Science.gov

Sample records for entre dois tipos

  1. The DOI Is Coming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Davida

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of improving accessibility to copyrighted electronic content focuses on the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) and the Open URL standard and linking software. Highlights include work of the World Wide Web consortium; URI (Uniform Resource Identifier); URL (Uniform Resource Locator); URN (Uniform Resource Name); OCLC's (Online Computer…

  2. Estudo comparativo entre estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias deficientes em hidrogênio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolino, W. L. F.; de Araújo, F. X.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos neste trabalho o resultado de um estudo das principais características espectrais das estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias (ECNP) deficientes em hidrogênio. A origem e a evolução dessas estrelas ainda constitui um problema em aberto na evolução estelar. Geralmente esses objetos são divididos em [WCE], [WCL] e [WELS]. Os tipos [WCE] e [WCL] apresentam um espectro típico de uma estrela Wolf-Rayet carbonada de população I e as [WELS] apresentam linhas fracas de carbono e oxigênio em emissão. Existem evidências que apontam a seguinte sequência evolutiva : [WCL] = > [WCE] = > [WELS] = > PG 1159 (pré anã-branca). No entanto, tal cenário apresenta falhas como por exemplo a falta de ECNP entre os tipos [WCL] e [WCE]. Baseados em uma amostra de 24 objetos obtida no telescópio de 1.52m em La Silla, Chile (acordo ESO/ON), ao longo do ano 2000, apresentamos os resultados da comparação das larguras equivalentes de diversas linhas relevantes entre os tipos [WCL], [WCE] e [WELS]. Verificamos que nossos dados estão de acordo com a sequência evolutiva. Baseado nas linhas de C IV, conseguimos dividir pela primeira vez as [WELS] em dois grupos principais. Além disso, os dados reforçam a afirmação de que as [WCE] são as estrelas que possuem a maior temperatura entre as ECNP deficientes em hidrogênio. Discutimos ainda, a escassez de dados disponíveis na literatura e a necessidade da obtenção de parametros físicos para estes objetos.

  3. DOI: A New Identifier for Digital Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berinstein, Paula

    1998-01-01

    Previews Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs), a potential unifying classification system for the Web and the Internet developed by the Association of American Publishers and the Corporation for National Research Initiatives. Discusses issues and problems surrounding DOI implementation and usage and how DOI would affect publishers, users,…

  4. ESDIS DOI System, Approach, and Future Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanchoo, L.; James, N.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project began investigating the use of Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) in 2010 with the goal of assigning DOIs to various data products. These data products are archived and distributed by various Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) located across the United States. Each data center has a unique approach and process for generating and archiving a variety of data products that are used for global change research. These varied approaches present a challenge for developing a DOI solution that fits all the possible variations. To address this challenge, ESDIS developed processes, guidelines, and several models for creating and assigning DOIs. Initially the system was started as a prototype approach and now it is fully operational. In February 2012, ESDIS joined the California Digital Library (CDL) EZID for registering the EOSDIS-related DOIs. ESDIS's DOI operational process allows for reserving DOIs while data providers are finalizing the DOIs and its associated elements. This flexibility allows data providers to embed and test the DOI in the data product metadata before formally registering with EZID. Data providers can change any DOI metadata, including the DOI name as long as it has not been registered or reserved by another data provider. ESDIS assures the uniqueness of the DOI names before it is registered. Currently, ESDIS has 146 data product DOIs registered with EZID and data providers have reserved an additional 93 DOIs with ESDIS. A semi-automated approach is being developed for processing and validating the DOI information provided by the data providers and will cover all the steps from the collection to the registration of DOIs. ESDIS's DOI concept utilizes a few mandatory metadata elements that effectively identify the data products and the source of availability. Of these elements, the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) attribute has the very important function of identifying the landing page

  5. Tipos de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Lista alfabética de todos los tipos de cáncer con enlaces a enfermedades específicas e información general sobre tratamiento, cuidados de apoyo, exámenes de detección, prevención, estudios clínicos y otros temas.

  6. DOI or Don't We?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Priscilla

    1998-01-01

    Explains digital object identifier (DOI) which was developed to facilitate digital commerce by maintaining persistent links to the rights holder of a digital object. Topics include uniform resource locators (URLs); uniform resource names (URNs); and Handle System software. (Author/LRW)

  7. DOIs Should Not Link to Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourcle, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    In August of 2011, the National Academy of Science's Board of Research Data and Information (BRDI) had a meeting on the topic of "Developing Data Attribution and Citation Practices and Standards". As part of that meeting were various breakout groups to discuss issues that still remained regarding technical, scientific, and socio-cultural issues, the roles and actors that needed to be involved, and how to get additional feedback from the community. The technical breakout group decided that the majority of the technical problems with citing data revolved around establishing the identity of what it was that we were attempting to cite. As such, our recommendations were to push some of the work back onto the data publishers to tell us how scientists should cite their data (to avoid different disciplines applying different rules), establish 'data landing pages' to describe, document and link to the data, and to provide those pages with persistent identifiers such as a DOI. We present here some of the reasons that were discussed about why not to link directly to data, including: * recalibration, reaccessioning and other data impermanence, * setting context and providing for links to documentation, and * allowing selection of different packaging formats

  8. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline routes shall...

  9. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline routes shall...

  10. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline routes shall...

  11. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250... Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline... indication of pipeline leakage. The results of these inspections shall be retained for at least 2 years...

  12. 30 CFR 250.1005 - Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. 250.1005 Section 250.1005 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-Way § 250.1005 Inspection requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) Pipeline routes shall be inspected...

  13. Implementing DOIs for Oceanographic Satellite Data at PO.DAAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausman, J.; Tauer, E.; Chung, N.; Chen, C.; Moroni, D. F.

    2013-12-01

    The Physical Oceanographic Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) is NASA's archive for physical oceanographic satellite data. It distributes over 500 datasets from gravity, ocean wind, sea surface topography, sea ice, ocean currents, salinity, and sea surface temperature satellite missions. A dataset is a collection of granules/files that share the same mission/project, versioning, processing level, spatial, and temporal characteristics. The large number of datasets is partially due to the number of satellite missions, but mostly because a single satellite mission typically has multiple versions or even temporal and spatial resolutions of data. As a result, a user might mistake one dataset for a different dataset from the same satellite mission. Due to the PO.DAAC'S vast variety and volume of data and growing requirements to report dataset usage, it has begun implementing DOIs for the datasets it archives and distributes. However, this was not as simple as registering a name for a DOI and providing a URL. Before implementing DOIs multiple questions needed to be answered. What are the sponsor and end-user expectations regarding DOIs? At what level does a DOI get assigned (dataset, file/granule)? Do all data get a DOI, or only selected data? How do we create a DOI? How do we create landing pages and manage them? What changes need to be made to the data archive, life cycle policy and web portal to accommodate DOIs? What if the data also exists at another archive and a DOI already exists? How is a DOI included if the data were obtained via a subsetting tool? How does a researcher or author provide a unique, definitive reference (standard citation) for a given dataset? This presentation will discuss how these questions were answered through changes in policy, process, and system design. Implementing DOIs is not a trivial undertaking, but as DOIs are rapidly becoming the de facto approach, it is worth the effort. Researchers have historically referenced the source

  14. "Entre libre" dans la classe ("Entre Libre" in the Classroom).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compte, Carmen

    1987-01-01

    In an interview, two teachers describe and discuss their different classroom use of the same set of instructional materials for "Entre Libre" and compare the results. Activities include role playing, music, and reporting. (MSE)

  15. STS-87 Mission Specialist Doi in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, is assisted with his ascent and re- entry flight suit by Dave Law, USA mechanical technician, in the white room at Launch Pad 39B as Dr. Doi prepares to enter the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia on launch day. At right wearing glasses is Danny Wyatt, NASA quality assurance specialist. STS-87 is the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload and Spartan-201. The 16-day mission will include a spacewalk by Dr. Doi and Mission Specialist Winston Scott.

  16. Mathematical Existence Results for the Doi-Edwards Polymer Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupin, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present some mathematical results on the Doi-Edwards model describing the dynamics of flexible polymers in melts and concentrated solutions. This model, developed in the late 1970s, has been used and extensively tested in modeling and simulation of polymer flows. From a mathematical point of view, the Doi-Edwards model consists in a strong coupling between the Navier-Stokes equations and a highly nonlinear constitutive law. The aim of this article is to provide a rigorous proof of the well-posedness of the Doi-Edwards model, namely that it has a unique regular solution. We also prove, which is generally much more difficult for flows of viscoelastic type, that the solution is global in time in the two dimensional case, without any restriction on the smallness of the data.

  17. Image reconstruction algorithms for DOIS: a diffractive optic image spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Denise M.; Whitcomb, Kevin J.

    1996-06-01

    The diffractive optic imaging spectrometer, DOIS, is a compact, economical, rugged, programmable, multi-spectral imager. The design implements a conventional CCD camera and emerging diffractive optical element (DOE) technology in an elegant configuration, adding spectroscopy capabilities to current imaging systems (Lyons 1995). This paper reports on the visible prototype DOIS that was designed, fabricated and characterized. Algorithms are presented for simulation and post-detection processing with digital image processing techniques. This improves the spectral resolution by removing unwanted blurred components from the spectral images. DOIS is a practical image spectrometer that can be built to operate at ultraviolet, visible or infrared wavelengths for applications in surveillance, remote sensing, law enforcement, environmental monitoring, laser communications, and laser counter intelligence.

  18. STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi during CEIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi , Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, participates in the Crew Equipment Integration Test (CEIT) in Kennedy Space Centers (KSC's) Vertical Processing Facility. Glenda Laws, the extravehicular activity (EVA) coordinator, Johnson Space Center, stands behind Dr. Doi. The CEIT gives astronauts an opportunity to get a hands-on look at the payloads with which they will be working on-orbit. STS-87 will be the fourth United States Microgravity Payload and flight of the Spartan-201 deployable satellite. During the mission, Dr. Doi will be the first Japanese astronaut to perform a spacewalk. STS-87 is scheduled for a Nov. 19 liftoff from KSC.

  19. STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, gives a thumbs up in his launch and entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. He and the five other crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff on a 16-day mission to perform microgravity and solar research. Dr. Doi is scheduled to perform an extravehicular activity spacewalk with Mission Specialist Winston Scott during STS-87.

  20. "Doi Moi" (Renovation) and Higher Education Reform in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thanh, Pham Thi Hong

    2011-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced significant social, economic, political, and educational changes during the last two decades since the "Doi Moi" policy was implemented. To respond to new requirements required by the global economy, Vietnamese education has undergone remarkable reforms. This article critically examines these reforms in three areas:…

  1. Introduction of digital object identifiers (DOI) for seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Peter; Strollo, Angelo; Clark, Adam; Ahern, Tim; Newman, Rob; Clinton, John; Pequegnat, Catherine; Pedersen, Helle

    2015-04-01

    Proper attribution for scientific source data is important in promoting transparency and recognising the role of data providers in science. Data sets such as those produced by seismic networks now need to be citable and permanently locatable for research users. Recently the EIDA and IRIS-DMC communities have worked together on development of methods for generation, maintenance and promotion of persistent identifiers for seismic networks. This resulted in a 2014 Recommendation by the International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN) on the use of Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) for seismic networks. These can be cited equivalently to scientific papers, and tools such as DataCite allow the tracking of citations to these datasets. The GEOFON, IRIS and RESIF data centres have now begun to roll-out of these seismic network DOIs. This has involved working with principal investigators to prepare metadata consistent with the FDSN recommendation, preparation of landing pages, and changes to the web sites to promote DOIs where available. This has involved preparing improved descriptions of the data (metadata) and clarifying how individuals and institutions should best be recognised for their contributions to making the data available. We illustrate this process for a few representative networks. We will be in contact with additional network operators to help them establish DOIs for their networks in future.

  2. Did Oligocene crustal thickening precede basin development in northern Thailand? A geochronological reassessment of Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, Nicholas J.; Roberts, Nick M. W.; Morley, Christopher K.; Searle, Michael P.; Whitehouse, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    The Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep metamorphic core complexes in northern Thailand are comprised of amphibolite-grade migmatitic gneisses mantled by lower-grade mylonites and metasedimentary sequences, thought to represent Cordilleran-style core complexes exhumed through the mobilization of a low-angle detachment fault. Previous studies have interpreted two metamorphic events (Late Triassic and Late Cretaceous), followed by ductile extension between the late Eocene and late Oligocene, a model which infers movement on the detachment at ca. 40 Ma, and which culminates in a rapid unroofing of the complexes in the early Miocene. The Chiang Mai Basin, the largest such Cenozoic Basin in the region, lies immediately to the east. Its development is related to the extension observed at Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep, however it is not definitively dated, and models for its development have difficulty reconciling Miocene cooling ages with Eocene detachment movement. Here we present new in-situ LA-ICP-MS and SIMS U-Pb age data of zircon and monazite grains from gneiss and leucogranite samples taken from Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep. Our new zircon data exhibit an older age range of 221-210 Ma, with younger ages of ca. 72 Ma, and 32-26 Ma. Our monazite data imply an older age cluster at 83-67 Ma, and a younger age cluster of 34-24 Ma. While our data support the view of Indosinian basement being reworked in the Cretaceous, they also indicate a late Eocene-Oligocene tectonothermal event, resulting in prograde metamorphism and anatexis. We suggest that this later event is related to localized transpressional thickening associated with sinistral movement on the Mae Ping Fault, coupled with thickening at the restraining bend of the Mae Yuan Fault to the immediate west of Doi Inthanon. Further, this upper Oligocene age limit from our zircon and monazite data would imply a younger Miocene constraint on movement of the detachment, which, when combined with the previously recorded Miocene

  3. A flood map based DOI decoding method for block detector: a GATE simulation study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Han; Du, Dong; Su, Zhihong; Peng, Qiyu

    2014-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) systems using detectors with Depth of Interaction (DOI) capabilities could achieve higher spatial resolution and better image quality than those without DOI. Up till now, most DOI methods developed are not cost-efficient for a whole body PET system. In this paper, we present a DOI decoding method based on flood map for low-cost conventional block detector with four-PMT readout. Using this method, the DOI information can be directly extracted from the DOI-related crystal spot deformation in the flood map. GATE simulations are then carried out to validate the method, confirming a DOI sorting accuracy of 85.27%. Therefore, we conclude that this method has the potential to be applied in conventional detectors to achieve a reasonable DOI measurement without dramatically increasing their complexity and cost of an entire PET system. PMID:25227021

  4. 43 CFR 2.34 - Where can I get a copy of DOI's FOIA annual report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Where can I get a copy of DOI's FOIA... AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT FOIA Annual Report § 2.34 Where can I get a copy of DOI's FOIA annual report? Under 5 U.S.C. 552(e), DOI is required to prepare an annual report regarding...

  5. 41 CFR 102-75.650 - When must DOI request assignment of the property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must DOI request...-75.650 When must DOI request assignment of the property? Within 30 calendar days after the expiration of the 30-calendar day period specified in § 102-75.640, DOI must submit to the disposal agency...

  6. 43 CFR 2.31 - How will DOI respond to my appeal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will DOI respond to my appeal? 2.31... OF INFORMATION ACT FOIA Appeals § 2.31 How will DOI respond to my appeal? (a) Appeals will be decided... will state the basis for DOI's decision as follows: (1) Decision to release or withhold records. (i)...

  7. 43 CFR 2.34 - Where can I get a copy of DOI's FOIA annual report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where can I get a copy of DOI's FOIA... AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT FOIA Annual Report § 2.34 Where can I get a copy of DOI's FOIA annual report? Under 5 U.S.C. 552(e), DOI is required to prepare an annual report regarding...

  8. 43 CFR 45.25 - What will DOI do with any hearing requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What will DOI do with any hearing requests... PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process Initiation of Hearing Process § 45.25 What will DOI do... will refer the case for a hearing as follows: (1) If the hearing is to be conducted by DOI, OEPC...

  9. 43 CFR 17.314 - Age distinctions contained in DOI regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Age distinctions contained in DOI... Age Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 17.314 Age distinctions contained in DOI regulations. Any age distinctions contained in a rule or regulation issued by DOI shall be presumed to...

  10. Análise Temporal de Estruturas Morfológicas na Cauda do Tipo I do Cometa P/Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Matsuura, O. T.

    1996-08-01

    Com base em (Brandt et al, 1992), centenas de imagens do cometa P/Halley foram visualmente analisadas, objetivando examinar possíveis perturbações magnetohidrodinâmicas ao longo da cauda do tipo I. Do total de 1439 imagens, abrangendo o período entre 16 de outubro de 1982 e 12 de fevereiro de 1991, foram escolhidas 531 do período entre 17 de setembro de 1985 e 06 de julho de 1986 por mostrarem cauda bem desenvolvida e rica de estruturas morfológicas. Nelas constatou-se a existência de 124 estruturas ondulatórias (trens de onda) ao longo da cauda principal, 27 ao longo de caudas secundárias, 109 ondas solitárias (sólitons) ao longo da cauda principal, 36 ao longo de caudas secundárias, 12 caudas do tipo Swan, 47 eventos de desconexão e 23 regiões de adensamento ("knots"). Foi examinada a correlação temporal entre esses diferentes tipos de eventos. Os de desconexão foram analisados isoladamente. Seus movimentos próprios foram calculados, bem como os seus instantes iniciais, o que nos permitiu inferir a passagem do cometa pela fronteira entre setores magnéticos distintos. A velocidade do plasma cometário desconectado foi corrigida dos efeitos de projeção e correlacionada com a distância heliocêntrica do cometa. Também foi investigada a periodicidade de ocorrência das desconexães, e constatado que sua distribuição é bimodal. Por fim, a possibilidade dos modos de propagação de ondas MHD "sausage" e "kink" superficiais ou volumétricas, é discutida no contexto das descontinuidades magnéticas tangenciais. - Brandt, J.C., Niedner Jr., M.B., Rahe, J.: The International Halley Watch Atlas of Large-Scale Phenomena. Impresso por: Johnson Printing Co, Boulder, CO. University of Colorado-Boulder, 1992.

  11. A High Resolution Monolithic Crystal, DOI, MR Compatible, PET Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S Miyaoka

    2012-03-06

    The principle objective of this proposal is to develop a positron emission tomography (PET) detector with depth-of-interaction (DOI) positioning capability that will achieve state of the art spatial resolution and sensitivity performance for small animal PET imaging. When arranged in a ring or box detector geometry, the proposed detector module will support <1 mm3 image resolution and >15% absolute detection efficiency. The detector will also be compatible with operation in a MR scanner to support simultaneous multi-modality imaging. The detector design will utilize a thick, monolithic crystal scintillator readout by a two-dimensional array of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) devices using a novel sensor on the entrance surface (SES) design. Our hypothesis is that our single-ended readout SES design will provide an effective DOI positioning performance equivalent to more expensive dual-ended readout techniques and at a significantly lower cost. Our monolithic crystal design will also lead to a significantly lower cost system. It is our goal to design a detector with state of the art performance but at a price point that is affordable so the technology can be disseminated to many laboratories. A second hypothesis is that using SiPM arrays, the detector will be able to operate in a MR scanner without any degradation in performance to support simultaneous PET/MR imaging. Having a co-registered MR image will assist in radiotracer localization and may also be used for partial volume corrections to improve radiotracer uptake quantitation. The far reaching goal of this research is to develop technology for medical research that will lead to improvements in human health care.

  12. 43 CFR 2.34 - Where can I get a copy of DOI's FOIA annual report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Where can I get a copy of DOI's FOIA annual... TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT FOIA Annual Report § 2.34 Where can I get a copy of DOI's FOIA annual report? Under 5 U.S.C. 552(e), DOI is required to prepare an annual report regarding its FOIA...

  13. [Computer simulation of DOI-PET detector (1) -analysis of DOI discrimination accuracy in a detector block-].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Akira; Haneishi, Hideaki; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo

    2003-01-01

    A detector proposed by Murayama et al. for detection of depth-of-interaction (DOI) in PET consists of three-dimensionally arranged crystal elements with proper optical reflectors and is coupled to an array of photomultiplier tubes. This detector has a great advantage in easiness and cost in fabrication. We implemented a simulator of this detector that allows us to find appropriate values of parameters such as optical properties of crystal or detector unit geometry before making detectors. The simulator is based on the Monte Carlo method that traces the migration of optical photons generated by interaction of a gamma ray with crystal. First, the simulator performance was validated by comparing with the experimental data obtained with some prototype detectors. Then, on some parameters including refractive index of inter-crystal material, reflectance of optical reflector and detector geometry, appropriate values were investigated for accurate discrimination of crystal element of interaction. PMID:12832869

  14. 43 CFR 2.32 - How long does DOI have to respond to my appeal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true How long does DOI have to respond to my... TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT FOIA Appeals § 2.32 How long does DOI have to respond to my appeal? (a... have not received a decision on your appeal within 20 workdays, you have the right to seek review in...

  15. 43 CFR 45.25 - What will DOI do with any hearing requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What will DOI do with any hearing requests? 45.25 Section 45.25 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process Initiation of Hearing Process § 45.25 What will DOI...

  16. 43 CFR 45.25 - What will DOI do with any hearing requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What will DOI do with any hearing requests? 45.25 Section 45.25 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process Initiation of Hearing Process § 45.25 What will DOI...

  17. 43 CFR 45.25 - What will DOI do with any hearing requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true What will DOI do with any hearing requests? 45.25 Section 45.25 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process Initiation of Hearing Process § 45.25 What will DOI...

  18. 43 CFR 45.25 - What will DOI do with any hearing requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What will DOI do with any hearing requests? 45.25 Section 45.25 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process Initiation of Hearing Process § 45.25 What will DOI...

  19. 43 CFR 2.5 - Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Does DOI maintain an index of its reading... a FOIA Request § 2.5 Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials? Each bureau will maintain and make available for public inspection and copying a current subject-matter index of its...

  20. 30 CFR 250.1004 - Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines... SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1004 Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines... required by this section on all incoming, departing, and crossing pipelines on platforms....

  1. 43 CFR 17.301 - What is the purpose of DOI's age discrimination regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... general age discrimination regulations at 45 CFR part 90. The Act and the general regulations prohibit... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the purpose of DOI's age... Age General § 17.301 What is the purpose of DOI's age discrimination regulations? The purpose of...

  2. 43 CFR 2.5 - Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials? 2.5 Section 2.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS... a FOIA Request § 2.5 Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials? Each bureau...

  3. 30 CFR 250.1003 - Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines. 250.1003 Section 250.1003 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1003 Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.232 - When must DOI respond to a request for reconsideration?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When must DOI respond to a request for reconsideration? 1000.232 Section 1000.232 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.232 When must DOI respond to a request...

  5. 77 FR 17493 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; DOI Generic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... December 22, 2010 (75 FR 80542). We again request public comments on this proposed information collection...; DOI Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY... Interior has submitted a Generic Information Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``DOI Generic Clearance...

  6. 43 CFR 2.2 - What is DOI's policy regarding release of records under the FOIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is DOI's policy regarding release of records under the FOIA? 2.2 Section 2.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT General Information § 2.2 What is DOI's policy...

  7. 30 CFR 250.1004 - Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines. 250.1004 Section 250.1004 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-Way § 250.1004 Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines. (a) The lessee shall ensure the...

  8. 43 CFR 2.32 - How long does DOI have to respond to my appeal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How long does DOI have to respond to my appeal? 2.32 Section 2.32 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT FOIA Appeals § 2.32 How long does DOI have to respond to my appeal?...

  9. 43 CFR 2.5 - Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Does DOI maintain an index of its reading... a FOIA Request § 2.5 Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials? Each bureau will maintain and make available for public inspection and copying a current subject-matter index of its...

  10. Japan Link Center (JaLC): link management and DOI assignment for Japanese electronic scholarly contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takafumi; Tsuchiya, Eri; Kubota, Soichi; Miyagawa, Yoshiyuki

    JST, cooperated with several national institutes, is currently developing “Japan Link Center”, which manages Japanese electronic scholarly contents (journal articles, books, dissertations etc.) in an integrated fashion using Digital Object Identifier (DOI). Japan Link Center will manage metadata and whereabouts information of the contents in the digital environment and provide domestic and international linking information, cite/cited information to activate dissemination of S&T information, furthermore, to strengthen transmission of S&T information from Japan. Japan Link Center is expected to be appointed as the 9th DOI registration agency (RA) in the world by the International DOI Foundation (IDF) this spring.

  11. STS-87 Mission Specialist Doi with EVA coordinator Laws participates in the CEIT for his mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi , Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, participates in the Crew Equipment Integration Test (CEIT) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Glenda Laws, the extravehicular activity (EVA) coordinator, Johnson Space Center, stands behind Dr. Doi. The CEIT gives astronauts an opportunity to get a hands-on look at the payloads with which they will be working on-orbit. STS-87 will be the fourth United States Microgravity Payload and flight of the Spartan-201 deployable satellite. During the mission, Dr. Doi will be the first Japanese astronaut to perform a spacewalk. STS- 87 is scheduled for a Nov. 19 liftoff from KSC.

  12. 41 CFR 102-75.635 - What information must the Department of the Interior (DOI) furnish eligible public agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information must the Department of the Interior (DOI) furnish eligible public agencies? 102-75.635 Section 102-75.635... the Interior (DOI) furnish eligible public agencies? Upon request, DOI must furnish eligible...

  13. 30 CFR 250.1006 - How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a DOI pipeline? 250.1006 Section 250.1006 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1006 How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline...) The table in this section lists the requirements if you take a DOI pipeline out of service: If...

  14. 41 CFR 102-75.665 - What happens after the disposal agency receives the assignment recommendation from DOI?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... disposal agency receives the assignment recommendation from DOI? 102-75.665 Section 102-75.665 Public... assignment recommendation from DOI? If, after considering other uses for the property, the disposal agency approves the assignment recommendation from DOI, it must assign the property by letter or other document...

  15. 41 CFR 102-75.670 - What responsibilities does DOI have after receiving the disposal agency's assignment letter?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... does DOI have after receiving the disposal agency's assignment letter? 102-75.670 Section 102-75.670... Property for Use As Public Park Or Recreation Areas § 102-75.670 What responsibilities does DOI have after..., the Secretary may proceed with the transfer. DOI must take all necessary actions to accomplish...

  16. 76 FR 77244 - Renewal of Information Collection; OMB Control Number 1040-0001, DOI Programmatic Clearance for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Office of the Secretary Renewal of Information Collection; OMB Control Number 1040-0001, DOI Programmatic... comments. SUMMARY: We (Department of the Interior, DOI) plan to ask the Office of Management and Budget... you wish to email comments, the email address is Donald_Bieniewicz@ios.doi.gov . Reference...

  17. DOI Use of AVIRIS Data in Natural Resources Management: A Technology Transfer Project Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getter, James R.; Wickland, Diane

    1998-01-01

    A meeting was held in December 1996, attended by representatives from Department of the Interior (DOI) and National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) at the request of Department of the Interior Secretary, Bruce Babbitt and NASA, Administrator Director Dan Goldin, to discuss the use of hyperspectral systems and related remote sensing technologies in addressing environmental issues of environmental importance to the (DOI). It was determined that NASA/DOI Coordination be established, comprised of representatives from each agency, designated to address the environmental issues and resulting technologies. A steering committee was formed consisting of representatives from NASA Headquarters, NASA PI's from University California-Davis, University of Colorado-Boulder, University of New Hampshire and DOI Bureaus (Indian Affairs, Land Management, Reclamation, National Park Service, and US Geological Survey).

  18. DOI criticized for failing to inventory hazardous waste sites on federal lands

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    The Department of the Interior (DOI) manages approximately 440 million acres of public land across the United States, including national parks and forests, wildlife refuges, fish hatcheries, and water and hydroelectric projects. At these facilities, hazardous wastes are commonly generated through such activities as oil and gas drilling, coal mining, hydroelectric plant operation, and pesticide application. Consequently, a significant number of DOI sites are probably contaminated and thus must be identified, assessed, and remediated. 2 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Data always getting bigger -- A scalable DOI architecture for big and expanding scientific data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Prakash, Giri; Shrestha, Biva; Younkin, Katarina; Jundt, Rolanda; Martin, Mark; Elliott, Jannean

    2016-08-31

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Archive established a data citation strategy based on Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) for the ARM datasets in order to facilitate citing continuous and diverse ARM datasets in articles and other papers. This strategy eases the tracking of data provided as supplements to articles and papers. Additionally, it allows future data users and the ARM Climate Research Facility to easily locate the exact data used in various articles. Traditionally, DOIs are assigned to individual digital objects (a report or a data table), but for ARM datasets, these DOIs are assigned to an ARM data product.more » This eliminates the need for creating DOIs for numerous components of the ARM data product, in turn making it easier for users to manage and cite the ARM data with fewer DOIs. In addition, the ARM data infrastructure team, with input from scientific users, developed a citation format and an online data citation generation tool for continuous data streams. As a result, this citation format includes DOIs along with additional details such as spatial and temporal information.« less

  20. Entre dois mundos: vida quotidiana de criancas portuguesas na america [Between Two Worlds: The Daily Life of Portuguese Children in America].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Meneses, Fernando

    This Portuguese reader with accompanying teacher's guide describes the culture shock that Portuguese children and their families face when they immigrate to North America. The reader is divided into 75 short stories about the families that come from the rural areas of Portugal where there has been little industrialization. The purpose of the…

  1. Qué tipos hay de estudios clínicos

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre los diversos tipos de estudios clínicos de cáncer, como son los estudios de tratamiento, de prevención, de exámenes selectivos de detección, de cuidados médicos de apoyo y de cuidados paliativos.

  2. Choice of crystal surface finishing for a dual-ended readout depth-of-interaction (DOI) detector.

    PubMed

    Fan, Peng; Ma, Tianyu; Wei, Qingyang; Yao, Rutao; Liu, Yaqiang; Wang, Shi

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to choose the crystal surface finishing for a dual-ended readout (DER) DOI detector. Through Monte Carlo simulations and experimental studies, we evaluated 4 crystal surface finishing options as combinations of crystal surface polishing (diffuse or specular) and reflector (diffuse or specular) options on a DER detector. We also tested one linear and one logarithm DOI calculation algorithm. The figures of merit used were DOI resolution, DOI positioning error, and energy resolution. Both the simulation and experimental results show that (1) choosing a diffuse type in either surface polishing or reflector would improve DOI resolution but degrade energy resolution; (2) crystal surface finishing with a diffuse polishing combined with a specular reflector appears a favorable candidate with a good balance of DOI and energy resolution; and (3) the linear and logarithm DOI calculation algorithms show overall comparable DOI error, and the linear algorithm was better for photon interactions near the ends of the crystal while the logarithm algorithm was better near the center. These results provide useful guidance in DER DOI detector design in choosing the crystal surface finishing and DOI calculation methods. PMID:26757857

  3. Consistent Observational and Numerical Modeling Support for Ice Sheet Forcing of DOI event 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, S.; Jackson, C.; Marchal, O.; Thompson, W.; Stocker, T.

    2008-12-01

    The Binge/Purge (B/P) hypothesis of abrupt climate change (MacAyeal, 1993a,b, Paleoceanography) suggests that an instability and periodic collapse of the Laurentide ice sheet is responsible for the observed abrupt warmings of Greenland (Dansgaard-Oeschger Interstadials or DOIs) through the influence of ice sheet meltwater on ocean circulation and its poleward heat transport. If the B/P hypothesis is correct, then one should be able to use the Greenland paleotemperature data and a climate model to infer changes in global sea level associated with the DOIs. The B/P hypothesis could then be tested by comparing the inferred sea level changes with independent reconstructions based on marine records (corals and sediments). We use stochastic inversion of a seasonal resolving climate model (Schmittner and Stocker, 1999, J. Climate), composed of a zonally averaged ocean model (Wright and Stocker, 1992, J. Geophys. Res.) coupled to an energy and moisture balance model of the atmosphere, to infer the changes in ice sheet meltwater required to explain the Greenland paleotemperature record from 39 ka to 34 ka which include DOIs 8, 7, and 6. We found a compelling consistency between modeled and reconstructed sea level changes for DOI 8 (a particularly long interstadial following Heinrich Event 4), which tends to support the B/P hypothesis. On the other hand, the large estimated uncertainties in the inversion solution and sea level reconstructions do not permit a firm test of the B/P hypothesis for DOIs 7 and 6.

  4. Nicotine attenuates DOI-induced head-twitch response in mice: implications for Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tizabi, Y; Russell, L T; Johnson, M; Darmani, N A

    2001-10-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS), a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder, is characterized by motor and vocal tics. Preliminary clinical studies indicate possible therapeutic benefits of nicotine in the treatment of Tourette's syndrome (TS). It has been proposed that twitches of the head in mice or twitches of head and shoulders in rats following administration of the selective 5HT(2A/C) agonist DOI (1-)2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane, can serve as an animal model of tics in TS. In this study, the effects of acute and chronic administration of nicotine on DOI-induced head twitch response (HTR) in male albino ICR mice were evaluated. Both acute and chronic nicotine (daily injections for 10 days) reduced the DOI-induced HTR. Moreover, chronic administration of DOI (1 mg/kg/day for 10 days) resulted in 65% increase in [125I]alpha-bungarotoxin binding in cerebellum and 41% increase in striatal [3H]cytisine binding. However, the acute inhibitory effects of nicotine were not blocked by pretreatment with the nicotinic antagonist, mecamylamine. Indeed, at higher doses, mecamylamine also reduced the DOI-induced HTR. The data suggest that both nicotine and mecamylamine may be of therapeutic potential in the treatment of some symptoms of TS. PMID:11513358

  5. Diffusion of Innovation in Long-Term Care (DOI-LTC) Measurement Battery

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Eleanor S.; Corazzini, Kirsten N.; Lekan, Deborah; Bailey, Donald C.; Sloane, Richard; Landerman, L. Richard; Champagne, Mary T.

    2013-01-01

    Poor understanding of factors influencing integration of new practices into long-term care (LTC) hinders timely implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs). Using the Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) framework, a new instrument measuring staff perceptions of an EBP was developed as part of a DOI-LTC battery, and tested in a cross-sectional survey of North Carolina LTC nursing personnel. Valid questionnaires were received from 95 licensed nurses and 102 certified nursing assistants (CNAs). Internal consistency reliability for five of seven subscales was acceptable (Cronbach’s alpha = .77 to .95). Perception of innovation attributes was associated with intention to adopt the new practice (licensed nurses Spearman Rho = .41–.68, p < .0001; CNAs = .26–.54, p = .05 to < .0001). The DOI-LTC battery represents a promising new approach to studying implementation of EBPs in LTC. Future work should examine its responsiveness to interventions that facilitate implementation of EBPs in LTC. PMID:21702425

  6. Characterization of stacked-crystal PET detector designs for measurement of both TOF and DOI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmall, Jeffrey P.; Surti, Suleman; Karp, Joel S.

    2015-05-01

    A PET detector with good timing resolution and two-level depth-of-interaction (DOI) discrimination can be constructed using a single-ended readout of scintillator stacks of Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr3), with various Cerium dopant concentrations, including pure Cerium Bromide (CeBr3). The stacked crystal geometry creates a unique signal shape for interactions occurring in each layer, which can be used to identify the DOI, while retaining the inherently good timing properties of LaBr3 and CeBr3. In this work, single pixel elements are used to optimize the choice of scintillator, coupling of layers, and type of photodetector, evaluating the performance using a fast, single-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) and a single 4 × 4 mm2 silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). We also introduce a method to quantify and evaluate the DOI discrimination accuracy. From signal shape measurements using fast waveform sampling, we found that in addition to differences in signal rise times, between crystal layers, there were also differences in the signal fall times. A DOI accuracy of 98% was achieved using our classification method for a stacked crystal pair, consisting of a 15 mm long LaBr3(Ce:20%) crystal on top of a 15 mm long CeBr3 crystal, readout using a PMT. A DOI accuracy of 95% was measured with a stack of two, identical, 12 mm long, CeBr3 crystals. The DOI accuracy of this crystal pair was reduced to 91% when using a SiPM for readout. For the stack of two, 12 mm long, CeBr3 crystals, a coincidence timing resolution (average of timing results from the top and bottom layer) of 199 ps was measured using a PMT, and this was improved to 153 ps when using a SiPM. These results show that with stacked LaBr3/CeBr3 scintillators and fast waveform sampling nearly perfect DOI accuracy can be achieved with excellent timing resolution—timing resolution that is only minimally degraded compared to results from a single CeBr3 crystal of comparable length to the stacked crystals. The

  7. STS-87 Mission Specialist Doi and his wife pose at LC 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan poses with his wife, Hitomi Doi, in front of Kennedy Space Center's Launch Pad 39B during final prelaunch activities leading up to the scheduled Nov. 19 liftoff. The other STS-87 crew members are Commander Kevin Kregel; Pilot Steven Lindsey; Mission Specialists Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D., and Winston Scott; and Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. STS-87 will be the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload and the Spartan- 201 deployable satellite.

  8. Characterization of stacked-crystal PET detector designs for measurement of both TOF and DOI.

    PubMed

    Schmall, Jeffrey P; Surti, Suleman; Karp, Joel S

    2015-05-01

    A PET detector with good timing resolution and two-level depth-of-interaction (DOI) discrimination can be constructed using a single-ended readout of scintillator stacks of Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr3), with various Cerium dopant concentrations, including pure Cerium Bromide (CeBr3). The stacked crystal geometry creates a unique signal shape for interactions occurring in each layer, which can be used to identify the DOI, while retaining the inherently good timing properties of LaBr3 and CeBr3. In this work, single pixel elements are used to optimize the choice of scintillator, coupling of layers, and type of photodetector, evaluating the performance using a fast, single-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) and a single 4 × 4 mm(2) silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). We also introduce a method to quantify and evaluate the DOI discrimination accuracy. From signal shape measurements using fast waveform sampling, we found that in addition to differences in signal rise times, between crystal layers, there were also differences in the signal fall times. A DOI accuracy of 98% was achieved using our classification method for a stacked crystal pair, consisting of a 15 mm long LaBr3(Ce:20%) crystal on top of a 15 mm long CeBr3 crystal, readout using a PMT. A DOI accuracy of 95% was measured with a stack of two, identical, 12 mm long, CeBr3 crystals. The DOI accuracy of this crystal pair was reduced to 91% when using a SiPM for readout. For the stack of two, 12 mm long, CeBr3 crystals, a coincidence timing resolution (average of timing results from the top and bottom layer) of 199 ps was measured using a PMT, and this was improved to 153 ps when using a SiPM. These results show that with stacked LaBr3/CeBr3 scintillators and fast waveform sampling nearly perfect DOI accuracy can be achieved with excellent timing resolution-timing resolution that is only minimally degraded compared to results from a single CeBr3 crystal of comparable length to the stacked crystals. The

  9. Characterization of stacked-crystal PET detector designs for measurement of both TOF and DOI

    PubMed Central

    Schmall, Jeffrey P; Surti, Suleman; Karp, Joel S

    2015-01-01

    A PET detector with good timing resolution and two-level depth-of-interaction (DOI) discrimination can be constructed using a single-ended readout of scintillator stacks of Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr3), with various Cerium dopant concentrations, including pure Cerium Bromide (CeBr3). The stacked crystal geometry creates a unique signal shape for interactions occurring in each layer, which can be used to identify the DOI, while retaining the inherently good timing properties of LaBr3 and CeBr3. In this work, single pixel elements are used to optimize the choice of scintillator, coupling of layers, and type of photodetector, evaluating the performance using a fast, single-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) and a single 4×4 mm2 silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). We also introduce a method to quantify and evaluate the DOI discrimination accuracy. From signal shape measurements using fast waveform sampling, we found that in addition to differences in signal rise times, between crystal layers, there were also differences in the signal fall times. A DOI accuracy of 98% was achieved using our classification method for a stacked crystal pair, consisting of a 15-mm long LaBr3(Ce:20%) crystal on top of a 15-mm long CeBr3 crystal, readout using a PMT. A DOI accuracy of 95% was measured with a stack of two, identical, 12-mm long, CeBr3 crystals. The DOI accuracy of this crystal pair was reduced to 91% when using a SiPM for readout. For the stack of two, 12-mm long, CeBr3 crystals, a coincidence timing resolution (average of timing results from the top and bottom layer) of 199 ps was measured using a PMT, and this was improved to 153 ps when using a SiPM. These results show that with stacked LaBr3/CeBr3 scintillators and fast waveform sampling nearly perfect DOI accuracy can be achieved with excellent timing resolution—timing resolution that is only minimally degraded compared to results from a single CeBr3 crystal of comparable length to the stacked crystals. The interface in the

  10. Data DOIs - virtues and weak points from the perspective of the data journal ESSD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffenberger, Hans; Carlson, David

    2016-04-01

    Fundamentally, data publication seeks to provide improved access, trust and utility for data users accompanied by improved recognition for data providers. The features of persistent identifier schemes used in this context and the policies of providers of their resolver systems can greatly contribute towards these aims! Unfortunately, we also recognize situations where identifier systems undermine some of our lofty data publication aims. From our 7 years of successful experience with the data journal ESSD, we will present our practical observations as well as future requirements on the DOI-system in particular, such as: * Most scientists contributing to or drawing benefit from ESSD seem to understand the notion of published data in the sense of a static, citable entity to build on, relying on its long term availability and integrity (as is the case with journal articles), secured by DOIs. * It is still true that many data providers - individuals or projects - can not find a repository for their (type of) data which would provide a DOI (or other persistent identifier) and that many data centers and databases holding valuable data have a hard time adding DOIs as a feature of their systems for conceptual, legacy or funding reasons. * The typical evolution of many important data collections or data products - such as the Global Carbon Budget - can adequately be tracked with yearly (or less frequent) issues of dataset and data article, each having a new DOI. However, issuing a new DOI for a dataset extended in time clashes with many producers' wish to amass all references to the developing dataset under one citation (and one DOI). * Current practises with DOIs and metadata associated with DOIs need to be clarified and amended so the identifier systems can and do express and track the relationships between versions of data, addressing extensions, corrections, modifications, revisions and retractions in an unambiguous (and machine readable) manner, while also removing

  11. Protótipo do primeiro interferômetro brasileiro - BDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Neri, J. A. C. F.; Bethi, N.; Felipini, N. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.; Andrade, M. C.; Soares, A. C.; Alonso, E. M. B., Sawant, H. S.

    2004-04-01

    A interferometria é uma poderosa ferramenta usada para investigar estruturas espaciais de fontes astrofísicas fornecendo uma riqueza de detalhes inatingível pelas técnicas convencionais de imageamento. Em particular, a interferometria com ondas de rádio abre o horizonte de conhecimento do Universo nesta ampla banda do espectro eletromagnético, que vai de cerca de 20 kHz até centenas de GHz já próximo ao infravermelho, e que está acessível a partir de instrumentos instalados em solo. Neste trabalho, apresentamos o interferômetro designado por Arranjo Decimétrico Brasileiro (BDA). Trata-se do primeiro interferômetro a ser desenvolvido no Brasil e América Latina que já está em operação na fase de protótipo. Apresentamos o desenvolvimento realizado até o momento, o sítio de instalação do instrumento, o protótipo e os principais resultados dos testes de sua operação, as perspectivas futuras e a ciência a ser desenvolvida com o instrumento nas fases II e III. Neste trabalho é dada ênfase ao desenvolvimento, testes de operação e principais resultados do protótipo. É discutida brevemente a ciência que pode ser feita com o instrumento. Tanto os detalhes técnicos quanto os principais parâmetros estimados para o instrumento nas próximas fases de desenvolvimento e o desempenho do protótipo serão publicados em breve.

  12. Digital Object Identifiers (DOI's) usage and adoption in U.S Geological Survey (USGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frame, M. T.; Palanisamy, G.

    2013-12-01

    Addressing grand environmental science challenges requires unprecedented access to easily understood data that cross the breadth of temporal, spatial, and thematic scales. From a scientist's perspective, the big challenges lie in discovering the relevant data, dealing with extreme data heterogeneity, large data volumes, and converting data to information and knowledge. Historical linkages between derived products, i.e. Publications, and associated datasets has not existed in the earth science community. The USGS Core Science Analytics and Synthesis, in collaboration with DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Mercury Consortium (funded by NASA, USGS and DOE), established a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) service for USGS data, metadata, and other media. This service is offered in partnership through the University of California Digital Library EZID service. USGS scientists, data managers, and other professionals can generate globally unique, persistent and resolvable identifiers for any kind of digital objects. Additional efforts to assign DOIs to historical data and publications have also been underway. These DOI identifiers are being used to cite data in journal articles, web-accessible datasets, and other media for distribution, integration, and in support of improved data management practices. The session will discuss the current DOI efforts within USGS, including a discussion on adoption, challenges, and future efforts necessary to improve access, reuse, sharing, and discoverability of USGS data and information.

  13. Resolving DOI Based URNs Using Squid: An Experimental System at UKOLN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Andy

    1998-01-01

    Describes UKOLN's (United Kingdom Office for Library and Information Networking--a national center for support in network information management in the library/information communities) experimental system that allows digital object identifiers (DOIs) encoded as uniform resource names (URNs) to be resolved on behalf of Web browsers by Squid, a…

  14. 30 CFR 250.1003 - Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DOI pipelines. (a)(1) Pipelines greater than 85/8 inches in diameter and installed in water depths of... exists. (b)(1) Pipelines shall be pressure tested with water at a stabilized pressure of at least 1.25... pipeline shall be pressure tested with water or processed natural gas at a minimum stabilized pressure...

  15. 30 CFR 250.1003 - Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DOI pipelines. (a)(1) Pipelines greater than 85/8 inches in diameter and installed in water depths of... exists. (b)(1) Pipelines shall be pressure tested with water at a stabilized pressure of at least 1.25... pipeline shall be pressure tested with water or processed natural gas at a minimum stabilized pressure...

  16. 30 CFR 250.1003 - Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DOI pipelines. (a)(1) Pipelines greater than 85/8 inches in diameter and installed in water depths of... exists. (b)(1) Pipelines shall be pressure tested with water at a stabilized pressure of at least 1.25... pipeline shall be pressure tested with water or processed natural gas at a minimum stabilized pressure...

  17. 30 CFR 250.1003 - Installation, testing, and repair requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for DOI pipelines. 250.1003 Section 250.1003 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... pipeline may constitute a hazard to trawling operations or other uses. A trawl test or diver survey may be... determines that such items present no hazard to trawling or other operations. A protective device may be...

  18. Role of endocannabinoid and glutamatergic systems in DOI-induced head-twitch response in mice.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Nobuaki; Shirakawa, Atsunori; Okuno, Ryoko; Mishima, Kenichi; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Oishi, Ryozo; Fujiwara, Michihiro

    2011-07-01

    We previously reported that systemic administration of the endocannabinoid anandamide inhibited the head-twitches induced by the hallucinogenic drug 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) in mice, which is mediated via the activation of 5-HT(2A) receptors. Endocannabinoid and glutamatergic systems have been suggested to modulate the function of 5-HT(2A) receptors. In the present study, we further investigated the role of endocannabinoid and glutamatergic systems in DOI-induced head-twitch response in mice. An anandamide transport inhibitor AM404 (0.3-3mg/kg, i.p.), a fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 (0.1-10mg/kg, i.p.), a glutamate release inhibitor riluzole (0.3 and 1mg/kg, i.p.), a natural glutamate analog l-glutamylethylamide (theanine, 1 and 3mg/kg, p.o.) and an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor antagonist NBQX (0.01-0.3mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited DOI-induced head-twitch response. The AMPA receptor positive modulator aniracetam (30 or 100mg/kg, p.o.) reversed inhibition of head-twitch response by NBQX and URB597. These findings indicated that endocannabinoid and glutamatergic systems participate in the mechanism of action of DOI to induce head-twitch response. PMID:21504759

  19. The Transformation of Higher Education in Vietnam after DoiMoi: A Story of "Dualism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Hien

    2009-01-01

    This research was undertaken to investigate the transformation of higher education reform in Vietnam since "DoiMoi," which involves examining its rationale and practical implementation. The reform reveals an interesting picture of Vietnam's higher education system, in which two development visions--a "market-led" vision and a "socialist-oriented"…

  20. Earth and Heavens: Two Separate Universes? (Spanish Title: Tierra y Cielos: ¿Dos Universos Separados?) Terra e Céus: Dois Universos Separados?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrascosa, Jaime; Gil-Pérez, Daniel; Solbes, Jordi; Vilches, Amparo

    2005-12-01

    The study of gravitation constitutes an exceptional occasion to show the richness and complexity of science and technology, contemplating, among other things: the problematic situations which are at the heart of the scientific knowledge, the difficulties encountered in the construction of knowledge and, especially, the necessity of overcoming "common-sense evidence" that proclaimed the existence of an insurmountable barrier between Earth and Heavens, hindering scientific development during many centuries. In this paper we present a program of activities to orient the study of Gravitation atUpperHigh School, favoring students' participation in the reconstruction of this first scientific revolution and giving them the opportunity to see the importance of Astronomy both in the history of science and today. El estudio de la gravitación constituye una ocasión excepcional para mostrar la ciencia y la tecnología en toda su riqueza y complejidad, considerando, entre otros aspectos:

  21. Las situaciones problemáticas relevantes que llevaron a la construcción de los conocimientos,
  22. las dificultades de todo tipo con las que hubo que enfrentarse y, muy en particular,
  23. la necesidad de superar las "evidencias de sentido común" que establecían una supuesta barrera infranqueable entre la Tierray los Cielos y que obstaculizaron durante siglos el desarrollo científico.
  24. En este trabajo presentamos un programa de actividades para el estudio de la gravitación en la secundaria superior, orientado a favorecer la participación de los estudiantes, en alguna medida, en la reconstrucción de este proceso que constituyó la denominada primera gran revolución científica y asomándonos al estudio de una de las ciencias más antiguas, la Astronomía, que hoy sigue despertando gran interés. O estudo da gravitação constitui uma ocasião excepcional para mostrar a ciência e a tecnologia em toda sua riqueza e

  1. Development of GAGG depth-of-interaction (DOI) block detectors based on pulse shape analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Yeol Yeom, Jung; Morishita, Yuki; Sato, Hiroki; Endo, Takanori; Usuki, Yoshiyuki; Kamada, Kei; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2014-12-01

    A depth-of-interaction (DOI) detector is required for developing a high resolution and high sensitivity PET system. Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (GAGG fast: GAGG-F) is a promising scintillator for PET applications with high light output, no natural radioisotope and suitable light emission wavelength for semiconductor based photodetectors. However, no DOI detector based on pulse shape analysis with GAGG-F has been developed to date, due to the lack of appropriate scintillators of pairing. Recently a new variation of this scintillator with different Al/Ga ratios-Ce-doped Gd3Al2.6Ga2.4O12 (GAGG slow: GAGG-S), which has slower decay time was developed. The combination of GAGG-F and GAGG-S may allow us to realize high resolution DOI detectors based on pulse shape analysis. We developed and tested two GAGG phoswich DOI block detectors comprised of pixelated GAGG-F and GAGG-S scintillation crystals. One phoswich block detector comprised of 2×2×5 mm pixel that were assembled into a 5×5 matrix. The DOI block was optically coupled to a silicon photomultiplier (Si-PM) array (Hamamatsu MPPC S11064-050P) with a 2-mm thick light guide. The other phoswich block detector comprised of 0.5×0.5×5 mm (GAGG-F) and 0.5×0.5×6 mm3 (GAGG-S) pixels that were assembled into a 20×20 matrix. The DOI block was also optically coupled to the same Si-PM array with a 2-mm thick light guide. In the block detector of 2-mm crystal pixels (5×5 matrix), the 2-dimensional histogram revealed excellent separation with an average energy resolution of 14.1% for 662-keV gamma photons. The pulse shape spectrum displayed good separation with a peak-to-valley ratio of 8.7. In the block detector that used 0.5-mm crystal pixels (20×20 matrix), the 2-dimensional histogram also showed good separation with energy resolution of 27.5% for the 662-keV gamma photons. The pulse shape spectrum displayed good separation with a peak-to-valley ratio of 6.5. These results indicate that phoswich DOI detectors with the two

  2. Development of prototype PET scanner using dual-sided readout DOI-PET modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, T.; Kataoka, J.; Kishimoto, A.; Kurei, Y.; Nishiyama, T.; Ohshima, T.; Taya, T.

    2014-12-01

    In our previous work, we proposed a novel design for a gamma-ray detector module capable of measuring the depth of interaction (DOI). In this paper, we further developed DOI-PET detector modules and a data acquisition system, and evaluated its performance. Each detector module was composed of a 3-D scintillator array and two large-area monolithic Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) arrays coupled to both ends of the 3-D scintillator array, leading to only 8-ch signal outputs from a module. The 3-D scintillator array was composed of 9 × 9 × 7 matrices of 1.0 × 1.0 × 3.0 mm3 Ce:GAGG crystals. The detector module showed good energy resolution of 10.6% as measured at 511 keV and a high average peak to valley ratio higher than 8 for each pixel crystal identified in the X-Y-Z directions. Moreover, we evaluated the spatial resolution of a virtual 18-ch PET gantry simulated by using two detector modules that were flexibly controlled using both the X-stage and θ-stage in 20-degree steps. By measuring a 22Na point source (0.25 mm in diameter), we showed that spatial resolution substantially degrades from 1.0 mm to 7.8 mm (FWHM; as measured at 0 mm and 28 mm off-center) with a non-DOI configuration, whereas the corresponding values for the DOI configuration were 0.9 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively (FWHM; as measured at 0 mm and 28 mm off-center). This preliminary study confirms that our DOI-PET module is useful for future high spatial resolution and compact small-animal PET scanners without radial image distortions at the peripheral regions of the field of view (FOV).

  3. 30 CFR 250.1006 - How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... a DOI pipeline? 250.1006 Section 250.1006 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1006 How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline? (a) The requirements for decommissioning pipelines are listed in § 250.1750...

  4. 30 CFR 250.1006 - How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... a DOI pipeline? 250.1006 Section 250.1006 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1006 How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline? (a) The requirements for decommissioning pipelines are listed in § 250.1750...

  5. 30 CFR 250.1006 - How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... a DOI pipeline? 250.1006 Section 250.1006 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1006 How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline? (a) The requirements for decommissioning pipelines are listed in § 250.1750...

  6. 30 CFR 250.1006 - How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a DOI pipeline? 250.1006 Section 250.1006 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way § 250.1006 How must I decommission and take out of service a DOI pipeline? (a) The requirements for decommissioning pipelines are listed in §...

  7. 25 CFR 900.208 - How are non-medical related tort claims and lawsuits filed for DOI?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are non-medical related tort claims and lawsuits filed for DOI? 900.208 Section 900.208 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, AND... Related Claims § 900.208 How are non-medical related tort claims and lawsuits filed for DOI?...

  8. Efficient system modeling for a small animal PET scanner with tapered DOI detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mengxi; Zhou, Jian; Yang, Yongfeng; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, Mercedes; Qi, Jinyi

    2016-01-01

    A prototype small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanner for mouse brain imaging has been developed at UC Davis. The new scanner uses tapered detector arrays with depth of interaction (DOI) measurement. In this paper, we present an efficient system model for the tapered PET scanner using matrix factorization and a virtual scanner geometry. The factored system matrix mainly consists of two components: a sinogram blurring matrix and a geometrical matrix. The geometric matrix is based on a virtual scanner geometry. The sinogram blurring matrix is estimated by matrix factorization. We investigate the performance of different virtual scanner geometries. Both simulation study and real data experiments are performed in the fully 3D mode to study the image quality under different system models. The results indicate that the proposed matrix factorization can maintain image quality while substantially reduce the image reconstruction time and system matrix storage cost. The proposed method can be also applied to other PET scanners with DOI measurement.

  9. Relaxation spectra of binary blends: Extension of the Doi-Edwards theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchesnokov, M. A.; Molenaar, J.; Slot, J. J. M.; Stepanyan, R.

    2007-10-01

    A molecular model is presented which allows the calculation of the stress relaxation function G for binary blends consisting of two monodisperse samples with arbitrary molecular weights. It extends the Doi-Edwards reptation theory (Doi M. and Edwards S. F., The Theory of Polymer Dynamics (Oxford Press, New York) 1986) to highly polydisperse melts by including constraint release (CR) and thermal fluctuations (CLF), yet making use of the same input parameters. The model reveals an explicit nonlinear dependence of CR frequency in the blend on the blend's molecular weight distribution (MWD). It provides an alternative way to quantify polydisperse systems compared to the widely used "double-reptation" theories. The results of the present model are in a good agreement with the experimental data given in Rubinstein M. and Colby R. H., J. Chem. Phys., 89 (1988) 5291.

  10. DOI Climate Science Centers--Regional science to address management priorities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Malley, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Our Nation's lands, waters, and ecosystems and the living and cultural resources they contain face myriad challenges from invasive species, the effects of changing land and water use, habitat fragmentation and degradation, and other influences. These challenges are compounded by increasing influences from a changing climate—higher temperatures, increasing droughts, floods, and wildfires, and overall increasing variability in weather and climate. The Department of the Interior (DOI) has established eight regional Climate Science Centers (CSC) (fig. 1) that will provide scientific information and tools to natural and cultural resource managers as they plan for conserving these resources in a changing world. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center (NCCWSC) is managing the CSCs on behalf of the DOI.

  11. DOI Determination by Rise Time Discrimination in Single-Ended Readout for TOF PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R.I.; Surti, S.; Karp, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical TOF PET systems achieve detection efficiency using thick crystals, typically of thickness 2–3cm. The resulting dispersion in interaction depths degrades spatial resolution for increasing radial positions due to parallax error. Furthermore, interaction depth dispersion results in time pickoff dispersion and thus in degraded timing resolution, and is therefore of added concern in TOF scanners. Using fast signal digitization, we characterize the timing performance, pulse shape and light output of LaBr3:Ce, CeBr3 and LYSO. Coincidence timing resolution is shown to degrade by ~50ps/cm for scintillator pixels of constant cross section and increasing length. By controlling irradiation depth in a scintillator pixel, we show that DOI-dependence of time pickoff is a significant factor in the loss of timing performance in thick detectors. Using the correlated DOI-dependence of time pickoff and charge collection, we apply a charge-based correction to the time pickoff, obtaining improved coincidence timing resolution of <200ps for a uniform 4×4×30mm3 LaBr3 pixel. In order to obtain both DOI identification and improved timing resolution, we design a two layer LaBr3[5%Ce]/LaBr3[30%Ce] detector of total size 4×4×30mm3, exploiting the dependence of scintillator rise time on [Ce] in LaBr3:Ce. Using signal rise time to determine interaction layer, excellent interaction layer discrimination is achieved, while maintaining coincidence timing resolution of <250ps and energy resolution <7% using a R4998 PMT. Excellent layer separation and timing performance is measured with several other commercially-available TOF photodetectors, demonstrating the practicality of this design. These results indicate the feasibility of rise time discrimination as a technique for measuring event DOI while maintaining sensitivity, timing and energy performance, in a well-known detector architecture. PMID:24403611

  12. 41 CFR 102-75.640 - When must DOI notify the disposal agency that an eligible applicant is interested in acquiring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must DOI notify the... Disposal Property for Use As Public Park Or Recreation Areas § 102-75.640 When must DOI notify the disposal agency that an eligible applicant is interested in acquiring the property? DOI must notify the...

  13. 41 CFR 102-75.660 - What happens if DOI does not approve any applications or does not submit an assignment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if DOI does... Disposal Property for Use As Public Park Or Recreation Areas § 102-75.660 What happens if DOI does not approve any applications or does not submit an assignment recommendation? If DOI does not approve...

