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1

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Fluoxetine Inhibits Replication of Human Enteroviruses B and D by Targeting Viral Protein 2C  

PubMed Central

Although the genus Enterovirus contains many important human pathogens, there is no licensed drug for either the treatment or the prophylaxis of enterovirus infections. We report that fluoxetine (Prozac)—a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor—inhibits the replication of human enterovirus B (HEV-B) and HEV-D but does not affect the replication of HEV-A and HEV-C or human rhinovirus A or B. We show that fluoxetine interferes with viral RNA replication, and we identified viral protein 2C as the target of this compound. PMID:23335743

Ulferts, Rachel; van der Linden, Lonneke; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; Lanke, Kjerstin H. W.; Leyssen, Pieter; Coutard, Bruno; De Palma, Armando M.; Canard, Bruno; Neyts, Johan

2013-01-01

2

Antiviral activity of ginsenosides against coxsackievirus B3, enterovirus 71, and human rhinovirus 3  

PubMed Central

Background Ginsenosides are the major components responsible for the biochemical and pharmacological actions of ginseng, and have been shown to have various biological activities. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activities of seven ginsenosides [protopanaxatriol (PT) type: Re, Rf, and Rg2; protopanaxadiol (PD) type: Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd)] against coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), enterovirus 71 (EV71), and human rhinovirus 3 (HRV3). Methods Assays of antiviral activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated by the sulforhodamine B method using the cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay. Results The antiviral assays demonstrated that, of the seven ginsenosides, the PT-type ginsenosides (Re, Rf, and Rg2) possess significant antiviral activities against CVB3 and HRV3 at a concentration of 100 ?g/mL. Among the PT-type ginsenosides, only ginsenoside Rg2 showed significant anti-EV71 activity with no cytotoxicity to cells at 100 ?g/mL. The PD-type ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd), by contrast, did not show any significant antiviral activity against CVB3, EV71, and HRV3, and exhibited cytotoxic effects to virus-infected cells. Notably, the antiviral efficacies of PT-type ginsenosides were comparable to those of ribavirin, a commonly used antiviral drug. Conclusion Collectively, our findings suggest that the ginsenosides Re, Rf, and Rg2 have the potential to be effective in the treatment of CVB3, EV71, and HRV3 infection. PMID:25378991

Song, Jae-Hyoung; Choi, Hwa-Jung; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Hong, Eun-Hye; Lee, Bo-Ra; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Choi, Kwangman; Yeo, Sang-Gu; Lee, Yong-Pyo; Cho, Sungchan; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

2014-01-01

3

Detection of human enteroviruses and parechoviruses as part of the national enterovirus surveillance in the Netherlands, 1996-2011.  

PubMed

Laboratories of the Dutch Working Group on Clinical Virology have routinely performed enterovirus diagnostics in the Netherlands since the early 1960s, with country-wide coverage. Enterovirus-positive samples are typed for clinical and epidemiological purposes, as well as to document the absence of poliovirus circulation. Human parechoviruses 1 and 2, initially recognized as enteroviruses, and since 2006 also the higher numbered human parechovirus types, have been detected as part of this surveillance. The purpose of this report is to describe the national enterovirus surveillance data from stool specimens collected in the Netherlands between 1996 and 2011 by all the participating laboratories. Since 2007, the average annual percentage of human enterovirus- and parechovirus-positive specimens increased from 6.5 to 10.8% and from 0.3 to 2.5% of the total numbers of specimens tested, respectively, following a gradual implementation of molecular diagnostics directly on clinical samples. Increased detection rates were observed for human enterovirus species A coxsackieviruses (from 0.1 to 0.5%). Human enteroviruses of species B, C, and D were detected at average rates of 4.7, 0.04, and 0.005%, respectively. The introduction of molecular diagnostics also resulted in an increase in the number of untyped enterovirus-positive specimens for which the presence of poliovirus was not excluded (from 1.3 to 3.1% since 2007). To increase knowledge on human entero- and parechovirus epidemiology and type-specific pathogenesis, as well as to warrant the quality of the poliovirus surveillance in the Netherlands, it is of importance to continue the typing of enterovirus- and parechovirus-positive samples. PMID:23780695

van der Sanden, S M G; Koopmans, M P G; van der Avoort, H G A M

2013-12-01

4

Epidemiology and seroepidemiology of human enterovirus 71 among Thai populations  

PubMed Central

Background Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an important pathogen caused large outbreaks in Asian-Pacific region with severe neurological complications and may lead to death in young children. Understanding of the etiological spectrum and epidemic changes of enterovirus and population’s immunity against EV71 are crucial for the implementation of future therapeutic and prophylactic intervention. Results A total of 1,182 patients who presented with the symptoms of hand foot and mouth disease (67.3%) or herpangina (HA) (16.7%) and admitted to the hospitals during 2008-2013 were tested for enterovirus using pan-enterovirus PCR targeting 5?-untranslated region and specific PCR for viral capsid protein 1 gene. Overall, 59.7% were pan-enterovirus positive comprising 9.1% EV71 and 31.2% coxsackievirus species A (CV-A) including 70.5% CV-A6, 27.6% CV-A16, 1.1% CV-A10, and 0.8% CV-A5. HFMD and HA occurred endemically during 2008-2011. The number of cases increased dramatically in June 2012 with the percentage of the recently emerged CV-A6 significantly rose to 28.4%. Co-circulation between different EV71 genotypes was observed during the outbreak. Total of 161 sera obtained from healthy individuals were tested for neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against EV71 subgenotype B5 (EV71-B5) using microneutralization assay. The seropositive rate of EV71-B5 was 65.8%. The age-adjusted seroprevalence for individuals was found to be lowest in children aged >6 months to 2 years (42.5%). The seropositive rate remained relatively low in preschool children aged?>?2 years to 6 years (48.3%) and thereafter increased sharply to more than 80% in individuals aged?>?6 years. Conclusions This study describes longitudinal data reflecting changing patterns of enterovirus prevalence over 6 years and demonstrates high seroprevalences of EV71-B5 NAb among Thai individuals. The rate of EV71 seropositive increased with age but without gender-specific significant difference. We identified that relative lower EV71 seropositive rate in early 2012 may demonstrate widely presented of EV71-B5 in the population before account for a large outbreak scale epidemic occurred in 2012 with due to a relatively high susceptibility of the younger population. PMID:24548776

2014-01-01

5

Prevalence of human enteroviruses among apparently healthy nursery school children in Accra  

PubMed Central

Introduction Human enteroviruses are common in children causing asymptomatic infections ranging from mild to severe illnesses. In Ghana, information on the prevalence of non-polio enterovirus causing acute flaccid paralysis is available but data on surveillance of these viruses in school children is scanty. Here, the prevalence of human enteroviruses among apparently healthy children in selected school in Accra was studied. Methods Stool samples from 273 apparently healthy children less than eight years of age in 9 selected nursery schools were collected between December 2010 and March 2011and processed for human enteroviruses on L20B, RD and Hep-2 cell lines. Positive Isolates were characterized by microneutralisation assay with antisera pools from RIVM, the Netherlands according to standard methods recommended by WHO. Results Of the 273 samples processed, 66 (24.2%) non-polio enteroviruses were isolated. More growth was seen on Hep-2C (46%) only than RD (18%) only and on both cell lines (34%). No growth was seen on L20B even after blind passage. Excretion of non-polio enteroviruses was found in all the schools with majority in BD school. Serotyping of the isolates yielded predominantly Coxsackie B viruses followed by echoviruses 13 and 7. More than half of the isolates could not be typed by the antisera pools. Conclusion The study detected 13 different serotypes of non-polio enteroviruses in circulation but no poliovirus was found. BD school was found to have the highest prevalence of NPEV. Complete identification through molecular methods is essential to establish the full range of NPEVs in circulation in these schools. PMID:25400833

Attoh, Juliana; Obodai, Evangeline; Adiku, Theophilus; Odoom, John Kofi

2014-01-01

6

Genomic characterization of echovirus 6 causing aseptic meningitis in Hokkaido, Japan: a novel cluster in the nonstructural protein coding region of human enterovirus B.  

PubMed

We determined four complete nucleotide sequences of echovirus 6 (E6) isolated from an epidemic of aseptic meningitis (AM) in Hokkaido, Japan, in 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of the genes encoding viral capsid protein 1 revealed that the strains were closely related to E6 strains isolated in China in recent years, but they were distantly related to E6 strains isolated from patients with AM in Osaka Prefecture, Japan, in 2011. The genes encoding the viral protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3CD) were closely related to those of several non-E6 strains of the species Human enterovirus B isolated in China, South Korea, and Australia from 1999 to 2010, resulting in a novel cluster in the phylogenetic tree. These results suggest that the incidence of AM in Japan in 2011 was caused by at least two lineages of E6 strains, and a lineage of the 3CD gene was interspersed among different serotypic strains isolated in Western Pacific countries. PMID:23178967

Miyoshi, Masahiro; Komagome, Rika; Ishida, Setsuko; Nagano, Hideki; Takahashi, Kenichi; Okano, Motohiko

2013-04-01

7

Characterization of a Novel Enterovirus Serotype and an Enterovirus EV-B93 Isolated from Acute Flaccid Paralysis Patients  

PubMed Central

Non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) are among the most common viruses infecting humans worldwide. Most of these infections are asymptomatic but few can lead to systemic and neurological disorders like Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP). Acute Flaccid Paralysis is a clinical syndrome and NPEVs have been isolated frequently from the patients suffering from AFP but little is known about their causal relationship. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the NPEV serotypes recovered from 184 stool samples collected from AFP patients in Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) in north-west of Pakistan. Overall, 44 (95.6 %) isolates were successfully typed through microneutralization assay as a member of enterovirus B species including echovirus (E)-2, E-3, E-4, E-6, E-7, E-11, E-13, E-14, E-21 and E-29 while two isolates (PAK NIH SP6545B and PAK NIH SP1202B) remained untypeable. The VP1 and capsid regions analysis characterized these viruses as EV-B93 and EV-B106. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that PAK NIH isolates had high genetic diversity and represent distinct genotypes circulating in the country. Our findings highlight the role of NPEVs in AFP cases to be thoroughly investigated especially in high disease risk areas, with limited surveillance activities and health resources. PMID:24244603

Shaukat, Shahzad; Angez, Mehar; Alam, Muhammad Masroor; Sharif, Salmaan; Khurshid, Adnan; Mahmood, Tariq; Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor

2013-01-01

8

Enterovirus 71 induces apoptosis of SH?SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells through stimulation of endogenous microRNA let-7b expression.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a pathogenic microorganism that causes hand, foot and mouth disease. However, the epigenetic mechanisms behind how EV71 regulates host cell proliferation and apoptosis are unclear. In the present study, the ability of EV71 to induce apoptosis was analyzed in the SH?SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line and the effect of this virus on the mRNA expression levels of various apoptotic markers, miRNA let?7b and cyclin D1 (CCND1), was also investigated. The results demonstrated that EV71 induced SH?SY5Y cell apoptosis. An MTT assay revealed a significant inhibitory effect of EV71 on cell proliferation between 12?72 h post injection, compared with the control group. Furthermore, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses demonstrated that expression level of the apoptosis inhibitor Bcl?2 was markedly reduced, but the expression levels of the apoptosis?promoting factors Bax, caspase?7, caspase?3 and active caspase?3 were markedly higher in the SH?SY5Y cells 12?48 h after EV71 infection, compared with the non?infected cells. In addition, flow cytometric assays revealed that EV71 arrested the cell cycle of host SH?SY5Y cells. Northern blot analysis revealed a marked miRNA let?7b hybridization signal in the EV71 virus?infected group compared with the non?infected group. Furthermore, western blotting confirmed that the CCND1 protein expression levels were significantly reduced in EV71?infected SH?SY5Y cells. EV71?inhibited SH?SY5Y proliferation was abrogated using let?7b specific 2'?O?Methyl?RNA, which inhibited endogenous miRNA let?7b expression. Thus, EV71 regulated the host SH?SY5Y cell cycle and cell proliferation via stimulating endo-genous miRNA let?7b and directly targeting CCND1, therefore EV71 is a potential candidate for antiviral therapy. PMID:25779425

Du, Xiling; Wang, Haipeng; Xu, Fuhui; Huang, Yongyi; Liu, Zhixue; Liu, Te

2015-07-01

9

Human Enteroviruses isolated during acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Ghana: implications for the post eradication era  

PubMed Central

Introduction Surveillance of acute flaccid surveillance (AFP) has been used world-wide to monitor the control and eradication of circulating wild polioviruses. The Polio Laboratory since its accreditation in 1996 has supported the Disease Surveillance Department for AFP surveillance. This study aims to isolate and characterize human enteroviruses from patients with AFP in Ghana. Method Stool suspension was prepared from 308 samples received in 2009 from the surveillance activities throughout the country and inoculated on both RD and L20B cell lines. Isolates that showed growth on L20B were selected for real-time RT-PCR using degenerate and non-degenerate primers and probes. RD isolates were however characterized by microneutralisation technique with antisera pools from RIVM, The Netherlands and viruses that were untypable subjected to neutralization assay using antibodies specific for E71. Results Of the 308 samples processed, 17 (5.5%) grew on both L20B and RD cells while 32 (10.4%) grew on RD only. All 28 isolates from L20B were characterized by rRT-PCR as Sabin-like polioviruses. No wild poliovirus or VDPV was found. However from the microneutralisation assay, six different enteroviruses were characterized. Among these, Coxsackie B viruses were most predominant followed by Echovirus. Three children from whom non-polio enteroviruses were isolated had residual paralysis while one child with VAPP found. The non-polio enteroviruses circulated throughout the country with the majority (20.7%) from Ashanti region. Conclusion This study showed the absence of wild or vaccine-derived poliovirus circulation in the country. However, the detection of three non-polio enteroviruses and one Sabin-like poliovirus with residual paralysis call for continuous surveillance even in the post polio eradication era. PMID:23077695

Odoom, John Kofi; Obodai, Evangeline; Barnor, Jacob Samson; Ashun, Miriam; Arthur-Quarm, Jacob; Osei-Kwasi, Mubarak

2012-01-01

10

Direct typing of human enteroviruses from wastewater samples.  

PubMed

A RT-PCR approach for the direct detection and typing of human enteroviruses in the environment is described in this study. A semi-nested RT-PCR using COnsensus-DEgenerated Hybrid Oligonucleotide Primers (CODEHOP) designed from the VP2 genome region has been developed for the direct typing of enteroviruses in clinical samples (Ibrahim et al., 2013). This CODEHOP/VP2 PCR strategy as well as the CODEHOP/VP1 technique described by Nix et al. (2006), were tested for the detection and typing of enteroviruses in wastewater samples. Virus particles were first extracted and concentrated from wastewater samples by using respectively beef extract and polyethylene glycol 6000, and the presence of enteroviruses was screened by a RT-PCR method using primers from the 5'-end non-coding region (5'NCR). Fifty-two of 172 samples (30.2%) were revealed positive by the 5'NCR method. From these 52 samples, only 19 samples (36.5%) were found positive by at least one of the two CODEHOP techniques, with the following distribution: VP1(+)/VP2(+)=4 (7.7%), VP1(-)/VP2(+)=13 (25%) and VP1(+)/VP2(-)=2 (3.8%). These results illustrate that the direct typing of enteroviruses in environmental samples is insensitive, possibly due to the presence of large amounts of amplification inhibitors; however, the VP2 method was found able to allow the direct detection and typing of c. one-third of the positive environmental samples. PMID:25066280

Ibrahim, Wafa; Ouerdani, Imčne; Pillet, Sylvie; Aouni, Mahjoub; Pozzetto, Bruno; Harrath, Rafik

2014-10-01

11

Co-circulation of enteroviruses between apes and humans  

PubMed Central

A total of 139 stool samples from wild chimpanzees, gorillas and bonobos in Cameroon and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) were screened for enteroviruses (EVs) by reverse transcription PCR. Enterovirus RNA was detected in 10?% of samples, comprising eight from 58 sampled chimpanzees (13.8?%), one from 40 bonobos (2.5?%) and five from 40 gorillas (12.2?%). Three viruses isolated from chimpanzees grouped with human isolate EV-A89 and four (four chimpanzees, one gorilla) represented a newly identified type, EV-A119. These species A virus types overlapped with those circulating in human populations in the same area. The remaining six strains comprised a new species D type, EV-D120, infecting one chimpanzee and four gorillas, and a single EV variant infecting a bonobo that was remarkably divergent from other EVs and potentially constitutes a new enterovirus species. The study demonstrates both the circulation of genetically divergent EV variants in apes and monkeys as well as those shared with local human populations. PMID:24189620

Van Nguyen, Dung; McIntyre, Chloe; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Ngole, Eitel Mpoudi; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Simmonds, Peter

2014-01-01

12

Genome Characterisation of Enteroviruses 117 and 118: A New Group within Human Enterovirus Species C  

PubMed Central

The more than 120 genotypes of human enteroviruses (HEVs) reflect a wide range of evolutionary divergence, and there are 23 currently classified as human enterovirus C species (HEV-C). Two new HEV-C (EV-C117 and EV-C118) were identified in the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Pediatric Research Initiative (CAP-PRI) study, and the present paper describes the characterisation of the complete genome of one EV-C117 strain (LIT22) and two EV-C118 (ISR38 and ISR10) strains. The EV-C117 and EV-C118 5?UTR sequences were related to those of EV-C104, EV-C105 and EV-C109, and were slightly shorter than those of other HEV A-D species. Similarity plot analyses showed that EV-C117 and EV-C118 have a P1 region that is highly divergent from that of the other HEV-C, and phylogenetic analyses highly supported a monophyletic group consisting of EV-C117, EV-C118, EV-C104, EV-C105 and EV-C109 strains. Phylogenetic, Simplot and Bootscan analyses indicated that recombination was not the main mechanism of EV-C117 and EV-C118 evolution, thus strengthening the hypothesis of the monophyletic origin of the coding regions, as in the case of other HEV-C. Phylogenetic analysis also revealed the emergence of a new group within HEV-C that is divided into two subgroups. Nucleotide and amino acid identity in VP1 sequences have been established as useful criteria for assigning new HEV types, but analysis of the complete P1 region improves resolution. PMID:23565264

Scala, Alessia; Greenberg, David; Usonis, Vytautas; Principi, Nicola; Baldanti, Fausto; Esposito, Susanna

2013-01-01

13

Complete Genomic Sequencing Shows that Polioviruses and Members of Human Enterovirus Species C Are Closely Related in the Noncapsid Coding Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 65 human enterovirus serotypes are currently classified into five species: Poliovirus (3 serotypes), Human enterovirus A (HEV-A) (12 serotypes), HEV-B (37 serotypes), HEV-C (11 serotypes), and HEV-D (2 serotypes). Coxsackie A virus (CAV) serotypes 1, 11, 13, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, and 24 constitute HEV-C. We have determined the complete genome sequences for the remaining nine

Betty Brown; M. Steven Oberste; Kaija Maher; Mark A. Pallansch

2003-01-01

14

Complete Genome Characterization of a Novel Enterovirus Type EV-B106 Isolated in China, 2012  

PubMed Central

Human enterovirus B106 (EV-B106) is a recently identified member of enterovirus species B. In this study, we report the complete genomic characterization of an EV-B106 strain (148/YN/CHN/12) isolated from an acute flaccid paralysis patient in Yunnan Province, China. The new strain had 79.2–81.3% nucleotide and 89.1–94.8% amino acid similarity in the VP1 region with the other two EV-B106 strains from Bolivia and Pakistan. When compared with other EV serotypes, it had the highest (73.3%) VP1 nucleotide similarity with the EV-B77 prototype strain CF496-99. However, when aligned with all EV-B106 and EV-B77 sequences available from the GenBank database, two major frame shifts were observed in the VP1 coding region, which resulted in substantial (20.5%) VP1 amino acid divergence between the two serotypes. Phylogenetic analysis and similarity plot analysis revealed multiple recombination events in the genome of this strain. This is the first report of the complete genome of EV-B106. PMID:24584702

Tang, Jingjing; Tao, Zexin; Ding, Zhengrong; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Jie; Tian, Bingjun; Zhao, Zhixian; Zhang, Lifen; Xu, Wenbo

2014-01-01

15

Molecular Epidemiology of Human Enterovirus Associated with Aseptic Meningitis in Shandong Province, China, 2006–2012  

PubMed Central

Background Human enteroviruses (HEVs) are common causes of acute meningitis. However, there is limited information about HEV associated with aseptic meningitis in mainland China because it has not been classified as a notifiable disease. Objectives To characterize the HEVs associated with sporadic aseptic meningitis in China and to analyze their genetic features. Study Design Cerebrospinal fluid, throat swab and feces specimens were collected from patients with aseptic meningitis in 5 sentinel hospitals in Shandong Province, China between 2006 and 2012. Virological investigation (viral isolation and molecular identification) and phylogenetic analysis were performed. Results A total of 437 hospitalized patients were reported, and enteroviruses were detected in the specimens from 84 patients (19.2%) and were identified into 17 serotypes. The nine main serotypes were echovirus (E) 30 (27.4%), EV71 (13.1%), coxsackievirus (CV) B1 (9.5%), CVB3 (7.1%), CVB5 (7.1%), E6 (7.1%), E9 (7.1%), CVA9 (6.0%), and CVA10 (3.6%). Monthly distribution of isolated enteroviruses revealed a major peak in summer-fall season and a small second peak in winter constituted totally by EV71. Sequence analysis on VP1 coding region suggested Shandong strains had great genetic divergence with isolates from other countries. Conclusions Multiple serotypes were responsible for enterovirus meningitis in mainland China. Aseptic meningitis caused by EV71 and coxsackie A viruses–the predominant pathogens for the hand, foot, and mouth disease–is currently an important concern in mainland China. PMID:24587020

Liu, Guifang; Xu, Aiqiang; Lin, Xiaojuan; Song, Lizhi; Ji, Feng; Wang, Suting; Cui, Ning; Song, Yanyan

2014-01-01

16

The cis-acting replication elements define human enterovirus and rhinovirus species.  

PubMed

Replication of picornaviruses is dependent on VPg uridylylation, which is linked to the presence of the internal cis-acting replication element (cre). Cre are located within the sequence encoding polyprotein, yet at distinct positions as demonstrated for poliovirus and coxsackievirus-B3, cardiovirus, and human rhinovirus (HRV-A and HRV-B), overlapping proteins 2C, VP2, 2A, and VP1, respectively. Here we report a novel distinct cre element located in the VP2 region of the recently reported HRV-A2 species and provide evolutionary evidence of its functionality. We also experimentally interrogated functionality of recently identified HRV-B cre in the 2C region that is orthologous to the human enterovirus (HEV) cre and show that it is dispensable for replication and appears to be a nonfunctional evolutionary relic. In addition, our mutational analysis highlights two amino acids in the 2C protein that are crucial for replication. Remarkably, we conclude that each genetic clade of HRV and HEV is characterized by a unique functional cre element, where evolutionary success of a new genetic lineage seems to be associated with an invention of a novel cre motif and decay of the ancestral one. Therefore, we propose that cre element could be considered as an additional criterion for human rhinovirus and enterovirus classification. PMID:18541697

Cordey, Samuel; Gerlach, Daniel; Junier, Thomas; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Kaiser, Laurent; Tapparel, Caroline

2008-08-01

17

Human Enterovirus 71 Uncoating Captured at Atomic Resolution  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of severe hand-foot-and-mouth diseases (HFMD) in young children, and structural characterization of EV71 during its life cycle can aid in the development of therapeutics against HFMD. Here, we present the atomic structures of the full virion and an uncoating intermediate of a clinical EV71 C4 strain to illustrate the structural changes in the full virion that lead to the formation of the uncoating intermediate prepared for RNA release. Although the VP1 N-terminal regions observed to penetrate through the junction channel at the quasi-3-fold axis in the uncoating intermediate of coxsackievirus A16 were not observed in the EV71 uncoating intermediate, drastic conformational changes occur in this region, as has been observed in all capsid proteins. Additionally, the RNA genome interacts with the N-terminal extensions of VP1 and residues 32 to 36 of VP3, both of which are situated at the bottom of the junction. These observations highlight the importance of the junction for genome release. Furthermore, EV71 uncoating is associated with apparent rearrangements and expansion around the 2- and 5-fold axes without obvious changes around the 3-fold axes. Therefore, these structures enabled the identification of hot spots for capsid rearrangements, which led to the hypothesis that the protomer interface near the junction and the 2-fold axis permits the opening of large channels for the exit of polypeptides and viral RNA, which is an uncoating mechanism that is likely conserved in enteroviruses. IMPORTANCE Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of severe hand-foot-and-mouth diseases (HFMD) in young children. EV71 contains an RNA genome protected by an icosahedral capsid shell. Uncoating is essential in EV71 life cycle, which is characterized by conformational changes in the capsid to facilitate RNA release into host cell. Here we present the atomic structures of the full virion and an uncoating intermediate of a clinical C4 strain of EV71. Structural analysis revealed drastic conformational changes associated with uncoating in all the capsid proteins near the junction at the quasi-3-fold axis and protein-RNA interactions at the bottom of the junction in the uncoating intermediate. Significant capsid rearrangements also occur at the icosahedral 2- and 5-fold axes but not at the 3-fold axis. Taking the results together, we hypothesize that the junction and nearby areas are hot spots for capsid breaches for the exit of polypeptides and viral RNA during uncoating. PMID:24352461

Lyu, Ke; Ding, Jie; Han, Jian-Feng; Zhang, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Yan; He, Ya-Ling; Qin, Cheng-Feng

2014-01-01

18

Structure of human enterovirus 71 in complex with a capsid-binding inhibitor.  

PubMed

Human enterovirus 71 is a picornavirus causing hand, foot, and mouth disease that may progress to fatal encephalitis in infants and small children. As of now, no cure is available for enterovirus 71 infections. Small molecule inhibitors binding into a hydrophobic pocket within capsid viral protein 1 were previously shown to effectively limit infectivity of many picornaviruses. Here we report a 3.2-Ĺ-resolution X-ray structure of the enterovirus 71 virion complexed with the capsid-binding inhibitor WIN 51711. The inhibitor replaced the natural pocket factor within the viral protein 1 pocket without inducing any detectable rearrangements in the structure of the capsid. Furthermore, we show that the compound stabilizes enterovirus 71 virions and limits its infectivity, probably through restricting dynamics of the capsid necessary for genome release. Thus, our results provide a structural basis for development of antienterovirus 71 capsid-binding drugs. PMID:23509286

Plevka, Pavel; Perera, Rushika; Yap, Moh Lan; Cardosa, Jane; Kuhn, Richard J; Rossmann, Michael G

2013-04-01

19

Neutralizing antibodies can initiate genome release from human enterovirus 71  

PubMed Central

Antibodies were prepared by immunizing mice with empty, immature particles of human enterovirus 71 (EV71), a picornavirus that causes severe neurological disease in young children. The capsid structure of these empty particles is different from that of the mature virus and is similar to “A” particles encountered when picornaviruses recognize a potential host cell before genome release. The monoclonal antibody E18, generated by this immunization, induced a conformational change when incubated at temperatures between 4 °C and 37 °C with mature virus, transforming infectious virions into A particles. The resultant loss of genome that was observed by cryo-EM and a fluorescent SYBR Green dye assay inactivated the virus, establishing the mechanism by which the virus is inactivated and demonstrating that the E18 antibody has potential as an anti-EV71 therapy. The antibody-mediated virus neutralization by the induction of genome release has not been previously demonstrated. Furthermore, the present results indicate that antibodies with genome-release activity could also be produced for other picornaviruses by immunization with immature particles. PMID:24469789

Plevka, Pavel; Lim, Pei-Yin; Perera, Rushika; Cardosa, Jane; Suksatu, Ampa; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G.

2014-01-01

20

Natural interspecies recombinant bovine/porcine enterovirus in sheep.  

PubMed

Members of the genus Enterovirus (family Picornaviridae) are believed to be common and widespread among humans and different animal species, although only a few enteroviruses have been identified from animal sources. Intraspecies recombination among human enteroviruses is a well-known phenomenon, but only a few interspecies examples have been reported and, to our current knowledge, none of these have involved non-primate enteroviruses. In this study, we report the detection and complete genome characterization (using RT-PCR and long-range PCR) of a natural interspecies recombinant bovine/porcine enterovirus (ovine enterovirus type 1; OEV-1) in seven (44?%) of 16 faecal samples from 3-week-old domestic sheep (Ovis aries) collected in two consecutive years. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete coding region revealed that OEV-1 (ovine/TB4-OEV/2009/HUN; GenBank accession no. JQ277724) was a novel member of the species Porcine enterovirus B (PEV-B), implying the endemic presence of PEV-B viruses among sheep. However, the 5' UTR of OEV-1 showed a high degree of sequence and structural identity to bovine enteroviruses. The presumed recombination breakpoint was mapped to the end of the 5' UTR at nucleotide position 814 using sequence and SimPlot analyses. The interspecies-recombinant nature of OEV-1 suggests a closer relationship among bovine and porcine enteroviruses, enabling the exchange of at least some modular genetic elements that may evolve independently. PMID:22647375

Boros, Akos; Pankovics, Péter; Knowles, Nick J; Reuter, Gábor

2012-09-01

21

Estimation of contamination sources of human enteroviruses in a wastewater treatment and reclamation system by PCR-DGGE.  

PubMed

A polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method was employed to estimate the contamination sources of human enteroviruses and understand how their dominant strains vary in a wastewater treatment and reclamation system consisting of sewage collection, wastewater treatment with membrane bioreactor and open lakes for reclaimed water storage and reuse. After PCR-DGGE using a selected primer set targeting enteroviruses, phylogenetic analysis of acquired enterovirus gene sequences was performed. Enteroviruses identified from the septic tank were much more diverse than those from grey water and kitchen wastewater. Several unique types of enterovirus different from those in wastewater samples were dominant in a biological wastewater treatment unit. Membrane filtration followed by chlorination was proved effective for physically eliminating enteroviruses; however, secondary contamination likely occurred as the reclaimed water was stored in artificial lakes. Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) viral pathogen, was detected mainly from the artificial lakes, implying that wastewater effluent was not the contamination source of EV71 and that there were unidentified non-point sources of the contamination with the HFMD viral pathogen in the reclaimed water stored in the artificial lakes. The PCR-DGGE targeting enteroviruses provided robust evidence about viral contamination sources in the wastewater treatment and reclamation system. PMID:24715657

Ji, Zheng; Wang, Xiaochang C; Xu, Limei; Zhang, Chongmiao; Funamizu, Naoyuki; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

2014-06-01

22

Modification of the Untranslated Regions of Human Enterovirus 71 Impairs Growth in a Cell-Specific Manner  

PubMed Central

Human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) is the causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease and associated acute neurological disease. At present, little is known about the genetic determinants of HEV71 neurovirulence. Studies of related enteroviruses have indicated that the untranslated regions (UTRs), which control virus-directed translation and replication, also exert significant influence on neurovirulence. We used an infectious cDNA clone of a subgenogroup B3 strain to construct and characterize chimeras with 5?- and 3?-UTR modifications. Replacement of the entire HEV71 5? UTR with that of human rhinovirus 2 (HRV2) resulted in a small reduction in growth efficiency in cells of both nonneuronal (rhabdomyosarcoma) and neuronal (SH-SY5Y) origin due to reduced translational efficiency. However, the introduction of a 17-nucleotide deletion into the proximal region of the 3? UTR significantly decreased the growth of HEV71-HRV2 in SH-SY5Y cells. This observation is similar to that made with stem-loop domain Z (SLD Z)-deleted coxsackievirus B3-HRV2 5?-UTR chimeras reported previously and provides the first evidence of a potentially functional SLD Z in the 3? UTR in human enterovirus A species viruses. We further showed that the cell-specific growth impairment was caused by the synergistic effects of cis-acting UTR control elements on different stages of the virus life cycle. These chimeras will further improve our understanding of the control of HEV71 replication and its relationship to neurovirulence. PMID:22031931

Phuektes, Patchara; Bek, Emily; McMinn, Peter C.

2012-01-01

23

Cytotoxic and viral neutralizing antibodies crossreact with streptococcal M protein, enteroviruses, and human cardiac myosin.  

PubMed Central

The development of autoimmunity in certain instances is related to infectious agents. In this report, cytotoxic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize epitopes on both enteroviruses and the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes are described. Murine anti-streptococcal mAbs that were crossreactive with streptococcal M protein, human cardiac myosin, and other alpha-helical coiled-coil molecules were found to neutralize coxsackieviruses B3 and B4 or poliovirus type 1. The viral-neutralizing anti-streptococcal mAbs were also cytotoxic for heart and fibroblast cell lines and reacted with viral capsid proteins on a Western immunoblot. Alignment of amino acid sequences shared between streptococcal M protein, coxsackie-virus B3 capsid protein VP1, and myosin revealed 40% identity in a 14- to 15-amino acid overlap. Synthetic peptides containing these sequences blocked mAb reactivity with streptococcal M protein. The data show that antibodies against alpha-helical structures of bacterial and viral antigens can lead to cytotoxic reactions and may be one mechanism to explain the origin of autoimmune heart disease. Images PMID:1311095

Cunningham, M W; Antone, S M; Gulizia, J M; McManus, B M; Fischetti, V A; Gauntt, C J

1992-01-01

24

Evaluation of a viral microarray based on simultaneous extraction and amplification of viral nucleotide Acid for detecting human herpesviruses and enteroviruses.  

PubMed

In this study, a viral microarray based assay was developed to detect the human herpesviruses and enteroviruses associated with central nervous system infections, including herpes simplex virus type 1, type 2 (HSV1 and HSV2), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), enterovirus 71 (EV71), coxsackievirus A 16 (CA16) and B 5(CB5). The DNA polymerase gene of human herpesviruses and 5'-untranslated region of enteroviruses were selected as the targets to design primers and probes. Human herpesviruses DNA and enteroviruses RNA were extracted simultaneously by using a guanidinium thiocyanate acid buffer, and were subsequently amplified through a biotinylated asymmetry multiplex RT-PCR with the specific primer of enteroviruses. In total, 90 blood samples and 49 cerebrospinal fluids samples with suspected systemic or neurological virus infections were investigated. Out of 139 samples, 66 were identified as positive. The specificities of this multiplex RT-PCR microarray assay were over 96% but the sensitivities were various from 100% for HSV1, HSV2, EV71 and CB5, 95.83% for CMV, 80% for EBV to 71.43% for CA16 in comparison with reference standards of TaqMan qPCR/qRT-PCR. The high Kappa values (>0.90) from HSV1, HSV2, CMV, EV71 and CB5 were obtained, indicating almost perfect agreement in term of the 5 viruses detection. But lower Kappa values for EBV (0.63) and CA16 (0.74) displayed a moderate to substantial agreement. This study provides an innovation of simultaneous extraction, amplification, hybridization and detection of DNA viruses and RNA viruses with simplicity and specificity, and demonstrates a potential clinical utility for a variety of viruses' detection. PMID:25774509

Liu, Yi; Duan, Chunhong; Zhang, Chunxiu; Yang, Xiaomeng; Zhao, Yan; Dong, Rui; Zhou, Jiajing; Gai, Zhongtao

2015-01-01

25

Evaluation of a Viral Microarray Based on Simultaneous Extraction and Amplification of Viral Nucleotide Acid for Detecting Human Herpesviruses and Enteroviruses  

PubMed Central

In this study, a viral microarray based assay was developed to detect the human herpesviruses and enteroviruses associated with central nervous system infections, including herpes simplex virus type 1, type 2 (HSV1 and HSV2), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), enterovirus 71 (EV71), coxsackievirus A 16 (CA16) and B 5(CB5). The DNA polymerase gene of human herpesviruses and 5’-untranslated region of enteroviruses were selected as the targets to design primers and probes. Human herpesviruses DNA and enteroviruses RNA were extracted simultaneously by using a guanidinium thiocyanate acid buffer, and were subsequently amplified through a biotinylated asymmetry multiplex RT-PCR with the specific primer of enteroviruses. In total, 90 blood samples and 49 cerebrospinal fluids samples with suspected systemic or neurological virus infections were investigated. Out of 139 samples, 66 were identified as positive. The specificities of this multiplex RT-PCR microarray assay were over 96% but the sensitivities were various from 100% for HSV1, HSV2, EV71 and CB5, 95.83% for CMV, 80% for EBV to 71.43% for CA16 in comparison with reference standards of TaqMan qPCR/qRT-PCR. The high Kappa values (>0.90) from HSV1, HSV2, CMV, EV71 and CB5 were obtained, indicating almost perfect agreement in term of the 5 viruses detection. But lower Kappa values for EBV (0.63) and CA16 (0.74) displayed a moderate to substantial agreement. This study provides an innovation of simultaneous extraction, amplification, hybridization and detection of DNA viruses and RNA viruses with simplicity and specificity, and demonstrates a potential clinical utility for a variety of viruses’ detection. PMID:25774509

Zhang, Chunxiu; Yang, Xiaomeng; Zhao, Yan; Dong, Rui; Zhou, Jiajing; Gai, Zhongtao

2015-01-01

26

Human rhinoviruses and enteroviruses in influenza-like illness in Latin America  

PubMed Central

Background Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) belong to the Picornaviridae family with high similarity to human enteroviruses (HEVs). Limited data is available from Latin America regarding the clinical presentation and strains of these viruses in respiratory disease. Methods We collected nasopharyngeal swabs at clinics located in eight Latin American countries from 3,375 subjects aged 25 years or younger who presented with influenza-like illness. Results Our subjects had a median age of 3 years and a 1.2:1.0 male:female ratio. HRV was identified in 16% and HEV was identified in 3%. HRVs accounted for a higher frequency of isolates in those of younger age, in particular children?B. In addition, both EV-D68 and EV-A71 were identified. Conclusions In Latin America as in other regions, HRVs and HEVs account for a substantial proportion of respiratory viruses identified in young people with ILI, a finding that provides additional support for the development of pharmaceuticals and vaccines targeting these pathogens. PMID:24119298

2013-01-01

27

Phylogenetic evidence for multiple intertypic recombinations in enterovirus B81 strains isolated in Tibet, China  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus B81 (EV-B81) is a newly identified serotype within the species enterovirus B (EV-B). To date, only eight nucleotide sequences of EV-B81 have been published and only one full-length genome sequence (the prototype strain) has been made available in the GenBank database. Here, we report the full-length genome sequences of two EV-B81 strains isolated in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China during acute flaccid paralysis surveillance activities, and we also conducted an antibody seroprevalence study in two prefectures of Tibet. The sequence comparison and phylogenetic dendrogram analysis revealed high variability among the global EV-B81 strains and frequent intertypic recombination in the non-structural protein region of EV-B serotypes, suggesting high genetic diversity of EV-B81. However, low positive rates and low titers of neutralizing antibodies against EV-B81 were detected. Nearly 68% of children under the age of five had no neutralizing antibodies against EV-B81. Hence, the extent of transmission and the exposure of the population to this EV type are very limited. Although little is known about the biological and pathogenic properties of EV-B81 because of few research in this field owing to the limited number of isolates, our study provides basic information for further studies of EV-B81. PMID:25112835

Hu, Lan; Zhang, Yong; Hong, Mei; Zhu, Shuangli; Yan, Dongmei; Wang, Dongyan; Li, Xiaolei; Zhu, Zhen; Tsewang; Xu, Wenbo

2014-01-01

28

Human enterovirus 109 (EV109) in acute paediatric respiratory disease in Hungary.  

PubMed

Human enterovirus 109 (EV109) is a recently identified recombinant enterovirus in family Picornaviridae from acute paediatric respiratory illness in Nicaragua. EV109 have not been reported elsewhere. Our aims were the molecular detection and genetic analysis of EV109 from acute childhood respiratory infections in Hungary. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from children under age of 10 years with acute respiratory infections treated in Department of Pulmonology, Kaposi Mór Teaching Hospital, Mosdós, Hungary. Samples were taken from 15 October to 15 May in two respiratory seasons 2005/2006 and 2006/2007. Samples were tested using EV109 specific VP1 primers by RT-PCR method. One (1.1%) of the 92 nasopharyngeal aspirates was positive for EV109 collected from a 2.5-year-old child in January, 2007. The main symptoms were dropping nose, fever (38.1°C), hard cough and wheezing associated with bronchitis and pneumonia. Based upon the VP1 gene region EV109 (L87/HUN/2007, JN900470) has 93% nucleotide identity and identical recombinant pattern to the prototype EV109. This is the first detection of the novel recombinant enterovirus, EV109, in Hungary (in Europe). This study supports the possibility that EV109 is able to cause acute respiratory infections, in addition, it might be plays a part in lower respiratory disease with hospitalization in children. PMID:22750788

Pankovics, Péter; Boros, Akos; Szabó, Hajnalka; Székely, Gyöngyi; Gyurkovits, Kálmán; Reuter, Gábor

2012-06-01

29

Environmental Surveillance of Human Enteroviruses in Shandong Province, China, 2008 to 2012: Serotypes, Temporal Fluctuation, and Molecular Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Environmental surveillance is an effective approach in investigating the circulation of polioviruses (PVs) and other human enteroviruses (EVs) in the population. The present report describes the results of environmental surveillance conducted in Shandong Province, China, from 2008 to 2012. A total of 129 sewage samples were collected, and 168 PVs and 1,007 nonpolio enteroviruses (NPEVs) were isolated. VP1 sequencing and typing were performed on all isolates. All PV strains were Sabin-like, with the numbers of VP1 substitutions ranging from 0 to 7. The NPEVs belonged to 19 serotypes, and echovirus 6 (E6), E11, coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), E3, E12, and E7 were the six main serotypes, which accounted for 18.3%, 14.8%, 14.5%, 12.9%, 9.0%, and 5.7% of NPEVs isolated, respectively. Typical summer-fall peaks of NPEV were observed in the monthly distribution of isolation, and an epidemic pattern of annual circulation was revealed for the common serotypes. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on environmental CVB3 and E3 strains with global reference strains and local strains from aseptic meningitis patients. Shandong strains formed distinct clusters, and a close relationship was observed between local environmental and clinical strains. As an EV-specific case surveillance system is absent in China and many other countries, continuous environmental surveillance should be encouraged to investigate the temporal circulation and phylogeny of EVs in the population. PMID:24837389

Wang, Haiyan; Tao, Zexin; Li, Yan; Lin, Xiaojuan; Yoshida, Hiromu; Song, Lizhi; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Suting; Cui, Ning; Xu, Wenbo

2014-01-01

30

Attenuation of Human Enterovirus 71 High-Replication-Fidelity Variants in AG129 Mice  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT In a screen for ribavirin resistance, a novel high-fidelity variant of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) with the single amino acid change L123F in its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp or 3D) was identified. Based on the crystal structure of EV71 RdRp, L123 locates at the entrance of the RNA template binding channel, which might form a fidelity checkpoint. EV71 RdRp-L123F variants generated less progeny in a guanidine resistance assay and virus populations with lower mutation frequencies in cell culture passage due to their higher replication fidelity. However, compared with wild-type viruses, they did not show growth defects. In vivo infections further revealed that high-fidelity mutations L123F and G64R (previously reported) negatively impacted EV71 fitness and greatly reduced viral pathogenicity alone or together in AG129 mice. Interestingly, a variant with double mutations, RG/B4-G64R/L123F (where RG/B4 is an EV71 genotype B4 virus constructed by reverse genetics [RG])showed higher fidelity in vitro and less virulence in vivo than any one of the above two single mutants. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) of the double mutant increased more than 500 times compared with the LD50 of wild-type RG/B4 in mice. The results indicated that these high-fidelity variants exhibited an attenuated pathogenic phenotype in vivo and offer promise as a live attenuated EV71 vaccine. IMPORTANCE The error-prone nature of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of RNA viruses during replication results in quasispecies and aids survival of virus populations under a wide range of selective pressures. Virus variants with higher replication fidelity exhibit lower genetic diversity and attenuated pathogenicity in vivo. Here, we identified a novel high-fidelity mutation L123F in the RdRp of human enterovirus 71 (EV71). We further elucidated that EV71 variants with the RdRp-L123F mutation and/or the previously identified high-fidelity mutation RdRp-G64R were attenuated in an AG129 mouse model. As EV71 has emerged as a serious worldwide health threat, especially in developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region, we urgently need EV71 vaccines. Learning from the poliovirus vaccination, we prefer live attenuated EV71 vaccines to inactivated EV71 vaccines in order to effectively control EV71 outbreaks at low cost. Our results imply a new means of attenuating EV71 and reducing its mutation rate at the same time. PMID:24623423

Meng, Tao

2014-01-01

31

A neonatal gnotobiotic pig model of human enterovirus 71 infection and associated immune responses  

PubMed Central

Vaccine development and pathogenesis studies for human enterovirus 71 are limited by a lack of suitable animal models. Here, we report the development of a novel neonatal gnotobiotic pig model using the non-pig-adapted neurovirulent human enterovirus 71 strain BJ110, which has a C4 genotype. Porcine small intestinal epithelial cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and neural cells were infected in vitro. Oral and combined oral–nasal infection of 5-day-old neonatal gnotobiotic pigs with 5×108 fluorescence forming units (FFU) resulted in shedding up to 18 days post-infection, with viral titers in rectal swab samples peaking at 2.22×108 viral RNA copies/mL. Viral capsid proteins were detected in enterocytes within the small intestines on post-infection days (PIDs) 7 and 14. Additionally, viral RNA was detected in intestinal and extra-intestinal tissues, including the central nervous system, the lung and cardiac muscle. The infected neonatal gnotobiotic pigs developed fever, forelimb weakness, rapid breathing and some hand, foot and mouth disease symptoms. Flow cytometry analysis revealed increased frequencies of both CD4+ and CD8+ IFN-?-producing T cells in the brain and the blood on PID 14, but reduced frequencies were observed in the lung. Furthermore, high titers of serum virus-neutralizing antibodies were generated in both orally and combined oral–nasally infected pigs on PIDs 7, 14, 21 and 28. Together, these results demonstrate that neonatal gnotobiotic pigs represent a novel animal model for evaluating vaccines for human enterovirus 71 and for understanding the pathogenesis of this virus and the associated immune responses.

Yang, Xingdong; Li, Guohua; Wen, Ke; Bui, Tammy; Liu, Fangning; Kocher, Jacob; Jortner, Bernard S; Vonck, Marlice; Pelzer, Kevin; Deng, Jie; Zhu, Runan; Li, Yuyun; Qian, Yuan; Yuan, Lijuan

2014-01-01

32

Serological and molecular evidence of enterovirus infection in patients with end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To study the relative diagnostic value of enterovirus-specific molecular biological and serological assays in patients with end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy, and to investigate the possible role of other cardiotropic viruses in dilated cardiomyopathy. DESIGN: Analysis of recipient myocardial tissue and serum from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and controls undergoing cardiac transplantation for end-stage cardiac disease. SETTING: University virology department and transplantation unit. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequence analysis of myocardial RNA and DNA; enterovirus-specific in situ hybridization; enterovirus-specific immunoglobulin M detection. RESULTS: Enterovirus RNA was detected in myocardial tissue from only a small proportion of (five of 75) hearts. However, although enterovirus-specific immunoglobulin M responses were detected in 22 (28%) of 39 controls patients, a significantly higher prevalence was observed among patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (22 (56%) of 39 patients; P < 0.005). All enteroviruses detected in myocardium showed greatest nucleotide sequence homology with coxsackievirus type B3. Detection of enterovirus RNA in myocardium by the polymerase chain reaction and by in situ hybridisation gave comparable results. Other potentially cardiotropic virus genomes, including human cytomegalovirus, influenzaviruses, and coronaviruses were not detected in myocardium. CONCLUSION: This study found that enterovirus-specific immunoglobulin M responses provided the strongest evidence of enterovirus involvement in patients with end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy. However, the high background prevalence of these responses limits their diagnostic value. The finding that enteroviruses detected in myocardium were coxsackievirus type B3 accords with recent findings in patients with acute myocarditis, and indicates that this serotype is the major cardiotropic human enterovirus. Images PMID:8868984

Muir, P.; Nicholson, F.; Illavia, S. J.; McNeil, T. S.; Ajetunmobi, J. F.; Dunn, H.; Starkey, W. G.; Reetoo, K. N.; Cary, N. R.; Parameshwar, J.; Banatvala, J. E.

1996-01-01

33

Differential susceptibility and response of primary human myeloid BDCA1(+) dendritic cells to infection with different Enteroviruses.  

PubMed

Coxsackie B viruses (CVBs) and echoviruses (EVs) form the Human Enterovirus-B (HEV-B) species within the family Picornaviridae. HEV-B infections are widespread and generally cause mild disease; however, severe infections occur and HEV-B are associated with various chronic diseases such as cardiomyopathy and type 1 diabetes. Dendritic cells (DCs) are the professional antigen-presenting cells of our immune system and initiate and control immune responses to invading pathogens, yet also maintain tolerance to self-antigens. We previously reported that EVs, but not CVBs, can productively infect in vitro generated monocyte-derived DCs. The interactions between HEV-B and human myeloid DCs (mDCs) freshly isolated from blood, however, remain unknown. Here, we studied the susceptibility and responses of BDCA1(+) mDC to HEV-B species and found that these mDC are susceptible to EV, but not CVB infection. Productive EV7 infection resulted in massive, rapid cell death without DC activation. Contrary, EV1 infection, which resulted in lower virus input at the same MOI, resulted in DC activation as observed by production of type I interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), upregulation of co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules (CD80, CD86, PDL1) and production of IL-6 and TNF-?, with a relative moderate decrease in cell viability. EV1-induced ISG expression depended on virus replication. CVB infection did not affect DC viability and resulted in poor induction of ISGs and CD80 induction in part of the donors. These data show for the first time the interaction between HEV-B species and BDCA1(+) mDCs isolated freshly from blood. Our data indicate that different HEV-B species can influence DC homeostasis in various ways, possibly contributing to HEV-B associated pathology. PMID:23638101

Schulte, Barbara M; Kers-Rebel, Esther D; Prosser, Amy C; Galama, Jochem M D; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Adema, Gosse J

2013-01-01

34

Molecular typing of enteroviruses associated with viral meningitis in Cyprus, 2000-2002.  

PubMed

Human enteroviruses are responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical diseases affecting many different organ systems. Although infection is usually asymptomatic, infections of the central nervous system manifested as meningitis or encephalitis can pose a serious public health problem, especially during outbreaks. In this study, samples from 218 patients diagnosed with enteroviral meningitis between January 2000 and December 2002 were analysed in order to assess the epidemiology of human enteroviruses as a cause of viral meningitis in Cyprus. A new typing strategy, based on partial sequencing of the 5' non-coding region (5'NCR), prediction of type, and selection of type-specific primers for sensitive VP1 PCR amplification, was developed. As clustering in the 5'NCR was concordant with clustering in the VP1 region, quick and reliable typing by VP1 sequencing was achieved without virus isolation in cell culture. The most frequent enterovirus serotypes identified were Human echovirus 30 (55.5%), Human echovirus 13 (15.1%), Human echovirus 6 (13.8%) and Human echovirus 9 (8.3%). Human coxsackieviruses B2, B1 and B5, Human echovirus 4, Human enterovirus 71 and Human coxsackievirus A6 represented rather rare serotypes. This is the first molecular epidemiological study of enterovirus meningitis in Cyprus. Serotype distribution corresponded basically with observations in other European countries, suggesting the spread of enteroviruses by tourism. PMID:16849723

Richter, Jan; Koptides, Dana; Tryfonos, Christina; Christodoulou, Christina

2006-08-01

35

Enterovirus-Infected ?-Cells Induce Distinct Response Patterns in BDCA1+ and BDCA3+ Human Dendritic Cells  

PubMed Central

Enteroviruses often cause mild disease, yet are also linked to development of autoimmune diabetes. Dendritic cells (DCs) shape both innate and adaptive immune responses, including anti-viral responses. How different human DC subsets shape anti-viral responses, whether they have complementary or overlapping functions and how this relates to autoimmune responses is largely unknown. We used enterovirus-infected ?-cells and freshly isolated human myeloid DC (mDC) subsets as a model for autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Our data show that both the BDCA1+ and BDCA3+ mDC subsets engulf mock- as well as virus-infected ?-cells, albeit BDCA1+ mDCs are more efficient. Uptake of enterovirus-infected, but not mock-infected cells, activated both DC subsets as indicated by the induction of co-stimulatory molecules and secretion of type I and type III interferons. Both subsets produced similar amounts of interferon-?, yet the BDCA3+ DC were superior in IFN-? production. The BDCA1+ mDCs more strongly upregulated PD-L1, and were superior in IL-12 and IL-10 production as compared to the BDCA3+ DC. Despite lack of IL-12 production by the BDCA3+ DC, both BDCA1+ and BDCA3+ DCs activated T cells in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction towards a Th1-type reactivity while suppressing Th2-associated cytokines. PMID:25806537

Schulte, Barbara M.; Gielen, Paul R.; Kers-Rebel, Esther D.; Schreibelt, Gerty; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.; Adema, Gosse J.

2015-01-01

36

Molecular Epidemiology of Human Enterovirus 71 in the United Kingdom from 1998 to 2006?  

PubMed Central

The last decade witnessed a significant increase in epidemic activity of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) in the Western Pacific Region (WPR). In most European countries, this risk is unrecognized despite occasional cases of severe disease and two severe outbreaks in Eastern Europe 30 years ago. In this study we report the first examination of the molecular epidemiology of EV71 in the United Kingdom from 1998 to 2006. Genomic regions encoding the 1D coat protein (VP1) and 3D polymerase (Pol) from 32 EV71 isolates associated with neurological or cutaneous manifestations were sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of VP1 and 3D Pol sequences identified genotype C as the dominant strain. Several United Kingdom isolates had genetic linkages with predated C1 or C2 strains from Europe and the WPR. Recombination events were not detected between United Kingdom strains. However, a previously published Taiwanese strain was identified as an intergenotypic recombinant. EV71 genotype C appears to have continuous circulation in the United Kingdom from 1998 to 2006 with repeated introductions of new strains replacing previous strains. It is necessary to continuously monitor the molecular evolution and recombination events of EV71. PMID:18650362

Bible, Jon M.; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Megson, Brian; Brown, David; Pantelidis, Panagiotis; Earl, Pam; Bendig, Justin; Tong, C. Y. William

2008-01-01

37

Molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus 71 in the United Kingdom from 1998 to 2006.  

PubMed

The last decade witnessed a significant increase in epidemic activity of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) in the Western Pacific Region (WPR). In most European countries, this risk is unrecognized despite occasional cases of severe disease and two severe outbreaks in Eastern Europe 30 years ago. In this study we report the first examination of the molecular epidemiology of EV71 in the United Kingdom from 1998 to 2006. Genomic regions encoding the 1D coat protein (VP1) and 3D polymerase (Pol) from 32 EV71 isolates associated with neurological or cutaneous manifestations were sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of VP1 and 3D Pol sequences identified genotype C as the dominant strain. Several United Kingdom isolates had genetic linkages with predated C1 or C2 strains from Europe and the WPR. Recombination events were not detected between United Kingdom strains. However, a previously published Taiwanese strain was identified as an intergenotypic recombinant. EV71 genotype C appears to have continuous circulation in the United Kingdom from 1998 to 2006 with repeated introductions of new strains replacing previous strains. It is necessary to continuously monitor the molecular evolution and recombination events of EV71. PMID:18650362

Bible, Jon M; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Megson, Brian; Brown, David; Pantelidis, Panagiotis; Earl, Pam; Bendig, Justin; Tong, C Y William

2008-10-01

38

Seroepidemiology of human enterovirus71 and coxsackievirusA16 among children in Guangdong province, China  

PubMed Central

Background Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric illness. Mainly induced by the Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A 16 infections, the frequently occurred HFMD outbreaks have become a serious public health problem in Southeast Asia. Currently,only a few studies have investigated the human immunity to HFMD in China. In this study, we conducted a cohort study in Guangdong province, China. Methods Stored serum samples from children less than 10 years old were analyzed. The levels of EV71 and CA16 specific antibodies before, during and shortly after the 2008 large outbreak of HFMD were evaluated by the microneutralization test. The geometric mean titer (GMT) was calculated and compared. Statistical significance was taken as P?

2013-01-01

39

21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...from individuals who have signs and symptoms consistent with meningitis or meningoencephalitis. The detection of enterovirus RNA...tests, aids in the clinical laboratory diagnosis of viral meningitis caused by enterovirus. (b) Classification. Class...

2014-04-01

40

21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...from individuals who have signs and symptoms consistent with meningitis or meningoencephalitis. The detection of enterovirus RNA...tests, aids in the clinical laboratory diagnosis of viral meningitis caused by enterovirus. (b) Classification . Class...

2013-04-01

41

21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...from individuals who have signs and symptoms consistent with meningitis or meningoencephalitis. The detection of enterovirus RNA...tests, aids in the clinical laboratory diagnosis of viral meningitis caused by enterovirus. (b) Classification . Class...

2011-04-01

42

Genetic and phylogenetic clustering of enteroviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of enteroviruses showed that in the 5'NCR enteroviruses formed three clusters: polioviruses (PVs), coxsackievirus A type 21 (CAV21), CAV24 and enterovirus type 70 (ENV70) formed one cluster; coxsackievirus B isolates (CBVs), CAV9, CAV16, ENV71, echovirus type 11 (EV11), EV12 and all partially sequenced echoviruses and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) belonged to another cluster and bovine

T. Poyry; L. Kinnunen; T. Hyypia; B. Brown; C. Horsnell; T. Hovi; G. Stanway

1996-01-01

43

Prevalence of human parechovirus and enterovirus in cerebrospinal fluid samples in children in Jinju, Korea  

PubMed Central

Purpose Human parechovirus (HPeV) and enterovirus (EV) are causative agents of a sepsis-like illness in neonates and of infections of the central nervous system in young children. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of HPeV3 and EV infection in young children with a sepsis-like illness or with meningitis in Jinju, Korea. Methods Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected from 267 patients (age range, 1 day to 5 years) and assessed for HPeV and EV by performing reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. Amplification products of the VP3/VP1 region of HPeV and of the VP1 region of EV were sequenced to identify the virus type. Results HPeV and EV were detected in 3.4% and 7.5% of the total CSF samples assessed, respectively. The age distribution of EV-positive patients (median age, 1.4 months) had a significantly broader range than that of HPeV-positive patients (median age, 7.8 months). The peak seasons for HPeV and EV infection were spring and summer, respectively. The clinical symptoms for HPeV and EV infection were similar, and fever was the most common symptom. Pleocytosis was detected in 22.2% of HPeV-positive patients and 35.5% of EV-positive patients. The VP3/VP1 gene sequence of the nine Korean strains clustered most closely with the Japanese strain (AB759202). Conclusion The data indicate that HPeV infection is predominant in young infants (<6 months) and that meningitis without pleocytosis was caused by both HPeV and EV infection in children.

