jan Felix; Prugnolle, Franck; Drosten, Christian; Renaud, François; Leroy, Eric M.; Rougeron, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses, members of the Picornaviridae family, are ubiquitous viruses responsible for mild to severe infections in human populations around the world. In 2010 Pointe-Noire, Republic of Congo recorded an outbreak of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in the humans, caused by wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1). One month later, in the Tchimpounga sanctuary near Pointe-Noire, a chimpanzee developed signs similar to AFP, with paralysis of the lower limbs. In the present work, we sought to identify the pathogen, including viral and bacterial agents, responsible for this illness. In order to identify the causative agent, we evaluated a fecal specimen by PCR and sequencing. A Human enterovirus C, specifically of the EV-C99 type was potentially responsible for the illness in this chimpanzee. To rule out other possible causative agents, we also investigated the bacteriome and the virome using next generation sequencing. The majority of bacterial reads obtained belonged to commensal bacteria (95%), and the mammalian virus reads matched mainly with viruses of the Picornaviridae family (99%), in which enteroviruses were the most abundant (99.6%). This study thus reports the first identification of a chimpanzee presenting AFP most likely caused by an enterovirus and demonstrates once again the cross-species transmission of a human pathogen to an ape. PMID:26301510

  12. Coliphages as ecological indicators of enteroviruses in various water systems*

    PubMed Central

    imkov, A.; ?ervenka, J.

    1981-01-01

    The occurrence of coliphages and enteroviruses in a variety of water systems in Czechoslovakia was monitored for two years. Two host strains of Escherichia coli bacteria were used to test 1161 water samples for the presence of bacteriophages. These strains were polyvalent hosts for a broad spectrum of morphologically distinct coliphages, and their use thus gave quantitative data on the degree of viral pollution in any given water sample. Ninety-two water samples were tested in parallel for the presence of enteroviruses, by using a flocculation method to concentrate the viruses followed by isolation in cultures of a buffalo green monkey (BGM) kidney continuous cell line. The enterovirus and coliphage recovery rates showed similar differences when waters with different levels of pollution were compared. Seasonal fluctuations of both the coliphage and enterovirus (mostly poliovirus) levels in river water were demonstrated by statistical analysis of the data collected. The levels increased in the winter and sharply declined in the summer months as the river water temperature increased. Chemical pollution did not seem to influence the survival of either the coliphages or the enteroviruses in the observed rivers. PMID:6274536

  13. Tissue tropism, pathology and pathogenesis of enterovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Muehlenbachs, Atis; Bhatnagar, Julu; Zaki, Sherif R

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses are very common and cause infections with a diverse array of clinical features. Enteroviruses are most frequently considered by practising pathologists in cases of aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis and disseminated infections in neonates and infants. Congenital infections have been reported and transplacental transmission is thought to occur. Although skin biopsies during hand, foot and mouth disease are infrequently obtained, characteristic dermatopathological findings can be seen. Enteroviruses have been implicated in lower respiratory tract infections. This review highlights histopathological features of enterovirus infection and discusses diagnostic modalities for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and their associated pitfalls. Immunohistochemistry can detect enterovirus antigen within cells of affected tissues; however, assays can be non-specific and detect other viruses. Molecular methods are increasingly relied upon but, due to the high frequency of asymptomatic enteroviral infections, clinical-pathological correlation is needed to determine significance. Of note, diagnostic assays on central nervous system or cardiac tissues from immunocompetent patients with prolonged disease courses are most often negative. Histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular studies performed on clinical specimens also provide insight into enteroviral tissue tropism and pathogenesis. PMID:25211036

  14. Coxsackie B4 virus infection of ? cells and natural killer cell insulitis in recent-onset type 1 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Dotta, Francesco; Censini, Stefano; van Halteren, Astrid G. S.; Marselli, Lorella; Masini, Matilde; Dionisi, Sabrina; Mosca, Franco; Boggi, Ugo; Muda, Andrea Onetti; Prato, Stefano Del; Elliott, John F.; Covacci, Antonello; Rappuoli, Rino; Roep, Bart O.; Marchetti, Piero

    2007-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is characterized by T cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of pancreatic ? cells. Several studies have suggested an association between Coxsackie enterovirus seroconversion and onset of disease. However, a direct link between ? cell viral infection and islet inflammation has not been established. We analyzed pancreatic tissue from six type 1 diabetic and 26 control organ donors. Immunohistochemical, electron microscopy, whole-genome ex vivo nucleotide sequencing, cell culture, and immunological studies demonstrated Coxsackie B4 enterovirus in specimens from three of the six diabetic patients. Infection was specific of ? cells, which showed nondestructive islet inflammation mediated mainly by natural killer cells. Islets from enterovirus-positive samples displayed reduced insulin secretion in response to glucose and other secretagogues. In addition, virus extracted from positive islets was able to infect ? cells from human islets of nondiabetic donors, causing viral inclusions and signs of pyknosis. None of the control organ donors showed signs of viral infection. These studies provide direct evidence that enterovirus can infect ? cells in patients with type 1 diabetes and that infection is associated with inflammation and functional impairment. PMID:17360338

  15. Membrane adsorption with direct cell culture combined with reverse transcription-PCR as a fast method for identifying enteroviruses from sewage.

    PubMed

    Papaventsis, D; Siafakas, N; Markoulatos, P; Papageorgiou, G T; Kourtis, C; Chatzichristou, E; Economou, C; Levidiotou, S

    2005-01-01

    We present a new approach for the detection and identification of enteroviruses concentrated and isolated from sewage. Samples were collected from two study sites located at Nicosia and Limassol sewage treatment plants in Cyprus. Viruses were adsorbed to cellulose nitrate membrane filters, cultured directly from the membrane filters by using the VIRADEN method, and identified by reverse transcription-PCR, followed by 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and partial sequencing of the VP1 protein coding region. Initial subgrouping based on the HpaII restriction profile showed that all of the isolates except one belonged to the same genetic subcluster. Partial VP1 sequencing revealed that most isolates belonged to serotypes coxsackie B4 (42.5%) and coxsackie Alpha9 (30%), whereas coxsackie B2 (17.5%) and coxsackie B1 (3%) isolates were less frequently observed. One poliovirus type 2 isolate (2.5%) of vaccine origin was also found. The HpaII digests predicted the genetic subcluster for all isolates. They also accurately differentiated the isolates as nonpolio or polio isolates. This approach seems to be very promising for environmental surveillance of enterovirus circulation and epidemiology, with all of the significant effects that this entails for public health. Partial VP1 sequencing is efficient for molecular serotyping of enteroviruses, while 5'-UTR RFLP analysis with HpaII can also be considered an asset for the initial subclassification of enterovirus isolates. PMID:15640172

  16. Elicitation of T-cell responses by structural and non-structural proteins of coxsackievirus B4.

    PubMed

    Bengs, Suvi; Marttila, Jane; Susi, Petri; Ilonen, Jorma

    2015-02-01

    Coxsackievirus B4 (CV-B4) belongs to the genus Enterovirus within the family Picornaviridae. To investigate target proteins recognized by T-cells in human enterovirus B infections, virus-encoded structural [VP0 (VP4 and VP2), VP1, VP3] and non-structural (2A, 2B, 2C, 3C and 3D) proteins were expressed and purified in Escherichia coli. Peripheral blood of 19 healthy adult donors was used to create enterovirus-specific T-cell lines by repeated stimulation with CV-B4 cell lysate antigen. T-cell lines responded in individual patterns, and responses to all purified proteins were observed. The most often recognized enteroviral protein was VP0, which is the fusion between the most conserved structural proteins, VP4 and VP2. T-cell responses to VP0 were detected in 15 of the 19 (79?%) donor lines. Non-structural 2C protein was recognized in 11 of the 19 (58?%) lines, and 11 of the 19 (58?%) lines also had a response to 3D protein. Furthermore, responses to other non-structural proteins (2A, 2B and 3C) were also detected. T-cell responses did not correlate clearly to the individual HLA-DR-DQ phenotype or the history of past coxsackie B virus infections of the donors. PMID:25381056

  17. The enteroviruses: problems in need of treatments.

    PubMed

    Abzug, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    Specific antiviral therapy is currently not available for enterovirus (EV) infections. Poliomyelitis, EV 71 neurologic disease, and neonatal EV disease are three manifestations of EV infections that exemplify the importance of developing antivirals for EV infections. Despite tremendous strides in the effort to eradicate polio through vaccination, challenges remain, including the potential for transmission of neurovirulent vaccine-derived polioviruses which have genetically reverted from live-attenuated, oral poliovirus vaccine virus. EV 71 emerged in the late 1990 s in eastern Asia as a neurovirulent virus that causes large outbreaks of hand-foot-mouth disease, herpangina, and fever, and, in some children, meningitis, acute flaccid paralysis, and brainstem encephalitis complicated by pulmonary edema and cardiopulmonary collapse. EV infections in neonates can cause severe disease characterized by meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, pneumonitis, and/or hepatitis and coagulopathy. Prototypic agents for specific therapy of EV infections that act upon numerous potential viral targets exist. Three candidate compounds are currently in development: pleconaril (active against many EVs), V-073 (anti-poliovirus), and BTA-798 (active against many rhinoviruses and EVs). The three conditions described illustrate why development of antiviral medications for EV infections is a medically important need. PMID:24119825

  18. Detection and identification of enteroviruses from various drinking water sources in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Bing-Mu; Chen, Chien-Hsien; Wan, Min-Tao; Chang, Po-Jen; Fan, Cheng-Wei

    2009-02-01

    SummaryTwenty-three water samples, including seventeen from surface water reservoirs, three from the raw water of groundwater treatment plants, and three from small water systems, were collected in Taiwan and investigated for the presence of, as well as the species of enteroviruses. RT-PCR was used for the detection of enteroviruses. Results revealed that 23.5% of raw water samples from reservoirs were positive for enteroviruses. In addition, one of the three groundwater samples and two of the three small system water samples were positive for enteroviruses. Water samples that were positive for enteroviruses subsequently were evaluated by real-time PCR. The results indicated that enterovirus concentration in groundwater was lower than that in samples obtained from surface water sources. Enteroviruses were identified by nucleic acid sequencing in the 5'-untranslated regions. Three clusters of enteroviruses were identified as coxsackievirus A2, coxsackievirus A6, and enterovirus 71. The presence of enteroviruses indicates the possibility of waterborne transmission of enteroviruses in Taiwan, if water is not adequately treated.

  19. [Epidemiologic and etiologic characteristic of enterovirus infections in Khabarovsk region].

    PubMed

    Reznik, V I; Kozhevnikova, N V; Karavianskaia, T N; Voronkova, G M; Pereskokova, M A; Ivanova, O E; Frolova, N V; Eremeeva, T P; Lukashev, A N; Shubin, F N; Kompanets, G G; Lebedava, L A; Isaeva, N V; Savosina, L V; Golubeva, E M

    2007-01-01

    Results of epidemiologic, virologic, and serologic studies of enterovirus infections in Khabarovsk region from 1975 to 2006 were analyzed. Patterns of epidemic process of these infections were established: periodic change of dominating type of pathogen in the population; onset of the large epidemic peaks of incidence during emergence of circulation of new for the given area serotypes of enteroviruses; possibility of realization of several routes of virus transmission. Role of water factor in the progress of the epidemic process was revealed. Etiology of the large epidemic rise of aseptic meningitis incidence in Khabarovsk region in 2006 was established--the leading pathogens were ECHO viruses serotypes E6 and E30. PMID:18038544

  20. Enterovirus D68: acute respiratory illness and the 2014 outbreak.

    PubMed

    Khan, Feras

    2015-05-01

    Enteroviruses cause illnesses ranging from benign upper respiratory infections to severe meningitis and encephalitis. A recent uptick in the number of patients, many of them children, with respiratory infections caused by enterovirus 68 (EV-D68) has captured the attention of health care providers and public health administrators. In the United States, this type of infection was confirmed in 1152 people during 2014. This article examines recent trends in EV-D68 infections, reviewing past outbreaks and the 2014 outbreak, and describes the increasing cases of acute flaccid myelitis and their possible connection with EV-D68. PMID:26065305

  1. Comparison of Two Concentration Methods for the Molecular Detection of Enteroviruses in Raw and Treated Sewage.

    PubMed

    Hmaed, F; Jebri, S; Saavedra, M E R; Yahya, M; Amri, I; Lucena, F; Hamdi, M

    2016-01-01

    Human enteric viruses are a major causative agent of emerging waterborne diseases and constitute a serious public health concern. Environmental contamination occurs through discharge of waste materials from infected persons. Methods for viral detection should be developed to detect low infective dose of enteric viruses in environment. In this study, we aimed at comparing two concentration methods for the detection of naturally occurring enteroviruses in raw and treated sewage. In the first method, polyethylene glycol is used to concentrate viral particles from the collected samples. The second method is based on ultracentrifugation of viral particles at high speed (110,000g). Genomes of enteroviruses were quantified by the quantitative real-time PCR method in raw and treated sewage samples. PEG-based method yielded higher genomic copies of enteric viruses (with an average of 5.9 log10 genomic copies/100mL) when applied to raw sewage samples. While the ultracentrifugation assay in the second method decreases genomic copies number (with an average of 5.4 log10 genomic copies/100mL). The recovery differences between the two methods were not significant when applied to clean samples (treated sewage). This could be explained by the presence of inhibitors, which interfere with qRT-PCR, in less quantity comparatively to raw sewage. PEG-based method would be more accurate for samples with high-organic matter load. This report emphasizes the importance of matrices nature on the recovery of enteroviruses from sewage samples. This should be taken into consideration for establishing standardized virological assays to ensure the virological quality control of discharged water in environment. PMID:26362161

  2. The Interplays between Autophagy and Apoptosis Induced by Enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Ji; Huang, He; Wang, Jianwei; Jin, Qi; Zhao, Zhendong

    2013-01-01

    Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the causative agent of human diseases with distinct severity, from mild hand, foot and mouth disease to severe neurological syndromes, such as encephalitis and meningitis. The lack of understanding of viral pathogenesis as well as lack of efficient vaccine and drugs against this virus impedes the control of EV71 infection. EV71 virus induces autophagy and apoptosis; however, the relationship between EV71-induced autophagy and apoptosis as well as the influence of autophagy and apoptosis on virus virulence remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, it was observed that the Anhui strain of EV71 induced autophagy and apoptosis in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD-A) cells. Additionally, by either applying chemical inhibitors or knocking down single essential autophagic or apoptotic genes, inhibition of EV71 induced autophagy inhibited the apoptosis both at the autophagosome formation stage and autophagy execution stage. However, inhibition of autophagy at the stage of autophagosome and lysosome fusion promoted apoptosis. In reverse, the inhibition of EV71-induced apoptosis contributed to the conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-I (LC3-I) to LC3-II and degradation of sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1/P62). Furthermore, the inhibition of autophagy in the autophagsome formation stage or apoptosis decreased the release of EV71 viral particles. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, the results of this study not only revealed novel aspect of the interplay between autophagy and apoptosis in EV71 infection, but also provided a new insight to control EV71 infection. PMID:23437282

  3. Determination of enteroviruses, hepatitis A virus, bacteriophages and Escherichia coli in Adriatic Sea mussels.

    PubMed

    Croci, L; De Medici, D; Scalfaro, C; Fiore, A; Divizia, M; Donia, D; Cosentino, A M; Moretti, P; Costantini, G

    2000-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of enteric viruses in mussels and to verify the possibility of using phages as indirect indicators of mussel viral contamination. Mussels (36 samples) collected from three different areas of the Adriatic Sea were analysed to determine the following parameters: Escherichia coli, somatic coliphage (T6 phage), F-Plus (MS2 phage), B40-8 (phage of Bacteroides fragilis), enteroviruses and hepatitis A virus. Most of the results of the bacteriological analysis (most probable number (MPN) ml-1) were in accordance with the bacteriological limits established by European law, with the exception of seven samples. The bacteriophage analyses were always negative for F-Plus and B40-8, with the exception of a few samples, whereas the somatic coliphages were generally between 0 and 20 MPN g-1, with the exception of two samples (110 MPN g-1). The virological analysis showed five samples positive for the presence of enteroviruses and 13 for the presence of hepatitis A virus (in three samples both viruses were present). Most of these samples presented acceptable bacteriological parameters and the bacteriophages were absent or their value was generally very low. The results show that the detection of E. coli and phages does not seem to be a good indicator of viral contamination. PMID:10735998

  4. Coxsackie B4 virus infection of beta cells and natural killer cell insulitis in recent-onset type 1 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Dotta, Francesco; Censini, Stefano; van Halteren, Astrid G S; Marselli, Lorella; Masini, Matilde; Dionisi, Sabrina; Mosca, Franco; Boggi, Ugo; Muda, Andrea Onetti; Del Prato, Stefano; Elliott, John F; Covacci, Antonello; Rappuoli, Rino; Roep, Bart O; Marchetti, Piero

    2007-03-20

    Type 1 diabetes is characterized by T cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Several studies have suggested an association between Coxsackie enterovirus seroconversion and onset of disease. However, a direct link between beta cell viral infection and islet inflammation has not been established. We analyzed pancreatic tissue from six type 1 diabetic and 26 control organ donors. Immunohistochemical, electron microscopy, whole-genome ex vivo nucleotide sequencing, cell culture, and immunological studies demonstrated Coxsackie B4 enterovirus in specimens from three of the six diabetic patients. Infection was specific of beta cells, which showed nondestructive islet inflammation mediated mainly by natural killer cells. Islets from enterovirus-positive samples displayed reduced insulin secretion in response to glucose and other secretagogues. In addition, virus extracted from positive islets was able to infect beta cells from human islets of nondiabetic donors, causing viral inclusions and signs of pyknosis. None of the control organ donors showed signs of viral infection. These studies provide direct evidence that enterovirus can infect beta cells in patients with type 1 diabetes and that infection is associated with inflammation and functional impairment. PMID:17360338

  5. Characterization of a novel porcine enterovirus in domestic pig in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Boros, Ákos; Pankovics, Péter; Reuter, Gábor

    2011-07-01

    Porcine enteroviruses (PEVs) of genus Enterovirus are small, non-enveloped viruses with single-stranded, positive sense genomic RNA, belonging to the family Picornaviridae. The discovery of two distinct serotypes (PEV9 and 10) was first reported in 1979. Despite the sporadic detection and partial genome sequences of these viruses our knowledge about the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of PEV types in domestic pigs is very deficient. In this study, we identified a novel PEV from fecal samples of clinically healthy pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) in Hungary by RT-PCR using human enterovirus generic primer pairs for 5'UTR region, with subsequent partial VP1 and complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Among 45 fecal and blood sample pairs collected at the same farm from domestic pigs divided into three age groups (10 days, 4 weeks, and 3 months of age, N = 15 each group) six (40%) of the 15 fecal samples of 10-day-old pigs were enterovirus-positive. PEV was not detected in serum samples. Sequence- and phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome of swine/K23/2008/HUN (HQ702854) show relationship to PEV strains but it is separated from the PEV9 and 10, especially in structural regions. Swine/K23/2008/HUN has average of 77 and 75% amino acid identity in the P1 region, and only 61% in VP1 region to PEV9 and 10, respectively. The partial VP1 sequences of the Hungarian PEV strains show 99% nucleotide identity compared to each other. PEVs could be capable of at least local endemic spread among newborn piglets and cause no clinical symptoms or viraemia. Sequence data indicates that the Hungarian PEV strain belongs to a novel PEV. To clarify the taxonomic confusion related to PEV--as a consequence of recent extensive taxonomic changes among porcine enteric picornaviruses--we propose that PEV9 and PEV10 should be reclassified as PEV1 and PEV2. In this classification swine/K23/2008/HUN represents PEV3. PMID:21504800

  6. Cell Surface Nucleolin Facilitates Enterovirus 71 Binding and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Su, Pei-Yi; Wang, Ya-Fang; Huang, Sheng-Wen; Lo, Yu-Chih; Wang, Ya-Hui; Wu, Shang-Rung; Shieh, Dar-Bin; Wang, Jen-Ren; Lai, Ming-Der

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Because the pathogenesis of enterovirus 71 (EV71) remains mostly ambiguous, identifying the factors that mediate viral binding and entry to host cells is indispensable to ultimately uncover the mechanisms that underlie virus infection and pathogenesis. Despite the identification of several receptors/attachment molecules for EV71, the binding, entry, and infection mechanisms of EV71 remain unclear. Herein, we employed glycoproteomic approaches to identify human nucleolin as a novel binding receptor for EV71. Glycoproteins purified by lectin chromatography from the membrane extraction of human cells were treated with sialidase, followed by immunoprecipitation with EV71 particles. Among the 16 proteins identified by tandem mass spectrometry analysis, cell surface nucleolin attracted our attention. We found that EV71 interacted directly with nucleolin via the VP1 capsid protein and that an antinucleolin antibody reduced the binding of EV71 to human cells. In addition, the knockdown of cell surface nucleolin decreased EV71 binding, infection, and production in human cells. Furthermore, the expression of human nucleolin on the cell surface of a mouse cell line increased EV71 binding and conferred EV71 infection and production in the cells. These results strongly indicate that human nucleolin can mediate EV71 binding to and infection of cells. Our findings also demonstrate that the use of glycoproteomic approaches is a reliable methodology to discover novel receptors for pathogens. IMPORTANCE Outbreaks of EV71 have been reported in Asia-Pacific countries and have caused thousands of deaths in young children during the last 2 decades. The discovery of new EV71-interacting molecules to understand the infection mechanism has become an emergent issue. Hence, this study uses glycoproteomic approaches to comprehensively investigate the EV71-interacting glycoproteins. Several EV71-interacting glycoproteins are identified, and the role of cell surface nucleolin in mediating the attachment and entry of EV71 is characterized and validated. Our findings not only indicate a novel target for uncovering the EV71 infection mechanism and anti-EV71 drug discovery but also provide a new strategy for virus receptor identification. PMID:25673703

  7. [Clinical observations in the enterovirus cerebrospinal meningitis outbreak in the P?otsk region in the fall of 1995].

    PubMed

    Obernikowicz, B

    1998-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological observations in a small outbreak of enterovirus cerebrospinal meningitis were presented. The epidemic consisted of 154 cases who were hospitalized in the observation and infectious disease departments of the Provincial Hospital in P?ock. The outbreak started on September 7, 1995 and lasted 2 months up to November 19, 1995. The initial cases were school children. There were 92 males and 62 females, 64% of patients (92 cases) were inhabitants of urban areas. 114 cases (about 80%) were children under 15 years of age and 56 of them belonged to the youngest age group, below 7 years of age. Etiology of the disease was identified in 17 patients: one case with Coxsackie B4 virus in cerebrospinal fluid, two cases with enterovirus A9 in stool, two cases with enterovirus E30 in stool and two cases with cytopathogenic factor also in stool. In 10 cases enteroviral etiology was confirmed by the positive serological findings. There were two group of patients: I--149 cases with mild cerebrospinal meningitis and II--5 cases of encephalopathy. The course of the disease in the majority of cases was mild, although 3% of cases were severe encephalopatic forms, with symptoms of brain damage. Youngest children with disfunction of the immunological system experienced the most serious course of the disease. PMID:10321092

  8. Enterovirus D68 receptor requirements unveiled by haploid genetics.

    PubMed

    Baggen, Jim; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; Staring, Jacqueline; Jae, Lucas T; Liu, Yue; Guo, Hongbo; Slager, Jasper J; de Bruin, Jost W; van Vliet, Arno L W; Blomen, Vincent A; Overduin, Pieter; Sheng, Ju; de Haan Xander, Cornelis A M; de Vries, Erik; Meijer, Adam; Rossmann, Michael G; Brummelkamp, Thijn R; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2016-02-01

    Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emerging pathogen that can cause severe respiratory disease and is associated with cases of paralysis, especially among children. Heretofore, information on host factor requirements for EV-D68 infection is scarce. Haploid genetic screening is a powerful tool to reveal factors involved in the entry of pathogens. We performed a genome-wide haploid screen with the EV-D68 prototype Fermon strain to obtain a comprehensive overview of cellular factors supporting EV-D68 infection. We identified and confirmed several genes involved in sialic acid (Sia) biosynthesis, transport, and conjugation to be essential for infection. Moreover, by using knockout cell lines and gene reconstitution, we showed that both α2,6- and α2,3-linked Sia can be used as functional cellular EV-D68 receptors. Importantly, the screen did not reveal a specific protein receptor, suggesting that EV-D68 can use multiple redundant sialylated receptors. Upon testing recent clinical strains, we identified strains that showed a similar Sia dependency, whereas others could infect cells lacking surface Sia, indicating they can use an alternative, nonsialylated receptor. Nevertheless, these Sia-independent strains were still able to bind Sia on human erythrocytes, raising the possibility that these viruses can use multiple receptors. Sequence comparison of Sia-dependent and Sia-independent EV-D68 strains showed that many changes occurred near the canyon that might allow alternative receptor binding. Collectively, our findings provide insights into the identity of the EV-D68 receptor and suggest the possible existence of Sia-independent viruses, which are essential for understanding tropism and disease. PMID:26787879

  9. A Novel, Broad-Spectrum Inhibitor of Enterovirus Replication That Targets Host Cell Factor Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase III?

    PubMed Central

    van der Schaar, Hilde M.; Leyssen, Pieter; Thibaut, Hendrik J.; de Palma, Armando; van der Linden, Lonneke; Lanke, Kjerstin H. W.; Lacroix, Cline; Verbeken, Erik; Conrath, Katja; MacLeod, Angus M.; Mitchell, Dale R.; Palmer, Nicholas J.; van de Pol, Herv; Andrews, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Despite their high clinical and socioeconomic impacts, there is currently no approved antiviral therapy for the prophylaxis or treatment of enterovirus infections. Here we report on a novel inhibitor of enterovirus replication, compound 1, 2-fluoro-4-(2-methyl-8-(3-(methylsulfonyl)benzylamino)imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazin-3-yl)phenol. This compound exhibited a broad spectrum of antiviral activity, as it inhibited all tested species of enteroviruses and rhinoviruses, with 50% effective concentrations ranging between 4 and 71 nM. After a lengthy resistance selection process, coxsackievirus mutants resistant to compound 1 were isolated that carried substitutions in their 3A protein. Remarkably, the same substitutions were recently shown to provide resistance to inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III? (PI4KIII?), a lipid kinase that is essential for enterovirus replication, suggesting that compound 1 may also target this host factor. Accordingly, compound 1 directly inhibited PI4KIII? in an in vitro kinase activity assay. Furthermore, the compound strongly reduced the PI 4-phosphate levels of the Golgi complex in cells. Rescue of coxsackievirus replication in the presence of compound 1 by a mutant PI4KIII? carrying a substitution in its ATP-binding pocket revealed that the compound directly binds the kinase at this site. Finally, we determined that an analogue of compound 1, 3-(3-fluoro-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methyl-N-(pyridin-4-ylmethyl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazin-8-amine, is well tolerated in mice and has a dose-dependent protective activity in a coxsackievirus serotype B4-induced pancreatitis model. PMID:23896472

  10. ENTEROVIRUSES IN SLUDGE: MULTIYEAR EXPERIENCE WITH FOUR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors describe their experience with the isolation of viruses from four treatment plants located in different geographic areas. Over a period of 3 years, 297 enteroviruses were isolated from 307 sludge samples. The highest frequency of viral isolation (92%), including multi...

  11. Enterovirus 71 Infection with Central Nervous System Involvement, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Wi-Sun; Kang, Byunghak; Hong, Jiyoung; Hwang, Seoyeon; Kim, Ahyoun; Kim, Jonghyun

    2010-01-01

    We assessed neurologic sequelae associated with an enterovirus 71 (EV71) outbreak in South Korea during 2009. Four of 94 patients had high signal intensities at brainstem or cerebellum on magnetic resonance imaging. Two patients died of cardiopulmonary collapse; 2 had severe neurologic sequelae. Severity and case-fatality rates may differ by EV71 genotype or subgenotype. PMID:21029539

  12. Determinants of Human CD134 Essential for Entry of Human Herpesvirus 6B.

    PubMed

    Tang, Huamin; Mori, Yasuko

    2015-10-01

    We identified two key amino acid residues within human CD134 (hCD134) that are required for its interaction with human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) and for HHV-6B entry into cells. One of the residues (K79) allows access of the HHV-6B ligand to hCD134. Murine CD134 (mCD134) functioned as an HHV-6B receptor when these two amino acid residues were replaced with homologous human residues. This study identifies both the HHV-6B receptor-ligand interaction and the species-specific determinants of hCD134 essential for HHV-6B entry. PMID:26202244

  13. Yakammaoto inhibits enterovirus 71 infection by reducing viral attachment, internalization, replication, and translation.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chia-Feng; Wang, Kuo-Chih; Lu, Chi-Yu; Chiang, Lien-Chai; Shieh, Den-En; Yen, Ming-Hong; Chang, Jung-San

    2015-06-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) can cause central nervous system infections with mortality and neurologic sequelae. At present, there is no effective therapeutic modality for EV71 infection. The infection is more common in families with poor socioeconomic status. Therefore, finding a readily available, cost-effective therapeutic modality would be very helpful to these socioeconomically disadvantaged families. Yakammaoto is a cheap and readily available traditional prescription that is proven to have antiviral activity against coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4). CVB4 and EV71 are enteroviruses. In this study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of hot water extract of yakammaoto against EV71. The results of plaque reduction assay and flow cytometry demonstrated that yakammaoto dose dependently inhibited EV71 infection. In addition, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative RT-PCR results showed that yakammaoto reduced viral replication. Western blotting analysis showed that yakammaoto can inhibit viral protein production. Thus, our results suggest that yakammaoto should be considered to manage EV71 infection in the future. PMID:26043408

  14. Heat shock protein-90-beta facilitates enterovirus 71 viral particles assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Robert Y.L.; Kuo, Rei-Lin; Ma, Wei-Chieh; Huang, Hsing-I; Yu, Jau-Song; Yen, Sih-Min; Huang, Chi-Ruei; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2013-09-01

    Molecular chaperones are reported to be crucial for virus propagation, but are not yet addressed in Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71). Here we describe the specific association of heat shock protein-90-beta (Hsp90β), but not alpha form (Hsp90α), with EV71 viral particles by the co-purification with virions using sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation, and by the colocalization with viral particles, as assessed by immunogold electron microscopy. The reduction of the Hsp90β protein using RNA interference decreased the correct assembly of viral particles, without affecting EV71 replication levels. Tracking ectopically expressed Hsp90β protein associated with EV71 virions revealed that Hsp90β protein was transmitted to new host cells through its direct association with infectious viral particles. Our findings suggest a new antiviral strategy in which extracellular Hsp90β protein is targeted to decrease the infectivity of EV71 and other enteroviruses, without affecting the broader functions of this constitutively expressed molecular chaperone. - Highlights: • Hsp90β is associated with EV71 virion and is secreted with the release virus. • Hsp90β effects on the correct assembly of viral particles. • Viral titer of cultured medium was reduced in the presence of geldanamycin. • Viral titer was also reduced when Hsp90β was suppressed by siRNA treatment. • The extracellular Hsp90β was also observed in other RNA viruses-infected cells.

  15. Hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase 2B1b expression and localization in normal human brain

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Emily D.; Faye-Petersen, Ona; Falany, Charles N.

    2012-01-01

    Steroid sulfonation in the human brain has not been well characterized. The major sulfotransferase (SULT) isoforms that conjugate steroids in humans are SULT1E1, SULT2A1, and SULT2B1b. SULT2B1b catalyzes the sulfonation of 3?-hydroxysteroids, including neurosteroids dehydroepiandrosterone and pregnenolone, as well as cholesterol and several hydroxycholesterols. SULT2B1b mRNA and protein expression were detected in adult and fetal human brain sections, whereas neither mRNA, nor protein expression were identified for SULT1E1 or SULT2A1. Using immunohistochemical analysis, SULT2B1b expression was detected in neurons and oligodendrocytes in adult brain and in epithelial tissues in 28-week-old fetal brain. Sulfonation of cholesterol, oxysterols, and neurosteroids in the brain is apparently catalyzed by SULT2B1b since expression of neither SULT2A1 nor SULT1E1 was detected in human brain sections. SULT2B1b mRNA and protein were also detected in human U373-MG glioblastoma cells. Both mRNA and protein expression of liver X receptor (LXR)-?, but not LXR-?, were detected in U373-MG cells, and LXR-? activation resulted in a decrease in SULT2B1b protein expression. Since hydroxycholesterols are important physiological LXR activators, this suggests a role for regulation of sterol metabolism by LXR and SULT2B1b. Therefore, elucidating key enzymes in the metabolism of cholesterol and neurosteroids could help define the properties of steroid conjugation in the human brain. PMID:24683427

  16. Apolipoprotein B synthesis by human liver and intestine in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Glickman, R M; Rogers, M; Glickman, J N

    1986-01-01

    The synthesis of apolipoprotein B (apoB) was examined in human fetal and adult intestine and liver. Intestine and liver were minced and then incubated with [3H]leucine, homogenized, and subjected to immunoprecipitation with antiserum that recognized both apoB-100 and apoB-48 (forms of apoB found in low density lipoproteins and in chylomicrons, respectively). Immunoprecipitates of fetal and adult liver contained radioactivity in a single apoB-100 peak when examined by NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Intestine from fetuses at 11 weeks of gestation incorporated radioactivity mainly into apoB-100, with little incorporation into apoB-48. Sixteen-week fetal intestine showed both apoB-100 and apoB-48, whereas adult intestine incorporated radioactivity only into apoB-48. Pulse-chase experiments with 11- and 16-week fetal intestine showed no evidence for the conversion of apoB-100 to apoB-48. Incubation of intestinal homogenates with fetal liver apoB-100 did not result in the conversion of apoB-100 to smaller forms of apoB. A cDNA probe to hepatic apoB-100 identified a single, 18-kilobase transcript in poly(A)+ RNA from fetal and adult liver and fetal intestine of all ages. These studies define the developmental pattern of apoB synthesis in human fetal and adult liver and intestine. No evidence could be found for the conversion of apoB-100 to apoB-48. The finding of a single mRNA transcript despite the form of apoB synthesized in each tissue is discussed. Images PMID:3460091

  17. Characterization of Enterovirus Isolates from Patients with Heart Muscle Disease in a Selenium-Deficient Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Tianqing; Li, Yanwen; Yang, Yingzhen; Niu, Cunlong; Morgan-Capner, Peter; Archard, Leonard C.; Zhang, Hongyi

    2000-01-01

    An association of enterovirus infection with endemic cardiomyopathy (Keshan disease [KD]) and outbreaks of myocarditis in selenium-deficient rural areas of southwestern China has been established. Enteroviruses have been isolated from patients with KD or during outbreaks of myocarditis in last two decades. Six of these isolates grew readily in cell lines (Vero or HEp-2) and were investigated by a novel molecular typing method apart from serotyping and pathogenicity. A neutralization assay identified two isolates from KD as coxsackievirus serotype B2 (CVB2) and two isolates from myocarditis as coxsackievirus serotype B6 (CVB6) but failed to type the remaining two isolates, also from myocarditis. Direct nucleotide sequencing of reverse transcription-PCR products amplified from the 5? nontranslated region (5?NTR) of these viruses confirmed that they belong to a phylogenetic cluster consisting of coxsackie B-like viruses, including some echovirus serotypes. Sequence analysis of the coding region for viral capsid protein VP1 showed that two isolates serotyped as CVB2 have the highest amino acid sequence homology with CVB2 and that the remaining four isolates, two CVB6 and the two unknown serotypes, are most closely related to the sequence of CVB6. Sequences among these isolates varied from 82.3 to 99% in the 5?NTR and from 69 to 99% in VP1, indicating no cross contamination. The pathogenicity of these viruses in adult and suckling mice was assessed. None caused pathologic changes in the hearts of adult MF-1 or SWR mice, although pancreatitis was evident. However, the four CVB6-like viruses caused death in suckling mice, similar to a virulent coxsackievirus group B3 laboratory strain. In conclusion, the sequence data confirm that coxsackievirus group B serotypes are predominant in the region in which KD is endemic and may be the etiological agents in outbreaks of myocarditis. VP1 genotyping of enteroviruses is accurate and reliable. Animal experiments indicate that isolates may differ in pathogenicity. PMID:11015360

  18. Sequencing of Porcine Enterovirus Groups II and III Reveals Unique Features of Both Virus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Krumbholz, Andi; Dauber, Malte; Henke, Andreas; Birch-Hirschfeld, Eckhard; Knowles, Nick J.; Stelzner, Axel; Zell, Roland

    2002-01-01

    The molecular classification of the porcine enterovirus (PEV) groups II and III was investigated. The sequence of the almost complete PEV-8 (group II) genome reveals that this virus has unique L and 2A gene regions. A reclassification of this group into a new picornavirus genus is suggested. PEV group III viruses are typical enteroviruses. They differ from other enteroviruses by a prolonged stem-loop D of the 5′-cloverleaf structure. PMID:11992011

  19. Enterovirus A71 Meningoencephalitis Outbreak, Rostov-on-Don, Russia, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Akhmadishina, Ludmila V.; Govorukhina, Marina V.; Kovalev, Evgeniy V.; Nenadskaya, Svetlana A.; Ivanova, Olga E.