  14. Use of internal scintillator radioactivity to calibrate DOI function of a PET detector with a dual-ended-scintillator readout

    SciTech Connect

    Bircher, Chad; Shao Yiping

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) detectors that use a dual-ended-scintillator readout to measure depth-of-interaction (DOI) must have an accurate DOI function to provide the relationship between DOI and signal ratios to be used for detector calibration and recalibration. In a previous study, the authors used a novel and simple method to accurately and quickly measure DOI function by irradiating the detector with an external uniform flood source; however, as a practical concern, implementing external uniform flood sources in an assembled PET system is technically challenging and expensive. In the current study, therefore, the authors investigated whether the same method could be used to acquire DOI function from scintillator-generated (i.e., internal) radiation. The authors also developed a method for calibrating the energy scale necessary to select the events within the desired energy window. Methods: The authors measured the DOI function of a PET detector with lutetium yttrium orthosilicate (LYSO) scintillators. Radiation events originating from the scintillators' internal Lu-176 beta decay were used to measure DOI functions which were then compared with those measured from both an external uniform flood source and an electronically collimated external point source. The authors conducted these studies with several scintillators of differing geometries (1.5 x 1.5 and 2.0 x 2.0 mm{sup 2} cross-section area and 20, 30, and 40 mm length) and various surface finishes (mirror-finishing, saw-cut rough, and other finishes in between), and in a prototype array. Results: All measured results using internal and external radiation sources showed excellent agreement in DOI function measurement. The mean difference among DOI values for all scintillators measured from internal and external radiation sources was less than 1.0 mm for different scintillator geometries and various surface finishes. Conclusions: The internal radioactivity of LYSO scintillators can be used

  15. 10 years of data publication with Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) at the World Data Center for Climate (WDCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockhause, Martina; Lautenschlager, Michael; Höck, Heinke; Toussaint, Frank

    2015-04-01

    The World Data Center for Climate (WDCC) has been Data DOI publication agency for 10 years. Before issuing the first Data DOI, five years were spent on the development of a concept out of the idea to make scientific data citable. Apart from the unique and persistent identification of data objects, questions e.g. about the organizational structure including the roles of libraries and data centers, cost models, data quality, and the granularity of data publications were targeted in this pre-phase. The first Data DOI publication system was developed within the German project 'std_doi' (Scientific and Technical Data DOI) funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). The German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) acted as DOI Registration Agency and the data centers PANGAEA, GFZ and WDCC as publication agencies and long-term data archives. The first publication of scientific data came from WDCC in March 2004 (doi:10.1594/WDCC/EH4_OPYC_SRES_A2). About five years after the first data publications, in December 2009, the international organization DataCite was formed, leading to several organizational as well as technical changes affecting WDCC's scientific data publication process. Recently, WDCC became the data publisher for the decentrally disseminated data of the project CMIP5 (Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) and participated in the development of the data publication system 'atarrabi', requiring several additions and changes in WDCC's established data publication procedure. The challenges for the future of WDCC's scientific data publication lie in the connections of data to other DOI objects like scientific publications or to other persistent identifiers such as e.g. ORCID for persons or EPIC Handles for changeable data objects in the scientific workflow. Issues like data quality and data granularity have not been solved for the time being but are still under investigation.

  16. [2D imaging simulations of a small animal PET scanner with DOI measurement: jPET-RD.].

    PubMed

    Yamaya, Taiga; Kitamura, Keishi; Hagiwara, Naoki; Obi, Takashi; Hasegawa, Tomoyuki; Yoshida, Eiji; Tsuda, Tomoaki; Inadama, Naoko; Wada, Yasuhiro; Murayama, Hideo

    2005-01-01

    We present a preliminary study on the design of a high sensitivity small animal DOI-PET scanner: jPET-RD (for Rodents with DOI detectors), which will contribute to molecular imaging. The 4-layer DOI block detector for the jPET-RD that consists of scintillation crystals (1.4 mm x 1.4 mm x 4.5 mm) and a flat panel position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (52 mm x 52 mm) was previously proposed. In this paper, we investigate imaging performance of the jPET-RD through numerical simulations. The scanner has a hexagonal geometry with a small diameter and a large axial aperture. Therefore DOI information is expected to improve resolution uniformity in the whole field of view (FOV). We simulate the scanner for various parameters of the number of DOI channels and the crystal length. Simulated data are reconstructed using the maximum likelihood expectation maximization with accurate system modeling. The trade-off results between background noise and spatial resolution show that only shortening the length of crystal does not improve the trade-off at all, and that 4-layer DOI information improves uniformity of spatial resolution in the whole FOV. Excellent performance of the jPET-RD can be expected based on the numerical simulation results. PMID:15961924

  17. Sensitivity booster for DOI-PET scanner by utilizing Compton scattering events between detector blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Eiji; Tashima, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2014-11-01

    In a conventional PET scanner, coincidence events are measured with a limited energy window for detection of photoelectric events in order to reject Compton scatter events that occur in a patient, but Compton scatter events caused in detector crystals are also rejected. Scatter events within the patient causes scatter coincidences, but inter crystal scattering (ICS) events have useful information for determining an activity distribution. Some researchers have reported the feasibility of PET scanners based on a Compton camera for tracing ICS into the detector. However, these scanners require expensive semiconductor detectors for high-energy resolution. In the Anger-type block detector, single photons interacting with multiple detectors can be obtained for each interacting position and complete information can be gotten just as for photoelectric events in the single detector. ICS events in the single detector have been used to get coincidence, but single photons interacting with multiple detectors have not been used to get coincidence. In this work, we evaluated effect of sensitivity improvement using Compton kinetics in several types of DOI-PET scanners. The proposed method promises to improve the sensitivity using coincidence events of single photons interacting with multiple detectors, which are identified as the first interaction (FI). FI estimation accuracy can be improved to determine FI validity from the correlation between Compton scatter angles calculated on the coincidence line-of-response. We simulated an animal PET scanner consisting of 42 detectors. Each detector block consists of three types of scintillator crystals (LSO, GSO and GAGG). After the simulation, coincidence events are added as information for several depth-of-interaction (DOI) resolutions. From the simulation results, we concluded the proposed method promises to improve the sensitivity considerably when effective atomic number of a scintillator is low. Also, we showed that FI estimate

  18. STS-87 Mission Specialist Doi addresses the media at the SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    As STS-87 Commander Kevin Kregel looks on, Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan addresses members of the press and media at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility after arriving for the final prelaunch activities leading up to the scheduled Nov. 19 liftoff. Other STS-87 crew members not pictured are Pilot Steven Lindsey; Mission Specialists Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D., and Winston Scott; and Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. STS-87 will be the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload and the Spartan-201 deployable satellite.

  19. A novel method to calibrate DOI function of a PET detector with a dual-ended-scintillator readout.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yiping; Yao, Rutao; Ma, Tianyu

    2008-12-01

    The detection of depth-of-interaction (DOI) is a critical detector capability to improve the PET spatial resolution uniformity across the field-of-view and will significantly enhance, in particular, small bore system performance for brain, breast, and small animal imaging. One promising technique of DOI detection is to use dual-ended-scintillator readout that uses two photon sensors to detect scintillation light from both ends of a scintillator array and estimate DOI based on the ratio of signals (similar to Anger logic). This approach needs a careful DOI function calibration to establish accurate relationship between DOI and signal ratios, and to recalibrate if the detection condition is shifted due to the drift of sensor gain, bias variations, or degraded optical coupling, etc. However, the current calibration method that uses coincident events to locate interaction positions inside a single scintillator crystal has severe drawbacks, such as complicated setup, long and repetitive measurements, and being prone to errors from various possible misalignments among the source and detector components. This method is also not practically suitable to calibrate multiple DOI functions of a crystal array. To solve these problems, a new method has been developed that requires only a uniform flood source to irradiate a crystal array without the need to locate the interaction positions, and calculates DOI functions based solely on the uniform probability distribution of interactions over DOI positions without knowledge or assumption of detector responses. Simulation and experiment have been studied to validate the new method, and the results show that the new method, with a simple setup and one single measurement, can provide consistent and accurate DOI functions for the entire array of multiple scintillator crystals. This will enable an accurate, simple, and practical DOI function calibration for the PET detectors based on the design of dual-ended-scintillator readout. In

  20. A novel method to calibrate DOI function of a PET detector with a dual-ended-scintillator readout

    SciTech Connect

    Shao Yiping; Yao Rutao; Ma Tianyu

    2008-12-15

    The detection of depth-of-interaction (DOI) is a critical detector capability to improve the PET spatial resolution uniformity across the field-of-view and will significantly enhance, in particular, small bore system performance for brain, breast, and small animal imaging. One promising technique of DOI detection is to use dual-ended-scintillator readout that uses two photon sensors to detect scintillation light from both ends of a scintillator array and estimate DOI based on the ratio of signals (similar to Anger logic). This approach needs a careful DOI function calibration to establish accurate relationship between DOI and signal ratios, and to recalibrate if the detection condition is shifted due to the drift of sensor gain, bias variations, or degraded optical coupling, etc. However, the current calibration method that uses coincident events to locate interaction positions inside a single scintillator crystal has severe drawbacks, such as complicated setup, long and repetitive measurements, and being prone to errors from various possible misalignments among the source and detector components. This method is also not practically suitable to calibrate multiple DOI functions of a crystal array. To solve these problems, a new method has been developed that requires only a uniform flood source to irradiate a crystal array without the need to locate the interaction positions, and calculates DOI functions based solely on the uniform probability distribution of interactions over DOI positions without knowledge or assumption of detector responses. Simulation and experiment have been studied to validate the new method, and the results show that the new method, with a simple setup and one single measurement, can provide consistent and accurate DOI functions for the entire array of multiple scintillator crystals. This will enable an accurate, simple, and practical DOI function calibration for the PET detectors based on the design of dual-ended-scintillator readout. In

  1. Local structure of spin Peierls compound TiPO4: 47/49Ti and 31P NMR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Raivo; Heinmaa, Ivo; Leitmäe, Alexander; Joon, Enno; Tsirlin, Alexander; Kremer, Reinhard; Glaum, Robert

    TiPO4 structure is made of slightly corrugated TiO2 ribbon chains of edge-sharing TiO6 octahedra. The almost perfect 1D spin 1/2 Ti3 + chains are well separated by PO4 tetrahedra. By magnetic susceptibility and MAS-NMR measurements [1] it was shown that TiPO4 has nonmagnetic singlet ground state with remarkably high Spin-Peierls (SP) transition temperature. The high-T magnetic susceptibility of TiPO4 follows well that of a S =1/2 Heisenberg chain with very strong nearest-neighbor AF spin-exchange coupling constant of J =965K. On cooling TiPO4 shows two successive phase transitions at 111K and 74K, with incommensurate (IC) SP phase between them. We studied local structure and dynamics in TiPO4 single crystal using 47/49Ti and 31P NMR in the temperature range 40K to 300K, and determined the principal values and orientation of the magnetic shift tensors for 31P and 47,49Ti nuclei. Since 47,49Ti (S =5/2 and S =7/2, respectively) have quadrupolar moments, we also found the principal axis values and orientations of the electric field gradient (efg) tensor in SP phase and at 295K. In SP phase the structure contains 2 magnetically inequivalent P sites and only one Ti site. From the T-dependence of the relaxation rate of 31P and 47Ti nuclei we determined activation energy Ea = 550 K for spin excitations in SP phase. J. Law et al ., PRB 83, 180414(R) (2011).

  2. Design of a High Resolution, Monolithic Crystal, PET/MRI Detector with DOI Positioning Capability.

    PubMed

    Miyaoka, Robert S; Li, Xiaoli; Lockhart, Cate; Lewellen, Tom K

    2008-10-01

    We report on a high resolution, monolithic crystal PET detector design concept that provides depth of interaction (DOI) positioning within the crystal and is compatible for operation in a MRI scanner to support multimodal anatomic and functional imaging. Our design utilizes a novel sensor on the entrance surface (SES) approach combined with a maximum likelihood positioning algorithm. The sensor will be a two-dimensional array of micro-pixel avalanche photodiodes (MAPD). MAPDs are a new type of solid-state photodetector with Geiger mode operation that can provide signal gain similar to a photomltipiler tube (PMT). In addition, they can be operated in high magnetic fields to support PET/MR imaging. Utilizing a multi-step simulation process, we determined the intrinsic spatial resolution characteristics for a variety of detector configurations. The crystal was always modeled as a 48.8 mm by 48.8 mm by 15 mm monolithic slab of a lutetium-based scintillator. The SES design was evaluated via simulation for three different two-dimensional MAPD array sizes: 8×8 with 5.8×5.8 mm(2) pads; 12×12 with 3.8×3.8 mm(2) pads; and 16×16 with 2.8×2.8 mm(2) pads. To reduce the number of signal channels row-column summing readout was explored for the 12×12 and 16×16 channel array devices. The intrinsic spatial resolution for the 8×8 MAPD array is 0.88 mm FWHM in X and Y, and 1.83 mm FWHM in Z (i.e., DOI). Comparing the results versus using a conventional design with the photosensors on the backside of the crystal, an average improvement of ~24% in X and Y and 20% in Z is achieved. The X, Y intrinsic spatial resolution improved to 0.66 mm and 0.65 mm FWHM for the 12×12 and 16×16 MAPDs using row-column readout. Using the 12×12 and 16×16 arrays also led to a slight improvement in the DOI positioning accuracy. PMID:20607144

  3. Transient radiation effects in D.O.I. optical materials: Schott filter glass

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons-Potter, K.

    1998-07-01

    Department of Energy and Defense Programs systems are becoming increasingly reliant on the use of optical technologies that must perform under a range of ionizing radiation environments. In particular, the radiation response of materials under consideration for applications in direct optical initiation (D.O.I.) schemes must be well characterized. In this report, transient radiation effects observed in Schott filter glass S-7010 are characterized. Under gamma exposure with 2 MeV photons in a 20--30 nsec pulse, the authors observe strong initial induced fluorescence in the red region of the spectrum followed by significant induced absorption over the same spectral region. Peak induced absorption coefficients of 0.113 cm{sup {minus}1} and 0.088 cm{sup {minus}1} were calculated at 800 nm and 660 nm respectively.

  4. Zygomycetes From Herbivore Dung in the Ecological Reserve of Dois IrmÃOs, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Azevedo Santiago, André Luiz Cabral Monteiro; Botelho Trufem, Sandra Farto; Malosso, Elaine; dos Santos, Paulo Jorge Parreira; de Queiroz Cavalcanti, Maria Auxiliadora

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris), camel (Camelus bactrianus), horse (Equus caballus), deer (Cervus elaphus), agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), donkey (Equus asinus), llama (Llama glama) and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant. PMID:24031609

  5. Zygomycetes From Herbivore Dung in the Ecological Reserve of Dois IrmÃOs, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo Santiago, André Luiz Cabral Monteiro; Botelho Trufem, Sandra Farto; Malosso, Elaine; Dos Santos, Paulo Jorge Parreira; de Queiroz Cavalcanti, Maria Auxiliadora

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris), camel (Camelus bactrianus), horse (Equus caballus), deer (Cervus elaphus), agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), donkey (Equus asinus), llama (Llama glama) and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant. PMID:24031609

  6. Re-using the DataCite Metadata Store as DOI registration proxy and IGSN registry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J.; Ulbricht, D.

    2012-12-01

    Currently a lot of work is done to stimulate the reuse of data. In joint efforts research institutions establish infrastructure to facilitate the publication of scientific datasets. To create a citable reference, these datasets must be tagged with persistent identifiers (DOIs) and described with metadata. As most data in the geosciences are derived from samples, it is crucial to be able to uniquely identify the samples from which a set of data were derived. Incomplete documentation of samples in publications, use of ambiguous sample names are major obstacles for synthesis studies and re-use of data. Access to samples for re-analysis and re-appraisal is limited due to the lack of a central catalogue that allows finding a sample's archiving location. The International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) [1] provides solutions to the questions of unique sample identification and discovery. Use of the IGSN in digital data systems allows building linkages between the digital representation of samples in sample registries, e.g. SESAR [2], and their related data in the literature and in web accessible digital data repositories. DataCite recently decided to publish their metadata store (DataCite MDS) and accompanying software online [3]. The DataCite software allows registration of handles, deposition of metadata in an XML format, it offers a search interface, and is able to disseminate metadata via OAI-PMH. Its, REST interface allows an easy integration into institutional data work flows. For our applications at GFZ Potsdam we modified the DataCite MDS software for reuse it in two different contexts: as the DOIDB web service for data publications and as the IGSN registry web service for the registration of geological samples. The DOIDB acts as a proxy service to the DataCite Metadata Store and uses its REST-Interface for registration of DataCite DOI and associated DOI metadata. Metadata can be deposited in the DataCite or NASA DIF schema. Both schemata can be disseminated via OAI

  7. STS-87 M.S. Doi and Chawla and P.S. Kadenyuk in slidewire basket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The crew of the STS-87 mission, scheduled for launch Nov. 19 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia from pad 39B at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), participates in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) at KSC. Testing a slide wire basket that is part of the pads emergency egress system are, from left, Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan; Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine (NSAU); and Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D. The TCDT is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight providing the crew of each mission opportunities to participate in simulated countdown activities. The TCDT ends with a mock launch countdown culminating in a simulated main engine cut-off. The crew also spends time undergoing emergency egress training exercises at the pad and has an opportunity to view and inspect the payloads in the orbiter's payload bay.

  8. Effects of the serotonin agonists 8-OH-DPAT, buspirone, and DOI on water maze performance.

    PubMed

    Kant, G J; Wylie, R M; Chu, K; Ghosh, S

    1998-03-01

    We have previously reported that the serotonin 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT and the 5-HT2c agonist TFMPP impair performance on a water maze. In the present report we extended those studies by examining a second 5-HT1A agonist, buspirone, to see whether its effects paralleled those of 8-OH-DPAT, and by testing the effects of the 5-HT2 agonist DOI. Unlike the open pool Morris water maze, the maze used in these experiments has alleys and doorways. The maze can be easily reconfigured to present rats with both previously learned or new maze challenges. Performance is assessed by time to reach the maze exit platform and the number of wrong doorways entered (errors). At doses that did not affect performance in a previously learned maze, the 5-HT1A agonists 8-OH-DPAT (0.1 mg/kg) and buspirone (1 mg/kg) slowed acquisition of a new maze configuration as measured by both swim time to the exit platform and errors committed. A higher dose of buspirone (10 mg/kg) completely blocked acquisition of a novel maze. In contrast. DOI slowed performance as assessed by swim time on both a well-learned maze as well as acquisition of a new maze, but did not affect error rate on either task, suggesting that this 5-HT2 agonist impaired performance by depressing motor activity. These experiments demonstrate that serotonin agonists, especially the 5-HT1A subtype, can impair learning. PMID:9512079

  9. Enhanced defect of interest [DOI] monitoring by utilizing sensitive inspection and ADRTrue SEM review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsch, Remo; Zeiske, Ulrich; Shabtay, Saar; Beyer, Mirko; Yerushalmi, Liran; Goshen, Oren

    2011-03-01

    As semiconductor process design rules continue to shrink, the ability of optical inspection tools to separate between true defects and nuisance becomes more and more difficult. Therefore, monitoring Defect of Interest (DOI) become a real challenge (Figure 1). This phenomenon occurs due to the lower signal received from real defects while noise levels remain almost the same, resulting in inspection high nuisance rate, which jeopardizes the ability to provide a meaningful, true defect Pareto. A non-representative defect Pareto creates a real challenge to a reliable process monitoring (Figure 4). Traditionally, inspection tool recipes were optimized to keep data load at a manageable level and provide defect maps with ~10% nuisance rate, but as defects of interest get smaller with design rule shrinkage, this requirement results in a painful compromise in detection sensitivity. The inspection is usually followed by defect review and classification using scanning electron microscope (SEM), the classification done manually and it is performed on a small sample of the inspection defect map due to time and manual resources limitations. Sample is usually 50~60 randomly selected locations, review is performed manually most of the times, and manual classification is performed for all the reviewed locations. In the approach described in this paper, the inspection tool recipe is optimized for sensitivity rather than low nuisance rate (i.e. detect all DOI with compromising on a higher nuisance rate). Inspection results with high nuisance rate introduce new challenges for SEM review methodology & tools. This paper describe a new approach which enhances process monitoring quality and the results of collaborative work of the Process Diagnostic & Control Business Unit of Applied Materials® and GLOBALFOUNDRIES® utilizing Applied Materials ADRTrueTM & SEMVisionTM capabilities. The study shows that the new approach reveals new defect types in the Pareto, and improves the ability to

  10. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging reveals increased DOI-induced brain activity in a mouse model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Malkova, Natalia V; Gallagher, Joseph J; Yu, Collin Z; Jacobs, Russell E; Patterson, Paul H

    2014-06-17

    Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk for schizophrenia in offspring. In rodent models, maternal immune activation (MIA) yields offspring with schizophrenia-like behaviors. None of these behaviors are, however, specific to schizophrenia. The presence of hallucinations is a key diagnostic symptom of schizophrenia. In mice, this symptom can be defined as brain activation in the absence of external stimuli, which can be mimicked by administration of hallucinogens. We find that, compared with controls, adult MIA offspring display an increased stereotypical behavioral response to the hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), an agonist for serotonin receptor 2A (5-HT2AR). This may be explained by increased levels of 5-HT2AR and downstream signaling molecules in unstimulated MIA prefrontal cortex (PFC). Using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to identify neuronal activation elicited by DOI administration, we find that, compared with controls, MIA offspring exhibit a greater manganese (Mn(2+)) accumulation in several brain areas, including the PFC, thalamus, and striatum. The parafascicular thalamic nucleus, which plays the role in the pathogenesis of hallucinations, is activated by DOI in MIA offspring only. Additionally, compared with controls, MIA offspring demonstrate higher DOI-induced expression of early growth response protein 1, cyclooxygenase-2, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the PFC. Chronic treatment with the 5-HT2AR antagonist ketanserin reduces DOI-induced head twitching in MIA offspring. Thus, the MIA mouse model can be successfully used to investigate activity induced by DOI in awake, behaving mice. Moreover, manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is a useful, noninvasive method for accurately measuring this type of activity. PMID:24889602

  11. Measuring depth of injury (DOI) in an isolated rabbit eye irritation test (IRE) using biomarkers of cell death and viability.

    PubMed

    Jester, James V; Ling, Joseph; Harbell, John

    2010-03-01

    While DOI is a mechanistic correlate to the ocular irritation response, attempts to measure DOI in alternative tests have been limited to qualitative histopathologic assessment by veterinarian pathologists. The purpose of this study was to determine whether DOI could be measured objectively by fluorescent staining for biomarkers of cell death and viability using an ex vivo isolated rabbit eye (IRE) test. A panel of nine materials characterized by in vivo DOI were selected that caused slight (3% acetic acid and 5% SDS), mild (acetone, sodium hypochlorite and 10% acetic acid), moderate (cyclohexanol and parafluoroanaline) and severe (8% sodium hydroxide and 10% benzalkonium chloride) irritation. Materials were then tested using a modified IRE test with 3h recovery and then processed for cyrosectioning and staining using a TUNEL assay to detect cell death, phalloidin to detect intracellular f-actin and DAPI staining to detect nuclei. Control eyes treated with water showed intense phalloidin staining of the corneal epithelium and stromal keratocytes but no TUNEL labeling. In general, eyes treated with mild, moderate and severe irritants showed regions of TUNEL labeled epithelial and keratocyte nuclei with no phalloidin stain overlying phalloidin stained, undamaged cells. DOI measurements showed that slight irritants damaged<40% of the epithelium, mild and moderate irritants damaged>50% of the epithelium, extending at times into the anterior stroma (<20%), and the severe irritant damaged>50% of the stroma. Regression analysis between ex vivo and in vivo DOI showed a significant (p<0.007) correlation (r=0.785). These data suggest that fluorescent staining of fixed and sectioned tissue using biomarkers can be used to objectively identify the depth of injury caused by ocular irritants. PMID:19857567

  12. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging reveals increased DOI-induced brain activity in a mouse model of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Malkova, Natalia V.; Gallagher, Joseph J.; Yu, Collin Z.; Jacobs, Russell E.; Patterson, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk for schizophrenia in offspring. In rodent models, maternal immune activation (MIA) yields offspring with schizophrenia-like behaviors. None of these behaviors are, however, specific to schizophrenia. The presence of hallucinations is a key diagnostic symptom of schizophrenia. In mice, this symptom can be defined as brain activation in the absence of external stimuli, which can be mimicked by administration of hallucinogens. We find that, compared with controls, adult MIA offspring display an increased stereotypical behavioral response to the hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), an agonist for serotonin receptor 2A (5-HT2AR). This may be explained by increased levels of 5-HT2AR and downstream signaling molecules in unstimulated MIA prefrontal cortex (PFC). Using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to identify neuronal activation elicited by DOI administration, we find that, compared with controls, MIA offspring exhibit a greater manganese (Mn2+) accumulation in several brain areas, including the PFC, thalamus, and striatum. The parafascicular thalamic nucleus, which plays the role in the pathogenesis of hallucinations, is activated by DOI in MIA offspring only. Additionally, compared with controls, MIA offspring demonstrate higher DOI-induced expression of early growth response protein 1, cyclooxygenase-2, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the PFC. Chronic treatment with the 5-HT2AR antagonist ketanserin reduces DOI-induced head twitching in MIA offspring. Thus, the MIA mouse model can be successfully used to investigate activity induced by DOI in awake, behaving mice. Moreover, manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is a useful, noninvasive method for accurately measuring this type of activity. PMID:24889602

  13. STS-87 Mission Specialists Scott and Doi with EVA coordinator Laws participate in the CEIT for their

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Participating in the Crew Equipment Integration Test (CEIT) at Kennedy Space Center are STS-87 crew members, assisted by Glenda Laws, extravehicular activity (EVA) coordinator, Johnson Space Center, at left. Next to Laws is Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, who is looking on as Mission Specialist Winston Scott gets a hands-on look at some of the equipment. The STS-87 mission will be the fourth United States Microgravity Payload and flight of the Spartan-201 deployable satellite. During the mission, scheduled for a Nov. 19 liftoff from KSC, Dr. Doi and Scott will both perform spacewalks.

  14. The Past, Present and Future of the Compact Disc, Multimedia and the Industry: An Interview with Sony's Dr. Toshi Doi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herther, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    This interview with Dr. Toshi Doi, director of the Sony Corporation, covers his work at Sony, the multimedia industry, industry cooperation, Sony compact disc products and formats, multimedia standards and pricing, multimedia formats, and the future of the industry. A diagram of computer companies and corresponding multimedia platforms is…

  15. 25 CFR 900.208 - How are non-medical related tort claims and lawsuits filed for DOI?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How are non-medical related tort claims and lawsuits...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Federal Tort Claims Act Coverage General Provisions Non-Medical Related Claims § 900.208 How are non-medical related tort claims and lawsuits filed for DOI?...

  16. Exploring Learner Perception of E-Learning Effectiveness in the Workplace Learning Context Based on Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Tzu-Ling; Chen, Tzu-Jung

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study aims to examine adult learner's perception related to e-learning effectiveness. The model of diffusion of innovations (DOI) was used as the research framework and quantitative research methodology employing survey techniques was applied to collect the data. The targeted population identified in this study includes adult…

  17. DOIs for Data: Progress in Data Citation and Publication in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, S.; Murphy, F.; Tedds, J.; Allan, R.

    2012-12-01

    publication, and assessing the trustworthiness of data archives. A key goal is to ensure that these projects reach out to, and are informed by, other related initiatives on a global basis, in particular anyone interested in developing long-term sustainable policies, processes, incentives and business models for managing and publishing research data. This presentation will give an overview of progress in the projects mentioned above, specifically focussing on the use of DOIs for datasets hosted in the NERC environmental data centers, and how DOIs are enabling formal data citation and publication in the geosciences.

  18. STS-87 M.S. Takao Doi, Ph.D., of NASDA after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan greets a NASDA official shortly after the orbiter Columbia returned to KSC, touching down on Runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. STS-87 concluded its mission with a main gear touchdown at 7:20:04 a.m. EST Dec. 5, drawing the 15-day, 16-hour and 34-minute-long mission of 6.5 million miles to a close. Also onboard the orbiter were Commander Kevin Kregel; Pilot Steven Lindsey; Mission Specialists Winston Scott and Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D.; and Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. During the 88th Space Shuttle mission, the crew performed experiments on the United States Microgravity Payload-4 and pollinated plants as part of the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment. This was the 12th landing for Columbia at KSC and the 41st KSC landing in the history of the Space Shuttle program.

  19. NASDA President Isao Uchida greets STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The president of the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan, Isao Uchida, at left, chats with STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of NASDA, shortly after the landing of Columbia at Kennedy Space Center. STS-87 concluded its mission with a main gear touchdown at 7:20:04 a.m. EST Dec. 5, at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility Runway 33, drawing the 15-day, 16-hour and 34- minute-long mission of 6.5 million miles to a close. Also onboard the orbiter were Commander Kevin Kregel; Pilot Steven Lindsey; Mission Specialists Winston Scott and Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D.; and Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. During the 88th Space Shuttle mission, the crew performed experiments on the United States Microgravity Payload-4 and pollinated plants as part of the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment. This was the 12th landing for Columbia at KSC and the 41st KSC landing in the history of the Space Shuttle program.

  20. 25 CFR 1000.55 - Can a Tribe/Consortium appeal within DOI the Director's decision not to award a grant under this...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a Tribe/Consortium appeal within DOI the Director's decision not to award a grant under this subpart? 1000.55 Section 1000.55 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... Negotiation Grants Advance Planning Grant Funding § 1000.55 Can a Tribe/Consortium appeal within DOI...

  1. Concept for Future Data Services at the Long-Term Archive of WDCC combining DOIs with common PIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockhause, Martina; Weigel, Tobias; Toussaint, Frank; Höck, Heinke; Thiemann, Hannes; Lautenschlager, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The World Data Center for Climate (WDCC) hosted at the German Climate Computing Center (DKRZ) maintains a long-term archive (LTA) of climate model data as well as observational data. WDCC distinguishes between two types of LTA data: Structured data: Data output of an instrument or of a climate model run consists of numerous, highly structured individual datasets in a uniform format. Part of these data is also published on an ESGF (Earth System Grid Federation) data node. Detailed metadata is available allowing for fine-grained user-defined data access. Unstructured data: LTA data of finished scientific projects are in general unstructured and consist of datasets of different formats, different sizes, and different contents. For these data compact metadata is available as content information. The structured data is suitable for WDCC's DataCite DOI process, the project data only in exceptional cases. The DOI process includes a thorough quality control process of technical as well as scientific aspects by the publication agent and the data creator. DOIs are assigned to data collections appropriate to be cited in scientific publications, like a simulation run. The data collection is defined in agreement with the data creator. At the moment there is no possibility to identify and cite individual datasets within this DOI data collection analogous to the citation of chapters in a book. Also missing is a compact citation regulation for a user-specified collection of data. WDCC therefore complements its existing LTA/DOI concept by Persistent Identifier (PID) assignment to datasets using Handles. In addition to data identification for internal and external use, the concept of PIDs allows to define relations among PIDs. Such structural information is stored as key-value pair directly in the handles. Thus, relations provide basic provenance or lineage information, even if part of the data like intermediate results are lost. WDCC intends to use additional PIDs on metadata

  2. A new forest-dwelling Bent-toed Gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus) from Doi Inthanon, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kunya, Kirati; Sumontha, Montri; Panitvong, Nonn; Dongkumfu, Wuttipong; Sirisamphan, Thana; Pauwels, Olivier S G

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new forest-dwelling Cyrtodactylus from Doi Inthanon, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. Cyrtodactylus inthanon sp. nov. is characterized by a maximum known SVL of 87.3 mm; 18 to 20 longitudinal rows of dorsal tubercles; a continuous series of 34 to 37 enlarged femoro-precloacal scales, including four to six pitted (female) or pore-bearing (male) scales on each femur separated by a diastema from five pitted (females) or pore-bearing (male) precloacal scales; no precloacal groove or depression; transversely enlarged subcaudal scales; and three to five irregular beige dorsal bands between limb insertions. The discovery of a new reptile endemic to Doi Inthanon reinforces the high importance of this mountain in terms of biodiversity conservation. PMID:25661232

  3. Estudo de soluções locais e cosmológicas em teorias do tipo tensor-escalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva E Costa, S.

    2003-08-01

    Teorias do tipo tensor-escalar são a mais simples extensão possí vel da Relatividade Geral. Nessas teorias, cujo modelo padrão é a teoria de Brans-Dicke, a curvatura do espaço-tempo, descrita por componentes tensoriais, aparece acoplada a um campo escalar que, de certo modo, representa uma variação na constante de acoplamento da gravitação. Tais teorias apresentam soluções locais e cosmológicas que, em determinados limites, recaem nas apresentadas pela Relatividade Geral, mas que em outros limites trazem novidades, tais como conseqüências observacionais da evolução de flutuações primordiais distintas daquelas previstas pela Relatividade Geral (ver, por ex., Nagata et al., PRD 66, p. 103510 (2002)). Graças a esta possibilidade de trazer à luz novidades em relação à gravitação, teorias do tipo tensor-escalar podem ser vistas como um interessante campo alternativo de pesquisas para soluções dos problemas de massa faltante (ou escura) e/ou energia escura. Seguindo tal linha, este trabalho, ainda em sua fase inicial, apresenta soluções gerais de teorias do tipo tensor-escalar para diversas situações, verificando-se em que consiste a divergência dessas soluções dos casos tradicionais possí veis na Relatividade Geral. Como exemplos das soluções aqui apresentadas pode-se destacar uma expressão geral para diferentes soluções cosmológicas englobando diferentes tipos de matéria (representados por diferentes equações de estado), e a expressão para uma solução local representando um buraco negro com rotação, similar à solução de Kerr da Relatividade Geral. Por fim, é importante ressaltar que, embora aqui apresentem-se poucos resultados novos, na literatura sobre o assunto a maior parte das soluções apresentadas limita-se a uns poucos casos especí ficos, tal como soluções cosmológicas apenas com curvatura nula, e que mesmo as soluções disponí veis são, em geral, pouco divulgadas e, portanto, pouco conhecidas, e

  4. Characterization of a high-resolution hybrid DOI detector for a dedicated breast PET/CT scanner.

    PubMed

    Godinez, Felipe; Chaudhari, Abhijit J; Yang, Yongfeng; Farrell, Richard; Badawi, Ramsey D

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study is to design and test a new high-resolution hybrid depth of interaction (DOI) detector for a dedicated breast PET/CT scanner. Two detectors have been designed and built. The completed detectors are based on a 14 × 14 array of 1.5 × 1.5 × 20 mm(3) unpolished lutetium orthosilicate scintillation crystals, with each element coated in a 50 μm layer of reflective material. The detector is read out from both ends using a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) and a large active area (20 × 20 mm(2)) avalanche photodiode (APD) to enable acquisition of DOI information. Nuclear instrumentation modules were used to characterize the detectors' performances in terms of timing, intrinsic spatial resolution (ISR) and energy resolution, as well as DOI resolution with a dual-ended readout configuration. Measurements with the APD were performed at a temperature of 10 °C. All crystals were identified at all depths, even though the signal amplitude from the PSPMT decreases with depth away from it. We measured a timing resolution of 2.4 ns, and an average energy resolution of 19%. The mean ISR was measured to be 1.2 mm for crystals in the central row of the array for detectors in the face-to-face position. Two off-center positions were measured corresponding to 26° and 51° oblique photon incidence, and the mean ISR at these positions was 1.5 and 1.7 mm, respectively. The average DOI resolution across all crystals and depths was measured to be 2.9 mm (including the beam width of 0.6 mm). This detector design shows good promise as a high-resolution detector for a dedicated breast PET/CT scanner. PMID:22581109

  5. 77 FR 19307 - Renewal of Information Collection; OMB Control Number 1040-0001, DOI Programmatic Clearance for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ...We (Department of the Interior, DOI) have submitted a request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to approve the information collection (IC) described below. This IC is scheduled to expire March 31, 2012. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 and as part of our continuing efforts to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, we invite the general public and other Federal......

  6. Side readout of long scintillation crystal elements with digital SiPM for TOF-DOI PET

    SciTech Connect

    Yeom, Jung Yeol E-mail: cslevin@stanford.edu; Vinke, Ruud; Levin, Craig S. E-mail: cslevin@stanford.edu

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: Side readout of scintillation light from crystal elements in positron emission tomography (PET) is an alternative to conventional end-readout configurations, with the benefit of being able to provide accurate depth-of-interaction (DOI) information and good energy resolution while achieving excellent timing resolution required for time-of-flight PET. This paper explores different readout geometries of scintillation crystal elements with the goal of achieving a detector that simultaneously achieves excellent timing resolution, energy resolution, spatial resolution, and photon sensitivity. Methods: The performance of discrete LYSO scintillation elements of different lengths read out from the end/side with digital silicon photomultipliers (dSiPMs) has been assessed. Results: Compared to 3 × 3 × 20 mm{sup 3} LYSO crystals read out from their ends with a coincidence resolving time (CRT) of 162 ± 6 ps FWHM and saturated energy spectra, a side-readout configuration achieved an excellent CRT of 144 ± 2 ps FWHM after correcting for timing skews within the dSiPM and an energy resolution of 11.8% ± 0.2% without requiring energy saturation correction. Using a maximum likelihood estimation method on individual dSiPM pixel response that corresponds to different 511 keV photon interaction positions, the DOI resolution of this 3 × 3 × 20 mm{sup 3} crystal side-readout configuration was computed to be 0.8 mm FWHM with negligible artifacts at the crystal ends. On the other hand, with smaller 3 × 3 × 5 mm{sup 3} LYSO crystals that can also be tiled/stacked to provide DOI information, a timing resolution of 134 ± 6 ps was attained but produced highly saturated energy spectra. Conclusions: The energy, timing, and DOI resolution information extracted from the side of long scintillation crystal elements coupled to dSiPM have been acquired for the first time. The authors conclude in this proof of concept study that such detector configuration has the potential to enable

  7. Basic performance evaluation of a Si-PM array-based LGSO phoswich DOI block detector for a high-resolution small animal PET system.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seiichi

    2013-07-01

    The silicon photomultiplier (Si-PM) is a promising photodetector for PET. However, it remains unclear whether Si-PM can be used for a depth-of-interaction (DOI) detector based on the decay time differences of the scintillator where pulse shape analysis is used. For clarification, we tested the Hamamatsu 4 × 4 Si-PM array (S11065-025P) combined with scintillators that used different decay times to develop DOI block detectors using the pulse shape analysis. First, Ce-doped Gd(2)SiO(5) (GSO) scintillators of 0.5 mol% Ce were arranged in a 4 × 4 matrix and were optically coupled to the center of each pixel of the Si-PM array for measurement of the energy resolution as well as its gain variations according to the temperature. Then two types of Ce-doped Lu(1.9)Gd(0.1)Si0(5) (LGSO) scintillators, 0.025 mol% Ce (decay time: ~31 ns) and 0.75 mol% Ce (decay time: ~46 ns), were optically coupled in the DOI direction, arranged in a 11 × 7 matrix, and optically coupled to a Si-PM array for testing of the possibility of a high-resolution DOI detector. The energy resolution of the Si-PM array-based GSO block detector was 18 ± 4.4 % FWHM for a Cs-137 gamma source (662 keV). Less than 1 mm crystals were clearly resolved in the position map of the LGSO DOI block detector. The peak-to-valley ratio (P/V) derived from the pulse shape spectra of the LGSO DOI block detector was 2.2. These results confirmed that Si-PM array-based DOI block detectors are promising for high-resolution small animal PET systems. PMID:23271446

  8. The effect of the sigma-1 receptor selective compound LS-1-137 on the DOI-induced head twitch response in mice.

    PubMed

    Malik, Maninder; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Mach, Robert H; Luedtke, Robert R

    2016-09-01

    Several receptor mediated pathways have been shown to modulate the murine head twitch response (HTR). However, the role of sigma receptors in the murine (±)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI)-induced HTR has not been previously investigated. We examined the ability of LS-1-137, a novel sigma-1 vs. sigma-2 receptor selective phenylacetamide, to modulate the DOI-induced HTR in DBA/2J mice. We also assessed the in vivo efficacy of reference sigma-1 receptor antagonists and agonists PRE-084 and PPCC. The effect of the sigma-2 receptor selective antagonist RHM-1-86 was also examined. Rotarod analysis was performed to monitor motor coordination after LS-1-137 administration. Radioligand binding techniques were used to determine the affinity of LS-1-137 at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. LS-1-137 and the sigma-1 receptor antagonists haloperidol and BD 1047 were able to attenuate a DOI-induced HTR, indicating that LS-1-137 was acting in vivo as a sigma-1 receptor antagonist. LS-1-137 did not compromise rotarod performance within a dose range capable of attenuating the effects of DOI. Radioligand binding studies indicate that LS-1-137 exhibits low affinity binding at both 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. Based upon the results from these and our previous studies, LS-1-137 is a neuroprotective agent that attenuates the murine DOI-induced HTR independent of activity at 5-HT2 receptor subtypes, D2-like dopamine receptors, sigma-2 receptors and NMDA receptors. LS-1-137 appears to act as a sigma-1 receptor antagonist to inhibit the DOI-induced HTR. Therefore, the DOI-induced HTR can be used to assess the in vivo efficacy of sigma-1 receptor selective compounds. PMID:27397487

  9. Exploring facilitating factors and barriers to the nationwide dissemination of a Dutch school-based obesity prevention program “DOiT”: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The evidence-based Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program is a school-based obesity prevention program for 12 to 14-year olds attending the first two years of prevocational education. This paper describes the study protocol applied to evaluate (a) the nationwide dissemination process of DOiT in the Netherlands, and (b) the relationship between quality of implementation and effectiveness during nationwide dissemination of the program in the Netherlands. Methods In order to explore facilitating factors and barriers for dissemination of DOiT, we monitored the process of adoption, implementation and continuation of the DOiT program among 20 prevocational schools in the Netherlands. The study was an observational study using qualitative (i.e. semi-structured interviews) and quantitative methods (i.e. questionnaires and logbooks). Eight process indicators were assessed: recruitment, context, reach, dosage, fidelity, satisfaction, effectiveness and continuation. All teachers, students and parents involved in the implementation of the program were invited to participate in the study. As part of the process evaluation, a cluster-controlled trial with ten control schools was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the program on students’ anthropometry and energy balance-related behaviours and its association with quality of implementation. Discussion The identified impeding and facilitating factors will contribute to an adjusted strategy promoting adoption, implementation and continuation of the DOiT program to ensure optimal use and, thereby, prevention of obesity in Dutch adolescents. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN92755979. PMID:24355056

  10. Uma Comparação entre Técnicas de Propagação de Erros em Astrofísica: Monte Carlo x Bootstrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabot, Alexandre; Baptista, Raymundo

    2005-07-01

    Neste trabalho é feito um estudo comparativo entre dois algoritmos numéricos usados para propagação de erros em dados experimentais. Um deles é conhecido por Método de Monte carlo e o outro por Método de Bootstrap. Recentemente, Dhullon & Watson argüiram que a aplicação do método de Monte Carlo introduz ruído nos dados, e propuseram então a utilização do Bootstrap como alternativa capaz de produzir resultados superiores. O objetivo deste trabalho é testar a validade dessa afirmação. As duas técnicas foram aplicadas a três problemas diferentes: o ajsute de modelos de emissão LTE simples e atmosfera estelar a espectros estelares observados e o ajuste de curvas de luz de eclipses de Variáveis Cataclísmicas para a detemrinação da distribuição radial de brilho dos seus discos de acréscimo. Os métodos foram testados quanto à sua robusteza, ou seja, a capacidade de prover resultados coerentes enre si. Além disso, as soluções dos métodos foram comparadas. Os resultados indicam que não existe evidência de superioridade de um métodos em relação ao outro.

  11. Biaxial deformation of a polymer under shear: NMR test of the Doi-Edwards model with convected constraint release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Ryan J.; Kilfoil, Maria L.; Callaghan, Paul T.

    2001-11-01

    2H NMR quadrupole interaction spectroscopy has been used to measure the deformation of a 670 kD poly(dimethylsiloxane) melt under shear in a Couette cell. The signals were acquired from a per deuterated benzene probe molecule which provides a motionally averaged sampling of the entire segmental ensemble. We have measured the dependence on shear rate of the SXX (velocity), SYY (velocity gradient), SZZ (vorticity), and SXY (shear) elements of the segmental alignment tensor, as well as the angular dependence of the deuterium quadrupole splitting at fixed shear rate. We show that the data agree quite well with the Doi-Edwards theory but significantly better when convected constraint release effects are included. These fits return a value for the tube disengagement time of 100 ms.

  12. Hyperspectral Technology Transfer to the US Department of Interior: Summary of Results of the NASA/DOI Hyperspectral Technology Transfer Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Root, Ralph; Wickland, Diane

    2001-01-01

    In 1997 the Office of Biological Informatics and Outreach (OBIO), Biological Resources Division, US Geological Survey and NASA, Office of Earth Science (OES), initiated a coordinated effort for applying Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data and analysis, as a technology transfer project, to critical DOI environmental issues in four study sites throughout the United States. This work was accomplished by four US Department of the Interior (DOI) study teams with support from NASA/OES principal investigators and the Office of Earth Science programs. The studies, including personnel, objectives, background, project plans, and milestones were documented in a project website at . This report summarizes the final outcomes of the project, detailing accomplishments, lessons learned, and benefits realized to NASA, the US Geological Survey, and the participating DOI bureaus.

  13. A Common Model To Support Interoperable Metadata: Progress Report on Reconciling Metadata Requirements from the Dublin Core and INDECS/DOI Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, David; Rust, Godfrey; Weibel, Stuart; Miller, Eric; Trant, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    The Dublin Core metadata community and the INDECS/DOI community of authors, rights holders, and publishers are seeking common ground in the expression of metadata for information resources. An open "Schema Harmonization" working group has been established to identify a common framework to support interoperability among these communities.…

  14. Negative decision outcomes are more common among people with lower decision-making competence: an item-level analysis of the Decision Outcome Inventory (DOI)

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Andrew M.; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2015-01-01

    Most behavioral decision research takes place in carefully controlled laboratory settings, and examination of relationships between performance and specific real-world decision outcomes is rare. One prior study shows that people who perform better on hypothetical decision tasks, assessed using the Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) measure, also tend to experience better real-world decision outcomes, as reported on the Decision Outcomes Inventory (DOI). The DOI score reflects avoidance of outcomes that could result from poor decisions, ranging from serious (e.g., bankruptcy) to minor (e.g., blisters from sunburn). The present analyses go beyond the initial work, which focused on the overall DOI score, by analyzing the relationships between specific decision outcomes and A-DMC performance. Most outcomes are significantly more likely among people with lower A-DMC scores, even after taking into account two variables expected to produce worse real-world decision outcomes: younger age and lower socio-economic status. We discuss the usefulness of DOI as a measure of successful real-world decision-making. PMID:25904876

  15. Temperature data acquired from the DOI/GTN-P Deep Borehole Array on the Arctic Slope of Alaska, 1973-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clow, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    System (GTOS). The data will also be useful for refining our basic understanding of the physical conditions in permafrost in Arctic Alaska, as well as providing important information for validating predictive models used for climate impact assessments. The processed data are available from the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS) repository at doi:10.5065/D6N014HK.

  16. In Preparation of the Nationwide Dissemination of the School-Based Obesity Prevention Program DOiT: Stepwise Development Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nassau, Femke; Singh, Amika S.; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes; Chin A. Paw, Mai J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The school-based Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program is an evidence-based obesity prevention program. In preparation for dissemination throughout the Netherlands, this study aimed to adapt the initial program and to develop an implementation strategy and materials. Methods: We revisited the Intervention Mapping (IM)…

  17. Negative decision outcomes are more common among people with lower decision-making competence: an item-level analysis of the Decision Outcome Inventory (DOI).

    PubMed

    Parker, Andrew M; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2015-01-01

    Most behavioral decision research takes place in carefully controlled laboratory settings, and examination of relationships between performance and specific real-world decision outcomes is rare. One prior study shows that people who perform better on hypothetical decision tasks, assessed using the Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) measure, also tend to experience better real-world decision outcomes, as reported on the Decision Outcomes Inventory (DOI). The DOI score reflects avoidance of outcomes that could result from poor decisions, ranging from serious (e.g., bankruptcy) to minor (e.g., blisters from sunburn). The present analyses go beyond the initial work, which focused on the overall DOI score, by analyzing the relationships between specific decision outcomes and A-DMC performance. Most outcomes are significantly more likely among people with lower A-DMC scores, even after taking into account two variables expected to produce worse real-world decision outcomes: younger age and lower socio-economic status. We discuss the usefulness of DOI as a measure of successful real-world decision-making. PMID:25904876

  18. Implemented or Not Implemented? Process Evaluation of the School-Based Obesity Prevention Program DOiT and Associations with Program Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nassau, Femke; Singh, Amika S.; Hoekstra, Trynke; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes; Chinapaw, Mai J. M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates if and to what extent the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program was implemented as intended and how this affected program effectiveness. We collected data at 20 prevocational education schools in the Netherlands. We assessed seven process indicators: recruitment, reach, dosage, fidelity, satisfaction,…

  19. Melatonin reversal of DOI-induced hypophagia in rats; possible mechanism by suppressing 5-HT(2A) receptor-mediated activation of HPA axis.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, V; Kulkarni, S K

    2000-03-31

    Serotonin type 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptor-mediated neurotransmitter is known to activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, regulate sleep-awake cycle, induce anorexia and hyperthermia. Interaction between melatonin and 5-HT(2A) receptors in the regulation of the sleep-awake cycle and head-twitch response in rat have been reported. Previous studies have shown that melatonin has suppressant effect on HPA axis activation, decreases core body temperature and induces hyperphagia in animals. However, melatonin interaction with 5-HT(2A) receptors in mediation of these actions is not yet reported. We have studied the acute effect of melatonin and its antagonist, luzindole on centrally administered (+/-)-1-(2, 5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl) 2-amino propane (DOI; a 5-HT(2A/2C) agonist)-induced activation of HPA axis, hypophagia and hyperthermia in 24-h food-deprived rats. Like ritanserin [(1 mg/kg, i.p.) 5-HT(2A/2C) antagonist], peripherally administered melatonin (1.5 and 3 mg/kg, i.p.) did not affect the food intake, rectal temperature or basal adrenal ascorbic acid level. However, pretreatment of rats with it significantly reversed DOI (10 microgram, intraventricular)-induced anorexia and activation of HPA axis. But the hyperthermia induced by DOI was not sensitive to reversal by melatonin. Mel(1) receptor subtype antagonist luzindole (5 microgram, intraventricular) did not modulate the DOI effect but antagonized the melatonin (3 mg/kg, i.p.) reversal of 5-HT(2A) agonist response. The present data suggest that melatonin reversal of DOI-induced hypophagia could be due to suppression of 5-HT(2A) mediated activation of HPA axis. PMID:10727629

  20. NASDA President Isao Uchida shakes hands with STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., after land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The president of the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan, Isao Uchida, at left, shakes hands with STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of NASDA, shortly after the landing of Columbia at Kennedy Space Center. STS-87 concluded its mission with a main gear touchdown at 7:20:04 a.m. EST Dec. 5, at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility Runway 33, drawing the 15-day, 16-hour and 34-minute-long mission of 6.5 million miles to a close. Also onboard the orbiter were Commander Kevin Kregel; Pilot Steven Lindsey; Mission Specialists Winston Scott and Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D.; and Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. During the 88th Space Shuttle mission, the crew performed experiments on the United States Microgravity Payload-4 and pollinated plants as part of the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment. This was the 12th landing for Columbia at KSC and the 41st KSC landing in the history of the Space Shuttle program.

  1. A Three-Legged Stool or Race? Governance Models for NOAA RISAs, DOI CSCs, and USDA Climate Hubs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    NOAAs Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) Teams, DOIs Climate Science Centers (CSCs), and USDAs Regional Climate Hubs (RCHs) have common missions of integrating climate and related knowledge across scientific disciplines and regions to create "actionable" information that decision-makes can use to manage climate risks and impacts at state and local scales. However, the sponsoring agency programs, university investigators, and local federal officials govern each differently. The three models of program and center governance are 1) exclusively university (RISAs), 2) a hybrid of Federal government and (host) university (CSCs,), and 3) exclusively Federal (Hubs). Each model has it's advantages and disadvantages in terms of legal definition and authority, scientific mission requirements and strategies, flexibility and legitimacy to conduct research and to collaborate regionally with constituencies, leadership and governance approach and "friction points,", staff capacity and ability to engage stakeholders, necessity to deliver products and services, bureaucratic oversight, performance evaluation, and political support at Congressional, state, and local levels. Using available sources of information and data, this paper will compare and contrast the strengths and weakness of these three regional applied climate science center governance models.

  2. A Three-Legged Stool or Race? Governance Models for NOAA RISAs, DOI CSCs, and USDA Climate Hub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    NOAAs Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) Teams, DOIs Climate Science Centers (CSCs), and USDAs Regional Climate Hubs (RCHs) have common missions of integrating climate and related knowledge across scientific disciplines and regions to create "actionable" information that decision-makes can use to manage climate risks and impacts at state and local scales. However, the sponsoring agency programs, university investigators, and local federal officials govern each differently. The three models of program and center governance are 1) exclusively university (RISAs), 2) a hybrid of Federal government and (host) university (CSCs,), and 3) exclusively Federal (Hubs). Each model has it's advantages and disadvantages in terms of legal definition and authority, scientific mission requirements and strategies, flexibility and legitimacy to conduct research and to collaborate regionally with constituencies, leadership and governance approach and "friction points,", staff capacity and ability to engage stakeholders, necessity to deliver products and services, bureaucratic oversight, performance evaluation, and political support at Congressional, state, and local levels. Using available sources of information and data, this paper will compare and contrast the strengths and weakness of these three regional applied climate science center governance models.

  3. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): U. S. DOI Sangamo/Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge, Carterville, IL. (First remedial action), March 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-30

    The U.S. DOI Sangamo/Crab Orchard NWR site is within the Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge, located near Carterville, Illinois. Within the 43,000-acre refuge, lakes and adjacent wetlands support recreational activities on the western portion of the refuge, while the eastern portion is used for manufacturing facilities. DOI leased portions of the refuge to manufacturers of PCB-containing transformers and capacitors, automobile parts, fiberglass boats, plated metal parts, and jet engine starters. Solid wastes generated from these industrial activities were disposed of in onsite landfills, while other liquid wastes may have been discharged into nearby surface waters and impoundments. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sediment, debris, and sludge are metals including cadmium, chromium, and lead. The selected remedial action for the site is included.

  4. Implemented or not implemented? Process evaluation of the school-based obesity prevention program DOiT and associations with program effectiveness.

    PubMed

    van Nassau, Femke; Singh, Amika S; Hoekstra, Trynke; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes; Chinapaw, Mai J M

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates if and to what extent the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program was implemented as intended and how this affected program effectiveness. We collected data at 20 prevocational education schools in the Netherlands. We assessed seven process indicators: recruitment, reach, dosage, fidelity, satisfaction, effectiveness and continuation. Data collection involved teacher questionnaires (n= 110), adolescent questionnaires and adiposity measures (n= 938). Using multi-level confirmatory factor analyses, we applied an innovative method to obtain explorative implementation index scores. The percentage of accomplished activities ranged from 9% (for 'closure meeting') up to 93% (for 'obtaining support within the school for adoption'). The percentage of lessons delivered decreased from 74 to 18% towards the end of the program. Fidelity to the teacher manual ranged from 85 to 26%. In general, teachers were satisfied with the DOiT lessons and teaching materials. Despite teachers' satisfaction with the DOiT lessons and teaching materials, degree of program implementation was lower than expected, especially towards the end of the program. Further, some evidence was found for an association between a higher implementation index score and program effectiveness, but more research is needed to test the validity of the implementation index. PMID:27004906

  5. La problematica de la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia y sus implicaciones en la educacion cientifica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez Tolentino, Dinorah

    2011-12-01

    En la sociedad prevalece una tendencia generalizada hacia la inclusion de creencias y practicas pseudocientificas. Esta investigacion responde a la necesidad de analizar como la proliferacion de las pseudociencias afecta la vision que tienen los estudiantes universitarios sobre las ciencias naturales. A tales efectos, la investigadora describe las concepciones epistemologicas que tienen los estudiantes sobre las ciencias y las pseudociencias e identifica los criterios de demarcacion, entre un area y otra, que se derivan de estas concepciones. De igual modo, esta identifica las creencias y practicas pseudocientificas de mayor arraigo entre los estudiantes, destacando, a su vez, la razon de ser de las mismas. Por ultimo, la investigadora analiza las implicaciones educativas de la problematica de la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia. La investigacion es de naturaleza mixta, enmarcada en los paradigmas empirico- analitico y cualitativo. El proceso investigativo se llevo a cabo mediante la administracion del cuestionario Criterios para la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia. La parte cualitativa estuvo enmarcada en el diseno de estudio de caso, recopilando informacion mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas en dos grupos focales. La poblacion de estudio estuvo constituida por estudiantes universitarios del nivel subgraduado de la Universidad Central de Bayamon. Los resultados del estudio reflejaron las concepciones erroneas de los estudiantes sobre la naturaleza de las ciencias y las pseudociencias. Con respecto a la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia, el criterio imperante entre los universitarios es el de la verificabilidad, considerando la aplicacion del metodo cientifico como el metodo para demostrar la veracidad de las teorias cientificas. Las creencias y practicas pseudocientificas no son muy frecuentes entre los universitarios. Estos atribuyen las mismas a la prevalencia de elementos supersticiosos y al engano a que es sometida la poblacion

  6. Development of 1.45-mm resolution four-layer DOI-PET detector for simultaneous measurement in 3T MRI.

    PubMed

    Nishikido, Fumihiko; Tachibana, Atsushi; Obata, Takayuki; Inadama, Naoko; Yoshida, Eiji; Suga, Mikio; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga

    2015-01-01

    Recently, various types of PET-MRI systems have been developed by a number of research groups. However, almost all of the PET detectors used in these PET-MRI systems have no depth-of-interaction (DOI) capability. The DOI detector can reduce the parallax error and lead to improvement of the performance. We are developing a new PET-MRI system which consists of four-layer DOI detectors positioned close to the measured object to achieve high spatial resolution and high scanner sensitivity. As a first step, we are investigating influences the PET detector and the MRI system have on each other using a prototype four-layer DOI-PET detector. This prototype detector consists of a lutetium yttrium orthosilicate crystal block and a 4 × 4 multi-pixel photon counter array. The size of each crystal element is 1.45 mm × 1.45 mm × 4.5 mm, and the crystals are arranged in 6 × 6 elements × 4 layers with reflectors. The detector and some electric components are packaged in an aluminum shielding box. Experiments were carried out with 3.0 T MRI (GE, Signa HDx) and a birdcage-type RF coil. We demonstrated that the DOI-PET detector was normally operated in simultaneous measurements with no influence of the MRI measurement. A slight influence of the PET detector on the static magnetic field of the MRI was observed near the PET detector. The signal-to-noise ratio was decreased by presence of the PET detector due to environmental noise entering the MRI room through the cables, even though the PET detector was not powered up. On the other hand, no influence of electric noise from the PET detector in the simultaneous measurement on the MRI images was observed, even though the PET detector was positioned near the RF coil. PMID:25348721

  7. A DOI Detector With Crystal Scatter Identification Capability for High Sensitivity and High Spatial Resolution PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Z.; Prout, D. L.; Silverman, R. W.; Herman, H.; Dooraghi, A.; Chatziioannou, A. F.

    2015-01-01

    potentially lead to a high spatial resolution, high sensitivity and DOI PET system. PMID:26478600

  8. Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds: Youth Violence Prevention for Acculturating Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smokowski, Paul R.; Bacallao, Martica

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the efficacy of Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds (EDM) prevention for Latino adolescents. Method: In an experimental trial to compare implementation formats, 41 Latino families were randomly assigned to EDM action-oriented skills training groups, and 47 families were randomly assigned to unstructured EDM support…

  9. Plagiarism in the article Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association. Mustapha Ahsaini et al. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;16:18. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505).