Seo, Ji-Hyun; Yeom, Jung Sook; Youn, Hee-Shang; Han, Tae-Hee

2015-01-01

44

Genetic Diversity of Human Enterovirus 68 Strains Isolated in Kenya Using the Hypervariable 3?- End of VP1 Gene  

PubMed Central

Reports of increasing worldwide circulation of human enterovirus-68 (EV68) are well documented. Despite health concerns posed by resurgence of these viruses, little is known about EV68 strains circulating in Kenya. In this study, we characterized 13 EV68 strains isolated in Kenya between 2008 and 2011 based on the Hypervariable 3?- end of the VP1 gene. Viral RNA was extracted from the isolates and partial VP1 gene amplified by RT-PCR, followed by nucleotide sequencing. Alignment of deduced amino acid sequences revealed substitutions in Kenyan EV68 isolates absent in the prototype reference strain (Fermon). The majority of these changes were present in the BC and DE-loop regions, which are associated with viral antigenicity and virulence. The Kenyan strains exhibited high sequence homology with respect to those from other countries. Natural selection analysis based on the VP1 region showed that the Kenyan EV68 isolates were under purifying selection. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that majority (84.6%) of the Kenyan strains belonged to clade A, while a minority belonged to clades B and C. Overall, our results illustrate that although EV68 strains isolated in Kenya were genetically and antigenically divergent from the prototype strain (Fermon), they were closely related to those circulating in other countries, suggesting worldwide transmissibility. Further, the presence of shared mutations by Kenyan EV68 strains and those isolated in other countries, indicates evolution in the VP1 region may be contributing to increased worldwide detection of the viruses. This is the first study to document circulation of EV68 in Kenya. PMID:25054861

Opanda, Silvanos M.; Wamunyokoli, Fred; Khamadi, Samoel; Coldren, Rodney; Bulimo, Wallace D.

2014-01-01

45

Characterization of Enteroviruses from Non-Human Primates in Cameroon Revealed Virus Types Widespread in Humans along with Candidate New Types and Species  

PubMed Central

Enteroviruses (EVs) infecting African Non-Human Primates (NHP) are still poorly documented. This study was designed to characterize the genetic diversity of EVs among captive and wild NHP in Cameroon and to compare this diversity with that found in humans. Stool specimens were collected in April 2008 in NHP housed in sanctuaries in Yaounde and neighborhoods. Moreover, stool specimens collected from wild NHP from June 2006 to October 2008 in the southern rain forest of Cameroon were considered. RNAs purified directly from stool samples were screened for EVs using a sensitive RT-nested PCR targeting the VP1 capsid coding gene whose nucleotide sequence was used for molecular typing. Captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) were primarily infected by EV types already reported in humans in Cameroon and elsewhere: Coxsackievirus A13 and A24, Echovirus 15 and 29, and EV-B82. Moreover EV-A119, a novel virus type recently described in humans in central and west Africa, was also found in a captive Chimpanzee. EV-A76, which is a widespread virus in humans, was identified in wild chimpanzees, thus suggesting its adaptation and parallel circulation in human and NHP populations in Cameroon. Interestingly, some EVs harbored by wild NHP were genetically distinct from all existing types and were thus assigned as new types. One chimpanzee-derived virus was tentatively assigned as EV-J121 in the EV-J species. In addition, two EVs from wild monkeys provisionally registered as EV-122 and EV-123 were found to belong to a candidate new species. Overall, this study indicates that the genetic diversity of EVs among NHP is more important than previously known and could be the source of future new emerging human viral diseases. PMID:25079078

Sadeuh-Mba, Serge Alain; Bessaud, Maël; Joffret, Marie-Line; Endegue Zanga, Marie-Claire; Balanant, Jean; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Njouom, Richard; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Delpeyroux, Francis; Rousset, Dominique

2014-01-01

46

Elucidating the host–pathogen interaction between human colorectal cells and invading Enterovirus 71 using transcriptomics profiling  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main etiological agents for Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) and has been shown to be associated with severe clinical manifestation. Currently, there is no antiviral therapeutic for the treatment of HFMD patients owing to a lack of understanding of EV71 pathogenesis. This study seeks to elucidate the transcriptomic changes that result from EV71 infection. Human whole genome microarray was employed to monitor changes in genomic profiles between infected and uninfected cells. The results reveal altered expression of human genes involved in critical pathways including the immune response and the stress response. Together, data from this study provide valuable insights into the host–pathogen interaction between human colorectal cells and EV71. PMID:24918057

Lui, Yan Long Edmund; Tan, Tuan Lin; Timms, Peter; Hafner, Louise Marie; Tan, Kian Hwa; Tan, Eng Lee

2014-01-01

47

Selective human enterovirus and rhinovirus inhibitors: An overview of capsid-binding and protease-inhibiting molecules.  

PubMed

The absence of effective vaccines for most viral infections highlights an urgent necessity for the design and development of effective antiviral drugs. Due to the advancement in virology since the late 1980s, several key events in the viral life cycle have been well delineated and a number of molecular targets have been validated, culminating in the emergence of many new antiviral drugs in recent years. Inhibitors against enteroviruses and rhinoviruses, responsible for about half of the human common colds, are currently under active investigation. Agents targeted at either viral protein 1 (VP1), a relatively conserved capsid structure mediating viral adsorption/uncoating process, or 3C protease, which is highly conserved among different serotypes and essential for viral replication, are of great potential to become antipicornavirus drugs. PMID:15170592

Shih, Shin-Ru; Chen, Shu-Jen; Hakimelahi, Gholam Hossein; Liu, Hsing-Jang; Tseng, Chen-Tso; Shia, Kak-Shan

2004-07-01

48

Epidemic 2014 Enterovirus D68 Cross-Reacts with Human Rhinovirus on a Respiratory Molecular Diagnostic Platform  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emerging virus known to cause sporadic disease and occasional epidemics of severe lower respiratory tract infection. However, the true prevalence of infection with EV-D68 is unknown, due in part to the lack of a rapid and specific nucleic acid amplification test as well as the infrequency with which respiratory samples are analyzed by enterovirus surveillance programs. During the 2014 EV-D68 epidemic in the United States, we noted an increased frequency of “low-positive” results for human rhinovirus (HRV) detected in respiratory tract samples using the GenMark Diagnostics eSensor respiratory viral panel, a multiplex PCR assay able to detect 14 known respiratory viruses but not enteroviruses. We simultaneously noted markedly increased admissions to our Pediatric Intensive Care Unit for severe lower respiratory tract infections in patients both with and without a history of reactive airway disease. Accordingly, we hypothesized that these “low-positive” RVP results were due to EV-D68 rather than rhinovirus infection. Sequencing of the picornavirus 5’ untranslated region (5’-UTR) of 49 samples positive for HRV by the GenMark RVP revealed that 33 (67.3%) were in fact EV-D68. Notably, the mean intensity of the HRV RVP result was significantly lower in the sequence-identified EV-D68 samples (20.3 nA) compared to HRV (129.7 nA). Using a cut-off of 40 nA for the differentiation of EV-D68 from HRV resulted in 94% sensitivity and 88% specificity. The robust diagnostic characteristics of our data suggest that the cross-reactivity of EV-D68 and HRV on the GenMark Diagnostics eSensor RVP platform may be an important factor to consider in making accurate molecular diagnosis of EV-D68 at institutions utilizing this system or other molecular respiratory platforms that may also cross-react. PMID:25799541

McAllister, Shane C.; Schleiss, Mark R.; Arbefeville, Sophie; Steiner, Marie E.; Hanson, Ryan S.; Pollock, Catherine; Ferrieri, Patricia

2015-01-01

49

Receptors for enterovirus 71  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Occasionally, EV71 infection is associated with severe neurological diseases, such as acute encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis and cardiopulmonary failure. Several molecules act as cell surface receptors that stimulate EV71 infection, including scavenger receptor B2 (SCARB2), P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), sialylated glycan, heparan sulfate and annexin II (Anx2). SCARB2 plays critical roles in attachment, viral entry and uncoating, and it can facilitate efficient EV71 infection. The three-dimensional structures of the mature EV71 virion, procapsid and empty capsid, as well as the exofacial domain of SCARB2, have been elucidated. This structural information has greatly increased our understanding of the early steps of EV71 infection. Furthermore, SCARB2 plays essential roles in the development of EV71 neurological disease in vivo. Adult mice are not susceptible to infection by EV71, but transgenic mice that express human SCARB2 become susceptible to EV71 infection and develop similar neurological diseases to those found in humans. This mouse model facilitates the in vivo investigation of many issues related to EV71. PSGL-1, sialylated glycan, heparan sulfate and Anx2 are attachment receptors, which enhance viral infection by retaining the virus on the cell surface. These molecules also contribute to viral infection in vitro either by interacting with SCARB2 or independently of SCARB2. However, the cooperative effects of these receptors, and their contribution to EV71 pathogenicity in vivo, remain to be elucidated.

Yamayoshi, Seiya; Fujii, Ken; Koike, Satoshi

2014-01-01

50

Synthetic peptides for efficient discrimination of anti-enterovirus antibodies at the serotype level.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses are important human pathogens, causing a broad spectrum of diseases from minor common colds to fatal myocarditis. However, certain disease syndromes are caused by one or few serotypes. Serotype identification is difficult due to the laborious neutralization tests that lack of sensitivity, while in commercial ELISAs homotypic antibodies' activities are largely masked by the recognition of genera-specific epitopes by heterotypic antibodies. In the present study homotypic assays were developed with the ability to discriminate different enterovirus serotypes. Seventy-three children sera, positive for IgM antibodies against enterovirus genus and 49 healthy children were examined for the presence of antibodies against 14 synthetic peptides derived from a non-conserved region of the VP1 protein of coxsackieviruses B2, B3, B4, B5, A9, A16, A24, echoviruses 6, 7, 9, 11, 30, enterovirus 71 and parechovirus 1. 50% of the anti-enterovirus IgM positive sera (>150 BU) reacted with the peptides with the majority of them to preferentially recognize one of them, supporting the homotypic nature of our assay. Inhibition studies yielded homologous inhibition rates 67-95% suggesting that specific peptide recognition actually occurred. The diagnostic value of our assay was tested in blood samples drawn over a 1.5-year period from a 5-year old patient. The anti-enterovirus reactivity was clearly attributed to echovirus serotype 11. The IgM/IgG antibody ratio was reversed 4 months later and subsequently IgM antibodies dropped below the cutoff point. In this paper we demonstrate that our assay can be used to discriminate between antibodies targeting different enterovirus serotypes. PMID:24929043

Routsias, John G; Mavrouli, Maria D; Antonaki, Georgia; Spanakis, Nikolaos; Tsakris, Athanassios

2014-08-01

51

The cis-acting replication elements define human enterovirus and rhinovirus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replication of picornaviruses is dependent on VPg uridylylation, which is linked to the presence of the internal cis-acting replication element (cre). Cre are located within the sequence encoding polyprotein, yet at distinct positions as demonstrated for poliovirus and coxsackievirus-B3, cardiovirus, and human rhinovirus (HRV-A and HRV-B), overlapping proteins 2C, VP2, 2A, and VP1, respectively. Here we report a novel distinct

SAMUEL CORDEY; DANIEL GERLACH; THOMAS JUNIER; EVGENY M. ZDOBNOV; LAURENT KAISER; CAROLINE TAPPAREL

2008-01-01

52

Inhibition of the uncoating of bovine enterovirus by short chain fatty acids.  

PubMed

Short chain fatty acids inhibit the replication of bovine enterovirus but are almost ineffective against poliovirus type 1, coxsackievirus B5, encephalomyocarditis virus and human rhinovirus 1B. Lauric acid binds to bovine enterovirus, thereby stabilizing the virus particle to heat degradation. Fatty acid-bound virions attach to susceptible cells but fail to undergo cell-mediated uncoating. The inhibitory effect is reversible with chloroform and may result from a hydrophobic interaction between the fatty acid and a specific site on the virus particle. PMID:2172446

Ismail-Cassim, N; Chezzi, C; Newman, J F

1990-10-01

53

Molecular Determinants of Enterovirus 71 Viral Entry  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major pathogens that cause hand, foot, and mouth disease outbreaks in young children in the Asia-Pacific region in recent years. Human scavenger receptor class B 2 (SCARB2) is the main cellular receptor for EV71 on target cells. The requirements of the EV71-SCARB2 interaction have not been fully characterized, and it has not been determined whether SCARB2 serves as an uncoating receptor for EV71. Here we compared the efficiency of the receptor from different species including human, horseshoe bat, mouse, and hamster and demonstrated that the residues between 144 and 151 are critical for SCARB2 binding to viral capsid protein VP1 of EV71 and seven residues from the human receptor could convert murine SCARB2, an otherwise inefficient receptor, to an efficient receptor for EV71 viral infection. We also identified that EV71 binds to SCARB2 via a canyon of VP1 around residue Gln-172. Soluble SCARB2 could convert the EV71 virions from 160 S to 135 S particles, indicating that SCARB2 is an uncoating receptor of the virus. The uncoating efficiency of SCARB2 significantly increased in an acidic environment (pH 5.6). These studies elucidated the viral capsid and receptor determinants of enterovirus 71 infection and revealed a possible target for antiviral interventions. PMID:22219187

Chen, Pan; Song, Zilin; Qi, Yonghe; Feng, Xiaofeng; Xu, Naiqing; Sun, Yinyan; Wu, Xing; Yao, Xin; Mao, Qunyin; Li, Xiuling; Dong, Wenjuan; Wan, Xiaobo; Huang, Niu; Shen, Xinliang; Liang, Zhenglun; Li, Wenhui

2012-01-01

54

Human enterovirus and parechovirus infections in newborns with sepsis-like illness and neurological disorders.  

PubMed

Enterovirus (HEV) and parechovirus (HPeV) infections are common in the neonatal period, and account for a large portion of febrile illnesses during the summer season. HEV infections appear clinically and seasonally similar to HPeV infections. In this study, we present the virological and clinical data from neonates infected with HEV or HPeV and hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit for sepsis-like illness or neurologic disorders. In the period January 2010 to October 2013, 54 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and 10 plasma samples were obtained from 60 newborns aged <30 days. A total of 7/60 (11.6%) patients were positive for HEV infection and 3 (5.0%) were positive for HPeV infection as determined by specific real-time RT-PCR. The most common clinical signs were fever, irritability, hyporeactivity and, in a few cases, rash. All infections were observed during the summer-fall period. In conclusion, HEV and HPeV were shown to account for a significant portion of febrile illnesses in neonates requiring hospitalization. PMID:24709467

Piralla, Antonio; Mariani, Bianca; Stronati, Mauro; Marone, Piero; Baldanti, Fausto

2014-03-01

55

Necrotizing myositis causes restrictive hypoventilation in a mouse model for human enterovirus 71 infection  

PubMed Central

Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections are associated with a high prevalence of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children and occasionally cause lethal complications. Most infections are self-limiting. However, resulting complications, including aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, poliomyelitis-like acute flaccid paralysis, and neurological pulmonary edema or hemorrhage, are responsible for the lethal symptoms of EV71 infection, the pathogenesis of which remain to be clarified. Results In the present study, 2-week-old Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were infected with a mouse-adapted EV71 strain. These infected mice demonstrated progressive paralysis and died within 12 days post infection (d.p.i.). EV71, which mainly replicates in skeletal muscle tissues, caused severe necrotizing myositis. Lesions in the central nervous system (CNS) and other tissues were not observed. Conclusions Necrotizing myositis of respiratory-related muscles caused severe restrictive hypoventilation and subsequent hypoxia, which could explain the fatality of EV71-infected mice. This finding suggests that, in addition to CNS injury, necrotic myositis may also be responsible for the paralysis and death observed in EV71-infected mice. PMID:23809248

2013-01-01

56

Enterovirus-71 Virus-Like Particles Induce the Activation and Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells through TLR4 Signaling  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes seasonal epidemics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and has a high mortality rate among young children. We recently demonstrated potent induction of the humoral and cell-mediated immune response in monkeys immunized with EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs), with a morphology resembling that of infectious EV71 virions but not containing a viral genome, which could potentially be safe as a vaccine for EV71. To elucidate the mechanisms through which EV71 VLPs induce cell-mediated immunity, we studied the immunomodulatory effects of EV71 VLPs on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), which bind to and incorporate EV71 VLPs. DC treatment with EV71 VLPs enhanced the expression of CD80, CD86, CD83, CD40, CD54, and HLA-DR on the cell surface; increased the production of interleukin (IL)-12 p40, IL-12 p70, and IL-10 by DCs; and suppressed the capacity of DCs for endocytosis. Treatment with EV71 VLPs also enhanced the ability of DCs to stimulate naďve T cells and induced secretion of interferon (IFN)-? by T cells and Th1 cell responses. Neutralization with antibodies against Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 suppressed the capacity of EV71 VLPs to induce the production of IL-12 p40, IL-12 p70, and IL-10 by DCs and inhibited EV71 VLPs binding to DCs. Our study findings clarified the important role for TLR4 signaling in DCs in response to EV71 VLPs and showed that EV71 VLPs induced inhibitor of kappaB alpha (I?B?) degradation and nuclear factor of kappaB (NF-?B) activation. PMID:25360749

Lin, Yu-Li; Hu, Yu-Chen; Liang, Cheng-Chao; Lin, Shih-Yeh; Liang, Yu-Chih; Yuan, Hui-Ping; Chiang, Bor-Luen

2014-01-01

57

Antiviral effects of Phyllanthus urinaria containing corilagin against human enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 in vitro.  

PubMed

Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) especially in infants and children under 5 years of age. Despite recent outbreaks of HFMD, there are no approved therapeutics against EV71 and CA16 infection. Moreover, in a small percentage of cases, the disease progression can lead to serious complications of the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the antiviral effect of corilagin and Phyllanthus urinaria extract, which contains corilagin as a major component, on EV71 and CA16 infection in vitro. Our results indicate that corilagin reduces the cytotoxicity induced by EV71 or CA16 on Vero cells with and IC50 value of 5.6 and 32.33 ?g/mL, respectively. We confirmed the presence of corilagin in EtOAc and BuOH fractions from P. urinaria extract and this correlated with antiviral activity of the fractions against EV71 or CA16. Future studies will be required to confirm the antiviral activity of corilagin and P. urinaria extract in vivo. Challenging a model with a lethal dose of viral infection will be required to test this. Collectively, our work provides potential candidates for the development of novel drugs to treat HFMD. PMID:24752860

Yeo, Sang-Gu; Song, Jae Hyoung; Hong, Eun-Hye; Lee, Bo-Ra; Kwon, Yong Soo; Chang, Sun-Young; Kim, Seung Hyun; Lee, Sang Won; Park, Jae-Hak; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

2015-02-01

58

enterovirus type 71  

E-print Network

Purpose: Enterovirus 71, one of the enteroviruses that are responsible for both hand-foot-and-mouth disease and herpangina, can cause neural injury. During periods of endemic spread of hand-foot-andmouth disease caused by enterovirus 71, CNS infections are also frequently diagnosed and may lead to increased complications from neural injury, as well as death. We present the results of our epidemiologic research on the clinical manifestations of children with CNS infections caused by enterovirus 71. Methods: The study group consisted of 42 patients admitted for CNS infection by enterovirus 71 between April 2009 and October 2009 at the Department of Pediatrics of 5 major hospitals affiliated with the Catholic University of Korea. We retrospectively reviewed initial symptoms and laboratory findings on admission, the specimen from which enterovirus 71 was isolated, fever duration, admission period, treatment and progress, and complications. We compared aseptic

Korean J Pediatr; Ui Yoon Choi; Ji Whan Han; Chul Jeong; Hyun Hee Kim; Hyun Kim; Jin Han Kang

2010-01-01

59

Molecular Epidemiological Study of Enteroviruses Associated with Encephalitis in Children from India  

PubMed Central

Enteroviruses have been reported in encephalitis cases. However, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of enteroviruses in encephalitis are not fully established. We prospectively investigated 204 children with encephalitis over a period of 2 years (2009 to 2010) for enterovirus. Enterovirus was detected in 45 specimens (22.1%); of these, 40 were typed by seminested reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and sequencing of the VP1 gene. Molecular typing of enterovirus revealed the predominance of echovirus 21 associated with an epidemic during the rainy seasons of 2010 and the circulation of echovirus 1, coxsackievirus B1, enterovirus 75, enterovirus 76, coxsackievirus B5, and echovirus 19. The nucleotide divergence among echovirus 21 strains was 0 to 2% at the nucleotide level. This study suggests that enterovirus is an important cause of encephalitis in children from India. To our knowledge, this is the first report of echovirus 21 in encephalitis cases worldwide. PMID:22895040

Kumar, Arvind; Shukla, Deepti; Kumar, Rashmi; Idris, Mohammad Z.; Misra, Usha K.

2012-01-01

60

Presence of human non-polio enterovirus and parechovirus genotypes in an Amsterdam hospital in 2007 to 2011 compared to national and international published surveillance data: a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses (EV) and human parechoviruses (HPeV) are endemic worldwide. These infections are a constant cause of hospitalisation and severe disease, predominantly in young children and infants. Coordinated monitoring and surveillance are crucial to control these infections. We have monitored EV and HPeV epidemiology in Amsterdam from 2007 to 2011 with real-time RT-PCR and direct genotyping, facilitating highly sensitive surveillance. Moreover, we conducted a literature survey of existing surveillance data for comparison. Only 14 studies were identified. While HPeV1 was most frequently detected in Amsterdam, EV-B viruses dominated nationally and internationally. Furthermore, the top 10 strains detected differed yearly and per study. However, detection and typing methods were too varied to allow direct comparison and comprehension of the worldwide distribution and circulation patterns of the different genotypes. This limited a direct response to anticipate peaks. Uniform European monitoring programmes are essential to aid prediction of outbreaks and disease management. PMID:25425513

Janes, V A; Minnaar, R; Koen, G; van Eijk, H; Dijkman-de Haan, K; Pajkrt, D; Wolthers, K C; Benschop, K S

2014-01-01

61

The survey of porcine teschoviruses, sapeloviruses and enteroviruses B infecting domestic pigs and wild boars in the Czech Republic between 2005 and 2011.  

PubMed

This study presents results of epidemiological survey and genetic characterisation of porcine enteric picornaviruses belonging to the genera Teschovirus, Sapelovirus, and Porcine enterovirus B. Faecal or gut content samples from domestic pigs (Sus scrofa f. domestica) and the cecal content of wild boars (Sus scrofa) of different ages (collected between 2005 and 2011) were analysed by molecular methods. Porcine enterovirus B was the most prevalent virus detected in both domestic pigs and wild boars (50.2% and 69.4%, respectively), followed by Porcine teschovirus and Porcine sapelovirus. The majority of positive domestic pigs (69.4%) and wild boars (64.3%) were infected with two or three tested viruses. There was no significant difference in prevalences of teschoviruses, sapeloviruses, and enteroviruses among healthy and diarrhoeic pigs. Results of epidemiological survey demonstrated that all target viral genera are common in Czech farms producing pigs and wild boars. Amplified nucleotide fragments of VP2 region obtained from randomly selected both historical and recent Teschovirus isolates were sequenced. Based on sequence data, historical Porcine teschovirus isolate CAPM V-180, previously determined as serotype 1 was reclassified into serotype 11. Moreover, another recent Porcine teschovirus isolate OH264/2010 was described and classified into serotype 11. Four nontypeable PTV strains (historical isolate CAPM V-182/1976 and recent isolates JA247/2010, NI429/2010, and BR1576/2007) identified in this study might represent novel serotypes. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first description of this serotype in the Czech Republic. PMID:22579481

Prod?lalová, Jana

2012-10-01

62

Prevalence of multiple enteroviruses associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease in Shijiazhuang City, Hebei province, China: outbreaks of coxsackieviruses a10 and b3.  

PubMed

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has been one of the most common infectious diseases in Shijiazhuang City, as is the situation in China overall. In the National HFMD surveillance system, the pathogen detection was focused on EV-A71 and CVA16, and therefore, information on the other EVs is very limited. In order to identify the circulating EV serotypes in the HFMD outbreaks in Shijiazhuang City during 2010-2012, 4045 patients presented with HFMD were recruited in the study, and clinical samples were investigated. Typing of EV serotypes was performed using the molecular typing methods, and phylogenetic analyses based on entire VP1 sequences of human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71), coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), CVA10 and CVB3 was performed. The results revealed that EV-A71 and CVA16 were the 2 most important pathogens but the circulating trends of the 2 viruses showed a shift, the spread of EV-A71 became increasingly weak, whereas the spread of CVA16 became increasingly stronger. CVA10 and CVB3 were the third and fourth most prevalent pathogens, respectively. Co-infection of two viruses at the same time was not found in these samples. Based on entire VP1 region sequences, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that C4a subgenotype EV-A71, B1a and B1b subgenotype CVA16 continued to evolve. The CVA10 strains were assigned to 4 genotypes (A-D), whereas the CVB3 strains were assigned to 5 genotypes (A-E), with clear geographical and temporal-specific distributions. The Shijiazhuang CVA10 sequences belonged to 4 epidemic lineages within genotype C, whereas the Shijiazhuang CVB3 sequences belonged to 2 epidemic lineages within genotype E, which may have the same origins as the strains reported in other part of China. CVA10 and CVB3, 2 pathogens that were previously infrequently detected, were identified as pathogens causing the HFMD outbreaks. This study underscores the need for detailed laboratory-based surveillances of HFMD in mainland China. PMID:24392117

Tian, Huifang; Zhang, Yong; Sun, Qiang; Zhu, Shuangli; Li, Xiujuan; Pan, Zhuo; Xu, Wenbo; Xu, Baohong

2014-01-01

63

Resveratrol Inhibits Enterovirus 71 Replication and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Secretion in Rhabdosarcoma Cells through Blocking IKKs/NF-?B Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

Polydatin and resveratrol, as major active components in Polygonum cuspidatum, have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions. However, the effect and mechanism of polydatin and resveratrol on enterovirus 71 (EV71) have not been reported. In this study, resveratrol revealed strong antiviral activity on EV71, while polydatin had weak effect. Neither polydatin nor resveratrol exhibited influence on viral attachment. Resveratrol could effectively inhibit the synthesis of EV71/VP1 and the phosphorylation of IKK?, IKK?, IKK?, IKB?, NF-?B p50 and NF-?B p65, respectively. Meanwhile, the remarkably increased secretion of IL-6 and TNF-? in EV71-infected rhabdosarcoma (RD) cells could be blocked by resveratrol. These results demonstrated that resveratrol inhibited EV71 replication and cytokine secretion in EV71-infected RD cells through blocking IKKs/NF-?B signaling pathway. Thus, resveratrol may have potent antiviral effect on EV71 infection. PMID:25692777

Zhang, Li; Li, Yuanyuan; Gu, Zhiwen; Wang, Yuyue; Shi, Mei; Ji, Yun; Sun, Jing; Xu, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Lirong; Jiang, Jingtin; Shi, Weifeng

2015-01-01

64

Nucleic acid detection systems for enteroviruses.  

PubMed Central

The enteroviruses comprise nearly 70 human pathogens responsible for a wide array of diseases including poliomyelitis, meningitis, myocarditis, and neonatal sepsis. Current diagnostic tests for the enteroviruses are limited in their use by the slow growth, or failure to grow, of certain serotypes in culture, the antigenic diversity among the serotypes, and the low titer of virus in certain clinical specimens. Within the past 6 years, applications of molecular cloning techniques, in vitro transcription vectors, automated nucleic acid synthesis, and the polymerase chain reaction have resulted in significant progress toward nucleic acid-based detection systems for the enteroviruses that take advantage of conserved genomic sequences across many, if not all, serotypes. Similar approaches to the study of enteroviral pathogenesis have already produced dramatic advances in our understanding of how these important viruses cause their diverse clinical spectra. PMID:1649002

Rotbart, H A

1991-01-01

65

21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3225 Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification . An...

2012-04-01

66

Bovine Enteroviruses as Indicators of Fecal Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface waters frequently have been contaminated with human enteric viruses, and it is likely that animal enteric viruses have contaminated surface waters also. Bovine enteroviruses (BEV), found in cattle worldwide, usually cause asymptomatic infections and are excreted in the feces of infected animals in large numbers. In this study, the prevalence and genotype of BEV in a closed herd of

Victoria Ley; James Higgins; Ronald Fayer

2002-01-01

67

Antigenic Diversity of Enteroviruses Associated with Nonpolio Acute Flaccid Paralysis, India, 2007–2009  

PubMed Central

Because of the broadened acute flacid paralysis (AFP) definition and enhanced surveillance, many nonpolio AFP (NP-AFP) cases have been reported in India since 2005. To determine the spectrum of nonpolio enterovirus (NPEV) serotypes associated with NP-AFP from polio-endemic and -free regions, we studied antigenic diversity of AFP-associated NPEVs. Of fecal specimens from 2,786 children with NP-AFP in 1 polio-endemic and 2 polio-free states, 823 (29.5%) were positive for NPEVs in RD cells, of which 532 (64.6%) were positive by viral protein 1 reverse transcription PCR. We identified 66 serotypes among 581 isolates, with enterovirus 71 most frequently (8.43%) detected, followed by enterovirus 13 (7.1%) and coxsackievirus B5 (5.0%). Most strains within a serotype represented new genogropups or subgenogroups. Agents for ?35.0% and 70.0% of culture-positive and -negative cases, respectively, need to be identified. Association of human enterovirus with NP-AFP requires better assessment and understanding of health risks of NPEV infections after polio elimination. PMID:23092622

Yergolkar, Prasanna; Shankarappa, K. Subbanna

2012-01-01

68

Simultaneous Detection and Differentiation of Human Rhino- and Enteroviruses in Clinical Specimens by Real-Time PCR with Locked Nucleic Acid Probes  

PubMed Central

Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) and human enteroviruses (HEVs) are significant respiratory pathogens. While HRV infections are restricted to the respiratory tract, HEV infections may spread to secondary target organs. The method of choice for sensitive specific detection of these viruses is reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with primers targeting the conserved 5? noncoding region of the viral RNA. On the other hand, sequence similarities between HRVs and HEVs complicate their differential detection. In this study, we describe the use of locked nucleic acid (LNA) analogues in short double-dye probes which contained only two selectively HRV- or HEV-specific bases. The double-stranded DNA dye BOXTO (4-[6-(benzoxazole-2-yl-(3-methyl-)-2,3-dihydro-(benzo-1,3-thiazole)-2-methylidene)]-1-methyl-quinolinium chloride) was used with the LNA probes in a tricolor real-time PCR assay to allow specific detection of HRVs (probes labeled with 6-carboxyfluorescein [FAM] [green]) and HEVs (Cy5 [red]) with additional melting curve analysis (BOXTO [yellow]). The functionality of the probes was validated in PCR and RT-PCR assays using plasmids containing viral cDNA, quantified viral RNA transcripts, cultivated rhino- and enterovirus prototypes, and clinical specimens. Of 100 HRV and 63 HEV prototypes, the probes correctly identified all HEVs except one that produced only a BOXTO signal. Among 118 clinical specimens with sequencing results, concordant results were obtained for 116 specimens. Two specimens were reactive with both probes, but sequencing yielded only a single virus. Real-time PCR with LNA probes allowed sensitive group-specific identification of HRVs and HEVs and would enable relative copy number determination. The assay is suitable for rapid and accurate differential detection of HRVs and HEVs in a diagnostic laboratory setting. PMID:24048533

Österback, Riikka; Tevaluoto, Tuire; Ylinen, Tiina; Peltola, Ville; Susi, Petri; Hyypiä, Timo

2013-01-01

69

Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of infants with human parechovirus or human herpes virus-6 detected in cerebrospinal fluid tested for enterovirus or herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed

Human parechovirus (HPeV) and human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) are acquired commonly in infancy and associated with central nervous system infection. The prevalence of HPeV and HHV-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of infants tested for enterovirus (EV) and herpes-simplex virus (HSV) is unknown. All stored CSF samples from EV or HSV testing in infants less than 6 months of age at Children's Hospital Colorado between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011 were tested for HPeV, HHV-6, EV, and HSV by PCR. Clinical characteristics and epidemiological data were collected using retrospective electronic chart review. Of 239 infants tested, 29 cases of EV (12.1%), 7 cases of HPeV (2.9%), 5 cases of HHV-6 (2.1%), and 5 cases of HSV (2.1%) were identified with no bacterial co-infections. HPeV cases occurred between July and October in infants with median age of 24 days. Infants with HPeV had a median maximum temperature of 39?°C, median fever duration of 3 days and median peripheral white blood cell count of 5.2?×?10(3) /?L. HHV-6 cases occurred in infants with median age of 61 days without seasonality. Five percent of infants less than 6 months of age undergoing testing for EV or HSV have HPeV or HHV-6 in the CSF. Targeting testing of HPeV towards febrile infants less than 2 months of age with leukopenia in the late summer to early fall, and HHV-6 towards older infants may increase diagnostic yield. The clinical and fiscal impact of testing infants for HPeV and HHV-6 needs to be determined. J. Med. Virol. 87:829-835, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25650069

Messacar, Kevin; Breazeale, Garrett; Wei, Qi; Robinson, Christine C; Dominguez, Samuel R

2015-05-01

70

Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of novel mouse cell line (NIH/3T3)-adapted human enterovirus 71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv).  

PubMed

Since its identification in 1969, Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has been causing periodic outbreaks of infection in children worldwide and most prominently in the Asia-Pacific Region. Understanding the pathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is hampered by the virus's inability to infect small animals and replicate in their derived in vitro cultured cells. This manuscript describes the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of two selected EV71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv), which have been adapted to replicate in mouse-derived NIH/3T3 cells, in contrast to the original parental virus which is only able to replicate in primate cell lines. The EV71:TLLm strain exhibited productive infection in all primate and rodent cell lines tested, while EV71:TLLmv exhibited greater preference for mouse cell lines. EV71:TLLmv displayed higher degree of adaptation and temperature adaptability in NIH/3T3 cells than in Vero cells, suggesting much higher fitness in NIH/3T3 cells. In comparison with the parental EV71:BS strain, the adapted strains accumulated multiple adaptive mutations in the genome resulting in amino acid substitutions, most notably in the capsid-encoding region (P1) and viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3D). Two mutations, E167D and L169F, were mapped to the VP1 canyon that binds the SCARB2 receptor on host cells. Another two mutations, S135T and K140I, were located in the VP2 neutralization epitope spanning amino acids 136-150. This is the first report of human EV71 with the ability to productively infect rodent cell lines in vitro. PMID:24671184

Victorio, Carla Bianca Luena; Xu, Yishi; Ng, Qimei; Chow, Vincent T K; Chua, Kaw Bing

2014-01-01

71

Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristics of Novel Mouse Cell Line (NIH/3T3)-Adapted Human Enterovirus 71 Strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv)  

PubMed Central

Since its identification in 1969, Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has been causing periodic outbreaks of infection in children worldwide and most prominently in the Asia-Pacific Region. Understanding the pathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is hampered by the virus’s inability to infect small animals and replicate in their derived in vitro cultured cells. This manuscript describes the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of two selected EV71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv), which have been adapted to replicate in mouse-derived NIH/3T3 cells, in contrast to the original parental virus which is only able to replicate in primate cell lines. The EV71:TLLm strain exhibited productive infection in all primate and rodent cell lines tested, while EV71:TLLmv exhibited greater preference for mouse cell lines. EV71:TLLmv displayed higher degree of adaptation and temperature adaptability in NIH/3T3 cells than in Vero cells, suggesting much higher fitness in NIH/3T3 cells. In comparison with the parental EV71:BS strain, the adapted strains accumulated multiple adaptive mutations in the genome resulting in amino acid substitutions, most notably in the capsid-encoding region (P1) and viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3D). Two mutations, E167D and L169F, were mapped to the VP1 canyon that binds the SCARB2 receptor on host cells. Another two mutations, S135T and K140I, were located in the VP2 neutralization epitope spanning amino acids 136–150. This is the first report of human EV71 with the ability to productively infect rodent cell lines in vitro. PMID:24671184

Victorio, Carla Bianca Luena; Xu, Yishi; Ng, Qimei; Chow, Vincent T. K.; Chua, Kaw Bing

2014-01-01

72

Enterovirus D68  

MedlinePLUS

... Related Links Water-related Hygiene Viral Conjunctivitis Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Viral Meningitis What is Polio? Enterovirus D68 ... Related Links Water-related Hygiene Viral Conjunctivitis Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Viral Meningitis What is Polio? Language: English ...

73

Identification of Enteroviruses in Naturally Infected Captive Primates?  

PubMed Central

In a recent study, we investigated cases of diarrheal disease among monkeys at a U.S. primate center. In that study, enteroviruses were detected in a high proportion of the fecal specimens tested. To determine whether the enterovirus detections represented the circulation of one or more simian enteroviruses within the colony or the transmission of human enteroviruses from animal handlers, we determined in the present study the serotype identity of each virus by reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing of a portion of the VP1 gene, a region whose sequence corresponds to antigenic type. Enteroviruses were identified in 37 of 56 specimens (66%), 30 of 40 rhesus macaques, 5 of 11 pigtail macaques, 2 of 4 sooty mangabeys, and 0 of 1 chimpanzee. No previously known human viruses were detected. Three previously known simian enterovirus serotypes—SV6, SV19, and SV46—were among the viruses identified, but more than half of the identified viruses were previously unknown; these have been assigned as new types: EV92 and EV103. PMID:18596147

Nix, W. Allan; Jiang, Baoming; Maher, Kaija; Strobert, Elizabeth; Oberste, M. Steven

2008-01-01

74

Detection of human adenovirus, rotavirus and enterovirus in water samples collected on dairy farms from Tenente Portela, Northwest of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Viral gastroenteritis and other waterborne diseases are a major concern for health in Brazil. A number of studies were conducted about the presence of viruses on water samples from Brazilian areas. However, the knowledge about the occurrence of viral contamination of drinking water sources in rural settings of the country is insufficient. On the present work, 15 samples from 5 dairy farms located at the municipality of Tenente Portela were collected and analysed for the presence of human adenoviruses (HAdV), as well as human enteroviruses (EV) and rotaviruses (RV). HAdV was present on 66.66% of the water samples, and have been found in all samples from artesian wells and springs, which are used as sources of drinking water for the individuals inhabiting those farms. EV and RV found only in one sample each. The detection rates of HAdV on the water from these dairy farms are alarming and point towards a situation of elevated environmental contamination by fecal microorganisms of human origin and poor basic sanitation conditions. PMID:24516464

Spilki, Fernando Rosado; da Luz, Roger Bordin; Fabres, Rafael Bandeira; Soliman, Mayra Cristina; Kluge, Mariana; Fleck, Juliane Deise; Rodrigues, Manoela Tressoldi; Comerlato, Juliana; Cenci, Alexander; Cerva, Cristine; Dasso, Maurício Gautério; Roehe, Paulo Michel

2013-01-01

75

Enterovirus 71 VP1 Activates Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II and Results in the Rearrangement of Vimentin in Human Astrocyte Cells  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main causative agents of foot, hand and mouth disease. Its infection usually causes severe central nervous system diseases and complications in infected infants and young children. In the present study, we demonstrated that EV71 infection caused the rearrangement of vimentin in human astrocytoma cells. The rearranged vimentin, together with various EV71 components, formed aggresomes-like structures in the perinuclear region. Electron microscopy and viral RNA labeling indicated that the aggresomes were virus replication sites since most of the EV71 particles and the newly synthesized viral RNA were concentrated here. Further analysis revealed that the vimentin in the virus factories was serine-82 phosphorylated. More importantly, EV71 VP1 protein is responsible for the activation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II) which phosphorylated the N-terminal domain of vimentin on serine 82. Phosphorylation of vimentin and the formation of aggresomes were required for the replication of EV71 since the latter was decreased markedly after phosphorylation was blocked by KN93, a CaMK-II inhibitor. Thus, as one of the consequences of CaMK-II activation, vimentin phosphorylation and rearrangement may support virus replication by playing a structural role for the formation of the replication factories. Collectively, this study identified the replication centers of EV71 in human astrocyte cells. This may help us understand the replication mechanism and pathogenesis of EV71 in human. PMID:24073199

Haolong, Cong; Du, Ning; Hongchao, Tian; Yang, Yang; Wei, Zhang; Hua, Zhang; Wenliang, Zhang; Lei, Song; Po, Tien

2013-01-01

76

Detection of Infectious Enteroviruses, Enterovirus Genomes, Somatic Coliphages, and Bacteroides fragilis Phages in Treated Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, three types of treated wastewater were tested for infectious enteroviruses, the enterovirus genome, somatic coliphages, and Bacteroides fragilis phages. The aim of this work was to determine whether the presence of the two types of bacteriophages or of the enterovirus genome was a good indicator of infectious enterovirus contamination. The enterovirus genome was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase

C. GANTZER; A. MAUL; J. M. AUDIC; L. SCHWARTZBROD; Facultede Pharmacie

1998-01-01

77

Fatal enterovirus 71 encephalomyelitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

During an outbreak of hand-foot-mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71 (EV-71) in 1997, 4 children presented with sudden cardiopulmonary collapse and minimal neurologic features. All children received cardiopulmonary resuscitation but died within a few hours of admission. Postmortem studies showed infection by EV-71 with extensive damage to the medulla and pons. We postulate an etiologic link between EV-71 and brainstem

Lucy C. S. Lum; K. T. Wong; S. K. Lam; K. B. Chua; A. Y. T. Goh; W. L. Lim; B. B. Ong; G. Paul; S. AbuBakar; M. Lambert

1998-01-01

78

Identification of a Common Epitope between Enterovirus 71 and Human MED25 Proteins Which May Explain Virus-Associated Neurological Disease.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative pathogen of hand, foot and mouth disease with especially severe neurologic complications, which mainly account for fatalities from this disease. To date, the pathogenesis of EV71 in the central neurons system has remained unclear. Cytokine-mediated immunopathogenesis and nervous tissue damage by virus proliferation are two widely speculated causes of the neurological disease. To further study the pathogenesis, we identified a common epitope (co-epitope) between EV71 VP1 and human mediator complex subunit 25 (MED25) highly expressed in brain stem. A monoclonal antibody (2H2) against the co-epitope was prepared, and its interaction with MED25 was examined by ELISA, immunofluorescence assay and Western blot in vitro and by live small animal imaging in vivo. Additionally, 2H2 could bind to both VP1 and MED25 with the affinity constant (Kd) of 10-7 M as determined by the ForteBio Octet System. Intravenously injected 2H2 was distributed in brain stem of mice after seven days of EV71 infection. Interestingly, 2H2-like antibodies were detected in the serum of EV71-infected patients. These findings suggest that EV71 infection induces the production of antibodies that can bind to autoantigens expressed in nervous tissue and maybe further trigger autoimmune reactions resulting in neurological disease. PMID:25826188

Fan, Peihu; Li, Xiaojun; Sun, Shiyang; Su, Weiheng; An, Dong; Gao, Feng; Kong, Wei; Jiang, Chunlai

2015-01-01

79

Assessment of the risks for human health of adenoviruses, hepatitis A virus, rotaviruses and enteroviruses in the Buffalo River and three source water dams in the Eastern Cape.  

PubMed

Buffalo River is an important water resource in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The potential risks of infection constituted by exposure to human enteric viruses in the Buffalo River and three source water dams along its course were assessed using mean values and static quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). The daily risks of infection determined by the exponential model [for human adenovirus (HAdV) and enterovirus (EnV)] and the beta-Poisson model (for hepatitis A virus (HAV) and rotavirus (RoV)) varied with sites and exposure scenario. The estimated daily risks of infection values at the sites where the respective viruses were detected, ranged from 7.31 × 10(-3) to 1 (for HAdV), 4.23 × 10(-2) to 6.54 × 10(-1) (RoV), 2.32 × 10(-4) to 1.73 × 10(-1) (HAV) and 1.32 × 10(-4) to 5.70 × 10(-2) (EnV). The yearly risks of infection in individuals exposed to the river/dam water via drinking, recreational, domestic or irrigational activities were unacceptably high, exceeding the acceptable risk of 0.01% (10(-4) infection/person/year), and the guideline value used as by several nations for drinking water. The risks of illness and death from infection ranged from 6.58 × 10(-5) to 5.0 × 10(-1) and 6.58 × 10(-9) to 5.0 × 10(-5), respectively. The threats here are heightened by the high mortality rates for HAV, and its endemicity in South Africa. Therefore, we conclude that the Buffalo River and its source water dams are a public health hazard. The QMRA presented here is the first of its kinds in the Eastern Cape Province and provides the building block for a quantitatively oriented local guideline for water quality management in the Province. PMID:24676673

Chigor, Vincent N; Sibanda, Timothy; Okoh, Anthony I

2014-06-01

80

Binding of Glutathione to Enterovirus Capsids Is Essential for Virion Morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

Enteroviruses (family of the Picornaviridae) cover a large group of medically important human pathogens for which no antiviral treatment is approved. Although these viruses have been extensively studied, some aspects of the viral life cycle, in particular morphogenesis, are yet poorly understood. We report the discovery of TP219 as a novel inhibitor of the replication of several enteroviruses, including coxsackievirus and poliovirus. We show that TP219 binds directly glutathione (GSH), thereby rapidly depleting intracellular GSH levels and that this interferes with virus morphogenesis without affecting viral RNA replication. The inhibitory effect on assembly was shown not to depend on an altered reducing environment. Using TP219, we show that GSH is an essential stabilizing cofactor during the transition of protomeric particles into pentameric particles. Sequential passaging of coxsackievirus B3 in the presence of low GSH-levels selected for GSH-independent mutants that harbored a surface-exposed methionine in VP1 at the interface between two protomers. In line with this observation, enteroviruses that already contained this surface-exposed methionine, such as EV71, did not rely on GSH for virus morphogenesis. Biochemical and microscopical analysis provided strong evidence for a direct interaction between GSH and wildtype VP1 and a role for this interaction in localizing assembly intermediates to replication sites. Consistently, the interaction between GSH and mutant VP1 was abolished resulting in a relocalization of the assembly intermediates to replication sites independent from GSH. This study thus reveals GSH as a novel stabilizing host factor essential for the production of infectious enterovirus progeny and provides new insights into the poorly understood process of morphogenesis. PMID:24722756

Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; Thys, Bert; Canela, María-Dolores; Aguado, Leire; Wimmer, Eckard; Paul, Aniko; Pérez-Pérez, María-Jesús; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.; Neyts, Johan

2014-01-01

81

Binding of glutathione to enterovirus capsids is essential for virion morphogenesis.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses (family of the Picornaviridae) cover a large group of medically important human pathogens for which no antiviral treatment is approved. Although these viruses have been extensively studied, some aspects of the viral life cycle, in particular morphogenesis, are yet poorly understood. We report the discovery of TP219 as a novel inhibitor of the replication of several enteroviruses, including coxsackievirus and poliovirus. We show that TP219 binds directly glutathione (GSH), thereby rapidly depleting intracellular GSH levels and that this interferes with virus morphogenesis without affecting viral RNA replication. The inhibitory effect on assembly was shown not to depend on an altered reducing environment. Using TP219, we show that GSH is an essential stabilizing cofactor during the transition of protomeric particles into pentameric particles. Sequential passaging of coxsackievirus B3 in the presence of low GSH-levels selected for GSH-independent mutants that harbored a surface-exposed methionine in VP1 at the interface between two protomers. In line with this observation, enteroviruses that already contained this surface-exposed methionine, such as EV71, did not rely on GSH for virus morphogenesis. Biochemical and microscopical analysis provided strong evidence for a direct interaction between GSH and wildtype VP1 and a role for this interaction in localizing assembly intermediates to replication sites. Consistently, the interaction between GSH and mutant VP1 was abolished resulting in a relocalization of the assembly intermediates to replication sites independent from GSH. This study thus reveals GSH as a novel stabilizing host factor essential for the production of infectious enterovirus progeny and provides new insights into the poorly understood process of morphogenesis. PMID:24722756

Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; van der Linden, Lonneke; Jiang, Ping; Thys, Bert; Canela, María-Dolores; Aguado, Leire; Rombaut, Bart; Wimmer, Eckard; Paul, Aniko; Pérez-Pérez, María-Jesús; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Neyts, Johan

2014-04-01

82

Review of enterovirus 71 vaccines.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses are the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks worldwide and have a significant socioeconomic impact, particularly in Asia. Formalin-inactivated (FI) EV71 vaccines evaluated in human clinical trials in China, Taiwan, and Singapore were found to be safe and to elicit strong neutralizing antibody responses against EV71 currently circulating in Asia. The results from 3 different phase 3 clinical trials performed in young children (6-60 months) indicate that the efficacy of FI-EV71 vaccines is >90% against EV71-related HFMDs and >80% against EV71-associated serious diseases, but the vaccines did not protect against coxsackievirus A16 infections. Here we discuss the critical factors affecting EV71 vaccine product registration, including clinical epidemiology, antigenic shift issues in cross-protection and vaccine strain selection, standardized animal models for potency testing, and cost-effective manufacturing processes for potential incorporation of FI-EV71 vaccine into Expanded Programme on Immunization vaccines. PMID:25352588

Chong, Pele; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Klein, Michel

2015-03-01

83

[Viral flora (coliphages and human enteroviruses) found in river water after an urban district (Saint-Etienne). II. A virological and epidemiological survey (author's transl)].  

PubMed

A survey was carried out from March 1972 to February 1973 to identify viral flora found in the river Furan ater St. Etienne. The 54 samples examined revealed the following data: 1) more accurate results are obtained when viral concentration values are expressed in terms of m3/sec., taking into account the flow of the river and eliminating the seasonal dilution factor; 2) rates of enteroviruses remain constant throughout the year, in spite of a relatively rapid spontaneous inactivation of the viruses; 3) rates of coliphages vary considerably according to seasons, with a notable increase in summer; 4) the two previous data are unrelated; 5) 147 enterovirus strains were isolated, of which 44% were polioviruses; 6) virulent and attenuated types 2 and 3 polioviruses were found simultaneously at certain periods; 7) only virulent strains of type 1 poliovirus were isolated; 8) this type of survey may be useful in controlling the endemic residual poliomyelitis in the region of St. Etienne. PMID:190654

Gaudin, O G; Meley, B; Chomel, J J; Viac, J

1976-01-01

84

The Role of Misshapen NCK-related kinase (MINK), a Novel Ste20 Family Kinase, in the IRES-Mediated Protein Translation of Human Enterovirus 71.  

PubMed

Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) commonly causes Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in young children, and occasional occurrences of neurological complications can be fatal. In this study, a high-throughput cell-based screening on the serine/threonine kinase siRNA library was performed to identify potential antiviral agents against EV71 replication. Among the hits, Misshapen/NIKs-related kinase (MINK) was selected for detailed analysis due to its strong inhibitory profile and novelty. In the investigation of the stage at which MINK is involved in EV71 replication, virus RNA transfection in MINK siRNA-treated cells continued to cause virus inhibition despite bypassing the normal entry pathway, suggesting its involvement at the post-entry stage. We have also shown that viral RNA and protein expression level was significantly reduced upon MINK silencing, suggesting its involvement in viral protein synthesis which feeds into viral RNA replication process. Through proteomic analysis and infection inhibition assay, we found that the activation of MINK was triggered by early replication events, instead of the binding and entry of the virus. Proteomic analysis on the activation profile of p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) indicated that the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was stimulated by EV71 infection upon MINK activation. Luciferase reporter assay further revealed that the translation efficiency of the EV71 internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) was reduced after blocking the MINK/p38 MAPK pathway. Further investigation on the effect of MINK silencing on heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) localisation demonstrated that cytoplasmic relocalisation of hnRNP A1 upon EV71 infection may be facilitated via the MINK/p38 MAPK pathway which then positively regulates the translation of viral RNA transcripts. These novel findings hence suggest that MINK plays a functional role in the IRES-mediated translation of EV71 viral RNA and may provide a potential target for the development of specific antiviral strategies against EV71 infection. PMID:25747578

Leong, Shi Yun; Ong, Bryan Kit Teck; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

2015-03-01

85

The Role of Misshapen NCK-related kinase (MINK), a Novel Ste20 Family Kinase, in the IRES-Mediated Protein Translation of Human Enterovirus 71  

PubMed Central

Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) commonly causes Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in young children, and occasional occurrences of neurological complications can be fatal. In this study, a high-throughput cell-based screening on the serine/threonine kinase siRNA library was performed to identify potential antiviral agents against EV71 replication. Among the hits, Misshapen/NIKs-related kinase (MINK) was selected for detailed analysis due to its strong inhibitory profile and novelty. In the investigation of the stage at which MINK is involved in EV71 replication, virus RNA transfection in MINK siRNA-treated cells continued to cause virus inhibition despite bypassing the normal entry pathway, suggesting its involvement at the post-entry stage. We have also shown that viral RNA and protein expression level was significantly reduced upon MINK silencing, suggesting its involvement in viral protein synthesis which feeds into viral RNA replication process. Through proteomic analysis and infection inhibition assay, we found that the activation of MINK was triggered by early replication events, instead of the binding and entry of the virus. Proteomic analysis on the activation profile of p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) indicated that the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was stimulated by EV71 infection upon MINK activation. Luciferase reporter assay further revealed that the translation efficiency of the EV71 internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) was reduced after blocking the MINK/p38 MAPK pathway. Further investigation on the effect of MINK silencing on heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) localisation demonstrated that cytoplasmic relocalisation of hnRNP A1 upon EV71 infection may be facilitated via the MINK/p38 MAPK pathway which then positively regulates the translation of viral RNA transcripts. These novel findings hence suggest that MINK plays a functional role in the IRES-mediated translation of EV71 viral RNA and may provide a potential target for the development of specific antiviral strategies against EV71 infection. PMID:25747578

Leong, Shi Yun; Ong, Bryan Kit Teck; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

2015-01-01

86

Carcinoid tumour associated with enterovirus infection.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses commonly infect the gastrointestinal tract, and replication of enteroviruses has been well documented in the Peyer patches of the small bowel. Chronic enterovirus infection has been found in the stomach and terminal ileum of patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome. The authors report the unexpected finding of enterovirus VP1 protein, by immunoperoxidase staining, in carcinoid tumours found in one patient with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and another patient with chronic lower quadrant abdominal pain, and suggest a possible association between enteroviruses and tumorigenesis. PMID:21278394

Chia, John; Chia, Andrew; El-Habbal, Rabiha

2011-08-01

87

Magnesium lithospermate B and rosmarinic acid, two compounds present in Salvia miltiorrhiza, have potent antiviral activity against enterovirus 71 infections.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify the active ingredients responsible for the anti-EV71 activity produced by Salvia miltiorrhiza extracts. A pGS-EV71 IRES-based bicistronic reporter assay platform was used for rapid analysis of compounds that could specifically inhibit EV71 viral IRES-mediated translation. The analysis identified 2 caffeic acid derivatives, magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) and rosmarinic acid (RA), which suppressed EV71 IRES-mediated translation at concentrations of 30?g/ml. We also found that MLB and RA inhibited EV71 infection when they were added to RD cells during the viral absorption stage. MLB had a low IC50 value of 0.09mM and a high TI value of 10.52. In contrast, RA had an IC50 value of 0.50mM with a TI value of 2.97. MLB and RA (100µg/ml) also reduced EV71 viral particle production and significantly decreased VP1 protein production. We propose that these two derivatives inhibit EV71 viral entry into cells and viral IRES activity, thereby reducing viral particle production and viral RNA expression and blocking viral VP1 protein translation. This study provides useful information for the development of anti-EV71 assays and reagents by demonstrating a convenient EV71 IRES-based bicistronic assay platform to screen for anti-EV71 IRES activity, and also reports 2 compounds, MLB and RA, which are responsible for the anti-EV71 activity of S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:25773498

Chung, Yi-Ching; Hsieh, Feng-Chia; Lin, Ying-Ju; Wu, Tzong-Yuan; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Lin, Ching-Ting; Tang, Nou-Ying; Jinn, Tzyy-Rong

2015-05-15

88

Structure determination of enterovirus 71  

SciTech Connect

Enterovirus 71 is a picornavirus that causes hand, foot and mouth disease but may induce fatal neurological illness in infants and young children. Enterovirus 71 crystallized in a body-centered orthorhombic space group with two particles in general orientations in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Determination of the particle orientations required that the locked rotation function excluded the twofold symmetry axes from the set of icosahedral symmetry operators. This avoided the occurrence of misleading high rotation-function values produced by the alignment of icosahedral and crystallographic twofold axes. Once the orientations and positions of the particles had been established, the structure was solved by molecular replacement and phase extension.

Plevka, Pavel; Perera, Rushika; Cardosa, Jane; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G. (Purdue); (Sentinext)

2013-02-20

89

Molecular epidemiology of enterovirus 71 in peninsular Malaysia, 1997–2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) (genus Enterovirus, family Picornaviridae) has been responsible for sporadic cases and outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), aseptic meningitis, encephalitis and poliomyelitis-like disease in Europe, the U.S.A., Australia and Asia. Recently, there has been an increase in EV71 activity in the Asia-Pacific region, with many outbreaks of HFMD associated with brainstem encephalitis manifesting as neurogenic pulmonary

L. J. Herrero; C. S. M. Lee; R. J. Hurrelbrink; B. H. Chua; K. B. Chua; P. C. McMinn

2003-01-01

90

Proteomic Analysis of Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Reveals Differential Protein Expression in Response to Enterovirus 71 Infection  

PubMed Central

2D DIGE technology was employed on proteins prepared from human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), to study the differentially expressed proteins in cells at 0?h, 1?h, 16?h, and 24?h after infection. Proteins found to be differentially expressed were identified with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF/TOF MS) analysis. We identified 43 spots showing changes of at least 2.5 fold up- or downregulated expressions in EV71-infected cells at different time when comparing to control, and 28 proteins could be successfully identified by MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry analysis. 4 proteins were significantly upregulated, and 6 proteins were downregulated, another 18 proteins were different expression at different incubation time. We identified changes in the expression of 12 cellular metabolism-related proteins, 5 molecules involved in cytoskeleton, 3 molecules involved in energy metabolism, 2 molecules involved in signal transduction, 1 molecule involved in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, 1 molecule involved in cell cycle, 1 molecule involved in apoptosis-related protein, 1 molecular chaperone, and 2 unknown proteins. These findings build up a comprehensive profile of the HBMEC proteome and provide a useful basis for further analysis of the pathogenic mechanism that underlies EV71 infections to induce severe neural complications.