    2015-01-01

    Seventy-eight cases of enterovirus infection, including 25 neuroinfections, occurred in Rostov-on-Don, Russia, during MayJune 2013. The outbreak was caused by an enterovirus A type 71 (EV-A71) subgenotype C4 lineage that spread to neighboring countries from China ?3 years earlier. Enterovirus associated neuroinfection may emerge in areas with a preceding background circulation of EV-A71 with apparently asymptomatic infection. PMID:26196217

  20. Preclinical Evaluation of the Immunogenicity and Safety of an Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Candidate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Hwa, Shi-Hsia; Lee, Yock Ann; Brewoo, Joseph N.; Partidos, Charalambos D.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Santangelo, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality from Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) and neurological complications, particularly in young children in the Asia-Pacific region. There are no vaccines or antiviral therapies currently available for prevention or treatment of HFMD caused by EV71. Therefore, the development of therapeutic and preventive strategies against HFMD is of growing importance. We report the immunogenic and safety profile of inactivated, purified EV71 preparations formulated with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant in preclinical studies in mice and rabbits. In mice, the candidate vaccine formulations elicited high neutralizing antibody responses. A toxicology study of the vaccine formulations planned for human use performed in rabbits showed no vaccine-related pathological changes and all animals remained healthy. Based on these preclinical studies, Phase 1 clinical testing of the EV71 inactivated vaccine was initiated. PMID:24244774

  1. A convenient rapid culture assay for the detection of enteroviruses in clinical samples: comparison with conventional cell culture and RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Terletskaia-Ladwig, Elena; Meier, Silvia; Hahn, Ralph; Leinmller, Michael; Schneider, Franz; Enders, Martin

    2008-08-01

    A convenient rapid culture assay (RCA) for the detection of enteroviruses was evaluated against RT-PCR using 576 stool and 102 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. One hundred and ninety stool samples were also tested by conventional cell culture (CCC). The RCA used immunoperoxidase staining of cell culture plates with a blend of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against enterovirus VP1 on the second and sixth days after inoculation. This blend was composed of 5D8/1 (Dako) and four 'in-house' mAbs. CCC was performed using fluorescence staining with the Enterovirus Screening Set (Chemicon International) for culture confirmation. Detection of enteroviruses by the RCA was more successful in colonic carcinoma (CaCo-2) and rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells than in human embryonic lung fibroblasts, HEp2 and A549 cells. The performance of CCC in RD cells was hindered by rapid cell degeneration and non-specific staining of cells during culture confirmation. The sensitivity of the RCA compared to RT-PCR in stool samples was found to be 71 % (115/161) on the second day and 87 % (140/161) on the sixth day. The sensitivity of the RCA in CSF samples was 38 % (22/58) after 2 days and 59 % (34/58) after 6 days. The specificity of the RCA was 100 %. All CCC-positive samples were positive by the RCA. CCC required 3-14 days for virus recovery. In conclusion, the RCA has the same sensitivity as CCC, significantly shortens the time required for the detection of enteroviruses, and prevents pitfalls associated with using RD cells for CCC. For diagnosis of aseptic meningitis in CSF samples, RT-PCR should be performed. PMID:18628502

  2. Analyzing B-vitamins in Human Milk: Methodological Approaches.

    PubMed

    Hampel, Daniela; Allen, Lindsay H

    2016-02-17

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life. However, there is insufficient information about the concentration of nutrients in human milk. For some nutrients, including B-vitamins, maternal intake affects their concentration in human milk but the extent to which inadequate maternal diets affect milk B-vitamin content is poorly documented. Little is known about infant requirements for B-vitamins; recommendations are generally set as Adequate Intakes (AI) calculated on the basis of the mean volume of milk (0.78 L/day) consumed by infants exclusively fed with human milk from well-nourished mothers during the first six months, and the concentration of each vitamin in milk based on reported values. Methods used for analyzing B-vitamins, commonly microbiological, radioisotope dilution or more recently chromatographic, coupled with UV, fluorometric and MS detection, have rarely been validated for the complex human milk matrix. Thus the validity, accuracy, and sensitivity of analytical methods is important for understanding infant requirements for these nutrients, the maternal intakes needed to support adequate concentrations in breast milk. This review summarizes current knowledge on methods used for analyzing the B-vitamins thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6 and pantothenic acid, vitamin B-12, folate, biotin, and choline in human milk, their chemical and physical properties, the different forms and changes in concentration during lactation, and the effects of deficiency on the infant. PMID:25591052

  3. Functional Comparison of SCARB2 and PSGL1 as Receptors for Enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    Yamayoshi, Seiya; Ohka, Seii; Fujii, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Human scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2), and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL1) have been identified to be the cellular receptors for enterovirus 71 (EV71). We compared the EV71 infection efficiencies of mouse L cells that expressed SCARB2 (L-SCARB2) and PSGL1 (L-PSGL1) and the abilities of SCARB2 and PSGL1 to bind to the virus. L-SCARB2 cells bound a reduced amount of EV71 compared to L-PSGL1 cells. However, EV71 could infect L-SCARB2 cells more efficiently than L-PSGL1 cells. The results suggested that the difference in the binding capacities of the two receptors was not the sole determinant of the infection efficiency and that SCARB2 plays an essential role after attaching to virions. Therefore, we examined the viral entry into L-SCARB2 cells and L-PSGL1 cells by immunofluorescence microscopy. In both cells, we detected internalized EV71 virions that colocalized with an early endosome marker. We then performed a sucrose density gradient centrifugation analysis to evaluate viral uncoating. After incubating the EV71 virion with L-SCARB2 cells or soluble SCARB2 under acidic conditions below pH 6.0, we observed that part of the native virion was converted into an empty capsid that lacked both genomic RNA and VP4 capsid proteins. The results suggested that the uncoating of EV71 requires both SCARB2 and an acidic environment and occurs after the internalization of the virus-receptor complex into endosomes. However, the empty capsid formation was not observed after incubation with L-PSGL1 cells or soluble PSGL1 under any of the tested pH conditions. These results indicated that SCARB2 is capable of viral binding, viral internalization, and viral uncoating and that the low infection efficiency of L-PSGL1 cells is due to the inability of PSGL1 to induce viral uncoating. The characterization of SCARB2 as an uncoating receptor greatly contributes to the understanding of the early steps of EV71 infection. PMID:23302872

  4. Australian National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jason A; Hobday, Linda K; Ibrahim, Aishah; Aitkin, Thomas; Thorley, Bruce R

    2015-06-01

    Australia conducts surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in children less than 15 years of age as the main method to monitor its polio-free status in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Cases of AFP in children are notified to the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit or the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance System and faecal specimens are referred for virological investigation to the National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory. In 2013, no cases of poliomyelitis were reported from clinical surveillance and Australia reported 1.4 non-polio AFP cases per 100,000 children, meeting the WHO performance criterion for a sensitive surveillance system. Non-polio enteroviruses can also be associated with AFP and enterovirus A71 was identified from nine of the 61 cases classified as non-polio AFP in 2013, which was part of a larger outbreak associated with this virus. A Sabin poliovirus was detected in an infant recently returned from Pakistan and who had been vaccinated while abroad. Globally, 416 cases of polio were reported in 2013, with the 3 endemic countries: Afghanistan; Nigeria; and Pakistan, accounting for 38% of the cases. To safeguard the progress made towards polio eradication, in May 2014, WHO recommended travellers from the 10 countries that are currently reporting wild poliovirus transmission have documented evidence of recent polio vaccination before departure. PMID:26234257

  5. Sequelae of central-nervous-system enterovirus infections.

    PubMed

    Sells, C J; Carpenter, R L; Ray, C G

    1975-07-01

    The long-term effects of central-nervous-system enterovirus infections were examined in a controlled follow-up study of 19 children 2 1/2 to eight years of age who had been hospitalized with documented enterovirus infection 17 to 67 months before evaluation. Assessment included medical history, physical and neurologic examination, psychologic testing, and speech and hearing evaluation. Three children (16 per cent) had definite neurologic impairment, five (26 per cent) had possible impairment, and 11 (58 per cent) were free of detectable abnormalities. Children whose illness occurred during the first year of life, when compared to controls, were found to have significantly smaller mean head circumference (50.6 vs. 51.6 cm, P less than 0.033), significantly lower mean I.Q. (97 vs 115, P less than 0.007), and depressed languange and speech skills. Children whose illness occurred after the first year of life were not different from their controls. Children whith central-nervous-system enterovirus infection may have neurologic impairment when infection occurs in the first year of life. PMID:1168853

  6. Exposure to enteroviruses and hepatitis A virus among divers in environmental waters in France, first biological and serological survey of a controlled cohort.

    PubMed Central

    Garin, D.; Fuchs, F.; Crance, J. M.; Rouby, Y.; Chapalain, J. C.; Lamarque, D.; Gounot, A. M.; Aymard, M.

    1994-01-01

    An epidemiological study of hepatitis A and enteroviruses was conducted in a military diving training school, by evaluating the viral contamination of water using an ultrafiltration concentration technique, and assessing seroconversion and the presence of virus in stool specimens obtained from 109 divers and 48 controls. Three of 29 water specimens were positive for enterovirus by cell culture and 9 by molecular hybridization. There was little or no risk of virus infection during the training course (49 h exposure) because there was no significant difference between divers and controls for both viral isolation and seroconversion. However, a higher percentage of coxsackievirus B4 and B5 seropositive divers suggests that these were more exposed during previous water training. No hepatitis A virus (HAV) detection and no seroconversion to HAV was observed. The rate of HAV seropositive subjects was 17% in this 24.5-year-old population. PMID:7995363

  7. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes as an In Vitro Model for Coxsackievirus B3-Induced Myocarditis and Antiviral Drug Screening Platform

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arun; Marceau, Caleb; Hamaguchi, Ryoko; Burridge, Paul W.; Rajarajan, Kuppusamy; Churko, Jared M.; Wu, Haodi; Sallam, Karim I.; Matsa, Elena; Sturzu, Anthony C.; Che, Yonglu; Ebert, Antje; Diecke, Sebastian; Liang, Ping; Red-Horse, Kristy; Carette, Jan E.; Wu, Sean M.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    Rational Viral myocarditis is a life-threatening illness that may lead to heart failure or cardiac arrhythmias. A major causative agent for viral myocarditis is the B3 strain of coxsackievirus, a positive-sense RNA enterovirus. However, human cardiac tissues are difficult to procure in sufficient enough quantities for studying the mechanisms of cardiac-specific viral infection. Objective This study examined whether human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) could be used to model the pathogenic processes of coxsackievirus-induced viral myocarditis and to screen antiviral therapeutics for efficacy. Methods and Results Human iPSC-CMs were infected with a luciferase-expressing coxsackievirus B3 strain (CVB3-Luc). Brightfield microscopy, immunofluorescence, and calcium imaging were utilized to characterize virally-infected hiPSC-CMs for alterations in cellular morphology and calcium handling. Viral proliferation in hiPSC-CMs was quantified using bioluminescence imaging. Antiviral compounds including interferon beta 1 (IFN?1), ribavirin, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, and fluoxetine were tested for their capacity to abrogate CVB3-Luc proliferation in hiPSC-CMs in vitro. The ability of these compounds to reduce CVB3-Luc proliferation in hiPSC-CMs was consistent with reported drug effects in previous studies. Mechanistic analyses via gene expression profiling of hiPSC-CMs infected with CVB3-Luc revealed an activation of viral RNA and protein clearance pathways after IFN?1 treatment. Conclusions This study demonstrates that hiPSC-CMs express the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor, are susceptible to coxsackievirus infection, and can be used to predict antiviral drug efficacy. Our results suggest that the hiPSC-CM/CVB3-Luc assay is a sensitive platform that can screen novel antiviral therapeutics for their effectiveness in a high-throughput fashion. PMID:25015077

  8. NF-?B, an active player in human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yifeng; Shen, Shen; Verma, Inder M.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) comprises a family of five transcription factors that form distinct protein complexes, which bind to consensus DNA sequences at promoter regions of responsive genes regulating cellular processes. The past three decades have witnessed the remarkable progress in understanding the NF-?B signaling pathway in physiologic and pathologic conditions. The role of NF-?B in human cancer initiation, development, metastasis, and resistance to treatment has drawn particular attention. A significant number of human cancers have constitutive NF-?B activity due to the inflammatory microenvironment and various oncogenic mutations. NF-?B activity not only promotes tumor cells proliferation, suppresses apoptosis, and attracts angiogenesis, but it also induces epithelialmesenchymal transition, which facilitates distant metastasis. In certain circumstances, NF-?B activation may also remodel local metabolism and anergize the immune system to favor tumor growth. Suppression of NF-?B in myeloid cells or tumor cells usually leads to tumor regression, which makes the NF-?B pathway a promising therapeutic target. However, due to its vital role in various biological activities, components of the NF-?B pathway need to be carefully selected and evaluated to design targeted therapies. PMID:25187272

  9. Phage Display-Derived Cross-Reactive Neutralizing Antibody against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Sun, Chunyun; Xiao, Xiangqian; Pang, Lin; Shen, Sisi; Zhang, Jie; Cen, Shan; Yang, Burton B; Huang, Yuming; Sheng, Wang; Zeng, Yi

    2016-01-21

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are members of the Picornaviridae family and are considered the main causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). In recent decades large HFMD outbreaks caused by EV71 and CVA16 have become significant public health concerns in the Asia-Pacific region. Vaccines and antiviral drugs are unavailable to prevent EV71 and CVA16 infection. In the current study, a chimeric antibody targeting a highly conserved peptide in the EV71 VP4 protein was isolated by using a phage display technique. The antibody showed cross-neutralizing capability against EV71 and CVA16 in vitro. The results suggest that this phage display-derived antibody will have great potential as a broad neutralizing antibody against EV71 and CVA16 after affinity maturation and humanization. PMID:26073737

  10. A-549 is a suitable cell line for primary isolation of coxsackie B viruses.

    PubMed

    Otero, J R; Folgueira, L; Trallero, G; Prieto, C; Maldonado, S; Babiano, M J; Martinez-Alonso, I

    2001-11-01

    A common receptor for coxsackie B virus and adenovirus has been described recently in cells of human and murine origin. Since the established cell line A-549 is suitable for adenoviruses, the potential use of A-549 cells for the isolation of coxsackie B viruses from clinical samples was investigated. All throat swabs sent to the laboratory between April 1998 and June 1999 were inoculated onto monolayers of MRC-5 and A-549 cells in tubes, and the enterovirus isolates obtained were typed. From April to June 1999, A-549 cells were compared prospectively to Buffalo green monkey (BGM) cells, considered as the most susceptible cell line for isolating coxsackie B viruses. Fifty-six out of 171 enterovirus isolates (33%) displayed a cytopathic effect (CPE) in the A-549 monolayer only, 48 isolates (28%) in the MRC-5 monolayer only, and 67 isolates (39%) in both cell lines. Most isolates that showed CPE in A-549 cells only (48 out of 56, 86%) were coxsackie B viruses, belonging to four different serotypes (B1, B2, B4, and B6). When BGM and A-549 cells were inoculated in parallel, both recovered the same number of coxsackie B isolates (n = 20), and the CPE was noted on approximately the same day. In conclusion, growth in A-549 but not MRC-5 cells identified coxsackie B viruses in most cases. A-549 was comparable to BGM for primary isolation of coxsackie B viruses. PMID:11596090

  11. Resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to human serum depends on T and B cell stimulating protein B.

    PubMed

    Mller, Maike G; Moe, Nina E; Richards, Phillip Q; Moe, Gregory R

    2015-04-01

    The ability of the human bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis to cause invasive disease depends on survival in the bloodstream via mechanisms to suppress complement activation. In this study, we show that prophage genes coding for T and B cell stimulating protein B (TspB), which is an immunoglobulin-binding protein, are essential for survival of N. meningitidis group B strain H44/76 in normal human serum (NHS). H44/76 carries three genes coding for TspB. Mutants having all tspB genes inactivated did not survive in >5% NHS or IgG-depleted NHS. TspB appeared to inhibit IgM-mediated activation of the classical complement pathway, since survival of the tspB triple knockout was the same as that of the parent strain or a complemented mutant when the classical pathway was inactivated by depleting NHS of C1q and was increased in IgM-depleted NHS. A mutant solely carrying tspB gene nmbh4476_0681 was as resistant as the parent strain, while mutants carrying only nmbh4476_0598 or nmbh4476_1698 were killed in ?5% NHS. The phenotype associated with TspB is formation of a matrix containing TspB, IgG, and DNA that envelopes aggregates of bacteria. Recombinant proteins corresponding to particular subdomains of TspB were found to have human IgG Fc?- and/or DNA-binding activity, but only TspB derivatives containing both domains formed large, biofilm-like aggregates when combined with purified IgG and DNA. Recognizing the role of TspB in serum resistance may lead to a better understanding of why strains that carry tspB genes are associated with invasive meningococcal disease. PMID:25583528

  12. CD19 and CD32b Differentially Regulate Human B Cell Responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Karnell, Jodi L.; Dimasi, Nazzareno; Karnell, Fredrick G.; Fleming, Ryan; Kuta, Ellen; Wilson, Mildred; Wu, Herren; Gao, Changshou; Ettinger, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    B cell activation is regulated by a variety of signals. CD19 positively regulates B cell activation, augmenting signals delivered through the BCR complex. In contrast, CD32b contains an ITIM and negatively regulates BCR signaling. Importantly, there are drugs currently in clinical trials and preclinical development that cross-link CD32b to molecules within the BCR complex. We wanted to address how single engagement versus cotargeting these molecules affects human B cell function. When B cells from healthy individuals were activated by signals that mimic a T cell response (IL-21 costimulation), ligation of CD32b, but not CD19, inhibited B cell expansion and plasma cell (PC) differentiation. In contrast, when B cells were activated through TLR, anti-CD19, but not anti-CD32b, blunted the response. However, when both CD19 and CD32b were coengaged by a bispecific anti-CD19CD32b Ab, both types of stimuli were potently inhibited. Cross-linking CD19 with CD32b also inhibited Ab-independent functions of B cells, such as HLA upregulation, cytokine production, and the ability of B cells to prime CD4+ T cells. Finally, although cross-linking CD19 and CD32b inhibited PC differentiation of primary B cells, it did not alter Ig production from pre-established PCs. These data elucidate the mechanism by which a complex set of signals determines the fate of B cell responsiveness. Although signals through CD19 influence TLR-driven activation, CD32b impacts the magnitude of the response following IL-21 costimulation. Therefore, simultaneous targeting of multiple surface molecules may be a necessary approach to comprehensively modulate B cell activation in vivo. PMID:24442430

  13. Sequential Asymptomatic Enterovirus Infections in a Patient with Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Primary Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mellouli, Fethi; Ben Yahia, Ahlem; Touzi, Henda; Barbouche, Mohamed-Ridha; Bejaoui, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Patients with primary immunodeficiencies are usually susceptible to enterovirus infections and have higher risks to develop severe clinical forms. We report a unique description of a boy with major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) deficiency infected by 9 different enterovirus serotypes during a 2-year period, with very mild clinical symptoms, probably due to the immunoglobulin therapy he was receiving. PMID:25031436

  14. Molecular epidemiology of echoviruses 11 and 30 in Russia: different properties of genotypes within an enterovirus serotype.

    PubMed

    Yarmolskaya, Maria S; Shumilina, Elena Yu; Ivanova, Olga E; Drexler, Jan Felix; Lukashev, Alexander N

    2015-03-01

    Over 100 known enterovirus serotypes differ in their epidemiological and pathogenic properties. Much less is known about variation of these features on a sub-serotype level, such as genotypes. Echovirus 11 (E11) and E30 are amongst the most frequent causative agents of aseptic meningitis. We studied the molecular epidemiology of these pathogens to evaluate potential epidemiological and pathogenic dissimilarities of their genotypes. The complete VP1 genome region was sequenced for 97 E11 and 62 E30 isolates collected in Russia from 2008 to 2012, and they were studied in comparison with all 140 E11 and 432 E30 sequences available in GenBank. A geographic pattern of genotype prevalence was observed for both types. Russian E11 isolates belonged mainly to A genotype, which is common in Asia, and D5, which is predominant in Europe. For E30, genotype III by classification of Ke et al. (2011), also termed genotype a by Bailly et al. (2009), was endemic in Russia from 2003 to 2012, while it was not detected in Europe and North America during this time. The E30 genotypes VI-B, VI-G, and VI-H (e, f and h) were regularly introduced from different countries, became predominant and vanished after no more than 4years. In addition to geographic patterns, E11 genotypes also differed by isolation source. Genotype A2 viruses were significantly more often found in sewage, compared to genotype D5 that was isolated from both sewage and human samples. In addition, there was evidence of a different capacity for international transfers among E11 GtA subclusters. PMID:25562123

  15. Monoamine oxidase B activity is increased in human gliomas.

    PubMed

    Gabilondo, Ane M; Hostalot, Cristina; Garibi, Jess M; Meana, J Javier; Callado, Luis F

    2008-01-01

    Glial tumours are the most common type of brain neoplasm in humans. Tumour classification and grading represent key factors for patient management. However, current grading schemes are still limited by subjective histological criteria. In this context, gliosis has been linked to increases in monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) activity. Thus, in the present study, MAO-B activity in membranes of glial tumours (n=20), meningiomas (n=12) and non-pathological human brains (n=15) was quantified by [14C]PEA oxidation. MAO-B activity was significantly greater in glioblastoma multiformes than in postmortem control brains (p<0.01) or meningiomas (p<0.001). There were no significant differences in MAO-B activity between glioblastoma multiformes (n=11) and low-grade astrocytomas (n=3) or anaplastic astrocytomas (n=6). In conclusion, the present results demonstrate a significant and selective increase in MAO-B activity in human gliomas when compared with meningiomas or non-tumoural tissue. These results suggest that the quantification of MAO-B activity may be a useful diagnostic tool for differentiating glial tumours from other types of brain tumours or surrounding normal brain tissue. PMID:17624626

  16. Expression of cholesterol sulfotransferase (SULT2B1b) in human skin and primary cultures of human epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Yuko; Fuda, Hirotoshi; Yanai, Hidekatsu; Lee, Young; Fukushige, Tomoko; Kanzaki, Tamotsu; Strott, Charles A

    2004-05-01

    Cholesterol sulfate is a highly amphipathic molecule that is present in a relatively high concentration in the epidermis of human skin, particularly in the granular layer. The physiologic significance of this finding, however, is not well-understood. Therefore, we examined expression of the gene encoding for the enzyme that sulfonates cholesterol (SULT2B1b). Of the three enzymes known to sulfonate steroids/sterols, only the SULT2B1b isozyme was detected in cultures of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) in response to Ca(2+)-induced terminal differentiation as well as by normal human epidermal tissue. Immunocytochemical analysis of normal skin as well as specific skin disorders was carried out. In normal skin, the expression of SULT2B1b was localized to the granular layer of the epidermis similar to that of filaggrin, an acknowledged late marker of differentiation and in contrast to that of involucrin, an early marker of terminal differentiation, which was expressed throughout the suprabasal region. The confinement of SULT2B1b to the granular layer coincides with this being the area with the highest cholesterol sulfate content suggesting that the physiologic action of cholesterol sulfate is likely carried out in this region of the living epidermis. Additionally, 88% of cholesterol sulfate in NHEK was membrane-associated further suggesting a cellular location for cholesterol sulfate action. PMID:15140224

  17. Aberrant CD40-Induced NF-?B Activation in Human Lupus B Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen; Shi, Qun; Xu, Xiaotian; Chen, Hua; Lin, Wei; Zhang, Fengchun; Zeng, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Xuan; Ba, Denian; He, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Auto-reactive B lymphocytes and its abnormal CD40 signaling play important roles in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this study, we analyzed CD40 expression and CD40/CD154 induced activation of NF-?B signaling pathway in B cells from SLE patients. B cells from healthy volunteers and tonsilar B cells from chronic tonsillitis were used as negative and positive controls. Results showed CD40-induced NF-?B signaling was constitutively activated in B cells from active lupus patients, including decreased CD40 in raft portion, increased phosphorylation and degradation of I?B?, phosphorylation of P65, as well as increased nuclear translocation of P65, P50, c-Rel, which could be blocked by anti-CD154. CD154 stimulation could induce further phosphorylation and degradation of I?B?, as well as phosphorylation of P65 and nuclear translocation of P65. In addition, CD40-induced kinase activities in B cells from lupus patients mimicked that of tonsil B cells, in that IKK?/? were more activated compared to normal B cells. CD40-induced NF-?B activity was blocked by both I?B phosphorylation and proteosome degradation inhibitors in both lupus and normal B cells. All together, our findings revealed that canonical NF-?B signaling is constitutively activated in active lupus and is mediated by CD154/CD40. CD40 induced NF-?B activation is different in human lupus B lymphocytes compared with normal B cells. PMID:22952582

  18. Crystal Structure of the Human Cytomegalovirus Glycoprotein B

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Heidi G.; Heldwein, Ekaterina E.

    2015-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a dsDNA, enveloped virus, is a ubiquitous pathogen that establishes lifelong latent infections and caused disease in persons with compromised immune systems, e.g., organ transplant recipients or AIDS patients. HCMV is also a leading cause of congenital viral infections in newborns. Entry of HCMV into cells requires the conserved glycoprotein B (gB), thought to function as a fusogen and reported to bind signaling receptors. gB also elicits a strong immune response in humans and induces the production of neutralizing antibodies although most anti-gB Abs are non-neutralizing. Here, we report the crystal structure of the HCMV gB ectodomain determined to 3.6-Å resolution, which is the first atomic-level structure of any betaherpesvirus glycoprotein. The structure of HCMV gB resembles the postfusion structures of HSV-1 and EBV homologs, establishing it as a new member of the class III viral fusogens. Despite structural similarities, each gB has a unique domain arrangement, demonstrating structural plasticity of gB that may accommodate virus-specific functional requirements. The structure illustrates how extensive glycosylation of the gB ectodomain influences antibody recognition. Antigenic sites that elicit neutralizing antibodies are more heavily glycosylated than those that elicit non-neutralizing antibodies, which suggest that HCMV gB uses glycans to shield neutralizing epitopes while exposing non-neutralizing epitopes. This glycosylation pattern may have evolved to direct the immune response towards generation of non-neutralizing antibodies thus helping HCMV to avoid clearance. HCMV gB structure provides a starting point for elucidation of its antigenic and immunogenic properties and aid in the design of recombinant vaccines and monoclonal antibody therapies. PMID:26484870

  19. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B)

    SciTech Connect

    Duangtum, Natapol; Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 ; Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} Impaired trafficking of kAE1 causes distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). {yields} The interaction between kAE1 and kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) is reported. {yields} The co-localization between kAE and KIF3B was detected in human kidney tissues. {yields} A marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane was observed when KIF3B was knockdown. {yields} KFI3B plays an important role in trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of {alpha}-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange and the failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells.

  20. Partial sequencing of the VP2 capsid gene for direct enterovirus genotyping in clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, W; Boukhadra, N; Nasri-Zoghlami, D; Berthelot, P; Omar, S; Bourlet, T; Pozzetto, B; Pillet, S

    2014-09-01

    Typing of human enterovirus (EV) remains a major goal for diagnostic and epidemiological purposes. Whereas sequencing of the VP1 coding region is the reference standard for EV typing, a method relying on sequencing of the VP2 coding region has been proposed as an alternative; however, this has been validated only on cell culture supernatants. To avoid the selection of cultivable strains and to quicken the identification step, a new semi-nested PCR method targeting the VP2 region was developed by use of the CODEHOP strategy. After validation of the method on reference and clinical strains, a total of 352 clinical specimens found to be positive for EV RNA (138 with the GeneXpert EV kit and 214 with the Enterovirus R-gene kit) during a 3-year period (2010-2012) were analysed prospectively for VP2 genotyping. Overall, 204 (58%) specimens were typeable. A higher proportion of throat swab/stool specimens than of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens was found to be typeable (94 of 142 (66.2%) vs. 83 of 169 (49.1%), respectively, p <0.01 by the chi-square test). Moreover, the median Ct value obtained was lower for typeable specimens than for untypeable specimens (32.20 vs. 33.01, p <0.05, and 25.96 vs. 31.74, p <0.001, for the GeneXpert and R-gene tests, respectively, by the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test). These results suggest that, in cases of EV meningitis, a peripheral specimen (i.e. throat swab or stool) that is susceptible to exhibiting a higher viral load should be used in preference to CSF for identifying the causative EV genotype by use of the VP2 typing method without cell culture isolation. PMID:24372815

  1. Update of the human parvovirus B19 biology.

    PubMed

    Servant-Delmas, A; Morinet, F

    2016-02-01

    Since its discovery, the human parvovirus B19 (B19V) has been associated with many clinical situations in addition to the prototype clinical manifestations, i.e. erythema infectiosum and erythroblastopenia crisis. The clinical significance of the viral B19V DNA persistence in sera after acute infection remains largely unknown. Such data may constitute a new clinical entity and is discussed in this manuscript. In 2002, despite the genetic diversity among B19V viruses has been reported to be very low, the description of markedly distinct sequences showed a new organization into three genotypes. The most recent common ancestor for B19V genotypes was estimated at early 1800s. B19V replication is enhanced by hypoxia and this might to explain the high viral load detected by quantitative PCR in the sera of infected patients. The minimum infectious dose necessary to transmit B19V infection by the transfusion of labile blood products remains unclear. At the opposite, the US Food and Drug Administration proposed a limit of 10(4)IU/mL of viral DNA in plasma pools used for the production of plasma derivatives. Recently, a new human parvovirus (PARV4) has been discovered. The consequences on blood transfusion of this blood-borne agent and its pathogenicity are still unknown. PMID:26778837

  2. Implication of Human UGT2B7, 2B15, and 2B17 in 19-Norandrosterone Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Strahm, Emmanuel; Sjberg, Ulf; Garle, Mats; Rane, Anders; Ekstrm, Lena

    2013-01-01

    Nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) is an anabolic androgenic steroid commonly abused for doping purposes. Nandrolone is mainly metabolized in the liver into 19-norandrosterone prior to glucuronidation and excretion through urine over an extended period of time. Several UGTs (i.e., UGT2B7, UGT2B15, and UGT2B17) are thought to be the major enzymes responsible for conjugation of androgens in human. An in vitro study using recombinant enzymes expressed in insect cells showed that UGT1A4 and UGT2B7 are the two main enzymes responsible of 19-norandrosterone glucuronidation. However, the identity of the enzyme involved in nandrolone metabolism in vivo together with their relative contribution and regulation remain unknown. Inhibition assays using human liver microsomes (HLM) incubated with 19-norandrosterone and selective inhibitors confirmed that UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 are involved in 19-norandrosterone glucuronidation, since the presence of the specific UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 inhibitors gemfibrozil and valproic acid inhibited the 19-norandrosterone glucuronidation by 35 and 45%, respectively. HLM were genotyped for UGT2B15 D85Y, UGT2B7 H268Y, and the UGT2B17 deletion polymorphism. The glucuronidation activity on 19-norandrosterone was significantly higher in UGT2B15 DD than in the other UGT2B15 genotypes (p?human liver cancer HepG2 cells were exposed to androgens to determine if the transcriptional activity of the genes of interest was affected. Only UGT2B7 mRNA expression was significantly increased (1.8-folds) after incubation with nandrolone decanoate. These results show that the UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 are involved in 19-norandrosterone glucuronidation and that the UGT2B15 polymorphism (D85Y) is the only UGT genetic variation that influences the glucuronidation activity. This could partly explain the inter-individual variation in 19-norandrosterone excretion. PMID:23805127

  3. Human Hepatic UGT2B15 Developmental Expression

    PubMed Central

    Divakaran, Karthika; McCarver, D Gail

    2014-01-01

    Human hepatic UGT2B15 developmental expression changes may alter the metabolism of important drugs and toxicants such as bisphenol A (BPA). Previously, UGT2B15 ontogeny knowledge consisted of transcript data, a dubious surrogate for protein expression. Herein, UGT2B15 protein content was determined in human hepatic microsomes (n = 236, 8 weeks gestation to 18 years). The impact of a common, functional single nucleotide polymorphism (g.253G>T), present in UGT2B15*2 and *5 alleles, was also tested. UGT2B15 expression began during late fetal life, at about 18% of mature values (medians = 48, 267 pmoles/mg of microsomal protein, respectively; p < 0.001). UGT2B15 neonatal (n = 39) and late fetal (?28 weeks, n = 10) content was similar, but lower than that of infants between 3 and 15 weeks age (n = 46; medians = 38, 48, 404 pmoles/mg microsomal protein, respectively; p < 0.001). Values for the latter group were higher compared with the remaining age group (15 weeks to 18 years; n = 82, p < 0.001). UGT2B15 expression varied 31-fold across the entire sample, and within groups, ranged from 4- to 27-fold. Among postnatal samples, age group, the presence of g.253T and male gender were each significantly associated with greater UGT2B15 expression (p < 0.001, <0.01, and <0.05, respectively; stepwise linear regression). In summary, hepatic UGT2B15 protein onset begins in late gestation; however, the greatest rate of change occurs during the first few weeks after birth. We speculate that the fetus and neonate may have lower clearance of some UGT2B15 substrates, such as BPA, compared with older individuals. PMID:24980262

  4. Human B cells differentiate into granzyme B-secreting cytotoxic B lymphocytes upon incomplete T-cell help.

    PubMed

    Hagn, Magdalena; Sontheimer, Kai; Dahlke, Karen; Brueggemann, Sabine; Kaltenmeier, Christof; Beyer, Thamara; Hofmann, Stefanie; Lunov, Oleg; Barth, Thomas F E; Fabricius, Dorit; Tron, Kyrylo; Nienhaus, Gerd Ulrich; Simmet, Thomas; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Jahrsdrfer, Bernd

    2012-04-01

    Recently, CD4(+) T helper cells were shown to induce differentiation of human B cells into plasma cells by expressing interleukin (IL-)21 and CD40 ligand (CD40L). In the present study we show, that in the absence of CD40L, CD4(+) T cell-derived IL-21 induces differentiation of B cells into granzyme B (GzmB)-secreting cytotoxic cells. Using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis, ELISpot and confocal microscopy, we demonstrate that CD4(+) T cells, activated via their T-cell receptor without co-stimulation, can produce IL-21, but do not express CD40L and rapidly induce GzmB in co-cultured B cells in an IL-21 receptor-dependent manner. Of note, we confirmed these results with recombinant reagents, highlighting that CD40L suppresses IL-21-induced GzmB induction in B cells in a dose-dependent manner. Surprisingly, although GzmB-secreting B cells did not express perforin, they were able to transfer active GzmB to tumor cell lines, thereby effectively inducing apoptosis. In contrast, no cytotoxic effects were found when effector B cells were activated with IL-2 instead of IL-21 or when target cells were cultured with IL-21 alone. Our findings suggest GzmB(+) cytotoxic B cells may have a role in early cellular immune responses including tumor immunosurveillance, before fully activated, antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells are on the spot. CD40 ligand determines whether IL-21 induces differentiation of B cells into plasma cells or into granzyme B-secreting cytotoxic cells. PMID:21808264

  5. Crystal Structures of Yeast-Produced Enterovirus 71 and Enterovirus 71/Coxsackievirus A16 Chimeric Virus-Like Particles Provide the Structural Basis for Novel Vaccine Design against Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Ke; He, Ya-Ling; Li, Hao-Yang

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are the two major causative agents for hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Previously, we demonstrated that a virus-like particle (VLP) for EV71 produced from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a potential vaccine candidate against EV71 infection, and an EV71/CVA16 chimeric VLP can elicit protective immune responses against both virus infections. Here, we presented the crystal structures of both VLPs, showing that both the linear and conformational neutralization epitopes identified in EV71 are mostly preserved on both VLPs. The replacement of only 4 residues in the VP1 GH loop converted strongly negatively charged surface patches formed by portions of the SP70 epitope in EV71 VLP into a relatively neutral surface in the chimeric VLP, which likely accounted for the additional neutralization capability of the chimeric VLP against CVA16 infection. Such local variations in the amino acid sequences and the surface charge potential are also present in different types of polioviruses. In comparison to EV71 VLP, the chimeric VLP exhibits structural changes at the local site of amino acid replacement and the surface loops of all capsid proteins. This is consistent with the observation that the VP1 GH loop located near the pseudo-3-fold junction is involved in extensive interactions with other capsid regions. Furthermore, portions of VP0 and VP1 in EV71 VLP are at least transiently exposed, revealing the structural flexibility of the VLP. Together, our structural analysis provided insights into the structural basis of enterovirus neutralization and novel vaccine design against HFMD and other enterovirus-associated diseases. IMPORTANCE Our previous studies demonstrated that the enterovirus 71 (EV71) virus-like particle (VLP) produced from yeast is a vaccine candidate against EV71 infection and that a chimeric EV71/coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) VLP with the replacement of 4 amino acids in the VP1 GH loop can confer protection against both EV71 and CVA16 infections. This study reported the crystal structures of both the EV71 VLP and the chimeric EV71/CVA16 VLP and revealed that the major neutralization epitopes of EV71 are mostly preserved in both VLPs. In addition, the mutated VP1 GH loop in the chimeric VLP is well exposed on the particle surface and exhibits a surface charge potential different from that contributed by the original VP1 GH loop in EV71 VLP. Together, this study provided insights into the structural basis of enterovirus neutralization and evidence that the yeast-produced VLPs can be developed into novel vaccines against hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) and other enterovirus-associated diseases. PMID:25833050

  6. A Novel Universal Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody against Enterovirus 71 That Targets the Highly Conserved Knob Region of VP3 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Tao; Chow, Vincent Tak Kwong; Kwang, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71(EV71) leads to the majority of neurological complications and death in young children. While putative inactivated vaccines are only now undergoing clinical trials, no specific treatment options exist yet. Ideally, EV71 specific intravenous immunoglobulins could be developed for targeted treatment of severe cases. To date, only a single universally neutralizing monoclonal antibody against a conserved linear epitope of VP1 has been identified. Other enteroviruses have been shown to possess major conformational neutralizing epitopes on both the VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins. Hence, we attempted to isolate such neutralizing antibodies against conformational epitopes for their potential in the treatment of infection as well as differential diagnosis and vaccine optimization. Here we describe a universal neutralizing monoclonal antibody that recognizes a conserved conformational epitope of EV71 which was mapped using escape mutants. Eight escape mutants from different subgenogroups (A, B2, B4, C2, C4) were rescued; they harbored three essential mutations either at amino acid positions 59, 62 or 67 of the VP3 protein which are all situated in the knob region. The escape mutant phenotype could be mimicked by incorporating these mutations into reverse genetically engineered viruses showing that P59L, A62D, A62P and E67D abolish both monoclonal antibody binding and neutralization activity. This is the first conformational neutralization epitope mapped on VP3 for EV71. PMID:24875055

  7. Re-analysis of metagenomic sequences from acute flaccid myelitis patients reveals alternatives to enterovirus D68 infection

    PubMed Central

    Breitwieser, Florian P.; Pardo, Carlos A.; Salzberg, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomic sequence data can be used to detect the presence of infectious viruses and bacteria, but normal microbial flora make this process challenging. We re-analyzed metagenomic RNA sequence data collected during a recent outbreak of acute flaccid myelitis (AFM), caused in some cases by infection with enterovirus D68. We found that among the patients whose symptoms were previously attributed to enterovirus D68, one patient had clear evidence of infection with Haemophilus influenzae, and a second patient had a severe Staphylococcus aureus infection caused by a methicillin-resistant strain. Neither of these bacteria were identified in the original study. These observations may have relevance in cases that present with flaccid paralysis because bacterial infections, co-infections or post-infection immune responses may trigger pathogenic processes that may present as poliomyelitis-like syndromes and may mimic AFM. A separate finding was that large numbers of human sequences were present in each of the publicly released samples, although the original study reported that human sequences had been removed before deposition. PMID:26309730

  8. New Frontiers in Selective Human MAO-B Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Carradori, Simone; Silvestri, Romano

    2015-09-10

    Accumulating evidence shows a relationship between the human MAO-B (hMAO-B) enzyme and neuropsychiatric/degenerative disorder, personality traits, type II alcoholism, borderline personality disorders, aggressiveness and violence in crime, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, suicide, schizophrenia, anorexia nervosa, migraine, dementia, and PD. Thus, MAO-B represents an attractive target for the treatment of a number of human diseases. The discovery, development, and therapeutic use of drugs that inhibit MAO-B are major challenges for future therapy. Various compounds and drugs that selectively target this isoform have been discovered recently. These agents are synthetic compounds or natural products and their analogues, including chalcones, pyrazoles, chromones, coumarins, xanthines, isatin derivatives, thiazolidindiones, (thiazol-2-yl)hydrazones, and analogues of marketed drugs. Despite considerable efforts in understanding the binding interaction with specific substrates or inhibitors, structural information available for the rational design of new hMAO-B inhibitors remains unsatisfactory. Therefore, the quest for novel, potent, and selective hMAO-B inhibitors remains of high interest. PMID:25915162

  9. High frequency of enterovirus D68 in children hospitalised with respiratory illness in Norway, autumn 2014

    PubMed Central

    Bragstad, Karoline; Jakobsen, Kirsti; Rojahn, Astrid E; Skram, Marius K; Vainio, Kirsti; Holberg-Petersen, Mona; Hungnes, Olav; Dudman, Susanne G; Kran, Anne-Marte B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives An unexpectedly high proportion of children were admitted for severe respiratory infections at the Oslo University Hospital, Ullevl, Norway, during September and October, 2014. In light of the ongoing outbreak of enterovirus-D68 (EV-D68) in North America a real-time RT-PCR for screening of enterovirus and enterovirus D68 was established. Design We developed a duplex real-time RT-PCR for rapid screening of enterovirus D68. The method target the 5? non-translated region (NTR) of the HEV genome at a location generally used for enterovirus detection. Sample Nasopharyngeal samples (n=354), from children <15years of age, received for respiratory virus analysis in OUH during September 1st and October 31nd, 2014, were tested for enterovirus and screened for enterovirus D68. Main outcome measures and results The duplex real-time RT-PCR method was an efficient tool for rapid screening for EV-D68 in respiratory specimens. Enterovirus was detected in 66 (22%) of 303 pediatric nasopharyngeal samples collected from children hospitalised with acute respiratory infection within the two-month period. Out of these, 33 (50%) were EV-D68. EV-D68 was associated with acute flaccid paralysis in one child. Conclusions An unexpectedly high proportion of children admitted for severe respiratory infections at the Oslo University Hospital, Ullevl, Norway, were diagnosed with EV- D68 during September 1st and October 31nd, 2014. These results emphasise that greater vigilance is required throughout Europe as enteroviruses are cause of severe respiratory disease. PMID:25534826

  10. Adenosine production by human B cells and B cellmediated suppression of activated T cells

    PubMed Central

    Saze, Zenichiro; Schuler, Patrick J.; Hong, Chang-Sook; Cheng, Dongmei; Jackson, Edwin K.