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This retracts article Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association. Mustapha Ahsaini, Amadou Kassogue, Mohammed Fadl Tazi, Anas Zaougui, Jalal Edine Elammari, Abdelhak Khallouk, Mohammed Jamal El Fassi, My Hassan Farih. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;16:18. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505).[This retracts the article DOI: 10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505.]. PMID:26328003

  10. Feasibility of a brain-dedicated PET-MRI system using four-layer DOI detectors integrated with an RF head coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikido, F.; Obata, T.; Shimizu, K.; Suga, M.; Inadama, N.; Tachibana, A.; Yoshida, E.; Ito, H.; Yamaya, T.

    2014-08-01

    We are developing a PET-MRI system which consists of PET detectors integrated with the head coil of the MRI in order to realize high spatial resolution and high sensitivity in simultaneous measurements. In the PET-MRI system, the PET detectors which consist of a scintillator block, photo-detectors and front-end circuits with four-layer depth-of-interaction (DOI) encoding capability are placed close to the measured object. Therefore, the proposed system can achieve high sensitivity without degradation of spatial resolution at the edge of the field-of-view due to parallax error thanks to the four-layer DOI capability. In this paper, we fabricated a prototype system which consists of a prototype four-layer DOI-PET detector, a dummy PET detector and a prototype birdcage type head coil. Then we used the prototype system to evaluate the performance of the four-layer DOI-PET detector and the reciprocal influence between the PET detectors and MRI images. The prototype DOI-PET detector consists of six monolithic multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) arrays (S11064-050P), a readout circuit board, two scintillator blocks and a copper shielding box. Each scintillator block consists of four layers of Lu1.8Gd0.2SiO5:Ce (LGSO) scintillators and reflectors are inserted between the scintillation crystals. The dummy detector has all these components except the two scintillator blocks. The head coil is dedicated to a 3.0 T MRI (MAGNETOM Verio, Siemens) and the two detectors are mounted in gaps between head coil elements. Energy resolution and crystal identification performance of the prototype four-layer DOI-PET detector were evaluated with and without MRI measurements by the gradient echo and spin echo methods. We identified crystal elements in all four layers from a 2D flood histogram and energy resolution of 15-18% was obtained for single crystal elements in simultaneous measurements. The difference between the average energy resolutions and photo-peak positions with and without MRI

  11. ESTIGMA Y VIH/SIDA ENTRE PADRES/MADRES Y ADOLESCENTES PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Grace Rosado; Reyes, Glendalys Rivera; Villanueva, Victoria Larrieux; Torres, Gilliam J. Torres; Díaz, Elba Betancourt; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Villaruel, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    La comunicación entre padres/madres y adolescentes sobre el tema de la sexualidad es importante para el desarrollo de la salud de personas jóvenes. Dicha comunicación puede verse negativamente impactada por actitudes estigmatizantes hacia el tema del VIH/SIDA. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar actitudes estigmatizantes hacia el VIH/SIDA entre padres/madres y adolescentes puertorriqueños/as. Este esfuerzo es parte del Proyecto Cuídalos, dirigido a probar una intervención en formato electrónico que busca aumentar la comunicación sobre sexualidad y salud entre padres/madres y adolescentes mediante un diseño experimental con 458 diadas de padres/madres y adolescentes de 13 a 17 años. Para propósitos de este artículo reportamos estadísticas descriptivas sobre estigma hacia el VIH/SIDA con la información recopilada en la medición basal. Tanto adultos/as como adolescentes mostraron actitudes estigmatizantes hacia el VIH/SIDA. A la luz de los resultados es necesario continuar desarrollando intervenciones para la reducción de estigma en esta población. Los/as padres/madres pueden ser un recurso invaluable para reducir el estigma en los/as jóvenes, y prevenir conductas sexuales de riesgo e infecciones. PMID:27099649

  12. Reply to: "Palmitoylethanolamide: problems regarding micronization, ultra-micronization and additives" Inflammopharmacology DOI:10.1007/s10787-014-0202-3.

    PubMed

    Skaper, Stephen D; Facci, Laura; Fusco, Mariella; Della Valle, Maria Federica; Zusso, Morena; Costa, Barbara; Giusti, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    This is a reply to a recently published Commentary: "Palmitoylethanolamide: problems regarding micronization, ultra-micronization and additives" Inflammopharmacology DOI: 10.1007/s10787-014-0202-3 , written in relation to our review article: Skaper SD, Facci L, Fusco M, della Valle MF, Zusso M, Costa B, Giusti P (2014) "Palmitoylethanolamide, a naturally occurring disease-modifying agent in neuropathic pain" Inflammopharmacology 22:79-94 DOI: 10.1007/s10787-013-0191-7 . We believe that the Commentary by Kriek contains a number of erroneous statements and misinterpretations of the published scientific/medical literature which our reply shall elaborate on. Further, the writer of the Commentary has a direct connection to a company, JP Russell Science Ltd that sells palmitoylethanolamide. The take-home message of our review remains as originally stated: "Collectively, the findings presented here propose that palmitoylethanolamide merits further consideration as a disease-modifying agent for controlling inflammatory responses and related chronic and neuropathic pain". PMID:24862356

  13. Autoradiographic characterization of (+-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-( sup 125 I) iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (( sup 125 I)DOI) binding to 5-HT2 and 5-HT1c receptors in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, N.M.; Mitchell, W.M.; Garlick, R.K.; Glennon, R.A.; Teitler, M.; De Souza, E.B. )

    1990-11-01

    The 5-HT2 (serotonin) receptor has traditionally been labeled with antagonist radioligands such as (3H)ketanserin and (3H)spiperone, which label both agonist high-affinity (guanyl nucleotide-sensitive) and agonist low-affinity (guanyl nucleotide-insensitive) states of this receptor. The hallucinogen 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) is an agonist which labels the high-affinity guanyl nucleotide-sensitive state of brain 5-HT2 receptors selectively. In the present study, conditions for autoradiographic visualization of (+/-)-(125I)DOI-labeled 5-HT2 receptors were optimized and binding to slide-mounted sections was characterized with respect to pharmacology, guanyl nucleotide sensitivity and anatomical distribution. In slide-mounted rat brain sections (+/-)-(125I)DOI binding was saturable, of high affinity (KD approximately 4 nM) and displayed a pharmacologic profile typical of 5-HT2 receptors. Consistent with coupling of 5-HT2 receptors in the high-affinity state to a guanyl nucleotide regulatory protein, (125I)DOI binding was inhibited by guanyl nucleotides but not by adenosine triphosphate. Patterns of autoradiographic distribution of (125I)DOI binding to 5-HT2 receptors were similar to those seen with (3H)ketanserin- and (125I)-lysergic acid diethylamide-labeled 5-HT2 receptors. However, the density of 5-HT2 receptors labeled by the agonist (125I)DOI was markedly lower (30-50%) than that labeled by the antagonist (3H)ketanserin. High densities of (125I)DOI labeling were present in olfactory bulb, anterior regions of cerebral cortex (layer IV), claustrum, caudate putamen, globus pallidus, ventral pallidum, islands of Calleja, mammillary nuclei and inferior olive. Binding in hippocampus, thalamus and hypothalamus was generally sparse.

  14. Composição química, evolução e cinemática de estrelas de tipo solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, R. O.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; Milone, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    A composição química das estrelas de tipo solar é um diagnóstico extremamente valioso da evolução química do disco da Galáxia. Existe alguma evidência de que tal evolução tem sido heterogênea no espaço e ao longo do tempo e que a composição química do Sol pode não ser um padrão representativo de abundâncias. Neste trabalho, foram obtidas as abundâncias dos elementos químicos C, N, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd e Sm em uma amostra de estrelas de tipo solar na vizinhança solar (distâncias £ 25 pc). A técnica empregada foi a análise espectroscópica diferencial em relação ao Sol, baseando-se em dados de alta resolução (R ~ 46.000) e alta razão sinal/ruído (S/R > 300), obtidos com o espectrógrafo échelle de bancada do telescópio de 1,5 m do CTIO. Adicionalmente, abundâncias de C e N foram obtidas através de síntese de bandas moleculares dos Sistemas Eletrônicos Swan do C2 e Vermelho do CN utilizando-se um programa de síntese espectral. Os parâmetros atmosféricos foram estabelecidos usando cores fotométricas, o equilíbrio de excitação e ionização de linhas do Fe e a análise da temperatura e da luminosidade estelares no diagrama HR. Os resultados de abundâncias químicas obtidos proporcionam uma melhor compreensão da relação das abundâncias conhecidas para o Sol com a das estrelas anãs de tipo G da população local, uma vez que as razões de abundâncias de diversos elementos (em relação ao ferro) obtidas para estrelas de metalicidade semelhante à solar diferem daquelas obtidas para o Sol. Tais resultados também contribuem para um melhor entendimento do processo de evolução química da vizinhança solar e do enriquecimento nucleossintético do disco galáctico.

  15. Sub-millimetre DOI detector based on monolithic LYSO and digital SiPM for a dedicated small-animal PET system.

    PubMed

    Marcinkowski, Radosław; Mollet, Pieter; Van Holen, Roel; Vandenberghe, Stefaan

    2016-03-01

    The mouse model is widely used in a vast range of biomedical and preclinical studies. Thanks to the ability to detect and quantify biological processes at the molecular level in vivo, PET has become a well-established tool in these investigations. However, the need to visualize and quantify radiopharmaceuticals in anatomic structures of millimetre or less requires good spatial resolution and sensitivity from small-animal PET imaging systems.In previous work we have presented a proof-of-concept of a dedicated high-resolution small-animal PET scanner based on thin monolithic scintillator crystals and Digital Photon Counter photosensor. The combination of thin monolithic crystals and MLE positioning algorithm resulted in an excellent spatial resolution of 0.7 mm uniform in the entire field of view (FOV). However, the limitation of the scanner was its low sensitivity due to small thickness of the lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals (2 mm).Here we present an improved detector design for a small-animal PET system that simultaneously achieves higher sensitivity and sustains a sub-millimetre spatial resolution. The proposed detector consists of a 5 mm thick monolithic LYSO crystal optically coupled to a Digital Photon Counter. Mean nearest neighbour (MNN) positioning combined with depth of interaction (DOI) decoding was employed to achieve sub-millimetre spatial resolution. To evaluate detector performance the intrinsic spatial resolution, energy resolution and coincidence resolving time (CRT) were measured. The average intrinsic spatial resolution of the detector was 0.60 mm full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM). A DOI resolution of 1.66 mm was achieved. The energy resolution was 23% FWHM at 511 keV and CRT of 529 ps were measured. The improved detector design overcomes the sensitivity limitation of the previous design by increasing the nominal sensitivity of the detector block and retains an excellent intrinsic spatial resolution. PMID:26907952

  16. Comment on ``Mixed convection boundary layer flow over a horizontal plate with thermal radiation'' by A. Ishak, Heat Mass Transfer, DOI 10.1007/s00231-009-0552-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magyari, Eugen

    2010-10-01

    In a recent paper of Ishak (Heat Mass Transfer, doi: 10.1007/s00231-009-0552-3 DOI"/> , 2009) the similarity solutions of the title problem have been investigated numerically in some detail. The present note shows, however, that with the aid of a simple rescaling of the Prandtl number, the results reported by Ishak can easily be recovered from the well known solution of the same problem, without the effect of thermal radiation.

  17. Etude des relations entre photosynthese respiration, transpiration et nutrition minerale chez le ble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, M.; Ducloux, H.; Richaud, C.; Massimino, D.; Daguenet, A.; Massimino, J.; Gerbaud, A.

    La croissance du Blé Triticum aestivum a été étudiée en environnement contrôlé et fermé pendant une période de 70 jours. Les échanges gazeux (Photosynthèse, Respiration) hydriques (Transpiration) et la consommation en éléments minéraux (Azote, Phosphore, Potassium) ont été mesurés en continu. On présentera les relations dynamiques observées entre les différentes fonctions physiologiques, d'une part sous l'influence de la croissance et d'autre part en réponse à des modifications de l'environnement. L'influence de la teneur en CO2 pendant la croissance (teneur normale ou doublée) sera mise en évidence.

  18. No Financial Disincentive for Choosing More Healthful Entrées on Children’s Menus in Full-Service Restaurants

    PubMed Central

    West, Delia

    2013-01-01

    Children are eating restaurant foods more than ever before, and price is among the top considerations for food choices. We categorized and enumerated entrées on children’s menus from 75 full-service restaurant chains to compare prices of more healthful and less healthful entrées to test the assumption that more healthful food is more expensive. The mean (standard deviation) price of more healthful entrées ($5.38 [$2.01]) was not significantly different from the price of less healthful entrées ($5.27 [$2.04]). In contrast to research demonstrating that more healthful foods tend to be more expensive in grocery stores, more healthful entrées on children’s menus in restaurants were not more expensive than less healthful entrées. PMID:23742942

  19. An Environmental Management Model of Thermal Waters in Entre Ríos Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pablo, Mársico Daniel; Luís, Díaz Eduardo; Ivana, Zecca; Oscar, Dallacosta; Antonio, Paz-González

    2015-04-01

    Deep exploratory drillings, i.e. those with more than 500 meters depth, have been performed in the Entre Ríos province, Argentina, in order to ascertain the presence of thermal water. Drilling began in 1994, and until now there have been 18 polls with very variable results in terms of mineralization, resource flow, and temperature. The aim of this study was to present a management model, which should allow operators of thermal complexes to further develop procedures for safeguarding the biodiversity of the ecosystems involved, both during exploration and exploitation activities. The environmental management Plan proposed is constituted by a set of technical procedures that are formulated and should be performed during the stages of exploration and exploitation of the resource, and consists of: environmental monitoring, environmental audit, public information and contingency programs. This Plan describes the measures and proposals aimed at protecting environmental quality in the area of influence of a thermal complex project, ensuring that its execution remains environmentally responsibly, and allowing implementation of specific actions to prevent or correct environmental impacts, as predicted in the evaluation of the Environmental Program. The audit of environmental impact includes and takes into account natural factors, such as water, soil, atmosphere, flora and fauna, and also cultural factors. The technical audit Plan was prepared in order to get a systematic structure and organization of the verification process, and also with regard to document the degree of implementation of the proposed mitigation measures. Finally, an environmental contingency program was implemented, and its objective was to consider the safeguarding of life and its natural environment. Thus, a guide has been developed with the main actions to be taken on a contingency, since forecast increases the efficiency of the response. The methodology developed here was adopted as the procedure

  20. Comment on ``Geoeffectiveness of Halo Coronal Mass Ejections'' by N. Gopalswamy, S. Yashiro, and S. Akiyama (J. Geophys. Res. 2007, 112, doi:10.1029/2006JA012149)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yermolaev, Yu. I.

    2008-12-01

    Comment on paper: Gopalswamy, N., S. Yashiro, and S. Akiyama (2007), Geoeffectiveness of halo coronal mass ejections, J. Geophys. Res., 112, A06112, doi:10.1029/2006JA012149 Gopalswamy et al. [2007] studied the geoeffectiveness of halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on the basis of solar observations during 1996-2005 and found that the geoeffectiveness of 229 frontside halo CMEs was 71%. Recently for observations of 305 frontside halo CMEs during 1997-2003 the geoeffectiveness was found to be 40% [Kim et al., 2005]. Complex analysis of both solar and interplanetary measurements showed that the geoeffectiveness of frontside halo CMEs is likely to be about 50% [Yermolaev et al., 2005; Yermolaev and Yermolaev, 2006]. Gopalswamy et al. [2007] did not discuss possible causes of this difference and were limited only to the general words: "The reason for the conflicting results (geoeffectiveness of CMEs ranging from 35% to more than 80%) may be attributed to the different definition of halo CMEs and geoeffectiveness." So, here we shall present our point of view on high geoeffectivenees of CME obtained in paper by Gopalswamy et al. [2007].

  1. Observation of the {nu}{sub 1} OH(OD) stretch of HOI and DOI by Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Klaassen, J.J.; Lindner, J.; Leone, S.R. |

    1996-05-01

    The spectra of vibrationally hot HOI formed in the reaction of alkyl iodides with oxygen atoms are observed by Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy. The {ital v}=1{endash}3 levels of the OH stretch are observed via the {Delta}{ital v}={minus}1 and {Delta}{ital v}={minus}2 sequence bands. The spectrum of DOI is observed by using 2,2,2-{ital d}{sub 3}-iodoethane as the precursor in the oxygen atom reaction. The {ital v}=1{endash}4 levels of the OD stretch are observed in the {Delta}{ital v}={minus}1 sequence band, and the {ital v}=1{endash}5 levels of the OD stretch are observed in {Delta}{ital v}={minus}2. Medium resolution spectra (0.031 cm{sup {minus}1} apodized) are recorded and rotationally analyzed for the {nu}{sub 1} fundamental and 2{nu}{sub 1}{minus}{nu}{sub 1} hot band of HOI. An estimate of the HOI ground state structure is made by constraining the OH bond length to its value for HOCl and HOBr and calculating the HOI bond angle and the OI bond length by least squares fit to the ground state rotational constants. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. DOI/GTN-P climate and active-layer data acquired in the National Petroleum Reserve: Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 1998-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urban, Frank E.; Clow, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides data collected by the climate monitoring array of the U.S. Department of the Interior on Federal lands in Arctic Alaska over the period August 1998 to July 2011; this array is part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost, (DOI/GTN-P). In addition to presenting data, this report also describes monitoring, data collection, and quality-control methodology. This array of 16 monitoring stations spans lat 68.5°N. to 70.5°N. and long 142.5°W. to 161°W., an area of approximately 150,000 square kilometers. Climate summaries are presented along with quality-controlled data. Data collection is ongoing and includes the following climate- and permafrost-related variables: air temperature, wind speed and direction, ground temperature and soil moisture, snow depth, rainfall, up- and downwelling shortwave radiation, and atmospheric pressure. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in close collaboration with the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  3. DOI/GTN-P Climate and active-layer data acquired in the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 1998–2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urban, Frank E.; Clow, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides data collected by the climate monitoring array of the U.S. Department of the Interior on Federal lands in Arctic Alaska over the period August 1998 to July 2014; this array is part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (DOI/GTN-P). In addition to presenting data, this report also describes monitoring, data collection, and quality-control methods. The array of 16 monitoring stations spans lat 68.5°N. to 70.5°N. and long 142.5°W. to 161°W., an area of approximately 150,000 square kilometers. Climate summaries are presented along with quality-controlled data. Data collection is ongoing and includes the following climate- and permafrost-related variables: air temperature, wind speed and direction, ground temperature, soil moisture, snow depth, rainfall totals, up- and downwelling shortwave radiation, and atmospheric pressure. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in close collaboration with the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  4. DOI/GTN-P climate and active-layer data acquired in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urban, Frank E.; Clow, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides data collected by the climate monitoring array of the U.S. Department of the Interior on Federal lands in Arctic Alaska over the period August 1998 to July 2013; this array is part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost, (DOI/GTN-P). In addition to presenting data, this report also describes monitoring, data collection, and quality-control methods. This array of 16 monitoring stations spans lat 68.5°N. to 70.5°N. and long 142.5°W. to 161°W., an area of approximately 150,000 square kilometers. Climate summaries are presented along with quality-controlled data. Data collection is ongoing and includes the following climate- and permafrost-related variables: air temperature, wind speed and direction, ground temperature, soil moisture, snow depth, rainfall totals, up- and downwelling shortwave radiation, and atmospheric pressure. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in close collaboration with the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  5. Seasonal biodiversity of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) and evaluation of ecological factors influencing species distribution at Doi Pha Hom Pok National Park, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Srisuka, Wichai; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Otsuka, Yasushi; Fukuda, Masako; Thongsahuan, Sorawat; Taai, Kritsana; Choochote, Wej; Saeung, Atiporn

    2015-09-01

    This is the first study on the seasonal biodiversity of black flies and evaluation of ecological factors influencing their distribution at Doi Pha Hom Pok National Park, northern Thailand. Larvae were collected from six fixed-stream sites in relation to altitude gradients from May 2011 to April 2013. The water temperature, water pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), salt, water velocity, stream width and depth, streambed particle sizes, riparian vegetation, and canopy cover were recorded from each site. Monthly collections from the six sites yielded 5475 last-instar larvae, belonging to 29 black fly species. The most frequently found species from all sites were Simulium asakoae (100%) followed by Simulium yuphae (83.3%), and Simulium chiangdaoense, Simulium gombakense, Simulium phahompokense, Simulium fruticosum, Simulium maeaiense and Simulium fenestratum (66.6%). Of the 5475 last-instar larvae, S. maeaiense (19.3%), S. chiangdaoense (15.8%) and S. asakoae (14.8%), were the three most abundant species. The Shannon diversity index (H) at the six sites with different altitudes of 2100m, 2000m, 1500m, 1400m, 700m, and 500m above mean sea level, were 2.042, 1.832, 2.158, 2.123, 1.821 and 1.822, respectively. The Shannon index and number of taxa in the cold season were higher than those in the rainy and hot seasons. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that at least three principal components have eigen values >1.0 and accounted for 93.5% of the total variability of ecological factors among sampling sites. The Canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) showed that most species had a trend towards altitude, canopy cover, riparian vegetation and water velocity. PMID:26028177

  6. Religiosidade, juventude e sexualidade: entre a autonomia e a rigidez1

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves da; Santos, Alessandro Oliveira; Licciardi, Daniele Carli; Paiva, Vera; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Esse artigo descreve como jovens religiosos e autoridades religiosas de sua comunidade compreendem a sexualidade, considerando suas experiências pessoais e como membros de comunidades religiosas. A análise pretende contribuir para que políticas públicas dedicadas à promoção da saúde sexual da juventude considerem a religiosidade, no contexto de um estado laico e da promoção do direito à prevenção. Foram realizadas 26 entrevistas abertas e semidirigidas em diferentes comunidades da região metropolitana da cidade de São Paulo (comunidades católicas, da umbanda, do candomblé e de diferentes denominações evangélicas) sobre iniciação sexual, casamento, gravidez, contracepção e prevenção das DST/Aids, homossexualidade, aborto e direitos humanos. Observou-se como jovens e autoridades religiosas convivem com a tensão entre tradição e modernidade e os distintos discursos sobre a sexualidade. Como sujeitos religiosos (do discurso religioso) e sujeitos sexuais (de discursos sobre sexualidade), devem ser incorporados pelos programas como sujeitos de direito nos termos de sua religiosidade. PMID:21886456

  7. Occurrence of alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether in beverages from the Entre Rios Province market, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Broggi, Leticia; Reynoso, Cora; Resnik, Silvia; Martinez, Fernanda; Drunday, Vanesa; Bernal, Angela Romero

    2013-02-01

    One hundred and eighty five samples of red, white and rosé wines and different juices purchased in Entre Rios, Argentina, were analyzed for the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol methyl ether (AME). White wines were analyzed after removal of alcohol by a nitrogen stream and concentrated. AOH in red wines was cleaned up by solid-phase extraction columns in series (octadecyl and amino propyl modified silica) and AME quantified directly on the sample. The juices were filtered and concentrated, and then all sample extracts were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector that allows confirmation through UV spectra. Method validation revealed a good sensitivity with adequate LOD and LOQ for AME and less sensitivity for AOH (i.e. white wine: AME 0.8 and 1.4 ng/mL, AOH 2 and 3.3 ng/mL; red wine: AME 0.1 and 0.2 ng/mL, AOH 4.5 and 7.5 ng/mL; apple juice: AME 1.7 and 2.8 ng/mL, AOH 5 and 9 ng/mL; other juices: AME 2.0 and 3.1 ng/mL, AOH 6 and 10 ng/mL). Recoveries in all cases were greater than 80 %. Four of 53 white wine samples were contaminated with AOH with a maximum level of 18 ng/mL, 6 of 56 samples of red wine had a maximum of 13 ng/mL, and 3 of 68 samples of juices had traces of AOH. AME was less frequently detected than AOH, and the LOD and LOQ for AME are smaller than for AOH. Only three samples of white wine and one of red wine were contaminated, but in only one white wine sample (AME 225 ng/mL) did the toxin level exceed the LOQ. PMID:23334721

  8. Analyse des interactions energetiques entre un arena et son systeme de refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seghouani, Lotfi

    La presente these s'inscrit dans le cadre d'un projet strategique sur les arenas finance par le CRSNG (Conseil de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles et en Genie du Canada) qui a pour but principal le developpement d'un outil numerique capable d'estimer et d'optimiser la consommation d'energie dans les arenas et curlings. Notre travail s'inscrit comme une suite a un travail deja realise par DAOUD et coll. (2006, 2007) qui a developpe un modele 3D (AIM) en regime transitoire de l'arena Camilien Houde a Montreal et qui calcule les flux de chaleur a travers l'enveloppe du batiment ainsi que les distributions de temperatures et d'humidite durant une annee meteorologique typique. En particulier, il calcule les flux de chaleur a travers la couche de glace dus a la convection, la radiation et la condensation. Dans un premier temps nous avons developpe un modele de la structure sous la glace (BIM) qui tient compte de sa geometrie 3D, des differentes couches, de l'effet transitoire, des gains de chaleur du sol en dessous et autour de l'arena etudie ainsi que de la temperature d'entree de la saumure dans la dalle de beton. Par la suite le BIM a ete couple le AIM. Dans la deuxieme etape, nous avons developpe un modele du systeme de refrigeration (REFSYS) en regime quasi-permanent pour l'arena etudie sur la base d'une combinaison de relations thermodynamiques, de correlations de transfert de chaleur et de relations elaborees a partir de donnees disponibles dans le catalogue du manufacturier. Enfin le couplage final entre l'AIM +BIM et le REFSYS a ete effectue sous l'interface du logiciel TRNSYS. Plusieurs etudes parametriques on ete entreprises pour evaluer les effets du climat, de la temperature de la saumure, de l'epaisseur de la glace, etc. sur la consommation energetique de l'arena. Aussi, quelques strategies pour diminuer cette consommation ont ete etudiees. Le considerable potentiel de recuperation de chaleur au niveau des condenseurs qui peut reduire l'energie requise par

  9. Establishing the Empirical Relationship Between Non-Science Majoring Undergraduate Learners' Spatial Thinking Skills and Their Conceptual Astronomy Knowledge. (Spanish Title: Estableciendo Una Relación Empírica Entre el Razonamiento Espacial de los Estudiantes de Graduación de Carreras no Científicas y su Conocimento Conceptual de la Astronomía.) Estabelecendo Uma Relação Empírica Entre o RacioCínio Espacial dos Estudantes de Graduação EM Carreiras Não Científicas e Seu Conhecimento Conceitual da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, Inge; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2013-12-01

    normalizadas, en el desempeño de los estudiantes en estos dos asuntos foram pequenas, 0.26 e 0.13 respectivamente. El razonamiento espacial de los estudiantes fue medido utilizando un instrumento específico desarrollado para este trabaljo. Las correlaciones entre los resultados de los tests astronómicos y este instrumento específico, antes y después del curso mostraron una relación entre moderada y fuerte, sugiriendo que la relación entre el razonamiento espacial y el conocimiento astronómico puede explicar hasta un 25% de la variación em el desempeño de los estudiantes. A comunidade da educação em astronomia tem suposto de forma implícita que o aprendizado da astronomia consiste em um domínio conceitual fundamentado no raciocínio espacial. Como um primeiro passo para identificar formalmente uma relação empírica entre estas duas coisas, utilizamos como amostra os estudantes de graduação de carreiras não científicas de um curso exploratório em uma universidade norte-americana do meio-oeste de médio porte com programa de Doutorado em andamento, onde estes estudantes foram submetidos a um diagnóstico de raciocino espacial e conceitos astronômicos antes e depois do mesmo. As ferramentas utilizadas foram o Test Of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) e o questionário What do you know? Utilizando somente dados completamente consistentes para esta análise, nossa amostra consistiu de 86 estudantes de graduação. As melhoras, depois de normalizadas, do desempenho dos estudantes nos dois quesitos foram pequenas, 0.26 e 0.13 respectivamente. O raciocínio espacial dos estudantes foi medido utilizando um instrumento específico desenhado para este trabalho. As correlações entre os resultados dos testes astronômicos e este instrumento específico antes e depois do curso mostraram uma relação entre moderada e forte, sugerindo que a relação entre o raciocínio espacial e o conhecimento astronômico pode explicar até um 25% na variação no desempenho dos

  10. Discussion of "The Case for the Median Fragment Size as a Better Fragment Size Descriptor than the Mean" by Finn Ouchterlony, Rock Mech Rock Eng, 2015. doi:10.1007/s00603-015-0722-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spathis, A. T.

    2016-01-01

    Ouchterlony (The Case for the Median Fragment Size as a Better Fragment Size Descriptor than the Mean, Rock Mech Rock Eng, 2015. doi: 10.1007/s00603-015-0722-1) argues that the median is preferred over the mean as a measure of central tendency of the rock fragmentation size distribution produced by blasting. This discussion suggests that neither is favoured over the other. Indeed, for distributions where both exist, they may be found in terms of each other, either by an analytical expression or by numerical calculation.

  11. Geophysical Exploration of Castle Remains in Barwałd Górny (Near Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, Poland) Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) with Assistance of Depth of Investigation Index (DOI) Method.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazer, Michał; Kula, Damian; Saternus, Robert; Lewicki, Paweł

    2014-09-01

    In March of 2014 at ruins of the 14th century castle, situated at the top of Mount Żar in Małopolska region, Poland, geophysical surveys were performed. Surveys were planned to investigate remains of the castle that could remain in the ground. Electrical Resistivity Tomography method was used there. In the paper 4 sections have been presented. During interpretation, as the supporting method, maps of Depth-of-Investigation (DOI) index have been used. Results of the surveys can point out potential remains of the castle walls and ruins of buildings that were situated in the stronghold

  12. Seroprevalence of Salmonella and Mycoplasma infection in backyard chickens in the state of Entre Rios in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Xavier, J; Pascal, D; Crespo, E; Schell, H L; Trinidad, J A; Bueno, D J

    2011-04-01

    The present work was conducted to study the seroprevalence of Salmonella, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) infection in backyard chickens located in Entre Ríos, Argentina, over 3 periods of time. A total of 2,441 sera samples were collected from backyard chickens belonging to 256 family farms in 16 counties in the state of Entre Ríos from January to May 2003 (first period), December 2004 to April 2005 (second period), and October 2006 to May 2007 (third period). The prevalence of family farms testing seropositive for Salmonella averaged 23.9, 15.9, and 28.6% during the first, second, and third period, respectively. The highest prevalence of Salmonella-seropositive farms recorded (66.7%) was on farms from Concordia county, and the lowest prevalence (0%) was on farms from La Paz county. In contrast, the prevalence of family farms seropositive for MG averaged 32.8, 55.1, and 76.2% during the first, second, and third periods, respectively. The highest prevalence of MG-seropositive farms (100%) was found in the counties of Victoria and Tala, and the lowest prevalence (8.7%) was found on farms on Colón county. The prevalence of family farms seropositive for MS averaged 68.6 and 100% during the first and second periods, respectively. The highest prevalence of MS-seropositive farms (100%) was on farms in 85% of the counties tested, and the lowest prevalence (21.7%) was on farms from Colón county. Salmonella, MG, and MS infection are present at high levels in backyard chicken farms, and this presents a high risk to commercial poultry production in Entre Ríos, the state with the highest chicken population and density in Argentina. PMID:21406358

  13. Clostridium perfringens growth from spore inocula in sous-vide processed pork-based Mexican entrée.

    PubMed

    Miguel-Garcia, Denise Y; Juneja, Vijay K; Valenzuela-Melendrez, Martin; Díaz-Cinco, Martha E; Thippareddi, H; Aida Peña-Ramos, E

    2009-01-01

    The combined effect of Citricidal wih irradiation on Clostridium perfringens growth from spores in a sous-vide processed marinated pork meat Mexican entrée was investigated. Citricidal was added at 200 or 800 ppm after mixing pork meat with tomatillo sauce and inoculated with 3 log(10) CFU/g of C. perfringens spores. Samples were irradiated at either 0 or 2 kGy, heated to an internal temperature of 71 degrees C, and stored at 4 degrees C for 28 d, 15 degrees C for 45 d, and 25 degrees C for 26 h. To simulate the conditions that may occur during transportation, distribution, storage, or handling in supermarkets or by consumers, the effect of static temperature abuse on C. perfringens growth was assessed by transferring samples stored at 4 to 25 degrees C for 13 and 15 h. Total C. perfringens populations were determined by plating diluted samples on tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar. Growth was not observed up to 45 d of storage at 15 degrees C in samples supplemented with 800 ppm of Citricidal. At 25 degrees C, no significant differences (P > 0.05) on the lag phase duration due to antimicrobial treatments was observed. The temperature abuse of refrigerated products for up to 15 h did not lead to C. perfringens growth to high infective dose levels of 1 million cells required to cause food poisoning. The results suggest that 800 ppm Citricidal can have significant bacteriostatic activity against C. perfringens and may provide a degree of protection against this pathogen in sous-vide processed marinated pork meat Mexican entrée, under mild temperature abuse (

  14. “Rice Is Essential but Tiresome; You Should Get Some Noodles”: Doi Moi and the Political Economy of Men’s Extramarital Sexual Relations and Marital HIV Risk in Hanoi, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Phinney, Harriet M.

    2008-01-01

    Research from around the world has suggested that married women’s greatest risk for contracting HIV is from having sexual intercourse with their husbands. On the basis of 6 months of ethnographic research in Hanoi, Vietnam, I argue that the contemporary nature of the HIV epidemic in Hanoi is shaped by 3 interrelated policies implemented in 1986 as part of the government’s new economic policy, Doi Moi (Renovation). Together, these policies structure men’s opportunities for extramarital sexual relations and encourage wives to acquiesce to their husbands’ sexual infidelity, putting both at risk of HIV. I propose 4 structural intervention strategies that address the policies that contribute to men’s opportunities for extramarital liaisons and to marital HIV risk. PMID:18309136

  15. Design of the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (NRG-DOiT): systematic development, implementation and evaluation of a school-based intervention aimed at the prevention of excessive weight gain in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amika S; Chin A Paw, Marijke JM; Kremers, Stef PJ; Visscher, Tommy LS; Brug, Johannes; van Mechelen, Willem

    2006-01-01

    Background Only limited data are available on the development, implementation, and evaluation processes of weight gain prevention programs in adolescents. To be able to learn from successes and failures of such interventions, integral written and published reports are needed. Methods Applying the Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol, this paper describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of the Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT), a school-based intervention program aimed at the prevention of excessive weight gain. The intervention focussed on the following health behaviours: (1) reduction of the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, (2) reduction of energy intake derived from snacks, (3) decrease of levels of sedentary behaviour, and (4) increase of levels of physical activity (i.e. active transport behaviour and sports participation). The intervention program consisted of an individual classroom-based component (i.e. an educational program, covering 11 lessons of both biology and physical education classes), and an environmental component (i.e. encouraging and supporting changes at the school canteens, as well as offering additional physical education classes). We evaluated the effectiveness of the intervention program using a randomised controlled trial design. We assessed the effects of the intervention on body composition (primary outcome measure), as well as on behaviour, behavioural determinants, and aerobic fitness (secondary outcome measures). Furthermore, we conducted a process evaluation. Discussion The development of the DOiT-intervention resulted in a comprehensive school-based weight gain prevention program, tailored to the needs of Dutch adolescents from low socio-economic background. PMID:17173701

  16. Effect of grapefruit seed extract on thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes during sous-vide processing of two marinated Mexican meat entrées

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    D and z values of Listeria monocytogenes were obtained for two Mexican meat entrées: pork meat marinated in tomatillo (green tomato) sauce (PTS) and beef marinated in a red chili sauce (BRCS), with addition of 0, 200 and 800 ppm of grapefruit seed extract (GSE). Meat samples, inoculated with L.monoc...

  17. A Process Evaluation of an Efficacious Family-Based Intervention to Promote Healthy Eating: The "Entre Familia: Reflejos de Salud" Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmied, Emily; Parada, Humberto; Horton, Lucy; Ibarra, Leticia; Ayala, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    "Entre Familia: Reflejos de Salud" was a successful family-based randomized controlled trial designed to improve dietary behaviors and intake among U.S. Latino families, specifically fruit and vegetable intake. The novel intervention design merged a community health worker ("promotora") model with an entertainment-education…

  18. Soil Quality Indicators to Define Land Use in the Area of Native Forest of Entre Ríos, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, M. G.; Tasi, H. A.; Paz González, A.; Díaz, E. L.; Sasal, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    The main economic activity in the area of native forest of the province of Entre Ríos (Argentina) has long been the agricultural and/or livestock production, especially cattle breeding. In recent years, the proportion of agricultural crops in the rotations, especially that of soybean, has increased, thus leading to an increase in the need for land clearing to incorporate new lands for agricultural use. Most of these lands are considered marginal for agricultural use. In addition rice farming with irrigation is a critical part of the Entre Ríos economy. Defining and assessing soil quality indicators (SQI) that show the evolution of the soil with different uses and management systems is a way to contribute to the knowledge of soil quality. The aims of this study were to characterize the current land use and land tenure in the area of native forest of Entre Ríos, as well as to identify and select variables sensitive to agricultural and/or livestock use of the most representative soils of this area (indicators of the dynamic quality of the soil) and define the most appropriate land use according to land suitability and behavior of these indicators. We identified the most representative soil subgroups (corresponding to the orders Vertisols, Mollisols and Alfisols) and defined the production systems livestock-agricultural, agricultural-livestock, agricultural without irrigation, and rice crop irrigated with water from groundwater and surface reservoirs. We also determined the physical, physico-chemical, chemical and microbiological variables of the soil, and characterized the quality of the water for irrigation. We selected the SQI using Principal Components Analysis, to form a minimum data set (MDS). The change in the use of the land responded to a favorable economic situation for agriculture that started in the 1990's. The leasing and sharecropping schemes and the incidental contracts have become increasingly important, predominating over the undivided property. We

  19. State of Conservation of the Native Forests in Entre Ríos (Argentina) and Changes in Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabattini, R. A.; Sione, S. M.; Ledesma, S. G.; Sabattini, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    The native forest area of Entre Ríos province (Argentina) is associated with a constant change in land use, with an increase in recent years in agricultural use, especially for soybean crop. In addition, since its inadequate management has triggered degradation processes of the natural forest structure, the implementation of strategies for the restoration and conservation of native forests has become a priority. The aim of this study was to diagnose the conservation state of the native forest in the basin of the Estacas Stream (Entre Ríos, Argentina) after the change in land use, to help design guidelines for the restoration and sustainable management of these ecosystems. The field study was conducted in October 2010, in a representative area of the native forest of 73,000 ha. Using Landsat 5-TM images (INPE), environments were separated by manual vectorization, identifying and classifying native forests and other lands (agricultural, urban). Using a field exploratory survey (58 geo-referenced sampling points), we developed patterns corresponding to the different types of forests, contrasting this information with the digital data of the images. The native forests were classified according to type (high/low forest, open/closed forest, savanna), successional stage (climax, successional or regeneration forest) and degree of disturbance (weed growth, erosion, fire), and their frequency determined. Each classification was assessed by a contingency matrix, and global reliability index and the Kappa index. The information obtained generated a classification map of native forests in the basin scale. We found that the native forest covered an area of 42,726.91 ha, accounting for 58.52% of the total basin area, and that the rest corresponded to other land uses. The most frequent native forests (59.09%) were climax forest, but accounted for only 8.2% of the basin area. Within this group, the most important were the low and open forest, with Prosopis affinis and Prosopis

  20. Reference Linking with DOIs: A Case Study [and] The Santa Fe Convention of the Open Archives Initiative [and] The UPS Prototype: An Experiment End-User Service across E-Print Archives [and] The Costs of Print, Fiche, and Digital Access: The Early Canadiana Online Project [and] Ad*Access: Seeking Copyright Permissions for a Digital Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Helen; Lyons, Catherine; Ratner, Howard; Risher, Carol; Shillum, Chris; Sidman, David; Stevens, Andrew; Van de Sompel, Herbert; Lagoze, Carl; Van de Sompel, Herbert; Krichel, Thomas; Nelson, Michael L.; Hochstenbach, Patrick; Lyapunov, Victor M.; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Kholief, Mohamed; Liu, Xiaoming; O'Connell, Heath; Kingma, Bruce R.; Pritcher, Lynn

    2000-01-01

    Includes five articles that discuss publishers' metadata hyperlinks with Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) on the Internet; the Santa Fe Convention of the Open Archives initiative (Oai) that promotes author self-archiving; the Universal Preprint Service; costs of digital, microfiche, and print access; and an online database of old print…

  1. DOI: Current Status and Outlook [and] The Virtual Naval Hospital: Lessons Learned in Creating and Operating a Digital Health Sciences Library for Nomadic Patrons [and] Interoperability for Digital Objects and Repositories: The Cornell/CNRI Experiments [and] Education for Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paskin, Norman; D'Alessandro, Michael P.; D'Alessandro, Donna M.; Hendrix, Mary J. C.; Bakalar, Richard S.; Ashley, Denis E.; Payette, Dandra; Blanchi, Christophe; Lagoze, Carl; Overly, Edward A.; Spink, Amanda

    1999-01-01

    Describes the origin of the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) as a persistent identifier for managing copyrighted materials and its development; creation of the U.S. Navy digital health sciences library for isolated primary care providers and their patients; Cornell and CNRI prototype architecture for interoperable digital objects and repositories;…

  2. On acoplamento mecânico entre a antena e o transdutor no detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, J. L.; Aguiar, O. D.; Velloso, W. F., Jr.; Lucena, A. U.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais MARIO SCHENBERG consistirá de uma massa esférica de cobre-alumínio de 1150kg resfriada a 4K, sobre a qual serão instalados 6 transdutores de nióbio. Com estes trandutores pretende-se converter um possível sinal de onda gravitacional detectado em sinal elétrico, para tanto é necessário que o acoplamento mecânico entre os transdutores e a massa ressonante seja o maior possível. Isto significa que o transdutor deve ser ressonante na mesma freqüência que a antena (aproximadamente 3200Hz). Neste trabalho foi desenvolvida uma geometria para a estrutura mecânica do trandutor. Isto foi feito criando-se modelos em elementos finitos usando-se o "software" MSC/Nastran. Estes modelos criados foram analisados estaticamente (cálculo de tensões) e dinamicamente (cálculo das freqüências de ressonâncias e seus respectivos modos normais) de maneira a se obter o primeiro modo normal do transdutor em 3200Hz. A partir destes cálculos escolheu-se a melhor geometria para o transdutor. Os próximos passos do trabalho serão: usinar este transdutor em uma barra de nióbio e testá-lo à temperatura ambiente e à baixa temperatura. Após isto, pretende-se testá-lo na própria antena resfriada.

  3. Half-size me? How calorie and price information influence ordering on restaurant menus with both half and full entrée portion sizes.

    PubMed

    Haws, Kelly L; Liu, Peggy J

    2016-02-01

    Many restaurants are increasingly required to display calorie information on their menus. We present a study examining how consumers' food choices are affected by the presence of calorie information on restaurant menus. However, unlike prior research on this topic, we focus on the effect of calorie information on food choices made from a menu that contains both full size portions and half size portions of entrées. This different focus is important because many restaurants increasingly provide more than one portion size option per entrée. Additionally, we examine whether the impact of calorie information differs depending on whether full portions are cheaper per unit than half portions (non-linear pricing) or whether they have a similar per unit price (linear pricing). We find that when linear pricing is used, calorie information leads people to order fewer calories. This decrease occurs as people switch from unhealthy full sized portions to healthy full sized portions, not to unhealthy half sized portions. In contrast, when non-linear pricing is used, calorie information has no impact on calories selected. Considering the impact of calorie information on consumers' choices from menus with more than one entrée portion size option is increasingly important given restaurant and legislative trends, and the present research demonstrates that calorie information and pricing scheme may interact to affect choices from such menus. PMID:26654889

  4. Cristallisation, syncristallisation, et alliages moléculaires entre le lorazépam et l'oxazépam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascherpa-Corral, D.; Mascherpa, G.; Chauvet, A.

    1993-04-01

    Le polymorphisme et pseudopolymorphisme du lorazépam et oxazépam ont été étudiés par analyse thermique, calorimétrie différentielle à balayage et diffraction de rayons X. Deux formes polymorphes du lorazépam et plusieurs mono et hemisolvates ont été isolés à partir de recristallisation dans divers soivants. Aucun polymorphisme ni solvate n'a été mis en évidence avec l'oxazépam. Les paramètres cristallographiques des phases isolées ont été déterminées. A 160 et 203°C, le lorazépam et l'oxazépam perdent respectivement une molécule d'eau pour donner après réarrangement la quinazolinecarboxaldéhyde correspondante. La syncristallisation des deux benzodiazépines dans le benzène conduit à des alliages moléculaires à miscibilité totale à l'état solide dans tout le domaine de concentration entre l'exazépam el la forme α du lorazépam, elle n'est que partielle avec la forme β. Thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction were carried out to study the polymorphism and pseudopolymorphism of lorazepam and oxazepam. Two polymorphic forms of lorazepam and several mono- or hemisolvates were obtained after recrystallization from various solvents. No polymorphic form or solvate has been found for oxazepam. The crystallographic parameters of these new phases were determined. Lorazepam and oxazepam can lose a molecule of water at 160 and 203°C, respectively, and rearrange to quinazolinecarboxaldehyde. Mixed crystals of the two benzodiazepines, after recrystallization from benzene, lead to molecular alloys with complete solid solubility between oxazepam and the α-form of lorazepam over the whole range of composition but only to partial solubility with the β-form of lorazepam.

  5. Relation entre les caractéristiques des table-bancs et les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers au Benin

    PubMed Central

    Falola, Stève Marjelin; Gouthon, Polycarpe; Falola, Jean-Marie; Fiogbe, Michel Armand; Nigan, Issiako Bio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le mobilier scolaire et la posture assise en classe sont souvent impliqués dans l'apparition des douleurs rachidiennes, influant de fait sur la qualité des tâches réalisées par les apprenants. Aucune étude n'a encore vérifié le degré d'adéquation entre les caractéristiques du mobilier et celles des écoliers au Bénin. L'objectif de cette étude transversale est donc de déterminer la relation entre les dimensions des table-bancs utilisées en classe et les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers au Bénin. Methods Elle a été réalisée avec un échantillon probabiliste de 678 écoliers, âgés de 4 à 17 ans. Les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers et les mensurations relatives aux longueurs, largeurs et hauteurs des table-bancs ont été mesurées, puis intégrées aux équations proposées dans la littérature. Les pourcentages des valeurs situées hors des limitesacceptables, dérivées de l'application des équations ont été calculés. Results La largeur et la hauteur des table-bancs utilisées par les écoliers étaient plus élevées (p < 0,05) que les valeurs de référence recommandées par les structures officielles de contrôle et de production des mobiliers scolaires au Bénin. Quel que soit le sexe, il y avait une inadéquation entre la largeur du banc et la longueur fesse-poplité, puis entre la hauteur de la table et la distance coude-bancdes écoliers. Conclusion Les résultats suggèrent de prendre en compte l’évolution des mesures anthropométriques des écoliers dans la confection des table-bancs, afin de promouvoir de bonnes postures assises en classe et de réduire le risque de troubles du rachis. PMID:25317232

  6. Rétraction: plagiat aggravé dans l'article Aspergillose broncho-pulmonaire allergique lors d'un asthme réfractaire: à propos d'un cas clinique. Khalid Lahmadi, Hind El Youssi, Jawad Rochdi, BoughrineNawal, Er-Rami Mohammed. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2015;20:350. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.20.350.6572)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cet article retracte l'article "Aspergillose broncho-pulmonaire allergique lors d'un asthme réfractaire: à propos d'un cas clinique. Khalid Lahmadi, Hind El Youssi, Jawad Rochdi, BoughrineNawal, Er-Rami Mohammed. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2015;20:350. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.20.350.6572)" PMID:26401219

  7. Católicos, fidelidade conjugal e AIDS: entre a cruz da doutrina moral e as espadas do cotidiano sexual dos adeptos1

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Luis Felipe; de Aquino, Francisca Luciana; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Oliveira, Cinthia; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Neste artigo discutimos a visão da Igreja Católica sobre sexualidade na interface com a epidemia do HIV/AIDS. Nossa reflexão está embasada em pesquisa etnográfica que envolveu dois meses de observação participante do cotidiano de católicos de um bairro popular da Região Metropolitana do Recife, além de contar com entrevistas a onze dos leigos engajados nos serviços religiosos da igreja do bairro e a oito sacerdotes que realizam seus trabalhos religiosos em outras localidades. Nelas abordamos diferentes temáticas relacionadas ao enfrentamento da epidemia da AIDS. Nesse contexto, conjugalidade e fidelidade se afiguram como importantes analisadores de como aqueles lidam com a epidemia, em uma variedade de re-descrições práticas e de re-interpretações conceptuais das assertivas do discurso moral religioso – ainda que, muitos impasses permaneçam em aberto em termos das prerrogativas da Igreja e seus possíveis rebatimentos na saúde sexual dos adeptos. PMID:21765650

  8. Effect of Grapefruit Seed Extract on Thermal Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes during Sous-Vide Processing of Two Marinated Mexican Meat Entrées.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Melendres, Martin; Peña-Ramos, E Aida; Juneja, Vijay K; Camou, Juan Pedro; Cumplido-Barbeitia, German

    2016-07-01

    D- and z-values for Listeria monocytogenes were obtained for two Mexican meat entrées: pork meat marinated in tomatillo (green tomato) sauce (PTS) and beef marinated in a red chili sauce (BRCS), with addition of 0, 200, and 800 ppm of grapefruit seed extract (GSE). Meat samples inoculated with L. monocytogenes were packaged in sterile bags, immersed in a water bath, and held at 55, 57.5, 60, and 62.5°C for different periods of time. Depending upon the temperature, D-values at 0 ppm of GSE ranged from 26.19 to 2.03 min in BRCS and 26.41 to 0.8 min in PTS. Adding 800 ppm of GSE to BRCS thermally treated at 55 and 62.5°C significantly decreased inactivation time by 35%. A reduction in time of 25.9, 10.6, and 40.1% at 55, 57.5, and 60°C, respectively, was observed in PTS with 800 ppm of GSE. The z-values of L. monocytogenes were not significantly affected by GSE addition; average z-values were 7.25 and 5.09°C for BRCS and PTS, respectively. Estimated thermal lethality for a 7-D log reduction of L. monocytogenes under commercial-size sous-vide conditions at a reference temperature of 55°C was reached at 78 and 71 min for BRCS without and with 800 ppm of GSE, respectively. For PTS, 7-D reduction was attained at 69 and 61 min without and with addition of 800 ppm of GSE, respectively. Supplementing both Mexican meat entrées (BRCS and PTS) with 800 ppm of GSE rendered L. monocytogenes cells more sensitive to the lethal effect of heat. The results of this study will assist the retail food industry in designing acceptance limits on critical control points pertaining to cooking regimes to effectively eliminate L. monocytogenes in BRCS and PTS sous-vide processed Mexican meat entrées. PMID:27357037

  9. Uma comparação entre técnicas de propagação de erros em astrofísica: Monte Carlo x Bootstrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waelkens, A. H.; Janot Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Recentemente Dhillon & Watson (2001) criticaram o procedimento de determinação de erros via simulações de Monte Carlo no caso do imageamento indireto de estrelas, por introduzir ruído nos dados e resultar em erros superestimados. Estes autores propuseram a utilização alternativa do método de Bootstrap como uma técnica superior para a estimativa de erros. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados de um estudo comparativo da performance das técnicas de simulação por Monte Carlo e por Bootstrap para a determinação de erros em duas situações de interesse: (i) ajuste de modelos a espectros observados e (ii) imageamento indireto de discos de acréscimo com técnicas de mapeamento por eclipse. No caso (i), os dados de entrada são espectros de emissão simples de hidrogênio aos quais é adicionado ruído gaussiano de amplitude selecionada. No caso (ii), são produzidas curvas de luz do eclipse de uma distribuição de brilho seguindo a lei TµR-3/4 para discos estacionários cuja taxa de acréscimo varia ao longo do eclipse segundo uma distribuição gaussiana de amplitude selecionada, simulando o ruído. A avaliação da performance é feita com o auxílio de um diagrama do erro relativo na grandeza ajustada, conforme obtido por cada método, versus o erro relativo (ruído/sinal) dos dados de entrada. O estudo mostra que as duas técnicas produzem resultados semelhantes nos dois casos, e que a suposta superioridade do método de Bootstrap não se confirma.

  10. A Process Evaluation of an Efficacious Family-Based Intervention to Promote Healthy Eating: The Entre Familia: Reflejos de Salud Study.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Emily; Parada, Humberto; Horton, Lucy; Ibarra, Leticia; Ayala, Guadalupe

    2015-10-01

    Entre Familia: Reflejos de Salud was a successful family-based randomized controlled trial designed to improve dietary behaviors and intake among U.S. Latino families, specifically fruit and vegetable intake. The novel intervention design merged a community health worker (promotora) model with an entertainment-education component. This process evaluation examined intervention implementation and assessed relationships between implementation factors and dietary change. Participants included 180 mothers randomized to an intervention condition. Process evaluation measures were obtained from participant interviews and promotora notes and included fidelity, dose delivered (i.e., minutes of promotora in-person contact with families, number of promotora home visits), and dose received (i.e., participant use of and satisfaction with intervention materials). Outcome variables included changes in vegetable intake and the use of behavioral strategies to increase dietary fiber and decrease dietary fat intake. Participant satisfaction was high, and fidelity was achieved; 87.5% of families received the planned number of promotora home visits. In the multivariable model, satisfaction with intervention materials predicted more frequent use of strategies to increase dietary fiber (p ≤ .01). Trends suggested that keeping families in the prescribed intervention timeline and obtaining support from other social network members through sharing of program materials may improve changes. Study findings elucidate the relationship between specific intervention processes and dietary changes. PMID:25810469

  11. Métastases cutanées vues au laboratoire d'anatomie pathologique à Lomé, Togo entre 2005 et 2014

    PubMed Central

    Darre, Tchin; Saka, Bayaki; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Mouhari-Toure, Abas; Amegbor, Koffi; Pitché, Palokinam; Napo-Koura, Gado

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de cette étude était de documenter le profil épidémiologique et histologique des métastases cutanées vues au laboratoire d'anatomie pathologique (LAP) de Lomé. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude descriptive et transversale portant sur des cas de métastases cutanées observées au LAP du CHU Sylvanus Olympio entre 2005 et 2014. Résultats Au cours de cette période d’étude, nous avons recensé 32 cas de métastases cutanées représentant 3,2% (1005 cas) de l'ensemble des cas de métastases enregistrées au LAP. L’âge moyen des patients atteints de ces métastases cutanées était de 42,6 ans et le sex-ratio (F/H) de 2,2. Sur le plan macroscopique, ces métastases étaient nodulaires dans 15 cas, bourgeonnantes dans 12 cas, ulcéré dans 3 cas et ulcéro-bourgeonnant dans 2 cas. Les types histologiques étaient représentés par les adénocarcinomes (19 cas, 59,4%), les carcinomes épidermoïdes (8 cas, 25%), la maladie de Paget (3 cas, 9,4%), le carcinome à petites cellules du type neuroendocrine (un cas, 3,1%) et le mélanome (un cas, 3,1%). Selon le degré de différenciation, les métastases cutanées étaient bien différenciées dans 14 cas (56%). Les principales localisations de ces métastases cutanées étaient le thorax (11 cas, 34,4%) suivi de l'abdomen (10 cas, 31,3%). Les cancers primitifs étaient surtout d'origine mammaire (14 cas, 43,7%). Conclusion Cette étude montre que les métastases cutanées sont relativement rares et les tumeurs malignes d'origine mammaire sont les tumeurs primitives prédominantes. Avec un pourcentage élevé des formes peu différenciées et celles indifférenciées, l'amélioration du plateau technique du LAP (immunohistochimie) permettra d'accroitre ses capacités diagnostiques. PMID:27047627

  12. A Reappraising of Cosmography: the Interface Between Astronomical and Geographic Studies. (Breton Title: Releitura do Conceito de Cosmografia: a Interface Entre os Estudos Astronômicos e Geográficos.) Una Relectura del Concepto de Cosmografía: la Interfase Entre los Estudios Astronómicos y Geográficos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Sobreira, Paulo Henrique

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "Cosmography" is in disuse since the 80s of the last century, but the astronomical themes previously discussed in the school subjects of Geography and Cosmography remain in current textbooks. The use of term "Cosmography" was rescued in this research, and the study of its re-signification prompted the appearance of the term Geographic Cosmography. The Geographic Cosmography is a field of studies of the Geography, whose set of knowledge and skills is predominantly scholar. It studies the interface between terrestrial and celestial knowledge, and assigns a geographic significance to them. It examines human and natural relationships with Sidereal Space and its consequences for society and nature. O conceito de "Cosmografia" está em desuso desde os anos 80 do século XX, mas os temas astronômicos anteriormente abordados nas disciplinas escolares de Cosmografia e de Geografia permanecem nos atuais livros didáticos. O uso do termo "Cosmografia" foi resgatado nesta pesquisa e o estudo de sua ressignificação proporcionou o surgimento do termo Cosmografia Geográfica. A Cosmografia Geográfica é um campo de estudos da Geografia, cujo conjunto de conhecimentos e habilidades é predominantemente escolar. Estuda a interface entre os conhecimentos terrestres e os celestes e lhes atribui significância geográfica. Analisa as relações humanas e naturais com o Espaço Sideral e suas consequências para a sociedade e a natureza.