Luo, Wenying; Zhong, Jiayu; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Jianjun; Zhang, Renli; Peng, Liang; Hong, Wenxu; Huang, Sheng He; Cao, Hong

2015-01-01

91

Reemergence of Enterovirus 71 Epidemic in Northern Taiwan, 2012  

PubMed Central

Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) belongs to picornavirus family and could be classified phylogenetically into three major genogroups (A, B and C) including 11 genotypes (A, B1-B5 and C1-C5). Since 1997, EV71 has caused large-scale of epidemics with neurological complications in Asian children. In Taiwan, nationwide EV71 epidemics with different predominant genotypes have occurred cyclically since 1998. A nationwide EV71 epidemic occurred again in 2012. We conducted genetic and antigenic characterizations of the 2012 epidemic. Methods Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CGMH) is a medical center in northern Taiwan. In CGMH, specimens were collected from pediatric inpatients with suspected enterovirus infections for virus isolation. Enterovirus isolates were serotyped and genotyped and sera from EV71 inpatients were collected for measuring neutralizing antibody titers. Results There were 10, 16 and 99 EV71 inpatients identified in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. There were 82 EV71 isolates genotyped, which identified 17 genotype C4a viruses and 65 genotype B5 viruses. The genotype B5 viruses were not detected until November 2011 and caused epidemics in 2012. Interestingly, the B5-2011 viruses were genetically distinguishable from the B5 viruses causing the 2008 epidemic and are likely introduced from China or Southeastern Asia. Based on antigenic analysis, minor antigenic variations were detected among the B5-2008, B5-2011, C4a-2008 and C4a-2012 viruses but these viruses antigenically differed from genotype A. Conclusions Genotype B5 and C4a viruses antigenically differ from genotype A viruses which have disappeared globally for 30 years but have been detected in China since 2008. Enterovirus surveillance should monitor genetic and antigenic variations of EV71. PMID:25774888

Chung, Wan-Yu; Chia, Min-Yuan; Tsao, Kuo-Chien; Wang, Ying-Hsiang; Lin, Tzou-Yien; Lee, Min-Shi

2015-01-01

92

Monitoring Antigenic Variations of Enterovirus 71: Implications for Virus Surveillance and Vaccine Development  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes life-threatening epidemics in Asia and can be phylogenetically classified into three major genogroups (A?C) including 11 genotypes (A, B1?B5, and C1?C5). Recently, EV71 epidemics occurred cyclically in Taiwan with different genotypes. In recent years, human studies using post-infection sera obtained from children have detected antigenic variations among different EV71 strains. Therefore, surveillance of enterovirus 71 should include phylogenetic and antigenic analysis. Due to limitation of sera available from children with EV71 primary infection, suitable animal models should be developed to generate a panel of antisera for monitoring EV71 antigenic variations. Twelve reference strains representing the 11 EV71 genotypes were grown in rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Infectious EV71 particles were purified and collected to immunize rabbits. The rabbit antisera were then employed to measure neutralizing antibody titers against the 12 reference strains and 5 recent strains. Rabbits immunized with genogroup B and C viruses consistently have a lower neutralizing antibody titers against genogroup A (?8-fold difference) and antigenic variations between genogroup B and C viruses can be detected but did not have a clear pattern, which are consistent with previous human studies. Comparison between human and rabbit neutralizing antibody profiles, the results showed that ?8-fold difference in rabbit cross-reactive antibody ratios could be used to screen EV71 isolates for identifying potential antigenic variants. In conclusion, a rabbit model was developed to monitor antigenic variations of EV71, which are critical to select vaccine strains and predict epidemics. PMID:25058733

Chia, Min-Yuan; Chung, Wan-Yu; Chiang, Pai-Shan; Chien, Yeh-Sheng; Ho, Mei-Shang; Lee, Min-Shi

2014-01-01

93

Non-Polio Enteroviruses from Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance in Shandong Province, China, 1988–2013  

PubMed Central

Enteroviruses (EVs) are important human pathogens associated with various clinical syndromes. This study represents an overview of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) isolated from acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in Shandong Province, China from 1988 to 2013. Altogether 792 and 170 NPEV isolates were isolated from stool specimens of 9263 AFP cases and 1059 contacts, respectively. Complete VP1 sequencing and typing on all 962 isolates revealed 53 NPEV types in which echovirus (E) 6 (7.6%), E14 (7.6%), E11 (7.4%), coxsackievirus (CV) B3 (7.4%), E25 (5.6%), CVB5 (4.9%), E7 (4.5%) and EV-A71 (4.4%) were the eight most commonly reported serotypes. Distinct summer–fall seasonality was observed, with June–October accounting for 79.3% of isolation from AFP cases with known month of specimen collection. Increase of isolation of EV-A71 and CVA—the predominant pathogens for the hand, foot, and mouth disease—was observed in recent years. Sequence analysis on VP1 coding region of EV-A71 and E6 suggested Shandong strains had great genetic divergence with isolates from other countries. The results described in this study provide valuable information on the circulation and emergence of different EV types in the context of limited EV surveillance in China. PMID:25145609

Tao, Zexin; Wang, Haiyan; Liu, Yao; Li, Yan; Jiang, Ping; Liu, Guifang; Lin, Xiaojuan; Li, Manshi; Wang, Suting; Ji, Feng; Feng, Lei; Xiong, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Yi; Fan, Qingying; Yang, He; Yang, Jing; Chen, Peng; Li, Wenfeng; Xu, Aiqiang; Song, Lizhi

2014-01-01

94

[Neonatal enterovirus infections reported in France in 2012].  

PubMed

Enteroviruses (EVs) are among the most common viruses infecting humans. One-third of EV infections affect children under 1 year of age. Neonatal EV infections lead to a wide range of clinical manifestations, from mild febrile illness to severe, potentially fatal sepsis-like conditions with multiorgan failure. EV detections by serotype are reported by the National Reference Centre for EV Infections Lyon on a monthly basis. Demographic, clinical, and biological data were also collected in neonates hospitalized in 2012 for EV infection. Two subgroups were identified according to the beginning of symptoms: until 8 days of life (D8) or strictly after D8. There were 120 neonatal EV infections. Before D8, children with severe infection were born more prematurely with a low birth weight. The EVs most commonly detected in neonates were CV-B4 and E-11. Risk factors for severe EV infections included liver (73% before D8) and hematological damage (thrombocytopenia, 82%; coagulopathy, 64% before D8). This study suggests that systematic serotyping of neonatal EV infections and biological monitoring of liver function could be useful for early identification of children at high risk of clinical severity and fatality. PMID:25126719

Soudée, S; Schuffenecker, I; Aberchih, J; Josset, L; Lina, B; Baud, O; Biran, V

2014-09-01

95

A novel enterovirus and parechovirus multiplex one-step real-time PCR-validation and clinical experience.  

PubMed

As the number of new enteroviruses and human parechoviruses seems ever growing, the necessity for updated diagnostics is relevant. We have updated an enterovirus assay and combined it with a previously published assay for human parechovirus resulting in a multiplex one-step RT-PCR assay. The multiplex assay was validated by analysing the sensitivity and specificity of the assay compared to the respective monoplex assays, and a good concordance was found. Furthermore, the enterovirus assay was able to detect 42 reference strains from all 4 species, and an additional 9 genotypes during panel testing and routine usage. During 15 months of routine use, from October 2008 to December 2009, we received and analysed 2187 samples (stool samples, cerebrospinal fluids, blood samples, respiratory samples and autopsy samples) were tested, from 1546 patients and detected enteroviruses and parechoviruses in 171 (8%) and 66 (3%) of the samples, respectively. 180 of the positive samples could be genotyped by PCR and sequencing and the most common genotypes found were human parechovirus type 3, echovirus 9, enterovirus 71, Coxsackievirus A16, and echovirus 25. During 2009 in Denmark, both enterovirus and human parechovirus type 3 had a similar seasonal pattern with a peak during the summer and autumn. Human parechovirus type 3 was almost invariably found in children less than 4 months of age. In conclusion, a multiplex assay was developed allowing simultaneous detection of 2 viruses, which can cause similar clinical symptoms. PMID:23845901

Nielsen, Alex Christian Yde; Böttiger, Blenda; Midgley, Sofie Elisabeth; Nielsen, Lars Peter

2013-11-01

96

Enterovirus genotypes causing hand foot and mouth disease in Shanghai, China: a molecular epidemiological analysis  

PubMed Central

Background A rapid expansion of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks has occurred and caused deaths in China in recent years, but little is known about the other etiologic agents except enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A 16 (CA16). The objective of this study is to determine the genotype compositions of enterovirus causing HFMD in Shanghai and identify any associations between enterovirus types and clinical manifestations. Methods Stool specimens were collected from patients hospitalized for treatment of HFMD, from May 2010 to April 2011. Enterovirus was detected by reverse transcription PCR and directly genotyped by sequencing the PCR products. Phylogenetic analysis was based on the VP1 partial gene. Results Of 290 specimens, 277 (95.5%) tested positive for enterovirus. The major genotypes were EV71 (63.8%), CA10 (9.0%), CA6 (8.3%), CA16 (6.9%), CA12 (2.4%), and CA4 (1.4%). The EV71 strains belonged to the C4a subtype and CA16 belonged to the B subtype. CA6 was closely related to strains detected in Japan, Taiwan and China, and CA10, CA12 and CA4 were phylogenetically similar to other strains circulating in China. Mean hospital stays and the prevalence of complications in patients with EV71 infection were higher than those in patients in CA6, CA10 or CA16 infection (P?enterovirus genotypes. It deserves our attention as early identification of enterovirus genotypes is important for diagnosis and treatment of HFMD patients. PMID:24148902

2013-01-01

97

Proposals for the classification of human rhinovirus species A, B and C into genotypically assigned types  

PubMed Central

Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) frequently cause mild upper respiratory tract infections and more severe disease manifestations such as bronchiolitis and asthma exacerbations. HRV is classified into three species within the genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae. HRV species A and B contain 75 and 25 serotypes identified by cross-neutralization assays, although the use of such assays for routine HRV typing is hampered by the large number of serotypes, replacement of virus isolation by molecular methods in HRV diagnosis and the poor or absent replication of HRV species C in cell culture. To address these problems, we propose an alternative, genotypic classification of HRV-based genetic relatedness analogous to that used for enteroviruses. Nucleotide distances between 384 complete VP1 sequences of currently assigned HRV (sero)types identified divergence thresholds of 13, 12 and 13?% for species A, B and C, respectively, that divided inter- and intra-type comparisons. These were paralleled by 10, 9.5 and 10?% thresholds in the larger dataset of >3800 VP4 region sequences. Assignments based on VP1 sequences led to minor revisions of existing type designations (such as the reclassification of serotype pairs, e.g. A8/A95 and A29/A44, as single serotypes) and the designation of new HRV types A101–106, B101–103 and C34–C51. A protocol for assignment and numbering of new HRV types using VP1 sequences and the restriction of VP4 sequence comparisons to type identification and provisional type assignments is proposed. Genotypic assignment and identification of HRV types will be of considerable value in the future investigation of type-associated differences in disease outcomes, transmission and epidemiology. PMID:23677786

McIntyre, Chloe L.; Knowles, Nick J.

2013-01-01

98

Enterovirus inactivation in soil.  

PubMed

The inactivation of radioactively labeled poliovirus type 1 and coxsackievirus B 1 in soils saturated with surface water, groundwater, and septic tank liquor was directly proportional to temperature. Virus persistence was also related to soil type and the liquid amendment in which viruses were suspended. At 37 degrees C, no infectivity was recovered from saturated soil after 12 days; at 4 degrees C, viruses persisted for at least 180 days. No infectivity was recovered from dried soil regardless of temperature, soil type, or liquid amendment. Additional experiments showed that evaporation of soil water was largely responsible for the decreased recovery of infectivity from drying soil. Increased rates of virus inactivation at low soil moisture levels were also demonstrated. PMID:44178

Yeager, J G; O'Brien, R T

1979-10-01

99

QUANTIFICATION OF ENTEROVIRUS AND HEPATITIS A VIRUSES IN WELLS AND SPRINGS IN EAST TENNESSEE USING REAL-TIME REVERSE TRANSCIPTION PCR  

EPA Science Inventory

This project involves development, validation testing and application of a fast, efficient method of quantitatively measuring occurrence and concentration of common human viral pathogens, enterovirus and hepatitis A virus, in ground water samples using real-time reverse transcrip...

100

ADSORPTION OF ENTEROVIRUSES TO SOIL CORES AND THEIR SUBSEQUENT ELUTION BY ARTIFICIAL RAINWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The adsorption and elution of a variety of human enteroviruses in a highly permeable, sandy soil was studied by using cores (43 by 125 mm) collected from an operating recharge basin on Long Island. Viruses studied included field and reference strains of polioviruses types 1 and 3...

101

Bovine enteroviruses as indicators of fecal contamination.  

PubMed

Surface waters frequently have been contaminated with human enteric viruses, and it is likely that animal enteric viruses have contaminated surface waters also. Bovine enteroviruses (BEV), found in cattle worldwide, usually cause asymptomatic infections and are excreted in the feces of infected animals in large numbers. In this study, the prevalence and genotype of BEV in a closed herd of cattle were evaluated and compared with BEV found in animals in the immediate environment and in environmental specimens. BEV was found in feces from 76% of cattle, 38% of white-tailed deer, and one of three Canada geese sharing the same pastures, as well as the water obtained from animal watering tanks, from the pasture, from streams running from the pasture to an adjacent river, and from the river, which emptied into the Chesapeake Bay. Furthermore, BEV was found in oysters collected from that river downstream from the farm. These findings suggest that BEV could be used as an indicator of fecal pollution originating from animals (cattle and/or deer). Partial sequence analysis of the viral genomes indicates that different viral variants coexist in the same area. The possibility of identifying the viral strains found in the animals and in the contaminated areas by sequencing the RNA genome, could provide a tool to find the origin of the contamination and should be useful for epidemiological and viral molecular evolution studies. PMID:12089028

Ley, Victoria; Higgins, James; Fayer, Ronald

2002-07-01

102

High Seroprevalence of Enterovirus Infections in Apes and Old World Monkeys  

PubMed Central

To estimate population exposure of apes and Old World monkeys in Africa to enteroviruses (EVs), we conducted a seroepidemiologic study of serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies against 3 EV types. Detection of species A, B, and D EVs infecting wild chimpanzees demonstrates their potential widespread circulation in primates. PMID:22305156

McIntyre, Chloe L.; Imai, Natsuko; Clasper, Lucy; Djoko, Cyrille F.; LeBreton, Matthew; Vermeulen, Marion; Saville, Andrew; Mutapi, Francisca; Tamoufé, Ubald; Kiyang, John; Biblia, Tafon G.; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Pépin, Jacques; Njoum, Richard; Smura, Teemu; Fair, Joseph N.; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Roivainen, Merja; Simmonds, Peter

2012-01-01

103

Synthesis and Cleavage of Enterovirus Polypeptides in Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

Evidence is presented that the entire enterovirus ribonucleic acid genome is translated into a single giant polypeptide of well over 200,000 daltons molecular weight. This giant protein was detected repeatedly in coxsackievirus B1-infected cells, even in the absence of amino acid analogues. The enzymes which cleave this giant protein into smaller structural and enzymatic proteins accumulate with increasing time after infection. It appears that they are either virus-coded proteolytic enzymes or else host enzymes which are activated or released from an intracellular site as a result of virus infection. These cleavage enzymes do not cause grossly apparent cleavage of host-cell proteins. PMID:4314555

Kiehn, E. D.; Holland, John J.

1970-01-01

104

New complete genome sequences of human rhinoviruses shed light on their phylogeny and genomic features  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Human rhinoviruses (HRV), the most frequent cause of respiratory infections, include 99 different serotypes segregating into two species, A and B. Rhinoviruses share extensive genomic sequence similarity with enteroviruses and both are part of the picornavirus family. Nevertheless they differ significantly at the phenotypic level. The lack of HRV full-length genome sequences and the absence of analysis comparing picornaviruses

Caroline Tapparel; Thomas Junier; Daniel Gerlach; Samuel Cordey; Sandra Van Belle; Luc Perrin; Evgeny M Zdobnov; Laurent Kaiser

2007-01-01

105

New Approaches for Enhanced Detection of Enteroviruses from Hawaiian Environmental Waters  

PubMed Central

Health risks associated with sewage-contaminated recreational waters are of important public health concern. Reliable water monitoring systems are therefore crucial. Current recreational water quality criteria rely predominantly on the enumeration of bacterial indicators, while potentially dangerous viral pathogens often remain undetected. Human enteric viruses have been proposed as alternative indicators; however, their detection is often hindered by low viral concentrations present in the environment. Reported here are novel and effective laboratory protocols for viral concentration and highly sensitive and optimized RT-PCR for the efficient detection of enteroviruses, an important enteric virus subset, in Hawaiian environmental waters. Eighteen published enterovirus primer pairs were comparatively evaluated for detection sensitivity. The primer set exhibiting the lowest detection limit under optimized conditions, EQ-1/EQ-2, was validated in a field survey of 22 recreational bodies of water located around the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Eleven sites tested positive for enterovirus, indicating fecal contamination at these locations. As an additional means of viral concentration, shellfish were collected from 9 sample sites and subjected to dissection, RNA extraction, and subsequent RT-PCR. Shellfish tissue from 6 of 9 sites tested positive for enterovirus. The techniques implemented here are valuable resources to aid accurate reflection of microbial contamination in Hawaii’s environmental waters. PMID:22567083

Connell, Christina; Tong, Hsin-I; Wang, Zi; Allmann, Erin; Lu, Yuanan

2012-01-01

106

New enteroviruses, EV-93 and EV-94, associated with acute flaccid paralysis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.  

PubMed

Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis often identifies enteroviruses not typeable by virus neutralization in cell culture. During 2000 and 2001, 186 isolates from 138 children with acute flaccid paralysis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo were sent for typing to the National Reference Centre for Enteroviruses in Lyon, France. The 5' UTR of the viral genome could be amplified by PCR for 158 isolates from 114 patients. Isolates from 89 patients were neutralizable, and contained non-polio enterovirus types. Seventeen children were infected with more than one entero- or adenovirus; another three were co-infected with both these viruses. Serological typing failed with 19 isolates from 13 (9%) patients. The VP1 region of these strains could be amplified by PCR and sequenced, which revealed that five children were infected with CV-A17, EV-70, EV-76, EV-77, or CV-A13. Two patients were doubly infected, one with CV-A24 and E-9, and another with E-27 and EV-81. Isolates from six children contained strains with divergent VP1 region. The amino acid sequences of these complete VP1 regions diverged >or=28% from published types indicating that they represented two new enterovirus types, tentatively designated EV-93 belonging to HEV-B and EV-94 within HEV-D. The latter enterovirus has in parallel been isolated from sewage in Egypt. In conclusion, there was a high frequency of "untypable" enterovirus isolates from cases with acute flaccid paralysis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Six of these were shown to represent two enteroviruses not previously described. PMID:17311342

Junttila, Nina; Lévęque, Nicolas; Kabue, Jean Pierre; Cartet, Gaëlle; Mushiya, Fidčle; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Trompette, Aurélien; Lina, Bruno; Magnius, Lars O; Chomel, Jean-Jacques; Norder, Helene

2007-04-01

107

Genetic Diversity of Enterovirus A71, India  

PubMed Central

We have identified circulation of 3 genogroups of enterovirus (EV) A71 in India. A new genogroup (proposed designation G) was discovered during this study. We isolated genogroups D and G in wide geographic areas but detected subgenogroup C1 only in 1 focus in western India. A systematic nationwide search for EV-A71 is warranted. PMID:25531549

Saxena, Vinay K.; Sane, Sudhir; Nadkarni, Sushma S.; Sharma, Deepa K.

2015-01-01

108

Enterovirus surveillance of Italian healthy children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is the golden strategy recommended by the WHO to verify the condition of polio eradication in a country. Because of the difficulty to detect all of the expected AFP cases and to reach the target incidence of 1\\/100,000 requested by WHO, the surveillance of enteroviruses in the population has been adopted by several countries

A. M. Patti; A. L. Santi; L. Fiore; L. Vellucci; D. De Stefano; E. Bellelli; S. Barbuti; G. M. Fara

2000-01-01

109

Combating enterovirus replication: state-of-the-art on antiviral research.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses form an important genus within the large family of Picornaviridae. They are small, non-enveloped (+)RNA viruses, many of which are important pathogens in human and veterinary science. Despite their huge medical and socio-economical impact, there is still no approved antiviral therapy at hand for the treatment of these infections. Three capsid-targeting molecules (pleconaril, BTA-798 and V-073) are in clinical development. Pleconaril and BTA-798 are in phase II clinical trials for the treatment of enterovirus-induced sepsis syndrome and rhinovirus-induced aggravation of pre-existing asthma or COPD respectively. V-073 is in preclinical development for the treatment of poliovirus infections in the context of the worldwide polio eradication program. The capsid binding molecules have shown good in vitro potency against a number of enterovirus species, but lack activity against others. Another potential drawback of capsid inhibitors in the clinical setting could be the rapid emergence of drug resistance. It will therefore be important to develop inhibitors that affect other stages in the viral replication cycle. Several viral proteins, such as the viral 3C protease, the putative 2C helicase and the 3D RNA-dependent RNA polymerase may be/are excellent targets for inhibition of viral replication. Also host cell factors that are crucial in viral replication may be considered as potential targets for an antiviral approach. Unraveling these complex virus-host interactions will also provide better insights into the replication of enteroviruses. This review aims to summarize and discuss known inhibitors and potential viral and cellular targets for antiviral therapy against enteroviruses. PMID:21889497

Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; De Palma, Armando M; Neyts, Johan

2012-01-15

110

[Outbreak of acute enterovirus intestinal infection in Sakhalin region in August 2010].  

PubMed

The investigation of cases of acute intestinal infections in the Sakhalin region of Russia in August, 2010 is described. Epidemiological and molecular biological studies were conducted. After initial PCR screening and determining the nucleotide sequences of the positive samples the following enteroviruses were found: Coxsackie A2 - 42 samples (45%), Coxsackie A4--31 sample (34%), Enterovirus 71--6 samples (6,5%), Coxsackievirus B5--6 samples (6,5%), Coxsackie B3--4 samples (4%) and Coxsackie B1--4 samples (4%). The phylogenetic analysis of sequences showed that the closest analogues for the nucleotide sequences of these genotypes were previously identified in Japan, Korea and China in 2000-2010. PMID:22642180

Demina, A V; Ternovo?, V A; Darizhapov, B B; Iakubich, T V; Sementsova, A O; Demina, O K; Protopopova, E V; Loktev, V B; Agafonov, A P; Netesov, S V

2012-01-01

111

Emergence and Transmission Pathways of Rapidly Evolving Evolutionary Branch C4a Strains of Human Enterovirus 71 in the Central Plain of China  

PubMed Central

Background Large-scale outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) occurred repeatedly in the Central Plain of China (Shandong, Anhui, and Henan provinces) from 2007 until now. These epidemics have increased in size and severity each year and are a major public health concern in mainland China. Principal Findings Phylogenetic analysis was performed and a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo tree was constructed based on the complete VP1 sequences of HEV71 isolates. These analyses showed that the HFMD epidemic in the Central Plain of China was caused by at least 5 chains of HEV71 transmission and that the virus continued to circulate and evolve over the winter seasons between outbreaks. Between 1998 and 2010, there were 2 stages of HEV71 circulation in mainland China, with a shift from evolutionary branch C4b to C4a in 2003–2004. The evolution rate of C4a HEV71 was 4.99×10-3 substitutions per site per year, faster than the mean of all HEV71 genotypes. The most recent common ancestor estimates for the Chinese clusters dated to October 1994 and November 1993 for the C4a and C4b evolutionary branches, respectively. Compared with all C4a HEV71 strains, a nucleotide substitution in all C4b HEV71 genome (A to C reversion at nt2503 in the VP1 coding region, which caused amino acid substitution of VP1–10: Gln to His) had reverted. Conclusions The data suggest that C4a HEV71 strains introduced into the Central Plain of China are responsible for the recent outbreaks. The relationships among HEV71 isolates determined from the combined sequence and epidemiological data reveal the underlying seasonal dynamics of HEV71 circulation. At least 5 HEV71 lineages circulated in the Central Plain of China from 2007 to 2009, and the Shandong and Anhui lineages were found to have passed through a genetic bottleneck during the low-transmission winter season. PMID:22125635

Wang, Haiyan; Zhu, Shuangli; Wang, Dongyan; Bai, Ruyin; Li, Xingle; Yan, Dongmei; Wang, Huiling; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Zhen; Tan, Xiaojuan; An, Hongqiu; Xu, Aiqiang; Xu, Wenbo

2011-01-01

112

Environmental surveillance of poliovirus and non-polio enterovirus in urban sewage in Dakar, Senegal (2007-2013)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Global poliomyelitis eradication initiative relies on (i) laboratory based surveillance of acute flaccid surveillance (AFP) to monitor the circulation of wild poliovirus in a population, and (ii) vaccination to prevent its diffusion. However, as poliovirus can survive in the environment namely in sewage, environmental surveillance (ES) is of growing importance as the eradication target is close. This study aimed to assess polioviruses and non polio enteroviruses circulation in sewage drains covering a significant population of Dakar. Methods From April 2007 to May 2013, 271 specimens of raw sewage were collected using the grab method in 6 neighborhoods of Dakar. Samples were processed to extract and concentrate viruses using polyethylene glycol and Dextran (two-phase separation method). Isolation of enteroviruses was attempted in RD, L20B and Hep2 cell lines. Polioviruses were identified by RT-PCR and Elisa. Non Polio Enteroviruses (NPEVs) were identified by RT-PCR and microneutralisation tests. Results Polioviruses and NPEVs were respectively detected in 34,3% and 42,8% sewage samples. No wild poliovirus neither circulating vaccine-derived Poliovirus (cVDPV) was detected. Neutralization assays have identified 49 non polio enteroviruses that were subsequently classified in 13 serotypes belonging to HEV-A (22, 4%), HEV-B (12, 24%), HEV-C (26, 53%) and HEV-D (6, 12%) species. Conclusion This study is the first documentation of enteroviruses environmental detection in Senegal. It shows the usefulness of environmental surveillance for indirect monitoring of the circulation and distribution of enteroviruses in the community.

Ndiaye, Abdou Kader; Diop, Pape Amadou Mbathio; Diop, Ousmane Madiagne

2014-01-01

113

One-year monthly quantitative survey of noroviruses, enteroviruses, and adenoviruses in wastewater collected from six plants in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewerage systems are important nodes to monitor human enteric pathogens transmitted via water. A quantitative virus survey was performed once a month for a year to understand the seasonal profiles of noroviruses genotype 1 and genotype 2, enteroviruses, and adenoviruses in sewerage systems. A total of 72 samples of influent, secondary-treated wastewater before chlorination and effluent were collected from six

Hiroyuki Katayama; Eiji Haramoto; Kumiko Oguma; Hiromasa Yamashita; Atsushi Tajima; Hideichiro Nakajima; Shinichiro Ohgaki

2008-01-01

114

New Introductions of Enterovirus 71 Subgenogroup C4 Strains, France, 2012  

PubMed Central

In France during 2012, human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) subgenogroup C4 strains were detected in 4 children hospitalized for neonatal fever or meningitis. Phylogenetic analysis showed novel and independent EV-A71 introductions, presumably from China, and suggested circulation of C4 strains throughout France. This observation emphasizes the need for monitoring EV-A71 infections in Europe. PMID:25061698

Henquell, Cécile; Mirand, Audrey; Coste-Burel, Marianne; Marque-Juillet, Stéphanie; Desbois, Delphine; Lagathu, Gisčle; Bornebusch, Laure; Bailly, Jean-Luc; Lina, Bruno

2014-01-01

115

Autism spectrum disorder secondary to enterovirus encephalitis.  

PubMed

Millions of children are infected by enteroviruses each year, usually exhibiting only mild symptoms. Nevertheless, these viruses are also associated with severe and life-threatening infections, such as meningitis and encephalitis. We describe a 32-month-old patient with enteroviral encephalitis confirmed by polymerase chain reaction in cerebrospinal fluid, with unfavorable clinical course with marked developmental regression, autistic features, persistent stereotypes and aphasia. She experienced slow clinical improvement, with mild residual neurologic and developmental deficits at follow-up. Viral central nervous system infections in early childhood have been associated with autism spectrum disorders but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. This case report is significant in presenting a case of developmental regression with autistic features and loss of language improving on follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the first published report of enterovirus encephalitis leading to an autism spectrum disorder. PMID:24782421

Marques, Filipa; Brito, Maria Joăo; Conde, Marta; Pinto, Mónica; Moreira, Ana

2014-05-01

116

Bovine enteroviruses: classification and serological characterization  

E-print Network

, according to internat1onal convention, is sporadic. Recently, Durham and Burgess observed 37 considerable cross-reactivity among some New Zealand bovine entero- viruses using cross neutralization and fluorescent antibody tests. Preliminary data from our... antiserum pools applied in filter paper discs to type enteroviruses by plaque inhibition method. These methods are espec1ally useful to demonstrate multiplicity of infection, a factor which can easily be mixed by tube neutralization test...

Samal, Siba Kumar

1981-01-01

117

INFECTIVITY AND PATHOGENICITY OF ENTEROVIRUSES INGESTED WITH DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The study was designed to examine the relationship of waterborne enteroviruses to infections and disease. Young weanling swine and their homologous enteroviruses were chosen as the model system: The porcine digestive tract is like that of man, but pigs can be handled under more c...

118

Molecular Classification of Enteroviruses Not Identified by Neutralization Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We isolated six viruses from patients diagnosed with aseptic meningitis or hand, foot, and mouth disease. The cytopathic effect of these viruses on cultured cells was like that of enteroviruses. However, viral neu- tralization tests against standard antisera were negative. Phylogenetic analysis with the complete VP4 nucleotide sequences of these 6 viruses and 29 serotypes of enteroviruses classified 3 of

Hideyuki Kubo; Nobuhiro Iritani; Yoshiyuki Seto

2002-01-01

119

Heat shock protein-90-beta facilitates enterovirus 71 viral particles assembly.  

PubMed

Molecular chaperones are reported to be crucial for virus propagation, but are not yet addressed in Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71). Here we describe the specific association of heat shock protein-90-beta (Hsp90?), but not alpha form (Hsp90?), with EV71 viral particles by the co-purification with virions using sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation, and by the colocalization with viral particles, as assessed by immunogold electron microscopy. The reduction of the Hsp90? protein using RNA interference decreased the correct assembly of viral particles, without affecting EV71 replication levels. Tracking ectopically expressed Hsp90? protein associated with EV71 virions revealed that Hsp90? protein was transmitted to new host cells through its direct association with infectious viral particles. Our findings suggest a new antiviral strategy in which extracellular Hsp90? protein is targeted to decrease the infectivity of EV71 and other enteroviruses, without affecting the broader functions of this constitutively expressed molecular chaperone. PMID:23711381

Wang, Robert Y L; Kuo, Rei-Lin; Ma, Wei-Chieh; Huang, Hsing-I; Yu, Jau-Song; Yen, Sih-Min; Huang, Chi-Ruei; Shih, Shin-Ru

2013-09-01

120

Enterovirus 71 induces degradation of TRIM38, a potential E3 ubiquitin ligase  

PubMed Central

Background The tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins are a family of more than 70 members in human. However, only a few of them have been well studied. The TRIM proteins contain the conserved RING, B-box, coiled-coil, and SPRY domains, most of which are involved in protein ubiquitination. TRIM38 is a member of the TRIM protein family, which we studied in more detail here as its functions are largely unknown. Results Our study shows that, similar to other TRIM family members, TRIM38 is localized in the cytoplasm. TRIM38 increases ubiquitination of other cellular proteins and catalyzes self-ubiquitination. TRIM38 also promotes K63- and K48-linked ubiquitination of cellular proteins. An intact RING domain is important for the functions of TRIM38. In addition, enterovirus 71 infection induces TRIM38 degradation. Conclusions Our observations demonstrate that TRIM38 has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and can be degraded during virus infection. These findings may provide insight into innate immune signaling pathways. PMID:21306652

2011-01-01

121

Detection, quantitation and identification of enteroviruses from surface waters and sponge tissue from the Florida Keys using real-time RT-PCR  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method was developed for the quantitative detection of pathogenic human enteroviruses from surface waters in the Florida Keys using Taqman (R) one-step Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with the Model 7700 ABI Prism (R) Sequence Detection System. Viruses were directly extracted from unconcentrated grab samples of seawater, from seawater concentrated by vortex flow filtration using a 100kD filter and from sponge tissue. Total RNA was extracted from the samples, purified and concentrated using spin-column chromatography. A 192-196 base pair portion of the 5??? untranscribed region was amplified from these extracts. Enterovirus concentrations were estimated using real-time RT-PCR technology. Nine of 15 sample sites or 60% were positive for the presence of pathogenic human enteroviruses. Considering only near-shore sites, 69% were positive with viral concentrations ranging from 9.3viruses/ml to 83viruses/g of sponge tissue (uncorrected for extraction efficiency). Certain amplicons were selected for cloning and sequencing for identification. Three strains of waterborne enteroviruses were identified as Coxsackievirus A9, Coxsackievirus A16, and Poliovirus Sabin type 1. Time and cost efficiency of this one-step real-time RT-PCR methodology makes this an ideal technique to detect, quantitate and identify pathogenic enteroviruses in recreational waters. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Donaldson, K.A.; Griffin, Dale W.; Paul, J.H.

2002-01-01

122

Case of a healthy infant born following antenatal enterovirus myocarditis and hydrops.  

PubMed

Fetal hydrops and myocarditis were diagnosed in a woman at 32 weeks of gestation (WG). Transplacental enterovirus infection was suspected because all other causes of myocarditis and hydrops were excluded, it was during an endemic period, and there was a setting of maternal infection (fever a few days before). We opted for in utero treatment because of the risk of resuscitating a neonate with myocarditis and hydrops. We administered dexamethasone 12mg twice for pulmonary maturation and presumed it would partially improve the myocarditis. Fetal arrhythmia was noted at 35 WG and we decided to deliver the infant as postnatal treatment of the heart disorder would be more effective. RT-PCR (ARGENE(®)) showed that the neonate's throat and anal tissues and cord blood sampled on the day of birth contained enterovirus ribonucleic acid and coxsackievirus B5, as did the mother's anal sample. Laboratory tests, heart MRI and probably brain MRI indicated neonatal enterovirus infection. Findings were normal at two-year follow-up. PMID:25242311

Bonnin, Aurore; Tassin, Mikael; Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle; Letamendia, Emmanuelle; Stos, Bertrand; Bonnet, Damien; Gajdos, Vincent; Mabille, Mylčne; Benachi, Alexandra

2014-11-01

123

Characterization of Human Papillomavirus Subtype 72b  

PubMed Central

We report the characterization of human papillomavirus (HPV) subtype 72b of the genus Alphapapillomavirus isolated from an oral rinse sample of a healthy woman. The HPV72b L1 open reading frame (ORF) was 90.2% identical to that of HPV72, indicating a subtype close to the border of a novel HPV type. PMID:25523776

Johansson, Hanna; Kravtchenko, Evgenia

2014-01-01

124

[Enteroviruses responsible for acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis].  

PubMed

Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) is an epidemic form of highly contagious conjunctivitis, characterized by conjunctival hemorrhages. The first AHC outbreak was described in 1969 in Ghana, West Africa, and was called Apollo disease, from the Apollo landing on the moon. This outbreak was caused by Enterovirus 70 (EV70) together with a Coxsackievirus A24 (CVA24v) variant, which are the major etiological agents involved in AHC outbreaks worldwide. AHC is known to be directly transmitted by close person-to-person contact or indirectly through soiled ophthalmological materials or unsafe recreational water. Recently, a possible airborne virus spread was suggested which could explain the high transmission rate of the disease. In the absence of a specific antiviral therapy, a rapid diagnosis of the causative agent is required to distinguish AHC due to enteroviruses from other ocular infectious diseases, for there are active drugs, or to quickly implement proper public health measures to limit the extension of the outbreak. However, virus identification remains difficult and time-consuming. Moreover, virological diagnosis is difficult to implement in developing countries where AHC has recently become a major problem for public health. PMID:19836177

Lévęque, N; Huguet, P; Norder, H; Chomel, J-J

2010-04-01

125

Human plasma cells express granzyme B.  

PubMed

While studying the plasma cell (PC) compartment in human tonsils, we identified that immunoglobulin kappa or lambda chain-expressing PCs are the main cells expressing granzyme B (GrzB). In vitro studies revealed that activated B cells differentiated into GrzB-expressing PCs when co-cultured with macrophages and follicular helper T cells. This effect could be reproduced on combined stimulation of IL-15 (produced by macrophages) and IL-21 (produced by T follicular helper cells) in a STAT3-dependent manner. Whereas IL-21 triggers the transcription of mRNA of GrzB, IL-15 synergizes the translation of GrzB proteins. The precise role of GrzB in PC biology remains to be understood and studies in mice will not help as their PCs do not express GrzB. PMID:24114594

Xu, Wei; Narayanan, Priya; Kang, Ning; Clayton, Sandra; Ohne, Yoichiro; Shi, Peiqing; Herve, Marie-Cecile; Balderas, Robert; Picard, Capucine; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Oh, Sangkon; Pascual, Virginia; Banchereau, Jacques

2014-01-01

126

Cell and tissue tropism of enterovirus 71 and other enteroviruses infections  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a member of Picornaviridae that causes mild and self-limiting hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). However, EV71 infections can progress to polio-like paralysis, neurogenic pulmonary edema, and fatal encephalitis in infants and young children. Large EV71 outbreaks have been reported in Taiwan, China, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, and Australia. This virus is considered a critical emerging public health threat. EV71 is an important crucial neurotropic enterovirus for which there is currently no effective antiviral drug or vaccine. The mechanism by which EV71 causes severe central nervous system complications remains unclear. The interaction between the virus and the host is vital for viral replication, virulence, and pathogenicity. SCARB2 or PSGL-1 receptor binding is the first step in the development of viral infections, and viral factors (e.g., 5? UTR, VP1, 3C, 3D, 3? UTR), host factors and environments (e.g., ITAFs, type I IFN) are also involved in viral infections. The tissue tropism and pathogenesis of viruses are determined by a combination of several factors. This review article provides a summary of host and virus factors affecting cell and tissue tropism and the pathogenesis of enteroviruses. PMID:24602216

2014-01-01

127

Multicenter Beta Trial of the GeneXpert Enterovirus Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GeneXpert Dx system (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) is a fully integrated and automated nucleic acid sample preparation, amplification, and real-time detection system. It consists of an instrument, a personal computer, and disposable fluidic cartridges. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of the GeneXpert enterovirus assay (GXEA) were determined with a panel of 63 different enterovirus serotypes and 24 other microorganisms, respectively.

Christine B. Kost; Beverly Rogers; M. Steven Oberste; Christine Robinson; Brenda L. Eaves; Kristi Leos; Susan Danielson; Malini Satya; Fred Weir; Frederick S. Nolte

2007-01-01

128

Heat Shock protein 90: Role in Enterovirus 71 Entry and Assembly and Potential Target for Therapy  

PubMed Central

Although several factors participating in enterovirus 71 (EV71) entry and replication had been reported, the precise mechanisms associated with these events are far from clear. In the present study, we showed that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a key element associated with EV71 entry and replication in a human rhabdomyosarcoma of RD cells. Inhibition of HSP90 by pretreating host cells with HSP90? siRNA or blocking HSP90 with a HSP90-specific antibody or geldanamycin (GA), a specific inhibitor of HSP90, as well as recombinant HSP90? resulted in inhibiting viral entry and subsequent viral replication. Co-immunprecipitation of EV71 with recombinant HSP90? and colocalization of EV71-HSP90 in the cells demonstrated that HSP90 was physically associated with EV71 particles. HSP90 seems to mediate EV71 replication by preventing proteosomal degradation of the newly synthesized capsid proteins, but does not facilitate viral gene expression at transcriptional level. This was evident by post-treatment of host cells with GA, which did not affect the expression of viral transcripts but accelerated the degradation of viral capsid proteins and interfered with the formation of assembled virions. In vivo studies were carried out using human SCARB2-transgenic mice to evaluate the protection conferred by HSP90 inhibitor, 17-allyamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), an analog of geldanamycin, that elicited similar activity but with less toxicity. The results showed that the administration of 17-AAG twice conferred the resistance to hSCARB2 mice challenged with C2, C4, and B4 genotypes of EV71. Our data supports HSP90 plays an important role in EV71 infection. Targeting of HSP90 with clinically available drugs might provide a feasible therapeutic approach to treat EV71 infection. PMID:24098578

Tsou, Yueh-Liang; Lin, Yi-Wen; Chang, Hsuen-Wen; Lin, Hsiang-Yin; Shao, Hsiao-Yun; Yu, Shu-Ling; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chitra, Ebenezer; Sia, Charles; Chow, Yen-Hung

2013-01-01

129

Clinical severity of rhinovirus/enterovirus compared to other respiratory viruses in children  

PubMed Central

Background Human rhinovirus/enterovirus (HRV/ENT) infections are commonly identified in children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs), but data on their clinical severity remain limited. Objectives We compared the clinical severity of HRV/ENT to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A/B (FLU), and other common respiratory viruses in children. Patients/Methods Retrospective study of children with ARIs and confirmed single positive viral infections on mid-turbinate swabs by molecular assays. Outcome measures included hospital admission and, for inpatients, a composite endpoint consisting of intensive care admission, hospitalization >5 days, oxygen requirements or death. Results A total of 116 HRV/ENT, 102 RSV, 99 FLU, and 64 other common respiratory viruses were identified. Children with single HRV/ENT infections presented with significantly higher rates of underlying immunosuppressive conditions compared to those with RSV (37·9% versus 13·6%; P < 0·001), FLU (37·9% versus 22%; P = 0·018) or any other single viral infection (37·9% versus 22·5%; P = 0·024). In multivariable analysis adjusted for underlying conditions and age, children with HRV/ENT infections had increased odds of hospitalization compared to children with RSV infections (OR 2·6; 95% CI 1·4, 4·8; P < 0·003) or FLU infections (OR 3·0; 95% CI 1·6, 5·8; <0·001) and increased odds of severe clinical disease among inpatients (OR 3·0; 95% CI 1·6,5·6; P = 0·001) when compared to those with FLU infections. Conclusions Children with HRV/ENT had a more severe clinical course than those with RSV and FLUA/B infections and often had significant comorbidities. These findings emphasize the importance of considering HRV/ENT infection in children presenting with severe acute respiratory tract infections. PMID:24801963

Asner, Sandra A; Petrich, Astrid; Hamid, Jemila S; Mertz, Dominik; Richardson, Susan E; Smieja, Marek

2014-01-01

130

Inactivation of adenoviruses, enteroviruses, and murine norovirus in water by free chlorine and monochloramine.  

PubMed

Inactivation of infectious viruses during drinking water treatment is usually achieved with free chlorine. Many drinking water utilities in the United States now use monochloramine as a secondary disinfectant to minimize disinfectant by-product formation and biofilm growth. The inactivation of human adenoviruses 2, 40, and 41 (HAdV2, HAdV40, and HAdV41), coxsackieviruses B3 and B5 (CVB3 and CVB5), echoviruses 1 and 11 (E1 and E11), and murine norovirus (MNV) are compared in this study. Experiments were performed with 0.2 mg of free chlorine or 1 mg of monochloramine/liter at pH 7 and 8 in buffered reagent-grade water at 5 degrees C. CT values (disinfectant concentration x time) for 2- to 4-log(10) (99 to 99.99%) reductions in virus titers were calculated by using the efficiency factor Hom model. The enteroviruses required the longest times for chlorine inactivation and MNV the least time. CVB5 required the longest exposure time, with CT values of 7.4 and 10 mg x min/liter (pH 7 and 8) for 4-log(10) inactivation. Monochloramine disinfection was most effective for E1 (CT values ranged from 8 to 18 mg x min/liter for 2- and 3-log(10) reductions, respectively). E11 and HAdV2 were the least susceptible to monochloramine disinfection (CT values of 1,300 and 1,600 mg-min/liter for 3-log(10) reductions, respectively). Monochloramine inactivation was most successful for the adenoviruses, CVB5, and E1 at pH 7. A greater variation in inactivation rates between viruses was observed during monochloramine disinfection than during chlorine disinfection. These data will be useful in drinking water risk assessment studies and disinfection system planning. PMID:20023080

Cromeans, Theresa L; Kahler, Amy M; Hill, Vincent R

2010-02-01

131

Inactivation of Adenoviruses, Enteroviruses, and Murine Norovirus in Water by Free Chlorine and Monochloramine?  

PubMed Central

Inactivation of infectious viruses during drinking water treatment is usually achieved with free chlorine. Many drinking water utilities in the United States now use monochloramine as a secondary disinfectant to minimize disinfectant by-product formation and biofilm growth. The inactivation of human adenoviruses 2, 40, and 41 (HAdV2, HAdV40, and HAdV41), coxsackieviruses B3 and B5 (CVB3 and CVB5), echoviruses 1 and 11 (E1 and E11), and murine norovirus (MNV) are compared in this study. Experiments were performed with 0.2 mg of free chlorine or 1 mg of monochloramine/liter at pH 7 and 8 in buffered reagent-grade water at 5°C. CT values (disinfectant concentration × time) for 2- to 4-log10 (99 to 99.99%) reductions in virus titers were calculated by using the efficiency factor Hom model. The enteroviruses required the longest times for chlorine inactivation and MNV the least time. CVB5 required the longest exposure time, with CT values of 7.4 and 10 mg·min/liter (pH 7 and 8) for 4-log10 inactivation. Monochloramine disinfection was most effective for E1 (CT values ranged from 8 to 18 mg·min/liter for 2- and 3-log10 reductions, respectively). E11 and HAdV2 were the least susceptible to monochloramine disinfection (CT values of 1,300 and 1,600 mg-min/liter for 3-log10 reductions, respectively). Monochloramine inactivation was most successful for the adenoviruses, CVB5, and E1 at pH 7. A greater variation in inactivation rates between viruses was observed during monochloramine disinfection than during chlorine disinfection. These data will be useful in drinking water risk assessment studies and disinfection system planning. PMID:20023080

Cromeans, Theresa L.; Kahler, Amy M.; Hill, Vincent R.

2010-01-01

132

Advances in Human B Cell Phenotypic Profiling  

PubMed Central

To advance our understanding and treatment of disease, research immunologists have been called-upon to place more centralized emphasis on impactful human studies. Such endeavors will inevitably require large-scale study execution and data management regulation (“Big Biology”), necessitating standardized and reliable metrics of immune status and function. A well-known example setting this large-scale effort in-motion is identifying correlations between eventual disease outcome and T lymphocyte phenotype in large HIV-patient cohorts using multiparameter flow cytometry. However, infection, immunodeficiency, and autoimmunity are also characterized by correlative and functional contributions of B lymphocytes, which to-date have received much less attention in the human Big Biology enterprise. Here, we review progress in human B cell phenotyping, analysis, and bioinformatics tools that constitute valuable resources for the B cell research community to effectively join in this effort. PMID:23087687

Kaminski, Denise A.; Wei, Chungwen; Qian, Yu; Rosenberg, Alexander F.; Sanz, Ignacio

2012-01-01

133

Inhibition of enterovirus 71 by adenosine analog NITD008.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major viral pathogen in China and Southeast Asia. There is no clinically approved vaccine or antiviral therapy for EV71 infection. NITD008, an adenosine analog, is an inhibitor of flavivirus that blocks viral RNA synthesis. Here we report that NITD008 has potent antiviral activity against EV71. In cell culture, the compound inhibits EV71 at a 50% effective concentration of 0.67 ?M and a 50% cytotoxic concentration of 119.97 ?M. When administered at 5 mg/kg in an EV71 mouse model, the compound reduced viral loads in various organs and completely prevented clinical symptoms and death. To study the antiviral mechanism and drug resistance, we selected escape mutant viruses by culturing EV71 with increasing concentrations of NITD008. Resistance mutations were reproducibly mapped to the viral 3A and 3D polymerase regions. Resistance analysis with recombinant viruses demonstrated that either a 3A or a 3D mutation alone could lead to resistance to NITD008. A combination of both 3A and 3D mutations conferred higher resistance, suggesting a collaborative interplay between the 3A and 3D proteins during viral replication. The resistance results underline the importance of combination therapy required for EV71 treatment. Importance: Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a major cause of viral encephalitis in children worldwide, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. Vaccines and antivirals are urgently needed to prevent and treat EV71 infections. In this study, we report the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of NITD008 (an adenosine analog) as an inhibitor of EV71. The efficacy results validated the potential of nucleoside analogs as antiviral drugs for EV71 infections. Mechanistically, we showed that mutations in the viral 3A and 3D polymerases alone or in combination could confer resistance to NITD008. The resistance results suggest an intrinsic interaction between viral proteins 3A and 3D during replication, as well as the importance of combination therapy for the treatment of EV71 infections. PMID:25100827

Deng, Cheng-Lin; Yeo, Huimin; Ye, Han-Qing; Liu, Si-Qing; Shang, Bao-Di; Gong, Peng; Alonso, Sylvie; Shi, Pei-Yong; Zhang, Bo

2014-10-01

134

Inhibition of Enterovirus 71 by Adenosine Analog NITD008  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major viral pathogen in China and Southeast Asia. There is no clinically approved vaccine or antiviral therapy for EV71 infection. NITD008, an adenosine analog, is an inhibitor of flavivirus that blocks viral RNA synthesis. Here we report that NITD008 has potent antiviral activity against EV71. In cell culture, the compound inhibits EV71 at a 50% effective concentration of 0.67 ?M and a 50% cytotoxic concentration of 119.97 ?M. When administered at 5 mg/kg in an EV71 mouse model, the compound reduced viral loads in various organs and completely prevented clinical symptoms and death. To study the antiviral mechanism and drug resistance, we selected escape mutant viruses by culturing EV71 with increasing concentrations of NITD008. Resistance mutations were reproducibly mapped to the viral 3A and 3D polymerase regions. Resistance analysis with recombinant viruses demonstrated that either a 3A or a 3D mutation alone could lead to resistance to NITD008. A combination of both 3A and 3D mutations conferred higher resistance, suggesting a collaborative interplay between the 3A and 3D proteins during viral replication. The resistance results underline the importance of combination therapy required for EV71 treatment. IMPORTANCE Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a major cause of viral encephalitis in children worldwide, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. Vaccines and antivirals are urgently needed to prevent and treat EV71 infections. In this study, we report the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of NITD008 (an adenosine analog) as an inhibitor of EV71. The efficacy results validated the potential of nucleoside analogs as antiviral drugs for EV71 infections. Mechanistically, we showed that mutations in the viral 3A and 3D polymerases alone or in combination could confer resistance to NITD008. The resistance results suggest an intrinsic interaction between viral proteins 3A and 3D during replication, as well as the importance of combination therapy for the treatment of EV71 infections. PMID:25100827

Deng, Cheng-Lin; Yeo, Huimin; Ye, Han-Qing; Liu, Si-Qing; Shang, Bao-Di; Gong, Peng; Alonso, Sylvie

2014-01-01

135

Adaptation of enterovirus 71 to adult interferon deficient mice.  

PubMed

Non-polio enteroviruses, including enterovirus 71 (EV71), have caused severe and fatal cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Asia-Pacific region. The development of a vaccine or antiviral against these pathogens has been hampered by the lack of a reliable small animal model. In this study, a mouse adapted EV71 strain was produced by conducting serial passages through A129 (?/? interferon (IFN) receptor deficient) and AG129 (?/?, ? IFN receptor deficient) mice. A B2 sub genotype of EV71 was inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) into neonatal AG129 mice and brain-harvested virus was subsequently passaged through 12 and 15 day-old A129 mice. When tested in 10 week-old AG129 mice, this adapted strain produced 100% lethality with clinical signs including limb paralysis, eye irritation, loss of balance, and death. This virus caused only 17% mortality in same age A129 mice, confirming that in the absence of a functional IFN response, adult AG129 mice are susceptible to infection by adapted EV71 isolates. Subsequent studies in adult AG129 and young A129 mice with the adapted EV71 virus examined the efficacy of an inactivated EV71 candidate vaccine and determined the role of humoral immunity in protection. Passive transfer of rabbit immune sera raised against the EV71 vaccine provided protection in a dose dependent manner in 15 day-old A129 mice. Intramuscular injections (i.m.) in five week-old AG129 mice with the alum adjuvanted vaccine also provided protection against the mouse adapted homologous strain. No clinical signs of disease or mortality were observed in vaccinated animals, which received a prime-and-boost, whereas 71% of control animals were euthanized after exhibiting systemic clinical signs (P<0.05). The development of this animal model will facilitate studies on EV71 pathogenesis, antiviral testing, the evaluation of immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccine candidates, and has the potential to establish correlates of protection studies. PMID:23527208

Caine, Elizabeth A; Partidos, Charalambos D; Santangelo, Joseph D; Osorio, Jorge E

2013-01-01

136

Characterization of the Non-Polio Enterovirus Infections Associated with Acute Flaccid Paralysis in South-Western India  

PubMed Central

Non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) have been reported frequently in association with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases during Polio Surveillance Programs (PSPs) worldwide. However, there is limited understanding on the attributes of their infections. This study reports characteristics of NPEVs isolated from AFP cases, investigated during PSPs held in 2009–2010, in Karnataka and Kerala states of south-western India having varied climatic conditions. NPEV cell culture isolates derived from stool specimens that were collected from 422 of 2186 AFP cases (<1–14 years age) and 17 of 41 asymptomatic contacts; and details of all AFP cases/contacts were obtained from National Polio Laboratory, Bangalore. The distribution of NPEV infections among AFP cases and circulation pattern of NPEV strains were determined by statistical analysis of the data. Genotyping of all NPEV isolates was carried out by partial VP1 gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. NPEV positive AFP cases were significantly higher in children aged <2 years; with residual paralysis; in summer months; and in regions with relatively hot climate. Genotyping of NPEVs identified predominance of human enteroviruses (HEV)-B species [81.9%—Echoviruses (E): 57.3%; coxsackieviruses (CV) B: 15%; numbered EVs: 8.9%; CVA9: 0.7%] and low levels of HEV-A [14.5%—CVA: 6%; numbered EVs: 8.5%] and HEV-C [3.6%—CVA: 2.6%; numbered EVs: 1%] species, encompassing 63 genotypes. EV76 (6.3%) and each of E3, CVB3 and E9 (4.97%) were found frequently during 2009 while E11 (6.7%), CVB1 (6.1%), E7 (5.1%) and E20 (5.1%) were detected commonly in 2010. A marked proportion of AFP cases from children aged <2 years; presenting with fever; and from north and south interior parts of Karnataka state was detected with E/numbered EVs than that found with CVA/CVB. This study highlights the extensive genetic diversity and diverse circulation patterns of NPEV strains in AFP cases from different populations and climatic conditions. PMID:23630606

Laxmivandana, Rongala; Yergolkar, Prasanna; Gopalkrishna, Varanasi; Chitambar, Shobha D.

2013-01-01

137

Coxsackie B4 virus infection of ? cells and natural killer cell insulitis in recent-onset type 1 diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

Type 1 diabetes is characterized by T cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of pancreatic ? cells. Several studies have suggested an association between Coxsackie enterovirus seroconversion and onset of disease. However, a direct link between ? cell viral infection and islet inflammation has not been established. We analyzed pancreatic tissue from six type 1 diabetic and 26 control organ donors. Immunohistochemical, electron microscopy, whole-genome ex vivo nucleotide sequencing, cell culture, and immunological studies demonstrated Coxsackie B4 enterovirus in specimens from three of the six diabetic patients. Infection was specific of ? cells, which showed nondestructive islet inflammation mediated mainly by natural killer cells. Islets from enterovirus-positive samples displayed reduced insulin secretion in response to glucose and other secretagogues. In addition, virus extracted from positive islets was able to infect ? cells from human islets of nondiabetic donors, causing viral inclusions and signs of pyknosis. None of the control organ donors showed signs of viral infection. These studies provide direct evidence that enterovirus can infect ? cells in patients with type 1 diabetes and that infection is associated with inflammation and functional impairment. PMID:17360338

Dotta, Francesco; Censini, Stefano; van Halteren, Astrid G. S.; Marselli, Lorella; Masini, Matilde; Dionisi, Sabrina; Mosca, Franco; Boggi, Ugo; Muda, Andrea Onetti; Prato, Stefano Del; Elliott, John F.; Covacci, Antonello; Rappuoli, Rino; Roep, Bart O.; Marchetti, Piero

2007-01-01

138

Tissue tropism, pathology and pathogenesis of enterovirus infection.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses are very common and cause infections with a diverse array of clinical features. Enteroviruses are most frequently considered by practising pathologists in cases of aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis and disseminated infections in neonates and infants. Congenital infections have been reported and transplacental transmission is thought to occur. Although skin biopsies during hand, foot and mouth disease are infrequently obtained, characteristic dermatopathological findings can be seen. Enteroviruses have been implicated in lower respiratory tract infections. This review highlights histopathological features of enterovirus infection and discusses diagnostic modalities for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and their associated pitfalls. Immunohistochemistry can detect enterovirus antigen within cells of affected tissues; however, assays can be non-specific and detect other viruses. Molecular methods are increasingly relied upon but, due to the high frequency of asymptomatic enteroviral infections, clinical-pathological correlation is needed to determine significance. Of note, diagnostic assays on central nervous system or cardiac tissues from immunocompetent patients with prolonged disease courses are most often negative. Histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular studies performed on clinical specimens also provide insight into enteroviral tissue tropism and pathogenesis. PMID:25211036

Muehlenbachs, Atis; Bhatnagar, Julu; Zaki, Sherif R

2015-01-01

139

Sudden unexpected death related to enterovirus myocarditis: histopathology, immunohistochemistry and molecular pathology diagnosis at post-mortem  

PubMed Central

Background Viral myocarditis is a major cause of sudden unexpected death in children and young adults. Until recently, coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) has been the most commonly implicated virus in myocarditis. At present, no standard diagnosis is generally accepted due to the insensitivity of traditional diagnostic tests. This has prompted health professionals to seek new diagnostic approaches, which resulted in the emergence of new molecular pathological tests and a more detailed immunohistochemical and histopathological analysis. When supplemented with immunohistochemistry and molecular pathology, conventional histopathology may provide important clues regarding myocarditis underlying etiology. Methods This study is based on post-mortem samples from sudden unexpected death victims and controls who were investigated prospectively. Immunohistochemical investigations for the detection of the enteroviral capsid protein VP1 and the characterization and quantification of myocardial inflammatory reactions as well as molecular pathological methods for enteroviral genome detection were performed. Results Overall, 48 sudden unexpected death victims were enrolled. As for controls, 37 cases of unnatural traffic accident victims were studied. Enterovirus was detected in 6 sudden unexpected death cases (12.5?%). The control samples were completely enterovirus negative. Furthermore, the enteroviral capsid protein VP1 in the myocardium was detected in enterovirus-positive cases revealed by means of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Unlike control samples, immunohistochemical investigations showed a significant presence of T and B lymphocytes in sudden unexpected death victims. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate clearly a higher prevalence of viral myocarditis in cases of sudden unexpected death compared to control subjects, suggesting that coxsackie B enterovirus may contribute to myocarditis pathogenesis significantly. PMID:22966951

2012-01-01

140

Comparison of diagnostic clinical samples and environmental sampling for enterovirus and parechovirus surveillance in Scotland, 2010 to 2012.  