    2013-01-01

    Antibody-independent role of B cells in modulating T-cell responses is incompletely understood. Freshly isolated or cultured B cells isolated from the peripheral blood of 30 normal donors were evaluated for CD39 and CD73 coexpression, the ability to produce adenosine 5?-monophosphate (AMP) and adenosine (ADO) in the presence of exogenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as well as A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 adenosine receptor (ADOR) expression. Human circulating B cells coexpress ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73, hydrolyze exogenous ATP to 5?-AMP and ADO, and express messenger RNA for A1R, A2AR, and A3R. 2-chloroadenosine inhibited B-cell proliferation and cytokine expression, and only A3R selective antagonist restored B-cell functions. This suggested that B cells use the A3R for autocrine signaling and self-regulation. Mediated effects on B-cell growth ADOR antagonists or agonists were tested in carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester assays. In cocultures, resting B cells upregulated functions of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. However, in vitroactivated B cells downregulated CD73 expression, mainly produced 5?-AMP, and inhibited T-cell proliferation and cytokine production. These B cells acquire the ability to restrict potentially harmful effects of activated T cells. Thus, B cells emerge as a key regulatory component of T cellB cell interactions, and their dual regulatory activity is mediated by the products of ATP hydrolysis, 5?-AMP, and ADO. PMID:23678003

  11. Long Noncoding RNA Expression during Human B-Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Petri, Andreas; Dybkær, Karen; Bøgsted, Martin; Thrue, Charlotte Albæk; Hagedorn, Peter H.; Schmitz, Alexander; Bødker, Julie Støve; Johnsen, Hans Erik; Kauppinen, Sakari

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of diverse cellular processes, but their roles in the developing immune system are poorly understood. In this study, we analysed lncRNA expression during human B-cell development by array-based expression profiling of eleven distinct flow-sorted B-cell subsets, comprising pre-B1, pre-B2, immature, naive, memory, and plasma cells from bone marrow biopsies (n = 7), and naive, centroblast, centrocyte, memory, and plasmablast cells from tonsil tissue samples (n = 6), respectively. A remapping strategy was used to assign the array probes to 37630 gene-level probe sets, reflecting recent updates in genomic and transcriptomic databases, which enabled expression profiling of 19579 long noncoding RNAs, comprising 3947 antisense RNAs, 5277 lincRNAs, 7625 pseudogenes, and 2730 additional lncRNAs. As a first step towards inferring the functions of the identified lncRNAs in developing B-cells, we analysed their co-expression with well-characterized protein-coding genes, a method known as “guilt by association”. By using weighted gene co-expression network analysis, we identified 272 lincRNAs, 471 antisense RNAs, 376 pseudogene RNAs, and 64 lncRNAs within seven sub-networks associated with distinct stages of B-cell development, such as early B-cell development, B-cell proliferation, affinity maturation of antibody, and terminal differentiation. These data provide an important resource for future studies on the functions of lncRNAs in development of the adaptive immune response, and the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies that originate from distinct B-cell subpopulations. PMID:26394393

  12. Long Noncoding RNA Expression during Human B-Cell Development.

    PubMed

    Petri, Andreas; Dybkr, Karen; Bgsted, Martin; Thrue, Charlotte Albk; Hagedorn, Peter H; Schmitz, Alexander; Bdker, Julie Stve; Johnsen, Hans Erik; Kauppinen, Sakari

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of diverse cellular processes, but their roles in the developing immune system are poorly understood. In this study, we analysed lncRNA expression during human B-cell development by array-based expression profiling of eleven distinct flow-sorted B-cell subsets, comprising pre-B1, pre-B2, immature, naive, memory, and plasma cells from bone marrow biopsies (n = 7), and naive, centroblast, centrocyte, memory, and plasmablast cells from tonsil tissue samples (n = 6), respectively. A remapping strategy was used to assign the array probes to 37630 gene-level probe sets, reflecting recent updates in genomic and transcriptomic databases, which enabled expression profiling of 19579 long noncoding RNAs, comprising 3947 antisense RNAs, 5277 lincRNAs, 7625 pseudogenes, and 2730 additional lncRNAs. As a first step towards inferring the functions of the identified lncRNAs in developing B-cells, we analysed their co-expression with well-characterized protein-coding genes, a method known as "guilt by association". By using weighted gene co-expression network analysis, we identified 272 lincRNAs, 471 antisense RNAs, 376 pseudogene RNAs, and 64 lncRNAs within seven sub-networks associated with distinct stages of B-cell development, such as early B-cell development, B-cell proliferation, affinity maturation of antibody, and terminal differentiation. These data provide an important resource for future studies on the functions of lncRNAs in development of the adaptive immune response, and the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies that originate from distinct B-cell subpopulations. PMID:26394393

  13. Isolation and molecular characterization of bovine enteroviruses in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sobhy, N M; Mor, S K; Mohammed, M E M; Bastawecy, I M; Fakhry, H M; Youssef, C R B; Abouzeid, N Z; Goyal, S M

    2015-12-01

    Enteroviruses belong to the Picornaviridae family and infect a wide range of mammals including cattle. Bovine enterovirus (BEV) has recently been reclassified into E and F serotypes. BEV was first isolated in Egypt in 1966 although it has been known in other countries since the 1950s. In this study, BEV-F2 was isolated from calves with severe diarrhea and the isolated viruses were subjected to molecular characterization. Illumina sequencing of one of the isolates revealed the presence of a complete BEV-F genome sequence. The phylogenetic analysis revealed nucleotide substitutions along the genome in comparison with other known strains of BEV-F (HQ663846, AY508697 and DQ092795). Two primer sets were designed from the 3D and 5'NTR regions and used for the examination of the remaining isolates, which were confirmed to be of the BEV-F2 serotype. The availability of the complete genome sequence of this virus adds to the sequence database of the members of Picornaviridae and should be useful in future molecular studies of BEV. PMID:26586212

  14. Molecular characterization of a new human echovirus 11 isolate associated with severe hand, foot and mouth disease in Yunnan, China, in 2010.

    PubMed

    Su, Ting; Zhou, Yan; Zhu, Yanju; Liu, Zhengling; Yang, Fang; Yang, Shunqiao; Yu, Zexu; Guo, Chen; Ma, Shaohui

    2015-09-01

    Human echovirus 11 (E-11), a member of the species Enterovirus B, frequently causes aseptic meningitis and hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). We determined the complete genome sequence of strain 520K/YN/CHN/2010, isolated from a subject with HFMD and aseptic meningitis in Yunnan Province, China, in 2010. The strain shared 78.8% and 81.1% nucleotide sequence similarity with prototype strain Gregory in the complete VP1 gene and the complete genome, respectively. Only the VP2-VP3-VP1 genome region of 520K/YN/CHN/2010 was similar to that of the E-11 strain; the other genome regions were most similar to those of other members of the species Enterovirus B. Using phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparisons of the complete VP1 gene, E-11 strains could be divided into five genogroups, and the 520K/YN/CHN/2010 strain was found to belong to genogroup A. Recombination analysis showed evidence of recombination with other member of the species Enterovirus B, especially the E-9 strain MSH/KM812/2010. Persistent surveillance of HFMD pathogens might help predict potential emerging viruses and related disease outbreaks. PMID:26100404

  15. Clinical disease due to enterovirus D68 in adult hematologic malignancy patients and hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Waghmare, Alpana; Pergam, Steven A; Jerome, Keith R; Englund, Janet A; Boeckh, Michael; Kuypers, Jane

    2015-03-12

    The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported over 1000 cases of severe respiratory disease in pediatric patients associated with enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in the fall of 2014. We sought to identify and define the clinical burden of disease due to EV-D68 in adult patients with hematologic malignancy or undergoing hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for EV-D68 was performed on all respiratory samples positive for human rhinovirus (HRV) or negative for all respiratory viruses by a laboratory-developed respiratory viral PCR panel from August 11, 2014, to November 7, 2014. Presumptive cases were defined as those with an EV-D68 PCR cycle threshold (CT) at least 4 cycles lower than the HRV CT for HRV-positive samples or any EV-D68 CT value for HRV-negative samples. Sequencing of a 150-bp fragment of the 5' noncoding region confirmed EV-D68 in 16 of 506 respiratory samples. Eight patients had a history of hematologic malignancy, and 6 of these had undergone HCT. Presentation ranged from mild upper respiratory symptoms to respiratory failure. EV-D68 can infect adult patients with hematologic malignancy and HCT recipients and may be associated with severe respiratory disease. Current commercial diagnostic assays cannot differentiate EV-D68 from other enteroviruses or HRV, and improved rapid diagnostic tools are needed. PMID:25593338

  16. Enterovirus71 (EV71) Utilise Host microRNAs to Mediate Host Immune System Enhancing Survival during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Yan Long Edmund; Tan, Tuan Lin; Woo, Wee Hong; Timms, Peter; Hafner, Louise Marie; Tan, Kian Hwa; Tan, Eng Lee

    2014-01-01

    Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a self-limiting viral disease that mainly affects infants and children. In contrast with other HFMD causing enteroviruses, Enterovirus71 (EV71) has commonly been associated with severe clinical manifestation leading to death. Currently, due to a lack in understanding of EV71 pathogenesis, there is no antiviral therapeutics for the treatment of HFMD patients. Therefore the need to better understand the mechanism of EV71 pathogenesis is warranted. We have previously reported a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) based model to study the pathogenesis of EV71. Using this system, we showed that knockdown of DGCR8, an essential cofactor for microRNAs biogenesis resulted in a reduction of EV71 replication. We also demonstrated that there are miRNAs changes during EV71 pathogenesis and EV71 utilise host miRNAs to attenuate antiviral pathways during infection. Together, data from this study provide critical information on the role of miRNAs during EV71 infection. PMID:25047717

  17. The contrasting phylodynamics of human influenza B viruses.

    PubMed

    Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Holmes, Edward C; Joseph, Udayan; Fourment, Mathieu; Su, Yvonne C F; Halpin, Rebecca; Lee, Raphael T C; Deng, Yi-Mo; Gunalan, Vithiagaran; Lin, Xudong; Stockwell, Timothy B; Fedorova, Nadia B; Zhou, Bin; Spirason, Natalie; Khnert, Denise; Bokov, Veronika; Stadler, Tanja; Costa, Anna-Maria; Dwyer, Dominic E; Huang, Q Sue; Jennings, Lance C; Rawlinson, William; Sullivan, Sheena G; Hurt, Aeron C; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Wentworth, David E; Smith, Gavin J D; Barr, Ian G

    2015-01-01

    A complex interplay of viral, host, and ecological factors shapes the spatio-temporal incidence and evolution of human influenza viruses. Although considerable attention has been paid to influenza A viruses, a lack of equivalent data means that an integrated evolutionary and epidemiological framework has until now not been available for influenza B viruses, despite their significant disease burden. Through the analysis of over 900 full genomes from an epidemiological collection of more than 26,000 strains from Australia and New Zealand, we reveal fundamental differences in the phylodynamics of the two co-circulating lineages of influenza B virus (Victoria and Yamagata), showing that their individual dynamics are determined by a complex relationship between virus transmission, age of infection, and receptor binding preference. In sum, this work identifies new factors that are important determinants of influenza B evolution and epidemiology. PMID:25594904

  18. Peptidyl aldehyde NK-1.8k suppresses enterovirus 71 and enterovirus 68 infection by targeting protease 3C.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaxin; Yang, Ben; Zhai, Yangyang; Yin, Zheng; Sun, Yuna; Rao, Zihe

    2015-05-01

    Enterovirus (EV) is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease in the Pacific-Asia region. In particular, EV71 causes severe central nervous system infections, and the fatality rates from EV71 infection are high. Moreover, an outbreak of respiratory illnesses caused by an emerging EV, EV68, recently occurred among over 1,000 young children in the United States and was also associated with neurological infections. Although enterovirus has emerged as a considerable global public health threat, no antiviral drug for clinical use is available. In the present work, we screened our compound library for agents targeting viral protease and identified a peptidyl aldehyde, NK-1.8k, that inhibits the proliferation of different EV71 strains and one EV68 strain and that had a 50% effective concentration of 90 nM. Low cytotoxicity (50% cytotoxic concentration, >200 ?M) indicated a high selective index of over 2,000. We further characterized a single amino acid substitution inside protease 3C (3C(pro)), N69S, which conferred EV71 resistance to NK-1.8k, possibly by increasing the flexibility of the substrate binding pocket of 3C(pro). The combination of NK-1.8k and an EV71 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor or entry inhibitor exhibited a strong synergistic anti-EV71 effect. Our findings suggest that NK-1.8k could potentially be developed for anti-EV therapy. PMID:25691647

  19. Human transcription factor IIIC box B binding subunit.

    PubMed Central

    L'Etoile, N D; Fahnestock, M L; Shen, Y; Aebersold, R; Berk, A J

    1994-01-01

    Transcription factor IIIC (TFIIIC) is a multisubunit basic TF for RNA polymerase III. It initiates transcription complex assembly on tRNA and related genes by binding to the internal box B promoter element and is also required for transcription of 5S rRNA and other stable nuclear and cytoplasmic RNAs transcribed by polymerase III. In mammalian cells, regulation of TFIIIC activity controls overall polymerase III transcription in response to growth factors and viral infection. Here, we report the cloning and sequencing of a full-length cDNA (and genomic DNA from the transcription initiation region) encoding the box B binding subunit of human TFIIIC, the 243-kDa alpha subunit. Specific antisera raised against the encoded protein super shifts a TFIIIC-box B DNA complex during an electrophoretic mobility shift assay and immunodepletes TFIIIC transcriptional activity from a partially purified TFIIIC fraction, proving that the cDNA encodes a component of TFIIIC. The human protein shows surprisingly little similarity to the box B binding subunit of yeast TFIIIC. Images PMID:8127861

  20. AN INTEGRATED CELL CULTURE/RT-PCR METHOD FOR DETECTING ENTEROVIRUS IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Echovirus and coxsackievirus can cause mild to severe disease following consumption of contaminated drinking water. However, comprehensive occurrence studies of enteroviruses in drinking water matrices are limited, in part because of the lack of available methods that are rapid, ...

  1. Molecular epidemiology of coxsackievirus type B1.

    PubMed

    Abdelkhalek, Ichrak; Seghier, Mohamed; Yahia, Ahlem Ben; Touzi, Henda; Meddeb, Zina; Triki, Henda; Rezig, Dorra

    2015-11-01

    Coxsackievirus type B1 (CVB1) has emerged globally as the predominant enterovirus serotype and is associated with epidemics of meningitis and chronic diseases. In this report, the phylogeny of CVB1 was studied based on the VP1 sequences of 11 North African isolates and 81 published sequences. All CVB1 isolates segregated into four distinct genogroups and 10 genotypes. Most of the identified genotypes of circulating CVB1 strains appear to have a strict geographical specificity. The North African strains were of a single genotype and probably evolved distinctly. Using a relaxed molecular clock model and three different population models (constant population, exponential growth and Bayesian skyline demographic models) in coalescent analysis using the BEAST program, the substitution rate in CVB1 varied between 6.95 × 10(-3) and 7.37 × 10(-3) substitutions/site/year in the VP1 region. This study permits better identification of circulating CVB1, which has become one of the most predominant enterovirus serotypes in humans. PMID:26243282

  2. Low-level Circulation of Enterovirus D68-Associated Acute Respiratory Infections, Germany, 2014.

    PubMed

    Reiche, Janine; Bttcher, Sindy; Diedrich, Sabine; Buchholz, Udo; Buda, Silke; Haas, Walter; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Wolff, Thorsten

    2015-05-01

    We used physician sentinel surveillance to identify 25 (7.7%) mild to severe infections with enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in children and adults among 325 outpatients with acute respiratory infections in Germany during August-October 2014. Results suggested low-level circulation of enterovirus D68 in Germany. Viruses were characterized by sequencing viral protein (VP) 1 and VP4/VP2 genomic regions. PMID:25898320

  3. A novel dromedary camel enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae from dromedaries in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Li, Tong; Jose, Shanty; Yip, Cyril C Y; Huang, Yi; Wong, Emily Y M; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Cai, Jian-Piao; Wernery, Ulrich; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-07-01

    The recent emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus from the Middle East and the discovery of the virus from dromedary camels have boosted interest in the search for novel viruses in dromedaries. Whilst picornaviruses are known to infect various animals, their existence in dromedaries was unknown. We describe the discovery of a novel picornavirus, dromedary camel enterovirus (DcEV), from dromedaries in Dubai. Among 215 dromedaries, DcEV was detected in faecal samples of four (1.9 %) dromedaries [one (0.5 %) adult dromedary and three (25 %) dromedary calves] by reverse transcription PCR. Analysis of two DcEV genomes showed that DcEV was clustered with other species of the genus Enterovirus and was most closely related to and possessed highest amino acid identities to the species Enterovirus E and Enterovirus F found in cattle. The G+C content of DcEV was 45 mol%, which differed from that of Enterovirus E and Enterovirus F (49-50 mol%) by 4-5 %. Similar to other members of the genus Enterovirus, the 5' UTR of DcEV possessed a putative type I internal ribosome entry site. The low ratios of the number of nonsynonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site to the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (Ka/Ks) of various coding regions suggested that dromedaries are the natural reservoir in which DcEV has been stably evolving. These results suggest that DcEV is a novel species of the genus Enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae. Western blot analysis using recombinant DcEV VP1 polypeptide showed a high seroprevalence of 52 % among serum samples from 172 dromedaries for IgG, concurring with its much higher infection rates in dromedary calves than in adults. Further studies are important to understand the pathogenicity, epidemiology and genetic evolution of DcEV in this unique group of animals. PMID:25805410

  4. Novel human recombinant antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85B

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death due to bacterial infections worldwide, mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The antigen 85 complex comprises a set of major secreted proteins of M. tuberculosis, which are potential biomarkers for diagnostic. Results In this work, the first human single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies specific for the tuberculosis biomarker 85 B were selected by phage display from nave antibody gene libraries (HAL7/8). Produced as scFv-Fc in mammalian cells, these antibodies were further characterized and analysed for specificity and applicability in different tuberculosis antigen detection assays. Sandwich detection of recombinant 85 B was successful in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), lateral flow immunoassay and immunoblot. Whereas detection of M. tuberculosis cell extracts and culture filtrates was only possible in direct ELISA and immunoblot assays. It was found that the conformation of 85 B, depending on sample treatment, influenced antigen detection. Conclusions Recombinant antibodies, selected by phage display, may be applicable for 85 B detection in various assays. These antibodies are candidates for the development of future point of care tuberculosis diagnostic kits. Using 85 B as a biomarker, the antigen conformation influenced by sample treatment is important. PMID:25033887

  5. Hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Phung, Bao-Chau; Sogni, Philippe; Launay, Odile

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus (HBV and HIV) infection share transmission patterns and risk factors, which explains high prevalence of chronic HBV infection in HIV infected patients. The natural course of HBV disease is altered by the HIV infection with less chance to clear acute HBV infection, faster progression to cirrhosis and higher risk of liver-related death in HIV-HBV co-infected patients than in HBV mono-infected ones. HIV infected patients with chronic hepatitis B should be counseled for liver damage and surveillance of chronic hepatitis B should be performed to screen early hepatocellular carcinoma. Noninvasive tools are now available to evaluate liver fibrosis. Isolated hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBc) are a good predictive marker of occult HBV infection. Still the prevalence and significance of occult HBV infection is controversial, but its screening may be important in the management of antiretroviral therapy. Vaccination against HBV infection is recommended in non-immune HIV patients. The optimal treatment for almost all HIV-HBV co-infected patients should contain tenofovir plus lamivudine or emtricitabine and treatment should not be stopped to avoid HBV reactivation. Long term tenofovir therapy may lead to significant decline in hepatitis B surface Antigen. The emergence of resistant HBV strains may compromise the HBV therapy and vaccine therapy. PMID:25516647

  6. Maternal Enterovirus Infection as a Risk Factor for Type 1 Diabetes in the Exposed Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Viskari, Hanna; Knip, Mikael; Tauriainen, Sisko; Huhtala, Heini; Veijola, Riitta; Ilonen, Jorma; Simell, Olli; Surcel, Helj-Marja; Hyty, Heikki

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Maternal enterovirus infections during pregnancy have been linked to an increased risk of type 1 diabetes in the offspring. The aim of this study was to evaluate this association in a unique series of pregnant mothers whose child progressed to clinical type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Maternal and in utero enterovirus infections were studied in 171 offspring who presented with type 1 diabetes before the age of 11 years and in 316 control subjects matched for date and place of birth, sex, and HLA-DQ risk alleles for diabetes. Acute enterovirus infections were diagnosed by increases in enterovirus IgG and IgM in samples taken from the mother at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy and cord blood samples taken at delivery. RESULTS Signs of maternal enterovirus infection were observed in altogether 19.3% of the mothers of affected children and in 12.0% of the mothers of control children (P = 0.038). This difference was seen in different HLA risk groups and in both sexes of the offspring, and it was unrelated to the age of the child at the diagnosis of diabetes or the age of the mother at delivery. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that an enterovirus infection during pregnancy is not a major risk factor for type 1 diabetes in childhood but may play a role in some susceptible subjects. PMID:22432113

  7. Superactive insulin: (B10-aspartic acid)insulin(human)

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, G.P.; Burke, G.T.; Katsoyannis, P.G.

    1987-09-01

    The genetic basis for a case of familial hyperproinsulinemia has been elucidated recently. It involves a single point mutation in the proinsulin gene resulting in the substitution of aspartic acid for histidine-10 of the B chain of insulin. The authors have synthesized a human insulin analogue, (Asp/sup B10/) insulin, corresponding to the mutant proinsulin and evaluated its biological activity. (Asp/sup B10/) Insulin displayed a binding affinity to insulin receptors in rat liver plasma membranes that was 534 +- 146% relative to the natural hormone. In lipogenesis assays, the synthetic analogue exhibited a potency that was 435 +- 144% relative to insulin, which is statistically not different from its binding affinity. Reversed-phase HPLC indicated that the synthetic analogue is more apolar than natural insulin. They suggest that the observed properties reflect changes in the conformation of the analogue relative to natural insulin, which results in a stronger interaction with the insulin receptor. Thus, a single substitution of an amino acid residue of human insulin has resulted in a superactive hormone.

  8. Physical organization of subgroup B human adenovirus genomes.

    PubMed Central

    Tibbetts, C

    1977-01-01

    Cleavage sites of nine bacterial restriction endonucleases were mapped in the DNA of adenovirus type 3 (Ad3) and Ad7, representative serotypes of the "weakly oncogenic" subgroup B human adenoviruses. Of 94 sites mapped, 82 were common to both serotypes, in accord with the high overall sequence homology of DNA among members of the same subgroups. Of the sites in Ad3 and Ad7 DNA, fewer than 20% corresponded to mapped restriction sites in the DNA of Ad2 or Ad5. The latter serotypes represent the "nononcogenic" subgroup C, having only 10 to 20% overall sequence homology with the DNA of subgroup B adenoviruses. Hybridization mapping of viral mRNA from Ad7-infected cells resulted in a complex physical map that was nearly identical to the map of early and late gene clusters in Ad2 DNA. Thus the DNA sequences of human adenoviruses of subgroups B and C have significantly diverged in the course of viral evolution, but the complex organization of the adenovirus genome has been rigidly conserved. Images PMID:916027

  9. Enterovirus Infections of the Central Nervous System Review

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Ross E.; Tabor-Godwin, Jenna M.; Tsueng, Ginger; Feuer, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EV) frequently infect the central nervous system (CNS) and induce neurological diseases. Although the CNS is composed of many different cell types, the spectrum of tropism for each EV is considerable. These viruses have the ability to completely shut down host translational machinery and are considered highly cytolytic, thereby causing cytopathic effects. Hence, CNS dysfunction following EV infection of neuronal or glial cells might be expected. Perhaps unexpectedly given their cytolytic nature, EVs may establish a persistent infection within the CNS, and the lasting effects on the host might be significant with unanticipated consequences. This review will describe the clinical aspects of EV-mediated disease, mechanisms of disease, determinants of tropism, immune activation within the CNS, and potential treatment regimes. PMID:21251690

  10. Concentration and purification of enteroviruses by membrane chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, M; Wallis, C; Melnick, J L

    1976-01-01

    A simple procedure for the concentration and partial purification of enteroviruses from tissue culture harvests is described. After removal of acid-precipitating components with a cationic detergent, the detergent and most membrane-coating components were removed by treatment with a cationic-exchange resin. The resin effluent was then acidified, and the virus was adsorbed to epoxy-fiberglass membranes. Virus was then eluted with pH 11.5 glycine-NaOH buffer. Since this eluate contains no orgcentrated simply by acidifying the eluate and passing it through a smaller membrane than that used for the first concentration. As high as 500-fold concentrations can be achieved, with a high efficiency of recovery. PMID:10843

  11. Comparative reductions of bacterial indicators, bacteriophage-infecting enteric bacteria and enteroviruses in wastewater tertiary treatments by lagooning and UV-radiation.

    PubMed

    Gomila, Margarita; Solis, Javier J; David, Zoyla; Ramon, Cristina; Lalucat, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    A two-year monitoring program of microbiological and physical-chemical parameters at 2 waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in Mallorca (Spain) was performed in order to (1) evaluate the efficiency of lagooning and UV radiation as tertiary treatment processes; (2) determine the characteristics of wastewater effluent for its potential agricultural reuse; and (3) establish correlations between bacteriological and virological parameters. The presence of currently established bacterial indicators (total coliforms, faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, and spores of sulphite-reducing clostridia), virological (enteroviruses, somatic coliphages, F-specific coliphages, and phages infecting Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron), and helminth eggs were tested during this study. Bacterial and viral indicators were removed at least with one log reduction in the lagooning system, and to a lesser extent with UV-radiation treatment. The lagooning system was less efficient in removing phages and viruses than were bacterial indicators, with the exception of F-specific phages. Phages of B. fragilis and B. thetaiotaomicron were less removed than all of the other microbiological parameters. In the UV-radiation treatment, however, the faecal coliforms proved the most sensitive, while clostridial spores, somatic coliphages, Bacteroides phages, and enteric viruses were the more resistant. Helminth eggs were not detected in any samples from effluents of either the secondary or tertiary treatments.Indicator levels in both treatments met the established regulations of both local and national authorities for the disposal or reuse of wastewater in irrigation for non-human crop. We demonstrate that somatic coliphages are effective indicators of enteric viruses in both of the WWTPs studied. PMID:19092200

  12. A Broadly Cross-protective Vaccine Presenting the Neighboring Epitopes within the VP1 GH Loop and VP2 EF Loop of Enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Xu, Longfa; He, Delei; Yang, Lisheng; Li, Zhiqun; Ye, Xiangzhong; Yu, Hai; zhao, Huan; Li, Shuxuan; Yuan, Lunzhi; Qian, Hongliu; Que, Yuqiong; Shih, James Wai Kuo; Zhu, Hua; Li, Yimin; Cheng, Tong; Xia, Ningshao

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the major etiological agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and are often associated with neurological complications. Currently, several vaccine types are being developed for EV71 and CA16. In this study, we constructed a bivalent chimeric virus-like particle (VLP) presenting the VP1 (aa208-222) and VP2 (aa141-155) epitopes of EV71 using hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc) as a carrier, designated HBc-E1/2. Immunization with the chimeric VLPs HBc-E1/2 induced higher IgG titers and neutralization titers against EV71 and CA16 in vitro than immunization with only one epitope incorporated into HBc. Importantly, passive immunization with the recombinant HBc-E2 particles protected neonatal mice against lethal EV71 and CA16 infections. We demonstrate that anti-VP2 (aa141-155) sera bound authentic CA16 viral particles, whereas anti-VP1 (aa208-222) sera could not. Moreover, the anti-VP2 (aa141-155) antibodies inhibited the binding of human serum to virions, which demonstrated that the VP2 epitope is immunodominant between EV71 and CA16. These results illustrated that the chimeric VLP HBc-E1/2 is a promising candidate for a broad-spectrum HFMD vaccine, and also reveals mechanisms of protection by the neighboring linear epitopes of the VP1 GH and VP2 EF loops. PMID:26243660

  13. Protection against Lethal Enterovirus 71 Challenge in Mice by a Recombinant Vaccine Candidate Containing a Broadly Cross-Neutralizing Epitope within the VP2 EF Loop

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Longfa; He, Delei; Li, Zhiqun; Zheng, Jun; Yang, Lisheng; Yu, Miao; Yu, Hai; Chen, Yixin; Que, Yuqiong; Shih, James Wai Kuo; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Qinjian; Cheng, Tong; Xia, Ningshao

    2014-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and is associated with several severe neurological complications in the Asia-Pacific region. Here, we evaluated that while passive transfer of neutralizing monoclonal antibody (nMAb) against the VP2 protein protect against lethal EV71 infection in BALB/c mice. Protective nMAb were mapped to residues 141-155 of VP2 by peptide ELISA. High-resolution structural analysis showed that the epitope is part of the VP2 EF loop, which is the “puff” region that forms the “southern rim” of the canyon. Moreover, a three-dimensional structural characterization for the puff region with prior neutralizing epitopes and receptor-binding sites that can serve to inform vaccine strategies. Interestingly, using hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc) as a carrier, we demonstrated that the cross-neutralizing EV71 antibodies were induced, and the VP2 epitope immunized mice serum also conferred 100% in vivo passive protection. The mechanism of in vivo protection conferred by VP2 nMAb is in part attributed to the in vitro neutralizing titer and ability to bind authentic viral particles. Importantly, the anti-VP2(aa141-155) antibodies could inhibit the binding of human serum to EV71 virions showed that the VP2 epitope is immunodominant. Collectively, our results suggest that a broad-spectrum vaccine strategy targeting the high-affinity epitope of VP2 EF loop may elicits effective immune responses against EV71 infection. PMID:24669278

  14. The successful containment of coxsackie B4 infection in a neonatal unit.

    PubMed

    Austin, B J; Croxson, M C; Powell, K F; Gunn, T R

    1999-02-01

    This report describes the containment of a potential enterovirus epidemic in a neonatal intensive care unit. A case of neonatal enterovirus meningitis and myocarditis was identified. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to assist in appropriate cohorting of contacts. One further infant became cross-infected with Coxsackie B4. Serum PCR was accurate in detecting the infection in the early stages in this asymptomatic neonate. Neonatal enterovirus infection is relatively rare but has the potential to cause outbreaks in neonatal wards. PCR can be used to diagnose and monitor for cross infection. PMID:10234647

  15. ATM deficiency promotes development of murine B-cell lymphomas that resemble diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hathcock, Karen S.; Padilla-Nash, Hesed M.; Camps, Jordi; Shin, Dong-Mi; Triner, Daniel; Shaffer, Arthur L.; Maul, Robert W.; Steinberg, Seth M.; Gearhart, Patricia J.; Staudt, Louis M.; Morse, Herbert C.; Ried, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The serine-threonine kinase ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) plays a central role in maintaining genomic integrity. In mice, ATM deficiency is exclusively associated with T-cell lymphoma development, whereas B-cell tumors predominate in human ataxia-telangiectasia patients. We demonstrate in this study that when T cells are removed as targets for lymphomagenesis and as mediators of immune surveillance, ATM-deficient mice exclusively develop early-onset immunoglobulin M+ B-cell lymphomas that do not transplant to immunocompetent mice and that histologically and genetically resemble the activated B cell–like (ABC) subset of human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). These B-cell lymphomas show considerable chromosomal instability and a recurrent genomic amplification of a 4.48-Mb region on chromosome 18 that contains Malt1 and is orthologous to a region similarly amplified in human ABC DLBCL. Of importance, amplification of Malt1 in these lymphomas correlates with their dependence on nuclear factor (NF)-κB, MALT1, and B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling for survival, paralleling human ABC DLBCL. Further, like some human ABC DLBCLs, these mouse B-cell lymphomas also exhibit constitutive BCR-dependent NF-κB activation. This study reveals that ATM protects against development of B-cell lymphomas that model human ABC DLBCL and identifies a potential role for T cells in preventing the emergence of these tumors. PMID:26400962

  16. ATM deficiency promotes development of murine B-cell lymphomas that resemble diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in humans.

    PubMed

    Hathcock, Karen S; Padilla-Nash, Hesed M; Camps, Jordi; Shin, Dong-Mi; Triner, Daniel; Shaffer, Arthur L; Maul, Robert W; Steinberg, Seth M; Gearhart, Patricia J; Staudt, Louis M; Morse, Herbert C; Ried, Thomas; Hodes, Richard J

    2015-11-12

    The serine-threonine kinase ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) plays a central role in maintaining genomic integrity. In mice, ATM deficiency is exclusively associated with T-cell lymphoma development, whereas B-cell tumors predominate in human ataxia-telangiectasia patients. We demonstrate in this study that when T cells are removed as targets for lymphomagenesis and as mediators of immune surveillance, ATM-deficient mice exclusively develop early-onset immunoglobulin M(+) B-cell lymphomas that do not transplant to immunocompetent mice and that histologically and genetically resemble the activated B cell-like (ABC) subset of human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). These B-cell lymphomas show considerable chromosomal instability and a recurrent genomic amplification of a 4.48-Mb region on chromosome 18 that contains Malt1 and is orthologous to a region similarly amplified in human ABC DLBCL. Of importance, amplification of Malt1 in these lymphomas correlates with their dependence on nuclear factor (NF)-?B, MALT1, and B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling for survival, paralleling human ABC DLBCL. Further, like some human ABC DLBCLs, these mouse B-cell lymphomas also exhibit constitutive BCR-dependent NF-?B activation. This study reveals that ATM protects against development of B-cell lymphomas that model human ABC DLBCL and identifies a potential role for T cells in preventing the emergence of these tumors. PMID:26400962

  17. Evaluation of MK filters for recovery of enteroviruses from tap water.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, J F; Naranjo, J; Gerba, C P

    1994-01-01

    The MK filter is an electropositively charged filter that can be used to concentrate enteroviruses from large volumes (400 to 1,000 liters) of water. This filter is less expensive than the commonly used 1MDS electropositive filter. In this study, we compared the recovery of poliovirus 1 (PV1) and that of coxsackievirus B3 (CB3) from 378 liters of tap water, using both the MK and the 1MDS filters. Viruses were eluted from the filters with 3% beef extract buffered with 0.05 M glycine (pH 9.5) and reconcentrated via organic flocculation. At high virus inputs (approximately 10(6) PFU), the overall recovery (after elution and reconcentration) of PV1 and CB3 from tap water with the MK filter was less than that achieved with the 1MDS filter (P < 0.05). The recoveries of PV1 from tap water with the MK and 1MDS filters were 73.2% +/- 26% (n = 5 trials) and 90.2% +/- 5.9% (n = 5 trials), respectively. The recoveries of CB3 from tap water with the MK and 1MDS filters were 32.8% +/- 34.5% (n = 4 trials) and 95.8% +/- 12.0% (n = 4 trials), respectively. This study indicated that the MK filter consistently provided lower recovery, with wider variability, of PV1 and CB3 from tap water than the 1MDS filter. PMID:8031090

  18. Enterovirus meningitis in Tunisia (Monastir, Mahdia, 2011-2013): identification of virus variants cocirculating in France.