    Aunque el concepto de "Cosmografía" no se usa desde la década de los '80 del siglo pasado, los temas astronómicos que se enseñaban anteriormente en las asignaturas escolares de Cosmografía y de Geografía permanecen en los actuales libros didácticos. El uso del término "Cosmografía" fue rescatado en esta investigación y el estudio de su resignificación proporcionó el surgimiento del término Cosmografía Geográfica. La Cosmografía Geográfica es un campo de estudio de la Geografía, donde

  13. Etude des phenomenes chimiques au contact entre le bloc cathodique et la barre collectrice d'une cellule d'electrolyse d'aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebeuf, Martin

    La production d'aluminium est une industrie importante au Québec. Les propriétés de ce métal le vouent à de multiples usages présents et futurs dans le cadre d'une économie moderne durable. Toutefois, le procédé Hall-Héroult est très énergivore et des progrès demeurent donc nécessaires pour en diminuer les coûts financiers et environnementaux. Parmi les améliorations envisageables de la cellule d'électrolyse se trouve le contact entre la cathode et la barre collectrice, qui doit offrir une faible résistivité au passage du courant électrique. En cours d'opération de la cellule, ce contact a tendance à se dégrader, générant des pertes énergétiques significatives. Les causes de cette dégradation, pouvant provenir de phénomènes chimiques, thermiques, mécaniques et/ou électriques, demeurent mal comprises. Le but du présent projet était donc d'étudier les phénomènes chimiques se produisant au contact bloc-barre de la cellule d'électrolyse Hall-Héroult. En premier lieu, un aspect crucial à considérer est la pénétration du bain électrolytique dans la cathode, car des composés de bain atteignent éventuellement la barre collectrice et peuvent y réagir. A cet effet, une méthode novatrice a été développée afin d'étudier les cathodes et la pénétration du bain dans celles-ci à l'aide de la microtomographie à rayons X. Cette méthode rapide et efficace s'est avérée fort utile dans le projet et a un potentiel important pour l'étude future des cathodes et des phénomènes qui s'y produisent. Ensuite, une cellule d'électrolyse rectangulaire à petite échelle a été développée. Plusieurs phénomènes observés 'en industrie sur des autopsies de cellules post-opération et rapportés dans la littérature ont été reproduis avec succès à l'aide de cette cellule expérimentale. Puis, des tests sans électrolyse, ciblant l'effet du bain électrolytique sur l'acier, ont aussi été conçus et complétés afin de s

  14. Le renforcement de l'interface entre les services de santé publique et de première ligne : enjeux et pistes de solution

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Daniel; Reinharz, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Le développement de liens étroits entre la santé publique et les services cliniques, notamment ceux offerts par les médecins de famille œuvrant en première ligne, est prôné dans tous systèmes de santé occidentaux. On suppose que les collaborations formant une telle interface ont des impacts positifs à la fois sur la qualité des soins, sur le fardeau des maladies et sur l'équité dans le système de santé. Si les acteurs des deux domaines admettent le bien-fondé de l'interface et favorisent en principe son développement, plusieurs barrières nuisent aux collaborations dans la réalité. Or, peu est connu sur ces barrières dans le système de santé québécois. Cette étude vise à répondre à ce manque d'information en étudiant l'interface à partir d'une perspective organisationnelle. Deux cadres conceptuels ont été utilisés, soit la typologie de Lasker (1997) et les archétypes de Hinings et Greenwood (1988). L'analyse met en évidence deux des six formes de collaboration proposées par la typologie utilisée, soit la coordination des services aux individus et la mise à profit des rencontres cliniques pour les fins de la santé publique. Les activités associées à ces formes de collaboration, qui sont importantes eu égard au mandat de la santé publique, comportent un intérêt essentiellement pour la santé publique et sont déterminées en pratique unilatéralement par cette dernière. En outre, le manque de coordination des activités qui impliquent une collaboration avec les médecins constitue un obstacle au développement de telles activités en créant des irritants pour les médecins. Il y a donc, dans le système de santé québécois, des possibilités de développement de l'interface là où la collaboration se fait également au profit du travail clinique et là où elle tient compte des contraintes du milieu clinique. PMID:20436801

  15. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    infectarse por el VIH (sólo un doble negativo tuvo un amplio conocimiento sobre la hepatitis C). Estas intencionalidades no son mutuamente excluyentes. La presencia de varias refuerza la puesta en práctica a diario de comportamientos que pueden ayudar al que se inyecta a mantenerse libre de infecciones durante años. Algunas prácticas que hemos identificado se implementan en grupo y se comunican de UDI a UDI, de esta manera se extienden entre algunas redes sociales de UDI. Conclusiones Los UDI que permanecen sin infectarse planean e implementan estrategias de prevención en circunstancias donde otros UDI aplican prácticas de riesgo. El mantenimiento de la no infección no es, por lo tanto, un resultado del azar, sino más bien el resultado del esfuerzo (agencia) de los UDI. Investigar y extender estas estrategias y tácticas a través de programas de prevención podría contribuir a la prevención del VIH y el VHC. PMID:21915175

  16. Comment on “Magnetostratigraphic study of the Kuche Depression, Tarim Basin, and Cenozoic uplift of the Tian Shan Range, Western China” Baochun Huang, John D.A. Piper, Shoutao Peng, Tao Liu, Zhong Li, Qingchen Wang, Rixiang Zhu [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2006, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.09.020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charreau, Julien; Chen, Yan; Gilder, Stuart; Barier, Laurie

    2008-04-01

    The recent publication of "Magnetostratigraphic study of the Kuche Depression, Tarim Basin, and Cenozoic uplift of the Tian Shan Range,Western China" by B.C. Huang, J.D.A. Piper, S.T. Peng, T. Liu, Z. Li, Q.C. Wang, R.X. Zhu [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2006, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.09.020] discusses the Cenozoic uplift history of the Tianshan Mountains by studying the magnetostratigraphy of Paleogene to Neogene continental sediments from two sections located in the Kuche basin at the northern edge of the Tarim basin. To support their conclusion they reinterpreted a magnetostratigraphic study of the Yaha section, which lies ~ 10 km south of their sections, we previously published [J. Charreau, S. Gilder, Y. Chen, S. Dominguez, J.-P. Avouac, S. Sen, M. Jolivet, Y. Li and W. Wang, Magnetostratigraphy of the Yaha section, Tarim Basin (China): 11 Ma acceleration in erosion and uplift of the Tianshan Mountains, Geology 34(3), 2006, 181­184.]. Here, (1) we argue that the interpretations of the sedimentation rate changes they proposed for the Kuche sections are partially invalid, (2) we disagree with their reinterpretation of the age of the Yaha section, and (3) we think that the way they interpret their AMS data is incorrect.

  17. 30 CFR 250.1002 - Design requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (incorporated by reference as specified in 30 CFR 250.198) where— P=Internal design pressure in pounds per... requirements of ANSI B16.5, API Spec 6A, or the equivalent (incorporated by reference as specified in 30 CFR... procedures of API Spec 17J, incorporated by reference as specified in 30 CFR 250.198. (5) You must...

  18. Doi Moi, Education and Identity Formation in Contemporary Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, Matthieu; Ket, Vu Doan

    2007-01-01

    In 2006 Vietnam had experienced more than two decades of reform. However, while the reforms have transformed the entire Vietnamese economy and opened the country to globalization, the education system is still very much under the Vietnamese Communist Party's control. The schoolbooks are published under close supervision of the authorities. The…

  19. 30 CFR 250.1002 - Design requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 CFR 250.198) where— P=Internal design pressure in pounds per square inch (psi). S=Specified..., API Spec 6A, or the equivalent (incorporated by reference as specified in 30 CFR 250.198). Each flange... Spec 17J, incorporated by reference as specified in 30 CFR 250.198. (5) You must design pipeline...

  20. 30 CFR 250.1002 - Design requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., API Spec 6A, or the equivalent (as incorporated by reference in 30 CFR 250.198). Each flange assembly... incorporated by reference in 30 CFR 250.198. (5) You must design pipeline risers for tension leg platforms and... scouring, soft bottoms, mud slides, earthquakes, subfreezing temperatures, and other environmental factors....

  1. 30 CFR 250.1002 - Design requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., API Spec 6A, or the equivalent (as incorporated by reference in 30 CFR 250.198). Each flange assembly... incorporated by reference in 30 CFR 250.198. (5) You must design pipeline risers for tension leg platforms and... scouring, soft bottoms, mud slides, earthquakes, subfreezing temperatures, and other environmental factors....

  2. 30 CFR 250.1002 - Design requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., API Spec 6A, or the equivalent (as incorporated by reference in 30 CFR 250.198). Each flange assembly... incorporated by reference in 30 CFR 250.198. (5) You must design pipeline risers for tension leg platforms and... scouring, soft bottoms, mud slides, earthquakes, subfreezing temperatures, and other environmental factors....

  3. Le transfert de connaissances entre les mathematiques et les sciences. Une etude exploratoire aupres d'eleves de 4e secondaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, Ghislain

    2003-06-01

    Au moment ou dans plusieurs pays on travaille a refondre les programmes d'etudes, tant au primaire qu'au secondaire, l'interet pour le transfert renait. Un des concepts fondamentaux en apprentissage consiste en l'habilete a reutiliser de facon consciente et efficace un acquis d'une situation a une autre situation. Cette recherche emane de preoccupations professionnelles au moment ou le chercheur etait enseignant au secondaire. Au cours de ces annees, il lui a ete possible de constater que plusieurs eleves percevaient difficilement les liens presents entre les disciplines mathematiques et scientifiques. Des travaux en psychologie cognitive et plus particulierement selon une perspective du traitement de l'information ont servi de cadre de reference pour evaluer et analyser les capacites de transfert aupres d'eleves de 4e secondaire. Ce cadre de reference permet de formuler le principal objectif qui est de mieux comprendre le processus de transfert chez des eleves en situation de resolution de problemes scientifiques. Cette these s'interesse donc au transfert en tant que phenomene important du processus d'apprentissage au sens de l'integration. La methode de recherche choisie, de nature qualitative, est principalement axee sur l'evaluation de la capacite a transferer des connaissances lors d'une epreuve et d'un entretien. Pour evaluer ce potentiel de transfert, nous avons elabore deux outils: une epreuve en mathematiques et en sciences et un guide d'entretien. Pour la passation de l'epreuve, le chercheur a pu compter sur la collaboration de 130 sujets provenant de deux ecoles. L'entretien complete la prise de donnees avec 13 sujets ayant accepte de poursuivre l'etude. Les donnees recueillies par ces instruments font ensuite l'objet d'une analyse de contenu. En premier lieu, les verbatims de l'epreuve et de l'entretien ont ete transcrits, puis codifies. La correction des reponses fournies pour les problemes resolus s'est faite a partir d'une grille d

  4. Association entre les hormones sexuelles, les marqueurs de remodelage osseux et la densité minérale osseuse chez des femmes ménopausées d'origine marocaine (étude transversale)

    PubMed Central

    El Maataoui, Aissam; Biaz, Asmae; El Boukhrissi, Fatima; El Machtani, Si; Dami, Abdellah; Bouhsain, Sanae; Bamou, Youssef; El Maghraoui, Abdellah; Ouzzif, Zhor

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Le présent travail se propose d’étudier la relation entre les hormones sexuelles, notamment l’œstradiol et l'indice de l’œstradiol libre, le sulfate de déhydroépiandrosterone et la sex hormone binding globulin, les marqueurs de remodelage osseux et la densité minérale osseuse chez une population de femmes marocaine ménopausées. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude transversale, menée sur une période de 6 mois d'octobre 2012 à fin avril 2013 et ayant fait participer deux cent deux (202). Résultats L’œstradiol et l'indice d’œstradiol libre (IEL) ont montré une corrélation négative respectivement à l'ostéocalcine (OC), à la crosslaps (β-CTX) et l'OC (p<0.001). La sulfate de déhydroepiandrosterone S-DHEA a été corrélée positivement à l'OC (p<0.001), alors que e taux sérique de la sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) l'a été corrélé à la β-CTX et l'OC (p<0.001). Par ailleurs, une corrélation positive a été établie entre la densité minérale osseuse (DMO) au col de fémur et le poids, l'indice de masse corporelle (IMC), l'IEL et la S-DHEA. Une corrélation négative a été retrouvée entre la DMO au col de fémur d'une part et l’âge, la DDR, la SHBG, la β-CTX et l'OC d'une autre part. Conclusion Le présent travail montre que l'augmentation de l’âge et la diminution de l’œstradiol libre expliquent la diminution de la DMO au niveau du col du fémur, alors que l'augmentation du taux sérique de la SHBG et la diminution du poids expliquent la diminution de la DMO au rachis lombaire. PMID:26848353

  5. Competition entre supraconductivite et magnetisme au voisinage de la transition de Mott dans le conducteur organique quasi-bidimensionnel k-(BEDT-TTF)2copper[N(CN)2]bromine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, David

    Les conducteurs organiques quasi-bidimensionnels kappa-ET2X presentent d'importantes similitudes avec les SCHT telles qu'une phase isolant de Mott, un regime de pseudogap et un etat supraconducteur. L'etude de leurs proprietes apparait donc complementaire. Parmi les interrogations persistantes concernant la physique de ces systemes, l'origine du (ou des) processus exotique d'appariement, responsable de la supraconductivite est le sujet suscitant l'interet le plus marque dans la communaute. L'hypothese d'un mecanisme lie a la proximite d'un etat antiferromagnetique est privilegiee. Une etape importante dans la resolution de cette problematique est l'identification de la symetrie du parametre d'ordre. D'apres de nombreux travaux sur les systemes fortement correles, la sonde ultrasonore, de par sa sensibilite aux excitations de quasiparticule a basse temperature, est consideree comme particulierement adaptee a l'etude de cette propriete. Cependant, son emploi necessite l'utilisation d'un compose metallique a basse temperature et completement supraconducteur. Le compose metallique organique kappa-ET 2Cu[N(CN)2]Br presente toutes les caracteristiques necessaires a l'etude de cette propriete. En effet, il est situe loin de la transition du premier ordre de Mott et est completement supraconducteur. De facon surprenante, ce systeme semble se coupler fortement avec le reseau ce qui augmente significativement la sensibilite de cette sonde aux proprietes du gaz electronique. Cependant, des difficultes techniques importantes, liees a la nature intrinseque de ce materiau, doivent etre surmontees pour proceder a des mesures suivant differentes polarisations. La presente etude a profondement modifie notre comprehension de ce systeme. En effet, ces mesures ont permis de constater que le kappa-ET2Cu[N(CN)2]Br est un compose qui est situe en bordure de la zone de coexistence entre la supraconductivite et le magnetisme, ce qui constitue un resultat totalement inattendu. De plus, la

  6. Factores socio-económicos asociados a la percepción de situación socioeconómica entre adultos mayores de dos países latinoamericanos

    PubMed Central

    Brenes-Camacho, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo principal del artículo es estudiar la asociación entre la percepción subjetiva sobre la situación económica propia y una serie de medidas objetivas de bienestar socioeconómico –fuentes de ingresos, tenencia de vivienda, nivel educativo y transferencias familiares informales de dinero- entre adultos mayores de dos países Latinoamericanos: México y Costa Rica. Los datos se obtienen de las primeras rondas de dos encuestas sobre envejecimiento: CRELES para Costa Rica y ENASEM para México. La variable dependiente más importante se obtiene de las respuestas a las pregunta “¿Cómo califica su situación económica actual?” en Costa Rica y “¿Diría usted que su situación económica es…?” en México. Para ambas encuestas, las respuestas se codificaron en forma binaria; el código 0 representa las categorías Excelente, Muy buena y Buena, y el código 1 representa a las categorías Regular y Mala. Se encontró que el ingreso por jubilación es un importante determinante de la percepción de bienestar en ambos países. En Costa Rica, el ingreso del cónyuge y la tenencia de vivienda son importantes predictores de la percepción de bienestar, mientras que en México, los ingresos por transferencias están fuertemente asociados con dicha percepción. PMID:25360057

  7. Reply to comment by Ben-Zvi, A., D. Rosenfeld and A. Givati on the paper: Levin, Z., N. Halfon and P. Alpert, “Reassessment of rain experiments and operations in Israel including synoptic considerations,” Atmos. Res. 97, 513-525. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2010.06.011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Zev; Halfon, Noam; Alpert, Pinhas

    2011-03-01

    Levin et al. (2010; hereafter LHA) (Levin, Z., Halfon, N., Alpert, P., 2010. Reassessment of rain experiments and operations in Israel including synoptic considerations. Atmos. Res. 97, 513-525. DOI:10.1016/j.atmosres.2010.06.011.), reanalyzed the results of the operational seeding in northern Israel between 1975 and 2007 and the preceding Israel 2 cloud seeding experiment (1969-1975) and concluded that there is no net increase in precipitation over the target areas. Our analysis revealed that a synoptic bias during Israel 2 is one of the reasons for the apparent positive effect of seeding in the northern target area and the negative effect in the southern area both of which disappeared in the following experiment in the south (Israel 3; 1975-1995) and the operational seeding in the north. Ben-Zvi et al. (2010;hereafter BRG) criticized our paper primarily on the ground that we did not consider the positive results of Israel 1 experiment (1960-1967). It should be noted that in Israel 1 different seeding lines were used from those in both Israel 2 and the operational period. In addition, its raw data is not accessible anymore for reanalysis. Furthermore, Israel 2 had been designed as a confirmatory cross-over experiment to Israel 1 and failed to reproduce its promising results with double ratio (DR) of ~ 1.00, namely, zero rainfall enhancements. The same DR values were also found in Israel 3 and in the operational seeding. Therefore, because of the differences in the two experiments, the lack of access to the raw data and the disappointing results of the confirmatory experiment, we decided to concentrate our analysis on the more recent seeding activities. The attempt by BRG to explain the reduction of the DR to ~ 1.00 in the operational seeding period by the suppression due to pollution have been disproved by Alpert et al. (2008, 2009) and also fail to explain the sharp decline of the target/control ratio right at the beginning of the operational seeding period when

  8. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Balán, Iván C; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María M

    2011-03-01

    El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

  9. Determinação de elementos próprios dos asteróides troianos: comparação entre as teorias semi-analítica e sintética

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, F.; Beaugé, C.

    2003-08-01

    Além do cálculo semi-analítico de elementos próprios dos asteróides Troianos (Beaugé & Roig 2001, Icarus 153, 391), recentemente foi apresentado um novo conjunto destes elementos próprios determinado através de uma teoria sintética (Knenezevic & Milani 2003, comunicação pessoal). As bases de dados contendo estas determinações estão disponiveis na pagina web do Asteroid Dynamical Site (http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/cgi-bin/astdys/astibo). Nesta comunicação apresentamos os primeiros resultados de um estudo comparativo entre ambos conjuntos de elementos próprios, analisando suas vantagens e desvantagens, assim como os limites de precisão de cada conjunto. Mostramos que os elementos próprios sintéticos são mais precisos que os smi-analíticos para grandes amplitudes de libração do ângulo s = l-lJup, embora acontece o contrario para os corpos cuja amplitude de libração é muito pequena. Finalmente discutimos a influencia destes erros na determinação de familias de asteroides e da estrutura resonante em torno dos pontos Lagrangeanos L4 e L5.

  10. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires

    PubMed Central

    Balán, Iván C.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O.; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria; Ávila, María M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

  11. Traces de l'interaction entre galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, Pierre-Alain

    2016-08-01

    Within a galaxy, collisions between stars are exceptional; collisions between galaxies are themselves much more frequent. They are even supposed to play a major role in the formation of structures according to the standard hierarchical cosmological model. Gravitational interactions, tidal forces and following mergers shape the morphology of galaxies, and leave vestiges which can survive for a few Gyr. They consist of stellar shells, streams, tails and plumes which emit a diffuse and extended optical light. Several deep imaging projects use telescopes of all sizes to try to detect this light. We detail here what the census of collisional debris can tel us about the past history of galaxies and about the models and simulations supposedly accounting for it.

  12. A Concepção de Universo entre Alunos do Ensino Médio de São Paulo e suas Fontes de Aquisição

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. A. A.; Elias, D. C. N.; Amaral, L. H.; Araújo, M. S. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2006-08-01

    Nesse trabalho procurou-se identificar por meio de um questionário as concepções de Universo, de espaço e tempo que sustentam a visão de mundo de um grupo de 270 estudantes de Ensino Médio, pertencentes a três escolas de São Paulo. As questões relacionadas aos conhecimentos prévios dos estudantes permitiram constatar que há pouco conhecimento acerca dos temas investigados, destacando-se que apenas 20% dos alunos foram capazes de relacionar as semanas com as fases da lua, enquanto 28% associaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra e 23% tinham noções das distâncias entre objetos celestes próximos da Terra. Enquanto 56% conseguiram relacionar o Big Bang com a origem do Universo, verificou-se que 37% reconheciam ano-luz como unidade de distância e 60% concebiam o Sol como uma estrela. No que se refere às fontes de aquisição que proporcionaram esses conhecimentos, apesar de 60% dos alunos indicarem a escola como principal fonte dos conhecimentos de Ast! ronomia, verificou-se claramente que para a maioria dos alunos seus conceitos ainda são inadequados, havendo necessidade de aprimoramento da abordagem desses conteúdos, pois apesar de popular, a Astronomia ainda é veiculada de maneira pouco esclarecedora e com imprecisões. Nesse contexto, são discutidas algumas possíveis contribuições que podem ser dadas para o ensino de Astronomia pelo uso das ferramentas computacionais nas escolas.

  13. Distinción Empírica Entre Engagement y Trabajolismo en Enfermeras Hospitalarias de Japón: Efecto Sobre la Calidad del Sueño y el Desempeño Laboral

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Kazumi; Shimazu, Akihito; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo El objetivo de este estudio es demostrar la distinción entre engagement y trabajolismo, estudiando su relación con la calidad del sueño y el desempeño laboral. Método Un total de 447 enfermeras de 3 hospitales de Japón fueron entrevistadas mediante un cuestionario autoadministrado que incluía la escala Utrecht (UWES, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale), la Escala de Adicción al Trabajo Holandesa (DUWAS, Dutch Workaholism Scale), preguntas sobre la calidad del sueño (7 ítems) con respecto a (1) dificultad para conciliar el sueño, (2) dificultad para mantener el sueño, (3) despertar temprano por la mañana, (4) dormirse o tomar siestas durante el día, (5) somnolencia diurna excesiva en el trabajo, (6) dificultad para despertarse por la mañana, y (7) despertar cansado en la mañana, y el Cuestionario sobre Salud y Desempeño (CSD) de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados Los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales demostraron que el engagement se relaciona positivamente con la calidad del sueño y el rendimiento laboral, mientras que el trabajolismo tiene una relación negativa con la calidad del sueño y el desempeño laboral. Conclusión Los resultados indican que el engagement y el trabajolismo son conceptualmente diferentes. El primero tiene una connotación positiva, mientras que el segundo se asocia de manera negativa al bienestar (buena calidad del sueño y buen rendimiento en el trabajo). PMID:26752805

  14. L’annonce d’une déficience motrice cérébrale : Une relation de confiance à construire entre les parents, le personnel paramédical et les médecins

    PubMed Central

    Pelchat, Diane; Lefebvre, Hélène; Bouchard, Jean-Marie

    2001-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ : L’annonce d’une déficience motrice cérébrale et des incapacités qui en découlent est une situation difficile à vivre pour les parents et les dispensateurs de soins (personnel paramédical et médecins). Un examen de la documentation médicale démontre que depuis vingt ans, le nombre de parents insatisfaits n’a pas changé. L’étude de type qualitatif et exploratoire, effectuée à la demande de milieux de réadaptation, vise à décrire le processus d’annonce d’un diagnostic de déficience motrice cérébrale (DMC) à partir de l’expérience des différents acteurs en cause et à déterminer les facteurs qui facilitent ou compliquent la relation de confiance. Les résultats indiquent que les parents et les dispensateurs de soins vivent dans deux mondes de perception différents au moment de l’annonce, lesquels se rejoignent difficilement. Les parents sont envahis par le drame qu’ils vivent, tandis que les médecins sont concentrés sur le contenu à transmettre aux parents. Cette annonce provoque une importante incertitude qui bloque la communication entre les partenaires, mais elle pourrait devenir un stimulant à de nouvelles stratégies d’adaptation. PMID:20084263

  15. Discriminação de núcleos primários no Observatório Auger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiba, A. K. O.; Medina Tanco, G. A.; Sciutto, S. J.

    2003-08-01

    A identidade das partículas, com energias E > 10EeV, que geram chuveiros atmosféricos extensivos (CAE) na atmosfera terrestre é um incógnita. Existem diferenças sutis, mas apreciáveis entre chuveiros gerados por fótons e por núcleos, como temos demonstrado em trabalho recente. Porém entre os núcleos, as diferenças são tão sutis, que a baixa estatística e incertezas experimentais têm limitado fortemente sua diferenciação até o presente. Tal discriminação precede qualquer aplicação astrofísica mas sofisticada de raios cósmicos de ultra-alta energia. Apresentamos aqui os resultados do desenvolvimento de novos métodos de diagnóstico para a análise de CAEs com aplicação específica ao Experimento Pierre Auger. Redes neurais, combinadas com simulações numéricas detalhadas de CAEs e dos dois tipos diferentes de detectores (Cherenkov em água e de fluorescência atmosférica) presentes no experimento são empregados na análise. Mostraremos a capacidade dos métodos de diagnóstico desenvolvidos, para a discriminação de diversas distribuições hipotéticas de massa-anergia.

  16. Materials Data on Ti(PO3)3 (SG:9) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  17. Materials Data on Ti(PO3)4 (SG:60) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. Materials Data on Li2TiPO4F (SG:1) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-10

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  19. Materials Data on Ti(PO3)4 (SG:15) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  20. ftz evolution: findings, hypotheses and speculations (response to DOI 10.1002/bies.201100019).

    PubMed

    Heffer, Alison; Löhr, Ulrike; Pick, Leslie

    2011-12-01

    In a recent paper, Merabet and Hudry discuss models explaining the functional evolution of fushi tarazu (ftz) from an ancestral homeotic to a pair-rule segmentation gene in Drosophila. As most of the experimental work underlying these models comes from our research, we wish to reply to Merabet and Hudry providing an explanation of the experimental approaches and logical framework underlying them. We review experimental data that support our hypotheses and discuss misconceptions in the literature. We emphasize that the change in ftz function required changes in both expression pattern and protein function and review the evidence that these functional changes involved a switch in cofactor-interaction motifs during arthropod radiations. While agreeing with Merabet and Hudry that protein context likely contributes to Ftz function, we argue that until supporting evidence for alternative mechanisms is obtained, the role of cofactor-interaction motifs in driving a functional switch remains compelling. PMID:22113740

  1. 43 CFR 2.2 - What is DOI's policy regarding release of records under the FOIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... records under the FOIA? 2.2 Section 2.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... release of records under the FOIA? It is our policy to make records of the Department available to the public consistent with the spirit of the FOIA and the Privacy Act....

  2. 43 CFR 2.2 - What is DOI's policy regarding release of records under the FOIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... records under the FOIA? 2.2 Section 2.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... release of records under the FOIA? It is our policy to make records of the Department available to the public consistent with the spirit of the FOIA and the Privacy Act....

  3. Transient radiation-induced absorption in materials for the DOI laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brannon, P. J.

    1994-11-01

    This is the final report on a series of experiments concerned with transient radiation-induced absorption in materials for a Cr,Nd:GSGG laser. Both the Sandia National Laboratories SPR III pulsed reactor and the Hermes III pulsed X-ray machine are used as radiation sources. The time dependence and the magnitude of the induced absorption in filter glasses and in doped and undoped LiNbO3 Q-switch materials have been measured. Gain has been observed in Cr,Nd:GSGG, the laser medium, when it is irradiated by X-rays.

  4. Transient radiation-induced absorption in materials for the DOI laser

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    This is the final report on a series of experiments concerned with transient radiation-induced absorption in materials for a Cr,Nd:GSGG laser. Both the Sandia National Laboratories SPR III pulsed reactor and the Hermes III pulsed X-ray machine are used as radiation sources. The time dependence and the magnitude of the induced absorption in filter glasses and in doped and undoped LiNbO{sub 3} Q-switch materials have been measured. Gain has been observed in Cr,Nd:GSGG, the laser medium, when it is irradiated by X-rays.

  5. 30 CFR 250.1004 - Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... delivering gas to the power plant platform may be equipped with high- and low-pressure sensors (PSHL), which... facilities shall be protected by high- and low-pressure sensors (PSHL) to directly or indirectly shut in...

  6. 30 CFR 250.1004 - Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... delivering gas to the power plant platform may be equipped with high- and low-pressure sensors (PSHL), which... facilities shall be protected by high- and low-pressure sensors (PSHL) to directly or indirectly shut in...

  7. 30 CFR 250.1004 - Safety equipment requirements for DOI pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... delivering gas to the power plant platform may be equipped with high- and low-pressure sensors (PSHL), which... facilities shall be protected by high- and low-pressure sensors (PSHL) to directly or indirectly shut in...

  8. System design of a small OpenPET prototype with 4-layer DOI detectors.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Eiji; Kinouchi, Shoko; Tashima, Hideaki; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga

    2012-01-01

    We have proposed an OpenPET geometry which consists of two axially separated detector rings. The open gap is suitable for in-beam PET. We have developed the small prototype of the OpenPET especially for a proof of concept of in-beam imaging. This paper presents an overview of the main features implemented in this prototype. We also evaluated the detector performance. This prototype was designed with 2 detector rings having 8 depth-of-interaction detectors. Each detector consisted of 784 Lu(2x)Gd(2(1-x))SiO₅:Ce (LGSO) which were arranged in a 4-layer design, coupled to a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PS-PMT). The size of the LGSO array was smaller than the sensitive area of the PS-PMT, so that we could obtain sufficient LGSO identification. Peripheral LGSOs near the open gap directly detect the gamma rays on the side face in the OpenPET geometry. Output signals of two detectors stacked axially were projected onto one 2-dimensional position histogram for reduction of the scale of a coincidence processor. Front-end circuits were separated from the detector head by 1.2-m coaxial cables for the protection of electronic circuits from radiation damage. The detectors had sufficient crystal identification capability. Cross talk between the combined two detectors could be ignored. The timing and energy resolutions were 3.0 ns and 14%, respectively. The coincidence window was set 20 ns, because the timing histogram showed that not only the main peak, but also two small shifted peaks were caused by the coaxial cable. However, the detector offers the promise of sufficient performance, because random coincidences are at a nearly undetectable level for in-beam PET experiments. PMID:22124931

  9. Drilling and Testing the DOI041A Coalbed Methane Well, Fort Yukon, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Arthur; Barker, Charles E.; Weeks, Edwin P.

    2009-01-01

    The need for affordable energy sources is acute in rural communities of Alaska where costly diesel fuel must be delivered by barge or plane for power generation. Additionally, the transport, transfer, and storage of fuel pose great difficulty in these regions. Although small-scale energy development in remote Arctic locations presents unique challenges, identifying and developing economic, local sources of energy remains a high priority for state and local government. Many areas in rural Alaska contain widespread coal resources that may contain significant amounts of coalbed methane (CBM) that, when extracted, could be used for power generation. However, in many of these areas, little is known concerning the properties that control CBM occurrence and production, including coal bed geometry, coalbed gas content and saturation, reservoir permeability and pressure, and water chemistry. Therefore, drilling and testing to collect these data are required to accurately assess the viability of CBM as a potential energy source in most locations. In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Alaska Department of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), the Doyon Native Corporation, and the village of Fort Yukon, organized and funded the drilling of a well at Fort Yukon, Alaska to test coal beds for CBM developmental potential. Fort Yukon is a town of about 600 people and is composed mostly of Gwich'in Athabascan Native Americans. It is located near the center of the Yukon Flats Basin, approximately 145 mi northeast of Fairbanks.

  10. Substance use disorders and HIV in Vietnam since Doi Moi (Renovation): an overview.

    PubMed

    Giang, Le Minh; Ngoc, Lung Bich; Hoang, Vu Huy; Mulvey, Kevin; Rawson, Richard A

    2013-12-01

    Drawing from published and gray literature, this manuscript focuses on the following topics: (1) changing patterns of substance use and abuse in Vietnam since the early 1990s; (2) the roles of substance use in the HIV epidemic; (3) the responses of the Vietnamese government and other entities (both domestic and international) to substance use disorders (SUDs) and HIV; and (4) the current research capacity in Vietnam and ways in which furthering research in Vietnam could enrich our knowledge of the linkages between SUDs and HIV and of effective measures to reduce their public health consequences. A growing number of studies during the past two decades show dynamic and still evolving twin epidemics of SUDs and HIV in Vietnam, including a shift from consumption of opium to heroin and amphetamine-type stimulants, the concurrent use of drugs, and the increasing embrace by the government of internationally recognized effective responses (including harm reduction and methadone substitution therapy). And yet, remaining issues, such as the rapid ascendance of amphetamine-type stimulant use among the country's most vulnerable populations, the lack of effective integration of SUD and HIV services for HIV-infected drug users, and the reliance on international resources for maintaining quality services, among others, are posing challenges for building sustainable Vietnamese responses. Therefore, building local research and training capacity is a crucial foundation to meet these challenges. PMID:25278736

  11. Image properties of list mode likelihood reconstruction for a rectangular positron emission mammography with DOI measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Jinyi; Klein, Gregory J.; Huesman, Ronald H.

    2000-10-01

    A positron emission mammography scanner is under development at our Laboratory. The tomograph has a rectangular geometry consisting of four banks of detector modules. For each detector, the system can measure the depth of interaction information inside the crystal. The rectangular geometry leads to irregular radial and angular sampling and spatially variant sensitivity that are different from conventional PET systems. Therefore, it is of importance to study the image properties of the reconstructions. We adapted the theoretical analysis that we had developed for conventional PET systems to the list mode likelihood reconstruction for this tomograph. The local impulse response and covariance of the reconstruction can be easily computed using FFT. These theoretical results are also used with computer observer models to compute the signal-to-noise ratio for lesion detection. The analysis reveals the spatially variant resolution and noise properties of the list mode likelihood reconstruction. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with Monte Carlo results.

  12. Evaluacion entre colegas profesores (Peer Review of Teachers). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertling, Elizabeth

    This digest in Spanish examines peer review, focusing on how these types of reviews can improve teacher competence. Peer review is often linked to peer assistance, which helps new and veteran teachers improve their knowledge and skills. In peer-review programs, consulting teachers conduct formal evaluations and recommend whether the participating…

  13. "Lo Ultimo": "Consejos"--"Un Dialogo Respetoso Entre Colegas"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Olga A.; Flores, Belinda Bustos; Clark, Ellen Riojas

    2001-01-01

    "Los testimonios," or life stories, shared in this volume reveal that academia represents a labyrinth of challenges for aspiring and emerging Latina scholars--a story these authors know all too well. As Latina "veterana" scholars, who have traveled this arduous journey, the authors recognize that their collective efforts have…

  14. Etude de la flore bactérienne contaminant les téléphones mobiles avant et après la désinfection: comparaison entre les professionnels soignants de l'hôpital militaire d'instruction Mohammed V de Rabat et les témoins

    PubMed Central

    Uwingabiye, Jean; Moustanfii, Wafaa; Chadli, Meryem; Sekhsokh, Yassine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de notre travail était évaluer la contamination microbienne des téléphones mobiles utilisés par les personnels soignants des différents services de l'hôpital militaire d'instructions Mohammed V de Rabat et la comparer à celui d'une population témoin et aussi démontrer l'efficacité des solutions hydroalcoolique dans la désinfection de ces téléphones mobiles. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude descriptive transversale réalisée sur une période de 9 mois entre septembre 2010 et juin 2011, dans le service de bactériologie de l'hôpital militaire d'Instruction Mohammed V. Résultats L’étude bactériologique a été faite sur 240 téléphones mobiles dont 50% provenaient de personnels de sante. Le taux de contamination bactérienne de tous les téléphones mobiles était de 100%. Les cultures des bactéries isolées au niveau des téléphones mobiles du personnel médical étaient plus polymorphes que celles de la population témoin (p=0,028). Parmi 437 bactéries isolées: 223(51%) provenaient de téléphones de personnels de santé et 214(49%) de téléphones de la population témoin avec une différence qui n’était pas statistiquement significative(p>0,05) sauf pour les isolats de Staphylocoque à coagulase négative et Staphylococcus aureus. Les bactéries isolées étaient représentées par: Staphylocoque à coagulase (57,7%), Staphylococcus aureus (18,1%), Corynebacterium sp (18,8%), Bacillus sp (2,3%) et autres (2,2%). La différence entre la prévalence des bactéries isolées selon les services et les fonctions des personnels de santé n’était pas statistiquement significative (p>0,05). La désinfection des téléphones portables par la solution hydroalcoolique a réduit à 99,5% le nombre des colonies. Conclusion Ce travail montre que les téléphones portables pourraient jouer un rôle dans la transmission des infections nosocomiales et communautaires. Dans le cadre de prévention de ces risques, il faut

  15. Toxicité sérotoninergique résultant d’une interaction médicamenteuse entre le bleu de méthylène et les inhibiteurs de la recapture de la sérotonine

    PubMed Central

    Charbonneau, Annie

    2013-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte : Le bleu de méthylène est employé en pratique pour diverses raisons médicales. Des données récentes ont évoqué une interaction potentielle avec les inhibiteurs de la recapture de la sérotonine, pouvant conduire à une toxicité sérotoninergique. Objectif : Décrire le risque de toxicité sérotoninergique associé à l’interaction entre le bleu de méthylène et les inhibiteurs de la recapture de la sérotonine. Sources de l’information : Les publications pertinentes ont été ciblées systématiquement au moyen des moteurs de recherche MEDLINE (1946 au 21 mars 2013) et Embase (1974 à 2013, semaine 11) en utilisant les mots clés suivants : methylene blue, methylthioninium, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, serotonin reuptake inhibitors et serotonin syndrome. Aucune restriction touchant l’indication du bleu de méthylène ou la langue n’a été appliquée. Les références des publications ont également été analysées. Sélection des études et extraction des données : Dix-huit études de cas et deux séries de cas systématiques ont été sélectionnées. Aucune étude clinique aléatoire n’a encore été publiée. Synthèse des résultats : La première étude de cas à avoir soupçonné une interaction entre le bleu de méthylène et les inhibiteurs de la recapture de la sérotonine est parue en 2003. Dix-sept autres études de cas décrivant le même type d’interaction ont par la suite été rapportées. Les deux séries de cas ont regroupé les données de quelques 325 parathyroïdectomies où le bleu de méthylène avait été employé comme agent colorant. Les 17 patients qui ont présenté une toxicité du système nerveux central prenaient tous en période préopératoire des inhibiteurs de recapture de la sérotonine. Conclusion : Lorsqu’il est administré en concomitance avec des inhibiteurs de recapture de la sérotonine, le bleu de méthylène peut conduire à une toxicité sérotoninergique à une dose aussi

  16. Cinemática y masas de agujeros negros en galaxias activas del tipo "Narrow Line Seyfert 1"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oío, G.; Schmidt, E.; Vega Neme, L. R.

    We apply a spectral synthesis method to Narrow Line Seyfert 1 active galax- ies with public spectra available. Our goal will be to obtain the stellar ve- locity dispersions, and then the central black hole masses via the Tremaine relation. We comment several problems we found in fitting this type of objects and the possibility of obtaining masses through the emission lines. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  17. Home-Type Activities at the Day Care Center. (Tipos De Actividades Del Hogar En El Centro De Cuidado Diario.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, May; Moberg, Patricia E.

    This paper argues that home activities comprise a valuable unplanned curriculum and that many of these activities can be transferred to the day care center. It is suggested that these activities foster a closer relationship between child and caregiver and bridge the gap between familiar home environment and novel day care setting. Home activities…

  18. Relaciones fundamentales de la población de galaxias de tipo temprano del cúmulo de Antlia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderón, J. P.; Bassino, L. P.; Cellone, S. A.; Smith Castelli, A. V.; Caso, J. P.

    We present the results of a study of more than 100 early-type galaxies in Antlia Cluster, that span from giant ellipticals to dwarf ellipticals, covering a magnitude range of 11 magnitudes (M_{V_T} = -22 to -11). We perform surface photometry of these galaxies, and their total magnitudes, surface brightnesses and radii are determined on the basis of the Sérsic law fits. Finally, the fundamental relations between them are analyzed. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  19. Problematizing Digital Research Evaluation using DOIs in Practice-Based Arts, Humanities and Social Science Research.

    PubMed

    Swijghuisen Reigersberg, Muriel

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores emerging practices in research data management in the arts, humanities and social sciences (AHSS). It will do so vis-à-vis current citation conventions and impact measurement for research in AHSS. Case study findings on research data inventoried at Goldsmiths', University of London will be presented. Goldsmiths is a UK research-intensive higher education institution which specialises in arts, humanities and social science research. The paper's aim is to raise awareness of the subject-specific needs of AHSS scholars to help inform the design of future digital tools for impact analysis in AHSS. Firstly, I shall explore the definition of research data and how it is currently understood by AHSS researchers. I will show why many researchers choose not to engage with digital dissemination techniques and ORCID. This discussion must necessarily include the idea that practice-based and applied AHSS research are processes which are not easily captured in numerical 'sets' and cannot be labelled electronically without giving careful consideration to what a group or data item 'represents' as part of the academic enquiry, and therefore how it should be cited and analysed as part of any impact assessment. Then, the paper will explore: the role of the monograph and arts catalogue in AHSS scholarship; how citation practices and digital impact measurement in AHSS currently operate in relation to authorship and how digital identifiers may hypothetically impact on metrics, intellectual property (IP), copyright and research integrity issues in AHSS. I will also show that, if we are to be truly interdisciplinary, as research funders and strategic thinkers say we should, it is necessary to revise the way we think about digital research dissemination. This will involve breaking down the boundaries between AHSS and other types of research. PMID:26236470

  20. Problematizing Digital Research Evaluation using DOIs in Practice-Based Arts, Humanities and Social Science Research

    PubMed Central

    Swijghuisen Reigersberg, Muriel

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores emerging practices in research data management in the arts, humanities and social sciences (AHSS). It will do so vis-à-vis current citation conventions and impact measurement for research in AHSS. Case study findings on research data inventoried at Goldsmiths’, University of London will be presented. Goldsmiths is a UK research-intensive higher education institution which specialises in arts, humanities and social science research. The paper’s aim is to raise awareness of the subject-specific needs of AHSS scholars to help inform the design of future digital tools for impact analysis in AHSS. Firstly, I shall explore the definition of research data and how it is currently understood by AHSS researchers. I will show why many researchers choose not to engage with digital dissemination techniques and ORCID. This discussion must necessarily include the idea that practice-based and applied AHSS research are processes which are not easily captured in numerical ‘sets’ and cannot be labelled electronically without giving careful consideration to what a group or data item ‘represents’ as part of the academic enquiry, and therefore how it should be cited and analysed as part of any impact assessment. Then, the paper will explore: the role of the monograph and arts catalogue in AHSS scholarship; how citation practices and digital impact measurement in AHSS currently operate in relation to authorship and how digital identifiers may hypothetically impact on metrics, intellectual property (IP), copyright and research integrity issues in AHSS. I will also show that, if we are to be truly interdisciplinary, as research funders and strategic thinkers say we should, it is necessary to revise the way we think about digital research dissemination. This will involve breaking down the boundaries between AHSS and other types of research. PMID:26236470

  1. Correction to: Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw 2015;18(2);59-71 DOI: 10.1089/cyber.2014.0343.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    In the February 2015 issue of Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking (vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 59–71), the article "Association Between Pornography Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors in Adult Consumers: A Systematic Review," by Emily L. Harkness et al., the second author's name was displayed as "Barbara M. Mullan;" however, the middle initial is incorrect. The authors wish to apologize for the error and Dr. Mullan would like to be cited without a middle initial simply as "B Mullan." PMID:26544786

  2. Multicellularity arose several times in the evolution of eukaryotes (response to DOI 10.1002/bies.201100187).

    PubMed

    Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Lahr, Daniel J G

    2013-04-01

    The cellular slime mold Dictyostelium has cell-cell connections similar in structure, function, and underlying molecular mechanisms to animal epithelial cells. These similarities form the basis for the proposal that multicellularity is ancestral to the clade containing animals, fungi, and Amoebozoa (including Dictyostelium): Amorphea (formerly "unikonts"). This hypothesis is intriguing and if true could precipitate a paradigm shift. However, phylogenetic analyses of two key genes reveal patterns inconsistent with a single origin of multicellularity. A single origin in Amorphea would also require loss of multicellularity in each of the many unicellular lineages within this clade. Further, there are numerous other origins of multicellularity within eukaryotes, including three within Amorphea, that are not characterized by these structural and mechanistic similarities. Instead, convergent evolution resulting from similar selective pressures for forming multicellular structures with motile and differentiated cells is the most likely explanation for the observed similarities between animal and dictyostelid cell-cell connections. PMID:23315654

  3. Process Evaluation of a School-Based Weight Gain Prevention Program: The Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, A. S.; Chinapaw, M. J. M.; Brug, J.; van Mechelen, W.

    2009-01-01

    Health promotion programs benefit from an accompanying process evaluation since it can provide more insight in the strengths and weaknesses of a program. A process evaluation was conducted to assess the reach, implementation, satisfaction and maintenance of a school-based program aimed at the prevention of excessive weight gain among Dutch…

  4. Educational and Social Development in Doi Ang Khang: A Comparative Study of the Khob Dong and Nor Lae Villages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Timothy; Gray, Lauren; Lake, John; Roy, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    Northern Thailand is home to many hill tribes, who have lived for hundreds of years as subsistence farmers or nomadic hunters. In the 1940s, communist insurgencies drove many hill tribes from China, Burma, and other nations south into northern Thailand. Uprooted from their native lands, the hill tribes left behind ties to economic resources and,…

  5. Linking to Journal Articles in an Online Teaching Environment: The Persistent Link, DOI, and OpenURL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langston, Marc; Tyler, James

    2004-01-01

    The growing availability of online journal literature and the license agreements that make such literature useable in an academic environment present educators opportunities for using journal articles in online teaching. The use of online journal articles avoids logistical challenges associated with the use of printed copies of journal articles,…

  6. Restoring the Great Lakes: DOI stories of success and partnership in implementing the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Department of the Interior; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; National Park Service; U.S. Geological Survey; Bureau of Indian Affairs

    2013-01-01

    The Great Lakes are a monumentally unique national treasure containing nearly ninety-five percent of the United States' fresh surface water. Formed by receding glaciers, the Great Lakes support a thriving, resilient ecosystem rich with fish, wildlife, and abundant natural resources. The Great Lakes also support an array of commercial uses, including shipping, and provide a source of recreation, drinking water, and other critical services that drive the economy of the region and the Nation. Regrettably, activities such as clear cutting of mature forests, over-harvesting of fish populations, industrial pollution, invasive species, and agricultural runoffs have degraded these treasured lakes over the decades creating long-term impacts to the surrounding watershed. Fortunately, the people who live, work, and recreate in the region recognize the critical importance of a healthy Great Lakes ecosystem, and have come together to support comprehensive restoration. To stimulate and promote the goal of a healthy Great Lakes region, President Obama and Congress created the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) in 2009. This program provides the seed money to clean up legacy pollution, restore habitats, protect wildlife, combat invasive species, and address agricultural runoff in the Great Lakes watershed. At the same time GLRI promotes public outreach, education, accountability, and partnerships.

  7. Transferências orbitais dentro do modelo quase bicircular no sistema Terra-Lua-Sol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, A. A.; de Almeida Prado, A. F. B.; Stuchi, T. J.; Beaugé, C.

    2003-08-01

    O problema quase bicircular planar consiste na determinação da dinâmica de um corpo, de massa desprezível, que se move sob o campo gravitacional de três corpos. No caso estudado, o quarto corpo é considerado um satélite artificial e os demais são a Terra, a Lua e o Sol, formando o sistema de três corpos. Este modelo permite a construção de uma hamiltoniana similar a do problema restrito de três corpos (PRTC), incluindo termos periódicos não autônomos, provenientes da presença do Sol, portanto pode ser entendido como uma perturbação ao PRTC. Suas órbitas periódicas aparecem isoladas e possuem o mesmo período solar. Os pontos de equilíbrio colineares possuem o mesmo caráter de estabilidade linear dos pontos lagrangianos (L1, L2 e L3) do PRTC, sendo do tipo sela x centro x centro, instável na direção x e estáveis nas direções y e z. As órbitas periódicas tridimensionais ao redor do ponto colinear é chamada órbita Halo. O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar órbitas de transferências de baixo consumo de combustível para um veículo espacial partindo de uma órbita de estacionamento ao redor da Terra em direção a uma órbita Halo do ponto L1, situado entre a Terra e Lua. Esta tarefa pode ser transformada no problema de valor de contorno: dado um ponto inicial na órbita de estacionamento, um ponto final na órbita halo e o tempo de transferência, deseja-se obter a trajetória que liga estes dois pontos e que minimize os incrementos de velocidade do veículo. Essas transferências são realizadas baseadas no método de Lambert e analisadas de modo a fornecer um baixo consumo. Posteriormente, é feita uma comparação de consumo com as órbitas de transferência equivalentes do PRTC.

  8. Observação do abrilhantamento de limbo solar e de estruturas filamentares em 48 ghz utilizando a técnica de regularização adaptativa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, W. R. S.; Mascarenhas, N.; Costa, J. E. R.; Silva, A. V. R.

    2003-08-01

    O radiotelescópio do Itapetinga tem sido utilizado em campanhas de observações de explosões solares gerando um grande número de mapas diários em 48 GHz como sub-produto destas observações. A resolução espacial do telescópio de 14m do Itapetinga nesta freqüência é de aproximadamente dois minutos de arco. Estruturas de interesse para análise da atmosfera solar quiescente tais como os filamentos e o anel de abrilhantamento do limbo são de dimensão angular moderada da ordem ou ligeiramente menores que a resolução do telescópio. É conhecido que a convolução da função de espalhamento do telescópio, PSF (padrão de ganho do feixe) borra as estruturas de dimensão angular abaixo do HPBW (largura a meia potência do feixe) e portanto é comum a busca por técnicas de restauração que eliminem pelo menos em parte este borramento. Estudamos a restauração destas radioimagens usando a técnica de regularização adaptativa e os resultados ressaltam estas estruturas espaciais de pequeno contraste. O algoritmo da regularização adaptativa faz uso de k imagens, chamadas protótipos, obtidas através da variação de parâmetros de um filtro de regularização. Para controle da qualidade da restauração utilizamos uma imagem de alta resolução espacial obtida na linha H-a e a PSF do Itapetinga para borrá-la. Pequenos desvios, entre a PSF utilizada para o borramento e a PSF utilizada na restauração, produziram alguns desvios notáveis na imagem restaurada porém a adição de ruído nas simulações de restauração foram mais influentes no cálculo da rugosidade da imagem e portanto mais limitante para a restauração. Apresentamos como nosso primeiro resultado uma imagem em 48 GHz com a presença clara do abrilhantamento de limbo que não estava evidente na imagem original e traços de estruturas filamentares, porém ainda sem grande evidência.

  9. Espectroscopia infravermelha de núcleos ativos de galáxias: resultados adicionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Ardila, A.; Viegas, S.; Pastoria, M. G.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos resultados parciais de um levantamento espectroscópico na região do infravermelho próximo (NIR) realizado em 30 núcleos ativos de galáxias (AGN), incluindo vários objetos selecionados do catálogo PG com z de até 0.55. O objetivo é estudar a natureza do contínuo observado e as condições físicas do gas emissor. Todas as fontes de tipo 1 apresentam uma mudança na inclinação do contínuo na região de 1.2mm, associada ao término da contribuição do contínuo emitido pelo AGN e ao início da contribuição do contínuo emitido pela poeira quente atribuída ao tórus que rodeia a fonte central. O índice espectral associado à segunda contribuição varia apreciavelmente de objeto para objeto. Este resultado é comparado com distribuições espectrais de energia preditas por modelos de toroides para testar a validez do modelo unificado. A partir das linhas de FeII observado nos espectros deriva-se, pela primeira vez nessa região espectral, um template empírico de FeII para estudar a intensidade e a origem dessa emissão. A intensidade do FeII é estudada em conjunto com aquela da região visível e comparada às predições de modelos teóricos que incluem fluorescência de Lya, excitação colisional e auto-fluorescência como mecanismos dominantes de exitação. Encontra-se que os dois primeiros processos dominam na formação do espectro de FeII observado. Indicadores de avermelhamento, entre eles Brg/Pab, Pab/Pag, Pab/Pad e [FeII] 1.257/1.644 mm são utilizados para mapear a distribuição de poeira nas regiões emissoras de linhas. Encontra-se valores de extinção Av~3 associados ao último indicador e valores significativamente menores (Av~1.5) para os restantes, o que sugere que o [FeII] se forma em uma região separada da maior parte do gás emissor de linhas estreitas.

  10. Evolução temporal da explosão solar de 06 de junho de 2000 apresentando estruturas finas em rádio freqüências

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, F. C. R.; Sawant, H. S.; Cecatto, J. R.; Caracini, A. G.; Vats, H. O.; Karlický, M.; Meszarosova, H.

    2003-08-01

    Em 06 de junho de 2000 (~15: 00-17: 00 UT), o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS) registrou uma explosão solar intensa no intervalo de freqüência de (1000-2000) MHz, com alta resolução temporal (100 ms) e espectral (5 MHz). A atividade solar relacionada a esta explosão associada à região ativa (AR) 9026 e classificada como X2.3 foi grande. O Ondrejov Observatory registrou rádio emissões até 4,5 GHz. O satélite SOHO registrou uma série de erupções solares, incluindo uma Ejeção de Massa Coronal (CME) tipo "full-halo" (~15: 54 UT). Explosões tipo II/IV também foram registradas. Na faixa de ondas decimétricas, este evento apresentou dois picos distintos (~15: 21 UT e ~16: 42 UT). O primeiro pico coincide com a explosão registrada em raios-X moles (GOES) e em raios-X duros (Yohkoh). Os espectros dinâmicos com alta resolução do BSS revelaram várias estruturas finas, principalmente emissões tipo "zebra" e "fibra", rádio pulsações, emissões tipo III e do único caso de emissões "zebra" harmônicas observado na faixa decimétrica. Neste trabalho, analisamos a evolução temporal e o comportamento global do evento de 06 de junho de 2000, com ênfase na identificação e associação da ocorrência de cada tipo de estrutura fina registrada em rádio com cada etapa da explosão. Resultados preliminares mostraram que, na fase pré-flare, as estruturas finas apresentaram taxa de deriva negativa (~ 70-190 MHz/s). As emissões tipo "zebra" concentram-se na fase de descida do primeiro pico impulsivo e na de subida do segundo pico. Enquanto que as emissões tipo "fibra" ocorrem em ambas fases, mas preferivelmente durante a fase de descida. Os resultados serão apresentados e discutidos.

  11. Añadir quimioterapia después de la radioterapia mejora la supervivencia de adultos con un tipo de tu

    Cancer.gov

    Adultos con gliomas de grado bajo, una forma de tumor cerebral, que recibieron tratamiento con quimioterapia después de la radioterapia vivieron más tiempo que pacientes que recibieron solo radioterapia, según los resultados de seguimiento a largo plazo d

  12. Análisis y determinación de parámetros físicos de estrellas de tipo FU Orionis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramajo, L.; Gómez, M.; Whitney, B.

    FU Orionis stars (FUORs) are pre-main sequence objects that periodically incur in a steeply increase of brightness (outburst) of DeltaV~ 6 mag in a period of ~ 10 yr, followed by a gradual descent to the original magnitude in an interval of time of ~100 yr. In this contribution we present initial results on the modeling of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of a group of 7 FU Orionis stars: FU Ori, V1515 Cyg, V1057 Cyg, Z CMa, BBW 76, V1735 Cyg, and V883 Ori. We initially used the grid of SEDs calculated by Robitaille et al. (2006). This solution was refined applying the code developed by Whitney et al. (2003). We derived physical and geometrical parameters for the disks of these FUORs. We compared these properties with those of ''canonical'' T Tauri disks. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  13. Stay at a Healthy Weight. Tips for Kids with Type 2 Diabetes = Mantente en un Peso Saludable. Consejos Para Muchachos con Diabetes Tipo 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A healthy weight means you are not too fat or too thin. Your doctor may have said that you should not gain more weight or that you need to lose a few pounds. If you have diabetes and are overweight, you are not alone. The steps you take to manage your weight will help you feel better and may improve your blood sugar or glucose (GLOO-kos) levels.…

  14. "Entre Familia": Immigrant Parents' Strategies for Involvement in Children's Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poza, Luis; Brooks, Maneka Deanna; Valdés, Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    Teachers and administrators in schools with large, working-class Latino populations often complain of parents' indifference or lack of involvement in children's schooling because of their low visibility at school events and relatively little face-to-face communication with teachers and school administration. In a series of…

  15. Dominicanas entre La Gran Manzana y Quisqueya: Family, Schooling, and Language Learning in a Transnational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from a one-year qualitative research study, this article explores the transnational lives and experiences of three young women and their little sisters in New York with close ties to the Dominican Republic. Using ethnographic research methods--life history interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and document analysis, I examine…

  16. La formation a Bukavu au Zaire: une course entre l'education et la catastrophe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balegamire, Bazilashe Juvénal

    1996-11-01

    A description of the socio-educational situation in Bukavu since the colonial era clearly shows why the population has sought means of overcoming the gradual abandonment by the Zairean State of its responsibilities, which has been aggravated by the large-scale influx into Kivu, in Eastern Zaire, of refugees from Rwanda and Burundi and of Zaireans who has been living in those countries for some years. These means are principally trade occupations, small-time selling, short-term vocational training and higher and university education at private institutions which are financed locally and/or by funds from the North. A new approach has been deveoped, that of training the trainers working for non-governmental development organisations. Trainers of trainers have been recruited locally among the many graduates of the Higher Institutes of Education and Rural Development, which have been affected by unemployment and the miserable salaries which the State offers to its employees. The trainers of trainers could be trained by the Higher Institute of Rural Development, making the largest possible use of local skills. However, such training should be one of a set of reforms of the Zairean education system. All of this only makes sense if Zaire and its neighbours urgently defuse present socio-political tensions so that all of our populations can peacefully and resolutely engage in the healthy transformation of our societies.

  17. Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds: Bicultural Development in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacallao, Martica L.; Smokowski, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    How do Mexican immigrant adolescents balance different, and often oppositional, cultural influences in the acculturation process? In this article, we explore how acculturating adolescents absorb cultural messages and go about creating their (multiple) identities. Guided by Alternation Theory, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 12…

  18. Let's Talk About Water: Film Screenings as an Entrée to Water Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, R. P.; Lilienfeld, L.; Arrigo, J.

    2011-12-01

    "Let's Talk about Water" is a film symposium designed to bring together experts and the public to talk about the complex water issues facing society. The format of the event is quite simple: a panel of experts and the audience view a water documentary (such as "FLOW", "Liquid Assets", or "Gasland") together and there is an extended moderated discussion period following the film between the panel and the audience. Properly handled, this simple format can be very effective. A film creates a context of subject and language for the discussion--it gets the audience and the panel on the same page. The moderators must actively manage the discussion, both challenging the panelists with follow up questions, asking questions to simplify the language the expert is using, and passing a question among panelists to bring out different points of view. The panelists are provided with the film in advance to view and, most importantly, meet the day before the event to discuss the film. This makes for a much more convivial discussion at the event. We have found that these discussions can easily be sustained for 90 to 120 minutes with active audience participation. This format has been applied at college campuses with a target audience of lower-level undergraduates. Student clubs are engaged to help with publicity before the event and to assist with registration and ushering during the event. Appropriate classes offer extra credit for student attendance to ensure a strong turnout. A Hollywood film ("Chinatown" in southern California, "A Civil Action" in Boston) is shown on campus during the week preceding the event to help advertise the event. The event itself is typically held on a Saturday with a morning screening of the film. The audience is provided with index cards and pencils to write down questions they have about the film. A lunch is provided during which the questions are organized and used to initiate different discussion themes. The discussion begins with points raised by the movie (are these issues real? Do they apply here? What are the scientific, engineering, and policy solutions to these problems?) and then segues into a discussion about career opportunities in the water sector. Our past events at UC Irvine and at UMass Boston have been successful in attracting large audiences and have been viewed positively by attendees.

  19. La Communicacion entre los Centros de Investigacion en Educacion (Communication among Educational Research Centers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefelbein, Ernesto

    1972-01-01

    In Latin America there is a lack of communication concerning educational research. This lack has been underlined in many regional meetings, but no action has been taken. Possible steps that would lead to improvement include circulation of research summaries, both for completed and current works, efforts by research centers to organize meetings,…

  20. Actividades interrelacionadas entre el nino y la familia (Interrelated Activities between the Child and the Family).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veglio, Ana M.

    1993-01-01

    Offers a rationale for parent involvement in early childhood education. Describes the benefits of mother-child gymnastics in terms of the development of motor skills and positive attitudes toward school. Highlights particular exercises and games. (AC)

  1. Vinculación entre varios cúmulos estelares y estructuras del medio interestelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corti, M. A.; Baume, G. L.; Panei, J. A.; Suad, L. A.; Testori, J. C.; Borissova, J.; Kurtev, R.; Chené, A. N.; Ramirez Alegría, S.

    2015-08-01

    We study the embedded clusters DBS77, 78, 102, 160, and 161 located in the Galactic plane in the fourth quadrant of the Milky Way and the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). We analyzed UBVIc photometry (SOAR) and infrared spectroscopy (NTT, ESO). We complemented these data with JHK (VVV2MASS), HI 21 cm bands (SGPS), 1.4 GHz (ATCA), and 4.85 GHz (PMN). We did multiband analysis and spectral classification of the brightest stars in each area. We also identified the ISM structures possibly related to the clusters. Finally, we obtained the main parameters of the studied clusters, the structures of the ISM and the link between them.