PubMed

Human enteroviruses (EV) and parechoviruses (HPeV) within the family Picornaviridae are the most common causes of viral central nervous system (CNS)-associated infections including meningitis and neonatal sepsis-like disease. The frequencies of EV and HPeV types identified in clinical specimens collected in Scotland over an eight-year period were compared to those identified in sewage surveillance established in Edinburgh. Of the 35 different EV types belonging to four EV species (A to D) and the four HPeV types detected in this study, HPeV3 was identified as the most prevalent picornavirus in cerebrospinal fluid samples, followed by species B EV. Interestingly, over half of EV and all HPeV CNS-associated infections were observed in young infants (younger than three months). Detection of species A EV including coxsackievirus A6 and EV71 in clinical samples and sewage indicates that these viruses are already widely circulating in Scotland. Furthermore, species C EV were frequently identified EV in sewage screening but they were not present in any of 606 EV-positive clinical samples studied, indicating their likely lower pathogenicity. Picornavirus surveillance is important not only for monitoring the changing epidemiology of these infections but also for the rapid identification of spread of emerging EV and/or HPeV types. PMID:24762664

Harvala, H; Calvert, J; Van Nguyen, D; Clasper, L; Gadsby, N; Molyneaux, P; Templeton, K; McWilliams Leitch, C; Simmonds, P

2014-01-01

141

Parvovirus B19 Infection in Human Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Human parvovirus B19 infection is widespread. Approximately 30-50% of pregnant women are non-immune and vertical transmission is common following maternal infection in pregnancy. Fetal infection may be associated with a normal outcome but fetal death may also occur without ultrasound evidence of infections sequelae. B19 infection should be considered in any case of non-immune hydrops. Diagnosis is mainly through serology and PCR. Surveillance requires sequential ultrasound and Doppler screening for signs of fetal anemia, heart failure, and hydrops. Immunoglobulins antiviral and vaccination are not yet available but intrauterine transfusion in selected cases can be lifesaving. PMID:21040396

Lamont, Ronald F.; Sobel, Jack; Vaisbuch, Edi; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Kim, Sun Kwon; Uldbjerg, Niels; Romero, Roberto

2010-01-01

142

Long-Term Immunogenicity Studies of Formalin-Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Whole-Virion Vaccine in Macaques  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases in Asia during the past decades and no vaccine is available. A formalin-inactivated EV71 candidate vaccine (EV71vac) based on B4 subgenotype has previously been developed and found to elicit strong neutralizing antibody responses in mice and humans. In this study, we evaluated the long-term immunogenicity and safety of this EV71vac in a non-human primate model. Juvenile macaques were immunized at 0, 3 and 6 weeks either with 10 or 5 µg doses of EV71vac formulated with AlPO4 adjuvant, or PBS as control. During the 56 weeks of studies, no fever nor local redness and swelling at sites of injections was observed in the immunized macaques. After single immunization, 100% seroconversion based on 4-fold increased in neutralization titer (Nt) was detected in EV71vac immunized monkeys but not PBS controls. A dose-dependent IgG antibody response was observed in monkeys receiving EV71vac immunization. The Nt of EV71vac immunized macaques had reached the peak after 3 vaccinations, then decreased gradually; however, the GMT of neutralizing antibody in the EV71vac immunized macaques were still above 100 at the end of the study. Correspondingly, both dose- and time-dependent interferon-? and CD4+ T cell responses were detected in monkeys receiving EV71vac. Interestingly, similar to human responses, the dominant T cell epitopes of macaques were identified mainly in VP2 and VP3 regions. In addition, strong cross-neutralizing antibodies against most EV71 subgenotypes except some C2 and C4b strains, and Coxsackievirus A16 were observed. In summary, our results indicate that EV71vac elicits dose-dependent T-cell and antibody responses in macaques that could be a good animal model for evaluating the long-term immune responses elicited by EV71 vaccines. PMID:25197967

Liu, Chia-Chyi; Hwang, Chyi-Sing; Yang, Wun-Syue; Tsai, Dan-Chin; Wu, Sze-Hsien; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Chow, Yen-Hung; Wu, Suh-Chin; Wang, Jen-Ren; Chiang, Jen-Ron; Huang, Chin-Cheng; Pan, Chien-Hsiung; Chong, Pele

2014-01-01

143

WNT10B mutations in human obesity  

PubMed Central

Aims/hypothesis Recent studies suggest that wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 10B (WNT10B) may play a role in the negative regulation of adipocyte differentiation in vitro and in vivo. In order to determine whether mutations in WNT10B contribute to human obesity, we screened two independent populations of obese subjects for mutations in this gene. Subjects and methods We studied 96 subjects with severe obesity of early onset (less than 10 years of age) from the UK Genetics of Obesity Study and 115 obese Italian subjects of European origin. Results One proband with early-onset obesity was found to be heterozygous for a C256Y mutation, which abrogated the ability of WNT10B to activate canonical WNT signalling and block adipogenesis and was not found in 600 control alleles. All relatives of the proband who carried this allele were either overweight or obese. Three other rare missense variants were found in obese probands, but these did not clearly cosegregate with obesity in family studies and one (P301S), which was found in three unrelated subjects with early-onset obesity, had normal functional properties. Conclusions/interpretation These mutations represent the first naturally occurring missense variants of WNT10B. While the pedigree analysis in the case of C256Y WNT10B does not provide definitive proof of a causal link of this variant with obesity, the finding of a non-functioning WNT10B allele in a human family affected by obesity should encourage further study of this gene in other obese populations. PMID:16477437

Christodoulides, C.; Scarda, A.; Granzotto, M.; Milan, G.; Dalla Nora, E.; Keogh, J.; De Pergola, G.; Stirling, H.; Pannacciulli, N.; Sethi, J. K.; Federspil, G.; Vidal-Puig, A.; Farooqi, I. S.; O’Rahilly, S.; Vettor, R.

2015-01-01

144

Short Communication: New Recognition Of Enterovirus Infections In Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus)  

PubMed Central

An enterovirus was cultured from an erosive tongue lesion of a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). The morphology of virions on negative staining electron microscopy was consistent with those of enteroviruses. Analysis of 2613 bp of the polyprotein gene identified the isolate as a novel enterovirus strain, tentatively named bottlenose dolphin enterovirus (BDEV), that nests within the species Bovine enterovirus. Serologic evidence of exposure to enteroviruses was common in both free ranging and managed collection dolphins. Managed collection dolphins were more likely to have high antibody levels, although the highest levels were reported in free ranging populations. Associations between enterovirus antibody levels, and age, sex, complete blood counts, and clinical serum biochemistries were explored. Dolphins with higher antibody levels were more likely to be hyperproteinemic and hyperglobulinemic. PMID:19581059

Nollens, Hendrik H.; Rivera, Rebecca; Palacios, Gustavo; Wellehan, James F. X.; Saliki, Jeremiah T.; Caseltine, Shannon L.; Smith, Cynthia R.; Jensen, Eric D.; Hui, Jeffrey; Lipkin, W. Ian; Yochem, Pamela K.; Wells, Randall S.; St. Leger, Judy; Venn-Watson, Stephanie

2014-01-01

145

Pathological examinations of an enterovirus 71 infection: an autopsy case  

PubMed Central

We report an 8-month-old female infant with the fatal enterovirus 71 infection here. Clinically, she developed respiratory failure and severe pulmonary edema rapidly. Histologically, the lung specimen showed diffuse, severe pulmonary congestion and edema with focal intra-alveolar hemorrhage and typical features of acute encephalitis were easily identified under light microscope. Immunohistochemically, enterovirus 71 antigen was positive in the cerebella and brainstem. We measured the viral loads of different tissues and found that the brainstem and mesenteric lymph nodes showed the highest viral loads among all tissues. We hope that our case report may help to have a better understanding of the enterovirus 71 infection and provide clues to the prevention and treatment of this disease. PMID:25197403

Gao, Lulu; Lin, Peixin; Liu, Shuguang; Lei, Bin; Chen, Qing; Yu, Shouyi; Shen, Hong

2014-01-01

146

Pathological examinations of an enterovirus 71 infection: an autopsy case.  

PubMed

We report an 8-month-old female infant with the fatal enterovirus 71 infection here. Clinically, she developed respiratory failure and severe pulmonary edema rapidly. Histologically, the lung specimen showed diffuse, severe pulmonary congestion and edema with focal intra-alveolar hemorrhage and typical features of acute encephalitis were easily identified under light microscope. Immunohistochemically, enterovirus 71 antigen was positive in the cerebella and brainstem. We measured the viral loads of different tissues and found that the brainstem and mesenteric lymph nodes showed the highest viral loads among all tissues. We hope that our case report may help to have a better understanding of the enterovirus 71 infection and provide clues to the prevention and treatment of this disease. PMID:25197403

Gao, Lulu; Lin, Peixin; Liu, Shuguang; Lei, Bin; Chen, Qing; Yu, Shouyi; Shen, Hong

2014-01-01

147

Multicenter Beta Trial of the GeneXpert Enterovirus Assay?  

PubMed Central

The GeneXpert Dx system (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) is a fully integrated and automated nucleic acid sample preparation, amplification, and real-time detection system. It consists of an instrument, a personal computer, and disposable fluidic cartridges. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of the GeneXpert enterovirus assay (GXEA) were determined with a panel of 63 different enterovirus serotypes and 24 other microorganisms, respectively. The potential for blood, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and excess protein to interfere with the assay was also assessed. The performance parameters of the GXEA were determined at three sites with 102 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from patients with suspected meningitis. All samples were tested for enterovirus RNA with locally developed reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assays at the trial sites and with a seminested RT-PCR and an analyte-specific reagent (Cepheid) at a reference laboratory. The 5? nontranslated region was the target for all of the PCR assays except the seminested RT-PCR, which amplified a VP1 sequence. The VP1 amplicon was sequenced to identify the enterovirus types. Consensus reference laboratory RT-PCR results were used to classify cases of enteroviral meningitis. The GXEA detected all of the enterovirus serotypes and none of the other microorganisms tested except rhinovirus 16. The assay was unaffected by moderate amounts of blood or blood components. Thirty-six (35%) of the CSF samples tested had at least one positive PCR result. Eleven different enterovirus serotypes were identified in the positive samples. The GXEA had a sensitivity of 97.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.7 to 99.9%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 94.6 to 100%) for the diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis. PMID:17251395

Kost, Christine B.; Rogers, Beverly; Oberste, M. Steven; Robinson, Christine; Eaves, Brenda L.; Leos, Kristi; Danielson, Susan; Satya, Malini; Weir, Fred; Nolte, Frederick S.

2007-01-01

148

Characterization of a novel porcine enterovirus in domestic pig in Hungary.  

PubMed

Porcine enteroviruses (PEVs) of genus Enterovirus are small, non-enveloped viruses with single-stranded, positive sense genomic RNA, belonging to the family Picornaviridae. The discovery of two distinct serotypes (PEV9 and 10) was first reported in 1979. Despite the sporadic detection and partial genome sequences of these viruses our knowledge about the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of PEV types in domestic pigs is very deficient. In this study, we identified a novel PEV from fecal samples of clinically healthy pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) in Hungary by RT-PCR using human enterovirus generic primer pairs for 5'UTR region, with subsequent partial VP1 and complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Among 45 fecal and blood sample pairs collected at the same farm from domestic pigs divided into three age groups (10 days, 4 weeks, and 3 months of age, N = 15 each group) six (40%) of the 15 fecal samples of 10-day-old pigs were enterovirus-positive. PEV was not detected in serum samples. Sequence- and phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome of swine/K23/2008/HUN (HQ702854) show relationship to PEV strains but it is separated from the PEV9 and 10, especially in structural regions. Swine/K23/2008/HUN has average of 77 and 75% amino acid identity in the P1 region, and only 61% in VP1 region to PEV9 and 10, respectively. The partial VP1 sequences of the Hungarian PEV strains show 99% nucleotide identity compared to each other. PEVs could be capable of at least local endemic spread among newborn piglets and cause no clinical symptoms or viraemia. Sequence data indicates that the Hungarian PEV strain belongs to a novel PEV. To clarify the taxonomic confusion related to PEV--as a consequence of recent extensive taxonomic changes among porcine enteric picornaviruses--we propose that PEV9 and PEV10 should be reclassified as PEV1 and PEV2. In this classification swine/K23/2008/HUN represents PEV3. PMID:21504800

Boros, Ákos; Pankovics, Péter; Reuter, Gábor

2011-07-01

149

A Novel, Broad-Spectrum Inhibitor of Enterovirus Replication That Targets Host Cell Factor Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase III?  

PubMed Central

Despite their high clinical and socioeconomic impacts, there is currently no approved antiviral therapy for the prophylaxis or treatment of enterovirus infections. Here we report on a novel inhibitor of enterovirus replication, compound 1, 2-fluoro-4-(2-methyl-8-(3-(methylsulfonyl)benzylamino)imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazin-3-yl)phenol. This compound exhibited a broad spectrum of antiviral activity, as it inhibited all tested species of enteroviruses and rhinoviruses, with 50% effective concentrations ranging between 4 and 71 nM. After a lengthy resistance selection process, coxsackievirus mutants resistant to compound 1 were isolated that carried substitutions in their 3A protein. Remarkably, the same substitutions were recently shown to provide resistance to inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III? (PI4KIII?), a lipid kinase that is essential for enterovirus replication, suggesting that compound 1 may also target this host factor. Accordingly, compound 1 directly inhibited PI4KIII? in an in vitro kinase activity assay. Furthermore, the compound strongly reduced the PI 4-phosphate levels of the Golgi complex in cells. Rescue of coxsackievirus replication in the presence of compound 1 by a mutant PI4KIII? carrying a substitution in its ATP-binding pocket revealed that the compound directly binds the kinase at this site. Finally, we determined that an analogue of compound 1, 3-(3-fluoro-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methyl-N-(pyridin-4-ylmethyl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazin-8-amine, is well tolerated in mice and has a dose-dependent protective activity in a coxsackievirus serotype B4-induced pancreatitis model. PMID:23896472

van der Schaar, Hilde M.; Leyssen, Pieter; Thibaut, Hendrik J.; de Palma, Armando; van der Linden, Lonneke; Lanke, Kjerstin H. W.; Lacroix, Céline; Verbeken, Erik; Conrath, Katja; MacLeod, Angus M.; Mitchell, Dale R.; Palmer, Nicholas J.; van de Poël, Hervé; Andrews, Martin

2013-01-01

150

Recombination in the Evolution of Enterovirus C Species Sub-Group that Contains Types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99  

PubMed Central

Genetic recombination is considered to be a very frequent phenomenon among enteroviruses (Family Picornaviridae, Genus Enterovirus). However, the recombination patterns may differ between enterovirus species and between types within species. Enterovirus C (EV-C) species contains 21 types. In the capsid coding P1 region, the types of EV-C species cluster further into three sub-groups (designated here as A–C). In this study, the recombination pattern of EV-C species sub-group B that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99 was determined using partial 5?UTR and VP1 sequences of enterovirus strains isolated during poliovirus surveillance and previously published complete genome sequences. Several inter-typic recombination events were detected. Furthermore, the analyses suggested that inter-typic recombination events have occurred mainly within the distinct sub-groups of EV-C species. Only sporadic recombination events between EV-C species sub-group B and other EV-C sub-groups were detected. In addition, strict recombination barriers were inferred for CVA-21 genotype C and CVA-24 variant strains. These results suggest that the frequency of inter-typic recombinations, even within species, may depend on the phylogenetic position of the given viruses. PMID:24722726

Smura, Teemu; Blomqvist, Soile; Vuorinen, Tytti; Ivanova, Olga; Samoilovich, Elena; Al-Hello, Haider; Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Hovi, Tapani; Roivainen, Merja

2014-01-01

151

Adaptation of an ICAM-1-Tropic Enterovirus to the Mouse Respiratory Tract?  

PubMed Central

Respiratory tract (RT) infections by members of the enterovirus (EV) genus of the Picornaviridae family are the most frequent cause for the common cold and a major factor in the exacerbation of chronic pulmonary diseases. The lack of a practical small-animal model for these infections has obstructed insight into pathogenic mechanisms of the common cold and their role in chronic RT illness and has hampered preclinical evaluation of antiviral strategies. Despite significant efforts, it has been difficult to devise rodent models that exhibit viral replication in the RT. This is due mainly to well-known intracellular host restrictions of EVs with RT tropism in rodent cells. We report the evolution of variants of the common-cold-causing coxsackievirus A21, an EV with tropism for the human intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (hICAM-1), through serial passage in the lungs of mice transgenic for the hICAM-1 gene. This process was accompanied by multiple changes in the viral genome, suggesting exquisite adaptation of hICAM-1-tropic enteroviruses to the specific growth conditions within the RT. In vivo mouse RT-adapted, variant coxsackievirus A21 exhibited replication competence in the lungs of hICAM-1 transgenic mice, providing a basis for unraveling EV-host interactions in the mouse RT. PMID:21450825

Wang, Eric S.; Dobrikova, Elena; Goetz, Christian; Dufresne, Andrew T.; Gromeier, Matthias

2011-01-01

152

Host Factors in Enterovirus 71 Replication ?  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections continue to remain an important public health problem around the world, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. There is a significant mortality rate following such infections, and there is neither any proven therapy nor a vaccine for EV71. This has spurred much fundamental research into the replication of the virus. In this review, we discuss recent work identifying host cell factors which regulate the synthesis of EV71 RNA and proteins. Three of these proteins, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1), far-upstream element-binding protein 2 (FBP2), and FBP1 are nuclear proteins which in EV71-infected cells are relocalized to the cytoplasm, and they influence EV71 internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity. hnRNP A1 stimulates IRES activity but can be replaced by hnRNP A2. FBP2 is a negative regulatory factor with respect to EV71 IRES activity, whereas FBP1 has the opposite effect. Two other proteins, hnRNP K and reticulon 3, are required for the efficient synthesis of viral RNA. The cleavage stimulation factor 64K subunit (CstF-64) is a host protein that is involved in the 3? polyadenylation of cellular pre-mRNAs, and recent work suggests that in EV71-infected cells, it may be cleaved by the EV71 3C protease. Such a cleavage would impair the processing of pre-mRNA to mature mRNAs. Host cell proteins play an important role in the replication of EV71, but much work remains to be done in order to understand how they act. PMID:21715481

Shih, Shin-Ru; Stollar, Victor; Li, Mei-Ling

2011-01-01

153

Replication strategy of human hepatitis B virus  

SciTech Connect

To study the replication strategy of the human hepatitis B virus, the 5' end of the RNA pregenome and the initiation sites of DNA plus and minus strands have been mapped. The RNA pregenome was found to be terminally redundant by 120 nucleotides; it is initiated within the pre-C region and may also function as mRNA for synthesis of the major core protein and the hepatitis B virus reverse transcriptase. The hepatitis B virus DNA minus strand is initiated within the direct repeat sequence DR1, it contains a terminal redundancy of up to eight nucleotides, and its synthesis does not require any template switch. The DNA plus strand is primed by a short oligoribonucleotide probably derived from the 5' end of the RNA pregenome, and its synthesis is initiated close to the direct repeat sequence DR2. For its elongation to pass the discontinuity in the DNA minus strand an intramolecular template switch occurs using the terminal redundancy of this template. Thus, the route of reverse transcription and DNA replication of hepatitis B viruses is fundamentally different from that of retroviruses.

Will, H.; Reiser, W.; Weimer, T.; Pfaff, E.; Buescher, M.; Sprengel, R.; Cattaneo, R.; Schaller, H.

1987-03-01

154

ENTEROVIRUSES IN SLUDGE: MULTIYEAR EXPERIENCE WITH FOUR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors describe their experience with the isolation of viruses from four treatment plants located in different geographic areas. Over a period of 3 years, 297 enteroviruses were isolated from 307 sludge samples. The highest frequency of viral isolation (92%), including multi...

155

Enterovirus replication: go with the (counter)flow.  

PubMed

All (+)RNA viruses replicate on distinct membranous domains; however, how they induce and maintain their unique lipid composition is largely unknown. Two recent studies reveal that enteroviruses harness the PI4P-cholestrol exchange cycle driven by OSBP1 protein and PI4 kinase(s), and that blocking the dynamic lipid flow inhibits virus replication. PMID:25748799

Nchoutmboube, Jules; Ford-Siltz, Lauren A; Belov, George A

2015-04-01

156

Detection of enteroviruses in groundwater with the polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed Central

Standard methods for the detection of enteroviruses in environmental samples involve the use of cell culture, which is expensive and time-consuming. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an attractive method for the detection of enteroviruses in water because primary cell culture is not needed and the increased sensitivity of PCR allows detection of the low numbers of target DNAs and RNAs usually found in environmental samples. However, environmental samples often contain substances that inhibit PCR amplification of target DNA and RNA. Procedures that remove substances that interfere with the amplification process need to be developed if PCR is to be successfully applied to environmental samples. An RNA-PCR assay for the detection of enteroviruses in water was developed and used to test a variety of groundwater concentrates and humic acid solutions seeded with poliovirus type 1. The groundwater samples and humic acid solutions were treated with Sephadex G-50, Sephadex G-100, Sephadex G-200, Chelex-100 resin, and a mixed bed resin to remove PCR-inhibitory material from the samples. Sephadex G-100 in combination with Chelex-100 was found to be very effective in removing inhibitory factors for the detection of enteroviruses in groundwater concentrates by PCR. Viruses were detected in two of the groundwater concentrates by the RNA-PCR assay after treatment with Sephadex G-100 plus Chelex-100. This was confirmed by tissue culture, suggesting that the treatment protocol and, subsequently, the RNA-PCR assay are applicable for the detection of enteroviruses in environmental samples. Images PMID:7685998

Abbaszadegan, M; Huber, M S; Gerba, C P; Pepper, I L

1993-01-01

157

Human B cell defects in perspective  

PubMed Central

While primary immune defects are generally considered to lead to severe and easily recognized disease in infants and children, a number of genetic defects impairing B cell function may not be clinically apparent or diagnosed until adult life. The commonest of these is common variable immune deficiency, the genetic origins of which are beginning to be at least partially understood. CVID affects ? 1/25,000 Caucasians and is characterized by a marked reduction in serum IgG, almost always in serum IgA, and reduced serum IgM in about half of all cases; these defects continue to provide an opportunity to investigate the genes necessary for B cell function in humans. Recently, a small number of genes necessary for normal B cell function have been identified in consanguineous families leading to varying degrees of hypogammaglobulinemia and loss of antibody production. In other studies, whole-exome sequencing and copy number variation, applied to large cohorts, have extended research into understanding both the genetic basis of this syndrome and the clinical phenotypes of CVID. PMID:22477523

2012-01-01

158

Preclinical Evaluation of the Immunogenicity and Safety of an Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Candidate Vaccine  

PubMed Central

Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality from Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) and neurological complications, particularly in young children in the Asia-Pacific region. There are no vaccines or antiviral therapies currently available for prevention or treatment of HFMD caused by EV71. Therefore, the development of therapeutic and preventive strategies against HFMD is of growing importance. We report the immunogenic and safety profile of inactivated, purified EV71 preparations formulated with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant in preclinical studies in mice and rabbits. In mice, the candidate vaccine formulations elicited high neutralizing antibody responses. A toxicology study of the vaccine formulations planned for human use performed in rabbits showed no vaccine-related pathological changes and all animals remained healthy. Based on these preclinical studies, Phase 1 clinical testing of the EV71 inactivated vaccine was initiated. PMID:24244774

Hwa, Shi-Hsia; Lee, Yock Ann; Brewoo, Joseph N.; Partidos, Charalambos D.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Santangelo, Joseph D.

2013-01-01

159

Detection of enterovirus RNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using NucliSens EasyQ Enterovirus assay.  

PubMed

Rapid detection of enterovirus (EV) infections is essential in the management of aseptic meningitis. Molecular approaches have opened the way to such rapid, but also specific and sensitive, diagnostic tests. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the CE marked NucliSens EasyQ Enterovirus assay with an in-house two-step RT-PCR assay using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and throat swab samples. In addition, specificity was tested with clinical isolates positive for viruses with clinical importance in CSF samples. For nucleic acid extraction, the NucliSens miniMAG and NucliSens magnetic extraction reagents were used. Subsequently real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) RNA amplification was performed using NucliSens EasyQ basic kit reagents and NucliSens EasyQ Enterovirus reagents. An EV-specific internal homologous control (IC) RNA was used to monitor the entire NucliSens EasyQ procedure at the individual sample level. No IC but an external inhibition control was available for the RT-PCR method. For the NucliSens EasyQ procedure, amplification and real-time detection reactions were carried out in the NucliSens EasyQ analyzer. The real-time NASBA enterovirus detection was based on NASBA amplification and real-time molecular beacon technology. Data were analyzed using the manufacturer's software on the NucliSens EasyQ analyzer. For the in-house assay, RT-PCR amplicons were detected using agarose gel analysis. The analysis of clinical samples positive for HSV-1, HSV-2, adenovirus, CMV, VZV, mumps and rhinovirus were all negative by NucliSens EasyQ Enterovirus assay. Three rhinovirus samples were, however, strongly positive in RT-PCR. A total of 141 clinical samples were retrospectively tested, including 126 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples and 15 throat swabs. The 91 CSF samples were negative by both methods, 31 CSF samples and 14 throat swab samples were positive by both methods. The four CSF samples were positive by RT-PCR only. One throat swab sample was negative in NucliSens EasyQ but positive in RT-PCR. The sensitivity and specificity of both methods seem to be more or less comparable. However, the in-house RT-PCR assay appears to amplify some rhinovirus strains and should therefore not be used for throat swab samples. NucliSens EasyQ Enterovirus assay gave more invalid results than the in-house RT-PCR, which is obvious taken into account the difference in quality control between the CE marked NucliSens EasyQ Enterovirus assay and the in-house enterovirus assay. The NucliSens EasyQ procedure can be completed within 5h versus 9.5h for the RT-PCR. NucliSens EasyQ Enterovirus assay showed to be a standardized, rapid, specific, sensitive and reliable procedure for the detection of enterovirus RNA. PMID:15722029

Capaul, S E; Gorgievski-Hrisoho, M

2005-03-01

160

Human-Automation Interaction By Thomas B. Sheridan & Raja Parasuraman  

E-print Network

89 CHAPTER 2 Human-Automation Interaction By Thomas B. Sheridan & Raja Parasuraman Automation does not mean humans are replaced; quite the opposite. Increasingly, humans are asked to interact-free task for either the system designer or the human operator/automation supervisor, especially as computer

Parasuraman, Raja

161

Mangrove forests and human security1 Bradley B. Walters*  

E-print Network

Review Mangrove forests and human security1 Bradley B. Walters* Address: Department of Geography of `environment and security' and examines their relevance in understanding human­mangrove interactions and human security. Research on human­mangrove interactions suggests that mangrove forests illustrate

Walters, Bradley B.

162

Functional Comparison of SCARB2 and PSGL1 as Receptors for Enterovirus 71  

PubMed Central

Human scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2), and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL1) have been identified to be the cellular receptors for enterovirus 71 (EV71). We compared the EV71 infection efficiencies of mouse L cells that expressed SCARB2 (L-SCARB2) and PSGL1 (L-PSGL1) and the abilities of SCARB2 and PSGL1 to bind to the virus. L-SCARB2 cells bound a reduced amount of EV71 compared to L-PSGL1 cells. However, EV71 could infect L-SCARB2 cells more efficiently than L-PSGL1 cells. The results suggested that the difference in the binding capacities of the two receptors was not the sole determinant of the infection efficiency and that SCARB2 plays an essential role after attaching to virions. Therefore, we examined the viral entry into L-SCARB2 cells and L-PSGL1 cells by immunofluorescence microscopy. In both cells, we detected internalized EV71 virions that colocalized with an early endosome marker. We then performed a sucrose density gradient centrifugation analysis to evaluate viral uncoating. After incubating the EV71 virion with L-SCARB2 cells or soluble SCARB2 under acidic conditions below pH 6.0, we observed that part of the native virion was converted into an empty capsid that lacked both genomic RNA and VP4 capsid proteins. The results suggested that the uncoating of EV71 requires both SCARB2 and an acidic environment and occurs after the internalization of the virus-receptor complex into endosomes. However, the empty capsid formation was not observed after incubation with L-PSGL1 cells or soluble PSGL1 under any of the tested pH conditions. These results indicated that SCARB2 is capable of viral binding, viral internalization, and viral uncoating and that the low infection efficiency of L-PSGL1 cells is due to the inability of PSGL1 to induce viral uncoating. The characterization of SCARB2 as an uncoating receptor greatly contributes to the understanding of the early steps of EV71 infection. PMID:23302872

Yamayoshi, Seiya; Ohka, Seii; Fujii, Ken

2013-01-01

163

Expression of enterovirus 71 capsid protein VP1 in Escherichia coli and its clinical application  

PubMed Central

The VPl gene of enterovirus 71 (EV71) was synthesized, construct a recombinant plasmid pET15b/VP1 and expressed in E. coli BL21. The recombinant VP1 protein could specifically react with EV71-infected patient sera without the cross-reaction with serum antibodies of coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), A4, A5, B3 and B5 as well as echovirus 6. In acute and convalescent phases, IgM and IgG antibodies of 182 serum samples were detected by ELISA with recombinant VP1 protein as a coated antigen. The results showed that the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of IgM antibodies in serum samples for the diagnosis of EV71 infection were 90.1, 98.4, 98.8 and 88.7%, respectively; similarly, those of IgG antibodies in serum samples were 82.4, 89.1, 91.5 and 78.1%, respectively. Five of 80 samples (6.25%) from CA16-infected patients were detected positive by ELISA with recombinant VP1 protein in which indicated the cross reactions and 0 of 5 samples from patients infected with other enteroviruses including CA4, CA5, CB3, CB5 and echovirus 6. Therefore, the recombinant VP1 protein of EV7l may provide a theoretical reference for establishing an effective antibody screening of IgM for EV71-infected patients with clinically suspected hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). PMID:24688514

Shi, Mei; Zhou, Yaping; Cao, Limin; Ding, Cuijun; Ji, Yun; Jiang, Qinbo; Liu, Xiping; Li, Xiang; Hou, Xueling; Peng, Hongjun; Shi, Weifeng

2013-01-01

164

Exposure to enteroviruses and hepatitis A virus among divers in environmental waters in France, first biological and serological survey of a controlled cohort.  

PubMed

An epidemiological study of hepatitis A and enteroviruses was conducted in a military diving training school, by evaluating the viral contamination of water using an ultrafiltration concentration technique, and assessing seroconversion and the presence of virus in stool specimens obtained from 109 divers and 48 controls. Three of 29 water specimens were positive for enterovirus by cell culture and 9 by molecular hybridization. There was little or no risk of virus infection during the training course (49 h exposure) because there was no significant difference between divers and controls for both viral isolation and seroconversion. However, a higher percentage of coxsackievirus B4 and B5 seropositive divers suggests that these were more exposed during previous water training. No hepatitis A virus (HAV) detection and no seroconversion to HAV was observed. The rate of HAV seropositive subjects was 17% in this 24.5-year-old population. PMID:7995363

Garin, D; Fuchs, F; Crance, J M; Rouby, Y; Chapalain, J C; Lamarque, D; Gounot, A M; Aymard, M

1994-12-01

165

Genetic evolution of enterovirus 71: epidemiological and pathological implications.  

PubMed

Since its discovery in the 1970s, enterovirus 71 (EV71) has become one of the most pathogenic enterovirus serotypes causing recurrent outbreaks in different parts of the world. Three waves of outbreaks globally have been recorded over the last three decades and more recently active circulation of EV71 is evident amongst countries in South East Asia and beyond. There is evidence of a continuous evolution in its genetic make up which is likely to impact on its epidemiology and pathological potential. This review examines the molecular genetics and evolution of EV71 in relation to its epidemiological and pathological properties. A thorough understanding of the relationship between the genetic changes and the resulting host-virus interaction is essential for successful control. PMID:17487831

Bible, Jon M; Pantelidis, Panagiotis; Chan, Paul K S; Tong, C Y William

2007-01-01

166

Enterovirus removal by a full-scale tertiary treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A four-year study in which enteroviruses were monitored at a 56-ML\\/d (15-mgd) advanced wastewater treatment plant is summarized. The process train included high pH-lime treatment, air stripping, recarbonation, prechlorination, multimedia filtration, granular activated carbon adsorption, reverse osmosis demineralization, and final chlorination. The influent and effluent were sampled on the average of once per week. During this study, viruses were detected

Lawrence Y. C. Leong; David G. Argo; R. Rhodes Trussell

1983-01-01

167

Molecular epidemiology of echoviruses 11 and 30 in Russia: different properties of genotypes within an enterovirus serotype.  

PubMed

Over 100 known enterovirus serotypes differ in their epidemiological and pathogenic properties. Much less is known about variation of these features on a sub-serotype level, such as genotypes. Echovirus 11 (E11) and E30 are amongst the most frequent causative agents of aseptic meningitis. We studied the molecular epidemiology of these pathogens to evaluate potential epidemiological and pathogenic dissimilarities of their genotypes. The complete VP1 genome region was sequenced for 97 E11 and 62 E30 isolates collected in Russia from 2008 to 2012, and they were studied in comparison with all 140 E11 and 432 E30 sequences available in GenBank. A geographic pattern of genotype prevalence was observed for both types. Russian E11 isolates belonged mainly to A genotype, which is common in Asia, and D5, which is predominant in Europe. For E30, genotype III by classification of Ke et al. (2011), also termed genotype a by Bailly et al. (2009), was endemic in Russia from 2003 to 2012, while it was not detected in Europe and North America during this time. The E30 genotypes VI-B, VI-G, and VI-H (e, f and h) were regularly introduced from different countries, became predominant and vanished after no more than 4years. In addition to geographic patterns, E11 genotypes also differed by isolation source. Genotype A2 viruses were significantly more often found in sewage, compared to genotype D5 that was isolated from both sewage and human samples. In addition, there was evidence of a different capacity for international transfers among E11 GtA subclusters. PMID:25562123

Yarmolskaya, Maria S; Shumilina, Elena Yu; Ivanova, Olga E; Drexler, Jan Felix; Lukashev, Alexander N

2015-03-01

168

Interaction of human PDL1 and B7-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have pointed to the role of programmed death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) in regulating tolerance, chronic infection, and tumor immunity. Recently, we have identified murine B7-1 as a new binding partner for murine PD-L1. Human and mouse B7-1 share only 46% identity, leading us to question whether human B7-1 and PD-L1 can participate in a similar interaction. Here we

Manish J. Butte; Victor Peńa-Cruz; Mi-Jung Kim; Gordon J. Freeman; Arlene H. Sharpe

2008-01-01

169

Partial sequencing of the VP2 capsid gene for direct enterovirus genotyping in clinical specimens.  

PubMed

Typing of human enterovirus (EV) remains a major goal for diagnostic and epidemiological purposes. Whereas sequencing of the VP1 coding region is the reference standard for EV typing, a method relying on sequencing of the VP2 coding region has been proposed as an alternative; however, this has been validated only on cell culture supernatants. To avoid the selection of cultivable strains and to quicken the identification step, a new semi-nested PCR method targeting the VP2 region was developed by use of the CODEHOP strategy. After validation of the method on reference and clinical strains, a total of 352 clinical specimens found to be positive for EV RNA (138 with the GeneXpert EV kit and 214 with the Enterovirus R-gene kit) during a 3-year period (2010-2012) were analysed prospectively for VP2 genotyping. Overall, 204 (58%) specimens were typeable. A higher proportion of throat swab/stool specimens than of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens was found to be typeable (94 of 142 (66.2%) vs. 83 of 169 (49.1%), respectively, p <0.01 by the chi-square test). Moreover, the median Ct value obtained was lower for typeable specimens than for untypeable specimens (32.20 vs. 33.01, p <0.05, and 25.96 vs. 31.74, p <0.001, for the GeneXpert and R-gene tests, respectively, by the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test). These results suggest that, in cases of EV meningitis, a peripheral specimen (i.e. throat swab or stool) that is susceptible to exhibiting a higher viral load should be used in preference to CSF for identifying the causative EV genotype by use of the VP2 typing method without cell culture isolation. PMID:24372815

Ibrahim, W; Boukhadra, N; Nasri-Zoghlami, D; Berthelot, P; Omar, S; Bourlet, T; Pozzetto, B; Pillet, S

2014-09-01

170

EBNA3B-deficient EBV promotes B cell lymphomagenesis in humanized mice and is found in human tumors  

PubMed Central

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) persistently infects more than 90% of the human population and is etiologically linked to several B cell malignancies, including Burkitt lymphoma (BL), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), and diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Despite its growth transforming properties, most immune-competent individuals control EBV infection throughout their lives. EBV encodes various oncogenes, and of the 6 latency-associated EBV-encoded nuclear antigens, only EBNA3B is completely dispensable for B cell transformation in vitro. Here, we report that infection with EBV lacking EBNA3B leads to aggressive, immune-evading monomorphic DLBCL-like tumors in NOD/SCID/?c–/– mice with reconstituted human immune system components. Infection with EBNA3B-knockout EBV (EBNA3BKO) induced expansion of EBV-specific T cells that failed to infiltrate the tumors. EBNA3BKO-infected B cells expanded more rapidly and secreted less T cell–chemoattractant CXCL10, reducing T cell recruitment in vitro and T cell–mediated killing in vivo. B cell lines from 2 EBV-positive human lymphomas encoding truncated EBNA3B exhibited gene expression profiles and phenotypic characteristics similar to those of tumor-derived lines from the humanized mice, including reduced CXCL10 secretion. Screening EBV-positive DLBCL, HL, and BL human samples identified additional EBNA3B mutations. Thus, EBNA3B is a virus-encoded tumor suppressor whose inactivation promotes immune evasion and virus-driven lymphomagenesis. PMID:22406538

White, Robert E.; Rämer, Patrick C.; Naresh, Kikkeri N.; Meixlsperger, Sonja; Pinaud, Laurie; Rooney, Cliona; Savoldo, Barbara; Coutinho, Rita; Bödör, Csaba; Gribben, John; Ibrahim, Hazem A.; Bower, Mark; Nourse, Jamie P.; Gandhi, Maher K.; Middeldorp, Jaap; Cader, Fathima Z.; Murray, Paul; Münz, Christian; Allday, Martin J.

2012-01-01

171

Immunochemical evidence that human apoB differs when expressed in rodent versus human cells.  

PubMed

LDL from human apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) transgenic (HuBTg+/+) mice contains more triglyceride than LDL from normolipidemic subjects. To obtain novel monoclonal antibody (MAb) probes of apoB conformation, we generated hybridomas from HuBTg+/+ that had been immunized with LDL isolated from human plasma. One apoE-specific and four anti-apoB-100-specific hybridomas were identified. Two MAbs, 2E1 and 3D11, recognized an epitope in the amino-terminal 689 residues of apoB in native apoB-containing lipoproteins (LpBs) from human plasma or from the supernatant of human hepatoma HepG2 cells, but did not react with LpB from HuBTg+/+ mice or LpB secreted by human apoB-100-transfected rat McArdle 7777 hepatoma cells. 2E1 reacted weakly and 3D11 reacted strongly with apoB from HuBTg+/+ mice after SDS-PAGE. The lack of expression of the 2E1 and 3D11 epitopes on native LpB from HuBTg+/+ mice did not solely reflect the abnormal lipid composition of murine LpB. Both epitopes were detected in all human plasma samples tested and in all human plasma LpB classes. Therefore, human apoB expressed by rodent hepatocytes or hepatoma cells appears to adopt a different conformation or undergoes different posttranslational modification than apoB expressed in human hepatocytes or hepatoma cells. PMID:12562832

Wang, Xingyu; Chauhan, Vinita; Nguyen, Anh T; Schultz, Joshua; Davignon, Jean; Young, Stephen G; Boren, Jan; Innerarity, Thomas L; Rutai, Hui; Milne, Ross W

2003-03-01

172

Mutations in the nonstructural protein 3A confer resistance to the novel enterovirus replication inhibitor TTP-8307.  

PubMed

A novel compound, TTP-8307, was identified as a potent inhibitor of the replication of several rhino- and enteroviruses. TTP-8307 inhibits viral RNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner, without affecting polyprotein synthesis and/or processing. Drug-resistant variants of coxsackievirus B3 were all shown to carry at least one amino acid mutation in the nonstructural protein 3A. In particular, three mutations located in a nonstructured region preceding the hydrophobic domain (V45A, I54F, and H57Y) appeared to contribute to the drug-resistant phenotype. This region has previously been identified as a hot sport for mutations that resulted in resistance to enviroxime, the sole 3A-targeting enterovirus inhibitor reported thus far. This was corroborated by the fact that TTP-8307 and enviroxime proved cross-resistant. It is hypothesized that TTP-8307 and enviroxime disrupt proper interactions of 3A(B) with other viral or cellular proteins that are required for efficient replication. PMID:19237651

De Palma, Armando M; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; van der Linden, Lonneke; Lanke, Kjerstin; Heggermont, Ward; Ireland, Stephen; Andrews, Robert; Arimilli, Murty; Al-Tel, Taleb H; De Clercq, Erik; van Kuppeveld, Frank; Neyts, Johan

2009-05-01

173

Mutations in the Nonstructural Protein 3A Confer Resistance to the Novel Enterovirus Replication Inhibitor TTP-8307?  

PubMed Central

A novel compound, TTP-8307, was identified as a potent inhibitor of the replication of several rhino- and enteroviruses. TTP-8307 inhibits viral RNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner, without affecting polyprotein synthesis and/or processing. Drug-resistant variants of coxsackievirus B3 were all shown to carry at least one amino acid mutation in the nonstructural protein 3A. In particular, three mutations located in a nonstructured region preceding the hydrophobic domain (V45A, I54F, and H57Y) appeared to contribute to the drug-resistant phenotype. This region has previously been identified as a hot sport for mutations that resulted in resistance to enviroxime, the sole 3A-targeting enterovirus inhibitor reported thus far. This was corroborated by the fact that TTP-8307 and enviroxime proved cross-resistant. It is hypothesized that TTP-8307 and enviroxime disrupt proper interactions of 3A(B) with other viral or cellular proteins that are required for efficient replication. PMID:19237651

De Palma, Armando M.; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; van der Linden, Lonneke; Lanke, Kjerstin; Heggermont, Ward; Ireland, Stephen; Andrews, Robert; Arimilli, Murty; Al-Tel, Taleb H.; De Clercq, Erik; van Kuppeveld, Frank; Neyts, Johan

2009-01-01

174

A Novel Universal Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody against Enterovirus 71 That Targets the Highly Conserved “Knob” Region of VP3 Protein  

PubMed Central

Hand, foot and mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71(EV71) leads to the majority of neurological complications and death in young children. While putative inactivated vaccines are only now undergoing clinical trials, no specific treatment options exist yet. Ideally, EV71 specific intravenous immunoglobulins could be developed for targeted treatment of severe cases. To date, only a single universally neutralizing monoclonal antibody against a conserved linear epitope of VP1 has been identified. Other enteroviruses have been shown to possess major conformational neutralizing epitopes on both the VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins. Hence, we attempted to isolate such neutralizing antibodies against conformational epitopes for their potential in the treatment of infection as well as differential diagnosis and vaccine optimization. Here we describe a universal neutralizing monoclonal antibody that recognizes a conserved conformational epitope of EV71 which was mapped using escape mutants. Eight escape mutants from different subgenogroups (A, B2, B4, C2, C4) were rescued; they harbored three essential mutations either at amino acid positions 59, 62 or 67 of the VP3 protein which are all situated in the “knob” region. The escape mutant phenotype could be mimicked by incorporating these mutations into reverse genetically engineered viruses showing that P59L, A62D, A62P and E67D abolish both monoclonal antibody binding and neutralization activity. This is the first conformational neutralization epitope mapped on VP3 for EV71. PMID:24875055

Meng, Tao; Chow, Vincent Tak Kwong; Kwang, Jimmy

2014-01-01

175

Design and characterization of a novel human Granzyme B inhibitor.  

PubMed

The intracellular roles of Granzyme B (GrB) in immune-mediated cell killing have been extensively studied. Recent data also implicate GrB in extracellular pathways of inflammation, cytokine activation and autoimmunity. Targeting (GrB) provides a new pharmaceutical agent for various inflammatory disorders. Serpina3n is a mouse extracellular inhibitor of GrB. There is no apparent equivalent in humans. In this study, we used a novel applied genetics approach to engineer a new extracellular GrB serpin. A chimeric protein was generated in which the reactive center loop (RCL) of human extracellular antichymotrypsin (ACT) was replaced with that of serpina3n. This serpin contained 27 amino acid residues from the serpina3n RCL and the remaining 395 residues from human ACT. The insertion converted human ACT into a GrB-inhibitory serpin. Several critical residues were identified by scanning mutagenesis on the chimera and serpina3n. Targeted mutagenesis was conducted on wild-type human ACT by specifically substituting those critical residues, creating a novel inhibitor that contains 99.3% human ACT sequence with only three point mutations. Wild-type human ACT had a kass for GrB of 2.26 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1), whereas the novel inhibitor binds GrB with a kass of 7.65 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1). This new drug candidate can be developed in animal models and further tested in clinical trials to help us understand the role of GrB in numerous disorders. PMID:25492933

Marcet-Palacios, Marcelo; Ewen, Catherine; Pittman, Elliot; Duggan, Brenda; Carmine-Simmen, Katia; Fahlman, Richard P; Bleackley, R Chris

2015-01-01

176

Inhibition of enterovirus 71 entry by transcription factor XBP1  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IRE1 was activated but no XBP1 splicing was detected during enterovirus 71 infection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XBP1 was subject to translational shutoff by enterovirus 71-induced eIF4G cleavage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The uptake of UV-irradiated virus was decreased in XBP1-overexpressing cells. -- Abstract: Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) plays an important role in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), or unfolded protein, stress response by activating its downstream transcription factor X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1). We demonstrated previously that enterovirus 71 (EV71) upregulated XBP1 mRNA levels but did not activate spliced XBP1 (XBP1s) mRNA or its downstream target genes, EDEM and chaperones. In this study, we investigated further this regulatory mechanism and found that IRE1 was phosphorylated and activated after EV71 infection, whereas its downstream XBP1s protein level decreased. We also found that XBP1s was not cleaved directly by 2A{sup pro}, but that cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G by the EV71 2A{sup pro} protein may contribute to the decrease in XBP1s expression. Knockdown of XBP1 increased viral protein expression, and the synthesis of EV71 viral protein and the production of EV71 viral particles were inhibited in XBP1-overexpressing RD cells. When incubated with replication-deficient and UV-irradiated EV71, XBP1-overexpressing RD cells exhibited reduced viral RNA levels, suggesting that the inhibition of XBP1s by viral infection may underlie viral entry, which is required for viral replication. Our findings are the first indication of the ability of XBP1 to inhibit viral entry, possibly via its transcriptional activity in regulating molecules in the endocytic machinery.

Jheng, Jia-Rong; Lin, Chiou-Yan [Department of Biochemistry and Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Biochemistry and Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Horng, Jim-Tong, E-mail: jimtong@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Biochemistry and Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Biochemistry and Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Lau, Kean Seng [Department of Biochemistry and Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Biochemistry and Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China)

2012-04-20

177

Expression of functional recombinant human procathepsin B in mammalian cells.  

PubMed Central

Cathepsin B has been implicated in numerous pathobiological processes. In order to study its interactions with other proteins implicated in these processes, quantities of functional recombinant cathepsin B are needed. Therefore, we expressed recombinant human procathepsin B in mammalian cells (BSC-1 monkey kidney cells and HeLa human cervical carcinoma cells) using a vaccinia virus expression system. The recombinant human procathepsin B appeared to be authentic and expressed in its native conformation as indicated by: (1) N-terminal sequencing; (2) molecular size; (3) processing intracellularly to mature double-chain cathepsin B; (4) in vitro cleavage by pepsin to mature cathepsin B coincident with appearance of activity against a selective synthetic substrate; and (5) substrate/inhibitor profiles. This is the first report of the expression of functional recombinant human procathepsin B in mammalian cells. We also report a single-step immunoaffinity purification procedure for the isolation of electrophoretically pure proenzyme. By the methodologies described, human procathepsin B can now be obtained in high yield. This should facilitate studies of its interactions with protease inhibitors, other proteases, extracellular matrices, cell-surface proteins and biological substrates that may be of relevance to the pathobiological functions of this enzyme. PMID:8920982

Ren, W P; Fridman, R; Zabrecky, J R; Morris, L D; Day, N A; Sloane, B F

1996-01-01

178

Development of antiviral agents toward enterovirus 71 infection.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection remains a public health problem at a global level, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. The infection normally manifests as hand-foot-mouth disease; however, it is capable of developing into potentially fatal neurological complications. There is currently no approved vaccine or antiviral substance available for the prevention or treatment of EV71 infection. This paper, thus, reviews efforts to develop or discover synthetic as well as naturally occurring compounds directed against EV71 infection. The recent achievements in cellular receptors of EV71 are also highlighted, and their contribution to the development of antiviral drugs against EV71 is discussed in this article. PMID:24560700

Pourianfar, Hamid Reza; Grollo, Lara

2015-02-01

179

Apolipoprotein B-100: immunolocalization and synthesis in human intestinal mucosa.  

PubMed

Despite the evidence that the human small intestine produces two separate species of apoB mRNA encoding for B-100 and B-48, there is a paucity of data concerning the expression of the latter form in this organ. Using a high resolution immunogold approach, with specific polyclonal antibodies and a panel of monoclonal antibodies (2D8, 3A10, 4G3), both forms of apoB (B-48 and B-100) were revealed over enterocytes of pediatric intestinal samples. Intense labeling was observed over microvilli, apical smooth membrane vesicles, multivesicular bodies, the basolateral membrane, as well as the trans Golgi region. Only low labeling was found over the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER). Similar patterns of apoB distribution characterized both duodenal and jejunal regions. The presence of labeling over the Golgi apparatus and rER suggests a synthetic activity of both forms of apoB by the epithelial cells. To test this hypothesis, human intestine was incubated with [3H]leucine, homogenized, and subjected to immunoprecipitation for apoB. Immunoprecipitates contained radioactivity mainly in apoB-48 with relatively small amounts in apoB-100 when examined by NaDodSO4-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These findings were further supported by the biochemical determination of apoB-100 and apoB-48 in chylomicron particles isolated from thoracic duct lymph of a human donor. Taken together, our data suggest that the human intestine is able to synthesize and to express the apoB-100. PMID:2086693

Levy, E; Rochette, C; Londono, I; Roy, C C; Milne, R W; Marcel, Y L; Bendayan, M

1990-11-01

180

The Crystal Structure of the Human Hepatitis B Virus Capsid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis B is a small enveloped DNA virus that poses a major hazard to human health. The crystal structure of the T = 4 capsid has been solved at 3.3 Ĺ resolution, revealing a largely helical protein fold that is unusual for icosahedral viruses. The monomer fold is stabilized by a hydrophobic core that is highly conserved among human viral

S. A Wynne; R. A Crowther; A. G. W Leslie

1999-01-01

181

Human Capital, Bankruptcy and Capital Structure Jonathan B. Berk  

E-print Network

Human Capital, Bankruptcy and Capital Structure Jonathan B. Berk University of California, Berkeley to bearing their own human capital risk, while equity holders can diversify this risk away. In the presence derive a firm's optimal capital structure and managerial compensation contract when employees are averse

182

A1B: balanced. Human vulnerability to heat  

E-print Network

intense, frequent, and longer-lasting heat waves will exacerbate heat impacts on human health in the near heat stress calls using daily maximum Temperature,Phoenix emperical data predicted values (using TmaxA1B: balanced. Human vulnerability to heat can be define a function of heat exposure, sensitivity

Hall, Sharon J.

183

Enterovirus antibody levels during the first two years of life in prediabetic autoantibody-positive children  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Abstract\\u000a \\u000a   \\u000a \\u000a Aims\\/hypothesis. We evaluated the role of enterovirus infections in the pathogenesis of Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus by monitoring\\u000a enterovirus antibody levels in prediabetic children who turned positive for diabetes-associated autoantibodies in a prospective\\u000a birth cohort study. Methods. Serial serum samples taken during prospective observation starting at birth were analysed for IgG and IgA class antibodies\\u000a against enterovirus

K. Sadeharju; M. Lönnrot; T. Kimpimäki; K. Savola; S. Erkkilä; T. Kalliokoski; P. Savolainen; P. Koskela; J. Ilonen; O. Simell; M. Knip; H. Hyöty

2001-01-01

184

The ecology of enteroviruses in natural waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 100 different enteric viruses are known to be excreted in human feces. More than 1 million viruses may be excreted per gram of feces, and concentrations as high as 500,000 infectious virus particles per liter have been detected in raw sewage. Certain enteric viruses can persist for long periods of time in the environment. Reported survival times range

Joseph L. Melnick; Charles P. Gerba; Gerald Berg

1980-01-01

185

Clinical disease due to enterovirus D68 in adult hematologic malignancy patients and hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.  

PubMed

The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported over 1000 cases of severe respiratory disease in pediatric patients associated with enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in the fall of 2014. We sought to identify and define the clinical burden of disease due to EV-D68 in adult patients with hematologic malignancy or undergoing hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for EV-D68 was performed on all respiratory samples positive for human rhinovirus (HRV) or negative for all respiratory viruses by a laboratory-developed respiratory viral PCR panel from August 11, 2014, to November 7, 2014. Presumptive cases were defined as those with an EV-D68 PCR cycle threshold (CT) at least 4 cycles lower than the HRV CT for HRV-positive samples or any EV-D68 CT value for HRV-negative samples. Sequencing of a 150-bp fragment of the 5' noncoding region confirmed EV-D68 in 16 of 506 respiratory samples. Eight patients had a history of hematologic malignancy, and 6 of these had undergone HCT. Presentation ranged from mild upper respiratory symptoms to respiratory failure. EV-D68 can infect adult patients with hematologic malignancy and HCT recipients and may be associated with severe respiratory disease. Current commercial diagnostic assays cannot differentiate EV-D68 from other enteroviruses or HRV, and improved rapid diagnostic tools are needed. PMID:25593338

Waghmare, Alpana; Pergam, Steven A; Jerome, Keith R; Englund, Janet A; Boeckh, Michael; Kuypers, Jane

2015-03-12

186

Enterovirus71 (EV71) Utilise Host microRNAs to Mediate Host Immune System Enhancing Survival during Infection  

PubMed Central

Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a self-limiting viral disease that mainly affects infants and children. In contrast with other HFMD causing enteroviruses, Enterovirus71 (EV71) has commonly been associated with severe clinical manifestation leading to death. Currently, due to a lack in understanding of EV71 pathogenesis, there is no antiviral therapeutics for the treatment of HFMD patients. Therefore the need to better understand the mechanism of EV71 pathogenesis is warranted. We have previously reported a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) based model to study the pathogenesis of EV71. Using this system, we showed that knockdown of DGCR8, an essential cofactor for microRNAs biogenesis resulted in a reduction of EV71 replication. We also demonstrated that there are miRNAs changes during EV71 pathogenesis and EV71 utilise host miRNAs to attenuate antiviral pathways during infection. Together, data from this study provide critical information on the role of miRNAs during EV71 infection. PMID:25047717

Lui, Yan Long Edmund; Tan, Tuan Lin; Woo, Wee Hong; Timms, Peter; Hafner, Louise Marie; Tan, Kian Hwa; Tan, Eng Lee

2014-01-01

187

Protective Efficacy of VP1-Specific Neutralizing Antibody Associated with a Reduction of Viral Load and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Human SCARB2-Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

Hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus 16 (CVA16) in children have now become a severe public health issue in the Asian-Pacific region. Recently we have successfully developed transgenic mice expressing human scavenger receptor class B member 2 (hSCARB2, a receptor of EV71 and CVA16) as an animal model for evaluating the pathogenesis of enterovirus infections. In this study, hSCARB2-transgenic mice were used to investigate the efficacy conferred by a previously described EV71 neutralizing antibody, N3. A single injection of N3 effectively inhibited the HFMD-like skin scurfs in mice pre-infected with clinical isolate of EV71 E59 (B4 genotype) or prevented severe limb paralysis and death in mice pre-inoculated with 5746 (C2 genotype). This protection was correlated with remarkable reduction of viral loads in the brain, spinal cord and limb muscles. Accumulated viral loads and the associated pro-inflammatory cytokines were all reduced. The protective efficacy of N3 was not observed in animals challenged with CVA16. This could be due to dissimilarity sequences of the neutralizing epitope found in CVA16. These results indicate N3 could be useful in treating severe EV71 infections and the hSCARB2-transgenic mouse could be used to evaluate the protective efficacy of potential anti-enterovirus agent candidates. PMID:23936115

Chang, Hsuen-Wen; Lin, Yi-Wen; Ho, Hui-Min; Lin, Min-Han; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Shao, Hsiao-Yun; Chong, Pele; Sia, Charles; Chow, Yen-Hung

2013-01-01

188

Picornaviral capsid assembly: similarity of rhinovirus and enterovirus precursor subunits.  