    PubMed

    Othman, Ines; Volle, Romain; Elargoubi, Aida; Guediche, Mohamed Neji; Chakroun, Mohamed; Sfar, Mohamed Tahar; Pereira, Bruno; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Archimbaud, Christine; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2016-02-01

    Acute enterovirus (EV) meningitis is a frequent cause of hospitalisation, and over 100 EV serotypes may be involved. A total of 215 patients of all ages with meningitis signs were investigated in 2 Tunisian hospitals. Their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was analysed retrospectively for EVs with a TaqMan real-time RT-qPCR. The virus strains were typed, and their evolutionary relationships were determined by Bayesian phylogenetic methods. An EV genome was detected in 21/215 patients (9.8%). The CSF viral loads ranged from 3.27 to 5.63 log10 genome copies/mL. The strains were identified in 13/21 patients and assigned to EV-B types. Viruses identified in Tunisian patients were genetically related to variants detected in France. The viral loads were similar in Tunisian and French patients for most EV types. The phylogenetic data and viral loads determined in Tunisian and French patients suggest that close EV variants were involved in aseptic meningitis in the 2 countries over a same period. PMID:26643063

  19. An Enterovirus-Like RNA Construct for Colon Cancer Suicide Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rasekhian, Mahsa; Teimoori-Toolabi, Ladan; Amini, Safieh; Azadmanesh, Kayhan

    2015-01-01

    Background: In gene therapy, the use of RNA molecules as therapeutic agents has shown advantages over plasmid DNA, including higher levels of safety. However, transient nature of RNA has been a major obstacle in application of RNA in gene therapy. Methods: Here, we used the internal ribosomal entry site of encephalomyocarditis virus and the 3 non-translated region of Poliovirus to design an enterovirus-like RNA for the expression of a reporter gene (enhanced green fluorescent protein) and a suicide gene (thymidine kinase of herpes simplex virus). The expression of these genes was evaluated by flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assay in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (SW480). We then armed RNA molecules with a target sequence for hsa-miR-143 to regulate their expression by microRNA (miRNA) mimics. Results: The results showed effective expression of both genes by Entrovirus-like RNA constructs. The data also showed that the restoration of hsa-miR-143 expression in SW480 leads to a significant translation repression of the introduced reporter and suicide genes. Conclusion: Collectively, our data suggest the potential use of Entrovirus-like RNA molecules in suicide gene therapy. Additionally, as a consequence of the possible downregulated miRNA expression in cancerous tissues, a decreased expression of gene therapy constructs armed with target sequences for such miRNA in cancer tissue is expected. PMID:26025964

  20. A Conserved Inhibitory Mechanism of a Lycorine Derivative against Enterovirus and Hepatitis C Virus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu; Wang, Yaxin; Cao, Lin; Wang, Peng; Qing, Jie; Zheng, Qizhen; Shang, Luqing; Yin, Zheng; Sun, Yuna

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) (Picornaviridae family) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) (Flaviviridae family) are the causative agents of human hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and hepatitis C, resulting in a severe pandemic involving millions of infections in the Asia-Pacific region and worldwide. The great impact of EV71 and HCV on public health highlights the need to further our understanding of the biology of these two viruses and develop effective therapeutic antivirals. Here, we evaluated a total of 32 lycorine derivatives and demonstrated that 1-acetyllycorine suppressed the proliferation of multiple strains of EV71 in various cells. The results of the drug resistance analysis revealed that 1-acetyllycorine targeted a phenylalanine (F76) in EV71 2A protease (2A(pro)) to stabilize the conformation of a unique zinc finger. Most interestingly, the zinc binding site in EV71 2A(pro) is the exclusive homolog of HCV NS3 among all viruses. Further analysis revealed that 1-acetyllycorine also inhibits HCV with high efficacy, and the mutation on R118 in HCV NS3, which corresponds to F76 in EV71 2A(pro), confers the resistance of HCV to 1-acetyllycorine. These results revealed a conserved mechanism of 1-acetyllycorine against EV71 and HCV through targeting viral proteases. We also documented the significant synergistic anti-EV71 and anti-HCV effects of 1-acetyllycorine with reported inhibitors, supporting potential combination therapy for the treatment of EV71 and HCV infections. PMID:26596952

  1. Transgenic mice expressing high plasma concentrations of human apolipoprotein B100 and lipoprotein(a).

    PubMed Central

    Linton, M F; Farese, R V; Chiesa, G; Grass, D S; Chin, P; Hammer, R E; Hobbs, H H; Young, S G

    1993-01-01

    The B apolipoproteins, apo-B48 and apo-B100, are key structural proteins in those classes of lipoproteins considered to be atherogenic [e.g., chylomicron remnants, beta-VLDL, LDL, oxidized LDL, and Lp(a)]. Here we describe the development of transgenic mice expressing high levels of human apo-B48 and apo-B100. A 79.5-kb human genomic DNA fragment containing the entire human apo-B gene was isolated from a P1 bacteriophage library and microinjected into fertilized mouse eggs. 16 transgenic founders expressing human apo-B were generated, and the animals with the highest expression had plasma apo-B100 levels nearly as high as those of normolipidemic humans (approximately 50 mg/dl). The human apo-B100 in transgenic mouse plasma was present largely in lipoproteins of the LDL class as shown by agarose gel electrophoresis, chromatography on a Superose 6 column, and density gradient ultracentrifugation. When the human apo-B transgenic founders were crossed with transgenic mice expressing human apo(a), the offspring that expressed both transgenes had high plasma levels of human Lp(a). Both the human apo-B and Lp(a) transgenic mice will be valuable resources for studying apo-B metabolism and the role of apo-B and Lp(a) in atherosclerosis. Images PMID:8254057

  2. Group B Streptococcal Infection and Activation of Human Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Terri D.; Weston, Thomas A.; Trejo, JoAnn; Doran, Kelly S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is the leading cause of life-threatening meningitis in human newborns in industrialized countries. Meningitis results from neonatal infection that occurs when GBS leaves the bloodstream (bacteremia), crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and enters the central nervous system (CNS), where the bacteria contact the meninges. Although GBS is known to invade the BBB, subsequent interaction with astrocytes that physically associate with brain endothelium has not been well studied. Methodology/Principal Findings We hypothesize that human astrocytes play a unique role in GBS infection and contribute to the development of meningitis. To address this, we used a well- characterized human fetal astrocyte cell line, SVG-A, and examined GBS infection in vitro. We observed that all GBS strains of representative clinically dominant serotypes (Ia, Ib, III, and V) were able to adhere to and invade astrocytes. Cellular invasion was dependent on host actin cytoskeleton rearrangements, and was specific to GBS as Streptococcus gordonii failed to enter astrocytes. Analysis of isogenic mutant GBS strains deficient in various cell surface organelles showed that anchored LTA, serine-rich repeat protein (Srr1) and fibronectin binding (SfbA) proteins all contribute to host cell internalization. Wild-type GBS also displayed an ability to persist and survive within an intracellular compartment for at least 12 h following invasion. Moreover, GBS infection resulted in increased astrocyte transcription of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and VEGF. Conclusions/Significance This study has further characterized the interaction of GBS with human astrocytes, and has identified the importance of specific virulence factors in these interactions. Understanding the role of astrocytes during GBS infection will provide important information regarding BBB disruption and the development of neonatal meningitis. PMID:26030618

  3. Adenovirus, enterovirus and thermotolerant coliforms in recreational waters from Lake Guaíba beaches, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maurer, C P; Simonetti, A B; Staggemeier, R; Rigotto, C; Heinzelmann, L S; Spilki, F R

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, molecular detection of human adenoviruses (HAdV) and enteroviruses (EV) was performed in surface water samples collected from beaches Ipanema and Lami, located on the shores of Lake Guaíba, city of Porto Alegre, RS, southern Brazil. Furthermore, water safety was evaluated by counting thermotolerant coliforms (TC), following local government regulations. A total of 36 samples were collected monthly from six different sites along the beaches. Viral genomes were found in 30 (83.3%) samples. The higher detection rate was observed for HAdV (77.8%), followed by EV (22.2%). Although low concentrations of TC have been found, the occurrence of viral genomes in water samples was frequent and may pose a potential risk of infection for people bathing in these beaches. PMID:26608773

  4. The Fecal Virome of Children with Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease that Tested PCR Negative for Pathogenic Enteroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Linsuwanon, Piyada; Poovorawan, Yong; Li, Linlin; Deng, Xutao; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Delwart, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) affects infant and young children. A viral metagenomic approach was used to identify the eukaryotic viruses in fecal samples from 29 Thai children with clinical diagnosis of HFMD collected during the 2012 outbreak. These children had previously tested negative by PCR for enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 and A6. Deep sequencing revealed nine virus families: Picornaviridae, Astroviridae, Parvoviridae, Caliciviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Adenoviridae, Reoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, and Polyomaviridae. The highest number of viral sequences belonged to human rhinovirus C, astrovirus-MLB2, and coxsackievirus A21. Our study provides an overview of virus community and highlights a broad diversity of viruses found in feces from children with HFMD. PMID:26288145

  5. Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element Management Plan: Human Research Program. Revision B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norsk, Peter; Baumann, David

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) is an applied research and technology program within the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) that addresses human health and performance risk mitigation strategies in support of exploration missions. The HRP research and technology development is focused on the highest priority risks to crew health and safety with the goal of ensuring mission success and maintaining long-term crew health. Crew health and performance standards, defined by the NASA Chief Health and Medical Officer (CHMO), set the acceptable risk level for exploration missions. The HRP conducts research to inform these standards as well as provide deliverables, such as countermeasures, that ensure standards can be met to maximize human performance and mission success. The Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element was formed as part of the HRP to develop a scientifically-based, integrated approach to understanding and mitigating the health risks associated with human spaceflight. These health risks have been organized into four research portfolios that group similar or related risks. A fifth portfolio exists for managing technology developments and infrastructure projects. The HHC Element portfolios consist of: a) Vision and Cardiovascular; b) Exercise and Performance; c) Multisystem; d) Bone; and e) Technology and Infrastructure. The HHC identifies gaps associated with the health risks and plans human physiology research that will result in knowledge required to more fully understand risks and will result in validated countermeasures to mitigate risks.

  6. Immunophenotyping of putative human B1 B cells in healthy controls and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) patients

    PubMed Central

    Suchanek, O; Sadler, R; Bateman, E A; Patel, S Y; Ferry, B L

    2012-01-01

    B1 B cells represent a unique subset of B lymphocytes distinct from conventional B2 B cells, and are important in the production of natural antibodies. A potential human homologue of murine B1 cells was defined recently as a CD20+CD27+CD43+ cell. Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a group of heterogeneous conditions linked by symptomatic primary antibody failure. In this preliminary report, we examined the potential clinical utility of introducing CD20+CD27+CD43+ B1 cell immunophenotyping as a routine assay in a diagnostic clinical laboratory. Using a whole blood assay, putative B1 B cells in healthy controls and in CVID patients were measured. Peripheral blood from 33 healthy donors and 16 CVID patients were stained with relevant monoclonal antibodies and underwent flow cytometric evaluation. We established a rapid, whole blood flow cytometric assay to investigate putative human B1 B cells. Examination of CD20+CD27+CD43+ cells is complicated by CD3+CD27+CD43hi T cell contamination, even when using stringent CD20 gating. These can be excluded by gating on CD27+CD43loint B cells. Although proportions of CD20+CD27CD43loint cells within B cells in CVID patients were decreased by 50% compared to controls (P < 001), this was not significant when measured as a percentage of all CD27+ B cells (P = 078). Immunophenotypic overlap of this subset with other innate-like B cells described recently in humans is limited. We have shown that putative B1 B cell immunophenotyping can be performed rapidly and reliably using whole blood. CD20+CD27+CD43loint cells may represent a distinct B1 cell subset within CD27+ B cells. CVID patients were not significantly different from healthy controls when existing CD27+ B cell deficiencies were taken into account. PMID:23121674

  7. Human beta-galactosidase gene mutations in morquio B disease.

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, A; Yoshida, K; Shimmoto, M; Fukuhara, Y; Sakuraba, H; Suzuki, Y

    1991-01-01

    Three different beta-galactosidase gene mutations--a 273Trp----Leu (mutation F) in both families, 482Arg----His (mutation G) in one family, and 509Trp----Cys (mutation H) in the other family--were identified in three patients with Morquio B disease who were from two unrelated families. Restriction-site analysis using StuI, Nsp(7524)I or RsaI confirmed these mutations. In human fibroblasts, mutation F expressed as much as 8% of the normal allele's enzyme activity, but the other mutations expressed no detectable enzyme activity. We conclude that the unique clinical manifestations are specifically associated with mutation F, a common two-base substitution, in this disease. Images Figure 1 PMID:1928092

  8. Evolution and Emergence of Enteroviruses through Intra- and Inter-species Recombination: Plasticity and Phenotypic Impact of Modular Genetic Exchanges in the 5' Untranslated Region.

    PubMed

    Muslin, Claire; Joffret, Marie-Line; Pelletier, Isabelle; Blondel, Bruno; Delpeyroux, Francis

    2015-11-01

    Genetic recombination shapes the diversity of RNA viruses, including enteroviruses (EVs), which frequently have mosaic genomes. Pathogenic circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) genomes consist of mutated vaccine poliovirus (PV) sequences encoding capsid proteins, and sequences encoding nonstructural proteins derived from other species' C EVs, including certain coxsackieviruses A (CV-A) in particular. Many cVDPV genomes also have an exogenous 5' untranslated region (5' UTR). This region is involved in virulence and includes the cloverleaf (CL) and the internal ribosomal entry site, which play major roles in replication and the initiation of translation, respectively. We investigated the plasticity of the PV genome in terms of recombination in the 5' UTR, by developing an experimental model involving the rescue of a bipartite PV/CV-A cVDPV genome rendered defective by mutations in the CL, following the co-transfection of cells with 5' UTR RNAs from each of the four human EV species (EV-A to -D). The defective cVDPV was rescued by recombination with 5' UTR sequences from the four EV species. Homologous and nonhomologous recombinants with large deletions or insertions in three hotspots were isolated, revealing a striking plasticity of the 5' UTR. By contrast to the recombination of the cVDPV with the 5' UTR of group II (EV-A and -B), which can decrease viral replication and virulence, recombination with the 5' UTRs of group I (EV-C and -D) appeared to be evolutionarily neutral or associated with a gain in fitness. This study illustrates how the genomes of positive-strand RNA viruses can evolve into mosaic recombinant genomes through intra- or inter-species modular genetic exchanges, favoring the emergence of new recombinant lineages. PMID:26562151

  9. Evolution and Emergence of Enteroviruses through Intra- and Inter-species Recombination: Plasticity and Phenotypic Impact of Modular Genetic Exchanges in the 5’ Untranslated Region

    PubMed Central

    Muslin, Claire; Joffret, Marie-Line; Pelletier, Isabelle; Blondel, Bruno; Delpeyroux, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Genetic recombination shapes the diversity of RNA viruses, including enteroviruses (EVs), which frequently have mosaic genomes. Pathogenic circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) genomes consist of mutated vaccine poliovirus (PV) sequences encoding capsid proteins, and sequences encoding nonstructural proteins derived from other species’ C EVs, including certain coxsackieviruses A (CV-A) in particular. Many cVDPV genomes also have an exogenous 5’ untranslated region (5’ UTR). This region is involved in virulence and includes the cloverleaf (CL) and the internal ribosomal entry site, which play major roles in replication and the initiation of translation, respectively. We investigated the plasticity of the PV genome in terms of recombination in the 5’ UTR, by developing an experimental model involving the rescue of a bipartite PV/CV-A cVDPV genome rendered defective by mutations in the CL, following the co-transfection of cells with 5’ UTR RNAs from each of the four human EV species (EV-A to -D). The defective cVDPV was rescued by recombination with 5’ UTR sequences from the four EV species. Homologous and nonhomologous recombinants with large deletions or insertions in three hotspots were isolated, revealing a striking plasticity of the 5’ UTR. By contrast to the recombination of the cVDPV with the 5’ UTR of group II (EV-A and -B), which can decrease viral replication and virulence, recombination with the 5’ UTRs of group I (EV-C and -D) appeared to be evolutionarily neutral or associated with a gain in fitness. This study illustrates how the genomes of positive-strand RNA viruses can evolve into mosaic recombinant genomes through intra- or inter-species modular genetic exchanges, favoring the emergence of new recombinant lineages. PMID:26562151

  10. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of NF?B transcriptional regulation by nuclear I?B? in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ramaswami, Sitharam; Manna, Subrata; Juvekar, Ashish; Kennedy, Steven; Vancura, Ales; Vancurova, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Transcription factor NF?B comprises a family of proteins that serve as crucial regulators of genes involved in host immune and inflammatory responses, cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Since transcription of NF?B-dependent genes is increased in numerous inflammatory disorders as well as in many types of cancer and leukemia, inhibition of NF?B-dependent transcription thus represents an important therapeutic target. We have previously shown that in human leukocytes, transcription of NF?B-dependent genes is inhibited by the nuclear translocation and accumulation of I?B?, which can be induced by an inhibitor of CRM1-dependent nuclear export, leptomycin B (LMB). In this chapter, we describe a protocol that uses chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) to analyze the regulation of NF?B recruitment to NF?B-dependent promoters by nuclear I?B? induced by LMB. We show that in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human U-937 macrophages, recruitment of NF?B p65 and p50 proteins to NF?B-dependent promoters of I?B? and cIAP2 genes is suppressed by the LMB-induced nuclear I?B?. Even though in this study we use U-937 macrophages, this protocol should be readily adaptable to analyze the regulation of NF?B recruitment by nuclear I?B? also in other cell types. PMID:22113272

  11. A generic assay for whole-genome amplification and deep sequencing of enterovirus A71

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Le Van; Tuyen, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thanh, Tran Tan; Ngan, Tran Thuy; Van, Hoang Minh Tu; Sabanathan, Saraswathy; Van, Tran Thi My; Thanh, Le Thi My; Nguyet, Lam Anh; Geoghegan, Jemma L.; Ong, Kien Chai; Perera, David; Hang, Vu Thi Ty; Ny, Nguyen Thi Han; Anh, Nguyen To; Ha, Do Quang; Qui, Phan Tu; Viet, Do Chau; Tuan, Ha Manh; Wong, Kum Thong; Holmes, Edward C.; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; van Doorn, H. Rogier

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) has emerged as the most important cause of large outbreaks of severe and sometimes fatal hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) across the Asia-Pacific region. EV-A71 outbreaks have been associated with (sub)genogroup switches, sometimes accompanied by recombination events. Understanding EV-A71 population dynamics is therefore essential for understanding this emerging infection, and may provide pivotal information for vaccine development. Despite the public health burden of EV-A71, relatively few EV-A71 complete-genome sequences are available for analysis and from limited geographical localities. The availability of an efficient procedure for whole-genome sequencing would stimulate effort to generate more viral sequence data. Herein, we report for the first time the development of a next-generation sequencing based protocol for whole-genome sequencing of EV-A71 directly from clinical specimens. We were able to sequence viruses of subgenogroup C4 and B5, while RNA from culture materials of diverse EV-A71 subgenogroups belonging to both genogroup B and C was successfully amplified. The nature of intra-host genetic diversity was explored in 22 clinical samples, revealing 107 positions carrying minor variants (ranging from 0 to 15 variants per sample). Our analysis of EV-A71 strains sampled in 2013 showed that they all belonged to subgenogroup B5, representing the first report of this subgenogroup in Vietnam. In conclusion, we have successfully developed a high-throughput next-generation sequencing-based assay for whole-genome sequencing of EV-A71 from clinical samples. PMID:25704598

  12. Striking differences of LDL receptor-related protein 1B expression in mouse and human.

    PubMed

    Li, Yonghe; Lu, Wenyan; Bu, Guojun

    2005-08-01

    The low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 1B (LRP1B) is a member of the expanding LDL receptor family, and is closely related to LRP. It was discovered as a putative tumor suppressor, and is frequently inactivated in human malignant tissues. However, the expression pattern of LRP1B in normal human tissues was unclear. In the present study, we analyzed LRP1B expression in normal mouse and human tissues. By using RT-PCR, we found that, while mouse LRP1B expression is mostly restricted to the brain, human LRP1B expression is more widespread with highest expression levels detected in the brain, adrenal gland, salivary gland, and testis. Although mouse LRP1B expresses in the forms of both full-length receptor tail and an alternatively spliced form lacking a 33-amino acid insert, human LRP1B is expressed exclusively in the form of full-length receptor tail. Finally, we found that, unlike mouse LRP1B, human LRP1B is cleaved by furin. Taken together, these data demonstrate that there are striking differences between LRP1B expression in mouse and human tissues. The broader expression pattern of LRP1B in human tissues suggests that this putative tumor suppressor may play roles in several types of human cancer. PMID:15963947

  13. Neuregulin-1-mediated ErbB2ErbB3 signalling protects human trophoblasts against apoptosis to preserve differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Fock, Valerie; Plessl, Kerstin; Draxler, Peter; Otti, Gerlinde Regina; Fiala, Christian; Knfler, Martin; Pollheimer, Jrgen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT During placentation, foetal trophoblasts invade deeply into maternal tissue to establish a foetomaternal circulation. We have previously shown that extravillous trophoblast (EVT) lineage cells express ErbB2 and ErbB3, of which the potential as an oncogenic unit is well established. However, a physiological function of this receptor combination in humans remains a puzzling question. Here, we demonstrate neuregulin 1 (NRG1) expression and secretion by human decidual stromal cells. Stimulation of human primary trophoblasts with exogenous NRG1 induced phosphorylation of ErbB2, ErbB3 and related downstream effectors. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the formation of ErbB2ErbB3 dimers upon ligand engagement. Along this line, receptor knockdown and ErbB3 neutralization strongly diminished NRG1-dependent activation of the signalling complex. Functional studies revealed that NRG1 promotes EVT formation in placental explant cultures. Although, in the presence of NRG1, basal and camptothecin-induced trophoblast apoptosis was significantly repressed, this effect was abolished upon ErbB3 inhibition. Notably, camptothecin provoked a strong reduction of trophoblast cell column size, whereas NRG1-treated explants were refractory to the compound. Taken together, our findings newly identify a physiological function of the NRG1ErbB2ErbB3 axis in trophoblast survival during human placental development. PMID:26490994

  14. Neuregulin-1-mediated ErbB2-ErbB3 signalling protects human trophoblasts against apoptosis to preserve differentiation.

    PubMed

    Fock, Valerie; Plessl, Kerstin; Draxler, Peter; Otti, Gerlinde Regina; Fiala, Christian; Knfler, Martin; Pollheimer, Jrgen

    2015-12-01

    During placentation, foetal trophoblasts invade deeply into maternal tissue to establish a foeto-maternal circulation. We have previously shown that extravillous trophoblast (EVT) lineage cells express ErbB2 and ErbB3, of which the potential as an oncogenic unit is well established. However, a physiological function of this receptor combination in humans remains a puzzling question. Here, we demonstrate neuregulin 1 (NRG1) expression and secretion by human decidual stromal cells. Stimulation of human primary trophoblasts with exogenous NRG1 induced phosphorylation of ErbB2, ErbB3 and related downstream effectors. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the formation of ErbB2-ErbB3 dimers upon ligand engagement. Along this line, receptor knockdown and ErbB3 neutralization strongly diminished NRG1-dependent activation of the signalling complex. Functional studies revealed that NRG1 promotes EVT formation in placental explant cultures. Although, in the presence of NRG1, basal and camptothecin-induced trophoblast apoptosis was significantly repressed, this effect was abolished upon ErbB3 inhibition. Notably, camptothecin provoked a strong reduction of trophoblast cell column size, whereas NRG1-treated explants were refractory to the compound. Taken together, our findings newly identify a physiological function of the NRG1-ErbB2-ErbB3 axis in trophoblast survival during human placental development. PMID:26490994

  15. 2014 outbreak of enterovirus D68 in North America.

    PubMed

    Messacar, Kevin; Abzug, Mark J; Dominguez, Samuel R

    2016-05-01

    Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emerging picornavirus which causes severe respiratory disease, predominantly in children. In 2014, the largest and most widespread outbreak of EV-D68 described to date was reported in North America. Hospitals throughout the United States and Canada reported surges in patient volumes and resource utilization from August to October, 2014. In the US a total of 1,153 infections were confirmed in 49 states, although this is an underestimate of the likely millions of cases that occurred but were not tested. EV-D68 was detected in 14 patients who died; the role of the virus in these deaths is unknown. A possible association between EV-D68 and cases of acute flaccid paralysis with spinal cord gray matter lesions, known as acute flaccid myelitis, was observed during the outbreak and is under investigation. The 2014 outbreak of EV-D68 in North America demonstrates the public health importance of this emerging pathogen. J. Med. Virol. 88:739-745, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26489019

  16. Innate Immunity and Immune Evasion by Enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    Pathinayake, Prabuddha S.; Hsu, Alan C-Y.; Wark, Peter A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major infectious disease affecting millions of people worldwide and it is the main etiological agent for outbreaks of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Infection is often associated with severe gastroenterological, pulmonary, and neurological diseases that are most prevalent in children. Currently, no effective vaccine or antiviral drugs exist against EV71 infection. A lack of knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of EV71 infection in the host and the virus-host interactions is a major constraint to developing specific antiviral strategies against this infection. Previous studies have identified and characterized the function of several viral proteins produced by EV71 that interact with the host innate immune proteins, including type I interferon signaling and microRNAs. These interactions eventually promote efficient viral replication and increased susceptibility to the disease. In this review we discuss the functions of EV71 viral proteins in the modulation of host innate immune responses to facilitate viral replication. PMID:26694447

  17. Innate Immunity and Immune Evasion by Enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Pathinayake, Prabuddha S; Hsu, Alan C-Y; Wark, Peter A B

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major infectious disease affecting millions of people worldwide and it is the main etiological agent for outbreaks of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Infection is often associated with severe gastroenterological, pulmonary, and neurological diseases that are most prevalent in children. Currently, no effective vaccine or antiviral drugs exist against EV71 infection. A lack of knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of EV71 infection in the host and the virus-host interactions is a major constraint to developing specific antiviral strategies against this infection. Previous studies have identified and characterized the function of several viral proteins produced by EV71 that interact with the host innate immune proteins, including type I interferon signaling and microRNAs. These interactions eventually promote efficient viral replication and increased susceptibility to the disease. In this review we discuss the functions of EV71 viral proteins in the modulation of host innate immune responses to facilitate viral replication. PMID:26694447

  18. Recent developments in antiviral agents against enterovirus 71 infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the main etiological agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Recent EV-71 outbreaks in Asia-Pacific were not limited to mild HFMD, but were associated with severe neurological complications such as aseptic meningitis and brainstem encephalitis, which may lead to cardiopulmonary failure and death. The absence of licensed therapeutics for clinical use has intensified research into anti-EV-71 development. This review highlights the potential antiviral agents targeting EV-71 attachment, entry, uncoating, translation, polyprotein processing, virus-induced formation of membranous RNA replication complexes, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The strategies for antiviral development include target-based synthetic compounds, anti-rhinovirus and poliovirus libraries screening, and natural compound libraries screening. Growing knowledge of the EV-71 life cycle will lead to successful development of antivirals. The continued effort to develop antiviral agents for treatment is crucial in the absence of a vaccine. The coupling of antivirals with an effective vaccine will accelerate eradication of the disease. PMID:24521134

  19. Genome analysis of enterovirus 71 strains differing in mouse pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Yue, Yingying; Song, Nannan; Li, Bingqing; Meng, Hong; Yang, Guiwen; Li, Zhihui; An, Liguo; Qin, Lizeng

    2016-04-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and is occasionally associated with severe neurological diseases. The investigation of virulence determinants of EV71 is rudimentary. Therefore, it is important to understand the relationship between EV71 virulence and genomic information. In this study, a series of analyses about full-length genomic sequence were performed on six EV71 strains isolated from HFMD patients with either severe or mild clinical symptoms. A one-day-old BALB/c mouse model was used to study the infection characteristics. Results showed all six strains were of the subgenogroup C4a. Viral full-length genomic sequence analysis showed that a total of 40 nucleotide differences between strains of highly and low virulence were revealed. Among all mutations, three nucleotide mutations were found in the untranslated region. A mutation, nt115, at internal ribozyme entry site (IRES) caused RNA secondary structural change. The other 37 mutations were all located in the open reading frame resulting in 8 amino acid mutations. Importantly, we discovered that a mutation of amino acid (Asn1617 → Asp1617) in the 3C proteinase (3C(pro)) of highly and low pathogenic strains could lead to conformational change at the active center, suggesting that this site may be a virulence determinant of EV71. PMID:26781949

  20. Characterization of a novel porcine enterovirus in wild boars in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Boros, Akos; Nemes, Csaba; Pankovics, Péter; Bíró, Hunor; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric; Reuter, Gábor

    2012-05-01

    Porcine enteroviruses (PEVs) are members of the family Picornaviridae, genus Enterovirus. Until now, only three different PEV genotypes (PEV-9 and -10, and PEV-3H/PEV-14) have been detected in domestic pigs, and there is no information about the presence of PEVs in wild animals. Here, we identify and characterize the complete genomes of PEV originated from 5 of 10 (50%) of wild boar (Sus scrofa) piglets by RT-PCR and pyrosequencing. Wild boar/WBD/2011/HUN (JN807387) PEV showed only 67% amino acid identity in VP1 compared to the most closely related prototype PEV-3H/PEV-14. Wild boar enterovirus represents a novel PEV genotype, provisionally called PEV-15. PMID:22350652

  1. Enterovirus C strains circulating in Nigeria and their contribution to the emergence of recombinant circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses.

    PubMed

    Adeniji, Johnson Adekunle; Faleye, Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas

    2015-03-01

    Between 2005 and 2011, 23 lineages of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) were detected in Nigeria with nonstructural region (NSR) of non-polio enterovirus C (NPEV-C) origin. However, no information exists on NPEV-C strains recombining with oral poliovirus type 2 vaccine strains (OPV2) to make type 2 cVDPVs (cVDPV2s) in Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to investigate the probable contribution of NPEV-Cs recently isolated in the region to the emergence of cVDPV2s. Eleven enterovirus C (EV-C) strains (8 NPEV-Cs and 3 PV2s) previously isolated by the authors were analysed in this study. All 11 isolates were assayed for cell-line-dependent growth restriction in four cell lines (LLC-MK2, MCF-7, RD and L20B). Subsequently, the isolates were subjected to RT-PCR specific for VP1 and 3Dpol/3'-UTR of EV-C. All PCR products were sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis was performed. All eight NPEV-Cs replicated exclusively in the MCF-7 cell line, while the three PV2s replicated in all four cell lines. The eight NPEV-Cs were identified as CVA13 (7 isolates) and CVA20 (1 isolate) by VP1 analysis, while all 11 isolates were confirmed to be EV-Cs by 3Dpol/3'-UTR analysis. In addition, phylogeny violations suggested that some cVDPVs might have recombined with common ancestors of the NPEV-Cs described in this study. This was confirmed by the scatter plot of divergence in VP1 against that of 3Dpol/3'-UTR sequences for pairs of isolates. The results of this study showed that the NSR of unknown origin found in cVDPVs from the region might have come from NPEV-Cs (e.g., CVA13 and CVA20) circulating in Nigeria. PMID:25559670

  2. Amiloride-sensitive sodium conductance in human B lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Bubien, J K; Warnock, D G

    1993-10-01

    The Na+ conductance of RPMI 8226 human B lymphoblastoid cells was examined using whole cell patch clamp. When the bath solution contained RPMI 1640 and the pipette solution contained (in mM) 100 potassium gluconate, 30 KCl, 10 NaCl, 0.5 ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), and 20 N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES), as well as < 10 nM free Ca2+, pH 7.25, the mean membrane potential was -58 +/- 4.5 mV (n = 18). Cells were voltage clamped from -160 to +40 mV in 20-mV increments. The inward conductance was 767 +/- 221 pS/10 pF, and the outward conductance was 1,212 +/- 272 pS/10 pF (n = 12). Superfusion with 2 microM amiloride significantly hyperpolarized the cells by 7.4 +/- 2.2 mV (P = 0.004), significantly reduced the inward conductance to 221 +/- 65 pS/10 pF (P = 0.028), but had no effect on the outward conductance (1,294 +/- 236 pS/10 pF, P = 0.820, after amiloride). Next, the pipette and bath solutions were changed to (in mM) 150 sodium gluconate, 0.5 EGTA, and 20 HEPES, as well as < 10 nM free Ca2+, pH 7.25. Under these conditions amiloride significantly reduced (50%, P < 0.05; n = 7) the whole cell currents. When potassium gluconate was substituted for sodium gluconate, amiloride had no effect. Thus amiloride inhibited a Na(+)-specific conductance expressed by B lymphoid cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8238308

  3. LIN28B suppresses microRNA let-7b expression to promote CD44+/LIN28B+ human pancreatic cancer stem cell proliferation and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yebo; Zhang, Lei; Cui, Lei; Lou, Wenhui; Wang, Dansong; Lu, Weiqi; Jin, Dayong; Liu, Te

    2015-01-01

    Although the highly proliferative, migratory, and multi-drug resistant phenotype of human pancreatic cancer stem cells (PCSCs) is well characterized, knowledge of their biological mechanisms is limited. We used CD44 and LIN28B as markers to screen, isolate, and enrich CSCs from human primary pancreatic cancer. Using flow cytometry, we identified a human primary pancreatic cancer cell (PCC) subpopulation expressing high levels of both CD44 and LIN28B. CD44+/LIN28B+ PCSCs expressed high levels of stemness marker genes and possessed higher migratory and invasive ability than CD44-/LIN28B- PCCs. CD44+/LIN28B+ PCSCs were more resistant to growth inhibition induced by the chemotherapeutic drugs cisplatin and gemcitabine hydrochloride, and readily established tumors in vivo in a relatively short time. Moreover, microarray analysis revealed significant differences between the cDNA expression patterns of CD44+/LIN28B+ PCSCs and CD44-/LIN28B- PCCs. Following siRNA interference of endogenous LIN28B gene expression in CD44+/LIN28B+ PCSCs, not only was their proliferation decreased, there was also cell cycle arrest due to suppression of cyclin D1 expression following the stimulation of miRNA let-7b expression. In conclusion, CD44+/LIN28B+ cells, which possess CSC characteristics, can be reliably sorted from human primary PCCs and represent a valuable model for studying cancer cell physiology and multi-drug resistance. PMID:26609473

  4. Efficient induction of cross-presentating human B cell by transduction with human adenovirus type 7 vector.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ying; Lai, Meimei; Lou, Yunyan; Liu, Yanqing; Wang, Huiyan; Zheng, Xiaoqun

    2016-01-01

    Although human autologous B cells represent a promising alternative to dendritic cells (DCs) for easy large-scale preparation, the naive human B cells are always poor at antigen presentation. The safe and effective usage record of human adenovirus type 7 (HAdV7) live vaccines makes it attractive as a promising vaccine vector candidate. To investigate whether HAdV7 vector could be used to induce the human B cells cross-presentation, in the present study, we constructed the E3-defective recombinant HAdV7 vector encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). We demonstrated that naive human B cells can efficiently be transduced, and that the MAPKs/NF-?B pathway can be activated by recombinant HAdV7. We proved that cytokine TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-10, surface molecule MHC class I and the CD86, antigen-processing machinery (APM) compounds ERp57, TAP-1, and TAP-2. were upregulated in HAdV7 transduced human B cells. We also found that CEA-specific IFN? expression, degranulation, and in vitro and ex vivo cytotoxicities are induced in autologous CD8(+) T cells presensitized by HAd7CEA modified human B cells. Meanwhile, our evidences clearly show that Toll-like receptors 9 (TLR9) antagonist IRS 869 significantly eliminated most of the HAdV7 initiated B cell activation and CD8(+) T cells response, supporting the role and contribution of TLR9 signaling in HAdV7 induced human B cell cross-presentation. Besides a better understanding of the interactions between recombinant HAdV7 and human naive B cells, to our knowledge, the present study provides the first evidence to support the use of HAdV7-modified B cells as a vehicle for vaccines and immunotherapy. PMID:26620361

  5. Change of Major Genotype of Enterovirus 71 in Outbreaks of Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Taiwan between 1998 and 2000

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jen-Ren; Tuan, Yen-Chang; Tsai, Huey-Pin; Yan, Jing-Jou; Liu, Ching-Chuan; Su, Ih-Jen

    2002-01-01

    Two outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) occurred in Taiwan between 1998 and 2000. Enteroviruses were isolated from a total of 1,892 patients in this laboratory during this period. Of the virus isolates, enterovirus 71 (EV71) was diagnosed in 44.4% of the patients (132 of 297) in 1998, 2% (13 of 646) in 1999, and 20.5% (195 of 949) in 2000. Genetic analyses of the 5?-untranslated and VP1 regions of EV71 isolates by reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing were performed to understand the diversity of EV71 in these outbreaks of HFMD. Most EV71 isolates from the 1998 epidemic belonged to genotype C, while only one-tenth of the isolates were genotype B. Interestingly, all EV71 isolates tested from 1999 to 2000 belonged to genotype B. This study indicated that two genogroups of EV71 capable of inducing severe clinical illness have been circulating in Taiwan. Furthermore, the predominant EV71 genotypes responsible for each of the two major HFMD outbreaks within the 3-year period in Taiwan were different. PMID:11773085

  6. HUMAN CYTOSOLIC SULFOTRANSFERASE 2B1: ISOFORM EXPRESSION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY AND SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION

    PubMed Central

    Falany, C.N.; He, D.; Dumas, N.; Frost, A.R.; Falany, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Sulfation is an important Phase II conjugation reaction involved in the synthesis and metabolism of steroids in humans. Two different isoforms (2B1a and 2B1b) are encoded by the sulfotransferase (SULT) 2B1 gene utilizing different start sites of transcription resulting in the incorporation of different first exons. SULT2B1a and SULT2B1b are 350 and 365 amino acids in length, respectively, and the last 342 aa are identical. Message for both SULT2B1 isoforms is present in human tissues although SULT2B1b message is generally more abundant. However, to date only SULT2B1b protein has been detected in human tissues or cell lines. SULT2B1b is localized in the cytosol and/or nuclei of human cells. A unique 3?-extension of SULT2B1b is required for nuclear localization in human BeWo placental choriocarcinoma cells. Nuclear localization is stimulated by forskolin treatment in BeWo cells and serine phosphorylation has been identified in the 3?-extension. SULT2B1b is selective for the sulfation of 3?-hydroxysteroids such as dehydroepiandrosterone and pregnenolone, and may also have a role in cholesterol sulfation in human skin. The substrate specificity, nuclear localization, and tissue localization of SULT2B1b suggest a role in regulating the responsiveness of cells to adrenal androgens via their direct inactivation or by preventing their conversion to more potent androgens and estrogens. PMID:17055258

  7. Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase Expression in Human B Cell Precursors Is Essential for Central B Cell Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Cantaert, Tineke; Schickel, Jean-Nicolas; Bannock, Jason M; Ng, Yen-Shing; Massad, Christopher; Oe, Tyler; Wu, Renee; Lavoie, Aubert; Walter, Jolan E; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Al-Herz, Waleed; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Ochs, Hans D; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Durandy, Anne; Meffre, Eric

    2015-11-17

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), the enzyme-mediating class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) of immunoglobulin genes, is essential for the removal of developing autoreactive B cells. How AID mediates central B cell tolerance remains unknown. We report that AID enzymes were produced in a discrete population of immature B cells that expressed recombination-activating gene 2 (RAG2), suggesting that they undergo secondary recombination to edit autoreactive antibodies. However, most AID+ immature B cells lacked anti-apoptotic MCL-1 and were deleted by apoptosis. AID inhibition using lentiviral-encoded short hairpin (sh)RNA in B cells developing in humanized mice resulted in a failure to remove autoreactive clones. Hence, B cell intrinsic AID expression mediates central B cell tolerance potentially through its RAG-coupled genotoxic activity in self-reactive immature B cells. PMID:26546282

  8. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} impairs NF-{kappa}B activation in human naive B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Geldmeyer-Hilt, Kerstin; Heine, Guido; Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin ; Hartmann, Bjoern; Baumgrass, Ria; Radbruch, Andreas; Worm, Margitta

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} In naive B cells, VDR activation by calcitriol results in reduced NF-{kappa}B p105 and p50 protein expression. {yields} Ligating the VDR with calcitriol causes reduced nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B p65. {yields} Reduced nuclear amount of p65 after calcitriol incubation results in reduced binding of p65 on the p105 promoter. {yields} Thus, vitamin D receptor signaling may reduce or prevent activation of B cells and unwanted immune responses, e.g. in IgE dependent diseases such as allergic asthma. -- Abstract: 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (calcitriol), the bioactive metabolite of vitamin D, modulates the activation and inhibits IgE production of anti-CD40 and IL-4 stimulated human peripheral B cells. Engagement of CD40 results in NF-{kappa}B p50 activation, which is essential for the class switch to IgE. Herein, we investigated by which mechanism calcitriol modulates NF-{kappa}B mediated activation of human naive B cells. Naive B cells were predominantly targeted by calcitriol in comparison with memory B cells as shown by pronounced induction of the VDR target gene cyp24a1. Vitamin D receptor activation resulted in a strongly reduced p105/p50 protein and mRNA expression in human naive B cells. This effect is mediated by impaired nuclear translocation of p65 and consequently reduced binding of p65 to its binding site in the p105 promoter. Our data indicate that the vitamin D receptor reduces NF-{kappa}B activation by interference with NF-{kappa}B p65 and p105. Thus, the vitamin D receptor inhibits costimulatory signal transduction in naive B cells, namely by reducing CD40 signaling.