  2. New York: Les ecoles entre SURR et STAR (New York: Schools between SURR and STAR).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueberschlag, Roger

    1994-01-01

    Three problems of New York City (New York) schools--overpopulation, low academic standards, violence--are examined, and an effort led by parent and teacher organizations to improve conditions is described. Threatened closings (schools under registration review, SURR) and a program of violence reduction (Straight Talk about Risks, STAR) are noted.…

  3. GPS, punto de contacto entre la Astronomía y otras disciplinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdomo, R.

    En los primeros años de la pasada década, un grupo de Astrónomos de La Plata iniciaron trabajos de investigación en Geodesia Satelital. En esta presentación se propone repasar sus principales logros y situarlos en el contexto del desarrollo de la disciplina a nivel mundial. Por entonces las aplicaciones prácticas de la disciplina eran indirectas y solo evidentes para los especialistas. Los errores del Posicionamiento Satelital eran de varios metros y en posicionamiento relativo, del orden de medio metro. Estos resultados se lograban al cabo de varios días de medición continuada. En los años siguientes, el sistema GPS alcanzó su nivel operacional y produjo una revolución tanto en lo relacionado con los tiempos de medición como con las precisiones. El grupo de La Plata se desarrolló simultáneamente con GPS, lo que posibilitó su participación actual en diversos temas vigentes: aplicaciones de alta precisión para la materialización de sistemas terrestres de referencia, monitoreo de movimientos de la corteza, contribución con servicios internacionales para la determinación de movimientos tectónicos globales y regionales, monitoreo de la ionósfera a partir de la propagación de las señales, determinación de la ondulación del geoide a escala local, etc. También se generaron muchas aplicaciones prácticas algunas en tiempo real: navegación, apoyo a imágenes aéreas o satelitales, aplicaciones a la agricultura, catastro y ordenamiento territorial, apoyo a relevamientos geofísicos, etc.

  4. L'Harmonisation des langues maliennes: entre l'Integration nationale et régionale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouane, Adama

    1991-03-01

    The standardization of Malian languages, which began in the period after independence, has been an educational reform guided more by linguists than by any institutional framework laid down by the political authorities of the country. This situation has permitted the technical application of a scientific strategy, but it has not led to widespread and general acceptance of the formulas which have been worked out. The consequent opposition between technical and political considerations, which have admittedly not always been in conflict, has been complicated by a set of additional factors which have made it difficult to reconcile internal (national) harmonization, dictated by local tendencies and balances between languages, and the need to respect the (regional) ecolinguistics of the country, whose linguistic and sociocultural divisions frequently extend well into other countries of the sub-region. This conflict is illustrated by the example of Malian languages with a wide regional distribution — Bamanan (Bambara) and Fulfulde (Fulani) — and by that of languages with a narrower distribution such as Bomu and Syenara-Mamara. The standardization of orthography and the creation of terminology in the MAPE (Mandingo-Peul) Project are the manifestation of a general acceptance of regionalism, while the choice of central, standard languages has often been made without regard for regional factors.

  5. L' upwelling de la côte atlantique du Maroc entre 1994 et 1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makaoui, Ahmed; Orbi, Abdelattif; Hilmi, Karim; Zizah, Soukaina; Larissi, Jamila; Talbi, Mohammed

    2005-12-01

    The pelagic ecosystem of the Moroccan Atlantic coast is influenced by the spatiotemporal variability of upwelling. The changes in the physicochemical and biological parameters as well as their interrelationship and regrouping by the principal components analysis allowed us to subdivide the Atlantic coast in four active areas: two areas located at the north of Cape Juby (28°N), characterised by a summery activity and two areas located at the south, active permanently, with a variable intensity. To cite this article: A. Makaoui et al., C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  6. Erratum to "Stratospheric aerosols on Jupiter from Cassini observations" [Icarus 226 (1) (2013) 159-171 doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2013.05.020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; West, R. A.; Banfield, D.; Yung, Y. L.

    2016-03-01

    Zhang et al. (2013) incorrectly calculated the number density and column density of fractal aggregates at middle and high latitudes in the Jovian stratosphere. In Zhang et al. (2013), the number density was post-analyzed based on the retrieved optical depth and retrieved particle cross-section. Although the retrieved quantities were correct, Zhang et al. (2013) accidentally used the low latitude particle information (Mie particle of ∼0.3 μm) for the middle and high latitudes where the fractal aggregates are composed of ∼1000 10-nm size monomers in the nominal case. The extinction cross section of a fractal aggregate particle is roughly a factor of 10 less than that of the Mie particles. Therefore, the number density and column density for middle and high latitude particles derived in Zhang et al. (2013) were underestimated by a factor of ∼10. However, the calculated mass loading was approximately correct because the mass of a fractal aggregate particle was overestimated by about a factor of 10 for the same reason. Here we provide some revised texts, a revised Table 3 for column density and a revised Fig. 12 for number density. No other changes are needed.

  7. Errata Corrige. Orthostatic Reactivity in Patients with Ischemic Stroke in the Chronic Period. http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2015.090

    PubMed Central

    Vasileva, Danche; Lubenova, Daniela; Mihova, Marija; Grigorova-Petrova, Kristin; Dimitrova, Antoaneta

    2015-01-01

    AIM: This study aims to trace the influence of specialized kinesitherapeutic methodology (SKTM) on orthostatic reactivity in patients with ischemic stroke in the chronic period (ISChP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: An active orthostatic test is used for the evaluation of the orthostatic reactions. The arterial blood pressure and heart rate were defined in the 10 minutes of supine position, before and after 1, 5 and 10 minutes of active upright position. The orthostatic autoregulation is evaluated four times - at the beginning of the study, on the 10th day, on the 1st month and three months after the start of the KT. The classification by Thulesius was used to separate the patients into two groups depending on the type of their orthostatic reactivity. RESULTS: At the beginning of the study of infringements symptomatic type orthostatic reactivity (SOR) was observed in 24 patients and hypertensive type orthostatic reactivity (HOR) was observed in the remaining 32 patients. Once applied SKTM establish improvement of orthostatic autoregulation for the groups SOR and HOR at the 10th day and the 1st month with a level of significance p <0.05. CONCLUSION: The applied specialized kinesitherapeutic methodology continued later as an adapted exercise program at home, has significantly improved the orthostatic reactivity in patients with orthostatic dysregulation due to the ISChP.

  8. DNA-aptamer gating membranes† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4cc09660f Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Özalp, Veli Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a membrane barrier whose permeability is modulated through the recognition of a small-molecule target, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), by a DNA-aptamer. The gating function of the DNA-aptamer in the stimulus-responsive membrane was shown to be specific, concentration dependent, and reversible. PMID:25633657

  9. "How Should I Know What Scientists Do?--I Am Just a Kid": Fourth-Grade Students' Conceptions of Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad S.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore elementary students' views of (NOS) to see how well they align with national reform recommendations (AAAS, 1993; NRC, 1996). Using an open-ended questionnaire coupled with one-on-one interviews of fourth-grade students conducted at the end of the school year, the researchers explored students' understandings…

  10. Comment of "Event-based soil loss models for construction sites" by Trenouth and Gharabaghi, J. Hydrol. doi: 10.1016/jhydrol.2015.03.010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnell, P. I. A.

    2015-09-01

    Trenouth and Gharabaghi (2015) present two models which replace the EI30 index used as the event erosivity index in the USLE/RUSLE with ones that include runoff and values of EI30 to powers that differ for 1.0 as the event erosivity factor in modelling soil loss for construction sites. Their analysis on the application of these models focused on data from 5 locations as a whole but did not show how the models worked at each location. Practically, the ability to predict sediment yields at a specific location is more relevant than the capacity of a model to predict sediment yields globally. Also, the mathematical structure of their proposed models shows little regard to the physical processes involved in causing erosion and sediment yield. There is still the need to develop event-based empirical models for construction sites that are robust because they give proper consideration to the erosion process involved, and take account of the fact that sediment yield is usually determined from measurements of suspended load whereas soil loss at the scale for which the USLE/RUSLE model was developed includes both suspended load and bed load.

  11. Reconstructing historical habitat data with predictive models Read More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/13-0327.1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zweig, Christa L.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2014-01-01

    Historical vegetation data are important to ecological studies, as many structuring processes operate at long time scales, from decades to centuries. Capturing the pattern of variability within a system (enough to declare a significant change from past to present) relies on correct assumptions about the temporal scale of the processes involved. Sufficient long-term data are often lacking, and current techniques have their weaknesses. To address this concern, we constructed multistate and artificial neural network models (ANN) to provide fore- and hindcast vegetation communities considered critical foraging habitat for an endangered bird, the Florida Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis). Multistate models were not able to hindcast due to our data not satisfying a detailed balance requirement for time reversibility in Markovian dynamics. Multistate models were useful for forecasting and providing environmental variables for the ANN. Results from our ANN hindcast closely mirrored the population collapse of the Snail Kite population using only environmental data to inform the model. The parallel between the two gives us confidence in the hindcasting results and their use in future demographic models.

  12. Review on measurement techniques of transport properties of nanowires Additions and Corrections. See DOI:10.1039/C3NR03242F Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Rojo, Miguel Muñoz; Calero, Olga Caballero; Lopeandia, A. F.; Rodriguez-Viejo, J.

    2013-01-01

    Physical properties at the nanoscale are novel and different from those in bulk materials. Over the last few decades, there has been an ever growing interest in the fabrication of nanowire structures for a wide variety of applications including energy generation purposes. Nevertheless, the study of their transport properties, such as thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity or Seebeck coefficient, remains an experimental challenge. For instance, in the particular case of nanostructured thermoelectrics, theoretical calculations have shown that nanowires offer a promising way of enhancing the hitherto low efficiency of these materials in the conversion of temperature differences into electricity. Therefore, within the thermoelectrical community there has been a great experimental effort in the measurement of these quantities in actual nanowires. The measurements of these properties at the nanoscale are also of interest in fields other than energy, such as electrical components for microchips, field effect transistors, sensors, and other low scale devices. For all these applications, knowing the transport properties is mandatory. This review deals with the latest techniques developed to perform the measurement of these transport properties in nanowires. A thorough overview of the most important and modern techniques used for the characterization of different kinds of nanowires will be shown. PMID:24113712

  13. 43 CFR Appendix B to Part 2 - Internet Addresses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....doi.gov/foia/list.html 5. DOI FOIA Contacts: http://www.doi.gov/foia/contacts.html 6. DOI FOIA Regulations (43 CFR, Part 2, Subparts A and B): http://www.doi.gov/foia/foiaregs.html 7. DOI FOIA Policy and Guidance: http://www.doi.gov/foia/policy.html 8. Electronic Reading Room:...

  14. 43 CFR Appendix B to Part 2 - Internet Addresses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....doi.gov/foia/list.html 5. DOI FOIA Contacts: http://www.doi.gov/foia/contacts.html 6. DOI FOIA Regulations (43 CFR, Part 2, Subparts A and B): http://www.doi.gov/foia/foiaregs.html 7. DOI FOIA Policy and Guidance: http://www.doi.gov/foia/policy.html 8. Electronic Reading Room:...

  15. The Shiga Microalbuminuria Reduction Trial (SMART) Group. Reduction of microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Shiga Microalbuminuria Reduction Trial (SMART). Diabetes Care 2007;30:1581-1583. DOI: 10.2337/dc06-2493. Erratum appears in Diabetes Care 2013;36:4172. DOI: 10.2337/dc13-er12.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Based on the review and recommendation of the American Diabetes Association's Subcommittee on Ethical Scientific Publications (ESP), Diabetes Care formally retracts the above-cited article. For reasons described below, the published data are considered to be unreliable. According to an investigation and analysis of the data conducted by Shiga University of Medical Science (report received 25 November 2013), 10.1% of the albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) data reported in the article did not match original patient records. In the valsartan and amlodipine groups, respectively, 12.5% and 8.1% of the ACR data reported in the article differed from patient records. Close examination of these differences showed that ACR values reported for the valsartan group were smaller, and those for the amlodipine group were larger, than values reported in patient records; these differences "worked to the advantage of valsartan." The investigative panel of Shiga University of Medical Science concluded that the above-cited article is "inappropriate for [a] scientific paper." PMID:24558079

  16. El rol de Ia colaboracion y el Modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) mediante el lente de la Teoria de Actividad (CHAT): un estudio de caso con estudiantes de 9no grado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Isabel C.

    Los modelos de eensenanza y aprendizaje constructivistas conceptualizan el aprendizaje como un proceso activo. El modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) se distingue por una serie de componentes, entre los cuales se destaca el aspecto colaborativo y cooperativo como un reto al momento de su implantacion. Son pocas las investigaciones que se concentran en este aspecto del modelo. En este estudio, se analizaron las diversas interacciones que surgen durante la implantacion de una unidad curricular sobre el tema de Geologia de Puerto Rico, la cual se diseno con el modelo ABPr cuyo enfoque es orientacion a proyectos. Particularmente, se examinaron las interacciones sociales que surgen entre los pares y entre pares y docente durante el proceso de planificacion y desarrollo de los productos finales, al igual que las interacciones entre los estudiantes y el material didactico en estas etapas del modelo. La investigacion es de tipo cualitativo e incorpora como diseno el estudio de caso. Las diversas interacciones constituyen la unidad de analisis. En el estudio participaron 19 estudiantes de 9no grado, a quienes se organizaron en 5 grupos colaborativos por temas de interes (Pangea, Placas tectonicas, Volcanes, Tsunamis y Terremotos). Las tecnicas que se utilizaron para recopilar los datos fueron: observaciones participativas, grupos focales y analisis de documentos (cuadernos reflexivos y respuestas de los estudiantes a la pregunta central del proyecto). Para el analisis de los datos se aplico la teoria de actividad (CHAT) que concentra la unidad de analisis en la actividad humana en un contexto particular. Los resultados del estudio senalan que las interacciones entre pares, entre pares y docente, asi como entre estudiantes y material didactico son fundamentales en el proceso de aprendizaje. Una mayor interaccion entre pares durante las etapas de planificar y desarrollar los productos finales de la unidad, promueve una mejor comprension de los conceptos de la

  17. Taxas de eventos para as fontes astrofísicas do detector Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, C. S.; Araujo, J. C. N.; Miranda, O. D.; Aguiar, O. D.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg será sensível a sinais que cheguem à Terra com amplitude h~10-21 e dentro da faixa em frequências que varia de 3,0 a 3,4 kHz. As principais fontes astrofísicas em condições de gerar um sinal detectável pela antena Schenberg são: colapsos estelares que produzam eventos do tipo supernova; instabilidades hidrodinâmicas em estrelas de nêutrons; excitação dos modos fluído (modos f) de estrelas de nêutrons; excitação dos primeiros modos quadrupolares de buracos negros com massa ~ 3,8 M¤; coalescências de estrelas de nêutrons e buracos negros em sistemas binários e, ainda, espiralações de mini-buracos negros. Neste trabalho nós determinamos as taxas de eventos para o Schenberg associadas a dois tipos de fontes: através da de-excitação dos modos f de estrelas de nêutrons e através da coalescência de mini-buracos negros de 0,5 M¤ (que atualmente têm sido colocados como possíveis candidatos a objetos massivos do halo Galáctico). Nós mostramos que esses tipos de fontes poderão produzir sinais em ondas gravitacionais com uma taxa em torno de um evento por ano dentro da banda do Schenberg.

  18. Transition quantique entre états électroniques de systèmes bi-couche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquier, Vincent

    The possible phase transitions when two layers at filling factor νt=1 are gradually separated are studied in this article. In the bosonic case the system should undergo a pairing transition from a Fermi liquid to an incompressible state. In the Fermionic case, the state evolves from an incompressible (1,1,1) state to a Fermi liquid. It is speculated that there is an intermediate phase involving charge two quasiparticles. To cite this article: V. Pasquier, C. R. Physique 3 (2002) 709-715.

  19. Henri Chretien, un savant entre science et technique: reflections a propos de l'invention de l'hypergonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Guet Tully, Francoise

    At the beggining of the 20-th century, French engineers and scientists were not well acquainted with some of the importnat principles of applied optics developed elsewhere, especially in Germany, over the preceding fifty years. In preparation for a career as a designer of astronomical instruments, Henri Chretien visited observatories in several countries and read widely. His research in optics produced many tangible advances. The Richy-Chretien telescope, which gained popularity in the 1960s and still in use today, was designed in 1910, based on an application of the principles developed by Abbe in Germany first to make color movies and then, though another application of the same principle, to project motion pictures onto a wide screen (The "Hypergonar" objective).

  20. Entre el Renacimiento y el Nuevo Mundo: Vida y obras de Hernan Perez de Oliva (1494?-1531)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellus Perez, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Hernan Perez de Oliva (1494?-1531) was a learned Spanish humanist who wrote his major works in the decades following the discovery of America. By articulating events of his career and literary life, my goal is to comprehend his contributions to the early literary production regarding the newly-found Americas. The thesis consists of three parts.…

  1. Detection of PhIP in grilled chicken entrées at popular chain restaurants throughout California.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kristie M; Erickson, Michael A; Sandusky, Chad B; Barnard, Neal D

    2008-01-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs), compounds formed when meat is cooked at high temperatures particularly through pan frying, grilling, or barbequing, pose a potential carcinogenic risk to the public. It is unclear whether there is any level at which consumption of HCAs can be considered safe. Efforts to measure these compounds mainly include cooking studies under laboratory conditions and some measurement of home-cooked foods, but analysis of commercially cooked foods has been minimal. Attempts to estimate exposure of the public to these compounds must take into consideration dining outside the home, which could result in significant exposure for some individuals. We surveyed at least 9 locations each of 7 popular chain restaurants (McDonald's, Burger King, Chick-fil-A, Chili's, TGI Friday's, Outback Steakhouse, and Applebee's) in California, collecting one or two entrees from each location. Entrees were analyzed for 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. All 100 samples contained PhIP. Concentrations were variable within and between entrees and ranged from 0.08 to 43.2 ng/g. When factoring in the weight of the entrees, absolute levels of PhIP reached over 1,000 ng for some entrees. Potential strategies for reducing exposure include the avoidance of meats cooked using methods that are known to form PhIP. PMID:18791922

  2. Neuropatía persistente aumenta el riesgo de caídas entre supervivientes de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Muchas mujeres supervivientes de cáncer tienen problemas de movilidad y de otras funciones físicas como resultado de la neuropatía periférica persistente causada por el tratamiento de quimioterapia, según un estudio nuevo.

  3. Interactivite, relations entre interlocuteurs et constitution d'unites conversationnelles (Interaction Processes, Participants' Relationships and Definition of Conversation Units).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenone, Anna

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes a type of conversational exchange where the participants focus on a given subject or theme contributing personal views to the discussion. Characterizes the relationship among the participants as a "cooperative conflict," examining the internal structure of speech acts and their illocutory functions, particularly the initiatory and…

  4. Alternancia entre el estado de emisión de Rayos-X y Pulsar en Sistemas Binarios Interactuantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vito, M. A.; Benvenuto, O. G.; Horvath, J. E.

    2015-08-01

    Redbacks belong to the family of binary systems in which one of the components is a pulsar. Recent observations show redbacks that have switched their state from pulsar - low mass companion (where the accretion of material over the pulsar has ceased) to low mass X-ray binary system (where emission is produced by the mass accretion on the pulsar), or inversely. The irradiation effect included in our models leads to cyclic mass transfer episodes, which allow close binary systems to switch between one state to other. We apply our results to the case of PSR J1723-2837, and discuss the need to include new ingredients in our code of binary evolution to describe the observed state transitions.

  5. Estimation du risque collisionnel entre une sonde spatiale cométaire et un fragment du noyau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desvoivres, Emmanuel; Klinger, Jürgen; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal

    2000-03-01

    Several comets will be approached by space probes during the two next decades. The presence of a fragment of the nucleus in the coma is a real danger. We have estimated the probability of presence of a boulder in the inner coma, using a model for the dynamics of fragments. Specific recommandations are deduced in order to reduce the risk of a collision.

  6. Metonymie dans la presse ecrite: entre discours et langue (Metonymies in the Press: Between Discourse and Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecolle, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes certain metonymies that are often employed in the daily French press. In such metonymies, a human being or a set of individuals are referred to by means of the name of an institutional location (i.e., a capital city, a ministry in a western country, the name of a country). These metonymic patterns do not seem to be used by…

  7. Diriger un Memoire Professionnel--Entre Dispositif Institutionnel et Problematique Relationnelle: Le Cas de la Formation des Enseignants en France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailleul, Marc; Bodergat, Jean-Yves

    2001-01-01

    Describes research conducted in a French teacher training college about the supervision of preservice teachers writing professional dissertations (which became compulsory in 1991). After describing elementary and secondary level preservice teachers' perspectives, researchers examined the perspectives of their supervisors to show discrepancies.…

  8. Modelisation de l'interaction entre une impulsion laser ultrabreve et une nanostructure plasmonique en milieu aqueux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulais, Etienne

    There is still a limited understanding of the basic mechanisms and processes triggered by laser irradiation that lead to the damaging of the surrounding structures. In particular, there exists for the moment no complete modelling of the process that includes all potential sources of cellular damage, including temperature rise, plasma generation, pressure wave emission and vapor bubble formation. This thesis presents such a modelling, with the cell environment emulated by a much simpler aqueous medium. Water is used as its optical, mechanical and thermal characteristic are similar enough to the cell environment to enable the transposition of the results and tendencies observed in water to this medium. Modelling consists in a continuous medium based approach that uses coupled partial differential equations to simulate the nanostructure-water system's response to an ultrafast laser pulse. The time-dependant field distribution in the system is simulated using classical electromagnetic theory, while the temperature in the nanostructure is calculated using a two-temperature model. Generation and heating of a plasma in the nanostructure's vicinity from photoionization and impact ionization in the near-field, as well as from photothermal emission from the nanostructure at the metal interface are also included. This plasma locally modifies the refractive index, which alters the simulated optical response of the system. Energy relaxation from this plasma as well as heat conduction from the nanostructure's lattice transfer energy to the water, which dynamics and thermodynamics evolutions are simulated from hydrodynamic and energy conservation equations. Modelling is used for analyzing the interaction of a near-infrared ultrafast laser pulse (45 fs, 800 nm, 200 mJ/cm2) with two distinct systems : a 100nm gold nanoparticle and a 10x41 nm2 gold nanorod. The gold nanoparticle shows a plasmon resonance at a ˜550 nm wavelength, and is thus slightly off-resonance at the 800 nm irradiation wavelength. In opposition, the gold nanorod shows a plasmon resonance directly at 800 nm and is thus in-resonance at the irradiation wavelength. The system of tightly coupled time-dependant non-linear partial differential equations is solved in 3D using a finite-element method. The modelling shows the generation of vapor bubble around both systems, which maximal diameter and growth time are validated from spectroscopic measurements. Results show an important production of plasma in the nanostructure's near field, which fast relaxation heats rapidly the surrounding water, leading to the emission of strong pressure wave and to the formation of a vapor bubble. Simulations further demonstrate the crucial importance of the plasma in the cavitation mechanism. For both the nanoparticle and the nanorod, results show that most of the laser energy is indeed absorbed in the plasma surrounding the nanostructure rather than in the nanostructure itself. In particular, the energy absorbed in the nanoparticle is shown to be insufficient to induce the formation of a vapor bubble at 200 mJ/cm2, whereas such a bubble is experimentally observed. This is a major result of the thesis, as such a plasma-mediated plasmonic enhanced cavitation mechanism has never been reported in the literature. The existence of this plasma-mediated mechanism that does not rely on the particle extreme heating to initiate cavitation has important consequences on cell nanosurgery applications. Finally, based on the same modelling, we develop a simple and efficient method to evaluate the potential of specific nanostructures and irradiation parameters for cell nanosurgery. We introduce a performance factor based on minimizing the energy density deposited in the nanostructure to avoid fragmentation, while maximizing the overall energy deposited in the system, to enhance the production of vapor bubbles. Results predict off-resonance 175 nm gold nanoparticles to be best suited for near-infrared ultrafast laser cell nanosurgery using 45 fs pulses at a wavelength of 800 nm. They also confirm the low inte

  9. Las ideologias, las ciencias naturales y sus implicaciones en la educacion cientifica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozada Roldan, Sandra

    Este estudio ausculto las concepciones epistemologicas de los docentes de ciencia del nivel secundario con relacion a las ideologias y las ciencias naturales. Tambien examino las posiciones de los docentes ante asuntos publicos relacionados a la ciencia. Para propositos de este estudio se diseno y se valido el cuestionario con el cual se obtuvieron los resultados. La investigacion es de tipo cuantitativa y se utilizo como diseno la encuesta. El cuestionario se administro en varias actividades de desarrollo profesional para maestros de ciencia. Un total de 78 maestros del nivel secundario respondieron el cuestionario. Para analizar los datos obtenidos se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas como la distribucion de frecuencia y el porciento. Ademas se establecieron codigos y categorias para describir las posiciones de los maestros ante asuntos publicos relacionados a la ciencia. Los analisis demostraron que entre los docentes participantes de este estudio prevalecen ciertas concepciones epistemologicas adecuadas acerca de las ciencias naturales, a la luz de la literatura consultada. Entre estas concepciones se destacan las siguientes: a) la filosofia materialista de las ciencias naturales, b) la naturaleza tentativa y constructivista del conocimiento cientifico, c) el uso de una metodologia que garantiza cierto grado de objetividad y con el que se justifican y validan los enunciados cientificos y d) la funcion instrumental del conocimiento cientifico. Sin embargo, entre los docentes participantes de este estudio prevalecen ciertas concepciones epistemologicas erroneas acerca de las ciencias naturales, a la luz de la literatura consultada. Entre estas concepciones se destacan las siguientes: a) tendencia inductivista en el que las teorias cientificas comienzan con observaciones que establecen generalizaciones, b) secuencia jerarquica de la metodologia cientifica. Ademas, entre los docentes participantes de este estudio prevalecen concepciones epistemologicas adecuadas

  10. [Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with chronic kidney disease. Grupo de Trabajo para el Documento de Consenso sobre el tratamiento de la diabetes tipo 2 en el paciente con enfermedad renal crónica].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Artola, Sara; Górriz, José Luis; Menéndez, Edelmiro

    2014-01-21

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are highly prevalent chronic diseases, which represent an important public health problem and require a multidisciplinary management. T2DM is the main cause of CKD and it also causes a significant comorbidity with regard to non-diabetic nephropathy. Patients with diabetes and kidney disease represent a special risk group as they have higher morbi-mortality as well as higher risk of hypoglycemia than diabetic individuals with a normal kidney function. Treatment of T2DM in patients with CKD is controversial because of the scarcity of available evidence. The current consensus report aims to ease the appropriate selection and dosage of antidiabetic treatments as well as the establishment of safety objectives of glycemic control in patients with CKD. PMID:24268912

  11. "Processing Instruction": un tipo di grammatica comunicativa per la classe di lingua straniera. Il caso del futuro italiano. (Processing Instruction: One Type of Communicative Grammar for the Foreign Language Classroom. The Case of the Italian Future Tense).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benati, Alessandro

    2000-01-01

    Examines the theoretical and practical rationale for processing instruction as a method of incorporating grammar instruction in a communicative foreign language approach. Presents results of a study on the role of processing instruction on the learning of the Italian future indicative tense by a group of English-speaking students. Results…

  12. The Impact of Different Types of Journaling Techniques on EFL Learners' Self-Efficacy (El impacto de diferentes tipos de diario en la autosuficiencia de estudiantes de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Mortazavi, Mahboobeh

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of the impact of different methods of journaling on self-efficacy of learners of English as a foreign language. Sixty upper-intermediate Iranian English language learners were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions, namely no-feedback, teacher-feedback, and peer-feedback, and one control…

  13. The Preschool Classroom as a Context for Cognitive Development: Type of Teacher Feedback and Children's Metacognitive Control (El aula Preescolar como espacio de desarrollo cognitivo: tipo de feedback docente y control metacognitivo en los niños)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz, Liz; Cruz, Josefina Santa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this work was to determine whether the type of feedback given by the preschool teacher during class impacts the children's metacognitive control. For this purpose, the children's behavior was analyzed while teachers provided feedback during collaborative learning sessions. Method: A quasi-experimental, cross-sectional…

  14. PREVENCIÓN DEL VIH/SIDA EN LOS CIRCUITOS DE LEVANTE HSH: UNA ASIGNATURA PENDIENTE.

    PubMed

    Barreda, Victoria; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén; Balán, Iván; Pando, María Ángeles; Avila, María Mercedes

    2010-12-01

    A partir de un relevamiento de tipo etnográfico, se describen lugares de encuentro de HSH en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y sus prácticas sexuales. El reconocimiento de tales espacios, así como las características que asumen en ellos los encuentros sexuales entre los HSH, plantean obstáculos específicos en la adopción de comportamientos preventivos y, asimismo, generan nuevos desafíos para las actividades de prevención. Se plantean las dificultades y debates conceptuales que la misma categoría presenta, y sus consecuencias en el abordaje preventivo y teórico-metodológico para las ciencias sociales. Además, se proponen nuevos interrogantes acerca de los alcances y las limitaciones del modelo preventivo del VIH/Sida para HSH. PMID:21874154

  15. PREVENCIÓN DEL VIH/SIDA EN LOS CIRCUITOS DE LEVANTE HSH: UNA ASIGNATURA PENDIENTE1

    PubMed Central

    Barreda, Victoria; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén; Balán, Iván; Pando, María Ángeles; Ávila, María Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Resumen A partir de un relevamiento de tipo etnográfico, se describen lugares de encuentro de HSH en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y sus prácticas sexuales. El reconocimiento de tales espacios, así como las características que asumen en ellos los encuentros sexuales entre los HSH, plantean obstáculos específicos en la adopción de comportamientos preventivos y, asimismo, generan nuevos desafíos para las actividades de prevención. Se plantean las dificultades y debates conceptuales que la misma categoría presenta, y sus consecuencias en el abordaje preventivo y teórico-metodológico para las ciencias sociales. Además, se proponen nuevos interrogantes acerca de los alcances y las limitaciones del modelo preventivo del VIH/Sida para HSH. PMID:21874154

  16. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Reyna, Nadia; Moreno Rojas, Rafael; Mendoza, Laura; Parra, Karla; Linares, Sergia; Reyna, Eduardo; Cámara Martos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Se ha estudiado el índice glicémico, la carga glicémica y el efecto de saciedad producido en adultos jóvenes (12 hombres y 8 mujeres) por el consumo de tres tipos de barritas nutricionales formuladas con proteínas lactoséricas (LS), caseínas (CS) o hidratos de carbono (HC) frente a un control (C). Los valores de glucemia en la sangre a los 30 min fueron significativamente mayores (p < 0,05) para la barra HC (129 ± 8 mg/dl) frente a las barras CS (103 ± 6 mg/dl) y LS (86 ± 8 mg/dl). Asimismo, también se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p < 0,05) entre los índices glicémicos de los tres tipos de barras estudiadas (LS = 11,5 ± 3,9; CS = 40,7 ± 6,5; HC = 68,8 ± 13,0). Por otro lado, las barritas nutricionales formuladas con proteínas lácteas (LS y CS) muestran un efecto de saciedad mucho más intenso y prolongado que la formulada con hidratos de carbono (HC), lo que pone de manifiesto el potencial de estas proteínas para ser utilizadas en la formulación de productos para diabéticos y dietéticos. PMID:27238803

  17. Cinética Química: el laboratorio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabañas Galán, B.

    La interpretación de las transformaciones químicas que se producen en la atmósfera requiere un profundo conocimiento de la cinética, productos y mecanismos de reacción de las posibles interacciones que pueden ocurrir entre las distintas especies presentes en ella. Información cuantitativa de este tipo es un prerrequisito para la construcción de modelos numéricos adecuados que expliquen el comportamiento químico-físico de la atmósfera. Esta información se obtiene a partir de experimentos realizados en laboratorios y por tanto independiente de medidas atmosféricas, por lo que los modelos atmosféricos derivados de ellos, pueden usarse para diagnosticar y predecir adecuadamente el comportamiento atmosférico. En esta exposición se recogen las técnicas experimentales más extendidas para la obtención de datos cinéticos así como los métodos de análisis de datos más utilizados en el estudio de las distintas reacciones de interés atmosférico. Se analizan sus características generales así como su adecuación a los distintos tipos de reacciones.

  18. In vitro toxicological characterisation of arsenic-containing fatty acids and three of their metabolites† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5tx00122f Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, S.; Raber, G.; Ebert, F.; Leffers, L.; Müller, S. M.; Taleshi, M. S.; Francesconi, K. A.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic-containing fatty acids are a group of fat-soluble arsenic species (arsenolipids) which are present in marine fish and other seafood. Recently, it has been shown that arsenic-containing hydrocarbons, another group of arsenolipids, exert toxicity in similar concentrations comparable to arsenite although the toxic modes of action differ. Hence, a risk assessment of arsenolipids is urgently needed. In this study the cellular toxicity of a saturated (AsFA 362) and an unsaturated (AsFA 388) arsenic-containing fatty acid and three of their proposed metabolites (DMAV, DMAPr and thio-DMAPr) were investigated in human liver cells (HepG2). Even though both arsenic-containing fatty acids were less toxic as compared to arsenic-containing hydrocarbons and arsenite, significant effects were observable at μM concentrations. DMAV causes effects in a similar concentration range and it could be seen that it is metabolised to its highly toxic thio analogue thio-DMAV in HepG2 cells. Nevertheless, DMAPr and thio-DMAPr did not exert any cytotoxicity. In summary, our data indicate that risks to human health related to the presence of arsenic-containing fatty acids in marine food cannot be excluded. This stresses the need for a full in vitro and in vivo toxicological characterisation of these arsenolipids. PMID:26744620

  19. Towards a general growth model for graphene CVD on transition metal catalysts† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06873h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Cabrero-Vilatela, Andrea; Braeuninger-Weimer, Philipp; Caneva, Sabina; Hofmann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of graphene on three polycrystalline transition metal catalysts, Co, Ni and Cu, is systematically compared and a first-order growth model is proposed which can serve as a reference to optimize graphene growth on any elemental or alloy catalyst system. Simple thermodynamic considerations of carbon solubility are insufficient to capture even basic growth behaviour on these most commonly used catalyst materials, and it is shown that kinetic aspects such as carbon permeation have to be taken into account. Key CVD process parameters are discussed in this context and the results are anticipated to be highly useful for the design of future strategies for integrated graphene manufacture. PMID:26730836

  20. A computational study of the quantum transport properties of a Cu–CNT composite† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cp01470k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Koziol, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    The quantum transport properties of a Cu–CNT composite are studied using a non-equilibrium Green's function approach combined with the self-consistent-charge density-functional tight-binding method. The results show that the electrical conductance of the composite depends strongly on CNT density and alignment but more weakly on chirality. Alignment with the applied bias is preferred and the conductance of the composite increases as its mass density increases. PMID:26120607

  1. Comment on: Measurement of the force exerted on the surface of an object immersed in a plasma. Eur. Phys. J. D 69: 91 (2015), DOI: 10.1140/epjd/e2015-50743-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnetzki, Uwe; Tsankov, Tsanko V.

    2015-10-01

    Surfaces exposed to a plasma experience a certain pressure that pushes them away from the volume. This effect has been investigated experimentally in a recent article by Thomas Trottenberg, Thomas Richter, and Holger Kersten from Kiel University/Germany [Eur. Phys. J. D 69, 91 (2015)]. The experimental results are impressive and have actually drawn the attention of the community to an interesting question which so far has been largely ignored. In addition to their experimental results the Kiel group proposes also a rough concept in order to explain their findings which provides certainly a basic qualitative understanding of the physical processes involved. However, on a closer inspection the picture developed so far is not entirely satisfying and the problem seems to require a more fundamental approach. This comment shows that the effect of the wall pressure can be described exactly using only analytical methods. The physical situation is analyzed by three different approaches. First, the simple case of only one spatial dimension is presented in detail. Second, the case of spherical symmetry is analyzed by some simplifying assumptions in order to investigate the effect of higher dimensionality. Third, a formal derivation for arbitrary geometry is given. This general result includes the one-dimensional case but does not allow a convenient connection between the pressures at the wall and in the center. Finally, the results are summarized and some conclusions are drawn.

  2. Tuning the nitric oxide release from CPO-27 MOFs† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ra24023a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Cattaneo, Damiano; Duncan, Morven J.; Kelsall, Christopher J.; Doherty, Mary K.; Whitfield, Phillip D.; Megson, Ian L.; Morris, Russell E.

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) storage and release measurements have been recorded for Ni-doped CPO-27 (Mg) and CPO-27 (Zn), and the biological effect of the released NO was assessed in porcine coronary artery relaxation tests. The results indicate that the doping strategy leads to increased levels of NO storage and delivery compared to the parent materials and that the NO dosage and biological response can be tuned via this approach to suit the requirements of particular applications. PMID:27019705

  3. Triplet–triplet annihilation upconversion followed by FRET for the red light activation of a photodissociative ruthenium complex in liposomes† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cp04352b

    PubMed Central

    Askes, Sven H. C.; Kloz, Miroslav; Bruylants, Gilles; Kennis, John T. M.

    2015-01-01

    Upconversion is a promising way to trigger high-energy photochemistry with low-energy photons. However, combining upconversion schemes with non-radiative energy transfer is challenging because bringing several photochemically active components in close proximity results in complex multi-component systems where quenching processes may deactivate the whole assembly. In this work, PEGylated liposomes were prepared that contained three photoactive components: a porphyrin dye absorbing red light, a perylene moiety emitting in the blue, and a light-activatable ruthenium prodrug sensitive to blue light. Time-dependent spectroscopic studies demonstrate that singlet perylene excited states are non-radiatively transferred to the nearby ruthenium complex by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Under red-light irradiation of the three-component membranes, triplet–triplet annihilation upconversion (TTA-UC) occurs followed by FRET, which results in a more efficient activation of the ruthenium prodrug compared to a physical mixture of two-component upconverting liposomes and liposomes containing only the ruthenium complex. This work represents a rare example where TTA-UC and Förster resonance energy transfer are combined to achieve prodrug activation in the phototherapeutic window. PMID:26420663

  4. Photoactive rolled-up TiO2 microtubes: fabrication, characterization and applications† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4tc00796d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Marz, Sonja M.; Soler, Lluís; Madani, Abbas; Jorgensen, Matthew R.; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2014-01-01

    Because of its unique properties, titania (TiO2) represents a promising candidate in a wide variety of research fields. In this paper, some of the properties and potential applications of titania within rolled-up nanotechnology are explored. It is shown how the structural and optical properties of rolled titania microtubes can be controlled by properly tuning the microfabrication parameters. The rolling up of titania films on different sacrificial layers and containing different shapes, achieving a control on the diameter of the fabricated titania microtubes, is presented. In order to obtain the more photoactive crystalline form of titania, one during-fabrication and two post-fabrication methods are demonstrated. Interesting applications in the fields of photocatalysis and photonics are suggested: the use of titania rolled-up microtubes as micromotors and optical microresonators is presented. PMID:25580249

  5. Comment on: Ab initio calculations of B2 type RHg (R = Ce,Pr,Eu and Gd) intermetallic compounds. Eur. Phys. J. B 87, 268 (2014), DOI: 10.1140/epjb/e2014-50521-6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoud, Salah

    2016-02-01

    In a recent article by Devi et al. [Eur. Phys. J. B 87, 268 (2014)], the structural, electronic, elastic and some thermal properties of B2 type RHg (R = Ce, Pr, Eu and Gd) intermetallic compounds have been studied by ab initio calculations. After the study of their article I found that there are some mistakes in predicted crystal density, longitudinal, transverse and average elastic wave velocities, and Debye temperature data. The crystal density has been found multiplied per 4. Also the longitudinal, transverse and average elastic wave velocities and Debye temperature are different from my reexamined values (all results represented by Devi et al. have been found divided per 2). Although these small mistakes do not influence their conclusion, it is better to correct them. In the present work, I reexamined all data again by using the right formulas, based on the lattice parameters and the elastic constants obtained in the work of Devi et al.

  6. Enantioselective synthesis of d-α-amino amides from aliphatic aldehydes† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc00064e Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Schwieter, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    Peptides consisting of d-amino amides are highly represented among both biologically active natural products and non-natural small molecules used in therapeutic development. Chemical synthesis of d-amino amides most often involves approaches based on enzymatic resolution or fractional recrystallization of their diastereomeric amino acid salt precursors, techniques that produce an equal amount of the l-amino acid. Enantioselective synthesis, however, promises selective and general access to a specific α-amino amide, and may enable efficient peptide synthesis regardless of the availability of the corresponding α-amino acid. This report describes the use of a cinchona alkaloid-catalyzed aza-Henry reaction using bromonitromethane, and the integration of its product with umpolung amide synthesis. The result is a straightforward 3-step protocol beginning from aliphatic aldehydes that provides homologated peptides bearing an aliphatic side chain at the resulting d-α-amino amide. PMID:25838883

  7. Local dynamic mechanical analysis for heterogeneous soft matter using ferrule-top indentation† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sm00300a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Kurniawan, Nicholas A.; Koenderink, Gijsje H.

    2016-01-01

    There is a strong demand for nanoindentation methods to probe the heterogeneous viscoelastic properties of soft tissues. Important applications include diagnosis of early onset diseases such as arthritis and investigations into cellular mechanoresponse in tissue. Quantification of tissue mechanics at length and time scales relevant to biological processes, however, remains a technical challenge. Here, we present a new nanoindentation approach that is ideally suited to probe the viscoelastic properties of soft, hydrated tissues. We built a ferrule-top probe that uses wavelength modulation in a Fabry–Pérot cavity configuration to detect cantilever deflection and to drive a feedback-controlled piezoelectric actuator. This technique allows us to control the static load applied onto the sample using an all-optical mm-sized probe. We extract the local elastic and viscous moduli of the samples by superposing a small oscillatory load and recording the indentation depth at the frequency of oscillation. By using a set of silicone elastomers with a range of stiffnesses representative of biological tissues, we demonstrate that the technique can accurately determine moduli over a wide range (0.1–100 kPa) and over a frequency range of 0.01–10 Hz. Direct comparison with macroscopic rheology measurements yields excellent quantitative agreement, without any fitting parameters. Finally, we show how this method can provide a spatially-resolved map of large variations in mechanical properties (orders of magnitude) across the surface of soft samples thanks to high sensitivity over large (>μm) cantilever deflections. This approach paves the way to investigations into the local dynamic mechanical properties of biological soft matter. PMID:26908197

  8. Supramolecular copolymers with stimuli-responsive sequence control† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc06951c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Albertazzi, Lorenzo; van der Veeken, Nick; Baker, Matthew B.; Palmans, Anja R. A.

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel responsive supramolecular copolymer able to change its monomer sequence as a result of molecular stimuli. Nucleic acids and RNAse are used as molecular inputs, controlling the clustering of specific monomers along the polymer backbone. This opens new ways towards the molecular control of synthetic supramolecular networks. PMID:26390385

  9. Synthesis of highly functionalized oligobenzamide proteomimetic foldamers by late stage introduction of sensitive groups† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6ob00078a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Burslem, George M.; Kyle, Hannah F.; Prabhakaran, Panchami; Breeze, Alexander L.; Edwards, Thomas A.; Warriner, Stuart L.; Nelson, Adam

    2016-01-01

    α-Helix proteomimetics represent an emerging class of ligands that can be used to inhibit an array of helix mediated protein–protein interactions. Within this class of inhibitor, aromatic oligobenzamide foldamers have been widely and successfully used. This manuscript describes alternative syntheses of these compounds that can be used to access mimetics that are challenging to synthesize using previously described methodologies, permitting access to compounds functionalized with multiple sensitive side chains and accelerated library assembly through late stage derivatisation. PMID:27005701

  10. A general mechanism for intracellular toxicity of metal-containing nanoparticles† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01234h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Sabella, Stefania; Carney, Randy P.; Brunetti, Virgilio; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Al-Juffali, Noura; Vecchio, Giuseppe; Janes, Sam M.; Bakr, Osman M.; Cingolani, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of the risks exerted by nanoparticles is a key challenge for academic, industrial, and regulatory communities worldwide. Experimental evidence points towards significant toxicity for a range of nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo. Worldwide efforts aim at uncovering the underlying mechanisms for this toxicity. Here, we show that the intracellular ion release elicited by the acidic conditions of the lysosomal cellular compartment – where particles are abundantly internalized – is responsible for the cascading events associated with nanoparticles-induced intracellular toxicity. We call this mechanism a “lysosome-enhanced Trojan horse effect” since, in the case of nanoparticles, the protective cellular machinery designed to degrade foreign objects is actually responsible for their toxicity. To test our hypothesis, we compare the toxicity of similar gold particles whose main difference is in the internalization pathways. We show that particles known to pass directly through cell membranes become more toxic when modified so as to be mostly internalized by endocytosis. Furthermore, using experiments with chelating and lysosomotropic agents, we found that the toxicity mechanism for different metal containing NPs (such as metallic, metal oxide, and semiconductor NPs) is mainly associated with the release of the corresponding toxic ions. Finally, we show that particles unable to release toxic ions (such as stably coated NPs, or diamond and silica NPs) are not harmful to intracellular environments. PMID:24842463

  11. Efficient bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells through disorder by design† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ta10091g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Muñoz, José M.; Carretero-Palacios, Sol; Jiménez-Solano, Alberto; Li, Yuelong; Lozano, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Herein we realize an optical design that optimizes the performance of bifacial solar cells without modifying any of the usually employed components. In order to do so, dielectric scatterers of controlled size and shape have been successfully integrated in the working electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), resulting in bifacial devices of outstanding performance. Power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) as high as 6.7% and 5.4% have been attained under front and rear illumination, respectively, which represent a 25% and a 33% PCE enhancement with respect to an 8 μm-thick standard solar cell electrode using platinum as the catalytic material. The remarkable bifacial character of our approach is demonstrated by the high rear/front efficiency ratio attained, around 80%, which is among the largest reported for this sort of device. The proposed optimized design is based on a Monte Carlo approach in which the multiple scattering of light within the cell is fully accounted for. We identified that the spherical shape of the scatterers is the key parameter controlling the angular distribution of the scattering, the most efficient devices being those in which the inclusions provide a narrow forward-oriented angular distribution of the scattered light. PMID:27019714

  12. Trienamine catalyzed asymmetric synthesis and biological investigation of a cytochalasin B-inspired compound collection† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ob02272j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Sellstedt, Magnus; Schwalfenberg, Melanie; Ziegler, Slava; Antonchick, Andrey P.

    2016-01-01

    Due to their enhanced metabolic needs many cancers need a sufficient supply of glucose, and novel inhibitors of glucose import are in high demand. Cytochalasin B (CB) is a potent natural glucose import inhibitor which also impairs the actin cytoskeleton leading to undesired toxicity. With a view to identifying selective glucose import inhibitors we have developed an enantioselective trienamine catalyzed synthesis of a CB-inspired compound collection. Biological analysis revealed that indeed actin impairment can be distinguished from glucose import inhibition and led to the identification of the first selective glucose import inhibitor based on the basic structural architecture of cytochalasin B. PMID:26606903

  13. Design of thiol–ene photoclick hydrogels using facile techniques for cell culture applications† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4bm00187g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Sawicki, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Thiol–ene ‘click’ chemistries have been widely used in biomaterials applications, including drug delivery, tissue engineering, and controlled cell culture, owing to their rapid, cytocompatible, and often orthogonal reactivity. In particular, hydrogel-based biomaterials formed by photoinitiated thiol–ene reactions afford spatiotemporal control over the biochemical and biomechanical properties of the network for creating synthetic materials that mimic the extracellular matrix or enable controlled drug release. However, the use of charged peptides functionalized with cysteines, which can form disulfides prior to reaction, and vinyl monomers that require multistep syntheses and contain ester bonds, may lead to undesired inhomogeneity or degradation under cell culture conditions. Here, we designed a thiol–ene hydrogel formed by the reaction of allyloxycarbonyl-functionalized peptides and thiol-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol). Hydrogels were polymerized by free radical initiation under cytocompatible doses of long wavelength ultraviolet light in the presence of water-soluble photoinitiators (lithium acylphosphinate, LAP, and 2-hydroxy-1-[4-(2-hydroxyethoxy)phenyl]-2-methyl-1-propanone, Irgacure 2959). Mechanical properties of these hydrogels were controlled by varying the monomer concentration to mimic a range of soft tissue environments, and hydrogel stability in cell culture medium was observed over weeks. Patterns of biochemical cues were created within the hydrogels post-formation and confirmed through the incorporation of fluorescently-labeled peptides and Ellman's assay to detect free thiols. Human mesenchymal stem cells remained viable after encapsulation and subsequent photopatterning, demonstrating the utility of the monomers and hydrogels for three-dimensional cell culture. This facile approach enables the formation and characterization of hydrogels with well-defined, spatially-specific properties and expands the suite of monomers available for three-dimensional cell culture and other biological applications. PMID:25717375

  14. Oxidative dearomatisation: the key step of sorbicillinoid biosynthesis† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Containing all experimental details. See DOI: 10.1039/c3sc52911h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Fahad, Ahmed al; Abood, Amira; Fisch, Katja M.; Osipow, Anna; Davison, Jack; Avramović, Marija; Butts, Craig P.; Piel, Jörn; Simpson, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    An FAD-dependent monooxygenase encoding gene (SorbC) was cloned from Penicillium chrysogenum E01-10/3 and expressed as a soluble protein in Escherichia coli. The enzyme efficiently performed the oxidative dearomatisation of sorbicillin and dihydrosorbicillin to give sorbicillinol and dihydrosorbicillinol respectively. Bioinformatic examination of the gene cluster surrounding SorbC indicated the presence of two polyketide synthase (PKS) encoding genes designated sorbA and sorbB. The gene sorbA-encodes a highly reducing iterative PKS while SorbB encodes a non-reducing iterative PKS which features a reductive release domain usually involved in the production of polyketide aldehydes. Using these observations and previously reported results from isotopic feeding experiments a new and simpler biosynthetic route to the sorbicillin class of secondary metabolites is proposed which is consistent with all reported experimental results. PMID:25580210

  15. The use of the Rx spin label in orientation measurement on proteins, by EPR† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cp04753f Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, M. A.; McKay, J. E.; Robinson, J. L. S.; EL Mkami, H.; Smith, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    The bipedal spin label Rx is more restricted in its conformation and dynamics than its monopodal counterpart R1. To systematically investigate the utility of the Rx label, we have attempted to comprehensively survey the attachment of Rx to protein secondary structures. We have examined the formation, structure and dynamics of the spin label in relation to the underlying protein in order to determine feasibility and optimum conditions for distance and orientation measurement by pulsed EPR. The labeled proteins have been studied using molecular dynamics, CW EPR, pulsed EPR distance measurement at X-band and orientation measurement at W-band. The utility of different modes and positions of attachment have been compared and contrasted. PMID:26426572

  16. Reply to the 'Comment on "Observation of mutual diffusion of macromolecules in PS/PMMA binary films by confocal Raman microscopy"' by J. Pablo Tomba, Soft Matter, 2016, 12, DOI: 10.1039/C5SM02735G.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chenglong; Chen, Xudong; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Weihong; Zhang, Ming Qiu

    2016-05-18

    We greatly appreciate Tomba's valuable comments on our paper appearing in Soft Matter (2012, 8, 4780). Our responses are listed below to provide additional information for academic discussion. PMID:27158701

  17. Graphene-oxide-supported ultrathin Au nanowires: efficient electrocatalysts for borohydride oxidation† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc06705g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Leelavathi, Annamalai; Ahmad, Rafia; Singh, Abhishek K.; Madras, Giridhar

    2015-01-01

    We report stable ultrathin Au nanowires supported on reduced graphene oxide with outstanding electrocatalytic activity for borohydride oxidation. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showed abnormal inductive behavior, indicative of surface reactivation. DFT calculations indicate that the origin of the high activity stems from the position of the Au d-band center. PMID:26439584

  18. A simple approach to obtain hybrid Au-loaded polymeric nanoparticles with a tunable metal load† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06850a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Luque-Michel, Edurne; Larrea, Ane; Lahuerta, Celia; Imbuluzqueta, Edurne; Arruebo, Manuel; Santamaría, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    A new strategy to nanoengineer multi-functional polymer–metal hybrid nanostructures is reported. By using this protocol the hurdles of most of the current developments concerning covalent and non-covalent attachment of polymers to preformed inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) are overcome. The strategy is based on the in situ reduction of metal precursors using the polymeric nanoparticle as a nanoreactor. Gold nanoparticles and poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid), PLGA, are located in the core and shell, respectively. This novel technique enables the production of PLGA NPs smaller than 200 nm that bear either a single encapsulated Au NP or several smaller NPs with tunable sizes and a 100% loading efficiency. In situ reduction of Au ions inside the polymeric NPs was achieved on demand by using heat to activate the reductive effect of citrate ions. In addition, we show that the loading of the resulting Au NPs inside the PLGA NPs is highly dependent on the surfactant used. Electron microscopy, laser irradiation, UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy characterization techniques confirm the location of Au nanoparticles. These promising results indicate that these hybrid nanomaterials could be used in theranostic applications or as contrast agents in dark-field imaging and computed tomography. PMID:26612770

  19. Implications of discontinuous elevation gradients on fragmentation and restoration in patterned wetlands Read More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/ES11-00119.1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zweig, Christa L.; Reichert, Brian E.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2011-01-01

    Large wetlands around the world face the possibility of degradation, not only from complete conversion, but also from subtle changes in their structure and function. While fragmentation and isolation of wetlands within heterogeneous landscapes has received much attention, the disruption of spatial patterns/processes within large wetland systems and the resulting fragmentation of community components are less well documented. A greater understanding of pattern/process relationships and landscape gradients, and what occurs when they are altered, could help avoid undesirable consequences of restoration actions. The objective of this study is to determine the amount of fragmentation of sawgrass ridges due to artificial impoundment of water and how that may be differentially affected by spatial position relative to north and south levees. We also introduce groundbreaking evidence of landscape-level discontinuous elevation gradients within WCA3AS by comparing generalized linear and generalized additive models. These relatively abrupt breaks in elevation may have non-linear effects on hydrology and vegetation communities and would be crucial in restoration considerations. Modeling suggests there are abrupt breaks in elevation as a function of northing (Y-coordinate). Fragmentation indices indicate that fragmentation is a function of elevation and easting (X-coordinate), and that fragmentation has increased from 1988-2002. When landscapes change and the changes are compounded by non-linear landscape variables that are described herein, the maintenance processes change with them, creating a degraded feedback loop that alters the system's response to structuring variables and diminishes our ability to predict the effects of restoration projects or climate change. Only when these landscape variables and linkages are clearly defined can we predict the response to potential perturbations and apply the knowledge to other landscape-level wetland systems in need of future restoration.

  20. Metal organic framework synthesis in the presence of surfactants: towards hierarchical MOFs?† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4ce02324b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Dikhtiarenko, A.; Mayoral, A.; Tellez, C.; Coronas, J.; Kapteijn, F.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of synthesis pH and H2O/EtOH molar ratio on the textural properties of different aluminium trimesate metal organic frameworks (MOFs) prepared in the presence of the well-known cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at 120 °C was studied with the purpose of obtaining a MOF with hierarchical pore structure. Depending on the pH and the solvent used, different topologies were obtained (namely, MIL-96, MIL-100 and MIL-110). On the one hand, MIL-110 was obtained at lower temperatures than those commonly reported in the literature and without additives to control the pH; on the other hand, MIL-100 with crystallite sizes as small as 30 ± 10 nm could be easily synthesized in a mixture of H2O and EtOH with a H2O/EtOH molar ratio of 3.4 at pH 2.6 in the presence of CTAB. The resulting material displays a hierarchical porosity that combines the microporosity from the MOF and the non-ordered mesopores defined in between the MOF nanoparticles. Interestingly, the maximum of the pore size distribution could be varied between 3 and 33 nm. Finally, at pH 2.5 and using water as a solvent, platelets of MIL-96, a morphology never observed before for this MOF, were synthesized with a (001) preferential crystal orientation, the (001) plane running parallel to the bipyramidal cages of the MIL-96 topology. PMID:26246799

  1. Erratum: Water Science and Technology 72 (7): Development of a new wastewater treatment process for resource recovery of carotenoids, H. Sato, H. Nagare, T. N. C. Huynh and H. Komatsu, doi: 10.2166/wst.2015.330.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    A new wastewater treatment process that involves coagulation, ozonation, and microalgae cultivation has been developed. Here, two challenges are discussed. The first was minimizing phosphorus removal during coagulation in order to maximize algal production. The second was to optimize microalgae cultivation; algal species that grow rapidly and produce valuable products are ideal for selection. Haematococcus pluvialis, which produces the carotenoid astaxanthin, was used. Growth rate, nutrient removal ability, and astaxanthin production of H. pluvialis in coagulated wastewater were investigated. After coagulation with chitosan, the turbidity and suspended solids decreased by 89% ± 8% and 73% ± 16%, respectively. The nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the supernatant remained at 86% ± 6% and 67% ± 24%, respectively. These results indicate that coagulation with chitosan can remove turbidity and SS while preserving nutrients. H. pluvialis grew well in the supernatant of coagulated wastewater. The astaxanthin yield from coagulated wastewater in which microalgae were cultured was 3.26 mg/L, and total phosphorus and nitrogen contents decreased 99% ± 1% and 90% ± 8% (Days 31-35), respectively. PMID:27508383

  2. Photoluminescence enhancement of aligned arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes by polymer transfer† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05163k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Schweiger, Manuel; Zakharko, Yuriy; Gannott, Florentina; Grimm, Stefan B.

    2015-01-01

    The photoluminescence of as-grown, aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) on quartz is strongly quenched and barely detectable. Here we show that transferring these SWNTs to another substrate such as clean quartz or glass increases their emission efficiency by up to two orders of magnitude. By statistical analysis of large nanotube arrays we show at what point of the transfer process the emission enhancement occurs and how it depends on the receiving substrate and the employed transfer polymer. We find that hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) as the transfer polymer results in higher photoluminescence enhancement than the more hydrophilic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Possible mechanisms for this enhancement such as strain relief, disruption of the strong interaction of SWNTs with the substrate and localized emissive states are discussed. PMID:26400227

  3. Accurate calculation of the absolute free energy of binding for drug molecules† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc02678d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Aldeghi, Matteo; Heifetz, Alexander; Bodkin, Michael J.; Knapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate prediction of binding affinities has been a central goal of computational chemistry for decades, yet remains elusive. Despite good progress, the required accuracy for use in a drug-discovery context has not been consistently achieved for drug-like molecules. Here, we perform absolute free energy calculations based on a thermodynamic cycle for a set of diverse inhibitors binding to bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) and demonstrate that a mean absolute error of 0.6 kcal mol–1 can be achieved. We also show a similar level of accuracy (1.0 kcal mol–1) can be achieved in pseudo prospective approach. Bromodomains are epigenetic mark readers that recognize acetylation motifs and regulate gene transcription, and are currently being investigated as therapeutic targets for cancer and inflammation. The unprecedented accuracy offers the exciting prospect that the binding free energy of drug-like compounds can be predicted for pharmacologically relevant targets. PMID:26798447

  4. Enzyme classification using complex dynamic hemithioacetal systems† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: NMR spectra, linear discriminant analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cc01823h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Jayawardena, H. Surangi N.