PubMed

Cytoplasmic extracts of rhinovirus 1A-infected HeLa cells, pulsed 15 min with [3H]leucine, contained a 13S subunit which was rich in the capsid precursor, peptide 92. After a 30-min chase, most of the capsid-related protein sedimented in a 14S peak that contained equimolar amounts of the capsid peptides epsilon, alpha, and gamma, and some residual chain 92. The 14S subunit could be dissociated at pH 4.8 into 6S subunits containing only epsilon, alpha, and gamma chains in equal proportions, indicating that the 14S subunit is an oligomer of (epsilon gamma alpha) protomers. These subunits resemble subunits previously identified in the assembly of enteroviruses. These observations support the idea that rhinovirus assembly is basically similar to that of enteroviruses. Comparative studies on the peptide stoichiometry of the virion and the capsid precursor subunits indicate that rhinovirus 1A can contain as many as 11 immature protomers per virion. PMID:189086

McGregor, S; Rueckert, R R

1977-02-01

189

Kaempferol inhibits enterovirus 71 replication and internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity through FUBP and HNRP proteins.  

PubMed

Flavonoids are associated with multiple biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-enterovirus activity. An internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) required for viral protein translation is a potential drug target for enterovirus 71 (EV71). Regulation translation initiation requires the interaction of IRES specific trans-acting host factors with viral IRES element. By evaluation of 12 flavonoids against EV71 infection, we found that (a) 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, kaempferol, quercetin, hesperetin and hesperidin exhibited more than 80% of cell survival and inhibition of EV71 infection; however, no anti-oxidative effects were noted from these flavonoids; (b) among them, only 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, kaempferol and hesperetin showed 40% of viral IRES activity; (c) kaempferol interfered with EV71 virus replication and pseudotyped virus production; and (d) FUBP1, FUBP3, HNRPD, HNRH1 and HNRPF proteins are associated with EV71 5'-UTR as shown using RNA affinity pull-down assay coupled with LC-MS/MS analysis. We firstly found that kaempferol may change the composition of these IRES associated trans-acting factors, and affect IRES function and EV71 virus replication. These studies help not only to understand the IRES function but also the mechanism by which drug induced cellular proteins are acting against EV71 infection. PMID:25212137

Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Lai, Chien-Chen; Lan, Yu-Ching; Lai, Chih-Ho; Hung, Chien-Hui; Hsueh, Kai-Chung; Lin, Ting-Hsu; Chang, Hebron C; Wan, Lei; Sheu, Jim Jinn-Chyuan; Lin, Ying-Ju

2011-09-15

190

AN INTEGRATED CELL CULTURE/RT-PCR METHOD FOR DETECTING ENTEROVIRUS IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Echovirus and coxsackievirus can cause mild to severe disease following consumption of contaminated drinking water. However, comprehensive occurrence studies of enteroviruses in drinking water matrices are limited, in part because of the lack of available methods that are rapid, ...

191

Combined 5' UTR RFLP analysis and VP1 sequencing for epidemic investigation of enteroviruses.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses, the main cause of aseptic meningitis, consist of 100 serotypes, and many of them have been associated with large outbreaks. In the present study, a comparison of RFLP analysis of the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) and sequencing of both the 5'UTR and VP1 regions was conducted for epidemiological linkage of 27 clinical enterovirus strains. The clinical enterovirus strains were clustered into five restriction profile groups. Even though the restriction profile clusters of clinical isolates were not related to those of the respective prototype strains, epidemiological relationships between the members of each cluster were observed. The restriction profile clusters in the 5'UTR corresponded to the phylogenetic clusters in the VP1 genomic region. The incongruence between the topology of Gior strain in 5'UTR and VP1 phylogenetic trees indicates a recombination event. The proposed RFLP assay in combination with VP1 sequencing can offer crucial epidemiological information about the circulating enteroviruses. PMID:22983155

Kyriakopoulou, Zaharoula; Tsolis, Kostas; Pliaka, Vaia; Tsakogiannis, Dimitris; Ruether, Irina Georgia Anna; Gartzonika, Constantina; Levidiotou-Stefanou, Stamatina; Markoulatos, Panayotis

2013-01-01

192

A sensor-adaptor mechanism for enterovirus uncoating from structures of EV71  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a major agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease in children, can cause severe central nervous system disease and mortality. At present no vaccine or antiviral therapy is available. We have determined high-resolution structures for the mature virus and natural empty particles. The structure of the mature virus is similar to that of other enteroviruses, whilst the empty particles are dramatically expanded, with notable fissures, resembling elusive enterovirus uncoating intermediates not previously characterized in atomic detail. Hydrophobic capsid pockets within the EV71 capsid are collapsed in this expanded particle, providing a detailed explanation of the mechanism for receptor-binding triggered virus uncoating. The results provide a paradigm for enterovirus uncoating, in which the VP1 GH loop acts as an adaptor-sensor for the attachment of cellular receptors, converting heterologous inputs to a generic uncoating mechanism, spotlighting novel points for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22388738

Wang, Xiangxi; Peng, Wei; Ren, Jingshan; Hu, Zhongyu; Xu, Jiwei; Lou, Zhiyong; Li, Xumei; Yin, Weidong; Shen, Xinliang; Porta, Claudine; Walter, Thomas S.; Evans, Gwyndaf; Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin; Rowlands, David J.; Wang, Junzhi; Stuart, David I.; Fry, Elizabeth E.; Rao, Zihe

2012-01-01

193

Enterovirus type 71 2A protease functions as a transcriptional activator in yeast  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus type 71 (EV71) 2A protease exhibited strong transcriptional activity in yeast cells. The transcriptional activity of 2A protease was independent of its protease activity. EV71 2A protease retained its transcriptional activity after truncation of 40 amino acids at the N-terminus but lost this activity after truncation of 60 amino acids at the N-terminus or deletion of 20 amino acids at the C-terminus. Thus, the acidic domain at the C-terminus of this protein is essential for its transcriptional activity. Indeed, deletion of amino acids from 146 to 149 (EAME) in this acidic domain lost the transcriptional activity of EV71 2A protein though still retained its protease activity. EV71 2A protease was detected both in the cytoplasm and nucleus using confocal microscopy analysis. Coxsackie virus B3 2A protease also exhibited transcriptional activity in yeast cells. As expected, an acidic domain in the C-terminus of Coxsackie virus B3 2A protease was also identified. Truncation of this acidic domain resulted in the loss of transcriptional activity. Interestingly, this acidic region of poliovirus 2A protease is critical for viral RNA replication. The transcriptional activity of the EV71 or Coxsackie virus B3 2A protease should play a role in viral replication and/or pathogenesis. PMID:20682079

2010-01-01

194

Peptidyl Aldehyde NK-1.8k Suppresses Enterovirus 71 and Enterovirus 68 Infection by Targeting Protease 3C.  

PubMed

Enterovirus (EV) is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease in the Pacific-Asia region. In particular, EV71 causes severe central nervous system infections, and the fatality rates from EV71 infection are high. Moreover, an outbreak of respiratory illnesses caused by an emerging EV, EV68, recently occurred among over 1,000 young children in the United States and was also associated with neurological infections. Although enterovirus has emerged as a considerable global public health threat, no antiviral drug for clinical use is available. In the present work, we screened our compound library for agents targeting viral protease and identified a peptidyl aldehyde, NK-1.8k, that inhibits the proliferation of different EV71 strains and one EV68 strain and that had a 50% effective concentration of 90 nM. Low cytotoxicity (50% cytotoxic concentration, >200 ?M) indicated a high selective index of over 2,000. We further characterized a single amino acid substitution inside protease 3C (3C(pro)), N69S, which conferred EV71 resistance to NK-1.8k, possibly by increasing the flexibility of the substrate binding pocket of 3C(pro). The combination of NK-1.8k and an EV71 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor or entry inhibitor exhibited a strong synergistic anti-EV71 effect. Our findings suggest that NK-1.8k could potentially be developed for anti-EV therapy. PMID:25691647

Wang, Yaxin; Yang, Ben; Zhai, Yangyang; Yin, Zheng; Sun, Yuna; Rao, Zihe

2015-05-01

195

Low-level Circulation of Enterovirus D68-Associated Acute Respiratory Infections, Germany, 2014.  

PubMed

We used physician sentinel surveillance to identify 25 (7.7%) mild to severe infections with enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in children and adults among 325 outpatients with acute respiratory infections in Germany during August-October 2014. Results suggested low-level circulation of enterovirus D68 in Germany. Viruses were characterized by sequencing viral protein (VP) 1 and VP4/VP2 genomic regions. PMID:25898320

Reiche, Janine; Böttcher, Sindy; Diedrich, Sabine; Buchholz, Udo; Buda, Silke; Haas, Walter; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Wolff, Thorsten

2015-05-01

196

Acute enterovirus infection followed by myalgic encephalomyelitis\\/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME\\/CFS) and viral persistence  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimsEnteroviruses are well-known causes of acute respiratory and\\/or gastrointestinal infections and non-specific flu-like illness. Although enterovirus protein, RNA and non-cytopathic viruses have been demonstrated in the stomach biopsies of patients with myalgia encephalomyelitis\\/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME\\/CFS), causality for chronic diseases is difficult to establish without having well-documented cases of acute enterovirus infections. The aim of this study was to link

J. Chia; A. Chia; M. Voeller; T. Lee; R. Chang

2009-01-01

197

Combining Multiplex Reverse Transcription-PCR and a Diagnostic Microarray To Detect and Differentiate Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cluster A enteroviruses, including enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), are known to cause hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Despite the close genetic relationship between these two viruses, EV71 is generally known to be a more perpetuating pathogen involved in severe clinical manifestations and deaths. While the serotyping of enteroviruses is mostly done by conventional immunological methods, many clinical isolates remain

Tsan-Chi Chen; Guang-Wu Chen; Chao Agnes Hsiung; Jyh-Yuan Yang; Shin-Ru Shih; Yiu-Kay Lai; Jyh-Lyh Juang

2006-01-01

198

Comparative Inactivation of Enteroviruses and Adenovirus 2 by UV Light  

PubMed Central

The doses of UV irradiation necessary to inactivate selected enteric viruses on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Contaminant Candidate List were determined. Three-log reductions of echovirus 1, echovirus 11, coxsackievirus B3, coxsackievirus B5, poliovirus 1, and human adenovirus type 2 were effected by doses of 25, 20.5, 24.5, 27, 23, and 119 mW/cm2, respectively. Human adenovirus type 2 is the most UV light-resistant enteric virus reported to date. PMID:12324370

Gerba, Charles P.; Gramos, Dawn M.; Nwachuku, Nena

2002-01-01

199

Resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to Human Serum Depends on T and B Cell Stimulating Protein B.  

PubMed

The ability of the human bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis to cause invasive disease depends on survival in the bloodstream via mechanisms to suppress complement activation. In this study, we show that prophage genes coding for T and B cell stimulating protein B (TspB), which is an immunoglobulin-binding protein, are essential for survival of N. meningitidis group B strain H44/76 in normal human serum (NHS). H44/76 carries three genes coding for TspB. Mutants having all tspB genes inactivated did not survive in >5% NHS or IgG-depleted NHS. TspB appeared to inhibit IgM-mediated activation of the classical complement pathway, since survival of the tspB triple knockout was the same as that of the parent strain or a complemented mutant when the classical pathway was inactivated by depleting NHS of C1q and was increased in IgM-depleted NHS. A mutant solely carrying tspB gene nmbh4476_0681 was as resistant as the parent strain, while mutants carrying only nmbh4476_0598 or nmbh4476_1698 were killed in ?5% NHS. The phenotype associated with TspB is formation of a matrix containing TspB, IgG, and DNA that envelopes aggregates of bacteria. Recombinant proteins corresponding to particular subdomains of TspB were found to have human IgG Fc?- and/or DNA-binding activity, but only TspB derivatives containing both domains formed large, biofilm-like aggregates when combined with purified IgG and DNA. Recognizing the role of TspB in serum resistance may lead to a better understanding of why strains that carry tspB genes are associated with invasive meningococcal disease. PMID:25583528

Müller, Maike G; Moe, Nina E; Richards, Phillip Q; Moe, Gregory R

2015-04-01

200

Reduction of naturally occurring enteroviruses by wastewater treatment processes.  

PubMed Central

The levels of cytopathic enteroviruses at two wastewater-treatment works were monitored over a period of 9 months. The maximum level of virus at works 1 was 72500 p.f.u. l-1 and at works 2, 57500 p.f.u. l-1. Examination of process efficiency showed an overall reduction of 63% for works 1 and 26% for works 2 when used without lagooning. When lagooning was employed at the second works, virus reduction was 97%. Individual treatment processes showed poor reduction of virus levels. Sedimentation and rapid sand filtration had no significant effect on levels whilst both percolating filtration and activated sludge showed some reduction. Only lagooning resulted in substantial reductions of virus levels. PMID:6319488

Morris, R.

1984-01-01

201

Enterovirus Infections of the Central Nervous System Review  

PubMed Central

Enteroviruses (EV) frequently infect the central nervous system (CNS) and induce neurological diseases. Although the CNS is composed of many different cell types, the spectrum of tropism for each EV is considerable. These viruses have the ability to completely shut down host translational machinery and are considered highly cytolytic, thereby causing cytopathic effects. Hence, CNS dysfunction following EV infection of neuronal or glial cells might be expected. Perhaps unexpectedly given their cytolytic nature, EVs may establish a persistent infection within the CNS, and the lasting effects on the host might be significant with unanticipated consequences. This review will describe the clinical aspects of EV-mediated disease, mechanisms of disease, determinants of tropism, immune activation within the CNS, and potential treatment regimes. PMID:21251690

Rhoades, Ross E.; Tabor-Godwin, Jenna M.; Tsueng, Ginger; Feuer, Ralph

2011-01-01

202

Exploiting Human Memory B Cell Heterogeneity for Improved Vaccine Efficacy  

PubMed Central

The major goal in vaccination is establishment of long-term, prophylactic humoral memory to a pathogen. Two major components to long-lived humoral memory are plasma cells for the production of specific immunoglobulin and memory B cells that survey for their specific antigen in the periphery for later affinity maturation, proliferation, and differentiation. The study of human B cell memory has been aided by the discovery of a general marker for B cell memory, expression of CD27; however, new data suggests the existence of CD27? memory B cells as well. These recently described non-canonical memory populations have increasingly pointed to the heterogeneity of the memory compartment. The novel B memory subsets in humans appear to have unique origins, localization, and functions compared to what was considered to be a “classical” memory B cell. In this article, we review the known B cell memory subsets, the establishment of B cell memory in vaccination and infection, and how understanding these newly described subsets can inform vaccine design and disease treatment. PMID:22566866

Pauli, Noel T.; Henry Dunand, Carole J.; Wilson, Patrick C.

2011-01-01

203

“Eczema Coxsackium” and Unusual Cutaneous Findings in an Enterovirus Outbreak  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the atypical cutaneous presentations in the coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6)–associated North American enterovirus outbreak of 2011–2012. METHODS: We performed a retrospective case series of pediatric patients who presented with atypical cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) from July 2011 to June 2012 at 7 academic pediatric dermatology centers. Patients were included if they tested positive for CVA6 or if they met clinical criteria for atypical HFMD (an enanthem or exanthem characteristic of HFMD with unusual morphology or extent of cutaneous findings). We collected demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical data including history of skin conditions, morphology and extent of exanthem, systemic symptoms, and diagnostic test results. RESULTS: Eighty patients were included in this study (median age 1.5 years, range 4 months–16 years). Seventeen patients were CVA6-positive, and 63 met clinical inclusion criteria. Ninety-nine percent of patients exhibited a vesiculobullous and erosive eruption; 61% of patients had rash involving >10% body surface area. The exanthem had a perioral, extremity, and truncal distribution in addition to involving classic HFMD areas such as palms, soles, and buttocks. In 55% of patients, the eruption was accentuated in areas of eczematous dermatitis, termed “eczema coxsackium.” Other morphologies included Gianotti-Crosti–like (37%), petechial/purpuric (17%) eruptions, and delayed onychomadesis and palm and sole desquamation. There were no patients with serious systemic complications. CONCLUSIONS: The CVA6-associated enterovirus outbreak was responsible for an exanthem potentially more widespread, severe, and varied than classic HFMD that could be confused with bullous impetigo, eczema herpeticum, vasculitis, and primary immunobullous disease. PMID:23776120

Oza, Vikash; Frieden, Ilona J.; Cordoro, Kelly M.; Yagi, Shigeo; Howard, Renee; Kristal, Leonard; Ginocchio, Christine C.; Schaffer, Julie; Maguiness, Sheilagh; Bayliss, Susan; Lara-Corrales, Irene; Garcia-Romero, Maria Teresa; Kelly, Dan; Salas, Maria; Oberste, M. Steven; Nix, W. Allan; Glaser, Carol; Antaya, Richard

2013-01-01

204

Characterization of the self-association of human interferon-?2b, albinterferon-?2b, and pegasys.  

PubMed

The self-association of human interferon-?2b (hIFN-?2b), albinterferon-?2b (a recombinant protein with human serum albumin and hIFN-?2b peptides fused together in a single polypeptide chain), and Pegasys (PEGylated hIFN-?2a) was characterized by analytical ultracentrifugation analyses. By examining the apparent sedimentation coefficient distribution profiles of each protein at different concentrations, it was concluded that the above three proteins are self-associating in albinterferon-?2b formulation buffer. By model fitting of sedimentation data using SEDANAL software, the stoichiometry and equilibrium constants of the self-association of these proteins were characterized. The self-association of hIFN-?2b results in the formation of stable dimers, fast-reversible tetramers, octamers, and hexadecamers. In contrast, although both albinterferon-?2b and Pegasys are self-associated, their self-association stoichiometries are significantly different from that of hIFN-?2b. The self-association of albinterferon-?2b results in the formation of reversible dimers and trimers, whereas the self-association of Pegasys gives only reversible dimers. The self-association behaviors of hIFN-?2b and albinterferon-?2b involves attractive electrostatic forces, which can be suppressed to a negligible level in low pH (pH 4.0-4.5) and high salt concentration (400 mM NaCl) buffer, allowing quantification of their size variant contents by sedimentation velocity analysis. PMID:21975852

Li, Yiming; Stafford, Walter F; Hesselberg, Mark; Hayes, David; Wu, Zhuchun; Byrne, Michael

2012-01-01

205

CD19 and CD32b Differentially Regulate Human B Cell Responsiveness  

PubMed Central

B cell activation is regulated by a variety of signals. CD19 positively regulates B cell activation, augmenting signals delivered through the BCR complex. In contrast, CD32b contains an ITIM and negatively regulates BCR signaling. Importantly, there are drugs currently in clinical trials and preclinical development that cross-link CD32b to molecules within the BCR complex. We wanted to address how single engagement versus cotargeting these molecules affects human B cell function. When B cells from healthy individuals were activated by signals that mimic a T cell response (IL-21 costimulation), ligation of CD32b, but not CD19, inhibited B cell expansion and plasma cell (PC) differentiation. In contrast, when B cells were activated through TLR, anti-CD19, but not anti-CD32b, blunted the response. However, when both CD19 and CD32b were coengaged by a bispecific anti-CD19×CD32b Ab, both types of stimuli were potently inhibited. Cross-linking CD19 with CD32b also inhibited Ab-independent functions of B cells, such as HLA upregulation, cytokine production, and the ability of B cells to prime CD4+ T cells. Finally, although cross-linking CD19 and CD32b inhibited PC differentiation of primary B cells, it did not alter Ig production from pre-established PCs. These data elucidate the mechanism by which a complex set of signals determines the fate of B cell responsiveness. Although signals through CD19 influence TLR-driven activation, CD32b impacts the magnitude of the response following IL-21 costimulation. Therefore, simultaneous targeting of multiple surface molecules may be a necessary approach to comprehensively modulate B cell activation in vivo. PMID:24442430

Karnell, Jodi L.; Dimasi, Nazzareno; Karnell, Fredrick G.; Fleming, Ryan; Kuta, Ellen; Wilson, Mildred; Wu, Herren; Gao, Changshou; Ettinger, Rachel

2014-01-01

206

CD19 and CD32b differentially regulate human B cell responsiveness.  

PubMed

B cell activation is regulated by a variety of signals. CD19 positively regulates B cell activation, augmenting signals delivered through the BCR complex. In contrast, CD32b contains an ITIM and negatively regulates BCR signaling. Importantly, there are drugs currently in clinical trials and preclinical development that cross-link CD32b to molecules within the BCR complex. We wanted to address how single engagement versus cotargeting these molecules affects human B cell function. When B cells from healthy individuals were activated by signals that mimic a T cell response (IL-21 costimulation), ligation of CD32b, but not CD19, inhibited B cell expansion and plasma cell (PC) differentiation. In contrast, when B cells were activated through TLR, anti-CD19, but not anti-CD32b, blunted the response. However, when both CD19 and CD32b were coengaged by a bispecific anti-CD19×CD32b Ab, both types of stimuli were potently inhibited. Cross-linking CD19 with CD32b also inhibited Ab-independent functions of B cells, such as HLA upregulation, cytokine production, and the ability of B cells to prime CD4(+) T cells. Finally, although cross-linking CD19 and CD32b inhibited PC differentiation of primary B cells, it did not alter Ig production from pre-established PCs. These data elucidate the mechanism by which a complex set of signals determines the fate of B cell responsiveness. Although signals through CD19 influence TLR-driven activation, CD32b impacts the magnitude of the response following IL-21 costimulation. Therefore, simultaneous targeting of multiple surface molecules may be a necessary approach to comprehensively modulate B cell activation in vivo. PMID:24442430

Karnell, Jodi L; Dimasi, Nazzareno; Karnell, Fredrick G; Fleming, Ryan; Kuta, Ellen; Wilson, Mildred; Wu, Herren; Gao, Changshou; Herbst, Ronald; Ettinger, Rachel

2014-02-15

207

Central mechanisms in human enhanced physiological tremor B. Koster 1;  

E-print Network

Central mechanisms in human enhanced physiological tremor B. Koster 1; , M. Lauk 2, J. Timmer 2, T physiological tremor (EPT) are still unclear. The syndrome of persistent mirror movements (PMM) is characterized right-left-coherence of tremor activity. In contrast, a signi cant coherence was found in PMM between 8

Timmer, Jens

208

Crystal structures of enterovirus 71 (EV71) recombinant virus particles provide insights into vaccine design.  

PubMed

Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) remains a major health concern in the Asia-Pacific regions, and its major causative agents include human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16. A desirable vaccine against HFMD would be multivalent and able to elicit protective responses against multiple HFMD causative agents. Previously, we have demonstrated that a thermostable recombinant EV71 vaccine candidate can be produced by the insertion of a foreign peptide into the BC loop of VP1 without affecting viral replication. Here we present crystal structures of two different naturally occurring empty particles, one from a clinical C4 strain EV71 and the other from its recombinant virus containing an insertion in the VP1 BC loop. Crystal structure analysis demonstrated that the inserted foreign peptide is well exposed on the particle surface without significant structural changes in the capsid. Importantly, such insertions do not seem to affect the virus uncoating process as illustrated by the conformational similarity between an uncoating intermediate of another recombinant virus and that of EV71. Especially, at least 18 residues from the N terminus of VP1 are transiently externalized. Altogether, our study provides insights into vaccine development against HFMD. PMID:25492868

Lyu, Ke; Wang, Guang-Chuan; He, Ya-Ling; Han, Jian-Feng; Ye, Qing; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Chen, Rong

2015-02-01

209

Human leukocyte antigen B58 supertype and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in native Africans.  

PubMed

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles can be grouped into supertypes according to their shared peptide binding properties. We examined alleles of the HLA-B58 supertype (B58s) in treatment-naďve human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive Africans (423 Zambians and 202 Rwandans). HLA-B and HLA-C alleles were resolved to four digits by a combination of molecular methods, and their respective associations with outcomes of HIV-1 infection were analyzed by statistical procedures appropriate for continuous or categorical data. The effects of the individual alleles on natural HIV-1 infection were heterogeneous. In HIV-1 subtype C-infected Zambians, the mean viral load (VL) was lower among B*5703 (P = 0.01) or B*5703-Cw*18 (P < 0.001) haplotype carriers and higher among B*5802 (P = 0.02) or B*5802-Cw*0602 (P = 0.03) carriers. The B*5801-Cw*03 haplotype showed an association with low VL (P = 0.05), whereas B*5801 as a whole did not. Rwandans with HIV-1 subtype A infection showed associations of B*5703 and B*5802 with slow (P = 0.06) and rapid (P = 0.003) disease progression, respectively. In neither population were B*1516-B*1517 alleles associated with more favorable responses. Overall, B58s alleles, individually or as part of an HLA-B-HLA-C haplotype, appeared to have a distinctive impact on HIV-1 infection among native Africans. As presently defined, B58s alleles cannot be considered uniformly protective against HIV/AIDS in every population. PMID:16731944

Lazaryan, Aleksandr; Lobashevsky, Elena; Mulenga, Joseph; Karita, Etienne; Allen, Susan; Tang, Jianming; Kaslow, Richard A

2006-06-01

210

Cytotoxicity of (-)-vitisin B in human leukemia cells.  

PubMed

Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana (VTT) is an indigenous Taiwanese wild grape and is used as a folk medicine in Taiwan. VTT is rich in polyphenols, especially quercetin and resveratrol derivatives, which were demonstrated to exhibit inhibitory activities against carcinogenesis and prevent some neurodegenerative diseases. (-)-Vitisin B is one of the resveratrol tetramers extracted from VTT. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of (-)-vitisin B on the induction of apoptosis in human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells. First, (-)-vitisin B significantly inhibited cell proliferation through inducing cell apoptosis. This effect appeared to occur in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Cell-cycle distribution was also examined, and we found that (-)-vitisin B significantly induced a sub-G1 population in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, (-)-vitisin B exhibited stronger inhibitory effects on cell proliferation than resveratrol. Second, (-)-vitisin B dose dependently induced apoptosis-related protein expressions, such as the cleavage form of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, poly(ADP ribose) polymerase, and the proapoptotic Bax protein. Third, (-)-vitisin B treatment also resulted in increases in c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and Fas ligand (FasL) expression. Moreover, the (-)-vitisin B-induced FasL expression and caspase-3 activation could be reversed by a JNK inhibitor. These results suggest that (-)-vitisin B-induced apoptosis of leukemia cells might be mediated through activation of JNK and Fas death-signal transduction. PMID:23030068

Wu, Shing-Sheng; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Lin, Ren-Jye; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Lo, Yueh-E; Liang, Yu-Chih

2013-07-01

211

Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B)  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Impaired trafficking of kAE1 causes distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). {yields} The interaction between kAE1 and kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) is reported. {yields} The co-localization between kAE and KIF3B was detected in human kidney tissues. {yields} A marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane was observed when KIF3B was knockdown. {yields} KFI3B plays an important role in trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of {alpha}-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange and the failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells.

Duangtum, Natapol [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand) [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)] [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)] [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Limjindaporn, Thawornchai, E-mail: limjindaporn@yahoo.com [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)] [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai, E-mail: grpye@mahidol.ac.th [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)] [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

2011-09-16

212

Disposable immunosensor for human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B detection.  

PubMed

Combining the advantages of the biosensor field with the problem of detecting Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in human samples, an inexpensive, simple and disposable electrochemical immunosensor for glycoprotein B detection in urine is proposed. Glycoprotein B has been chosen once is the dominant antigen of HCMV. The approach is based on a sandwich-type immunoassay, with the HCMV glycoprotein B sandwiched between the Anti-HCMV antibody adsorbed onto the working electrode, and the Anti-HCMV labeled with gold nanoparticles. Glycoprotein B detection was carried out through electrochemical stripping analysis of silver nanoparticles quantitatively deposited on the immunosensor through catalysis by the nanogold labels. The influence of different steps in the immunosensor construction, namely the silver deposition time, silver enhancer concentration, antibody concentration, BSA concentration and glycoprotein B incubation time, were examined and optimized. The method showed a linear dependence between glycoprotein B concentration and the corresponding anodic stripping peak current, resulting in detection limits of 3.3±1.7ng/mL for samples prepared in buffer and 3.2±0.2ng/mL for urine samples, suggesting that the biological matrix does not interfere with the immunosensor detection capability. Given its mode of preparation, by physical adsorption of the capture antibody in the working electrode, the immunosensor also exhibited an acceptable reproducibility, with a residual standard deviation of 13.5% for samples prepared in buffer and 11.2% for urine samples, thereby presenting a promising development potential for clinical applications. PMID:25702983

Pires, F; Silva, H; Domínguez-Renedo, O; Alonso-Lomillo, M A; Arcos-Martínez, M J; Dias-Cabral, A C

2015-05-01

213

Human cytochrome b5 reductase: structure, function, and potential applications.  

PubMed

Cytochrome b5 reductase is a flavoprotein that is produced as two different isoforms that have different localizations. The amphipathic microsomal isoform, found in all cell types with the exception of erythrocytes, consists of one hydrophobic membrane-anchoring domain and a larger hydrophilic flavin catalytic domain. The soluble cytochrome b5 reductase isoform, found in human erythrocytes, is a truncated protein that is encoded by an alternative transcript and consists of the larger domain only. Cytochrome b5 reductase is involved in the transfer of reducing equivalents from the physiological electron donor, NADH, via an FAD domain to the small molecules of cytochrome b5. This protein has received much attention from researchers due to its involvement in many oxidation and reduction reactions, such as the reduction of methemoglobin to hemoglobin. Autosomal cytochrome b5 reductase gene deficiency manifests with the accumulation of oxidized Fe+3 and recessive congenital methemoglobinemia in humans. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of the structure and function of cytochrome b5 reductase from different eukaryotic sources and its potential use in the food industry, biosensor, and diagnostic areas. PMID:23113554

Elahian, Fatemeh; Sepehrizadeh, Zargham; Moghimi, Bahareh; Mirzaei, Seyed Abbas

2014-06-01

214

CD23b Isoform Expression in Human Schistosomiasis Identifies a Novel Subset of Activated B Cells ?  

PubMed Central

Resistance to schistosomiasis is associated with increased levels of serum parasite-specific IgE. IgE exerts its functions through its cellular receptors, Fc?RI and Fc?RII/CD23; however, its functional significance in humans requires further characterization. We previously reported that increased levels of CD23+ B cells correlate with resistance to schistosomiasis in hyperexposed populations and sought to define their potential function and relationship with IgE. We found that CD23+ B cells are a heterogeneous cell population with functional and phenotypic differences. Circulating CD23+ B cells are uniquely activated in schistosomiasis and express the CD23b isoform and CXCR5, the homing receptor for lymphoid follicles. High CXCR5 expression by CD23+ B cells was associated with the capacity to home to the cognate ligand CXCL13. CD23-bound IgE cross-linking increased surface expression of CXCR5, suggesting that CD23+ B cells home directly into the lymphoid follicles upon antigen capture. As human schistosomiasis is an intravascular parasitic infection associated with a high antigenic burden in the blood, circulating CD23+ B cells may play a role in the capture and shuttling of antigens directly to splenic follicles, highlighting a new role for circulating B cells. This function likely plays an important role in the development of protective immunity to infection with schistosomes. PMID:21708991

Onguru, Daniel; Liang, YanMei; Elliot, Jennifer; Mwinzi, Pauline; Ganley-Leal, Lisa

2011-01-01

215

Antigenic and Receptor Binding Properties of Enterovirus 68  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Increased detection of enterovirus 68 (EV68) among patients with acute respiratory infections has been reported from different parts of the world in the late 2000s since its first detection in pediatric patients with lower-respiratory-tract infections in 1962. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for this trend are still unknown. We therefore aimed to study the antigenicity and receptor binding properties of EV68 detected in recent years in comparison to the prototype strain of EV68, the Fermon strain. We first performed neutralization (NT) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests using antisera generated for EV68 strains detected in recent years. We found that the Fermon strain had lower HI and NT titers than recently detected EV68 strains. The HI and NT titers were also significantly different between strains of different genetic lineages among recently detected EV68 strains. We further studied receptor binding specificities of EV68 strains for sialyloligosaccharides using glycan array analysis. In glycan array analysis, all tested EV68 strains showed affinity for ?2-6-linked sialic acids (?2-6 SAs) compared to ?2-3 SAs. Our study demonstrates that emergence of strains with different antigenicity is the possible reason for the increased detection of EV68 in recent years. Additionally, we found that EV68 preferably binds to ?2-6 SAs, which suggests that EV68 might have affinity for the upper respiratory tract. IMPORTANCE Numbers of cases of enterovirus 68 (EV68) infection in different parts of the world increased significantly in the late 2000s. We studied the antigenicity and receptor binding properties of recently detected EV68 strains in comparison to the prototype strain of EV68, Fermon. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization (NT) titers were significantly different between strains of different genetic lineages among recently detected EV68 strains. We further studied receptor binding specificities of EV68 strains for sialyloligosaccharides using glycan array analysis, which showed affinity for ?2-6-linked sialic acids (?2-6 SAs) compared to ?2-3 SAs. Our study suggested that the emergence of strains with different antigenicities was the possible reason for the increased detections of EV68 in recent years. Additionally, we revealed that EV68 preferably binds to ?2-6 SAs. This is the first report describing the properties of EV68 receptor binding to the specific types of sialic acids. PMID:24371050

Imamura, Tadatsugu; Okamoto, Michiko; Nakakita, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Akira; Saito, Mariko; Tamaki, Raita; Lupisan, Socorro; Roy, Chandra Nath; Hiramatsu, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Kan-etsu; Mizuta, Katsumi; Matsuzaki, Yoko; Suzuki, Yasuo

2014-01-01

216

A generic assay for whole-genome amplification and deep sequencing of enterovirus A71.  

PubMed

Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) has emerged as the most important cause of large outbreaks of severe and sometimes fatal hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) across the Asia-Pacific region. EV-A71 outbreaks have been associated with (sub)genogroup switches, sometimes accompanied by recombination events. Understanding EV-A71 population dynamics is therefore essential for understanding this emerging infection, and may provide pivotal information for vaccine development. Despite the public health burden of EV-A71, relatively few EV-A71 complete-genome sequences are available for analysis and from limited geographical localities. The availability of an efficient procedure for whole-genome sequencing would stimulate effort to generate more viral sequence data. Herein, we report for the first time the development of a next-generation sequencing based protocol for whole-genome sequencing of EV-A71 directly from clinical specimens. We were able to sequence viruses of subgenogroup C4 and B5, while RNA from culture materials of diverse EV-A71 subgenogroups belonging to both genogroup B and C was successfully amplified. The nature of intra-host genetic diversity was explored in 22 clinical samples, revealing 107 positions carrying minor variants (ranging from 0 to 15 variants per sample). Our analysis of EV-A71 strains sampled in 2013 showed that they all belonged to subgenogroup B5, representing the first report of this subgenogroup in Vietnam. In conclusion, we have successfully developed a high-throughput next-generation sequencing-based assay for whole-genome sequencing of EV-A71 from clinical samples. PMID:25704598

Tan, Le Van; Tuyen, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thanh, Tran Tan; Ngan, Tran Thuy; Van, Hoang Minh Tu; Sabanathan, Saraswathy; Van, Tran Thi My; Thanh, Le Thi My; Nguyet, Lam Anh; Geoghegan, Jemma L; Ong, Kien Chai; Perera, David; Hang, Vu Thi Ty; Ny, Nguyen Thi Han; Anh, Nguyen To; Ha, Do Quang; Qui, Phan Tu; Viet, Do Chau; Tuan, Ha Manh; Wong, Kum Thong; Holmes, Edward C; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; van Doorn, H Rogier

2015-04-01

217

A generic assay for whole-genome amplification and deep sequencing of enterovirus A71  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) has emerged as the most important cause of large outbreaks of severe and sometimes fatal hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) across the Asia-Pacific region. EV-A71 outbreaks have been associated with (sub)genogroup switches, sometimes accompanied by recombination events. Understanding EV-A71 population dynamics is therefore essential for understanding this emerging infection, and may provide pivotal information for vaccine development. Despite the public health burden of EV-A71, relatively few EV-A71 complete-genome sequences are available for analysis and from limited geographical localities. The availability of an efficient procedure for whole-genome sequencing would stimulate effort to generate more viral sequence data. Herein, we report for the first time the development of a next-generation sequencing based protocol for whole-genome sequencing of EV-A71 directly from clinical specimens. We were able to sequence viruses of subgenogroup C4 and B5, while RNA from culture materials of diverse EV-A71 subgenogroups belonging to both genogroup B and C was successfully amplified. The nature of intra-host genetic diversity was explored in 22 clinical samples, revealing 107 positions carrying minor variants (ranging from 0 to 15 variants per sample). Our analysis of EV-A71 strains sampled in 2013 showed that they all belonged to subgenogroup B5, representing the first report of this subgenogroup in Vietnam. In conclusion, we have successfully developed a high-throughput next-generation sequencing-based assay for whole-genome sequencing of EV-A71 from clinical samples. PMID:25704598

Tan, Le Van; Tuyen, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thanh, Tran Tan; Ngan, Tran Thuy; Van, Hoang Minh Tu; Sabanathan, Saraswathy; Van, Tran Thi My; Thanh, Le Thi My; Nguyet, Lam Anh; Geoghegan, Jemma L.; Ong, Kien Chai; Perera, David; Hang, Vu Thi Ty; Ny, Nguyen Thi Han; Anh, Nguyen To; Ha, Do Quang; Qui, Phan Tu; Viet, Do Chau; Tuan, Ha Manh; Wong, Kum Thong; Holmes, Edward C.; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; van Doorn, H. Rogier

2015-01-01

218

Dysregulation of the antigen-induced NF-B signaling pathway in the development of human B-cells lymphomas  

E-print Network

is not only altered in MALT lymphomas but also in a subtype activated B cell-like (ABC) of diffuse large B-cell1 Dysregulation of the antigen-induced NF-B signaling pathway in the development of human B-cells equally to this work. Key words: NF-B, CARMA1, BCL10, MALT1, DLBCL, MALT lymphoma ¶ Correspondence

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

219

Alterations in peripheral blood B cell subsets and dynamics of B cell responses during human schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

Antibody responses are thought to play an important role in control of Schistosoma infections, yet little is known about the phenotype and function of B cells in human schistosomiasis. We set out to characterize B cell subsets and B cell responses to B cell receptor and Toll-like receptor 9 stimulation in Gabonese schoolchildren with Schistosoma haematobium infection. Frequencies of memory B cell (MBC) subsets were increased, whereas naive B cell frequencies were reduced in the schistosome-infected group. At the functional level, isolated B cells from schistosome-infected children showed higher expression of the activation marker CD23 upon stimulation, but lower proliferation and TNF-? production. Importantly, 6-months after 3 rounds of praziquantel treatment, frequencies of naive B cells were increased, MBC frequencies were decreased and with the exception of TNF-? production, B cell responsiveness was restored to what was seen in uninfected children. These data show that S. haematobium infection leads to significant changes in the B cell compartment, both at the phenotypic and functional level. PMID:23505586

Labuda, Lucja A; Ateba-Ngoa, Ulysse; Feugap, Eliane Ngoune; Heeringa, Jorn J; van der Vlugt, Luciën E P M; Pires, Regina B A; Mewono, Ludovic; Kremsner, Peter G; van Zelm, Menno C; Adegnika, Ayola A; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Smits, Hermelijn H

2013-01-01

220

Alterations in Peripheral Blood B Cell Subsets and Dynamics of B Cell Responses during Human Schistosomiasis  

PubMed Central

Antibody responses are thought to play an important role in control of Schistosoma infections, yet little is known about the phenotype and function of B cells in human schistosomiasis. We set out to characterize B cell subsets and B cell responses to B cell receptor and Toll-like receptor 9 stimulation in Gabonese schoolchildren with Schistosoma haematobium infection. Frequencies of memory B cell (MBC) subsets were increased, whereas naive B cell frequencies were reduced in the schistosome-infected group. At the functional level, isolated B cells from schistosome-infected children showed higher expression of the activation marker CD23 upon stimulation, but lower proliferation and TNF-? production. Importantly, 6-months after 3 rounds of praziquantel treatment, frequencies of naive B cells were increased, MBC frequencies were decreased and with the exception of TNF-? production, B cell responsiveness was restored to what was seen in uninfected children. These data show that S. haematobium infection leads to significant changes in the B cell compartment, both at the phenotypic and functional level. PMID:23505586

Labuda, Lucja A.; Ateba-Ngoa, Ulysse; Feugap, Eliane Ngoune; Heeringa, Jorn J.; van der Vlugt, Luciën E. P. M.; Pires, Regina B. A.; Mewono, Ludovic; Kremsner, Peter G.; van Zelm, Menno C.; Adegnika, Ayola A.; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Smits, Hermelijn H.

2013-01-01

221

Characterization of a novel porcine enterovirus in wild boars in Hungary.  

PubMed

Porcine enteroviruses (PEVs) are members of the family Picornaviridae, genus Enterovirus. Until now, only three different PEV genotypes (PEV-9 and -10, and PEV-3H/PEV-14) have been detected in domestic pigs, and there is no information about the presence of PEVs in wild animals. Here, we identify and characterize the complete genomes of PEV originated from 5 of 10 (50%) of wild boar (Sus scrofa) piglets by RT-PCR and pyrosequencing. Wild boar/WBD/2011/HUN (JN807387) PEV showed only 67% amino acid identity in VP1 compared to the most closely related prototype PEV-3H/PEV-14. Wild boar enterovirus represents a novel PEV genotype, provisionally called PEV-15. PMID:22350652

Boros, Akos; Nemes, Csaba; Pankovics, Péter; Bíró, Hunor; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric; Reuter, Gábor

2012-05-01

222

Co-Circulation and Genomic Recombination of Coxsackievirus A16 and Enterovirus 71 during a Large Outbreak of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Central China  

PubMed Central

A total of 1844 patients with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), most of them were children of age 1–3-year-old, in Central China were hospitalized from 2011 to 2012. Among them, 422 were infected with coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), 334 were infected with enterovirus 71 (EV71), 38 were co-infected with EV71 and CVA16, and 35 were infected with other enteroviruses. Molecular epidemiology analysis revealed that EV71 and CVA16 were detected year-round, but EV71 circulated mainly in July and CVA16 circulated predominantly in November, and incidence of HFMD was reduced in January and February and increased in March. Clinical data showed that hyperglycemia and neurologic complications were significantly higher in EV71-infected patients, while upper respiratory tract infection and C-reactive protein were significantly higher in CVA16-associated patients. 124 EV71 and 80 CVA16 strains were isolated, among them 56 and 68 EV71 strains were C4a and C4b, while 25 and 55 CVA16 strains were B1a and B1b, respectively. Similarity plots and bootscan analyses based on entire genomic sequences revealed that the three C4a sub-genotype EV71 strains were recombinant with C4b sub-genotype EV71 in 2B–2C region, and the three CVA16 strains were recombinant with EV71 in 2A–2B region. Thus, CVA16 and EV71 were the major causative agents in a large HFMD outbreak in Central China. HFMD incidence was high for children among household contact and was detected year-round, but outbreak was seasonal dependent. CVA16 B1b and EV71 C4b reemerged and caused a large epidemic in China after a quiet period of many years. Moreover, EV71 and CVA16 were co-circulated during the outbreak, which may have contributed to the genomic recombination between the pathogens. It should gain more attention as there may be an upward trend in co-circulation of the two pathogens globally and the new role recombination plays in the emergence of new enterovirus variants. PMID:24776922

Liu, Weiyong; Wu, Shimin; Xiong, Ying; Li, Tongya; Wen, Zhou; Yan, Mingzhe; Qin, Kai; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Jianguo

2014-01-01

223

Non-polio enteroviruses and their association with acute diarrhea in children in India.  

PubMed

A causative agent in approximately 40% of diarrheal cases still remains unidentified. Though many enteroviruses (EVs) are transmitted through fecal-oral route and replicate in the intestinal cells, their association with acute diarrhea has not so far been recognized due to lack of detailed epidemiological investigations. This long-term, detailed molecular epidemiological study aims to conclusively determine the association of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) with acute diarrhea in comparison with rotavirus (RV) in children. Diarrheal stool specimens from 2161 children aged 0-2 years and 169 children between 2 and 9 years, and 1800 normal stool samples from age-matched healthy children between 0 and 9 years were examined during 2008-2012 for enterovirus (oral polio vaccine strains (OPVs) and NPEVs). Enterovirus serotypes were identified by complete VP1 gene sequence analysis. Enterovirus and rotavirus were detected in 19.01% (380/2330) and 13.82% (322/2330) diarrheal stools. During the study period, annual prevalence of EV- and RV-associated diarrhea ranged between 8% and 22%, but with contrasting seasonal prevalence with RV predominating during winter months and NPEV prevailing in other seasons. NPEVs are associated with epidemics-like outbreaks during which they are detected in up to 50% of diarrheic children, and in non-epidemic seasons in 0-10% of the patients. After subtraction of OPV-positive diarrheal cases (1.81%), while NPEVs are associated with about 17% of acute diarrhea, about 6% of healthy children showed asymptomatic NPEV excretion. Of 37 NPEV serotypes detected in diarrheal children, seven echovirus types 1, 7, 11, 13, 14, 30 and 33 are frequently observed, with E11 being more prevalent followed by E30. In conclusion, NPEVs are significantly associated with acute diarrhea, and NPEVs and rotavirus exhibit contrasting seasonal predominance. This study signifies the need for a new direction of research on enteroviruses involving systematic analysis of their contribution to diarrheal burden. PMID:23602838

Rao, Durga C; Ananda Babu, M; Raghavendra, A; Dhananjaya, D; Kumar, Sudheendra; Maiya, P P

2013-07-01

224

The contrasting phylodynamics of human influenza B viruses.  

PubMed

A complex interplay of viral, host, and ecological factors shapes the spatio-temporal incidence and evolution of human influenza viruses. Although considerable attention has been paid to influenza A viruses, a lack of equivalent data means that an integrated evolutionary and epidemiological framework has until now not been available for influenza B viruses, despite their significant disease burden. Through the analysis of over 900 full genomes from an epidemiological collection of more than 26,000 strains from Australia and New Zealand, we reveal fundamental differences in the phylodynamics of the two co-circulating lineages of influenza B virus (Victoria and Yamagata), showing that their individual dynamics are determined by a complex relationship between virus transmission, age of infection, and receptor binding preference. In sum, this work identifies new factors that are important determinants of influenza B evolution and epidemiology. PMID:25594904

Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Holmes, Edward C; Joseph, Udayan; Fourment, Mathieu; Su, Yvonne C F; Halpin, Rebecca; Lee, Raphael T C; Deng, Yi-Mo; Gunalan, Vithiagaran; Lin, Xudong; Stockwell, Timothy B; Fedorova, Nadia B; Zhou, Bin; Spirason, Natalie; Kühnert, Denise; Bošková, Veronika; Stadler, Tanja; Costa, Anna-Maria; Dwyer, Dominic E; Huang, Q Sue; Jennings, Lance C; Rawlinson, William; Sullivan, Sheena G; Hurt, Aeron C; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Wentworth, David E; Smith, Gavin Jd; Barr, Ian G

2014-01-01

225

Cell Surface Vimentin Is an Attachment Receptor for Enterovirus 71  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a highly transmissible pathogenic agent that causes severe central nervous system diseases in infected infants and young children. Here, we reported that EV71 VP1 protein could bind to vimentin intermediate filaments expressed on the host cell surface. Soluble vimentin or an antibody against vimentin could inhibit the binding of EV71 to host cells. Accompanied with the reduction of vimentin expression on the cell surface, the binding of EV71 to cells was remarkably decreased. Further evidence showed that the N terminus of vimentin is responsible for the interaction between EV71 and vimentin. These results indicated that vimentin on the host cell surface may serve as an attachment site that mediated the initial binding and subsequently increased the infectivity of EV71. IMPORTANCE This study delivers important findings on the roles of vimentin filaments in relation to EV71 infection and provides information that not only improves our understanding of EV71 pathogenesis but also presents us with potentially new strategies for the treatment of diseases caused by EV71 infections. PMID:24623428

Du, Ning; Cong, Haolong; Tian, Hongchao; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Wenliang; Song, Lei

2014-01-01

226

Recent developments in antiviral agents against enterovirus 71 infection  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the main etiological agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Recent EV-71 outbreaks in Asia-Pacific were not limited to mild HFMD, but were associated with severe neurological complications such as aseptic meningitis and brainstem encephalitis, which may lead to cardiopulmonary failure and death. The absence of licensed therapeutics for clinical use has intensified research into anti-EV-71 development. This review highlights the potential antiviral agents targeting EV-71 attachment, entry, uncoating, translation, polyprotein processing, virus-induced formation of membranous RNA replication complexes, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The strategies for antiviral development include target-based synthetic compounds, anti-rhinovirus and poliovirus libraries screening, and natural compound libraries screening. Growing knowledge of the EV-71 life cycle will lead to successful development of antivirals. The continued effort to develop antiviral agents for treatment is crucial in the absence of a vaccine. The coupling of antivirals with an effective vaccine will accelerate eradication of the disease. PMID:24521134

2014-01-01

227

Considerations for developing an immunization strategy with enterovirus 71 vaccine.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a common pathogen for hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which has significant morbidity and mortality, and for which children aged 6-59 months age are at highest risk. Due to lack of effective treatment options, control of EV71 epidemics has mainly focused on development of EV71 vaccines. Clinical trials have been completed on 3 EV71 vaccines, with trial results demonstrating good vaccine efficacy and safety. When EV71 vaccine is approved by China's national regulatory authority, an evidence-based strategy should be developed to optimize impact and safety. An immunization strategy for EV71 vaccine should consider several factors, including the target population age group, the number of doses for primary immunization, the need for a booster dose, concomitant administration of other vaccines, economic value, program capacity and logistics, and public acceptance. Once EV71 vaccines are in use, vaccine effectiveness and safety must be monitored in large populations, and the epidemiology of HFMD must be evaluated to assure a match between vaccination strategy and epidemiology. Evaluation in China is especially important because there are no other EV71 vaccines globally. PMID:25444807

Li, Li; Yin, Hongzhang; An, Zhijie; Feng, Zijian

2015-02-25

228

Human Rhinoviruses  

PubMed Central

Human rhinoviruses (HRVs), first discovered in the 1950s, are responsible for more than one-half of cold-like illnesses and cost billions of dollars annually in medical visits and missed days of work. Advances in molecular methods have enhanced our understanding of the genomic structure of HRV and have led to the characterization of three genetically distinct HRV groups, designated groups A, B, and C, within the genus Enterovirus and the family Picornaviridae. HRVs are traditionally associated with upper respiratory tract infection, otitis media, and sinusitis. In recent years, the increasing implementation of PCR assays for respiratory virus detection in clinical laboratories has facilitated the recognition of HRV as a lower respiratory tract pathogen, particularly in patients with asthma, infants, elderly patients, and immunocompromised hosts. Cultured isolates of HRV remain important for studies of viral characteristics and disease pathogenesis. Indeed, whether the clinical manifestations of HRV are related directly to viral pathogenicity or secondary to the host immune response is the subject of ongoing research. There are currently no approved antiviral therapies for HRVs, and treatment remains primarily supportive. This review provides a comprehensive, up-to-date assessment of the basic virology, pathogenesis, clinical epidemiology, and laboratory features of and treatment and prevention strategies for HRVs. PMID:23297263

Lamson, Daryl M.; St. George, Kirsten; Walsh, Thomas J.

2013-01-01

229

Silencing of B Cell Receptor Signals in Human Naive B Cells  

PubMed Central

To identify changes in the regulation of B cell receptor (BCR) signals during the development of human B cells, we generated genome-wide gene expression profiles using the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) technique for CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), pre-B cells, naive, germinal center (GC), and memory B cells. Comparing these SAGE profiles, genes encoding positive regulators of BCR signaling were expressed at consistently lower levels in naive B cells than in all other B cell subsets. Conversely, a large group of inhibitory signaling molecules, mostly belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), were specifically or predominantly expressed in naive B cells. The quantitative differences observed by SAGE were corroborated by semiquantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry. In a functional assay, we show that down-regulation of inhibitory IgSF receptors and increased responsiveness to BCR stimulation in memory as compared with naive B cells at least partly results from interleukin (IL)-4 receptor signaling. Conversely, activation or impairment of the inhibitory IgSF receptor LIRB1 affected BCR-dependent Ca2+ mobilization only in naive but not memory B cells. Thus, LIRB1 and IL-4 may represent components of two nonoverlapping gene expression programs in naive and memory B cells, respectively: in naive B cells, a large group of inhibitory IgSF receptors can elevate the BCR signaling threshold to prevent these cells from premature activation and clonal expansion before GC-dependent affinity maturation. In memory B cells, facilitated responsiveness upon reencounter of the immunizing antigen may result from amplification of BCR signals at virtually all levels of signal transduction. PMID:12438421

Feldhahn, Niklas; Schwering, Ines; Lee, Sanggyu; Wartenberg, Maria; Klein, Florian; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Guolin; Wang, San Ming; Rowley, Janet D.; Hescheler, Jürgen; Krönke, Martin; Rajewsky, Klaus; Küppers, Ralf; Müschen, Markus

2002-01-01

230

Novel human recombinant antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85B  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death due to bacterial infections worldwide, mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The antigen 85 complex comprises a set of major secreted proteins of M. tuberculosis, which are potential biomarkers for diagnostic. Results In this work, the first human single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies specific for the tuberculosis biomarker 85 B were selected by phage display from naďve antibody gene libraries (HAL7/8). Produced as scFv-Fc in mammalian cells, these antibodies were further characterized and analysed for specificity and applicability in different tuberculosis antigen detection assays. Sandwich detection of recombinant 85 B was successful in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), lateral flow immunoassay and immunoblot. Whereas detection of M. tuberculosis cell extracts and culture filtrates was only possible in direct ELISA and immunoblot assays. It was found that the conformation of 85 B, depending on sample treatment, influenced antigen detection. Conclusions Recombinant antibodies, selected by phage display, may be applicable for 85 B detection in various assays. These antibodies are candidates for the development of future point of care tuberculosis diagnostic kits. Using 85 B as a biomarker, the antigen conformation influenced by sample treatment is important. PMID:25033887

2014-01-01

231

Hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus (HBV and HIV) infection share transmission patterns and risk factors, which explains high prevalence of chronic HBV infection in HIV infected patients. The natural course of HBV disease is altered by the HIV infection with less chance to clear acute HBV infection, faster progression to cirrhosis and higher risk of liver-related death in HIV-HBV co-infected patients than in HBV mono-infected ones. HIV infected patients with chronic hepatitis B should be counseled for liver damage and surveillance of chronic hepatitis B should be performed to screen early hepatocellular carcinoma. Noninvasive tools are now available to evaluate liver fibrosis. Isolated hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBc) are a good predictive marker of occult HBV infection. Still the prevalence and significance of occult HBV infection is controversial, but its screening may be important in the management of antiretroviral therapy. Vaccination against HBV infection is recommended in non-immune HIV patients. The optimal treatment for almost all HIV-HBV co-infected patients should contain tenofovir plus lamivudine or emtricitabine and treatment should not be stopped to avoid HBV reactivation. Long term tenofovir therapy may lead to significant decline in hepatitis B surface Antigen. The emergence of resistant HBV strains may compromise the HBV therapy and vaccine therapy. PMID:25516647

Phung, Bao-Chau; Sogni, Philippe; Launay, Odile

2014-01-01

232

Antigen heterogeneity of human B and T lymphocytes.  