  9. Production of monoclonal antibody recognizing a subpopulation of human B lymphocytes producing B cell growth factor (BCGF)

    SciTech Connect

    Witzel, N.; Ambrus, J.L. Jr.; Jurgensen, C.H.; Mostowski, H.; Fauci, A.S.

    1986-03-05

    Several laboratories have recently reported production of B cell growth factors (BCGF) by a variety of human B cell lines. The authors have described production of BCGF by clones of B cell lymphoma lines and by normal Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I-activated B cells. To further evaluate whether BCGF production was the function of particular subpopulations of B cells, they immunized mice with the BCGF producing line Namalva and then developed a panel of hybridomas. Monoclonal antibodies were screened for binding to Namalva and the absence of binding to a non-BCGF producing B cell line. One monoclonal antibody, NN4, which met these criteria was also noted by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis to stain clones from a B cell lymphoma line producing BCGF but not clones from the same line which do not produce BCGF. The monoclonal antibody did not stain T cells or monocytes but stained 1-5% of normal human B lymphocytes from peripheral blood or tonsils. Binding of /sup 125/I-labeled NN4 to NN4/sup +/ B cells was not affected by the presence of BCGF. Therefore, NN4 recognizes a unique antigen present on B cell lines which produces BCGF; studies are in progress to determine the significance of this antigen on normal B cells.

  10. Suppressive effects of destruxin B on hepatitis B virus surface antigen gene expression in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, H C; Chou, C K; Sun, C M; Yeh, S F

    1997-05-01

    Destruxin B, a cyclodepsipeptide was originally identified as a plant pathogen from the fungus, Alternaria brassicae. We examined the antiviral activity of destruxin B and found that it suppresses the expression of the hepatitis B viral surface antigen (HBsAg) gene in human hepatoma Hep3B cells which carry an integrated viral gene in its chromosome. In contrast, destruxin B shows no cytotoxic effect on the viability of the cells. Furthermore, it can be shown that destruxin B can reversibly suppress HBsAg production by Hep3B cells in a concentration-dependent manner with EC50 of 0.5 microM. Northern blot analysis indicates that the suppression of HBsAg gene expression by destruxin B is mainly at the mRNA level. Destruxin B not only suppresses the endogenously expressed HBsAg in the Hep3B cells but also suppresses the HBsAg produced either from the stable transfected HBV DNA in another human hepatoma HuH-7 cell line which carry no endogenous HBV genome. These results suggest that destruxin B may have future potential for development as a specific anti-HBV drug. PMID:9191021

  11. Enterovirus Encephalitis Increases the Risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chou, I-Ching; Lin, Che-Chen; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Enterovirus (EV) infection is a major public health issue throughout the world with potential neurological complications. This study evaluated the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and EV encephalitis in children. Data of reimbursement claims from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan were used in a population-based casecontrol design. The study comprised 2646 children with ADHD who were matched according to sex, age, urbanization level of residence, parental occupation, and baseline year, to people without ADHD at a ratio of 1:10. The index date of the ADHD group was the ADHD date of diagnosis. Histories of EV infections before the index dates were collected and recategorized according to the severity of infection. Compared with children without EV infection, the children with mild EV infection had a 1.16-fold increased risk of ADHD (odds ratio [OR]?=?1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.071.26), and the children with severe EV infection had a greater risk of ADHD (OR?=?2.82, 95% CI?=?1.057.57). The results also revealed a significant correlation between ADHD and the severity of EV infection (P for trend?=?0.0001). Patients with EV encephalitis have an increased risk of developing ADHD. Although most EV encephalitis in children has a favorable prognosis, it may be associated with significant long-term neurological sequelae, even in children considered fully recovered at discharge. Neuropsychological testing should be recommended for survivors of childhood EV encephalitis. The causative factors between EV encephalitis and the increased risk of ADHD require further investigation. PMID:25906098

  12. Mutations in the non-structural protein region contribute to intra-genotypic evolution of enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical manifestations of enterovirus 71 (EV71) range from herpangina, hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), to severe neurological complications. Unlike the situation of switching genotypes seen in EV71 outbreaks during 19982008 in Taiwan, genotype B5 was responsible for two large outbreaks in 2008 and 2012, respectively. In China, by contrast, EV71 often persists as a single genotype in the population and causes frequent outbreaks. To investigate genetic changes in viral evolution, complete EV71 genome sequences were used to analyze the intra-genotypic evolution pattern in Taiwan, China, and the Netherlands. Results Genotype B5 was predominant in Taiwans 2008 outbreak and was re-emergent in 2012. EV71 strains from both outbreaks were phylogenetically segregated into two lineages containing fourteen non-synonymous substitutions predominantly in the non-structural protein coding region. In China, genotype C4 was first seen in 1998 and caused the latest large outbreak in 2008. Unlike shifting genotypes in Taiwan, genotype C4 persisted with progressive drift through time. A majority of non-synonymous mutations occurred in residues located in the non-structural coding region, showing annual increases. Interestingly, genotype B1/B2 in the Netherlands showed another stepwise evolution with dramatic EV71 activity increase in 1986. Phylogeny of the VP1 coding region in 19711986 exhibited similar lineage turnover with genotype C4 in China; however, phylogeny of the 3D-encoding region indicated separate lineage appearing after 1983, suggesting that the 3D-encoding region of genotype B2 was derived from an unidentified ancestor that contributed to intra-genotypic evolution in the Netherlands. Conclusions Unlike VP1 coding sequences long used for phylogenetic study of enteroviruses due to expected host immune escape, our study emphasizes a dominant role of non-synonymous mutations in non-structural protein regions that contribute to (re-)emergent genotypes in continuous stepwise evolution. Dozens of amino acid substitutions, especially in non-structural proteins, were identified via genetic changes driven through intra-genotypic evolution worldwide. These identified substitutions appeared to increase viral fitness in the population, affording valuable insights not only for viral evolution but also for prevention, control, and vaccine against EV71 infection. PMID:24766641

  13. Recruitment of PI4KIII? to Coxsackievirus B3 Replication Organelles Is Independent of ACBD3, GBF1, and Arf1

    PubMed Central

    Dorobantu, Cristina M.; van der Schaar, Hilde M.; Ford, Lauren A.; Strating, Jeroen R. P. M.; Ulferts, Rachel; Fang, Ying; Belov, George

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Members of the Enterovirus (poliovirus [PV], coxsackieviruses, and human rhinoviruses) and Kobuvirus (Aichi virus) genera in the Picornaviridae family rely on PI4KIII? (phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase III?) for efficient replication. The small membrane-anchored enteroviral protein 3A recruits PI4KIII? to replication organelles, yet the underlying mechanism has remained elusive. Recently, it was shown that kobuviruses recruit PI4KIII? through interaction with ACBD3 (acyl coenzyme A [acyl-CoA]-binding protein domain 3), a novel interaction partner of PI4KIII?. Therefore, we investigated a possible role for ACBD3 in recruiting PI4KIII? to enterovirus replication organelles. Although ACBD3 interacted directly with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) 3A, its depletion from cells by RNA interference did not affect PI4KIII? recruitment to replication organelles and did not impair CVB3 RNA replication. Enterovirus 3A was previously also proposed to recruit PI4KIII? via GBF1/Arf1, based on the known interaction of 3A with GBF1, an important regulator of secretory pathway transport and a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) of Arf1. However, our results demonstrate that inhibition of GBF1 or Arf1 either by pharmacological inhibition or depletion with small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment did not affect the ability of 3A to recruit PI4KIII?. Furthermore, we show that a 3A mutant that no longer binds GBF1 was capable of recruiting PI4KIII?, even in ACBD3-depleted cells. Together, our findings indicate that unlike originally envisaged, coxsackievirus recruits PI4KIII? to replication organelles independently of ACBD3 and GBF1/Arf1. IMPORTANCE A hallmark of enteroviral infection is the generation of new membranous structures to support viral RNA replication. The functionality of these replication organelles depends on the concerted actions of both viral nonstructural proteins and co-opted host factors. It is thus essential to understand how these structures are formed and which cellular components are key players in this process. GBF1/Arf1 and ACBD3 have been proposed to contribute to the recruitment of the essential lipid-modifying enzyme PI4KIII? to enterovirus replication organelles. Here we show that the enterovirus CVB3 recruits PI4KIII? by a mechanism independent of both GBF1/Arf1 and ACBD3. This study shows that the strategy employed by coxsackievirus to recruit PI4KIII? to replication organelles is far more complex than initially anticipated. PMID:24352456

  14. The genomic signature of human rhinoviruses A, B and C.

    PubMed

    Megremis, Spyridon; Demetriou, Philippos; Makrinioti, Heidi; Manoussaki, Alkistis E; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G

    2012-01-01

    Human rhinoviruses are single stranded positive sense RNA viruses that are presented in more than 50% of acute upper respiratory tract infections. Despite extensive studies on the genetic diversity of the virus, little is known about the forces driving it. In order to explain this diversity, many research groups have focused on protein sequence requirements for viable, functional and transmissible virus but have missed out an important aspect of viral evolution such as the genomic ontology of the virus. This study presents for the first time the genomic signature of 111 fully sequenced HRV strains from all three groups HRV-A, HRV-B and HRV-C. We observed an HRV genome tendency to eliminate CpG and UpA dinucleotides, coupling with over-representation of UpG and CpA. We propose a specific mechanism which describes how rapid changes in the HRV genomic sequence can take place under the strict control of conservation of the polypeptide backbone. Moreover, the distribution of the observed under- and over-represented dinucleotides along the HRV genome is presented. Distance matrice tables based on CpG and UpA odds ratios were constructed and viewed as heatmaps and distance trees. None of the suppressions can be attributed to codon usage or in RNA secondary structure requirements. Since viral recognition is dependent on RNA motifs rich in CpG and UpA, it is possible that the overall described genome evolution mechanism acts in order to protect the virus from host recognition. PMID:23028561

  15. Human articular chondrocytes express functional leukotriene B4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ann Kristin; Indrevik, Jill-Tove; Figenschau, Yngve; Martinez-Zubiaurre, Inigo; Sveinbjrnsson, Baldur

    2015-03-01

    Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a potent chemoattractant associated with the development of osteoarthritis (OA), while its receptors BLT1 and BLT2 have been found in synovium and subchondral bone. In this study, we have investigated whether these receptors are also expressed by human cartilage cells and their potential effects on cartilage cells. The expression of LTB4 receptors in native tissue and cultured cells was assessed by immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and electron microscopy. The functional significance of the LTB4 receptor expression was studied by Western blotting, using phospho-specific antibodies in the presence or absence of receptor antagonists. In further studies, the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, growth factors and metalloproteinases by LTB4-stimulated chondrocytes was measured by multiplex protein assays. The effects of LTB4 in cartilage signature gene expression in cultured cells were assessed by quantitative PCR, whereas the LTB4-promoted matrix synthesis was determined using 3D pellet cultures. Both receptors were present in cultured chondrocytes, as was confirmed by immunolabelling and PCR. The relative quantification by PCR demonstrated a higher expression of the receptors in cells from healthy joints compared with OA cases. The stimulation of cultured chondrocytes with LTB4 resulted in a phosphorylation of downstream transcription factor Erk 1/2, which was reduced after blocking BLT1 signalling. No alteration in the secretion of cytokine and metalloproteinases was recorded after challenging cultured cells with LTB4; likewise, cartilage matrix gene expression and 3D tissue synthesis were unaffected. Chondrocytes express BLT1 and BLT2 receptors, and LTB4 activates the downstream Erk 1/2 pathway by engaging the high-affinity receptor BLT1. However, any putative role in cartilage biology could not be revealed, and remains to be clarified. PMID:25677035

  16. Structural Basis for the Recognition of Human Cytomegalovirus Glycoprotein B by a Neutralizing Human Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Stump, Joachim D.; Wiegers, Anna-Katharina; Winkler, Thomas H.; Sticht, Heinrich; Mach, Michael; Muller, Yves A.

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections are life-threating to people with a compromised or immature immune system. Upon adhesion, fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell is initiated. In this step, the viral glycoprotein gB is considered to represent the major fusogen. Here, we present for the first time structural data on the binding of an anti-herpes virus antibody and describe the atomic interactions between the antigenic domain Dom-II of HCMV gB and the Fab fragment of the human antibody SM5-1. The crystal structure shows that SM5-1 binds Dom-II almost exclusively via only two CDRs, namely light chain CDR L1 and a 22-residue-long heavy chain CDR H3. Two contiguous segments of Dom-II are targeted by SM5-1, and the combining site includes a hydrophobic pocket on the Dom-II surface that is only partially filled by CDR H3 residues. SM5-1 belongs to a series of sequence-homologous anti-HCMV gB monoclonal antibodies that were isolated from the same donor at a single time point and that represent different maturation states. Analysis of amino acid substitutions in these antibodies in combination with molecular dynamics simulations show that key contributors to the picomolar affinity of SM5-1 do not directly interact with the antigen but significantly reduce the flexibility of CDR H3 in the bound and unbound state of SM5-1 through intramolecular side chain interactions. Thus, these residues most likely alleviate unfavorable binding entropies associated with extra-long CDR H3s, and this might represent a common strategy during antibody maturation. Models of entire HCMV gB in different conformational states hint that SM5-1 neutralizes HCMV either by blocking the pre- to postfusion transition of gB or by precluding the interaction with additional effectors such as the gH/gL complex. PMID:25299639

  17. Structural basis for the recognition of human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B by a neutralizing human antibody.

    PubMed

    Spindler, Nadja; Diestel, Uschi; Stump, Joachim D; Wiegers, Anna-Katharina; Winkler, Thomas H; Sticht, Heinrich; Mach, Michael; Muller, Yves A

    2014-10-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections are life-threating to people with a compromised or immature immune system. Upon adhesion, fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell is initiated. In this step, the viral glycoprotein gB is considered to represent the major fusogen. Here, we present for the first time structural data on the binding of an anti-herpes virus antibody and describe the atomic interactions between the antigenic domain Dom-II of HCMV gB and the Fab fragment of the human antibody SM5-1. The crystal structure shows that SM5-1 binds Dom-II almost exclusively via only two CDRs, namely light chain CDR L1 and a 22-residue-long heavy chain CDR H3. Two contiguous segments of Dom-II are targeted by SM5-1, and the combining site includes a hydrophobic pocket on the Dom-II surface that is only partially filled by CDR H3 residues. SM5-1 belongs to a series of sequence-homologous anti-HCMV gB monoclonal antibodies that were isolated from the same donor at a single time point and that represent different maturation states. Analysis of amino acid substitutions in these antibodies in combination with molecular dynamics simulations show that key contributors to the picomolar affinity of SM5-1 do not directly interact with the antigen but significantly reduce the flexibility of CDR H3 in the bound and unbound state of SM5-1 through intramolecular side chain interactions. Thus, these residues most likely alleviate unfavorable binding entropies associated with extra-long CDR H3s, and this might represent a common strategy during antibody maturation. Models of entire HCMV gB in different conformational states hint that SM5-1 neutralizes HCMV either by blocking the pre- to postfusion transition of gB or by precluding the interaction with additional effectors such as the gH/gL complex. PMID:25299639

  18. Annexin II Binds to Capsid Protein VP1 of Enterovirus 71 and Enhances Viral Infectivity ?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Su-Lin; Chou, Ying-Ting; Wu, Cheng-Nan; Ho, Mei-Shang

    2011-01-01

    Enterovirus type 71 (EV71) causes hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which is mostly self-limited but may be complicated with a severe to fatal neurological syndrome in some children. Understanding the molecular basis of virus-host interactions might help clarify the largely unknown neuropathogenic mechanisms of EV71. In this study, we showed that human annexin II (Anx2) protein could bind to the EV71 virion via the capsid protein VP1. Either pretreatment of EV71 with soluble recombinant Anx2 or pretreatment of host cells with an anti-Anx2 antibody could result in reduced viral attachment to the cell surface and a reduction of the subsequent virus yield in vitro. HepG2 cells, which do not express Anx2, remained permissive to EV71 infection, though the virus yield was lower than that for a cognate lineage expressing Anx2. Stable transfection of plasmids expressing Anx2 protein into HepG2 cells (HepG2-Anx2 cells) could enhance EV71 infectivity, with an increased virus yield, especially at a low infective dose, and the enhanced infectivity could be reversed by pretreating HepG2-Anx2 cells with an anti-Anx2 antibody. The Anx2-interacting domain was mapped by yeast two-hybrid analysis to VP1 amino acids 40 to 100, a region different from the known receptor binding domain on the surface of the picornavirus virion. Our data suggest that binding of EV71 to Anx2 on the cell surface can enhance viral entry and infectivity, especially at a low infective dose. PMID:21900167

  19. Molecular epidemiology of enterovirus 71 infection in the central region of Taiwan from 2002 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Hao; Kuo, Ta-Cheng; Lin, Yu-Ting; Huang, Szu-Wei; Liu, Hsin-Fu; Wang, John; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease can be classified into three genotypes and many subtypes. The objectives of this study were to conduct a molecular epidemiological study of EV71 in the central region of Taiwan from 2002-2012 and to test the hypothesis that whether the alternative appearance of different EV71 subtypes in Taiwan is due to transmission from neighboring countries or from re-emergence of pre-existing local strains. We selected 174 EV71 isolates and used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to amplify their VP1 region for DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian methods. We found that the major subtypes of EV71 in Taiwan were B4 for 2002 epidemic, C4 for 2004-2005 epidemic, B5 for 2008-2009 epidemic, C4 for 2010 epidemic and B5 for 2011-2012 epidemic. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the 2002 and 2008 epidemics were associated with EV71 from Malaysia and Singapore; while both 2010 and 2011-2012 epidemics originated from different regions of mainland China including Shanghai, Henan, Xiamen and Gong-Dong. Furthermore, minor strains have been identified in each epidemic and some of them were correlated with the subsequent outbreaks. Therefore, the EV71 infection in Taiwan may originate from pre-existing minor strains or from other regions in Asia including mainland China. In addition, 101 EV71 isolates were selected for the detection of new recombinant strains using the nucleotide sequences spanning the VP1-2A-2B region. No new recombinant strain was found. Analysis of clinical manifestations showed that patients infected with C4 had significantly higher rates of pharyngeal vesicles or ulcers than patients infected with B5. This is the first study demonstrating that different EV 71 genotypes may have different clinical manifestations and the association of EV71 infections between Taiwan and mainland China. PMID:24391812

  20. Phylodynamics of Enterovirus A71-Associated Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Kühnert, Denise; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Lin, Xudong; Simenauer, Ari; Akopov, Asmik; Das, Suman R.; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Shrivastava, Susmita; Ngoc, Nghiem My; Uyen, Le Thi Tam; Tuyen, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thanh, Tran Tan; Hang, Vu Thi Ty; Qui, Phan Tu; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Khanh, Truong Huu; Thinh, Le Quoc; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Van, Hoang Minh Tu; Viet, Do Chau; Tuan, Ha Manh; Viet, Ho Lu; Hien, Tran Tinh; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Stadler, Tanja; Wentworth, David E.; Holmes, Edward C.; Van Doorn, H. Rogier

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and is particularly prevalent in parts of Southeast Asia, affecting thousands of children and infants each year. Revealing the evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics of EV-A71 through time and space is central to understanding its outbreak potential. We generated the full genome sequences of 200 EV-A71 strains sampled from various locations in Viet Nam between 2011 and 2013 and used these sequence data to determine the evolutionary history and phylodynamics of EV-A71 in Viet Nam, providing estimates of the effective reproduction number (Re) of the infection through time. In addition, we described the phylogeography of EV-A71 throughout Southeast Asia, documenting patterns of viral gene flow. Accordingly, our analysis reveals that a rapid genogroup switch from C4 to B5 likely took place during 2012 in Viet Nam. We show that the Re of subgenogroup C4 decreased during the time frame of sampling, whereas that of B5 increased and remained >1 at the end of 2013, corresponding to a rise in B5 prevalence. Our study reveals that the subgenogroup B5 virus that emerged into Viet Nam is closely related to variants that were responsible for large epidemics in Malaysia and Taiwan and therefore extends our knowledge regarding its associated area of endemicity. Subgenogroup B5 evidently has the potential to cause more widespread outbreaks across Southeast Asia. IMPORTANCE EV-A71 is one of many viruses that cause HFMD, a common syndrome that largely affects infants and children. HFMD usually causes only mild illness with no long-term consequences. Occasionally, however, severe infection may arise, especially in very young children, causing neurological complications and even death. EV-A71 is highly contagious and is associated with the most severe HFMD cases, with large and frequent epidemics of the virus recorded worldwide. Although major advances have been made in the development of a potential EV-A71 vaccine, there is no current prevention and little is known about the patterns and dynamics of EV-A71 spread. In this study, we utilize full-length genome sequence data obtained from HFMD patients in Viet Nam, a geographical region where the disease has been endemic since 2003, to characterize the phylodynamics of this important emerging virus. PMID:26085170

  1. Human Rhinoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lamson, Daryl M.; St. George, Kirsten; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs), first discovered in the 1950s, are responsible for more than one-half of cold-like illnesses and cost billions of dollars annually in medical visits and missed days of work. Advances in molecular methods have enhanced our understanding of the genomic structure of HRV and have led to the characterization of three genetically distinct HRV groups, designated groups A, B, and C, within the genus Enterovirus and the family Picornaviridae. HRVs are traditionally associated with upper respiratory tract infection, otitis media, and sinusitis. In recent years, the increasing implementation of PCR assays for respiratory virus detection in clinical laboratories has facilitated the recognition of HRV as a lower respiratory tract pathogen, particularly in patients with asthma, infants, elderly patients, and immunocompromised hosts. Cultured isolates of HRV remain important for studies of viral characteristics and disease pathogenesis. Indeed, whether the clinical manifestations of HRV are related directly to viral pathogenicity or secondary to the host immune response is the subject of ongoing research. There are currently no approved antiviral therapies for HRVs, and treatment remains primarily supportive. This review provides a comprehensive, up-to-date assessment of the basic virology, pathogenesis, clinical epidemiology, and laboratory features of and treatment and prevention strategies for HRVs. PMID:23297263

  2. EFFECT OF PARTICULATES ON DISINFECTION OF ENTEROVIRUSES IN WATER BY CHLORINE DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inactivation kinetics of ClO2 on two enteroviruses, poliovirus 1 (Mahoney) and coxsackie virus A9, and an enteric indicator of fecal pollution, Escherichia coli, were examined in laboratory studies. In addition, the disinfecting ability of ClO2 as affected by particulates (bo...

  3. RAPID PCR-BASED MONITORING OF INFECTIOUS ENTEROVIRUSES IN DRINKING WATER. (R824756)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Currently, the standard method for the detection of enteroviruses and hepatitis A virus in water involves cell culture assay which is expensive and time consuming. Direct RT-PCR offers a rapid and sensitive alternative to virus detection but sensitivity is oft...

  4. [The likely role of protozoa in the maintenance of the environmental circulation of enteroviruses].

    PubMed

    Skachkov, M V; Al'misheva, A Sh; Plotnikov, A O; Nemtseva, N V

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to define the likely role of protozoa as a possible natural reservoir for enteroviruses and their involvement in enterovirus-induced serous meningitis morbidity. Samples were taken from the running and standing water reservoirs of the Orenburg Region in the summer-autumn period and those of wastewaters were collected at all purification stages. Enteroviral RNA in the protozoan cultured was detected by the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The Ural River was found to contain 72 protozoan species; there were 15 and 38 protozoan species in the lakes and wastewaters, respectively. With PCR, enteroviruses were detected in 61.8% of the cultures of protozoa which belonged to 23 species of flagellates, amoebas, and infusoria isolated from the natural water reservoirs exposed to an anthropogenic load, as well as from the wastewaters at all purification stages. The predominant localization of enteroviruses was observed in the dominant taxons of the protozoa Paraphysomonas sp., Spumella sp., Petalomonas poosilla, Amoeba sp. PMID:19799220

  5. Broad-range inhibition of enterovirus replication by OSW-1, a natural compound targeting OSBP.

    PubMed

    Albulescu, Lucian; Strating, Jeroen R P M; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; van der Linden, Lonneke; Shair, Matthew D; Neyts, Johan; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2015-05-01

    Enteroviruses, e.g., polio-, coxsackie- and rhinoviruses, constitute a large genus within the Picornaviridae family of positive-strand RNA viruses and include many important pathogens linked to a variety of acute and chronic diseases. Despite their huge medical and economic impact, no approved antiviral therapy is yet available. Recently, the oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) was implicated as a host factor for enterovirus replication. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of the natural compound OSW-1, a ligand of OSBP that is under investigation as an anti-cancer drug. OSW-1 potently inhibited the replication of all enteroviruses tested, with IC50 values in the low nanomolar range, acted at the genome replication stage and was effective in all tested cell types of three different species. Importantly, OSBP overexpression rescued viral replication, demonstrating that the antiviral effect of OSW-1 is due to targeting OSBP. Together, we here report the anti-enterovirus activity of the natural anti-cancer compound OSW-1. PMID:25752737

  6. NF-kappa B regulation in human neutrophils by nuclear I kappa B alpha: correlation to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Castro-Alcaraz, Susana; Miskolci, Veronika; Kalasapudi, Bharati; Davidson, Dennis; Vancurova, Ivana

    2002-10-01

    Neutrophils are among the first circulating leukocytes involved in acute inflammatory processes. Transcription factor NF-kappaB plays a key role in the inflammatory response, regulating the expression of proinflammatory and anti-apoptotic genes. Recently we have shown that human neutrophils contain a significant amount of NF-kappaB inhibitor, IkappaBalpha, in the nucleus of unstimulated cells. The present objective was to examine the mechanisms controlling the nuclear content of IkappaBalpha in human neutrophils and to determine whether increased accumulation of IkappaBalpha in the nucleus is associated with increased neutrophil apoptosis. We show for the first time that neutrophil stimulation with pro-inflammatory signals results in degradation of IkappaBalpha that occurs in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Prolonged (2-h) stimulation with TNF and LPS induces resynthesis of IkappaBalpha that is again translocated to the nucleus in human neutrophils, but not in monocytic cells. Leptomycin B, a specific inhibitor of nuclear export, increases nuclear accumulation of IkappaBalpha in stimulated neutrophils by blocking the IkappaBalpha nuclear export, and this is associated with inhibition of NF-kappaB activity, induction of caspase-3 activation, and apoptosis. Based on our data we present a new model of NF-kappaB regulation in human neutrophils by nuclear IkappaBalpha. Our results demonstrate that the NF-kappaB activity in human neutrophils is regulated by mechanisms clearly different from those in monocytes and other human cells and suggest that the increased nuclear content of IkappaBalpha in human neutrophils might represent one of the underlying mechanisms for the increased apoptosis in these cells. PMID:12244195

  7. Specific human B lymphocyte alloantigens linked to HL-A.

    PubMed Central

    Mann, D L; Abelson, L; Henkart, P; Harris, S D; Amos, D B

    1975-01-01

    Sera, previously found to react specifically with B lymphoid cultured cells, were tested on isolated T and B peripheral blood lymphocytes in a microcytotoxicity assay. Studies were performed on lymphocytes obtained from several large Amish families. The sera used in these studies were cytotoxic to peripheral blood, B lymphocytes, but not cytotoxic to T lymphocytes. The antigens detected followed the inheritance pattern of HL-A haplotypes. The strong linkage disequilibrium with HL-A antigens suggests that genes controlling the expression of B lymphocyte antigens are linked to genes controlling HL-A alloantigens. PMID:1082138

  8. Modification of the length and structure of the linker of N(6)-benzyladenosine modulates its selective antiviral activity against enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Drenichev, Mikhail S; Oslovsky, Vladimir E; Sun, Liang; Tijsma, Aloys; Kurochkin, Nikolay N; Tararov, Vitali I; Chizhov, Alexander O; Neyts, Johan; Pannecouque, Christophe; Leyssen, Pieter; Mikhailov, Sergey N

    2016-03-23

    Very recently, we demonstrated that N(6)-isopentenyladenosine, a cytokinin nucleoside, exerts a potent and selective antiviral effect on the replication of human enterovirus 71. The present study is devoted to the structure optimization of another natural compound: N(6)-benzyladenosine. We mainly focused on the exploration of the size and nature of the linker between the adenine and the phenyl ring, as well as on the necessity of the D-ribose residue. More than 30 analogues of N(6)-benzyladenosine were prepared and their antiviral properties were evaluated. Two main methodologies were used for preparation: N(6)-acetyl-2',3',5'-tri-O-acetyladenosine can be regioselectively alkylated either by alkyl halides under base promoted conditions or by alcohols in Mitsunobu reactions. After deacylation with 4 M PrNH2 in MeOH at room temperature for one day, the desired products were obtained in overall high yields. Analysis of the structure-activity relationship clearly shows that the optimal size of the linker is limited to 2 or 3 atoms (compounds 4-7). 2'-Deoxyadenosine derivatives did not elicit any inhibitory or cytotoxic effect, while 5'-deoxynucleosides still induced some cell protective antiviral activity. Based on these observations, it can be hypothesized that there may be another mechanism that is at the base of the antiviral activity of these compounds against enterovirus 71 besides a possible 5'-triphosphorylation followed by a putative inhibitory effect on RNA synthesis. PMID:26854380

  9. EPA Method 1615. Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus Occurrence in Water by Culture and RT-qPCR. Part III. Virus Detection by RT-qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Fout, G. Shay; Cashdollar, Jennifer L.; Griffin, Shannon M.; Brinkman, Nichole E.; Varughese, Eunice A.; Parshionikar, Sandhya U.

    2016-01-01

    EPA Method 1615 measures enteroviruses and noroviruses present in environmental and drinking waters. This method was developed with the goal of having a standardized method for use in multiple analytical laboratories during monitoring period 3 of the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule. Herein we present the protocol for extraction of viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) from water sample concentrates and for quantitatively measuring enterovirus and norovirus concentrations using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Virus concentrations for the molecular assay are calculated in terms of genomic copies of viral RNA per liter based upon a standard curve. The method uses a number of quality controls to increase data quality and to reduce interlaboratory and intralaboratory variation. The method has been evaluated by examining virus recovery from ground and reagent grade waters seeded with poliovirus type 3 and murine norovirus as a surrogate for human noroviruses. Mean poliovirus recoveries were 20% in groundwaters and 44% in reagent grade water. Mean murine norovirus recoveries with the RT-qPCR assay were 30% in groundwaters and 4% in reagent grade water. PMID:26862985

  10. EPA Method 1615. Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus Occurrence in Water by Culture and RT-qPCR. Part III. Virus Detection by RT-qPCR.