    2016-01-01

    A complex dynamic hemithioacetal system was generated for the evaluation of lipase reactivities in organic media. In combination with pattern recognition methodology, twelve different lipases were successfully classified into four distinct groups following their reaction selectivities and reactivities. A probe lipase was further categorized using the training matrix with predicted reactivity. PMID:26987550

  5. Biologically controlled synthesis and assembly of magnetite nanoparticles† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4fd00240g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Bennet, Mathieu; Bertinetti, Luca; Neely, Robert K.; Schertel, Andreas; Körnig, André; Flors, Cristina; Müller, Frank D.; Schüler, Dirk; Klumpp, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles have size- and shape-dependent magnetic properties. In addition, assemblies of magnetite nanoparticles forming one-dimensional nanostructures have magnetic properties distinct from zero-dimensional or non-organized materials due to strong uniaxial shape anisotropy. However, assemblies of free-standing magnetic nanoparticles tend to collapse and form closed-ring structures rather than chains in order to minimize their energy. Magnetotactic bacteria, ubiquitous microorganisms, have the capability to mineralize magnetite nanoparticles, the so-called magnetosomes, and to direct their assembly in stable chains via biological macromolecules. In this contribution, the synthesis and assembly of biological magnetite to obtain functional magnetic dipoles in magnetotactic bacteria are presented, with a focus on the assembly. We present tomographic reconstructions based on cryo-FIB sectioning and SEM imaging of a magnetotactic bacterium to exemplify that the magnetosome chain is indeed a paradigm of a 1D magnetic nanostructure, based on the assembly of several individual particles. We show that the biological forces are a major player in the formation of the magnetosome chain. Finally, we demonstrate by super resolution fluorescence microscopy that MamK, a protein of the actin family necessary to form the chain backbone in the bacteria, forms a bundle of filaments that are not only found in the vicinity of the magnetosome chain but are widespread within the cytoplasm, illustrating the dynamic localization of the protein within the cells. These very simple microorganisms have thus much to teach us with regards to controlling the design of functional 1D magnetic nanoassembly. PMID:25932467

  6. Comment on: Alam Akhtar, Ahmad Shabir, Sultan Bhat, M., Ahmad Bashir, 2015. Tectonic evolution of Kashmir basin in northwest Himalayas. Geomorphology doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2015.03.025

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Alam et al. (2015) have challenged the classic piggyback tectonic model for the development of Kashmir basin, NW Himalaya. However, all the evidence shown is completely contrary to the geologic, tectonic, structural, seismologic, geodetic, and geomorphic data of previous works. A perfectly planar major (~ 165 km) dextral strike-slip fault has been mapped; however, with such planar geometry, any strike-slip fault cannot produce a pull-apart basin because such basins are characteristic features of step-overs and linkage fault geometries. And the Horsetail structures are impossible for a major planar strike-slip fault geometry that is proposed by the authors. The recent geodetic data of the Kashmir basin strongly refutes the pure strike-slip model. Therefore, the structures, geomorphology, geology, and kinematics associated with typical dextral strike-slip fault geometry completely contradict to what has been proposed by Alam et al. (2015).

  7. Light-triggered chemical amplification to accelerate degradation and release from polymeric particles† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc06143a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Olejniczak, Jason; Nguyen Huu, Viet Anh; Lux, Jacques; Grossman, Madeleine; He, Sha

    2015-01-01

    We describe a means of chemical amplification to accelerate triggered degradation of a polymer and particles composed thereof. We designed a light-degradable copolymer containing carboxylic acids masked by photolabile groups and ketals. Photolysis allows the unmasked acidic groups in the polymer backbone to accelerate ketal hydrolysis even at neutral pH. PMID:26445896

  8. Switching specific biomolecular interactions on surfaces under complex biological conditions† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4an01225a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Lashkor, Minhaj; Rawson, Frankie J.; Preece, Jon A.

    2014-01-01

    Herein, electrically switchable mixed self-assembled monolayers based on oligopeptides have been developed and investigated for their suitability in achieving control over biomolecular interactions in the presence of complex biological conditions. Our model system, a biotinylated oligopeptide tethered to gold within a background of tri(ethylene glycol) undecanethiol, is ubiquitous in both switching specific protein interactions in highly fouling media while still offering the non-specific protein-resistance to the surface. Furthermore, the work demonstrated that the performance of the switching on the electro-switchable oligopeptide is sensitive to the characteristics of the media, and in particular, its protein concentration and buffer composition, and thus such aspects should be considered and addressed to assure maximum switching performance. This study lays the foundation for developing more realistic dynamic extracellular matrix models and is certainly applicable in a wide variety of biological and medical applications. PMID:25180245

  9. Synthesis of double-clickable functionalised graphene oxide for biological applications† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc05412e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Kuo-Ching; Rubio, Noelia; Costa, Pedro M.; Kafa, Houmam; Abbate, Vincenzo; Festy, Frederic; Bansal, Sukhvinder S.; Hider, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Azide- and alkyne-double functionalised graphene oxide (Click2 GO) was synthesised and characterised with attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Raman spectroscopy. Fourteen-percentage increase in azide content was found, after pre-treatment of GO with meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (mCPBA), determined with elemental analysis. No effect on A549 cell viability was found, up to 100 μg mL–1 and 72 h of incubation, determined with the modified lactate dehydrogenase (mLDH) assay. Two sequential copper(i) catalysed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reactions were performed to conjugate the propargyl-modified blood–brain barrier targeting peptide Angiopep-2, and a bis-azide polyethylene glycol (M W = 3500), to the Click2 GO. The final conjugate was characterised with ATR-FTIR and TGA. PMID:26295072

  10. Gold nanoparticles as a substrate in bio-analytical near-infrared surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4an01899k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Holly J.; Fogarty, Simon W.; Kerns, Jemma G.; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L.

    2015-01-01

    As biospectroscopy techniques continue to be developed for screening or diagnosis within a point-of-care setting, an important development for this field will be high-throughput optimization. For many of these techniques, it is therefore necessary to adapt and develop parameters to generate a robust yet simple approach delivering high-quality spectra from biological samples. Specifically, this is important for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) wherein there are multiple variables that can be optimised to achieve an enhancement of the Raman signal from a sample. One hypothesis is that “large” diameter (>100 nm) gold nanoparticles provide a greater enhancement at near-infrared (NIR) and infrared (IR) wavelengths than those <100 nm in diameter. Herein, we examine this notion using examples in which SERS spectra were acquired from MCF-7 breast cancer cells incubated with 150 nm gold nanoparticles. It was found that 150 nm gold nanoparticles are an excellent material for NIR/IR SERS. Larger gold nanoparticles may better satisfy the theoretical restraints for SERS enhancement at NIR/IR wavelengths compared to smaller nanoparticles. Also, larger nanoparticles or their aggregates are more readily observed via optical microscopy (and especially electron microscopy) compared to smaller ones. This allows rapid and straightforward identification of target areas containing a high concentration of nanoparticles and facilitating SERS spectral acquisition. To some extent, these observations appear to extend to biofluids such as blood plasma or (especially) serum; SERS spectra of such biological samples often exhibit a low signal-to-noise ratio in the absence of nanoparticles. With protein-rich biofluids such as serum, a dramatic SERS effect can be observed; although this might facilitate improved spectral biomarker identification in the future, it may not always improve classification between control vs. cancer. Thus, use of “large” gold nanoparticles are a good starting point in order to derive informative NIR/IR SERS analysis of biological samples. PMID:25802895

  11. Chemical generation and modification of peptides containing multiple dehydroalanines† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc05469a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Philip M.; Foley, Patrick J.; Warriner, Stuart L.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical formation of dehydroalanine has been widely used for the post-translational modification of proteins and peptides, however methods to incorporate multiple dehydroalanine residues into a single peptide have not been defined. We report the use of methyl 2,5-dibromovalerate which can be used to cleanly carry out this transformation. PMID:26219458

  12. Monitoring cytosolic and ER Zn2+ in stimulated breast cancer cells using genetically encoded FRET sensors† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5mt00257e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Hessels, Anne M.; Taylor, Kathryn M.

    2016-01-01

    The Zn2+-specific ion channel ZIP7 has been implicated to play an important role in releasing Zn2+ from the ER. External stimulation of breast cancer cells has been proposed to induce phosphorylation of ZIP7 by CK2α, resulting in ZIP7-mediated Zn2+ release from the ER into the cytosol. Here, we examined whether changes in cytosolic and ER Zn2+ concentrations can be detected upon such external stimuli. Two previously developed FRET sensors for Zn2+, eZinCh-2 (K d = 1 nM at pH 7.1) and eCALWY-4 (K d = 0.63 nM at pH 7.1), were expressed in both the cytosol and the ER of wild-type MCF-7 and TamR cells. Treatment of MCF-7 and TamR cells with external Zn2+ and pyrithione, one of the previously used triggers, resulted in an immediate increase in free Zn2+ in both cytosol and ER, suggesting that Zn2+ was directly transferred across the cellular membranes by pyrithione. Cells treated with a second trigger, EGF/ionomycin, showed no changes in intracellular Zn2+ levels, neither in multicolor imaging experiments that allowed simultaneous imaging of cytosolic and ER Zn2+, nor in experiments in which cytosolic and ER Zn2+ were monitored separately. In contrast to previous work using small-molecule fluorescent dyes, these results indicate that EGF–ionomycin treatment does not result in significant changes in cytosolic Zn2+ levels as a result from Zn2+ release from the ER. These results underline the importance of using genetically encoded fluorescent sensors to complement and verify intracellular imaging experiments with synthetic fluorescent Zn2+ dyes. PMID:26739447

  13. Cesium-containing triple cation perovskite solar cells: improved stability, reproducibility and high efficiency† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ee03874j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Taisuke; Seo, Ji-Youn; Domanski, Konrad; Correa-Baena, Juan-Pablo; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Tress, Wolfgang; Abate, Antonio; Hagfeldt, Anders; Grätzel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Today's best perovskite solar cells use a mixture of formamidinium and methylammonium as the monovalent cations. With the addition of inorganic cesium, the resulting triple cation perovskite compositions are thermally more stable, contain less phase impurities and are less sensitive to processing conditions. This enables more reproducible device performances to reach a stabilized power output of 21.1% and ∼18% after 250 hours under operational conditions. These properties are key for the industrialization of perovskite photovoltaics. PMID:27478500

  14. Conductance tomography of conductive filaments in intrinsic silicon-rich silica RRAM† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04982b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Montesi, Luca; Hudziak, Stephen; Mehonic, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    We present results from an imaging study of filamentary conduction in silicon suboxide resistive RAM devices. We used a conductive atomic force microscope to etch through devices while measuring current, allowing us to produce tomograms of conductive filaments. To our knowledge this is the first report of such measurements in an intrinsic resistance switching material. PMID:26482563

  15. Comment on 'Shang S. 2012. Calculating actual crop evapotranspiration under soil water stress conditions with appropriate numerical methods and time step. Hydrological Processes 26: 3338-3343. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8405'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yatheendradas, Soni; Narapusetty, Balachandrudu; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Funk, Christopher; Verdin, James

    2014-01-01

    A previous study analyzed errors in the numerical calculation of actual crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub a)) under soil water stress. Assuming no irrigation or precipitation, it constructed equations for ET(sub a) over limited soil-water ranges in a root zone drying out due to evapotranspiration. It then used a single crop-soil composite to provide recommendations about the appropriate usage of numerical methods under different values of the time step and the maximum crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub c)). This comment reformulates those ET(sub a) equations for applicability over the full range of soil water values, revealing a dependence of the relative error in numerical ET(sub a) on the initial soil water that was not seen in the previous study. It is shown that the recommendations based on a single crop-soil composite can be invalid for other crop-soil composites. Finally, a consideration of the numerical error in the time-cumulative value of ET(sub a) is discussed besides the existing consideration of that error over individual time steps as done in the previous study. This cumulative ET(sub a) is more relevant to the final crop yield.

  16. Castagna, M., M. W. Becker, and A. Bellin (2011), Joint estimation of transmissivity and storativity in a bedrock fracture, Water Resour. Res., 47, W09504, doi:10.1029/2010WR009262.

    SciTech Connect

    Castagna, M; Becker, M W; Bellin, A

    2011-11-30

    The spatial variability of transmissivity (T) and storativity (S) in a sandstone bedding plane fracture was investigated through field and numerical hydraulic tomography experiments. Cross-hole pumping tests were conducted in a single subhorizontal bedrock fracture, thereby constraining the problem to two dimensions. A Bayesian method implementing pilot points was used to invert the drawdown, under the hypothesis that T and S are independent random space functions, where integral scale, mean, and variance of the random fields were parameters of inversion in addition to pilot point values. An ensemble of 20 Monte Carlo realizations was created for each model scenario. Inversion of the measured cross-hole drawdown resulted in spatially variable T and S fields. To determine the accuracy of the method, a suite of synthetic inversions modeled after the field site were also conducted. The synthetic experiments demonstrate that the assumed spatial structure of S influences the accuracy of both the T and S inversions. When the S field is spatially heterogeneous and is assumed to be heterogeneous in the inversion, a consistent representation of the T and S fields is obtained. When the S field is spatially heterogeneous but is assumed to be homogeneous in the inversion, a consistent representation of the T field is still obtained, but the S field is entirely misrepresented; if the S field is actually homogeneous but assumed to be heterogeneous, a poor representation of the T and S fields is obtained along with high uncertainty in the inversion statistics of confidence.

  17. Divergent regioselectivity in photoredox-catalyzed hydrofunctionalization reactions of unsaturated amides and thioamides† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sc02331e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    A direct method to construct 2-oxazolines and 2-thiazolines from corresponding allylic amides and thioamides is reported. The redox-neutral intramolecular hydrofunctionalization is enabled by a dual catalyst system comprised of 9-mesityl-N-methyl acridinium tetrafluoroborate and phenyl disulphide and exhibits complete selectivity for the anti-Markovnikov regioisomeric products. The cyclization of allylic thioamides is postulated to operate via a modified mechanism in which oxidation of the thioamide, rather than the alkene, is responsible for the observed reactivity. PMID:25541590

  18. Investigations on recyclisation and hydrolysis in avibactam mediated serine β-lactamase inhibition† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6ob00353b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hwanho; Paton, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    β-Lactams inhibit penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and serine β-lactamases by acylation of a nucleophilic active site serine. Avibactam is approved for clinical use in combination with ceftazidime, and is a breakthrough non β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor also reacting via serine acylation. Molecular dynamics (MD) and quantum chemical calculations on avibactam-mediated inhibition of a clinically relevant cephalosporinase reveal that recyclisation of the avibactam derived carbamoyl complex is favoured over hydrolysis. In contrast, we show that analogous recyclisation in β-lactam mediated inhibition is disfavoured. Avibactam recyclisation is promoted by a proton shuttle, a ‘structural’ water protonating the nucleophilic serine, and stabilization of the negative charge developed on aminocarbonyl oxygen. The results imply the potential of calculations for distinguishing between bifurcating pathways during inhibition and in generating hypotheses for predicting resistance. The inability of β-lactams to undergo recyclisation may be an Achilles heel, but one that can be addressed by suitably functionalized reversibly binding inhibitors. PMID:27072755

  19. Retaining individualities: the photodynamics of self-ordering porphyrin assemblies† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc09095d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Wen-Dong; Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; Baker, Lewis A.; Stulz, Eugen; Napier, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The retention of photochemical properties of individual chromophores is a key feature of biological light harvesting complexes. This is achieved despite extensive aggregation of the chromophores, which in synthetic chromophore assemblies often yields a change in spectral characteristics. As an alternative approach towards mimicking biological light harvesting complexes, we report the synthesis of porphyrin assemblies which retained the photochemical properties of the individual chromophore units despite their substantial aggregation. These new materials highlight a new bottom-up approach towards the design and understanding of more complex biomimetic and naturally occurring biological systems. PMID:26680651

  20. 14N overtone NMR under MAS: signal enhancement using symmetry-based sequences and novel simulation strategies† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4cp03994g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Haies, Ibraheem M.; Jarvis, James A.; Bentley, Harry; Heinmaa, Ivo; Kuprov, Ilya; Williamson, Philip T. F.

    2015-01-01

    Overtone 14N NMR spectroscopy is a promising route for the direct detection of 14N signals with good spectral resolution. Its application is currently limited, however, by the absence of efficient polarization techniques for overtone signal enhancement and the lack of efficient numerical simulation techniques to aid in both the development of new methods and the analysis and interpretation of experimental data. In this paper we report a novel method for the transfer of polarization from 1H to the 14N overtone using symmetry-based R-sequences that overcome many of the limitations of adiabatic approaches that have worked successfully on static samples. Refinement of these sequences and the analysis of the resulting spectra have been facilitated through the development of an efficient simulation strategy for 14N overtone NMR spectroscopy of spinning samples, using effective Hamiltonians on top of Floquet and Fokker–Planck equations. PMID:25662410

  1. Rational, yet simple, design and synthesis of an antifreeze-protein inspired polymer for cellular cryopreservation† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc04647e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Daniel E.; Cameron, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    Antifreeze (glyco) proteins AF(G)Ps are potent ice recrystallization inhibitors, which is a desirable property to enhance cryopreservation of donor tissue/cells. Here we present the rational synthesis of a new, biomimetic, ice-recrystallization inhibiting polymer derived from a cheap commodity polymer, based on an ampholyte structure. The polymer is used to enhance the cryopreservation of red blood cells, demonstrating a macromolecular solution to tissue storage. PMID:26176027

  2. Glycosylated gold nanoparticle libraries for label-free multiplexed lectin biosensing† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5tb01994j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Sarah-Jane; Otten, Lucienne

    2016-01-01

    Glycan/lectin interactions drive a wide range of recognition and signal transduction processes within nature. However, their measurement is complicated or limited by the analytical tools available. Most technologies require fluorescently labelled proteins (e.g. microarrays) or expensive infrastructure (such as surface plasmon resonance). This also limits their application in biosensing, especially for low-resource settings, where detection of pathogens based on glycan binding could speed up diagnosis. Here we employ a library-oriented approach to immobilise a range of monosaccharides onto polymer-stabilised gold nanoparticles to enable rapid and high-throughput evaluation of their binding specificities with a panel of lectins. The red to blue colour shift upon gold nanoparticle aggregation is used as the output, removing the need for labelled protein, enabling compatibility with 96-well microplates. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of a flatbed scanner (or digital camera) to extract biophysical data, ensuring that only minimal resources are required. Finally, linear discriminant analysis is employed to demonstrate how the glyconanoparticles can be applied as a multiplexed biosensor capable of identifying pathogenic lectins without the need for any infrastructure and overcoming some of the issues of lectin promiscuity. PMID:27162639

  3. A novel design strategy for nanoparticles on nanopatterns: interferometric lithographic patterning of Mms6 biotemplated magnetic nanoparticles† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5tc03895b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, S. M.; El-Zubir, O.; Rawlings, A. E.; Leggett, G. J.

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology demands the synthesis of highly precise, functional materials, tailored for specific applications. One such example is bit patterned media. These high-density magnetic data-storage materials require specific and uniform magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to be patterned over large areas (cm2 range) in exact nanoscale arrays. However, the realisation of such materials for nanotechnology applications depends upon reproducible fabrication methods that are both precise and environmentally-friendly, for cost-effective scale-up. A potentially ideal biological fabrication methodology is biomineralisation. This is the formation of inorganic minerals within organisms, and is known to be highly controlled down to the nanoscale whilst being carried out under ambient conditions. The magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 uses a suite of dedicated biomineralisation proteins to control the formation of magnetite MNPs within their cell. One of these proteins, Mms6, has been shown to control formation of magnetite MNPs in vitro. We have previously used Mms6 on micro-contact printed (μCP) patterned self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces to control the formation and location of MNPs in microscale arrays, offering a bioinspired and green-route to fabrication. However, μCP cannot produce patterns reliably with nanoscale dimensions, and most alternative nanofabrication techniques are slow and expensive. Interferometric lithography (IL) uses the interference of laser light to produce nanostructures over large areas via a simple process implemented under ambient conditions. Here we combine the bottom-up biomediated approach with a top down IL methodology to produce arrays of uniform magnetite MNPs (86 ± 21 nm) with a period of 357 nm. This shows a potentially revolutionary strategy for the production of magnetic arrays with nanoscale precision in a process with low environmental impact, which could be scaled readily to facilitate large-scale production of nanopatterned surface materials for technological applications. PMID:27358738

  4. Discrimination between bacterial species by ratiometric analysis of their carbohydrate binding profile† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5mb00720h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Otten, Lucienne; Fullam, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a global health concern meaning there is an urgent need for new treatments and diagnostics. Here glycosylated surfaces are used to profile the binding patterns of a range of Gram-negative, Gram-positive and mycobacteria. This enables the creation of ‘barcodes’ to enable identification and discrimination between the strains, which could not be achieved by single-point glycan binding and offers a new concept in bacteria detection. PMID:26647648

  5. Comment on Urban et al. "Assessment of human health risks posed by consumption of fish from the Lower Passaic River (LPR), New Jersey" (2009, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.03.004).

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Gary A; Hayton, Anne G; Macgregor, Janine

    2010-03-15

    Urban et al. (2009) presented a human health risk assessment for the Lower Passaic River that very narrowly defines fish consumption, ignores crab consumption, and is not consistent with current NJ or EPA risk assessment procedures and guidance. The restrictively defined consumption then leads to inappropriate conclusions on the risk of eating fish from this highly contaminated estuarine river. The paper underestimates angler exposure to contaminated fish, does not evaluate exposure to contaminated crab, and underestimates the cancer risks and non-cancer health hazards associated with these exposure pathways. The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection along with the NJ Department of Health and Senior Services issues fish and crab consumption advisories for all state waters; these advisories should be followed for the Passaic River and surrounding waters: http://www.state.nj.us/dep/dsr/FishSmartEatSmartNJ.org. PMID:20149414

  6. Nuevas Galaxias Seyfert 1 Australes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maza, J.; Ruiz, M. T.

    1987-05-01

    En 1984 se inició una extensión del "survey" de Tololo que de- sarrollara en 1975 Smith, con la cámara Curtis-Schmidt y el prisma UV delgado. Utilizando placas IIIaJ horneadas, sin filtro, expues tas 90 minutos sin ensanchamiento se han obtenido a la fecha más de 150 placas que cubren la zona entre -20° y -45° a latitudes galácticas mayores de 20°; se presenta un detalle de las franjas que comprende el survey Calan-Tololo, indicando el grado de completitud de las mismas. Se ha encontrado un gran número de galaxias con líneas de emisión entre las cuales las más frecuentes, más de 300, son galaxias irregulares con formación estelar violenta ("starburst galaxies"). Se ha encontrado un número de cuasares cercano a 100; casi todos ellos tienen la linea Lyman alfa en la zona entre 3300 y 5300 A, que corresponde a un rango de corrimientosal rojo 1.7< z <3.3 el cuasar con mayor corri- miento al rojo encontrado a la fecha en el survey tiene z = 3.1. La información detallada sobre cuasares y galaxias tipo "starburst" será presentada en otro lugar. Entre los objetos más interesantes encontrados en el survey Calán- Tololo destacan unas 50 nuevas galaxias Seyfert 1. Estas galaxias han sido encontradas por su fuerte exceso UV y su brillante núcleo, más que por sus intensas lineas de emisión. Hemos observado espectroscópicamente, en el Observatorio Interamericano de Cerro Tololo, 37 de ellas para las cuales se presentan cartas de identificación, coordenadas y los datos espectroscópicos obtenidos.

  7. Reply to comments by Ahmad et al. on: Shah, A. A., 2013. Earthquake geology of Kashmir Basin and its implications for future large earthquakes International Journal of Earth Sciences DOI:10.1007/s00531-013-0874-8 and on Shah, A. A., 2015. Kashmir Basin Fault and its tectonic significance in NW Himalaya, Jammu and Kashmir, India, International Journal of Earth Sciences DOI:10.1007/s00531-015-1183-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    Shah (Int J Earth Sci 102:1957-1966, 2013) mapped major unknown faults and fault segments in Kashmir basin using geomorphological techniques. The major trace of out-of-sequence thrust fault was named as Kashmir basin fault (KBF) because it runs through the middle of Kashmir basin, and the active movement on it has backtilted and uplifted most of the basin. Ahmad et al. (Int J Earth Sci, 2015) have disputed the existence of KBF and maintained that faults identified by Shah (Int J Earth Sci 102:1957-1966, 2013) were already mapped as inferred faults by earlier workers. The early works, however, show a major normal fault, or a minor out-of-sequence reverse fault, and none have shown a major thrust fault.

  8. On Ensino de Astronomia: Desafios para Implantação

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. Z.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    Em 2002 o ensino de Astronomia foi proposto como um dos temas estruturadores pelos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e sugerido como facilitador para que o aluno compreendesse a Física como construção humana e parte do seu mundo vivencial, mas raramente seus conceitos foram ensinados. A presente pesquisa discute dois aspectos relacionados à abordagem de Astronomia. O primeiro aspecto é se ela está sendo abordada pelos professores do Ensino Médio e o segundo, aborda a maneira como ela está sendo ensinada. Optou-se pela aplicação de um questionário a partir do 2° semestre de 2006 e durante o ano de 2007 com professores que ministram a disciplina de Física, os quais trabalham em escolas estaduais em Rio Grande da Serra, Ribeirão Pires e Mauá no estado São Paulo. Dos 66,2% dos professores que responderam ao questionário nos municípios de Rio Grande da Serra, Ribeirão Pires e Mauá, 57,4% não aplicaram nenhum tópico de astronomia, 70,2% não utilizaram laboratório, 89,4% não utilizaram qualquer tipo de programa computacional, 83,0% nunca fizeram visitas com alunos a museus e planetários e 38,3% não indicaram qualquer tipo de livro ou revista referente à astronomia aos seus alunos. Mesmo considerando a Astronomia um conteúdo potencialmente significativo, esta não fez parte dos planejamentos escolares. Portanto são necessárias propostas que visem estratégias para a educação continuada dos professores como, por exemplo, cursos específicos sobre o ensino em Astronomia.

  9. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    MIján de la Torre, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    El síndrome de caquexia cancerosa es responsable de la muerte de un número significativo de pacientes con cáncer. Se caracteriza por la presencia de una ingesta reducida, con inflamación sistémica y un metabolismo alterado. Los enfermos presentan característicamente una progresiva pérdida de peso y de masa muscular, junto a deterioro funcional. La pérdida muscular se debe a la combinación de reducción de la síntesis proteica con aumento de su degradación. Ello conduce tanto a un acortamiento como a una reducción en el área de la fibra muscular. Asimismo, existen datos que apoyan que selectivamente algunos de los tipos de fibra muscular se ven más afectados. Es necesario definir bien los valores de corte de sarcopenia para diagnosticar la pérdida muscular y existen diferentes métodos. El sistema de la ubiquitina-proteasoma parece desempeñar un papel predominante en la degradación de la proteína miofibrilar. La tendencia a perder masa muscular en los pacientes con caquexia cancerosa parece estar asociada a la activación de señales catabólicas por citoquinas proinflamatorias, así como por productos tumorales del tipo factor inductor de proteólisis. En referencia a los factores pronósticos, el riesgo de muerte está bien documentado en pacientes con sarcopenia y, especialmente, en aquellos con obesidad asociada a la sarcopenia. Asimismo, se ha establecido una relación directa entre la pérdida intensa de masa muscular y la supervivencia en pacientes con diferentes tipos de tumores del tipo de cáncer de páncreas, pulmón, tracto biliar o cáncer colorrectal. Respecto de la terapia en el síndrome de caquexia cancerosa, es factible que requiera tratamiento con varios grupos combinados que incluyan, junto al soporte nutricional, fármacos orexígenos, con efecto anabólico y antinflamatorio, asociados a intervenciones que estimulen el ejercicio físico. PMID:27269215

  10. La binaria LSS 3074 y su entorno: ?`una nueva asociación OB?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemela, V.; Morrell, N.; Corti, M.

    En este trabajo presentamos un nuevo análisis orbital de LSS~3074, junto con tipos espectrales y velocidades radiales de estrellas que podrían constituir con ella una nueva asociación OB. La estrella O4f LSS3074 fue descubierta como binaria espectroscópica de corto período y líneas dobles por Morrell & Niemela (1990, ASP Conf. Ser. 7, 57). Posteriormente, Haefner et~al.(1994, IBVS 3969) encontraron variaciones fotométricas, estimando una inclinación orbital entre 50o y 55o. Teniendo en cuenta la importancia de obtener valores empíricos para las masas de estrellas O tempranas, y considerando la gran dispersión existente entre los valores observados y su discrepancia con los predichos por los modelos teóricos, hemos obtenido nuevas observaciones espectroscópicas de este sistema, con el propósito de mejorar los elementos orbitales derivados en la solución preliminar. Además, como las estrellas O tempranas suelen formar parte de cúmulos y asociaciones OB, hemos llevado a cabo una investigación espectroscópica de varias estrellas tempranas que podrían estar físicamente relacionadas con LSS~3074.

  11. El origen de las galaxias en modelos jerárquicos de formación de la estructura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, J. F.

    En esta charla presentaré una revisión de los modelos corrientes de formación de galaxias. En particular, haré énfasis en el origen de la gran variedad de morfologías galácticas y de las correlaciones entre las propiedades estructurales de discos y esferoides, todo dentro del contexto cosmológico jerárquico provisto por teorías como la de materia oscura fría. En este tipo de teorías las correlaciones observadas entre la luminosidad, velocidad de rotación, momento angular, y tamaño de galaxias son el resultado de la falta de escalas naturales en el proceso de formación de los halos de materia oscura que dichas galaxias habitan. Simulaciones numéricas que incorporan efectos gravitacionales, hidrodinámicos y de formación estelar ilustran estas ideas y demuestran las dificultades que aquejan a modelos donde tanto discos como esferoides son el resultado final de una secuencia de fusiones de sistemas protogalácticos.

  12. Aquecimento alfvênico viscoso-resistivo em discos de acresção ao redor de estrelas T Tauri clássicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, W. M.; Vasconcelos, M. J.

    2003-08-01

    Com a crescente disponibilidade de dados observacionais sobre estrelas T Tauri, a busca por modelos mais precisos vem se tornando cada vez maior. Estes modelos devem explicar, entre outras coisas, o mecanismo dissipativo responsável pelo transporte de momento angular no disco de acresção que acredita-se, circunda estas estrelas. O mecanismo mais viável, do ponto de vista teórico, é uma instabilidade MHD conhecida como "instabilidade magnetorotacional ou Balbus-Hawley" (IBH). Esta instabilidade veio mostrar que o campo magnético desempenha um papel importante na evolução destes objetos mas requer, no entanto, um acoplamento mínimo entre o gás e o campo magnético no disco que não é atingido para os valores de temperatura obtidos do modelo padrão. Contudo, alguns mecanismos de aquecimento para o disco precisam ser examinados. Neste trabalho, propomos a dissipação de ondas Alfvén como uma fonte de aquecimento para o disco. Se o gás apresentar uma condutividade elétrica finita e viscosidade, teremos um tipo de amortecimento para as ondas denominado amortecimento viscoso-resistivo que será aqui considerado. Este mecanismo é aplicado ao modelo de disco em camadas. Calculam-se as taxas de aquecimento Alfvênico, a temperatura efetiva do disco bem como as taxas de ionização decorrentes deste aquecimento e do aquecimento gerado pela absorção de raios cósmicos. Comparações com os dados observacionais de Kitamura et. al. (2001) são efetuadas, ressaltando-se os pontos comuns entre suas observações e nossos dados teóricos.

  13. Modelo Crosscultural de Pasantias para Lideres de la Educacion: Cooperacion entre Estados Unidos y Venezuela (Designing an Effective School Administrator Internship Program: United States and Venezuela Cooperation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafin, Ana Gil; Thompson, Eugene W.

    A model was developed of an internship program designed to give valuable cross-cultural experience to school administrators in training at universities in the United States and Venezuela. A naturalistic approach was used to develop the model. Leading school administrators and educational leadership theorists in both countries were interviewed by…

  14. Etude, par principes premiers, des effets de la correlation entre electrons sur les proprietes electroniques et magnetiques de polymeres pontes et de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesant, Simon

    Description of complex systems by Density functional theory is treated in this thesis. First, the Density functional theory and a few functionals used to simulate cristals are presented. Specifically, the LDA and GGA functionnals are described and their limits are exposed. Furthermore, the Hubbard model as well as the LDA+U functionnal are addressed in this chapter. These methods enable the study of highly correlated materials. Then, results obtained on polymers are summarized in two articles. The first one treats the band gap variation of ladder-type polymers compared to non ladder type ones. The second article considers small band gap polymers. In this case, it will be shown that an hybrid functional, which contains exact exchange, is required to describe the electronic properties of the polymers under study. Finally, the last chapter address the study of cuprates superconductors. The LDA+U can account for the localization of electrons in copper orbitals. Consequently, a study of the impact of this functionnal on electronic properties of cuprates is conducted. The chapter is ended by an article treating magnetic orders in doped La 2CuO4. Supplementary materials of the second article and a description of the theory of superconductivity of Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer are put in annex. Keywords : Electronic correlation, DFT, LDA+U, cuprates, polymers, magnetic orders

  15. Mise en évidence de fortes circulations verticales temporaires entre zones humides et aquifères alluviaux et régionaux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Philippe; Coudrain-Ribstein, Anne; Kao, Cyril; Bendjoudi, Hocine; Marsily, Ghislain de

    1999-08-01

    Tensiometric and piezometric values were recorded in an alluvial valley of the Seine wetland from February to November 1998. As a consequence of two flood events, the groundwater head once rose above the soil surface. When the water level in the Seine decreased, the vertical hydraulic gradient between the underlying Senonian chalk and the alluvia increased to 16 %o. During the few days of recession the alluvial wetlands were fed by an upward flow from the regional chalk aquifer and drained towards the river through a more permeable alluvial layer (1.5 m to 7 m below soil surface).

  16. Associação entre lipid accumulation product (LAP) e hirsutismo na síndrome do ovário policístico.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Flávia Ribeiro de; Rezende, Mariana Bicalho; Faria, Nícolas Figueiredo; Dias, Tomás Ribeiro Gonçalves; Oliveira, Walter Carlos Santos de; Rocha, Ana Luiza Lunardi; Cândido, Ana Lúcia

    2016-02-01

    Objective Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine metabolic disorder in women between menarche and menopause. Clinical hyperandrogenism is the most important diagnostic criterion of the syndrome, which manifests as hirsutism in 70% of cases. Hirsute carriers of PCOS have high cardiovascular risk. Lipid accumulation product (LAP) is an index for the evaluation of lipid accumulation in adults and the prediction of cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between LAP and hirsutism in women with PCOS. Methods This was a cross-sectional observational study of a secondary database, which included 263 patients who had visited the Hyperandrogenism Outpatient Clinic from November 2009 to July 2014. The exclusion criteria were patients without Ferriman-Gallwey index (FGI) and/or LAP data. We used the Rotterdam criteria for the diagnosis of PCOS. All patients underwent medical assessment followed by measurement and recording of anthropometric data and the laboratory tests for measurement of the following: thyroid-stimulating hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, 17-α-hydroxyprogesterone (follicular phase), glycohemoglobin A1c, and basal insulin. In addition, the subjects underwent lipid profiling and oral glucose tolerance tests. Other laboratory measurements were determined according to clinical criteria. LAP and the homeostatic model assessment index (HOMA-IR) were calculated using the data obtained. We divided patients into two groups: the PCOS group with normal LAP (< 34.5) and the PCOS group with altered LAP (> 34.5) to compare the occurrence of hirsutism. For statistical analysis, we used SPSS Statistics for Windows® and Microsoft Excel programs, with descriptive (frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations) and comparative analyses (Student's t-test and Chi-square test). We considered relations significant when the p-value was ≤ 0.05. Results LAP was high in most patients (n = 177; 67.3%) and the FGI indicated that 58.5% of the patients (n = 154) had hirsutism. The analysis by LAP quartiles showed a positive correlation (p = 0.04) among patients with a high FGI and an upper quartile LAP (> 79.5) when compared with those with LAP < 29.0 (lower quartile). Conclusion This study demonstrated an association between high LAP and hirsutism. The FGI could represent a simple and low-cost tool to infer an increased cardiovascular risk in women with PCOS. PMID:26909772

  17. L'Alternance entre les auxiliaires "avoir" et "etre" en francais parle a Montreal (Alternation between the Auxiliaries "Avoir" and "Etre" in Spoken French in Montreal)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankoff, Gillian; Thibault, Pierrette

    1977-01-01

    A study of the spoken French of 120 residents of Montreal. The researchers were interested in the linguistic and social factors influencing the use of "avoir" and "etre." Results show that this usage corresponds to a tendancy to regularize conjugations. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  18. Entre dicho y hecho ...: An Assessment of the Application of Research from Second Language Acquisition and Related Fields to the Creation of Spanish CALL Materials for Lexical Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Lafford, Peter A.; Sykes, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Despite the problems presented by lexical errors in second language (L2) communication, most computer assisted language learning (CALL) programs tend to focus on the acquisition of grammar points rather than on the development of the L2 lexicon. In addition, CALL vocabulary tasks are typically limited in scope and mechanical in nature, covering…

  19. En la búsqueda de características en eyecciones coronales de masa que discriminen entre dos paradigmas físicos en modelos de ECMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paissan, G.; Stenborg, G.; Rovira, M.

    Se conocen tres diferentes fenómenos de gran escala que ocurren en la atmósfera solar, denominados eyecciones coronales de masa (ECMs), protuberancias eruptivas y grandes fulguraciones de dos bandas. Estos fenómenos están estrechamente relacionados y podrían ser distintas manifestaciones de un único proceso físico. Las ECMs son definidas como eyecciones de gran escala de masa y flujo magnético desde la baja corona al espacio interplanetario. Desde su descubrimiento en los '70, muchos modelos han sido propuestos para explicar su origen y evolución. La explicación física de las ECMs es un tema de debate intenso. No obstante, los modelos pueden sintetizarse en dos grandes grupos: 1) los modelos de inyección de flujo y 2) los modelos de almacenamiento y liberación. En este trabajo, se presentan los estudios realizados con una serie de eventos observados con el coronógrafo MICA (Mirror Coronograph for Argentina), el telescopio en H-alfa HASTA (H-alpha Solar Telescope for Argentina) y los coronógrafos C2 y C3 de la sonda SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory). Los eventos que pudieron ser identificados como ECMs son contrastados dentro del esquema de los dos paradigmas teóricos propuestos.

  20. La preparacion del maestro y la interaccion entre maestro y nino en programas preescolares (Teacher Preparation and Teacher-Child Interaction in Preschools). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontos, Susan; Wilcox-Herzog, Amanda

    It is generally agreed that because so much basic early learning occurs through interactive experiences when children are very young, the quality of teacher-child interactions contributes substantially to effects of group care and preschool education on children. Thus it is important to know if specialized teacher education in early childhood…

  1. Transitioning to new child-care nutrition policies: nutrient content of preschool menus differs by presence of vegetarian main entrée.

    PubMed

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Hales, Sarah B; Baum, Angela C

    2014-01-01

    Children who attend child care outside the home may be at increased risk for developing obesity. In 2012, the South Carolina ABC Child Care program issued new standards for food and nutrition. The goal of our study (conducted June to December 2012) was to examine changes that occurred at a large, Columbia, SC, preschool during the implementation of the South Carolina ABC Child Care program standards using an observational design, including a survey of parents and nutrient analysis of menus. The nutrition content of menu items before (n=15 days; six of which were vegetarian) and after (n=15 days; six of which were vegetarian) implementation of the new standards was compared. In addition, parents (N=75) were surveyed to examine opinions and support for the changes. Independent samples t tests were used to compare nutrient values before and after menu changes and analysis of variance was used to compare pre- and post-change vegetarian menus and pre- and post-change nonvegetarian menus. There were no significant differences between before and after menus with the exception of a 0.3 cup/day increase in vegetables (P<0.05). Vegetarian menus after the revisions were significantly higher in fiber (13 ± 3 g) than postrevision nonvegetarian menus (11 ± 3 g; P<0.05) and lower in sodium (1,068 ± 207 mg) than postrevision nonvegetarian menus (1,656 ± 488 mg; P<0.05). Standards that received the most parental support were serving at least two vegetables (score of 8.7 on a scale of one to nine) and two fruits per day (score of 8.6) and implementing policies against staff using food as a reward or punishment (score of 8.6). The center-specific policy of only bringing healthy foods for celebrations received the lowest support (score of 5.8). Adding more vegetarian menu items has the potential to improve the nutrient content of menus while keeping energy intake, saturated fat, sodium, and cholesterol levels at a more optimum level. PMID:24144990

  2. Etude comparative entre l'astrolabe dit "carolingien" et l'astrolabe d'Abù-Bakr ibn Yusuf de Toulouse.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hollander, R.

    This article is a comparative study that is essentially technical. It is based on very careful measurements of an accuracy of up to one tenth of a millimetre carried out on the plates and retes of the two astrolabes examined by the writer. Abù-Bakr ibn Yusuf's astrolabe is in the Musée Paul Dupuy in Toulouse. It was made in 1216-17 in Marrakech.

  3. Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Mental Health in School Counselors (Relación entre Inteligencia Emocional y salud mental en Orientadores Educativos)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cejudo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the present research is aimed at studying the relationship between emotional intelligence as an ability and emotional intelligence as a trait and mental health of a sample of school counsellors. Method: The sample has been made up of 203 school counsellors. The instruments used have been: Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional…

  4. Psychological Correlates of the Transmission and Acceptance of Rumors about AIDS = Correlates Psychologiques Entre la Transmission et l'Acceptation des Rumeurs sur le SIDA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Allan J.

    Public reactions to the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) crisis are accompanied by the sorts of emotional and cognitive factors that have been identified by researchers as predictors of rumor generation and transmission. The present investigation attempted to ascertain the extent that various subjective factors (including anxiety,…

  5. Origine physique du contraste entre activité électrique au dessus des terres et des océans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Earle; Stanfill, Sharon

    2002-12-01

    New tests and older ideas are explored to understand the origin of the pronounced contrast in lightning between land and sea. The behavior of islands as miniature continents with variable area supports the traditional thermal hypothesis over the aerosol hypothesis for lightning control. The substantial land-ocean contrast in updraft strength is supported globally by TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) radar comparisons of mixed phase radar reflectivity. The land-ocean updraft contrast is grossly inconsistent with the land-ocean contrast in CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy), from the standpoint of parcel theory. This inconsistency is resolved by the scaling of buoyant parcel size with cloud base height, as suggested by earlier investigators. Strongly electrified continental convection is then favored by a larger surface Bowen ratio, and by larger, more strongly buoyant boundary layer parcels which more efficiently transform CAPE to kinetic energy of the updraft in the moist stage of conditional instability. To cite this article: E. Williams, S. Stanfill, C. R. Physique 3 (2002) 1277-1292.

  6. Relación física entre el cúmulo abierto Hogg 15 y la estrella Wolf-Rayet WR 47

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Bica, E.; Santos, J. F. C., Jr.; Clariá, J. J.

    We revise the fundamental parameters of the faint open cluster Hogg 15, for which two recent colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) studies have obtained significantly different ages (Sagar et al. 2001, MNRAS, 327, 23; Piatti & Clariá 2001, A&A, 370, 931). In the present study, we combine a series of methods trying to constrain age, together with other fundamental parameters. We employ spatial extractions to construct the CMDs, and the cluster integrated spectrum to compare the latter with those of templates of known age. For Hogg 15 we derive an age of (20 ± 10) Myr, a reddening of (1.10 ± 0.05) mag, and a distance of (3.1 ± 0.5) kpc. We conclude that the estimation of an older age in the study of Piatti & Clariá can be accounted for in terms of main sequence/turnoff curvature being blurred in the CMDs, an effect mainly caused by field contamination. To clarify the issue of whether the Wolf-Rayet star HDE 311884 (WR 47), known to be a WN6 + O5V binary system, is associated or not with Hogg 15, we discuss its fundamental parameters, particularly its distance. Based on the WR 47 spectrum and available photometry, we assume that the underestimated distance implied by the Hipparcos parallax (216 pc) is affected by its binary character. By comparing the WR 47 spectrum with those of WR stars of a similar type, we conclude that WR 47 is not affected by a E(B-V) colour excess much higher than that associated with Hogg 15, namely E(B-V) = 1.10. On the basis of the WR 47's resulting distance of (5.2 ± 0.9) kpc, which largely surpasses that of the cluster, we conclude that WR 47 is not related to Hogg 15 from the point of view of origin, since the cluster and the star do not belong to the same formation event.

  7. Vinculación Física entre Super Cáscaras de Hidrógeno Neutro y Formación Estelar Reciente

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corti, M. A.; Arnal, E. M.

    Many of the known galactic HI supershells (SCHI) may have been formed by the combined effects of stellar winds and supernovae explotions. Having most of them dynamic lifetimes of a few times 10^7 yr, these huge structures are likely to outlive the stars that gave rise to them. Hence, these SCHI may be used as fossil records of the Milky Way star formation history. Furthermore, along their evolution SCHI may trigger star formation. In this paper we analyze the genetic link put forward by McClure-Griffiths et al. (2002) between the OB association Cen OB1 and the SCHI GSH305+01-24. From our study we conclude that GSH305+01-24 may not represent a real physical structure. Instead, we believe that this structure is best represented by two unrelated huge HI shells. The role played by Cen OB1 in powering one of these HI shells is unclear for the time being. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH.

  8. Denomination et categorisation des modeles d'enseignement des langues: entre institution et pratique (Denomination and Categorization of Language Teaching Models: Between Institution and Practice).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajo, Laurent; Matthey, Marinette

    1998-01-01

    The process and issues of labeling language program models is discussed insofar as it may affect the objectives, content, and method of instruction. The first section describes the origins, stated objectives, and implementation of a Neuchatel (Switzerland) school program integrating heritage language and culture into the school curriculum, noting…

  9. L'espace du mouvement: Une analyse des conflits dans les interactions entre institutrice et eleves d'une ecole maternelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvão, Izabel

    1995-01-01

    The research described in this article, winner of the Gottfried Hausmann Prize for 1994, was carried out in a kindergarten in São Paolo, Brazil, using the theory developed by Henri Wallon. The aim was to examine how primary school children are affected in their development by: (a) unnecessary restrictions placed on their physical movements during lessons; and (b) failure to organize the classroom space in a way that assists the learning process. The author concludes that these factors lead to tensions in the classroom which could be avoided through a different approach to movement and space.

  10. Make the Reading-Writing Connection: Tips for Parents of Young Learners = Haga el enlace entre lectura y escrita: Consejos para padres de jovenes que estan aprendiendo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Reading Association, Newark, DE.

    This brochure offers parents tips on helping their children connect writing with reading. It begins by noting that preschool children often want to scribble on paper, scribbles which sometimes represent a story. It suggests making space in the home for literacy, and encouraging early efforts. The brochure then offers four brief activities for…

  11. Previniendo el Uso de Drogas entre Ninos y Adolescentes: Una Guia Basada en Investigaciones (Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloboda, Zili; David, Susan L.

    This question and answer guide provides an overview of the research on the origins and pathways of drug abuse, the basic principles derived from effective drug abuse prevention research, and the application of research results to the prevention of drug use among young people. The basic principles derived from drug abuse prevention research are…

  12. Thriving Together: Connecting Rural School Improvement and Community Development = Prosperando juntos: La conexion entre el mejoramiento de la escuela rural y el desarrollo comunitario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boethel, Martha

    Available in English or Spanish, this resource guide aims to help rural schools and communities learn ways of supporting each other so that both can thrive. Background information and basic tools are provided for starting a joint school-community development effort. Chapters contain: (1) outline of the guide and statement of beliefs about…

  13. The Effect of Low Dose Irradiation and Grapefruit Extract on C. perfringens Growth from Spores in sous vide Processed Pork-Based Mexican Entrée

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sous vide, a common cooking method for meat and poultry products is widely used for providing ready-to-eat meals. Traditionally, these products have limited shelf life, ranging from 2 to 3 weeks. However, similar products may be stored for longer periods in the U.S. and other countries, requiring ad...

  14. Relación entre la orientación de Nebulosas Planetarias y el campo magnético galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidmann, W.; Díaz, R. J.; Carranza, G.

    Un estudio detallado de las orientaciones diferenciales de nebulosas planetarias en todo el cielo sugiere fuertemente una relación con la dirección de los campos magnéticos de origen galáctico, determinados en la polarización de estrellas de campo. Esto da consistencia a la hipótesis de que la orientación de las nebulosas planetarias ovaladas es inducida, al menos parcialmente, por el campo magnético general de la Vía Láctea.

  15. Contribution à l'analyse des inter-relations entre activités humaines et variabilité climatique : cas du Sud forestier ivoirien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Télésphore Brou; Servat, Eric; Paturel, Jean-Emmanuel

    1998-12-01

    The South Ivorian Forest has suffered a large rainfall deficit for 25 years. At the same time, it has been noticed that the movement of the coffee and cocoa production seems concomitant with that of the isohyets during recent decades. The variations in albedo and rainfall gradient seem to be linked to the significant changes to the forest cover. These could affect precipitation locally.

  16. O que bilíngues bimodais têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue?

    PubMed Central

    de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Lillo-Martin, Diane; Pichler, Deborah Chen

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar o que as pesquisas que estamos desenvolvendo com crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, adquirindo Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras) e Português e Língua de Sinais Americana (ASL) e Inglês (Lillo-Martin et al. 2010) têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue. Os dados deste estudo fazem parte de um banco de dados de interações espontâneas coletadas longitudinalmente, alternando contextos de aquisição da Libras e do português como língua alvo, no Brasil e dados coletados longitudinalmente. nos mesmos contextos, de crianças adquirindo ASL e inglês1. Além disso, há também dados do estudo experimental com testes aplicados nos dois pares de línguas que se agregam ao presente estudo. Uma visão geral dos estudos desenvolvidos sobre a aquisição bilíngue bimodal por crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, será apresentada e, então, serão expostos alguns aspectos linguísticos deste tipo de aquisição, considerando as discussões sobre aquisição bilíngue a partir da pesquisa realizada. PMID:24431480

  17. População nuclear e extranuclear em rádio-galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimann, D. I.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Quintana, H.; Alloin, D.; Hunstead, R.; Wisotzki, L.

    2003-08-01

    A natureza do contínuo UV/ótico em rádio-galáxias é muito importante para o seu entendimento. Em baixos redshifts existem evidências de que muitas delas são dominadas no ótico por luz de estrelas velhas, características de galáxias early-type e em altos redshifts a característica dominante é um excesso de luz no UV, freqüentemente associado com estruturas que estão alinhadas aos eixos das estruturas rádio em grande escala. Inicialmente esse excesso foi interpretado como devido a episódios intensos de formação estelar nas galáxias hospedeiras. Entretanto, as descobertas dos alinhamentos entre as estruturas UV e rádio modificaram essa idéia. Foi proposto que a formação estelar é iniciada pela passagem do jato rádio através do meio interestelar das galáxias hospedeiras. A natureza do excesso UV começou a ser compreendida em um estudo detalhado do continuo ótico da 3C321, onde se concluiu que o contínuo desta galáxia tem origem multicomponente, com contribuições de populações velhas e intermediárias, de luz espalhada oriunda de um quasar obscurecido e do contínuo nebular. No presente trabalho estudamos a população nuclear e extranuclear de uma amostra de 24 rádio-galáxias, utilizando espectros óticos de fenda longa, com alta razão sinal/ruído. Através do método de síntese espectral de populações estelares, foram estimadas as contribuições de populações estelares de diferentes idades (e de um contínuo tipo lei de potência devido a um AGN, FC) para a luz integrada das galáxias, em 4020Å. As principais conclusões deste trabalho são: apenas quatro dos objetos estudados têm contribuições significativas (maiores do que 10%) das populações de 100 milhões de anos ou mais jovens (ou de FC) ao longo da região espacial estudada (6 kpc centrais); nenhuma das rádio-galáxias de tipo FRI estudadas tem contribuição significativa destas populações ao longo desta região; duas (de oito) de tipo FRII tem contribui

  18. A fonte ionizante do disco de acreção no núcleo de NGC1097

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, R. N.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.

    2003-08-01

    Observações em raios-X revelam o "coração" dos núcleos ativos de galáxias, pois esse tipo de radiação provém das suas regiões mais internas, próximas ao buraco negro central. Neste trabalho apresentamos observações em raios-X da região central da galáxia NGC1097, que hospeda um buraco negro supermassivo e um disco de acreção cuja emissão vem sendo observada há dez anos através da linha de emissão Ha larga (10000 km/s) e de duplo pico. As observações em raios-X - que foram obtidas com o Telescópio Chandra - foram combinadas com observações no ultravioleta obtidas com o Telescópio Espacial Hubble e são usadas para estudar as características da fonte central que ioniza o disco de acreção. A distribuição espectral de energia é comparada com a predita por modelos, em particular o de uma estrutura "ADAF" ("advection dominated accretion flow") na parte interna do disco. Tal estrutura produz um espectro de emissão de linhas estreitas tipo LINER, como observado em NGC1097 e em rádio-galáxias que apresentam linhas de Balmer largas de duplo pico. Apresentamos também uma comparação entre outros LINERs com linhas de emissão largas de duplo pico, disponíveis na literatura ou nos arquivos do Chandra e do Telescópio Espacial Hubble e discutimos as correspondentes implicações para modelos da fonte central.

  19. 43 CFR 17.320 - General responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age Duties of Doi Recipients § 17.320 General responsibilities. Each DOI recipient has primary responsibility to ensure that... information, and to afford DOI access to its records to the extent DOI finds necessary to determine...

  20. 75 FR 55315 - National Fuel Marketing Company, LLC; NFM Midstream, LLC; NFM Texas Pipeline, LLC; NFM Texas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... Investigations (DOI) as non- decisional staff in deliberations by the Commission in this docket. By this order... of Enforcement, Larry Parkinson, Director, DOI, and Geof Hobday of DOI to the January 15, 2009 list of staff excepted from the DOI non-decisional staff designation. Kimberly D. Bose, Secretary....

  1. 30 CFR 220.033 - Audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operations shall be subject to audit by DOI or its appointed agent. Where possible, the auditor for DOI shall coordinate audit efforts with other nonoperators, if any. DOI shall have the right to initiate an audit any... notified. DOI may elect to send an auditor with the audit team specified by the nonoperators in lieu...

  2. 44 CFR 206.348 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... designated representative of the Department of the Interior (DOI) at the regional level before approving any.... (a) The consultation shall be by written memorandum to the DOI representative and shall contain the... understanding with DOI, the DOI representative will provide technical information and an opinion whether or...

  3. 43 CFR 17.332 - Mediation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., and Enforcement Procedures § 17.332 Mediation. (a) Referral of complaints for mediation. DOI will... it. The FMCS shall send the agreement to DOI. DOI, however, retains the right to monitor the... process without prior approval of the head of the mediation agency. (e) DOI will use the mediation...

  4. 75 FR 55315 - Seminole Energy Services, LLC; Seminole Gas Company, LLC; Seminole High Plains, LLC; Lakeshore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... Office of Enforcement's Division of Investigations (DOI) as non- decisional staff in deliberations by the... Commission also adds Norman Bay, Director, Office of Enforcement, Larry Parkinson, Director, DOI, and Geof Hobday of DOI to the January 15, 2009 list of staff excepted from the DOI non-decisional...

  5. 43 CFR 2.4 - How do I obtain information routinely available to the public?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information. (a) General. (1) General information about DOI or one of its bureaus may be obtained by visiting DOI's home page (see appendix B to this part for a list of Internet addresses) or by contacting the... list of DOI contacts). Many documents are made available to the public through DOI's reading...

  6. 43 CFR 17.331 - Complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or on behalf of others, may file a complaint with DOI, alleging discrimination prohibited by the Act... good cause shown, however, DOI may extend this time limit. (b) DOI will consider the date a complaint... described in paragraphs (a) and (c)(1) of this section. (c) DOI will attempt to facilitate the filing...

  7. 43 CFR 17.339 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DOI has made no finding with regard to the complaint; or (2) DOI issues any finding in favor of the recipient. (b) If DOI fails to make a finding within 180 days or issues a finding in favor of the recipient, DOI will: (1) Promptly advise the complainant of this fact; (2) Advise the complainant of his or...

  8. BSSDATA - um programa otimizado para filtragem de dados em radioastronomia solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinon, A. R. F.; Sawant, H. S.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Stephany, S.; Preto, A. J.; Dobrowolski, K. M.

    2003-08-01

    A partir de 1998, entrou em operação regular no INPE, em São José dos Campos, o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS). O BSS é dedicado às observações de explosões solares decimétricas com alta resolução temporal e espectral, com a principal finalidade de investigar fenômenos associados com a liberação de energia dos "flares" solares. Entre os anos de 1999 e 2002, foram catalogadas, aproximadamente 340 explosões solares classificadas em 8 tipos distintos, de acordo com suas características morfológicas. Na análise detalhada de cada tipo, ou grupo, de explosões solares deve-se considerar a variação do fluxo do sol calmo ("background"), em função da freqüência e a variação temporal, além da complexidade das explosões e estruturas finas registradas superpostas ao fundo variável. Com o intuito de realizar tal análise foi desenvolvido o programa BSSData. Este programa, desenvolvido em linguagem C++, é constituído de várias ferramentas que auxiliam no tratamento e análise dos dados registrados pelo BSS. Neste trabalho iremos abordar as ferramentas referentes à filtragem do ruído de fundo. As rotinas do BSSData para filtragem de ruído foram testadas nos diversos grupos de explosões solares ("dots", "fibra", "lace", "patch", "spikes", "tipo III" e "zebra") alcançando um bom resultado na diminuição do ruído de fundo e obtendo, em conseqüência, dados onde o sinal torna-se mais homogêneo ressaltando as áreas onde existem explosões solares e tornando mais precisas as determinações dos parâmetros observacionais de cada explosão. Estes resultados serão apresentados e discutidos.

  9. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Daponte Codina, A; Bolivar Muñoz, J; Sánchez-Cantalejo, E; Mateo-Rodríguez, I; Babio, G; Romo-Avilés, N; Rosell-Ortiz, F; Grupo de Estudio de Género Y Enfermedades Cardiovasculares, G

    2016-01-01

     RESUMEN              Fundamento. Identificar factores asociados a la demora prehospitalaria en personas que han tenido un síndrome coronario agudo             Método. Se estudiaron mediante encuesta pacientes ingresados por síndrome coronario agudo en los 33 hospitales públicos andaluces, obteniéndose información sobre diferentes tipos de variables: socio-demográficas, contextuales, clínicas, percepción, actuaciones, y transporte. Se aplicaron modelos de regresión logística multivariante para calcular las odds ratio para la demora.             Resultados. De los 1.416 pacientes en total, más de la mitad tuvieron una demora superior a la hora. Se asocia a la distancia al hospital y al medio de transporte: cuando el evento ocurre en la misma ciudad del hospital, utilizar medios propios aumenta la demora, odds ratio= 1,51 (1,02-2,23);  si la distancia es entre 1-25 kilómetros, no hay una diferencia entre medios propios y ambulancia, odds ratio = 1,41 y odds ratio = 1,43 respectivamente; y cuando supera los25 kilómetros la ambulancia implica mayor demora, odds ratio = 3,13 y odds ratio = 2,20 respectivamente. Además, la sintomatología típica reduce la demora entre los hombres, pero la aumenta entre las mujeres. Asimismo, no darle importancia, esperar a la resolución de los síntomas, buscar atención sanitaria diferente a urgencias hospitalarias o al 061, tener antecedentes, encontrarse fuera de la vivienda habitual, y tener ingresos menores de 1.500 euros aumentan la demora. Tener síntomas respiratorios la reduce.             Conclusiones. La demora prehospitalaria no se ajusta a las recomendaciones sanitarias, asociándose al  entorno físico y social, a factores clínicos, y de percepción y actitudinales de los sujetos.              Palabras clave. Síndrome coronario agudo. Demora prehospitalaria. Género. Servicios de emergencias sanitarias. Desigualdades. PMID:27125609

  10. Espectroscopia de candidatos a remanescentes de aglomerados abertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavani, D. B.; Bica, E.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.