PubMed Central

Rhesus monkeys were immunized with normal human lymphoid cells, cultured lymphoid cells, and chronic leukemic lymphocytes. Antisera were analyzed by cytotoxicity and immunofluorescence techniques to study the antigenic characteristics of human lymphocytes. In an attempt to obtain a reagent specifically reactive with T (thymus-derived) lymphocytes, an antispleen antiserum was absorbed with cellf from five B- (bone marrow-derived) cell lines. After absorption, the antiserum killed 60-75% of peripheral blood lymphocytes and 40-50% of tonsil cells, so that there was a relationship between the percentage of killed cells and the proportion of T lymphocytes. However, when cells after cytotoxic treatment were assayed for rosette formation with sheep erythrocytes (a T-cell marker) 5-20% of viable rosette-forming lymphocytes were found. Therefore, this antiserum was cytotoxic for only 75-90% of T cells. From studies performed with antisera prepared against spleen and B-cell lines, we conclude that lymphoblastoid cells are antigenically different and deficient in comparison to normal B lymphocytes. In addition, cultured B-cell lines appear to be antigenically heterogenous, as shown by the cytotoxic activity remaining in antispleen and anti-B-cell lines sera after absorption with various numbers and types of lymphoid cell lines. After absorption with normal lymphocytes, an antiserum produced against chronic lymphatic leukemia cells had specific activity associated with 12 chronic lymphatic leukemia cells tested. Absorption of the same antiserum with leukemic cells from two patients showed that a certain degree of antigenic heterogeneity also exists among chronic leukemic lymphocytes. PMID:815274

Rabellino, E M; Grey, H M; LaForge, S; Pirofsky, B; Kashiwagi, N; Malley, A

1976-01-01

233

Deep Divergences of Human Gene Trees and Models of Human Michael G. B. Blum*,1 and Mattias Jakobsson2  

E-print Network

. Researcharticle Introduction The process by which modern humans arose has been the subject of much debate in paleoanthropology (Stringer 2002). Especiallythe extentof admixture between anatomi- cally modern humans and archaicDeep Divergences of Human Gene Trees and Models of Human Origins Michael G. B. Blum*,1 and Mattias

Jakobsson, Mattias

234

Recruitment of PI4KIII? to Coxsackievirus B3 Replication Organelles Is Independent of ACBD3, GBF1, and Arf1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Members of the Enterovirus (poliovirus [PV], coxsackieviruses, and human rhinoviruses) and Kobuvirus (Aichi virus) genera in the Picornaviridae family rely on PI4KIII? (phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase III?) for efficient replication. The small membrane-anchored enteroviral protein 3A recruits PI4KIII? to replication organelles, yet the underlying mechanism has remained elusive. Recently, it was shown that kobuviruses recruit PI4KIII? through interaction with ACBD3 (acyl coenzyme A [acyl-CoA]-binding protein domain 3), a novel interaction partner of PI4KIII?. Therefore, we investigated a possible role for ACBD3 in recruiting PI4KIII? to enterovirus replication organelles. Although ACBD3 interacted directly with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) 3A, its depletion from cells by RNA interference did not affect PI4KIII? recruitment to replication organelles and did not impair CVB3 RNA replication. Enterovirus 3A was previously also proposed to recruit PI4KIII? via GBF1/Arf1, based on the known interaction of 3A with GBF1, an important regulator of secretory pathway transport and a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) of Arf1. However, our results demonstrate that inhibition of GBF1 or Arf1 either by pharmacological inhibition or depletion with small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment did not affect the ability of 3A to recruit PI4KIII?. Furthermore, we show that a 3A mutant that no longer binds GBF1 was capable of recruiting PI4KIII?, even in ACBD3-depleted cells. Together, our findings indicate that unlike originally envisaged, coxsackievirus recruits PI4KIII? to replication organelles independently of ACBD3 and GBF1/Arf1. IMPORTANCE A hallmark of enteroviral infection is the generation of new membranous structures to support viral RNA replication. The functionality of these “replication organelles” depends on the concerted actions of both viral nonstructural proteins and co-opted host factors. It is thus essential to understand how these structures are formed and which cellular components are key players in this process. GBF1/Arf1 and ACBD3 have been proposed to contribute to the recruitment of the essential lipid-modifying enzyme PI4KIII? to enterovirus replication organelles. Here we show that the enterovirus CVB3 recruits PI4KIII? by a mechanism independent of both GBF1/Arf1 and ACBD3. This study shows that the strategy employed by coxsackievirus to recruit PI4KIII? to replication organelles is far more complex than initially anticipated. PMID:24352456

Dorobantu, Cristina M.; van der Schaar, Hilde M.; Ford, Lauren A.; Strating, Jeroen R. P. M.; Ulferts, Rachel; Fang, Ying; Belov, George

2014-01-01

235

Human antibodies for immunotherapy development generated via a human B cell hybridoma technology  

PubMed Central

Current strategies for the production of therapeutic mAbs include the use of mammalian cell systems to recombinantly produce Abs derived from mice bearing human Ig transgenes, humanization of rodent Abs, or phage libraries. Generation of hybridomas secreting human mAbs has been previously reported; however, this approach has not been fully exploited for immunotherapy development. We previously reported the use of transient regulation of cellular DNA mismatch repair processes to enhance traits (e.g., affinity and titers) of mAb-producing cell lines, including hybridomas. We reasoned that this process, named morphogenics, could be used to improve suboptimal hybridoma cells generated by means of ex vivo immunization and immortalization of antigen-specific human B cells for therapeutic Ab development. Here we present a platform process that combines hybridoma and morphogenics technologies for the generation of fully human mAbs specific for disease-associated human antigens. We were able to generate hybridoma lines secreting mAbs with high binding specificity and biological activity. One mAb with strong neutralizing activity against human granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor was identified that is now considered for preclinical development for autoimmune disease indications. Moreover, these hybridoma cells have proven suitable for genetic optimization using the morphogenics process and have shown potential for large-scale manufacturing. PMID:16505368

Li, Jian; Sai, Tao; Berger, Marc; Chao, Qimin; Davidson, Diane; Deshmukh, Gaurav; Drozdowski, Brian; Ebel, Wolfgang; Harley, Stephen; Henry, Marianne; Jacob, Sara; Kline, Brad; Lazo, Ella; Rotella, Frank; Routhier, Eric; Rudolph, Kathryn; Sage, Jeaneen; Simon, Paul; Yao, Jun; Zhou, Yuhong; Kavuru, Mani; Bonfield, Tracey; Thomassen, Mary Jane; Sass, Philip M.; Nicolaides, Nicholas C.; Grasso, Luigi

2006-01-01

236

Human antibodies for immunotherapy development generated via a human B cell hybridoma technology.  

PubMed

Current strategies for the production of therapeutic mAbs include the use of mammalian cell systems to recombinantly produce Abs derived from mice bearing human Ig transgenes, humanization of rodent Abs, or phage libraries. Generation of hybridomas secreting human mAbs has been previously reported; however, this approach has not been fully exploited for immunotherapy development. We previously reported the use of transient regulation of cellular DNA mismatch repair processes to enhance traits (e.g., affinity and titers) of mAb-producing cell lines, including hybridomas. We reasoned that this process, named morphogenics, could be used to improve suboptimal hybridoma cells generated by means of ex vivo immunization and immortalization of antigen-specific human B cells for therapeutic Ab development. Here we present a platform process that combines hybridoma and morphogenics technologies for the generation of fully human mAbs specific for disease-associated human antigens. We were able to generate hybridoma lines secreting mAbs with high binding specificity and biological activity. One mAb with strong neutralizing activity against human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor was identified that is now considered for preclinical development for autoimmune disease indications. Moreover, these hybridoma cells have proven suitable for genetic optimization using the morphogenics process and have shown potential for large-scale manufacturing. PMID:16505368

Li, Jian; Sai, Tao; Berger, Marc; Chao, Qimin; Davidson, Diane; Deshmukh, Gaurav; Drozdowski, Brian; Ebel, Wolfgang; Harley, Stephen; Henry, Marianne; Jacob, Sara; Kline, Brad; Lazo, Ella; Rotella, Frank; Routhier, Eric; Rudolph, Kathryn; Sage, Jeaneen; Simon, Paul; Yao, Jun; Zhou, Yuhong; Kavuru, Mani; Bonfield, Tracey; Thomassen, Mary Jane; Sass, Philip M; Nicolaides, Nicholas C; Grasso, Luigi

2006-03-01

237

Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element Management Plan: Human Research Program. Revision B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) is an applied research and technology program within the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) that addresses human health and performance risk mitigation strategies in support of exploration missions. The HRP research and technology development is focused on the highest priority risks to crew health and safety with the goal of ensuring mission success and maintaining long-term crew health. Crew health and performance standards, defined by the NASA Chief Health and Medical Officer (CHMO), set the acceptable risk level for exploration missions. The HRP conducts research to inform these standards as well as provide deliverables, such as countermeasures, that ensure standards can be met to maximize human performance and mission success. The Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element was formed as part of the HRP to develop a scientifically-based, integrated approach to understanding and mitigating the health risks associated with human spaceflight. These health risks have been organized into four research portfolios that group similar or related risks. A fifth portfolio exists for managing technology developments and infrastructure projects. The HHC Element portfolios consist of: a) Vision and Cardiovascular; b) Exercise and Performance; c) Multisystem; d) Bone; and e) Technology and Infrastructure. The HHC identifies gaps associated with the health risks and plans human physiology research that will result in knowledge required to more fully understand risks and will result in validated countermeasures to mitigate risks.

Norsk, Peter; Baumann, David

2012-01-01

238

Mutations in the non-structural protein region contribute to intra-genotypic evolution of enterovirus 71  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical manifestations of enterovirus 71 (EV71) range from herpangina, hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), to severe neurological complications. Unlike the situation of switching genotypes seen in EV71 outbreaks during 1998–2008 in Taiwan, genotype B5 was responsible for two large outbreaks in 2008 and 2012, respectively. In China, by contrast, EV71 often persists as a single genotype in the population and causes frequent outbreaks. To investigate genetic changes in viral evolution, complete EV71 genome sequences were used to analyze the intra-genotypic evolution pattern in Taiwan, China, and the Netherlands. Results Genotype B5 was predominant in Taiwan’s 2008 outbreak and was re-emergent in 2012. EV71 strains from both outbreaks were phylogenetically segregated into two lineages containing fourteen non-synonymous substitutions predominantly in the non-structural protein coding region. In China, genotype C4 was first seen in 1998 and caused the latest large outbreak in 2008. Unlike shifting genotypes in Taiwan, genotype C4 persisted with progressive drift through time. A majority of non-synonymous mutations occurred in residues located in the non-structural coding region, showing annual increases. Interestingly, genotype B1/B2 in the Netherlands showed another stepwise evolution with dramatic EV71 activity increase in 1986. Phylogeny of the VP1 coding region in 1971–1986 exhibited similar lineage turnover with genotype C4 in China; however, phylogeny of the 3D-encoding region indicated separate lineage appearing after 1983, suggesting that the 3D-encoding region of genotype B2 was derived from an unidentified ancestor that contributed to intra-genotypic evolution in the Netherlands. Conclusions Unlike VP1 coding sequences long used for phylogenetic study of enteroviruses due to expected host immune escape, our study emphasizes a dominant role of non-synonymous mutations in non-structural protein regions that contribute to (re-)emergent genotypes in continuous stepwise evolution. Dozens of amino acid substitutions, especially in non-structural proteins, were identified via genetic changes driven through intra-genotypic evolution worldwide. These identified substitutions appeared to increase viral fitness in the population, affording valuable insights not only for viral evolution but also for prevention, control, and vaccine against EV71 infection. PMID:24766641

2014-01-01

239

Rhino/Enteroviruses in Hospitalized Children: A Comparison to Influenza Viruses  

PubMed Central

Background The relative impact of human rhino/enteroviruses (HRV/EV) compared to influenza viruses on hospitalized children is unknown. Objectives This retrospective study compared the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with HRV/EV to patients hospitalized with influenza virus. Study Design Respiratory specimens from hospitalized children submitted between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2009 to Children’s Hospital Colorado Virology Laboratory in Aurora, CO were tested by a commercial multiplex PCR for 16 respiratory viruses and subtypes. Patients with specimens positive for HRV/EV or influenza virus without bacterial or viral co-infection were selected for retrospective chart review. Results Of the 2299 patients with specimens tested during the study period, 427 (18.6%) were singly positive for HRV/EV and 202 (8.8%) for influenza virus (p<0.01). Children with HRV/EV were more likely to present with increased work of breathing (67.9% vs. 52.5%, p<0.01) with crackles (36.3% vs. 23.3%, p<0.01) and wheezing (41.7% vs. 22.8%, p<0.01) noted on exam. Children hospitalized with HRV/EV had a shorter median length of stay (2 vs. 3 days, p<0.01), duration of fever (1 vs. 3 days, p<0.01), and duration of hypoxemia (2 vs. 3 days, p <0.01) than children with influenza virus. Similar percentages of children with HRV/EV and influenza virus were admitted to the PICU and required positive pressure ventilation. There were no deaths in children hospitalized with HRV/EV, whereas 6 children with influenza virus expired. Conclusions HRV/EVs are common pathogens in hospitalized children associated with serious lower respiratory tract disease and significant morbidity, similar to influenza viruses. PMID:23078869

Messacar, Kevin; Robinson, Christine C.; Bagdure, Dayanand; Curtis, Donna J.; Glodé, Mary P.; Dominguez, Samuel R.

2012-01-01

240

Antiviral effects of two Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoids against enterovirus 71 infection.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), and fatal neurological and systemic complications in children. However, there is currently no clinical approved antiviral drug available for the prevention and treatment of the viral infection. Here, we evaluated the antiviral activities of two Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoids (GLTs), Lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-3-one,15;26-dihydroxy (GLTA) and Ganoderic acid Y (GLTB), against EV71 infection. The results showed that the two natural compounds display significant anti-EV71 activities without cytotoxicity in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells as evaluated by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assay. The mechanisms by which the two compounds affect EV71 infection were further elucidated by three action modes using Ribavirin, a common antiviral drug, as a positive control. The results suggested that GLTA and GLTB prevent EV71 infection through interacting with the viral particle to block the adsorption of virus to the cells. In addition, the interactions between EV71 virion and the compounds were predicated by computer molecular docking, which illustrated that GLTA and GLTB may bind to the viral capsid protein at a hydrophobic pocket (F site), and thus may block uncoating of EV71. Moreover, we demonstrated that GLTA and GLTB significantly inhibit the replication of the viral RNA (vRNA) of EV71 replication through blocking EV71 uncoating. Thus, GLTA and GLTB may represent two potential therapeutic agents to control and treat EV71 infection. PMID:24845570

Zhang, Wenjing; Tao, Junyan; Yang, Xiaoping; Yang, Zhuliang; Zhang, Li; Liu, Hongsheng; Wu, Kailang; Wu, Jianguo

2014-07-01

241

Broad-range inhibition of enterovirus replication by OSW-1, a natural compound targeting OSBP.  

PubMed

Enteroviruses, e.g., polio-, coxsackie- and rhinoviruses, constitute a large genus within the Picornaviridae family of positive-strand RNA viruses and include many important pathogens linked to a variety of acute and chronic diseases. Despite their huge medical and economic impact, no approved antiviral therapy is yet available. Recently, the oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) was implicated as a host factor for enterovirus replication. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of the natural compound OSW-1, a ligand of OSBP that is under investigation as an anti-cancer drug. OSW-1 potently inhibited the replication of all enteroviruses tested, with IC50 values in the low nanomolar range, acted at the genome replication stage and was effective in all tested cell types of three different species. Importantly, OSBP overexpression rescued viral replication, demonstrating that the antiviral effect of OSW-1 is due to targeting OSBP. Together, we here report the anti-enterovirus activity of the natural anti-cancer compound OSW-1. PMID:25752737

Albulescu, Lucian; Strating, Jeroen R P M; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; van der Linden, Lonneke; Shair, Matthew D; Neyts, Johan; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

2015-05-01

242

Molecular epidemiology of enterovirus d68 from 2013 to 2014 in Philippines.  

PubMed

Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been recognized as an important cause of acute respiratory infections. Here we report the molecular epidemiology of EV-D68 in Philippines from 2013 to 2014; we found cases in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan and found new strains in the country. PMID:25568441

Furuse, Yuki; Chaimongkol, Natthawan; Okamoto, Michiko; Imamura, Tadatsugu; Saito, Mariko; Tamaki, Raita; Saito, Mayuko; Lupisan, Socorro P; Oshitani, Hitoshi

2015-03-01

243

RAPID PCR-BASED MONITORING OF INFECTIOUS ENTEROVIRUSES IN DRINKING WATER. (R824756)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Currently, the standard method for the detection of enteroviruses and hepatitis A virus in water involves cell culture assay which is expensive and time consuming. Direct RT-PCR offers a rapid and sensitive alternative to virus detection but sensitivity is oft...

244

Detection of enteroviruses and parechoviruses by a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay.  

PubMed

Detection of all enteroviruses while excluding cross-detection of rhinoviruses is challenging because of sequence similarities in the commonly used conserved targets for molecular assays. In addition, simultaneous detection and differentiation of enteroviruses and parechoviruses would be beneficial because of a similar clinical picture presented by these viruses. A sensitive and specific real-time RT-PCR protocol that can address these clinical needs would be valuable to molecular diagnostic laboratories. Here we report a multiplex nucleic acid based assay using hydrolysis probes targeting the 5' non-translated region for the detection and differentiation of enteroviruses and parechoviruses without cross-detection of rhinoviruses. This assay has been shown to detect enteroviruses belonging to the different species in a variety of specimen types without detecting the different species of rhinoviruses. Laboratory validation shows the assay to be sensitive, specific, reproducible, easy to set up and uses generic cycling conditions. This assay can be implemented for diagnostic testing of patient samples in a high throughput fashion. PMID:25681753

Pabbaraju, Kanti; Wong, Sallene; Wong, Anita A; Tellier, Raymond

2015-04-01

245

An outbreak of enterovirus 71 infection in Taiwan, 1998: epidemiologic and clinical manifestations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: An outbreak of enterovirus infections occurred throughout Taiwan in 1998. The diseases were manifectated with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), some associated with meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). Objectives: This study is aimed to characterize and analyze the epidermologic and clinical features during the outbreak. Study design: The epidemiologic information was collected from the Ministry of

Ching-Chuan Liu; Hui-Wan Tseng; Shih-Min Wang; Jen-Ren Wang; Ih-Jen Su

2000-01-01

246

EFFECT OF PARTICULATES ON DISINFECTION OF ENTEROVIRUSES IN WATER BY CHLORINE DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The inactivation kinetics of ClO2 on two enteroviruses, poliovirus 1 (Mahoney) and coxsackie virus A9, and an enteric indicator of fecal pollution, Escherichia coli, were examined in laboratory studies. In addition, the disinfecting ability of ClO2 as affected by particulates (bo...

247

Characterization of a rare IL-10–competent B-cell subset in humans that parallels mouse regulatory B10 cells  

PubMed Central

Regulatory B cells control inflammation and autoimmunity in mice, including the recently identified IL-10–competent B10 cell subset that represents 1% to 3% of spleen B cells. In this study, a comparable IL-10–competent B10 cell subset was characterized in human blood. B10 cells were functionally identified by their ability to express cytoplasmic IL-10 after 5 hours of ex vivo stimulation, whereas progenitor B10 (B10pro) cells required 48 hours of in vitro stimulation before they acquired the ability to express IL-10. B10 and B10pro cells represented 0.6% and approximately 5% of blood B cells, respectively. Ex vivo B10 and B10pro cells were predominantly found within the CD24hiCD27+ B-cell subpopulation that was able to negatively regulate monocyte cytokine production through IL-10–dependent pathways during in vitro functional assays. Blood B10 cells were present in 91 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, primary Sjögren syndrome, autoimmune vesiculobullous skin disease, or multiple sclerosis, and were expanded in some cases as occurs in mice with autoimmune disease. Mean B10 + B10pro-cell frequencies were also significantly higher in patients with autoimmune disease compared with healthy controls. The characterization of human B10 cells will facilitate their identification and the study of their regulatory activities during human disease. PMID:20962324

Iwata, Yohei; Matsushita, Takashi; Horikawa, Mayuka; DiLillo, David J.; Yanaba, Koichi; Venturi, Guglielmo M.; Szabolcs, Paul M.; Bernstein, Steven H.; Magro, Cynthia M.; Williams, Armistead D.; Hall, Russell P.; St Clair, E. William

2011-01-01

248

Purinoceptor-operated cationic channels in human B lymphocytes.  

PubMed Central

1. Using the patch clamp method in the outside-out configuration, purinoceptor-dependent unitary currents were measured in tonsillar and transformed tonsillar human B lymphocytes. 2. Single channel currents were evoked by ATP4-, the free-acid form of ATP, and by 2',3' O-benzoyl-4-benzoyl-ATP (BzATP) in the micromolar concentration range, but not by 10 mM ADP3- or 0.5 mM Mg(2+)-bound ATP. 3. The channels could be activated and deactivated several times for as long as 30 min even in the absence of intracellular ATP, GTP, or glucose. 4. The channels were selective for small cations and had a conductance of 9 pS with Cs+ as the intracellular and Na+ as the extracellular monovalent cation. 5. The half-maximal activation of the channels was obtained by 114 microM ATP4- and by 16 microM BzATP. The increase in the open probability after raising the ATP4- concentration was mainly due to a decrease in the times the channels spend in the closed state. 6. It is concluded that human B lymphocytes possess cationic channels directly gated by extracellular ATP4-. Their agonist binding characteristics are typical for P2z purinoceptors, but their permeation behaviour is different from the large non-specific pores formed by ATP4- in fibroblasts, macrophages and mast cells. PMID:9023774

Markwardt, F; Löhn, M; Böhm, T; Klapperstück, M

1997-01-01

249

Human monoclonal antibodies broadly neutralizing against influenza B virus.  

PubMed

Influenza virus has the ability to evade host immune surveillance through rapid viral genetic drift and reassortment; therefore, it remains a continuous public health threat. The development of vaccines producing broadly reactive antibodies, as well as therapeutic strategies using human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) with global reactivity, has been gathering great interest recently. Here, three hybridoma clones producing HuMAbs against influenza B virus, designated 5A7, 3A2 and 10C4, were prepared using peripheral lymphocytes from vaccinated volunteers, and were investigated for broad cross-reactive neutralizing activity. Of these HuMAbs, 3A2 and 10C4, which recognize the readily mutable 190-helix region near the receptor binding site in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein, react only with the Yamagata lineage of influenza B virus. By contrast, HuMAb 5A7 broadly neutralizes influenza B strains that were isolated from 1985 to 2006, belonging to both Yamagata and Victoria lineages. Epitope mapping revealed that 5A7 recognizes 316G, 318C and 321W near the C terminal of HA1, a highly conserved region in influenza B virus. Indeed, no mutations in the amino acid residues of the epitope region were induced, even after the virus was passaged ten times in the presence of HuMAb 5A7. Moreover, 5A7 showed significant therapeutic efficacy in mice, even when it was administered 72 hours post-infection. These results indicate that 5A7 is a promising candidate for developing therapeutics, and provide insight for the development of a universal vaccine against influenza B virus. PMID:23408886

Yasugi, Mayo; Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko; Yamashita, Akifumi; Kawashita, Norihito; Du, Anariwa; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Nishimura, Mitsuhiro; Misaki, Ryo; Kuhara, Motoki; Boonsathorn, Naphatsawan; Fujiyama, Kazuhito; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Nakaya, Takaaki; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

2013-02-01

250

Human Monoclonal Antibodies Broadly Neutralizing against Influenza B Virus  

PubMed Central

Influenza virus has the ability to evade host immune surveillance through rapid viral genetic drift and reassortment; therefore, it remains a continuous public health threat. The development of vaccines producing broadly reactive antibodies, as well as therapeutic strategies using human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) with global reactivity, has been gathering great interest recently. Here, three hybridoma clones producing HuMAbs against influenza B virus, designated 5A7, 3A2 and 10C4, were prepared using peripheral lymphocytes from vaccinated volunteers, and were investigated for broad cross-reactive neutralizing activity. Of these HuMAbs, 3A2 and 10C4, which recognize the readily mutable 190-helix region near the receptor binding site in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein, react only with the Yamagata lineage of influenza B virus. By contrast, HuMAb 5A7 broadly neutralizes influenza B strains that were isolated from 1985 to 2006, belonging to both Yamagata and Victoria lineages. Epitope mapping revealed that 5A7 recognizes 316G, 318C and 321W near the C terminal of HA1, a highly conserved region in influenza B virus. Indeed, no mutations in the amino acid residues of the epitope region were induced, even after the virus was passaged ten times in the presence of HuMAb 5A7. Moreover, 5A7 showed significant therapeutic efficacy in mice, even when it was administered 72 hours post-infection. These results indicate that 5A7 is a promising candidate for developing therapeutics, and provide insight for the development of a universal vaccine against influenza B virus. PMID:23408886

Yasugi, Mayo; Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko; Yamashita, Akifumi; Kawashita, Norihito; Du, Anariwa; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Nishimura, Mitsuhiro; Misaki, Ryo; Kuhara, Motoki; Boonsathorn, Naphatsawan; Fujiyama, Kazuhito; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Nakaya, Takaaki; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

2013-01-01

251

b-Hydroxy-b-Methylbutyrate (HMB) Supplementation in Humans Is Safe and May Decrease Cardiovascular Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leucine metabolite, b-hydroxy-b-methylbutyrate (HMB) enhances the effects of exercise on muscle size and strength. Although several reports in animals and humans indicate that HMB is safe, quantitative safety data in humans have not been reported definitively. The objective of this work was to summarize safety data collected in nine studies in which humans were fed 3 g HMB\\/d. The

S. Nissen; R. L. Sharp; L. Panton; M. Vukovich; S. Trappe; J. C. Fuller

252

Molecular modeling of the human sperm associated antigen 11 B (SPAG11B) proteins.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial proteins and peptides are ubiquitous in nature with diverse structural and biological properties. Among them, the human beta-defensins are known to contribute to the innate immune response. Besides the defensins, a number of defensin-like proteins and peptides are expressed in many organ systems including the male reproductive system. Some of the protein isoforms encoded by the sperm associated antigen 11B (SPAG11) gene in humans are beta-defensin-like and exhibit structure dependent and salt tolerant antimicrobial activity, besides contributing to sperm maturation. Though some of the functional roles of these proteins are reported, the structural and molecular features that contribute to their antimicrobial activity is not yet reported. In this study, using in silico tools, we report the three dimensional structure of the human SPAG11B proteins and their C-terminal peptides. web-based hydropathy, amphipathicity, and topology (WHAT) analyses and grand average of hydropathy (GRAVY) indices show that these proteins and peptides are amphipathic and highly hydrophilic. Self-optimized prediction method with alignment (SOPMA) analyses and circular dichroism data suggest that the secondary structure of these proteins and peptides primarily contain beta-sheet and random coil structure and alpha-helix to a lesser extent. Ramachandran plots show that majority of the amino acids in these proteins and peptides fall in the permissible regions, thus indicating stable structures. The secondary structure of SPAG11B isoforms and their peptides were not perturbed with increasing NaCl concentration (0-300?mM) and at different pH (3, 7, and 10), thus reinforcing our previously reported observation that their antimicrobial activity is salt tolerant. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, results of our study provide vital information on the structural features of SPAG11B protein isoforms and their contribution to antimicrobial activity. PMID:25573789

Narmadha, Ganapathy; Yenugu, Suresh

2015-04-01

253

Method 1615: Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus Occurrence in Water by Culture and RT-qPCR  

EPA Science Inventory

Version 1.1 - Enteroviruses and noroviruses that may be present in environmental or finished drinking waters are concentrated by passage through electropositive filters. Viruses are eluted from the filters with a beef extract reagent and concentrated using organic flocculation....

254

Molecular Cell Human LSD2/KDM1b/AOF1 Regulates  

E-print Network

Molecular Cell Article Human LSD2/KDM1b/AOF1 Regulates Gene Transcription by Modulating Intragenic to the regulation of transcriptional initiation. We now show that human LSD2/KDM1b/AOF1, the human homolog of LSD1 regions of its target genes. Genome-wide mapping reveals that LSD2 associates predominantly with the gene

Yuan, Guo-Cheng "GC"

255

Kaempferol inhibits enterovirus 71 replication and internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity through FUBP and HNRP proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavonoids are associated with multiple biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-enterovirus activity. An internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) required for viral protein translation is a potential drug target for enterovirus 71 (EV71). Regulation translation initiation requires the interaction of IRES specific trans-acting host factors with viral IRES element. By evaluation of 12 flavonoids against EV71 infection, we found that (a)

Fuu-Jen Tsai; Cheng-Wen Lin; Chien-Chen Lai; Yu-Ching Lan; Chih-Ho Lai; Chien-Hui Hung; Kai-Chung Hsueh; Ting-Hsu Lin; Hebron C. Chang; Lei Wan; Jim Jinn-Chyuan Sheu; Ying-Ju Lin

2011-01-01

256

Rapid Detection of Enterovirus RNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid Specimens with a Novel Single-Tube Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-tube real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay for enterovirus detection in cerebrospi- nal fluid (CSF) was developed based on a fluorogenic probe and primers directed to highly conserved sequences in the 5 untranslated region of the enterovirus genome. Quantitative detection of enterovirus genome was demonstrated in a linear range spanning at least 5 logs. Endpoint titration experiments revealed that the

WALTER A. VERSTREPEN; SOFIE KUHN; MARK M. KOCKX; MARTINE E. VAN DE VYVERE; AN H. MERTENS

257

Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines Secrete the Major Plasma Proteins and Hepatitis B Surface Antigen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the cell culture fluid from two new human hepatoma-derived cell lines reveals that 17 of the major human plasma proteins are synthesized and secreted by these cells. One of these cell lines, Hep 3B, also produces the two major polypeptides of the hepatitis B virus surface antigen. When Hep 3B is injected into athymic mice, metastatic hepatocellular carcinomas

Barbara B. Knowles; Chin C. Howe; David P. Aden

1980-01-01

258

Electrostatic Regulation of Genome Packaging in Human Hepatitis B Virus Zhen-Gang Wang,  

E-print Network

Electrostatic Regulation of Genome Packaging in Human Hepatitis B Virus Tao Jiang, Zhen-Gang Wang, California ABSTRACT Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a contagious human pathogen causing liver diseases-termini. INTRODUCTION Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a pararetrovirus responsible for up to 80% of all cases

Wu, Jianzhong

259

The Immune Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine in Humans: Inheritance Patterns in Families  

E-print Network

The Immune Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine in Humans: Inheritance Patterns in Families By Margot S haverecently shown that the human antibody response to the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBs immunized with the hepatitis B vaccine, including sevenfamilies where at least one member bore the haplotype

Alper, Chester A.

260

Interferon-? inhibits group B Streptococcus survival within human endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Endothelial dysfunction is a major component of the pathophysiology of septicaemic group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections. Although cytokines have been shown to activate human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), the capacity of interferon (IFN)-? to enhance the microbicidal activity of HUVECs against GBS has not been studied. We report that the viability of intracellular bacteria was reduced in HUVECs activated by IFN-?. Enhanced fusion of lysosomes with bacteria-containing vacuoles was observed by acid phosphatase and the colocalisation of Rab-5, Rab-7 and lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 with GBS in IFN-?-activated HUVECs. IFN-? resulted in an enhancement of the phagosome maturation process in HUVECs, improving the capacity to control the intracellular survival of GBS. PMID:25410999

Lione, Viviane de Oliveira Freitas; dos Santos, Michelle Hanthequeste Bittencourt; de Oliveira, Jessica Silva Santos; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luiza; Nagao, Prescilla Emy

2014-01-01

261

Constitutive and Inducible Expression of B7 Family of Ligands by Human Airway Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated T cells have been implicated in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and asthma and physically interact with epithelial cells in the airways. We now report that human airway epithelial cells display significant constitutive cell-surfaceexpression of costimulatory ligands, B7-H1, B7-H2, B7-H3, and B7-DC. Expression of B7-H1 and B7-DC was selectively induced by stimulation of either BEAS2B or primary nasal epithelial cells (PNEC)

Jean Kim; Allen C. Myers; Lieping Chen; Drew M. Pardoll; Quynh-Ai Truong-Tran; John F. McDyer; Lowella Fortuno; Robert P. Schleimer

2005-01-01

262

DNA Polymerase Associated with Human Hepatitis B Antigen  

PubMed Central

DNA polymerase activity was detected in each of eight preparations of concentrated human hepatitis B antigen (HBAg) rich in Dane particles prepared by high-speed centrifugation of antigen-positive human plasma and in none of seven control preparations prepared in the same way from HBAg-negative plasma. The incorporation of 3H-thymidine-methyl-5?-triphosphate into DNA was dependent on four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates and MgCl2. Treatment of the concentrated HBAg preparations with the nonionic detergent Nonidet P-40 (NP40) more than doubled the enzyme activity. Fractionation of the concentrated HBAg preparation in sucrose density gradients after treatment with NP40 revealed that the enzyme activity appeared within the density range of Dane core antigen but at a slightly higher density than the average for core antigen. The only particles observed by electron microscopy in this region of the gradient were typical 28-nm cores, suggesting that the DNA polymerase activity was associated with a subpopulation of cores. No DNA polymerase activity was found in purified 20-nm HBAg particles. The DNA product of the reaction remained associated with the 110S core and was not susceptible to DNase digestion when associated with the core. Inhibition of the reaction by actinomycin D and daunomycin suggested that the reaction was dependent on a DNA template associated with the core. PMID:4765400

Kaplan, Paul M.; Greenman, Richard L.; Gerin, John L.; Purcell, Robert H.; Robinson, William S.

1973-01-01

263

Both apoB-48 and apoB-100 are synthesized by human enterocytes and secreted in hepatic bile  

SciTech Connect

Using high resolution immunogold technique with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, the authors were able to show the presence of both forms of apoB (B-48 and B-100) in human enterocytes. Labeling for both isoproteins was present not only over the rough endoplasmic reticulum, but also on the apical vesicles, in multivesicular bodies and on microvilli indicated an internalization of apoB from the gut lumen. To examine the synthesis of apoB-100, a pulse of ({sup 3}H)-leucine was administered to human segments of intestine in explant culture. Newly synthesized apoB-100, confirmed by immunoprecipitation and immunoblot, represented 28% of total apoB production. The hypothesis that apoB-100 might be secreted in bile and internalized by the intestine, was tested by measuring apoB in human hepatic bile. The expression and immunoreactivity of both forms of apoB were obtained by using monoclonal antibodies which identify both B-48 and B-100 (1D1 and 2D8) or B-100 alone (3A10, 4G3, 5E11 and 22). While no epitopes were detected by 2D8 and 4G3, the distribution pattern for apoB was found by 1D1 (7.3%), 3A10 (31.2%), 5E11 (46.2%) and 22 (14.0%), suggesting that apoB fragments are secreted in bile. These findings provide evidence that apoB-100 is synthesized by the human gut and show that both isoproteins are consistent with the possibility that biliary apoB may be internalized by the enterocyte.

Rochette, C.; Bendayan, M.; Roy, C.C.; Milne, R.; Marcel, Y.; Levy, E. (Univ. of Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

1990-02-26

264

Human GABA(B)R genomic structure: evidence for splice variants in GABA(B)R1 but not GABA(B)R2.  

PubMed

The type B gamma-aminobutryic acid receptor (GABA(B)R) is a G protein coupled receptor that mediates slow pre- and post-synaptic inhibition in the nervous system. We find that the human GABA(B)R2 gene spans greater than 350 kb and contains 2.8 kb of coding region in 19 exons. The overall similarity in genomic structure with regard to conservation of intron position and exon size between human or Drosophila GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2 genes suggests a common ancestral origin. Multiple transcripts GABA(B)R1a-c and GABA(B)R2a-c have been described and alternative splicing has been proposed to result in GABA(B)R1c, GABA(B)R2b and GABA(B)R2c. The results described here provide support for the existence of GABA(B)R1c but not for GABA(B)R2b and GABA(B)R2c. Splice junctions present in the GABA(B)R1 gene sequence are consistent with the formation of GABA(B)R1c by exon skipping of one sushi domain module. The GABA(B)R2 gene lacks canonical splice junctions for the reported variants. Consistent with this, RNA analysis demonstrates the presence of GABA(B)R1c and GABA(B)R2 transcripts in fetal and adult human brain RNA but GABA(B)R2b and GABA(B)R2c transcripts are not detected. These results provide insight into the evolution and transcript diversity of the mammalian GABA(B)R genes. PMID:11707323

Martin, S C; Russek, S J; Farb, D H

2001-10-31

265

The variations of VP1 protein might be associated with nervous system symptoms caused by enterovirus 71 infection  

PubMed Central

Background The VP1 protein of enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an important immunodominant protein which is responsible for host-receptor binding. Nevertheless, the relationship between VP1 and neurovirulence is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the relationship between mutation of VP1 and neurovirulent phenotype of EV71 infection. Methods One hundred and eighty-seven strains from Genbank were included, with a clear clinical background. They were divided into two groups, one with nervous system symptoms and one with no nervous system symptoms. After alignment, the significance of amino acid variation was determined by using the ?2 test and a phylogenetic tree was constructed with MEGA software (version 5.1). Results We showed no significant difference in neurovirulence between genotype B and C. Interestingly, we found that variations of E145G/Q, E164D/K and T292N/K were associated with nervous system infection in genotype B. In the case of genotype C, the N31D mutation increased the risk for nervous complications, whereas I262V mutation decreased the risk of nervous complications. We used a 3D model of VP1 to demonstrate the potential molecular basis for EV71 nervous system tropism. Conclusions Distinct variations are shown to be associated with neurovirulent phenotype in the different genotype. Detection of variation in genotypes and subtypes may be important for the prediction of clinical outcomes. PMID:24886383

2014-01-01

266

Expression of the Aldo-Ketoreductases AKR1B1 and AKR1B10 in Human Cancers.  

PubMed

The American Cancer Society estimates that there will be more than 1.5 million new cases of cancer in 2011, underscoring the need for identification of new therapeutic targets and development of novel cancer therapies. Previous studies have implicated the human aldo-ketoreductases AKR1B1 and AKR1B10 in cancer, and therefore we examined AKR1B1 and AKR1B10 expression across all major human cancer types using the Oncomine cancer gene expression database (Compendia Biosciences, www.oncomine.com). Using this database, we found that expression of AKR1B1 and AKR1B10 varies greatly by cancer type and tissue of origin, including agreement with previous reports that AKR1B10 is significantly over-expressed in cancers of the lungs and liver. AKR1B1 is more broadly over-expressed in human cancers than AKR1B10, albeit at a generally lower magnitude. AKR1B1 over-expression was found to be associated with shortened patient survival in acute myelogenous leukemias and multiple myelomas. High AKR1B10 expression tends to predict less aggressive clinical course generally, notably within lung cancers, where it tends to be highly over-expressed compared to normal tissue. These findings suggest that AKR1B1 inhibitors in particular hold great potential as novel cancer therapeutics. PMID:22685431

Laffin, Brian; Petrash, J Mark

2012-01-01

267

Human monoclonal antibodies specific to hepatitis B virus generated in a human/mouse radiation chimera: the Trimera system.  

PubMed Central

An approach to develop fully human monoclonal antibodies in a human/mouse radiation chimera, the Trimera system, is described. In this system, functional human lymphocytes are engrafted in normal strains of mice which are rendered immuno-incompetent by lethal total body irradiation followed by radioprotection with severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse bone marrow. Following transplantation, human lymphocytes colonize murine lymphatic organs and secrete human immunoglobulins. We have established this system as a tool to develop fully human monoclonal antibodies, and applied it for the generation of monoclonal antibodies specific for hepatitis B virus surface antigen. A strong memory response to hepatitis B surface antigen was elicited in Trimera engrafted with lymphocytes from human donors positive for antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen. The human specific antibody fraction in the Trimera was 10(2)-10(3)-fold higher as compared with that found in the donors. Spleens were harvested from Trimera mice showing high specific-antibody titres and cells were fused to a human-mouse heteromyeloma fusion partner. Several stable hybridoma clones were isolated and characterized. These hybridomas produce high-affinity, IgG, anti-hepatitis B surface antigen antibodies demonstrating the potential of the Trimera system for generating fully human monoclonal antibodies. The biological function and the neutralizing activity of these antibodies are currently being tested. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:9616363

Eren, R; Lubin, I; Terkieltaub, D; Ben-Moshe, O; Zauberman, A; Uhlmann, R; Tzahor, T; Moss, S; Ilan, E; Shouval, D; Galun, E; Daudi, N; Marcus, H; Reisner, Y; Dagan, S

1998-01-01

268

Autocrine Transforming Growth Factor b Suppresses Telomerase Activity and Transcription of Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase in Human Cancer Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because autocrine transforming growth factor b (TGF-b) can suppress carcinogenesis, which is often associated with telomerase activation, we studied whether autocrine TGF-b inhibits telomerase activity. Restoration of autocrine TGF-b activity in human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells after reexpression of its type II receptor (RII) led to a significant reduction of telomerase activity and the mRNA level of telomerase reverse transcriptase

Hua Yang; Satoru Kyo; Masahiro Takatura; LuZhe Sun

2001-01-01

269

Human innate B cells: a link between host defense and autoimmunity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

B cells play a variety of immunoregulatory roles through their antigen-presentation ability and through cytokine and chemokine production. Innate immune activation of B cells may play a beneficial role through the generation of natural cross-reactive antibodies, by maintaining B cell memory and by exercising immunomodulatory functions that may provide protection against autoimmunity. In this article, we review human B cell

Eric C. B. Milner; Jennifer Anolik; Amedeo Cappione; Ińaki Sanz

2005-01-01

270

Identification of specific antigenic epitope at N-terminal segment of enterovirus 71 (EV-71) VP1 protein and characterization of its use in recombinant form for early diagnosis of EV-71 infection.  

PubMed

Human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the main etiologic agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). We sought to identify EV-71 specific antigens and develop serologic assays for acute-phase EV-71 infection. A series of truncated proteins within the N-terminal 100 amino acids (aa) of EV-71 VP1 was expressed in Escherichia coli. Western blot (WB) analysis showed that positions around 11-21 aa contain EV-71-specific antigenic sites, whereas positions 1-5 and 51-100 contain epitopes shared with human coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and human echovirus 6 (E-6). The N-terminal truncated protein of VP1, VP?????, exhibited good stability and was recognized by anti-EV-71 specific rabbit sera. Alignment analysis showed that VP????? is highly conserved among EV-71 strains from different genotypes but was heterologous among other enteroviruses. When the GST-VP????? fusion protein was incorporated as antibody-capture agent in a WB assay and an ELISA for detecting anti-EV-71 IgM in human sera, sensitivities of 91.7% and 77.8% were achieved, respectively, with 100% specificity for both. The characterized EV-71 VP1 protein truncated to positions 6-43 aa has potential as an antigen for detection of anti-EV-71 IgM for early diagnosis of EV-71 infection in a WB format. PMID:24952304

Zhang, Jianhua; Jiang, Bingfu; Xu, Mingjie; Dai, Xing; Purdy, Michael A; Meng, Jihong

2014-08-30

271

Derivation of HLA-B*0702 transgenic mice: functional CTL repertoire and recognition of human B*0702-restricted CTL epitopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic mice expressing chimeric human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*0702 and murine H-2Kb class I molecules were evaluated as a model system to study the immunogenicity of human cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes. Immunization of these mice with six known HLA-B*0702–restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes emulsified in incomplete Freund’s adjuvant induced significant immune responses specific for all six epitopes. A comparison of the

Jeff Alexander; Carla Oseroff; John Sidney; Alessandro Sette

2003-01-01

272

Coxsackievirus B5 induced apoptosis of HeLa cells: Effects on p53 and SUMO  

SciTech Connect

Coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5), a human enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae, is a frequent cause of acute and chronic human diseases. The pathogenesis of enteroviral infections is not completely understood, and the fate of the CVB5-infected cell has a pivotal role in this process. We have investigated the CVB5-induced apoptosis of HeLa cells and found that it happens by the intrinsic pathway by a mechanism dependent on the ubiquitin-proteasome system, associated with nuclear aggregation of p53. Striking redistribution of both SUMO and UBC9 was noted at 4 h post-infection, simultaneously with a reduction in the levels of the ubiquitin-ligase HDM2. Taken together, these results suggest that CVB5 infection of HeLa cells elicit the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis by MDM2 degradation and p53 activation, destabilizing protein sumoylation, by a mechanism that is dependent on a functional ubiquitin-proteasome system.

Gomes, Rogerio, E-mail: roggomes@usp.b [Department of Cell Biology, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine at Ribeirao Preto, Av. dos Bandeirantes, 3900, 14049-900, SP (Brazil); Guerra-Sa, Renata [Federal University of Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Arruda, Eurico [Department of Cell Biology, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine at Ribeirao Preto, Av. dos Bandeirantes, 3900, 14049-900, SP (Brazil); Virology Research Center, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine at Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

2010-01-20

273

Enterovirus 70 Receptor Utilization Is Controlled by Capsid Residues That Also Regulate Host Range and Cytopathogenicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterovirus type 70, an etiologic agent of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, may bind different cellular receptors depending on cell type. To understand how EV70-receptor interaction is controlled, we studied two variants of the virus with distinct receptor utilization. EV70-Rmk, derived by passage in rhesus monkey kidney cells, replicates poorly in HeLa cells and does not cause cytopathic effects. Decay accelerating factor

Melissa Stewart Kim; Vincent R. Racaniello

2007-01-01

274

Enterovirus replication in valvular tissue from patients with chronic rheumatic heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To investigate the involvement of enterovirus infection in chronic, rheumatic heart disease. Methods and Results Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, surgical samples of valve tissue were examined for the presence of enteroviral RNA and virus capsid protein VP1 by in situ hybridization and immunostaining. Of 53 cases, 33 were patients with chronic rheumatic heart disease and 20 had Marfan's syndrome or degenerative

Y. Li; Z. Pan; Y. Ji; T. Peng; L. C. Archard; H. Zhang

2002-01-01

275

Neutralizing Antibody Provided Protection against Enterovirus Type 71 Lethal Challenge in Neonatal Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental infection with enterovirus type 71 (EV71) induced death in neonatal mice in an age- and dose-dependent manner. The mortality rate was 100% following intraperitoneal inoculation 1-day-old ICR mice and this gradually decreased as the age at the time of inoculation increased (60% in 3-day-old mice and no deaths occurred in mice older than 6 days of age). A lethal

Chun-Keung Yu; Chi-Chung Chen; Chi-Long Chen; Jen-Ren Wang; Ching-Chuan Liu; Jing-Jou Yan; Ih-Jen Su

2000-01-01

276

Isolation and chromosomal mapping of the human immunoglobulin-associated B29 gene (IGB)  

SciTech Connect

The B29 gene encodes a B-cell-specific membrane protein in the immunoglobulin antigen receptor complex. B29 is a crucial member of this receptor complex and is believed to function as an effector of signal transduction in a manner analogous to that of the CD3 components of the T cell antigen receptor. The authors have isolated a full-length human B29 cDNA clone by using a murine B29 cDNA probe. They show that there is an extremely high degree of evolutionary conservation between the human and mouse proteins, particularly in the transmembrane and intracytoplasmic regions, where the identity is 96%. In addition, the intracytoplasmic region in both proteins contains an identical peptide motif that is present in a number of molecules involved in lymphocyte activation. Genomic Southern blot analysis of human cell lines hybridized with both murine and human B29 cDNAs gives patterns consistent with a single-copy gene occupying a small region of the genomic sequence. Using human B29 cosmid DNA, they have localized the B29 gene to human chromosome 17q23 via fluorescence in situ hybridization. B29 is the first gene localized to this area of the genome. Interestingly, a subset of human B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias (CLL) has translocations in this locus on chromosome 17. 18 refs., 4 figs.

Wood, W.J. Jr.; Thompson, A.A.; Korenberg, J.; Xianing Chen; May, W.; Wall, R.; Denny, C.T. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

1993-04-01

277

Concentration and purification of enterovirus 71 using a weak anion-exchange monolithic column  

PubMed Central

Background Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is a neurotropic virus causing Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) in infants and children under the age of five. It is a major concern for public health issues across Asia-Pacific region. The most effective way to control the disease caused by EV-71 is by vaccination thus a novel vaccine is urgently needed. Inactivated EV-71 induces a strong, virus-neutralizing antibody response in animal models, protecting them against a lethal EV-71 challenge and it has been shown to elicit cross-neutralizing antibodies in human trials. Hence, the large-scale production of purified EV-71 is required for vaccine development, diagnosis and clinical trials. Methods CIM® Monolith columns are single-piece columns made up of poly(glycidyl methacrylate co-ethylene dimethacrylate) as support matrix. They are designed as porous channels rather than beads with different chemistries for different requirements. As monolithic columns have a high binding capacity, flow rate and resolution, a CIM® DEAE-8f tube monolithic column was selected for purification in this study. The EV-71 infected Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell supernatant was concentrated using 8% PEG 8000 in the presence of 400 mM sodium chloride. The concentrated virus was purified by weak anion exchange column using 50 mM HEPES?+?1 M sodium chloride as elution buffer. Results Highly pure viral particles were obtained at a concentration of 350 mM sodium chloride as confirmed by SDS-PAGE and electron microscopy. Presence of viral proteins VP1, VP2 and VP3 was validated by western blotting. The overall process achieved a recovery of 55%. Conclusions EV-71 viral particles of up to 95% purity can be recovered by a single step ion-exchange chromatography using CIM-DEAE monolithic columns and 1 M sodium chloride as elution buffer. Moreover, this method is scalable to purify several litres of virus-containing supernatant, using industrial monolithic columns with a capacity of up to 8 L such as CIM® cGMP tube monolithic columns. PMID:24884895

2014-01-01

278

High sensitivity and label-free detection of Enterovirus 71 by nanogold modified electrochemical impedance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enterovirus 71 (EV71), which is the most fulminant and invasive species of enterovirus, can cause children neurologic complications and death within 2-3 days after fever and rash developed. Besides, EV71 has high sequence similarity with Coxsackie A 16 (CA16) that makes differential diagnosis difficult in clinic and laboratory. Since conventional viral diagnostic method cannot diagnose EV71 quickly and EV71 can transmit at low viral titer, the patients might delay in treatment. A quick, high sensitive, and high specific test for EV71 detection is pivotal. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been applied for detecting bio-molecules as biosensors recently. In this study, we try to build a detection platform for EV71 detection by nanogold modified EIS probe. The result shows that our probe can detect 3.6 VP1/50 ?l (one EV71 particle has 60 VP1) in 3 minutes. The test can also distinguish EV71 from CA16 and lysozyme. Diagnosis of enterovirus 71 by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has the potential to apply in clinic.

Wang, Fang-Yu; Li, Hsing-Yuan; Tseng, Shing-Hua; Cheng, Tsai-Mu; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Chang, Chia-Ching

2013-03-01

279

Viral Pollution in the Environment and in Shellfish: Human Adenovirus Detection by PCR as an Index of Human Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the presence of human viruses (adenoviruses, enteroviruses, and hepatitis A viruses (HAVs)) in environmental and shellfish samples was carried out by applying DNA and cDNA amplification techniques by PCR. The detection of human adenoviruses by PCR was also examined as a potential molecular test to monitor viral pollution. The samples studied were urban and slaughterhouse sewage, river

SONIA PINA; MONTSERRAT PUIG; FRANCISCO LUCENA; JOAN JOFRE; ROSINA GIRONES

1998-01-01

280

Role of hepatitis B virus DNA integration in human hepatocarcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Liver cancer ranks sixth in cancer incidence, and is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer, which arises from hepatocytes and accounts for approximately 70%-85% of cases. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) frequently causes liver inflammation, hepatic damage and subsequent cirrhosis. Integrated viral DNA is found in 85%-90% of HBV-related HCCs. Its presence in tumors from non-cirrhotic livers of children or young adults further supports the role of viral DNA integration in hepatocarcinogenesis. Integration of subgenomic HBV DNA fragments into different locations within the host DNA is a significant feature of chronic HBV infection. Integration has two potential consequences: (1) the host genome becomes altered (“cis” effect); and (2) the HBV genome becomes altered (“trans” effect). The cis effect includes insertional mutagenesis, which can potentially disrupt host gene function or alter host gene regulation. Tumor progression is frequently associated with rearrangement and partial gain or loss of both viral and host sequences. However, the role of integrated HBV DNA in hepatocarcinogenesis remains controversial. Modern technology has provided a new paradigm to further our understanding of disease mechanisms. This review summarizes the role of HBV DNA integration in human carcinogenesis. PMID:24876744

Hai, Hoang; Tamori, Akihiro; Kawada, Norifumi

2014-01-01

281

Structural Basis for the Recognition of Human Cytomegalovirus Glycoprotein B by a Neutralizing Human Antibody  

PubMed Central

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections are life-threating to people with a compromised or immature immune system. Upon adhesion, fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell is initiated. In this step, the viral glycoprotein gB is considered to represent the major fusogen. Here, we present for the first time structural data on the binding of an anti-herpes virus antibody and describe the atomic interactions between the antigenic domain Dom-II of HCMV gB and the Fab fragment of the human antibody SM5-1. The crystal structure shows that SM5-1 binds Dom-II almost exclusively via only two CDRs, namely light chain CDR L1 and a 22-residue-long heavy chain CDR H3. Two contiguous segments of Dom-II are targeted by SM5-1, and the combining site includes a hydrophobic pocket on the Dom-II surface that is only partially filled by CDR H3 residues. SM5-1 belongs to a series of sequence-homologous anti-HCMV gB monoclonal antibodies that were isolated from the same donor at a single time point and that represent different maturation states. Analysis of amino acid substitutions in these antibodies in combination with molecular dynamics simulations show that key contributors to the picomolar affinity of SM5-1 do not directly interact with the antigen but significantly reduce the flexibility of CDR H3 in the bound and unbound state of SM5-1 through intramolecular side chain interactions. Thus, these residues most likely alleviate unfavorable binding entropies associated with extra-long CDR H3s, and this might represent a common strategy during antibody maturation. Models of entire HCMV gB in different conformational states hint that SM5-1 neutralizes HCMV either by blocking the pre- to postfusion transition of gB or by precluding the interaction with additional effectors such as the gH/gL complex. PMID:25299639

Stump, Joachim D.; Wiegers, Anna-Katharina; Winkler, Thomas H.; Sticht, Heinrich; Mach, Michael; Muller, Yves A.

2014-01-01

282

Structural basis for the recognition of human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B by a neutralizing human antibody.  

PubMed

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections are life-threating to people with a compromised or immature immune system. Upon adhesion, fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell is initiated. In this step, the viral glycoprotein gB is considered to represent the major fusogen. Here, we present for the first time structural data on the binding of an anti-herpes virus antibody and describe the atomic interactions between the antigenic domain Dom-II of HCMV gB and the Fab fragment of the human antibody SM5-1. The crystal structure shows that SM5-1 binds Dom-II almost exclusively via only two CDRs, namely light chain CDR L1 and a 22-residue-long heavy chain CDR H3. Two contiguous segments of Dom-II are targeted by SM5-1, and the combining site includes a hydrophobic pocket on the Dom-II surface that is only partially filled by CDR H3 residues. SM5-1 belongs to a series of sequence-homologous anti-HCMV gB monoclonal antibodies that were isolated from the same donor at a single time point and that represent different maturation states. Analysis of amino acid substitutions in these antibodies in combination with molecular dynamics simulations show that key contributors to the picomolar affinity of SM5-1 do not directly interact with the antigen but significantly reduce the flexibility of CDR H3 in the bound and unbound state of SM5-1 through intramolecular side chain interactions. Thus, these residues most likely alleviate unfavorable binding entropies associated with extra-long CDR H3s, and this might represent a common strategy during antibody maturation. Models of entire HCMV gB in different conformational states hint that SM5-1 neutralizes HCMV either by blocking the pre- to postfusion transition of gB or by precluding the interaction with additional effectors such as the gH/gL complex. PMID:25299639

Spindler, Nadja; Diestel, Uschi; Stump, Joachim D; Wiegers, Anna-Katharina; Winkler, Thomas H; Sticht, Heinrich; Mach, Michael; Muller, Yves A

2014-10-01

283

Isolation of enteroviruses from water, suspended solids, and sediments from Galveston Bay: survival of poliovirus and rotavirus adsorbed to sediments.  

PubMed Central

The distribution and quantitation of enteroviruses among water, suspended solids, and compact sediments in a polluted estuary are described. Samples were collected sequentially from water, suspended solids, fluffy sediments (uppermost layer of bottom sediments), and compact sediment. A total of 103 samples were examined of which 27 (26%) were positive for virus. Polioviruses were recovered most often, followed by coxsackie B viruses and echoviruses 7 and 29. Virus was found most often attached to suspended solids: 72% of these samples were positive, whereas only 14% of water samples without solids yielded virus. Fluffy sediments yielded virus in 47% of the samples, whereas only 5% of compact bottom-sediment samples were positive. When associated with solids, poliovirus and rotavirus retained their infectious quality for 19 days. The same viruses remained infectious for only 9 days when freely suspended in seawater. Collection of suspended solids at ambient water pH appears to be very useful for the detection of virus; it has advantages over collecting and processing large volumes of water, with accompanying pH adjustment and salt addition for processing. PMID:6091548

Rao, V C; Seidel, K M; Goyal, S M; Metcalf, T G; Melnick, J L

1984-01-01

284

Isolation of enteroviruses from water, suspended solids, and sediments from Galveston Bay: survival of poliovirus and rotavirus adsorbed to sediments.  

PubMed

The distribution and quantitation of enteroviruses among water, suspended solids, and compact sediments in a polluted estuary are described. Samples were collected sequentially from water, suspended solids, fluffy sediments (uppermost layer of bottom sediments), and compact sediment. A total of 103 samples were examined of which 27 (26%) were positive for virus. Polioviruses were recovered most often, followed by coxsackie B viruses and echoviruses 7 and 29. Virus was found most often attached to suspended solids: 72% of these samples were positive, whereas only 14% of water samples without solids yielded virus. Fluffy sediments yielded virus in 47% of the samples, whereas only 5% of compact bottom-sediment samples were positive. When associated with solids, poliovirus and rotavirus retained their infectious quality for 19 days. The same viruses remained infectious for only 9 days when freely suspended in seawater. Collection of suspended solids at ambient water pH appears to be very useful for the detection of virus; it has advantages over collecting and processing large volumes of water, with accompanying pH adjustment and salt addition for processing. PMID:6091548

Rao, V C; Seidel, K M; Goyal, S M; Metcalf, T G; Melnick, J L

1984-08-01

285

Recombinant Adeno-Vaccine Expressing Enterovirus 71-Like Particles against Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses (CV) are the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). There is not currently a vaccine available against HFMD, even though a newly developed formalin-inactivated EV71 (FI-EV71) vaccine has been tested in clinical trial and has shown efficacy against EV71. We have designed and genetically engineered a recombinant adenovirus Ad-EVVLP with the EV71 P1 and 3CD genes inserted into the E1/E3-deleted adenoviral genome. Ad-EVVLP were produced in HEK-293A cells. In addition to Ad-EVVLP particles, virus-like particles (VLPs) formed from the physical association of EV71 capsid proteins, VP0, VP1, and VP3 expressed from P1 gene products. They were digested by 3CD protease and confirmed to be produced by Ad-EVVLP-producing cells, as determined using transmission electron microscopy and western blotting. Mouse immunogenicity studies showed that Ad-EVVLP-immunized antisera neutralized the EV71 B4 and C2 genotypes. Activation of VLP-specific CD4+ and CD8+/IFN-? T cells associated with Th1/Th2-balanced IFN-?, IL-17, IL-4, and IL-13 was induced; in contrast, FI-EV71 induced only Th2-mediated neutralizing antibody against EV71 and low VLP-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. The antiviral immunity against EV71 was clearly demonstrated in mice vaccinated with Ad-EVVLP in a hSCARB2 transgenic (hSCARB2-Tg) mouse challenge model. Ad-EVVLP-vaccinated mice were 100% protected and demonstrated reduced viral load in both the CNS and muscle tissues. Ad-EVVLP successfully induced anti-CVA16 immunities. Although antisera had no neutralizing activity against CVA16, the 3C-specific CD4+ and CD8+/IFN-? T cells were identified, which could mediate protection against CVA16 challenge. FI-EV71 did not induce 3C-mediated immunity and had no efficacy against the CVA16 challenge. These results suggest that Ad-EVVLP can enhance neutralizing antibody and protective cellular immune responses to prevent EV71 infection and cellular immune responses against CV infection. PMID:25855976

Tsou, Yueh-Liang; Lin, Yi-Wen; Shao, Hsiao-Yun; Yu, Shu-Ling; Wu, Shang-Rung; Lin, Hsiao-Yu; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Huang, Chieh; Chong, Pele; Chow, Yen-Hung

2015-01-01

286

A virus similar to human hepatitis B virus associated with hepatitis and hepatoma in woodchucks.  