    PubMed

    Fout, G Shay; Cashdollar, Jennifer L; Griffin, Shannon M; Brinkman, Nichole E; Varughese, Eunice A; Parshionikar, Sandhya U

    2016-01-01

    EPA Method 1615 measures enteroviruses and noroviruses present in environmental and drinking waters. This method was developed with the goal of having a standardized method for use in multiple analytical laboratories during monitoring period 3 of the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule. Herein we present the protocol for extraction of viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) from water sample concentrates and for quantitatively measuring enterovirus and norovirus concentrations using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Virus concentrations for the molecular assay are calculated in terms of genomic copies of viral RNA per liter based upon a standard curve. The method uses a number of quality controls to increase data quality and to reduce interlaboratory and intralaboratory variation. The method has been evaluated by examining virus recovery from ground and reagent grade waters seeded with poliovirus type 3 and murine norovirus as a surrogate for human noroviruses. Mean poliovirus recoveries were 20% in groundwaters and 44% in reagent grade water. Mean murine norovirus recoveries with the RT-qPCR assay were 30% in groundwaters and 4% in reagent grade water. PMID:26862985

  11. Why do human B cells secrete granzyme B? Insights into a novel B-cell differentiation pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hagn, Magdalena; Jahrsdrfer, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    B cells are generally believed to operate as producers of high affinity antibodies to defend the body against microorganisms, whereas cellular cytotoxicity is considered as an exclusive prerogative of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). In conflict with this dogma, recent studies have demonstrated that the combination of interleukin-21 (IL-21) and B-cell receptor (BCR) stimulation enables B cells to produce and secrete the active form of the cytotoxic serine protease granzyme B (GrB). Although the production of GrB by B cells is not accompanied by that of perforin as in the case of many other GrB-secreting cells, recent findings suggest GrB secretion by B cells may play a significant role in early antiviral immune responses, in the regulation of autoimmune responses, and in cancer immunosurveillance. Here, we discuss in detail how GrB-secreting B cells may influence a variety of immune processes. A better understanding of the role that GrB-secreting B cells are playing in the immune system may allow for the development and improvement of novel immunotherapeutic approaches against infectious, autoimmune and malignant diseases. PMID:23243600

  12. Complete Genome Analysis of the C4 Subgenotype Strains of Enterovirus 71: Predominant Recombination C4 Viruses Persistently Circulating in China for 14 Years

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Aili; Mao, Naiying; Xu, Songtao; Zhu, Zhen; Zhou, Jianhui; Shi, Jing; Zhao, Yueping; Wang, Xianjun; Huang, Xueyong; Zhu, Shuangli; Zhang, Yong; Tang, Wei; Ling, Hua; Xu, Wenbo

    2013-01-01

    Genetic recombination is a well-known phenomenon for enteroviruses. To investigate the genetic characterization and the potential recombination of enterovirus 71 (EV71) circulating in China, we determined the 16 complete genome sequences of EV71 isolated from Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD) patients during the large scale outbreak and non-outbreak years since 1998 in China. The full length genome sequences of 16 Chinese EV71 in present study were aligned with 186 genome sequences of EV71 available from GenBank, including 104 China mainland and 82 international sequences, covering the time period of 1970–2011. The oldest strains of each subgenotype of EV71 and prototype strains of HEV-A were included to do the phylogenetic and Simplot analysis. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all Chinese strains were clustered into C4 subgenotype of EV71, except for HuB/CHN/2009 clustered into A and Xiamen/CHN/2009 clustered into B5 subgenotype. Most of C4 EV71 were clustered into 2 predominant evolutionary branches: C4b and C4a evolutionary brunches. Our comprehensive recombination analysis showed the evidence of genome recombination of subgenotype C4 (including C4a and C4b) sequences between structural genes from genotype C EV71 and non-structural genes from the prototype strains of CAV16, 14 and 4, but the evidence of intratypic recombination between C4 strains and B subgenotype was not enough strong. This intertypic recombination C4 viruses were first seen in 1998 and became the predominant endemic viruses circulating in China mainland for at least 14 years. A shift between C4a and C4b evolutionary brunches of C4 recombination viruses were observed, and C4a viruses have been associated with large scale nationwide HFMD outbreak with higher morbidity and mortality since 2007. PMID:23441179

  13. Establishment of mice model with human viral hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Li-Fen; Sun, Wen-Sheng; Ma, Chun-Hong; Liu, Su-Xia; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Li-Ning; Cao, Ying-Lin; Zhu, Fa-Liang; Liu, Yu-Gang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To establish a mice model of hepatitis B by using HBV-transgenic mice, and to transfer HBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) induced from syngeneic BALB/c mice immunized by a eukaryotic expression vector containing HBV complete genome DNA. METHODS: HBV DNA was obtained from digested pBR322-2HBV and ligated with the vector pcDNA3. Recombinant pcDNA3-HBV was identified by restriction endonuclease assay and transfected into human hepatoma cell line HepG2 with lipofectin. ELISA was used to detect the expression of HBsAg in culture supernatant, and RT-PCR to determine the existence of HBV PreS1 mRNA. BALB/c mice were immunized with pcDNA3-HBV or pcDNA3 by intramuscular injection. ELISA was used to detect the expression of HBsAb in serum. MTT assay was used to measure non-specific or specific proliferation ability and specific killing activity of spleen lymphocytes. Lymphocytes from immunized mice were transferred into HBV-transgenic mice (2.5 107 per mouse). Forty-eight hours later, the level of serum protein and transaminase was detected with biochemical method, liver and kidney were sectioned and stained by HE to observe the pathological changes. RESULTS: By enzyme digestion with Eco RI, Xho I and Hind III, the recombinant pcDNA3-HBV was verified to contain a single copy of HBV genome, which was inserted in the positive direction. HepG2 cells transfected with the recombinant could stably express PreS1 mRNA and HBsAg. After immunized by pcDNA3-HBV for 4 weeks, HBsAb was detected in the serum of BALB/c mice. The potential of spleen lymphocytes for both non-specific and specific proliferation and the specific killing activity against target cells were enhanced. The transgenic mice in model group had no significant changes in the level of serum protein but had an obvious increase of ALT and AST. The liver had obvious pathological changes, while the kidney had no evident damage. CONCLUSION: A eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3-HBV containing HBV complete genome is constructed successfully. HepG2 cells transfected with the recombinant can express PreS1 mRNA and HBsAg stably. Specific cellular immune response can be induced in mice immunized by pcDNA3-HBV. A mice model of acute hepatitis with HBV has been established. PMID:15040029

  14. Structure of human nucleosome containing the testis-specific histone variant TSH2B

    SciTech Connect

    Urahama, Takashi; Horikoshi, Naoki; Osakabe, Akihisa; Tachiwana, Hiroaki; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2014-03-25

    The crystal structure of human nucleosome containing the testis-specific TSH2B variant has been determined. The TSH2B Ser85 residue does not interact with H4 in the nucleosome, and induces a local structural difference between TSH2B and H2B in nucleosomes. The human histone H2B variant TSH2B is highly expressed in testis and may function in the chromatin transition during spermatogenesis. In the present study, the crystal structure of the human testis-specific nucleosome containing TSH2B was determined at 2.8 Å resolution. A local structural difference between TSH2B and canonical H2B in nucleosomes was detected around the TSH2B-specific amino-acid residue Ser85. The TSH2B Ser85 residue does not interact with H4 in the nucleosome, but in the canonical nucleosome the H2B Asn84 residue (corresponding to the TSH2B Ser85 residue) forms water-mediated hydrogen bonds with the H4 Arg78 residue. In contrast, the other TSH2B-specific amino-acid residues did not induce any significant local structural changes in the TSH2B nucleosome. These findings may provide important information for understanding how testis-specific histone variants form nucleosomes during spermatogenesis.

  15. CR2 ligands modulate human B cell activation.

    PubMed

    Bohnsack, J F; Cooper, N R

    1988-10-15

    A considerable body of evidence from this and other laboratories indicates that complement receptor type 2 (CR2) modulates B cell activation and growth. In the present studies we have examined the effects of three different types of CR2 ligands, i.e., monomeric, aggregated, and latex-bound C3dg; mAb to different CR2 epitopes; and UV-inactivated, non-transforming EBV (EBVUV) for their actions on highly purified, high density resting tonsil B cells. Although none of these ligands induced B cells to enter the cell cycle or synergized with either anti-mu or low m.w. B cell growth factor in triggering B cell mitogenesis, aggregated C3dg, latex-bound C3dg, the OKB7 anti-CR2 mAb, and EBVUV-enhanced thymidine incorporation by phorbol ester-activated tonsil B cells. Such enhancement was not T cell or monocyte dependent. The major action of the CR2 ligands thus seems to be to enhance the transition of B cells activated by certain stimuli from the G1 to the S phase of the cell cycle. In contrast to the action of aggregated and latex-bound C3dg, monomeric C3dg was inhibitory for phorbol ester and aggregated C3dg-induced B cell activation. The HB-5 anti-CR2 mAb, which reacts with a different epitope on CR2 from that of OKB7, did not synergize with PMA in B cell activation. These data provide additional evidence for a role for the CR2 in the control of B cell growth and provide a useful model for studying the CR2-mediated signals that affect the growth of B cells. PMID:2459218

  16. Early B lymphocyte development: Similarities and differences in human and mouse

    PubMed Central

    Ichii, Michiko; Oritani, Kenji; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    2014-01-01

    B lymphocytes differentiate from hematopoietic stem cells through a series of distinct stages. Early B cell development proceeds in bone marrow until immature B cells migrate out to secondary lymphoid tissues, such as a spleen and lymph nodes, after completion of immunoglobulin heavy and light chain rearrangement. Although the information about the regulation by numerous factors, including signaling molecules, transcription factors, epigenetic changes and the microenvironment, could provide the clinical application, our knowledge on human B lymphopoiesis is limited. However, with great methodological advances, significant progress for understanding B lymphopoiesis both in human and mouse has been made. In this review, we summarize the experimental models for studies about human adult B lymphopoiesis, and the role of microenvironment and signaling molecules, such as cytokines, transforming growth factor-? superfamily, Wnt family and Notch family, with point-by-point comparison between human and mouse. PMID:25258663

  17. Crystal structures of the coil 2B fragment and the globular tail domain of human lamin B1

    SciTech Connect

    Ruan, Jianbin; Xu, Chao; Bian, Chuanbing; Lam, Robert; Wang, Jia-Pey; Kania, Joanna; Min, Jinrong; Zang, Jianye

    2012-07-18

    We present here the crystal structures of human lamin B1 globular tail domain and coiled 2B domain, which adopt similar folds to Ig-like domain and coiled-coil domain of lamin A, respectively. Despite the overall similarity, we found an extra intermolecular disulfide bond in the lamin B1 coil 2B domain, which does not exist in lamin A/C. In addition, the structural analysis indicates that interactions at the lamin B1 homodimer interface are quite different from those of lamin A/C. Thus our research not only reveals the diversely formed homodimers among lamin family members, but also sheds light on understanding the important roles of lamin B1 in forming the nuclear lamina matrix.

  18. Human Exposure to Herpesvirus BSeropositive Macaques, Bali, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Gregory A.; Schillaci, Michael A.; Suaryana, Komang Gde; Putra, Artha; Fuentes, Agustin; Henkel, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Herpesvirus B (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) has been implicated as the cause of approximately 40 cases of meningoencephalitis affecting persons in direct or indirect contact with laboratory macaques. However, the threat of herpesvirus B in nonlaboratory settings worldwide remains to be addressed. We investigated the potential for exposure to herpesvirus B in workers at a monkey forest (a temple that has become a tourist attraction because of its monkeys) in Bali, Indonesia. In July 2000, 105 workers at the Sangeh Monkey Forest in Central Bali were surveyed about contact with macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Nearly half of those interviewed had either been bitten or scratched by a macaque. Prevalence of injury was higher in those who fed macaques. Serum from 31 of 38 Sangeh macaques contained antibodies to herpesvirus B. We conclude that workers coming into contact with macaques at the Sangeh Monkey Forest are at risk for exposure to herpesvirus B. PMID:12141963

  19. Enhanced skin carcinogenesis and lack of thymus hyperplasia in transgenic mice expressing human cyclin D1b (CCND1b)

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Paola; Benavides, Fernando; Blando, Jorge; Perez, Carlos; Cardenas, Kim; Richie, Ellen; Knudsen, Erik S.; Johnson, David G.; Senderowicz, Adrian M.; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L.; Conti, Claudio J.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclin D1b is an alternative transcript of the cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) expressed in human tumors. Its abundance is regulated by a single base pair polymorphism at the exon 4/intron 4 boundary (nucleotide 870). Epidemiological studies have shown a correlation between the presence of the G870A allele (that favors the splicing for cyclin D1b) with increased risk and less favorable outcome in several forms of cancer. More recently, it has been shown that, unlike cyclin D1a, the alternative transcript D1b by itself has the capacity to transform fibroblasts in vitro. In order to study the oncogenic potential of cyclin D1b, we developed transgenic mice expressing human cyclin D1b under the control of the bovine K5 promoter (K5D1b mice). Seven founders were obtained and none of them presented any significant phenotype or developed spontaneous tumors. Interestingly, K5D1b mice do not develop the fatal thymic hyperplasia, which is characteristic of the cyclin D1a transgenic mice (K5D1a). Susceptibility to skin carcinogenesis was tested in K5D1b mice using two-stage carcinogenesis protocols. In two independent experiments, K5D1b mice developed higher papilloma multiplicity as compared with wild-type littermates. However, when K5D1b mice were crossed with cyclin D1KO mice, the expression of cyclin D1b was unable to rescue the carcinogenesis-resistant phenotype of the cyclin D1 KO mice. To further explore the role of cyclin D1b in mouse models of carcinogenesis we carried out in silico analysis and in vitro experiments to evaluate the existence of a mouse homologous of the human cyclin D1b transcript. We were unable to find any evidence of an alternatively spliced transcript in mouse Ccnd1. These results show that human cyclin D1b has different biological functions than cyclin D1a and confirm its oncogenic properties. PMID:18942117

  20. Method 1615: Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus Occurrence in Water by Culture and RT-qPCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Version 1.1 - Enteroviruses and noroviruses that may be present in environmental or finished drinking waters are concentrated by passage through electropositive filters. Viruses are eluted from the filters with a beef extract reagent and concentrated using organic flocculation....

  1. One-year survey of enteroviruses, adenoviruses, and reoviruses isolated from effluent at an activated-sludge purification plant.

    PubMed Central

    Irving, L G; Smith, F A

    1981-01-01

    Samples of raw sewage, primary effluent, and secondary effluent from a large activated-sludge purification plant near Melbourne (Victoria, Australia) were collected every second week for 1 year. Viruses were detected in all secondary effluent samples and in six of seven samples obtained after final chlorination. Adenoviruses (85% reduction) and reoviruses (28% reduction) were removed less efficiently by this treatment process than were enteroviruses (93% reduction). In addition, 57 of 171 samples of effluent tested were positive for either adenoviruses or reoviruses, or both, when enteroviruses were not isolated. This clearly shows that the use of enteroviruses as sole indicators of viruses in water may miss up to one-third of instances of viral contamination. Enteroviruses and adenoviruses were isolated most frequently in HeLa-R cell cultures, whereas reoviruses were most often isolated in primary monkey kidney cells. PMID:6261687

  2. Human Genome Diversity Project. Summary of planning workshop 3(B): Ethical and human-rights implications

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The third planning workshop of the Human Genome Diversity Project was held on the campus of the US National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, from February 16 through February 18, 1993. The second day of the workshop was devoted to an exploration of the ethical and human-rights implications of the Project. This open meeting centered on three roundtables, involving 12 invited participants, and the resulting discussions among all those present. Attendees and their affiliations are listed in the attached Appendix A. The discussion was guided by a schedule and list of possible issues, distributed to all present and attached as Appendix B. This is a relatively complete, and thus lengthy, summary of the comments at the meeting. The beginning of the summary sets out as conclusions some issues on which there appeared to be widespread agreement, but those conclusions are not intended to serve as a set of detailed recommendations. The meeting organizer is distributing his recommendations in a separate memorandum; recommendations from others who attended the meeting are welcome and will be distributed by the meeting organizer to the participants and to the Project committee.

  3. Direct Detection of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) in Clinical Specimens from a Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Outbreak in Singapore by Reverse Transcription-PCR with Universal Enterovirus and EV71-Specific Primers

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sunita; Chow, Vincent T. K.; Phoon, M. C.; Chan, K. P.; Poh, Chit Laa

    2002-01-01

    A recent outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Singapore in 2000 affected several thousand children and resulted in four deaths. The aim of this study was to determine the applicability of reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) with universal pan-enterovirus primers and enterovirus 71 (EV71) type-specific primers for the direct detection of enteroviruses in clinical specimens derived from this outbreak. With the universal primers, EV71 RNA sequences were successfully detected by RT-PCR and direct sequencing in 71% of positive specimens. Three pairs of EV71 type-specific primers were evaluated for rapid detection of EV71 directly from clinical specimens and cell culture isolates. By using a seminested RT-PCR strategy, specific identification of EV71 sequences directly in clinical specimens was achieved, with a detection rate of 53%. In contrast, cell culture could isolate EV71 in only 20% of positive specimens. EV71 was detected directly from brain, heart, and lung specimens of two deceased siblings. Although more than one type of enterovirus was identified in clinical specimens from this outbreak, 90% of the enteroviruses were confirmed as EV71. The data demonstrate the clinical applicability of pan-enterovirus and seminested RT-PCR for the detection of EV71 RNA directly from clinical specimens in an outbreak situation. PMID:12149336

  4. Analysis of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of NF kappa B proteins in human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Chandra C; Vu, Hai-Yen; Mujo, Tomas; Vancurova, Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Controlled nucleocytoplasmic localization regulates activity of NF kappa B as well as other transcription factors. Analysis of the nucleocytoplasmic protein shuttling has been greatly facilitated by the use of leptomycin B (LMB), an inhibitor of CRM1-dependent nuclear export. The authors have previously shown that LMB inhibits NF kappa B activity in human neutrophils by increasing the nuclear accumulation of NF kappa B inhibitor, I kappa B alpha. In this chapter, the authors describe a protocol that uses LMB to study the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of I kappa B alpha in human macrophage-like U937 cells, thus inhibiting NF kappa B activity. This protocol should be readily adaptable to analyze the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of other proteins in human leukocytes. PMID:19066035

  5. Human liver apolipoprotein B-100 cDNA: complete nucleic acid and derived amino acid sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Law, S W; Grant, S M; Higuchi, K; Hospattankar, A; Lackner, K; Lee, N; Brewer, H B

    1986-01-01

    Human apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100), the ligand on low density lipoproteins that interacts with the low density lipoprotein receptor and initiates receptor-mediated endocytosis and low density lipoprotein catabolism, has been cloned, and the complete nucleic acid and derived amino acid sequences have been determined. ApoB-100 cDNAs were isolated from normal human liver cDNA libraries utilizing immunoscreening as well as filter hybridization with radiolabeled apoB-100 oligodeoxynucleotides. The apoB-100 mRNA is 14.1 kilobases long encoding a mature apoB-100 protein of 4536 amino acids with a calculated amino acid molecular weight of 512,723. ApoB-100 contains 20 potential glycosylation sites, and 12 of a total of 25 cysteine residues are located in the amino-terminal region of the apolipoprotein providing a potential globular structure of the amino terminus of the protein. ApoB-100 contains relatively few regions of amphipathic helices, but compared to other human apolipoproteins it is enriched in beta-structure. The delineation of the entire human apoB-100 sequence will now permit a detailed analysis of the conformation of the protein, the low density lipoprotein receptor binding domain(s), and the structural relationship between apoB-100 and apoB-48 and will provide the basis for the study of genetic defects in apoB-100 in patients with dyslipoproteinemias. PMID:3464946

  6. In vitro cellular tropism of human B-lymphotropic virus (human herpesvirus-6).

    PubMed

    Lusso, P; Markham, P D; Tschachler, E; di Marzo Veronese, F; Salahuddin, S Z; Ablashi, D V; Pahwa, S; Krohn, K; Gallo, R C

    1988-05-01

    We investigated the cellular tropism of human B-lymphotropic virus (HBLV) (also designated Human Herpesvirus-6) in vitro by infecting fresh MN cells from normal human adult peripheral blood, umbilical cord blood, bone marrow, tonsil, and thymus. Cultures from all the sources examined contained infectable cells, as shown by the appearance of characteristic enlarged, round-shaped, short-lived cells expressing HBLV-specific markers. Detailed immunological analysis demonstrated that the vast majority of these cells expressed T cell-associated antigens (i.e., CD7, CD5, CD2, CD4, and to a lesser extent, CD8). The CD3 antigen and the TCR-alpha/beta heterodimer were not detectable on the surface membrane, but were identified within the cytoplasm of HBLV-infected cells, by both immunofluorescence and radioimmunoprecipitation assay. A proportion of the HBLV-infected cell population also expressed the CD15 and class II MHC DR antigens. By means of immunoselection procedures it was possible to show that a consistent proportion of HBLV-infectable cells were contained within the CD3-depleted immature T cell population, while the depletion of CD2+ cells completely abrogated the infectability of the cultures. Northern blot analysis confirmed the T cell origin of HBLV-infected cells, demonstrating the expression of full size TCR-alpha and -beta chain mRNA. In addition to fresh T cells, HBLV was able to infect normal T lymphocytes expanded in vitro with IL-2 for greater than 30 d. These results indicate that HBLV is selectively T cell tropic in the course of the in vitro infection of normal mononuclear cells and may therefore be directly involved in the pathogenesis of T cell related hematological disorders. In particular, in light of the cytopathic effect exerted in vitro on CD4+ T lymphocytes, a possible role of HBLV in immune deficiency conditions should be considered. PMID:3259254

  7. Gene-Specific Repression of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Stimulated Human Macrophages by Nuclear I?B?

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Chandra C.; Ramaswami, Sitharam; Juvekar, Ashish; Vu, Hai-Yen; Galdieri, Luciano; Davidson, Dennis; Vancurova, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that increased nuclear accumulation of I?B? inhibits NF-?B activity and induces apoptosis in human leukocytes. In this study, we wanted to explore the possibility that the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of I?B? can be used as a therapeutic target for the regulation of NF-?Bdependent cytokine synthesis. Treatment of LPS-stimulated human U937 macrophages with an inhibitor of chromosome region maintenance 1-dependent nuclear export, leptomycin B, resulted in the increased nuclear accumulation of I?B? and inhibition of NF-?B DNA binding activity, caused by the nuclear I?B?-p65 NF-?B interaction. Surprisingly, however, whereas mRNA expression and cellular release of TNF-?, the ? form of pro-IL-1 (IL-1?), and IL-6 were inhibited by the leptomycin B-induced nuclear I?B?, IL-8 mRNA expression and cellular release were not significantly affected. Analysis of in vivo recruitment of p65 NF-?B to NF-?Bregulated promoters by chromatin immunoprecipitation in U937 cells and human PBMCs indicated that although the p65 recruitment to TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 promoters was inhibited by the nuclear I?B?, p65 recruitment to IL-8 promoter was not repressed. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses using I?B? and S536 phosphospecific p65 NF-?B Abs demonstrated that although the newly synthesized I?B? induced by postinduction repression is recruited to TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 promoters but not to the IL-8 promoter, S536-phosphorylated p65 is recruited to IL-8 promoter, but not to TNF-?, IL-1?, or IL-6 promoters. Together, these data indicate that the inhibition of NF-?Bdependent transcription by nuclear I?B? in LPS-stimulated macrophages is gene specific and depends on the S536 phosphorylation status of the recruited p65 NF-?B. PMID:20696864

  8. Expression of erbB-1 and erbB-2 genes in normal and pathological human endometrium.

    PubMed

    Brys, Magdalena; Semczuk, Andrzej; Rechberger, Tomasz; Krajewska, Wanda M

    2007-07-01

    Overexpression of the erbB-1 (EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor) and erbB-2 (HER2/neu) proteins contributes to the aggressive behavior of malignant tumors originating from the endometrium. We currently examined whether the trend of these proteins to overexpression is a direct effect of their gene transcriptional activities. Expression of the erbB-1/erbB-2 genes was measured applying the quantitative RT-PCR technique in 25 uterine carcinomas, 12 normal endometria, a carcinosarcoma and a case of botryoid sarcoma of the uterine cervix. We showed that erbB-1 mRNA was overexpressed in 48% (12/25) and erbB-2 mRNA was overexpressed in 8% (2/25) of the analysed tumors. The level of expression appeared to be significantly higher in the malignant tumors as compared to the benign ones for erbB-1 and for erbB-2 (p=0.0001 and p=0.008, respectively). A significant correlation between erbB-1 overexpression and tumor differentiation was found (Spearman rank correlation test, p<0.001). Concomitant erbB-1 and erbB-2 overexpression was detected only in 1 out of 25 (4%) uterine neoplasms. erbB-1 was overexpressed in a sarcoma botryoides of the uterine cervix. Our data suggest that erbB-1/erbB-2 overexpression is a direct effect of higher than normal transcriptional activity of the encoding genes in a subset of human endometrial carcinomas. PMID:17549377

  9. Palmitoylation Strengthens Cholesterol-dependent Multimerization and Fusion Activity of Human Cytomegalovirus Glycoprotein B (gB).

    PubMed

    Patrone, Marco; Coroadinha, Ana Sofia; Teixeira, Ana P; Alves, Paula M

    2016-02-26

    Herpesviruses are a large order of animal enveloped viruses displaying a virion fusion mechanism of unusual complexity. Their multipartite machinery has a conserved core made of the gH/gL ancillary complexes and the homo-trimeric fusion protein glycoprotein B (gB). Despite its essential role in starting the viral infection, gB interaction with membrane lipids is still poorly understood. Here, evidence is provided demonstrating that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gB depends on the S-palmitoylation of its endodomain for an efficient interaction with cholesterol-rich membrane patches. We found that, unique among herpesviral gB proteins, the HCMV fusion factor has a Cys residue in the C-terminal region that is palmitoylated and mediates methyl-?-cyclodextrin-sensitive self-association of purified gB. A cholesterol-dependent virus-like particle trap assay, based on co-expression of the HIV Gag protein, confirmed that this post-translational modification is functional in the context of cellular membranes. Mutation of the palmitoylated Cys residue to Ala or inhibition of protein palmitoylation decreased HCMV gB export via Gag particles. Moreover, purified gBC777A showed an increased kinetic sensitivity in a cholesterol depletion test, demonstrating that palmitoyl-gB limits outward cholesterol diffusion. Finally, gB palmitoylation was required for full fusogenic activity in human epithelial cells. Altogether, these results uncover the palmitoylation of HCMV gB and its role in gB multimerization and activity. PMID:26694613

  10. Translating transitions – how to decipher peripheral human B cell development

    PubMed Central

    Bemark, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Abstract During the last two decades our understanding of human B cell differentiation has developed considerably. Our understanding of the human B cell compartment has advanced from a point where essentially all assays were based on the presence or not of class-switched antibodies to a level where a substantial diversity is appreciated among the cells involved. Several consecutive transitional stages that newly formed IgM expressing B cells go through after they leave the bone marrow, but before they are fully mature, have been described, and a significant complexity is also acknowledged within the IgM expressing and class-switched memory B cell compartments. It is possible to isolate plasma blasts in blood to follow the formation of plasma cells during immune responses, and the importance and uniqueness of the mucosal IgA system is now much more appreciated. Current data suggest the presence of at least one lineage of human innate-like B cells akin to B1 and/or marginal zone B cells in mice. In addition, regulatory B cells with the ability to produce IL-10 have been identified. Clinically, B cell depletion therapy is used for a broad range of conditions. The ability to define different human B cell subtypes using flow cytometry has therefore started to come into clinical use, but as our understanding of human B cell development further progresses, B cell subtype analysis will be of increasing importance in diagnosis, to measure the effect of immune therapy and to understand the underlying causes for diseases. In this review the diversity of human B cells will be discussed, with special focus on current data regarding their phenotypes and functions. PMID:26243514

  11. The differential localization of human cyclins A and B is due to a cytoplasmic retention signal in cyclin B.

    PubMed Central

    Pines, J; Hunter, T

    1994-01-01

    We have shown previously that human cyclins A and B1 are localized differentially in the cell during interphase; cyclin A is nuclear and cyclin B1 is a cytoplasmic protein. To understand the basis of this difference we created deletion mutants and various chimeras between the two types of cyclin and expressed them in tissue culture cells by transient transfection. We find that the N-terminus of cyclin B1 contains a 42 amino acid region that is sufficient to retain the normally nuclear cyclin A in the cytoplasm. Conversely, deleting the cytoplasmic retention signal region from cyclin B1 causes the protein to become nuclear. Although the cytoplasmic retention signal region is outside the cyclin box, its sequence is well conserved in human cyclin B2, and is both necessary and sufficient to keep cyclin B2 in the cytoplasm. Thus we propose that the subcellular distribution of the B-type cyclins is determined primarily by a small region of the N-terminus which targets the cyclin--CDK complexes to particular structures in the cytoplasm. Images PMID:8070405

  12. Identification of human germinal center light and dark zone cells and their relationship to human B-cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez-Sola, David; Holmes, Antony B.; Deroubaix, Stephanie; Dalla-Favera, Riccardo; Nussenzweig, Michel C.

    2012-01-01

    Germinal centers (GCs) are sites of B-cell clonal expansion, hypermutation, and selection. GCs are polarized into dark (DZ) and light zones (LZ), a distinction that is of key importance to GC selection. However, the difference between the B cells in each of these zones in humans remains unclear. We show that, as in mice, CXCR4 and CD83 can be used to distinguish human LZ and DZ cells. Using these markers, we show that LZ and DZ cells in mice and humans differ only in the expression of characteristic activation and proliferation programs, suggesting that these populations represent alternating states of a single-cell type rather than distinct differentiation stages. In addition, LZ/DZ transcriptional profiling shows that, with the exception of molecular Burkitt lymphomas, nearly all human B-cell malignancies closely resemble LZ cells, which has important implications for our understanding of the molecular programs of lymphomagenesis. PMID:22740445

  13. Analysis of Enterovirus 68 Strains from the 2014 North American Outbreak Reveals a New Clade, Indicating Viral Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Du, Juan; Zheng, Baisong; Zheng, Wenwen; Li, Peng; Kang, Jian; Hou, Jingwei; Markham, Richard; Zhao, Ke; Yu, Xiao-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 68 (EVD68) causes respiratory illness, mostly in children. Despite a reported low-level of transmission, the occurrence of several recent outbreaks worldwide including the 2014 outbreak in North America has raised concerns regarding the pathogenesis and evolution of EVD68. To elucidate the phylogenetic features of EVD68 and possible causes for the 2014 outbreak, 216 EVD68 strain sequences were retrieved from Genbank, including 22 from the 2014 outbreak. Several geographic and genotypic origins were established for these 22 strains, 19 of which were classified as Clade B. Of these 19 strains, 17 exhibited subsequent clustering and variation in protein residues involved in host-receptor interaction and/or viral antigenicity. Approximately 18 inter-clade variations were detected in VP1, which led to the identification of a new Clade D in EVD68 strains. The classification of this new clade was also verified by the re-construction of a Neighbor-Joining tree during the phylogenetic analysis. In addition, our results indicate that members of Clade B containing highly specific alterations in VP1 protein residues were the foremost contributors to the 2014 outbreak in the US. Altered host-receptor interaction and/or host immune recognition may explain the evolution of EVD68 as well as the global emergence and ongoing adaptation of this virus. PMID:26630383

  14. Listeria monocytogenes σB Contributes to Invasion of Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heesun; Boor, Kathryn J.; Marquis, Hélène

    2004-01-01

    The role of σB in Listeria monocytogenes infection of human intestinal epithelial cells was investigated. Invasion defects associated with loss of σB paralleled those of a ΔinlA strain independently of the σB-dependent P2prfA promoter. Concomitantly, amounts of inlA transcript and InlA protein were significantly decreased in the ΔsigB strain. PMID:15557671

  15. Death waits for no man Does it wait for a virus? How Enteroviruses Induce and Control Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Katharine G; Coyne, Carolyn B

    2014-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are the most common human viral pathogens. They cause a variety of pathologies, including myocarditis and meningoencephalopathies, and have been linked to the onset of type I diabetes. These pathologies result from the death of cells in the myocardium, central nervous system, and pancreas, respectively. Understanding the role of EVs in inducing cell death is crucial to understanding the etiologies of these diverse pathologies. EVs both induce and delay host cell death, and their exquisite control of this balance is crucial for their success as human viral pathogens. Thus, EVs are tightly involved with cell death signaling pathways and interact with host cell signaling at multiple points Here, we review the literature detailing the mechanisms of EV-induced cell death. We discuss the mechanisms by which EVs induce cell death, the signaling pathways involved in these pathways, and the strategies by which EVs antagonize cell death pathways. We also discuss the role of cell death in both the resulting pathology in the host and in the facilitation of viral spread. PMID:25172372

  16. Antiviral vaccines license T cell responses by suppressing granzyme B levels in human plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Fabricius, Dorit; Nubaum, Benedikt; Busch, Daniel; Panitz, Verena; Mandel, Birgit; Vollmer, Angelika; Westhoff, Mike-Andrew; Kaltenmeier, Christof; Lunov, Oleg; Tron, Kyrylo; Nienhaus, G Ulrich; Jahrsdrfer, Bernd; Debatin, Klaus-Michael

    2013-08-01

    Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are important modulators of adaptive T cell responses during viral infections. Recently, we found that human pDC produce the serine protease granzyme B (GrB), thereby regulating T cell proliferation in a GrB-dependent manner. In this study, we demonstrate that intrinsic GrB production by pDC is significantly inhibited in vitro and in vivo by clinically used vaccines against viral infections such as tick-borne encephalitis. We show that pDC GrB levels inversely correlate with the proliferative response of coincubated T cells and that GrB suppression by a specific Ab or a GrB substrate inhibitor results in enhanced T cell proliferation, suggesting a predominant role of GrB in pDC-dependent T cell licensing. Functionally, we demonstrate that GrB(high) but not GrB(low) pDC transfer GrB to T cells and may degrade the ?-chain of the TCR in a GrB-dependent fashion, thereby providing a possible explanation for the observed T cell suppression by GrB-expressing pDC. Modulation of pDC-derived GrB activity represents a previously unknown mechanism by which both antiviral and vaccine-induced T cell responses may be regulated in vivo. Our results provide novel insights into pDC biology during vaccinations and may contribute to an improvement of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. PMID:23785122

  17. Human Rehabilitation Techniques. Contract Papers. Volume III, Part B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, E. C.; And Others

    Volume III, Section B of a six-volume final report (which covers the findings of a research project on policy and technology related to rehabilitation of disabled individuals) presents four papers which examine important rehabilitation-oriented issues. In the first paper, "Transportation Problems of Persons with Disabilities--The Federal Response"

  18. NF?B Is Persistently Activated in Continuously Stimulated Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Miskolci, Veronika; Rollins, Janet; Vu, Hai Yen; Ghosh, Chandra C; Davidson, Dennis; Vancurova, Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Increased activation of the transcription factor NF?B in the neutrophils has been associated with the pathogenesis of sepsis, acute lung injury (ALI), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and other neutrophil-mediated inflammatory disorders. Despite recent progress in analyzing early NF?B activation in human neutrophils, activation of NF?B in persistently stimulated neutrophils has not been previously studied. Because it is the persistent NF?B activation that is thought to be involved in the host response to sepsis and the pathogenesis of ALI and BPD, we hypothesized that continuously stimulated human neutrophils may exhibit a late phase of NF?B activity. The goal of this study was to analyze the NF?B activation and expression of I?B and NF?B proteins during neutrophil stimulation with inflammatory signals for prolonged times. We demonstrate that neutrophil stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) induces, in addition to the early activation at 3060 min, a previously unrecognized late phase of NF?B activation. In LPS-stimulated neutrophils, this NF?B activity typically had a biphasic character, whereas TNF?-stimulated neutrophils exhibited a continuous NF?B activity peaking around 9 h after stimulation. In contrast to the early NF?B activation that inversely correlates to the nuclear levels of I?B?, however, in continuously stimulated neutrophils, NF?B is persistently activated despite considerable levels of I?B? present in the nucleus. Our data suggest that NF?B is persistently activated in human neutrophils during neutrophil-mediated inflammatory disorders, and this persistent NF?B activity may represent one of the underlying mechanisms for the continuous production of proinflammatory mediators. PMID:17592547

  19. Human Resource Development and Manpower Training. Paper Presentations: Session B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains 18 papers from the human resource development and manpower training section of an international conference on vocational education and training (VET) for lifelong learning in the information era. The following papers are included: "Use of Social and Economic Modeling to Plan Vocational Education and Training" (David L.

  20. Human Resource Development and Manpower Training. Paper Presentations: Session B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains 18 papers from the human resource development and manpower training section of an international conference on vocational education and training (VET) for lifelong learning in the information era. The following papers are included: "Use of Social and Economic Modeling to Plan Vocational Education and Training" (David L.…

  1. Photo-protective effect of americanin B against ultraviolet B-induced damage in cultured human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Piao, Mei Jing; Kim, Ki Cheon; Yao, Cheng Wen; Cha, Ji Won; Shin, Jennifer H; Yoo, Suk Jae; Hyun, Jin Won

    2014-11-01

    Excessive ultraviolet (UV) radiation, a constituent of sunlight, can induce multiple types of skin damage. We recently demonstrated that americanin B, a lignin compound, protected cells against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced damage by exerting antioxidant effects and inhibiting apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the ability of americanin B to protect against cell injury induced by UVB (280-320nm), the most harmful UV wavelengths, in human HaCaT keratinocytes. Americanin B absorbed UVB, eliminated UVB-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decreased the extent of UVB-induced oxidative modification of lipids, proteins, and DNA. In addition, americanin B inhibited UVB-induced apoptosis, as indicated by reductions in apoptotic body formation and DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, americanin B reversed the depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane induced by UVB exposure. These protective activities were associated with down-regulation of apoptosis-promoting proteins, Bax, caspase-9, and caspase-3 and up-regulation of an apoptosis inhibitor, Bcl-2. These results suggest that americanin B can protect human keratinocytes against UVB-induced cell damage. PMID:25461549

  2. Evaluation of five commercial tests for detection of immunoglobulin M antibodies to human parvovirus B19.

    PubMed

    Bruu, A L; Nordb, S A

    1995-05-01

    The following commercial tests for detection of immunoglobulin M antibodies to human parvovirus B19 were evaluated: Ideia Parvovirus B19-IgM, MRL Diagnostics Human Parvovirus B19 IgM ELISA, Parvoscan-B19, and Biotrin Parvo B19 IgM EIA and IF. A total of 203 serum specimens from patients who probably have current B19 infections or have other viral infections and sera with rheumatoid factor were investigated. Between 75 and 79 of 102 serum samples from patients thought to have current B19 infections yielded positive results with the different tests. Ideia had the highest specificity (94.8%), while Parvoscan showed a specificity of only 70.1%. Our evaluation results show that Ideia, MRL, and Biotrin EIA and IF can be recommended for diagnostic purposes. PMID:7615755

  3. Complex effects of inhibiting hepatic apolipoprotein B100 synthesis in humans.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Soffer, Gissette; Moon, Byoung; Hernandez-Ono, Antonio; Dionizovick-Dimanovski, Marija; Jimenez, Jhonsua; Obunike, Joseph; Thomas, Tiffany; Ngai, Colleen; Fontanez, Nelson; Donovan, Daniel S; Karmally, Wahida; Holleran, Stephen; Ramakrishnan, Rajasekhar; Mittleman, Robert S; Ginsberg, Henry N

    2016-01-27

    Mipomersen is a 20mer antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) that inhibits apolipoprotein B (apoB) synthesis; its low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-lowering effects should therefore result from reduced secretion of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). We enrolled 17 healthy volunteers who received placebo injections weekly for 3 weeks followed by mipomersen weekly for 7 to 9 weeks. Stable isotopes were used after each treatment to determine fractional catabolic rates and production rates of apoB in VLDL, IDL (intermediate-density lipoprotein), and LDL, and of triglycerides in VLDL. Mipomersen significantly reduced apoB in VLDL, IDL, and LDL, which was associated with increases in fractional catabolic rates of VLDL and LDL apoB and reductions in production rates of IDL and LDL apoB. Unexpectedly, the production rates of VLDL apoB and VLDL triglycerides were unaffected. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of apoB expression in human liver cells demonstrated preservation of apoB secretion across a range of apoB synthesis. Titrated ASO knockdown of apoB mRNA in chow-fed mice preserved both apoB and triglyceride secretion. In contrast, titrated ASO knockdown of apoB mRNA in high-fat-fed mice resulted in stepwise reductions in both apoB and triglyceride secretion. Mipomersen lowered all apoB lipoproteins without reducing the production rate of either VLDL apoB or triglyceride. Our human data are consistent with long-standing models of posttranscriptional and posttranslational regulation of apoB secretion and are supported by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Targeting apoB synthesis may lower levels of apoB lipoproteins without necessarily reducing VLDL secretion, thereby lowering the risk of steatosis associated with this therapeutic strategy. PMID:26819195

  4. Role of the human CD38 molecule in B cell activation and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Funaro, A; Morra, M; Calosso, L; Zini, M G; Ausiello, C M; Malavasi, F

    1997-01-01

    Human CD38 is a surface molecule which has been attributed the function of a signaling channel leading to cellular activation and proliferation, an ectoenzyme with multiple function as well as an inducer of Ca2+ mobilization from cytoplasmic stores. The effect mediated by CD38 have been studied in different cell populations: the results obtained in human B cells are apparently contradictory, with CD38 simultaneously leading to apoptosis in early B cells while increasing survival in cells derived from lymph node germinal center. Other effects recently reported concern a different potential in terms of signaling in early B cells and derived cell lines or in more detailed disease models of human leukemia, namely B chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. To complete the picture of the effects mediated by CD38 in the B cell compartment, we have studied the signals elicited by ligation of the human molecule in mature B cells from circulating pool and also from spleen of normal individuals. The information obtained completes the picture of CD38 and mature B cells, where we also studied the contribution of relevant cytokines involved in maintenance and differentiation of these normal cells, namely IL-1 alpha, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-6. Our results indicate that human CD38 plays a key role as a co-receptor in mature B cells from normal individuals. PMID:9027959

  5. Coxsackievirus B5 induced apoptosis of HeLa cells: Effects on p53 and SUMO

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, Rogerio; Guerra-Sa, Renata; Arruda, Eurico

    2010-01-20

    Coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5), a human enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae, is a frequent cause of acute and chronic human diseases. The pathogenesis of enteroviral infections is not completely understood, and the fate of the CVB5-infected cell has a pivotal role in this process. We have investigated the CVB5-induced apoptosis of HeLa cells and found that it happens by the intrinsic pathway by a mechanism dependent on the ubiquitin-proteasome system, associated with nuclear aggregation of p53. Striking redistribution of both SUMO and UBC9 was noted at 4 h post-infection, simultaneously with a reduction in the levels of the ubiquitin-ligase HDM2. Taken together, these results suggest that CVB5 infection of HeLa cells elicit the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis by MDM2 degradation and p53 activation, destabilizing protein sumoylation, by a mechanism that is dependent on a functional ubiquitin-proteasome system.