    2003-08-01

    A pesquisa sobre remanescentes de aglomerados abertos tem despertado grande interesse. Seguindo esta tendência encontramos estudos teóricos e observacionais. Os primeiros baseiam-se em simulações numéricas buscando determinar fração de binárias e distâncias galatocêntricas, tempo de vida e conteúdo estelar. Estes estão relacionados à função inicial de massa e densidade de estrelas, ou seja, se ricos ou pobremente povoados, compactos ou esparsos. No caso observacional procuram-se identificar os remanescentes considerando-se que trazem estas assinaturas de seus percursores. No presente estudo empregamos espectroscopia para analisar oito concentrações pobremente povoadas, previamente classificadas como aglomerados abertos, sendo sete compactas e uma esparsa. As observações foram obtidas através do telescópio de 2,15 m do CASLEO em San Juan, Argentina, em turnos entre 2001 e 2003. Utilizamos uma câmara CCD contendo um chip Tektronics de 1024X1024 pixeis aliado a um espectrógrafo REOSC. O domínio espectral vai de 3700 a 7000 Å. As reduções foram realizadas no Observatório Astronômico de Córdoba (Argentina) usando pacotes IRAF padrões. Determinamos idades, avermelhamentos e tipos espectrais através de comparações com biblioteca de estrelas e de aglomerados. Em alguns casos nossos espectros estavam dominados por estrelas individuais às quais determinamos seus tipos espectrais. Aos oito objetos adicionamos mais cinco da literatura recente analisados via espectro ou diagrama cor-magnitude. O histograma resultante contém idades típicas entre 0.5 e 3 Ganos. Considerando que predominantemente estes objetos encontram-se na vizinhança solar e, portanto, não cruzaram muitas vezes o plano Galático esperamos que a diferença no tempo necessário para dissolução destes prováveis remanescentes seja em função de diferentes massas iniciais.

  11. Identificação de variáveis cataclísmicas eruptivas na direção do bojo galáctico e Nuvens de Magalhães usando dados do OGLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieslinski, D.; Diaz, M. P.; Mennickent, R.; Pietrzyski, G.

    2003-08-01

    Na década de 90 iniciaram-se vários programas para a pesquisa de matéria escura na Galáxia usando o efeito de microlentes gravitacionais. Entre os projetos mais bem conhecidos podemos mencionar o OGLE (Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment) e o MACHO (MAssive Compact Halo Objects). A estratégia usada por eles consiste em fazer fotometria de banda larga (normalmente B, R e I) de um grande número de estrelas (dezenas de milhões) tão freqüentemente quanto possí vel e por longos perí odos de tempo (anos). Uma tal sistemática de observação, além de descobrir inúmeras lentes gravitacionais, é também muito apropriada para a descoberta de estrelas variáveis. De fato, inúmeras novas variáveis de vários tipos foram descobertas como subproduto. Exemplos podem ser encontrados nos endereços http://bulge.princeton.edu/~ogle/ e http://wwwmacho.mcmaster.ca/. As variáveis cataclí smicas eruptivas (novas clássicas, novas recorrentes e novas anãs) são objetos que apresentam variabilidade de grande amplitude com escalas de tempo de dias a centenas de dias e, por esta razão, devem ter sido detectadas em grande número nestes "surveys". Para testar esta possibilidade nós procuramos nos dados do OGLE por tais sistemas e o presente trabalho mostra os resultados desta pesquisa. Os objetos foram selecionados entre as variáveis detectadas usando a amplitude de variação de brilho como critério principal. Este critério forneceu 13756 objetos, sendo 2169 na direção da Grande Nuvem de Magalhães, 1162 na direção da Pequena Nuvem de Magalhães e o restante na direção do Bojo Galáctico. A análise foi feita inspecionando-se visualmente cada curva de luz por erupções com as características acima mencionadas. Os resultados obtidos podem ser sumarizados como: descoberta de duas novas clássicas e 33 novas anãs. Além disso, pode-se mencionar a identificação de candidatas a outros tipos de variáveis como: estrelas simbióticas, RV Tauri, R Coronae

  12. Reliability beyond Theory and into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sijtsma, Klaas

    2009-01-01

    The critical reactions of Bentler (2009, doi: 10.1007/s11336-008-9100-1), Green and Yang (2009a, doi: 10.1007/s11336-008-9098-4 ; 2009b, doi: 10.1007/s11336-008-9099-3), and Revelle and Zinbarg (2009, doi: 10.1007/s11336-008-9102-z) to Sijtsma's (2009, doi: 10.1007/s11336-008-9101-0) paper on Cronbach's alpha are addressed. The dissemination of…

  13. Assessment of biocompatibility of 3D printed photopolymers using zebrafish embryo toxicity assays† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supporting Fig. S1–2 and Table T1. See DOI: 10.1039/c5lc01374g Click here for additional data file. ‡ ‡We would also want to draw the attention of the reader to the availability of the dataset associated with this paper, available here (http://dx.doi.org/10.5525/gla.researchdata.238).

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, N. P.; Zhu, F.; Hall, C. J.; Reboud, J.; Crosier, P. S.; Patton, E. E.; Wlodkowic, D.

    2016-01-01

    3D printing has emerged as a rapid and cost-efficient manufacturing technique to enable the fabrication of bespoke, complex prototypes. If the technology is to have a significant impact in biomedical applications, such as drug discovery and molecular diagnostics, the devices produced must be biologically compatible to enable their use with established reference assays and protocols. In this work we demonstrate that we can adapt the Fish Embryo Test (FET) as a new method to quantify the toxicity of 3D printed microfluidic devices. We assessed the biocompatibility of four commercially available 3D printing polymers (VisiJetCrystal EX200, Watershed 11122XC, Fototec SLA 7150 Clear and ABSplus P-430), through the observation of key developmental markers in the developing zebrafish embryos. Results show all of the photopolymers to be highly toxic to the embryos, resulting in fatality, although we do demonstrate that post-printing treatment of Fototec 7150 makes it suitable for zebrafish culture within the FET. PMID:26646354

  14. Peptide:glycosaminoglycan hybrid hydrogels as an injectable intervention for spinal disc degeneration† †The data associated with this paper are openly available from the University of Leeds data repository, http://doi.org/10.5518/47 ‡ ‡Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Full experimental methods, additional self-assembly and gelation data, additional FTIR spectra and TEM images, rheometry frequency sweep plots and peptide purity and content information. See DOI: 10.1039/c6tb00121a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Miles, D. E.; Mitchell, E. A.; Kapur, N.

    2016-01-01

    Degeneration of the spinal discs is a major cause of back pain. During the degeneration process, there is a loss of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) from the proteoglycan-rich gel in the disc's nucleus, which adversely alters biomechanical performance. Current surgical treatments for back pain are highly invasive and have low success rates; there is an urgent need for minimally-invasive approaches that restore the physiological mechanics of the spine. Here we present an injectable peptide:GAG hydrogel that rapidly self-assembles in situ and restores the mechanics of denucleated intervertebral discs. It forms a gel with comparable mechanical properties to the native tissue within seconds to minutes depending on the peptide chosen. Unlike other biomaterials that have been proposed for this purpose, these hybrid hydrogels can be injected through a very narrow 25 G gauge needle, minimising damage to the surrounding soft tissue, and they mimic the ability of the natural tissue to draw in water by incorporating GAGs. Furthermore, the GAGs enhance the gelation kinetics and thermodynamic stability of peptide hydrogels, significantly reducing effusion of injected material from the intervertebral disc (GAG leakage of 8 ± 3% after 24 h when peptide present, compared to 39 ± 3% when no peptide present). In an ex vivo model, we demonstrate that the hydrogels can restore the compressive stiffness of denucleated bovine intervertebral discs. Compellingly, this novel biomaterial has the potential to transform the clinical treatment of back pain by resolving current surgical challenges, thus improving patient quality of life. PMID:27429755

  15. Fotometria diferencial de estrelas T Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P. C. R.; Santos-Júnior, J. M.; Cruz, W. S.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados preliminares de um monitoramento de estrelas jovens, que pretende ser de longa duração. As estrelas estão em sua maioria localizadas no complexo Lupus-Scorpius. Nosso objetivo principal é o estudo da variabilidade em escalas de tempo de minutos até vários dias para estrelas cujos períodos não estão determinados ou apresentam discrepâncias entre diferentes publicações. A técnica utilizada foi a fotometria diferencial, com exposições de 60s e 90s, com as câmaras CCD SBIG ST7E e ST8E acopladas aos telescópios Schmidt-Cassegrain LX200 (10 e 12 polegadas), instalados na Fundação Planetário da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Os primeiros resultados indicam que a técnica é bastante sólida com relação à instabilidade na transparência do céu, mesmo com o uso de telescópios de pequeno porte. Objetos de magnitude 14, no telescópio de 10 polegadas, apresentam dispersões na diferença de magnitudes das comparações, em torno de 0,008mag nas exposições de 60s. Note-se, ainda, que a dispersão pode ser melhorada utilizando-se a técnica de soma de imagens. Destacamos AK Sco, GW Lup, GQ Lup e TW Hya. AK Sco é uma binária que, apesar de ter a sua órbita e período cobertos espectroscopicamente (13,6dias), nunca teve seus eclipses estudados por meio de fotometria. GW Lup não tem período determinado na literatura. Temos acompanhado este objeto há alguns anos, e sugestões de períodos entre 5 e 6 dias têm sido encontradas. O objeto que mereceu maior atenção foi TW Hya por apresentar vários trabalhos fotométricos e espectroscópicos com resultados discrepantes quanto ao período rotacional, que varia de 1,8 a 4,4 dias (Rucinsky & Krautter 1983, A&A 121, 217; Herbst & Koret 1988, AJ 96, 1949; Mekkaden 1988, A&A 340, 135; Batalha et al. 2002, ApJ 580, 343). Dedicamos 13 noites para essa estrela, totalizando cerca de 2.000 pontos na curva de luz. Nossos dados indicam a presença de uma modulação com dois

  16. Spatially explicit estimates of stock size, structure and biomass of North Atlantic albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehodey, P.; Senina, I.; Dragon, A.-C.; Arrizabalaga, H.

    2014-09-01

    The development of the ecosystem approach and models for the management of ocean marine resources requires easy access to standard validated data sets of historical catch data for the main exploited species. They are used to measure the impact of biomass removal by fisheries and to evaluate the models outputs, while the use of a standard data set facilitates models inter-comparison. Unlike standard stock assessment models, new state-of-the-art ecosystem models require geo-referenced fishing data with the highest possible spatial resolution. This study presents an application to the North Atlantic albacore tuna stock with a careful definition and validation of a spatially explicit fishing data set prepared from publicly available sources (ICCAT) for its use in a spatial ecosystem and population dynamics model (SEAPODYM) to provide the first spatially explicit estimate of albacore density in the North Atlantic by life stage. Density distributions together with the fishing data used for the estimates are provided at doi.pangaea.de/">http://doi.pangaea.de/ (see section Source Data References) (doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828115">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828115; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828226">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828226; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828227">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828227; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828228">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828228; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828229">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828229; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828230">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828230; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828231">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828231; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828232">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828232; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828232">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828232; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.828233">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.828233; doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA

  17. Variabilidade óptica de longo período e precessão de jato: o caso de BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caproni, A.; Abraham, Z.

    2003-08-01

    Variabilidade é tipicamente uma característica de AGNs, sendo observada em toda a faixa eletromagnética. Em relação às escalas de tempo, variações desde horas até de algumas décadas foram encontradas por vários autores. Em alguns casos, análises temporais de curvas de luz mostram a existência de periodicidade nas variações observadas. Um exemplo de objeto que preenche as características mencionadas acima é BL Lacertae, o protótipo da classe BL Lac dos AGNs. Neste trabalho, nós interpretamos a variabilidade periódica de longo período detectada na curva de luz na banda B (~7,5 anos) como o resultado da periodicidade na amplificação da radiação oriunda do jato relativístico. Neste cenário, a amplificação periódica seria induzida pela precessão, que muda o ângulo entre o jato e a linha de visada. Com esta abordagem e vínculos adicionais fornecidos por observações em altas energias, nós podemos impor limites para os parâmetros do modelo de precessão, tais como o fator de Lorentz associado ao movimento global do jato, o ângulo de abertura do cone de precessão e o ângulo entre o eixo do cone e a linha de visada.

  18. Descoberta de um aglomerado estelar massivo associado a fonte IRAS 16177-5018

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman Lopes, A.; Abraham, Z.; Lépine, J. R. D.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos a descoberta de um aglomerado de estrelas jovens e massivas embebido em uma região HII extensa associado com a fonte IRAS 16177-5018, que se apresenta invisível na faixa óptica do espectro eletromagnético, onde a extinção é da ordem de AV = 26 magnitudes. As observações foram feitas com a camera infravermelha (CamIV) do Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brasil, equipada com um detector Hawaii de HgCdTe de 1024´1024 pixel acoplada ao telescópio de 60 cm Boller & Chivens do IAG. A fotometria obtida a partir das imagens nas bandas J, H e K (filtro estreito) mostrou a presença de fontes com excesso de emissão no infravermelho em 2.2 mm, concentradas em uma área de aproximadamente um minuto de arco quadrado em torno da nebulosa na qual esta embebido o objeto identificado como a fonte IRAS. A fonte IRAS apresenta um índice espectral (entre 2.2 21.3 mm) a = d log(l Fl) / d log l = 4.78, característico de um objeto extremamente jovem com luminosidade bolométrica (obtida da integral da densidade de fluxo entre o infravermelho próximo (1.25mm) e o infravermelho distante (100mm)) de 2.8´105L¤, o qual corresponde a uma estrela da sequência principal de idade zero de cerca de 42 M¤. A partir do diagrama cor-magnitude foi possível classificar a maioria dos membros do aglomerado como estrelas massivas mais luminosas que tipo espectral B5.

  19. Determinação da composição química em nebulosas planetárias na direção do anticentro galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, R. D. D.; Uchida, M. M. M.; Maciel, W. J.

    2003-08-01

    Existe um gradiente radial de abundâncias no disco galáctico, cujo comportamento é razoavelmente bem conhecido para distâncias galactocêntricas entre 3 e 10 kpc. Foi obtido a partir de resultados derivados de nebulosas planetárias, regiões HII e estrelas, como as estrelas quentes de tipo O, B e aglomerados abertos. Com o objetivo de investigar o comportamento deste gradiente radial na região externa do disco, conhecida como anticentro galáctico, reportamos aqui os resultados finais da análise de uma amostra de nebulosas planetárias na direção do anticentro, observadas no LNA e no ESO entre 1995 e 2000. O uso de nebulosas planetárias permite o cálculo das abundâncias de elementos traçadores da evolução química do disco como oxigênio, argônio e neônio com o uso de técnicas de espectroscopia nebular. Os resultados indicam uma distribuição de abundâncias distinta daquela encontrada na vizinhança solar, mostrando que o gradiente radial diminui sensivelmente para distâncias galactocêntricas maiores que 10 kpc. Este resultado está de acordo com os mais recentes modelos de evolução química do disco, que prevêem uma diminuição ou mesmo um desaparecimento do gradiente radial no bordo externo do disco galáctico. (FAPESP/CNPq)

  20. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    San Mauro Martin, Ismael; Mendive Dubourdieu, Paula; Paredes Barato, Víctor; Garicano Vilar, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la tradición de la comida picante desempeña un papel muy importante en el gusto por este tipo de comida y su tolerancia. Las preferencias alimentarias muestran influencia genética y ambiental.Objetivos: estudiar la tolerancia y el gusto por el picante de tres poblaciones, y la influencia hereditaria y del ambiente.Métodos:se realizó una encuesta a 522 sujetos, de tres continentes (Asia, Europa y Latinoamérica) en tres idiomas (español, inglés y chino) a través de Internet. Se realizaron preguntas acerca de la tolerancia al picante, el gusto por los alimentos picantes, su uso, la edad de comienzo de consumo, el gusto del padre y de la madre y si ella lo consumía durante el embarazo y/o lactancia.Resultados: existe diferencia entre el gusto por el picante del hijo y el sexo (p < 0,001), la tolerancia (p < 0,001) y, solo en el sexo femenino, el gusto de la madre por el picante (p < 0,001), su consumo durante el embarazo (p < 0,001) y la lactancia (p = 0,005) y el gusto del padre por el picante (p = 0,003). Existe correlación entre el continente de residencia (p = 0,007) y de nacimiento (p = 0,012) y la tolerancia a los alimentos picantes.Conclusión: la influencia de los progenitores, el género y la composición corporal se relacionaron con gustos y tolerancias diferentes. PMID:27571668

  1. Comparing Teaching Styles and Personality Types of EFL Instructors in the Public and Private Sectors (Una comparación de los estilos de enseñanza y los tipos de personalidad de profesores de inglés de los sistemas educativos estatal y privado)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz Larenas, Claudio H.; Rodriguez Moran, Andrea Victoria; Poblete Rivera, Karen Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    This is an exploratory non-experimental research study whose main objective is to compare the teaching styles of a group of thirty teachers of English working in either public or private secondary education in Chile. In order to collect the required data, two instruments were administered to the participants: a teaching style inventory and a…

  2. Memória fonológica em crianças bilíngues bimodais e crianças com implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Cruz, Carina Rebello; Pizzio, Aline Lemos

    2014-01-01

    RESUMO Este estudo comparou o desempenho de crianças bilíngues bimodais ouvintes (filhas de pais surdos) e crianças surdas usuárias de implante coclear (filhas de pais surdos e de pais ouvintes), com diferentes contextos de acesso à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), em tarefas que envolvem memória fonologica. Os testes utilizados foram: Teste de Pseudopalavras (Santos e Bueno, 2003) e Teste de Pseudosinais (desenvolvido pelos pesquisadores responsáveis pelo Projeto ‘Desenvolvimento Bilíngue Bimoda’). Além disso, foram incluídos dois grupos de controle, formados por crianças surdas (usuarias de Libras), e adultos bilíngues bimodais ouvintes. Na análise dos resultados, em relação ao desempenho entre os dois grupos testados foi constatado que o grupo de crianças bilíngues bimodais ouvintes apresentou desempenho superior, nos dois testes. No entanto, ao ser analisado o desempenho da criança surda usuaria de implante coclear, filha de pais surdos, que possui acesso irrestrito à Libras e comparado com o das crianças surdas usuárias de implante coclear, que possuem acesso restrito à Libras, foi constatado que o seu desempenho foi semelhante ao do grupo de crianças bilíngues bimodais ouvintes. As crianças surdas usuárias de implante coclear com acesso restrito à Libras e, portanto, com acesso maior ao Português apresentaram escores mais baixos nas tarefas, principalmente do teste em Português. Os resultados sugerem que as crianças surdas usuárias de implante coclear em processo de aquisição da línguagem podem se beneficiar com o acesso irrestrito à Libras, atingindo inclusive desempenho semelhante a de crianças bilíngues bimodais ouvintes. PMID:25110473

  3. Vínculos observacionais para o processo-S em estrelas gigantes de Bário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiljanic, R. H. S.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; da Silva, L.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas de bário são gigantes vermelhas de tipo GK que apresentam excessos atmosféricos dos elementos do processo-s. Tais excessos são esperados em estrelas na fase de pulsos térmicos do AGB (TP-AGB). As estrelas de bário são, no entanto, menos massivas e menos luminosas que as estrelas do AGB, assim, não poderiam ter se auto-enriquecido. Seu enriquecimento teria origem em uma estrela companheira, inicialmente mais massiva, que evolui pelo TP-AGB, se auto-enriquece com os elementos do processo-s e transfere material contaminado para a atmosfera da atual estrela de bário. A companheira evolui então para anã branca deixando de ser observada diretamente. As estrelas de bário são, portanto, úteis como testes observacionais para teorias de nucleossíntese pelo processo-s, convecção e perda de massa. Análises detalhadas de abundância com dados de alta qualidade para estes objetos são ainda escassas na literatura. Neste trabalho construímos modelos de atmosferas e, procedendo a uma análise diferencial, determinamos parâmetros atmosféricos e evolutivos de uma amostra de dez gigantes de bário e quatro normais. Determinamos seus padrões de abundância para Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu e Gd, concluindo que algumas estrelas classificadas na literatura como gigantes de bário são na verdade gigantes normais. Comparamos dois padrões médios de abundância, para estrelas com grandes excessos e estrelas com excessos moderados, com modelos teóricos de enriquecimento pelo processo-s. Os dois grupos de estrelas são ajustados pelos mesmos parâmetros de exposição de nêutrons. Tal resultado sugere que a ocorrência do fenômeno de bário com diferentes intensidades não se deve a diferentes exposições de nêutrons. Discutimos ainda efeitos nucleossintéticos, ligados ao processo-s, sugeridos na literatura para os elementos Cu, Mn, V e Sc.

  4. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Ritchey-Chretien UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Galan, M. J.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2 fue inaugurado hace siete años y concebido para trabajar en las razones focales: f/7.5, F/13.5, F/27 y F/98. El diseño Ritchey-Chretién corresponde a la razón focal F/7.5 y el foco primario (F/2.286) no se consideró como utilizable para fotografía directa. En el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, se diseñó y construyó un sistema corrector de campo para la razón focal F/7.5, que actualmente está en funcionamiento. Dentro de un programa de colaboración en diseflo y evaluación de sistemas ópticos, entre el Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias y el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, decidimos intentar el diseño de una correctora de campo para el foco primario del tȩlescopio UNAM212 bajo la consideración de que no son insalvables los problemas que implicaría su instalación y de que es muy posible que, en un futuro relativamente cercano, podamom tener un detector bidimenmional tipo Mepsicrón cuya área sensible haga tentadora la idea de construir la cámara directa para foco primario

  5. PubMed

    Alarcón, Cristian; Bourgois, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Salud Colectiva convocó a un diálogo entre Philippe Bourgois y Cristian Alarcón. El antropólogo y el cronista ofrecen aquí una excursión al backstage de dos libros innovadores, polémicos y desafiantes. En busca de respeto, de Bourgois, recientemente publicado en español, construye un relato sobre la trama cotidiana de los vendedores de crack en Harlem, Nueva York. Si me querés, quereme transa, de Alarcón, ingresa en el universo de los traficantes de cocaína y "pasta base" en Buenos Aires. En ambos, vemos la forma en que tanto la investigación periodística como la etnográfica devienen un proceso de aprendizaje, totalmente despojado de la sober-bia del descubridor en territorios extraños. Alarcón y Bourgois tuvieron que transformarse ellos mismos, aprender un habitus que les era completamente ajeno, para poder construir relaciones afectivas con traficantes ("transas" y puertorriqueños vendedores de crack). Esos afectos aparecen posicionados como condición de posibilidad del tipo de investigación cualitativa que ellos defienden. PMID:21776248

  6. Narrating the narco world: a dialogue with Cristian Alarcón and Philippe Bourgois

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, Cristian; Bourgois, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Salud Colectiva convocó a un diálogo entre Philippe Bourgois y Cristian Alarcón. El antropólogo y el cronista ofrecen aquí una excursión al backstage de dos libros innovadores, polémicos y desafiantes. En busca de respeto, de Bourgois, recientemente publicado en español, construye un relato sobre la trama cotidiana de los vendedores de crack en Harlem, Nueva York. Si me querés, quereme transa, de Alarcón, ingresa en el universo de los traficantes de cocaína y “pasta base” en Buenos Aires. En ambos, vemos la forma en que tanto la investigación periodística como la etnográfica devienen un proceso de aprendizaje, totalmente despojado de la sober-bia del descubridor en territorios extraños. Alarcón y Bourgois tuvieron que transformarse ellos mismos, aprender un habitus que les era completamente ajeno, para poder construir relaciones afectivas con traficantes (“transas” y puertorriqueños vendedores de crack). Esos afectos aparecen posicionados como condición de posibilidad del tipo de investigación cualitativa que ellos defienden. PMID:21776248

  7. Evolución de planetas gigantes y posibilidades de su detección directa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Desde la reciente detección de planetas gigantes orbitando estrellas cercanas de tipo solar por medio de efecto Doppler, uno de los principales problemas, en cuanto al estudio de los sistemas planetarios extrasolares, se refiere a la posibilidad de obtener evidencia directa de su existencia. Esto parece ser factible gracias a que en un futuro cercano entrarán en operación algunos telescopios especialmente adecuados a estos propósitos. Por tal motivo, hemos comenzado desde hace un tiempo un esfuerzo en cuanto al estudio de la evolución planetaria. A tales efectos hemos adaptado el código de evolución estelar de nuestro Observatorio al caso planetario. Las principales diferencias entre el caso estelar y el planetario se encuentran en la ecuación de estado. A tales fines hemos incluído la reciente ecuación de estado de Saumon, Chabrier y Van Horn, las opacidades radiativas de Guillot et al., procesos de quema de Deuterio, etc. También se ha considerado la posible existencia de fases de hielo y roca en el interior planetario. Por el momento hemos despreciado los efectos de la rotación planetaria. Con este código hemos computado la evolución de planetas con masas desde 10 hasta 0.3 masas de Júpiter. Utilizando nuestros resultados numéricos discutimos la detectabilidad de estos objetos en condiciones realistas.

  8. A correlação índice espectral vs. luminosidade em QSOs e suas implicações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Rissmann, A.

    2003-08-01

    Estudos de variabilidade de núcleos ativos já demonstraram ser comum o fato de seu contínuo óptico/UV tornar-se mais "duro" à medida que a luminosidade aumenta. Essa tendência ocorre tanto de forma individual quanto global, e pode ter implicações importantes (1) para estudos fotométricos de variabilidade conduzidos numa banda fixa no referencial do observador, comparando objetos a diferentes redshifts, e (2) no cálculo da correção K, com consequente impacto na determinação de massas de buracos negros e bojos de galáxias hospedeiras (através da relação de Magorrian). Confirmo aqui as correlações positivas entre o índice espectral e a luminosidade óptica, utilizando dados espectroscópicos de 11 QSOs monitorados no Brasil e no Chile, durante ~2 anos. O estudo é complementado com parâmetros extraídos de espectros e de dados fotométricos públicos de quasares. Destaco ainda as diferenças observadas em tais correlações para objetos do tipo radio-loud e radio-quiet. Este projeto é financiado pelo I. Milênio/CNPq.

  9. Alejarse como proceso social: niños y ancianos «abandonados» en Ayacucho1

    PubMed Central

    Leinaweaver, Jessaca

    2013-01-01

    En investigaciones previas sobre el acogimiento familiar y la adopción en Ayacucho, se ha podido descubrir cómo los ayacuchanos adquieren y producen relaciones sociales. Mientras negocian creativamente los discursos y espacios construidos simultáneamente por instituciones, comunidades, y estructuras sociales, van adquiriendo nuevas formas de relacionarse. Este artículo discute el proceso opuesto: el deshacerse de relaciones de parentesco, y el proceso social del abandono o alejamiento. Cuando se aleja a una persona de su familia o su comunidad, los que se quedan en ella llegan a entenderse como ciertos tipos de personas. En los estudios de caso discutidos aquí, recopilados a través de una detallada y cuidadosa observación participante y de entrevistas etnográficas grabadas entre 2001 y 2007, se puede ver cómo, después de un alejamiento social, los individuos que alejan se reinterpretan como sujetos que se encuentran superándose o volviéndose modernos, o bien sacrificándose. PMID:25177044

  10. Astronomía en la cultura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, A.; Giménez Benitez, S.; Fernández, L.

    La Astronomía en la Cultura es el estudio interdisciplinario a nivel global de la astronomía prehistórica, antigua y tradicional, en el marco de su contexto cultural. Esta disciplina abarca cualquier tipo de estudios o líneas de investigación en que se relacione a la astronomía con las ciencias humanas o sociales. En ella se incluyen tanto fuentes escritas, relatos orales como fuentes arqueológicas, abarcando entre otros, los siguientes temas: calendarios, observación práctica, cultos y mitos, representación simbólica de eventos, conceptos y objetos astronómicos, orientación astronómica de tumbas, templos, santuarios y centros urbanos, cosmología tradicional y la aplicación ceremonial de tradiciones astronómicas, la propia historia de la astronomía y la etnoastronomía (Krupp, 1989) (Iwaniszewski, 1994). En nuestro trabajo abordamos la historia y situación actual de esta disciplina, sus métodos y sus relaciones con otras áreas de investigación.

  11. The crystalline sponge method: MOF terminal ligand effects† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental and crystallographic procedures, and data tables. CCDC 1063685 and 1063686. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c5cc03840e Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Ramadhar, Timothy R.; Zheng, Shao-Liang; Chen, Yu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Bromide and chloride analogs of the commonly used zinc iodide-based metal organic framework for the crystalline sponge method were synthesized and evaluated. Inclusion of (1R)-(–)-menthyl acetate into these MOFs was analysed using third-generation synchrotron radiation, and the effects and potential benefits of varying the MOF terminal ligand are discussed. PMID:26081991

  12. Discovery of high affinity inhibitors of Leishmania donovani N-myristoyltransferase† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. The coordinates and structure factor files have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank under the accession codes 5A27 and 5A28. See DOI: 10.1039/c5md00241a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Rackham, Mark D.; Yu, Zhiyong; Brannigan, James A.; Heal, William P.; Paape, Daniel; Barker, K. Victoria; Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Smith, Deborah F.; Leatherbarrow, Robin J.

    2015-01-01

    N-Myristoyltransferase (NMT) is a potential drug target in Leishmania parasites. Scaffold-hopping from published inhibitors yielded the serendipitous discovery of a chemotype selective for Leishmania donovani NMT; development led to high affinity inhibitors with excellent ligand efficiency. The binding mode was characterised by crystallography and provides a structural rationale for selectivity. PMID:26962429

  13. Catalytic arylsulfonyl radical-triggered 1,5-enyne-bicyclizations and hydrosulfonylation of α,β-conjugates† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. CCDC 1406678 (3f). For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic formats see DOI: 10.1039/c5sc02343b Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhen-Zhen; Liu, Shuai; Hao, Wen-Juan; Xu, Ge; Wu, Shuo; Miao, Jiao-Na; Wang, Shu-Liang

    2015-01-01

    A catalytic bicyclization reaction of 1,5-enynes anchored by α,β-conjugates with arylsulfonyl radicals generated in situ from sulfonyl hydrazides has been established using TBAI (20 mol%) and Cu(OAc)2 (5 mol%) as co-catalysts under convenient conditions. In addition, the use of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as the oxidant and pivalic acid (PivOH) as an additive was proven to be necessary for this reaction. The reactions occurred through 5-exo-dig/6-endo-trig bicyclizations and homolytic aromatic substitution (HAS) cascade mechanisms to give benzo[b]fluorens regioselectively. A similar catalytic process was developed for the synthesis of γ-ketosulfones. These reactions feature readily accessible starting materials and simple one-pot operation. PMID:26568814

  14. Flexibility transition and guest-driven reconstruction in a ferroelastic metal–organic framework† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Atomic coordinates and lattice parameter data. CCDC 1016797. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c4ce01572j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Sarah J.; Cliffe, Matthew J.; Hill, Joshua A.; Cairns, Andrew B.; Funnell, Nicholas P.

    2015-01-01

    The metal–organic framework copper(i) tricyanomethanide, Cu(tcm), undergoes a ferroelastic transition on cooling below T f = 240 K. Thermal expansion measurements reveal an order-of-magnitude variation in framework flexibility across T f. The low-temperature phase α-Cu(tcm) exhibits colossal positive and negative thermal expansion that is the strongest ever reported for a framework material. On exposure to acetonitrile, Cu(tcm) undergoes a reconstructive solid-phase transition to acetonitrilocopper(i) tricyanomethanide. This transition can be reversed by heating under vacuum. Infrared spectroscopy measurements are sensitive to the phase change, suggesting that Cu(tcm) may find application in solid-phase acetonitrile sensing. PMID:25632268

  15. Surface roughness-induced speed increase for active Janus micromotors† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc01607j Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Udit; Soler, Lluís; Gibbs, John G.; Fischer, Peer

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple physical fabrication method to control surface roughness of Janus micromotors and fabricate self-propelled active Janus microparticles with rough catalytic platinum surfaces that show a four-fold increase in their propulsion speed compared to conventional Janus particles coated with a smooth Pt layer. PMID:25905919

  16. Comment on E.F. Torrey and R.H. Yolken: “Psychiatric Genocide: Nazi Attempts to Eradicate Schizophrenia” (Schizophr Bull. 2010;36/1:26–32) and R.D. Strous: “Psychiatric Genocide: Reflections and Responsibilities” (Schizophr Bull. Advance Access Publication on February 4, 2010; doi:10.1093/schbul/sbq003)

    PubMed Central

    Haefner, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Torrey and Yolken wonder whether the killing of mentally ill persons in Nazi Germany reduced the risk for schizophrenia in the following generation. Epidemiological data from Germany do not permit reliable comparisons. Torrey and Yolken point out that horrible crime is still only little known. Strous and several contributors on the Schizophrenia Research Forum confirm that view. The history of ideas shows that social Darwinism in the educated classes and the doctrine of degeneration in psychiatry widely influenced thinking prior to World War II. Psychiatrists, lacking effective treatment for steadily growing numbers of the mentally ill, were susceptible to these ideologies. In a first step, several countries introduced compulsory sterilization as a genetic means of preventing diseases believed to be hereditary. Hitler's megalomaniac idea of creating a new human species by steering human evolution through the elimination of “unfit” genes in the mentally ill and inferior races led to the breach of human rights. His euthanasia program—the biggest crime ever perpetrated on the sick—turned out to usher in the gas chambers of the Holocaust. PMID:20421336

  17. Selective syntheses of leuconolam, leuconoxine, and mersicarpine alkaloids from a common intermediate through regiocontrolled cyclizations by Staudinger reactions† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and procedures, compound characterization data, copies of 1H and 13C NMR spectra for new compounds. See DOI: 10.1039/c4qo00312h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zining; Geng, Qian; Lv, Zhe; Pritchett, Beau P.; Baba, Katsuaki; Numajiri, Yoshitaka

    2015-01-01

    Selective syntheses of leuconolam, leuconoxine, and mersicarpine alkaloids bearing distinctive core structures were achieved through Staudinger reactions using a common intermediate. In the key cyclization step, water functioned like a switch to control which core structure to produce. The chemistry allowed for selective syntheses of the group of alkaloids from a simple intermediate through straightforward chemical operations. PMID:25717379

  18. Layered gadolinium hydroxides for low-temperature magnetic cooling† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, PXRD analysis, SEM experiments, and isothermal magnetization curves. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc05150a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Abellán, Gonzalo; Espallargas, Guillermo Mínguez; Lorusso, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Layered gadolinium hydroxides have revealed to be excellent candidates for cryogenic magnetic refrigeration. These materials behave as pure 2D magnetic systems with a Heisenberg–Ising critical crossover, induced by dipolar interactions. This 2D character and the possibility offered by these materials to be delaminated open the possibility of rapid heat dissipation upon substrate deposition. PMID:26256944

  19. A highly selective fluorogenic probe for the detection and in vivo imaging of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Structures and characterisation for all MK compounds. Full characterisation data (NMR, HR-MS) for all SODO derivatives. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cc00095a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Er, Jun Cheng; Jiang, Hao; Li, Xin; Luo, Zhaofeng; Ramezani, Thomas; Feng, Yi; Tang, Mui Kee; Chang, Young-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) is an essential enzyme that protects tissue from oxidative damage. Herein we report the first fluorogenic probe (SODO) for the detection and in vivo imaging of Cu/Zn SOD. SODO represents a unique chemical probe for translational imaging studies of Cu/Zn SOD in inflammatory disorders. PMID:26940443

  20. Towards “bionic” proteins: replacement of continuous sequences from HIF-1α with proteomimetics to create functional p300 binding HIF-1α mimics† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental procedures and characterisation; additional biophysical data. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cc01812b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Burslem, George M.; Kyle, Hannah F.; Breeze, Alexander L.; Edwards, Thomas A.; Nelson, Adam; Warriner, Stuart L.

    2016-01-01

    Using the HIF-1α transcription factor as a model, this manuscript illustrates how an extended sequence of α-amino acids in a polypeptide can be replaced with a non-natural topographical mimic of an α-helix comprised from an aromatic oligoamide. The resultant hybrid is capable of reproducing the molecular recognition profile of the p300 binding sequence of HIF-1α from which it is derived. PMID:27009828

  1. Reproductive toxicity and meiotic dysfunction following exposure to the pesticides Maneb, Diazinon and Fenarimol† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4tx00141a Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Daniela A, Parodi; Jasmine, Sjarif; Yichang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive identification and mechanistic analysis of reproductive toxicants constitutes one of the major hurdles in the toxicological assessment of chemicals originating from the large number of chemicals to be tested and the difficulty in examining germ cells at various stages of their development. We previously described the development of an assay in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans that allows the detection of chemicals bearing aneugenic activity and that could be used for the detection of germline toxicity. We present here new evidence for the reproductive toxicity of three pesticides identified in our germline toxicity assay: Maneb, Diazinon and Fenarimol. We show that all three pesticides cause an acute germline nuclear loss in exposed nematodes in a dose-dependent fashion. The loss of germline nuclei coincides with the meiotic stage of pachytene during Prophase I and is dependent on the germline apoptotic machinery suggesting activation of a meiotic checkpoint. Further investigation revealed a profound dysregulation of the meiotic program as evidenced by (1) an alteration of the kinetics of double strand repair, (2) the disruption of the process of chromosome morphogenesis at the end of Prophase I and (3) the reorganization of the meiotic differentiation gradient inherent to the C. elegans germline following exposure to Maneb and Diazinon. These defects correlate with a significant increase in embryonic lethality and a corresponding decrease in the number of progeny. These results therefore provide strong evidence for the reproductive toxicity of Maneb, Diazinon and Fenarimol rooted in the alteration of early steps of germ cell differentiation. PMID:25984295

  2. Oxygen nonstoichiometry and thermodynamic characterization of Zr doped ceria in the 1573–1773 K temperature range† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD patterns and SEM images. See DOI: 10.1039/c4cp04916k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Takacs, M.; Steinfeld, A.

    2015-01-01

    This work encompasses the thermodynamic characterization and critical evaluation of Zr4+ doped ceria, a promising redox material for the two-step solar thermochemical splitting of H2O and CO2 to H2 and CO. As a case study, we experimentally examine 5 mol% Zr4+ doped ceria and present oxygen nonstoichiometry measurements at elevated temperatures ranging from 1573 K to 1773 K and oxygen partial pressures ranging from 4.50 × 10–3 atm to 2.3 × 10–4 atm, yielding higher reduction extents compared to those of pure ceria under all conditions investigated, especially at the lower temperature range and at higher p O2. In contrast to pure ceria, a simple ideal solution model accounting for the formation of isolated oxygen vacancies and localized electrons accurately describes the defect chemistry. Thermodynamic properties are determined, namely: partial molar enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy. In general, partial molar enthalpy and entropy values of Zr4+ doped ceria are lower. The equilibrium hydrogen yields are subsequently extracted as a function of the redox conditions for dopant concentrations as high as 20%. Although reduction extents increase greatly with dopant concentration, the oxidation of Zr4+ doped ceria is thermodynamically less favorable compared to pure ceria. This leads to substantially larger temperature swings between reduction and oxidation steps, ultimately resulting in lower theoretical solar energy conversion efficiencies compared to ceria under most conditions. In effect, these results point to the importance of considering oxidation thermodynamics in addition to reduction when screening potential redox materials. PMID:25714616

  3. Reversible DNA i-motif to hairpin switching induced by copper(ii) cations† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental, preliminary experiments, data fitting and supporting data. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc05111h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Day, Henry Albert; Wright, Elisé Patricia; MacDonald, Colin John; Gates, Andrew James

    2015-01-01

    i-Motif DNA structures have previously been utilised for many different nanotechnological applications, but all have used changes in pH to fold the DNA. Herein we describe how copper(ii) cations can alter the conformation of i-motif DNA into an alternative hairpin structure which is reversible by chelation with EDTA. PMID:26252811

  4. Orthogonal halogen and hydrogen bonds involving a peptide bond model† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental part, DSC, IR spectroscopic and crystallographic data. CCDC 899779–899785. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c4ce01514b Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Vasylyeva, Vera; Nayak, Susanta K.; Cavallo, Gabriella; Resnati, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The peptide bond model N-methylacetamide self-assembles with a range of dihalotetrafluorobenzenes forming co-crystals that all show the occurrence of orthogonal hydrogen and halogen bonds. PMID:25663816

  5. A bio-catalytically driven Janus mesoporous silica cluster motor with magnetic guidance† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4cc08285k Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xing

    2015-01-01

    A bio-catalytic Janus motor based on the mesoporous silica cluster (JMSC) is fabricated. Chemically conjugated catalase triggers the decomposition of H2O2 to produce driving force by bubble propulsion, while a metallic (Ni) coating layer allows for magnetic guidance of the motor. The JMSC motor can act as a delivery vehicle with cargo loading inside its mesopores. PMID:25407318

  6. Distortions of ethyne when complexed with a cuprous or argentous halide: the rotational spectrum of C2H2···CuF† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cp02248g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Zaleski, Daniel P.; Stephens, Susanna L.; Tew, David P.; Bittner, Dror M.

    2015-01-01

    A new molecule C2H2···CuF has been synthesized in the gas phase by means of the reaction of laser-ablated metallic copper with a pulse of gas consisting of a dilute mixture of ethyne and sulfur hexafluoride in argon. The ground-state rotational spectrum was detected by two types of Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy, namely that conducted in a microwave Fabry–Perot cavity and the chirped-pulse broadband technique. The spectroscopic constants of the six isotopologues 12C2H2···63Cu19F, 12C2H2···65Cu19F, 13C2H2···63Cu19F, 13C2H2···65Cu19F, 12C2D2···63Cu19F and 12C2D2···65Cu19F were determined and interpreted to show that the molecule has a planar, T-shaped geometry belonging to the molecular point group C 2v, with CuF forming the stem of the T. Quantitative interpretation reveals that the ethyne molecule is distorted when subsumed into the complex in such manner that the C 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 C bond lengthens (by δr) and the two H atoms cease to be collinear with the CC internuclear line. The H atoms move symmetrically away from the approaching Cu atom of CuF, to increase each *C–H angle by δA = 14.65(2)°, from 180° to 194.65(2)°. Ab initio calculations at the explicitly-correlated level of theory CCSD(T)(F12*)/aug-cc-pVTZ lead to good agreement with the experimental geometry. It is shown that similar distortions δr and δA, similarly determined, for four complexes C2H2···MX (M = Cu or Ag; X = F, Cl or CCH) are approximately linearly related to the energies D e for the dissociation process C2H2···MX = C2H2 + MX. PMID:26134582

  7. A diversity-oriented synthesis strategy enabling the combinatorial-type variation of macrocyclic peptidomimetic scaffolds† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures, characterization data and details of the computational analyses. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ob00371g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Isidro-Llobet, Albert; Hadje Georgiou, Kathy; Galloway, Warren R. J. D.; Giacomini, Elisa; Hansen, Mette R.; Méndez-Abt, Gabriela; Tan, Yaw Sing; Carro, Laura; Sore, Hannah F.

    2015-01-01

    Macrocyclic peptidomimetics are associated with a broad range of biological activities. However, despite such potentially valuable properties, the macrocyclic peptidomimetic structural class is generally considered as being poorly explored within drug discovery. This has been attributed to the lack of general methods for producing collections of macrocyclic peptidomimetics with high levels of structural, and thus shape, diversity. In particular, there is a lack of scaffold diversity in current macrocyclic peptidomimetic libraries; indeed, the efficient construction of diverse molecular scaffolds presents a formidable general challenge to the synthetic chemist. Herein we describe a new, advanced strategy for the diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS) of macrocyclic peptidomimetics that enables the combinatorial variation of molecular scaffolds (core macrocyclic ring architectures). The generality and robustness of this DOS strategy is demonstrated by the step-efficient synthesis of a structurally diverse library of over 200 macrocyclic peptidomimetic compounds, each based around a distinct molecular scaffold and isolated in milligram quantities, from readily available building-blocks. To the best of our knowledge this represents an unprecedented level of scaffold diversity in a synthetically derived library of macrocyclic peptidomimetics. Cheminformatic analysis indicated that the library compounds access regions of chemical space that are distinct from those addressed by top-selling brand-name drugs and macrocyclic natural products, illustrating the value of our DOS approach to sample regions of chemical space underexploited in current drug discovery efforts. An analysis of three-dimensional molecular shapes illustrated that the DOS library has a relatively high level of shape diversity. PMID:25778821

  8. Reply to the 'Comment on "Exposure to mercury and Aroclor 1268 congeners in least terns (Sternula antillarum) in coastal Georgia, USA"' by P. C. Fuchsman, M. H. Henning and V. S. Magar, Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 2016, 18, DOI: 10.1039/C5EM00489F.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Gabrielle L; Mills, Gary L; Schweitzer, Sara; Hernandez, Sonia

    2016-02-17

    This article provides our response to the comment by Fuchsman et al. regarding the interpretation of results presented in our recent publication (Robinson et al., Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 2015, 17, 1424) reporting on concentrations of Aroclor 1268 congeners in least tern eggs in coastal Georgia, USA. PMID:26814679

  9. Formation of porous SnS nanoplate networks from solution and their application in hybrid solar cells† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details to performed experiments and characterisation methods, additional XRD data, absorption spectra, TAS data and SEM images. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc03125g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Gury, L.; Sánchez-Molina, I.; Martínez, L.

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we present a facile solution-based route towards nanostructured, hybrid absorber layers based on tin mono-sulfide (SnS), an emerging, non-toxic absorber material for low-cost and large-scale PV applications. Charge photogeneration properties in the hybrid system are studied using transient absorption spectroscopy and fabricated solar cells show efficient photocurrent generation over a broad spectral range. PMID:26016404

  10. Structural, optical and charge generation properties of chalcostibite and tetrahedrite copper antimony sulfide thin films prepared from metal xanthates† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Chemical structures of the used metal xanthates, additional XRD, SEM-EDX and UV-vis data. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ta05777a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    MacLachlan, Andrew J.; Brown, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report on a solution based approach for the preparation of thin films of copper antimony sulfide, an emerging absorber material for third generation solar cells. In this work, copper and antimony xanthates are used as precursor materials for the formation of two different copper antimony sulfide phases: chalcostibite (CuSbS2) and tetrahedrite (Cu12Sb4S13). Both phases were thoroughly investigated regarding their structural and optical properties. Moreover, thin films of chalcostibite and tetrahedrite were prepared on mesoporous TiO2 layers and photoinduced charge transfer in these metal sulfide/TiO2 heterojunctions was studied via transient absorption spectroscopy. Photoinduced charge transfer was detected in both the chalcostibite as well as the tetrahedrite sample, which is an essential property in view of applying these materials as light-harvesting agents in semiconductor sensitized solar cells. PMID:27019713

  11. Miniaturized catalysis: monolithic, highly porous, large surface area capillary flow reactors constructed in situ from polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS)† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cy00510h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Scholder, P.

    2015-01-01

    A single-step molding process utilizing free-radical cross-linking reaction of vinyl POSS in microliter-sized dimensions leads to hierarchically-structured, mechanically robust, porous hybrid structures. Functional variants show excellent performance in Suzuki-type coupling reactions. Due to their small volume, long-term operational robustness, and potential chemical diversity, these materials are promising candidates for catalyst screening applications. PMID:26322221

  12. Electronic communication of cells with a surface mediated by boronic acid saccharide interactions† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental detail and supporting figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc04311e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson-Brown, Alex; Yong, Sue; Mansor, Muhammad H.; Hussein, Zarrar; Yip, Nga-Chi; Mendes, Paula M.; Fossey, John S.

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication of a molecularly tailored surface functionalised with a saccharide binding motif, a phenyl boronic acid derivative is reported. The functionalised surface facilitated the transfer of electrons, via unique electronic interactions mediated by the presence of the boronic acid, from a macrophage cell line. This is the first example of eukaryotic cellular-electrical communication mediated by the binding of cells via their cell–surface saccharide units. PMID:26413585

  13. Metal–organic framework based mixed matrix membranes: a solution for highly efficient CO2 capture?† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4cs00437j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Seoane, Beatriz; Coronas, Joaquin; Gascon, Ignacio; Benavides, Miren Etxeberria; Karvan, Oğuz; Caro, Jürgen; Kapteijn, Freek

    2015-01-01

    The field of metal–organic framework based mixed matrix membranes (M4s) is critically reviewed, with special emphasis on their application in CO2 capture during energy generation. After introducing the most relevant parameters affecting membrane performance, we define targets in terms of selectivity and productivity based on existing literature on process design for pre- and post-combustion CO2 capture. Subsequently, the state of the art in M4s is reviewed against these targets. Because final application of these membranes will only be possible if thin separation layers can be produced, the latest advances in the manufacture of M4 hollow fibers are discussed. Finally, the recent efforts in understanding the separation performance of these complex composite materials and future research directions are outlined. PMID:25692487

  14. Trivalent Gd-DOTA reagents for modification of proteins† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthetic details for known compounds; materials and methods for bioconjugation reactions; copies of spectra of new compounds and compounds prepared according to new procedures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ra20359g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Martin J.; Williamson, Daniel J.; Burslem, George M.; Plante, Jeffrey P.; Manfield, Iain W.; Tiede, Christian; Ault, James R.; Stockley, Peter G.; Plein, Sven; Maqbool, Azhar; Tomlinson, Darren C.; Foster, Richard; Warriner, Stuart L.

    2015-01-01

    The development of novel protein-targeted MRI contrast agents crucially depends on the ability to derivatise suitable targeting moieties with a high payload of relaxation enhancer (e.g., gadolinium(iii) complexes such as Gd-DOTA), without losing affinity for the target proteins. Here, we report robust synthetic procedures for the preparation of trivalent Gd-DOTA reagents with various chemical handles for site-specific modification of biomolecules. The reagents were shown to successfully label proteins through isothiocyanate ligation or through site-specific thiol–maleimide ligation and strain-promoted azide–alkyne cycloaddition. PMID:27019702

  15. Response to "Comment on "Conformational analysis of small organic molecules using NOE and RDC data: A discussion of strychnine and α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone" by I.A. Khodov, M.G. Kiselev, V.V. Klochkov, S.V. Efimov [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmr.2016.02.009]" - Or Life is about compromises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiele, Christina M.; Kolmer, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Since the very early days of the Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE) researchers try to obtain distance information from the NOE and correlate it with structure. It is quite accepted by now that NOE intensities and cross relaxation rates can be measured quantitatively. In terms of deducing structures from NOEs, however, structural models and approximations have to be used, especially if conformational flexibility is present. For a recent review article, see [1].

  16. Proteome-wide analysis of human disease mutations in short linear motifs: neglected players in cancer?† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supplementary files 1–22 and supplementary Fig. 1–3. See DOI: 10.1039/c4mb00290c Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Weatheritt, Robert J.; Dinkel, Holger; Davey, Norman E.

    2014-01-01

    Disease mutations are traditionally thought to impair protein functionality by disrupting the folded globular structure of proteins. However, 22% of human disease mutations occur in natively unstructured segments of proteins known as intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). This therefore implicates defective IDR functionality in various human diseases including cancer. The functionality of IDRs is partly attributable to short linear motifs (SLiMs), but it remains an open question how much defects in SLiMs contribute to human diseases. A proteome-wide comparison of the distribution of missense mutations from disease and non-disease mutation datasets revealed that, in IDRs, disease mutations are more likely to occur within SLiMs than neutral missense mutations. Moreover, compared to neutral missense mutations, disease mutations more frequently impact functionally important residues of SLiMs, cause changes in the physicochemical properties of SLiMs, and disrupt more SLiM-mediated interactions. Analysis of these mutations resulted in a comprehensive list of experimentally validated or predicted SLiMs disrupted in disease. Furthermore, this in-depth analysis suggests that ‘prostate cancer pathway’ is particularly enriched for proteins with disease-related SLiMs. The contribution of mutations in SLiMs to disease may currently appear small when compared to mutations in globular domains. However, our analysis of mutations in predicted SLiMs suggests that this contribution might be more substantial. Therefore, when analysing the functional impact of mutations on proteins, SLiMs in proteins should not be neglected. Our results suggest that an increased focus on SLiMs in the coming decades will improve our understanding of human diseases and aid in the development of targeted treatments. PMID:25057855

  17. Light-driven biocatalytic reduction of α,β-unsaturated compounds by ene reductases employing transition metal complexes as photosensitizers† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional experimental sections, tables, figures and discussion. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cy01642h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Peers, Martyn K.; Toogood, Helen S.; Heyes, Derren J.; Mansell, David; Coe, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient and cost effective nicotinamide cofactor regeneration is essential for industrial-scale bio-hydrogenations employing flavin-containing biocatalysts such as the Old Yellow Enzymes. A direct flavin regeneration system using visible light to initiate a photoredox cycle and drive biocatalysis is described, and shown to be effective in driving biocatalytic activated alkene reduction. Using Ru(ii) or Ir(iii) complexes as photosensitizers, coupled with an electron transfer mediator (methyl viologen) and sacrificial electron donor (triethanolamine) drives catalytic turnover of two Old Yellow Enzymes with multiple oxidative substrates. Therefore, there is great potential in the development of light-driven biocatalytic systems, providing an alternative to the reliance on enzyme-based cofactor regeneration systems. PMID:27019691

  18. Comment on "Structural and Mössbauer studies of evaporated Fe100-x Pdx thin films" by A. Laggoun, A. Guittoum, S. Bahamida, M. Boudissa and A. Fnidiki. Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 68, 20301 (2014), Doi: 10.1051/epjap/2014140195

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André Buffat, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    The paper "Structural and Mössbauer studies of evaporated Fe100-x Pdx thin films" by A. Laggoun et al. contains interpretation errors of XRD patterns and therefore cast some heavy doubt on the actual phases present in the Fe-Pd films.

  19. BODIPY–BODIPY dyad: assessing the potential as a viscometer for molecular and ionic liquids† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details on the synthesis and purification of BODIPY dyes and ILs, sample preparations and physical properties of ILs as well as spectral data. See DOI: 10.1039/c4ra09757b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, Joseph D.; Raut, Sangram; Jameson, Laramie P.; Smith, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    A symmetrical BODIPY–BODIPY dyad with a diyne linker was prepared in two steps; the lifetime decay of this rotor appeared to correlate with the viscosity of the media, thus making this dyad a suitable small molecule viscometer for molecular solvents. The potential of using the rotor to probe the viscosity of ionic liquids was also investigated. PMID:25844163

  20. Intramolecular interactions in the polar headgroup of sphingosine: serinol† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Ab initio parameters for serinol conformers within 1000 cm–1, measured transition frequencies, typical a-type transition for conformer aa1, interconversion barriers and possible tunnelling pathways. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc09423b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Loru, Donatella; Peña, Isabel; Alonso, José L.

    2016-01-01

    The intramolecular interactions in the lipid sphingosine have been elucidated through the investigation of the amino alcohol serinol which mimics its polar headgroup. Intricate networks of intramolecular hydrogen bonds involving the hydroxyl groups and the amino group contribute to the stabilisation of five different conformations observed in the broadband rotational spectrum. PMID:26727395

  1. Improvements in Cd stable isotope analysis achieved through use of liquid–liquid extraction to remove organic residues from Cd separates obtained by extraction chromatography† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ja00115c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Rehkämper, Mark; Kreissig, Katharina; Coles, Barry; van de Flierdt, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Organic compounds released from resins that are commonly employed for trace element separations are known to have a detrimental impact on the quality of isotopic analyses by MC-ICP-MS. A recent study highlighted that such effects can be particularly problematic for Cd stable isotope measurements (M. Gault-Ringold and C. H. Stirling, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2012, 27, 449–459). In this case, the final stage of sample purification commonly applies extraction chromatography with Eichrom TRU resin, which employs particles coated with octylphenyl-N,N-di-isobutyl carbamoylphosphine oxide (CMPO) dissolved in tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). During chromatography, it appears that some of these compounds are eluted alongside Cd and cannot be removed by evaporation due to their high boiling points. When aliquots of the zero-ε reference material were processed through the purification procedure, refluxed in concentrated HNO3 and analyzed at minimum dilution (in 1 ml 0.1 M HNO3), they yielded Cd isotopic compositions (ε114/110Cd = 4.6 ± 3.4, 2SD, n = 4) that differed significantly from the expected value, despite the use of a double spike technique to correct for instrumental mass fractionation. This result was accompanied by a 35% reduction in instrumental sensitivity for Cd. With increasing dilution of the organic resin residue, both of these effects are reduced and they are insignificant when the eluted Cd is dissolved in ≥3 ml 0.1 M HNO3. Our results, furthermore, indicate that the isotopic artefacts are most likely related to anomalous mass bias behavior. Previous studies have shown that perchloric acid can be effective at avoiding such effects (Gault-Ringold and Stirling, 2012; K. C. Crocket, M. Lambelet, T. van de Flierdt, M. Rehkämper and L. F. Robinson, Chem. Geol., 2014, 374–375, 128–140), presumably by oxidizing the resin-derived organics, but there are numerous disadvantages to its use. Here we show that liquid–liquid extraction with n-heptane removes the organic compounds, dramatically improving quality of the Cd isotope data for samples that are analyzed at or close to minimum dilution factors. This technique is quick, simple and may be of use prior to analysis of other isotope systems where similar resins are employed. PMID:27284213

  2. DNA topology influences molecular machine lifetime in human serum† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: DNA sequences, fluorophore and quencher properties, equipment design, and degradation studies. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02283e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Goltry, Sara; Hallstrom, Natalya; Clark, Tyler; Kuang, Wan; Lee, Jeunghoon; Jorcyk, Cheryl; Knowlton, William B.; Yurke, Bernard; Hughes, William L.

    2015-01-01

    DNA nanotechnology holds the potential for enabling new tools for biomedical engineering, including diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutics. However, applications for DNA devices are thought to be limited by rapid enzymatic degradation in serum and blood. Here, we demonstrate that a key aspect of DNA nanotechnology—programmable molecular shape—plays a substantial role in device lifetimes. These results establish the ability to operate synthetic DNA devices in the presence of endogenous enzymes and challenge the textbook view of near instantaneous degradation. PMID:25959862

  3. Novel nonadride, heptadride and maleic acid metabolites from the byssochlamic acid producer Byssochlamys fulva IMI 40021 – an insight into the biosynthesis of maleidrides† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of any supplementary information available should be included here. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc06988b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Szwalbe, Agnieszka J.; Williams, Katherine; O'Flynn, Daniel E.; Bailey, Andrew M.; Mulholland, Nicholas P.; Vincent, Jason L.; Willis, Christine L.

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Byssochlamys fulva strain IMI 40021 produces (+)-byssochlamic acid 1, its novel dihydroanalogue 2 and four related secondary metabolites. Agnestadrides A, 17 and B, 18 constitute a novel class of seven-membered ring, maleic anhydride-containing (hence termed heptadride) natural products. The putative maleic anhydride precursor 5 for both nonadride and heptadride biosynthesis was isolated as a fermentation product for the first time and its structure confirmed by synthesis. Acid 5 undergoes facile decarboxylation to anhydride 6. The generic term maleidrides is proposed to encompass biosynthetically-related compounds containing maleic anhydride moieties fused to an alicyclic ring, varying in size and substituents. PMID:26452099

  4. Discrimination between lectins with similar specificities by ratiometric profiling of binding to glycosylated surfaces; a chemical ‘tongue’ approach† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) is available: This includes protein preparation, surface functionalisation and LDA analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ra08857g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Otten, L.