PubMed Central

Particles with properties similar to those associated with human hepatitis B were found in serum from woodchucks with chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is suggested that woodchuck hepatitis virus is a second member of a novel class of viruses represented by the human hepatitis B virus. Images PMID:212758

Summers, J; Smolec, J M; Snyder, R

1978-01-01

287

B-Virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) Infection in Humans and Macaques: Potential for Zoonotic Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonhuman primates are widely used in biomedical research because of their genetic, anatomic, and physiologic similarities to humans. In this setting, human contact directly with macaques or with their tissues and fluids sometimes occurs. Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus), an alphaherp- esvirus endemic in Asian macaques, is closely related to her- pes simplex virus (HSV). Most macaques carry B virus

Jennifer L. Huff; Peter A. Barry

2003-01-01

288

Humans and monkeys share visual representations Denis Fizea,b,1  

E-print Network

Humans and monkeys share visual representations Denis Fizea,b,1 , Maxime Cauchoixa,b , and Michčle, but it is unclear whether the analogy with humans results from convergent evolution or from shared brain mechanisms inherited from a common origin. Macaque monkeys can access "non- similarity­based concepts," such as when

289

Mixed-mode fracture of human cortical bone Elizabeth A. Zimmermann a,b  

E-print Network

Mixed-mode fracture of human cortical bone Elizabeth A. Zimmermann a,b , Maximilien E. Launey Available online 1 July 2009 Keywords: Human cortical bone Mixed-mode fracture Fracture toughness Fracture mechanisms a b s t r a c t Although the mode I (tensile opening) fracture toughness has been the focus

Ritchie, Robert

290

Virucidal Efficacy of Glutaraldehyde against Enteroviruses Is Related to the Location of Lysine Residues in Exposed Structures of the VP1 Capsid Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutaraldehyde (GTA) is a potent virucidal disinfectant whose exact mode of action against enteroviruses is not understood. Earlier reports showed that GTA reacts preferentially with the VP1 capsid protein of echovirus 25 and poliovirus 1 and that GTA has affinity for exposed lysine residues on proteins. To investigate further the inactivation of enteroviruses by GTA, seven strains were selected on

Martine Chambon; Christine Archimbaud; Jean-Luc Bailly; Jeanne-Marie Gourgand; Francoise Charbonne; Helene Peigue-Lafeuille

2004-01-01

291

An outbreak of enterovirus 71 infection in Taiwan 1998: A comprehensive pathological, virological, and molecular study on a case of fulminant encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In a recent enterovirus outbreak in Taiwan, serotype 71 was the culprit of encephalitis causing rapid clinical deterioration and death among young children. Objectives: Since knowledge of enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection in the central nervous system is still limited, the purpose of the present case study was attempted to uncover the pathogenesis of the virus. Study design: We performed

Jing-Jou Yan; Jen-Ren Wang; Ching-Chuan Liu; Hsiao-Bai Yang; Ih-Jen Su

2000-01-01

292

1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} impairs NF-{kappa}B activation in human naive B cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} In naive B cells, VDR activation by calcitriol results in reduced NF-{kappa}B p105 and p50 protein expression. {yields} Ligating the VDR with calcitriol causes reduced nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B p65. {yields} Reduced nuclear amount of p65 after calcitriol incubation results in reduced binding of p65 on the p105 promoter. {yields} Thus, vitamin D receptor signaling may reduce or prevent activation of B cells and unwanted immune responses, e.g. in IgE dependent diseases such as allergic asthma. -- Abstract: 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (calcitriol), the bioactive metabolite of vitamin D, modulates the activation and inhibits IgE production of anti-CD40 and IL-4 stimulated human peripheral B cells. Engagement of CD40 results in NF-{kappa}B p50 activation, which is essential for the class switch to IgE. Herein, we investigated by which mechanism calcitriol modulates NF-{kappa}B mediated activation of human naive B cells. Naive B cells were predominantly targeted by calcitriol in comparison with memory B cells as shown by pronounced induction of the VDR target gene cyp24a1. Vitamin D receptor activation resulted in a strongly reduced p105/p50 protein and mRNA expression in human naive B cells. This effect is mediated by impaired nuclear translocation of p65 and consequently reduced binding of p65 to its binding site in the p105 promoter. Our data indicate that the vitamin D receptor reduces NF-{kappa}B activation by interference with NF-{kappa}B p65 and p105. Thus, the vitamin D receptor inhibits costimulatory signal transduction in naive B cells, namely by reducing CD40 signaling.

Geldmeyer-Hilt, Kerstin, E-mail: kerstin.hilt@charite.de [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)] [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Heine, Guido, E-mail: guido.heine@charite.de [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany) [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Hartmann, Bjoern, E-mail: bjoern.hartmann@charite.de [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)] [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Baumgrass, Ria, E-mail: baumgrass@drfz.de [Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)] [Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Radbruch, Andreas, E-mail: radbruch@drfz.de [Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)] [Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Worm, Margitta, E-mail: margitta.worm@charite.de [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)] [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

2011-04-22

293

Spatio-temporal analysis on enterovirus cases through integrated surveillance in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background Severe epidemics of enterovirus have occurred frequently in Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, Cambodia, and China, involving cases of pulmonary edema, hemorrhage and encephalitis, and an effective vaccine has not been available. The specific aim of this study was to understand the epidemiological characteristics of mild and severe enterovirus cases through integrated surveillance data. Methods All enterovirus cases in Taiwan over almost ten years from three main databases, including national notifiable diseases surveillance, sentinel physician surveillance and laboratory surveillance programs from July 1, 1999 to December 31, 2008 were analyzed. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient was applied for measuring the consistency of the trends in the cases between different surveillance systems. Cross correlation analysis in a time series model was applied for examining the capability to predict severe enterovirus infections. Poisson temporal, spatial and space-time scan statistics were used for identifying the most likely clusters of severe enterovirus outbreaks. The directional distribution method with two standard deviations of ellipse was applied to measure the size and the movement of the epidemic. Results The secular trend showed that the number of severe EV cases peaked in 2008, and the number of mild EV cases was significantly correlated with that of severe ones occurring in the same week [r?=?0.553, p?

2014-01-01

294

Proteolytic Processing of Human Cytomegalovirus Glycoprotein B Is Dispensable for Viral Growth in Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycoprotein B (gB) of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), which is considered essential for the viral life cycle, is proteolytically processed during maturation. Since gB homologues of several other herpesviruses remain uncleaved, the relevance of this property of HCMV gB for viral infectivity is unclear. Here we report on the construction of a viral mutant in which the recognition site of gB

Tanja Strive; Eva Borst; Martin Messerle; Klaus Radsak

2002-01-01

295

UNIT 1B.3Phenotypic Analysis of Human Embryonic Stem Cells  

E-print Network

UNIT 1B.3Phenotypic Analysis of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Mark Ungrin,1 Michael O'Connor,2 Columbia ABSTRACT Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are an important tool for the study of develop- mental Effective techniques for the controlled propagation and differentiation of human embry- onic stem cells (h

Zandstra, Peter W.

296

Clinical features and laboratory findings of human parvovirus B19 in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients  

PubMed Central

Immunocompromised patients may develop severe chronic anaemia when infected by human parvovirus B19 (B19V). However, this is not the case in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with good adherence to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). In this study, we investigated the clinical evolution of five HIV-infected patients receiving HAART who had B19V infections confirmed by serum polymerase chain reaction. Four of the patients were infected with genotype 1a strains and the remaining patient was infected with a genotype 3b strain. Anaemia was detected in three of the patients, but all patients recovered without requiring immunoglobulin and/or blood transfusions. In all cases, the attending physicians did not suspect the B19V infections. There was no apparent relationship between the infecting genotype and the clinical course. In the HAART era, B19V infections in HIV-positive patients may be limited, subtle or unapparent. PMID:24714965

Pereira, Renata Freire Alves; Garcia, Rita de Cássia Nasser Cubel; de Azevedo, Kátia Martins Lopes; Setúbal, Sérgio; de Siqueira, Marilda Agudo Mendonça Teixeira; de Oliveira, Solange Artimos

2014-01-01

297

Early B lymphocyte development: Similarities and differences in human and mouse  

PubMed Central

B lymphocytes differentiate from hematopoietic stem cells through a series of distinct stages. Early B cell development proceeds in bone marrow until immature B cells migrate out to secondary lymphoid tissues, such as a spleen and lymph nodes, after completion of immunoglobulin heavy and light chain rearrangement. Although the information about the regulation by numerous factors, including signaling molecules, transcription factors, epigenetic changes and the microenvironment, could provide the clinical application, our knowledge on human B lymphopoiesis is limited. However, with great methodological advances, significant progress for understanding B lymphopoiesis both in human and mouse has been made. In this review, we summarize the experimental models for studies about human adult B lymphopoiesis, and the role of microenvironment and signaling molecules, such as cytokines, transforming growth factor-? superfamily, Wnt family and Notch family, with point-by-point comparison between human and mouse. PMID:25258663

Ichii, Michiko; Oritani, Kenji; Kanakura, Yuzuru

2014-01-01

298

Production of monoclonal antibody recognizing a subpopulation of human B lymphocytes producing B cell growth factor (BCGF)  

SciTech Connect

Several laboratories have recently reported production of B cell growth factors (BCGF) by a variety of human B cell lines. The authors have described production of BCGF by clones of B cell lymphoma lines and by normal Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I-activated B cells. To further evaluate whether BCGF production was the function of particular subpopulations of B cells, they immunized mice with the BCGF producing line Namalva and then developed a panel of hybridomas. Monoclonal antibodies were screened for binding to Namalva and the absence of binding to a non-BCGF producing B cell line. One monoclonal antibody, NN4, which met these criteria was also noted by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis to stain clones from a B cell lymphoma line producing BCGF but not clones from the same line which do not produce BCGF. The monoclonal antibody did not stain T cells or monocytes but stained 1-5% of normal human B lymphocytes from peripheral blood or tonsils. Binding of /sup 125/I-labeled NN4 to NN4/sup +/ B cells was not affected by the presence of BCGF. Therefore, NN4 recognizes a unique antigen present on B cell lines which produces BCGF; studies are in progress to determine the significance of this antigen on normal B cells.

Witzel, N.; Ambrus, J.L. Jr.; Jurgensen, C.H.; Mostowski, H.; Fauci, A.S.

1986-03-05

299

Ikk Mediates NF-kB Activation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human monocytes and macrophages are persistent reservoirs of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type-1. Persistent HIV infection of these cells results in increased levels of NF-kB in the nucleus secondary to increased IkBa ,I kBb, and IkB« degradation, a mechanism postulated to regulate viral persistence. To characterize the molecular mechanisms regulating HIV-mediated degradation of IkB, we have sought to identify the

SUSANA ASIN; JULIE A. TAYLOR; SERGEY TRUSHIN; GARY BREN; CARLOS V. PAYA

1999-01-01

300

Identification of human germinal center light and dark zone cells and their relationship to human B-cell lymphomas  

PubMed Central

Germinal centers (GCs) are sites of B-cell clonal expansion, hypermutation, and selection. GCs are polarized into dark (DZ) and light zones (LZ), a distinction that is of key importance to GC selection. However, the difference between the B cells in each of these zones in humans remains unclear. We show that, as in mice, CXCR4 and CD83 can be used to distinguish human LZ and DZ cells. Using these markers, we show that LZ and DZ cells in mice and humans differ only in the expression of characteristic “activation” and “proliferation” programs, suggesting that these populations represent alternating states of a single-cell type rather than distinct differentiation stages. In addition, LZ/DZ transcriptional profiling shows that, with the exception of “molecular” Burkitt lymphomas, nearly all human B-cell malignancies closely resemble LZ cells, which has important implications for our understanding of the molecular programs of lymphomagenesis. PMID:22740445

Dominguez-Sola, David; Holmes, Antony B.; Deroubaix, Stephanie; Dalla-Favera, Riccardo; Nussenzweig, Michel C.

2012-01-01

301

Human Genome Diversity Project. Summary of planning workshop 3(B): Ethical and human-rights implications  

SciTech Connect

The third planning workshop of the Human Genome Diversity Project was held on the campus of the US National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, from February 16 through February 18, 1993. The second day of the workshop was devoted to an exploration of the ethical and human-rights implications of the Project. This open meeting centered on three roundtables, involving 12 invited participants, and the resulting discussions among all those present. Attendees and their affiliations are listed in the attached Appendix A. The discussion was guided by a schedule and list of possible issues, distributed to all present and attached as Appendix B. This is a relatively complete, and thus lengthy, summary of the comments at the meeting. The beginning of the summary sets out as conclusions some issues on which there appeared to be widespread agreement, but those conclusions are not intended to serve as a set of detailed recommendations. The meeting organizer is distributing his recommendations in a separate memorandum; recommendations from others who attended the meeting are welcome and will be distributed by the meeting organizer to the participants and to the Project committee.

NONE

1993-12-31

302

The N-terminal 513 amino acids of the envelope glycoprotein gB of human cytomegalovirus stimulates both B- and T-cell immune responses in humans.  

PubMed Central

Host defense against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) involves both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. In this report, human immune responses to glycoproteins encoded by the HCMV gB homolog gene have been examined by using glycoproteins purified by immunoaffinity from HCMV virions and recombinant proteins expressed by vaccinia viruses containing either the entire gB open reading frame or a C-terminal deletion mutant, gBm165, coding for the N-terminal 513 amino acids of gB. Neutralizing antibodies, helper T cells, and cytotoxic T cells reactive with epitopes on the N-terminal portion of gB were detected in some seropositive individuals, suggesting that this region of gB may be important in eliciting protective immunity during natural infection for some individuals. PMID:1847481

Liu, Y N; Klaus, A; Kari, B; Stinski, M F; Eckhardt, J; Gehrz, R C

1991-01-01

303

Solution Structure of Human and Bovine b2-Glycoprotein I Revealed by Small-angle  

E-print Network

Solution Structure of Human and Bovine b2-Glycoprotein I Revealed by Small-angle X-ray Scattering-Glycoprotein I (b2GPI) is a highly glycosylated phospholipid-binding plasma protein comprised of four for binding of autoantibodies. q 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved Keywords: b2-glycoprotein I

Hammel, Michal - School of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri

304

Surfactant protein B in type II pneumocytes and intra-alveolar surfactant forms of human lungs.  

PubMed

Surfactant protein B (SP-B) is synthesized by type II pneumocytes as a proprotein (proSP-B) that is proteolytically processed to an 8-kD protein. In human type II pneumocytes, we identified not only proSP-B, processing intermediates of proSP-B, and mature SP-B, but also fragments of the N-terminal propeptide. By means of immunoelectron microscopy, proSP-B and processing intermediates were localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi vesicles, and few multivesicular bodies in type II pneumocytes in human lungs. A colocalization of fragments of the N-terminal propeptide and mature SP-B was found in multivesicular, composite, and some lamellar bodies. Mature SP-B was localized over the projection core of lamellar bodies and core-like structures in tubular myelin figures. In line with immunoelectron microscopy and Western blot analysis of human type II pneumocytes, a fragment of the N-terminal propeptide was also detected in isolated rat lamellar bodies. In conclusion, our data indicate that the processing of proSP-B occurs between the Golgi complex and multivesicular bodies and provide evidence that a fragment of the N-terminal propeptide and mature SP-B are transported together to the lamellar bodies. In human lungs, mature SP-B is involved in the structural organization of lamellar bodies and tubular myelin by the formation of core particles. PMID:12972403

Brasch, Frank; Johnen, Georg; Winn-Brasch, Alexandra; Guttentag, Susan H; Schmiedl, Andreas; Kapp, Nadine; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Müller, Klaus M; Richter, Joachim; Hawgood, Samuel; Ochs, Matthias

2004-04-01

305

Chimeric virus-like particle vaccines displaying conserved enterovirus 71 epitopes elicit protective neutralizing antibodies in mice through divergent mechanisms.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand, food, and mouth disease, which frequently occurs in young children. Since there are 11 subgenotypes (A, B1 to B5, and C1 to C5) within EV71, an EV71 vaccine capable of protecting against all of these subgenotypes is desirable. We report here the vaccine potential and protective mechanism of two chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) presenting conserved neutralizing epitopes of EV71. We show that fusions of hepatitis B core antigen (HBc) with the SP55 or SP70 epitope of EV71, designated HBcSP55 and HBcSP70, respectively, can be rapidly generated and self-assembled into VLPs with the epitopes displayed on the surface. Immunization with the chimeric VLPs induced carrier- and epitope-specific antibody responses in mice. Anti-HBcSP55 and anti-HBcSP70 sera, but not anti-HBc sera, were able to neutralize in vitro multiple genotypes and strains of EV71. Importantly, passive immunization with anti-HBcSP55 or anti-HBcSP70 sera protected neonatal mice against lethal EV71 infections. Interestingly, anti-HBcSP70 sera could inhibit EV71 attachment to susceptible cells, whereas anti-HBcSP55 sera could not. However, both antisera were able to neutralize EV71 infection in vitro at the postattachment stage. The divergent mechanism of neutralization and protection conferred by anti-SP70 and anti-SP55 sera is in part attributed to their respective ability to bind authentic viral particles. Collectively, our study not only demonstrates that chimeric VLPs displaying the SP55 and SP70 epitopes are promising candidates for a broad-spectrum EV71 vaccine but also reveals distinct mechanisms of neutralization by the SP55- and SP70-targeted antibodies. PMID:24131712

Ye, Xiaohua; Ku, Zhiqiang; Liu, Qingwei; Wang, Xiaoli; Shi, Jinping; Zhang, Yunfang; Kong, Liangliang; Cong, Yao; Huang, Zhong

2014-01-01

306

Human-specific gene ARHGAP11B promotes basal progenitor amplification and neocortex expansion.  

PubMed

Evolutionary expansion of the human neocortex reflects increased amplification of basal progenitors in the subventricular zone, producing more neurons during fetal corticogenesis. In this work, we analyze the transcriptomes of distinct progenitor subpopulations isolated by a cell polarity-based approach from developing mouse and human neocortex. We identify 56 genes preferentially expressed in human apical and basal radial glia that lack mouse orthologs. Among these, ARHGAP11B has the highest degree of radial glia-specific expression. ARHGAP11B arose from partial duplication of ARHGAP11A (which encodes a Rho guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein) on the human lineage after separation from the chimpanzee lineage. Expression of ARHGAP11B in embryonic mouse neocortex promotes basal progenitor generation and self-renewal and can increase cortical plate area and induce gyrification. Hence, ARHGAP11B may have contributed to evolutionary expansion of human neocortex. PMID:25721503

Florio, Marta; Albert, Mareike; Taverna, Elena; Namba, Takashi; Brandl, Holger; Lewitus, Eric; Haffner, Christiane; Sykes, Alex; Wong, Fong Kuan; Peters, Jula; Guhr, Elaine; Klemroth, Sylvia; Prüfer, Kay; Kelso, Janet; Naumann, Ronald; Nüsslein, Ina; Dahl, Andreas; Lachmann, Robert; Pääbo, Svante; Huttner, Wieland B

2015-03-27

307

Human immunodeficiency virus/human parvovirus B19 co-infection in blood donors and AIDS patients in Sichuan, China  

PubMed Central

Background Human parvovirus B19 (B19) is a common pathogen which causes a variety of diseases. Persistent B19 infection is related to the degree of host immunodeficiency in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, the existence, loading, virus evolution and distribution of B19 in Chinese HIV-positive patients have not been determined. Materials and methods. We investigated 573 HIV-positive blood donors and AIDS patients in Sichuan, China in the last two decades. Bl9-specific serology and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the prevalence of B19/HIV co-infection. Viral genome fragments were subjected to phylogeny and haplotype analysis. Results B19 genomic DNA was found in 26 of 573 (4.5%) HIV-positive individuals, a higher prevalence than in blood donors. DNA levels ranged from 5.3×102–1.1×105 copies/mL. The seroprevalence of IgG was significantly lower in HIV-positive samples than in HIV-negative blood donors, indicating deficient production of B19-specific IgG in the former. The B19 isolates were genotype-1 subtype B19-1A which formed a monophyletic group; seven distinct haplotypes were discovered with 60% of the B19/HIV co-infected variants sharing one central haplotype. Discussion. This study on the prevalence, phylogeny and distribution of human parvovirus B19 in Sichuan, China, demonstrates the persistence of B19 in the circulation of both immunocompetent and immunocompromised subjects, with implications for blood safety. PMID:22790259

He, Miao; Zhu, Jiang; Yin, Huimin; Ke, Ling; Gao, Lei; Pan, Zhihong; Yang, Xiuhua; Li, Wuping

2012-01-01

308

Sporadic Isolation of Sabin-Like Polioviruses and High-Level Detection of Non-Polio Enteroviruses during Sewage Surveillance in Seven Italian Cities, after Several Years of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccination  

PubMed Central

Sewage surveillance in seven Italian cities between 2005 and 2008, after the introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccination (IPV) in 2002, showed rare polioviruses, none that were wild-type or circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV), and many other enteroviruses among 1,392 samples analyzed. Two of five polioviruses (PV) detected were Sabin-like PV2 and three PV3, based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and PCR results. Neurovirulence-related mutations were found in the 5? noncoding region (5?NCR) of all strains and, for a PV2, also in VP1 region 143 (Ile > Thr). Intertypic recombination in the 3D region was detected in a second PV2 (Sabin 2/Sabin 1) and a PV3 (Sabin 3/Sabin 2). The low mutation rate in VP1 for all PVs suggests limited interhuman virus passages, consistent with efficient polio immunization in Italy. Nonetheless, these findings highlight the risk of wild or Sabin poliovirus reintroduction from abroad. Non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) were detected, 448 of which were coxsackievirus B (CVB) and 294 of which were echoviruses (Echo). Fifty-six NPEVs failing serological typing were characterized by sequencing the VP1 region (nucleotides [nt] 2628 to 2976). A total of 448 CVB and 294 Echo strains were identified; among those strains, CVB2, CVB5, and Echo 11 predominated. Environmental CVB5 and CVB2 strains from this study showed high sequence identity with GenBank global strains. The high similarity between environmental NPEVs and clinical strains from the same areas of Italy and the same periods indicates that environmental strains reflect the viruses circulating in the population and highlights the potential risk of inefficient wastewater treatments. This study confirmed that sewage surveillance can be more sensitive than acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in monitoring silent poliovirus circulation in the population as well as the suitability of molecular approaches to enterovirus typing. PMID:24814793

Battistone, A.; Buttinelli, G.; Fiore, S.; Amato, C.; Bonomo, P.; Patti, A. M.; Vulcano, A.; Barbi, M.; Binda, S.; Pellegrinelli, L.; Tanzi, M. L.; Affanni, P.; Castiglia, P.; Germinario, C.; Mercurio, P.; Cicala, A.; Triassi, M.; Pennino, F.

2014-01-01

309

Intrauterine exposure to maternal enterovirus infection as a risk factor for development of autoimmune thyroiditis during childhood and adolescence.  

PubMed

Maternal intrauterine enterovirus infection during pregnancy increases the risk for the offspring to develop type 1 diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes mellitus and autoimmune thyroiditits (AIT) are closely linked. A common pathogenetic factor is possible. The objective of this study was to investigate a possible association between maternal enterovirus infection during pregnancy and the development of AIT in the offspring. Sera taken at delivery from 31 mothers whose children subsequently developed AIT was analyzed for immunoglobulin (Ig)A, IgG, and IgM antibodies against enterovirus, and compared to a control group comprising 233 randomly selected maternal sera. Of the mothers whose children developed AIT, 5 of 31 (16%) were enterovirus IgM-positive, compared to 17 of 233 (7%) in the control group (p = 0.16). The age at diagnosis of AIT was significantly lower in the group of children with IgM-positive mothers compared to children with IgM-negative mothers (p < 0.05). In addition, 3 children (60%) in the IgM-positive group were overtly hypothyroid at diagnosis of AIT, compared to no child (0%) in the IgM-negative group (p < 0.01). No significant differences were found in IgA and IgG antibody titers between the mothers whose children developed AIT and the control group. Although this study did not have enough power to reveal intrauterine exposure to maternal enterovirus infection during pregnancy as a risk factor for development of AIT during childhood and adolescence, it suggested an association with earlier onset of clinical disease in children to enterovirus IgM-seropositive mothers. PMID:15186614

Svensson, Johan; Lindberg, Bengt; Jonsson, Björn; Ericsson, Ulla-Britt; Olofsson, Per; Hyöty, Heikki; Ivarsson, Sten-A

2004-05-01

310

Transfer of antigen from human B cells to dendritic cells  

PubMed Central

The cooperation of B lymphocytes with other antigen presenting cells (APCs) is often necessary in the efficient processing and presentation of antigen. Herein, we describe a mechanism by which B cells physically interact with dendritic cells (DCs) resulting in the transfer of B cell receptor (BCR)-enriched antigen to these APCs. Antigen transfer involves direct contact between the two cells followed by the capture of B cell derived membrane and intracellular components. Strikingly, DCs acquire greater amounts of antigen by transfer from B cells than by endocytosis of free antigen. Blocking scavenger receptor A, a DC surface receptor involved in membrane acquisition, abrogates these events. We propose that antigen transfer from B cells to DCs results in a more focused immunologic response due to the selective editing of Ag by the BCR. PMID:24309484

Harvey, Bohdan P.; Raycroft, Maurice T.; Quan, Timothy E.; Rudenga, Benjamin J.; Roman, Robert M.; Craft, Joe; Mamula, Mark J.

2014-01-01

311

Transfer of antigen from human B cells to dendritic cells.  

PubMed

The cooperation of B lymphocytes with other antigen presenting cells (APCs) is often necessary in the efficient processing and presentation of antigen. Herein, we describe a mechanism by which B cells physically interact with dendritic cells (DCs) resulting in the transfer of B cell receptor (BCR)-enriched antigen to these APCs. Antigen transfer involves direct contact between the two cells followed by the capture of B cell derived membrane and intracellular components. Strikingly, DCs acquire greater amounts of antigen by transfer from B cells than by endocytosis of free antigen. Blocking scavenger receptor A, a DC surface receptor involved in membrane acquisition, abrogates these events. We propose that antigen transfer from B cells to DCs results in a more focused immunologic response due to the selective editing of Ag by the BCR. PMID:24309484

Harvey, Bohdan P; Raycroft, Maurice T; Quan, Timothy E; Rudenga, Benjamin J; Roman, Robert M; Craft, Joe; Mamula, Mark J

2014-03-01

312

Cyclin B2 suppresses mitotic failure and DNA re-replication in human somatic cells knocked down for both cyclins B1 and B2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) plays a crucial role in establishing metaphase and has also been shown to prevent DNA re-replication. Cyclins B1 and B2 are two known activators of CDK1 operating during mitosis in human cells. Little is known about the specific roles of each of these cyclins in CDK1 activation, but cyclin B2 is thought to play a minor

S Bellanger; A de Gramont; J Sobczak-Thépot

2007-01-01

313

GeneXpert Enterovirus Assay: One-Year Experience in a Routine Laboratory Setting and Evaluation on Three Proficiency Panels?  

PubMed Central

A prospective unblinded comparative evaluation of three assays for the detection of enteroviral RNA performed on 83 positive and 79 negative cerebrospinal fluid samples showed initial and resolved sensitivities of 90.4% and 98.8%, respectively, for the Cepheid GeneXpert enterovirus assay; 94.0% and 97.6%, respectively, for the Argene enterovirus consensus kit; and 100% and 100%, respectively, for an in-house real-time PCR. The initial and resolved specificities were 100% for all three assays. PMID:18256224

Seme, Katja; Mo?ilnik, Tina; Komloš, Kristina Fujs; Doplihar, Ana; Persing, David H.; Poljak, Mario

2008-01-01

314

Characterization and Functional Analysis of Two Common Human Cytochrome P450 1B1 Variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is a human extrahepatic P450 that activates procarinogens, metabolizes 17?-estradiol, and may well have a role in the pathogenesis of some forms of cancer. Besides rare deleterious mutations reported for the CYP1B1 gene, six single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been reported, of which four cause amino acid exchanges. We have expressed two of the common CYP1B1 alleles in

Roman A. McLellan; Mikael Oscarson; Mats Hidestrand; Brith Leidvik; Eva Jonsson; Charlotta Otter; Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg

2000-01-01

315

Phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis activates NF-kappa B and increases human immunodeficiency virus replication in human monocytes and T lymphocytes.  

PubMed

We have tested whether breakdown of phosphatidylcholine (PC) initiated by exogenous addition of a PC-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) from Bacillus cereus or by endogenous overexpression of PC-PLC induces functional activation of NF-kappa B and increases human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enhancer activity. PC-PLC-activated hydrolysis of PC was found to induce bona fide p50/p65 NF-kappa B binding activity in three different cell lines of human or murine origin. No significant changes in the turnover of other cellular phospholipids were detected in PC-PLC-treated cells. Induction of NF-kappa B by PC-PLC did not depend on de novo synthesis of proteins or autocrine secretion of either tumor necrosis factor or interleukin 1. In human monocytic and lymphoblastoid T-cell lines, induction of NF-kappa B by PC-PLC resulted in clear induction of luciferase expression vectors placed under the control of synthetic kappa B enhancers or wild type, but not kappa B-mutated, HIV long terminal repeat constructs. HIV replication was increased by PC-PLC in chronically infected monocytes and T lymphocytes. NF-kappa B activation promoted by addition of exogenous PC-PLC correlated with an intense production of diacylglycerol. However, addition of a phosphatidylinositol-specific PLC from B. cereus also induced diacylglycerol but did not activate kappa B enhancer-directed vectors. PC-PLC-induced NF-kappa B activation could not be blocked by a specific inhibitor of phorbol ester-inducible protein kinases C. These results indicate that a cellular transduction pathway, dependent on specific PC breakdown, is functional in T lymphocytes and monocytes and may be used by various transmembrane receptors to activate HIV transcription through NF-kappa B-dependent induction of the HIV enhancer. PMID:8411362

Arenzana-Seisdedos, F; Fernandez, B; Dominguez, I; Jacqué, J M; Thomas, D; Diaz-Meco, M T; Moscat, J; Virelizier, J L

1993-11-01

316

Crystal structures of the coil 2B fragment and the globular tail domain of human lamin B1  

SciTech Connect

We present here the crystal structures of human lamin B1 globular tail domain and coiled 2B domain, which adopt similar folds to Ig-like domain and coiled-coil domain of lamin A, respectively. Despite the overall similarity, we found an extra intermolecular disulfide bond in the lamin B1 coil 2B domain, which does not exist in lamin A/C. In addition, the structural analysis indicates that interactions at the lamin B1 homodimer interface are quite different from those of lamin A/C. Thus our research not only reveals the diversely formed homodimers among lamin family members, but also sheds light on understanding the important roles of lamin B1 in forming the nuclear lamina matrix.

Ruan, Jianbin; Xu, Chao; Bian, Chuanbing; Lam, Robert; Wang, Jia-Pey; Kania, Joanna; Min, Jinrong; Zang, Jianye (Toronto); (UST - China)

2012-07-18

317

Cucurbitacin B inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation through disruption of microtubule polymerization and nucleophosmin/B23 translocation  

PubMed Central

Background Cucurbitacin B, an oxygenated tetracyclic triterpenoid compound extracted from the Thai medicinal plant Trichosanthes cucumerina L., has been reported to have several biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anticancer. Cucurbitacin B is great of interest because of its biological activity. This agent inhibits growth of various types of human cancer cells lines. Methods In this study, we explored the novel molecular response of cucurbitacin B in human breast cancer cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. The growth inhibitory effect of cucurbitacin B on breast cancer cells was assessed by MTT assay. The effects of cucurbitacin B on microtubules morphological structure and tubulin polymerization were analyzed using immunofluorescence technique and tubulin polymerization assay kit, respectively. Proteomic analysis was used to identify the target-specific proteins that involved in cucurbitacin B treatment. Some of the differentially expressed genes and protein products were validated by real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Cell cycle distributions and apoptosis were investigated using flow cytometry. Results Cucurbitacin B exhibited strong antiproliferative effects against breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. We show that cucurbitacin B prominently alters the cytoskeletal network of breast cancer cells, inducing rapid morphologic changes and improper polymerization of the microtubule network. Moreover, the results of 2D-PAGE, real-time RT-PCR, and western blot analysis revealed that the expression of nucleophosmin/B23 and c-Myc decreased markedly after cucurbitacin B treatment. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that cucurbitacin B induced translocation of nucleophosmin/B23 from the nucleolus to nucleoplasm. Treatment with cucurbitacin B resulted in cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and the enhancement of apoptosis. Conclusions Our findings suggest that cucurbitacin B may inhibit the proliferation of human breast cancer cells through disruption of the microtubule network and down-regulation of c-Myc and nucleophosmin/B23 as well as the perturbation in nucleophosmin/B23 trafficking from the nucleolus to nucleoplasm, resulting in G2/M arrest. PMID:23062075

2012-01-01

318

BAFF enhances chemotaxis of primary human B cells: a particular synergy between BAFF and CXCL13 on memory B cells.  

PubMed

B-cell-activating factor of the TNF family, (BAFF), and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) regulate B-lymphocyte survival and activation. We report that BAFF, but not APRIL, increased the chemotactic response of primary human B cells to CCL21, CXCL12, and CXCL13. The BAFF-induced increase in B-cell chemotaxis was totally abolished by blockade of BAFF-R and was strongly dependent on the activation of PI3K/AKT, NF-kappaB, and p38MAPK pathways. BAFF had similar effects on the chemotaxis of naive and memory B cells in response to CCL21 but increased more strongly that of memory B cells to CXCL13 than that of naive B cells. Our findings indicate a previously unreported role for the BAFF/BAFF-R pair in mature B-cell chemotaxis. The synergy between CXCL13 and BAFF produced by stromal cells and follicular dendritic cells may have important implications for B-cell homeostasis, the development of normal B-cell areas, and for the formation of germinal center-like follicles that may be observed in various autoimmune diseases. PMID:18172003

Badr, Gamal; Borhis, Gwenoline; Lefevre, Eric A; Chaoul, Nada; Deshayes, Frederique; Dessirier, Valérie; Lapree, Genevieve; Tsapis, Andreas; Richard, Yolande

2008-03-01

319

Comparison of splicing factor 3b inhibitors in human cells.  

PubMed

Name your splice: FR901464 analogues and herboxidiene inhibit constitutive splicing, most likely by inhibiting spliceosomal subunit SF3b. A parallel comparison of these compounds in a cell-based assay system showed meayamycin B as the most potent splicing inhibitor among these small molecules. PMID:23172726

Gao, Yang; Vogt, Andreas; Forsyth, Craig J; Koide, Kazunori

2013-01-01

320

A new quantitative PCR for human parvovirus B19 genotypes.  

PubMed

Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a minute ssDNA virus associated with a wide range of diseases from childhood erythema to fetal death. After primary infection, the viral genomes persist lifelong in solid tissues of most types. Quantification of the viral DNA is important in the timing of primary infection, assessment of tissue persistence and screening of blood donor plasma. In this study, we present a new PCR assay for detection and quantification as well as for differentiation of all three B19V genotypes. A new B19V qPCR was designed to target a 154-bp region of the NS1 area. Serum, plasma and solid tissue samples were suitable for testing in the assay. The WHO International Reference Panel for Parvovirus B19 Genotypes was utilized to validate the assay for detection of different genotypes of B19V in clinical material. Each panel member yielded, by the new qPCR, a quantity similar to the one reported by National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC). The qPCR was specific for B19V and amplified and quantified all three genotypes with detection sensitivities of ?10 copies/reaction. The differentiation of B19V genotypes was performed by Sanger sequencing of the amplified products. PMID:25794796

Toppinen, M; Norja, P; Aaltonen, L-M; Wessberg, S; Hedman, L; Söderlund-Venermo, M; Hedman, K

2015-06-15

321

Acute human parvovirus B19 infection and nephrotic syndrome in patients with sickle cell disease.  

PubMed

Acute Human Parvovirus B19 (HPV B19) infection is the major cause of transient red cell aplasia (TRCA) and acute anaemia in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). We report three cases of patients who developed nephrotic syndrome (NS) with chronic sequelae after initially presenting with HPV B19-associated TRCA. There was no correlation between evidence of HPV B19 infection and impaired renal function in our cohort of adult sickle cell patients. This is consistent with a view that although NS is potentially a rare complication of symptomatic acute HPV B19 infection, exposure to HPV B19 is not associated with an increased risk of renal disease. PMID:20064150

Quek, Lynn; Sharpe, Claire; Dutt, Neelanjana; Height, Sue; Allman, Marlene; Awogbade, Moji; Rees, David C; Zuckerman, Mark; Thein, Swee Lay

2010-04-01

322

HLA-B63 presents HLA-B57/B58-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes and is associated with low human immunodeficiency virus load.  

PubMed

Several HLA class I alleles have been associated with slow human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression, supporting the important role HLA class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) play in controlling HIV infection. HLA-B63, the serological marker for the closely related HLA-B*1516 and HLA-B*1517 alleles, shares the epitope binding motif of HLA-B57 and HLA-B58, two alleles that have been associated with slow HIV disease progression. We investigated whether HIV-infected individuals who express HLA-B63 generate CTL responses that are comparable in breadth and specificity to those of HLA-B57/58-positive subjects and whether HLA-B63-positive individuals would also present with lower viral set points than the general population. The data show that HLA-B63-positive individuals indeed mounted responses to previously identified HLA-B57-restricted epitopes as well as towards novel, HLA-B63-restricted CTL targets that, in turn, can be presented by HLA-B57 and HLA-B58. HLA-B63-positive subjects generated these responses early in acute HIV infection and were able to control HIV replication in the absence of antiretroviral treatment with a median viral load of 3,280 RNA copies/ml. The data support an important role of the presented epitope in mediating relative control of HIV replication and help to better define immune correlates of controlled HIV infection. PMID:16051815

Frahm, Nicole; Adams, Sharon; Kiepiela, Photini; Linde, Caitlyn H; Hewitt, Hannah S; Lichterfeld, Mathias; Sango, Kaori; Brown, Nancy V; Pae, Eunice; Wurcel, Alysse G; Altfeld, Marcus; Feeney, Margaret E; Allen, Todd M; Roach, Timothy; St John, M Anne; Daar, Eric S; Rosenberg, Eric; Korber, Bette; Marincola, Francesco; Walker, Bruce D; Goulder, Philip J R; Brander, Christian

2005-08-01

323

Antiviral vaccines license T cell responses by suppressing granzyme B levels in human plasmacytoid dendritic cells.  

PubMed

Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are important modulators of adaptive T cell responses during viral infections. Recently, we found that human pDC produce the serine protease granzyme B (GrB), thereby regulating T cell proliferation in a GrB-dependent manner. In this study, we demonstrate that intrinsic GrB production by pDC is significantly inhibited in vitro and in vivo by clinically used vaccines against viral infections such as tick-borne encephalitis. We show that pDC GrB levels inversely correlate with the proliferative response of coincubated T cells and that GrB suppression by a specific Ab or a GrB substrate inhibitor results in enhanced T cell proliferation, suggesting a predominant role of GrB in pDC-dependent T cell licensing. Functionally, we demonstrate that GrB(high) but not GrB(low) pDC transfer GrB to T cells and may degrade the ?-chain of the TCR in a GrB-dependent fashion, thereby providing a possible explanation for the observed T cell suppression by GrB-expressing pDC. Modulation of pDC-derived GrB activity represents a previously unknown mechanism by which both antiviral and vaccine-induced T cell responses may be regulated in vivo. Our results provide novel insights into pDC biology during vaccinations and may contribute to an improvement of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. PMID:23785122

Fabricius, Dorit; Nußbaum, Benedikt; Busch, Daniel; Panitz, Verena; Mandel, Birgit; Vollmer, Angelika; Westhoff, Mike-Andrew; Kaltenmeier, Christof; Lunov, Oleg; Tron, Kyrylo; Nienhaus, G Ulrich; Jahrsdörfer, Bernd; Debatin, Klaus-Michael

2013-08-01

324

Human LilrB2 Is a ?-Amyloid Receptor and Its Murine Homolog PirB Regulates Synaptic Plasticity in an Alzheimer’s Model  

PubMed Central

Soluble ?-amyloid (A?) oligomers impair synaptic plasticity and cause synaptic loss associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We report that murine PirB (paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B) and its human ortholog LilrB2 (leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B2), present in human brain, are receptors for A? oligomers, with nanomolar affinity. The first two extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig) domains of PirB and LilrB2 mediate this interaction, leading to enhanced cofilin signaling, also seen in human AD brains. In mice, the deleterious effect of A? oligomers on hippocampal long-term potentiation required PirB, and in a transgenic model of AD, PirB not only contributed to memory deficits present in adult mice, but also mediated loss of synaptic plasticity in juvenile visual cortex. These findings imply that LilrB2 contributes to human AD neuropathology and suggest therapeutic uses of blocking LilrB2 function. PMID:24052308

Kim, Taeho; Vidal, George S.; Djurisic, Maja; William, Christopher M.; Birnbaum, Michael E.; Garcia, K. Christopher; Hyman, Bradley T.; Shatz, Carla J.

2013-01-01

325

Inhibitory and stimulatory effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pyocyanine on human T and B lymphocytes and human monocytes.  

PubMed Central

Pyocyanine, a pigment produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has dual dose-dependent stimulatory as well as inhibitory effects on immune responses in vitro as measured by DNA synthesis of human T and B lymphocytes, interleukin-2 (IL-2) production by human T lymphocytes, immunoglobulin production by human B lymphocytes, and monokine production by human monocytes. In general, stimulatory activity was found at low concentrations of pyocyanine, whereas high concentrations of the pigment resulted in an inhibition of responses. At a pyocyanine concentration of 0.1 micrograms/ml or less the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes was enhanced, but at 0.5 micrograms/ml it was suppressed. IL-2 production by T lymphocytes was enhanced at concentrations up to 0.5 micrograms/ml but totally inhibited at 1.0 micrograms/ml. The differentiation of B lymphocytes to become immunoglobulin-producing cells was also enhanced in the presence of low doses of pyocyanine, whereas secretion of immunoglobulin by B lymphocytes was suppressed at all concentrations of pyocyanine. In contrast to the dual effects of pyocyanine on lymphocyte response, lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor release by monocytes was markedly enhanced by low as well as high concentrations of pyocyanine. From these results we conclude that this property of pyocyanine may lead to suppression of specific defense mechanisms and enhance harmful inflammatory reactions of the host during infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:2106495

Ulmer, A J; Pryjma, J; Tarnok, Z; Ernst, M; Flad, H D

1990-01-01

326

B7-H5 costimulates human T cells via CD28H  

E-print Network

The B7/CD28 family has profound modulatory effects in immune responses and constitutes an important target for the development of novel therapeutic drugs against human diseases. Here we describe a new CD28 homologue (CD28H) ...

Zhu, Yuwen

327

Isolation and characterization of a serine proteinase specific to human C3b from human erythrocyte membranes  

SciTech Connect

In a previous report, they have shown that human C3b bound through CR1 to human erythrocytes is cleaved by a membrane proteinase activity. Following the molecular analysis of this proteinase activity, they have purified it by a four step procedure: ammonium sulfate precipitation, biogel filtration, fluid phase electrophoresis and hydroxylapatite chromatography. The highly purified proteinase was labeled by /sup 125/I iodine or /sup 3/H-DFP and analyzed by gel electrophoresis: a single band membrane component was characterized by its apparent molecular weight of 57 K or 60 K, under non reducing or reducing conditions respectively and was called p 57. Its reactivity with /sup 3/H-DFP and the inhibition by PMSF of the proteinase activity indicate that p 57 is a serine proteinase. Moreover, it is sensitive to aprotinin and ..gamma..1-antitrypsin. This membrane proteinase presents a higher activity in the presence of detergent and cleaves both alpha and beta chains of human C3b. Polyclonal antibody prepared against this purified proteinase inhibits its activity. On the basis of its structure and its functions, i.e. molecular weight, antigenic properties, proteinase properties and proteinases inhibitors sensitivity, p57 is not related to CR1 or DAF, two others membrane components which react with human C3b and identified by others on human erythrocytes. These specific antibodies allow to analyze the presence of p57 on human cells.

Charriaut, C.; Krikorian, L.; Barel, M.; Frade, R.

1986-03-05

328

Comparison of Automated and Manual Nucleic Acid Extraction Methods for Detection of Enterovirus RNA  

PubMed Central

Automated nucleic acid extraction is an attractive alternative to labor-intensive manual methods. We compared two automated methods, the BioRobot M48 instrument (Qiagen, Inc.) and MagNA Pure (Roche Applied Sciences) methods, to two manual methods, the QIAamp Viral RNA Mini kit (Qiagen) and TRIzol (Invitrogen), for the extraction of enterovirus RNA. Analytical sensitivity was assessed by dilution analysis of poliovirus type 2 Sabin in cerebrospinal fluid. The sensitivity of PCR was equivalent after RNA extraction with QIAamp, BioRobot M48, and MagNA Pure. All 18 replicates of 100 PFU/ml were detected after extraction by the four methods. Fewer replicates of each successive dilution were detected after extraction by each method. At 10?1 PFU/ml, 17 of 18 replicates were positive by QIAamp, 15 of 18 replicates were positive by BioRobot M48, and 12 of 18 replicates were positive by MagNA Pure; at 10?2 PFU/ml, 4 of 17 replicates were positive by QIAamp, 2 of 18 replicates were positive by BioRobot M48, and 0 of 18 replicates were positive by MagNA Pure. At 10?3 PFU/ml, no replicates were detected. Evaluation of TRIzol was discontinued after nine replicates due to a trend of lower sensitivity (at 10?3 PFU/ml eight of nine replicates were positive at 100 PFU/ml, four of nine replicates were positive at 10?1 PFU/ml, and zero of nine replicates were positive at 10?2 PFU/ml). Concordant results were obtained in 24 of 28 clinical specimens after extraction by all methods. No evidence of contamination was observed after extraction by automated instruments. The data indicate that the sensitivity of enterovirus PCR is largely similar after extraction by QIAamp, BioRobot M48, and MagNA Pure; a trend of decreased sensitivity was observed after TRIzol extraction. However, the results of enterovirus PCR were largely concordant in patient samples, indicating that the four extraction methods are suitable for detection of enteroviruses in clinical specimens. PMID:12904351

Knepp, Julia H.; Geahr, Melissa A.; Forman, Michael S.; Valsamakis, Alexandra

2003-01-01

329

Comparison of human B cell activation by TLR7 and TLR9 agonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Human B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are the only cells known to express both TLR7 and TLR9. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are the primary IFN-? producing cells in response to TLR7 and TLR9 agonists. The direct effects of TLR7 stimulation on human B cells is less understood. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of

John A Hanten; John P Vasilakos; Christie L Riter; Lori Neys; Kenneth E Lipson; Sefik S Alkan; Woubalem Birmachu

2008-01-01

330

Molecular imaging of apolipoprotein B-100 in human coronary plaques by color fluorescent angioscopy and microscopy.  

PubMed

Apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB-100) is an important risk factor for coronary artery disease. However, its localization in human coronary plaques is not well understood. The present study was performed to visualize ApoB-100 in human coronary artery wall. Deposition of native ApoB-100 in excised human coronary plaques and normal segments classified by conventional angioscopy was investigated by color fluorescent angioscopy (CFA) and microscopy (CFM) using Nile blue dye (NB) which elicits a golden fluorescence characteristic of ApoB-100 as a biomarker. By CFA, the % incidence of ApoB-100 was 20 in 40 normal segments, 38 in 42 white, and 11 in 35 yellow plaques (P < 0.05 versus white plaques). There was no significant difference in detection sensitivity between CFA and luminal surface scan by CFM. By CFM transected surface scan, ApoB-100 deposited in superficial, deep, and/or in both layers. Deposition in both layers was frequently observed in white plaques and yellow plaques without necrotic core (NC), less frequently in normal segments, and rarely in yellow plaques with NC. (1) Taking into consideration the well known process of plaque growth, the results suggest that ApoB-100 begins to deposit before plaque formation, increasingly deposits with plaque growth, and disappears after necrotic core formation. (2) CFA is feasible for imaging of ApoB-100 in human coronary artery wall. PMID:23676365

Hiruta, Nobuyuki; Uchida, Yasuto; Maezawa, Yuko; Shimoyama, Ei; Uchida, Yasumi

2013-01-01

331

Genetic manipulation of B cells for the isolation of rare therapeutic antibodies from the human repertoire.  

PubMed

Antibody based therapies are increasingly applied to prevent and treat human disease. While the majority of antibodies currently on the market are chimeric or humanized antibodies from rodents, the focus has now shifted to the isolation and development of fully human antibodies. By retroviral transduction of B cell lymphoma-6 (BCL-6), which prevents terminal differentiation of B cells and, the anti-apoptotic gene B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) into primary human B cells we efficiently immortalize antibody-producing B cells allowing the isolation of therapeutic antibodies. Selection of antigen-specific B cell clones was greatly facilitated because the transduced B cells retain surface immunoglobulin expression and secrete immunoglobulin into the culture supernatant. Surface immunoglobulin expression can be utilized to stain and isolate antigen specific B cell clones with labeled antigen. Immunoglobulins secreted in culture supernatant can directly be tested in functional assays to identify unique B cell clones. Here we describe the key features of our Bcl-6/Bcl-xL culture platform (AIMSelect). PMID:23867338

Kwakkenbos, Mark J; Bakker, Arjen Q; van Helden, Pauline M; Wagner, Koen; Yasuda, Etsuko; Spits, Hergen; Beaumont, Tim

2014-01-01

332

Immunogenicity in humans of an edible vaccine for hepatitis B  

Microsoft Academic Search

A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial evaluated the immunogenicity of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) expressed in potatoes and delivered orally to previously vaccinated individuals. The potatoes accumulated HBsAg at 8.5 µg\\/g of potato tuber, and doses of 100 g of tuber were administered by ingestion. The correlate of protection for hepatitis B virus, a nonenteric pathogen, is blood serum antibody

Yasmin Thanavala; Martin Mahoney; Sribani Pal; Adrienne Scott; Liz Richter; Nachimuthu Natarajan; Patti Goodwin; Charles J. Arntzen; Hugh S. Mason

2005-01-01

333

The molecule of DC-SIGN captures enterovirus 71 and confers dendritic cell-mediated viral trans-infection  

PubMed Central

Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease that occurs in young children. Neither antiviral agents nor vaccines are available for efficiently combating viral infection. Study of EV71–host interplay is important for understanding viral infection and developing strategies for prevention and therapy. Here the interactions of EV71 with human dendritic cells were analyzed. Methods EV71 capture, endocytosis, infection, and degradation in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) were detected by Flow cytometry or real-time (RT-) PCR, and MDDCs-mediated EV71 trans-infection of RD cells was determined via coculture system. Cell morphology or viability was monitored with microscopy or flow cytometry. SiRNA interference was used to knock down gene expression. Results MDDCs can bind EV71, but these loaded-EV71 particles in MDDCs underwent a rapid degradation in the absence of efficient replication; once the captured EV71 encountered susceptible cells, MDDCs efficiently transferred surface-bound viruses to target cells. The molecule of DC-SIGN (DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing nonintegrin) mediated viral binding and transfer, because interference of DC-SIGN expression with specific siRNAs reduced EV71 binding and impaired MDDC-mediated viral trans-infection, and exogenous expression of DC-SIGN molecule on Raji cell initiated viral binding and subsequent transmission. Conclusion MDDCs could bind efficiently EV71 viruses through viral binding to DC-SIGN molecule, and these captured-viruses could be transferred to susceptible cells for robust infection. The novel finding of DC-mediated EV71 dissemination might facilitate elucidation of EV71 primary infection and benefit searching for new clues for preventing viruses from initial infection. PMID:24620896

2014-01-01

334

Recollections of J.B.S. Haldane, with special reference to Human Genetics in India  

PubMed Central

This paper is a brief account of the scientific work of J.B.S. Haldane (1892–1964), with special reference to early research in Human Genetics. Brief descriptions of Haldane's background, his important contributions to the foundations of human genetics, his move to India from Great Britain and the research carried out in Human Genetics in India under his direction are outlined. Population genetic research on Y-linkage in man, inbreeding, color blindness and other aspects are described. PMID:22754215

Dronamraju, Krishna R.

2012-01-01

335

Voltage-Gated Na+ channel ?1B: a secreted cell adhesion molecule involved in human epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Scn1b null mice have a severe neurological and cardiac phenotype. Human mutations in SCN1B result in epilepsy and cardiac arrhythmia. SCN1B is expressed as two developmentally regulated splice variants, ?1 and ?1B, that are each expressed in brain and heart in rodents and humans. Here we studied the structure and function of ?1B and investigated a novel human SCN1B epilepsy-related mutation (p.G257R) unique to ?1B. We show that wild-type ?1B is not a transmembrane protein, but a soluble protein expressed predominantly during embryonic development that promotes neurite outgrowth. Association of ?1B with voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs) Nav1.1 or Nav1.3 is not detectable by immunoprecipitation and ?1B does not affect Nav1.3 cell surface expression as measured by [3H]-saxitoxin binding. However, ?1B co-expression results in subtle alteration of Nav1.3 currents in transfected cells, suggesting that ?1B may modulate Na+ current in brain. Similar to the previously characterized p.R125C mutation, p.G257R results in intracellular retention of ?1B, generating a functional null allele. In contrast, two other SCN1B mutations associated with epilepsy, p.C121W and p.R85H, are expressed at the cell surface. We propose that ?1B p.G257R may contribute to epilepsy through a mechanism that includes intracellular retention resulting in aberrant neuronal pathfinding. PMID:21994374

Patino, G.A.; Brackenbury, W.J.; Bao, Y.; Lopez-Santiago, L. F.; O’Malley, H.A.; Chen, C.; Calhoun, J.D.; Lafreničre, R.G.; Cossette, P.; Rouleau, G.A.; Isom, L.L.

2011-01-01

336

Comparative gene expression profiling identifies common molecular signatures of NF-?B activation in canine and human diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL).  

PubMed

We present the first comparison of global transcriptional changes in canine and human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), with particular reference to the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) pathway. Microarray data generated from canine DLBCL and normal lymph nodes were used for differential expression, co-expression and pathway analyses, and compared with analysis of microarray data from human healthy and DLBCL lymph nodes. The comparisons at gene level were performed by mapping the probesets in canine microarrays to orthologous genes in humans and vice versa. A considerable number of differentially expressed genes between canine lymphoma and healthy lymph node samples were also found differentially expressed between human DLBCL and healthy lymph node samples. Principal component analysis using a literature-derived NF-?B target gene set mapped to orthologous canine array probesets and human array probesets clearly separated the healthy and cancer samples in both datasets. The analysis demonstrated that for both human and canine DLBCL there is activation of the NF-?B/p65 canonical pathway, indicating that canine lymphoma could be used as a model to study NF-?B-targeted therapeutics for human lymphoma. To validate this, tissue arrays were generated for canine and human NHL and immunohistochemistry was employed to assess NF-?B activation status. In addition, human and canine B-cell lymphoma lines were assessed for NF-?B activity and the effects of NF-?B inhibition. PMID:24023754

Mudaliar, Manikhandan A V; Haggart, Ross D; Miele, Gino; Sellar, Grant; Tan, Karen A L; Goodlad, John R; Milne, Elspeth; Vail, David M; Kurzman, Ilene; Crowther, Daniel; Argyle, David J

2013-01-01

337

Comparative Gene Expression Profiling Identifies Common Molecular Signatures of NF-?B Activation in Canine and Human Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL)  

PubMed Central

We present the first comparison of global transcriptional changes in canine and human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), with particular reference to the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) pathway. Microarray data generated from canine DLBCL and normal lymph nodes were used for differential expression, co-expression and pathway analyses, and compared with analysis of microarray data from human healthy and DLBCL lymph nodes. The comparisons at gene level were performed by mapping the probesets in canine microarrays to orthologous genes in humans and vice versa. A considerable number of differentially expressed genes between canine lymphoma and healthy lymph node samples were also found differentially expressed between human DLBCL and healthy lymph node samples. Principal component analysis using a literature-derived NF-?B target gene set mapped to orthologous canine array probesets and human array probesets clearly separated the healthy and cancer samples in both datasets. The analysis demonstrated that for both human and canine DLBCL there is activation of the NF-?B/p65 canonical pathway, indicating that canine lymphoma could be used as a model to study NF-?B-targeted therapeutics for human lymphoma. To validate this, tissue arrays were generated for canine and human NHL and immunohistochemistry was employed to assess NF-?B activation status. In addition, human and canine B-cell lymphoma lines were assessed for NF-?B activity and the effects of NF-?B inhibition. PMID:24023754

Mudaliar, Manikhandan A. V.; Haggart, Ross D.; Miele, Gino; Sellar, Grant; Tan, Karen A. L.; Goodlad, John R.; Milne, Elspeth; Vail, David M.; Kurzman, Ilene

2013-01-01

338

Human Resource Development and Manpower Training. Paper Presentations: Session B.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains 18 papers from the human resource development and manpower training section of an international conference on vocational education and training (VET) for lifelong learning in the information era. The following papers are included: "Use of Social and Economic Modeling to Plan Vocational Education and Training" (David L.…

2000

339

Effects of Synephrine and B-Phenethylamine on Human a-Adrenoceptor Subtypes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Synephrine and B-phenethylamine are structurally related to ephedrine. In this study, the effects of synephrine and B-phenethylamine are investigated on a-adrenoceptor (a-AR) subtypes expressed in human embroyonic kidney (HEK293) or Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and compared to that of 1R,2S-no...

340

Human vitamin B12 absorption measurement by accelerator mass spectrometry using specifically  

E-print Network

idiosyncrasies of Salmonella metabolism. To grow aerobically on ethanolamine, Salmonella enterica mustCi mmol) (1 Ci 37 GBq) and no detectable dilution of label from endogenous DMB synthesis. In a human engineering Salmonella Schilling test Vitamin B12 (B12) is a compound of significant nutritional and clinical

California at Davis, University of

341

Adhesion-Dependent Survival of Normal and Leukemic Human B Lymphoblasts on Bone Marrow Stromal Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE HOMEOSTATIC CONTROL of human B-lineage lymphopoiesis requires close coordination of survival, proliferation, and differentiation signals. The critical stimuli have not yet been completely identified; although in late fe- tal and postnatal life, they are known to be produced by the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment.'.' In the absence of BM stromal support, immature B cells from acute lympho- blastic leukemia

Atsushi Manabe; K. Gopal Murti; Elaine Coustan-Smith; Masa-aki Kumagai; Frederick G. Behm; Susana C. Raimondi; Dario Campana

1994-01-01

342

Seroprevalence of human parvovirus B19 infection in Sao Tomé and Principe, Malawi and Mascarene Islands.  