  6. Identification of LMX1B as a novel oncogene in human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    He, L; Guo, L; Vathipadiekal, V; Sergent, P A; Growdon, W B; Engler, D A; Rueda, B R; Birrer, M J; Orsulic, S; Mohapatra, G

    2014-08-14

    Ovarian cancers are thought to result from the accumulation of multiple genetic aberrations that transform ovarian and/or fallopian tube surface epithelial cells, allowing for their abnormal growth, proliferation and metastasis. In the report presented here, we carried out genome-wide copy-number analysis using comparative genomic hybridization on a panel of mouse ovarian cancer (OVCA) cell lines previously established in our laboratory. We identified a recurrent focal amplification on mouse chromosomal region 2qB, which contains the LIM-homeodomain-containing transcription factor 1B (Lmx1b) gene. LMX1B is not expressed in normal human ovary, but is expressed in many human OVCA cell lines and primary tumors. High expression of LMX1B correlates with poor outcome. To clarify the role of LMX1B in ovarian carcinogenesis, we transduced LMX1B into a panel of mouse and human OVCA cell lines and demonstrated that LMX1B strongly promotes migration of cancer cells in culture and promotes xenograft growth in nude mice. Conversely, knockdown of LMX1B in a human cell line with endogenous high expression of LMX1B inhibits cell migration in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Microarray analysis of cells overexpressing LMX1B identified the nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway as a potential mediator of tumor progression and subsequent treatment of NFκB inhibitor decreased the migratory capacity of these cells. Thus, our data demonstrate that LMX1B is a novel oncogene in OVCA pathogenesis. PMID:24056967

  7. [Surveillance of enteroviruses in the waste water of the Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Gershy-Damet, G M; Lanusse, A; Dosso, M

    1987-01-01

    Viral water contamination is on the increase all over the world and one is concerned by the dangers to which it exposes health and preoccupied with the search for effective solutions. This study, which was conducted in a year in Cte-d'Ivoire, enabled us to examine the degree of viral pollution from waste water collected from a lagune. It allowed us to follow the distribution of enteroviruses and their fluctuations during the year. 164 waste water samples were tested and 93 enterovirus strains isolated. 67.89% showed polioviruses and 32.11% coxsackieviruses. Seasonal fluctuations of the virus concentration in the lagune water were shown from statistical analysis of the data collected. Concentration was high during the rainy season and definitely lower during the dry season with the rise in water temperature. PMID:3038356

  8. Inhibition of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Activation Decreases Survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chmura, Kathryn; Ovrutsky, Alida R.; Su, Wen-Lin; Griffin, Laura; Pyeon, Dohun; McGibney, Mischa T.; Strand, Matthew J.; Numata, Mari; Murakami, Seiji; Gaido, Loretta; Honda, Jennifer R.; Kinney, William H.; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E.; Voelker, Dennis R.; Ordway, Diane J.; Chan, Edward D.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor that mediates pro-inflammatory responses required for host control of many microbial pathogens; on the other hand, NFκB has been implicated in the pathogenesis of other inflammatory and infectious diseases. Mice with genetic disruption of the p50 subunit of NFκB are more likely to succumb to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). However, the role of NFκB in host defense in humans is not fully understood. We sought to examine the role of NFκB activation in the immune response of human macrophages to MTB. Targeted pharmacologic inhibition of NFκB activation using BAY 11-7082 (BAY, an inhibitor of IκBα kinase) or an adenovirus construct with a dominant-negative IκBα significantly decreased the number of viable intracellular mycobacteria recovered from THP-1 macrophages four and eight days after infection. The results with BAY were confirmed in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and alveolar macrophages. NFκB inhibition was associated with increased macrophage apoptosis and autophagy, which are well-established killing mechanisms of intracellular MTB. Inhibition of the executioner protease caspase-3 or of the autophagic pathway significantly abrogated the effects of BAY. We conclude that NFκB inhibition decreases viability of intracellular MTB in human macrophages via induction of apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:23634218

  9. Genetic manipulation of B cells for the isolation of rare therapeutic antibodies from the human repertoire.

    PubMed

    Kwakkenbos, Mark J; Bakker, Arjen Q; van Helden, Pauline M; Wagner, Koen; Yasuda, Etsuko; Spits, Hergen; Beaumont, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Antibody based therapies are increasingly applied to prevent and treat human disease. While the majority of antibodies currently on the market are chimeric or humanized antibodies from rodents, the focus has now shifted to the isolation and development of fully human antibodies. By retroviral transduction of B cell lymphoma-6 (BCL-6), which prevents terminal differentiation of B cells and, the anti-apoptotic gene B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) into primary human B cells we efficiently immortalize antibody-producing B cells allowing the isolation of therapeutic antibodies. Selection of antigen-specific B cell clones was greatly facilitated because the transduced B cells retain surface immunoglobulin expression and secrete immunoglobulin into the culture supernatant. Surface immunoglobulin expression can be utilized to stain and isolate antigen specific B cell clones with labeled antigen. Immunoglobulins secreted in culture supernatant can directly be tested in functional assays to identify unique B cell clones. Here we describe the key features of our Bcl-6/Bcl-xL culture platform (AIMSelect). PMID:23867338

  10. Human parvovirus B19: a mechanistic overview of infection and DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yong; Qiu, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a human pathogen that belongs to genus Erythroparvovirus of the Parvoviridae family, which is composed of a group of small DNA viruses with a linear single-stranded DNA genome. B19V mainly infects human erythroid progenitor cells and causes mild to severe hematological disorders in patients. However, recent clinical studies indicate that B19V also infects nonerythroid lineage cells, such as myocardial endothelial cells, and may be associated with other disease outcomes. Several cell culture systems, including permissive and semipermissive erythroid lineage cells, nonpermissive human embryonic kidney 293 cells and recently reported myocardial endothelial cells, have been used to study the mechanisms underlying B19V infection and B19V DNA replication. This review aims to summarize recent advances in B19V studies with a focus on the mechanisms of B19V tropism specific to different cell types and the cellular pathways involved in B19V DNA replication including cellular signaling transduction and cell cycle arrest. PMID:26097496

  11. Further evidence for a human B cell activating factor distinct from IL-4.

    PubMed

    Diu, A; Fvrier, M; Mollier, P; Charron, D; Banchereau, J; Reinherz, E L; Thze, J

    1990-01-01

    Supernatants from activated human T cell clones were previously shown to contain B cell-activating factor (BCAF), an activity which results in polyclonal resting B cell stimulation. In the present study, we investigate the relationship between this activity and human interleukin-4 which was also shown to act on resting B cells. The supernatant of the T cell clone TT9 contains IL-4 but anti-IL-4 antiserum does not affect the response of B cells as measured by thymidine uptake or cell volume increase. Furthermore, IL-4 induces Fc epsilon-receptor (CD23) expression on 30% of unstimulated human B cells, whereas BCAF-containing supernatants from clone P2, that do not contain detectable amounts of IL-4, promote B cell proliferation without inducing CD23 expression. Our results therefore establish that IL-4 and BCAF are distinct activities and suggest that they trigger different activation pathways in human B cells. In addition, culture of B cells with T cell supernatants for 72 hr induces a three- to fourfold increase in the expression of HLA-DR, -DP, and -DQ antigens in 50% of B cells. The addition of inhibiting concentrations of anti-IFN-gamma, LT, or IL-4 antisera to the cultures does not change these results. Finally, 30% of B cells cultured with T cell supernatants leave the G1 phase of the cell cycle and 20% reach mitosis. Taken together, our findings further support the existence of a B cell-activating factor responsible for the activation of resting human B cells. PMID:2136716

  12. Functional Analysis of Picornavirus 2B Proteins: Effects on Calcium Homeostasis and Intracellular Protein Trafficking▿

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Arjan S.; de Mattia, Fabrizio; Van Dommelen, Michiel M.; Lanke, Kjerstin; Melchers, Willem J. G.; Willems, Peter H. G. M.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The family Picornaviridae consists of a large group of plus-strand RNA viruses that share a similar genome organization. The nomenclature of the picornavirus proteins is based on their position in the viral RNA genome but does not necessarily imply a conserved function of proteins of different genera. The enterovirus 2B protein is a small hydrophobic protein that, upon individual expression, is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi complex, reduces ER and Golgi complex Ca2+ levels, most likely by forming transmembrane pores, and inhibits protein trafficking through the Golgi complex. At present, little is known about the function of the other picornavirus 2B proteins. Here we show that rhinovirus 2B, which is phylogenetically closely related to enterovirus 2B, shows a similar subcellular localization and function to those of enterovirus 2B. In contrast, 2B proteins of hepatitis A virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and encephalomyocarditis virus, all of which are more distantly related to enteroviruses, show a different localization and have little, if any, effects on Ca2+ homeostasis and intracellular protein trafficking. Our data suggest that the 2B proteins of enterovirus and rhinovirus share the same function in virus replication, while the other picornavirus 2B proteins support the viral life cycle in a different manner. Moreover, we show that an enterovirus 2B protein that is retained in the ER is unable to modify Ca2+ homeostasis and inhibit protein trafficking, demonstrating the importance of Golgi complex localization for its functioning. PMID:18216106

  13. Increased activation and cytokine secretion in B cells stimulated with leptin in aged humans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Aging is associated chronic inflammation and autoimmunity, and increased levels of leptin. Increased levels of leptin are associated with inflammation and autoimmunity. We have recently reported that leptin activates B cells to induce secretion of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Role of B cells and leptin in inflammation associated with aging has not been explored. In this study we demonstrate that leptin activates and induces significantly greater amount of IL-6, TNF-?, and IL-10 by B cells from aged humans as compared to young controls. This is associated with increased leptin-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription-3) in B cells from aged humans as compared to young subjects. These data suggest that leptin-induced B cell-derived proinflammatory cytokines may play a role in chronic inflammation associated with human aging. PMID:23343052

  14. Use of bituminous coal for concentration of enteroviruses from sewage and effluent.

    PubMed

    Lakhe, S B; Paunikar, W N; Parhad, N M

    2002-07-01

    A method has been developed for concentration of enteroviruses from untreated and treated domestic wastewater using bituminous coal bed as a virus adsorbent. A bed made from 1.5 g of 120 mesh coal powder was used for concentrating enteroviruses from 100 ml of clarified sewage at different pH values with and without addition of AlCl3. To enhance the adsorption of viruses, requisite quantities of aluminium chloride were added so that a final concentration of 0.0005 M could be achieved. At pH 3.0 maximum adsorption (82.8%) of poliovirus type 1 from artificially contaminated clarified sewage was observed without addition of AlCl3. However, at pH 5.0 maximum virus adsorption of 98.7% was achieved after addition of aluminium chloride. An average recovery of 86.9% of adsorbed viruses at pH 5.0 was achieved from coal bed with 3% flocculating beef extract at pH 9.5. This method for concentration of enteroviruses incorporating use of coal was compared with that of Millipore membrane filter method applied to raw sewage and clarified sewage. The results obtained from the methodology using coal as adsorbent was subjected to Student's "t" test and it was observed that its efficiency is confirmed for recovery of enteroviruses from raw and nonclarified sewage. These results are also comparable with that obtained with MF method. The results presented in this paper are indicative of the potential of this method for both treated and raw sewage. PMID:12188128

  15. Enteric bacteria promote human and mouse norovirus infection of B cells

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Melissa K.; Watanabe, Makiko; Zhu, Shu; Graves, Christina L.; Keyes, Lisa R.; Grau, Katrina R.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Mariam B.; Iovine, Nicole M.; Wobus, Christiane E.; Vinj, Jan; Tibbetts, Scott A.; Wallet, Shannon M.; Karst, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    The cell tropism of human noroviruses and the development of an in vitro infection model remain elusive. Although susceptibility to individual human norovirus strains correlates with an individuals histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) profile, the biological basis of this restriction is unknown. We demonstrate that human and mouse noroviruses infected B cells in vitro and likely in vivo. Human norovirus infection of B cells required the presence of HBGA-expressing enteric bacteria. Furthermore, mouse norovirus replication was reduced in vivo when the intestinal microbiota was depleted by means of oral antibiotic administration. Thus, we have identified B cells as a cellular target of noroviruses and enteric bacteria as a stimulatory factor for norovirus infection, leading to the development of an in vitro infection model for human noroviruses. PMID:25378626

  16. Expression of Human DNAJ (Heat Shock Protein-40) B3 in Humanized UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mitsugi, Ryo; Itoh, Tomoo; Fujiwara, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    The human DNAJB3 gene encodes a DNAJ (Heat shock protein 40; Hsp40) homolog, subfamily B, member 3 chaperone protein (DNAJB3), which can be down-regulated in disease conditions, as observed in decreased expression of DNAJB3 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of obese patients. Recently, humanized UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1 mice (hUGT1 mice) were developed, in which the introduced human UGT1 gene contained a gene encoding human DNAJB3. In the present study, we analyzed the expression of human DNAJB3 mRNA in hUGT1 mice. Among the examined tissues, the testis had the highest expression of human DNAJB3 mRNA, while the lowest expression was observed in the liver. We found that the pattern of tissue-specific expression of mouse Dnajb3 in hUGT1 mice was very similar to that of human DNAJB3. We further demonstrated that the expression of human DNAJB3 in the liver was significantly reduced in high-fat-diet-fed hUGT1 mice compared to the expression level in the control mice, indicating that the expression of human DNAJB3 in hUGT1 mice could be similarly regulated in disease conditions such as obesity. Humanized UGT1 mice might therefore be useful to investigate the physiological role of human DNAJB3 in vivo. PMID:26147428

  17. NFkappaB is persistently activated in continuously stimulated human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Miskolci, Veronika; Rollins, Janet; Vu, Hai Yen; Ghosh, Chandra C; Davidson, Dennis; Vancurova, Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Increased activation of the transcription factor NFkappaB in the neutrophils has been associated with the pathogenesis of sepsis, acute lung injury (ALI), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and other neutrophil-mediated inflammatory disorders. Despite recent progress in analyzing early NFkappaB activation in human neutrophils, activation of NFkappaB in persistently stimulated neutrophils has not been previously studied. Because it is the persistent NFkappaB activation that is thought to be involved in the host response to sepsis and the pathogenesis of ALI and BPD, we hypothesized that continuously stimulated human neutrophils may exhibit a late phase of NFkappaB activity. The goal of this study was to analyze the NFkappaB activation and expression of IkappaB and NFkappaB proteins during neutrophil stimulation with inflammatory signals for prolonged times. We demonstrate that neutrophil stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) induces, in addition to the early activation at 30-60 min, a previously unrecognized late phase of NFkappaB activation. In LPS-stimulated neutrophils, this NFkappaB activity typically had a biphasic character, whereas TNFalpha-stimulated neutrophils exhibited a continuous NFkappaB activity peaking around 9 h after stimulation. In contrast to the early NFkappaB activation that inversely correlates to the nuclear levels of IkappaBalpha, however, in continuously stimulated neutrophils, NFkappaB is persistently activated despite considerable levels of IkappaBalpha present in the nucleus. Our data suggest that NFkappaB is persistently activated in human neutrophils during neutrophil-mediated inflammatory disorders, and this persistent NFkappaB activity may represent one of the underlying mechanisms for the continuous production of proinflammatory mediators. PMID:17592547

  18. Effects of aging, CMV infection, and EBV infection on human B cell repertoires

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Liu, Yi; Xu, Lan T.; Jackson, Katherine J. L.; Roskin, Krishna M.; Pham, Tho D.; Laserson, Jonathan; Marshall, Eleanor L.; Seo, Katie; Lee, Ji-Yeun; Furman, David; Koller, Daphne; Dekker, Cornelia L.; Davis, Mark M.; Fire, Andrew Z.; Boyd, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Elderly humans show decreased humoral immunity to pathogens and vaccines, yet the effects of aging on B cells are not fully known. Chronic viral infection by cytomegalovirus (CMV) is implicated as a driver of clonal T cell proliferations in some aging humans, but whether CMV or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection contributes to alterations in the B cell repertoire with age is unclear. We have used high-throughput DNA sequencing of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene rearrangements to study the B cell receptor repertoires over two successive years in 27 individuals ranging in age from 20 to 89 years. Some features of the B cell repertoire remain stable with age, but elderly subjects show increased numbers of B cells with long CDR3 regions, a trend toward accumulation of more highly mutated IgM and IgG immunoglobulin genes, and persistent clonal B cell populations in the blood. Seropositivity for CMV or EBV infection alters B cell repertoires, regardless of the individual's age: EBV infection correlates with the presence of persistent clonal B cell expansions, while CMV infection correlates with the proportion of highly mutated antibody genes. These findings isolate effects of aging from those of chronic viral infection on B cell repertoires, and provide a baseline for understanding human B cell responses to vaccination or infectious stimuli. PMID:24337376

  19. Clinico-radiological spectrum in enterovirus 71 infection involving the central nervous system in children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Yeon; Lee, Yun-Jin; Kim, Tae Hyoung; Cheon, Doo-Sung; Nam, Sang-Ook

    2014-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 infection causes hand, foot and mouth disease in children, and can produce diverse neurologic complications. Epidemics occurring in Korea between 2009 and 2012 resulted in the death of some patients. The present study aimed to clarify the correlation between clinical features and MRI findings in patients presenting with acute neurologic manifestations related to enterovirus 71 infection. Based on their clinical features, the patients were classified into four clinical groups: (1) brainstem encephalitis (n=17), characterized by myoclonus, tremor, ataxia, and autonomic dysregulation such as pulmonary hemorrhage; (2) aseptic meningitis (n=2); (3) encephalitis (n=2), characterized by decreased consciousness, seizure, and fever without myoclonus, tremor, ataxia, and autonomic dysregulation; and (4) acute flaccid paralysis (n=1). Thirteen of the 17 patients with brainstem encephalitis showed characteristic lesions in the dorsal brainstem and bilateral cerebellar dentate nuclei on brain MRI, whereas three had no abnormality. One of the two patients with meningitis had a small lesion in the left dorsal pons. Two patients with encephalitis had no apparent MRI abnormality. One patient with acute flaccid paralysis of the right leg had contrast-enhancement of the bilateral ventral nerve roots at the lumbar spine level on MRI. Five of 13 patients with lesions in the bilateral dentate nuclei of the cerebellum exhibited no cerebellar symptoms, while two with no cerebellar lesions developed ataxia. Although most patients presenting with neurologic manifestations of enterovirus 71 infection had characteristic clinical features together with typical MRI findings, the clinical features were not necessarily consistent with MRI findings. PMID:24169271

  20. ITRACONAZOLE INHIBITS ENTEROVIRUS REPLICATION BY TARGETING THE OXYSTEROL-BINDING PROTEIN

    PubMed Central

    Strating, Jeroen R.P.M.; van der Linden, Lonneke; Albulescu, Lucian; Bigay, Jolle; Arita, Minetaro; Delang, Leen; Leyssen, Pieter; van der Schaar, Hilde M.; Lanke, Kjerstin H.W.; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; Ulferts, Rachel; Drin, Guillaume; Schlinck, Nina; Wubbolts, Richard W.; Sever, Navdar; Head, Sarah A.; Liu, Jun O.; Beachy, Philip A.; De Matteis, Maria A.; Shair, Matthew D.; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Neyts, Johan; van Kuppeveld, Frank J.M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Itraconazole (ITZ) is a well-known antifungal agent that also has anti-cancer activity. In this study, we identified ITZ as a broad-spectrum inhibitor of enteroviruses (e.g. poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus-71, rhinovirus). We demonstrate that ITZ inhibits viral RNA replication by targeting oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and OSBP-related protein 4 (ORP4). Consistently, OSW-1, a specific OSBP/ORP4 antagonist, also inhibits enterovirus replication. Knockdown of OSBP inhibits virus replication whereas overexpression of OSBP or ORP4 counteracts the antiviral effects of ITZ and OSW-1. ITZ binds OSBP and inhibits its function, i.e. shuttling of cholesterol and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate between membranes, thereby likely perturbing the virus-induced membrane alterations essential for viral replication organelle formation. ITZ also inhibits hepatitis C virus replication, which also relies on OSBP. Together, these data implicate OSBP/ORP4 as novel molecular targets of ITZ and point to an essential role of OSBP/ORP4-mediated lipid exchange in virus replication that can be targeted by antiviral drugs. PMID:25640182

  1. High sensitivity and label-free detection of Enterovirus 71 by nanogold modified electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang-Yu; Li, Hsing-Yuan; Tseng, Shing-Hua; Cheng, Tsai-Mu; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Chang, Chia-Ching

    2013-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), which is the most fulminant and invasive species of enterovirus, can cause children neurologic complications and death within 2-3 days after fever and rash developed. Besides, EV71 has high sequence similarity with Coxsackie A 16 (CA16) that makes differential diagnosis difficult in clinic and laboratory. Since conventional viral diagnostic method cannot diagnose EV71 quickly and EV71 can transmit at low viral titer, the patients might delay in treatment. A quick, high sensitive, and high specific test for EV71 detection is pivotal. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been applied for detecting bio-molecules as biosensors recently. In this study, we try to build a detection platform for EV71 detection by nanogold modified EIS probe. The result shows that our probe can detect 3.6 VP1/50 ?l (one EV71 particle has 60 VP1) in 3 minutes. The test can also distinguish EV71 from CA16 and lysozyme. Diagnosis of enterovirus 71 by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has the potential to apply in clinic.

  2. Human interleukin 7: molecular cloning and growth factor activity on human and murine B-lineage cells.

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, R G; Lupton, S; Schmierer, A; Hjerrild, K J; Jerzy, R; Clevenger, W; Gillis, S; Cosman, D; Namen, A E

    1989-01-01

    A cDNA encoding biologically active human interleukin 7 was isolated by hybridization with the homologous murine clone. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicated that this cDNA was capable of encoding a protein of 177 amino acids with a signal sequence of 25 amino acids and a calculated mass of 17.4 kDa for the mature protein. Recombinant human interleukin 7 stimulated the proliferation of murine pre-B cells and was active on cells harvested from human bone marrow that are enriched for B-lineage progenitor cells. Analysis of RNA by blot hybridization demonstrated the presence of two size classes of interleukin 7 mRNA in human splenic and thymic tissue. Images PMID:2643102

  3. Comparative Immunohistochemistry of Placental Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone and the Transcription Factor RelBNF?B2 Between Humans and Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Todd; Schulkin, Jay; Power, Michael; Tadesse, Serkalem; Norwitz, Errol R; Wen, Zhaoqin; Wang, Bingbing

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor RelBNF?B2, activated by the noncanonical NF?B pathway, positively regulates corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and prostaglandin production in the term human placenta and may play an important role in the timing of human parturition. Here we explored whether RelBNF?B2 signaling plays a role in parturition in nonhuman anthropoid primates. We performed immunohistochemical staining to assess the correlation between CRH and nuclear activity of RelBNF?B2 heterodimers in term placentas from humans, 3 catarrhine primate species, and a single platyrrhine primate species. Consistent with our previous studies, the human placenta showed cytoplasmic staining for CRH and nuclear staining for RelBNF?B2. Similar staining patterns were noted in the 3 catarrhine primates (chimpanzee, baboon, and rhesus macaque). The platyrrhine (marmoset) placentas stained positively for CRH and RelB but not for NF?B2. Catarrhine (but not platyrrhine) nonhuman primate term placentas demonstrate the same CRH staining and nuclear localization patterns of RelB and NF?B2 as does human placenta. These results suggest that catarrhine primates, particularly rhesus macaques, may serve as useful animal models to study the biologic significance of the noncanonical NF?B pathway in human pregnancy. PMID:25926400

  4. Recombinant Adeno-Vaccine Expressing Enterovirus 71-Like Particles against Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Yueh-Liang; Lin, Yi-Wen; Shao, Hsiao-Yun; Yu, Shu-Ling; Wu, Shang-Rung; Lin, Hsiao-Yu; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Huang, Chieh; Chong, Pele; Chow, Yen-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses (CV) are the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). There is not currently a vaccine available against HFMD, even though a newly developed formalin-inactivated EV71 (FI-EV71) vaccine has been tested in clinical trial and has shown efficacy against EV71. We have designed and genetically engineered a recombinant adenovirus Ad-EVVLP with the EV71 P1 and 3CD genes inserted into the E1/E3-deleted adenoviral genome. Ad-EVVLP were produced in HEK-293A cells. In addition to Ad-EVVLP particles, virus-like particles (VLPs) formed from the physical association of EV71 capsid proteins, VP0, VP1, and VP3 expressed from P1 gene products. They were digested by 3CD protease and confirmed to be produced by Ad-EVVLP-producing cells, as determined using transmission electron microscopy and western blotting. Mouse immunogenicity studies showed that Ad-EVVLP-immunized antisera neutralized the EV71 B4 and C2 genotypes. Activation of VLP-specific CD4+ and CD8+/IFN-γ T cells associated with Th1/Th2-balanced IFN-ɣ, IL-17, IL-4, and IL-13 was induced; in contrast, FI-EV71 induced only Th2-mediated neutralizing antibody against EV71 and low VLP-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. The antiviral immunity against EV71 was clearly demonstrated in mice vaccinated with Ad-EVVLP in a hSCARB2 transgenic (hSCARB2-Tg) mouse challenge model. Ad-EVVLP-vaccinated mice were 100% protected and demonstrated reduced viral load in both the CNS and muscle tissues. Ad-EVVLP successfully induced anti-CVA16 immunities. Although antisera had no neutralizing activity against CVA16, the 3C-specific CD4+ and CD8+/IFN-γ T cells were identified, which could mediate protection against CVA16 challenge. FI-EV71 did not induce 3C-mediated immunity and had no efficacy against the CVA16 challenge. These results suggest that Ad-EVVLP can enhance neutralizing antibody and protective cellular immune responses to prevent EV71 infection and cellular immune responses against CV infection. PMID:25855976

  5. Harnessing Gene Conversion in Chicken B Cells to Create a Human Antibody Sequence Repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Schusser, Benjamin; Yi, Henry; Collarini, Ellen J.; Izquierdo, Shelley Mettler; Harriman, William D.; Etches, Robert J.; Leighton, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic chickens expressing human sequence antibodies would be a powerful tool to access human targets and epitopes that have been intractable in mammalian hosts because of tolerance to conserved proteins. To foster the development of the chicken platform, it is beneficial to validate transgene constructs using a rapid, cell culture-based method prior to generating fully transgenic birds. We describe a method for the expression of human immunoglobulin variable regions in the chicken DT40 B cell line and the further diversification of these genes by gene conversion. Chicken VL and VH loci were knocked out in DT40 cells and replaced with human VK and VH genes. To achieve gene conversion of human genes in chicken B cells, synthetic human pseudogene arrays were inserted upstream of the functional human VK and VH regions. Proper expression of chimeric IgM comprised of human variable regions and chicken constant regions is shown. Most importantly, sequencing of DT40 genetic variants confirmed that the human pseudogene arrays contributed to the generation of diversity through gene conversion at both the Igl and Igh loci. These data show that engineered pseudogene arrays produce a diverse pool of human antibody sequences in chicken B cells, and suggest that these constructs will express a functional repertoire of chimeric antibodies in transgenic chickens. PMID:24278246

  6. Concentration and purification of enterovirus 71 using a weak anion-exchange monolithic column

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is a neurotropic virus causing Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) in infants and children under the age of five. It is a major concern for public health issues across Asia-Pacific region. The most effective way to control the disease caused by EV-71 is by vaccination thus a novel vaccine is urgently needed. Inactivated EV-71 induces a strong, virus-neutralizing antibody response in animal models, protecting them against a lethal EV-71 challenge and it has been shown to elicit cross-neutralizing antibodies in human trials. Hence, the large-scale production of purified EV-71 is required for vaccine development, diagnosis and clinical trials. Methods CIM Monolith columns are single-piece columns made up of poly(glycidyl methacrylate co-ethylene dimethacrylate) as support matrix. They are designed as porous channels rather than beads with different chemistries for different requirements. As monolithic columns have a high binding capacity, flow rate and resolution, a CIM DEAE-8f tube monolithic column was selected for purification in this study. The EV-71 infected Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell supernatant was concentrated using 8% PEG 8000 in the presence of 400mM sodium chloride. The concentrated virus was purified by weak anion exchange column using 50mM HEPES?+?1M sodium chloride as elution buffer. Results Highly pure viral particles were obtained at a concentration of 350mM sodium chloride as confirmed by SDS-PAGE and electron microscopy. Presence of viral proteins VP1, VP2 and VP3 was validated by western blotting. The overall process achieved a recovery of 55%. Conclusions EV-71 viral particles of up to 95% purity can be recovered by a single step ion-exchange chromatography using CIM-DEAE monolithic columns and 1M sodium chloride as elution buffer. Moreover, this method is scalable to purify several litres of virus-containing supernatant, using industrial monolithic columns with a capacity of up to 8L such as CIM cGMP tube monolithic columns. PMID:24884895

  7. Antiviral effects of two Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoids against enterovirus 71 infection

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wenjing; Tao, Junyan; Yang, Xiaoping; Yang, Zhuliang; Zhang, Li; Liu, Hongsheng; Wu, Kailang; Wu, Jianguo

    2014-07-04

    Highlights: • Triterpenoids GLTA and GLTB display anti-EV71 activities without cytotoxicity. • The compounds prevent EV71 infection by blocking adsorption of the virus to the cells. • GLTA and GLTB bind to EV71 capsid at the hydrophobic pocket to block EV71 uncoating. • The two compounds significantly inhibit the replication of EV71 viral RNA. • GLTA and GLTB may be used as potential therapeutic agents to treat EV71 infection. - Abstract: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), and fatal neurological and systemic complications in children. However, there is currently no clinical approved antiviral drug available for the prevention and treatment of the viral infection. Here, we evaluated the antiviral activities of two Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoids (GLTs), Lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-3-one,15;26-dihydroxy (GLTA) and Ganoderic acid Y (GLTB), against EV71 infection. The results showed that the two natural compounds display significant anti-EV71 activities without cytotoxicity in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells as evaluated by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assay. The mechanisms by which the two compounds affect EV71 infection were further elucidated by three action modes using Ribavirin, a common antiviral drug, as a positive control. The results suggested that GLTA and GLTB prevent EV71 infection through interacting with the viral particle to block the adsorption of virus to the cells. In addition, the interactions between EV71 virion and the compounds were predicated by computer molecular docking, which illustrated that GLTA and GLTB may bind to the viral capsid protein at a hydrophobic pocket (F site), and thus may block uncoating of EV71. Moreover, we demonstrated that GLTA and GLTB significantly inhibit the replication of the viral RNA (vRNA) of EV71 replication through blocking EV71 uncoating. Thus, GLTA and GLTB may represent two potential therapeutic agents to control and treat EV71 infection.

  8. [Recombinant human interferon alpha 2b broad-spectrum anti-respiratory viruses pharmacodynamics study in vitro].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Qiang; Ma, Lin-Lin; Jiang, Jian-Dong; Pang, Rui; Chen, Yu-Jun; Li, Yu-Huan

    2014-11-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of recombinant human interferon alpha 2b against broad-spectrum respiratory viruses in vitro. At the cellular level, the effect of the recombinant human interferon alpha 2b on influenza A virus was detected using real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. The effects of the recombinant human interferon alpha 2b on influenza B virus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and coronavirus were detected using cytopathic effect (CPE) method. In this study, the therapeutic index of recombinant human interferon alpha 2b anti-HPIV was 1476.63, the therapeutic index of recombinant human interferon alpha 2b anti-RSV was 141.37, the therapeutic index of recombinant human interferon alpha 2b anti-coronavirus was more than 2820.76, and the antiviral effect of recombinant human interferon alpha 2b was better than ribavirin (RBV). Recombinant human interferon alpha 2b has a stronger inhibitory effect on different influenza A virus RNA than drug control. The therapeutic index of recombinant human interferon alpha 2b anti-influenza B virus was 2.74, with modest effect. Recombinant human interferon alpha 2b in vitro has broad spectrum antiviral activities, low toxicity and high therapeutic index. Recombinant human interferon alpha 2b is expected to become the efficient medicine in clinical against respiratory viruses, as well as provide better services for prevention and treatment of respiratory viruses' infections. PMID:25757280

  9. The evaluation of hollow-fiber ultrafiltration and celite concentration of enteroviruses, adenoviruses and bacteriophage from different water matrices.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Eric R; Huff, Emma M; Hamilton, Douglas W; Jones, Jenifer L

    2016-02-01

    The collection of waterborne pathogen occurrence data often requires the concentration of microbes from large volumes of water due to the low number of microorganisms that are typically present in environmental and drinking waters. Hollow-fiber ultrafiltration (HFUF) has shown promise in the recovery of various microorganisms. This study has demonstrated that the HFUF primary concentration method is effective at recovering bacteriophage ?X174, poliovirus, enterovirus 70, echovirus 7, coxsackievirus B4 and adenovirus 41 from large volumes of tap and river water with an average recovery of all viruses of 73.4% and 81.0%, respectively. This study also evaluated an effective secondary concentration method using celite for the recovery of bacteriophage and enteric viruses tested from HFUF concentrates of both matrices. Overall, the complete concentration method (HFUF primary concentration plus celite secondary concentration) resulted in a concentration factor of 3333 and average recoveries for all viruses from tap and river waters of 60.6% and 60.0%, respectively. PMID:26562058

  10. Human genes involved in hepatitis B virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a significant public health problem because it is a major cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Roughly one-third of the world population has been infected with HBV and there are about 350 million (5%-6%) persistent carriers. HBV causes 80% of all liver cancer cases and is the second most important carcinogen, after smoking tobacco. There is an approximate 90% risk of becoming a persistent carrier following perinatal infection in infants born to e antigen positive carrier mothers and a 30% risk in pre-school children. Only 5%-10% of adults become persistent carriers following infection. Of individuals persistently infected with HBV, 10%-30% will develop liver cirrhosis and HCC. These highly variable outcomes in both clearance rates and disease outcomes in persistently infected individuals cannot be fully explained by differences in immunological, viral or environmental factors. Thus, differences in host genetic factors may affect the natural history of hepatitis B. PMID:24976707

  11. Comparative Gene Expression Profiling Identifies Common Molecular Signatures of NF-?B Activation in Canine and Human Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL)

    PubMed Central

    Mudaliar, Manikhandan A. V.; Haggart, Ross D.; Miele, Gino; Sellar, Grant; Tan, Karen A. L.; Goodlad, John R.; Milne, Elspeth; Vail, David M.; Kurzman, Ilene

    2013-01-01

    We present the first comparison of global transcriptional changes in canine and human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), with particular reference to the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) pathway. Microarray data generated from canine DLBCL and normal lymph nodes were used for differential expression, co-expression and pathway analyses, and compared with analysis of microarray data from human healthy and DLBCL lymph nodes. The comparisons at gene level were performed by mapping the probesets in canine microarrays to orthologous genes in humans and vice versa. A considerable number of differentially expressed genes between canine lymphoma and healthy lymph node samples were also found differentially expressed between human DLBCL and healthy lymph node samples. Principal component analysis using a literature-derived NF-?B target gene set mapped to orthologous canine array probesets and human array probesets clearly separated the healthy and cancer samples in both datasets. The analysis demonstrated that for both human and canine DLBCL there is activation of the NF-?B/p65 canonical pathway, indicating that canine lymphoma could be used as a model to study NF-?B-targeted therapeutics for human lymphoma. To validate this, tissue arrays were generated for canine and human NHL and immunohistochemistry was employed to assess NF-?B activation status. In addition, human and canine B-cell lymphoma lines were assessed for NF-?B activity and the effects of NF-?B inhibition. PMID:24023754

  12. Competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND Few accurate data exist on the concentration of vitamin B12 in human milk. Binding of the vitamin to haptocorrin (HC) can interfere with the assay if not removed by pretreatment, and very low values can occur in women with poor B12 status. This study evaluated two competitive enzyme bind...