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate–lectin interactions dictate a range of signalling and recognition processes in biological systems. The exploitation of these, particularly for diagnostic applications, is complicated by the inherent promiscuity of lectins along with their low affinity for individual glycans which themselves are challenging to access (bio)synthetically. Inspired by how a ‘tongue’ can discriminate between hundreds of flavours using a minimal set of multiplexed sensors and a training algorithm, here individual lectins are ‘profiled’ based on their unique binding profile (barcode) to a range of monosaccharides. By comparing the relative binding of a panel of 5 lectins to 3 monosaccharide-coated surfaces, it was possible to generate a training algorithm that enables correct identification of lectins, even those with similar glycan preferences. This is demonstrated to be useful for discrimination between the cholera and ricin toxin lectins showing the potential of this minimalist approach for exploiting glycan complexity. PMID:27019703

  5. A novel protocol for the one-pot borylation/Suzuki reaction provides easy access to hinge-binding groups for kinase inhibitors† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ob01915j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, A.; Zambon, A.

    2016-01-01

    The one-pot borylation/Suzuki reaction is a very efficient means of accessing cross-coupling products of two aryl-halide partners that generally requires the use of specific catalysts or ligands and/or relatively long reaction times. This new microwave-assisted method provides a quick one-pot borylation/Suzuki reaction protocol that we applied to the synthesis of various bi- or poly-aryl scaffolds, including a variety of aryl and heteroaryl ring systems and the core frameworks of kinase inhibitors vemurafenib and GDC-0879. PMID:26620576

  6. An automated programmable platform enabling multiplex dynamic stimuli delivery and cellular response monitoring for high-throughput suspension single-cell signaling studies† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4lc01070a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    He, Luye; Kniss, Ariel; San-Miguel, Adriana; Rouse, Tel; Kemp, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Cell signaling events are orchestrated by dynamic external biochemical cues. By rapidly perturbing cells with dynamic inputs and examining the output from these systems, one could study the structure and dynamic properties of a cellular signaling network. Conventional experimental techniques limit the implementation of these systematic approaches due to the lack of sophistication in manipulating individual cells and the fluid microenvironment around them; existing microfluidic technologies thus far are mainly targeting adherent cells. In this paper we present an automated platform to interrogate suspension cells with dynamic stimuli while simultaneously monitoring cellular responses in a high-throughput manner at single-cell resolution. We demonstrate the use of this platform in an experiment to measure Jurkat T cells in response to distinct dynamic patterns of stimuli; we find cells exhibit highly heterogeneous responses under each stimulation condition. More interestingly, these cells act as low-pass filters, only entrained to the low frequency stimulus signals. We also demonstrate that this platform can be easily programmed to actively generate arbitrary dynamic signals. We envision our platform to be useful in other contexts to study cellular signaling dynamics, which may be difficult using conventional experimental methods. PMID:25609410

  7. Harnessing nonlinear rubber swelling for bulk synthesis of anisotropic hybrid nanoparticles† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The TEM images of control Au–PDVB hybrid nanoparticles formed without the presence of PVP and Au–PS hybrid nanoparticles. See DOI: 10.1039/c4tc01660b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Baumberg, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetric hybrid nanoparticles are at the forefront of colloidal chemistry as building blocks for novel structures and applications, as well as for exploring fundamental ways of breaking symmetry in physical systems. Current methods of synthesis have significant limitations in terms of control over synthesis, particle size ranges and polydispersity. We report a facile and scalable synthesis based on the anisotropic swelling of rubber to obtain metal–(polymer rubber) hybrid nanoparticles. Initial Au nanoparticle (NP) seeds are grown larger by reducing HAuCl4 with divinyl benzene (DVB), while simultaneous radical polymerization of DVB forms a cross-linked rubber layer of PDVB on the Au NP surface. The propensity of rubber to swell nonlinearly in the presence of DVB monomers amplifies initial asymmetries to break the symmetry of the PDVB shell, causing growth of asymmetric protrusions on one side of the core–shell particles, which are fixed by further polymerization. Plasmonic absorption of Au allows us to follow the Au reduction reaction and also suggests potential applications of some of the asymmetric particles in plasmon-enhanced sensing. The polydispersity, determined statistically from TEM and SEM images, of the resulting particles is low (<10%) and their sizes, shapes and metal–polymer ratios are easily tunable. PMID:27358735

  8. Improved tag-switch method reveals that thioredoxin acts as depersulfidase and controls the intracellular levels of protein persulfidation† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc04818d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Wedmann, Rudolf; Onderka, Constantin; Wei, Shengwei; Szijártó, István András; Miljkovic, Jan Lj.; Mitrovic, Aleksandra; Lange, Mike; Savitsky, Sergey; Yadav, Pramod Kumar; Torregrossa, Roberta; Harrer, Ellen G.; Harrer, Thomas; Ishii, Isao; Gollasch, Maik; Wood, Mark E.; Galardon, Erwan; Xian, Ming; Whiteman, Matthew; Banerjee, Ruma

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as a signalling molecule capable of regulating several important physiological functions such as blood pressure, neurotransmission and inflammation. The mechanisms behind these effects are still largely elusive and oxidative posttranslational modification of cysteine residues (protein persulfidation or S-sulfhydration) has been proposed as the main pathway for H2S-induced biological and pharmacological effects. As a signalling mechanism, persulfidation has to be controlled. Using an improved tag-switch assay for persulfide detection we show here that protein persulfide levels are controlled by the thioredoxin system. Recombinant thioredoxin showed an almost 10-fold higher reactivity towards cysteine persulfide than towards cystine and readily cleaved protein persulfides as well. This reaction resulted in H2S release suggesting that thioredoxin could be an important regulator of H2S levels from persulfide pools. Inhibition of the thioredoxin system caused an increase in intracellular persulfides, highlighting thioredoxin as a major protein depersulfidase that controls H2S signalling. Finally, using plasma from HIV-1 patients that have higher circulatory levels of thioredoxin, we could prove depersulfidase role in vivo. PMID:27170841

  9. Microwave gallium-68 radiochemistry for kinetically stable bis(thiosemicarbazone) complexes: structural investigations and cellular uptake under hypoxia† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. CCDC 1001632–1001634. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c5dt02537k Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Israt S.; Arrowsmith, Rory L.; Cortezon-Tamarit, Fernando; Twyman, Frazer; Kociok-Köhn, Gabriele; Botchway, Stanley W.; Dilworth, Jonathan R.

    2016-01-01

    We report the microwave synthesis of several bis(thiosemicarbazones) and the rapid gallium-68 incorporation to give the corresponding metal complexes. These proved kinetically stable under ‘cold’ and ‘hot’ biological assays and were investigated using laser scanning confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and radioactive cell retention studies under normoxia and hypoxia. 68Ga complex retention was found to be 34% higher in hypoxic cells than in normoxic cells over 30 min, further increasing to 53% at 120 min. Our data suggests that this class of gallium complexes show hypoxia selectivity suitable for imaging in living cells and in vivo tests by microPET in nude athymic mice showed that they are excreted within 1 h of their administration. PMID:26583314

  10. Solubilised bright blue-emitting iridium complexes for solution processed OLEDs† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis CIF of the crystal structures. CCDC 1440897–1440899. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c6tc00151c Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Henwood, Adam F.; Bansal, Ashu K.; Cordes, David B.; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Samuel, Ifor D. W.

    2016-01-01

    Combining a sterically bulky, electron-deficient 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-4-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)pyridine (dFMesppy) cyclometalating C∧N ligand with an electron rich, highly rigidified 1,1′-(α,α′-o-xylylene)-2,2′-biimidazole (o-xylbiim) N∧N ligand gives an iridium complex, [Ir(dFMesppy)2(o-xylbiim)](PF6), that achieves extraordinarily bright blue emission (Φ PL = 90%; λ max = 459 nm in MeCN) for a cationic iridium complex. This complex is compared with two reference complexes bearing 4,4′-di-tert-butyl-2,2′-bipyridine, and solution-processed organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been fabricated from these materials. PMID:27398216

  11. Mechanochemical and solvent-free assembly of zirconium-based metal–organic frameworks† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Selected PXRD, FTIR-ATR, BET, TGA, SEM and DLS data. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc08972g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Užarević, Krunoslav; Wang, Timothy C.; Moon, Su-Young; Fidelli, Athena M.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2016-01-01

    We develop the first mechanochemical and solvent-free routes for zirconium metal–organic frameworks, making the frameworks UiO-66 and UiO-66-NH2 accessible on the gram scale without strong acids, high temperatures or excess reactants. The frameworks form either by milling, or spontaneous self-assembly by simply exposing solid mixtures of reactants to organic vapour. The generated frameworks exhibit high porosity and catalytic activity in the hydrolysis of model nerve agents, on par with their solvothermally generated counterparts. PMID:26696097

  12. A reply to Wang T, Shan L, Du L, Feng J, Xu Z, Staal WG, Jia F. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2015; doi: 10.1007/s00787-015-0786-1.

    PubMed

    Fluegge, Keith

    2016-04-01

    The author of this correspondence has recently published findings of an ecological investigation wherein herbicide use was proposed as an instrumental variable that predicts healthcare utilization among subjects with severe ADHD impairment via individual exposure to nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Vitamin D deficiency, a possible risk factor for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) as discussed by Wang et al., may be a homeostatic response to increasing chronic environmental N2O exposures. The author explains how deficient and insufficient states of vitamin D may promote vagal withdrawal and tolerance to increasing opioid exposures in the environment and how these characteristics are particularly relevant in neurodevelopmental disorders, like ASD and ADHD. PMID:26662808

  13. Probing the mechanisms of electron capture dissociation mass spectrometry with nitrated peptides† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: CID MS/MS spectra of N-acetylated peptides; CID experimental data. See DOI: 10.1039/c0cp00623h

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andrew W.

    2010-01-01

    Previously we have shown that the presence of 3-nitrotyrosine within a peptide sequence severely depletes the peptide backbone fragments typically observed following electron capture dissociation (ECD) mass spectrometry. Instead, ECD of nitrated peptides is characterised by abundant losses of small neutrals (hydroxyl radicals, water and ammonia). Here, we investigate the origin of ammonia loss by comparing the ECD behaviour of lysine- and arginine-containing nitrated peptides, and their N-acetylated counterparts, and nitrated peptides containing no basic amino acid residues. The results reveal that ammonia loss derives from the N-terminus of the peptides, however, the key finding of this work is the insight provided into the hierarchy of various proposed ECD mechanisms: the Utah-Washington mechanism, the electron predator mechanism and the Oslo mechanism. PMID:20830387

  14. A simple approach to hybrid inorganic–organic step-growth hydrogels with scalable control of physicochemical properties and biodegradability† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and characterization data as mentioned in the text. See DOI: 10.1039/c4py01789g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Alves, F.

    2015-01-01

    We prepared new and scalable, hybrid inorganic–organic step-growth hydrogels with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) network knot construction elements and hydrolytically degradable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) di-ester macromonomers by in situ radical-mediated thiol–ene photopolymerization. The physicochemical properties of the gels are fine-tailored over orders of magnitude including functionalization of their interior, a hierarchical gel structure, and biodegradability. PMID:25821524

  15. Erratum: Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in five groups with different severities of gambling: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions by Jacquelene F. Moghaddam, Gihyun Yoon, Daniel L. Dickerson, Suck Won Kim, and Joseph Westermeyer DOI: 10.1111/ajad.12197.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    In Ref.[1], the following error was published under the Declaration of Interest. The article erroneously acknowledged the receipt of a funding source #1R01AA022066-01. We apologize for this error. PMID:26767449

  16. Synthesis and activity of a novel inhibitor of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures and spectroscopic data. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ob02482j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Gotham, Victoria J. B.; Hobbs, Melanie C.; Burgin, Ryan; Turton, David

    2016-01-01

    During efforts to prepare the known compound NMDI1, a new tetracyclic compound, called VG1, was prepared in six steps. This compound was found to have good activity as an inhibitor of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. PMID:26740124

  17. Spontaneous formation of Au–Pt alloyed nanoparticles using pure nano-counterparts as starters: a ligand and size dependent process† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: supplementary STEM and EDS data. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01819f Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Usón, Laura; Mayoral, Alvaro; Hueso, Jose L.; Eguizabal, Adela; Arruebo, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    In this work we investigate the formation of PtAu monodisperse alloyed nanoparticles by ageing pure metallic Au and Pt small nanoparticles (sNPs), nanoparticle size <5 nm, under certain conditions. We demonstrate that those bimetallic entities can be obtained by controlling the size of the initial metallic sNPs separately prepared and by selecting their appropriate capping agents. The formation of this spontaneous phenomenon was studied using HR-STEM, EDS, ionic conductivity, UV-Vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Depending on the type of capping agent used and the size of the initial Au sNPs, three different materials were obtained: (i) AuPt bimetallic sNPs showing a surface rich in Au atoms, (ii) segregated Au and Pt sNPs and (iii) a mixture of bimetallic nanoparticles as well as Pt sNPs and Au NPs. Surface segregation energies and the nature of the reaction environment are the driving forces to direct the distribution of atoms in the bimetallic sNPs. PtAu alloyed nanoparticles were obtained after 150 h of reaction at room temperature if a weak capping agent was used for the stabilization of the nanoparticles. It was also found that Au atoms diffuse towards Pt sNPs, producing a surface enriched in Au atoms. This study shows that even pure nanoparticles are prone to be modified by the surrounding nanoparticles to give rise to new nanomaterials if atomic diffusion is feasible. PMID:25985914

  18. The photochemical thiol–ene reaction as a versatile method for the synthesis of glutathione S-conjugates targeting the bacterial potassium efflux system Kef† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Further experimental details and NMR spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c5qo00436e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Tim; Miller, Samantha; Booth, Ian R.

    2016-01-01

    The thiol–ene coupling reaction is emerging as an important conjugation reaction that is suitable for use in a biological setting. Here, we explore the utility of this reaction for the synthesis of glutathione-S-conjugates (GSX) and present a general, operationally simple, protocol with a wide substrate scope. The GSX afforded are an important class of compounds and provide invaluable molecular tools to study glutathione-binding proteins. In this study we apply the diverse library of GSX synthesised to further our understanding of the structural requirements for binding to the glutathione-binding protein, Kef, a bacterial K+ efflux system, found in many bacterial pathogens. This system is vital to the survival of bacteria upon exposure to electrophiles, and plays an essential role in the maintenance of intracellular pH and K+ homeostasis. Consequently, Kef is an appealing target for the development of novel antibacterial drugs. PMID:27110363

  19. Self-assembly of endohedral metallofullerenes: a decisive role of cooling gas and metal–carbon bonding† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional information on metal–carbon bonding and MD simulations. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08645k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Qingming; Heine, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The endohedral metallofullerene (EMF) self-assembly process in Sc/carbon vapor in the presence and absence of an inert cooling gas (helium) is systematically investigated using quantum chemical molecular dynamics simulations. It is revealed that the presence of He atoms accelerates the formation of pentagons and hexagons and reduces the size of the self-assembled carbon cages in comparison with analogous He-free simulations. As a result, the Sc/C/He system simulations produce a larger number of successful trajectories (i.e. leading to Sc-EMFs) with more realistic cage-size distribution than simulations of the Sc/C system. The main Sc encapsulation mechanism involves nucleation of several hexagons and pentagons with Sc atoms already at the early stages of carbon vapor condensation. In such proto-cages, both Sc–C σ-bonds and coordination bonds between Sc atoms and the π-system of the carbon network are present. Sc atoms are thus rather labile and can move along the carbon network, but the overall bonding is sufficiently strong to prevent dissociation even at temperatures around 2000 kelvin. Further growth of the fullerene cage results in the encapsulation of one or two Sc atoms within the fullerene. In agreement with experimental studies, an extension of the simulations to Fe and Ti as the metal component showed that Fe-EMFs are not formed at all, whereas Ti is prone to form Ti-EMFs with small cage sizes, including Ti@C28-T d and Ti@C30-C 2v(3). PMID:26815243

  20. Core functionalization of semi-crystalline polymeric cylindrical nanoparticles using photo-initiated thiol–ene radical reactions† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Further methods, polymer and nanostructure characterization. See DOI: 10.1039/c5py01970b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liang; Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; Thomas, Anthony W.; Inam, Maria; Doncom, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Sequential ring-opening and reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization was used to form a triblock copolymer of tetrahydropyran acrylate (THPA), 5-methyl-5-allyloxycarbonyl-1,3-dioxan-2-one (MAC) and l-lactide. Concurrent deprotection of the THPA block and crystallization-driven self-assembly (CDSA) was undertaken and allowed for the formation of cylindrical micelles bearing allyl handles in a short outer core segment. These handles were further functionalized by different thiols using photo-initiated thiol–ene radical reactions to demonstrate that the incorporation of an amorphous PMAC block within the core does not disrupt CDSA and can be used to load the cylindrical nanoparticles with cargo.

  1. Conformational properties of 1,4- and 1,5-substituted 1,2,3-triazole amino acids – building units for peptidic foldamers† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Tables on the RHF/3-21G conformers, NMR spectra and analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c4ob02359e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Peptidic foldamers have recently emerged as a novel class of artificial oligomers with properties and structural diversity similar to that of natural peptides, but possessing additional interesting features granting them great potential for applications in fields from nanotechnology to pharmaceuticals. Among these, foldamers containing 1,4- and 1,5-substitued triazole amino acids are easily prepared via the Cu- and Ru-catalyzed click reactions and may offer increased side chain variation, but their structural capabilities have not yet been widely explored. We here describe a systematic analysis of the conformational space of the two most important basic units, the 1,4-substitued (4Tzl) and the 1,5-substitued (5Tzl) 1,2,3-triazole amino acids, using quantum chemical calculations and NMR spectroscopy. Possible conformations of the two triazoles were scanned and their potential minima were located using several theoretical approaches (B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p), ωB97X-D/6-311++G(2d,2p), M06-2X/6-311++G(2d,2p) and MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p)) in different solvents. BOC-protected versions of 4Tzl and 5Tzl were also prepared via one step transformations and analyzed by 2D NOESY NMR. Theoretical results show 9 conformers for 5Tzl derivatives with relative energies lying close to each other, which may lead to a great structural diversity. NMR analysis also indicates that conformers preferring turn, helix and zig-zag secondary structures may coexist in solution. In contrast, 4Tzl has a much lower number of conformers, only 4, and these lack strong intraresidual interactions. This is again supported by NMR suggesting the presence of both extended and bent conformers. The structural information provided on these building units could be employed in future design of triazole foldamers. PMID:25605623

  2. Targeting the endoplasmic reticulum with a membrane-interactive luminescent ruthenium(ii) polypyridyl complex† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, characterization of 2 and Fig. S1–S6. See DOI: 10.1039/c3sc51725j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Martin R.; Cecchin, Denis; Walker, Michael G.; Mulla, Raminder S.

    2013-01-01

    The characterization and bioactivity of the dinuclear ruthenium(ii) complex [(Ru(DIP)2)2(tpphz)]4+ (DIP = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline and tpphz = tetrapyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c:3′′,2′′-h:2′′′,3′′′-j]phenazine) is reported. This new complex is found to be luminescent in acetonitrile, where excitation into MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge-transfer) bands in the visible area of the spectrum (λ ex = 450 nm, ε = 45 000 M–1 cm–1) result in red emission (λ em,max = 620 nm, Φ MLCT = 0.017). Aqueous in vitro binding studies indicate that this complex binds to duplex DNA with an affinity of 1.8 × 106 M–1 through a non-classical groove-binding interaction, however, unlike the parent complex [(Ru(phen)2)2(tpphz)]4+ (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline), it also displays an increase in MLCT luminescence on addition of liposomes. Confocal microscopy and TEM studies show that this lipophilic complex targets the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotic cells, where it functions as an imaging agent for this organelle, and cytotoxicity studies in human cancer cell lines indicate a comparable potency to the anti-cancer drug cisplatin. PMID:25580209

  3. A multifunctional poly(curcumin) nanomedicine for dual-modal targeted delivery, intracellular responsive release, dual-drug treatment and imaging of multidrug resistant cancer cells† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The synthesis procedure of Biotin–PEG–PCDA and the experimental results of MTT. See DOI: 10.1039/c5tb02450a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jining; Wang, Feihu; Li, Fangzhou; Zhang, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    A multifunctional anti-cancer nanomedicine based on a biotin–poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(curcumin-dithio dipropionic acid) (Biotin–PEG–PCDA) polymeric nanocarrier loaded with paclitaxel (PTX), magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and quantum dots (QDs) is developed. It combines advantageous properties of efficient targeted delivery and uptake (via biotin and MNP), intracellular responsive release (via cleavable PCDA polymer), fluorescence imaging (via QD) and combined PTX-curcumin dual-drug treatment, allowing for overcoming drug resistance mechanisms of model multidrug resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR). The PTX/MNPs/QDs@Biotin–PEG–PCDA nanoparticles are highly stable under physiological conditions, but are quickly disassembled to release their drug load in the presence of 10 mM glutathione (GSH). The nanoparticles show high uptake by tumour cells from a combined effect of magnet targeting and biotin receptor-mediated internalization. Moreover, curcumin, an intracellularly cleaved product of PCDA, can effectively down regulate the expression of drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) to increase PTX accumulation within target cancer cells, thereby enhancing PTX induced cytotoxicity and therapeutic efficacy against MCF-7/ADR cells. Taken together, this novel tumour-targeting and traceable multifunctional nanomedicine is highly effective against model MDR cancer at the cellular level. PMID:27152196

  4. Classifying pairs with trees for supervised biological network inference† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Implementation and computational issues, supplementary performance curves, and illustration of interpretability of trees. See DOI: 10.1039/c5mb00174a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Wehenkel, Louis; Babu, M. Madan; Geurts, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Networks are ubiquitous in biology, and computational approaches have been largely investigated for their inference. In particular, supervised machine learning methods can be used to complete a partially known network by integrating various measurements. Two main supervised frameworks have been proposed: the local approach, which trains a separate model for each network node, and the global approach, which trains a single model over pairs of nodes. Here, we systematically investigate, theoretically and empirically, the exploitation of tree-based ensemble methods in the context of these two approaches for biological network inference. We first formalize the problem of network inference as a classification of pairs, unifying in the process homogeneous and bipartite graphs and discussing two main sampling schemes. We then present the global and the local approaches, extending the latter for the prediction of interactions between two unseen network nodes, and discuss their specializations to tree-based ensemble methods, highlighting their interpretability and drawing links with clustering techniques. Extensive computational experiments are carried out with these methods on various biological networks that clearly highlight that these methods are competitive with existing methods. PMID:26008881

  5. Zero-strain reductive intercalation in a molecular framework† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis, experimental methods, and sample characterisation; X-ray powder diffraction refinement details. See DOI: 10.1039/c4ce02364a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Joshua A.; Cairns, Andrew B.; Lim, Jared J. K.; Cassidy, Simon J.; Clarke, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Reductive intercalation of potassium within the molecular framework Ag3[Fe(CN)6] gives rise to a volume strain that is an order of magnitude smaller than is typical for common ion-storage materials. We suggest that framework flexibility might be exploited as a general strategy for reducing cycling strain in battery and ion-storage materials. PMID:25892969

  6. The reaction of an iridium PNP complex with parahydrogen facilitates polarisation transfer without chemical change† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Sample preparation, signal enhancements and raw data. CCDC 1026865. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c4dt03088e Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Arthur J.; Rayner, Peter J.; Cowley, Michael J.; Green, Gary G. R.; Whitwood, Adrian C.

    2015-01-01

    The short lived pincer complex [(C5H3N(CH2P(tBu)2)2)Ir(H)2(py)]BF4 is shown to be active for signal amplification by reversible exchange. This catalyst formulation enables the efficient transfer of polarization from parahydrogen to be placed into just a single molecule of the hyperpolarisation target, pyridine. When the catalysts 1H nuclei are replaced by 2H, increased levels of substrate hyperpolarization result and when the reverse situation is examined the catalyst itself is clearly visible through hyperpolarised signals. The ligand exchange pathways of [(C5H3N(CH2P(tBu)2)2)Ir(H)2(py)]BF4 that are associated with this process are shown to involve the formation of 16-electron [(C5H3N(CH2P(tBu)2)2)Ir(H)2]BF4 and the 18-electron H2 addition product [(C5H3N(CH2P(tBu)2)2)Ir(H)2(H2)]BF4. PMID:25410259

  7. Ultrafast intersystem crossing dynamics in uracil unravelled by ab initio molecular dynamics† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Discussion of fitting procedure for decay time constants, assignment of state character for ISC transitions and Cartesian coordinates of molecular geometries. See DOI: 10.1039/c4cp04158e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Martin; Mai, Sebastian; González, Leticia

    2014-01-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations have been performed in order to investigate the relaxation dynamics of uracil after UV excitation in gas phase. Intersystem crossing (ISC) has been included for the first time into time-dependent simulations of uracil, allowing the system to relax in the singlet as well as in the triplet states. The results show a qualitatively different picture than similar simulations that include singlet states only. The inclusion of ISC effectively quenches the relaxation to the singlet ground state and instead privileges transitions from the low-lying nπ* state (S1) to a ππ* triplet state (T2) followed by rapid internal conversion to the lowest triplet state. PMID:25301389

  8. First synthetic analogues of diphosphoinositol polyphosphates: interaction with PP-InsP5 kinase† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Data deposition: the atomic coordinates and structure factors have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank, www.pdb.org (PDB ID code 4GB4). See DOI: 10.1039/c2cc36044f Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Andrew M.; Wang, Huanchen; Weaver, Jeremy D.; Shears, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    We synthesised analogues of diphosphoinositol polyphosphates (PP-InsPs) in which the diphosphate is replaced by an α-phosphonoacetic acid (PA) ester. Structural analysis revealed that 5-PA-InsP5 mimics 5-PP-InsP5 binding to the kinase domain of PPIP5K2; both molecules were phosphorylated by the enzyme. PA-InsPs are promising candidates for further studies into the biology of PP-InsPs. PMID:23032903

  9. Synthetic tools for studying the chemical biology of InsP8 † †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Data deposition: atomic coordinates and structure factors have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank, www.pdb.org (PDB ID codes 5BYA and 5BYB). See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc05017k

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Andrew M.; Wang, Huanchen; Shears, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    To synthesise stabilised mimics of InsP8, the most phosphorylated inositol phosphate signalling molecule in Nature, we replaced its two diphosphate (PP) groups with either phosphonoacetate (PA) or methylenebisphosphonate (PCP) groups. Utility of the PA and PCP analogues was verified by structural and biochemical analyses of their interactions with enzymes of InsP8 metabolism. PMID:26153667

  10. Mechanistic investigations reveal that dibromobimane extrudes sulfur from biological sulfhydryl sources other than hydrogen sulfide† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, pH stability data for BTE, NMR spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sc01875c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Leticia A.; Shen, Xinggui; McDermott, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as an important biological signaling molecule in the last decade. During the growth of this field, significant controversy has arisen centered on the physiological concentrations of H2S. Recently, a monobromobimane (mBB) method has been developed for the quantification of different biologically-relevant sulfide pools. Based on the prevalence of the mBB method for sulfide quantification, we expand on this method to report the use of dibromobimane (dBB) for sulfide quantification. Reaction of H2S with dBB results in formation of highly-fluorescent bimane thioether (BTE), which is readily quantifiable by HPLC. Additionally, the reaction of sulfide with dBB to form BTE is significantly faster than the reaction of sulfide with mBB to form sulfide dibimane. Using the dBB method, BTE levels as low as 0.6 pM can be detected. Upon use of the dBB method in wild-type and CSE–/– mice, however, dBB reports significantly higher sulfide levels than those measured using mBB. Further investigation revealed that dBB is able to extract sulfur from other sulfhydryl sources including thiols. Based on mechanistic studies, we demonstrate that dBB extracts sulfur from thiols with α- or β-hydrogens, thus leading to higher BTE formation than from sulfide alone. Taken together, the dBB method is a highly sensitive method for H2S but is not compatible for use in studies in which other thiols are present. PMID:25632344

  11. Chemically diverse polymer microarrays and high throughput surface characterisation: a method for discovery of materials for stem cell culture† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4bm00054d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Celiz, A. D.; Smith, J. G. W.; Patel, A. K.; Langer, R.; Anderson, D. G.; Barrett, D. A.; Young, L. E.; Davies, M. C.; Denning, C.

    2014-01-01

    Materials discovery provides the opportunity to identify novel materials that are tailored to complex biological environments by using combinatorial mixing of monomers to form large libraries of polymers as micro arrays. The materials discovery approach is predicated on the use of the largest chemical diversity possible, yet previous studies into human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) response to polymer microarrays have been limited to 20 or so different monomer identities in each study. Here we show that it is possible to print and assess cell adhesion of 141 different monomers in a microarray format. This provides access to the largest chemical space to date, allowing us to meet the regenerative medicine challenge to provide scalable synthetic culture ware. This study identifies new materials suitable for hPSC expansion that could not have been predicted from previous knowledge of cell-material interactions. PMID:25328672

  12. Retraction: Sophocleous, M. (2012). Conserving and extending the useful life of the largest aquifer in North America: The future of the High Plains/Ogallala aquifer. Ground Water , 50: 831–839. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6584.2012.00965.x.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    The above article, published online on July 23, 2012 on Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the author's sponsoring institution, the journal Editor in Chief, Franklin W. Schwartz, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed following an investigation by the Kansas Geological Survey (a research and service division of the University of Kansas), which identified unattributed areas of overlap with a number of other publications. PMID:24754060

  13. Efficient eco-friendly inverted quantum dot sensitized solar cells† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM images of QDs, XPS spectra, UV-vis and PL spectra of the sensitized electrodes, details about photophysical characterization and IPCE spectra interpretation. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ta06769c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinhyung; Sajjad, Muhammad T.; Jouneau, Pierre-Henri; Ruseckas, Arvydas; Faure-Vincent, Jérôme; Reiss, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in quantum dot (QD) sensitized solar cells has demonstrated the possibility of low-cost and efficient photovoltaics. However, the standard device structure based on n-type materials often suffers from slow hole injection rate, which may lead to unbalanced charge transport. We have fabricated efficient p-type (inverted) QD sensitized cells, which combine the advantages of conventional QD cells with p-type dye sensitized configurations. Moreover, p-type QD sensitized cells can be used in highly promising tandem configurations with n-type ones. QDs without toxic Cd and Pb elements and with improved absorption and stability were successfully deposited onto mesoporous NiO electrode showing good coverage and penetration according to morphological analysis. Detailed photophysical charge transfer studies showed that high hole injection rates (108 s–1) observed in such systems are comparable with electron injection in conventional n-type QD assemblies. Inverted solar cells fabricated with various QDs demonstrate excellent power conversion efficiencies of up to 1.25%, which is 4 times higher than the best values for previous inverted QD sensitized cells. Attempts to passivate the surface of the QDs show that traditional methods of reduction of recombination in the QD sensitized cells are not applicable to the inverted architectures. PMID:27478616

  14. Visualizing Keyword Distribution across Multidisciplinary C-Space; Google Meets eBay: What Academic Librarians Can Learn from Alternative Information Providers; Trends in Use of Electronic Journals in Higher Education in the UK-Views of Academic Staff and Students; DOI: A 2003 Progress Report; Understanding the International Audiences for Digital Cultural Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagle, Donald; Kenney, Anne R.; McGovern, Nancy Y.; Martinez, Ida T.; Heidig, Lance J.; Bonthron, Karen; Urquhart, Christine; Thomas, Rhian; Ellis, David; Everitt, Jean; Lonsdale, Ray; McDermott, Elizabeth; Morris, Helen; Phillips, Rebecca; Spink, Sian; Yeoman, Alison; Armstrong, Chris; Fenton, Roger; Paskin, Norman; Miller, Paul; Dawson, David; Perkins, John

    2003-01-01

    Includes five articles that discusses c-space as a visualization schema related to keyword distribution in information retrieval; academic librarians and alternative information providers, such as Google and eBay; electronic journal use in higher education in the United Kingdom; digital object identifiers; and international audiences for digital…

  15. Supra-molecular assembly of a lumican-derived peptide amphiphile enhances its collagen-stimulating activity† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: DETAILS. See DOI: 10.1039/c5bm00428d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Merlin N. M.; Dehsorkhi, Ashkan; Hamley, Ian W.

    2016-01-01

    C16-YEALRVANEVTLN, a peptide amphiphile (PA) incorporating a biologically active amino acid sequence found in lumican, has been examined for its influence upon collagen synthesis by human corneal fibroblasts in vitro, and the roles of supra-molecular assembly and activin receptor-like kinase ALK receptor signaling in this effect were assessed. Cell viability was monitored using the Alamar blue assay, and collagen synthesis was assessed using Sirius red. The role of ALK signaling was studied by receptor inhibition. Cultured human corneal fibroblasts synthesized significantly greater amounts of collagen in the presence of the PA over both 7-day and 21-day periods. The aggregation of the PA to form nanotapes resulted in a notable enhancement in this activity, with an approximately two-fold increase in collagen production per cell. This increase was reduced by the addition of an ALK inhibitor. The data presented reveal a stimulatory effect upon collagen synthesis by the primary cells of the corneal stroma, and demonstrate a direct influence of supra-molecular assembly of the PA upon the cellular response observed. The effects of PA upon fibroblasts were dependent upon ALK receptor function. These findings elucidate the role of self-assembled nanostructures in the biological activity of peptide amphiphiles, and support the potential use of a self-assembling lumican derived PA as a novel biomaterial, intended to promote collagen deposition for wound repair and tissue engineering purposes. PMID:26626506

  16. Comment on "The ligand polyhedral model approach to the mechanism of complete carbonyl exchange in [Rh4(CO)12] and [Rh6(CO)16]" by Brian F. G. Johnson, Dalton Transactions, 2015, 44, DOI: 10.1039/C4DT03360D.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Brian T; Grachova, Elena V; Tunik, Sergey P; Podkorytov, Ivan S

    2015-10-01

    Experimental results (recent IR, DFT calculations and modern multinuclear NMR measurements on Rh-containing clusters, together with earlier VT multinuclear NMR measurements) show that the use of the Ligand Polyhedral Model (LPM) to provide a general mechanism for ligand fluxionality in Transition Metal Carbonyl Clusters (TMCCs) in solution cannot be sustained; instead there are numerous examples of only partial CO-migration over either part or sometimes the whole of the Rh-polyhedron as well as rhodium and carbonyl polyhedral rearrangements of Rh9- and Rh10-TMCCs containing an interstitial P when, in the high temperature limiting spectra, all the metals and all the carbonyls become equivalent and show time-averaged values of (1)J(Rh-P) and (2)J(P-CO) respectively. PMID:26344915

  17. Coordination polymers of 5-substituted isophthalic acid† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. CCDC 1417516–1417520 contain the supplementary crystallographic data for this paper. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c5ce02091c Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Samuel A.; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Teat, Simon J.; Morris, Russell E.

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and characterisation of five coordination polymers – Ni2(mip)2(H2O)8·2H2O (1), Zn6(mip)5(OH)2(H2O)4·7.4H2O (2), Zn6(mip)5(OH)2(H2O)2·4H2O (3), Mn(HMeOip)2 (4), and Mn3(tbip)2(Htbip)2(EtOH)2 (5) – are reported. Preliminary nitric oxide release data on compounds 2 and 3 are also given. PMID:27019640

  18. Regio- and stereoselective synthesis of benzothiazolo-pyrimidinones via an NHC-catalyzed Mannich/lactamization domino reaction† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. CCDC 1029497. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c4cc08594a

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Qijian; Song, Xiaoxiao; Xiong, Jiawen; Raabe, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    An NHC-catalyzed regio- and stereoselective Mannich/lactamization domino reaction of N-(benzothiazolyl)imines with α-chloroaldehydes has been developed. This new protocol provides a facile approach for the asymmetric synthesis of benzothiazolo-pyrimidinones and a pyrrolo[1,2-a]indolone in moderate to good yields (34–78%) and excellent stereoselectivities (87–99% ee, up to >20 : 1 d.r.). PMID:25476422

  19. Synthesis and luminescence modulation of pyrazine-based gold(iii) pincer complexes† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of synthesis and characterization, X-ray crystallography, photophysical properties, theoretical calculations. CCDC 1417819–1417822. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c5cc07523h

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Cestau, Julio; Bertrand, Benoît; Blaya, Maria; Jones, Garth A.

    2015-01-01

    The first examples of pyrazine-based gold(iii) pincer complexes are reported; their intense photoemissions can be modified by protonation, N-alkylation or metal ions, without the need for altering the ligand framework. Emissions shift from red (77 K) to blue (298 K) due to thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF). PMID:26425736

  20. Enzyme-responsive polyion complex (PIC) nanoparticles for the targeted delivery of antimicrobial polymers† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Peptide synthesis, further details of PIC nanoparticle characterisation and full data from microbiology assays. See DOI: 10.1039/c6py00146g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Insua, Ignacio; Liamas, Evangelos; Zhang, Zhenyu; Peacock, Anna F. A.; Krachler, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Here we present new enzyme-responsive polyion complex (PIC) nanoparticles prepared from antimicrobial poly(ethylene imine) and an anionic enzyme-responsive peptide targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa's elastase. The synthetic conditions used to prepare these nanomaterials allowed us to optimise particle size and charge, and their stability under physiological conditions. We demonstrate that these enzyme responsive PIC nanoparticles are selectively degraded in the presence of P. aeruginosa elastase without being affected by other endogenous elastases. This enzyme-responsive PIC particle can exert an elastase-specific antimicrobial effect against P. aeruginosa without affecting non-pathogenic strains of these bacteria. These targeted enzyme-responsive PIC nanoparticles constitute a novel platform for the delivery of antimicrobial peptides and polymers, and can be a powerful tool in the current race against antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27148427

  1. Deuterated carbohydrate probes as ‘label-free’ substrates for probing nutrient uptake in mycobacteria by nuclear reaction analysis† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4cc09588j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Lowery, R.; Gibson, M. I.; Thompson, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and probing small molecule uptake in cells is challenging, requiring sterically large chemical labels, or radioactive isotopes. Here, the uptake of deuterated sugars by Mycobacterium smegmatis, a non-pathogenic model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has been investigated using ion-beam (nuclear reaction) analysis demonstrating a new technique for label-free nutrient acquisition measurement. PMID:25695462

  2. Comment on: 'Late Cretaceous extensional denudation along a marble detachment fault zone in the Kırşehir massif near Kaman, Central Turkey' by C. Lefebvre et al., 2011 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsg.2011.06.002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genç, Yurdal; Yürür, Tekin

    2012-03-01

    For long time, Central Anatolia was believed to be a region undergoing compressional tectonics following the Late Cretaceous closure of the Tethys Ocean. Gautier et al. (2008) who studied the ductile domain of the Niğde core complex discussed the Niğde exhumation in terms of compression and extension. Genç and Yürür (2004), Yürür and Genç (2006), and Genç and Yürür (2010) structurally described the detachment faults not only from the Niğde Massif but also from several other locations in central Anatolia to propose that the region underwent crustal extension since Late Cretaceous time. One of the important conclusions of Genç and Yürür (2010) is that the suture lines now observed in Anatolia have to be reconsidered with regard to displacements that the suture lines may have experienced due to this extensional regime. A new paper by Lefebvre et al. (2011), was recently published dealing with the tectonics of the Kırşehir Massif entitled 'Cretaceous extensional denudation along a marble detachment fault zone in the Kırşehir massif near Kaman, Central Turkey'. The paper mainly discusses the 'Kaman fault zone' using calcite deformation fabrics of the marbles. Applying calcite fabrics and geochronological data from the literature, they propose a geotectonic model in four stages for the Kırşehir metamorphics. The purpose of this comment is to point out a number of incoherencies in the paper of Lefebvre et al. (2011). We have numbered these for convenience.

  3. Eliminating caspase-7 and cathepsin B cross-reactivity on fluorogenic caspase-3 substrates† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supporting figures, synthesis and characterisation of the substrates, and enzymatic assays. See DOI: 10.1039/c5mb00730e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, Martha; Pérez-López, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    11 FRET-based fluorogenic substrates were constructed using the pentapeptide template Asp-Glu-X2-Asp-X1′, and evaluated with caspase-3, caspase-7 and cathepsin B. The sequence Asp-Glu-Pro-Asp-Ser was able to selectively quantify caspase-3 activity in vitro without notable caspase-7 and cathepsin B cross-reactivity, while exhibiting low μM K M values and good catalytic efficiencies (7.0–16.9 μM–1 min–1). PMID:26726961

  4. Tylosin polyketide synthase module 3: stereospecificity, stereoselectivity and steady-state kinetic analysis of β-processing domains via diffusible, synthetic substrates† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc01505g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Fiers, William D.; Dodge, Greg J.; Li, Yang; Smith, Janet L.

    2015-01-01

    Polyketide synthase (PKS) β-processing domains are responsible for much of the stereochemical complexity of polyketide natural products. Although the importance of β-processing domains has been well noted and significantly explored, key stereochemical details pertaining to cryptic stereochemistry and the impact of remote stereogenic centers have yet to be fully discerned. To uncover the inner workings of ketoreductases (KR) and dehydratases (DH) from the tylosin pathway a didomain composed of TylDH3-KR3 was recombinantly expressed and interrogated with full-length tetraketide substrates to probe the impact of vicinal and distal stereochemistry. In vitro product isolation analysis revealed the products of the cryptic KR as d-alcohols and of the DH as trans-olefins. Steady-state kinetic analysis of the dehydration reaction demonstrated a strict stereochemical tolerance at the β-position as d-configured substrates were processed more than 100 times more efficiently than l-alcohols. Unexpectedly, the k cat/K M values were diminished 14- to 45-fold upon inversion of remote ε- and ζ-stereocenters. This stereochemical discrimination is predicted to be driven by a combination of allylic A1,3 strain that likely disfavors binding of the ε-epimer and a loss of electrostatic interactions with the ζ-epimer. Our results strongly suggest that dehydratases may play a role in refining the stereochemical outcomes of preceding modules through their substrate stereospecificity, honing the configurational purity of the final PKS product. PMID:26366283

  5. Using a biomimetic membrane surface experiment to investigate the activity of the magnetite biomineralisation protein Mms6† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Including Mms6 protein and peptide sequences, additional QCM-D and SEM data and protein modelling. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ra16469a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Scott M.; Rawlings, Andrea E.; Galloway, Johanna M.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are able to synthesise precise nanoparticles of the iron oxide magnetite within their cells. These particles are formed in dedicated organelles termed magnetosomes. These lipid membrane compartments use a range of biomineralisation proteins to nucleate and regulate the magnetite crystallisation process. A key component is the membrane protein Mms6, which binds to iron ions and helps to control the formation of the inorganic core. We have previously used Mms6 on gold surfaces patterned with a self-assembled monolayer to successfully produce arrays of magnetic nanoparticles. Here we use this surface system as a mimic of the interior face of the magnetosome membrane to study differences between intact Mms6 and the acid-rich C-terminal peptide subregion of the Mms6 protein. When immobilised on surfaces, the peptide is unable to reproduce the particle size or homogeneity control exhibited by the full Mms6 protein in our experimental setup. Moreover, the peptide is unable to support anchoring of a dense array of nanoparticles to the surface. This system also allows us to deconvolute particle binding from particle nucleation, and shows that Mms6 particle binding is less efficient when supplied with preformed magnetite nanoparticles when compared to particles precipitated from solution in the presence of the surface immobilised Mms6. This suggests that Mms6 binds to iron ions rather than to magnetite surfaces in our system, and is perhaps a nucleating agent rather than a controller of magnetite crystal growth. The comparison between the peptide and the protein under identical experimental conditions indicates that the full length sequence is required to support the full function of Mms6 on surfaces. PMID:27019707

  6. Tripodal tris(hydroxypyridinone) ligands for immunoconjugate PET imaging with 89Zr4+: comparison with desferrioxamine-B† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: 1H and 13C NMR data, reverse phase HPLC and size exclusion HPLC chromatograms, phosphoimages of ITLC plates, ex vivo biodistribution data. See DOI: 10.1039/c4dt02978j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Meszaros, Levente K.; Paterson, Brett M.; Berry, David J.; Cooper, Maggie S.; Ma, Yongmin; Hider, Robert C.; Blower, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Due to its long half-life (78 h) and decay properties (77% electron capture, 23% β+, E max = 897 keV, E av = 397 keV, Eγ = 909 keV, Iγ = 100%) 89Zr is an appealing radionuclide for immunoPET imaging with whole IgG antibodies. Derivatives of the siderophore desferrioxamine-B (H3DFO) are the most widely used bifunctional chelators for coordination of 89Zr4+ because the radiolabeling of the resulting immunoconjugates is rapid under mild conditions. 89Zr-DFO complexes are reportedly stable in vitro but there is evidence that 89Zr4+ is released in vivo, and subsequently taken up by the skeleton. We have evaluated a novel tripodal tris(hydroxypyridinone) chelator, H3CP256 and its bifunctional maleimide derivative, H3YM103, for coordination of Zr4+ and compared the NMR spectra, and the 89Zr4+ radiolabeling, antibody conjugation, serum stability and in vivo distribution of radiolabelled immunoconjugates with those of H3DFO and its analogues. H3CP256 coordinates 89Zr4+ at carrier-free concentrations forming [89Zr(CP256)]+. Both H3DFO and H3CP256 were efficiently radiolabelled using [89Zr(C2O4)4]4– at ambient temperature in quantitative yield at pH 6–7 at millimolar concentrations of chelator. Competition experiments demonstrate that 89Zr4+ dissociates from [89Zr(DFO)]+ in the presence of one equivalent of H3CP256 (relative to H3DFO) at pH 6–7, resulting largely in [89Zr(CP256)]+. To assess the stability of H3DFO and H3YM103 immunoconjugates radiolabelled with 89Zr, maleimide derivatives of the chelators were conjugated to the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab via reduced cysteine side chains. Both immunoconjugates were labelled with 89Zr4+ in >98% yield at high specific activities and the labeled immunoconjugates were stable in serum with respect to dissociation of the radiometal. In vivo studies in mice indicate that 89Zr4+ dissociates from YM103-trastuzumab with significant amounts of activity becoming associated with bones and joints (25.88 ± 0.58% ID g–1 7 days post-injection). In contrast, <8% ID g–1 of 89Zr activity becomes associated with bone in animals administered 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab over the course of 7 days. The tris(hydroxypyridinone) chelator, H3CP256, coordinates 89Zr4+ rapidly under mild conditions, but the 89Zr-labelled immunoconjugate, 89Zr-YM103-trastuzumab was observed to release appreciable amounts of 89Zr4+ in vivo, demonstrating inferior stability when compared with 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab. The significantly lower in vivo stability is likely to be a result of lower kinetic stability of the Zr4+ tris(hydroxypyridinone complex) relative to that of DFO and its derivatives. PMID:25351250

  7. Influence of the season on vitamin D levels and regulatory T cells in patients with polymorphic light eruption† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5pp00398a Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Schweintzger, N. A.; Gruber-Wackernagel, A.; Shirsath, N.; Quehenberger, F.; Obermayer-Pietsch, B.

    2016-01-01

    The exact mechanisms of photohardening in polymorphic light eruption (PLE) are still unknown, but medical photohardening was shown to increase regulatory T cell (Treg) numbers in the blood of PLE patients, similar to natural hardening. Furthermore, oral vitamin D supplementation increased peripheral Tregs in healthy individuals. We herein report on a post hoc analysis of 26 screened PLE patients of a clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov No. NCT01595893), in which the influence of the progressing season was investigated on baseline CD4+CD25+FoxP3+CD127– Treg numbers by flow cytometry and Treg suppressive function by co-culture assays with T effector cells as a secondary endpoint, together with 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) serum levels at the study's screening visit, taking place in the period from January to June. The mean 25(OH)D serum level of all patients was 33.2 ng ml–1. Ten of those patients (38.5%) were identified with low 25(OH)D levels (<30 ng ml–1). Significantly higher baseline 25(OH)D serum levels (plus 34.4%; P = 0.0182) as well as higher relative Treg percentages in CD4+ population (plus 62.8%; P = 0.0157) and in total lymphocyte population (plus 59.6%; P = 0.0372) and higher absolute Treg numbers (plus 100.2%; P = 0.0042) were observed in the late spring/early summer period (April to June) compared to the winter period (January to February). No significant relationship was observed when Treg numbers and function were correlated with 25(OH)D levels. These data indicate that in PLE patients Treg numbers and their suppressive function are independent of vitamin D serum levels and suggest that UV light and/or other seasonal factors may affect these cells via the non-vitamin D related pathway(s). PMID:26911519

  8. Increased duplex stabilization in porphyrin-LNA zipper arrays with structure dependent exciton coupling† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthetic procedures for the building blocks and DNA strands, full spectroscopic analysis of the ssDNA and duplex systems. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ob01681a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Daniel G.; Hussain, Rohanah; Siligardi, Giuliano; Kumar, Pawan; Hrdlicka, Patrick J.; Berova, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Porphyrins were attached to LNA uridine building blocks via rigid 5-acetylene or more flexible propargyl-amide linkers and incorporated into DNA strands. The systems show a greatly increased thermodynamic stability when using as little as three porphyrins in a zipper arrangement. Thermodynamic analysis reveals clustering of the strands into more ordered duplexes with both greater negative ΔΔS and ΔΔH values, and less ordered duplexes with small positive ΔΔS differences, depending on the combination of linkers used. The exciton coupling between the porphyrins is dependent on the flanking DNA sequence in the single stranded form, and on the nature of the linker between the nucleobase and the porphyrin in the double stranded form; it is, however, also strongly influenced by intermolecular interactions. This system is suitable for the formation of stable helical chromophore arrays with sequence and structure dependent exciton coupling. PMID:26416024

  9. Distance dependent charge separation and recombination in semiconductor/molecular catalyst systems for water splitting† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, DFT calculations and additional transient absorption measurements. See DOI: 10.1039/c4cc05143b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Willkomm, Janina; Muresan, Nicoleta M.; Lakadamyali, Fezile; Planells, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    The photoinduced reduction of three Co electrocatalysts immobilised on TiO2 is 104 times faster than the reverse charge recombination. Both processes show an exponential dependence on the distance between the semiconductor and the catalytic core. PMID:25207748

  10. Edge chlorination of hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene investigated by density functional theory and vibrational spectroscopy† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Description and animations of the vibrational normal modes of HBC and HBC-Cl discussed in the text. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cp07755a Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoumi, Ali; Narita, Akimitsu; Dong, Renhao; Feng, Xinliang; Castiglioni, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the molecular structure and vibrational properties of perchlorinated hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC-Cl) by density functional theory (DFT) calculations and IR and Raman spectroscopy, in comparison to the parent HBC. The theoretical and experimental IR and Raman spectra demonstrated very good agreement, elucidating a number of vibrational modes corresponding to the observed peaks. Compared with the parent HBC, the edge chlorination significantly alters the planarity of the molecule. Nevertheless, the results indicated that such structural distortion does not significantly impair the π-conjugation of such polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:26912311

  11. Use of complementary nucleobase-containing synthetic polymers to prepare complex self-assembled morphologies in water† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Characterization of monomers, polymers and particles: NMR, SEC, TEM, SAXS, and DLS. See DOI: 10.1039/c6py00263c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yan; Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; S. Rolph, Marianne; Hua, Zan; Hands-Portman, Ian; Kirby, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Amphiphilic nucleobase-containing block copolymers with poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) as the hydrophilic block and nucleobase-containing blocks as the hydrophobic segments were successfully synthesized using RAFT polymerization and then self-assembled via solvent switch in aqueous solutions. Effects of the common solvent on the resultant morphologies of the adenine (A) and thymine (T) homopolymers, and A/T copolymer blocks and blends were investigated. These studies highlighted that depending on the identity of the common solvent, DMF or DMSO, spherical micelles or bicontinuous micelles were obtained. We propose that this is due to the presence of A–T interactions playing a key role in the morphology and stability of the resultant nanoparticles, which resulted in a distinct system compared to individual adenine or thymine polymers. Finally, the effects of annealing on the self-assemblies were explored. It was found that annealing could lead to better-defined spherical micelles and induce a morphology transition from bicontinuous micelles to onion-like vesicles, which was considered to occur due to a structural rearrangement of complementary nucleobase interactions resulting from the annealing process. PMID:27358655

  12. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Cuerda, Cristina; Álvarez, Julia; Ramos, Primitivo; Abánades, Juan Carlos; García-de-Lorenzo, Abelardo; Gil, Pedro; De-la-Cruz, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la desnutrición relacionada con la enfermedad (DRE) es un problema sociosanitario frecuente que afecta preferentemente a los mayores de 65 años, que aumenta la morbimortalidad y disminuye la calidad de vida.  Objetivo: estudiar la prevalencia de DRE en mayores de 65 años en diferentes centros sociosanitarios del Servicio Regional de Bienestar Social de la Comunidad de Madrid. Métodos: estudio transversal en 33 centros sociosanitarios de Madrid (6 centros de atención primaria [AP], 9 centros de mayores [CM], 9 hospitales [H] y 9 residencias [R]) seleccionados mediante muestreo polietápico. Las variables estudiadas fueron edad, sexo, nivel de dependencia según la escala de incapacidad de la Cruz Roja, motivo de ingreso y enfermedad de base, hábitat (urbano-periurbano-rural) y distribución geográfica (norte centro-sur). Como herramienta de cribado nutricional se utilizó el Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA-cribaje) en todos los centros. En los pacientes con cribado positivo (en riesgo-desnutrición) se realizó el MNA-evaluación. El estudio estadístico se realizó con el paquete SSS 21.0 e incluyó estadística descriptiva, test de Chi-cuadrado y prueba exacta de Fisher, ANOVA de un factor, Kruskal-Wallis y análisis de regresión logística (RL) binaria univariante y multivariante. Se consideró significación estadística p < 0,05. Resultados: se reclutaron 1.103 sujetos (275 AP, 278 CM, 281 H, 269 R), edad media de 79,5 ± 8,4 años (41,2% varones, 58,8% mujeres). Los sujetos procedentes de H y R tuvieron un mayor grado de incapacidad (p < 0,001). La prevalencia global de DRE fue del 10%, encontrándose un 23,3% en riesgo de desnutrición, con diferencias entre los cuatro tipos de centros sociosanitarios (p < 0,001). El análisis univariante de RL mostró diferencia significativas en la prevalencia de desnutrición según la edad, sexo, grado de dependencia, tipo de centro sociosanitario, hábitat y zona geográfica. Sin embargo, en el

  13. Descripción del coronógrafo a ser instalado en Argentina (MICA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenborg, G.; Francile, C.; Schwenn, R.; Epple, A.; Rovira, M.

    El ``Coronógrafo de espejo para Argentina'' es un telescopio solar terrestre a ser colocado en el Observatorio Astronómico Félix Aguilar (El Leoncito), antes de finalizar 1996, como parte de un programa de ciencia bilateral entre Alemania y Argentina. Eclipses fotográficos de alta resolución han revelado que la corona solar es altamente estructurada y variable. De hecho, está contínuamente deformada y moldeada por los movimientos convectivos de los extremos de los arcos magnéticos en la fotosfera, estando, en muchas oportunidades, afectada por explosivas liberaciones de energía. MICA, en conjunción con otros telescopios solares espaciales y terrestres, tratará de contribuir al entendimiento de cuestiones fundamentales de la física solar. Entre ellas: cómo la corona está siendo calentada, dónde y cómo el viento solar es acelerado, qué causa los transitorios coronales, etc. Para ello investigará la distribución de los parámetros del plasma y su evolución con el tiempo, la estructura espacial de la corona en fina y gran escala, procesos que ocurren en los transitorios coronales y factores que los disparan, etc. Para responder a estas cuestiones MICA observará la atmósfera solar por sobre el limbo entre 1.1 y 2 radios solares aproximadamente, usando un nuevo tipo de sistema coronográfico que permite suprimir el brillo del disco solar suficientemente bien, tomando las imágenes con una cámara CCD de 1024x1024 pixels, codificada en 12 bits, pudiendo el mismo ser operado en forma remota. En la presente exposición describiremos las características del instrumento, cómo será controlado y qué esperamos observar basados en las imágenes obtenidas por los telescopios de similares características LASCO C1 a bordo del SOHO y PICO (ubicado en el Observatorio de Pic du Midi, Francia).

  14. Reacciones de intercambio de carga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errea, L. F.

    Se discute la validez de diversas metodologías y su aplicación al estudio de procesos de intercambio de carga electrónico entre iones y blancos atómicos y moleculares. Para energías de impacto entre 0.05 y 5 eV / amu se emplea el método cuántico de la Coordenada de Reacción Común (CRC). A mayores energías, se utiliza el método semiclásico iconal con un desarrollo de la función de onda dinámica en estados moleculares adiabáticos, modificados con un factor de traslación común (FTC). Estos estados pueden obtenerse con cálculos ab initio o empleando potenciales modelo. Cuando la ionización compite con la transferencia de carga, la inclusión de pseudoestados en estos desarrollos permite calcular simultáneamente las secciones eficaces de ambos procesos. Otra técnica utilizada es el método estadístico CTMC. En el tratamiento de colisiones ión-molécula (diatómica) contrastamos la aplicabilidad de distintos métodos, desde la llamada aproximación Franck-Condon hasta un desarrollo en estados vibrónicos, pasando por la aproximación súbita vibro-rotacional, obteniéndose secciones eficaces de captura electrónica total y a estados individuales, así como secciones de excitación vibracional a estados ligados y del continuo (disociación). En todos los casos es necesario calcular superficies de energía y los correspondientes acoplamientos dinámicos entre los estados. La aplicación de estos métodos permite determinar el grado de contaminación de los haces por estados metaestables en un experimento dado, el cambio en los resultados con diferentes isótopos, la importancia de procesos de doble captura, seguida de explosión culombiana, todo ello con precisión comparable a la de medidas experimentales, para sistemas de interés en distintos tipos de plasmas.

  15. Cannabinoids: clearing the smoke on pain, inflammation and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Downer, E J; Finn, D P

    2014-01-01

    Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids 2013. To view the other articles in this section, see Fagan and Campbell (2014) DOI: 10.1111/bph.12492, Ignatowska-Jankowska et al. (2014) DOI: 10.1111/bph.12298, Ligresti et al. (2014) DOI: 10.1111/bph.12410, Lopez-Rodriguez et al. (2014) DOI: 10.1111/bph.12519, Murataeva et al. (2014) DOI: 10.1111/bph.12411, Okine et al. (2014) DOI: 10.1111/bph.12540, Rodríguez-Cueto et al. (2014) DOI: 10.1111/bph.12283, Stanley and O'Sullivan (2014) DOI: 10.1111/bph.12560, Toguri et al. (2014) DOI: 10.1111/bph.12545, Wu et al. (2014) DOI: 10.1111/bph.12500. Linked articles are: Avraham et al. (2014) DOI: 10.1111/bph.12478, Machado et al. (2014) DOI: 10.1111/bph.12488, Ward et al. (2014) DOI: 10.1111/bph.12439. PMID:24588559

  16. 43 CFR 2.10 - Where do I send my request?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... INFORMATION ACT Requests for Records under the FOIA § 2.10 Where do I send my request? (a) DOI does not have a... of documents in its possession. DOI's files are decentralized and are maintained by various...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: thiopurine S-methyltransferase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... activity: a large, prospective population study. Pharmacogenomics. 2008 Mar;9(3):303-9. doi: 10.2217/14622416. ... genotype and thiopurine dosing. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Mar;89(3):387-91. doi: 10.1038/clpt. ...

  18. 25 CFR 900.6 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Services (HHS) or the Department of the Interior (DOI), or both. IHS means the Indian Health Service of the... Services (HHS) or the Secretary of the Interior (DOI), or both (and their respective delegates)....

  19. Genetics Home Reference: STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... direct innate immune sensor of cyclic di-GMP. Nature. 2011 Sep 25;478(7370):515-8. doi: ... endoplasmic reticulum adaptor that facilitates innate immune signalling. Nature. 2008 Oct 2;455(7213):674-8. doi: ...

  20. 76 FR 56214 - 60-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance for Information Collection: Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... youth employment and education programs provided through the Department of the Interior's (DOI's... in DOI running youth employment and education programs through partnership organizations. Partnership... effectiveness: (1) Building civic engagement and leadership skills. (2) Enhancing career preparedness...