PubMed

The prevalence of antibodies to human parvovirus B19 (anti-B19 IgG) in sera (n = 577) from Sao Tomé and Principe, Malawi and Mascarene Islands (Mauritius and Rodriguez Islands) was determined by antibody capture ELISA. The B19 prevalence was 51.5% on Sao Tomé and Principe, 58.4% in Malawi, and 55.0% on the Mauritius mainland and 2.2% on Rodriguez Island, indicating that B19 virus is highly prevalent not only in Europe, Japan and the Americas but also in the African region. Rodriguez Islands has a very low B19 prevalence. PMID:2550018

Schwarz, T F; Gürtler, L G; Zoulek, G; Deinhardt, F; Roggendorf, M

1989-07-01

343

Genomic characterization of the human and mouse protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

PTP-1B is a ubiquitously expressed intracellular protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) that has been implicated in the negative regulation of insulin signaling. Mice deficient in PTP-1B were found to have an enhanced insulin sensitivity and a resistance to diet-induced obesity. Interestingly, the human PTP-1B gene maps to chromosome 20 q13.1 in a region that has been associated with diabetes and obesity.

Pontus K. A. L. Forsell; Yves Boie; Jacqueline Montalibet; Susan Collins; Brian P. Kennedy

2000-01-01

344

Human Hydroxysteroid Sulfotransferase SULT2B1: Two Enzymes Encoded by a Single Chromosome 19 Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have cloned and characterized cDNAs that encode two human hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes, SULT2B1a and SULT2B1b, as well as the single gene that encodes both of these enzymes. The two cDNAs differed at their 5?-termini and had 1050- and 1095-bp open reading frames that encoded 350 and 365 amino acids, respectively. The amino acid sequences encoded by these cDNAs

Thomas C. Wood; Evan E. Eichler; Harvey W. Mohrenweiser; Louis S. Ramagli; Michael J. Siciliano; Richard M. Weinshilboum

1998-01-01

345

Antisera to human B-lymphocyte membrane glycoproteins block stimulation in mixed lymphocyte culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

HUMAN B cells are frequently differentiated from T cells by the ready demonstration of immunoglobulin (Ig) on their surfaces1. In the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) the responding cells are mainly T cells2-4, whereas B cells have been suggested to be the primary stimulating cells4. The effect on the MLR of a specific anti-B-cell serum is therefore of considerable interest. Here

Peter Cresswell; Steven S. Geier

1975-01-01

346

A complex selection signature at the human AVPR1B gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The vasopressin receptor type 1b (AVPR1B) is mainly expressed by pituitary corticotropes and it mediates the stimulatory effects of AVP on ACTH release; common AVPR1B haplotypes have been involved in mood and anxiety disorders in humans, while rodents lacking a functional receptor gene display behavioral defects and altered stress responses. RESULTS: Here we have analyzed the two exons of

Rachele Cagliani; Matteo Fumagalli; Uberto Pozzoli; Stefania Riva; Matteo Cereda; Giacomo P Comi; Linda Pattini; Nereo Bresolin; Manuela Sironi

2009-01-01

347

Inhibition of Human B-Cell Lymphoma Growth by CD40 Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

D40 HAS BEEN SHOWN to be present on both normal and neoplastic B lymphocytes.',' The ligand for CD40 is expressed on activated T lymphocytes3 and the interaction of CD40 with its ligand appears to be critical for normal B lymphocyte differentiation and development. Antibodies to CD40 have also been shown to promote normal human B- cell proliferation in vitro when

Satoshi Funakoshi; Dan L. Longo; Margaret Beckwith; Denise K. Conley; Galia Tsarfaty; Richard J. Armitage; William C. Fanslow; Melanie K. Spriggs; William J. Murphy

2010-01-01

348

Potentiation of Chemotherapeutic Agents following Antagonism of Nuclear Factor kappa B in Human Gliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future success using chemotherapy against human gliomas may result from exploiting unique molecular vulnerabilities of these tumors. Chemotherapy frequently results in DNA damage. When such damage is sensed by the cell, programmed cell death, or apoptosis, may be initiated. However, chemotherapy-induced DNA damage may activate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) and block apoptosis. We inhibited NF-?B using a gene therapy

Kyle D. Weaver; Susan Yeyeodu; James C. Cusack; Albert S. Baldwin; Matthew G. Ewend

2003-01-01

349

miR-125b-2 is a potential oncomiR on human chromosome 21  

E-print Network

miR-125b-2 is a potential oncomiR on human chromosome 21 in megakaryoblastic leukemia Jan), remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of Hsa21-encoded miR-125b-2, a microRNA (miRNA) overex- pressed in DS-AMKL/TL, in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis. We identified a function of miR-125b

Li, Zhe

350

Complete genome sequences of human respiratory syncytial virus genotype a and B isolates from South Korea.  

PubMed

There is a paucity of complete genome sequence information for human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV). To this end, we sequenced the complete genome sequences of HRSV genotype A (HRSV-A/IC688/12) and genotype B (HRSV-B/GW0047/14 and HRSV-B/IC0027/14). This information will increase the understanding of HRSV genetic diversity, evolution, pathogenicity, antigenicity, and transmissibility. PMID:25908140

Yun, Mi-Ran; Kim, A-Reum; Lee, Han Saem; Kim, Dae-Won; Lee, Wan-Ji; Kim, Kisoon; Kim, Sung Soon; Kim, You-Jin

2015-01-01

351

Photo-protective effect of americanin B against ultraviolet B-induced damage in cultured human keratinocytes.  

PubMed

Excessive ultraviolet (UV) radiation, a constituent of sunlight, can induce multiple types of skin damage. We recently demonstrated that americanin B, a lignin compound, protected cells against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced damage by exerting antioxidant effects and inhibiting apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the ability of americanin B to protect against cell injury induced by UVB (280-320nm), the most harmful UV wavelengths, in human HaCaT keratinocytes. Americanin B absorbed UVB, eliminated UVB-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decreased the extent of UVB-induced oxidative modification of lipids, proteins, and DNA. In addition, americanin B inhibited UVB-induced apoptosis, as indicated by reductions in apoptotic body formation and DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, americanin B reversed the depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane induced by UVB exposure. These protective activities were associated with down-regulation of apoptosis-promoting proteins, Bax, caspase-9, and caspase-3 and up-regulation of an apoptosis inhibitor, Bcl-2. These results suggest that americanin B can protect human keratinocytes against UVB-induced cell damage. PMID:25461549

Zheng, Jian; Piao, Mei Jing; Kim, Ki Cheon; Yao, Cheng Wen; Cha, Ji Won; Shin, Jennifer H; Yoo, Suk Jae; Hyun, Jin Won

2014-11-01

352

Expression and immunogenicity of novel subunit enterovirus 71 VP1 antigens  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EV71 is a major emerging infectious disease in many Asian countries. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivated EV71 vaccines are in clinical studies but their safety and efficacy are unknown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developing subunit based EV71 vaccines is significant and novel antigen design is needed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA immunization is an efficient tool to test the immunogenicity of VP1 based EV71 vaccines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple VP1 antigens are developed showing immunogenic potential. -- Abstract: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral illness in young children. HFMD is caused by viruses belonging to the enterovirus genus of the picornavirus family. Recently, enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a virulent agent for HFMD with severe clinical outcomes. In the current report, we conducted a pilot antigen engineering study to optimize the expression and immunogenicity of subunit VP1 antigen for the design of EV71 vaccines. DNA immunization was adopted as a simple technical approach to test different designs of VP1 antigens without the need to express VP1 protein in vitro first. Our studies indicated that the expression and immunogenicity of VP1 protein can be improved with alternated VP1 antigen designs. Data presented in the current report revealed novel pathways to optimize the design of VP1 antigen-based EV71 vaccines.

Xu, Juan [China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China) [China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Nanjing Medical University (China); Wang, Shixia [China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China) [China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School (United States); Gan, Weihua [Department of Pediatrics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China)] [Department of Pediatrics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Zhang, Wenhong [Department of Infectious Diseases, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University (China)] [Department of Infectious Diseases, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University (China); Ju, Liwen [School of Public Health, Fudan University (China)] [School of Public Health, Fudan University (China); Huang, Zuhu [Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China) [Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Lu, Shan, E-mail: shan.lu@umassmed.edu [Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China) [Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School (United States)

2012-04-20

353

Characterization of an Enterovirus species E isolated from naturally infected bovine in China.  

PubMed

Bovine enteroviruses, which belong to the Picornaviridae family, can cause clinical symptoms in cattle and are excreted in feces. In this study, a cytolytic virus was isolated from Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells from fecal samples of bovine with severe diarrhea and hemorrhagic intestinal mucosa that had been originally diagnosed with bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) by a bovine viral diarrhea virus Ag point-of-care test (IDEXX, American). Random priming PCR was used to amplify underlying viral sequences and identify the isolated virus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolated virus closely matches the EV-E2 species, which is different from other Chinese strains previously isolated. The newly identified virus was named HLJ-3531/2013. We infected the sulking mice with the isolated virus. Reverse-transcription PCR, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, serum neutralization (SN) test, and virus isolation from various tissues revealed that HLJ-3531/2013 can infect the intestine, liver, and lung of suckling mice. The present work is the first to report the reproduction of clinical symptoms by an isolated virus in an experimental infection model of animals and lays a solid foundation for the development of the pathogenesis of bovine enteroviruses. PMID:25102330

Zhang, Haili; Liu, Hongtao; Bao, Jun; Guo, Yongli; Peng, Tongquan; Zhou, Pingping; Zhang, Wenlong; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei; Gao, Mingchun

2014-10-13

354

Identification of 5-HT3A and 5-HT3B receptor subunits in human hippocampus.  

PubMed

The pentameric 5-HT(3) receptor complex is a ligand-gated ion channel that mediates fast synaptic transmission in the brain. Expression of two subunits (5-HT(3A) and 5-HT(3B) subunits) gives rise to at least two receptor isoforms (homomeric 5-HT(3A) and heteromeric 5-HT(3A/3B) receptors), which differ in their biophysical characteristics, although expression of these proteins has not been investigated in human brain. The expression of h5-HT(3A) and 5-HT(3B) subunits in the human hippocampus was investigated using selective polyclonal antibodies (SDS-PAGE/Western blotting, immunohistochemistry), with expression of each subunit verified by PCR detection of subunit transcripts. 5-HT(3A) and 5-HT(3B) subunit immunoreactivity was identified within the human hippocampus. The cellular pattern of expression for each subunit was similar, with predominant immunoreactivity associated with pyramidal neurones in CA fields 2 and 3, and also the relatively large neurones within the hilus (CA4 field). Transcripts for each subunit were also identified in human hippocampal tissue. These findings indicate that human hippocampal neurones are capable of forming at least two, functionally different, isoforms of the 5-HT(3) receptor. Furthermore the expression pattern of 5-HT(3A) and 5-HT(3B) subunits in human hippocampus appears to differ with the rodent counterpart, which may underlie the differences in some of the behavioural effects of 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists between these species. PMID:17327132

Brady, Catherine A; Dover, Terri J; Massoura, Andrew N; Princivalle, Alesandra P; Hope, Anthony G; Barnes, Nicholas M

2007-04-01

355

Human Rehabilitation Techniques. Project Papers. Volume IV, Part B.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volume IV, Part B of a six-volume final report (which covers the findings of a research project on policy and technology related to rehabilitation of disabled individuals) presents a continuation of papers (Part A) giving an overview of project methodology, much of the data used in projecting consequences and policymaking impacts in project…

Dudek, R. A.; And Others

356

Human bradykinin B2 receptor: Nucleotide sequence analysis and assignment to chromosome 14  

SciTech Connect

Functional cDNA clones for human bradykinin B2 receptor were isolated from uterus RNA by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method and by screening a human cosmid library with rat bradykinin B2 receptor probe. We isolated several overlapping clones from the cosmid library, each of which encodes the entire protein-coding sequence. The human bradykinin B2 receptor gene codes for a 364-amino-acid protein with a molecular mass of 41,442 Da that is highly homologous to rat bradykinin B2 receptor cDNA (81%). The entire human cDNA sequence was cloned into an expression vector and mRNA was synthesised by in vitro transcription. Applications of bradykinin caused membrane current responses in Xenopus oocytes injected with the in vitro-synthesized mRNA. Preincubation with the potent B2 antagonist, HOE140, prevented this response. The genomic clone is intronless, and we have identified an upstream promoter region and a downstream polyadenylation signal. The human bradykinin B2 receptor gene has been mapped to chromosome 14 using PCR to specifically amplify DNA from somatic cell hybrids. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Powell, S.J.; Slynn, G.; Thomas, C.; Hopkins, B.; Briggs, I.; Graham, A. (ICI Pharmaceuticals, Cheshire (United Kingdom))

1993-02-01

357

High levels of SOX5 decrease proliferative capacity of human B cells, but permit plasmablast differentiation.  

PubMed

Currently very little is known about the differential expression and function of the transcription factor SOX5 during B cell maturation. We identified two new splice variants of SOX5 in human B cells, encoding the known L-SOX5B isoform and a new shorter isoform L-SOX5F. The SOX5 transcripts are highly expressed during late stages of B-cell differentiation, including atypical memory B cells, activated CD21low B cells and germinal center B cells of tonsils. In tonsillar sections SOX5 expression was predominantly polarized to centrocytes within the light zone. After in vitro stimulation, SOX5 expression was down-regulated during proliferation while high expression levels were permissible for plasmablast differentiation. Overexpression of L-SOX5F in human primary B lymphocytes resulted in reduced proliferation, less survival of CD138neg B cells, but comparable numbers of CD138+CD38hi plasmablasts compared to control cells. Thus, our findings describe for the first time a functional role of SOX5 during late B cell development reducing the proliferative capacity and thus potentially affecting the differentiation of B cells during the germinal center response. PMID:24945754

Rakhmanov, Mirzokhid; Sic, Heiko; Kienzler, Anne-Kathrin; Fischer, Beate; Rizzi, Marta; Seidl, Maximilian; Melkaoui, Kerstina; Unger, Susanne; Moehle, Luisa; Schmit, Nadine E; Deshmukh, Sachin D; Ayata, Cemil Korcan; Schuh, Wolfgang; Zhang, Zhibing; Cosset, François-Loic; Verhoeyen, Els; Peter, Hans-Hartmut; Voll, Reinhard E; Salzer, Ulrich; Eibel, Hermann; Warnatz, Klaus

2014-01-01

358

Development of monoclonal antibodies against human CYP11B1 and CYP11B2.  

PubMed

1. The final enzymes in the biosynthesis of aldosterone and cortisol are by the cytochrome P450 CYP11B2 and CYP11B1, respectively. The enzymes are 93% homologous at the amino acid level and specific antibodies have been difficult to generate. 2. Mice and rats were immunized with multiple peptides conjugated to various immunogenic proteins and monoclonal antibodies were generated. The only peptide sequences that generated specific antibodies were amino acids 41-52 for the CYP11B2 and amino acids 80-90 for the CYP11B1 enzyme. 3. The mouse monoclonal CYP11B2-41 was specific and sensitive for use in western blots and produced specific staining of the zona glomerulosa of normal adrenal glands. The rat monoclonal CYP11B1-80 also detected a single band by western blot and detected only the zona fasciculata. Triple immunofluorescence of the adrenal demonstrated that the CYP11B1 and the CYP11B2 did not co-localize, while as expected the CYP11B1 co-localized with the 17?-hydroxylase. PMID:24325867

Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E; Qi, Xin; Velarde-Miranda, Carolina; Plonczynski, Maria W; Parker, C Richard; Rainey, William; Satoh, Fumitoshi; Maekawa, Takashi; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Sasano, Hironobu; Gomez-Sanchez, Elise P

2014-03-01

359

Immunogenicity in humans of an edible vaccine for hepatitis B  

PubMed Central

A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial evaluated the immunogenicity of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) expressed in potatoes and delivered orally to previously vaccinated individuals. The potatoes accumulated HBsAg at ?8.5 ?g/g of potato tuber, and doses of 100 g of tuber were administered by ingestion. The correlate of protection for hepatitis B virus, a nonenteric pathogen, is blood serum antibody titers against HBsAg. After volunteers ate uncooked potatoes, serum anti-HBsAg titers increased in 10 of 16 volunteers (62.5%) who ate three doses of potatoes; in 9 of 17 volunteers (52.9%) who ate two doses of transgenic potatoes; and in none of the volunteers who ate nontransgenic potatoes. These results were achieved without the coadministration of a mucosal adjuvant or the need for buffering stomach pH. We conclude that a plant-derived orally delivered vaccine for prevention of hepatitis B virus should be considered as a viable component of a global immunization program. PMID:15728371

Thanavala, Yasmin; Mahoney, Martin; Pal, Sribani; Scott, Adrienne; Richter, Liz; Natarajan, Nachimuthu; Goodwin, Patti; Arntzen, Charles J.; Mason, Hugh S.

2005-01-01

360

Identification and characterization of lin-28 homolog B (LIN28B) in human hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Several studies have identified signature gene sets that may be useful as potential diagnostic tools by global microarray analysis. Here we report the cloning and characterization of a novel gene, lin-28 homolog B (LIN28B), which is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma. The heterochronic gene lin-28 is a key regulator of developmental timing in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Similar with lin-28 proteins, LIN28B conserves a cold shock domain and a pair of CCHC zinc finger domains. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that they might arise as a result of duplication from an ancestral gene. Overexpression of LIN28B was noted in most HCC cell lines and clinical samples. By western blot analysis using a polyclonal antibody against LIN28B, a short LIN28B isoform was also identified in non-tumor liver tissue and fetal liver. Although predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, we found that LIN28B protein shows cell cycle-dependent nuclear translocation in Huh7 cells. Induced expression of exogenous LIN28B in a tet-off cell line promoted cancer cell proliferation. Interestingly, the segment of the unusually long 3'UTR of LIN28B contains complementary sites to let-7 microRNA of mammals. And our studies provided indirect evidence that LIN28B is a possibly natural target for let-7 mediated regulation. These findings strongly implicate a critical role of LIN28B during development and tumorigenesis and suggest a possible novel mechanism. PMID:16971064

Guo, Yingqiu; Chen, Yongxin; Ito, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Akira; Ge, Xijin; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Aburatani, Hiroyuki

2006-12-15

361

Human Interferon Alpha-2b: A Therapeutic Protein for Cancer Treatment  

PubMed Central

Human interferon alpha (hIFN?) is a wide biological activity cytokine that is used in hepatitis and cancer treatments. It regulates many genes that are involved in antiviral and antiproliferative activities. This mini review focuses on human interferon alpha-2b (hIFN?-2b) as therapeutic protein for cancer treatment. The review covers hIFN?-2b molecular characteristic and its molecular mechanism by Janus activated kinase/signal transducer activation of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway. The JAK-STAT pathway regulates not only proteins involved in inhibition of proliferation but also apoptosis. As additional discussion of clinical applications, the use of recombinant hIFN?-2b (rhIFN?-2b) as therapeutic protein in several types of cancer is also explained. PMID:24741445

Asmana Ningrum, Ratih

2014-01-01

362

Expression of human {beta}-defensin-2 gene induced by CpG-DNA in human B cells  

SciTech Connect

Defensins have a broad range of antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The expression of human {beta}-defensin-2 (hBD-2) is prevalently observed in epithelial cells and is induced by bacterial infection. Here, we have shown that the expression of the hBD-2 gene and release of hBD-2 protein into the medium is up-regulated in response to CpG-DNA in human B cell line RPMI 8226. The induction of hBD-2 was dependent on CG sequence and phosphorothioate backbone-modification. This was also confirmed in primary human lymphocytes. To shed light on the molecular mechanism involved in hBD-2 induction by CpG-DNA, we examined the contribution of the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway in RPMI 8226 cells. Suppression of MyD88 function and inhibition of NF-{kappa}B nuclear localization blocked hBD-2 induction. The NF-{kappa}B pathway inhibitors also abolished hBD-2 induction. These results may contribute to a better understanding on the therapeutic effects of CpG-DNA against infectious diseases.

Han, Su Ho [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Gangwon-do 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Gangwon-do 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Eun; Park, Jeong-A [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae-Bong [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Gangwon-do 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Gangwon-do 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong-Sun [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Gangwon-do 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Gangwon-do 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Younghee [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ihn-Geun [Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hallym University, Han-Gang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul 150-719 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hallym University, Han-Gang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul 150-719 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hyung-Joo, E-mail: hjookwon@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Gangwon-do 200-702 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Gangwon-do 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Medical Science Research, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Gangwon-do 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-11-20

363

A human centromere antigen (CENP-B) interacts with a short specific sequence in alphoid DNA, a human centromeric satellite  

PubMed Central

We report the interaction between a human centromere antigen and an alphoid DNA, a human centromeric satellite DNA, which consists of 170- bp repeating units. A cloned alphoid DNA fragment incubated with a HeLa cell nuclear extract is selectively immunoprecipitated by the anticentromere sera from scleroderma patients. Immunoprecipitation of the DNA made by primer extension defines the 17-bp segment on the alphoid DNA that is required for formation of DNA-antigen complex. On the other hand, when proteins bound to the biotinylated alphoid DNA carrying the 17-bp motif are recovered by streptavidin agarose and immunoblotted, the 80-kD centromere antigen (CENP-B) is detected. DNA binding experiments for proteins immunoprecipitated with anticentromere serum, separated by gel electrophoresis, and transferred to a membrane strongly suggest that the 80-kD antigen specifically binds to the DNA fragment with the 17-bp motif. The 17-bp motif is termed the "CENP-B box." Alphoid monomers with the CENP-B box are found in all the known alphoid subclasses, with varying frequencies, except the one derived from the Y chromosome so far cloned. These results imply that the interaction of the 80-kD centromere antigen with the CENP-B box in the alphoid repeats may play some crucial role in the formation of specified structure and/or function of human centromere. PMID:2808515

1989-01-01

364

Molecular phenotypes of human parvovirus B19 in patients with myocarditis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate molecular phenotypes of myocardial B19V-infection to determine the role of B19V in myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). METHODS: Endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) from 498 B19V-positive patients with myocarditis and DCM were analyzed using molecular methods and functional experiments. EMBs were obtained from the University Hospitals of Greifswald and Tuebingen and additionally from 36 German cardiology centers. Control tissues were obtained at autopsy from 34 victims of accidents, crime or suicide. Identification of mononuclear cell infiltrates in EMBs was performed using immunohistological staining. Anti-B19V-IgM and anti-B19V-IgG were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). B19V viral loads were determined using in-house quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For B19V-genotyping a new B19V-genotype-specific restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-PCR was established. B19V-genotyping was verified by direct DNA-sequencing and sequences were aligned using BLAST and BioEdit software. B19V P6-promoter and HHV6-U94-transactivator constructs were generated for cell culture experiments. Transfection experiments were conducted using human endothelial cells 1. Luciferase reporter assays were performed to determine B19V-replication activity. Statistical analysis and graphical representation were calculated using SPSS and Prism5 software. RESULTS: The prevalence of B19V was significantly more likely to be associated with inflammatory cardiomyopathy (iCMP) compared to uninflamed DCM (59.6% vs 35.3%) (P < 0.0001). The detection of B19V-mRNA replication intermediates proved that replication of B19V was present. RFLP-PCR assays showed that B19V-genotype 1 (57.4%) and B19V-genotype 2 (36.7%) were the most prevalent viral genotypes. B19V-genotype 2 was observed more frequently in EMBs with iCMP (65.0%) compared to DCM (35%) (P = 0.049). Although there was no significant difference in gender-specific B19V-loads, women were more frequently infected with B19V-genotype 2 (44.6%) than men (36.0%) (P = 0.0448). Coinfection with B19V and other cardiotropic viruses was found in 19.2% of tissue samples and was associated with higher B19V viral load compared to B19V-monoinfected tissue (P = 0.0012). The most frequent coinfecting virus was human herpes virus 6 (HHV6, 16.5%). B19V-coinfection with HHV6 showed higher B19V-loads compared to B19V-monoinfected EMBs (P = 0.0033), suggesting that HHV6 had transactivated B19V. In vitro experiments confirmed a 2.4-fold increased B19V P6-promoter activity by the HHV6 U94-transactivator. CONCLUSION: The finding of significantly increased B19V loads in patients with histologically proven cardiac inflammation suggests a crucial role of B19V-genotypes and reactivation of B19V-infection by HHV6-coinfection in B19V-associated iCMP. Our findings suggest that B19V-infection of the human heart can be a causative event for the development of an endothelial cell-mediated inflammatory disease and that this is related to both viral load and genotype. PMID:24772258

Bock, C-Thomas; Düchting, Anja; Utta, Friederike; Brunner, Eva; Sy, Bui Tien; Klingel, Karin; Lang, Florian; Gawaz, Meinrad; Felix, Stephan B; Kandolf, Reinhard

2014-01-01

365

Change of Major Genotype of Enterovirus 71 in Outbreaks of Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Taiwan between 1998 and 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) occurred in Taiwan between 1998 and 2000. Enteroviruses were isolated from a total of 1,892 patients in this laboratory during this period. Of the virus isolates, enterovirus 71 (EV71) was diagnosed in 44.4% of the patients (132 of 297) in 1998, 2% (13 of 646) in 1999, and 20.5% (195 of 949) in 2000.

Jen-Ren Wang; Yen-Chang Tuan; Huey-Pin Tsai; Jing-Jou Yan; Ching-Chuan Liu; Ih-Jen Su

366

Interaction of human organic anion transporter polypeptides 1B1 and 1B3 with antineoplastic compounds.  

PubMed

Antineoplastic compounds are used in the treatment of a variety of cancers. The effectiveness of an antineoplastic compound to exert its activity is largely dependent on transport proteins involved in the entry of the compound into the cells, and those which drive it out of the cell. Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) and organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3), belonging to the SLCO family of proteins, are specifically expressed in the sinusoidal membranes of the liver, and are known to interact with a variety of drugs. The present study deals with the interaction of these proteins with antineoplastic compounds routinely used in cancer chemotherapy. The proteins OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 were functionally characterized in stably transfected human embryonic kidney cells using [(3)H] labeled estrone 3-sulfate and [(3)H] labeled cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) as substrates, respectively. Substrate uptake experiments performed in the presence of antineoplastic compounds showed that vinblastine and paclitaxel strongly interacted with the OATP1B1 with Ki values of 10.2 ?M and 0.84 ?M, respectively. OATP1B3 showed highly significant interactions with a variety of antineoplastic compounds including chlorambucil, mitoxantrone, vinblastine, vincristine, paclitaxel and etoposide, with Ki values of 40.6 ?M, 3.2 ?M, 15.9 ?M, 30.6 ?M, 1.8 ?M and 13.5 ?M, respectively. We report several novel interactions of the transporter proteins OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 highlighting the need to investigate their role in drug-drug interactions and cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25618019

Marada, Venkata V V R; Flörl, Saskia; Kühne, Annett; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Hagos, Yohannes

2015-03-01

367

[Expression in Pichia pastoris and properties of human serum albumin-interferon alpha2b chimera].  

PubMed

To reduce the serum clearance of interferon alpha2b, a chimeric gene encoding an human serum albumin(HSA)--human interferon alpha2b(IFNalpha2b) fusion protein was overexpressed in Pichia pastoris. After fermentation in a 5L bioreactor, the fusion protein, capable of cross-reacting with anti-IFN alpha and anti-HSA antibody, was purified from the culture of the recombinant yeast by ultrafiltration, blue Sepharose affinity, phenyl hydrophobic interaction and Q ion exchange chromatography. Its IFNa2b moiety exhibits antiviral activity similar to that of recombinant human IFNa2b. In Cynomolgus monkeys model, The fusion protein was detectable in plasma, even 336h after a single does of 90 microg/kg injection intravenously or subcutaneously. The elimination phase half-life of the fusion protein was 101h after intravenous injection and 68.2h after subcutaneous injection. Its Subcutaneous bioavailability was 67.9%. The enhanced pharmacokinetics of interferon a2b fused to human serum albumin suggest its promissing application in clinic medicine. PMID:16607939

Chang, Shao-Hong; Gong, Xin; Yang, Zhi-Yu; Wang, Tong-Ying; Ma, Guo-Chang; Ma, Qing-Jun; Wu, Jun

2006-03-01

368

Structures of human monoamine oxidase B complexes with selective noncovalent inhibitors: safinamide and coumarin analogs.  

PubMed

Structures of human monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) in complex with safinamide and two coumarin derivatives, all sharing a common benzyloxy substituent, were determined by X-ray crystallography. These compounds competitively inhibit MAO B with Ki values in the 0.1-0.5 microM range that are 30-700-fold lower than those observed with MAO A. The inhibitors bind noncovalently to MAO B, occupying both the entrance and the substrate cavities and showing a similarly oriented benzyloxy substituent. PMID:17915852

Binda, Claudia; Wang, Jin; Pisani, Leonardo; Caccia, Carla; Carotti, Angelo; Salvati, Patricia; Edmondson, Dale E; Mattevi, Andrea

2007-11-15

369

An RNA replication-center assay for high content image-based quantifications of human rhinovirus and coxsackievirus infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Picornaviruses are common human and animal pathogens, including polio and rhinoviruses of the enterovirus family, and hepatits A or food-and-mouth disease viruses. There are no effective countermeasures against the vast majority of picornaviruses, with the exception of polio and hepatitis A vaccines. Human rhinoviruses (HRV) are the most prevalent picornaviruses comprising more than one hundred serotypes. The existing and

Andreas Jurgeit; Stefan Moese; Pascal Roulin; Alexander Dorsch; Mark Lötzerich; Wai-Ming Lee; Urs F Greber

2010-01-01

370

Human genes involved in hepatitis B virus infection  

PubMed Central

Persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a significant public health problem because it is a major cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Roughly one-third of the world population has been infected with HBV and there are about 350 million (5%-6%) persistent carriers. HBV causes 80% of all liver cancer cases and is the second most important carcinogen, after smoking tobacco. There is an approximate 90% risk of becoming a persistent carrier following perinatal infection in infants born to e antigen positive carrier mothers and a 30% risk in pre-school children. Only 5%-10% of adults become persistent carriers following infection. Of individuals persistently infected with HBV, 10%-30% will develop liver cirrhosis and HCC. These highly variable outcomes in both clearance rates and disease outcomes in persistently infected individuals cannot be fully explained by differences in immunological, viral or environmental factors. Thus, differences in host genetic factors may affect the natural history of hepatitis B. PMID:24976707

Zeng, Zheng

2014-01-01

371

In Vivo Time-Related Evaluation of a Therapeutic Neutralization Monoclonal Antibody against Lethal Enterovirus 71 Infection in a Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic virus capable of inducing severe neurological symptoms and death. No direct targeting antivirals are useful in the treatment of severe EV71 infection. Because of low toxicity and good specificity, monoclonal antibodies (MAb) are a potential candidate for the treatment of viral infections. Therefore, we developed an EV71-specific conformational MAb with high in vitro cross-neutralization activity to heterologous EV71 subgenotypes. The in vivo treatment experiment at different days post-infection indicated that a single treatment of MAb CT11F9 within day 3 post-infection fully protected mice from morbidity and mortality (0% PBS vs. 100% at 10 µg/g per body weight ***P<0.0001). Immunohistochemical and histological analysis confirmed that CT11F9 significantly prohibited EV71 VP1 expression in various tissues and prevented EV71-induced myonecrosis. Moreover, thrice-treatment at day 4, 5, 6 post-infection was associated with an increased survival rate (18.2% single vs. 50% thrice at 20 µg/g per body weight), and the mice recovered from limb paralysis. Competitive ELISA also confirmed that CT11F9-recognized epitopes were immunodominant in humans. In conclusion, MAb CT11F9 is an ideal candidate to be humanized and used in severe EV71 infection. PMID:25279734

Li, Zhiqun; Xu, Longfa; He, Delei; Yang, Lisheng; Liu, Che; Chen, Yixin; Shih, James Wai Kuo; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Qinjian; Cheng, Tong; Xia, Ningshao

2014-01-01

372

Coxsackievirus B detection in cases of myocarditis, myopericarditis, pericarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy in hospitalized patients  

PubMed Central

Coxsackieviruses B (CV-B) are known as the most common viral cause of human heart infections. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential role of CV-B in the etiology of infectious heart disease in hospitalized patients. The present study is based on blood, pericardial fluid and heart biopsies from 102 patients and 100 control subjects. All of the samples were examined for the detection of specific enteroviral genome using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequence analysis. Immunohistochemical investigations for the detection of the enteroviral capsid protein, VP1, from the biopsies were performed. The samples were cultured on confluent KB monolayer cell line for possible virus isolation. The epidemiological data were also collected. CV-B was detected in 28 of the 102 patients. The sequence analysis demonstrated that 27 strains were identical to CV-B3 and only one strain was identical to CV-B1. Furthermore, VP1 in the heart biopsies was detected in enterovirus-positive cases, as revealed by RT-PCR. Pericarditis infection was more frequent than myocarditis (P<0.05) or myopericarditis (P=0.05). The epidemiological data demonstrate that CV-B heart infections occur mainly during autumn and winter, and young male adults are more susceptible than adolescents or adults (P<0.5). The present findings demonstrate a higher prevalence of viral heart infections, suggesting that CV-B may significantly contribute to heart infections. PMID:25241846

GAALOUL, IMED; RIABI, SAMIRA; HARRATH, RAFIK; HUNTER, TIMOTHY; HAMDA, KHALDOUN B.; GHZALA, ASSIA B.; HUBER, SALLY; AOUNI, MAHJOUB

2014-01-01

373

Murine and human b locus pigmentation genes encode a glycoprotein (gp75) with catalase activity  

SciTech Connect

Melanogenesis is regulated in large part by tyrosinase, and defective tyrosinase leads to albinism. The mechanisms for other pigmentation determinants (e.g., those operative in tyrosinase-positive albinism and in murine coat-color mutants) are not yet known. One murine pigmentation gene, the brown (b) locus, when mutated leads to a brown (b/b) or hypopigmentated (B{sup lt}/B{sup lt}) coat versus the wild-type black (B/B). The authors show that the b locus codes for a glycoprotein with the activity of a catalase (catalase B). Only the c locus protein is a tyrosinase. Because peroxides may be by-products of melanogenic activity and hydrogen peroxide in particular is known to destroy melanin precursors and melanin, they conclude that pigmentation is controlled not only by tyrosinase but also by a hydroperoxidase. The studies indicate that catalase B is identical with gp75, a known human melanosomal glycoprotein; that the b mutation is in a heme-associated domain; and that the B{sup lt} mutation renders the protein susceptible to rapid proteolytic degradation.

Halaban, R.; Moellmann, G. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

1990-06-01

374

Ingested Human Insulin Inhibits the Mosquito NF-?B-Dependent Immune Response to Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

We showed previously that ingested human insulin activates the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway in Anopheles stephensi and increases the susceptibility of these mosquitoes to Plasmodium falciparum. In other organisms, insulin can alter immune responsiveness through regulation of NF-?B transcription factors, critical elements for innate immunity that are also central to mosquito immunity. We show here that insulin signaling decreased expression of NF-?B-regulated immune genes in mosquito cells stimulated with either bacterial or malarial soluble products. Further, human insulin suppressed mosquito immunity through sustained phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation, since inhibition of this pathway led to decreased parasite development in the mosquito. Together, these data demonstrate that activation of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway by ingested human insulin can alter NF-?B-dependent immunity, and ultimately the susceptibility, of mosquitoes to P. falciparum. PMID:22473605

Corby-Harris, Vanessa; Green, Gabriel P.; Smithers, Hannah M.; Cheung, Kong W.; Riehle, Michael A.; Luckhart, Shirley

2012-01-01

375

Virus of Pekin ducks with structural and biological relatedness to human hepatitis B virus.  

PubMed

A virus found in the sera of Pekin ducks appears to be a new member of the human hepatitis B-like family of viruses. This virus had a diameter of 40 nm and an appearance in the electron microscope similar to that of human hepatitis B virus. The DNA genome of the virus was circular and partially single stranded, and an endogenous DNA polymerase associated with the virus was capable of converting the genome to a double-stranded circle with a size of ca. 3,000 base pairs. An analysis for viral DNA in the organs of infected birds indicated preferential localization in the liver, implicating this organ as the site of virus replication. In all of these aspects, the virus bears a striking resemblance to human hepatitis B virus and appears to be a new member of this family, which also includes ground squirrel hepatitis virus and woodchuck hepatitis virus. PMID:7463557

Mason, W S; Seal, G; Summers, J

1980-12-01

376

Effect of increased HoxB4 on human megakaryocytic development  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} HoxB4 overexpression in human TF1 cells increased the expression of CD61 and CD41a. {yields} HoxB4 fusion protein enhanced megakaryocytic development of CD34{sup +} cord blood cells. {yields} Ectopic HoxB4 increased Tpo receptor expression and decreased c-Myb expression. {yields} HoxB4 RNA silencing increased c-Myb expression and decreased Fli-1 expression. -- Abstract: In order to produce clinically useful quantities of platelets ex vivo we may need to firstly enhance early self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and/or megakaryocyte (Mk) progenitors. The homeodomain transcription factor HoxB4 has been shown to be an important regulator of stem cell renewal and hematopoiesis; however, its effect on megakaryopoiesis is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of HoxB4 overexpression or RNA silencing on megakaryocytic development in the human TF1 progenitor cell line; we then used recombinant tPTD-HoxB4 fusion protein to study the effect of exogenous HoxB4 on megakaryocytic development of human CD34 positively-selected cord blood cells. We found that ectopic HoxB4 in TF1 cells increased the antigen expression of CD61and CD41a, increased the gene expression of thrombopoietin receptor (TpoR), Scl-1, Cyclin D1, Fog-1 and Fli-1 while it decreased c-Myb expression. HoxB4 RNA silencing in TF1 cells decreased the expression of CD61 and CD41a and decreased Fli-1 expression while it increased the expression of c-Myb. Recombinant tPTD-HoxB4 fusion protein increased the percentages and absolute numbers of CD41a and CD61 positive cells during megakaryocytic differentiation of CD34 positively-selected cord blood cells and increased the numbers of colony-forming unit-megakaryocyte (CFU-Mk). Adding tPTD-HoxB4 fusion protein increased the gene expression of TpoR, Cyclin D1, Fog-1 and Fli-1 while it inhibited c-Myb expression. Our data suggest that increased HoxB4 enhanced early megakaryocytic development in human TF1 cells and CD34 positively-selected cord blood cells primarily by upregulating TpoR and Fli-1 expression and downregulating c-Myb expression. Increasing HoxB4 expression or adding recombinant HoxB4 protein might be a way to expand Mks for the production of platelets for use in transfusion medicine.

Zhong, Yiming [Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States) [Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Program in Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Sullenbarger, Brent [Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)] [Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Lasky, Larry C., E-mail: Lasky.4@osu.edu [Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Program in Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

2010-07-30

377

Immunotherapeutic Targeting of Membrane Hsp70-Expressing Tumors Using Recombinant Human Granzyme B  

PubMed Central

Background We have previously reported that human recombinant granzyme B (grB) mediates apoptosis in membrane heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70)-positive tumor cells in a perforin-independent manner. Methodology/Principal Findings Optical imaging of uptake kinetics revealed co-localization of grB with recycling endosomes (Rab9/11) as early as 5 min after internalization, with late endosomes (Rab7) after 30 min, and the lysosomal compartment (LAMP1/2) after 60 to 120 min. Active caspase-3-mediated apoptosis was induced in mouse CT26 monolayer cells and 3D tumor spheroids, but not in normal mouse endothelial cells. Granzyme B selectively reduced the proportion of membrane Hsp70-positive cells in CT26 tumor spheroids. Consecutive i.v. injections of recombinant human grB into mice bearing membrane Hsp70-positive CT26 tumors resulted in significant tumor suppression, and a detailed inspection of normal mouse organs revealed that the administration of anti-tumoral concentrations of grB elicited no clinicopathological changes. Conclusions/Significance These findings support the future clinical evaluation of human grB as a potential adjuvant therapeutic agent, especially for treating immunosuppressed patients that bear membrane Hsp70-positive tumors. PMID:22829941

Kirschner, Andreas; Foulds, Gemma A.; Sievert, Wolfgang; Doß, Brigitte T.; Walch, Axel; Pockley, Alan G.; Multhoff, Gabriele

2012-01-01

378

Inhibition of cyclin A gene expression in human B cells by an immunosuppressant mizoribine  

PubMed Central

Mizoribine has been shown to have beneficial effects in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and lupus nephritis, in which abnormal B cell functions are involved. Previous studies demonstrated that mizoribine directly suppresses the function of human B cells. The current study explored in detail the mechanism of the suppression of human B cell responses by mizoribine at the molecular level. Highly purified peripheral blood B cells obtained from normal healthy individuals were stimulated with Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I (SAC) plus IL-2 in the presence or absence of mizoribine or methotrexate for 48 h to 72 h. The expression of cyclin A mRNA was determined by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction followed by Southern hybridization. Although at pharmacologically attainable concentrations both mizoribine and methotrexate suppressed the production of IgM of SAC-activated B cells, mizoribine, but not methotrexate, decreased the expression of cyclin A protein as well as mRNA in B cells stimulated with SAC + IL-2. Of note, mizoribine facilitated the degradation of cyclin A mRNA in the presence of actinomycin D, indicating that mizoribine shortens the stability of cyclin A mRNA. The results indicate that mizoribine suppresses the expression of cyclin A mRNA in human B cells by down-regulating its stability, and thus down-regulates their responses. PMID:10844522

Hirohata, S; Nakanishi, K; Yanagida, T

2000-01-01

379

Control of the Human B-Globin Gene  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The diagram shows some of the gene regulatory proteins thought to control expression of this gene during red blood cell development. Some of the gene regulatory proteins shown, such as CP1, are found in many types of cells, while others, such as GATA-1, are present in only a few types of cells, including red blood cell precursors, and are therefore thought to contribute to the cell-type specificity of beta-globin gene expression. As indicated by the bidirectional arrows, several of the binding sites for GATA-1 overlap those of other gene regulatory proteins; it is thought that occupancy of these sites by GATA-1 excludes binding of other proteins. (Adapted from B. Emerson, In Gene Expression: General and Cell-Type Specific (M. Karin, ed.), pp. 116-161. Boston: Birkhauser, 1993.)

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Bruce Alberts N:Alberts; Bruce REV:2005-04-16 END:VCARD

1998-07-01

380

Membrane-associated signaling in human B-lymphoma lines  

SciTech Connect

In B-non-Hodgkin lymphomas, Lyn and Cbp/PAG constitute the core of an oncogenic signalosome that captures the Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, the Spleen tyrosine kinase and the Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 to generate pro-survival and proliferative signals. Lymphoma lines corresponding to follicular, mantle-cell and Burkitt-derived lymphomas display type-specific signalosome organizations that differentially activate PI3K, Syk and STAT3. In the follicular lymphoma line, PI3K, Syk and STAT3 were optimally activated upon association with the Lyn-Cbp/PAG signalosome, while in the Burkitt lymphoma-derived line, the association with Cbp/PAG and activation of PI3K were interfered with by the latent membrane proteins encoded by the Epstein-Barr virus. In the Jeko-1 mantle-cell line, a weak association of Syk with the Lyn-Cbp/PAG signalosome resulted in poor activation of Syk, but in those cells, as in the follicular and Burkitt-derived lines, efficient apoptosis induction by the Syk inhibitor R406 indicated that Syk is nonetheless an important prosurvival element and therefore a valuable therapeutic target. In all configurations described herein is the Lyn-Cbp/PAG signalosome independent of external signals and provides efficient means of activation for its associated lipid and protein kinases. In follicular and Burkitt-derived lines, Syk appears to be activated following binding to Cbp/PAG and no longer requires B-cell receptor-associated activation motifs for activation. Assessment of the different modalities of Lyn-Cbp/PAG signalosome organization could help in selecting the appropriate combination of kinase inhibitors to eliminate a particular type of lymphoma cells.

Tauzin, Sebastien; Ding, Heidrun; Burdevet, Dimitri [Department of Pathology and Immunology, Centre medical universitaire, 1, rue Michel-Servet, 1211 Geneva 11 (Switzerland)] [Department of Pathology and Immunology, Centre medical universitaire, 1, rue Michel-Servet, 1211 Geneva 11 (Switzerland); Borisch, Bettina [Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Centre medical universitaire, 1, rue Michel-Servet, 1211 Geneva 11 (Switzerland)] [Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Centre medical universitaire, 1, rue Michel-Servet, 1211 Geneva 11 (Switzerland); Hoessli, Daniel C., E-mail: danielhoessli@gmail.com [Department of Pathology and Immunology, Centre medical universitaire, 1, rue Michel-Servet, 1211 Geneva 11 (Switzerland)

2011-01-15

381

Neuroadaptations in Human Chronic Alcoholics: Dysregulation of the NF-?B System  

PubMed Central

Background Alcohol dependence and associated cognitive impairments apparently result from neuroadaptations to chronic alcohol consumption involving changes in expression of multiple genes. Here we investigated whether transcription factors of Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-?B) family, controlling neuronal plasticity and neurodegeneration, are involved in these adaptations in human chronic alcoholics. Methods and Findings Analysis of DNA-binding of NF-?B (p65/p50 heterodimer) and the p50 homodimer as well as NF-?B proteins and mRNAs was performed in postmortem human brain samples from 15 chronic alcoholics and 15 control subjects. The prefrontal cortex involved in alcohol dependence and cognition was analyzed and the motor cortex was studied for comparison. The p50 homodimer was identified as dominant ?B binding factor in analyzed tissues. NF-?B and p50 homodimer DNA-binding was downregulated, levels of p65 (RELA) mRNA were attenuated, and the stoichiometry of p65/p50 proteins and respective mRNAs was altered in the prefrontal cortex of alcoholics. Comparison of a number of p50 homodimer/NF-?B target DNA sites, ?B elements in 479 genes, down- or upregulated in alcoholics demonstrated that genes with ?B elements were generally upregulated in alcoholics. No significant differences between alcoholics and controls were observed in the motor cortex. Conclusions We suggest that cycles of alcohol intoxication/withdrawal, which may initially activate NF-?B, when repeated over years downregulate RELA expression and NF-?B and p50 homodimer DNA-binding. Downregulation of the dominant p50 homodimer, a potent inhibitor of gene transcription apparently resulted in derepression of ?B regulated genes. Alterations in expression of p50 homodimer/NF-?B regulated genes may contribute to neuroplastic adaptation underlying alcoholism. PMID:17895971

Ökvist, Anna; Johansson, Sofia; Kuzmin, Alexander; Bazov, Igor; Merino-Martinez, Roxana; Ponomarev, Igor; Mayfield, R. Dayne; Harris, R. Adron; Sheedy, Donna; Garrick, Therese; Harper, Clive; Hurd, Yasmin L.; Terenius, Lars; Ekström, Tomas J.

2007-01-01

382

Human biodistribution of sup 111 In-labeled B72. 3 monoclonal antibody  

SciTech Connect

The murine IgG1 monoclonal antibody B72.3 reacts with human colorectal, breast, lung, pancreatic, gastric, and ovarian tumors. Human biodistribution studies using intact {sup 131}I-B72.3 have been reported by Carrasquillo et al.. We have performed similar studies on five patients using i.v. infusion of 20 mg of intact {sup 111}In-B72.3 (Cytogen Corp.). Serum clearance is similar with a t1/2 of 64.2 h (range, 44-80) for {sup 111}In-B72.3 and 65 h (range, 32-106) for {sup 131}I-B72.3. However, organ biodistribution is markedly different. For {sup 131}I-B72.3, hepatic and splenic clearance mirrors blood pool clearance. For {sup 111}In-B72.3, there is rapid uptake in tumor, liver, spleen, kidney, lumbar spine, and testes by 2-6 h with no significant clearance over the next 9 days. For {sup 111}In-B72.3, quantitative analysis of liver (from biopsy specimens), spleen, kidney, and lumbar spine (from scintiphoto regions of interest after background subtraction and attenuation correction) shows the following peak organ biodistributions in percentage infused dose: liver, 32%; spleen, 3.9%; kidneys, 3.5%; and lumbar vertebral bodies (marrow sample), 2.7%. For both {sup 111}In-B72.3 and {sup 131}I-B72.3, the principal route of excretion from the body is urinary with excretion rate of {sup 131}I faster than {sup 111}In. The marked differences between {sup 111}In-B72.3 and {sup 131}I-B72.3 biodistribution and clearance strongly influence the dosimetry, immunodetection, and immunotherapeutic potentials of B72.3 MoAb.

Harwood, S.J.; Carroll, R.G.; Webster, W.B.; Zangara, L.M.; Laven, D.L.; Morrissey, M.A.; Sinni, B.J. (Bay Pines Veterans Administration Medical Center, FL (USA))

1990-02-01

383

1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces CCR10 expression in terminally differentiating human B cells.  

PubMed

In the B cell lineage, CCR10 is known to be selectively expressed by plasma cells, especially those secreting IgA. In this study, we examined the regulation of CCR10 expression in terminally differentiating human B cells. As reported previously, IL-21 efficiently induced the differentiation of activated human CD19+ B cells into IgD-CD38+ plasma cells in vitro. A minor proportion of the resulting CD19+IgD-CD38+ cells expressed CCR10 at low levels. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3), the active metabolite of vitamine D3, dramatically increased the proportion of CD19+IgD-CD38+ cells expressing high levels of CCR10. The 1,25-(OH)2D3 also increased the number of CCR10+ cells expressing surface IgA, although the majority of CCR10+ cells remained negative for surface IgA. Thus, 1,25-(OH)2D3 alone may not be sufficient for the induction of IgA expression in terminally differentiating human B cells. To further determine whether 1,25-(OH)2D3 directly induces CCR10 expression in terminally differentiating B cells, we next performed the analysis on the human CCR10 promoter. We identified a proximal Ets-1 site and an upstream potential vitamin D response element to be critical for the inducible expression of CCR10 by 1,25-(OH)2D3. We confirmed the specific binding of Ets-1 and 1,25-(OH)2D3-activated vitamin D receptor to the respective sites. In conclusion, 1,25-(OH)2D3 efficiently induces CCR10 expression in terminally differentiating human B cells in vitro. Furthermore, the human CCR10 promoter is cooperatively activated by Ets-1 and vitamin D receptor in the presence of 1,25-(OH)2D3. PMID:18292499

Shirakawa, Aiko-Konno; Nagakubo, Daisuke; Hieshima, Kunio; Nakayama, Takashi; Jin, Zhe; Yoshie, Osamu

2008-03-01

384

Oxytocin activates NF-?B-mediated inflammatory pathways in human gestational tissues.  

PubMed

Human labour, both at term and preterm, is preceded by NF-?B-mediated inflammatory activation within the uterus, leading to myometrial activation, fetal membrane remodelling and cervical ripening. The stimuli triggering inflammatory activation in normal human parturition are not fully understood. We show that the neurohypophyseal peptide, oxytocin (OT), activates NF-?B and stimulates downstream inflammatory pathways in human gestational tissues. OT stimulation (1?pM-100?nM) specifically via its receptor (OTR) in human myometrial and amnion primary cells led to MAPK and NF-?B activation within 15?min and maximal p65-subunit nuclear translocation within 30?min. Both in human myometrium and amnion, OT-induced activation of the canonical NF-?B pathway upregulated key inflammatory labour-associated genes including IL-8, CCL5, IL-6 and COX-2. IKK? inhibition (TPCA1; 10?µM) suppressed OT-induced NF-?B-p65 phosphorylation, whereas p65-siRNA knockdown reduced basal and OT-induced COX-2 levels in myometrium and amnion. In both gestational tissues, MEK1/2 (U0126; 10?µM) or p38 inhibition (SB203580; 10?µM) suppressed OT-induced COX-2 expression, but OT-induced p65-phosphorylation was only inhibited in amnion, suggesting OT activation of NF-?B in amnion is MAPK-dependent. Our data provide new insight into the OT/OTR system in human parturition and suggest that its therapeutic modulation could be a strategy for regulating both contractile and inflammatory pathways in the clinical context of term/preterm labour. PMID:25451977

Kim, Sung Hye; MacIntyre, David A; Firmino Da Silva, Maria; Blanks, Andrew M; Lee, Yun S; Thornton, Steven; Bennett, Phillip R; Terzidou, Vasso

2015-03-01

385

Interaction of hepatitis B virus core protein with human GIPC1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up to now, little is known about hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc) interactions with host-cell proteins, although such\\u000a interactions might be essential for virus propagation and pathogenicity. In this work, a human liver cDNA library was screened\\u000a for proteins interacting with HBc. Among several HBc-interacting partners selected, it interacted most strongly with the human\\u000a protein GIPC1. A common protein

Raimundas Razanskas; Kestutis Sasnauskas

2010-01-01

386

A Novel Membrane Antigen Selectively Expressed on Terminally Differentiated Human B Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monoclonal antibody (MoAb) that defines a novel terminal B-cell-restricted antigen, termed HM1.24, was developed against a human plasma cell line. The MoAb, designated anti-HM1.24, reacted with five different human myeloma cell lines, as well as with monoclonal neoplastic plasma cells obtained from the bone marrow or peripheral blood of pa- tients with multiple myeloma or Waldenstrom's macroglob- ulinemia. The

Tetsuya Goto; Stephen J. Kennel; Masahiro Abe; Makoto Takishita; Masaaki Kosaka; Alan Solomon; Shiro Saito

1994-01-01

387

Generation of Knot Net for Calculation of Quadratic Triangular B-spline Surface of Human Head  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with calculation of the quadratic triangular B-spline surface of the human head for the purpose of its modeling in the standard videocodec MPEG-4 SNHC. In connection with this we propose an algorithm of generation of the knot net and present the results of its application for triangulation of the 3D polygonal model Candide. Then for the model and generated knot net as well as an established distribution of control points we show the results of the calculated quadratic triangular B-spline surface of the human head including its textured version for the texture of the selected avatar.

Mihalík, Ján

2011-09-01

388

Methamphetamine activates nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) and induces human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transcription in human microglial cells.  

PubMed

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) primarily infects glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Recent evidence suggests that HIV-infected individuals who abuse drugs such as methamphetamine (METH) have higher viral loads and experience more severe neurological complications than HIV-infected individuals who do not abuse drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of METH on HIV expression from the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter and on an HIV integrated provirus in microglial cells, the primary host cells for HIV in the CNS. Primary human microglial cells immortalized with SV40 T antigen (CHME-5 cells) were cotransfected with an HIV LTR reporter and the HIV Tat gene, a key regulator of viral replication and gene expression, and exposed to METH. Our results demonstrate that METH treatment induced LTR activation, an effect potentiated in the presence of Tat. We also found that METH increased the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), a key cellular transcriptional regulator of the LTR promoter, and the activity of an NF-?B-specific reporter plasmid in CHME-5 cells. The presence of a dominant-negative regulator of NF-?B blocked METH-related activation of the HIV LTR. Furthermore, treatment of HIV-latently infected CHME-5 (CHME-5/HIV) cells with METH induced HIV expression and nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-?B. These results suggest that METH can stimulate HIV gene expression in microglia cells through activation of the NF-?B signaling pathway. This mechanism may outline the initial biochemical events leading to the observed increased neurodegeneration in HIV-positive individuals who use METH. PMID:22618514

Wires, Emily S; Alvarez, David; Dobrowolski, Curtis; Wang, Yun; Morales, Marisela; Karn, Jonathan; Harvey, Brandon K

2012-10-01

389

Fast and high-affinity binding of B-lymphotropic papovavirus to human B-lymphoma cell lines.  

PubMed Central

Binding of B-lymphotropic papovavirus (LPV) to host cells differing in susceptibility to viral infection was determined by a newly established, direct, nonradioactive virus binding assay, which allows quantitative description of the binding characteristics by receptor saturation and Scatchard analysis. LPV binding to the highly susceptible human B-lymphoma cell line BJA-B K88 is specific, saturable, and noncooperative. Binding occurs very fast, with an association rate constant (k1) of 6.7 x 10(7) M-1s-1, and is of high affinity, with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 2.9 x 10(-12) M; and the virus-receptor complex is stable, with a half life of 70 min. The binding affinities of receptors on four other highly, moderately, or weakly susceptible human B-lymphoma cell lines were similar, with up to twofold variation around a mean Kd value of 3 x 10(-12) M, suggesting the presence of the same LPV receptor on all of these cell lines. This view is further supported by the finding that in all cases a terminal sialic acid is necessary for LPV binding. Tunicamycin has been shown to drastically induce LPV susceptibility and LPV binding in weakly and moderately susceptible B-lymphoma cell lines (O.T. Keppler, M. Herrmann, M. Oppenländer, W. Meschede, and M. Pawlita, J. Virol. 68:6933-6939, 1994). The hypothesis that the constitutively expressed and tunicamycin-induced LPV receptors are identical is strengthened by our finding that both receptor types displayed the same high affinity. LPV susceptibility of different B-lymphoma cell lines was correlated with receptor number but not with receptor affinity. The numbers of receptors per cell on highly and moderately susceptible cell lines ranged from 2,000 to 400 and were directly proportional to LPV susceptibility. This indicates that the number of high-affinity receptors per cell is a key regulating factor for the LPV host range. PMID:7474091

Herrmann, M; Oppenländer, M; Pawlita, M

1995-01-01

390

Loss of MXD3 induces apoptosis of Reh human precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.  

PubMed

MXD3 is a transcription factor that plays an important role in proliferation of human DAOY medulloblastoma cells. Here, we demonstrate that MXD3 is highly enriched in human precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (preB ALL) samples compared to mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells, bone marrow, or hematopoietic stem cells from healthy donors. MXD3 knock-down in the preB ALL cell line Reh resulted in decreased cell numbers with no change in G0/G1, S or G2/M populations but increased apoptosis compared to control cells. Our results suggest that MXD3 is important for survival of Reh preB ALL cells, possibly as an anti-apoptotic factor. PMID:25554682

Barisone, Gustavo A; Satake, Noriko; Lewis, Carly; Duong, Connie; Chen, Cathy; Lam, Kit S; Nolta, Jan; D?az, Elva

2015-04-01