  13. Effects of Synephrine and B-Phenethylamine on Human a-Adrenoceptor Subtypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synephrine and B-phenethylamine are structurally related to ephedrine. In this study, the effects of synephrine and B-phenethylamine are investigated on a-adrenoceptor (a-AR) subtypes expressed in human embroyonic kidney (HEK293) or Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and compared to that of 1R,2S-no...

  14. Peptidomimetic ethyl propenoate covalent inhibitors of the enterovirus 71 3C protease: a P2-P4 study.

    PubMed

    Ang, Melgious J Y; Lau, Qiu Ying; Ng, Fui Mee; Then, Siew Wen; Poulsen, Anders; Cheong, Yuen Kuen; Ngoh, Zi Xian; Tan, Yong Wah; Peng, Jianhe; Keller, Thomas H; Hill, Jeffrey; Chu, Justin J H; Brian Chia, C S

    2016-04-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a highly infectious pathogen primarily responsible for Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease, particularly among children. Currently, no approved antiviral drug has been developed against this disease. The EV71 3C protease is deemed an attractive drug target due to its crucial role in viral polyprotein processing. Rupintrivir, a peptide-based inhibitor originally developed to target the human rhinovirus 3C protease, was found to inhibit the EV71 3C protease. In this communication, we report the inhibitory activities of 30 Rupintrivir analogs against the EV71 3C protease. The most potent inhibitor, containing a P2 ring-constrained phenylalanine analog (compound 9), was found to be two-fold more potent than Rupintrivir (IC50 value 3.4 ± 0.4 versus 7.3 ± 0.8 μM). Our findings suggest that employing geometrically constrained residues in peptide-based protease inhibitors can potentially enhance their inhibitory activities. PMID:25792507

  15. Enterovirus 71 induces autophagy by regulating has-miR-30a expression to promote viral replication.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuxuan; Xu, Wentao; Chen, Deyan; Feng, Chunhong; Zhang, Li; Wang, Xiaohui; Lv, Xiaowen; Zheng, Nan; Jin, Yu; Wu, Zhiwei

    2015-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), the etiological agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, has increasingly become a public health challenge around the world. Previous studies reported that EV71 infection can induce autophagic machinery to enhance viral replication invitro and invivo, but did not address the underlying mechanisms. Increasing evidence suggests that autophagy, in a virus-specific manner, may function to degrade viruses or facilitate viral replication. In this study, we reported that EV71 infection of human epidermoid carcinoma (Hep2) and African green monkey kidney cells (Vero) induced autophagy, which is beneficial for viral replication. Our investigation of the mechanisms revealed that EV71 infection resulted in the reduction of cellular miR-30a, which led to the inhibition of Beclin-1, a key autophagy-promoting gene that plays important roles at the early phase of autophagosome formation. We provided further evidence that by modulating cellular miR-30a level through either overexpression or inhibition, one can inhibit or promote EV71 replication, respectively, through regulating autophagic activity. PMID:26515789

  16. Antibody Repertoires in Humanized NOD-scid-IL2Rγnull Mice and Human B Cells Reveals Human-Like Diversification and Tolerance Checkpoints in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Ippolito, Gregory C.; Hoi, Kam Hon; Reddy, Sai T.; Carroll, Sean M.; Ge, Xin; Rogosch, Tobias; Zemlin, Michael; Shultz, Leonard D.; Ellington, Andrew D.; VanDenBerg, Carla L.; Georgiou, George

    2012-01-01

    Immunodeficient mice reconstituted with human hematopoietic stem cells enable the in vivo study of human hematopoiesis. In particular, NOD-scid-IL2Rγnull engrafted mice have been shown to have reasonable levels of T and B cell repopulation and can mount T-cell dependent responses; however, antigen-specific B-cell responses in this model are generally poor. We explored whether developmental defects in the immunoglobulin gene repertoire might be partly responsible for the low level of antibody responses in this model. Roche 454 sequencing was used to obtain over 685,000 reads from cDNA encoding immunoglobulin heavy (IGH) and light (IGK and IGL) genes isolated from immature, naïve, or total splenic B cells in engrafted NOD-scid-IL2Rγnull mice, and compared with over 940,000 reads from peripheral B cells of two healthy volunteers. We find that while naïve B-cell repertoires in humanized mice are chiefly indistinguishable from those in human blood B cells, and display highly correlated patterns of immunoglobulin gene segment use, the complementarity-determining region H3 (CDR-H3) repertoires are nevertheless extremely diverse and are specific for each individual. Despite this diversity, preferential DH-JH pairings repeatedly occur within the CDR-H3 interval that are strikingly similar across all repertoires examined, implying a genetic constraint imposed on repertoire generation. Moreover, CDR-H3 length, charged amino-acid content, and hydropathy are indistinguishable between humans and humanized mice, with no evidence of global autoimmune signatures. Importantly, however, a statistically greater usage of the inherently autoreactive IGHV4-34 and IGKV4-1 genes was observed in the newly formed immature B cells relative to naïve B or total splenic B cells in the humanized mice, a finding consistent with the deletion of autoreactive B cells in humans. Overall, our results provide evidence that key features of the primary repertoire are shaped by genetic factors intrinsic to human B cells and are principally unaltered by differences between mouse and human stromal microenvironments. PMID:22558161

  17. Constitutive IkappaB kinase activity correlates with nuclear factor-kappaB activation in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Richmond, A

    2001-06-15

    Constitutive IKK activity associated with increased IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and degradation contribute to the high level of endogenous nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation in Hs294T melanoma cells as compared with RPE cells (R. L. Shattuck-Brandt and A. Richmond, Cancer Res., 57: 3032-3039, 1997; M. N. Devalaraja et al., Cancer Res., 59: 1372-1377, 1999). To determine whether this endogenous NF-kappaB activation was characteristic of melanoma, we examined the level of constitutive activation of NF-kappaB in a number of melanoma cell lines. We demonstrate here that eight melanoma cell lines exhibit increased IkappaB kinase (IKK) activity, enhanced phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha and p65, and enhanced nuclear localization of p65/p50 in comparison to normal human epidermal melanocytes. The chemokines, CXC ligand 1 (CXCL1) and CXCL8, but not CXCL5, are highly expressed in most of the melanoma cell lines, suggesting that the constitutive production of chemokines is highly correlated to endogenous NF-kappaB activity. Our failure to observe a direct relationship between the fold activation of IKK, CXCL1, or CXCL8 mRNA levels and secretion of these chemokines into the culture medium suggest that regulation of chemokine expression also occurs at the posttranscription level of mRNA stability and/or translational control. Moreover, recombinant CXCL1 can directly induce IKK activity in normal human epidermal melanocytes in a concentration-dependent manner after up-modulation of CXCL1 protein expression, whereas inhibition of IKKbeta activity results in down-modulation of CXCL1 protein expression. Finally, CXCL1 antibody blocks IKK activity and inhibits the proliferation of melanoma cells to further support the concept that the constitutive activation of NF-kappaB and autocrine effects of CXCL1 play an important role in the pathogenesis of melanoma. PMID:11406569

  18. Recollections of J.B.S. Haldane, with special reference to Human Genetics in India.

    PubMed

    Dronamraju, Krishna R

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a brief account of the scientific work of J.B.S. Haldane (1892-1964), with special reference to early research in Human Genetics. Brief descriptions of Haldane's background, his important contributions to the foundations of human genetics, his move to India from Great Britain and the research carried out in Human Genetics in India under his direction are outlined. Population genetic research on Y-linkage in man, inbreeding, color blindness and other aspects are described. PMID:22754215

  19. Recollections of J.B.S. Haldane, with special reference to Human Genetics in India

    PubMed Central

    Dronamraju, Krishna R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a brief account of the scientific work of J.B.S. Haldane (1892–1964), with special reference to early research in Human Genetics. Brief descriptions of Haldane's background, his important contributions to the foundations of human genetics, his move to India from Great Britain and the research carried out in Human Genetics in India under his direction are outlined. Population genetic research on Y-linkage in man, inbreeding, color blindness and other aspects are described. PMID:22754215

  20. Membrane-associated signaling in human B-lymphoma lines

    SciTech Connect

    Tauzin, Sebastien; Ding, Heidrun; Burdevet, Dimitri; Borisch, Bettina; Hoessli, Daniel C.

    2011-01-15

    In B-non-Hodgkin lymphomas, Lyn and Cbp/PAG constitute the core of an oncogenic signalosome that captures the Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, the Spleen tyrosine kinase and the Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 to generate pro-survival and proliferative signals. Lymphoma lines corresponding to follicular, mantle-cell and Burkitt-derived lymphomas display type-specific signalosome organizations that differentially activate PI3K, Syk and STAT3. In the follicular lymphoma line, PI3K, Syk and STAT3 were optimally activated upon association with the Lyn-Cbp/PAG signalosome, while in the Burkitt lymphoma-derived line, the association with Cbp/PAG and activation of PI3K were interfered with by the latent membrane proteins encoded by the Epstein-Barr virus. In the Jeko-1 mantle-cell line, a weak association of Syk with the Lyn-Cbp/PAG signalosome resulted in poor activation of Syk, but in those cells, as in the follicular and Burkitt-derived lines, efficient apoptosis induction by the Syk inhibitor R406 indicated that Syk is nonetheless an important prosurvival element and therefore a valuable therapeutic target. In all configurations described herein is the Lyn-Cbp/PAG signalosome independent of external signals and provides efficient means of activation for its associated lipid and protein kinases. In follicular and Burkitt-derived lines, Syk appears to be activated following binding to Cbp/PAG and no longer requires B-cell receptor-associated activation motifs for activation. Assessment of the different modalities of Lyn-Cbp/PAG signalosome organization could help in selecting the appropriate combination of kinase inhibitors to eliminate a particular type of lymphoma cells.

  1. Innate Response Activator (IRA) B Cells Reside in Human Tonsils and Internalize Bacteria In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pancotto, Laura; Ruggiero, Paolo; Rosa, Domenico; Manetti, Andrea; Romano, Antonio; Montagnani, Francesca; Bertholet, Sylvie; Castellino, Flora; Del Giudice, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Innate response activator (IRA) B cells have been described in mice as a subset of B-1a B cells that produce granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and have been found in the spleen upon activation. In humans, identification, tissue localization and functionality of these lymphocytes are poorly understood. We hypothesized that IRA B cells could reside in human palatine tonsils, which are a first line of defense from infection of the upper respiratory tract. In the present work, we used flow cytometry and confocal microscopy to identify and characterize human IRA (hIRA) B cells in tonsils. We show that CD19+CD20+GM-CSF+ B cells are present in the tonsils of all the subjects studied at a frequency ranging between ~0.2% and ~0.4% of the conventional CD19+CD20+GM-CSF- B cells. These cells reside within the B cell follicles, are mostly IgM+IgD+, express CD5 and show phagocytic activity. Our results support a role for hIRA B cells in the effector immune response to infections in tonsils. PMID:26066485

  2. Maintenance of Serological Memory by Polyclonal Activation of Human Memory B Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernasconi, Nadia L.; Traggiai, Elisabetta; Lanzavecchia, Antonio

    2002-12-01

    Production of antibodies can last for a lifetime, through mechanisms that remain poorly understood. Here, we show that human memory B lymphocytes proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells in response to polyclonal stimuli, such as bystander T cell help and CpG DNA. Furthermore, plasma cells secreting antibodies to recall antigens are produced in vivo at levels proportional to the frequency of specific memory B cells, even several years after antigenic stimulation. Although antigen boosting leads to a transient increase in specific antibody levels, ongoing polyclonal activation of memory B cells offers a means to maintain serological memory for a human lifetime.

  3. [Non detection of enterovirus in the bivalve Anadara tuberculosa (Bivalvia:Arcidae) caused by chemical contamination in the Pacific of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Libia Herrero, U; Alejandro Palacios, F; Laya Hun, O; Francisco Vega, A

    1999-09-01

    Anadara tuberculosa is one of the most abundant mollusks of commercial importance in Costa Rica. Its habitat water is a potential source of fecal and chemical contamination to humans. We wanted to asses enterovirus, mainly poliovirus and hepatitis A virus and chemicals such as sulphates and nitrates in meat and body fluids. Thirteen samples were taken from four sites in Nicoya Gulf, three sites in the Sierpe-Trraba mangrove (Pacific of Costa Rica) and from five fish markets in San Jos, the capital of Costa Rica. Samples were tested for 1) fecal coliforms (Most Probable Number/100 ml), 2) isolation of enterovirus in cell culture (Hep-2, FrhK-4), 3) cell cytotoxicity in Vero cells and 4) the ability to inactivate 10 ID50% of poliovirus in cell culture. The Most Probable Number/100 ml in surrounding water was higher than the accepted standard for recreational waters, although the number of fecal coliforms in meats and body fluids was lower than in the external water. No cytopathogenic agents were isolated, but we found nitrate and sulphate concentrations that exceeded maxima for human consumption and recreation. The intrinsic cytotoxicity of the samples was at a 1/8 dilution, but some samples were cytotoxic at dilutions of 1/128. Body fluids were more cytotoxic than meats, but a positive correlation between cytotoxicity and chemical contamination was not determined: apparently other pollutants not identified in this study were responsible. Fluid and meat capacity to inactivate 10 ID50% of poliovirus in cell culture was demonstrated. Samples that were toxic for cell cultures also showed a higher percentage of poliovirus inactivation. Monitoring chemical pollution in these waters is highly recommended. PMID:10883327

  4. Human bradykinin B2 receptor: Nucleotide sequence analysis and assignment to chromosome 14

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, S.J.; Slynn, G.; Thomas, C.; Hopkins, B.; Briggs, I.; Graham, A. )

    1993-02-01

    Functional cDNA clones for human bradykinin B2 receptor were isolated from uterus RNA by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method and by screening a human cosmid library with rat bradykinin B2 receptor probe. We isolated several overlapping clones from the cosmid library, each of which encodes the entire protein-coding sequence. The human bradykinin B2 receptor gene codes for a 364-amino-acid protein with a molecular mass of 41,442 Da that is highly homologous to rat bradykinin B2 receptor cDNA (81%). The entire human cDNA sequence was cloned into an expression vector and mRNA was synthesised by in vitro transcription. Applications of bradykinin caused membrane current responses in Xenopus oocytes injected with the in vitro-synthesized mRNA. Preincubation with the potent B2 antagonist, HOE140, prevented this response. The genomic clone is intronless, and we have identified an upstream promoter region and a downstream polyadenylation signal. The human bradykinin B2 receptor gene has been mapped to chromosome 14 using PCR to specifically amplify DNA from somatic cell hybrids. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Immortalization of Epstein-Barr virus-negative human B lymphocytes with minimal chromosomal instability.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yoriko; Tsurumi, Tatsuya; Mori, Naoyoshi; Kiyono, Tohru

    2006-11-01

    The genes required for immortalization of human B cells infected by Epstein-Barr virus are multiple, and the precise mechanism of this process remains to be elucidated. In the present study HPV16 E6 and E7 were retrovirally transduced into human primary B cells stimulated by CD40-CD40L interaction, thereby establishing an Epstein-Barr virus negative immortalized human B cell line, which continued to proliferate for more than 2 years (100 population doublings). The established cell line had a high telomerase activity from the beginning of the culture period, and no shortening of the telomere length was observed. A chromosomal analysis revealed that a large portion of the HPV16E6E7 transduced cells had retained a normal karyotype. Similar to human epithelial cells, human B lymphocytes seem to require two steps for immortalization, namely, the inactivation of the p16/Rb pathway and the activation of telomerase, the latter that can be induced by the CD40-CD40L interaction. Furthermore, using this system, it is possible to analyze the role of individual genes in human B lymphocyte immortalization without the influence of a pre-existing Epstein-Barr virus genome. PMID:17040288

  6. Identification of specific antigenic epitope at N-terminal segment of enterovirus 71 (EV-71) VP1 protein and characterization of its use in recombinant form for early diagnosis of EV-71 infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianhua; Jiang, Bingfu; Xu, Mingjie; Dai, Xing; Purdy, Michael A.; Meng, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the main etiologic agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). We sought to identify EV-71 specific antigens and develop serologic assays for acute-phase EV-71 infection. A series of truncated proteins within the N-terminal 100 amino acids (aa) of EV-71 VP1 was expressed in Escherichia coli. Western blot (WB) analysis showed that positions around 1121 aa contain EV-71-specific antigenic sites, whereas positions 15 and 51100 contain epitopes shared with human coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and human echovirus 6 (E-6). The N-terminal truncated protein of VP1, VP1643, exhibited good stability and was recognized by anti-EV-71 specific rabbit sera. Alignment analysis showed that VP1643 is highly conserved among EV-71 strains from different genotypes but was heterologous among other enteroviruses. When the GST-VP1643 fusion protein was incorporated as antibody-capture agent in a WB assay and an ELISA for detecting anti-EV-71 IgM in human sera, sensitivities of 91.7% and 77.8% were achieved, respectively, with 100% specificity for both. The characterized EV-71 VP1 protein truncated to positions 643 aa has potential as an antigen for detection of anti-EV-71 IgM for early diagnosis of EV-71 infection in a WB format. PMID:24952304

  7. Structural analysis of human CCR2b and primate CCR2b by molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiu-Fan; Liu, Shixi; Xiangyu, Jinggong; Zhang, Yaping; Huang, Jingfei; Liu, Shuqiu; Liu, Ci-Quan

    2002-07-01

    CCR2b, a chemokine receptor for MCP-1, -2, -3, -4, plays an important role in a variety of diseases involving infection, inflammation, and/or injury, as well as being a coreceptor for HIV-1 infection. Two models of human CCR2b (hCCR2b) were generated by homology modeling and 1 ns restrained molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. In one only C113-C190 forms a disulfide bond (SS model); in another the potential C32-C277 disulfide bond was formed (2SS model). Analysis of the structures and averaged displacements of Calpha atoms of the N-terminal residues shows that the main differences between the SS and 2SS models lie in a region D25YDYGAPCHKFD36; in the extracellular part of the 2SS model the accessible surfaces of N12, F23, Y26, Y28 and F35 are obviously raised and a more stable H-bond net is formed. The potential energy of the 2SS-water assembly finally fluctuated around -43,020 kJ x mol(-1), which is about 302 kJ x mol(-1) lower than that of the SS-water assembly. All these results suggest that the 2SS model is more favorable. The CCR2b genes of 17 primates were sequenced and four CCR2b models for primates Ateles paniscus (A. pan), Hylobates leucogyneus(H. leu), Papio cynocephalus (P. cyn) and Trachypithecus francoist ( T. fra) were generated based on the 2SS model. A comparison of hCCR2b with primate CCR2b also supports the importance of the region D25YDYGAPCHKFD36. Electrostatic potential maps of human and primate CCR2b all display the dipolar characteristics of CCR2b with the negative pole located in the extracellular part and a strong positive pole in the cytoplasmic part. Based on the CCR2b model, we suggest that the main functional residues fall in the D25YDYGAPCHKFD36 region, and the negative electrostatic feature is a non-specific, but necessary, factor for ligands or gp120/CD4 binding. PMID:12192431

  8. CS1 (CRACC, CD319) induces proliferation and autocrine cytokine expression on human B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Kyung; Mathew, Stephen O; Vaidya, Swapnil V; Kumaresan, Pappanaicken R; Mathew, Porunelloor A

    2007-10-01

    CS1 (CRACC, CD319), a member of the CD2 family of cell surface receptors, is implicated in the activation of NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Previous studies showed that CS1 is also expressed on activated B cells. However, the functional role of CS1 in human B-lymphocytes is not known. Two isoforms of CS1, CS1-L and CS1-S, are expressed in human NK cells that differentially regulate NK cell function. CS1-L contains immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs in its cytoplasmic domain whereas CS1-S lacks immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs. In this study, we show that human B lymphocytes express only the CS1-L isoform, and its expression is up-regulated upon B cell activation with various stimulators. Moreover, anti-CS1 mAb strongly enhanced proliferation of both freshly isolated as well as activated B cells. The enhanced proliferation effects of CS1 were most prominent on B cells activated by anti-CD40 mAbs and/or hrIL-4. The effects of CS1 on B cell proliferation were shown on both naive and memory B cells. Human cytokine microarray and quantitative real-time PCR results indicated that CS1 activation enhanced mRNA transcripts of flt3 ligand, lymphotoxin A, TNF, and IL-14. Neutralizing Abs against lymphotoxin A, TNF-alpha, and/or flt3 ligand abolished the ability of CS1 on the B cell proliferation. These results suggest that activation of B lymphocytes, through surface CS1, may be mediated through secretion of autocrine cytokines and CS1 may play a role in the regulation of B lymphocyte proliferation during immune responses. PMID:17878365

  9. Human gut microbes use multiple transporters to distinguish vitamin B?? analogs and compete in the gut.

    PubMed

    Degnan, Patrick H; Barry, Natasha A; Mok, Kenny C; Taga, Michiko E; Goodman, Andrew L

    2014-01-15

    Genomic and metagenomic sequencing efforts, including human microbiome projects, reveal that microbes often encode multiple systems that appear to accomplish the same task. Whether these predictions reflect actual functional redundancies is unclear. We report that the prominent human gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron employs three functional, homologous vitamin B?? transporters that in at least two cases confer a competitive advantage in the presence of distinct B?? analogs (corrinoids). In the mammalian gut, microbial fitness can be determined by the presence or absence of a single transporter. The total number of distinct corrinoid transporter families in the human gut microbiome likely exceeds those observed in B. thetaiotaomicron by an order of magnitude. These results demonstrate that human gut microbes use elaborate mechanisms to capture and differentiate corrinoids in vivo and that apparent redundancies observed in these genomes can instead reflect hidden specificities that determine whether a microbe will colonize its host. PMID:24439897

  10. A REAL-TIME RT-PCR REACTION SPECIFIC FOR BOVINE ENTEROVIRUSES PROVIDES A RAPID ASSAY FOR FECAL CONTAMINATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT BY CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characterization of bovine enteroviruses found in a closed herd of cattle and the surrounding environment indicated that bovine enteroviruses (BEV) could serve as useful markers of contamination with cattle waste. BEV was found in feces from 76% of cattle, 38% of white-tail deer in the same area an...

  11. Human luteinized granulosa cells secrete apoB100-containing lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Gautier, Thomas; Becker, Steffi; Drouineaud, Vronique; Mntrier, Franck; Sagot, Paul; Nofer, Jerzy-Roch; von Otte, Sren; Lagrost, Laurent; Masson, David; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Thus far, liver, intestine, heart, and placenta have been shown to secrete apolipoprotein (apo)B-containing lipoproteins. In the present study, we first investigated lipoproteins in human follicular fluid (FF), surrounding developing oocytes within the ovary, as well as in corresponding plasma samples (n = 12). HDL cholesterol within FF correlated well with plasma HDL cholesterol (r = 0.80, P < 0.01), whereas VLDL cholesterol did not, indicating that VLDL in FF might originate directly from the granulosa cells producing FF. Primary human granulosa cells expressed apoB, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, and apoE, but not the apoB-editing enzyme apobec-1. Using 3H-leucine, we show that granulosa cells secrete apoB100-containing lipoproteins and that secretion can be stimulated by adding oleate to the medium (+83%). With electron microscopy, apoB-containing lipoproteins within the secretory pathway of human granulosa cells were directly visualized. Finally, we found a positive relationship between apoB levels in FF and improved fertility parameters in a population of 27 women undergoing in vitro fertilization. This study demonstrates that human granulosa cells assemble and secrete apoB100-containing lipoproteins, thereby identifying a novel cell type equipped with these properties. These results might have important implications for female infertility phenotypes as well as for the development of drugs targeting the VLDL production pathway. PMID:20407020

  12. [Structure and expression of human hepatitis B virus surface antigen].

    PubMed

    Kozlovskaia, T M; Pumpen, P P

    1986-01-01

    In view of the growing occurrence rate of the virus-induced hepatitis B and also of the special role played by this particular virus (HBV) in the application of recombinant genetic techniques to the study of complex biological systems, an attempt was made to survey the available evidence concerning the widely investigated and practically the most important part of the viral genome, viz. the gene coding for the surface antigen (HBsAg) and the protein itself. The possible antigenic structure of the protein was investigated using data on the primary structure of 11 cloned HBsAg gene variants and on the synthesis of peptides simulating its immunological properties. Special emphasis was placed on quantitative assessment of antigenicity and immunogenicity. Expression of the gene in homologous systems was studied using cultures of eukaryotic tissues: both as part of HBV nucleotide sequences incorporated into the chromosome and as part of extrachromosomal DNA. The latest findings on HBsAg gene expression in yeast and bacteria are reviewed. PMID:2429171

  13. Vanillin protects human keratinocyte stem cells against ultraviolet B irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jienny; Cho, Jae Youl; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lee, Jongsung; Song, Jae-Young

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation is one of major factors which induce cellular damages in the epidermis. We investigated protective effects and mechanisms of vanillin, a main constituent of vanilla beans, against UVB-induced cellular damages in keratinocyte stem cells (KSC). Here, vanillin significantly attenuated UVB irradiation-induced cytotoxicity. The vanillin effects were also demonstrated by the results of the senescence-associated ?-galactosidase and alkaline comet assays. In addition, vanillin induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Attempts to elucidate a possible mechanism underlying the vanillin-mediated effects revealed that vanillin significantly reduced UVB-induced phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), serine threonine kinase checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53), p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK), S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP), and histone 2A family member X (H2A.X). UVB-induced activation of p53 luciferase reporter was also significantly inhibited by vanillin. In addition, while ATM inhibitor had no effect on the vanillin effects, mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) inhibitor significantly attenuated suppressive effects of vanillin on UVB-induced activation of p53 reporter in KSC. Taken together, these findings suggest that vanillin protects KSC from UVB irradiation and its effects may occur through the suppression of downstream step of MDM2 in UVB irradiation-induced p53 activation. PMID:24184596

  14. Use of Cell Culture-PCR Assay Based on Combination of A549 and BGMK Cell Lines and Molecular Identification as a Tool To Monitor Infectious Adenoviruses and Enteroviruses in River Water

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheonghoon; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Han, Euiri; Kim, Sang-Jong

    2004-01-01

    Viral contamination in environmental samples can be underestimated because a single cell line might reproduce only some enteric viruses and some enteric viruses do not exhibit apparent cytopathic effects in cell culture. To overcome this problem, we evaluated a cell culture-PCR assay based on a combination of A549 and Buffalo green monkey kidney (BGMK) cell lines as a tool to monitor infectious adenoviruses and enteroviruses in river water. Water samples were collected 10 times at each of four rivers located in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea, and then cultured on group 1 cells (BGMK cells alone) and group 2 cells (BGMK and A549 cells). Reverse transcription and multiplex PCR were performed, followed by phylogenetic analysis of the amplicons. Thirty (75.0%) of the 40 samples were positive for viruses based on cell culture, and the frequency of positive samples grown on group 2 cells (65.0%) was higher than the frequency of positive samples grown on group 1 cells (50.0%). The number of samples positive for adenoviruses was higher with A549 cells (13 samples) than with BGMK cells (one sample); the numbers of samples positive for enteroviruses were similar with both types of cells. By using phylogenetic analysis, adenoviral amplicons were grouped into subgenera A, C, D, and F, and enteroviral amplicons were grouped into coxsackieviruses B3 and B4 and echoviruses 6, 7, and 30, indicating that A549 and BGMK cells were suitable for recovering a wide range of adenoviral and enteroviral types. The cell culture-PCR assay with a combination of A549 and BGMK cells and molecular identification could be a useful tool for monitoring infectious adenoviruses and enteroviruses in aquatic environments. PMID:15528536

  15. Position 156 influences the peptide repertoire and tapasin dependency of human leukocyte antigen B*44 allotypes

    PubMed Central

    Badrinath, Soumya; Saunders, Philippa; Huyton, Trevor; Aufderbeck, Susanne; Hiller, Oliver; Blasczyk, Rainer; Bade-Doeding, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Background Polymorphic differences between donor and recipient human leukocyte antigen class I molecules can result in graft-versus-host disease due to distinct peptide presentation. As part of the peptide-loading complex, tapasin plays an important role in selecting peptides from the pool of potential ligands. Class I polymorphisms can significantly alter the tapasin-mediated interaction with the peptide-loading complex and although most class I allotypes are highly dependent upon tapasin, some are able to load peptides independently of tapasin. Several human leukocyte antigen B*44 allotypes differ exclusively at position 156 (B*44:02156Asp, 44:03156Leu, 44:28156Arg, 44:35156Glu). From these alleles, only the high tapasin-dependency of human leukocyte antigen B*44:02 has been reported. Design and Methods We investigated the influence of position 156 polymorphisms on both the requirement of tapasin for efficient surface expression of each allotype and their peptide features. Genes encoding human leukocyte antigen B*44 variants bearing all possible substitutions at position 156 were lentivirally transduced into human leukocyte antigen class I-negative LCL 721.221 cells and the tapasin-deficient cell line LCL 721.220. Results Exclusively human leukocyte antigen B*44:28156Arg was expressed on the surface of tapasin-deficient cells, suggesting that the remaining B*44/156 variants are highly tapasin-dependent. Our computational analysis suggests that the tapasin-independence of human leukocyte antigen B*44:28156Arg is a result of stabilization of the peptide binding region and generation of a more peptide receptive state. Sequencing of peptides eluted from human leukocyte antigen B*44 molecules by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LTQ-Orbitrap) demonstrated that both B*44:02 and B*44:28 share the same overall peptide motif and a certain percentage of their individual peptide repertoires in the presence and/or absence of tapasin. Conclusions Here we report for the first time the influence of position 156 on the human leukocyte antigen/tapasin association. Additionally, the results of peptide sequencing suggest that tapasin chaperoning is needed to acquire peptides of unusual length. PMID:21993680

  16. Genomic characterization of the human and mouse protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B genes.

    PubMed

    Forsell, P A; Boie, Y; Montalibet, J; Collins, S; Kennedy, B P

    2000-12-30

    PTP-1B is a ubiquitously expressed intracellular protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) that has been implicated in the negative regulation of insulin signaling. Mice deficient in PTP-1B were found to have an enhanced insulin sensitivity and a resistance to diet-induced obesity. Interestingly, the human PTP-1B gene maps to chromosome 20q13.1 in a region that has been associated with diabetes and obesity. Although there has been a partial characterization of the 3' end of the human PTP-1B gene, the complete gene organization has not been described. In order to further characterize the PTP-1B gene, we have cloned and determined the genomic organization for both the human and mouse PTP-1B genes including the promoter. The human gene spans >74 kb and features a large first intron of >54 kb; the mouse gene likewise contains a large first intron, although the exact size has not been determined. The organization of the human and mouse PTP-1B genes is identical except for an additional exon at the 3' end of the human that is absent in the mouse. The mouse PTP-1B gene maps to the distal arm of mouse chromosome 2 in the region H2-H3. This region is associated with a mouse obesity quantitative trait locus (QTL) and is syntenic with human chromosome 20. The promoter region of both the human and mouse genes contain no TATA box but multiple GC-rich sequences that contain a number of consensus SP-1 binding sites. The basal activity of the human PTP-1B promoter was characterized in Hep G2 cells using up to 8 kb of 5' flanking sequence. A 432 bp promoter construct immediately upstream of the ATG was able to confer maximal promoter activity. Within this sequence, there are at least three GC-rich sequences and one CCAAT box, and deletion of any of these elements results in decreased promoter activity. In addition, the promoter in a number of mouse strains contains, 3.5 kb upstream of the start codon, an insertion of an intracisternal a particle (IAP) element that possibly could alter the expression of PTP-1B mRNA in these strains. PMID:11137300

  17. HspB1, HspB5 and HspB4 in Human Cancers: Potent Oncogenic Role of Some of Their Client Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Arrigo, André-Patrick; Gibert, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Human small heat shock proteins are molecular chaperones that regulate fundamental cellular processes in normal unstressed cells as well as in many cancer cells where they are over-expressed. These proteins are characterized by cell physiology dependent changes in their oligomerization and phosphorylation status. These structural changes allow them to interact with many different client proteins that subsequently display modified activity and/or half-life. Nowdays, the protein interactomes of small Hsps are under intense investigations and will represent, when completed, key parameters to elaborate therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating the functions of these chaperones. Here, we have analyzed the potential pro-cancerous roles of several client proteins that have been described so far to interact with HspB1 (Hsp27) and its close members HspB5 (αB-crystallin) and HspB4 (αA-crystallin). PMID:24514166

  18. Clinical importance of B7-H3 expression in human pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yamato, I; Sho, M; Nomi, T; Akahori, T; Shimada, K; Hotta, K; Kanehiro, H; Konishi, N; Yagita, H; Nakajima, Y

    2009-01-01

    Background: B7-H3 is a new member of the B7 ligand family and regulates T-cell responses in various conditions. However, the role of B7-H3 in tumour immunity is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of B7-H3 expression in human pancreatic cancer and the therapeutic potential for cancer immunotherapy. Methods: We investigated B7-H3 expression in 59 patients with pancreatic cancer by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. Furthermore, we examined the anti-tumour effect of B7-H3-blocking monoclonal antibody in vivo in a murine pancreatic cancer model. Results: Tumour-related B7-H3 expression was abundant in most human pancreatic cancer tissues and was significantly higher compared with that in non-cancer tissue or normal pancreas. Moreover, its expression was significantly more intense in cases with lymph node metastasis and advanced pathological stage. B7-H3 blockade promoted CD8+ T-cell infiltration into the tumour and induced a substantial anti-tumour effect on murine pancreatic cancer. In addition, the combination of gemcitabine with B7-H3 blockade showed a synergistic anti-tumour effect without overt toxicity. Conclusion: Our data show for the first time that B7-H3 may have a critical role in pancreatic cancer and provide the rationale for developing a novel cancer immunotherapy against this fatal disease. PMID:19844235

  19. Molecular basis of the attenuated phenotype of human APOBEC3B DNA mutator enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Caval, Vincent; Bouzidi, Mohamed S.; Suspène, Rodolphe; Laude, Hélène; Dumargne, Marie-Charlotte; Bashamboo, Anu; Krey, Thomas; Vartanian, Jean-Pierre; Wain-Hobson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The human APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B genes (A3A and A3B) encode DNA mutator enzymes that deaminate cytidine and 5-methylcytidine residues in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). They are important sources of mutations in many cancer genomes which show a preponderance of CG->TA transitions. Although both enzymes can hypermutate chromosomal DNA in an experimental setting, only A3A can induce double strand DNA breaks, even though the catalytic domains of A3B and A3A differ by only 9% at the protein level. Accordingly we sought the molecular basis underlying A3B attenuation through the generation of A3A-A3B chimeras and mutants. It transpires that the N-terminal domain facilitates A3B activity while a handful of substitutions in the catalytic C-terminal domain impacting ssDNA binding serve to attenuate A3B compared to A3A. Interestingly, functional attenuation is also observed for the rhesus monkey rhA3B enzyme compared to rhA3A indicating that this genotoxic dichotomy has been selected for and maintained for some 38 million years. Expression of all human ssDNA cytidine deaminase genes is absent in mature sperm indicating they contribute to somatic mutation and cancer but not human diversity. PMID:26384561

  20. Human receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) induces osteoclastogenesis of primates in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kotake, Shigeru; Yago, Toru; Kawamoto, Manabu; Nanke, Yuki

    2012-10-01

    Mouse receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL), which induces osteoclastogenesis from monocytes or macrophages, was independently cloned by three groups in 1997. Mouse osteoclasts have been induced from peripheral monocytes stimulated by RANKL and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) both in vitro and in vivo; however, the mechanism of primate osteoclastogenesis has not been studied. In addition, the effects of human RANKL on primate osteoclastogenesis remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of human RANKL on the osteoclastogenesis of monocytes from five subspecies of primates. Human RANKL induced osteoclastogenesis of all the primates. In addition, human RANKL induced pit formation by osteoclasts from monocytes of the crab-eating macaque. We also demonstrated that the primate osteoclastogenesis was inhibited by a novel peptide, which inhibited human osteoclastogenesis in our previous study. Thus, these findings clearly demonstrated that human RANKL induces primate osteoclastogenesis in the presence of human M-CSF. PMID:23054440

  1. PDK1 induces JunB, EMT, cell migration and invasion in human gallbladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Weiqi; Zhang, Yong; Jiang, Ying; Zhu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The protein 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) is upregulated in cancer. Here we showed that PDK1 stimulated cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis in gallbladder cancer (GBC), by inducing JunB and epithelialmesenchymal transition. JunB levels were increased in GBC samples and positively correlated with PDK1 levels in tumors. High levels of JunB predicted poor overall survival in GBC patients. Thus, PDK1 functions as a tumor promoter in human GBC by upregulating JunB. PMID:26318166

  2. Preparative isolation by high performance liquid chromatography of human insulin B chain produced in escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, N.; Antonio, S.; De Anda, R.; Gosset, G.; Bolivar, F. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a simple method developed for the analytical and preparative purification of human insulin B chain from recombinant origin. Three solvent systems: acetonitrile, isopropanol and methanol, were studied to determine their capacity to resolve the insulin B chain from a mixture of cyano